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Full text of "Scandinavian immigrants in New York, 1630-1674; with appendices on Scandinavians in Mexico and South America, 1532-1640, Scandinavians in Canada, 1619-1620, Some Scandinavians in New York in the eighteenth century, German immigrants in New York, 1630-1674"

Gass 
Book- 



COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT 



SCANDINAVIAN I [VIM IG RANTS 

IN NEW YORK 

1630-1674 



.\ 



O V A B K L (i I r A j liw .\ I H I 






w 



I 






N- E l> E U ■ J^v.^' I. A X 

lUnrfl van Darh^n. '*^ ♦'"/•«*_ JJ. ^' i*/ «?. M^,.,. ■ 



-«.-. y 






III* 




Reduced from 



a copy ill tlie Lenox Library, New York City. 



Scandinavian Immigrants 

IN 

NEW YORK 

1630—1674 y 

WITH APPENDICES ON 

SCANDINAVIANS IN MEXICO AND SOUTH AMERICA, 1532— 1640 

SCANDINAVIANS IN CANADA. 1619—1620 

SOME SCANDINAVIANS IN NEW YORK IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK. 1630—1674 

BY 

JOHN O. EVJEN, Ph. D. 

(LEIPZIG) 

PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY IN AUGSBURG [THEOLOGICALJ 
SEMINARY, MINNEAPOUS, MINN. 



ILLUSTRATED 



/ 



MINNEAPOUS. MINN. 

K. C. HOLTER PUBLISHING COMPANY 

1916 



COPYRIGHT, 1916. 



/ 



^- 



MAR 13 (916 ■ 

<d)C!.A428080 ^ - 



TO MY REVERED TEACHER 

ALBER T HA UCK, Ph. D, , D. Th, D. Jur. 

PROFESSOR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEIPZIG 

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED 

ON HIS 70th birthday 

DECEMBER 9, 1915 

IN SINCERE GRATITUDE AND AFFECTION 



PREFACE. 



This volume is a collection of biographic articles on Nor- 
wegian, Danish, and Swedish immigrants who settled in New 
Netherland, or the present state of New York, between the years 
1630 and 1674. It is the result of research work begun seven 
years ago while I was teaching in Pennsylvania College, Gettys- 
burg, Pennsylvania. 

The most elementary, but also the most difficult, task con- 
nected with this work was to establish by documentary evidence 
which persons in the materials examined were Dutch or German, 
and which persons were Scandinavian. The English and French 
names were easily recognized. But the more strictly Teutonic 
names appeared to be fully as much Scandinavian as Dutch. In 
most instances the Dutch and Scandinavian nomenclature — es- 
pecially the ending "szen" or "sen" in surnames — necessitated 
my making excursions into the personal history of the candidates 
for septentrional glory until their nationality was established. 

Hundreds of possible Scandinavian names were traced in the 
documents until they proved to be the property of other Teutons 
than the Scandinavians. Some of them turned out to be the 
property of members belonging to the Celtic, to the Mongolian, 
and to the Ethiopian stock. Thus, a Jan Andersen and a Hendrick 
Hendricksen were two promising Scandinavian candidates until I 
discovered that they were Irish. Jan Swaen was one of m> 
Swedish candidates until I had traced him to his original home, 
Africa. Promising candidates for my volume were also Emanuel 
Pieterszen, Lucas Pieterszen, and the latter's wife, Anna Jans. 
But these, too, proved to be of negro stock. Less promising were 
the candidates Hans and Hendrick, both without a surname, but 
Hans proved to be a Mohawk Indian, and Hendrick a plain Indian. 

My field would have been more inviting, if it had been better 



viii PREFACE. 

cultivated. Judging by a statement made by Professor George 
T. Flom, it had hardly seen a plow as late as 1909, when he 
published his valuable "A History of Norwegian Immigration to 
the United States," which says: 

"In the early days of New Netherlands colony, Norwegians 
sometimes came across in Dutch ships and settled among the 
Dutch. The names of at least two such have been preserved in 
the Dutch colonial records." Professor Flom then gives the 
names of Claes Carstensen and Hans Hansen. In addition he 
refers to Anneke Hendricks and Helletje Hendricks as Norwegian 
immigrant women. However, Helletje had the surname Noomian, 
not because she was a Norwegian, but because she was married 
to Claes Carstensen. But Anneke, the first wife of the ancestor 
of the Vanderbilts, was from Norway. 

Professor Flom's phrase "at least two," coming, as it does, 
from a careful scholar of recognized ability, a graduate of Colum- 
bia University (which has derived some of its wealth from a 
parcel of the farm of two of the earliest Norwegian immigrants 
Roelof Jansen and his wife Anneke Jans), may be taken as an 
index of the knowledge which the average public, six years age, 
had of the first Norwegian immigrants in New York, of whom 
I have registered in the present volume no less than fifty-seven. 

Mr. Hjalmar Rued Holand, M. A. (Wisconsin) unknowingly 
corroborates my statement regarding the knowledge the public has 
of Scandinavian immigration in the seventeenth century. In "De 
norske Settlementers Historie" (1909) he gives the names of 
twenty persons in early New York, who, in his opinion, were 
Scandinavians. Only eight of these, however, prove to be that, 
while the total number of Scandinavians treated in the present 
work is 187. 

"Danske i Amerika" (1908f), published by C. Rasmussen 
Publishing Company, Minneapolis, has devoted considerable space 
(e. g. pp. 39 — 43, 358 — 384) to Danish immigrants. However, the 
sources used are not primary, but secondary at the best. And the 
treatment is uncritical. A number of immigrants are mentioned 
as Danes, though they belonged to other nationalities. And a great 
number of real Danish immigrants have escaped the notice of 
"Danske i Amerika," otherwise in many respects a work of which 
the Americans of Danish ancestry can be proud. 

Less ambitious but far more scholarly than the endeavors in 



PREFACE. ix 

"Danske i Amerika" are two articles by Mr. Torstein Jahr, in 
"Symra" (V., 2, 1909; IX, 1, 1913), a magazine in Norwegian, 
published at Decorah, Iowa. They are chiefly based upon the 
"Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts" published in Albany, 190^. 
Mr. Jahr's articles in "Symra" tell in some forty pages about 
the Norwegian immigrants who came to Rensselaerswyck. 
He dwells especially on the family of Bratt and of Anneke Jans, 
devoting some twenty-five pages to the latter. He makes good 
use of the well-known Anneke Jans literature, but offers nothing 
new to scholars beyond the claim — and this is important — that An- 
neke Jans and her husband Roelof Jansen were Norwegians. Mr. A. 
J. F. van Laer, the editor of the "Bowier Manuscripts," had called 
attention to the fact that Anneke and her husband did not come 
from Holland, as it had been supposed, but from Marstrand, "an 
island of the coast of Sweden." It would then appear that they 
were Swedes. Mr. Jahr, however, called attention to the fact 
that Marstrand was a Norwegian town, founded by the Norwegian 
king Haakon Haakonsson about the year 1230, and that it became 
a Swedish possession in 1658. And hence Anneke and her husband 
were, in all probability, Norwegians. 

As for the Swedish immigrants in New York, but little ap- 
pears to have been written concerning them, the Swedish settle- 
ment on the Delaware having engaged the attention of the more 
capable writers on Scandinavian immigration to our country, whose 
efforts have been crowned in the elaborate work of Dr. Amandus 
Johnson. 

Sporadic statements concerning Scandinavian immigrants 
have not been wanting in general works on New York (state and 
city), but the attention bestowed upon these early pioneers 
from Northern Europe is almost insignificant. J. Riker's 
"Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals" (revised edition, 1904) 
and J. H. Innes' "New Amsterdam and Its People" (1902), 
particularly the latter, belong to the exceptions. They avoid the 
common error of making every resident of New Amsterdam or 
New Netherland Dutch or English. However, the number of 
Scandinavians they mention is very limited, and the treatment ac- 
corded them meagre. 

The present volume is in the main based on primary sources 
The most important of these sources, at least for genealogical data 



X PEEFACB. 

and personal history, are the Hsts of passengers which the im- 
migrant ships of the seventeenth century kept; parish records, or 
church registers, kept in New York, Brooklyn, Albany, etc., record? 
stating whence the several immigrants came, whom they married, 
the date of their marriage, the names of the children, the date of 
the baptism of the children, the names of the sponsors; court 
records, legislative records, municipal protocols, municipal orders; 
deeds; marriage contracts, and general contracts; petitions and 
proclamations; wills; private account books, inventories; lists of 
soldiers; war dispatches; letters; rent rolls and tax rolls, general 
business papers and accounts, etc. 

Some of the material is published in Dutch, but most of the 
other published material is available, to the general public, only 
in English translations. Some of these translations are excellent, 
e. g., that of the "Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts." But 
many of them are admittedly poor, a fact that the New York 
State Library is trying to remedy. It planned some five years 
ago (see: Educational Department Bulletin, No. 462, Albany) to 
translate and publish the manuscript Dutch records of the govern- 
ment of New Netherland 1638 — 74. According to the plan 
adopted, three or four volumes of this projected publication should 
have appeared by this time. But the Albany Capitol fire of March 
29, 1911, did havoc, destroying not only the first volume of the 
records but also a copy of the Dutch text and the translations 
which Mr. van Laer had prepared. 

My aim in writing "Scandinavian Immigrants in New York, 
1630 — 1674" has been to present facts, in detail and chronological 
order. Wherever I have found it feasible, I have used the words 
of published sources. I have given verbatim many excerpts from 
the court records. I have quoted at length public and private 
documents, in order to illustrate or illumine certain facts, in the 
selection of which I have been guided by various considerations, 
which it would be useless to enumerate. 

My biographies are concerned with the immigrants. The in- 
formation they give in regard to the descendants of these immi- 
grants is secondary. To trace the descendants beyond the seven- 
teenth century would require many volumes of genealogy and per- 
sonal history. I have, however, endeavored as much as possible 
to give important data bearing on the history of the children born 



PREFACE. xi 

of Scandinavian parents in New Netherland prior to 1674. But 
these children, not being immigrants, of course receive no treat- 
ment in special articles, as do the 188 immigrants. They are men- 
tioned in connection with their parents. 

As to the length of the articles, those treating of the well- 
known personages like Hans Hansen from Bergen, Laurens An- 
driessen van Buskirk are briefer than those dealing with less 
known characters like Dirck Holgersen and Pieter Jansen Noorman. 
I am conscious of gaps in these articles, but this is due to the na- 
ture of the source material. The historian is concerned with facts, 
and it is not his, nor in fact anybody's, business to fill gaps with 
fiction. 

The articles also vary in the quality of matter. But this, too, 
is due to the nature of the sources. Unfortunately such sources 
as court records — and I have drawn heavily upon them — are quite 
silent about many of the nobler deeds of men, in regard to which 
we should like to be fully as well informed as we are concerin'ng 
the role these men played in litigations. I have endeavored to 
leave no stone unturned in order to obtain all the facts possible 
relative to the history of the immigrants, and I have made esthet- 
ical considerations entirely secondary to the "micrology" of facts. 
For in a pioneer volume like "Scandinavian Immigrants in New 
York," which in some degree shifts the emphasis in treating immi- 
gration to our country in the seventeenth century, it is necessary 
to register even what appears to be pure trivialities. Only those 
who are acquainted with the nature of the sources of the early 
history of New York can appreciate what it means to trace a deed 
to the author of the deed, especially when the author has a number 
of namesakes or is known by several dififerent names. 

Such a work, packed with details and bristling with names 
and dates, does, of course, not claim to be a contribution to belles- 
lettres. In some places it resembles the court docket or an ab- 
stract of title. Nevertheless it claims to make a distinct contri- 
bution to a hitherto almost entirely neglected field in colonial his- 
tory. As a reference work it may modestly pave the way for 
further research in this field and be of some use to the general 
historian. 

Of special use it should be to such Americans of Scandina- 
vian ancestry as in their school-days were taught a little about 



xii PREFACE. 

the Swedes on the Delaware, more about the Dutch in New 
York, most about the sons and daughters of New England, but 
nothing about the Scandinavians, particularly the Danes and Nor- 
wegians, along the Hudson. There are many Scandinavian 
descendants in the eastern section of the United States who are 
mistaken as to the original home of their forebears. It suffices to 
mention some of the descendants of the famous Anneke Jans. 
There are many in New York who do not know that the Episcopal 
Trinity Church, famed in the courts for its great wealth, owes some 
of it to an old Norwegian farm. There are many who do not know 
that the Bronx of New York was the property of Jonas Bronck. 
a Dane, and that the ancestor of the Vanderbilts married a Nor- 
wegian woman. No doubt, there is much abuse of the study of 
genealogy in our country, and there is much false pride connected 
with it. But this should not prevent us from trying to find out 
to what extent countries like Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, had 
a share in populating the Empire State in early days. 

Why the Empire State and not any other states? All the 
known Norwegian and Danish immigrants up to 1674 settled in 
New York and adjacent territory. They did not go to the New 
England states nor to those in the South. And the Swedish immi- 
grants settled either in New York or at the Delaware. The only 
Scandinavians in "New Sweden" were Swedes, whose history is 
already more or less known. 

My work is divided into three parts. The first part treats 
of the Norwegians. They were numerically inferior (fifty-seven 
biographies) to the Danish immigrants. But many of them im- 
migrated earlier than the Danes and, on the whole, receive more 
attention in the early records. They came from such places as 
Fredrikstad, Holme, Langesund, Sande, Flekkero, Hellesund, Sta- 
vanger, Bergen, Tonsberg, Selbu, Marstrand, and many other 
places in Norway. 

The second part of this work treats of the Danes (ninety-seven 
biographies), who were numerically as strong as the Swedes and 
Norwegians together. They emigrated from places like Copen- 
hagen, Roskilde, Ribe, Svendborg, Aalborg, Christianstad, Nord- 
strand, Frederikstad (Friedrichstadt), Gliickstadt, Husum, Var- 
berg, Dithmarschen, (Oldenburg, Hassing, Helsingor, and several 



PREFACE. xiii 

other towns or districts of Denmark, which in earlier days in- 
cluded Schleswig and Holstein. 

The third part is devoted to the Swedes (thirty-four bio- 
graphies). At first sight this may seem strange, as there were 
fully as many Swedes in America in the seventeenth century as 
Danes and Norwegians. But the Swedes had, as has already been 
stated, their own settlement. New Sweden, or the present Dela- 
ware. They were very little concerned about New York proper, 
both before and after the conquest of their settlement by Governor 
Stuyvesant, in 1655. The Swedes that are noticed in this volume 
are, therefore, with the possible exception of one or two, only such 
as came to New Netherland direct from Sweden. The Swedish 
immigrants came from Stockholm, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Vester- 
as, Vexio, Vintjern, Abo (Finland), etc. 

The biographical part is followed by a Retrospect. 

I have added four Appendices, one of which, "German Immi- 
grants in New York, 1630-1674," may not seem pertinent to the 
theme of my book. My reasons for including this Appendix is 
given elsewhere. Suffice it here to state, the German New Nether- 
landers were the religious allies of the Scandinavian, they were on 
par with these in numbers, and they have, like these, been a terra 
incognita to historians. A famous work, published as late as 1909, 
registers only four Germans who settled in New York before 1674 ; 
the present volume gives information concerning 186 of them. 

As to the occupation of the early immigrants from Norway, 
Denmark, and Sweden, the biographies will show that they were 
engaged in various walks of life, representing the farmer, the 
miller, the wood-sawyer, the tobacco-planter, the carpenter, the 
smith, the mason, the trader, the merchant, the soldier (captain, 
sergeant), the mariner (captain, skipper, etc.), the boatbuilder, 
the shoemaker, the ganger, the tapster, the brewer, the surgeon, 
the fisher, the firewarden, the drayman, the land owner, the council 
member, the capitalist, the policeman, the judge, etc. The noble- 
man as well as the peasant is represented. 

The orthography of proper names has caused some difficulty. 
There was much "phonetic" spelling in polyglot New Netherland. 



xiv PREFACE. 

This highly variable species of spelling makes it difficult, in many 
instances, to adhere to iron-rule uniformity. I have retained the 
more or less Dutch way (for Dutch was the official language) of 
spelling foreign names, sometimes even at the expense of con- 
sistency. When we know that one of New York's former archiv- 
ists, Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan, in his "Documents Relative to the 
History of New York" "invariably substituted English equivalents 
for Dutch given names" ; and when we notice that reputable 
writers on the history of New York spell the Indian word "sea- 
wan" in a half dozen different ways, it is, for the present, nigh 
hopeless either to attain or to observe uniformity in the orthography 
of foreign proper names. I shall specify one instance of "phonetic" 
orthography. Jochem Kalder, treated in this volume, has his sur- 
name spelled in the records as follows : Kalder, Calder, Calser, Cal- 
jer, Calker, Kayker, Kier, Callaer. The various forms may be 
due to the misreading of documents in transcribing them, but also 
to the niceties of pronunciation, which a scribe, unfamiliar with a 
foreign language, would not be able to record on paper. The so- 
called "tykke 1" (thick 1) in certain parts of Norway no doubt 
puzzled the scribes of New Amsterdam. 

The Dutch distinction in terminating patronymics with "sz" 
or "sen" for men, and "s" or "se" for women has not been much 
observed in this volume, where the termination "sen" has been 
used indiscriminately, more in accord with Scandinavian usage. 

For my material I am indebted to the Congressional Library, 
in Washington; the Pennsylvania State Library, in Harrisburg; 
the State Historical Library, St. Paul, Minnesota; University of 
Minnesota Library, Minneapolis Public Library; the libraries of 
Pennsylvania College and Gettysburg Theological Seminary, Get- 
tysburg Pennsylvania. I wish to express my sincere thanks to 
the administrators of these libraries ; to Messrs. A. J. F. van Laer 
and Mr. Peter Nelson, Archivists of the Manuscripts Section of 
the New York State Library; and to Mr. J. H. Innes, author of 
"New Amsterdam and Its People." 

For permission to use illustrations from specified works on 
the history of New York I am grateful to Charles Scribner's 
Sons; G. P. Putnam's Sons; Mr. J. A. Holden, N. Y. State 
Historian; the Hon. John H. Finley, President of the University 
of the State of New York. The New York Public Library has 



PREFACE. IV 

supplied me with reproductions of certain views of early New 
York. Also to this institution my thanks are due. 

In offering this volume to the public, it is my hope that those 
who peruse its pages may feel a little of the Entdeckerfreude which 
I experienced in collecting the data, which have made "Scandi- 
navian Immigrants in New York, 1630-1674" possible. 

JOHN O. EVJEN. 

Minneapolis, 1915. 



CONTENTS 

Page 



INTRODUCTION 



PAET I 
NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674 

Albert Andriessen _ _ 19 

Eva Albertse Andriessen „ _ 30 

Arent Andriessen „ 33 

Laurens Andriessen _ 36 

Bernt Bagge _ _ 41 

Anuetje Barents _ 42 

Jacob Bruyn „ 43 

Hans Carelsen _ _ 44 

Jan Carelszen _ _ __ _..._ 46 

Carsten Carstensen _.. 46 

Claes Carstensen __ 51 

Claes Claeseu _ _ 54 

Frederik Claesen _ _ 54 

Harmen Dircksen _ _ 55 

Mrs. Harmen Dircksen 55 

Jacob Goyversen _ _ „ _ 56 

Arent Eldertszen Groen 56 

Hans Hansen 56 

Anneken Hendricks _ - - 60 

Roelof Jansen Haes _ _ - - 61 

Herman Hendricksen 64 

Direk Holgersen _ 68 

Paulus Jansen — 79 

Jan Jansen Noorman 80 

Jan Janszen _ _ 80 

Mrs. Jan Janszen _ _ 80 

Pieter Janzen - - 81 

Pieter Jansen _ 81 

Roelof Jansen 89 

Anneke Jans - _ - 91 

Fyntie Roelof s Janse _ - 101 

Katrina Roelof s Janse _ - — 102 

Sara Roelof s Janse 105 

Tryn Jonas „._ „_ - ...- 108 

Marritje Janse 110 

Bartel Larsen _ 115 

Andries Laurensen 115 

Jan Laurensen 117 

Laurens Laurensen 118 

Andries Pietersen - 126 

Andries Pietersen — 127 

Hans Pietersen 128 

Laurena Pietersen _ 129 



xviii CONTENTS. 

Page 

Marcus Pietersen — 131 

Oule Pouwe^sen - — -- — - - - 132 

Jan Roeloffsen - - ~ 132 

Roeloflf RoeloflFsen - - 133 

Cornelius Teunissen - - ~ - 133 

Dirck Teunissen 133 

Barent Thonissen - 138 

Bernt Oswal Noorman - 138 

Govert Noorman — 138 

Jacob De Noorman - - 138 

Roeloff Noorman - - 139 

John Wiskhousen - — • 139 

Excursus: 

Jochem Kalder 140 

Mafjdalene Waele 140 

Unclassified Names: Martin Bierkaker, O^av Stevensen, Sy- 

vert van Bergen, Casper Hugla, Andries Hoppen 143 



PART II 

DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674 

Willem Andriaensz 151 

Claes Andriessen 152 

Laurens Andriessen -.... 152 

Pieter Andriessen _ — 156 

Claes Claesen Bording _ _ 160 

Jan Broersen _ _ - 164 

Jonas Bronck - 167. 

Pieter Bronck - 181 

Peter Bruyn _ 183 

Johan Carstenz _ _. 183 

Pieter Carstensen 184 

Pietersen (Carstensen) 184 

Crietgen Christians - 184 

Hans .Christiaensen 185 

Pieter Hendrieksen Christians ~ 186 

Hendrick Cornelissen - 186 

Jan Cornelisen -.. 187 

Laurens Cornelisszen _ _ - 189 

Marritje Cornelis 189 

Pau^us Cornelissen _ - 190 

Pi ct er Cor n el i s _ 190 

Pieter Cornelissen _ 191 

Svbrant Cornelissen 191 

Ursel Dircks 193 

Laurens Duyts - 193 

Carsten Jansen Eggert _ 195 

Jacob Eldersen _ - 197 

Th om a s Fred er i cksen __ 200 

Tryntie Harders „ _ 203 

Jan Pietersen Haring 203 

Laurens Harmens _ 203 

Mrs. Laurens Harmens _ - 204 



CONTENTS. xix 

Page 

Marten Harmensen _ _ 204 

Bernardus Hassing „ _.„ 204 

Heyltje Hassing 205 

Johannes Hassing _ 205 

Jan Helmszen „ _ _ _.„ _ 205 

Fredrick Hendrickseu _ _ _.. 206 

Engeltje Jacobs _ 207 

Pieter Jacobsen „ „ _... 208 

Anneke Jans 208 

Giletje Jans _ _ 210 

Dorothea Jans _ „ 211 

Elsje Jans _ _ „ 212 

Engeltje Jans _._ 213 

Grietje Jans _ 213 

Magdalentje Jans _ 214 

Tryntie Jans _ „ 214 

Barent Jansen ..._ „ „ „ 216 

Dirck Jansen 216 

Hans Jansen „ „ 217 

Jan Jansen _ _ _ 217 

Jan Jansen __ _ 218 

Jan Jansen 220 

Jeurian Jansen _ _ 221 

Laurens Jansen _ _ _ 221 

Volckert Jansen _ 221 

Pieter Jansen „„ „ __ 225 

Jacob Jansz .._ „ _ _ 225 

Thomas Jansen _ 225 

Teuntje Jeurians 225 

Marritje Jeurians _ „ 230 

Peter Klaesen „ _ „ „ 231 

Mrs. Peter Klaesen _ _ _ „ 231 

Pieter Laurenszen Kock 231 

.f ochem Pietersen Kuy ter _..._ „ 23 7 

.John Larason _ 245 

Jan Laurens _ 246 

Severyn Laurenszen „ 247 

Hendrick Martensen _ „.... 249 

Pieter Martensen .._ 251 

Christian Nissen _ 251 

Claes Petersen _ _ 254 

Anneke Pieters _ _ 255 

Elsje Pieters „ 255 

Marritje Pieters 257 

Styntie Pieters 261 

Christian Pietersen „„ 262 

.Ian Pietersen _ „ 266 

.Tan Pietersen _ „ 268 

Marritje Pietersen _ ^. 268 

Michel Pies _._ 272 

Claes Pouwelsen „ 272 

.Juriaen Pouwelsen „ 273 

.Jonas Ranzow _ 273 

Hans Rasmussen 274 

Mathys Roelofs _ 274 

Jan Pietersen Slot — _ 275 

Johan Jansen Slot _._ _ _ 276 

Pieter Jansen Slot „ _ 276 

Herman Smeeman _ _ 278 



XX CONTENTS. 

Page 

Roelof Swensburg 281 

Aeltie Sybrantsen - - - — ■ 282 

Pieter Teunis - - 282 

Andries Thomasen - — 282 

Juriaen Tomassen ~ 282 

Tobias Wilbergen 283 

Excursus : 

Christian Barentsen 284 

Unclassified Names: Simon Jansen Asdalen, John Ascou, Jan 
Snedingh, Herry Albertse, Hendrick Hendricksen Obe, 

Jan Volkarsen Oly 290 



PART III 
SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674 

Andries Andriessen - 297 

Andries Barentsen - — 299 

Dirck Bensingh - 299 

Hage Bruynsen - 300 

Jan Cornelissen - — ~ 307 

Jan Davidsen - — 307 

Evert je Dircx ~ 308 

Roelof Dirxsz _ - 308 

Sweris Dirxsz 309 

Barnt Eversen - 309 

Jan Forbus - - - - - 311 

William Goffo ~ 312 

Andries Hansen - 312 

Dirck Hendricksen - — 313 

Jan Hendricksen - 314 

Martin Hoffman -- — 314 

Catrine Jans _ - ■■ - 319 

Barent Jansen - 321 

Jan Jansen _ - - 322 

Pieter Jansen 324 

Comelis Jurriaensen _ 324 

Jacob Loper „ 324 

Jonas Magnus - - - - 328 

Engeltje Mans - - — — 329 

Cornells Martensen - — - 335 

Cornelius Matthysen 338 

Hendrick Ollofsen — _ 340 

Briete Olofa _ -- --■ 340 

Styntie Pieters 341 

Mons Pietersen 341 

Simon De Sweedt - — ■• 344 

Hans Roeloff 345 

Claes De Sweet 345 

Roeloff Tpunissen 346 



CONTENTS. 



XXI 



Page 
BETB08PECT _ 347 



APPENDIX I 

SCANDINAVIANS IN MEXICO AND SOUTH AMEEICA, 

1532-1640 374 



APPENDIX II 
SCANDINAVIANS IN CANADA, 1619-1620 376 

APPENDIX III 

SOME SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK IN 

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 384 

APPENDIX IV 
GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674 390 

SUPPLEMENT 

FORMER DUTCH COINS, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES AND 

THEIR EQUIVALENTS _ 437 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

LIST OF PLATES 

Map of New Netherland, With a View of New Am- 
sterdam, 1656 _ Frontispiece 

New Amsterdam, about 1630 Facing page '.i 

The River and Dock Front, about 1642 " " 8 

Order of the West India Company to Job Arisz " " 32 

View of the Marckveldt and't Water, 1652 " " 62 

Peder Jensson, Bailiff and Member of the Council of 

Bergen, Norway, 1640-1650 " " 66 

Siege of Marstrand, 1677 „ " " 90 

Dutch House in New York City, 1679 " " 114 

View on the East River, 1679 " "156 

New Amsterdam as It Appeared about 1640 " " 232 

The East River Shore Near the "Graft," 1652 " "244 

Copenhagen, about 1610 _...„ " "250 

Northeast and Southeast Corners of Broad Street and 

Exchange Place, New York City " "280 

Broad Street, 1642 " "326 

The Stadts Herbergh and Vicinity, 1652 " " 330 

Jacob Jensson Nordmand " " 374 

Frigate "Den norske L0ve" (The Norwegian Lion) " " 374 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT 

Page 

The Fort in Kieft's Day _ -.....- 7 

Entries in Log of the Ship Rensselaerswyck, November 1 and 

2, 1642 20 

Signature of Roelof Swartwout, husband of Eva Albertse 33 

Part of New York City, 1673 40 

The Lutheran Church in New York City, 1673 40 

Signature of Bernt Bagge 42 

Signature of Carsten Carstensen 47 

Bergen, Norway, about the Close of the Sixteenth Century _ 48 

Signature of Claes Carstensen 52 

Signature of Hans Hansen 59 

Signature of Aertse Vanderbilt, 1661, husband of Anneken 

Hendricks _ 61 

Signatures of Dirck Holgersen, 1651, 1658, 1661 — 69 

Signature of Pieter Jansen 84 

Signature of Everhard Boghardus, second husband of Anneke Jans 94 

Signature of Pieter Hartgers, husband of Fyntie Roe^ofs 102 

Signature of Johannes Van Brugh, second husband of Katrina 

Roelofs 103 

Signature of Covert Loockermans, 1659, husband of Marritie Jans 113 
Notarial Copy of Extract from Minutes of Amsterdam of the West 

Indian Company, July 7, 1631 119 

Signatures of Laurens Pietersen 130 

xxiii 



xxiv ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 

Signature of Dirck Teunissen 134 

Signature of Jochem Kalder „ _ — 141 

Signature of Gysbert Teunissen, 1659, second husband of Magda- 
lene Waele 142 

Helsingor, about the Close of the Sixteenth Century 152 

Signature of Laurens Andriessen 154 

Signature of Jan Broersen 165 

Danish Calendar, Copenhagen, 1642 174 

Luther's small Catechism for Children, 1628 176 

Signature of Hendrick Cornelissen 186 

The Northern Part of Flensburg, about the Close of the Six- 
teenth Century 188 

Varberg, about the Close of the Seventeenth Century 192 

Signature of Laurents Duyts 194 

Signature of Tomas Predericksen, 1659 201 

Signature of Eutger Jacobs, husband of Tryntie Jans 214 

Siege of Krempe and Glueckstadt, 1628 224 

Signature of Arent van Curler, second husband of Teuntje Jeurians 227 
Last Part of Letter of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Peter Minuit, 

December 29, 1637 — 229 

Signature of Pieter Laurenszen Kock 232 

Ribe, about the Close of the Sixteenth Century 246 

Signature of Marritje Pieters 258 

Memorandum of the Engagement of Farm Laborers, June 15, 1632. 

In Handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer 260 

Husum, about the Close of the Sixteenth Century _ 262 

Signature of Jan Pietersen van Holstein, 1659 .._.. 267 

Signature of Albert Pietersen, husband of Marritje Pietersen 272 

Signature of Ma'thys Roelofs 275 

Signature of Andries Andriessen „ 298 

Vexio, about 1 700 ..._ 300 

Stockholm, seen from the North, about 1600 305 — 306 

Vesteras, about 1600 _ 310 

Signature of Andries Hansen _ 312 

Reval, about 1600 _ „ _ 316 

Goteborg, about 1700 _ 323 

An Entry in the Church Book of the Reformed Church in New 

Amsterdam, 1639 - 329 

Signature of Burger Joris, husband of Engeltje Mans 333 

Stockholm, seen from the South, about 1600 _ „.„ 336 — 337 

Map of Captain Jens Munk's Sailing on Hudson Bay, 1619 377 

Captain Munk's Winter Quarters in "Nova Dania" (Canada) 378 

Facsimile of Manuscript of Captain Munk 381 



SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS 

IN NEW YORK 

1630-1674 



t Tcrt niemv ^imfi-crJan <'/ ds Manhai^ns 




NEW AMSTERDAM, about 1630. Reversed and reduced from the view in Hartgers' 
"Besclirijviiigli van Virginia," Lenox Library, New York City. 



INTRODUCTION.* 

The history of New Netherland, later called New York, does 
not begin with the year 1524, when the Bay of New York was 
first visited by a European navigator; but with the year 1609, 
when Henry Hudson, an Englishman in the employ of the East 
India Company, ascended the river which now bears his name. 
During the next four years sundry Dutch merchants who were 
interested in the reports of Hudson's exploration fitted up small 
ships for themselves which carried glass beads, strips of cotton. 
and diverse other articles to the natives of Manhattan and in 
exchange brought back skins of beaver, otter, and mink. In 1614 
they formed the United New Netherland Company, and obtained 
from the General States a charter granting them the right of 
trading along the coasts and rivers which their navigators had 
explored. This charter, however, did not claim New Netherland 
as a Dutch possession nor deny the right of other nations to 
traffic with the natives. It merely prohibited other Hollanders 
from interfering with the rights of the patentees. 

The name of New Netherland occurs first in 1614, in the 
instrument just mentioned. In this and in all subsequent docu- 
ments where the name is used, it occurs in the singular and 
never in the plural. There was only one New Netherland. The 
Netherlands of Europe are plural because they are an aggregation 
of small states, as Professor John Fiske says. The southern limit 
of New Netherland was the South River, later called Delaware 
River, the northern limit the forty-fifth parallel, the eastern lay 
between the Hudson and the Connecticut rivers, the western never 
extended many miles west of the Hudson. 

In 1618 the charter of the United New Netherland Company 
expired. The company tried to get an extension of it, but en- 
countered opposition. It nevertheless went on with its trade, and 



* In the preparation of this sketch, I have found much help in Mr. Dingman 
Versteeg's rrticle, "The City of New Amsterdam," in the Year Book of the Holland 
Society of New York, 1903. 



4 INTEODUCTION. 

prospered. As it was a mercantile, and not a political, organiza- 
tion, it was felt that a stronger organization, somewhat like that 
of the East India Company, was needed. Accordingly, the Dutch 
West India Company was formed, in 1621. The charter which 
it received gave it exclusive jurisdiction over Dutch navigation and 
trade on the barbarous coasts of America and Africa. The West 
India Company was authorized to found colonies and govern them 
under the supervision of the States General, to wage war, but 
not to make a formal declaration of w^ar without the consent of 
the States General, which was to aid it with soldiers and warships. 

In 1623 New Netherland became a political entity. Its 
government was vested in the West India Company. In colonial 
matters it possessed all legislative, executive and judicial powers, 
with the restriction that the States General should confirm the 
appointment of the highest officials and the instructions given them ; 
that the Roman-Dutch law of the fatherland should prevail when 
special laws did not meet all needs ; and that persons convicted 
of capital crimes should be sent home with their sentences. 

In the same year New Netherland received its first genume 
settlers who came not simply to traffic but to live, to establish 
farms and towns. No less than thirty Dutch and Walloon families 
came to this country that year. Some settled on Manhattan, some 
went north towards Albany, others went as far south as to Dela- 
ware River, near what was later called New Sweden. In 1625 
two shiploads of cattle, horses, swine, and sheep followed. 

In 1626 Manhattan island, twenty-two square miles in extent, 
was purchased for sixty guilders in beads and ribbons. Sixty 
guilders are equivalent to about twenty-four gold dollars. In our 
day this sum, the purchasing value of gold being considered, would 
amount to $120. 

Manhattan was yet no colony. It was more like a colonial 
farm. No individual person had yet obtained land in his own 
name or engaged in transmarine commerce in his own interest. 
But a change soon took place. 

In 1629 the first step was taken to give the province of New 
Netherland self-government. For the purpose of encouraging im- 
migration the system of patroons was established. The condition 
of the patroon's grant of land was that he should bring fifty 
grown-up persons to New Netherland and settle them along the 
Hudson River. The most famous of these patroons was Kiliaen 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

Van Rensselaer, a jeweler in Amsterdam. In the present work 
he is often mentioned as the patroon of the region around Albany. 
He caused several Scandinavians to immigrate and settle on his 
manor. 

In spite of the new system of colonizing the country, the 
current of immigration was weak. In order to stimulate it the 
West India Company renounced and abolished all previous 
monopolies. The effect was marked. Immigration increased and 
the country began to attain prosperity. But now the Indian wars 
followed, in which many colonists perished and much property was 
destroyed. These wars were at their worst during the rule of 
Director-General William Kieft (1638-1647), whose predecessors 
in office were Cornelis Jacobsen May (1624-1625), William Ver- 
hulst (1625-1626), Peter Minuit (1626-1632), Sebastian Jansen 
Krol (1632-1633), Wouter van Twiller (1633-1638). and whose 
only successor was Petrus Stuyvesant (1647-1664). 

The colonists of New Netherland were much dissatisfied with 
the rule of Kieft. This dissatisfaction brought about, on August 
29, 1641, the election of a board of Twelve Men, the first "repre- 
sentative" body in New Netherland. But as this body had only 
advisory power, and Kieft continued to rule as he pleased, new 
grounds for dissatisfaction were given, and, on February 18, 1642, 
the Twelve Men were summarily dismissed. Circumstances, how- 
ever, forced Kieft again to consult the people. As a consequence 
the board of Eight Men was elected in September, 1643, which 
in September, 1647, was succeeded by the board of Nine Men. 
The latter body served until February, 1653, when the city of New 
Amsterdam was incorporated. The incorporation, however, was 
accompanied by so many restrictions that the newly appointed 
municipal authorities exercised very little power. The Director- 
General and Council, therefore, often provoked opposition on the 
part of the local administration, to which, after much correspond- 
ence with the authorities in Holland, Stuyvesant and his Council 
were obliged to make a number of concessions. 

There were two governing bodies in New Amsterdam : ( 1 ) the 
Director and Council whose jurisdiction extended over entire New 
Netherland, and (2) the local government. Both of these bodies 
are frequently referred to in the present work. 

The local government consisted of two Burgomasters — the 
administrative representatives, so to speak ; several Schepens. who 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

had judicial power; one Schout, who was city attorney and "head 
of police." Strictly speaking there was no police department. The 
schouts and underschouts and two court messengers were expected 
to preserve order and to make arrests. Other city officers were 
the Secretary, the City Treasurer, the Vendue Master, the City 
Marshall, Ganger of Weights and Measures, Jailer etc. The local 
government or "Court of Schout, Burgomasters and Schepens," as 
it was called, was handicapped from the very beginning. For its 
most important officer, the schout, was at the same time the fiscal 
of the Company. He was entirely independent of the burgo- 
masters and the schepens. Mr. Dingman Veersteg aptly says that 
the city government was practically an inferior court of justice 
without much political significance, being in a large measure de- 
pendent upon the higher court, much like the board of Nine Men 
had been. All the city's officers from city clerk down to the com- 
monest porter were appointed by the Director-General and Council. 

The supreme government was at the Fort. It consisted of the 
Director-General and three or four members of the Council of 
New Netherland, whose chief officers were the Fiscal, the Pro- 
vincial Secretary, the Comptroller of the Finances, the Receiver- 
General, and the Surveyor-General with their staff of bookkeepers, 
clerks and messengers. This council not only framed the laws 
of the province, but also formed its supreme court, uniting in 
itself the legislative, judicial and executive authority of the colony. 

The city authorities were in financial matters entirely depend- 
ent upon the good will and pleasure, of the Director-General and 
the Council. Their constant striving for the right to levy taxes, 
to appoint officers and to extend their judicial authority was not 
without result. They gradually approached their goal : absolute 
communal autonomy for themselves and a representative govern- 
ment for entire New Netherland. But the final conquest of New 
Netherland by the English, in 1674, put a stop to political initia- 
tive which was revived a century later when the yoke of the English 
was thrown off. 

The liberty which was coveted in political life was desired 
by the churches also. For New Netherland was not so tolerant 
in matters of religion as European Netherlands. The ideal 
of Governor Stuyvesant and his Council was a state church 
of the Dutch Reformed confession. As early as 1628 New Am- 
sterdam had received its first Dutch Reformed minister, and in 




•o >* 



!5 o 



ec 

1—1 

« 
o 



8 INTEODUCTION. 

1631 built its first church. The Lutherans in New Amsterdam, 
the majority of whom were Scandinavians and Germans, and not 
Dutch, experienced great difficulty in securing the right of public 
exercise of their "religion." It really seems as if they did not 
get this right until after the conquest of NewNetherland in 1664. 
The vast majority of parents in New Amsterdam and in its 
vicinity had their children baptized by Dutch Reformed ministers, 
but only a minority of these parents were or became members of 
the Dutch Reformed Church. In 168G the population of the 
city of New York was 3,800 while the Dutch Reformed Church 
at the same time numbered 354 adults and 702 children. From 
1649 to 1701 it had baptized 5,700 infants, but received only 1812 
communicants. As the present work treats of Scandinavians, it 
may be proper to state here that the larger number of those who 
signed the petition of the Lutherans in New Amsterdam in 1657, 
were Germans and Scandinavians. They requested that Rev. J. E. 
Goetwater, the newly arrived Dutch Lutheran minister, might be 
permitted to remain in the city instead of being deported, as the 
colonial government, actuated by zeal for the Reformed "religion," 
had ordered. The fact that the minister of these Lutherans was 
Dutch needs no explanation. Dutch was the language of New 
Netherland and easily learned by the Germans and Scandinavians, 
who, moreover, as a rule intermarried with the sons and daughters 
of Netherlands. Even an Englishman like Charles Bridges be- 
came so thoroughly Teutonized that he called himself by the Dutch 
equivalent of his name — Carel van Brugge. The real leader of 
the Lutheran church in New Amsterdam, before it received a 
clergyman, was Paulus Schrick, a well-to-do German, from Niirn- 
berg. 

The progress of the people of New Amsterdam was, naturally. 
more marked in economic fields than in the ecclesiastical. Between 
1630 and 1640 many ships were constructed in New Amsterdam. 
In 1641 a commodious tavern was built, which later became the 
city hall. In 1642 a new church was erected, supplanting the one 
built in 1631. In 1648 a general fair was established to continue 
ten days each year, likewise a weekly market to be held on Mon- 
day. The city, as it was stated above, was incorporated in 1653. 
In the same year it was enclosed by palisades. In 1657 a "burgher- 
recht", or citizenship, was established ; the city was surveyed ; 
the streets were regulated and named ; several of the streets were 



en K 



9 }" 

3" 

w til 



fej'iz; 








^ 


o 


o 




■^ 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

also paved. In 1658 the General and Council gave the city per- 
mission to build a pier, to charge wharfage and to trade with other 
countries. In 1661 the first regularly appointed revenue cutter was 
put into commission. 

The leading industries centered in saw mills and grist mills, 
boat and yacht building, sail-making, soap-boiling, tanning, lime- 
burning, pot-baking, stone-quarrying, brick-making. 

New Amsterdam had the first public Latin and Greek school 
in our country. It drew pupils even from New England. "It 
would be honor enough for this stock (Dutch) to have been the 
first to put on American soil the public school, the great engine 
for grinding out American citizens, the one institution for which 
Americans should stand more stififly than for aught others." 
(Speech by Theodore Roosevelt, 1896). 

As to the protection of the colonists. New Netherland had a 
garrison of 180 men who were employed on distant expeditions 
to Delaware River, Bergen, Esopus, Beverwyck, Long Island, 
Staten Island and other threatened points. They were also utilized 
as custom house employees and put aboard every incoming ship 
to guard against smuggling. New Amsterdam had its own guard 
— the burgher's guard, consisting of three companies. After the 
Indian surprise of 1655 the city was patrolled on Sundays during 
service by a corporal's guard. 

As to the population, it has been estimated that there were 
270 people in New Amsterdam in 1628, 1000 in 1642, but only 
800 in 1653 on account of the Indian wars. In 1660 New Amster- 
dam had a population of about 1800 and about 350 houses, of 
which 300 were inhabited. In 1664 its population was about 2,400, 
its number of houses 500, of which 400 were dwellings. 

Entire New Netherland had a population of 1.500 in 1647, 
of 2,000 in 1653. and of 10,000 in 1664. 

The official language of New Netherland, as has been 
stated, was Dutch, though more than a score of languages were 
spoken in the city of New Amsterdam long before the English 
conquest. As it will be shown, those who spoke Danish, Nor- 
wegian, and Swedish contributed their share in making the metro 
polis of the West cosmopolitan in speech and tolerant in religion. 
The earliest library of which any record survives in the annals 
of New York was the polyglot collection owned by Jonas Bronck. 
the Dane after whom the Bronx in New York has been named. 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

Most of the books in this little library were Danish, several of 
them were celebrated works on Lutheran theology. The effort of 
the Lutherans to get religious liberty has already been noted. 

The Scandinavians of early New York also taught, it would 
appear, our country a new form of architecture, the clapboard 
construction of buildings. It is the merit of Mr. J. H. Innes to 
have called attention to this fact. His work "New Amsterdam 
and Its People," which on account of its painstaking investigation 
of the topography of New Amsterdam, will prove a most valuable 
guide to the readers of my volume, does not discuss this new form 
of architecture. But in a reply to a letter of mine, in which I 
had asked for permission to use certain views contained in his 
book on New Amsterdam, he makes the following very instruc- 
tive statements, which he permits me to quote. 

"It is perhaps proper to caution you not to lay too much 
stress on the views, for you will understand that they are only 
enlargements of the Danckers and Visscher views, both of which 
are on a pretty small scale. The artist however, aided by myself, 
has collated pretty faithfully the two views, and introduced the 
distinctive features of buildings, so far as we could inform our- 
selves from any source ; nevertheless, much is to be wished for. 
At the time of the views, I suppose, the original bark-lined or 
log houses of the earliest settlers had about all disappeared. What 
form of architecture took their places? Well, about this period 
the Dutch began to talk a good deal about houses "van Steen". 
Now this in the mouth of a Dutchman just from the old country 
would almost invariably mean brick, or "gebakken Steen," and we 
may fairly assume that all houses with narrow gable end and 
more than two stories high were at least fronted with Holland 
brick. These houses were comparatively few, however. The same 
assumption would not do for the smaller Dutch houses, because 
the vicinity of New Amsterdam was abundantly supplied with 
boulder stones from the glacial drift. These as a rule were so 
easily workable by mere unskilled labor, — requiring nothing 
more than a stout man with a good sledge-hammer, — that they 
were immediately put into requisition, not only for the foundations 
but for the construction of the walls themselves where they were 
not too high. Perhaps half of the ancient Dutch farm houses 
around New York, many of which remained within my personal 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

recollection, were constructed of these boulder stones, squared by 
the hammer to some extent. 

"The greater number of houses were undoubtedly of wood and 
to a certain degree foreign to Dutch ideas, but they adopted its 
use from economical reasons, and about this period the corrupted 
term "Klabbaude" began to appear in the records. This was our 
familiar "clapboards," by which we mean of course the boards 
nailed horizontally and overlapping one another. I am informed, 
however, that such method of construction is foreign to Holland, 
that the term "Klap hout" has no such meaning as the above, but 
is applied to strips of wood nailed up and down, such as we see 
in small constructions, such as sheds, board fences etc. 

"Where did the Dutch get this clapboard construction from 
at New Amsterdam ? Certainly not from the English, for when 
they, the English, commenced to build their first permanent houses 
in New England, and on the Eastern End of Long Island, they 
almost invariably made use of shingles in siding their buildings. . . 

"Now in my copy of George Braun's monumental work, "De 
Praecipuis Totius Universi Orbis Urbibus," Cologne 1572," I find 
in the large folio water color of Bergen in Norway almost exactly 
the clapboard construction of buildings to which we became ac- 
customed in America, and I am therefore inclined to believe that 
we owe this to Scandinavian influences, and that where the "Noor- 
mans" built themselves at New Amsterdam or vicinity, they are 
quite likely to have adopted this method. . . ." 

The present volume gives a good view of Bergen in the six- 
teenth century. The clapboard construction appears in it, but 
most of the boarding is horizontal. I have seen pictures of clap- 
board construction on the Faroe Islands, inhabited by people of 
Scandinavian stock. And a prominent Faroese, Jonas Bronck, may 
have put up this form of building on his plantation in New York, 
1639. That Scandinavian influences have been at work in the 
early colonial architecture of the Empire State of the North is 
quite evident. 

Thus much in general about New Netherland and New Am- 
sterdam. 

This introduction would be far too lengthy if it were to dwell 
on the regions about Albany, on the villages along the Hudson, 
on the settlements on Long Island, and many other places in New 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

York state mentioned in this work. We must refer the reader, 
for more detailed information, to John Fiske's "The Dutch and 
Quaker Colonies in America" (1899); to "The Memorial History 
of the City of New York," edited by James Grant Wilson (1892); 
to J. H. Innes' "New Amsterdam and Its People" ( 1902) ; and to 
Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer's "History of the City of New 
York in the Seventeenth Century" (1909), which contains an ex- 
tensive bibliography. 

Readers will ask. Why does this volume stop at the year of 
1674? We answer. New Netherland surrendered in that year to 
England. It had been taken in possession for the English as early 
as 1664, by Col. Richard Nicolls, when both New Netherland and 
New Amsterdam received the name of New York. But the 
language of the colony continued, in the main, to be Dutch, though 
English was used officially. Dutch was again introduced as the 
official language in 1673, when the province saw "the last flash of 
Dutch rule". Anthony Colve, taking advantage of the war between 
England and the Netherlands, captured New Netherland in the 
name of the Dutch Republic. The city of New York once more 
received a new name : New Orange. It always retained its ad- 
jective "New". The old form of local government by schout, 
schepens, etc., was reinstituted. From August 9, 1673, to Novem- 
ber 10, 1674, New York was again under Dutch rule. Then the 
English came and made the second and ultimate conquest of the 
province. 

After 1664, the Scandinavian immigration decreased per- 
ceptibly, and still more after 1674, though it probably never ceased 
entirely. 

Why this decrease? 

The Scandinavians, especially the Norwegians and the Danes, 
had, for many years, been accustomed to see their sons and daught- 
ers go, for a longer or shorter time, to Holland. The commerce 
between Norway and Holland was large. The vast forests of 
Norway furnished the Dutch with timl)er. And Norwegians and 
Danes joined the Dutch fleet in great numbers. It was Holland 
that taught Norway that her future was on the water. For Nor- 
way was not a sea-faring nation about the year 1600, as it was 
in the days of the vikings. Holland was the mistress of the seas. 
In 1650 her tonnage as compared to that of England, was as five 
to one. And at the close of the seventeenth century, after the 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

Navigation Act, Holland still maintained the ruling of the seas. 
She had a tonnage of 900,000 to England's 500,000, while the com- 
bined tonnage of the other nations together was only 200,000. 

Years ago England, becoming a great colonial power, over- 
took the supremacy on the ocean, though her fleet during our civil 
war was not greater than that of the United States. Norway soon 
came second on the list. Her fleet is still superior to that of the 
United States, which counts inland tonnage to make a good show- 
ing; but of late she has come down to the fourth place, still out- 
distancing, however, her former mistress, Holland. 

During the period our book covers, Amsterdam was the em- 
porium of the world. According to Erik P. Pontoppidan, a Dane, 
later bishop in Norway, there assembled some 8,000 or 9,000 Nor- 
wegian, Danish and Holstein sailors every year, about fall time, 
when the fleets were returning from East India, West India, Green- 
land and other places. Pontoppidan, who lived for some time in 
Holland, gives this estimate in his anonymous work "Menoza" 
(1743). 

Of Norwegians who attained fame in the service of the Dutch 
fleet, mention may be made of the marine hero Curt Adelaer 
(originally Sivertsen), who was born in Brevik, Norway, and at 
the age of fourteen (1637) joined the Dutch fleet. In 1642-1661 
he fought in the Venetian fleet against the Turks. His achieve- 
ments were remarkable. Returning to his home, he was appointed 
General-Admiral of the Danish-Norwegian fleet. He also re- 
ceived the title of nobility. Soon he built and organized a large 
and powerful fleet. 

In 1670, the Danish-Norwegian envoy at the Hague, Marcus 
Gj^e, reported to the government in Copenhagen that a large num- 
ber of the subjects of the [Danish-Norwegian] King were in Dutch 
service, and that the majority of them were Norwegians. He 
added, that on account of the jealousy of the Dutch, they were, 
for the most part, common sailors. The Dutch were averse to 
making them lieutenants and captains. 

An English statesman, Robert Molesworth, in "An account of 
Denmark as it was in the year 1692," states that the best sailors 
who are subjects of the Danish king are Norwegians, but the 
majority of them are in Dutch service. He also adds that many 
sailors from Scandinavian countries had settled with their families 
in Holland. 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

Some of the noteworthy Norwegians who served in the Dutch 
fleet were, according to the Norwegian historian L. Daae,* Zeiger 
Peters; Mickel de Voss, born in Soggendal, 1640; Mickel Tennis- 
sen, born at Lister, 1642 ; Evert Tennissen ; Morten Pedersen, born 
in Skien, 1652 ; Hans SchjzJnneb^l, a nobleman, born 1654 in Nord- 
land; Thomas Diderikssen Seerup, born 1638 in Bergen; Hans 
Garstensen Garde, born in Spangereid; Iver T^nnesen Huitfeldt 
from Throndstad in Hurum, died 1710; Frederik Boiling, who 
went as Adelbors to East India in 1669-1673 ; Michel Caspar Lund ; 
Anders Christensen from Christiania, who returned to his home 
after twenty-seven years of foreign service. 

Those were sea-faring men. As to the settled Scandinavian 
population in Holland, an idea may be got from the fact, that the 
Danes and Norwegians in 1663 organized a Danish-Norwegian 
church at Amsterdam. They issued a special hymnal, as their 
church was a union church which was to adhere to the Reformed 
and the Lutheran confessions. Their first pastor was Christian 
Pedersen Abel, from Aalborg, Denmark. Their sexton was Didrik 
(Erik) Meyer, from S^gne, in Norway. In Amsterdam was also 
.•\nders Kempe, from Trondhjem, Norway, who had become a 
Schwenkfeldian. 

As there were many Scandinavians in Holland, so there were 
quite a number of Hollanders in Norway and Denmark. Their 
influence was felt in many directions, and not least in the fields 
of art and architecture. 

There was, in other words, much reciprocity in the seventeenth 
century between the Dutch and the Scandinavians. Such a reci- 
procity did not exist in the same century between the English and 



• For what I state in regard to Scandinavians dwelling in Holland or serving 
in the Dutch fleet in the seventeenth century, I am indebted to L. Daae's care- 
fully written booklet "Nordmsends Udvandringer til Holland og England i nyere 
Tid." (1880). Of the Scandinavians mentioned by Dr. Daae. not a single one, at 
least to my knowledge, immigrated to New Netherland. He knows, of course, about 
the Swedish colony in Delaware. But ho seems to know nothing about Danish and 
Norwegian Immigration to our country in the seventeenth century. He says, "It 
Is reported thaj also some Norwegians (and Danes) settled in North America in 
New Jersey in the seventeenth century; and that they, in 1664 — 1676, founded a 
city there, which they called Bergen, after its (Norwegian) namesake, and that the 
surrounding district got the name of Bergen county. But this report is apocryphal 
..." (Underscoring mine). He adds, that Nicolai Wergeland, in 1816, used this 
report as an argument against the tyranny that Denmark had subjected Norway to. 
in the days of their union. 

It is indeed true, that Bergen in New Jersey was no Norwegian colony. Its 
oame is derived not from Bergen in Norway, but from Bergen op Zoom. But if 
Daae had heard the mere statement, thirty-five years ago, that there were at least 
150 Norwegians and Danes who emigrated to New York 1630 — 1674, he would 
possibly again have resorted to the apocryphal explanation. Fortunately we now 
have, what we did not have in 1880, an abundance of published source material, 
which it erer increasinc. 



INTEODUCTION. 15 

the Scandinavians, though the Norwegians exported much timber 
to England, particularly after the great fire in London. 

Naturally, Scandinavian immigration to New York after the 
Dutch had surrendered, began to decrease. To what extent, we can 
not say. The Dutch were very painstaking in keeping their records, 
even in the New World ; the English were not. Data which could 
have established the nationality of new immigrants, and which 
would have been recorded by the Dutch, are wanting in the English 
records. 

We therefore stop at the year 1674, with the end of the second 
period of Dutch rule in New York. 

When Stuyvesant in 1666, after the English had made the 
first conquest of New Netherland, was on his way to Holland, he 
came first to Bergen. He had left New Amsterdam for Curacao, 
where he in his younger days had lost his leg. He was so short 
of powder that he was obliged to borrow from a ship "lying in her 
harbor of Bergen" "three muskets, a parcel worth about 12 lbs. of 
powder, to be used on the voyage from Bergen aforesaid to Hol- 
land." 

The ex-governor may have thought of former days, when he 
was bent upon keeping his subjects in political and religious bond- 
age. Had he acted differently, he might have been spared the 
journey to Bergen and the borrowing of powder in northern waters. 
But who can ascertain all the facts, and forecast the exact course 
of history? History is not the result of chance. It is the sum of 
necessity and liberty. 



PART I 

NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS 

IN NEW YORK 

1630-1674 



ALBERT ANDRIESSEN. 

Albert Andriessen, or Albert Andriessen Bradt [Bratt], was 
one of the earliest Norwegian settlers in New Netherland. He 
came from Fredrikstad, a town at the mouth of the Glommen, the 
largest river in Norway. In the early records he is often called Al- 
bert the Norman. After 1670 he became known as Albert Andriesz 
Bradt. Whether he was related to the Bratts of Norwegian 
nobility, can not be ascertained. The Bratt family lived in Bergen, 
Norway, before the early part of the fifteenth century, when it 
moved to the northern part of Gudbrandsdalen. It had a coat of 
arms until about the middle of the sixteenth century. Since that 
time the Bratts belong to the Norwegian peasantry. They have 
a number of large farms in Gudbrandsdalen, Hedemarken, Toten, 
and Land.i In the state of New York there are many families of- 
the name of Bradt, descendants of the pioneer from Fredrikstad. 

The name of Albert Andriessen occurs for the first time in a 
document bearing the date August 26, 1636, an agreement between 
him and two others on the one hand, and the patroon of the colony 
of Rensselaerswyck, Kiliaen van Rensselaer, on the other.^ 
The agreement was made and signed in Amsterdam. It states that 
Andriessen was a tobacco planter. He may have learnt the cultivat- 
ing of tobacco in Holland, where tobacco was raised as early 
as 1616. 

As Andriessen was twenty-nine years of age w^hen he made 
the agreement with Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, he must have been 
born about 1607. Pursuant to the stipulation in the agreement, 
he sailed, accompanied by his wife, Annetje Barents of "Rolmers," 



1 rihiBtreret norsk konversations leksikon, OhristUnia, 1907 ff. Vol. I., 
Article "Bratt." 

2 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts. Translated and edited by A. J. F. van 
Laer. Arebivist, Albany, 1908, p. 676. 

19 



20 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

and as it would seem by two children, October 8, 1636, on the 
"Rensselaerswyck," which arrived at New Amsterdam March 4, 
1637. 

On this voyage, which was very stormy, his wife gave birth 
to a son, who received the name of Storm and who in later records 
is frequently called Storm from the Sea. The log of the ship 
("Rinselaers Wijck") contains under the date of November 1 and 
2 [1636], the following interesting entries which are given m fac- 
simile in the "Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts," 360 f . : 



\»juit^ff 



-o^f-yuov 






(Reduced size.) 



The translation is as follows: 



Novemb[er] 



Sa[turday] 1. In the morning we veered toward the west and 
drifted north. The Wind S. W. with rough weather and high 
seas. The past half day and entire night. 

Su[nday ] 2. Drifted 16 leagues N. E. by E. ; the wind 
about west, the latitude by dead reckoning 41 degrees, 50 min. 
with very high seas. That day the overhang above our rudder 
was knocked in by severe storm. This day a child was born on 



ANDRIESSEN. 21 

the ship, and named and baptized in England stoerm; the mother 
is annetie baernts. This day gone. 

Inasmuch as there were eight children born to Andriessen and 
his wife, Storm being the third, two of their children, Barent 
and Eva, were likely with their parents on this voyage. Five 
of their children were born in the new world: Engeltje, Gisseltje 
Andries, Jan, Dirck.^ 

Eva was married in October, 1647, to Anthony De Hooges, 
since 1642 superintendent of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, and 
later on August 13, 1657, at Fort Orange, to Roeloff Swartwout, 
who on January 27, 1661, was made sheriff, thus completing the 
organization of the first council of justice in the present county 
of Ulster.4 

Engeltje was married to Teunis Slingerland, of Onisquathaw. 

Gisseltje was married to Jan van "Eecheten"(?). 

Storm Albertsz is mentioned in a list of settlers in Esopus. 
The list was prepared 1662. His will, in which we learn the name 
of his wife, Hilletje Lansinck, probably Dutch, and which men- 
tions that he had children, but does not give their names, is dated 
February 24, 1679.^ 

Dirck or Hendrick is mentioned in a list of settlers in Esopus 
(1664). 

Andriessen and his partners were to operate a mill. But not 
long ^.fter his arrival he took the liberty of dissolving partnership 
and established himself as a tobacco planter. Van Renssselaer 
had sent greetings to him in a letter dated September 21, 1637, 
(addressed to the partner of Andriessen, Pieter Cornelisz, master 
millwright) but in a subsequent letter, of May 8, 1638, to Cornelisz 
he wrote : "Albert Andriessen separated from you, I hear that he 
is a strange character, and it is therefore no wonder that he could 
not get along with you."^ 

Nevertheless, Van Rensselaer entertained the hope that Albert 
Andriessen would succeed as a tobacco planter. On December 29, 
1637, he wrote to Director William Kieft that he should assign 
some of the young men on board the "Calmar Sleutel", commanded 
by Pieter Minuit and sailing in the same month, to tobacco plant- 



3 E. B. O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland (1848), II., p. 437. 

4 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 825. 

5 B. Fernow, Calendar of Wills on File and Recorded in the Offices of the 
Clerk of the Court of Appeals, New York, 1896, p. 444. 

6 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, pp. 351, 406. 



22 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

ing with Andriessen "if he has good success," otherwise they were 
to serve with the farmers. These young men were inexperienced, 
it seems. One, Elbert Elbertz, from Nieukerck, eighteen years 
old, was a weaver; Claes Jansen, from the same place, seventeen 
years old, was a tailor; Gerrit Hendricksz, also from the same 
place, fifteen year old, was a shoemaker. Gerrit must have served 
Andriessen for a term of at least three years; for his first three 
years' wages, from April 2. 1638 to April 2, 1641, are charged 
to Andriessen.^ 

In a letter of May 10, 1638, V'an Rensselaer advised Andries- 
sen that he had duly received his letter stating that the tobacco 
looked fine. But he was desirous to get full particulars as to how 
the crop had turned out, and to get a sample of the tobacco. He 
expressed dissatisfaction at Andriessen having separated from 
Pieter Cornelisz, and liked to know the cause of his dispute with 
the officer and commis Jacob Albertsz Planck and his son. He 
informed Andriessen that he was obliged to uphold his officers, 
and promised him to stand by him and cause him to be "provided 
with everything." But he would not suflFer bad behavior. He 
also informed him that it was apparent from the news he had 
received from several people that he was "very unmerciful to his 
children and very cruel" to his wife ; he was to avoid this "and in 
all things have the fear of the Lord" before his eyes and not fol- 
low so much his own inclinations. But there was also another 
matter for which Van Rensselaer censured him : he had traded 
beaver furs with Dirck Corszen Stam, contrary to contract, de- 
frauded and cheated him. For seven pieces of duffel he had given 
him only the value of twenty-five merchantable beavers.^ 

Van Rensselaer also addressed a letter, of the same date, to 
Jacob Albertsz Planck, informing him that he had written to 
Andriessen that he should have more respect for the officers. 
Planck was instructed to notify Andriessen and all others living 
in the colony not to engage in "such detrimental fur trade," for 
he did not care to suffer in his colony those who had their eyes 
mainly on the fur trade.' 

Notwithstanding, it was Dirck Corszen that was an unfaithful 
supercargo. And Van Rensselaer requested, in a letter of May 
13, 1639, of Andriessen, that he should write him the truth of the 



7 Ibid., 395 ff. 

8 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 409. 

9 Ibid., p. 411. 



ANDEIESSEN. 23 

matter and pay him what he still owed Corszen. If he saw that 
Andriessen acted honestly herein, he would do all in his power 
to help him. Andriessen should go to the superintendent of the 
colony, Arent van Curler, and purchase necessaries for himself and 
his own people at an advance in price of 50 per cent. He should 
get merchandise for the Indian trade at an advance of 75 per cent. 
In return he was to furnish Van Curler with skins at such a price 
that he could make something on the transaction. 

Van Rensselaer also informed Andriessen that he would try 
to sell his tobacco at the highest price and furthermore give him 
25 per cent more than his half of the net proceeds would amount to. 
He would moreover grant him 25 per cent discount on the grain 
which he bought. In fact, Van Rensselaer's confidence in Andries- 
sen seemed to be increasing. For he not only acknowledged that 
he had received several letters from him, but also wished to say 
to his credit that he had received returns from no one but him. 
He complained, however, of the tobacco which had been sent to 
him in barrels. It was a great loss to both that the "tobacco was 
so poor and thin of leaf that it could not stand being rolled." This, 
he thought, was likely due to Andriessen having left too many leaves 
on the plants. But not this alone : the weight was short. One 
barrel, put down at 292 lbs., weighed but 220 lbs. This was per- 
haps due to deception on the part of a certain Herrman, a furrier. 
But anything like this should be avoided in the future. The to- 
bacco amounted to 1,156 pounds net, which was sold for 8 st. ( 16 
cents) a pound. Had it not been so bad and wretched, it could 
have been sold for twenty cents a pound. A higher price could be 
obtained if Andriessen would be more careful in the future and 
leave fewer leaves on the plants. He should try to grow "good 
stuff", for the tobacco from St. Christopher, an island in the West 
Indies, was so plentiful in Netherland that it brought but 3 stivers 
a pound. Andriessen should also each year make out a complete 
account of all expenses and receipts from tobacco, so Van Rens- 
selaer could see whether any progress was made.^'' 

But Andriessen was a poor accountant. Neither Van Rens- 
selaer nor his nephew, the former Director Van Twiller, could 
understand his accounts. ^^ Van Rensselaer therefore gave him 
directions to follow in making his entries and statements, claiming 



lOrbid., 446. 
11 Ibid., p. 500. 



24 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

that any other procedure would "leave everything confused and 
mixed up." ^^ He complained that Andriessen laid certain trans- 
actions before the patroon, which should be laid before the com- 
mis. He expressed the sentiment that Andriessen was making him 
his servant when he wrote to him "about soap and other things." 
He also complained that Andriessen caused great loss by making 
him hold the tobacco too high : it was safest to follow the market 
price in Netherland. Finally he censured him for buying unwisely: 
he had paid f. 200 for a heifer, "which is much too high." ^^ 

The patroon and Andriessen had several disagreements. The 
latter, with his brother Arent Andriessen, whom we shall later get 
acquainted with, sent to the patroon sometime in 1642, 4,484 lbs. 
of tobacco. It was sold on an average of eight and one half st. 
a lb. Deducting 270 lbs. for stems, the net weight brought a sum 
of f. 1790:19. But the duty, freight charges, and convoy charges 
amounted to f . 629 :15. The patroon said he would deduct only 
half of this if Andriessen compensated him according to his 
ordinance for his land on which the tobacco grew. But as long 
as he was in dispute with him he would deduct the whole sum. ^* 

Andriessen did not suffer. Van Rensselaer complained in 
letter of March 16, 1643, to Arent van Curler that he did not 
know what privilege Albert Andriessen had received, since "his 
cows are not mentioned in the inventory sent him." He stated 
he would not want any one, no matter who he was, to own any 
animals which were not subject to the right of pre-emption. There- 
fore, Curler should include Andriessen's animals in the inventory, 
or make him leave the colony and pay for pasturing and hay during 
the past year.i^ 

()n September 5, 1643, the patroon stipulated the following 
with respect to Andriessen, whose term had long before expired 
without his having obtained a new lease or contract. 

He "shall ... be continued for the present but shall not own 
live stock otherwise than according to the general rule of one half 
of the increase belonging to the patroon and of the right of pre- 
emption and, in case he does not accept this, his cattle shall im- 
mediately be sent back to the place whence they came, with the un- 



12 Tbid., 

13 Ibid., 

14 Ibid., 

15 Ibid., 


p. 
P- 
P- 
p. 


506. 
514. 
661. 
663. 



ANDEIESSEN. 25 

derstanding, however, that half of the increase bred in the colony 
shall go to the patroon in consideration of the pasturage and hay 
which they have used ; and as to his accounts he shall also be 
obliged to close, liquidate and settle the same ; and as far as the 
conditions after the expiration of his lease are concerned, the 
patroon adopts for him as well as for all others this fixed rule, of 
which they must all be notified and if they do not wish to continue 
under it must immediately leave the colony, namely, that every 
freeman who has a house and garden of his own shall pay an 
annual rent of 5 stivers per Rhineland rod and for land used 
in raising tobacco, wheat or other fruits 20 guilders per Rhineland 
morgen, newly cleared land to be free for a number of years, more 
or less, according to the amount of labor required in such clear- 
ing. . 



'16 



Andriessen not only cultivated tobacco. He operated "two 
large sawmills," run by a "powerful waterfall," worth as much as 
f. 1000 annual rent, but the patroon let him have them for f. 250 
annual rent. ^~ From May 4, 1652, to May 4, 1672, Andriessen is 
charged with the annual rent for these two mills and the land on 
Norman's Kill. ^^ Originally this Kill was called Tawasentha, 
meaning a place of the many dead. The Dutch appelative of Nor- 
man's Kill is derived from Andriessen. 

In New Amsterdam he had acquired a house and lot from 
Hendrick Kip, August 29, 1651. It lay northeast of fort Amster- 
dam.^® Under date of October 5, 1655, we find that he was taxed 
a. 20 for this house and lot.2o 

The acquirement of property is not seldom followed by litiga- 
tion, as is also seen in the case of Andriessen. 

In May, 1655, before the court of the Burgomasters and 
Schepens in New Amsterdam, Roelofif Jansen, a butcher, appeared 
and made a complaint against Christiaen Barentsen, attorney for 
Andriessen. Jansen had leased a house and some land belonging 
to Andriessen who was to give him some cows. But the house 
was "not tight" and "not enclosed," and the cows were missing. 
He claimed the interest and damage which he had suffered or 



1« Ibid., p. 696. 

17 Ibid., p. 742. 

18 Ibid., p. 810. 

19 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts in t!ip Office of the Secretary of State 
Albany, 1865. Edited by E. B. O'Callaghan. I., p. 54. 

20 The Records of New Amsterdam from 3 653 to 1674, Ed. by Berthold 
Peraow. I., p. 374. 



26 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

might still suffer. The defendant, as attorney for Andriessen, re- 
plied that it was not his fault that the demand had not been com- 
plied with according to the contract. He requested time to write 
to his principal about it. The Court granted him a month's time 
in which to do this. In due time, however, the court ruled that 
Andriessen should make the necessary repairs.^i 

Some years later, Simon Clasen Turck started a suit against 
Andriessen, of which we shall let the court minutes of New Am- 
sterdam speak : 

[August 19, 1659]. "Simon Turck, pltf., vs. Dirck van 
Schelluyne as att'y of Albert Andriessen, deft. Deft, in default. 
Symon Turck produces in Court in writing his demand against 
Albert Andriessen concluding, that the attachment on the two 
cows grazing with VVolfert Webber shall stand good and have its 
full effect, until the said Albert Andriessen shall have paid him 
his arrears to the amount of fl. 2, sent to him by Joris Jans Ra- 
palje Ao. 1649, the 3d Septr. in the absence of Pieter Cornelis- 
sen, millwright, deed., not accounted for nor made good by him." 
The attachment on the cows is declared valid by the Court.22 

[August 19]. "Dirck van Schelluyne in quality as att'y for 
Albert Andriessen Noorman, answers demand of Symon Clasen 
Turck. The court orders copy to be furnished to party to an- 
swer thereunto at the next Court day."^^ 

[September 2]. "Symon Clasen Turck replies to answer of 
Dirck van Schelluyne, att'y of Albert Andriessen. Court orders 
copy to be furnished to party to rejoin at the next court day,"^* 

[September 28]. "Tielman van Vleeck as att'y for Turck 
requests by petition, that Sybout Clazen shall be ordered to de- 
liver by the next Court day his papers used against the abovenamed 
Symon Turck; also that Dirck van Schelluyne, att'y of Albert 
Andriessen, shall be ordered to rejoin to Symon Turck's reply. 
Apostille: Petitioner's request is granted, and parties shall be 
ordered to prosecute their suit by the next court day."^* 

"On date 17th January 1660, has Dirck van Schelluyne fur- 
nished me Secretary Joannes Nevius, his rejoinder and demand in 
reconvention, as attorney of Albert Andriessen against Tielman 
van Vleec, att'y of Symon Clazen Turck, also rejoinder of Abra- 

21 Ibid., I., p. 326; II., p. 248. 

22 Ibid., in., p. 24 ff. 

23 Ibid., III., p. 82. 

24 Ibid., III., p. 37. 

25 Ibid., in., p. 67. 



ANDRIESSEN. 27 

ham Verplanck against ditto Van Vleeck as substitute of Anthony 
Qasen More: Whereupon the President of the Burgomasters and 
Schepens ordered: Copy hereof to be furnished to party, and 
parties are ordered to exchange their papers with each other and 
to produce their deductions and principal intendit by inventory 
on the next Court day." 

On January 22, 1660, the Burgomasters and Schepens dis- 
missed the "pltfs. suit instituted herein" and condemned him to 
pay the costs incurred in this suit.^® 

But a few days later, on January 28, 1660, it rendered the 
following decision : "Burgomasters and Schepens of the City of 
Amsterdam in N : Netherland having considered, read and re- 
read the vouchers, documents and papers used on both sides in 
the suit between Tielman van Vleeck attorney of Simon Clasen 
Turck, (as husband and guardian of Merretje Pieters, daughter 
of the dec[eas]d Pieter Cornelissen, millwright, and his lawful 
heir, as well for himself as representing herein the orphan child 
of Tryntie Pieters, deceased daughter of said Pieter Cornelissen) 
pltf. against Dirck Van Schelluyne, attorney of Albert Andries- 
sen Noorman, residing at Fort Orange, deft, relative to and con- 
cerning two hundred guilders, which Symon Clasen Turck is de- 
manding from Albert Andriesen for so much, that Albert An- 
driesen has received from Jorsey in the absence of Pieter Corne- 
lissen, millwright, dated 3rd September, 1649, gone to Virginia 
and not computed by him nor made good as appears by contract 
made between Albert Andriessen and Symon Clasen Turck by 
the intermediation of — Corlear and Dirck van Schelluyne ac- 
cording to acte thereof executed before D: V. Hamel, Secretary 
of the Colony of Reinselaars Wyck, dated 27th September, 1658; 
and whereas the words of the contract read as follows : — 'Firstly, 
Symon Turck shall collect, receive, retain and dispose of as his 
own according to his pleasure, all outstanding debts receivable, 
wherever they be ; all effects and goods found in the house of the 
deceased Pieter Cornelissen, whether belonging to him individ- 
ually or to his Company or Association; On the other hand, Al- 
bert Andriesen assumes himself all the debts payable where and 
to whomsoever they may be, relating to their partnership. 
whether these stand in the name of Pieter Cornelissen or his own 
name, promising to release Symon Turck from all claims relat- 



26 Ibid., ni., pp. 102, 108. 



28 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

ing hereunto.' — Having looked into, examined and weighed 
everything material. Burgomasters and Schepens find it right, 
that the pltf's demand be dismissed, inasmuch as they find, that 
the two hundred guilders were not to be received, but were paid 
several years since to Joris Rapalje, who sent the same to Albert 
Andriesen Noorman and are accordingly not payable to the estate 
of Pieter Cornelissen, but whenever Symon Turck or his attorney 
can prove that, at the time of the settlement of a^cs and writing of 
the contract, Albert Andriesen Noorman notified Symon Turck, 
that he should receive the fl. 200., hereinbefore in question, from 
Sybout Clasen, then Albert Andriesen shall give and pay the above 
mentioned fl. 200., with costs, and in default of proof the pltf. is 
condemned in the costs of the suit. Regarding the demand in re- 
convention about certain planks, no disposition can be made therein 
as the same is moved according to the Lites Contestatio. Thus 
done and adjudged by the Burgomaster and Schepens of the City 
of Amsterdam in New Netherland as above. 

"Adj. as above 

"Martin Kregier."^^ 
The court minutes under date of June 8, 1660, regarding this 
litigation, state: 

"On petition of Tielman Van Vleeck, attorney for Symon 
Clasen Turck, wherein he requests that the Court may not only 
examine, but also expedite the solution given by him relative to 
the fulfillment of the interlocutory judgment pronounced 28th 
January last, it is ordered : — Copy of the solution shall be furnished 
to party to answer thereunto at the next Court day."^* 

And under date of January 29, 1661, the minutes pertaining 
to this case read: "On the petition of Tielman van Vleeck, agent 
of Symon Clasen Turck, wherein he requests, as Albert Andriesen 
Noorman remains in default, to answer the solution given in to 
Court on the 8th of June 1660, that the above named Albert An- 
dries(e)n shall in contumacy be condemned to pay him petitioner 
the computed two hundred guilders remaining due to him ; Where- 
upon was ordered : The petitioner shall notify his party hereof 
according to law."^® 

Albert Andriessen was married twice. His first wife died 



27 Tl)id., TIL, pp. 117 ff. 

28 Ibid., III., p. 168 

29 Ibid., III., p. 256 f. 



ANDRIESSEN. 29 

before June 5, 1662. His second wife, Pietertie Jansen, died about 
the beginning of 1667 in New Amsterdam, leaving an insolvent 
estate. Her son-in-law was Ebert Benningh.^o 
Albert Andriessen died June 7, 1686.81 

To show how certain documents were drafted in the days of 
our pioneers, we append the following exhibits, in which Albert 
Andriessen is one of the parties. 

(A) 
"In the name of the Lord, Amen. On conditions hereafter 
specified, we, Pieter Cornelissen van munnickendam, millwright, 
43 years of age, Claesz jans van naerden, 33 years of age, house 
carpenter, and albert andriessen van fredrickstadt, 29 years of 
age, tobacco planter, have agreed among ourselves, first, to sail 
in God's name to New Netherland in the small vessel which now 
lies ready and to betake ourselves to the colony of Rensselaers- 
wyck for the purpose of settling there on the following conditions 
made with Mr. Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, as patroon of the said 
colony, etc. 

"Thus done and passed, in good faith, under pledge of our 
persons and property subject to all courts and justices for the ful- 
fillment of what is aforewritten, at Amsterdam, this 26th of 
August [1636]. 

*In witness whereof we have signed these with our own hands 
in the presence of the undersigned notary public .... 
"Kiliaen Van Rensselaer 

"Pieter Cornelissen 
"albert andriessen . , . 
"Claes jansen. 
"J. Vande Ven, Notary."82 

(B) 
"Appeared before me Robert Livingston, secretary etc., and 
in presence of the honorable Messieurs Philip Schuyler and Dirck 
Wessells, commisaries etc., Albert Andriese Bratt, who acknowledged 

30 Ibid., VI., pp. 56 ff. Mr. A. T. F. van Laer says he married Geertmy 
Pieters Vosburgh, Van Rensselaer Bowler Manuscripts, p. 810. 

31 Jonathan Pearson, A History of the Schenectady Patent, 1883, p. 93. 

32 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 676 ff. In reproducing trnnslations 
of originals we retain the phonetic orthography, the use of small letters instead of 
capitals, and other peculiarities that fall short of the demands of the ordinary school 
"Rhetoric." ■ — Claes Jansen Ruyter failed to accompany his partners in the "Rens- 
selaerswyck" in 1636. He arrived at New Amsterdam by "den Harinck" on 
March 28, 1638. This late arrival may have been the reason for Andriessen's 
dissolving partnership in the mill company. 



:^0 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

that he is well and truly indebted and in arrears to Mr. Nicolaus 
Van Renselaer, director of colony of Renselaerswyck, in the sum 
of 3,956 guilders, as appears by the books of the colony of Rense- 
laerswyck, growing out of the part rent for the mill and land; 
which aforesaid 3,956 guilders the mortgagor, to the aforenamed 
Mr. Director or to his successors, promise to pay, provided that 
whatever he, the mortgagor shall make appear to have been paid 
thereon shall be deducted : pledging therefor, specially, the produce 
of his orchard, standing behind the house which the mortgagor now 
possesses, from which produce of the orchard he promises to pay 
in rent during life twenty guilders in patroon's money in apples, 
and generally pledging his person and estate, personal and real, 
present and future, nothing excepted ; submitting the same to the 
force of all laws and judges to promote the payment thereof in 
due time, if need be, without loss or cost. 

"Done in Albany, without craft or guile, on the 30th of Octo- 
ber, 1677. 

"Aalbert Andriess Brat. 

"Philip Schuyler. 

"Dirck Wessels. 

"Acknowledged before me, 

"Robt. Livingstone, Secr."^^ 



EVA ALBERTSE. 

Eva Albertse [Andriessen] was the daughter of Albert An- 
driessen of Fredrikstad, Norway. She arrived, in company with 
her parents and two brothers, one of whom was born on the sea, 
at New Amsterdam, March 4, 1637. She lived with them in the 
vicinity of the present Albany, where she in October, 1647, was 
married to Antony de Hooges, one of the leading men in the colony 
of Rensselaerswyck. He was a widower with several children. 

After his death she was married August 13, 1657, to Roeloif 
Swartwout who became sheriff of the present county of Ulster, 
New York. 

A concise record of the occupation of Eva's first husband in 



33 Early Records of the City and County of Albany and Colony of Rens 
selaergwyck 165(5 — 1675. Translated from the original Dutch, with notes. By 
Jonathan Pearson, 1969, p. 165. 



ALBERTSE [ANDRIESSEN]. 31 

the colony of Rensselaerswyck is given in the Van Rensselaer 
Bowier Manuscripts, which state : 

Antony de Hooges was engaged as underbookkeeper and as- 
sistant to Arent van Curler, and sailed from the Texel by den 
Conick David, July 30, 1641. He reached New Amsterdam Nov. 
29, 1641, but apparently did not arrive in the colony (Albany and 
vicinity) till April 10, 1642, being credited from that date till April 
10, 1644, with a salary of f. 150 a year. From van Curler's de- 
parture for Holland, in Oct., 1644, till van Schlichtenhorst's arrival 
on March 22, 1648, he was entrusted with the business manage- 
ment of the colony; from the latter date till his death, on or about 
Oct. 11, 1655, he held the office of secretary and gecommitteerde. 
In the accounts, he is credited, from May 11, 1652, to Oct. 11, 1655, 
with a salary of f. 360 a year as secretary, and for the same period 
with a salary of f. 100 as gecommitteerde, also with f. 56 for 
salary as voorleser (reader in the church) during two months and 
one week in 1653. 

As our book contains a facsimile of the log registering the birth 
of Eva's brother, Storm, so it reproduces a facsimile of an order 
in regard to the transport of her first husband. 

The translation of this Order of the West India Company to 
Job Arisz, skipper of den Conick David, to transport Antony de 
Hooges and other, July 10, 1641, is, according to the version in 
"Bowier Manuscripts" as follows (The written parts of the manu- 
script are printed in italics) : 

"The directors of the West India Company, Chamber of Am- 
sterdam order and direct Job Arissen, skipper of the ship named 
d' Co. David to transport in said ship under his command and to 
permit to sleep and eat in the cabin the person of Anthony de 
Hogus in the service of Mr renselaer and Johan V^heeck with 
his wife and daughter and maid servant, and Geertgen nanninx, 
with son and little daughter, provided he bring with [him] a 
musket or firelock and sword of [his] own, with his accompanying 
baggage specified below and marked with the mark of the Com- 
pany; and for transporting these the skipper shall upon [declara- 
tion] signed by said Anthony de Hogus, be paid for board — stivers 
a day, according to the amount agreed upon tvith Mr ren^ for 
board of his colonists. Done at Amsterdam, the loth of July 1641. 

"[signed] Fred^: Schtdenb^: 
"6". blomaert 



32 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

"I went on board the 2^rd day of the month of July 

and left the ship the day of the month of 

Done at the 

"The above named having with them four chests large and 
small containing their apparel, clothes, linen and other effects, 
further some furniture and miscellaneous articles, shall pay upon 
arrival for freight twenty-eight guilders, I say, must pay for freight 
f28: Done at Amsterdam this igth of July 1641. 

"[signed] /; Eincklaen 

"For Anthonij de hooges _ f 8 

For Jehan Verbeeck, his wife, child and maidservant _. f 10 

For Gurtgen Nanninx and two children _ f 10 

f 28 
"[Endorsed] Renselaer" 

To this interesting document we shall append a copy of the 
marriage contract between Eva and her second husband Roeloff 
Swartwout. 

"In the name of the Lord, Amen, be it known by the contents 
of this present instrument, that in the year 1657, on the loth day 
of the month of August, appeared before me Johannes La Mon- 
tagne, in the service of the General Privileged West India Com- 
pany, deputy at Fort Orange and village of Beverwyck, RoeloiF 
Swartwout, in the presence of his father, Tomas Swartwout, on 
the . . ., and Eva Albertsen (Bratt), widow of the late Antony De 
Hooges, in the presence of Albert Andriessen (Bratt), her father 
of the other side, who in the following manner have covenanted 
this marriage contract, to wit, that for the honor of God the said 
Roeloff Swartwout and Eva Albertsen after the manner of the 
Reformed religion respectively held by them shall marry ; secondly, 
that the said married people shall contribute and bring together all 
their estates, personal and real, of whatsoever nature they may be, 
to be used by them in common, according to the custom of Hol- 
land, except that the bride, Eva Albertse, in presence of the or- 
phanmasters, recently chosen, to wit, Honorable Jan Verbeeck and 
Evert Wendels, reserves for her a hundred guilders, to wit, for 
Maricken, Anneken, Catrina, Johannes, and Eleonora De Hooges, 
for which sum of one hundred guilders for each child respectively 
(she) mortgages her house and lot, lying here in the village of 



E Bewintlichberca vande Wcil-incl;- 









s.::;-> 









)\fA^:\ 



^ 



V, 













^ 



,.„.v,k:. 












^,^6.<^; 






ORDER OF THE WEST INDIA COMPANY TO JOB ARISZ. skipper of den Coiiinck 

David, to transport Antony de Hooges and others, July 10, l(i41. 

From Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts. 1908. 

(About one-half of original size.) 



ANDRIESSEN. 33 

Bevenvyck; it was also covenanted, by these presents, by the 
mutual consent of the aforewritten married people, that Barent 
Albertse (Bratt) and Teunis Slingerland, brother and brother-in- 
law of the said Eva Albertse, and uncle of said children, should 
be guardians of said children, to which the aforesaid orphanmasters 
have consented ; which above written contract the respective parties 
promise to hold good, on pledge of their persons and estates, 
personal and real, present and future, the same submitting to all 
laws and judges. 

"Done in Fort Orange, ut supra, in presence of Pieter Jacob- 
,sen and Johannes Provost, witnesses, for that purpose called. 

"Roeloff Swartwout. 
"This is the mark of -|- Eva Albertse. 

Thomas Swartwout. 

Albert Andriessen. 

Jan Verbeeck. 

Evert Wendel. 

Teunis Cornelissen. 
"Johannes Provoost, witness 
"This is the mark of -{- Pieter Jacobsen. 

"Acknowledged before me, 

"La Montague, Deputy at Fort Orange." 3* 



//.-^'^i^ fUay^lju^t^c 



Signature of Roelof Swartwout, husband of Eva Albertse. 



ARENT ANDRIESSEN. 

Arent Andriessen was a brother of Albert Andriessen, and, 
like him, a tobacco planter. He was from Fredrikstad, Norway. 
He appears to have come over with his brother on the "Rensselaers- 
wyck," which sailed from Texel, October 8, 1636, and arrived at 
New Amsterdam, March 4, 1637. He also appears to have re- 

84 Ibid., p. 50. 



34 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

mained with his brother in the colony for one year. His wages — 
fl. 75 a year — began April 2, 1637. However, he soon acquired 
a plantation of his own. 

The tobacco he raised on his own farm was "extraordinary," 
judged from the sample he had sent to Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, 
the patroon whom he served, but it had "a strange aftertaste." 
The patroon wrote in 1640 that he was willing to grant him a plan- 
tation on the basis of that of 1639, but not at all to share ex- 
penses."* 

Between 1638 and 1646 Arent Andriessen is various times 
credited with tobacco furnished to the superintendent van Curler 
and Anthony de Hooges. 

On April 23, 1652, he got a lot in Bewerwyck, and on May 
1, 1658, he obtained a lease from Jan Baptiste van Rensselaer on 
all the tilled land on the island opposite the center of the village 
of Bewerwyck, that is opposite the fort, apparently what is known 
as Boston or Van Rensselaer Island ; also on all the land which he 
could further obtain from the natives, with the exception of the 
land already cultivated by van Rensselaer. The rent should be 
100 guilders a year besides tithes and two fowls as "toepacht," 
to be paid in good wheat and oats at four guilders a "mudde." If 
the lessee should be prevented from using the land by the savages 
or otherwise, he should be free from the obligation of the lease and 
pay for such a period as he did not have the use of said land. The 
lease was to expire May 1, 1662.^^ 

Arent was one of the first white men to settle Schenectady, a 
portion of the Mohawk valley, which is sixteen miles long and 
eight miles wide. Here he became a proprietor, but died soon 
afterward leaving a widow and six children. His wife was 
Catalyntje, daughter of Andries De Vos, deputy director of Rens- 
selaerwyck.-''^ After the death of her husband, the grants of land 
allotted to him were confirmed to her. The children Arent An- 
driessen had by her were :Jesie(Aeffie),Ariantje, Andries, Cornelia, 
Samuel, Dirk. Their ages at the father's death were 13. 11, 9, 7, 
3, 1 years, respectively. 

In 1664 his widow was married to Barent Jansen Van Dit- 
mars. Her ante-nuptial contract with the "orphan masters," for 



35 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 513. 

36 Ibid., p. 758. 

37 February 27. 1656, Arent and his father-in-law, Andries de Vos, were 
appointed curators of the estate of Cornelia Vedos, wife of Chris. Davids, at Port 
Orange. See: Calendar of N. Y. Historical Manuscripts in the Office of the Secre- 
tary of State. Edited by E. B. O'Callaerhan, p. 312. Jonathan Pearson, A His- 
tory of the Schenectady Patent, 1883, p. 93. 



ANDBIESSEN. 35 

the protection of the interests of her infant children, bears the 
date of November 12, 1664. It binds her to pay to them their 
patrimonial estate of 1,000 guilders at their majority, and mort- 
gages her land at Schenectady to secure the payment of the same. 
Her second husband was killed in the French and Indian 
massacre, February 9, 1690, when the town of Schenectady was 
completely destroyed by the Indians. She was married for the 
third time, 1691, to Claas Janse Van Boekhoven. By their ante- 
nuptial contract, made February 27, 1691, they agreed that on the 
death of both, their property should go to their children. ^^ Boek- 
,hoven died 1707, she in 1712. 

The real estate in Schenectady belonging to her amounted to 
the sum of £976 12s. 6d, current money of the Province, and that 
of Boekhoven in Niskayuna and Albany, to the sum of £700. 

Her home lot, says Pearson, was the west quarter of the block 
bounded by Washington, State, and Church streets, being about 
200 feet square. Her grandson Capt. Arent Bratt sold in 1723 
the corner parcel to Hendrick Vrooman, but it soon returned to 
the family, and was again sold by Arent J. Bratt, in 1769, to James 
Shutter. The remainder of this lot remained in the family until 
the beginning of last century, when it was sold to Robert Baker 
and Isaac De Graaf. "The ancient brick house standing on this 
lot, one of the few specimens of Dutch architecture remaining 
in the city, was probably built by Capt. Arent Bratt." 

The eldest son of Arent Andriessen was Andries Arentsen. 
He had a brewery. He was living not far from his mother's house 
in 1690, when he, with one of his children, was slain in the French- 
Indian massacre. His wife Margarita, daughter of Jacques Cor- 
nelise Van Slyck, and his son Arent and daughter Batsheba were 
spared. It was this son, Arent, who became known as Capt. Arent 
Bratt; who was made trustee of the common lands in 1714 and 
continued in office until 1765, being for the last fifteen years of his 
life sole trustee; who in 1745 represented the county of Albany 
in the Provincial Assembly ; and who was the father of Capt. An- 
dries, Johannes, and Harmanus, well-to-do men. Tradition says 
Harmanus was the wealtiest man of the town. 

The second son of Arent Andriessen was Samuel, who mar- 

38 Ibid., p. 94. 



36 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

ried Susanna, daughter of Jacques Cornelise Van Slyck. He died 
about 1713, leaving five sons. 

The third son of Arent Andriessen, Dirk, married Maritjc. 
daughter of Jan Baptist Van Eps. He died in 1735. 

Of Arent's daughters, Aeffie married John Claas van Pelten ; 
Ariantje married first, Helmar Otten, a baker in Beverwyck ; 
secondly, Ryder Schermerhorn ; Cornelia married Jan Putnam 
(Postman), supposed to be the first of the Putnam family to 
have emigrated to America. Putnam was born in Holland about 
1645. A descendant of Jan and Cornelia Putnam married into the 
Van Burens ("Peckham, History of . . . Van Buren . . ." p. 297 f.) 

In connection with Ariantje's first marriage the records state 
that it was strenuously objected to by Rev. Jacob Fabritius, a 
Lutheran minister from Silesia, who came to serve the Lutheran 
church in New York. He arrived to this country in Februar}'. 
1669. In April he had a pass to go to Albany. While there he 
behaved ill, opposed the magistrates and imposed a fine of 1000 
rix-dollars on the person of Helmar Otten (of Issens) for comply- 
ing with the magistrates in the consummation of the marriage 
with "Adriantje Arentz, his wife according to the law of the land." 
On this offense, one of many similar ones committed by this over- 
zealous preacher. Gov. Lovlace ordered him to be suspended from 
his ministerial functions at Albany until his friends interceded in 
his behalf. (See Hazzard's Annals, p. 373.) Otten lived in Be- 
verwyck from 1663 to 1676. 

As to further details the reader may consult Jonathan Pear- 
son, "A History of the Schenectady Patent," from which several 
verbatim quotations have been made in preparing this sketch. 



LAURENS ANDRIESSEN. 

Laurens Andriessen, often called Laurens Noorman, was a na- 
tive of Norway. Nothing is known as to the time he immigrated 
to New Netherland. He served for some time as a soldier in the 
war against the Indians. He is first mentioned in the beginning 
of 1644. 

In the Records of the Reformed Dutch Church in New Am- 
sterdam he appears as a sponsor, February 22, 1644, at the baptism 



ANDRIESSEN. 37 

of the son of a Charles Andries.*" The Record calls him "Laurensz 
Andrieszen, Van Noordwegen" [from Norway]. 

Sponsorship was not taken seriously in those days. Laurens 
Andriessen is a proof of that. He and Cornelius Pietersen were 
prosecuted September 29, 1644, by the fiscal in New Amsterdam, 
for breach of peace on a Sunday and for wounding a certain 
Richard Pinoyer. They were condemned to pay a fine of 150 
guilders, and to ride the wooden horse during the parade, and to 
be conveyed thence to prison, or else to go immediately on ship- 
board and not return on shore, on forfeiture of their wages.*^ 

Laurens seems to have been a sailor in service of the West 
India Company. Prior to his sponsorship he had taken part in the 
war against the Indians. He was wounded in this war. His 
comrade, John Haes, taking advantage of his helpless condition, 
pulled off the shoes of Laurens and sold them for three guilders, 
in order to buy whisky. Haes, who had also stolen a gun and 
shot a hog not belonging to him, was therefore tried for mischief- 
making. The fiscal, however, pardoned him on February 1, 1644, 
in consideration of his having served as soldier "in the present com- 
pany, on condition that he give security for the damage he com- 
mitted, and for future good behavior ; should he again be guilty 
of similar crimes, he shall then be 'hanged without mercy'." *^ 

Laurens Andriessen was one of the signers of the petition of 
the Lutherans in New Amsterdam sent to the Director and Council 
of New Netherland, requesting that the order of the government 
to send the lately arrived Lutheran pastor Johannis Ernestus Goet- 
water back to Europe be revoked. 

The petition reads as follows : *2 

To the Noble Honorable Director-General, and the Council of New 
Netherland : — 

With all due respect, we, the adherents of the Unaltered 
Augsburg Confession, here in New Netherland, and under the 
jurisdiction of the Lords Principals of the West India Company, 
hereby show, that the Burgomasters of this City of Amsterdam in 



39 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II., 
p. 16. 

40 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts. Edited by E. B. O'Callaghan, I., 
p. 91. 

41 Ibid., I., p. 87. 

42 Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York. Published by the State 
under the supervision of Hugh Hastings, 1901. I., p. 405f. 



38 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

New Netherland, have received an order from your Honors, first, 
by the City Messenger Gysbert op Dyck, and shortly after by the 
Honorable Fiscal, Nicasius de Sille, to the Rev. Master in Theo- 
logy, Johannis Ernestus Goetwater, that he must and shall depart 
in the ship, the 'Waag', now ready to sail. Wherefore, in paying 
our respects to your Honors, we beg to say that in accordance with 
your Honors' orders and public announcements he has behaved as 
an honest man, and has never refused obedience to your orders and 
edicts, but has always given good heed to them ; and we, too, hav 
behaved quietly and obediently, while we expect from higher 
authority, the toleration of our religion — that of the Unaltered 
Augsburg Confession. To this result we still look forward after 
the receipt of another letter to us. 

We humbly supplicate your Honors, that the sudden orders, 
the one by the City Messenger, and the other by the Fiscal, to 
Domine Johannis Ernestus Goetwater, may be revoked by your 
Honors, until we receive further orders from their High Mighti 
nesses, our sovereigns, and from the Noble Lord Directors of 
the Privileged West India Company. Remaining your Honors 
faithful and watchful (servants) and good Christians, all adherents 
of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, and having been admitted 
into New Netherland, we, in the absence of the others, have signed 
this petition. 

Mattheus Capito, 
Christian Niesen, 
Harmen Eduwarsen, 
Hans Dreper, 
Lourens Andriesen 
Luycas Dircksen, 
XX Jan Jansen 
XX Jochem Beeckman, 
Andries Rees, 
Luycas Eldersen, 
Harmen Jansen, 
Jan Cornelisse, 
Davidt Wessels, 
Hans Sillejavck, 
Hendrick Hendricksen, 
XX Meyndert Barentsen, 
Harmen Smeeman, 



ANDRIESSEN. 39 

Christian Barentsen, 
George Hanel, 
Pieter Jansen, 
XX Winckelhoeck, 
Claes de Witt, 
XX Jacob Elders, 
Hendrick Willemse. 

We await your Honors' favorable decision. Amsterdam, in 
New Netherland, this 10th day of October, Anno 1657. 

Laurens Andriessen must have been quite interested in having 
a Lutheran minister in New Amsterdam. In a letter of the two 
Dutch Reformed ministers in New Amsterdam, Johannes Mega- 
polensis and Samuel Drisius, dated August 23, 1658 and addressed 
to the Director-General and the Council of New Netherland, it is 
stated that "Laurence Noorman" had acted sponsor at a baptism 
of a child of Lutheran parents, on August 18, 1656, and that this 
Laurence was the person believed to have been "the host who con- 
cealed John Gutwasser, the Lutheran minister last winter." 

For keeping the minister, Laurens Andriessen received six 
guilders a week ($2.40). *3 

Rev. Goetwater, it seems, was law-abiding. No one will 
censure him for having ignored the unjust command of Stuyve- 
sant, who in this matter acted as a summus episcopus of, not a 
state religion, but a company (West Indian) religion. The minister 



43 Ibid., I., pp. 430. 433. September 24, 1658, the pastors in New Amster 
dam wrote to the Classis of Amsterdam: "Your letter of May 26th last (1658), 
came safely to hand. We obsere your diligence to promote the interests of the 
church of Jesus Christ in this province, that confusion may be prevented, and thai 
the delightful harmony which has hitherto existed among us here, may continue. . . . 
We learn that one of the English towns, through lack of a Presbyterian minister, 
is already engaged in seeking an Independent from (New) England. The raving 
Quakers have not settled down, but continue to disturb the people of the province 
by their wandering and outcries. For although our government has issued orders 
against these fanatics, nevertheless they do not fail to pour forth their venom. 
There is but one place in New England where they are tolerated, and that is Rhode 
Island, which is the caeca latrina of New England. Thence they swarm to and fro 
sowing their tares. The matter of the Lutherans remains still in a very obscure 
condition. Last year the Lutheran pastor was directed to return by ship to Hol- 
land. Instead of this he went out of the city and concealed himself with a Lutheran 
fanner during the whole winter, where they supported him at the rate of six guilders 
per week. On the 4th of August last, when we celebrated the Lord's Supper, they 
made a collection among themselves for him. The Fiscal was again directed to ar- 
rest him, and compel him to leave by one of the earliest ships. In the meantime 
the Lutherans came and represented to the Director-General that their preaclier was 
sick at the farmer's, and besought the privilege of bringing him within the place 
for treatment. This was granted him. The Fiscal was at the same time empowered 
to watch over him, and when well again, to send him to Holland. Whether, on hjs 
recovery, he will return or conceal himself again, time must show. We fear it js 
a Btrategem to hold the matter in suspense, and gain more time. We suspect this 
the more, as they have said that they will make us appear in an unfavorable light 
before the Hon. Directors of the West India Company. ..." 




PART OF NEW YOKK CITY,* 1673. Lenox Library. New York City. 




THE LUTHEIIAN CHURCH IN NEW YORK CITY. Lenox Library. New York City. 



• The second view ib an enlargement of u part of the first. "L, " in the 
first, shows where the templnm Lutheranorum, 'temple of the Lutherans," stood. 
It is seen in the center of the second view. 



BAGGE. 41 

had been sent to New Amsterdam by the Lutheran Consistory in 
Amsterdam. He had been called by the Lutherans in New Am- 
sterdam. 

From the baptismal records we learn that Laurens had been 
sponsor August 18, 1656, for Hendrick, the son of Jan Hendrick- 
szen and Grities Barents, who in 1663 are registered as being from 
Bushwick.^* 

It is probable that Laurens Andriessen was sponsor also at 
the baptism of a child of Lubbert Gerritszen, March 16, 1653, 
though another, Laurens Pietersen Norman, may be the person 
meant in the records, which simply give the name Laurence de 
Noorman. 

As to the further doings of Laurens Andriessen, the sources 
give no information. The above mentioned Dutch reformed 
pastors claim that the signers of the Lutheran petition of 1657 
"were the least respectable of the Lutheran denominations," and 
that "the most influential among them were unwilling to trouble 
themselves with it." There were, it is true, many Lutherans in 
New Amsterdam, who did not sign the petition. But the reason 
assigned by Megapolensis and Drisius may be questioned. It is 
a fact, however, that some of the signers were not model church- 
men.^^ 



BERNT BAGGE. 

Bernt Bagge (Bent Bagge, Bert Bagge) was, judging from the 
^name, a Norwegian. His surname was likely Bakke. He was in 
Beverwyck as early as 1664, when he with seven others signed 



44 Compare note 42 with the New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, 
VI., p. 41. 

4.5 Rev. Isaac Jogues, who was in New Netherland from August, 1642. to 
November, 1643. said: "No religion is publicly exercised but the Calvinist, and 
orders are to admit none but Calvinists. but this is not observed, for there are, be- 
sides Calvinists, in the colony Catholics, English Puritans, Lutherans, Anabaptists. 

W. H. Bennett. "Catholic Footsteps in Old New York," p. 33f, relates this 
incident of Rev. Jogues in New Amsterdam: "As he (Jogues) was leaving the fort 
one day. a young man, employed by a merchant of the town, ran to him, fell on his 
knees, seized the mutilated hands, kissed them, and with tears streaming from his 
eyes, cried, 'Martyr of Jesus Christ I Martyr of Jesus Christ 1' The humble priest, 
confused and embarassed by the demonstration, embraced him affectionately, and, 
inquiring if he was a Calvinist, was told that he was a Polisli Lutheran." (July, 
1643). (See also "Relation de Nouvelle France en I'Annee 1643" in Relations des 
Jesuites . . Quebec, 1852.) 

There were Lutherans in Brazil, as early as in the sixteenth century. Quite 
a number were i Curacao in 1648. They were in New Netherland as early as 1630, 
or a little before. In New Sweden, or Delaware, the first Lutherans (Swedes and 
Finns), settled as early as 1639-1640. 



42 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

a petition to the Vice-Director and Commisaries of Fort Orange 
and the village of Beverwyck. The petition reads : 

"Show respectfully the undersigned petitioners, burghers and 
inhabitants of the village of Beverwyck, that they are desirous of 
purchasing [of the Indians] a fine piece of land between Kinder- 
hook and Neutenhook. Whereas the petitioners can no longer 
make a living here in the village, they are obliged to settle with 
their families in the country, to gain their bread with God's help, 
and honorably. The petitioners know well that they cannot do 
this without your Honors' order and consent, and therefore they 
request most earnestly that your Honors will give them permission 
to purchase the land while they promise to be governed by the 
usages of the country like other inhabitants. Awaiting hereupon 
a speedy and favorable answer they remain" etc. 

Bagge signed his name with a mark. 



-^ 



Signature of Bernt Bagge. 

On June 24, 1664, the Court of Beverwyck referred the peti- 
tion to the Director and Council of New Netherland "to dispose 
thereof according to their pleasure." This body granted the peti- 
tion, July 10, 1664. 

In 1669, Bagge was living in Schenectady, where he had a 
house and lot. July 12, 1669 he let this house and lot to Jan 
Rinckhout, a baker, for one year. The rent was to be "nine good 
beavers." 

In 1701 Bernt Bagge's name is found on a list of freeholders 
and inhabitants of the County of Albany who, as Protestants, pe- 
titioned King William III for certain rights. (See New York 
Colonial Documents XIII., pp. 374, 388; IV. p. 939.) 



ANNETJE BARENTS. 

Annetje Barents, wife of Albert Andriessen from Fredrikstad 
in Norway, came over to New Netherland by the ship "Rinselaers 
Wijck," on March 4, 1637. She was accompanied by her husband 
and her first three children, one of whom, Storm, was born on 



BRUYN. 43 

the ship, November 2, 1636, the voyage being a stormy one. See 
the article Albert Andriessen containing facsimile of the log which 
has the entry about the birth of Storm. Annetje settled with her 
husband in the colony of Rensselaerswyck and gave birth to five 
additional children. 

There is a possibility that she was Danish, as Christian Barents 
from Holstein looked after the interests her husband had in New 
Amsterdam, in 1655, the supposition being then that she was a 
sister of Barents. It is probable, however, that she was Nor- 
wegian. Mr. A. J. F. Van Laer, the editor of "Bowier Manu- 
scripts," states that she was from Rolmers. As I was not able to 
locate Rolmers, I communicated with Mr. Van Laer and suggested 
the reading Holmer instead of Rolmers. He kindly replied that 
he too had not been able to locate Rolmers and thinks that the 
reading Holmer is quite likely right. 

Holmer occurs now and then in older writings as the nomina- 
tive form of 'Holme,' not far from Andriessen's original home.**^ 



JACOB BRUYN. 

Jacob Bruyn was born in Norway, probably about 1645. He 
was a ship carpenter. He arrived at New Amsterdam about 1660, 
went later to Ulster County, settling in what is now the town of 
Shawangunk. About 1677 he married Gertrude Esselstein of 
Columbia County. She was the daughter of Jan Willemse Essel- 
stein and Willemtje Jans. She had been baptized in New Amster- 
dam on May 22, 1650. Bruyn died 1684 or 1685, leaving widow 
and three children. The widow soon after married Severyn Ten 
Hout, a Hollander. Of Bruyn's children, Jan was baptized Octo- 
ber 6, 1678, he probably died young. Jacobus was baptized Novem- 
ber 30, 1680, died November 21, 1744. (He married, November 
18, 1704, Tryntie Schoonmaker [baptized November 22, 1684, died 
1763], a daughter of a German, Jochem Hendricksen Schoon- 
maker, and Petronella Sleght.) The third child, Esther (Hester), 
was baptized, February 11, 1683 ; she was married, March 24, 



46 See O. Rygh, Norske Gaardnavne, II., Akershus Amt, 1898, p. 18. Ibid., 
IV., KriBtians Amt, Fjjrste Halvdel. 1900, p. 218. Van Rensselaer Bowier Manu- 
scripts. 



44 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

1706, to Zachariah Hoffman, son of Martin Hoffman, a Swede, 
and Emmertje De Witt. 

Among the descendants of Bruyn can be mentioned Jacobus 
Bruyn, who was born October 27, 1751, and served in the Con- 
tinental army during the Revolutionary War, attaining the rank 
of a lieutenant-colonel ; also Johannes Bruyn who served several 
terms in both branches of the New York state legislature and was 
for many years an associate judge of Ulster County.*' 



HANS CARELSEN. 

Hans Carelsen, or Hans Carelsen Noorman, was from Nor- 
way. He settled in Beverwyck and married Neeltje, a daughter 
of Cornelis Segersen van Vorhoudt (who had come to Beverwyck 
in 1644) and Brechtje Jacobs. Neeltje was, at their arrival, eight 
years of age, the youngest of six children. ^^ 

Carelsen was a fur-trader. An entry under date of August 
6, 1657, shows that he sent down from Albany to New Amsterdam 
2,300 beavers, and in the following month of September 1,100 
beavers.'*" 

In August, 1659, Geertje Hendricks sued him for a balance 
of 12 beavers and fl. 18 in seawan. In his defense Carelsen claimed 
that he had paid her more than what belonged to her, as the other 
half concerned Jacob Coppe, deceased. The contract was then 
produced in court, whereupon Carelsen admitted that he owed the 
sum demanded. He said, however, he could not pay it at present. 
But the court ordered him to pay it if he wanted release from 
arrest. ^'^ 

In October, 1661, he was again engaged in litigation, this time 
sueing Pieter Ryverdinck, who owed him a sum of money for 
freighting goods to Ft. Orange. ^^ 



47 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, an article by Thomas 
G. Evans, XX., pp. 26, 29. 

Gustave Anjou, Records in the Office of the Surrogate, and in the County 
Clerk's office at Kingston, New York, Ulster County Wills, 1906. I., p. 127. 

R.Tndolph Roswell Hoes, Baptismal and ^.larriage Registers of the Old Dutch 
Church of Kingston .... 1891. No. 19. 

See the article "Hoffman." Part TIT. Also "The Hoffman Genealogy" 
(1899), p. 486. 

48 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 833. 

49 J. Munsell, Collections on the History of Albanv, IV., p. 144. 

50 The Records of New Amsterdam 1653-1674, III., p. 31. 

51 Ibid., III., p. 387. 



CAEELSEN. 45 

On April 22, 1662, he signed his name as a witness at the 
conveyance of a yacht. "^^ 

In 1662-1663 he wanted to sell his house near Beverwyck. 
We have an imperfect and unsigned paper stating the condition on 
which he proposed "to sell at a public sale to the highest bidder 
his house and lot lying near the village of Beverwyck by the side 
of the hill on the plain where he at present dwells." ^^ 

On June 7, 1663, his house at Wiltwyck was burnt by 
Indians.^* 

In January, 1664, a carpenter brought suit against Carelsen 
for the amount of twenty-four and a half guilders for wages earned 
on the boat Carelsen was sailing. Though it was shown that the 
plaintiff had run away from his work, the court ordered Carelsen 
to pay the sum sued for.^^' He had engaged the carpenter for a 
year at the rate of 26 gl. per month. 

In 1666 Carelsen was prosecuting a suit against Andries An- 
driessen, either a Swede or a Finn. The Court decided that the 
matter, the particular nature of which we do now know, should 
be adjusted by arbitrators. ^"^ 

In 1667. his wife died.°^ There was poverty in his home. 
The Church records of Albany state that his wife had received aid 
from the deacons. Also after her death the deacons continued to 
aid the home of Carelsen. In December, 1667, and January, 1668, 
the records state that the deacons paid "17 guilders and 10 stivers 
for beer furnished to Hans de Noorman." In November, 1668. it 
is recorded that the deacons furnished "bread to Hans de Noor- 
man. "^^ 

Hans Carelsen remained a widower for about four years. April 
1, 1671, he married, in New Amsterdam, Geertje Teunis, widow 
of Cors Jansen.''^ In April, 1685, she was married to Francisco 
Anthony.^*' Hans Carelsen must have died some time before this. 



52 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 140. 

53 J. Munsell, Collections on the History of Albany, IV., p. 319. 

54 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 247. 

55 The Records of New Amsterdam 1653-1674, V., p. 126. 

56 Ibid., VI., p. 43. 

57 J. Munsell, Collections on the History of Albany, IV., p. 164. 

58 Ibid., I., p. 28f. 

59 The Records of New Amsterdam 1653-1674, VI., p. 634. For other data 
see Collections on the History of Albany, IV., pp. 85, 164, 244, 319. 

60 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
pp. 35, 36. 



46 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 



JAN CARELSZEN. 

Jan Carelszen, whose name as settler in Esopus appears first 
1662, came from Langesund, Norway, eighteen miles from Skien. 
His wife was Helena Hendricks, sometimes called Helena Rusten- 
burg. In 1684 he was a porter or carman in New Amsterdam. 
March 29, in that year, he and fifteen other carmen were dis- 
charged by the common council for refusing to obey certain orders 
and regulations. But on April 6, he and two others were re- 
admitted as carmen on condition of paying a fine of six shillings 
and conforming to the laws. Jan and Helena had several children : 
Carl was baptized April 25, 1677; Lucretia, in 1679; Lucretia, 
January 12, 1681; Henricus, March 11, 1683; Johannes, June 29, 
1684; Petrus, December 11, 1687; Ibel, June 22, 1690. May 
21, 1693 Carelszen and his wife were sponsors at the baptism of 
twins belonging to Charles Peters and Maria Thomas. ^^ 



CARSTEN CARSTENSEN. 

Carsten Carstensen, sometimes called Christen Christensen, 
commonly referred to as Carsten Carstensen Noorman, arrived 
by the "Rensselaerswyck" at New Amsterdam, March 4, 1637. ^^ 
He came from Flekkero in Norway. He is first entered in the 
accounts of Van Rensselaer, the patroon, under the date of April 
17, 1637. The patroon mentions him in a letter of May 13, 
1639, to the superintendent Arent van Curler. He says : "Christen 
Christensen Noorman owes his mate who did not go with him 
fl. 20 for tools sold to him. Let him pay this to you, he will 
thereby pay me there what I have advanced him [his mate] here. 
I believe his name is Barent."^^ Before 1644 Carsten Carstensen 
was employed as a farm laborer, sawyer, stave splitter, mill hand 
and roof thatcher. He seems to have had interests in a saw mill. 



61 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II., 
pp. 127, 145, 157, 163, 183, 197, 214. 

62 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, XIV., p. 75. 

63 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 810. 



CARSTENSEN. 47 

Afterwards he leased a garden, which, in 1650, was granted to 
Gijsbert Cornehsz, from Weesp.^^ 

The sources do not give much information about Carsten 
Carstensen. We find his name in a document in Albany, dated 
August 4, 1663, which he signed as a witness' of a certain trans- 
action.^^ May 7, 1667, he deeded a lot lying behind Fort Albany 
to Claes Teunissen : "length six rods, south breath three rods, east 
a low lot six rods, north the broad breadth three rods." ^^ 

A 

Signature of Carsten Carstensen. 

He was a poor man, as is shown in the Deacon's Account 
Book of the Reformed Church in Albany. This book conveys 
the information that the church furnished in 1668 a year's board 
to a child belonging to Carstensen. The board, it was computed, 
would amount to 32 guilders a month or 384 guilders a year.^^ 

Under "Disbursements for the poor," in 1665, the Deacon's 
Account Book shows the following entries concerning the affairs 
of Carstensen: 

2 schepel wheat 13. 

In money, and 3 lbs. soap @ 1 gl. a lb., 

together 7.14 

Paid for barley for Karsten Noorman 10. 

2 schepels corn from Jan Bac 10. 

2 schepels wheat 13. 

In money 3. 

Karsten Noorman, in money 6. 

20 yards linnen [no price] 

Cash 6. 

"Lenne Roberts was engaged to nurse the child 
of Karsten Noorman for one year for 35 
guilders a month, on condition that if the 
child dies, she should have to pay for the 
whole [month] in which it might die." 



April 


22. 




do. 


April 


27. 


May 


13. 


May 


14. 


July 


29. 


Augu 


[St 


(< 


3. 


Sept. 


3. 


Sept. 


27. 



64 Ibid., p. 442. 

65 J. Munsell, Collections on the History of Albany, IV., p. 329. 

66 Ibid., IV., p. 423. 

67 Ibid., I., p. 3. 






















BERGEN, NORWAY, ABOUT THB 'i\ ( 
From Braunius: li: 




EOF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY, 
ai urbium, iv. 



See i>.S4. 



.50 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Receipts: 
Nov. 22. 4 lbs. butter from David Scuyler 7. 

Disbursements: 
Nov. 27. To Lenne Roberts for one month's nursing of 

Carsten Noorman's child 

Receipts: 
Dec. 10. To Karsten for Wood cutting 1 and % days 
and digging post holes for the church yard 
fence 8.15 

Dec. 15. 2 Linnen diapers from Karsten Noorman 

Disbursements: 
Dec. 15. To small boy of Jan Toms ^^ living with Car- 
sten Noorman, 1 and % yards kersey, re- 
ceived of Gabriel 12. 
Dec. 29. Sold to Karsten Noorman's wife a petticoat 
1666 
August Margary Deckers was paid 15 gulden for 3 and 
% ells blue linnen for aprons and wrappers 
for Carsten Noorman's children. 

In February, 1667, the children of Carsten Noorman are again 
mentioned as recipients of charity. In September, 1668, 96 gulden 
were given to Gerret Jansen Stavast and Guert Hendricksen for 
the "maintenance of Karsten Norman's children, the remainder 
33g. 18 should go to Hans de Norman." In November, 1671, the 
deacons again gave "40 gulden for a month's board for the child 
of Carsten Noorman." In April, 1672, the following entry is 
made in the Deacon's Account Book : "The recipients of alms this 
month were Johann Dyckman, Jacob Aertsen and Karsten de 
Noorman (2 .shirts, 24g.) ^^ 

Carsten Carstensen died in 1679 in Albany. He left two 
children, Teunis, aged nineteen years, and Elizabeth, aged fourteen. 
Teunis settled in Schenectady, where he married Maritie, the 
daughter of Pieter Jacobse Borsbom. he died in 1691. ''<> 



68 Should probably be: Noorman's son living with Jan Toms. 

69 Collections on the History of Albany, IV., 26, 27. 

70 .Jonathan Pearson, A History of The Schenectady Patent, p. 101. A lot 
conveyed in Schenectady, June 23, 1671, by Ludwig Cobes to Christiaen Christianse, 
does not enter into consideration here, as it is probably the Dane, Chrietgen Chris- 
tians, who is meant, and not the Norwegian. See article Chrietgen Christians in 
Part II. Torstein Jahr in "Symra," V., 2, p. 72, makes the statement that the 
wife of Carstensen accompanied him on his voyage from Norway, 1637. I have not 
been able to verify it by the revised list of immigrants. 



CAESTENSEN. 51 



CLAES CARSTENSEN. 

Claes Carstensen was one of the early settlers in New Nether- 
land. He was born in Norway about the year 1607. His home 
was Sande. In the Dutch Records in the City Clerk's Office, New 
York, it is stated under date of May 11, 1657, that "Claes Carsten- 
sen of Sant in Norway, fifty years old" and two others gave testi- 
mony relative to the children of a certain Jan Corn. . . of Rotter- 
dam.'^ ^ It would appear that Carstensen came to New Netherland 
about 1641, though he may have been there much earlier, as he 
had command of the Indian language and was employed as inter- 
preter between the whites and the Indians on August 30, 1645, 
when the Dutch and the River-Indians concluded their articles of 
peace at the general gathering upon Schreyer's Hoek, south of 
the fort. La Montague was present at the occasion. Carstensen 
was one of those who signed the articles of treaty. ''2 Thirteen 
years later, in 1658, he was appointed Indian interpreter to the 
Algonquins.'^^ 

On August 21, 1642, we find him making a declaration that 
"he was thrown out of a boat on his way to the ship yard." '* 
In 1643 he was along signing the resolution adopted by the Com- 
monality of Manhattan.'^ ^ 

On September 5, 1645, when he was doing service as a soldier, 
he acquired 29 morgens, about 60 acres, of land on Long Island, 
behind the land of John Forbus, a Swede, to whom he later sold 
it.^® It was on the East River and Norman's Kill (Williamsburgh). 

On April 15, 1646, Carstensen married Hilletje Hendricks.'^ 

On March 25, 1647, he acquired 50 morgens of land on the 
west side of the North River, next to Dirck Straatemakers. It 
had formerly belonged to Barent Jansen.'^^ Carstensen sold it the 
same year to Jan Vinje, a Walloon. In 1667 it became the property 



71 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 113. 

72 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 18. J. Riker, Harlem, Its 
Origin and Early Annals, p. 145. 

73 The Register of New Netherland, 1624-1674, (compiled by E. B. O'Cal- 
laghan, Albany, 1865), p. 133. 

74 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 19. 

75 New York Colonial Documents, I., p. 193. 

76 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 126. Teunis 
Bergen, Register .... of Early Settlers of King's County, 1881, p. 59. 

77 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 36. She is once 
called Hilletje Noorman. This, however, is no proof that she was a Norwegian. 

78 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 374. 



52 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

of a Dane, Laurens Andriessen."" The groundbrief of March 25, 
1647, reads as follows : "Patent to Claes Carstensen of a piece 
of land in New Jersey, formerly granted to Barent Jansen deceased 
. . . situated on the West side of the North River next to Dirck the 
Streetpaver's land, stretching from a wood on the N. N.W. along 
a small kil to the river on the S. S.E. along the valley to the 
Paver's land, N.E. by E. of the Paver's kil, the wood N. N.W. all 
covering fifty morgens, . . ."'^^ 

On May 3, 1649, he acquired a lot in New Amsterdam.-^ The 
lot was about thirty-seven English feet wide, fronting to Hoogh 
Straet, or High Street, now 31-35 High Street. *2 

On July 28, 1653, he deeded to Burgher Joris. 29 morgens, 
553 rods of land on Long Island, on the river side in the rear of 
Jan the Swede (Forbus). It was a part of Newtown.'*^ On 
October 15, in the same year, he deeded a house and lot, on 
Brouwer Street in New Amsterdam, to Jan Nagel.^'* 

In 1663 he served as a corporal. In October, 1655, he gave 
fl. 10 as a voluntary contribution and taxation to the city, follow- 
ing the example of many others.**^ 

On April 13, 1657, he was admitted to the small burgher's 
rights. 

Carstensen had his lawsuits, like many other citizens in New 
Netherland. On April 13, 1660, he was to prosecute a suit against 
one Goodman Bets. But both parties were in default.*^ On De- 
cember 13, 1661, he was to prosecute a suit against Fredrik Aarzen 
(often called the Spaniard). Again the litigants were in default. ^^ 



^ 



Signature of Claes Carstensen. 



On January 3, 1662, Carstensen appeared in court as a wit- 
ness in the case of Jacobus Vis against Geertje Teunis, who in self- 
defense claimed that Jacobus had used very abusive language 



79 New Jersey Archives. First Series, XXI., p. 2. See article LaurenB 
Andriessen, Part II. 

80 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 21. 

81 E. B. O'Callaphan, History of New Netherland, II., p. 586. 

82 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, 1902, pp. 80 (map), 261. 

83 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 378. 

84 Ibid., I., p. 379. 

85 The Records of New Amsterdam. 1653-1674, I., p. 370. 

86 Ibid., III., p. 153. 

87 Ibid., III., p. 424. 



CAESTENSEN. 53 

against her. Carstensen testified that he had heard words, but 
could not say as to whether they were abusive or not.^^ 

Under date of June 1, 1662, we note that Claes Carstensea 
Noorman of New Amsterdam acknowledged that he owed 
Nicholas De Meyer, from Hamburg, 121 guilders, 11 stivers, 
money advanced to the wife of a Carl Jansen.*^ 

On October 1, in the same year, Carstensen sued Gerrit 
Hendricksen van Harderwyck, demanding that Hendricksen should 
be condemned to pay fifty guilders, "which he has undertaken to 
pay Hendrick Hendricksen Smitt for him." Gerrit Hendricksen 
admitted that he "had accepted the fifty guilders to pay Smitt for 
him," whereupon he was condemned by the Court to satisfy and 
pay the debt." ^^ 

On October 13, 1662. Claes Carstensen deeded to Albert Con- 
inck : "The just half of his house and lot in company with Jan 
Barentsen Kunst (a German), situate north of the Hoogh Straat ; 
bounded west by brewery of Jacob Van Couwenhoven ; north, by 
the Steegh (South William Street) ; east, by house and lot of 
Asser Levy ; and south, by the Hoogh Straat, aforesaid. Broad, 
in front, on the street, 1 rod 9 feet 1 inch ; in the rear, 1 rod 3 feet 
8 inches ; and on the east side, 7 rods 8 feet, with a free drop on 
the east side of 8 inches. (Valentine, Manual of the city of New 
York, 1865, p. 696.) 

On January 1, 1663, Carstensen joined the Dutch Reformed 
Church. This Church took care of him in his old age. 

On April 29, 1671, he was granted a small house lot to use 
during his life time, but without the right of succession. "He 
had seen better days," as the historian of Harlem, J. Riker, 
touchingly adds.®^ 

On November 6, 1679, Carstensen died at the house of Jo- 
hannes Vermelje. "He had been for some time in needy circum- 
stances and was aided by the Deacons, having been a church mem- 
ber for many years. The deacons Arent Herman and Jan Nagel 
took an inventory of his efifects found in his house. These were 
sold on November 10, 1679, at public vendue for 266 gulden 16 
stivers, for the benefit of the deaconery." It would thus appear 
that he left no relatives. 



88 Ibid., IV., p. 3. 

89 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 142. 

90 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, IV., p. 155. Cf. pp. 193, 
220. 221. 

91 J. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, p. 273. 



54 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 



CLAES CLAESEN. 

Claes Claesen, from Flekkero, near Christiansand, Norway, 
sailed by "de Eendracht" on March 21, 1630, from Texel, and ar- 
rived on May 24, 1630, at New Amsterdam. He served as farm 
hand on de Laets Burg with two Norwegians, Roelof Jansen of 
Marstrand, and Jakob Goyversen of Flekkero.®^ After 1634 Claes 
Claesen's name does not appear in the records of the colony of 
Rensselaerswyck. Kiliaen van Rensselaer had written to Director 
Wouter Van Twiller, April 25, 1634, mentioning Claes Claesen as 
a person in whose judgment he had confidence. He says: 

"Please take charge of my grain raised in my colony for 
which Jacob Planck has no use, and deliver it to the Company. 
I hope, however, that he will be able to use it all for brandy- 
making and beer-brewing, if he only understands his business. I 
have had him examined by Claes Claesen." "^ 

There were several persons in New Netherland by the name 
of Claes Claesen ; e. g., Claes Claesen Bording, a Dane. We can 
not state whether Claesen from Flekkero is the one referred to in 
a Patent of June 29, 1664, granting to "Claes Claesen 24 morgens 
of upland, 3 morgens, 160 rods of valley, numbered 11, at New 
Utrecht, Long Island." ®^ A person by his name acting as sponsor 
at the baptism of a child belonging to Barent Janszen, March 20, 
1650, in New Netherland, is likely Claes Claesen Bording.®^ One 
Claes Claesen was from Ravox. 



FREDERIK CLAESEN. 

Frederik Claesen arrived in New Netherland in 1663 by the 
ship "de Rooseboom," which sailed March 15, 1663. It had 
seventy-five passengers on board and was commanded by Captain 



92 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, pp. 805, 222, 308. (See articles 
Boelof Jansen, Jakob Goyversen.) 

93 Ibid., p. 282. 

94 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 386. 

95 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II., 
p. 27. 



DIRCKSEN. 55 

Pieter Reyersz van Beets. In the passenger list, the words "from 
Norway" are appended to the name of Frederik Claesen.^^ 



HARMEN DIRCKSEN. 

Harmen Dircksen, from Norway, arrived at New Amsterdam 
in 1659 by the ship "de Bruynvis" (Brownfish). He was accom- 
panied by his wife and his child, four years old. The ship sailed 
June 19, 1659, and was commanded by Captain Cornelis Maert- 
sen.*'^ 

It is perhaps this Harmen Dircksen that is meant in the fol- 
lowing data obtained from the records of Esopus. 

In proceedings and sentences of the court held in Esopus 
April 25, 26, 27, 1667, resulting from complaints of inhabitants in 
Esopus against violences committed by the soldiers and illtreatment 
from Capt. Brodhead, it was shown that Harmen Dircksen was 
wounded in his leg by Richard Cugge, in so much "that he is lame 
unto the present day," "and that only because his goats where 
eaten by the soldiers." ^^ His wife was taken to prison by Capt. 
Brodhead, who had thrown a glass of beer in her face, called her 
many bad names, and carried her to the Guard a prisoner. Brod- 
head owned this, but said that Harmen's wife had called his sister 
a whore, hence the quarrel.®'' 



MRS. HARMEN DIRCKSEN. 

Mrs. Harmen Dircksen, from Norway, arrived at New Am- 
sterdam, June 19, 1659. She was accompanied by her husband 
and her four years old child. She was living at Esopus in 1666, 
when, as stated in the previous article, Capt. Brodhead threw a 
glass of beer in her face. He gave as reason for this singular 
demonstration of gallantry that she had called his sister names. 
See article "Harmen Dircksen." 



96 List of passengers in Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 
1902. 

97 Ibid., 1902. 

98 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 98. 

99 Ibid., p. 99. A Harmen Dircksen is referred to as early as 1639. Sef 
Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 67. 



56 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 



JACOB GOYVERSEN. 

Jacob Goyversen, or Goyverttsen (Govertsen), was from 
Flekkero in Norway. He left Texel, March 21, 1630, by the ship 
"de Eendracht" and arrived at New Amsterdam May 24, 1630. 
He was accompanied by two Norwegians, Roelof Jansen from 
Marstrand and Claes Claesen from Flekkero, with whom he also 
worked on de Laets Burg, in the service of Kiliaen van Rensse- 
laer, loo 

His name appears after his demise in the court minutes. He 
had given Anneke Jans, the wife of Roelof Jansen, his countryman, 
some dressgoods. He had bought it of Marijn Andriesen. But 
as he had not paid for it, Andriesen sued Anneke's second husband 
the Reverend Bogardus, claiming that Govertsen had no right tc 
donate things he had not paid for and that the recipient of such 
unpaid gifts was obliged to pay for them. The court settled the 
matter by deciding that the money claimed by Andriesen should 
be paid from the inheritance left by Govertsen. 



ARENT ELDERTSZEN GROEN. 

Arent Eldertszen Groen is entered in the church records of the 
Dutch Reformed Church in New Amsterdam as being a widower 
from 'Stalange' (Stavanger), in Norway. He married, July 26, 
1665, in New Amsterdam, Jannetje Willems van der Bosch (from 
the bush).i«i 



HANS HANSEN. 

Hans Hansen, from Bergen, Norway, is the common ancestor 
of the Bergen family of Long Island, New Jersey and their 
vicinity. He was a ship carpenter by trade, went from Norway 
to Holland, and thence, in 1633, to New Amsterdam. In the 



100 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 222, 308, 805. 

101 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 147. 



HANSEN. 57 

records his name appears in various forms most commonly Hans 
Hansen Noorman, Hans Hansen Boer. 

He is one of the exceptions among the Norwegian settlers in 
New Amsterdam in so far that he has been mentioned frequently 
in Norwegian-American books and papers as being a Norwegian, 
and that an entire book has been written about him and his 
descendants (Teunis G. Bergen, Descendants of Hans Hansen 
Bergen, one of the early settlers of New York, with notes on other 
Long Island families. New York, 1866; enlarged edition, 1876). 

The assertion which has sometimes been made that Hans 
Hansen was at the head of an expedition of Dutch and Norwegians 
who crossed the Hudson, and settled where the present Jersey City 
is, is false. It has also been asserted that Bergen i New Jersey 
was called after Hans Hansen Bergen. But this statement is 
equally false. For Bergen in New Jersey was named after Bergen 
op Zoom (there is a Bergen in Holland and in Germany as well as 
in Norway). Hans Hansen had no property on the west of the 
Hudson where Bergen lay.^'^^ Bergen in New Jersey was founded 
after his death. 

Hans Hansen married, in 1639, in New Amsterdam, Sarah, 
daughter of Joris Jansen Rapalje of Walloon ancestry. She was 
born June 9, 1625, at Albany, and was probably the first female 
child born of European parentage in the colony of New Nether- 
land. 

Many children were born to Hans and Sarah. The records of 
the Dutch Reformed church in New Amsterdam state when they 
were baptized and who acted as their sponsors. The children were : 
Anneken, baptized July 22, 1640; Brecktje, baptized July 27, 1642; 
Jan, baptized April 17, 1644, one of the sponsors being the Nor- 
wegian woman from Marstrand, Anneke Jans, at that time the 
wife of the Dutch pastor in New Amsterdam, Rev. Bogardus ;^'** 
Michiel, baptized November 4, 1646, one of whose sponsors was 
Pieter Jansen Noorman, a Norwegian ; ^°* Joris, baptized July 18, 
1649 ; Marretje, baptized October 8, 1651 ; Jacob, baptized Sep- 
tember 21, 1653 ; Catalyn, a twin with Jacob, baptized November 
30, 1653.10^ 



102 J. O. Evjen, Nordmaend i Amerika i det 17de Aarhttndrede, in "Folke 
bladet" (Minneapolis), Feb. 2, 1910. 

103 See article "Anneke Jans." Part I. 

104 See article "Pieter Jansen." Part I. 

105 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II. 
(Baptisms). Teunis G. Bergen, Register .... of the early settlers of Kings County 
in Long Island .... to 1700. 



58 NORWEGIAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

Hans Hansen, we find, acted as sponsor for the child of a 
Norwegian, Laurens Pietersen Noorman, June 1, 1642. 

In July, 1638, the following agreement for the cultivation of 
a tobacco plantation on Manhattan Island was made between An- 
dries Hudde and Hans Hansen Norman : 

"Conditions and stipulations agreed to between Andries 
Hudde and Hans Hansen Norman, on the ninth day of July, Anno 
1638, as follows : 

"First, the said Andries Hudde shall by first opportunity of 
ships from Holland send hither to Hans Hansen aforesaid six or 
eight persons with implements required for the cultivation of to- 
bacco. 

"Hans Hansen shall be bound to place the said persons upon 
the fiatland on the Island of the Manhates behind the Corlears 
land. 

"Hudde shall bear the expense of the transportation and of 
engaging them and shall send the vouchers for these expenses with 
them. 

"Hans Hansen shall also be bound to furnish as many dwel- 
lings and tobacco houses, as the time may permit ; further to put 
to work the persons, who shall come from the Fatherland, for 
the profit of both of them. Hans Hansen shall also have authority 
over them in Hudde's absence without interference by anybody 
else. He shall further bear and repay one half of the expenses, 
incurred by said Hudde. In like manner he must provide such 
supply of victuals, as shall be necessary for so many persons, on 
condition that Andries Hudde shall likewise repay one half of the 
expenses incurred here by Hans Hansen. 

"Mons. Hudde shall also be bound to pay Hans Hansen for 
his industry whatever impartial men shall deem to be just. 

"Likewise Hudde shall not be allowed to demand from said 
Hans Hansen any rent for the land, but shall assist in every way 
with the means, which he has here, if he does not require them 
and is not prevented and all this until Hudde's return, when further 
arrangements shall be made. For what is above written, parties 
pledge their persons and property real and personal, present and 
future submitting to the Provincial Court of Holland and all other 
Courts, Judges and Justices, all in good faith without reservation 
or deceit. 



HANSEN. 59 

"Thus done at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland, the 10th 
of July Anno 1638. 
"A. Hudde. 
"This is the mark 



H X 



Signatures of Hans Hansen. 

aforesaid." ^^^ 



Under date of July 18, 1638, Hans Hansen gave power of 
attorney to Wouter van Twiller, the Director of New Netherland. 

On March 13, 1647, he acquired a lot south of Fort Am- 
sterdam "between Jan Snedeker and Joris Rapalje," that is, next 
to his father-in-law. On March 30, in the same year, he acquired 
land on Long Island "on the kill of Joris Rapalyey bounded by 
Lambert Huybertsen's, Jan the Swede's plantation and by Mespath 
Kill as far as Dirck Volkertsen." ^^'^ This was at the head of the 
Kill of Mespath (Indian name for Newton), or Newton Creek, 
in a section called by the Dutch "t Kreuppelbosch," now corrupted 
Cripple Bush. The grant amounted to 400 acres. ^''^ 

Hans Hansen was a respectable citizen, and this was stated 
as the cause for his being acquitted when found guilty of smug- 
gling in 1648. The records say (May 26, 1648): "Pardon of 
Hans Hansen, for fourteen years a respectable resident in New 
Amsterdam, on a charge of having aided in smuggling, on condition 
that he beg pardon of God and the court." ^^^ 

He died probably early in 1654. His widow later became the 
wife of Teunis Gysbert Bogert. In 1656, in a petition asking for 
a grant of land, she described herself as the first born Christian 
daughter in New Netherland. 

Hans Hansen as well as his wife and her parents never 
learned to write, signing their names with marks, as the great 
majority of the inhabitants of New Amsterdam did. 



106 New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 11. 

107 See articles "Dirck Holgersen," Part I., and "Jan Forbus, " Part III. 

108 J. Riker, Annals of Newton, 1852. 

109 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 17. 



60 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 



ANNEKEN HENDRICKS. 

Anneken Hendricks, from Bergen, in Norway, was in New 
Amsterdam before 1650. She was the first wife of Jan Arentszen 
(Aertsen) Van der Bilt (Bilt = hill), the ancestor of the Vander- 
bilts. He married her in New Amsterdam, February 6, 1650. The 
church records state that Anneke was from Bergen, Norway.^^" 
Her husband came from the province of Utrecht, Holland. 

In 1653 Anneken figured in a lawsuit. Matevis Vos, curator, 
brought suit against her for the payment of 24 fl. 18 stivers book 
debts. Jan appeared for his wife. Since he was in doubt as to 
whether she had not already paid, the court condemned the defend- 
ant to pay within a month or prove the debt had been paid March 
10, 1653.111 

Anneke and Jan had three children, Gerritje. Marritje, and 
Aert. Gerritje was baptized December 4, 1650; Marritje, Decem- 
ber 3, 1651; Aert, April 20, 1651. Aert married. Gerritje or 
Gieritje was married to Jan Spiegelar, Marritje was married to 
Rem Remsen. Thus there is Norwegian blood both in the Vander- 
bilt and the Remsen family. 

Marritje was quite early remembered in a will, what is seen 
from the account in the Records of New Amsterdam 1653 — 1674, 
VI., p. 110, under date of Septemer 27, 1659: "Whereas Jacob 
Coppe has died and there has been found among his papers and 
property here a testament, made December 14, 1653, before Notary 
D. van Schelluyne and witnesses, in favor of Lysbett Cornelis, 
daughter of Cornelis Aarsen, and Merritje Jans, daughter of Jan 
van der Bilt, naming them both heiresses of his estate. Therefore 
the orphanmasters have resolved to appoint administrators of said 
estate, so that the heiresses may come to their own, and they have 
elected and authorized, as they hereby do, Timotheus de Gabry and 
Isaaq Kip, who are directed to make as soon as possible a complete 
inventory of all the goods and property left by Jan Coppe, his debts 
and credits here in the country, as well as in this place as else- 
where, and to report the same to the Orphans Court, to be then 
disposed of, as shall be deemed advisable." 

After the death of Anneke, Jan married Dierber Cornelis. 



11(J The New York Genealogical and Biogrraphical Record, VI., p. 38. 
Ill The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 63. 



HAES. 61 

And after the death of the latter, he married, on November 13, 
1681, Maddaleentje Hanse. 

Jan Aertsen van der Bilt had also a son named Jacob, who 
on August 13, 1687 married Maritje Van der Vliet (of the stream). 
I cannot say whether Jacob was born in the first or the second 
marriage of Jan. Jacob and Maritje had a son, also named 
Jacob, who was born in 1692, and married Neeltje (Cornelia) 
Denyson. In 1718 "the last named Jacob purchased a farm on 
Staten Island and moved thither from Flatbush, Long Island. 
From him descended the famous 'Commodore'. ^^2 



^ 



Signature of Aertse Vanderbilt, 1661, husband of Anneken Hendricks. 

Jan Aertsen van der Bilt signed his name with marks. His 
mark "resembles a window sash — with four panes of glass." He 
died in 1705. 



ROELOF JANSEN HAES. 

Roelof Jansen Haes, or Roelof de Haes, was, according to 
the Records of the Dutch Reformed Church in New Amsterdam, 
a native of Norway. He married, April 19, 1643, in New Am- 
sterdam, Gertruyd Jacobs, of Emmenes, widow of Gerrt Janszen.^^-^ 
He was then twenty years old, according to his own testimony. ^^^ 
A few days previous to this marriage, Gertruyd Jacobs arranged 
what portion of their father's estate should go to the children she 
had by Gerrt Janszen. In making this settlement she announced 
that she intended to marry "Roelof Jansen Haes of Norway." ^^'^ 

On July 6, 1643, Haes was granted a lot on the south end 
of the valley (of the West India Company), northeast of the 



112 New Jersey Archives, First Series, vol. XXII., p. 563; Cornelius B. Har- 
vey, Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen Counties, 1900, p. 308. T. Ber- 
gen, Register .... of Settlers of Kings County. 

113 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 35. 

114 New York Colonial Documents, XII., p. 17. 

115 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 22. "Norske Rigs-Registran- 
ter." Vo. VIII., 1641-1648, refers to a Hans Haase (Hass, Haess) as citizen of 
Bergen, Norway. 



62 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

fort, "containing 18 rods, 9 feet." ^^ On February 19, 1647, he 
obtained an addition to it.^^^ 

On November 3, 1643, he and Pieter Kock, a Dane, made 
a declaration that the colony of Achter Col had been destroyed 
by Indians, who were swarming in that district, burning and slay- 
ing whatever they could come across.^^^ 

On January 28, 1644, he made a declaration as to a debt 
claimed by Benedict Hendricks from Burger Joris.^^^ On June 
18, 1649, he made an assignment, to Commissary Keyser, of this 
claim against Burger Joris for 1000 guilders.^-*' 

On February 1, 1646, he obtained a lot northeast of Fort 
Amsterdam, on the road opposite the lots of Andries Hudde and 
Martin Crieger.^^^ 

He secured a lot in Water Street, at present No. 27 Pearl 
Street, and built a little house, the picture of which is given in 
a view of the "Marckveldt and't Water" (1652), which is enlarged 
in the illustrations facing page 58 of Innes' "New Amsterdam 
and Its People." This lot was not large, as Haes's groundbrief, 
obtained on May 11, 1646, shows. It is "both on the south side 
and the north side, one rod, seven feet, Rhineland measure, 
wide," — that is about twenty English feet. Haes's neighbor was 
the German physician, from Magdeburg, Hans Kierstede, son-in- 
law of the Norwegian woman Anneke Jans.^^^ 

Haes sold this lot, 1653, to Cornells van Steenwyck, a 
merchant, who probably had his store on it. 

On April 11, 1647, Governor Stuyvesant appointed Haes Re- 
ceiver-General of excises, ^^^ thus showing he had confidence in 
him, what is also noticed in the following letter, of the directors 
in Holland, to Stuyvesant, dated January 27, 1649 : 

"Your Honor's appointment of Roeloff Jansen as Receiver- 
General at a yearly salary of 480 fl. without rations induces us 
to believe, that you must have a good knowledge of his honesty ; 



116 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1901, p. 125. 

117 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 367. 

118 Ibid., p. 25. New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 16. See article 
Kock. Part II. 

119 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 26. 

120 Ibid., I., p. 39. 

121 Ibid., I., p. 370. 

122 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, VII., p. 56. 

123 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 108. 











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A. The Hnisting (_'r:nie. B. Southeast Bastion ot loit \msterdani. C. White 
Horse Tavern. D. House, late of Dominie Bogardus \\lio man led Anneke Jans, a 
Norwegian woman. E. Old Store-Ho\ise of West India Co. F. The "P^ive Stone 
Houses" of West India Co. G. Brewery of West India Co. H. House of Cornelis 
Pietersen. I. Hoase of Pieter van Cuiwenhoven. .T. House of Jan Jansen Schep- 
moes. K. House of Gillis Pietersen. L. House of Eghbert von Bnrsum. M. House 
of Pieter Cornelissen van der Veen. X. House of Lambert van Valkenburgh, Ger- 
man, (). Schregers Hoek or Capoke. P. House of Hans Kiersted. who married Sara 
Rolieffen, a Norwe,s;ian woman. Q. Eoelof Jansen Haes. a Norwegian. R. Pieter 
Cornelissen. S. Paulus Leendertsen van der Grift. T. New Store-House of West 
India C ). V. Augustyn Herrman, German. V. Jacob Haes, husband of Christina 
Capoen Holgersen. Norwegian. W. Old Church and Lane. 



HAES. 63 

on that understanding we approve of it herewith, although in our 
straitened circumstances all possible retrenchments should be made 
for which reason we have here discharged all subaltern officers, 
and we believe from information received, that there are more 
than enough officers; all unnecessary officers should therefore be 
discharged, we cannot afford to keep them." ^^4 

In a letter of April 26, 1651, from Johan le Thor and Isaac 
van Beeck, in Amsterdam, to Governor Stuyvesant, it is stated 
that "Secretary Cornelis van Tienhoven had reported to them that 
Stuyvesant had appointed him receiver in the place of Haes." ^^^ 

On August 6, 1649, Cornelis Coenrattsen, skipper, gave 
Power of Attorney to Claes Jansen Ruyter, to receive from Roelof 
Jansen de Haes the sum of 360 guilders.^^e 

On March 20, 1651, Haes gave a mortgage to Hendrick van 
Dyck in his house and lot in New Amsterdam, situate east of 
William Beckman.127 q^ September 9, in the same year, he gave 
a mortgage in his house to Jan Jansen from Goteborg, Swe- 
den. ^^s Olof Stevensen van Cortland acted as his agent. 

Roelof Jansen Haes was at the time residing at Fort Naussau. 
For we know that on July 9, 1651, he, Andries Hudde, Jan Andries, 
and Pieter Harmensen, "all four free inhabitants and traders on 
the river, residing at Fort Naussau have been witnesses for the 
Director-General of a treaty between the Director-General and the 
Sachens Indians." ^^^ 

On December 10, 1654, Haes secured twenty-five morgens of 
land.130 

He must have died shortly afterward. For in July, 1656, 
his widow and Jacob Crabbe, a native of Amsterdam, gave notice 
that they desired to enter into matrimony. On July 27 "appears 
Geertruyt Jacops widow of the late Mr. Roeloff de Haes. now 
betrothed to Jacob Crabbe and declares her intention of proving 
and assigning their father's inheritance to the children, left by him, 
Mr. de Haes, and born in wedlock by her, Geertruy Jacops, to wit. 



124 New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 107. 

125 Ibid., XIV., p. 140. 

126 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 47. 

127 Ibid., I., p. 52. 

128 Ibid., I., p. 55. 

129 New York Colonial Documents, I., pp. 596, 599. 

130 E. B. O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, II., 589. 



64 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Joannes de Haes, aged about 10 years, Marrietje de Haes, aged 
about 9 years, Annitje about 3 years, and assigns herewith to each 
of the aforesaid children the sum of six carolus guilders, declaring 
at the same time upon her conscience, in place of an oath, that 
she, affiant, hereby satisfies the aforesaid children out of their 
father's inheritance, and this declaration is made in presence and 
with the consent of her affianced husband Jacobus Crabbe. . . ."^^^ 

By the 23d of October, 1656, the widow of Haes had become 
the w^ife of Jacob Crabbe, for on that day Crabbe appeared in 
court "as her husband and guardian," demanding a payment of 
fl. 125.11 from Teunis Tomassen, a mason. The books of Haes 
showed that Tomassen was indebted to Haes for this sum.^^^ 

Of Roelof Jansen Haes's children, Johannes became quite 
prominent. Gertrud was married to John Crocke [Kreek], and 
became a member of the Dutch Reformed Church in 1679. She 
lived on South William Street. A skipper contemporary with 
Roelof in New Amsterdam, Jan or Jacob Haes by name, was no 
relative of Roelof. He was probably not a Scandinavian : his 
name was often spelled Huys. 



HERMAN HENDRICKSEN (ROSENKRANZ). 

Herman Hendricksen (Rosenkranz) was from Bergen, Nor- 
way. It is not known when he came to New Amsterdam, wher*^ 
he, on March 3, 1657, married Magdalene Dircks (Madalena Dirx), 
widow of Cornelius Caper, or Cornelius Hendricksen from Dort. 

She had been married to her first husband on October 24, 
1652.^^^ At her marriage with Herman she had a minor child 
named Mara Cornelis, for whom she set apart 500 guilders, mort- 
gaging her house and lot at New Amsterdam, next to Evert Duyck- 
ingh's.^3^ She had become a widow in 1655, and as her deceased 
husband had no relations in New Netherland, and Jan Vinje was 
related to her, she requested, on November 9, 1655, the orphan- 



131 New York Colonial Documents, XII.. p. 149. Marritje or Maryken was 
baptized May 13, 1646. Her sponsors were the Director-General, W. Kieft, and 
Anneken Loockerman. Arnoldus was baptized March 14, 1649. He probably died 
before 1656. 

132 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1635-1674, II., p. 196. 

133 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Report, VI., p. 85. 

134 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 162. 



HENDEICKSEN. 65 

masters that Jan Vinje and Hendrick Kip be appointed guardians 
for the child. The request was granted, but Vinje refused to 
serve. A week later the orphan-masters appointed as guardians 
of her child Abraham Verplanck and Andries de Haas.^^^ 

Only a few days after the wedding of Herman and Magdalena, 
the court records of New Amsterdam registered the following: 

[March 15, 1657] "The Scout N: de Silla, pltf. vjs Madaleen 
Dirckx and her bridegroom, defts. The pltf. says that the defts. 
have presumed to insult the Firewardens of this City on the pub- 
lic highway, and to make a street riot, according to the complaint 
made to his Worship. Requesting for the maintenance of the 
aforesaid gentlemen's quality that the petitioners [ ?] be publicly 
punished or fined as their W. shall think proper. Deft. Madaleen 
Dircx appears alone in Court ; admits, that she and her sister 
passed by the door of the Firewarden Litschoe. and as they always 
joked, when the Firewarden came to their house, she said : — 
'there is the chimney sweep in the door, his chimney is well swept, 
and not another word was said about it.' And as such cannot, 
and ought not to be tolerated on account of its bad consequences, 
the Burgomasters condemn, as they do hereby, the abovenamed 
Madaleen Dircx in a fine of two pounds Flemish, to be applied, 
one half for the Church and one half for the Poor, and notify 
her at the same time to avoid all such and similar faults, or in 
default thereof other disposition shall be made. Done in Court 
at the City Hall at Amsterdam in N. Netherland." ^^e 

On August 13, 1657, "Herman Hendricksen conveyed to 
Joost Goderus a house and lot between Evert Duyckingh and 
Myndert Barents ; width on the street 2 rods and 7 feet, and in 
the rear 1 rod, 8 feet. Depth on the east, 8 rods, and on the 
west 8 rods, 4 feet, being premises patented to Adrian Dircksen 
Coen, October, 1655." ^^^ This seems to have been the house Her- 
man got by his marriage. It was situated at the present South 
William Street. 

On November 12, 1658, Herman received the small burgher's 



135 Ibid., p. 112. Jan Vinje was not, as has been supposed, a Scandinavian. 

136 Tlie Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, VII., p. 146. 

137 D. T. Valentine, Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York, 
1861, p. 594. 



66 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

right in New Amsterdam, for which he signed an obligation to 
pay to the treasurer twenty gulden in beavers within eight days.^*" 

On April 12, 1659, he had his child, Alexander, baptized in 
the Dutch Reformed Church at New Amsterdam. The sponsors 
were Barent Gerritsen and Sarah Dircx, referred to above as the 
sister of Magdalene.^^® 

After the birth of this child the parents seem to have moved 
to Esopus. On September 29, 1659, Herman Hendricksen escaped 
from the Indians at Esopuspby whom he had been kept a prisoner. 
On regaining his liberty he informed Ensign Dirck Smith of their 
strength. i*<^ 

Other children were born to Herman and Magdalene : An- 
netje, who was baptized August 27, 1662, the sponsor being Lysbet 
Jans ; Rachel, who was baptized October 21, 1663, at whose 
baptism Aechjen Ariaens acted sponsor; Harmanus, baptized May 
2, 1666, the sponsor being Greetje Hendricks ; Anna, who was 
baptized October 9, 1667, no name of any sponsor being given. 
All these children were baptized in the church at Esopus. i*^ One 
of their children (no name given) was baptized April 28. 1674, in 
New Amsterdam. 

It seems also that some other children were born in this 
marriage. For on January 17, 1726, Sarah Rosenkranz, who was 
perhaps the child above referred to as baptized in 1674, made a 
will which reads as follows : 

"I, Sarah Rosenkrans, being in perfect health. I leave to my 
dear mother, Magdalena Rosenkrans, all my estate, real and 
personal, during her life, and after her decease as follows : To my 
brother, Alexander Rosenkrans, 6 shillings. All the rest to be 
divided into five parts ; One part to my brother Hendrick, and 
after his decease to his son Hermanus ; One part to my brother 
Dirck, and after his decease to his son Harsama ; One part to my 
sister, Rachel Van Gorden, and after her decease to Harma Van 
Gorden ; One part to my sister, Johana Davenport, and after her 
decease to her son John ; One part to my sister, Christina Cort- 
right, and after her decease to her son Hendrick Cortright. I 



138 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, VII., p. 200. 

139 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Bio^aphical Society, II., 
p. 52. Sara Dircks is called Sara Dircks de Noorman. Cf. Ibid., II., p. 55. 

140 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 115. 

141 Hoes, Baptismal and Marriage Registers of the old Dutch Church of 
Kingston (Esopus). 




PEDER JENSS0N, BAILIFF AND MEMBER OF THE COUNCIL OF BERGEN, 

NORWAY, 1640-1650. 
From nn etching by Jacob Maschius, of Bergen, aliout the middle of the seventeenth 

century. 



HENDEICKSEN. 67 

leave to the children of Alexander Rosenkrans £80, viz. : Harma, 
Helena, and Johanes. I leave to Helena Davenport, 1 shilling or 
12 pence. New York currency. To Sarah Cole and Christian Van 
Gorden, each 1 shilling. I make my brothers Hendrick and Dirck 
executors. 

"Witness, Dirck Krans, Dirck De Witt, William Cortright. 
Proved in Ulster County, October 21, 1726." (See Collections 
New York Historical Society, for the Year 1893, p. 372.) 

Under date of May 19, 1700, Magdalena Rosenkranz was 
sponsor at a baptism in Kingston. i'*^ 

Herman must have had considerable property, for under date 
of January 19, 1681, a document, signed by five Indians, states: 

"This day all the Indians have acknowledged that the land 
called Easineh, which Kentkamin has given to Harmen Hendricksen 
and Hendricus Beckman, shall belong to them and they may dispose 
of it at their pleasure." This and other papers were received in 
Court of Sessions of Sarah Rosenkranz, October 3, 1732. i*^ 

Herman Hendricksen died at Rochester, N. Y., about 1697. 
His descendants are known as the Rosenkrans family. The best 
known member of this family is General William Stark Rosecrans, 
born in Ohio, 1819. He was a graduate of West Point Academy. 
In the civil war he was commissioned as a Brigadier General of 
the Regular Army. In 1867 he resigned his commission in the 
army, and was afterwards Minister to Mexico. He served one 
term as Congressman from California, and as the first Register 
of the Treasury under President Cleveland. While at West Point 
he was converted to the Roman Catholic faith. His brother Syl- 
vester Horton Rosecrans became a prominent bishop of the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

In 1890, a genealogy of the Rosenkrans family was published, 
the author being Allen Rosenkrans. It gives the history of the 
family, and makes public much of the correspondence passed be- 
tween the author and various archives and legations in Europe, 
for the purpose of ascertaining whence Herman Hendricksen 
originally came. "Rosenkrans" may be German, Dutch, Danish, 



142 Ibid., Reference 39. 

143 New York Colonial History, XIII., p. 402. Harmen Hendricksen Rosen- 
kranz must not be confounded with Harmen Hendricksen, mentioned in Innes', New 
Amsterdam and Its People, p. 168. 



68 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

Norwegian. There is a possibility that Herman was related to 
Henrik Rosenkrans who between 1617 and 1629 obtained permis- 
sion to the fisherey of herring and whales at the coast of Green- 
land and Norway. This Henrik was likely an immigrated Hol- 
lander, not, however, of the nobility. 

Herman Hendricksen was in all probability a plain born Nor- 
wegian, without title, and without Dutch pedigree. There were 
many Herman Hendricksens in New Netherland, and still more 
in Scandinavia. Why should Herman, in order to avoid a con- 
fusion of names, not add a new surname, taking the name of one, 
for whom he, perhaps, had worked in Bergen. There would be 
no objection to doing this in the New World. The writer knows 
of an instance when a Norwegian immigrant, some forty years 
ago took the surname of Kraft. He had worked for a Norwegian 
official by that name. Other Norwegians, upon coming to our 
country, have taken the name of the manor where they had worked 
or were born. 



DIRCK HOLGERSEN. 

Dirck Holgersen, or Dirck Volckertsen Noorman, was from 
Norway. We do not know when he came to New Netherland. 
He was, however, one of its early settlers. The claim of J. H. 
Innes ^^^ and others that Holgersen is the same person as Dirck 
Vockertsen, in Hoorn, who chartered a ship to carry on trade with 
New Netherland, is unfounded. Equally unfounded is the claim 
that he is the brother of a contemporary Cornelius Volckertsen, 
in New Amsterdam. 

The fact is that there was a Dirck Volckertsen and a Corne- 
lius Volckertsen in Hoorn, who as early as 1614 had mercantile 
interests in the New World, but remained in the Old. There was 
also a Dirck "Volckertsen" (Holgersen), and a Cornelius Volckert- 
sen in New Amsterdam. These were not brothers: the sources do 
not indicate that they had any particular interests in common ; that 
they either associated at the usual family gatherings or gave any 
other evidence of consanguineous relationship. Cornelius was 
probably Dutch, he was never called Cornelius Holgersen. Dirck 



144 J. H. Innes, New Ajnsterdam and Its People. 



HOLGERSEN. 69 

Volckertsen can be a Dutch name. (As early as 1522 a Dirck 
Volkertzoon Coornhert, known in the annals of theology, saw the 
light of day). Dirck Holgersen was a Norwegian, as is indi- 
cated by the cognomen "Noorman," so frequently given to him in 
the sources, (Dirck = Hendrick or Didrik). Whenever he is 
called "Volckertsen." a corruption of "Holgersen" is evident. i*"^ 

Dirck Holgersen married, before 1632, Christine Vigne, a 
daughter of Adrienne (Ariantje) Cuville and Guillaume Vigne, 
Walloons from Valenciennes in the north-eastern part of France. 
Adrienne and Guillaume had four children : Jan Vigne, who was 
probably the first white child born in New Netherland ; Maria, 
who was married to Abraham Verplanck ; Christine, the wife of 
Dirck Holgersen ; and Rachel, the wife of Cornelius van Tien- 
hoven. Guillaume died before 1632, when Jan Jansen Damen 
married his widow. ^*^ 



Ur 



Signatures of Dirck Holgersen, 1651, 1658, 1661. 

Jan Jansen Damen did not like the husbands of his step- 
daughters, because they would not leave him master of his house. 
In July, 1638, he brought suit against Abraham Verplanck and 
Dirck Holgersen : "On motion of the plaintiff the defendants were 
ordered to quit his house and to leave him master thereof." Dirck. 
however, charged Jan Damen with assault and furnished witnesses 
who testified "regarding an attempt of Jan Damen to throw 
his step-daughter, Christine, Dirck's wife, out of doors. "i*" The 
published sources give no information as to how the matter was 
settled. 

On May 1, 1638, Holgersen gave a note to Director Kieft 
for 720 guilders ($288, in present value $1,152). i*« On May 18, 
1639, Kieft leased to him a "bouwery and stock on halves." ^■*'* 

On January 2, 1642, the Fiscal arrested Gerrit Gerritsen and 



145 J. O. Evjen, Nordmaend i Amerika i det syttende Aarhundrede, in "Folke- 
bladet" (Minneapolis), February 2, 1910. Cornelis Volckertsen was fined in 1642 
for having kept a disorderly house. Simon Volckertsen was whipped, and banished 
from New Amsterdam in 1644. Neither of these nor a Henry Volckertsen, men- 
tioned in a contemporary document (1635), appears to have been Scandinavian. 

146 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, II., p. 349, note. 

147 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 163. 

148 Ibid., I., p. 2. 

149 Ibid., I., p. 8. 



70 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Dirck Holgersen for stealing rope from the yacht of the West 
India Company. Gerritsen was brought, in chains, to the guard 
house; Holgersen was ordered not to leave until the case had been 
decided. Two weeks later Holgersen declared, on oath, that he 
had bought the rope of Gerritsen in good faith. The court now 
ordered that Gerritsen and the sailors of the yacht "Reael" should 
appear on the next court day "in order to determine by lot which 
of them shall be punished, or meanwhile satisfy the Fiscal." ^^^ 

In November, 1642, Holgersen conveyed to Govert Aertsen 
a house and lot on Manhattan Island. ^^^ 

On April 3, 1645, he obtained a grant of twenty-five morgens 
(fifty acres) on East River and Mespath Kill.^^^ j^e sold a 
portion of this, September 9, 1653, to Jacob Hay (Haes),^^^ who 
appears to have married his daughter Christina. 

On July 2, 1647, he was given power of attorney by Albert 
Govertsen to receive money from the West India Company.^^* 

On June 2, 1649, he gave a lease of land to Jochem Calder. 
This lease is signed by three Norwegians. It reads as follows : 

"Before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of New 
Netherland, appeared Jochem Calder of the one part, and Dirck 
Holgersen, of the other part, who in presence of the undernamed 
witnesses, acknowledged and declared that they had in all love and 
friendship mutually entered into and concluded a certain contract 
in regard to the lease of a certain tract of land on the condition 
hereuntowritten : 

"Dirck Holgersen leases to Jochem Calder a certain lot of 
land, situate on Long Island, together with the land heretofore 
leased by him, Dirck. to Jochem Calder, for the term of twenty 
consecutive years, commencing Anno 1651 and ending Anno 1671. 
The Lessee shall have the land rent free for the first six years, 
and during the other fourteen following years shall pay, annually, 
for the use of said land, which big and little he shall cultivate and 
improve as he thinks proper, the sum of one hundred and fifty 
guilders in such pay as shall then be current. All the expenses 
that the Lessee shall incur in building, fencing and whatever else 



150 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., pp. 78, 79. 

151 Ibid., I., p. 33. 

152 E. B. O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, I., p. 583. 

153 Ibid., I., p. 278. 

154 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 38. 



HOLGERSEN. 71 

is necessary shall be at the charge of the Lessee, who shall make 
such improvements as he will think fit ; and if it happen that he, 
the Lessee, should die, it is stipulated that the Lessor shall not 
eject the wife or descendants from the land against their will. 
The fences and other improvements, of what nature soever they 
may be made by the Lessee, shall at the termination of the twenty 
years, belong to the Lessor, his heirs and descendants in full pro- 
priety without disbursing anything thereof. 

"For further security and the performance of this contract, 
parties pledge their respective persons and properties, submitting 
to that end to all Courts and Judges. 

"In testimony this is signed by the parties with Jan Nagel 
and Peter Jansen Noorman witnesses hereunto subscribed, this 2d 
of June Anno 1649, New Amsterdam. 



"This is the X mark of Dirck Holgersen made by himself. 
"This is the + mark of Jochem Calder made by himself. 
"This is the PI mark of Peter Jansen, witness, made by him- 



self. 



|7acobKipn Witnesses."!- 
Jan Nagel J 

On March 22, 1651, Holgersen sold to Peter Hudde and Abra- 
ham Jansen a parcel of land on "Mespachtes Kill opposite Richard 
Bridnels" twenty-two morgens, one hundred and thirty-six rods. 
We give the deed of sale below : 

"Before me, Jacob Kip, in the absence of the Secretary ap- 
pointed by the Honorable Director-General and Council of New 
Netherland, appeared Dirck Holgersen, an inhabitant here who de- 
clared that he sold and conveyed, as he does hereby, to Peter 



155 New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 115. 



72 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Hudde and Abraham Jansen, in company, a certain parcel of land 
situate on Mespachtes Kill opposite Richard Bridnels, formerly 
the property of one Cornelis Willemsen, containing according to 
the groundbrief, twenty-two morgens, one hundred and thirty-six 
rods; which land he, the grantor, conveys to the said Peter Hudde 
and Abraham Jansen, in company, in one, true, free, and right 
ownership, therefore renouncing the right and property had there- 
to, with authority to enter on, cultivate and use the said land 
free and unmolested, on condition that the reservation mentioned 
in the ground brief in regard to the acknowledgement of the Lords 
and Patroons of this country be complied with ; placing the said 
Peter Hudde and Abram Jansen in his stead, real and actual 
possession of the land aforesaid, and renouncing all pretension 
thereto henceforth, and for ever he promises to hold fast and 
inviolable this his deed and conveyance under bond as by law pro- 
vided. 

"In testimony I have signed this with the witnesses, this 22d 
of March, Anno 1651, New Amsterdam in New Neth.erland. 

"This is the V mark of Dirck Holgersen made by himself. 

"Jacob Jansen Huys, witness. 
"Gerrit Jansen, witness. 

"To my knowledge Jacob Kip, Clerk. 

"This day the 28th of March Anno 1651, the Hon'ble Petrus 
Stuyvesant and Council of New Netherland approved this fore- 
going proof of the purchase of the land mentioned, and accord- 
ingly the conveyance above executed by Dirck Holgersen in favor 
of Peter Hudde and Abraham Jansen is held valid. 

"In testimony this is signed by the Hon'ble Director-General; 
dated as above, Manhatan in New Netherland. 

"P. Stuyvesant." i^^ 

On September 18, 1651, Holgersen conveyed to Roelof 
Teunissen, a Swedish sea captain from Goteborg, a house and 
lot in Smith's Valley on Manhattan Island. He had had this place 
since 1645, and built a house upon it. It must have stood upon 

156 Ibid., XI., p. 137f. 



HOLGERSEN. 73 

the whole or a part of the site of the modern building, No. 259 
Pearl Street.i^^ 

On September 9, 1653, Holgersen conveyed to Jacob Jansen 
Hey (Huys or Haes) twenty-five morgens of land, with a valley 
of six morgens, "beginning at the hook of Mespacht's kill. Long 
Island, and thence running S.S.W. along the river." ^^^ 

On October 15, 1653, he sold a lot to Hage Bruynsen, who 
was from Sweden. This lot was situated on Smith's valley, 
"fronting on the strand or highway." ^^^ On February 16, 1654, 
he brought suit against Hage Bruynsen for payment of this lot.^^*' 

On October 15, 1655, he was taxed fl. lO.i^i 

Under date of October 25, 1655, the court minutes contain 
the following entry with respect to Holgersen : 

"Reyer Stoffelsen vs. Dirk Holgersen. Defendant in default. 
Default was granted only for the payment of fl. 9 (?), now due 
since three years." ^^^ Under date of November 8, the same year, 
the minutes state : "Sybout Claesen, as att'y for Reyer Stoffelsen, 
pltf. v|s Dirck Holgersen, deft. Defts. 2d default. Being for 
payment of fl. 8 belonging to Reyer Stoffelsen. Requests se- 
questration and satisfaction. The Court ordered, as Dirck Hol- 
gersen is in the second default, that he deposit the said fl. 8. 
within 8 days in the Secretary's office." ^^^ 

The next lawsuit in which Holgersen was involved was due 
to his having wounded a cooper in a fight. We shall give the 
history of this case, following as much as possible the version of 
the court minutes : 

[Jan. 8, 1656] "Jan de Perie pltf. vs Dirck de Noorman deft. 
Pltf. exhibits pursuant to the order of 18th Dec. last, two separate 
declarations, one of Jan Fredricksen and one of Paulus Heymans, 
by which it appears, that Dirck de Noorman attacked him, the 
pltf., and chased him from the Strand to the Clapboards, as is 

157 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 55. J. H. Innes, New Amster- 
dam and Its People, p. 323. 

158 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 378. 

159 Ibid., I., p. 879. 

160 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 161. 

161 Ibid., I., p. 374. 

162 Ibid., I., p. 386. 

163 Ibid., I., p. 390. In this suit Dirck is called Volckertsen. In quoting 
the court minutes here and in other pertinent places, we have substituted "Holger- 
sen"' for the corrupted "Volckertsen". 



74 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

more fully detailed in the certificates rendered before Notary de 
Vos. Requesting as before that the deft, be therefore condemned 
in the time lost by him and Surgeon's fees. Deft, says that he 
was not the first to draw his knife, but that the pltf. had forced 
him to do it, he having first struck him on his shoulder with a 
knife, which he also broke having struck his truss, and afterwards 
tried to kill him with a naked dagger. The court ordered the 
deft, to prove his statement by the next Court day." ^^^ 

Several months passed, and the case was still pending. 
Schout d'Silla then made the demand, October 30, 1656, that "the 
Court appoint Commissaries to take information in his presence 
as to how Dirck Holgersen wounded Jan Perie. The request 
being deemed just, Schepens Jacob Strycker and Hendrick Kip 
are appointed Commissioners." ^^^ 

On December 11 "Jan de Pree" requested "by petition, that Dirck 
Holgersen be ordered to settle with him for the pain, surgeon's 
bill, and loss of time which he incurred from a stab in the side re- 
ceived from said Dirck. Whereupon is endorsed — The petitioner 
may summon his party at the next Court day, and then, if he thinks 
fit, institute his action. "^^^ 

A week later "Jan de Pree" renewed his demand in writing. 
Schout d'Silla maintained, however, that "the plaintiff has no 
cause of action, as he began the quarrel, and wounded the de- 
fendant by sticking a knife in his body. And whereas the de- 
fendant is in default, the plaintiff was ordered to summon him 
again, and then to prove his statement." 

Holgersen now summoned a Jan Peeck, his wife Mary, and 
Perie's servant, Jan Fredricksen, to appear in court and testify 
to the truth of what they saw and heard transpiring between him- 
self and Jan Perie.^^' 

The court minutes record the following concerning the testi- 
mony of Jan and Mary Peeck: 

[Jan. 27, 1657.] "Dirck Holgersen, pltf. v|s Jan Peeck and 
his wife, Mary, defts. Pltf. requests that defts., whom he has 
summoned as witnesses in the case between him and Jan Perie, 



164 Ibid., II., p. 256. 

165 Ibid., II., p. 200. 

166 Ibid., II., p. 246. 

167 Ibid., II., p. 247. 



HOLGEESEN. 75 

cooper, would please testify to the truth. Jan Peeck therefore 
declared that in the morning as he lay abed, he saw Jan Perie 
and Dirck Holgersen playing at dice together on the floor for 
a . . . and heard Jan Perie, while playing, give Dirck Holgersen 
frequently the lie, whereupon Dirck Holgersen contradicted, and 
a fist fight followed : and as he, deponent, said to them that he 
could easily sell his wine without trouble, they went away, without 
his knowing anything more. Mary d' Peeck, also heard, confirms 
the declaration of her husband above given and declares she after- 
wards heard Jan Perie say, "There's Dirck the Noorman, who has 
a box of seawan in his sack, and he should play or the D . . . 
should take him"; also, that Jan Perie's man told her, he saw 
his master thrust his knife into Dirck Noorman's truss. Dirck 
Holgersen answers in writing Jan Perie's demand, concluding that 
the pltf. John Perie's entered demand be dismissed and he be con- 
demned the costs. Whereupon asked if he have further evidence, 
he says, Yes ; Jan Perie's man, but that the others have been to him, 
and he is gone away. Wherefore the case is postponed."^®^ 
What Perie's servant testified is seen in the following: 

[January 29, 1657.] "Dirck Holgersen v|s Jan Fredericksen, 
Jan Perie's servant, deft. Pltf. requests, that deft, shall testify 
to the truth before the Court as to what he saw relative to the 
drawing of the knife between him pltf. and Jan Perie. Therefore 
aforesaid deft, appeared in Court and declares he saw, on coming 
out of the house, Jan Perie and Dirck Holgersen standing opposite 
each other, each with a knife in his hand, and that Dirck Holger- 
sen thrust first, and stabbed Jan Perie in his belly, and that Jan 
Perie then thrust with the point of the knife on Dirck Holgersens 
truss, and saw Jan Perie afterwards chase Dirck Holgersen with 
a dagger. And further he cannot declare. "^^® 

The case was begun in December, 1655. It concluded June 
29, 1658, when Holgersen, who was then city carpenter, consented 
to pay the fine for wounding Jan Perie.^^^ 

Holgersen, in the mean time, had been having other litiga- 



168 Ibid., II., p. 271. Jan Peeck was an eccentric character. Indian trader, 
broker, Bpeculator. His wife, Mary, was in 1664 fined 500 guilders and banished 
from Manhattan Island for selling liquor to the Indians (Innes, New Amsterdam and 
Its People,, p. 301). 

169 Ibid., II., p. 278. 

170 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 190. 



76 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

tion. On February 8, 1656, he had been sued for a canoe which 
he had found on his land, had repaired and would not surrender 
before he had been paid for repairs and salvage. The court 
minutes state: 

"Dirck Claesgen Pottebacker, pltf. v|s Dirck Holgersen, deft. 
Pltf's wife appeared in Court, says that she has missed a canoe, 
which she purchased from Peter Van der Linde and after seeking 
for it everywhere, finally found it before deft's house and 
land, who refused the same to her, notwithstanding reasonable 
salvage was offered. Requests the Court condemn him to deliver 
it. Deft, says a certain canoe was brought by some Englishmen 
on his land, and as the same lay a long time there without a person 
coming after it, he found, that it was very much out of repair. 
He repaired it and rebuilt it. Offers to give it up to the pltf. on 
the condition that she will pay him for the repairs, wages, and 
salvage. Parties being heard, the Court referred the parties to 
Lambert Huybersen Mol, and Cornelis Jansen Clopper to value 
the labor and repair expended on the canoe, and if possible to 
reconcile the parties, or to report to the Board." ^^^ 

On April 3, 1656, Holgersen was sued by Symon Joosten for 
a debt. The Fiscal "remained bail for the payment." Holgersen 
was ordered "to make an assignment when the Fiscal undertakes 
to pay." 1^2 

On March 8, 1658, Holgersen and Maria Verplanck, his 
sister-in-law, were sued by Claes van Elslandt, elder of the Dutch 
Reformed Church in New Amsterdam, for not paying for a grave. 
According to the court minutes, Claes van Elslandt claimed that 
"the defendants refused to pay the Church money for a grave of 
their deceased mother," Ariantje, who died 1655. (She was the 
mother of Maria Verplanck, and mother-in-law of Holgersen.) 
The defendants replied that they had not refused, "as they have 
once paid and counted the money to Cornelis van Tienhoven," 
their brother-in-law. Claes van Elslandt was then asked, why he 
was so slow in collecting the Church fees. He replied that Cornelis 
had said, "there are your fees, I shall make it right with the 
Church wardens." The defendants claimed they paid fifty guilders 



171 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, II., p. 38. 

172 Ibid., II., p. 83. 



HOLGEESEN. 77 

— thirty guilders in Holland currency and the remainder in sea- 
wan. After hearing this, the court ordered that the heirs in com- 
mon should satisfy the Church wardens within a week.i'^^ Hol- 
gersen and his wife Christine were members of the Dutch Re- 
formed Church in New Amsterdam since 1649.^^* 

In April, 1657, Holgersen acquired the small burgher's rights 
in New Amsterdam. 

In the same year he deeded to Roeloff Teunissen some 
property that had been conveyed to himself on August 4, 1649. 
It was on the present west side of Pearl Street, near the north 
corner of Lane.^'^^ 

After the cessation of the Indian troubles Dirck Holgersen 
appears to have removed to his farm at Norman's Kill. For in 
a deed of October 17, 1661, "Dirck Volkers, of Bushwyck, as hus- 
band and guardian of Christina Vinge, daughter of the late Geleyn 
Vinge and Adriana Cuvilje," conveyed to Augustine Herman, "his 
certain fourth part of the inheritance and succession which belongs 
to him from his wife's parents, except the eighth part of the fourth 
part of a little field to pasture cattle, situated on the Maadge 
Paadje, in the rear of Lysbet Tysen" (Valentine, Manual of . . . 
the city of New York, 1865, p. 686f).i^6 

On March 24, 1662, some landowners of Bushwick, of whom 
Holgersen was one, petitioned those in authority to get a road 
made through their land at Bushwick. 

In April, 1662, they petitioned the Director-General and Coun- 
cil to be excused from fencing in their lands, "especially as wood 
is growing scarce around there and hard to obtain, and the fences 
would cost a great deal." 

It appears that Holgersen gave some of his land to the village 
of Bushwick. i''^ He was a magistrate of the place in 1681, and 
ensign of the local militia in 1689. He was assessed there in 1675. 
But also the city of New York taxed him fl. 5, in 1677. In 1674 
his name is found on a list of owners of houses and lots of the 
city of New Amsterdam. His property was classed in "fourth 



173 Itid., II., p. 350. 

174 Ibid., II., p. 349. 

175 D. T. Valentine, Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York, 
1861, p. 597. 

176 Cf. New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 511. 

177 Ibid., XrV., pp. 523, 524. 



78 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

class" property, no value being given.^'^ It was situated on the 
west side of the present Pearl St., between Franklin Square and 
Wall St., known at that time as Smith's Valley. 

Dirck Holgersen had several children. On September 8, 1641, 
his daughter Rachel was baptized, one of the sponsors being a 
Norwegian, Laurens Pietersen Noorman ; his son Volckert was 
baptized in November, 1643; his daughter Ariaentje (Adrienne), 
August 21, 1650 ; his daughter Janneken, December 7, 1653, when 
Pieter Jansen Noorman, a Norwegian, acted as sponsor. 

According to J. H. Innes, Dirck had also a daughter called 
Christina Cappoens, who was first married to Jacob Jansen Huys 
(Hey, Heys, Hes, Haes), a skipper who had lived in the West 
Indies. Her second husband was David Jochemsen. 

The entire tract of land which Holgersen had in Bushwick 
eventually "came into the hands of the Meserole family, descend- 
ants of Dirck's daughter, Christina, who held it until recent years, 
and may still have some portions of it."^''* 



178 Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, 1675-1776, 
1905, I., p. 50. Year Book of Holland Society, 1896, p. 167. 

179 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 323. 

Whence the name Cappoens (Cappoen, Capoen)? In Dutch we have the name 
"kapoen," but this would hardly be the word from which Christina derived the 
name. In Norwegian "kapoen" means cape island. When I mentioned this, in a 
letter to Mr. J. H. Innes, as the possible meaning of "Cappoens," he replied: 

"I think you have probably hit the point. The Dirck Volckertsen farm, of 
which the Northern half was conveyed to Jacob Haie, first husband of Christina, 
was really a peninsula lying at the mouth of the Mespat Kill . . . The place has 
always been known as the "point," . . . Green Point .... Bushwick Point .... 
Wood Point. Christina married again, but seems to have retained possession of the 
farm, which passed to her daughter Maria by Jacob Haie, and she (Maria) married 
Peter Praa van Landt of the old Bogardus farm, on the opposite side of the Mespat 
Kill, and from these the Meseroles and other late possessors of the property are 
derived. 

"Adopting a very common custom around old New York, which I believe is 
also common among the Northern nations of Europe, of designating persons by 
their dwelling place . . . ., nothing is more likely, it seems to me, than that 
Christina was known among her Scandinavian neighbors as Christina Kapoen's — 'at 
the Cape Island,' or 'at the Point' — the corrupted form no doubt came from the 
Dutch spelling." 

In June, 1687, Christina made her will, her second husband being dead. 
She gave to her daughter, Maria Hays, "first my small house," "the income of my 
land and meadow and Bowerey lying at Maspeth Kills," and "my silver beaker, 
one gold vase, diamond ring, a silver cup and pepper box, and a silver cup with 
silver cover, and three silver spoons." To her grand-daughter, Sara Molenaer, she 
left her "great house," also "a saltcellar marked with the full name of Christina 
Roselaers and marked with her coat of arms (was she the mother of Hay?), also 
a silver bfnker marked the same, and a silver mustard pot marked with the name 
of .Jacob Hay. Also my Church book with silver clasps and chain, and a silver 
cup and six silver spoons and a silver chain, one great ear spangle with ear jewels, 
and my largest hoop ring, and a gold finger ring with a diamond in it. and a silver 
tumbler marked J. H.'- — 'I'o her granddaughter Catrina Praa she left a silver beaker 

and six silver spoons marked J. H 

The "great house and lot'" is now No. 61 Stone Street. The "small house 
and lot" is now the narrow alley leading from Stone Street to South William Street, 
and between Nos. 61 and 63 Stone Street. It is the only street in the City of 
New York without an official name, but was in former days popularly known as 



JANSEN. 79 

Under date of December 14, 1643, the church record states 
that Holgersen's wife acted as sponsor for a child belonging to 
Roland Hackwardt. On June 5, 1650, both Holgersen and his wife 
stood sponsors at the baptism of a child belonging to Jochem 
Kier (Kalder) and his wife Magdalena, a Lutheran woman. Hol- 
gersen had leased some of his land to Kalder in 1649. April 23, 
1651, Holgersen stood sponsor for the child of Jan Hermanszen 
Schutt and Margaritje Dennis.^^*^ 



PAULUS JANSEN. 

Paulus Jansen, referred to as Paulus Jansz Noorman and 
Paulus de Noorman, was from Norway. He was in New Nether- 
land as early as November 14, 1641, when he brought a suit against 
Maryn Adriaensen et al. The nature of this suit is not revealed 
in the sources at our disposal, which merely state that it was re- 
ferred to arbitration. 181 We glean from the records that Jansen 
was wounded at three different times. First by Jacob Lambertsz 
van Dortland, who in April, 1648, was prosecuted for committing 
this deed; a second time, by a carpenter, Jacob Jans Plodder 
(Gardenir), from Kampen.i^z Hq ^^ras wounded, the third time, 
in the war at Esopus : June 7, 1663 "Paulus Noorman was found 
wounded in the streets of Wiltwyck" (= Esopus). ^^^ He was 
sergeant at Esopus as early as 1660.^^* Under date of May 1, 
1664, jan Martensen, at Esopus, made a written statement that 



"Jews' Alley" (Mr. W. S. Pelletreau, in "Collections of the New York Historical 
Society, XXV., p. 229). 

The inventory of the estate of Christina Cappoens shows a very long list of 
household goods, besides a considerable amount of silver ware: 
1 Silver Beaker, 12 oz., at 7s., £4.4s. 
1 Gold rose diamond ring, £5. 
1 Silver pepper box, 2% oz., at 7s., 17s. 6d. 

1 Silver beaker, marked Christina Rasselaers, 16 oz., at 7s., £ 5.12s. 
1 Silver salt cellar, marked Christina Rasselaers, 14 oz., £4, 10s. 
1 Church book with silver clasps and chain, £ 1, 16s. 
1 Golden ear pendant, 2 oz., good, at £5 per oz., £10. 

180 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II. 

181 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 77. 

182 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, pp. 832, 838. 

183 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 247. 

184 Ibid., XIII., p. 153. 



80 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

he was indebted to "Paulus Noorman" for the sum of twenty- 
eight guilders. ^®^ 



JAN JANSEN NOORMAN. 

Jan Jansen Noorman was, according to Munsell's Collections 
on the History of Albany (IV., p. 88), a resident of Albany, from 
1673 to 1696. He married Susanna Dirx, the widow of Dirck 
Dircksen Mayer. On April 21, 1673, Jan Jansen Noorman and his 
wife made their will, the witnesses being Pieter Ryverdingh, David 
Schuyler and Adrianvan Ilpendam. The contents of the will are 
not given in the printed sources.^^^ One Jan de Noorman who 
obtained, April 28, 1667, "a lot ten rods in length and four rods 
in breadth" is probably Jan Jansen Noorman. i®^ 



JAN JANSZEN. 

Jan Janszen and wife arrived at New Amsterdam in 1663. 
Their ship, "de Statyn," set sail from Holland, September 27, 1663. 
In the passenger list Norway is given as the place from which 
they emigrated. At least two, if not four, other passengers in their 
company were from Norway.^^® 



MRS. JAN JANSZEN. 

Mrs. Jan Janszen arrived at New Amsterdam in 1663. She 
came in company with her husband. Both were from Norway. 
See article "Jan Janszen." 



185 J. Pearson, Early Records of . . . Albany, p. 350. The Paulus Jansen 
who acquired land near Wilmington (New York Colonial Documents, XII., p. 183), 
is a different person. 

We venture here to correct a statement in O'Callaghan's History of New 
Netherland, II., p. 585, viz., that "Claes Jansen Noorman" was granted on March 
25, 1647, twenty-five morgens of land on the West side of the North River. "Noor- 
man" must here be a corruption of "Naerden, " or perhaps what is a better ex- 
planation, Claes, is a corrupt reading for Paulus = Paulus Jansen Noorman. 

186 Calendar of Wills, Compiled by B. Fernow, p. 289. 

187 Munsell, Collections of the History of Albany, IV., p. 417. 

188 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1901, p. 26. 



JANSEN. 81 



PIETER JANZEN. 

Pieter Janzen, of Fredrikstad, was in New Netherland about 
1658. All we know concerning him is contained in two entries in 
the court minutes of New Amsterdam : 

1. (September 17, 1658) "Jan Rutgerzen, pltf. v|s Mr. 
Allerton, deft. Pltf. again demands from deft, payment of the 
sum of fl. 121.6 for two obligations executed by Pieter Janzen of 
Frederickstatt and Barent Eversen of Stockholm, for which the 
deft, has signed bail to pay him. Deft, says, he will prove, that 
the abovenamed Pieter Janzen of Frederickstatt and Barent Evert- 
sen of Stockholm, had determined to run away from the ship ; 
maintaining therefore he is not bound to pay. The Court orders 
the deft, to give security for the monies, and to prove within three 
weeks that the abovenamed Pieter Janzen of Frederickstatt and 
Barent Eversen of Stockholm were willing to run away from the 
ship." i«« 

2. (May 8, 1663) "Pieter Janzen Noorman, pltf. v|s Joris 
Dopzen, deft. Deft, in default. Pltf. says he is a foreigner and is 
about to depart ; as he cannot come to any settlement with the deft. 
he requests an order to settle together. Burgomasters and 
Schepens order Joris Dopzen to settle with Pieter Janzen Noorman 
without delay, as he is about to depart and is a foreigner." ^^^ 



PIETER JANSEN. 

Pieter Jansen, or Pieter Jansen Noorman, sometimes called 
Pieter Jansen Trynenburgh (Trimbol, Tribolt) was, according to 
the records of the Dutch Reformed Church in New Amsterdam, a 
native of Norway. ^^^ These records also show that he was 



189 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, III., p. 11. 

190 Ibid., IV., p. 236. He must not be taken for Pieter Jansen Noorman, 
who died in 1662. See the following article. 

191 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 14. Perhaps he was from Trelleborg, which has belonged to Sweden since 1658. 



82 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

sponsor at the baptism of Norwegian children, e. g. : On July 5, 
1646, he was sponsor for Engel, a child belonging to Laurens 
Pietersen ; November 4, 1646, for Michel, a son of Han Hansen 
from Bergen ; December 7, 1653, for Janneken, a daughter of Dirck 
Holgersen.i'*2 

He married on July 7, 1647, Lysbeth Jansen of Amsterdam. ^^^ 

On March 9, 1644, he testified that he had been present at 
the burning of Jochem Pietersen Kuyter's house by the Indians, 
and that the government soldiers did not come out from the place 
they were sleeping, until the house was entirely burned down. 
Jansen was at the time twenty years of age.^^* He had been in 
the employ of the brave Dane Jochem Pietersen Kuyter. At the 
fearful night of the burning of the property of Kuyter, the savages 
had their own way, as the defense was in minority, consisting only 
of dairymaids four soldiers and five laborers, of whom Jansen 
was one.^®^ 

On March 11, 1647, Jansen in company with Huyck Aertsen 
received a groundbrief of land, 74 morgens, 106 rods between 
Montagishay valley and Tobias Teunissen's bowery "extending to 
the end of the kill ^^^ coming out of the North River and thence 
N.E. and S. by N. along the high hill on Manhattan Island. "^"^ 
The next year Aertsen died, and Jansen was left in sole care of 
the bowery. 

On April 27, 1649, Pieter Jansen mortgaged to Jan Forbus, a 
Swede, a tract of land on the East River "formerly occupied by 
the Norwegian Claes Carstensen, David Andriesen and George 
Baxter. ^"^ It appears that Forbus had sold this tract of land to 
him. 

Pieter Jansen was involved in much litigation on account of 
his land, some of which he leased to Herman Barensen and finally 
sold to Jan Cornelisen Zealander. 

The Court minutes throw some light upon this litigation. 

Under date of August 8, 1658, Wilhelm Beeckman brought 
suit against Pieter Jansen Noorman: The plaintiff demanded of 



192 Ibid., II. 

193 Ibid., I., p. 14. 

194 New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 53. 

195 J. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, 1904. p. 148. 

196 Sherman's Creek. 

197 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 372. 

198 Ibid., I., p. 46. 



JANSEN. 83 

the defendant "a balance of about the sum of 230 g\., which he 
deft, agreed to pay for Jan Forbis, and says he agreed with deft, 
for firewood to be delivered to him, of which he has remained in 
default and afterwards offered him, pltf., pease, demanding pay- 
ment with damages and cost. Deft, says he bought a piece of 
land from Jan Forbis of three times 25 morgens and he has not 
conveyed it to him, maintaining that so long as it is not delivered 
he is not bound to pay Heer Beeckman and that he has nothing 
to do with the Heer Beekman. Pltf. exhibits to the Court the 
deed of sale, in which it is mentioned that the land must first be 
paid for before it shall be conveyed. The Court having heard 
parties, condemn the deft, to pay the pltf. the sum demanded with 
costs thereon in the space of one month."^^* 

Under date of September 3, 1658, Pieter Jansen brought suit 
against Herman Barensen, who appears to have been in litigation 
quite often and was finally banished from New Netherland. 

"Pieter Jansen Noorman, pltf. v|s Hermen Barensen, deft. 
Pltf. says, he hired his land to the deft, for the time of six years 
for which the deft, shall pay rent for the first year fl. 250 and 
every year after fl. 300 to the end of the lease according to contract 
exhibited in Court, but that the deft, has not fulfilled the contract. 
Deft, answers he leased the land from the pltf., when the grain 
was standing and he could not examine it; and afterwards found, 
that the land was nothing else than rocks and stone and [he] 
could not make that money of it, and aided the pltf. 15 days : 
also that he the pltf. leased the land again for fl. 600 for four 
years, being willing to prove it. Pieter Jansen is asked if he has 
hired the land again? Answers, he has partly agreed with 
Lauwerens Grootschoe, but has not concluded, as he wants fl. 200 
(?) a year and Lauwerens will not give more than fl. 200." The 
Court ordered the defendant Herman Barensen to prove on next 
court day, that the pltf. Pieter Jansen has re-leased the land.^^o 

On the next court day Barensen was in default. 

Pieter Jansen also had some difficulties with Jan Cornelisen, 
to whom he had sold some land. 



199 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, II., p. 371. 

200 Ibid., II., p. 2. Grootschoe (Big Shoe) was a nickname for Laurens 
Duyts, a Dane. 



84 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

He brought suit against Cornelisen on January 27, 1660, claim- 
ing that Cornehsen had "refused [to allow him] to ride over his 
land, over which a wagon-road passes and has been [refusing this] 
for some years, and that he permits freely the deft, to ride over 
his valley." To quote from the Court Records, he "requests the 
Magistrates will be pleased to aid him therein. Deft, appeals to 
the ground brief, saying, if this be exibited, it could be seen where 
the fault lies and the Magistrates could find more light. The 
Court orders Pieter the Noorman to produce the ground brief on 
the next court day." ^oi 



PI 



Signature of Pieter Jansen. 

A few days later Cornelisen appeared in court. But he was 
ordered to have Pieter Jansen notified by the Court Messenger. 

On February 10, 1660, the two litigants again appeared. 

Cornelisen's demand was, that the defendant should exhibit 
the ground brief, so as to see the error in question. "Deft, ex- 
hibits the ground brief. Pltf. says, he bought 25 morgens of land 
from deft., showing a declaration dated 7th February, 1660, of 
Lauwerens Pieters and Barent Joosten, who testify that Pieter 
the Noorman sold the 25 morgens to Jan Cornelissen. Deft. says. 
he sold pltf. no more, than Claas van Elslant measured, and the 
land was pointed out in the pltf's presence. Jan Cornelisen, the 
Zealander, is asked why he summoned Pieter the Noorman? An- 
swers on a|c of the cart road and declares, that the witnesses 
heard from Pieter the Noorman, that he sold to Jan Cornelisen 
the Zealander 25 morgens of land and says, no one but they and 
their wives were by at the sale. The Court orders pltf. to bring 
in proper form a notarial declaration, that deft, sold him twenty- 
five morgens of land." 202 

Cornelisen next appeared in Court on March 2, and produced 
the notarial declaration of Lauwerens Pieters and Barent Joosten, 
dated February 25, 1660. They stated they heard Jansen say 
that he sold Cornelisen twenty-five morgens of land. Jansen now 
requested copy of the declaration, but Cornelisen demanded "to 
proceed for costs and damages." This demand was granted. 



201 Ibid., III., p. 115. 

202 Ibid., III., p. 135. 



JANSEN. 85 

On March 16, Jansen answered the declaration of the persons 
produced by Jan Cornelisen, and the Court ordered a copy to be 
furnished to Cornelisen. The latter did not seem to mind, and 
on April 27, 1660, Pieter Jansen requested that Cornelisen give 
a reply: 

"Pieter Jansen Trynenburgh, alias Noorman, requests by 
petition, that Jan Cornelisen the Zealander shall be again ordered 
to render his reply on the next Court day, on pain of nonsuit with 
costs, inasmuch as he has remained in default to reply according 
to the order of the 16th March last. Jan Cornelisen the Zea- 
lander is hereby for the second time ordered by the court of this 
city to prosecute his suit, that he has against Pieter Jansen Noor- 
man, and to reply to the aforesaid Pieter Jansen's answer on the 
next Court day."203 

It seems as if Cornelisen finally dropped the case. We hear 
nothing more of it. 

Jansen's litigation with Cornelisen caused him to sue Forbus, 
who had sold him the land but failed to give him the deed. The 
matter was treated in court, resulting in a letter sent to Forbus 
by the secretary of the Council of New Amsterdam. It was dated 
February 7, 1660: 

"Jan Forbus — Whereas you have as yet failed to convey in 
due form to Pieter Jansen Trynburgh, commonly called Pieter the 
Noorman, the land you sold to aforesaid Pieter Jansen and for 
which you received payment ; and Pieter Jansen has sold the land 
again to Jan Cornelisen the Zealander, and Jan Cornelisen demands 
the deeds of said lands from him ; and whereas Pieter Jansen 
has received as yet no deed from you, therefore cannot give any 
conveyance : you are in consequence hereby ordered and charged 
by the Presiding Burgomaster to come immediately hither and to 
convey the aforesaid land to the above named Pieter Jansen and 
in default thereof to bear all costs that may accrue thereto. Where- 
by you have to regulate yourself. 



203 Ibid., III., p. 157. 



86 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

"Done Amsterdam in N : Netherland 7th Febr. 1660. 
"By the Order of the presiding Burgomaster of the City above- 
named. 

"Joannes Nevius, Secy." ^o* 

Jansen's difficulties with CorneHsen may have been due partly 
to the former's arbitrating a case in which Cornelisen was con- 
cerned. This took place seven years before as is shown in the 
Court minutes. Borger Joris had brought suit against Jan Corneli- 
sen to obtain payment for a building which Cornelissen had erected 
on the land he had hired from Burger Joris. also to settle a matter 
concerning some cows let on calves. The Burgomasters and 
Schepens referred the dispute of the parties to two arbitrators, 
Peter Noorman and Jochem Calder, who were to inspect the 
premises and examine the matter and finally decide the question 
according to their ability. Perhaps Jansen decided in favor of 
Joris.205 

On June 29, 1660, Pieter Jansen was again involved in litiga- 
tion, this time being the plaintiff in a case against Frederick Herm- 
zen, of whom he demanded "fl. 85. balance of fl. 90. purchase of 
a small house" Hermzen did not deny that he owed Jansen this 
sum. He offered "the interest due and to give security for pay- 
ment" and he requested time, saying, he would find means. The 
Court, however, ordered Hermzen to pay the debt.^os 

On January 20, 1661, the Council ordered Burgher Joris and 
Pieter Jansen Noorman to move their houses and barns, from the 
boweries, to the village ^o^ of Bushwick. It would appear that the 
order was obeyed. 

In 1662, probably in the early part of the year, Jansen peti- 
tioned the Council that he might move away from Bushwick. The 
Year-Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 141, con- 
tains the following extract of the petition. 

"1662. [No date.] Petition by Pieter Jansen Trimbol, alias 
De Noorman, whose land is situated on this side of Noorman's 



204 Ibid., VII., p. 246. 

205 Ibid., I., p. 142. 

206 Ibid., III., p. 183. 

207 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 220. 



JANSEN. 87 

Kill, Long Island, requesting Director-General and Council to be 
permitted, on account of the distance, to move away from Bos- 
wyck, and also for the purpose of assisting people, etc., who are 
obliged to travel by night and in inclement weather. Four or five 
families are ready also to erect houses and form a hamlet there. 
He has already partitioned off two lots on his property, one for 
Isaack De Forest, and one for Harmen Steppe (or Stegge). . . . 
Pieter Jansen was charged 3 guilders 15 stivers by Notary La 
Chair for writing above petition." 

Under date of May 25, 1662, a notice states that the Council 
permitted Jansen "to make a concentration of four families on his 
land, on the south side of Noorman's Kill, near Bushwick." ^os 

He seems to have had a boat of considerable size, as he was 
sued in March, 1661, by Arien Symonson who demanded of him 
40 guilders for a "mizzen mast." ^o" Possibly the fragmentary 
notice "Peter Noorman's negro belonged to the Pilot" (August 
1656, New York Colonial Documents, H., p. 31), refers to this. 

Jansen must have been a man of some ability. Riker calls 
him a "hardy Norwegian." We have noted that he served as 
arbitrator in the Cornelissen — Joris dispute. He also served as 
guardian for Magdalena Walen's five children, after the death 
of her husband Jochem Kalder. She was Lutheran, as the Re- 
formed preachers in New Amsterdam, Johannes Megapolensis and 
Samuel Drisius, stated in a letter to the Council. ^lo 

Also Pieter Jansen Noorman was a Lutheran ; and the pastors 
Megapolensis and Drisius made mention of that too. He was one 
of the signers of the petition of the Lutherans requesting that the 
order to deport the Lutheran pastor Johannis Ernestus Goetwater 
might be revoked (Reference 42). He was, no doubt, the person 
whom Megapolensis and Drisius, in their letter of August 23, 1658, 
to the Director-General and Council of New Netherland, were 
pleased to call a "stupid northerner who was neither a Lutheran 
nor of the Reformed Religion and who had not intelligence enough 
to understand the difference between them," a man who "about 
two years ago" "nibbled at" certain questions concerning baptism, 



208 Ibid., I., p. 237. 

209 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, III., p. 287. 

210 Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York, I., p. 430. 



88 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

"but could not give any reasons against them, or receive or try 
to understand a reason in their favor."2ii 

These pastors were not any too w^ell disposed to the Lu- 
therans, as the following extract from their letter, just referred 
to, indicates. After giving their opinion about the "stupid north- 
erner," they continue : 

"Nevertheless they [the Lutherans] have sought, for five or 
six years, to call a Lutheran preacher, as Paulus Schrick once 
said to Heyer Stoffels, whom he took to be a Lutheran, because 
he sang German songs on shipboard on the way to Holland. When 
Schrick returned from Holland in 1655 he became a chief pro- 
moter of this work. Separate meetings began to be held, until the 
year 1656, when your decree forbidding them was issued. We 
believe that, as the Pharisees were offended at the words of Christ, 
Matt. 15: 12, 13, so also has it been in this case; that not only 
a few words in the Form for the administration of baptism but 
also the preaching of the divine Word itself was objectionable to 
them ; for blind men easily run against any obstacle. We say 
blind men, for to our knowledge, there is hardly one among them 
here who has any proper acquaintance with the teachings of Dr. 
Luther. They praise Luther only because they call themselves by 
his name. They are Lutherans, and will remain such, because 
their parents and ancestors were Lutherans, as Paulus Schrick 
their leader in his wisdom once declared."^^^ 

Of Lysbeth Jansen, the wife of Pieter Jansen, we know but 
little. Once in August, 1659, when she was present in "respectable 
company," the wife of Hendrick Jansen Sluyter started to fight 
with her and committed such indecencies and damage that the 
matter was brought before the court. Lysbeth Jansen was spared. 
But Sluyter had to promise to send his wife away to Holland 
or to pay the fine and the "damage done by fighting."2i3 Sluyter 
himself had no good record. He had been dismissed from his 
position as watchman on Rattle watch. -i"* He took sod from 



211 Ibid., p. 428. There were probably two Pieter Jansens who signed the 
petition of 1657. The other was Pieter Jansen of Winckelhock. 

212 Schrick was from Nuernberg, Germany, one of the leading men in New 
Amsterdam. 

213 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, III., p. 23. 

214 Ibid., VII., p. 208. 



JANSEN. 89 

Christina Capoen's land and was reprimanded. ^i'^ He "wanted 
to tap, but was denied for good reasons." ^le 

Pieter Jansen died before October 6, 1662, when his widow 
married Joost Janszen Cocquyt, from Brugge, who was at the time 
an inhabitant of Bushwick.^i" 



ROELOF JANSEN. 

Roelof Jansen arrived at New Amsterdam by "de Eendracht," 
May 24, 1630.2i« The ship sailed from the Texel, March 21, 1630 
He was to work in the colony of Rensselaerswyck for $72 a 
year.21® He was accompanied by his wife Anneke (Anetje) Jans, 
his daughters Sarah, (Katrina) and Fytje.220 Until quite recently 
it has been believed that Roelof Jansen and his family were Dutch. 
In the "Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts," (p. 56f. note) it is 
shown by A. T. F. van Laer, Archivist of New York State, that 
they were not from "Maasterland," but from "Masterland" or 
"Maesterland," meaning Marstrand, which is on a small island 
off the coast of Sweden, near Goteborg (Gothenburg). The 
editor and translator of "Bowier Manuscripts" concludes therefore 
that Jansen's family probably were Swedes. But why not Nor- 
wegians? Marstrand belonged to Norway prior to 1658, and it is 
significant that Claes Claesen and Jacob Goyversen, both from 
Flekkero, Norway, sailed with Roelof and worked with him on 
"de Laets Burg." There were on July 20, 1632, only three men 
on this farm : Jansen, Claesen, Goyversen, three Norwegians.221 

On July 1, 1632, Roelof Jansen was appointed schepens. The 
oath of the schepens, administered by the Schout to Jansen, and 



p. 28. 



215 Ibid., III., p. 341. 

216 Ibid., I., p. 288. Christina was a daughter of Dirck Holgersen. 

217 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II.. 



218 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 218. 

219 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1896, p. 131. 

220 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 308. 

221 Ibid., pp. 805, 222. Masterlandt is explained as Marstrand in a letter 
of the year 1644, in "Bijdragen en Mededeelingen van het Historisch Genootschap 
(Gevestigd te Utrecht). Negen en twintigste deel," Amsterdam, 1908, p. 279. 
The first writer who made the claim that the family of Roelof Jansen was Norwegian, 
was Mr. Torstein Jahr, in "Symra" (Decorah, Iowa), Vol. IX., Part 1, p. 8f: 
"Nordmenn i Ny Nederland. Anneke Jans fra Marstrand, hennes farm og hennes 
slekt". See "Preface" to the present volume. 



90 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Other schepens, among whom was Laurens Laurensen, another 
Norwegian, was as follows: 

"This you swear, that you will be good schepens, that you 
will be loyal and feal to my gracious lord and support and 
strengthen him in his affairs as much as is in your power; that 
you will pass honest judgment between the lord and the farmer, 
the farmer and the lord, and in the proceedings between two 
farmers, and that you will not fail to do this on any consideration 
whatsoever. 

"So help you God." 

As schepen, Roelof Jansen got a "black hat, with silver 
bands. 222 

As to Roelof's farming, but little can be said. Van Rens- 
selaer, always exacting in his demands, complained in a letter 
written July 20, 1632, to Wolfert Gerritz, that it showed "bad 
management that Roeloff Jansen could not get any winter seed. 
I hope that he has sown the more summer seed." ^23 

Likewise in a letter of April 23, 1634, to Director Wouter 
van Twiller, the Patroon said : "I see that Roeloff Janssen has 
grossly run up my account in drawing the provisions, yes, prac- 
tically the full allowance [even] when there was [enough in] 
stock. I think that his wife, mother, and sister and others must 
have given things away, which can not be allowed. He complains 
that your honor has dismissed him from the farm, and your honor 
writes me that he wanted to leave it." 224 it would thus appear 
that Jansen left the colony of Rensselaerswyck in 1634. 

Roelof Jansen moved with his family to New Amsterdam 
about 1634 or a little later. In 1636 he received a groundbrief of 
thirty-one morgens of land lying along East River.225 "It formed 
a sort of peninsula between the river and the swamps which then 
covered the sites of Canal Street and West Broadway." Here 
Jansen "probably erected a small farmhouse upon a low hill near 
the river shore at about the present Jay Street; but he had hardly 
made a beginning in the work of getting his bouwery under culti- 



222 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 203. 

223 Ibid., p. 219. 

224 Ibid., p. 281. His mother-in-law, Tryn Jonas, and his sister-in-law, 
Marritje, are meant. See articles "Tryn Jonas" and "Marritje Jans." 

225 E. B. O'Oallaghan, History of New Netherland, II., p. 581. 




From a 



lengrt 



r 



=a35SBsa=ssiSs~»»s-, 



' ' 4H. 













'•■^'.>. 11377. 
J^- ;topendael 

I 



JANS. 91 

vation when he died, leaving his widow the arduous task of caring 
for a family of five children in a colony hardly settled as yet."22« 
Of Jansen's children, Sarah, Katrina and Sofia married in New 
Netherland (See the articles following). Annetje died as a child. 
Jan (Roelofsen) settled in Schenectady and was killed by the 
Indians in the massacre of 1690. 

Jansen's widow married again. The Dutch Reformed preach- 
er in New Amsterdam Everardus Bogardus took her for his wife 
in 1638. See the article "Anneke Jans." Of all Scandinavian 
immigrants in early New York she is probably the best known. 



ANNEKE JANS. 

Anneke Jans arrived with her husband and three children at 
New Amsterdam May 24, 1630. As we have seen in the fore- 
going sketch, she came from Marstrand, Norway. She was with 
her husband at Fort Orange until 1634 or 1635 when the family 
moved down to New Amsterdam and settled on sixty-two acres 
of land, which Jansen received in 1636. He died shortly afterward. 

Anneke was left with five children, though she, no doubt re- 
ceived some aid from her mother, Tryn Jonas, midwife, and from 
her sister, Marritje, both of whom were in New Amsterdam. 
Kiliaen van Rensselaer released her from what she owed him. In 
a letter of September 21, 1637, to Director van Twiller he said: 
"I only have from you the recommendation of the widow ox 
Roeloef Jansen, written to me hastily and with few words and 
your oral greetings by Jacob Wolphertsen. I released the said 
widow from her debt long ago. My reason for so doing I will 
tell you orally, when we meet, God willing, in good health.' ^2^ 

In March, 1638, Anneke was married to the Dutch Reformed 
pastor in New Amsterdam, Everardus Bogardus, who in 1633 had 
come to New Amsterdam to succeed the ministry of Jonas 
Michaelis. He had at the time a little church on the East River 

226 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 18. "The present 
boundaries of the land Jansen obtained in 1636 are the North River, Christopher 
Street, Bedford Street, West Houston Street, Sullivan Street, Canal Street, West 
Broadway, Barclay Street, Broadway, and Fulton Street, around to the river again" 
(Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, I., p. 301). 

227 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 352. Anne is the Norwegian 
spelling of Annetje or Anneke. 



92 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

shore, or upon the present Pearl Street, between Whitehall and 
Broad Streets, and adjoining it was the parsonage. In addition 
to his clerical duties he assumed the cares of a landed proprietor. 
In the marriage settlement, still extant, Anneke had provided for 
the securing to her first husband's children the sum of 200 guilders 
each. 228 

The sixty-two acres of land which she inherited from her 
first husband now got the name of the "Domine's Bouwerie." 
"United in early English days to the Company's Bouwerie, ic 
formed part of the famous tract, which, bestowed in the time of 
Queen Anne upon Trinity Church, in the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries was the subject of repeated and hotly contested action 
at law in which Annetje's name conspicuously figured. "22^ 

On August 12, 1638, Everardus Bogardus, as the "husband 
of the widow of Roelof Jansen of Masterlandt" gave Power of 
Attorney to Director van Twiller "to collect money due said 
Jansen.230 

Anneke, no doubt, was now a lady of leisure compared to what 
she had been when she was farming with Roelof on de Laets Burg. 
But her position as the wife of a parson was severely tested im- 
mediately after her second marriage. Anthony Jansen from Salee 
and his wife, Grietje Reiners, were none too well disposed to 
Domine Bogardus and Anneke. Grietje found an opportunity of 
circulating the report that Anneke had given public offense. An- 
thony Jansen, whose tongue vied with that of his wife, helped to 
spread the report. The matter came before the Court. 2^1 

Mrs. Lamb's version of this case is as follows : 

"Mrs. Bogardus went to pay a friendly visit to a neighbor ; 
but on getting into the 'entry', discovered that Greitje Reinirs, a 
woman of questionable reputation, was in the house, and there- 
upon turned about and went home. Grietje was greatly offended 
at this 'snubbing' from the Dominie's lady, and followed her, mak- 
ing disagreeable remarks. While passing a blacksmith's shop, 
where the road was muddy, Mrs. Bogardus raised her dress a little, 
and Grietje was very invidious in her criticisms. The Doniime 



228 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 16. 
229 Ibid., p. 14. It must not be confounded with Dominies Hock, 
other land belonging to Bogardus. 

230 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 3. 

231 Ibid., I., pp. 4, 65. 



JANS. 93 

thought fit to make an example of her; hence the suit. Grietje's 
husband being in arrears for church dues, Bogardus sent for him 
and ordered payment, and not getting it, finally sued for the 
amount." (See Lamb, History of the City of New York, I. p. 86). 

Anneke's second husband was a fearless and outspoken person. 
He was at variance with Governor Van Twiller as well as with his 
successor Governor Kieft. He accused Van Twiller of mal- 
administration and in consequence was himself charged with un- 
becoming conduct, and was about to depart for Holland to defend 
himself, but was detained by Governor Kieft. He opposed Kieft's 
policy in regard to the Indians, and in 1645 denounced him for 
drunkenness and rapacity. He was therefore brought to trial, but 
compromised with Kieft. But the old difficulties appeared again. 
In 1646 the Director and Council of Nevv^ Amsterdam summoned 
Bogardus to appear and answer charges against him. The "sum- 
mons" is as long as it is violent, likely the work of Kieft. We 
shall give a few extracts from it : 

". . . We have letters in your own hand, among others, one 
dated June 17, 1634, wherein you do not appear to be moved ty 
the Spirit of the Lord, but on the contrary by a feeling becoming 
heathen, let alone Christians, much less a preacher of the Gospel. 
You there berate your magistrate, placed over you by God, as a 
child of the Devil, an incarnate villain, whose buck goats are better 
than he, and promise him that you would so pitch into him from 
the pulpit on the following Sunday, that both you and his bulwarks 
would tremble. . . . 

"You have indulged no less in scattering abuse during our 
administration. Scarcely a person in the entire land have you 
spared; not even your own wife, or her sister, particularly when 
you were in good company and jolly. Still, mixing up your human 
passions with the chain of truth which has continued from time to 
time, you associated with the greatest criminals in the country, 
taking their part and defending them. . . . 

"On the 25th of September, 1639, having celebrated the Lord's 
Supper, observing afterwards in the evening a bright fire in the 
Director's house, whilst you were at Jacob van Curler's, being 
thoroughly drunk, you grossly abused the Director and Jochim 
Pietersen, with whom you were angry. . . . 



94 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

"Since that time many acts have been committed by you, 
which no clergyman would think of doing. . . . 

"Maryn Adriaensen came into the Director's room with pre- 
determined purpose to murder him. He, notwithstanding, was sent 
to Holland in chains against your will. Whereupon you fulminated 
terribly for about fourteen days and desecrated your pulpit by 
your passion. . . . Finally, you made up friends with the Director, 
and things became quiet. . . . 

"In the summer of . . . (1644) when minister Douthey ad- 
ministered the Lord's Supper in the morning, you came drunk 
into the pulpit in the afternoon ; also on Friday before Christmas 
of the same year, when you preached the sermon calling to repent- 
ance. . . . 

"On the 21st March, 1645, being at a wedding feast at Adam 
Brouwer's and pretty drunk, you commenced scolding the Fiscal 
and Secretary then present, censuring also the Director not a little, 

giving as your reason that he had called your wife a , though 

he said there that it was not true and that he never entertained 
such a thought, and it never could be proved. . . . 

"You administered the Lord's Supper . . . without partaking 
of it yourself, setting yourself as a partisan. . ." ^32 

Such was the husband of Anneke Jans in the opinion of 
the highest official in the land who himself was so hateful to the 
people that he was obliged to resign. 

Signature of Everhard Boghardus, second husband of Anneke Jans. 

When Kieft returned to Holland, after the arrival of Governor 
Stuyvesant in 1647, Bogardus sailed in the same vessel to answer 
the charges brought against him, before the classis in Amsterdam.. 
The vessel entered Bristol Channel by mistake, and struck upon 
a rock, going down with eighty persons, among them Bogardus and 
Kieft. This happened on September 27, 1647. 



232 Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York, I., p. 196flf. 



JANS. 95 

Anneke was thus widow for the second time of her days. 
No doubt she had borne her share of the discomfort caused by the 
enmity between Kieft and Bogardus. The following extract of 
a letter of Rev. Megapolensis in Albany, written August 25, 1648. 
to the Classis of Amsterdam shows what she still had to contend 
against, and what was his opinion of the Kieft-Bogardus feud. 

"After the Lord God was pleased to cut short the thread of 
life of Domine Bogardus by shipwreck . . ., his widow came here 
to Fort Orange ... to reside and make her living. She has nine 
children living, some by a former husband and some by Domine 
Bogardus, and is also deeply in debt. She has, however, no wav 
to liquidate her debts, nor means for her own subsistence, unless 
the West India Company pay her the arrears of salary due her 
husband. Domine Bogardus repeatedly asserted that a higher 
salary was promised him, before leaving Holland, than he ever 
received here. . . 

"It is now about two years since I was called upon by Director- 
General William Kieft, to settle the difficulties between said Kieft 
and Domine Bogardus. I attempted several times to smooth the 
differences which had arisen here, but all in vain. Domine Bo- 
gardus asserted that it could not be done here, but that the matter 
ought to be laid before the Hon. Directors ; or even if it could be 
determined here, he would, nevertheless, be obliged to go home, 
in order to demand, before his death, the salary promisd him, 
for the maintenance and support of his family. . . . 

"He had been paid for a considerable time only 46 guilders 
per month, with 150 guilders extra per year for board money. . . 

"Annetje Bogardus . . . has requested me to write to the 
Rev. Classis, in her name and in her behalf, in order that the 
Rev. Classis, or the Deputies thereof, might, for the sake of a 
preacher's widow, petition the Company for the money due her, 
to be paid to her or her attorney, to enable her to pay her debts 
and support her family. . . ." ^ss 

The letter of Megapolensis, it would appear, does not ex- 
aggerate her distress. She had several little children to support, 
though three of her grown-up daughters were married. Her house 
in New York was situate on what is now No. 23 Whitehall Street 



233 Itid., I., p. 237. 



96 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

In 1652 she was enabled to buy a lot in Albany on the corner of 
James and State Streets. Here she built a house and resided the 
remainder of her life. It would appear that her son-in-law Pieter 
Hartgers secured this property for her. It was "bounded east by 
land of Jonas and Peter Bogardus, and west by Evert Janse Wen- 
dell. Being 2 rods 8^ feet wide, and 5 rods 9 feet long." On 
June 21, 1663, after the death of Anneke, it was sold by the heirs 
to Dirck Wessells. The price was "1,000 guilders in good 
merchantable beaver skins, at 8 guilders a piece." (Collections of 
the New York Historical Society, IV., p. 488). 

In 1654 she obtained from Governor Stuyvesant a patent in 
her own name on the land she had inherited from her first husband. 

This Patent reads as follows : 

"Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General of New Netherland. 
Curacao and the Islands thereof, on the behalf of their Noble High 
Mightinesses the Lords States-General of the United Netherlands 
and the Honorable Directors of the Incorporated West India Com- 
pany, together with the Honorable Councillors, declare that We on 
this day, date underwritten, have given and granted to Annetje 
Jans, widow of the late Everardus Bogardus, a piece of land situate 
on the Island of Manhattan on the North River, beginning at the 
palisades near the house on the Strand it goes north by east up 
to the partition line of old Jan's land is long 210 rods ; from thence 
along the partition line of said Old Jan's land it extends E. by S. 
up to the Cripple bush (swamp) it runs S. W. long 160 rods from 
the Cripple bush, to the Strand it runs westerly in breadth 50 rods ; 
the land that lies to the south of the house to the partition line of 
the Company's land begins on the east side, from the palisades 
southward to the posts and rails of the Company's land, without 
obstruction to the path, it is broad 60 rods ; long on the south side 
along the posts and rails 160 rods; at the east side to the corner 
of Kalchhook is broad 30 rods; to the division line of the afore- 
said piece of land it goes westerly in length 100 rods ; it makes all- 
together 31 morgens." (Historic New York. Ed. by Goodwin, 
Royce and Putnam I., p. 84 f.) 

Her will, dated January 29, 1663, and on record in the original 
Dutch in book of Notarial Papers, in the County Clerk's office, 
Albany, reads as follows : 



JANS. 97 

"Will of Anneke Jans Bogardus. — In the name of the Lord, 
Amen. Know all men by these presents, That this day, the 29th 
of January, 1663, in the afternoon, about four o'clock, appeared 
before me, Derrick Van Schelluyne, notary public, in the presence 
of the witnesses hereafter mentioned, Anneke Janse, widow of 
Roeloff Janse, of Master Land, and now lastly widow of the 
Reverend Everhardus Bogardus, residing in the village of Bever- 
wyck, and well known to us, notary and witnesses ; the said Anneke 
Janse lying on her bed in a state of sickness, but perfectly sensible 
and in the full possession of her mental powers, and capable to 
testate, to which sound state of mind we can fully testify. The 
said Anneke Janse considering the shortness of life and certainty 
of death and the uncertainty of the hour or time, she, the said 
Anneke Janse, declared after due consideration, without any 
persuasion, compulsion, or retraction, this present document to be 
her last will and testament, in manner following: First of all 
recommending her immortal soul to the Almighty God, her Creator 
and Redeemer, and consigning her body to Christian burial, and 
herewith revoking and annulling all prior testamentary dispositions 
of any kind whatsoever, and now proceeding anew, she declared 
to nominate and institute as her sole and universal heirs her chil- 
dren, Sarah Roellofson, wife of Hans Kierstede ; Catrina Roeloff- 
sen, wife of Johannes Van Brugh.; also Jannetje and Rachel 
Hartgers, the children of her deceased daughter, Fytie Roeloffsen, 
during her life the wife of Peter Hartgers, representing together 
their mother's place; also her son Jan Roeloffsen, and finally, Wil- 
liam, Cornelius, Jonas, and Peter Bogardus, and to them to be- 
queath all her real estate, chattels, money, gold and silver, coined 
and uncoined, jewels, clothes, linen, woolen, household furniture, 
and all property what soever, without reserve or restriction of any 
kind, to be disposed of after her decease and divided by them in 
equal shares, to do with the same at their own will and pleasure 
without any hindrance whatsoever; provided never the less with 
this express condition and restriction that her four first born 
children shall divide between them out of their father's property 
the sum of one thousand guilders, to be paid to them out of the 
proceeds of a certain farm, situate on Manhattan Island, bounded 
on the North river, and that before any other dividend takes place ; 
and as three of these children at the time of their marriage received 
certain donations, and as Jan Roeloffsen is yet unmarried, he is to 



98 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

receive a bed and milch cow ; and to Jonas and Peter Bogardus she 
gives a house and lot situated to the westward of the house of the 
testatrix in the village of Beverwyck, going in length until the end 
of a bleaching spot, and in breadth up to the room of her, the 
testatrix, house, besides a bed for both of them and a milch cow 
to each of them, the above to be an equivalent of what the married 
children have received. Finally, she, the testatrix, gives to Roeloif 
Kierstede, the child of her daughter Sara, a silver mug; to Annetje 
Van Brugh, the child of her daughter Catrina, also a silver "mug; 
and to Jannetje and Rachel Hartgers, the children of her daughter 
Fytie, a silver mug each; and to the child of William Bogardus 
named Fytie also a silver mug; all the above donations to be 
provided for out of the first moneys received, and afterwards the 
remainder of the property to be divided and shared aforesaid. 
The testatrix declares this document to be her only true last will 
and testament, and desiring that after her decease it may supersede 
all other testaments, codicils, donations, or any other instruments 
whatsoever; and in case any formalities may have been omitted, 
it is her will and desire the same benefits may occur as if they 
actually had been observed ; and she requested me, notary public, 
to make one or more lawful instruments in the usual form of 
this, her, testatrix, last will and desire. Signed, sealed, and de- 
livered at the house of the testatrix in the village of Beverwyck, in 
New Netherland, in the presence of Ruth Jacobse Van Schoonder- 
weert and Evert Wendell, witnesses. 



"This is the -|- mark of Anneke Janse with her own hand. 

"Rutger Jacobus, 
"Evert Jacobus Wendell. 
"D. V. Schelluyne, Notary Public, 1663." 
(For this and other translations I am indebted to Collections 
of the New York Historical Society, IV., p.487 fif.) 

Anneke died March 19, 1663. and lies buried in the Middle 
Dutch Church Yard, on Beaver Street. 

She was the first Norwegian "predikantsvrouw" (pastor's 
wife), in New York. And of all the pastors' wives in New York 



JANS. 99 

she has become the most famous. But this fame is due to chance 
and circumstance rather than to Anneke herself. Mrs. Lamb says : 
"Although she (Anneke) may not have seemed rich in the days 
when great landed estates were to be bought for a few strings of 
beads, yet she is reverenced by her numerous descendants as among 
the very goddesses of wealth. She was a small well-formed woman 
with delicate features, transparent complexion, and bright, beauti- 
ful dark eyes. She had a well-balanced mind, a sunny disposition, 
winning manners, and a kind heart. . . " 

Anneke Jans' fame rests on property and progeny. Her de- 
scendants are numerous. Many of them are wealthy, some of 
them have been conspicuous in the litigation regarding Anneke 
Jans' farm. John Fiske speaks of this litigation as "one of the 
most pertinacious cases of litigation known to modern history." 
(The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America, II., p. 32). 

We have mentioned that Director Stuyvesant gave the heirs 
of Anneke a patent, on the land in question, in 1654. This patent 
was confirmed in 1664 by Governor Nicolls, after the English had 
conquered New Netherland. In 1671 five of the heirs conveyd the 
whole farm to Col. Francis Lovlace, then governor of the province 
of New York. In 1674 the Duke of York confiscated it, so that 
it was the "Duke's Farm" until 1685, when with James' accession 
to the throne it became the "King's Farm." In 1705 it was leased 
or granted by the colonial authorities under Queen Anne to Trinity 
Church. One of Anneke's sons, Cornelius, had not joined in the 
conveyance of 1671 ; the heirs of this son have claimed that h's 
failure to join invalidated the sale and that they therefore had a 
right to their share of the property. Between 1750 and 1847 not 
less than sixteen or seventeen suits in ejectment were brought 
against Trinity Church by heirs who coveted the property. They 
were brought "with such a persistency which seemed to learn no 
lesson from defeat. In 1847 Vice-Chancellor Sanford decided 
that, after waving all other points, the church had acquired a valid 
title by prescription, and all the adverse claims were vitiated by 
lapse of time" (Fiske, Dutch and Quaker Colonies, II., p. 258). 

Let us also quote from the article "Annetje Jans' Farm," 
in "Historic New York" (I., p. 95) : 



100 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

"Sixty-eight years after the sale to Lovlace, and thirty-one 
years after Queen Anne's grant, the descendants of Corneliu- 
Bogardus began to protest against the occupancy of Trinity Church. 
There was a confused notion then as to what they could claim, 
and this confusion has increased in the minds of the "heirs" during 
two hundred years. The history of the repeated suits is long 
and involved. No court has sustained the claims of the "heirs" 
for a minute, and yet, with every generation, new claimants appear, 
though every possible right has long since been outlawed. Mr. 
Schuyler says in his Colonial New York: 'In view of the repeated 
decisions of the highest judicial tribunals and of their publicity, 
any lawyer who can now advise or encourage the descendants of 
Annetje Jans to waste their money in any proceedings to recover 
this property must be considered as playing on the ignorance of 
simple people, and as guilty of conscious fraud, and of an attempt 
to obtain money under false pretenses.' Mr. Schuyler made a 
close study of the subject, and is himself a distinguished descendant 
of Roelof and Annetje Jans." 

As late as 1891 Trinity Corporation found it necessary to 
publish the following: 

"To all whom it may concern : 

"As letters are being constantly received from various places 
in the United States making inquiries about suits pending against 
this corporation in respect to its property, or about negotiations 
assumed to be on foot in respect to the alleged claims of the 
descendants of Anneke Jans or of other persons, notice is hereby 
given that no such suits are pending, and no such negotiations are 
going on, and all persons who suppose themselves to be descend- 
ants of Anneke Jans, or otherwise interested in claims hostile to 
this corporation, are cautioned against paying out money to any 
person alleging the pendency of such suits or negotiations." 

Societies have been formed like the Anneke Jans Association, 
founded in Astor House Library in New York, 1867, The Anneke 
Jans International Union, etc. But no organized endeavor has as 
yet succeeded in invalidating the claim of the Trinity Corporation. 
It has continued to enjoy all the benefits and revenues of the vast 
property to this day. No wonder that Trinity Church can con- 
tribute more than four hundred thousand dollars a year to charity! 



EOELOFS (JANSE). 101 

Trinity Church is Episcopal. It is the wealthiest church organiza- 
tion in America and it is continually reminded of it, even in the 
twentieth century. 

For as late as 1909 Trinity Corporation was sued again by 
an heir of Anneke Jans. Mary Fonda wanted, as heir, one per cent 
of valuable Trinity property. 

Regarding the descendants of Anneke Jans, see : I. Munsell, 
Collections on the History of Albany II. ; and The New York 
Genealogical and Biographical Record. 

See also S. P. Nash, Anneke Jans Bogardus, her farm, and 
how it became the Property of Trinity Church, New York, 1896. 

Of the many prominent families which by ties of marriage 
have augmented the genealogy of Anneke Jans, Mr. Torstein Jahr's 
article in "Symra" mentions Bayard, De Lancey, De Peyster, 
Jouverneur, Jay, Knickerbocker, Morris, Schuyler, Stuyvesant, 
Van Cortland and Van Rensselaer. 



FYNTIE ROELOFS (JANSE). 

Fyntie Roelofs (Janse) accompanied her parents, Roelof 
Jansen and Anneke Jans, to New Netherland, in 1630. She was 
from Marstrand, then belonging to Norway. She lived from 1630 
to about 1634 with her parents on de Laets Burg, and since 1635 
in New Amsterdam. She married Pieter Hartgers, who came to 
New Amsterdam in 1643 in the service of the West India Com- 
pany, and first settled at Fort Orange. He was engaged much of 
his time in trading with the Indians. He made long expeditions 
into the forest to get their trade. From November 1, 1644, to 
February 1, 1648, he received in the colony of Rensselaerswyck 
a salary of fl. 14 a month. During this period he seems to havo 
assisted de Hooges in the management of the colony of Rensselaers- 
wyck. As early as 1646 he appears to have had a brewery. On 
May 4, 1649, he and de Hooges leased, for three years, a garden 
between Fort Orange and the patroon's hoof, where formerly the 
patroon's trading house stood. About the same time he agreed 
to pay an annual rent, beginning in 1653, of four beavers for a 
lot for his mother-in-law, Anneke Jans, on which lot he built a 



102 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

house for her. From May 1, 1653 to May 1, 1658 Pieter Hartgers, 
Volckert Janszz (a Dane), and Jan Thomasz were joint lessees 
of a farm on Papscanee Island. 

Signature of Pieter Hartgers, husband of Fyntie Roelofs. 

He was one of the magistrates in Albany in 1658. He ac- 
quired the reputation of a great expert as to the value of Indian 
money (shell money), and was appointed in 1659 a commissioner 
at Albany to estimate Indian wampum. 

In 1652 he bought a parcel of ground, in New Amsterdam, 
from Van Couwenhoven. (About his house and lot in New Am- 
sterdam, see Valentine's Manual of the City of New York 1865, 
pp. 659, 663.) 

In 1664 his property was confiscated, perhaps on account oi 
a refusal to take the oath of allegiance to the English government. 

By Fyntie Roelofs, Hartgers had two children, Jannetys and 
Rachel. Fyntie died before 1663, when her mother Anneke Jans 
made her will. The portion of inheritance which Fyntie was 
entitled to was therefore willed to her daughters Jannetys and 
Rachel. (See Van Rensselaer Bowie Manuscripts, p. 834 ; J. H. 
Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 80.) Jannetys (Jan- 
neke) was baptized September 5, 1649. 



KATRINA ROELOFS (JANSE). 

Katrina Roelofs (Janse), a daughter of Roelof Jansen and 
Anneke Jans, from Marstrand, Norway, came with her parents 
to New Netherland in 1630. She lived with them on de Laets 
Burg till 1634 — 1635, when the entire family moved to New Am- 
sterdam. She was married first to Lukas Rodenburgh, who was 
Vice Director of Curacao (1644 to 1655), then, on April 24, 1658, 
to Johannes Pietersen van Brugh, who was a merchant and later 
member of the first board of aldermen in New Amsterdam, captain 



EOELOFS (JANSE). 103 

in the New York militia, burgomaster of New Orange. (New 
Amsterdam or New York was called New Orange from February, 
1673 to November 1674.) In 1674 Katrina and her husband lived 
in their house, rated as first class and valued at $15,000, in New 
Amsterdam, on the present west side of Pearl St. between Wall 
and William St. (Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 
1896, p. 167.) They were members of the Dutch Reformed Church. 




XJL^ YlM 



t/?>*t^^/t^ -^^^ 



Signature of Johannes Van Brugh, 1659, second husband of Katrina Roelofs. 

Katrina and one of her daughters whom she had by Roden- 
burgh are mentioned several times in the Journal of Jasper Danck- 
aerts, 1679—1680 (edited by Rev. B. B. James, in "Original Narra- 
tives of Early American History," 1913). Danckaerts and his 
companion, Sluyter, were Labadists who had come over to this 
country in order to find a location for the establishment of a 
colony of Labadists. Aided by Ephraim Herrman, who was the 
eldest son of Augustine Herrman and had married Elizabeth 
Rodenburgh, September, 1679, they received a tract of 3,750 acres 
upon Bohemia Manor, in Maryland, a part of the 24,000 acres 
of land belonging to Augustine Herrman of Prague. The elder 
Herrman was at first favorably impressed with Danckaerts and 
Sluyter, and, as he was ambitious of colonizing and developing his 
estates, he consented to deed them a large tract of land. The 
two Labadists soon set sail for Europe. But when they returned 
in 1683, Augustine Herrman had repented of his bargain. By 
recourse of law the Labadists compelled him to live up to its terms, 
and in consequence received the tract of 3,750 acres. 

We shall quote the following, from Jasper Danckaert's 
Journal (September, 1679): 

"Ephraim had for a long time sought in marriage at New 



104 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

York a daughter of the late governor of Carsou . . . Johan van 
Rodenburgh. She Hved with her mother on the Manhatan, who, 
after the death of her husband, Rodenburgh, married one Johannes 
van Burgh, by whom she had several children. Her daughter, 
Elizabeth van Rodenburgh, being of a quiet turn of mind, and 
quite sickly, had great inclination to remain single. Ephraim, how 
ever, finally succeeded in his suit, and married her at New York. 
He brought her with him to Newcastle on the South River, and we 
accompanied them on the journey . . . Elizabeth van Rodenburg 
has the quietest disposition we have observed in America. She 
is politely educated. She had through her entire youth a sleeping 
sickness of which she seems now to be free. She has withdrawn 
herself much from the idle company of youth, seeking God in 
quiet and solitude. She professes the Reformed religion, is a 
member of that Church, and searches for the truth which she 
has found nowhere except in the word and preaching, which she 
therefore much attended upon and loved, but which never satisfied 
her, as she felt a want and yearning after something more. She 
vvas so pleased at our being near her, and lodged at her house, 
she could not abstain from frequently declaring so, receiving all 
that we said to her with gratitude, desiring always to be near us; 
and following the example of her husband, she corrected many 
things, with the hope and promise of persevering if the Lord 
would be pleased so to give her grace. We were indeed much 
comforted with these two persons, who have done much for us 
out of sincere love." 

Under date of January 2, 1680, Danckaerts relates that he 
and his companion, on a journey northward, had letters along from 
Ephraim and his wife which they gave "to her mother and father 
(step-father Van Brugh), who welcomed us. We told them of the 
good health of their children, and the comfort and hope which 
they gave us, which pleased them." February 6. the same year, 
Danckaerts writes : "I . . translated the Verheffinge des Geestes 
tot God [The Lifting up of the Soul to God. Labadie's publica- 
tion, 1667] to Dutch [evidently he had the original French text 
in hand], for Elizabeth Rodenburgh ... in order to send her i 
token of gratitude for the acts of kindness enjoyed at her house, 
as she had evinced a great inclination for it, and relished it much, 
when sometimes we read portions of it to her while we were there." 



EOELOFS (JANSE). 105 

It was not Elizabeth, but her husband that the Labadists suc- 
ceeded in converting. Ephraim, after living with his wife for 
nine years, abandoned wife and family to join the Labadists. 
He soon repented of his step, returned home, became insane and 
"died cursed by his father for having associated with those re- 
ligious visionaries." 

On March 24, 1692, Elizabeth, then a widow, was married to 
John Donaldson, from 'Galleway'. Catharina, whom Katrina 
Roelofs had by her second husband, married, March 19, 1689 (?), 
Hendrick van Rensselaer, grandson of Kiliaen Van Rensselaer. 
She had nine children. 

An extract of the will of Katrina Roelofs third husband is 
found in "Collections of the New York Hist. Society," XXV.. 
pp. 89 f., 93 f. 



SARA ROELOFS (JANSE). 

Sara Roelofs (Janse) was the first daughter of Roelof and 
Anneke Jans, with whom she arrived in New Netherland in 1630. 
She was with them on "de Laets Burg" till 1634 — 1635, when the 
family removed to New Amsterdam and settled on their farm 
of 62 acres, on which Roelof had obtained a patent in 1636. 

Sara was married three times. Her first husband, to whom 
she was married June 29, 1642, was Hans Kierstede, a German, 
from Magdeburg. He was a physician in New Amsterdam. Sara 
and Hans lived in the house next to that of a Norwegian, Roelof 
Jansen Haes. It was at their wedding, that Governor Kieft, tak- 
ing advantage of the condition of the guests after the fourth or 
fifth drink, induced them to subscribe very liberally toward build- 
ing a new church in the Fort. "The disposition to be generous 
was not wanting at such a time. Each guest emulated his neighbor, 
and a handsome list was made out. When the morning came, a 
few were found desirous of reconsidering the transaction of the 
wedding feast. But Director Kieft would allow no such second 
thought. They must all pay without exception." By Hans 
Kierstede Sara had ten children. Both Hans and Sara were mem- 
bers of the Dutch Reformed Church. 

Mrs. Van Rensselaer, in "History of the City of New York," 



106 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

I., p. 190, says, Kierstede and La Montagne "were the chief 
physicians of New Amsterdam, although one named Van der Bo- 
gaert practised before their arrival, and by 1638 there were three 
others, probably ships' surgeons whose stay was brief. Kierstede's 
descendants followed in his steps : it is believed that always since 
his time New York has had a physician or an apothecary of his 
blood and name." 

Sara was styled one of the "good women" of New Amster- 
dam, at least in 1662, as is seen from the following: 

On September 19, 1662, a Jan Gelder sued Grietje Pieters 
for three guilders, sixteen stivers, wages she owed him. Grietje 
admitted the debt, but said that she had given to Gelder's wife 
some linen to make caps, and she spoiled the caps. The Court 
referred "the matter in question to Sara Roeloftzen, wife of Mr. 
Hans Kierstede, and to Metje Greveraats to take up the matter 
in question, to inspect the linen caps, to settle parties' case, and 
if possible to reconcile them ; if not to report their decision to the 
Court." On October 3, the case was again before the court. The 
defendant was in default. "Pltf. says that the deft, is not willing 
to appear before the "good women" (female arbitrators), and that 
Sara Roelofs, appointed by the W. Court will not have anything 
to do with the matter, as she will not be opposed to either one party 
or the other." The Court insited that Janneke van Gelder must 
either appear before the "good women" or make good the damage 
estimated by them.^^* 

Sara was more than the ordinary arbitrating "good woman." 
She was well acquainted with the Indian language, and acted on 
divers occasions as interpreter for Peter Stuyvesant and the 
Indians. In return for her service, Oratany, sachem of Hackingke- 
sacky. made her a present of a large neck or tract of land on 
the west side of the Hudson. 

Her second husband, to whom she was married September 1, 
1669, was Cornelius of Dorsum, owner of the Long Island ferry. 
Her third husband was Elbert Elbertsen Stouthoff. She was 
married to him in 1683. 



234 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, IV., pp. 136, 143. 



EOELOFS (JANSE). 107 

Sara had several slaves as appears from her will which reads 
as follows : 

"Sara Roelofifse." In the name of God, Amen. Be it known 
to all whom it may concern, that I, Sara Roeloffse, late widow 
of Elbert Elbertse Stouthoff, considering the frailty and shortness 
of Human life, Do make my last will in manner folowing. 1st. 
I commit my immortal Soul into the merciful hands of God Al- 
mighty, and my body to a decent burial. 2nd. I revoke all other 
wills. Now I will before anything else to my daughter Blandina, 
of this city, a negro boy, Hans. To my son Luycas Kierstede, 
my Indian, named Ande. To my daughter Catharine Kierstede, 
a negress, named Susannah. To my son-in-law, Johannes Kip, 
husband of my said daughter Catharine, my negro, Sarah, in con- 
sideration of great trouble in settling the accounts of my late 
husband, Cornelius Van Dorsum, in Esopus and elsewhere. To 
my son Jochem Kierstede, a little negro, called Maria, during his 
life, and then to Sarah, the eldest daughter of my son Roeloff 
Kierstede by Ytie Kierstede. To my son Johannes Kierstede, a 
negro boy Peter. I leave to my daughter Anna Van Dorsum, by 
my former husband, Cornelius Van Dorsum, on account of her 
simplicity, my small house and kitchen, and lot situate in this city, 
between the land of Jacob Mauritz and my bake house, with this 
express condition, that she shall not be permitted to dispose of 
the same by will or otherwise, but to be hers for life and then 
to the heirs mentioned in this will. 

"It is my will that my son Luycas Kierstede shall have the 
privilege of buying the house where he now lives and the bake 
house and lot belonging to the same and to pay the money for 
the same to the other heirs, he to retain his share. I have fully 
satisfied my sons Hans Kierstede and Roelofif Kierstede for their 
share in thier father's estate, being 40 Deavers, as by account for 
the same, the rest of my estate I leave to the seven children of 
me and my deceased husband, Hans Kierstede, viz, Roeloff, Dlan- 
dina, Jochem, Luycas, Catrine, Jacobus, Rachel, and the children 
of my deceased son Hans Kierstede by his wife Jannike equally. 
Only Hans Kierstede the eldest son of my deceased son Hans 
Kierstede shall have £1 for his birthright. I appoint as guardians 
of my daughter Anna Van Dorsum, and managers of her house 
and lot my son-in-law Johannes Kip, and my son Luycas Kierstede, 



108 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

and my son-in-law Wni Teller, giving them full power as executors. 

"Dated July 29, 1693. Witnesses VVm. Bogardus, Jacobus 
Maurits, — Hoaglandt. 

"Codicil, August 7, 1693, confirms the above will and leaves 
all her clothing to her daughters Blandina, Catharine and Rachel, 
and to each of the wives of my 5 sons a silver spoon." 

"Witness Brandt Schuyler, Justice of the Peace. Proved, 
October 21, 1693." 

(Collections of the New York Historical Society, XXV., pp. 
225. The will is corrected according to ibid. XL., p. 24.) 



TRYN JONAS. 

Tryn Jonas, or Kathrine Jonas, was from Marstrand, Nor- 
way.235 She was the mother of Anneke Jans, wife of Roelof 
Jansen, who with his family immigrated to New Netherland in 
1630. For a long time she occupied a position under the West 
India Company as its official midwife, an incident showing how 
the Company made provision for the welfare of its colonists. 
"She was," says J. H. Innes, "duly sensible of the dignity and 
importance of her office, which she exercised with great independ- 
ence, even to the extent of refusing upon various occasions to 
attend certain of her patients with whose antecedents she was 
not satisfied." 236 Under date of August 31, 1642, Catalina Trico 
and her daughter Sarah Rapalji made a declaration "respecting 
the conduct of Tryn Jonas, midwife, when sent for to attend said 
Trico." 237 ^g (Jq j^qI- i^now the nature of this declaration, nor 
of another declaration of the midwife herself, on July 7, 1644, 
"respecting a confession of Helligond Joris as to the paternity 
of her child"23s — very likely some of the manuscript material in 
Albany will reveal it — but it seems that Tryn Jones was an exact- 
ing midwife. 

It would appear that she stayed sometime with her daughter 



235 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, 57, note. 

236 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 15. 

237 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 20. 

238 Ibid., I., p. 28. 



JONAS. 109 

in the colony of Rensselaerswyck. For Kiliaen van Rensselaer 
complained in a letter of April 23, 1634, that Roelof Jansen was 
drawing too heavily on his accounts. He was inclined to believe 
that Roelof's wife, sister-in-law, and mother-in-law had given 
things away.-^® 

After Jansen had moved down to New Amsterdam, Tryn 
Jonas had no reason to be lonesome. Her daughter Anneke had 
several daughters who married and got children. Anneke herself 
had children by her second husband Domine Bogardus, whom she 
married in 1638. We find Tryn Jonas as sponsor at the baptism 
of Anneke's and Bogardus's child, Cornelis, who was baptized on 
September 9, 1640 ; likewise at the baptism of their child, Jan, 
January 4, 1643. On September 21, 1644, she was sponsor at the 
baptism of Jan, son of her granddaughter Sara and Dr. Kier- 
stede.2*o Tryn Jonas could also visit her other daughter, Marritjc, 
whenever she desired ; for she, too, lived in New Amsterdam and 
had a family. 

On February 4, 1644, Tryn Jonas obtained a grant of land 
from the West India Company, a lot upon Pearl Street where 
she built a house.^*! 

On September 15, 1644, her son-in-law, Bogardus brought, in 
her behalf, action against Jacob Ray (Kay, Hay?) "for a small 
piece of ground." It was ordered "that the Director and Council 
examine the ground in dispute." 2*2 

She died before 1647. The West India Company was owing 
her money at the time. Her daughters claimed it, and her son- 
in-law. Rev. Bogardus, was to collect it. Dirck Cornelissen, the 
second husband of her daughter Marritje (he had married her 
September 9, 1646), gave, in 1647, power of attorney to Bogardus 
"to receive money due said midwife by the West India Com- 
pany." 243 After the death of Rev. Bogardus, his widow Anneke 
gave power of attorney to Cornelis Willemsen Bogaert, a brother 
of the pastor and a resident of Leyden, "to receive moneys due 



239 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 281. It is possible that Tryn 
Jonas was in New Amsterdam before 1630. 

240 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II., 
pp. 11, 14, 16, 18. 

241 Calendar of Historical Mannscripts, I., p. 368. Year Book of the Hol- 
land Society of New York, 1901, p. 125. 

242 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 91. 

243 Ibid., I., p. 41. 



110 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Tryn Jansen, her mother, late midwife, by the West India Com- 
pany at Amsterdam." 2** 



MARRITJE JANSE. 

Marritje Janse was the sister of Anneke Jans from Marstrand 
and the daughter of Tryn Jonas. Kiliaen van Rensselaer men- 
tions her in a letter of April, 1634, as being, in his opinion, partly 
to blame for Roelof Jansen's "grossly" running up his accounts 
in drawing provisions : "I think that his wife, mother and sister 
and others must have given things away, which can not be al- 
lowed." 

Marritje married three times. Her first husband was Tymen 
Jansen (born in 1603) who for several years, from 1633 or perhaps 
earlier, was the leading shipwright in New Amsterdam, where he 
constructed many vessels. At the request of the Director he made 
in 1639 a list of the ships that had been built or repaired in New 
Amsterdam during Van Twiller's administration (1633 — 1638). 
He, too, may have been from Marstrand. ^^^ 

We shall give the following data concerning Tymen. On 
May 30, 1639, he gave a note for 100 guilders to the deacons of 
the church in New Amsterdam. ^-^^ On September 29, in the same 
year, he gave power of attorney to Laurens Laurensen, to collect 
money due him in Holland. ^^^ On February 17, 1640, he and 
Domine Bogardus furnished bond as guardians of the children of 
the "late Cornells van Vorst." 248 Qn August 2, 1640, he sued 
Laurens Haen for slander. On August 23, he won his case, and 



244 Ibid., I., p. 49. 

245 New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 17. Mrs. Van Rensselaer, in 
"History of the City of New York," I., p. 103, says that Director Minuit subsidized 
in 1631 certain Swedish shipwrights, who, bringing the timber from far up the 
North River, built at Manhattan a great Ship called the "New Netherland, " one of 
the largest merchantmen then afloat, everywhere exciting wonder by its size and 
by the excellence and variety of the timber used in its construction. Is the asser- 
tion that they were Swedish an inference? I have found no documentary evidence 
in support of it. Would the supposition be unfounded that Tymen. as one of these 
shipwrights, originally was from Marstrand, or from some other part of Norway, or 
from Denmark? He appears to have lived for some time at "Munikendamm". 

Marritje probably came to New York in 1630. 

246 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 8. 

247 Ibid., p. 11. 

248 Ibid., p. 12. 



JANSE. Ill 

Laurens Haen was fined. 2-*'' On September 9, Tymen was sponsor 
at the baptism of Cornells, son of Bogardus. 

In 1642 he received land on the east side of Mespachtes kill, 
behind Domine's Hook (Newton, Long Island). ^'^o 

On April 31, 1642, he gave power of attorney to Dirck Cor- 
sen Stam to receive a certain procuration from Dr. Thomas Sees. 
In August he was in litigation with Dirck Corsen Stam concerning 
a collection of 550 guilders. ^''i 

On December 6, he gave power of attorney to George Grace 
to receive certain tobacco for him in Virginia.^^^ 

On July 3, 1643, he obtained a patent of 640 rods. 10 fee^ 
5 inches of land on the Island of Manhattan. On July 13, in the 
same year, he received a groundbrief of 22 morgens, 324 rods 
of land with valley on Long Island (Newton). 2^3 

Tymen must have resided upon the land which he received, 
July 3, 1643, for ten or twelve years before he obtained the patent 
of it. "It seems to have stretched along the river road, about 
from the present No. 125 Pearl Street to what is now the rear 
of the Seaman's Savings Bank building at the northwest corner of 
Pearl and Wall streets, — a distance of about four hundred and 
fifty feet. In depth this plot of ground averaged almost two 
hundred and twenty-five feet, so that its area amounted to more 
than two acres." ^54 jn 1544 jt became the property of Jan Jansen 
Damen, the step-father of Dirk Holgersen's wife. 

The land which Tymen received in 1642 and July 3, 1643, 
covers "the site of the present court house of Queen's County and 
its vicinity, in Long Island City." ^^s 

In 1644 the Director and Council complained against "Andrie^ 
Rouloffsen, the Company's boatswain, and Tymen Jansen" for 
neglecting to repair the yachts "Amsterdam" and "Prins Willem." 
Tymen replied "that he has done his best, and cannot know when 
a vessel is leaky unless those in charge inform him of the fact; 
furthermore that nothing can be done without means." ^^s Hq 
was independent. 



249 Ibid., pp. 72f. 

250 Ibid., p. 366. 

251 Ibid., p. 81. 

252 Ibid., p. 367. 

253 Ibid., p. 368. 

254 J. H. Innes, New Ajnsterdam and Its People, p. 271. 

255 Ibid., p. 276. 

256 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 26. 



112 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

After 1644 we hear nothing more of Tymen Jansen. He 
died before 1646. For in that year (September 9) his widow 
married Dirck Cornelisen, of Wensveen.^^'^ 

Marritje had by Tymen a daughter, Elsie, who was born about 
1633 — 1634. Marritje was member of the Dutch Reformed 
Church. 

Marritje's second husband was a carpenter, probably the son 
of Cornelis Leendertsen. His house appears to have stood on the 
western end of the present Coffee Exchange. He died about two 
years after the marriage. By him Marritje had a son, Cornelis, 
who was baptized February 17, 1647,2^ ^ the sponsors being Hans 
Kierstede, Willem Kay, Anneke Bogardus. This son died in 1678. 

Marritje now married, July 20, 1649, her third husband, 
Covert Loockermans, a widower. Loockermans brought her his 
two little daughters, from a former marriage, Marritje and Jan- 
netje, respectively eight and six years old. His original home was 
Turnhout, a town about twenty-five miles from Antwerp. He had 
come to New Amsterdam in 1633 as assistant cook on a yacht. He 
had served as clerk in the office of the West India Company, had 
become a fur trader, had made a visit to Netherlands in 1640, re- 
turning in 1641 with a wife. He was, as Mr. Innes says, a bold 
and enterprising trader "careless of whose corns he trod upon . , , 
in his pursuit of gain : ready, apparently, at any time to furnish 
the Indians with firearms, powder, and balls, in exchange for their 
furs ; and declining to permit any interference in his business 
by persons of adverse interest." ^^s 

Govert Loockermans became one of the richest men in the 
province of New York. He died intestate 1671. In 1674 widow 
Loockermans (Marritje) lived in a house valued at $4000. situated 
on the present west side side of Pearl Street, between Wall and 



257 Collections of the Nerr York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 14. 

258 Ibid., II., p. 22. 

259 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 241. E. B. O'Callaghan 
says: "Loockerman had by Marritje" Elsje, Cornelis, .Jacob, .Johanna, and Marritje. 
Elsje married, 1st, Cornelis P. Van der Veen, by whom she had Cornelis, Timothy, 
and Margaret. She next married Jacob Leysler .... Marritje Loockermans mar- 
ried Barthazar Bayard, step-son to Governor Stuyvesant, and a respectable brewer 
in New York. Joanna, or Jannitje Loockermans, was the second wife of Surgeon 
Hans Kierstede, and her children were Areantje, Cornelis, Jacobus, and Maria. 
Govert Loockermans, after filling some of the highest offices in the Colony, died, 
worth 520,000 gl. or $208,000; an immense sum, when the period in which he lived 
is considered. His widow was buried 20th November, 1677." (History of New 
Netherland, II., 38 note.) 



JANSE. 113 

William Street, near a part of the street called the Waer Side 
(Year-Book of the Holland Society, 1896, p. 167 f.) 

By Loockermans, Marritje had one child, Jacob, born in 1652. 
After his father's death Jacob continued to reside for some years 
with his mother. After his mother died, he went to Maryland, 
where he pursued the study of medicine. He appears later as a 
magistrate of Dorchester County. Jacob seems to have been much 
more under the influence of Elsie, his half-sister upon his mother's 
side, than under that of his half-sisters upon the father's side. 
In 1679, two years after his mother's death, he conveyed to Elsie's 
husband Jacob Leisler all his right to the estate, in the Province of 
New York, of his father as well as his right to all which had come 
to him through his mother and his half-brother Cornelius. "Nearly 
the whole estate of Covert Loockermans and of his wife had thus 
come into the hands of his step-daughter Elsie." ^so 



c^^^1^vA| Cu-c.rj:-P^ 




Signature of Govert Loockermans, 1659, husband of Marritje Jans. 

Elsie — the granddaughter of the midwife Tryn Jonas ; the 
niece of the pastor's wife Anneke; the daughter of one of the 
wealthiest woman in the province : was destined to be the most 
unfortunate of the Norwegians in early New York. 

January 7, 1652, she married an eminent trader, Cornelius 
Pietersen Van der Veen. In 1658, being then described as "an old 
and suitable person," he was made a great burgher of New Am- 
sterdam. He was Schepen of the city and held other offices of 
trust in the church and in the community. He died in the sum- 
mer of 1661.261 

After his death Elsie married, on April 11, 1663, Jacob Leis- 
ler, a German, from Frankfurt.2®2 In 1674 he had property in 
New Amsterdam on the west side of the present Whitehall St., 
there also a part of the Water Side. It was valued at $30,000. 



260 Ibid., p. 245. 

261 D. T. Valentine, History of the City of New York, p. 150. 

262 Whether from the Oder or the Main, is not stated. 



114 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

He was executed for treason May 16, 1691. When England ex- 
perienced her last revolution, in 1689, the question was raised in 
the colonies : Should they remain as simple dependencies on the 
crown of England, or should they by the people manage their own 
affairs. Leisler became a leader in the democratic movement. 
But he lacked discretion and treated his opponents as rebels, mak- 
ing a technically illegal seizure of power. For this he was ex- 
ecuted, but with such undue regard for fair trial that his execu- 
tion amounted to judicial murder. His son-in-law Jacob Milborne 
shared the same fate. Their property was confiscated. But fou' 
years later the English parliament reversed the attainder for 
treason of Leisler and Milborne, and restored the confiscated prop- 
erty to the heirs. 

Unhappy indeed was she on that rainy morning of May, 16, 
1691, when her husband and her son-in-law were led to the 
scaffold, from which the words of her husband could be heard, 
"I hope my eyes shall see our Lord Jesus Christ in Heaven ; I am 
ready! I am ready!" or the words of her son-in-law: "We are 
thoroughly wet with rain, but in a little time we shall be washed 
with Holy Spirit.^^s 

It was a crushing blow to Elsie Leisler. Her troubles en- 
deared her to her children and many sympathetic neighbors. But 
she was a brave woman "of reserved and humble deportment, mix- 
ing but little with the world and confining herself to her own 
domestic sphere." 

Marritje Janse did not live to see the misfortunes of her 
daughter. She died in 1677. In her will, executed the same 
year, she mentions her own children and grandchildren, not, how- 
ever, her two step-daughters. 

To use the words of Collections of the New York Historical 
Society, XXV., pp. 60ff., Marritje "leaves to Cornelius, Timothy 
and Margaretta Van der Veen, children of her daughter, Elsie 
Leisler, by Peter Cornelis Van der Veen, each 100 guilders, in 
Beavers, at 8 guilders a piece. To Anna Bogardus, daughter ot 
Wm. Bogardus, 50 guilders. Leaves the rest of the property to 



263 For interesting accounts of the acts and the trial of Jacob Leisler, see 
John Fiske's, The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America, II.; Mrs. Van Rensse- 
laer's History of the City of New York, II. Leisler' s Speech at the Gallows is 
recorded in Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York, II.. p. 1016f. 

Also see Appendix D: Jacob Leisler. 



LAUEENSEN. 115 

her children, Elsie Tymans, married to Jacob Leisler. Cornells 
Dirchsen, married with Gelise Hendricks, and Jacob Lockernians, 
not married yet. Makes her cousin (?), Mr. Johanes Van Brugh, 
and Mr. Francis Rumbout, alderman of this city, her executors. 

"Dated May 7, 1677. Witnesses, John Dervall, Cornells 
Cregier. 

"Codicil, November 1, 1677. Leaves to son, Cornells Dirck- 
sen, a negro boy. To daughter, Elsie Leisler, a golden ear ring, 
made of gold, which was partly given to her by her grandmother. 
To son, Jacob Lockermans, her diamond rose ring. To son Cor- 
nells, the Great Bible, and to his wife 3 silver spoons. To Mary, 
daughter of Johanes Van Brugh, a silver bodkin. To her grand- 
daughter, Margaret Van der Veen, a silver chain with keys. To 
grand-daughter, Susanah Leisler, a silver chain with a case and a 
cushion. 

"Witnesses, her neighbors, Mr. Carsten Learsen and Mr. 
John Cavilleer." 



BARTEL LARSEN. 

Bartel Larsen, from Norway, was in New Amsterdam as 
early as the beginning of 1647. Under date of January 10, 1647. 
a document, making him a party in a transaction to the amount of 
forty-four guilders — the other party was one Hendrick Jansen — 
states that he was from Norway.^^^ It calls him "privateer. "^^^ 



ANDRIES LAURENSEN. 

Andries Laurensen, or Andries Noorman, Adriaen Laurens 
de Noorman, was in New Netherland as early as 1639. Under 
date of September 8, 1639, it is stated in the Council Records, that 
the Fiscal of New Amsterdam confiscated wine from Andries 
Noorman, "as it was not properly entered. ^^^ 



264 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 43. 

265 Was he the commander of a privateer? 

266 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 69. 



116 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

On July 15, 1646, Andries acted as sponsor at the baptism of 
Engel, a child belonging to Laurents Pietersen, a Norwegian. The 
records of the Reformed Dutch Church in New Amsterdam enter 
his name as Adriaen Laurens de Noorman.^^^ On October 5, 

1656, he was examined in regard to a soldier's selling a gun. 
Whether Laurensen was the soldier that was guilty of this offense, 
is not clear. E. B. O'Callaghan makes this statement : "Examina- 
tion of Andries Laurensen, a soldier, sent prisoner from Ft. Casi- 
mir on charge of having sold a gun.''^^^ Possibly the words "in 
regard to" should immediately follow "Laurensen." As the state- 
ment reads now, Laurensen must have been the prisoner. If this 
was the fact, his offense must have been regarded as a light matter, 
or the accusation against him was unfounded. For he afterwards 
was holding positions of trust in the army. On August 5, 1658, 
he sent a communication to Director Stuyvesant in regard to the 
continued insolence of the Indians, and requested a supply of am- 
munition. ^^^ On October 31, 1659, he wrote to the Director that 
he was a prisoner among the Esopus Indians ( Albany ).2'o On 
March 1, 1660, instructions were given him as sergeant to go to 
"South River to engage some Swedes and Finns to enlist in the 
Company's (West India) service."^''^ 

He seems to have owned a house in New Amsterdam, in 

1657, and it would appear that the name of his wife was Anna 
Claas. We infer this from two entries in the Minutes of the 
orphan Masters of New Amsterdam, 1655-1658, pp. 38-39, 41-42. 

Under date of November 28, 1657, the first entry reads: 
"Whereas, Roelof Jansen, mason, has died at the house of Arent 
Lauwerensen, on the 16th of this month of November, 1657; and 
whereas said Arent Lauwerensen by a petition to the Burgomasters 
and Schepens of this City has requested that they would please to 
direct and authorize one or two persons to sell at public auction to 
the highest bidder, according to inventory, the property left by 
said Roelof Jansen, that thus might be paid the expenses of his 
funeral, his house rent and other known and unknown debts. 
Therefore their said Worships order the Orphanmasters to enter 



267 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II., 
p. 21. 

268 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 175. 

269 Ibid., p. 285. 

270 Ibid., p. 288. 

271 Ibid., p. 208. Swedes and Finns had settled there ca. 1639-1640. 



LAURENSEN. 117 

upon said estate and to do therewith what ought to be done, and 
they herewith authorize and direct Siur Mattheus de Vos, Notary 
Pubhc, and Arent Lauwerensen to have the estate sold at auction 
by the Secretary of the Burgomasters and Schepens, as well as of 
the Orphanmasters, whereby the debts, as above stated, shall be 
paid, and the surplus handed to them to dispose of as they shall 
find best." 

The second entry , dated December 12, of the same year, 
reads : 

"Anna Claas, with Sieur Mattheus de Vos, Notary Public, and 
with Arent Lauwerensen, administrator of the estate of Roelof 
Jansen, mason, dec'd, appeared and proved by the affidavits of 
two credible persons that said Roelof Jansen, dec'd, had given her 
in his lifetime his everyday clothing, his gun, powderhorn, and 
what belonged to it ; she also produces an account for house rent, 
for caretaking and money advanced, amounting to 99fl. 18st., 
wherein are included 7 beavers, the balance being in wampum. 
She requests that the affidavits and the account may be approved. 
The orphanmasters approve the affidavits and account, ordering 
their Secretary to pay the account, after deducting what the hus- 
band of said Anna Claas has bought from the estate."^^^ 

On December 12, 1657, a Jan Gillesen Kock was authorized 
"to collect bills of . . . Arent Lauwerenzen, Tielman Van Vleeck, 
Gerrit Pietersen,"^'^^ 

On May 10, 1662, "Arent Louwersen" secured a new lot in 
New Amsterdam. ^^•i 

In 1664 he took the oath of allegiance, when the English con- 
quered New Netherland. 



JAN LAURENSEN. 

Jan Laurensen (Jan Laurensen Noorman) and wife arrived 
at New Amsterdam, in 1659, by the ship "De Trouw," which 
sailed from Holland on February 12, 1659, and was commanded 
by Jan Jansen Bestevaer.^^^ 

272 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, pp. 114, 115. 

273 Ibid., p. 119. 

274 E. B. O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, II.. p. 592. 

275 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902. 



118 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

LAURENS LAURENSEN. 

Laurens Laurensen, or Laurens Laurensen Noorman, some- 
times called Laurens Laurensz van Copenhagen or Laurens Lau- 
rensen van Vleckersen (Flekkero, Norway) came to New Nether- 
land in 1631. He was a Norwegian, as is evident from his being 
frequently called Noorman and, at least twice, in 1646 and 1663, 
"van Vleckeren" or "van Vleckersen." In an agreement he made 
with Van Rensselaer, July 2, 1631, he is called Laurens Laurensz 
van Copenhagen. We cannot give the reason for this. It has 
been supposed that "Noorman," in the records of New Netherland 
is a general term for Scandinavian. But this supposition has no 
warrant whatever in the documents in question, where "Noorman" 
always means Norwegian. 

In the agreement which is given in extenso at the close of this 
sketch, as well as in a notarial copy from minutes of the Chambers 
of Amsterdam of the West India Company, July 7, 1631, it will 
be seen that besides Laurensz there were two other Norwegians, 
Andries Christensen from Flekkero and Barent Thonissen from 
Hellesund, near Christiansand, who were to emigrate to the colony 
of Rensselaerswyck. All three were to work together and run a 
saw-mill and a grist-mill. 

Laurensen and Thonissen arrived in New Netherland by "de 
Eendracht," which sailed from the Texel shortly after July 7, 
1631. ^■'^ They were seafaring men. But Christensen, who was 
not a seafaring man, failed to go ; he "ran away," as Van Rensse- 
laer puts it. Laurensen was thirty-six years of age, and seems to 
have been married when he came to New Netherland, for in a 
letter of April 23, 1634, the patroon says to Director van Twiller: 
"I have paid f. 50 to the wife of Laurens Laurensz, but I do not 
know how much is still owing him. He bargained for no wages. 
All I have to do is to provide his board, or in place of board pay 
him f. 100 yearly — while I have half of all that he earns. He is 
also responsible for the other two for the advance money that I 
gave to Andries Christensen."^'?'^ The name of his wife was Tytie 
Lippes. . . ^^* 



276 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, pp. 186ff., p. 807. 

277 Ibid., p. 285. 

278 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 147. 



LAURENSEN. 



119 



The agreement, of July 7, 1631, between Van Rensselaer, Lau- 
rensen, et al, reads : 







£, 






J^ nn'OZ^-x '>e^«.,'>»4-^':jii(ts< ^5LEtT7 /%^-v-^ Vp ii* ; ^iv/«*t^ J^"a-°arvi ,^,nrf--^ 



lytt^, '3ii/*€'«»v/-/<«-^--^^^^^«'>rK%i €'ovv&i -yK^yC-n /V^Xw^m., (^^^ «>Ciff-^^c«>*-. 










Notarial Copy of Extract from Minutes of Amsterdam of the West India 
Company, July 7, 1631. 



120 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 



The translation by Mr. J. F. van Laer reads as follows: 

Extract from the resolution book of the honorable directors 
of the Chartered West India Company. Chamber of Amsterdam. 

Monday, the 7th of July 1631, in Amsterdam. 

Appeared before the meeting Mr. Kilian van Rensselaer, who 
requested that he be permitted to send over by the ship d'eentracht 
some colonists and eight or ten calves, namely: 

Cornells Gerritssz van flecker [Flekkerjzi in Norway] 

Lourens Lourenssz van Coppenhagen 

Barent thoniss van Heiligesondt [Hellesund in Norway] 

Claes Brunsteyn van Straelsondt 

Andries Christensss van flecker [Flekker^]. 

In regard to which it was decided first to hear the skipper, 
who declares that he will do all he can, whereupon his honor's 
request is granted, on condition that the skipper in case he 
should be inconvenienced thereby, may throw them [the calves] 
overboard or allow them to be eaten, without thereby obliging 
the Company to give any compensation. Underneath was written: 
Agrees with the aforesaid resolution book. And was signed: 

Jacob Hamel. 

Agrees with its original 

quod attestor infrascriptus 

[signed] /: vande Ven 

Nots Pubcus; sstt. 
Ao : 21. 

1634. 



LAURENSEN. 121 

In 1632 Laurensen was appointed schepen on de Laets Kil, 
which is the present Mill Creek in the city of Rensselaer. On 
June 3, 1638, he was appointed "servant" of the West India Com- 
pany.2^® 

On September 29, 1639, Tymen Jansen gave him power of 
attorney to collect money due him in Holland. 

On October 8, 1646, a declaration was made by Isaac Aller- 
ton and Edward Ager, showing that Isaac Abrahams and Laurens 
Laurensen had made a contract, and that "Isaac Abraham had ful- 
filled his contract with Laurens Laurensen." In Calendar of 
Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 34, from which this notice is taken, 
nothing is said as to the nature of the contract. 

Laurensen obtained grant of a lot in Beverwyck on October 
25, 1653, where he owned a house in 1657. "^'^ He also owned 
property in New Amsterdam ; for in 1655 he paid a voluntary con- 
tribution and taxation of twelve florins to this city ; and in 1665 
his widow was assessed as one of its inhabitants — in the Smith's 
Valley. 2^^ He may have had a parcel of land there for storing 
lumber; for he was running a saw mill as late as 1663. He seems 
to have freighted his own lumber, as he had several yachts. But 
he also built ships and sold them. For some time his partner was 
Reyner Pietersen, shipmaster.2^2 Hq ^j-^,^ Pietersen were sued, 
December 2, 1659, by Walewyn van der Veen for a "statement of 
the account conveyed" to Walewyn by one Jan Ariaansen. Lau- 
rensen contended that he did not owe Ariaansen anything, and that 
Ariaansen had been overpaid. ^^^ 

Later Laurensen had a new partner : Dirck Jansen, a wood- 
sawyer from Oldenburg. On January 13, 1660, Laurensen and 
Jansen sued Ritzer Raymont, demanding from him the payment 
of the sum of fl. 1400, "for purchase of a yacht named Swarten 
Arent (the Black Eagle), sold to him, or security of payment." 
Raymont admitted that he v/as indebted to the plaintiffs. There 
were found some errors in the contract of sale and date, but the 
Court condemned the defendant to pay and satisfy the plaintiffs.^^* 

279 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 203. Calendar of Historical 
Manuscripts, I., p. 62. 

280 Munsell, Collections on the History of Albany, III., p. 13. 

281 The Records of New Amsterdam. 1653-1674, I., p. 375; TV., p. 225. 

282 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 282. 

283 The Records of New Amsterdam. 1653-1674, III., p. 84. 

284 Ibid., III., p. 101. Dirck Jansen sold, October 26, 1662, a sloop named 
'The Hope", for 2000 guilders. 



122 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Laurensen lost one of his yachts, as is seen from evidence of- 
fered in a suit which Jacob Jansen Moesman brought against Lau- 
rensen, September 25, 1663. The plaintiff claimed that the de- 
fendant owed him money. Laurensen replied that he had paid 
some of it, but "his books and proofs are lost with his yacht." 
The Court postponed the case until the next Court day or "till the 
arrival of Abraham, the carpenter-''^^^ 

We have referred to documents of 1646 and 1663, which 
speak of Laurensen as being from Flekkero. Under date of Sep- 
tember 21, 1646, an order was issued, at New Amsterdam, direct- 
ing Everardus Bogardus, the minister, to deliver to the Council a 
bill of exchange, 2,500 guilders, given by the Swedish governor to 
Jacob Sandelyn for goods sold to the governor. The goods had 
been sold contrary to law. The bill of exchange had been de- 
livered by "Laurens Vleckeren" to Bogardus. Laurensen was ex- 
amined "respecting the sending of above [mentioned] bill by Jacob 
Sandelyn to Reverend Mr. Bogardus." He admitted that he had 
delivered a package of letters to Bogardus to be sent to Holland, 
amongst which were some from the Swedish government. "^^^ 

It would seem that Laurensen had received the package of 
letters when visiting the Swedish colony in Delaware, with his 
sloop. 

Seventeen years later the name Laurensen van Vleckeren, or 
Vleckersen, appears in the court minutes of New Amsterdam : 
"August 21, 1663, Lambert Huyberzen Mol, pltf., v|s Lauwerens 
Lauwerensen van Vleckersen, deft. Pltf. demands from deft, 
ninety-five @ six Fort Orange inch plank, sixteen feet long. Deft, 
admits debt, but says he cannot deliver them, as they are not sawed 
and durst not saw through fear of the Indians. The W. Court 
order the deft, to satisfy and pay the pltf. within three weeks' 
time."2«7 

Laurensen died before 1665 ; for on August 23, 1665, his 
widow, Tytie Lippes, was married to John Roelofsen, also from 
Flekkero, and a resident in New Netherland since 1663. ^''s Her 



285 Ibid., rV., p. 307. 

286 New York Colonial Documents, XII., p. 27, Calendar of Historical Man- 
uscripts, I., p. 105. 

287 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, IV., p. 288. 

288 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 147. 



LAURENSEN. 123 

name appears in April, 1665, in a list of burghers and inhabitants 
assessed in New Amsterdam. 

For the agreement between the Patroon Kiliaen Von Rens- 
selaer and Laurens Laurensen and others, see the following:-*^ 

"July 2, 1631. 
"At the request of Andries Christ enssen van Vlecken, 40 
years of age, Laurens Laurensz van Coppenhagen, 36 years of age, 
and Barent Thonissen van Heijligesont, 22 years of age, Kiliaen 
van Rensselaer, in his capacity as patroon of his colony situated 
above and below Fort Orange on the North River of New Nether- 
land, has agreed and contracted with the aforesaid persons for the 
term of three years, commencing on their arrival in that country, 
with the condition that the contract is binding on them for the 
said term of three years, but that the said Rensselaer may terminate 
it whenever it pleases him. First regarding the transportation of 
the said persons, Rensselaer, having obtained from the Chartered 
West India Company, Chamber of Amsterdam, the privilege of 
transporting seafaring men for their board without wages on the 
condition that they do proper ship duty, Laurensz Laurensz, Barent 
Theunisz and all seafaring men accept the same, but Andries Chris- 
tensz, not being a seafaring man, must pay out of his wages six 
stivers a day for board. As to the return voyage, the said Rens- 
selaer promises to exert himself likewise, without being further 
responsible in the matter, to have them come hither at the least 
expense, whether their term of service has expired or whether he 
chooses to order them to come home. Arriving there with God's 
help, they shall betake themselves at the first opportunity and at 
their own expense to Fort Orange, to settle either on the mill 
creek or opposite the fort on the east side of the North River, 
where there is also a good waterfall, and build their houses in the 
lightest fashion on the one or the other of said places, and on no 
other without consent ; further to erect a suitable sawmill, which 
can saw wood 40 feet, or at least 33 feet long, towards which 
he, Rensselaer, shall pay one-half of the hardware, and the tools 
which they need therefor, and must take with them from here, 
and they the other half, for which he, Rensselaer, shall furnish 



289 This interesting document is taken from the "Van Rensselaer Bowier 
Manuscripts," being the letters of Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, 16301643, and other 
documents relating to the colony of Rensselaerswyck, translated and edited by 
A. J. F. van Laer, Archivist. Albany, 1908. 



124 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

them the money in advance. They promise, all four of them, to 
erect the said mill within the space, of three months and when it 
is finished, they may hew the largest, finest and best oak trees 
standing in the entire colony of the said Rensselaer, and for seven 
leagues next adjoining, and bring the same to the place where the 
saw-mill stands in order to saw therefrom suitable ship planking, 
gunwale timber or such other timber as he, Rensselaer, shall direct 
or they in the absence of directions shall deem fit. The mill being 
made, the logs cut, brought to the mill and sawed, one-half there- 
of shall belong to the said Rensselaer and the other half to the 
four of them, the same to be shipped hither with the most con- 
venient speed at the joint expense of both parties, provided that 
Rensselaer shall not charge the men more for freight and the other 
expenses than he will have to pay himself; and of the proceeds of 
the said timber here in this country over and above expenses, one- 
half shall go to him, Rensselaer, and the other half shall be paid 
to the aforesaid persons or those having their right and title, but 
first and above all, deduction must be made of the sums advanced 
by him, promised or paid for them personally, in return for which 
he, Rensselaer, promises to provide such board for the said four 
persons as is customary in that country or else, in lieu thereof, to 
pay 100 guilders a year for each of the four persons, amounting 
together to 400 guilders a year, so that Rensselaer shall provide 
their board as above and they shall faithfully and diligently do 
their work to the satisfaction of the said Rensselaer or his agents 
and each side receive one-half of the profits after deduction of all 
expenses as above. 

"Rensselaer also agrees to pay in hand to each of them the 
sum of 20 guilders to be deducted from the board, or 100 guilders 
a year, which he must pay to each of them and to Andries Kristen- 
sen the sum of 40 guilders, besides the advance for hardware, mill- 
stone and what is further required for the building of the said 
saw and grist-mill, on condition that the amount be hereafter 
again deducted and retained as above. 

"And inasmuch as they are also to make a grist-mill in con- 
nection with the said sawmill, they shall also be entitled to one-half 
of what is earned therewith (deducting the expense of grinding). 

"In case the said Rensselaer, as patroon, or his agents, need 
the aforesaid four persons or any of them in his private service, 
they must let themselves be employed for all sorts of work, whether 



LAURENSEN. 125 

farming, house carpentering, felling of logs, burning of pitch and 
tar, or whatever it may be, nothing excepted, at 15 stivers a day 
besides board, which they have in addition as above, provided that 
Rensselaer shall enjoy one-half of the aforesaid wages of 15 
stivers. 

"If Rensselaer or his agents, after the mill is built, should 
have any wood brought to be sawed, they must do this at 20 
stivers for 100 feet in length by one foot in breadth, and for wider, 
shorter or longer boards accordingly, on condition that Rensselaer 
shall receive one-half thereof as above. 

"Regarding the boards, beams or planks which they may have 
in stock and which Rensselaer may need for his other work, he 
shall be allowed to take these by paying them one-half of the price 
ordinarily paid by the skippers in Norway. 

"If these people sow, mow or plant any land, or catch any 
game or fish, one-half (of the product) shall go to them and the 
other half go to Rensselaer, or be deducted from the 100 guilders 
for board. 

"During the period of this agreement, each one shall be re- 
sponsible for the other, as Rensselaer is dealing with them jointly, 
but not willing to deal or to keep accounts with each in particular. 

"In case any one of them should happen to find or to discover 
any mines, minerals, pearl fisheries or anything of the kind, he 
shall disclose the same to no one but the patroon or his agent, who 
shall make them a handsome present for the same according to the 
importance of the matter. They shall further under the sover- 
eignty of the High Mighty Lords the States General, all submit 
themselves to the authority of the directors of the Chartered West 
India Company in general and of the aforesaid Rensselaer as their 
patroon in particular, and observe all the ordinances and regulations 
to be passed there by them respectively in matters of police and 
justice, and be obliged to take oath of obedience and fidelity, espe- 
cially to refrain from trading, negotiating or carrying on business 
there against the order and intention of the Company and their 
aforesaid patroon, whether in skins, seawan or other goods found 
there, and not to accept the same by way of present or otherwise, 
nor to take merchandise from here with them for themselves or for 
others directly or indirectly, in any manner whatsoever, on pain of 
confiscation and penalties fixed by the Company or still to be fixed, 
and furthermore of banishment from the colony as perjurers and 



126 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

refractory characters, for which they all together in common and 
each one in particular for himself and the others bind themselves 
to answer and stand responsible. 

"They shall further not be allowed to contract with any one 
else or to enter any one else's service, on forfeiture of this entire 
agreement to the benefit of the said patroon, each one's share in 
the mill, in the hewn and sawed timber and what may in any way 
belong to them, to be forfeited and left to be disposed of as above, 
and in case one or more of the aforewritten persons should leave 
or drop out, the remaining ones must fill the places as quickly as 
possible with other suitable persons and by every ship and yacht 
sailing hither send proper reports and accurate accounts of every 
thing, in all sincerity without concealment. In testimony of the 
truth of the above agreement, this is signed by the patroon and 
the persons aforesaid with their own hands, in Amsterdam, this 
second of July of the year sixteen hundred and thirty-one, and 
signed with the several hands and X marks of Andries kristcnscn, 
the X mark of Laurens Laurens:;, X Berent Thoniss, kiliaen van 
Rensselaer. Underneath was written : Kiliaen van Rensselaer 
charged with board of Andries kristenssen, due to him for trans- 
portation nine guilders." 



ANDRIES PIETERSEN. 

Andries Pietersen, or Andries Pietersen Noorman, came to 
New Netherland in 1660 by the ship "de Moesman," which sailed 
on March 9, 1660.-®'^ In the ship's passenger list his name is given 
as "Andries Noorman from Sleewyck" (Sleviken (?) in Norway), 
and he is called a soldier.^^i In 1661 he was a member of the 
garrison at Esopus.^''^ July 2, 1666. it is stated in the Church 
Records of Albany, that he "used the large pall" — perhaps for 



290 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 13. He was 
not from Schleswig, Denmark, as some would maintain. He was a "Noorman". 
He may have been from •'Sletvik, " a name we have seen in Rygb's "Norske 
Gaardnavne' '. 

291. He was not from Schleswig, Denmark, as some would maintain. It is 
plainly stated that he was a "Noorman" (Norwegian). He may have been from 
Sleviken, or Sletvik, Norway. 

292 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 202. 



PIETERSEN. 127 

some relative of his.^^^ j^- jg not unlikely that Marcus Pietersen 
(also from Sleviken [?]), who sailed with Andries, was his 
brother. Shortly afterward, Andries came near using the pall 
himself, as we immediately shall see. 

In proceedings and sentences of the court held at Rsopus, 
April 25-27, 1667, "resulting from complaints of the inhabitants 
of Esopus against violences committed by the soldiers and illtreat- 
ment from Capt. Brodhead, it was shown that Andries Pietersen, 
being at the said time in the house of (Cornelis Barentsen) Sleght, 
was beaten by Christoffer Berresfort with his halberd, that the 
said Andries fell down in a sounding and was in great danger of 
his life."2«4 

A document of April 28, 1667, signed by Andries Pietersen 
and other burghers of Wiltwyck, shows that they were in arms 
during the Brodhead mutiny,^^^ as Brodhead had threatened to 
burn their village. 

Other traces of Pietersen are found in the "Marriage and 
Baptismal Registers of the old Dutch church of Kingston" (Wilt- 
wyck, Esopus). He and Heyltjen Jacobs were witnesses on De- 
cember 12, 1666, at the baptism of Marretjen, a child belonging 
to Hendrick Aertsen.^^^ 

According to the same Record, "Andries" and Maertie David- 
son had their children, Christoffel, Andries, Johannes, Cornelia 
baptized on October 6, 1678, April 24, 1681, January 27, 1684, 
October 18, 1685, respectively. ^''^ It is probably Andries Pieter- 
sen from Sleviken that is meant here. 



ANDRIES PIETERSEN. 

Andries Pietersen, from Bergen, arrived at New Amsterdam 
by the ship "de Rooseboom," which sailed in March, 1663. In 
the list of passengers the words "from Bergen" are appended to 



293 Munsell, Collections on the History of Albany, I., p. 26. 

294 New York Colonial Docujnents, XIII., p. 407. 

295 Ibid., p. 414. 

296 R. R. Hoes, Baptismal and Marriage Registers of the Old Dutch Church 
of Kingston, N. Y. 

297 Ibid., pp. 10, 14, 21, 24. 



128 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

his name.2"^ It is presumably Bergen in Norway, that is meant, 
not Bergen op Zoom or Bergen in Germany; for Andries Pieter- 
sen is a Scandinavian name. A Norwegian, Frederick Claesen, 
sailed with Pietersen on the same ship. 



HANS PIETERSEN. 

Hans Pietersen was in New Amsterdam as early as 1655. 
That he was from Norway, is stated in the court minutes which 
relate about a suit between "Hans Pietersen of Norway" and 
"Paulus van der Beecq/' whose servant he was. 2**^ He had left 
his master, who consequently brought suit against him for breach 
of contract. The first notice of this is found in an entry under 
date of January 28, 1655, showing that the case had been tried in 
Breuckelen and that the verdict rendered was not in accord with 
the desires of Van Beecq. 

The minutes record under date of January 28 : "Writ of in- 
hibition. In the case of Paulus van der Beecq, appellant vs. Hans 
Petersen, from a judgment of the court of Breuckelen, and sum- 
mons to the respondent to appear before the Council. "3*^*' On 
February 9, 1655, the minutes read: "Judgment in case of appeal 
Paulus van der Beecq vs. Hans Petersen ; decision of the court of 
Breuckelen reversed and respondent ordered to serve out his term 
according to contract, to pay costs and to be committed until he 
pay the fine fixed by law."^**^ 

It seems that Hans preferred to go to prison, or that he took 
quarter at the prison later and for some other unknown cause. 
For on December 23, 1655, he was discharged from prison, "on 
his own personal security."302 Perhaps he took advantage of the 
liberty given him and fled. On November 7, 1658, an order was 
issued to the magistrates of Flushing and Eastdorp to arrest him. •'"•'' 

In June, 1662, he was at Esopus (Albany). He petitioned 
the magistrates that he might keep a tavern there. The petition 



298 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 13. 

299 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., pp. 58, 127. 

300 Ibid., I., p. 145. 

301 rbid., I., pp. 293, 58. 

302 Ibid., p. 157. 

303 Ibid., p. 202. 



PIETEESEN. 129 

was not granted. For the keeping of a tavern there "would tend 
to debauch soldiers and other inhabitants, and it was feared that 
strong liquor might be sold to savages."^^'^ 

In 1674 he asked for permission to purchase land in Katskil, 
Albany.305 

On April 13, 1676, he obtained a patent of land in Dela- 
ware.^*^" In the same year he had a lawsuit with the Swedish 
pastor in Delaware, Laurentius Carolus (Lars Lock), regarding 
the "recovery of a mare." The pastor was the injured party.^*^" 
It would seem that Hans Pietersen must have been, by this time, 
quite an expert in defending himself before a court. We take 
leave of him where we found him : in court. 



LAURENS PIETERSEN. 

Laurens Pietersen. or Laurens Pietersen Noorman. from 
Tonsberg, in Norway, was in New Amsterdam as early as 16o9. 
On June 16, of that year, he was declared sole heir to the real and 
personal property of a Roellof Roeloffsen, the witnesses being 
Pieter Jansen, likely the Norwegian by that name, and Hans 
Stein.^^^ In the Calendar of Wills, where this declaration is con- 
tained, Laurens is called "Laurens Pietersen van Tonsback" (Tons- 
berg). In the Church Records of New Amsterdam, containing 
the entry of his marriage with Anetie Pieters from "Brutsteen," 
Germany — August 18, 1641 — , it is stated that he is from Tons- 
berg.^*** 

His name appears quite often in the church records as sponsor 
— August 8, 1641, for Rachel, daughter of Dirk Holgersen, the 
Norwegian ; December 8, in the same year, for Rommetje, the 
child of Hans Hansen van Nordstrand in Holstein ; May 21, 1646, 
for Nicholas, a son of Barent Janszen ; April 14, 1647, for Aert, 
a child of Caesar Albertsz^^o ; March 20, 1650, for Nicholas, a son 



304 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 389. 

305 Ibid., XIII., p. 481. 

306 Ibid., p. 543. 

307 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 353f. ; New York Colonial 
Documents, XII., p. 622. 

308 Calendar of Wills. Compiled by B. Fernow, 1896, p. 334. 

309 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 33. 

310 Ibid., v., pp. 30, 87, 89. 



130 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

of Barent Jansen ; January 28, 1663, for Joost, the son of Barent 
Joosten and his own daughter Sytie.^^i 

Laurens had his own child Sytie baptized June 1, 1642, one 
of the sponsors being Hans Hansen from Bergen. His child En- 
gel was baptized July 15, 1646, three Norwegians being sponsors: 
Pieter Jansen Noorman, Andries Laurensen Noorman, and Mary- 
ken Tymens (sister of Anneke Jans and wife of Tymen Jansen. ^^2 

On March 12, 1647, Laurens obtained a lot on Manhattan, 
between the lots of Peter Hilyaender and Evert Duyckingh's.^^^ 
Mr. J. H. Innes says : "He owned a house and lot on the south side 
of Prinse Straet, about fifty feet from Broad Street. The house 
is mentioned as standing there as early as 1647. It was the first 
house built on Prinse Straet, the second being built about the year 
1652 — on the south side of the street — by Albert Pietersen from 
Hamburg," whose wife was Danish. ^^^ 

Under date of March 22, 1651, we have a declaration of 
Laurens Pietersen to the effect that Dirck Holgersen (Norwe- 
gian) had purchased of Cornelis Willemsen a plantation on the 
west side of Mespath Kill, Long Island, opposite to Richard 
Brudenel.3i^ 

On March 10, 1660, Laurens petitioned "for the appointment 
of guardians and curators over his minor child," which petition 
was granted.316 It is probable that his request included also his 
other child. For under date of January 20, 1661, we have a pe- 
tition from "the guardians of Laurens Petersen's children for in- 
structions in regard to the division of the estate. "^^' 



6 P 



Signatures of Laurens Pietersen. 



On March 10, 1661, he gave his consent "to the payment of 
her portion of the estate to his daughter Engeltje, shortly after her 



311 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1897, p. 147. 

312 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, V., pp. 31. 88. 

313 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1901, p. 129. 

314 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 150f. 

315 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 52. 

316 Ibid., I., p. 208. 

317 Ibid., I., p. 220. 



PIETERSEN. • 131 

marriage to Jan van Cleef."^^'^ Engeltje was at the time only fif- 
teen years old, her husband was thirty-three. 

Laurens' other daughter, Sytie (Fytie, Eytie?), was married 
on December 12, 1658, to Barent Joosten from "Witmont in Emb- 
derlandt." They had a child baptized in 1659. Their other 
child, Joost, was baptized on January 28, 1663, in the Dutch Re- 
formed church of Brooklyn. Laurens Pietersen himself was one 
of the sponsors. The other sponsors were Symon Hansen and 
Magdalentje Walingx.^^^ 

Pietersen is mentioned as selling land between the years 1654 
and 1658. 

On February 18, 1656, he sold to Harck Syboutsen his "lot on 
the east side of the Graft, between the lots of Evert Dyckingh and 
Abraham Rycken, as broad and long, large and small as it belongs 
to said Lauren Pietersen Noorman by patent to him of 12 March, 
1647." D. T. Valentine describes it as being on the east side 
of Broad Street, south of Beaver Street.^^o 

In 1664. Laurens signed the resolution adopted by the com- 
monalty of the Manhattans. ^21 



MARCUS PIETERSEN. 

Marcus Pietersen is enrolled among the soldiers who were 
to sail in the ship "de Moesman" for New Netherland on March 
9, 1660. He was from Sleewyk (Sleviken, or Sletvik, in Nor- 
way), and is presumably the brother of Andries Pietersen Noor- 
man, who was from the same place and sailed in the same ship.^22 

He seems to have received employment from Jochim Beeck- 
man, a shoemaker, immediately upon his arrival in New Nether- 
land. For on November 8, 1661, Beeckman brought suit against 
Pieter Pietersen Smitt, complaining that he had been slandered 
about a year before by the defendant, "according to declaration of 



318 Ibid., I., p. 222. 

319 See note 311. 

320 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 129. D. T. 
Valentine, Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York, 1861, p. 583. 

321 New York Colonial Documents, I., p. 193. 

322 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 13. 



132 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Marcus Pietersen and 'Gerrit Lebes,' who were working at the 
time with the plaintiff." Smitt denied the slander and requested 
that Marcus Pietersen and the other witness be heard before the 
court. On November 8, they were examined by the court. Mar- 
cus declared that he had not seen, but heard that Pieter Smitt had 
pushed open the door of Beeckman's chamber, and saw it was 
open. Gerrit declared, however, that Pieter Smitt pushed open the 
door and that he abused Beeckman "as a thief and worse than 
a thief." 

The relation between the plaintiff and the defendant must 
have been verging on the comical, for Beeckman appeared again 
in court and complained "that he cannot walk the streets in peace 
in consequence of the deft, calling him black-pudding and msult- 
ing him." The defendant, however, denied it and said, "he does 
not speak a word."^23 



OULE POUWELSEN. 

Oule Pouwelsen was in New Amsterdam about 1643. All 
we know of him is contained in an entry in the Calendar of His- 
torical Manuscripts, I., p. 85, under date of June 11, 1643: The 
fiscal brought a charge against him "for insolence in his master's 
house. The defendant was committed to prison at his master's 
expense, until evidence be heard." Oule Pouwelsen, judging from 
the name, was probably a Norwegian. There was an Olaf Palsson 
in New Sweden in 1641. (See Pennsylvania Magazine of History 
and Biography, III., p. 462f.) 



JAN ROELOFFSEN. 

Jan Roeloffsen, from Norway, arrived at New Amsterdam 
by the ship "de Statyn," which sailed September 27, 1663. Among 
the forty-six passengers aboard were also other Norwegians: 
Cornelius Teunissen, Jan Jansen and wife.324 j^n Roeloffsen 

323 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, pp. 401, 407f. 

324 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902. 



TEUNISSEN. 133 

married on August 23, 1665, in New Amsterdam, Tytie Lippes, 
the widow of Laurens Laurensen, who was from Flekkero, Nor- 
way. In the register of marriages of the Dutch Reformed church 
in New Amsterdam, it is stated that Roeloffsen was from Flek- 
kero.^^^ This Jan Roelloffsen must not be taken for Jan Roeloff- 
sen, son of Roelof Jansen and Anneke Jans. 



ROELOFF ROELOFFSEN. 

Roeloff Roeloffsen was in New Amsterdam about or prior to 
1639. Under date of July 16, 1639, his will makes Laurens Pie- 
tersen in New Amsterdam, a Norwegian from Tonsberg, the sole 
heir of his real and personal property. The witnesses were Pieter 
Jansen and Hans Stein. Laurens Pietersen was probably a rela- 
tive of Roelloffsen, who, in that case, it would seem, was a Nor- 
wegian — an inference which receives support in his Norwegian 
sounding name.^^e 



CORNELIUS TEUNISSEN. 

Cornelius Teunissen, from Norway, arrived at New Amster- 
dam by the ship "de Statyn," which sailed September 27, 1663. 
Among the forty-six passengers aboard were three other Norwe- 
gians : Jan Roeloffsen from Flekkero, Jan Jansen and wife.^^' 



DIRCK TEUNISSEN. 

Dirck Teunissen, or Dirck Teunissen Noorman, was in New 
Amsterdam as early as 1650, or before. The first notice we have 
of him is contained in the church record of the Dutch Reformed 



325 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 

326 Calendar of Wills. Compiled by B. Fernow, 1896, p. 334. 

327 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 26. 



134 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

church in New Amsterdam, which states that he married, on Octo- 
ber 22, 1650, Adriantje Walich, a widow, from North Holland.328 

Our knowledge of him is derived, in the main, from court 
records. 

It appears that he had leased land of Abraham Verplanck. 
But he began to burn lime upon it. Verplanck therefore brought 
suit against him, on April 15, 1652, claiming that Teunissen bj'' 
burning lime upon his land "spoiled it, impoverished the soil." 
The court, after hearing the parties, decided that Verplanck should 
in compensation receive one-fourth of all the lime burnt. ^^s 



-i^ 



Signature of Dirck Teunissen. 

Teunissen did not abide by the decision of the court. The 
wife of Verplanck, therefore, appeared in court on February 10, 
1653, and complained of Teunissen's negligence. But the court 
would do nothing before Verplanck appeared in own person. ^^"^ 

A week later Verplanck made his appearance in court and 
claimed that he had received only one-seventh part of the products 
of the land he had leased to Teunissen, and that he had not re- 
ceived "one-fourth part of the lime under sentence of the court." 
Teunissen admitted that he had leased the land, but claimed that 
he had given Verplanck exactly one-fourth of the crops. He de- 
manded proof to the contrary. He also claimed that he had 
measured off a fourth of the lime. The Court refused to decide 
the case before the litigants proved their statements. ^^^ 

On February 4, 1653, the court authorized two men, Thomas 
Hall and Egbert Woutersen to decide, as arbitrators, the difference 
between Abraham Verplanck and Dirck Teunissen concerning "the 
product of the land and the lime."332 

On March 81, the court was informed that Teunissen would 
not submit to arbitrators. As no settlement was reached, the court 
again referred the litigants to arbitrators. It also stated that if 



328 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 16. 

329 New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 177. Calendar of Historical 
Manuscripts, I., p. 126. 

330 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 50. 

331 Ibid., I., p. 52. 

332 Ibid., I., p. 54. 



TEUNISSEN. 135 

the arbitrators could affect no settlement, court action was to 
follow. ^^^ 

It would seem that the matter was settled out of court, as 
the minutes record nothing further about it. 

Teunissen had a second law suit on December 1, 1653, when 
Jan Hendricksen demanded to get his boat, which was in the hands 
of Teunissen. The boat had been lost by Hendricksen. Teunis- 
sen had found it. He had not used it, but would not give it to the 
owner before he had paid one rix dollar in salvage. The court 
decided that Hendricksen should pay the rix dollar.^^'* 

Teunissen's third suit was begun September 6, 1655. It was 
against Jacob Clomp. We shall quote from the court minutes. 

"Pltf. says, the deft, removed 3 of his canoes from the wharf, 
and used the same on board (his vessel) and has allowed them to 
drift away ; requesting restitution of the canoes, one of which was 
laden with lime belonging to Willem Dentin. Deft, denies having 
removed any canoes from the wharf, but that one canoe, with 
lime, and two, without lime, drifted by his vessel, which he saw 
and brought to his ship; they had drifted away from him by night, 
in bad weather, breaking the ropes. Claims damages because 
pltf. has arrested him with his laden bark here, offers to declare 
on oath and to prove, that the canoes drifted, that he saw them 
coming right athwart his vessel and that they were carried away 
at night from his ship. Asks, that pltf. shall prove his assertion. 
Parties were referred by the Court, inasmuch as there is no proof 
of their statements, to Thomas Hall and Laurens Cor(neliu)s van 
Wei, who is hereby authorized to reconcile the parties touching 
their case ; otherwise to communicate their opinions in writing to 
the Board."335 

The fourth suit of Teunissen was against Gabriel de Haes. 
Teunissen demanded a payment of fl. 6. But de Haes claimed 
that the plaintiff owed him stable rent. He had had his cattle 
for about one month in his stable. Teunissen denied that he had 
hired the stable, though his cattle had stood in it five days. The 



333 Ibid., I., p. 77. 

334 Ibid., I., p. 133. 

335 Ibid., I., p. 352. 



136 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Court referred the matter to Egbert Woutersen and Geurt Coer- 
ton for arbitration. 33^ 

We now come to the last suit, the most serious of them all 
When Teunissen married Adriantje Walich (Walings), he became 
a step-father, Adriantje having a daughter, Tryntie Cornelis by 
name. In the beginning of 1657 there was a report current that 
the relations between the step-father and the step-daughter were 
criminal. The mother, therefore, presented a petition to the court, 
requesting that the matter be investigated by competent persons, 
"as her daughter was falsely accused of having committed adultery 
with her step-father." The petition was granted, providing "Teu- 
nissen and the girl appear personally before the Council. "^^^ 

On April 17, 1657, it was petitioned that Tryntie Cornelis, 
the accused girl, be confronted with her accusers. The petition 
was granted. On April 24, she and her mother were examined.^^** 

The sources at our disposal give no detail about the trial, bur 
a petition of June 12, 1657, shows that Teunissen and Tryntie had 
fared ill. For they requested that they be admitted to bail. An- 
other petition, of May 16, confirms this: Jan Evert Bout requested 
that he be permitted to rent his farm at Midwout to another per- 
son "in case Dirck Teunissen, the Noorman's wife, is not able to 
hire it." The petition was granted. ^3** Midwout was the place 
where Teunissen was farming, when he was arrested : he was 
called Dirck Teunissen of Midwout.^^*' 

Under date of March 19, 1658, we find an order of the court 
directing Dirck Teunissen to pay jailer's fees.^^^ This may have 
reference to the lawsuit of 1657, though it would not, even if this 
be the case, necessarily imply that Teunissen had been found guilty. 
In fact, there is some evidence that the charge against him was 
unfounded. First, the mother's implicit belief in the daughter's 
innocence. Secondly, that Teunissen was not severely punished, 
if at all ; for on December 22, he acted as sponsor at the baptism 
of Christian Pieterszen and Tryntie Pieters.^^a Thirdly, that this 
Tryntie Pieters was no other than his own accused step-daughter. 



336 Ibid., II., p. 20. 

337 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 181. 

338 Ibid., I., p. 183f. 

339 Ibid., I., p. 186. 

340 Ibid., I., p. 181. 

341 Ibid., I., p. 192. 

342 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, H., 
59. 



TEUNISSEN. 137 

Tryntie Cornelis.^^^ She had been married, October 28, 1657, 
to Christian Pieters (see the article "Christian Pieters," Part II ot 
this volume). 

Teunissen had stood sponsor before this : On June 22, 165IJ, 
and on October 8, 1656, at the baptism of Jan and Frans, children 
af Joost Goderus.^^* On April 25, both Teunissen and his wife 
were sponsors at the baptism of Gerrit, son of Lubbert Gerritsen. 

The will of Teunissen, 1662, mentions one of these children, 
and incidentally reveals the name of Adriantje Waling's former 
husband. It reads as follows : 

*Tn the name of God, Amen. On the 9th day of October, 
1662, appeared Dirck Theunissen and his lawful wife Ariantie 
Walens, of the Town of Bergen, on the west side of the North 
river, being in good health, going and standing. If the testator 
dies first, the widow is to have all for life. If necessary she may 
spend one-half, and the other half is to go to the children of the 
widow lawfully begotten by her deceased husband, Frans Pieters 
Sloo and Cornelis Janse Shubber. Legacies to Jan, son of Joost 
Goderus, and 50 guilders to the poor (not recorded )."3'^^ 

Mrs. Goderus was the sister of Adriantje Walings. 

Adriantje died before March, 1669, when Teunissen married 
Catalyntie Frans, a widow. In 1686 both he and Catalyntie were 
members of the Dutch Reformed Church in New Amsterdam. 
They lived on Pearl Street (Valentine's History of the City of New 
York, p. 333). Even as early as 1662, Dirck Teunissen's name 
appeared on a list, which was to show that he and several others 
were willing to contribute money — no specified sum is given — to a 
clergyman, for whom the magistrates of Bergen (New Jersey) 
had petitioned the government. 

On January 16, 1691, inventory of the estate of Teunissen 
and Catalyntie, deceased, was taken. The house and ground was 
on Broadway, and valued at 4000 guilders, and other property at 
2,125 guilders (Collections of the New York Historical Society, 
XXV., pp. 165, 467). 



343 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Report, VI., p. 86. 

344 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. II., 
pp. 34, 43. 

345 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 232. 



138 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

BARENT THONISSEN. 

Barent Thonissen was from Hellesund, Norway. With Lau- 
rens Laurensen and Andries Christensen he was engaged by Ki- 
liaen van Rensselaer to erect and run a saw mill in the colony of 
Rensselaerswyck. He arrived at New Amsterdam in 1631 by the 
ship "de Eendracht," which sailed from the Texel shortly after 
July 7, in the same year. His name does not appear in the ac- 
count books of the colony of Rensselaerswyck.^'*^ It is probable 
that he had relatives in New Netherland, for on July 27, 1666, a 
young man, Theunis Willemse, declared "that Barent Theunisse 
was his deceased uncle."^^'^ 



BERNT OSWAL NOORMAN. 

Bernt Oswal Noorman was a seaman in the service of New 
Netherland. All that is known about him, is limited to an entry 
in 1662: that he received his wages, the sum of fl. 2.13.3^» 



GOVERT NOORMAN. 

Govert Noorman, a private, is mentioned by Riker as having 
taken part in the raid on the Indians, 1663. He was enrolled in 
the company of soldiers at Esopus.^^® 



JACOB DE NOORMAN. 

Jacob de Noorman was in Esopus in 1663. He was a private 
soldier who took part in the raid on the Indians.^^o In 1674 lie 
petitioned for a building lot in Esopus.^^i 

346 Van Rensselaer Bowier Monuscripts, p. 807. See also article "Laurens 
Laurensen.' ' 

347 J. Pearson, Early Records ... of Albany, p. 402. 

348 New York Colonial Documents, II., p. 181. 

349 J. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, 1904. 

350 Ibid., p. 201. 

351 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1897, p. 122. 



WISKHOUSEN. 139 

ROELOFF NOORMAN. 

Roeloff Noorman was enrolled as a private in the company of 
soldiers at Esopus, where he, in 1663, took part in the raid on 
the Indians.^^2 



JOHN WISKHOUSEN. 

John Wiskhousen was enrolled as a soldier who was to sail 
to New Amsterdam, April 15, 1660, by the ship "de Bonte Koe." 
In the passenger list it is stated that he was from Bergen in 
Norway.^^3 



352 J. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, p. 203. 

353 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902. 



Excursus. 



I. 

JOCHEM KALDER AND MAGDALENE WAELE. 

Jochem Kalder and his wife Magdalene Waele, both of whom 
belonged to the earlier settlers in New Amsterdam, were probably 
Scandinavians, — either Norwegian or Danish. 

Mr. J. H. Innes says, very little information can be gathered 
from the records respecting Kalder. He relates that one of the 
houses occupying, in the year 1655, the site of the present large 
building known as Nos. 31 to 35 Stone Street, was the cottage of 
Jochem Kalder, who had obtained a groundbrief for the land in 
1645, and who seems to have built within a short time thereafter 
upon the westerly side of his plot about thirty-seven English feet 
in frontage. 

On June 2. 1649, Dirk Holgersen leased to "Jochem Calder" 
for twenty years, 1651-1671, a tract of land on Long Island "to- 
gether with the land heretofore leased by him, Dirck, to Jochem 
Calder." Kalder was to have the land "rent free" for the first six 
years; during the other following years he was to pay 150 guilders 
in annual rent. For the wording of the instrument, see article 
"Dirck Holgersen." Part L 

One of the earliest notices of Kalder dates from 1643, in 
which year he signed a note (August 8). He had children: Jacob 
was baptized in New Amsterdam March 9. 1642 (the father's 
name is given as Kayker)*; Jeurgie, March 13, 1644; Annetje, 
March 11, 1646, (father's name: Jochem Carels) ; Michel and 
Dorothe. twins, June 5, 1650, (father's name, Jochem Kier. This 



* At this baptism, Teuntje Bronck, the wife of Jonas Bronck, was sponsor. 
Bronck and his wife were Danes. 



EXCURSUS. 141 

cannot refer to one Jochem Kiersted, who died in 1647) ; Jacobus, 
February 9, 1653 (father's name Callaer). 

As is seen above, there is no uniformity in the spelHng of 
Raider's name. The same lack of uniformity appears in the 
records, when they mention Kalder as a sponsor. On May 17, 
and July 8, 1654, his name is entered in the column of sponsors 
as Calder; July 4, 1655, as Calser; September 26, 1655, April 9, 
1656, July 16, 1656, as Caljer. The church records under date of 
August 18, 1658, give the spelling Caljer; of March 1, 1659, when 
Raider's widow married again, as Calker. 

Why this variety? It is likely due to a pronunciation of 
Raider's name, which sounded strange to the Dutch. And whence 
this difficult pronunciation? 

We would not seek it in France or in Germany, e. g. in Cleves, 
where there is a "Calcar." We may conjecture: Kolkjar in Den- 
mark; this would perhaps explain the spelling Rier, Calker, Ray- 
ker. The Norwegian "tykke 1" (thick "1") is likely the cause of 
the confusion. Hence we look to Norway for an explanation. 

O. Rygh, in "Norske Gaardnavne," IV., Rristians Amt [l\, 
p. 163, finds the island of Raldhol pronounced as Raldor (1520) ; 
Raider (1578; 1604); Raldor (1594); Rallul, Raldor (1668). 
He says, the form of Raldor is due to misunderstanding the thick 
"1" sound. This "1" sounds somewhat like "r" and 'T' combined. 



I^ 



Signature of Jochem Kalder. 

In "Norske Gaardnavne," XIV., Sondre Trondhjems Amt. 
p. 384 f. (Selbu), the name Rallar is spelled Rallir (1590), Raller 
(1626, 1668), Raider (1723). Raider is a name quite familiar, 
also among the present Norwegians. 

It is thus probable, though not certain, that Jochem Raider 
was from Norway. 

It is significant that the lease he received in 1649 was signed 
by Dirck Holgersen and Pieter Jansen, both of whom were Nor- 
wegians; and that Pieter Jansen and Jochem Raider were arbi- 



142 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

trators in 1653; moreover, that Pieter Jansen was appointed guar- 
dian of Jochem's children at the demise of the latter (Year Book 
of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 116). 

This appointment was made at the request of Magdalene 
Waele, widow, February 12, 1659, when she announced her inten- 
tion of marrying Gysbert Teunissen, who had four children by a 
former marriage. Magdalene had then five children living. Per- 
haps she was related by the ties of blood or nationality to Pieier 
Jansen Noorman. 

In the church records her name is entered as Margaret or 
Magdalene Wale (July 8, 1654), Waels (April 9, 1656), or as 
"Magdalene, the wife of Caljer." If she was a relative of Pieter 
Jansen, we would seek her original home in Norway : in Vaage 
(Walde, Walle. See O. Rygh, Norske Gaardnavne, IV., Kris- 
tiansamt (I), p. 77); or in Ringebue (Vaalen, Vale, Voile, Waa- 
len (1668) ; Ibid., p. 142) ; or in Tune (Valle, Volde, Walle, 1667. 
Ibid. I., p. 300) ; or in Onso (Valde, Walle, 1635, 1. c. 311). 



^ 



Signature of Gysbert Teunissen, 1659, second husband of Magdalene Waele. 

She was, what in those times could be expected of a Scandi- 
navian, — a Lutheran. The Dutch pastors Megapolensis and 
Drisius, addressed, August 23, 1658, a letter to the Director and 
Council of New Netherland, in which letter they state the fol- 
lowing: 

"Indeed, it happened only last Sabbath, Aug. 18th, while we 
were yet ignorant of the complaint of the Lutherans against us, 
that a child was baptized, neither of whose parents was present; 
but only two Lutherans, who presented the child, and stood god 
parents, viz., Laurence Noorman, who, they say, was the host who 
concealed John Gutwasser, the Lutheran minister, last winter, 
and Magdalen Kallier, a Lutheran woman (Ecclesiastical Records 
of the State of New York, I., p. 430). 

The Church Records mention only "the wife of Jochem Cal- 
jer" as sponsor at the baptism (August 8, 1658) of Hendrick, a 
child of Jan Hendrickszen and Gritie Barents, who, in January, 
1663, were living in Bushwick. 



EXCURSUS. 143 

Magdalene married, March 1, 1659, Gysbert Toemszen (Teu- 
nissen) from Barnevelt, the widower of Aeltje Wouters. Her 
daughter Dorothea was married to Wouter Gysbertsen. In 1678 
she became a member of the Dutch Reformed church. 

On April 15, 1660, Magdalene sold the lot of her first hus- 
band's on South William Street to Ariaen Van Lear, "a lot north 
of the Hoogh Straat; bounded on the west by the house and lot of 
him the appearer [Gysbert Teunissen, Magdalena's second hus- 
band] ; north by the Slyck Steegh; east by the house and lot of 
Mr. Oloff Stevensen; west, by the lot of Abraham De la Noy ; 
north, by the house and lot of Gerrit Jansen Roos ; east, by the 
Graght aforesaid. On the east side, 23 feet 3 inches ; west side, 
23 feet 6 inches ; north side, 52 feet 6 inches ; south side, 4 rods. 
(Valentine, Manual of the City of New York, 1865, p. 668.) 

On July 9, 1663, "Gysbert Teunissen deeded to Jochim Ba- 
ker, of Fort Orange "a lot north of the Hoogh Straat ; bounded 
west by the house and lot of Albert Coninck ; north, the Slyck 
Steegh ; east, the house and lot of said Jochim, baker ; and south, 
the Hoogh Straat. Broad, front and rear, 21 feet 3 inches; long, 
on the east side, 6 rods 2 feet 7 inches ; on the west side, 6 rods 7 
inches." (Ibid., 1865, p. 702.) 



II. 

UNCLASSIFIED NAMES.* 

We wish to state that there are several persons with Scandi- 
navian names in the early history of New York, who are not 
treated in the present volume. As conclusive evidence is lacking 
to establish their nationality, we do not count them among our 
Scandinavian immigrants. 

* In our "Preface" we stated that there were no Norwegians and Danes 
who immigrated to New Sweden. The "Pennsylvania Magazine of History and 
Biography," VIII., mentions two persons who may be exceptions. Both have 
Swedish names. The one, Ole Hakeson Buur, came to "New Sweden" in 1649. 
He was born in Mandal. (There is a Mandal in Norway, and in Denmark.) The 
other, a boy, Hendrick Benckson Buller, arriving in the same year, was bom in 
Danish "Hysing" (island of Hisingen, near Goteborg). 



144 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

To illushdte, we may here briefly consider the following 
names : 



MARTIN BIERKAKER. 

Martin Bierkaker should be classified as a Norwegian, if 
Bierkaker means Birkaaker (Bjerkaker), near Trondhjem in 
Norway. I have not counted him among the fifty-seven Norwe- 
gian immigrants, because Bierkaker may denote something else 
than a geographical name. In Van Rensselaers Bowier Manu- 
scripts, a Marten Hendricksz from Hamelworden, near Freiburg 
on the Elbe, Hanover, is referred to (in 1657) as Marten de bier 
Craaker and Marten de bierkracker. This Marten came on den 
Harinck in 1639, and was engaged for almost seven years in the 
colony of Rensselaerswyck. In 1651 he appears to have had an 
interest in a brewery, with Evert Pels. 

We meet Martin Bierkaker in the courts of New Amsterdam 
in 1657, where he is called Bierkaker. Our knowledge of him is, 
however, quite limited. 

On May 1, 1657, he appeared as a witness in a law suit 
against Steven Jansen, who was charged with drawing his knife 
and wounding Seger Cornelissen. 

On August 15, 1657, an affidavit was presented in New Am- 
sterdam, signed by Johannes La Montague, Philip Pietersen 
Schuyler, Jan Thomassen, who were magistrates, and Hendrick 
Jochemsen, a lieutenant of the burgher company, stating that 
Bierkaker, on the south side of the town limits, had sold brandy 
to a Mohawk Indian. 

On the same day Bierkaker and his wife Susanna Jansen 
were interrogated respecting these charges. 

Under date of August 20, Susanna pleaded "in her extenua- 
tion her extreme poverty and that her husband is incapable of 
working, due to a hernia on both sides." The proceedings were 
accordingly dropped. 

(See "Calendar of Historical Manuscripts." Ed. by E. B. 
O'Callaghan, I., pp. 314, 316. Rygh's "Norske Gaardnavne," 



EXCUESUS. 145 

XIV., p. 170, gives these forms as variations of Birkaaker: Bierk- 
ager, Birckagir (1559, 1590), Berckager (1624) . . . Bierckagger 
(1631), Birchagger (1664), Bierchager (1723). 



OLOFF (OR OLAV) STEVENSEN. 

Oloff (or Olav) Stevensen, an early settler in New York, who 
added Van Cortlandt to his name, was probably a Scandinavian, 
perhaps a Norwegian. Olav is a Norwegian name. It is neither 
Dutch nor German, nor English (a school in England, called St. 
Clave, shows Norwegian influence). Stevensen came out in 1637 
as a private soldier in the employ of the West India Company. 
He became one of the most influential men in the colony. It is 
supposed that he was born in Wijk, near Utrecht, Holland, in 
1600 ; that he had his name Van Cortlandt from having resided in 
the Duchy of Courland, opposite the Swedish island of Gothland. 
If he was born in Wijk (there are many places in Norway called 
"Vik"), this would not necessarily argue against his Scandinavian 
ancestry (Mrs. Van Rensselaer in History of the City of New 
York says that he "possibly was a Scandinavian, as Oloff is not 
a Dutch name"). "Cortlandt" may have a local meaning, too. 
Translated into Scandinavian it means "short land." 

Olav's descendants were extensive landholders, and, as J. H. 
Innes, says, "either directly or by marriage . . . controlled at one 
time all the land along the east side of the Hudson River, from 
the highlands above the modern Peekskill to the Spuynten Duyvil 
Creek, a distance of about thirty miles, and extending several 
miles back into the country. Their name is perpetuated in that of 
the town of Cortlandt in Westchester County, and in Courtlandt 
Street and the Van Courtlandt Park of the City of New York" 
(about 800 acres). See article "Van Cortlandt", in Appleton's 
"Cyclopedia of American Biography," VI. 



SKIPPER SYVERT VAN BERGEN. 

Skipper Syvert van Bergen was likely a Norwegian. In 1665 
he is mentioned in the Records of New Amsterdam as being in- 



146 NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1G30-1674. 

volved in litigation with Schepen Jacques Cousseau and Abraham 
van Tright. Syvert was to freight some tobacco to Holland on the 
ship "Broken Heart," at first owned by Tright, later by Cousseau. 
Syvert refused to freight the tobacco, amounting to several dozen 
"tubs," as his ship was loaded. The verdict of the court was, 
that Syvert should take aboard a quantity of thirty hogsheads, 
"and that each shall have to bear his own costs." 



CASPER HUGLA. 

Casper Hugla, mentioned in the Records of New Amsterdam, 
as involved, in 1671, in a suit with Albert Bosch, plaintiff, was 
probably from the island of Hugla, Helgeland, Norway. Nothing 
is stated as to the nature of the suit, which was amicably settled 
by the litigants. 



ANDRIES HOPPEN. 

Andries Hoppen (or Hoppe), often mentioned in the Records 
of New Amsterdam, may have been from Norway. Rygh's "Nor- 
ske Gaardnavne" (XIV, 44, 66), mentions a bowery in Agdenes 
Herred, Sondre Trondhjems Amt, called Hopen (spelled Hoppen, 
1618) ; also Hopen in Hitteren Herred, in the same "amt" 
(spelled Hoppen, 1630). Hopen, from 'Hopr', means, in Norwe- 
gian, a closed in bay or gulf of small dimension. The name 
Hoppe may also be German. Cfr. David Heinrich Hoppe, born 
1760 in Vilsen, Germany, who was a noted physician. The name 
may also be Dutch. 

Andries Hoppen came with his wife, Geertje Hendricks, and 

daughter Catrina to New Amsterdam about 1653. He died in 

1658, leaving her with five children. The widow Hoppe married, 

1660, Dirck Gerritesen van Tright and acquired Broncks Land, 

now Morrisania. See article "Jonas Bronck." Part II. 

* * * 

Names like Aris Otten, Edward Randall, and many others in 
the Records of New Amsterdam, may be Norwegian, but may also 



EXCUKSUS. 147 

represent persons of other nationalities. Without more or less 

definite information pointing to Norwegian antecedents, we can 
not register them here, though it would be tempting to do so. 



The Norwegians, we may say Scandinavians, formed a re- 
spectable percentage of the population of New Netherland. but it 
would be gross exaggeration to say that they formed "one-half or 
a fourth of it," though the percentage was larger in the earlier 
days than in 1674. 



PART II 

DANISH IMMIGRANTS 

IN NEW YORK 

1630-1674 



WILLEM ADRIAENSZ. 

Willem Adriaensz, mentioned in the "Van Rensselaer Bowier 
Manuscripts" (p. 418) as being "van els seneur," was from Hel- 
singor, in Denmark. Our knowledge of him is confined to a 
letter of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Planck, officer and com- 
mis in the colony of Rensselaerswyck. The letter is written May 
12, 1639, and shows that Adriaensz was a cooper, and had an 
"account against the lords directors of Groningen signed by Tyaert 
Brongers, supercargo." Planck was instructed to find out whether 
Adriaensz had received any payment on the account, as the patroon 
had received nothing from the directors on this account. 



(Deutfchc k}rcb 




HELSINGOR, ABOUT THE CLOSE OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 
From Braunius: Theatrum urbium. 



152 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Some time prior to 1638 Adriaensz must have been in Hol- 
land. According to the letter to Planck he was somewhere near 
Albany in 1638. In what year he left Holland or Denmark for 
the new world, is not stated. 



CLAES ANDRIESSEN. 

Claes Andriessen, from Holstein, came over to New Nether- 
land by the ship "de Eendracht," which sailed April 17, 1664.35* 
Perhaps he was a fisherman. For on August 7, 1665, a Claes 
Andriessen in New Amsterdam was granted license for fishing.^^s 
On August 22 he was accused by the sheriff of having been out 
racing with a boat on Sunday, August 13, which was contrary to 
"the Placard of June 20." The sheriff demanded of him a fine 
of twenty-five guilders and the costs. Andriessen claimed in self- 
defense, however, that he went with his boat to "Waele Bogt," 
and thence to the church at "Vlacke Bos" (Flatbush). The court 
demanded that he should prove these statements. As we hear 
nothing further about this matter, the case was likely settled out 
of court.356 



LAURENS ANDRIESSEN. 

Laurens Andriessen, or Laurens Andriessen van Boskerk 
(Buskirk), was from Holstein. ^^'^ Tradition says he was Dutch 
and had emigrated from Holland, by way of Denmark, to New 
Netherland in 1655. But he was a Dane, and had gone from Den- 
mark to Holland, and thence to New Amsterdam. It seems that 
he was in Amsterdam in 1654. On July 15, 1656. he brought suit 
in New Amsterdam against Frerick Adryaensen, "his man" who 
"ran away from him last Sunday morning without either words 



354 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, XIV., p. 182. 

355 Ibid., XIII., p. 185. 

356 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, V., p. 290. 

357 See under date December 12, 1658, in Collections of the New York 
Genealogical and Biographical Society, I. 



ANDRIESSEN. 153 

or reason, and he hired him in Amsterdam for three years and he 
is bound yet for more than one year." 

Andriessen was a turner by trade. In the records he is often 
called Laurens Turner or de Drayer. In the suit of 1656 he is 
called van Boskerk. He got this name from living on premises 
by a church near the woods. He seems to have obtained these 
premises in 1656, and to have added to them in 1659, when he 
was granted land by certain church wardens; and in 1660, when 
he again purchased land from the church wardens, on the west 
side of Broadway, north of what was then the church yard, be- 
tween Morris and Rector Streets. ^^^ It was west to the river, 
43 feet wide, 195 feet long. He built on this lot, for which he 
paid 200 guilders.^ss 

In June, 1656, he bought and sold lots on the present east 
side of Broad Street and south of Beaver Street. The persons 
with whom he was dealing in these transactions, were Lucas 
Dirksen Van Berg, Jochem Beeckman, and Jacobus Backer.''^'' 

On December 12, 1658, Andriessen married Jannetje Jans, 
widow of Christian Barentsen. Barentsen was probably a Dane, 
from Holstein (See Excursus, Part II), and Jannetje, it would 
appear, was Norwegian. For in "The Records of New Amster- 
dam," April 11, 1658, a Christian [Barentsen] is spoken of as the 
husband of the "Noorman's daughter". 

By her first husband she had three, if not four, children : 
Barent, Cornelis, Johannes. In her second marriage she had four 
children : Andries, Lourens, Pieter, and Thomas. 

Andries was baptized, according to the records, on March 3, 
1659. Some genealogies have changed this into March 3, 1660. 
The change may have been done in the interest of a perfected 
chronology, but the original date is according to the New Style, 
thus needing no change. If Andries was born on March 3, 1659, 
he was likely the son of Christian Barentsen. Andries died in 
Bergen, New Jersey, 1683. 

Laurens married Hendrickje Van der Linden. His will is 
proved in Bergen County, June 4, 1724. 



358 D. T. Valentine, Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York, 
1861 and 1865. Cfr. Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1901, p. 158. 
The Danish word for turner is "dreier", pronounced as Drayer. 

359 The Records of New Amsterdajn, 1653-1674, III., p. 290. 

360 D. T. Valentine, Manual ... of the City of New York, 1861, 586f. 



154 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Peter was born January 1, 1666, died 1738. He married 
Trintje Harmense, by whom he had three children. 

Thomas married Margaret Hendrickje Van der Linden, died 
1745. They had ten children. 

Laurens Andriessen acquired much land in Bergen County, 
New Jersey, and became influential in political life. He held 
several ofifices of trust. He had a good handwriting, his signature 
is given in the New Jersey Archives, First Series L, p. 97. He 
often served on juries. He was a member of the Bergen Court, 
1677 to 1680, president of it, 1681, president of the County Court, 
1682. He was also for several years member of the Governor's 
Council. 



Signature of LaureoB Andriessen. 



On April 10, 1682, he obtained a patent of 1076 acres of 
land at Hackensack, New Jersey.^^^ On May 23, in the same 
year, he obtained a deed for "half a parcel" of land, adjoining 
Cornelis Christians, likewise at New Hackensack, and "a half a 
meadow lot." ^^^ 

On March 24, 1683, he was appointed Justice of Peace of 
the Quorum, for the counties of Essex, Middelsex, Monmouth, 
and Bergen. 2^3 

The will of Laurens Andriessen and his wife is dated August 
29, 1679. It was proved March 19, 1693.36^ 

Of Laurens Andriessen's children, Laurens (born 1663), re- 
presented Bergen in the Fifth Provincial Assembly, 1709. He died 
1724. He had seven children. 

Laurens Andriessen is the common ancestor of the Van 
Buskirks, well known in the annals of New Jersey and New York. 



361 New Jersey Archives, First Series, XXI., p. 48. 

362 Ibid., XXI., p. 135. 

363 Ibid., XIII., p. 89. 

364 Ibid., XXI., p. 193. Jannetje died July 13, 1694. 



ANDRIESSEN. 



155 



His great-grandson Jacob Van Buskirk * born at Hackensack, in 
1739, probably was the first American-born Lutheran minister in 
the United States. A descendant of his is Dr. J. Singmaster, 
President of the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, Penn. 

The Buskirks have intermarried with many of the leading 
families in the Eastern Section of the United States. A brief 
Genealogy of this family is given in Wm. E. Chute's "A Genealogy 
and History of the Chute Family" (1895). See also C. S. William's 
"Christian Barentsen Van Horn and his Descendants" (1911). 



* The Library of the "Phrena" Society. Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, 
Pa., possesses an interesting copy of Luther's Small Catechism in Dutch. The title 
reads: 

"Die kleine ICateehismusI van Do Martinus Lutherus |mit getuigenissen des 
Geestes Gods uit de Heilige Schriftuur Kort, — delyk en grondelyk tot behoef van 
de Eenvoudige, De onveranderde Augsburgze Confessie toegedaan zynde. | Verklaard 
en bewezen | Tit. 1. 9. Houd vast over het Woord dat gewis is, en leeren kan Te 
Amsterdam. By Hendrik Bosch, Boekverkooper, over't Meisjes Wees-huis, 1727." 

This work has once been the property of Rev. Johan Christian Leps, whose 
note-book from the University of Halle, where he studied in 1764, is in the same 
library. Leps was ordained in Philadelphia in 1774. He was not a Dane as is 
claimed by Rev. Rasmus Andersen in "Danske i Amerika" (pp. 396flf), but a Ger- 
man, as Prof. Fr. Loofs, of the University of Halle, informs me. According to 
Loofs, Leps was from Freuenbritzen in the Province of Brandenburg. He registered 
as studiosus juris at the University of Halle in 1763. 

This catechism — in two small volumes, in hog's leather, — of 79 pages and 
410 questions, also contains sixty closely written leaves, though not in the hand- 
writing of Leps, but in that which we find in several other books, which he had in 
his library. The writer seems to have been a conscientious catechist. probably 
pastor of the Dutch church at Loonenburg, now Athens, Green County, N. Y. The 
book gives us an idea of the size of the confirmation class to which Jacob von Bus- 
kirk belonged, as it, like many other old books, contains more than what its printed 
characters convey to us. The catechist has supplied the last pages with a hand- 
written list of the names of twenty-nine boys and twenty-one (twenty-three?) girls, 
under the rubric "Naamen der Catechisanten." Among the names are Jacob van 
Boschkerk; Gertrud van Bjoskerk ; Mathys Bronk, a descendant of Jonas Bronk (see 
article, Jonas Bronck, Part 11). 



The names are: 

(Boys) 

Henrich Evertson. 

Martin Haalenbeck. 

Nicolai von Loon. 

Joachim Halenbek. 

Ysaak Halenbek. 

Valentin Schram. 

Jacob Van Boschkirk. 

Johannes Schram. 

Johannes Landman. 

Jan V. Hoesen Jas 0. . . 

Petrus Ganson. 

Nicolaus van Hoesen. 

Wilhelm van Hoesen. 

Justus van Hoesen. 

Nicolaus Landmand. 

Joh Landmand sen 

Rulof Ganson, 

Cornelius Halenbeck. 

Lisabeth Landman. 

Jan Janson van Hoesen. 

Dirk van Hoesen. 

Evert van Loon. 

Math V Long, 

Jurry Gertsen Klaus. 

Franz Klan. 

Mathys Bronk. 

Jurgen Schram. 

Jan Jacobsen van Hoesen. 

Jan van Hoesen. 



(Girls) 

Aynetje Halenbek 
Marya Halenbek. 
Marya van Loon. 
Catharina Ehman. 
Gertrud von Bjoschkerk. 
Ebgeltje Schram. 
Maria Hardeck. 
Janeke van Hoesen. 
Marya van Loon. 
Catharina van Horen. 
Gertye van Hoeren. 
Jannetje van Hoes. 
Rebecca van Loon. 
Lisabeth van Hoesen. 
Maria van Hoesen. 
Elsje van Hoesen. 
Paley Hardeck. 
Marytye van Hoesen. 
Annet van Hoesen. 
Jantje van Hoesen. 
Marytye van Hoesen. 
(Maria de Grot.) 
(Hell v. Dyk.) 



156 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

PIETER ANDRIESSEN. 

Pieter Andriessen, a Dane, from Bordesholm in Holstein, 
came over to New Amsterdam in 1639, in the ship "de Brant van 
Trogen." Among his fellow passengers were other Danes: Cap- 
tain Jochim Pietersen Kuyter, Jonas Bronck (?) and Laurens 
Duyts.^^^ Duyts and Andriessen were to work for Jonas Bronck 
in Morrisania, the present Borough of the Bronx. Bronck had 
advanced the two men about 121 florins to pay their board on the 
ship.2®^ 

On October 19, 1645, Pieter Andriessen got the patent of a 
lot behind the public tavern on Manhattan, that is on Hoogh 
Straet. On the same date he obtained a patent of "74 morgens, 
327 rods of land on the East River, opposite Hog Island, east of 
Domine's Hook."^^^ The house which was erected upon this 
farm was nearly opposite the foot of the present Fifty-fifth Street 
on Manhattan Island. ^^^ 

Andriessen owned, it would appear, some cattle before he be- 
came an independent landowner. When working in Morrisania, 
he bought live stock. Under date of October 15, 1641, we find a 
receipt of his "for a milk cow from Philip de Truy on shores.''^^" 
His farm must have frequently been visited by men who passed 
his house on the river, for he had a tavern there as early as 
1648.^"'^ Besides being a farmer and a tavernkeeper, he also was 
a chimney-sweep. He was called Pieter de Schoorstenveger (the 
chimney-sweep). We do not know much about his movements. 
When he was in the city, he likely left his farm in care of his 
negro slaves. 

He had not been long in this country before he had, like 
many other early settlers, his hands in a lawsuit, and that against 
a woman. We have a notice of this under date of August 9, 1642, 
when he sued Aeltje Douwes for slander. The result of the pro- 
ceedings was, that Aeltje "begs pardon of the plaintiff in court 



365 See articles on these men. Part II. 

366 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 9. 

367 Ibid., I., p. 370. 

368 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 164. 

369 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts. I., p. 17. 

370 The Records of New Amsterdam, I., p. 8. 




^ w 






l^''f-f 




">. 






w °' ^ 

cr. 




V s^ 



ANDEIESSEN. 157 

and acknowledges that he [Andriessen] is an honest and upright 

JJQ71 

man. ^'^ 

On August 5, 1653, he was sued by GuHaem Wys, who de- 
manded "payment of fl. 499 :4 according to note dated 5 August, 
1652." Andriessen "confessed the debt" and requested delay. 
But the court condemned him "to pay according to obligation 
within one month from date."^'''^ 

A notice dated September 11, 1655, gives us the key to the 
nationality of Pieter Andriessen. It states that "Pieter Andrisz 
Van Bordolholm [Bordesholm]" is indebted to Cornelis Steen- 
wyck, as attorney for Jacobus Schelle, the sum of 415 guilders for 
merchandise received in 1652. It also states that he resided on 
Long Island. ^'^^ 

It is erroneous to identify ^'^^ Pieter Andriessen with a Pieter 
Andriessen from "Thresoni, in Brabant," who married, in 1661, 
Geertruyd Samson, widow of Jan Theunissen van Wesp, and died 
in 1664.375 

On June 5, 1650, Pieter Andriessen, the subject of our sketch, 
was sponsor at the baptism of Michel and Dorothe, twins belonging 
to a Norwegian, Jochem Kier (Kalder). 

There was a Pieter Andriessen who bought a lot in New 
Amsterdam on March 14, 1661. Whether this person be Pieter 
from Brabant or Pieter from Bordesholm can not be decided with 
the aid of the material at our disposal. 

Pieter Andriessen, the chimney sweeper, received his small 
burgher right on April 13, 1657. 

Before we take leave of him we shall relate these two inci- 
dents connected with him and his house on the farm. 

In 1655 the Indians made one of their raids. Andriessen 
was one of those who suffered by it : he lost his cattle. In order 
to recover some of his live stock, he and a few others sailed up 



371 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 72. 

372 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 118. 

373 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 159. 

374 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
P- 27. J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 165. 

375 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, V., p. 66. 



158 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

the East River, to his farm, which he had left when the raid 
took place. But the Indians caught them and kept four of them, 
including Andriessen, prisoners. First after the city authorities 
had paid a ransom for their release, were they liberated. 

In regard to the capture of Andriessen and the ransom which 
the Indians demanded before they would liberate the captives, the 
following documents are of value. The Indians received a ran- 
som; not, however, the extravagant one they had demanded 
according to the documents. 



Director Stuyvesant wrote to Captain Brian Nuton [Newton], 
October 12, 1655 : 



"This is to inform you, that three or four canoes with savages I 
have been seen near the Hellegat on Long Island, who have taken 

Pieter, the chimney-sweep, prisoner ; therefore you w^ill have to be | 

on your guard and keep your men close together; and whereas I I 

have been informed, that the free people, contrary to my order, j 
do not remain together, but that every one runs here and there to 

his own plantation, you must once more, and this the last time, , 

warn them, that they take care and keep together according to my j 

order, or that I shall be obliged to take other measures herein, j 

You are hereby especially directed to keep your soldiers together ■ 
and keep a good watch. Farewell . . ." 



From the minutes in regard to the appearance, before the 
Council, of Stephen Necker, one of the prisoners, who had been j 
sent by the Indians to demand the ransom, we quote the following: ! 

[October 13] "Stephen Necker appeared before the Council j 
and reported that Peter, the chimney-sweep, with five others, of j 
whom he was one, had sailed to the aforesaid chimney-sweep's 
plantation to fetch some animals from there; after they had been' j 
there about half an hour, they were attacked by about thirty sav- 
ages, he does not know of what nation, who took them all pris- 
oners; four of them had been wounded, and he with Cornelis 
Mourissen (afterwards shot in the back with an arrow, "which has 
been cut out by the barber") has been sent here by the savages, to 



ANDRIESSEN. 159 

ask for their ransom the following articles, which the savages had 
marked with notches on a stick : 

20 coats of cloth. 40 knives. 

20 handfuls of powder. 10 pairs of shoes. 

10 bars of lead. 10 pairs of socks. 

10 kettles. 10 addices. 

2 muskets. 10 hatchets. 

3 swords. 20 tobacco-pipes. 
20 strings of wampum. ■^''^ 

Almost at the same time and during Andriessen's absence 
from his house, a white settler and two negroes, one of whom was 
,a servant of Andriessen, took possession of his house, in order 
to enjoy a repast of stolen chickens. They had been in the 
neighborhood for their prey, and had frightened the few people 
there by feigning Indians. They had shouted and yelled, battered 
the doors and on the whole played their role of savages so well, 
that those who were not initiated, were scared away. Finally one 
of the latter, Harmen the cooper, made his way to Andriessen's 
house, where he saw a light. He heard, to his surprise, Dutch 
spoken, entered the house boldly and caught the miscreants red- 
handed. The new visitor found a large fire in Pieter's house, 
and "Claes de Ruyter preparing to spit the (stolen) fowls." The 
visitor censured them, but the miscreants answered "that they 
were forced to do it by hunger" — a fabricated defense, as the city 
was not far distant. The city authorities got knowledge of the 
matter, and the visitor related before the court what had trans- 
pired in the "chimney-sweep's house." He even told that De Ruy- 
ter requested him to remain silent about the matter, and that he, 
on arriving at the Manhattans, would pay for the fowls. "^"'^ 

The city government, now knowing that others besides the 
Indians were playing the role of plunderers, issued an "Order 
against isolated plantations." It commanded the subjects to settle 
close to one another in villages and hamlets. It imposed a penalty 
on those who refused to comply with the command and gave notice 
that they must not expect any aid from the government in case of 
trouble with the Indians. 



376 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 43f. 

377 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, IV., p. 394f. 



160 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

CLAES CLAESEN BORDING. 

Claes Claesen Bording was from Denmark (possibly from 
Hording). He was in New Amsterdam as early as 1648 or before. 
There is no Danish name in the Records of New Amsterdam that 
appears so often as that of Claes Claesen Bording. He was a re- 
spectable mariner and a politician of some influence. He was 
several times nominated for offices, e. g., the office of schepen, but 
he "is not found to have been appointed to any crown station. "^^s 
He received the small burgher's right in 1657, and his nomination 
for the office of schepen would indicate that he also had the great 
burgher's right. He was often in court as curator or as arbitrator 
in disputes. 

He had a good house on Pearl Street, between Whitehall 
Street and the Battery. 

His wife was Susanna Lues (Lees, Lies, Marsuryn). Su- 
sanna and Claes had many children, who were baptized between 
1650 and 1673. 

The dates of the baptism of their children are as follows: 
Marritje, September 11, 1650; Tryntje, November 5, 1651; Mar- 
ritje, May 3, 1654; Lysbeth, October 25, 1656; Claes, May 11, 
1658; Simon, February 5, 1662; Jannetje, November 2, 1663; 
Hester, December 7, 1667; Lysbeth, September 10, 1670; Claes, 
October 26, 1673.3^9 

Bording and his wife were often present as sponsors at bap- 
tisms. 

He was sponsor at the baptism of Grietie, a child of Cors 
Pietersen, May 25, 1648 ; at the baptism of Daniel and Anneken, 
children of Pieter Laurentszen, February 4, 1654 ; at the baptism 
of Sytie, child of Pieter Pieterszen, January 23, 1656 ; at the bap- 
tism of Jacobus, child of Jacob Theunissen de Key and Hillegond 
Theunis, November 27, 1672; at the baptism of Lysbeth, child of 
Cornelis Kregier and Annetje Bordings, August 2, 1676 ; at the 
baptism of Samuel, child of Thomas Lourenszen, July 9, 1679.^^'' 



378 D. T. Valentine, History of the Corporation of the City of New York, 
1853, p. 91. Tradition says, he was from Danzig. Jens Worm's Lexicon mentions 
several persons having the name of Bording, born in Ribe or Aarhus or Antwerp. 

379 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II., 
pp. 27, 30, 37, 43, 53, 64, 75, 89, 99, 112. 

380 Ibid., II., pp. 24, 36, 41, 107, 124, 140. 



BOEDING. 161 

Susanna, his wife, was sponsor at the baptism of Gritie, child 
of Hendrick Hendrickszen Obee, August 17, 1659; at the baptism 
of Thomas, son of Thomas Laurenszen and Marritje Jans, March 
13, 1678 ; at the baptism of another child of Thomas Laurenszen 
and Marretje Jans, July 15, 1674.^^1 

Bording and his wife joined the Dutch Reformed Church be- 
tween 1649 and 1660. 

On November 6, 1648, Bording dissolved partnership with 
Aryn Jansen, which fact would seem to indicate that he must have 
been in New Amsterdam for some time, perhaps many years, prior 
to the fall of 1648.382 

On March 24, 1651, Claes Bording and Pieter Jacobsen Ma- 
rius gave power of attorney to Pieter Cornelissen to collect money 
due them at the South River.^^s 

On August 18, 1653, Bording sued Willem Albertsen for a 
balance of seven beavers "by virtue of a note for sixteen and one- 
third beavers." The result of the suit was that Albertsen was 
condemned to pay what he owed the plaintiff.^^^ 

On December 8, 1653, Cornells van Tienhoven appeared in 
court and declared that Bording had been examined before the 
Director and Council on a charge of smuggling gunpowder and 
lead, and that they had provisionally confined him in the council 
chamber. He requested the Burgomaster and the Schepen to ex- 
amine into the matter.385 Nothing is recorded as to how the 
matter was concluded. 

On March 16, 1654, Bording was authorized and appointed 
by the court as curator of the property left by a Gillis Jansen de- 
ceased.^^^ 

On April 13, he appeared before the court prosecuting a 
certain attachment levied on a sum of 100 gl. in the hands of 
Jacob Strycker on account of Jan Snediger, whom he (Bording) 
had cited and who refused to appear. The court declared the 
attachment valid. In the following month the case was tried, and 



381 Ibid., II., pp. 53, 109, 115. 

382 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 45. 

383 Ibid., p. 52. 

384 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 99. 

385 Ibid., I., p. 138. 

386 Ibid., I., p. 174. 



162 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

Snediger was ordered by the court to pay what he owed Bord- 

]j^g 387 

In May, 1655, Bording and six other inhabitants of New 
Amsterdam signed a petition : that the court order Jacob Steven- 
sen and Mary Joosten, his wife, to leave the city or be punished 
on account of their "wicked, enormous, beastly, dreadful and im- 
moral lives." 

It appears that Bording and Pieter Jacobsen Marius were 
partners in business. We have noted that they had transactions 
in common in 1651. They had such transactions also in 1656, 
1658, and 1670. 

On October 2, 1656, they appeared in court complaining that 
they could not obtain payment from Jacob van Couwenhoven, a 
brewer, according to the judgment passed some time before by the 
court. They requested that execution might be proceeded with. 
The court declared the request just and ordered Couwenhoven to 
give immediate satisfactory security. ^^^ Couwenhoven was at this 
time greatly hampered by his debts. 

A week later, Couwenhoven got extension of time from the 
court. But Bording again appeared and renewed his former re- 
quest. At the same time he prosecuted the arrest of "the horse 
and all that Wolfert Gerritssen has on his bouwerie, which is 
mortgaged to him." The court declared the mortgage valid, but 
would not alter the recent ruling with respect to Couwenhoven.^^" 
On November 1, Bording made his third appearance in court, 
again requesting that execution might be legally issued against van 
Couwenhoven. But the court persisted in the previously issued 
order.^^^ At the end of the year the case was again considered. 
The court found that the request of Bording and Marius was just, 
but it also desired to be accommodating to van Couwenhoven.^^^ 

On September 23, 1658, Bording and Marius appeared in 
court against Lauwerens Jansz, widower of Anna Cornelis, de- 
ceased. Jansz was about to depart for Holland, and the plaintiffs 



387 Ibid., I., pp. 183, 190. 

388 Ibid., II., p. 177. 

389 Ibid., II., p. 183. 

390 Ibid., II., p. 214. 

391 Ibid., II., p. 242. 



BOEDING. 163 

requested that he should render account for the estate of Jacob 
Jacobs, son of Anna Cornelis.^^^ 

In the early part of 1670 Bording and Marius brought suit 
against Andrew Messenger, who was indebted to them for goods 
and merchandise to the sum of fl. 331,12 in seawan. They won 
their case. Andrew had also to pay the costs of the suit. But 
as late as November, Andrew had not paid them, and they again 
complained. The court ordered the sheriff to collect the money 
or pay it himself. The sheriff was Allard Anthony. As he took 
no steps to collect the sum, even after getting the orders of the 
court, the court ordered, on December 16, that the marshall should 
serve the execution upon the estate of Allard Anthony without 
any further delay. In March, 1672, the court renewed this 
order.^^^ 

Bording seems to have been persistent in his suits, and he 
generally won. We shall mention two : one in 1655, which he 
lost, and one in 1662, which makes it evident that he frequently 

I had his own way in court matters. 

j On October 18, 1655, he sued Pieter Wolfertsen for some 

! spoiled tobacco which he had received from him. He said he had 
received in all six hogsheads of tobacco, but 418 pounds were 
spoiled. The court, upon hearing the evidence, which showed 

I that "the tobacco had been shipped in good condition in tubs 

j properly inspected," dismissed the case.^^^ 

On January 10, 1662, Paulus van de Beeck, collector of ex- 
cises demanded in court twenty-six gl. of Bording for "excise of 

j a beast and two hogs, entered by him, with costs." Bording faced 
the officer and court with the question "if men must give twice 
as much heavy money." The court answered him that he could 
satisfy the excise by "paying with such pay as the beast is bought 
in." The question seems to have been one about the medium of 
exchange, whether seawan was on par with metal. ^^^ 

We have stated that Bording was a mariner. Mention is 
often made of his yacht, in the New York Colonial Documents. ^^^ 



392 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 114. 

393 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, VI., 280, 344, 347. 

394 Ibid., I., p. 379. 

395 Ibid., IV., pp. 6, 8. 

396 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., pp. 250, 264, 365. 



164 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

We do not know when Bording died. In 1686 Susanna 
Marsuryn is mentioned as the widow of Bording. She was then 
living at Pearl Street. (In 1674 his property on this street was 
valued at $3000.) But as late as 1691 we have a will signed by him. 
The records state: 

"In den namen des Herren (In the name of the Lord,) Amen. 
On October 31, 1691, appeared before me, William Bogardus, 
Public Notary, Claas Burden (or Bordinge) and his wife Susanah. 
The survivor of the two is to have all the estate for life, and then 
to their children, Tryntie, Catharine, wife of Lucas Van Thien- 
hoven, Maria, Annettie, wife of Cornelis Gregoe, Symon and 
Hester." 

"Signed 'Claas Bordinge.' 

"Witnesses, Peter Jacobs Marius, John Vandeventer. 

"Proved, Tuesday, May 5, 1691." 397 



JAN BROERSEN. 

Jan Broersen was from Husum, in Denmark. As early as 
1644, he, as a young man, served Jacob Hay (Huys) in the West 
Indies. He later came to New Netherland. We find him at 
Esopus in May, 1658, when he and other settlers of this place made 
an agreement to remove their dwellings and form a village. ^^s 

About the same time he and six others sent a letter to the 
Council of New Netherland, complaining of the Indians, and ask- 
ing for assistance. The letter states that there were 990 schepels of 
seed-grain in the ground, that the country was fine, that between 
sixty and seventy Christian people were living there and were in 
the habit of attending divine services "on all proper days," and 
that they maintained their [church-] reader at their own expense. 
To protect them against the ravages of the Indians, the subscribers 
ask "for help and succor of about forty to fifty men." ^99 



397 Collections of the New York Historical Society for 1893, p. 403. 

398 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 81. 

399 Ibid., XIII., p. 79. 



BROERSEN. 165 

On August 17, 1659, he, with a number of others, signed a 
petition requesting that the Rev. Bloem be appointed their min- 
ister.'**''' In 1661 he subscribed, at one occasion, fifteen florins for 
the support of the Rev. Bloem, who in response to the petition 
had been appointed preacher at Esopus.**'^ 

In March, 1660, Broersen served as a soldier at Esopus.^^- 
On account of the Indian raids it was necessary that all who 
could carry arms should belong to the local militia. In September, 
1659, a letter signed by the settlers at Esopus, including Broersen, 
was sent to Stuyvesant relating that they were besieged in the 
fort by Indians. "^^^ 



X 



Signature of Jan Broersen. 

Broersen visited New Amsterdam as occasion required. He 

j was there in 1659. Not long afterward Aeltje Bickers, wife of 

Nicholas Velthuysen, sued him for a debt of fl. 44. She claimed 

that "Reinert Jansen Hoorn had promised to pay her in four days 

j for Jan Broersen, and that she thereupon allowed Jan Broerson 

to depart and that Hoorn will not pay the sum, but gave her 

ill words." Hoorn admitted that he had promised to pay 

for Broersen, but as Aeltje Bickers and her husband were 

quarreling, he claimed that he had reasons for not paying her.'*<'^ 

Broersen was again in New Amsterdam in November, 1661, 

when he sued a Norwegian woman, the daughter of Dirck Holger- 

sen and widow of Jacob Huys for labor he had done for her 

husband in the West Indies. We shall let the court minutes relate 

the details of the case. 

[November 15, 1661.] 

"Jan Broerzen, pltf. v|s Christyntie Capoens, deft. Pltf. de- 
I mand from deft, sixty guilders Holland currency for wages earned 



400 Ibid., XIII., p. 103. 

401 Ibid.. XIII., p. 214. 

402 Ibid., XIII., p. 154. 

403 Ibid., XIII., p. 119. 

404 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, III., p. 63. 



166 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

in the West Indies from deft's. late husband. Deft, says she does 
not know the pltf., and full fifteen years is passed, and if pltf. 
can bring proof that she owes it, she will pay, Pltf. was asked, 
if he had never spoken to deft's. late husband about the matter? 
Answers, Yes and was to him at Breukelen with Albert Cornelis- 
sen's wife, when he gave for answer, that he did not owe him 
and must bring proof. The W: Court order pltf. to bring proof, 
that something is due him by the deft." ^^^ 

[November 20, 1661.] "J^-" Broerzen, pltf. v|s Christyntje 
Capoen, deft. Deft in default. In pursuance to the order of the 
last court day, pltf. produces a declaration of Adrian Huybersen 
Sterrevelt, who states, it is within his knowledge that Jan Broer- 
sen served Jacob Hay as a boy about seventeen years ago in the 
West Indies, both at Santa Cruz and Curacao, without having 
received, to his knowledge, any pay therfor: Also a declaration of 
Tryn Herders declaring that she had been with him to Jacob Hay, 
and speaking about money was refused any by him. Burgomasters 
and Schepens order the pltf. to summon Christyntje Capoens and 
Tryn Herders by the next Court day." ^^^ 

[November 29.] "Jan Broerzen, pltf. v|s Christyntje 
Capoens and Tryn Herders as witnesses, defts. Whereas Tryn 
Herders is not present, the matter is postponed to the next Court 
day and she is ordered to be summoned again." ^^'^ 

Evidently the case was dropped or adjusted out of court. 

Jan Broersen married Heltje Jacobs. They had children: 
Gaerleff, baptized at Kingston (Esopus), February 26, 1662; 
Grietje, August 31, 1664; Maddelen, June 27, 1666; Fitie, June 
18, 1671. 

His wife was deceased December 24, 1679, when Broersen 
married Willemtje Jacobs, who had been married to Albert Gerit- 
sen and to Jan Cornelissen, a Swede from Goteborg.*"^ 

In 1673, Jan Broersen was nominated magistrate by the in- 
habitants of Horly and Marble. The Governor accordingly ap- 
pointed him a magistrate and notified the inhabitants of it in 



405 Ibid., III., p. 407. 

406 Ibid., III., p. 411. 

407 Ibid., III., p. 415. 

408 R. R. Hoes, Baptismal and Marriage Registers ... of Kingston, pp. 2, 
4, 5, 8. Gnstave Angou, Ulster County Wills, I., p. 30. 



BEONCK. 167 

a letter of October 6, 1673. Besides being magistrate Broersen was 
also lieutenant of the militia.^*^^ 



JONAS BRONCK. 

Jonas Bronck, who arrived at New Amsterdam in 1639, and 
whose name is perpetuated in Bronx Borough, Bronx Park, Bronx- 
ville — in New York — was a Scandinavian, in all probability a 
Dane, and originally, as it seems, from Thorshavn, Faroe Islands, 
where his father was a pastor in the Lutheran Church. Faroe then 
belonged to Denmark-Norway and had been settled by Norwegians. 
The official language of the island in Bronck's days was Danish. 

For a long time, writers were diligently searching for the 
antecedents of Jonas Bronck. 

Bronck may have been a Swede if we judge by the name 
alone, for the name of Brunke is well known in Sweden. This 
possibility receives some support in the fact that a relative of 
Bronck, likely his son, Pieter Jonassen Bronck, made mention of 
a Swedish woman in his will, Engeltje Mans. He gave her 
husband, Burger Joris, power of attorney to collect some debts. 
There thus appears to have been ties of relationship or friendship 
between Engeltje Mans and the Bronck family. (See articles Pieter 
Bronck, Part II., and Engeltje Mans, Part III.) Of course, the 
fact that Engeltje Mans resided in Sweden does not necessarily 
make her Swedish, though we have classified her as such. As to 
the first Brunke in Sweden — he died in 1319 — Swedish annals 
regard him as a foreigner. Brunkeberg, north of Stockholm, has 
been named after him. 

Jonas Bronck, again judging by the name, may have been a 
Norwegian. According to O. Rygh, "Norske Gaardnavne." I., 
p. 43, documents of 1612 and 1616 mention Brunckeslett, a place 
in Smaalenenes Amt in Norway. Norway has also a river called 
Bronka, entering Elverum (98 miles from Christiania). A docu- 
ment of 1557 mentions Brunckefos, a fall in the Bronka river. 
This fall was the property of the Norwegian Crown. There is 



409 New York Colonial Documents, II., p. 626. 



168 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

also in Norway a Bunckestadt which is mentioned in 1578, a cor- 
rupt form, Rygh conjectures, of Brunckestadt (Rygh. "Norske 
Gaardnavne," III., Hedemarkens Amt, p. 305). From "Bronka" 
Rygh explains the name of Brunkeberg in Telemarken, Norway. 
It refers to a parish and several boweries. A creek called Bronka 
may have given rise to the name in Telemarken. Rygh also registers j 
Norwegian names like Bronkebakken, Bronketorpet, Bronken sea ] 
(pronounced Bronka). "Bronke" may be derived from "bruun", { 
in earlier times meaning "bright," "glossy" ; or from "brun" mean- 
ing "edge." I 

Meanwhile, the Norwegian records do not, to our knowledge, i 

speak of persons having the name of Bronk, Bronken, or Brunck. j 

But the Danish records do. i 

Rev. R. Anderson, of Brooklyn, N. Y., who has contributed ! 

to "Danske i Amerika," and who more than any other has taken j 

an interest in the Danish genealogy of early New York speaks i 

of a number of Brunkes in Danish history. He makes the conjee- ' 

ture that Rev. Morten Brunck who was in Aaker, on Bornholm. , 
1604 — 1624, may be a relative of Jonas Bronck. 

Confining myself to my own investigation of original sources, ; 

I find a Jens Brunck, who in 1503 was in Yding.^^^ j^i Denmark; | 

likewise a Rev. Torchillus Brwnck (Torkil Brunck), who in 1532 | 
was stationed in Lund ^^^ ; and, again, a Lavrits Michelsen Brunch, 
pastor in Stubbekjobing, in 1564. *'^~ 

Just recently, however, a claim has been put forth which seems i 
to offer a satisfactory solution as to the antecedents of Jonas j 
Bronck. Baron Joost Dahlerup, of New Rochelle, N. Y., in writ- . 
ing on the influence of the Danish element in early New York i| 
(Politikens Kronik, Jan. 4, 1914), became instrumental in calling 
forth an article on Bronck by the historian N. Andersen, of Den- 
mark, who for many years was an official in Faroe Islands, and, I 
perhaps second to none, is acquainted with Faroese history. | 

Mr. N. Andersen, in reading Mr. Dahlerup's article (which I 

the author has kindly loaned me) recollected having seen the name i 
of Brunck in Faroese history. He set to work, and published 
the result in "Personalhistorisk Tidsskrift," VI R., 5. B., pp. 73 — 
75. (Copenhagen). 



410 J. p. Trap, Kongeriget Danmark, V., p. 243. 

411 Holger Rordam, Historiske Kildeskrifter, 2 R. II., p. 392. 

412 H. F. Rordam, Ny Kirkehistoriske Samlinger, V., p. 425. 



BRONCK. 169 

According to Mr. N. Andersen, Morten Jespersen Brunck 
was Lutheran parish minister in South Stromo, residing in Thors- 
havn, the capital of Faroe Islands. In 1583 he received an as- 
sistant pastor in Christian Pedersen Morsing, thus appearing to 
have been feeble in health. In 1590 he died. His wife's name 
was Bille, and his son was, no doubt, the person who had attended 
the Latin School in Roskilde, Denmark, and in 1619, registered 
in the University of Copenhagen as Johannes Martini Farinsulanus 
(John Mortenson Faroese Islander). 

The possible objection that Jonas, because his father died in 
1590, must have been at least thirty years of age when he entered 
the university, Mr. Andersen meets by giving instances where 
students registered in the university at the age of thirty-five or 
more. 

The education which Jonas could have got in Thorshavn, was 
more or less elementary : reading, writing, and some branches com- 
mon to a Latin school for such pupils as desired to continue their 
studies in a classical gymnasium, which Faroe Islands did not 
possess. If Jonas attended the school at Thorshavn, say between 
1625 and 1631, he was one of six or seven pupils, and probably 
the only one preparing for the Latin school. 

Several students from Faroe had, in the course of time, at- 
tended the University. They added to their names designations, 
showing whence they came : Ferronensis, Feroensis, Faro. 

These Faroese students, as a rule, returned to their native 
land, becoming assistants of their fathers, who were pastors. 
Jonas Bronck, however, did not return to get a charge, for his 
father was dead. 

Mr. N. Andersen leaves it an open question as to what regions 
Jonas Bronck visited between the time he left the university and 
the time he came to New Netherland. He says, he may have lived 
during this period in Holland, he may have served either the 
Danish or the Dutch East India Company. 

Mr. Andersen also makes the conjecture that Bronck's sister 
was the wife of Jochem Pietersen Kuyter (See article "Kuyter." 
Part II.) Her name was Martens ^ daughter of Marten or 
Morten; that is, daughter of Rev. Morten Jespersen Brunck, of 
Faroe. 

This new explanation, of Mr. Andersen, is plausible. All 



170 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

the evidence we have, tends to show that Bronck was a man of 
university training. His hbrary was mainly Danish, those with 
whom he mostly associated were Danish, his first workmen in the 
new world were Danes. 

It would appear that Jonas Bronck had spent considerable 
of his time on the seas. Harry T. Cook in "The Borough of the 
Bronx 1639 — 1913" makes the following statement, which, with 
the aid of my present material, I am not able to verify, but which 
appears to be based on quite legendary data. 

" 'The Magazine of American History,' January, 1908, tells 
us that Jonas Bronck was one of the worthy but unfortunate 
Mennonites who were driven from the homes in Holland to Den- 
mark by religious persecution. He gained rapid promotion in the 
army of the King of Denmark, who was very tolerant toward the 
sect known as Mennonites. He served as commander in the East 
Indies until 1638, when with others of the prosecuted he set sail 
for America." 

In discussing the antecedents of Bronck. attention must be 
called to the fact that a Jan Peeck prosecuted, in 1653, Jan Ger- 
ritsen in New Amsterdam for the payment of victuals consumed 
at the funeral of one Jems Bronck, a soldier, who had been shot 
dead, "for which Gerritsen had given security." Peeck demanded 
48 fi. 18 stivers. The court records state in regard to the defense: 

"Deft, says, it is true, he has been at the party consuming 
the victuals, but as he is no heir nor has received any benefits from 
deceased, he is not bound to pay. Having heard both, Burgo- 
masters and Schepens decide that deft, is not bound to pay, but 
that pltf. must look for the payment of his claim or his pay from 
the Company." (West India). 

Under date of July 21, 1653, the Records again refer to the 
case: "As he (Peeck) can not obtain payment out of his (Bronck's) 
estate or pay from the Company, except 12 fl. through the Officer, 
pltf. demands that deft, as surety shall pay the balance as per note. 
Deft, refers to his former answer and the decision of the Court, 
dated the 17th of February, requesting that pltf's. demand be dis- 
missed. The Court refers pltf. to the Company to receive his due 
out of the pay of deceased agreeably to the promise of the Fiscal." 

Who was this Jems Bronck? Our sources fail to tell us 
anything more about him. 



BEONCK. 171 

Returning to the subject of our article, the wife of Jonas 
Bronck, Teuntje Jeurians, seems to have been a relative of Mar- 
ritje Pieters of Copenhagen, who appointed, on August 15, 1639, 
"Teuntje Jeurians of [New] Amsterdam or Jacob Bronck, her 
present husband, as heirs ..." (See article "Marritje Pieters." 
Part II.) 

Writers generally agree that the year of Jonas Bronck's ar- 
rival at New Amsterdam was 1639, though E. B. O'Callaghan 
in "History of New Netherland," II, 531, states that Bronck 
leased land in New Netherland as early as 1637. This may be 
purely conjectural on the part of O'Callaghan. Evidently the year 
he gives should have been 1639. 

Some writers also state that Bronck and James Pietersen 
Kuyter (See Article "Kuyter") arrived at the same time by the 
ship De Brant van Trogen, sailing from Horn, that Bronck owned 
the ship, and Kuyter commanded it. I am not in a position to 
verify this. But this much can be said : Kuyter and Bronck were 
the best of friends, and two of Bronck's workmen, Laurens 
Duyts and Pieter Andriessen, came with Kuyter on De Brant von 
Trogen. The ship also carried implements and cattle for com- 
mencing a plantation on a large scale. 

Bronck either now, or, if O'Callaghan is correct, in 1637 got 
a list of patent from the Dutch government — the Ranague tract. 
To-day it is known as Morrisania. It lay between the Great Kill 
(Harlem River) and the Aquahaug (Bronx River). 

Bronck not only paid for the property, but he advanced 
money to pay the passage of his workmen. And yet he had money 
to loan to Andries Hudde, who on July 18, 1639, gave him a 
note for 200 carolus guilder "received from him at [New] Am- 
sterdam." 

That Bronck was well pleased with the purchase of his 
property, is shown by a letter he penned to Pieter Van Alst, in 
the old world. 

Harry T. Cook, in "The Borough of Bronx," says that Van 
Alst was a relative of Bronck. In the letter Bronck wrote : 

"The invisible hand of the Almighty Father surely guided me 
to this beautiful country, a land covered with virgin forest and 
unlimited opportunities. It is a veritable paradise and needs but 



172 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

the industrious hand of man to make it the finest and most beauti- 
ful region in all the world." 

Bronck called his home Emmaus. It was situated near the 
present Harlem River station of the N. Y. New Haven and Hart- 
ford Railroad, at 132 Street. 

He erected on his newly acquired land a stone dwelling, which 
he, evidently to the surprise of other immigrants, covered with 
tiles ; a barn ; several tobacco houses ; and barracks for his servants. 
The inventory of his property taken at his death is our authority 
for this statement. It also shows that the luxury of extension 
tables and table cloths, alabaster plates and napkins, silver spoons 
and silver dishes was not foreign to the new home of Jonas Bronck. 
Mention is also made in the inventory of gloves, a satin suit, and 
a gold signet ring. Above all, his library, a list of whose contents 
is given below, shows that Bronck was a man of education and 
refinement. 

Some of the books and pictures he owned, may still be pre- 
served in libraries in this country — or even in Europe. A silver 
cup that belonged to Bronck is now owned by Mr. R. Bronck Fish, 
an attorney in Fultonville, N. Y. Mr. Frank C. Bronck of Am- 
sterdam, N. Y., has in his possession a copy of the inventory of 
Bronck's personal effects. 

On July 21, 1639, Bronck engaged two Danish workmen, who 
had come over with him, to undertake the clearing of a tract of 
500 acres of his property. It was Indian property before Bronck 
got it. To-day it covers what is known as Morrisania. The men 
with whom he contracted were Pieter Andriessen from Bordes- 
holm, and Laurents Duyts. (See articles on these men. Part II.) 

We shall give the wording of this interesting lease in full. 
It is a document in which three Danes are interested, and thus a 
parallel to the document given in Part I, where three Norwegians 
are the signers. (See Article "Dirck Holgersen", Part I.) 

"[Lease of Land in Westchester County.] 

"Before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary in New 
Netherland and the undersigned witnesses, appeared Sr. Jonas 
Bronck, of the one part and Pieter Andriessen and Laurens Duyts 
of the other part, who amicably agreed and contracted as follows: 

"P'irst: Sr. Bronck shall show to the said parties a certain 



BRONCK. 173 

piece of land, belonging to him, situate on the mainland opposite 
to the flats of the Manhates; on which said piece of land they 
shall have permission to plant tobacco and maize, on the condition, 
that they shall be obliged to break new land every two years for 
the planting of tobacco and maize and changing the place, the 
land, upon which they have planted to remain at the disposal of 
said Sr. Bronck. They shall also be bound to surrender the land, 
every time they change, made ready for planting corn and plough- 
ing. They shall have the use of the said land for three consecutive 
years, during which time the said Sr. Bronck shall make no other 
claim upon them, than for the land, which Pieter Andriessen 
and Laurens Duyts by their labor shall have cleared, who on their 
side shall be obliged to fulfill the above [mentioned] conditions. 
If Pieter Andriessen and Laurens Duyts demand within a year 
from said Sr. Bronck 2 horses and 2 cows on the conditions, on 
which at present the Company gives them to freemen, the said 
Bronck shall deliver the animals to them, if he can spare them. 

"Pieter Andriessen and Laurens Duyts further pledge their 
persons and property, movable and immovable, present and future, 
nothing excepted, for the payment of what Sr. Bronck has ad- 
vanced to them for board on ship *de Brant van Trogen', amount- 
ing to 121 fl. 16 St., of which Pieter Andriessen is to pay fl. 81.4 
and Laurens Duyts fl. 40.12. They promise to pay the aforesaid 
sums by the first ready means, either in tobacco or otherwise and 
in acknowledgment and token of truth they have signed this re- 
spectively. 

"Done at Fort Amster dam the 21st July 1639. 



"This is the mark 1 of Laurens Duyts 



"Pieter Andriessen. 
"Maurits Janse, witness." ^^^ 

On August 15, 1639, Bronck leased also some of his land, 
for a period of six years, to the brothers Cornelius Jacobsen and 



413 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 5. Calendar of Historical 
Manuscripts. I., p. 9. 



174 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Jan Jacobsen, both surnamed Stille or Stol. Jan was married to 
Marritje Pieters of Copenhagen. 

Bronck was as we have said a well-to-do man. Exceedingly 
interesting is the list of inventory taken at his house at his death, 
in 1643. It shows that he must have been a man of means, who 
had read much and traveled much. 



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3otofU0 lit f^oanfl 



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Cf)?j;imtl -©a^cBtj.chn. 46. mm. 7701.14, 

(f alijr(ui» Xottntr ^« noar ^ tt i @(«rp|0# 

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^fl 91 ('• 4* Mn. 97at 14. tim. t tf mii* 
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DANISH CALENDAR, 



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^\i ^fu( ttK9(U Jtiatp/ t)ogm((r< i ^Sn^^Dj, 

i ^tr$»^(r(f . ; 

COPENHAGEN, 1642. 



But nothing perhaps is so interesting as his library. It was 
a little library, but merits the words of Mrs. Van Rensselaer 
(History of the City of New York, I., p. 186) : 

"This polyglot little library is the earliest of which any record 
survives in the annals of New York." It contained books on 
theology, medicine, and law ; books in Danish, Dutch, Latin, and 
German. It had pictures and manuscripts. But in language it 



BEONCK. 175 

was more Danish than anything else, in theology it was more 
Lutheran than Reformed, what we should expect of a Dane in 
those times. 

What did this library contain? 

1 Bible, in folio. 

Calvin's Institutes, folio. 

Bullingeri. (Henry B., reformed theologian, Zurich). 

Schultetus dominicalia (a celebrated surgeon at Ulm). 

Moleneri praxis, quarto. 

1 German Bible, quarto. 

Mirror of the Sea (Seespiegd), folio. 

I Luther's Psalter. 

Sledani, folio (A Lutheran theologian). 

Danish Chronicle, quarto. 

Danish Law-book, idem. 

Luther's whole Catechism. 

The praise of Christ, quarto ('t Lof Christi). 

The four ends of Death (de vier Uyterste van ae doot) Two 

Treasuries, small folio. 
Petri Apiani. (A geographer and astronomer.) 
Danish Child's book. 

A book called Forty Pictures of Death, by Symon Golaert. 
Biblical Stories. 
Danish Calendar. 

Survey of the Great Navigation ('t Gesichte der grooten Seevaerts). 
A parcel of 18 old printed pamphlets by divers authors, both Dutch 

and Danish. 
17 manuscript books, which are old. 

II pictures, big and little. 



The contents of this library, and the fact that Bronck called 
his house Emmaus, would indicate that he was of a religious turn 
of mind, interested in the study of theology. But we venture to 
say something more : Does it not reflect the piety, which Lucas 



'^'tiiK^ 









iSOinbUbcnC<li<t 
minttc) 













I GATEGHISMUS *l 

D. Mart. Luth. 

5or550rn» 
fUrt|fai&mmodig^cb/ocom6 im- ^1?^ 

CumPrivilegio &c. 







*§^®?§' 

•^^^^ 
^^■^ 

f^^^S, ^; ■■ -= ■ ' 

^^^Ij^ !clT«ri>en&«diaon fcm cr tx^dt iTki^hznl^dU, 

(Luther's small (or lesser) Catechism for children, 1628.) 

The above given facsimile of the Catechism, somewhat reduced, is taken from 
a Norwegian "Explanation" of Luther's small catechism. This "E.xplanation" 
consists of eight ponderous volumes, eaeli of about 1000 pages, the entire work, 
without binding, weighing fourteen pounds I The author of this formidable work is 
the Rev. Christen Stephansen Bang, f 1678, from Aalborg, Denmark. About 1614 
he became chaplain in Solum, in 1621 pastor in Romedal, Norway. The first five 
volumes treat of the "Five Parts" of the catechism; the last three deal with special 
ethics. The entire eight tomes are known as "Postilla catechetica". They were 
published in Christiania, 1650-1665, but ruined the author financially. 

To get this and other works published. Bang caused the art of printing to be 




BEONCK. 177 

Debes describes in his treatise, 1675, of the Faroese people, among 
which Bronck had lived?* 

But — to come back to the inventory, which no doubt will 
prove a surprise to those who have not learnt to appreciate the 
"kultur" of the pioneers of New York : 

3 guns. 

1 musket. 

1 do. with silver mounting. 

1 Japanese cutlass. 

1 dagger with silver mounting. 

1 black satin suit. 

1 old quilted satin doublet. 

2 old grogram suits. 

1 blue damask woolen shirt. 

2 hats. 

1 black cloth mantle, and 1 gold signet ring. 
1 old mantle of colored cloth. 
6 old shirts. 
19 pewter plates. 



introduced into Norway. He induced a Danish printer, Tyge Nielsen, to come to 
Christiania. In 1643 Nielsen issued the first three books printed on Norwegian soil. 
He did not, however, live up to the contract with Bang, who in 1644 took posses- 
sion of his printing establishment, and tried to dispose of it. New printing firms 
were established in Norway, and, with the help of these. Bang was enabled to finish 
his "Postilla catechetica" in 1665. Norway was the last country in Europe but 
one (Turkey) to introduce the art of printing, it being up to the middle of the 
seventeenth century almost entirely dependent on Denmark for typographical work. 
It is interesting that an explanation of Luther's catechism proved instrumental in 
securing for Norway, with all its rich literature from the time of the sagas to the 
present, its first printing shop. 

Exactly 250 years have passed since Bang's Explanation of Luther's cate- 
chism was completed. A competent Norwegian authority on printing says: "Det . . . 
er et af de st0rste trykverker, som er udf0rt i Norge." 

A copy of the first volume is found in the Heggtveit Collection at Augsburg 
Seminary, Minneapolis. 

* Says Debes: "Efter at Gud hafver antfendt et st0rre Lius for disse Ind- 
byggere ved Evrngeliets rette Forklaring, da hafve de saaledis tiltaget udi den sande 
Guds oc deris Saligheds Kundskab, at det kand i Sandhed skrifvis. at deris lige 
iblandt den Gemene-Mand udi Religionens Kundskab findis icke udi Danmarck. Thi 
efter at de faa sjselden Guds Ord at h0re lydeligen aff deris La-rere, da 0fve Til- 
h0rerne sig selff udi Lsesning, hafve deris Danske Postiller, hvoraf de for deris 
Folck udi Priestens Fravterelse Evangelii Forklaring gifve, hafve derhns andre aan- 
delige Skrifter, saavelsom den hellige Skriftis Boger, hvilcke de flitteligen laese: 
Hvorudofver de saaledis ere grundede udi Guds Ord, at de vide med god Fynd at 
conferere med deris Lnerere udi deres Forsamlinger om Religionens adskillige Ar- 
tickler saa oc andet merckeligt, der kand falde udi Guds Ord. Oc eftersom alt 
Huus-Folcket sidde den st0rste Tid hjemme udi deris Huuse om Vinteren, 0fve de 
sig idelig udi Psalmer at sjunge. . . . Oc effterat Tilh0rprne de gamle er saaledis 
forfremmede, Isere de deris Ungdom ocsaa flitteligen, hvortil de ocsaa troligen til- 
holdis aff deris Praester saa oc Prousten udi Visitatzen. Hvorudofver de unge 
mange, som icke ere ofver deris ti eller tolf Aar gamle, kunne uden ad paa deris 
Fingre icke alleniste Luthers Catechismum med sin enfoldige Forklaring, men endoc 
S. Doctor .Tesper Brochmands Sententser aff den H. Skrift sammendragne ofver Re- 
ligionens Artickler. Hvorfor dette fattige Folck er rigeligen opfyldt med allehaande 
Viisdom oc Forstand udi Gud." 



178 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

12 ditto large and small. 
7 silver spoons. 
1 silver cup. 
1 silver saltcellar. 

1 do. little bowl. 

4 tankards with silver chains. 

2 mirrors, 1 with an ebony, and the other a gilt frame. 
6 little alabaster plates. 

3 iron pots. 

2 carpenter's axes. 

3 adzes and some other carpenter's tools. 

3 beds and 6 pairs of sheets. 

4 pairs pillows. 
4 table cloths. 

16 or 17 napkins. 

1 small brewing kettle. 

3 half barrels. 

1 half vat. 

3 tubs. 

1 hogshead. 

1 churn. 

3 milk pails old and new. 

4 muds (vessel containing four bushels). 

5 old empty corn casks. 
1 suit, of black cloth. 

1 pair of gloves. 

3 copper kettles. 

1 ditto skimmer. 

1 extension table. 

1 chest containing sundry parcels. 

A few panes of window glass. 

A lot of old iron. 

1 stone house covered with tiles. 

1 barn. 

1 tobacco house. 

2 barricks (Bergen), [sheds consisting of movable roof set on 

posts — to shelter hay and grain against rain and snow]. 
2 five year old mares. 
1 six year old stallion. 
1 two year old ditto. 



BRONCK. 



179 



sown on the bowery 
on the cleared land. 



1 yearling stallion. 

2 mares of one year. 

5 milch cows. 

1 two year old cow. 

2 yoke of oxen. 
1 bull. 

3 yearling heifers. 

Hogs, number unknown, running in the woods 

6 schepels of wheat. 
66 " " rye. 

3 " " winter barley 

7 " " peas. 
1 ox plough. 
1 foot plough. 
1 iron harrow. 

1 block wagon. 

2 sickles. 
2 new scythes. 

1 old ditto. 
23 new axes. 

4 old ditto. 

2 hoes. 



with appurtenances. 



There is otherwise very little on record about Jonas Bronck. 
Under date of July 21, 1639, is a notice that he sued Clara Mathys 
for a breach of contract and that he obtained judgment against 
her. The nature of the contract is not stated."*^* The early dating 
would indicate that Bronck had come to New Netherland before 
July, 1639. 

He was an advocate of peace. "Ne cede malis" was engraved 
on the family coat of arms, which is the same as on the windows 
of the Old Dutch Church in Albany where his son, Pieter, wor- 
shipped. This coat of arms was found on some of Bronck's belong- 
ings. It is engraved on a silver cup of his, still preserved. 

The motto is in harmony with the name of his house "Em- 
maus." At this house, on March 28, 1642, the signing of a treaty 
of peace with the Winquaesgeckers, an Indian tribe, took place. 
Present were Cornelius van Tienhoven, secretary ; Hendrick van 



414 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 68. 



180 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Dyck, officer; Everhardus Bogardus, pastor; Jonas Bronck; and 
several Indians, two of whom had sold land to Bronck. ^^^ 

Jonas died in 1643 — it has been said at the hands of Indians. 
The latter is improbable, for his house and property were intact 
at the inventory of his effects. At this inventory, which we have 
reproduced in detail, his son, his wife, his friend Jochem Pietersen 
Kuyter and Rev. Bogardus were present. Kuyter and Bogardus 
were appointed guardians. Prior to the fire in the Albany Capitol 
(1911), the original inventory was on file at the Secretary of 
State's office. 

Bronck had married in Europe, probably in Denmark, Teuntje 
Jeurians (Teuntje^ Antonia, or Sofia). She may have been a 
relative of Marritje Pieters, of Copenhagen, who in her marriage 
contract appointed Teuntje one of her heirs. Some writers desig- 
nate her as Antonia Slaghboom. 

After the death of Bronck she married Arent \^an Curler, one 
of the most prominent men in Rensselaerswyck. She survived 
him also. She died at Schenectady Dec. 19, 1676. 

Van Curler sold, July 10, 1651, Bronck's estate to Jacob Jans 
Stoll, evidently a relative of Jan Jacobsen, the husband of Marritje 
Pieters from Copenhagen, to whom Bronck had leased some of 
his land in 1639. 

Stoll transferred it to a Mr. Hopper.* When he died, and as 
he had not paid Stoll in full, the latter started suit against Hopper's 
widow. She had to pay the remainder of the debt, and was now 
given a satisfactory deed in December, 1662. We learn from this 
law-suit that no less than 1300 tiles had been taken away from 
Bronck's house when the Hoppers received it. 

Mrs. Hopper transferred the property to Harman Smeeman, 
a Dane. But the latter did not keep it long. He conveyed it to 
Samuel Edsall, who in 1674 (1670) deeded it to a Mr. Morris, 
whence the new name of Bronck's five hundred acres : Morrisania. 

As to the history of the property once owned by Bronck, 
see, besides the work of Harry C. Cook, Randall Comfort, "History 
of Bronx Borough" (1906) ; Stephen Jenkins, "The Story of 
Bronx 1639—1912" (1912). Harriett Van Buren Beckham's 



415 New York Colonial Documents, I., pp. 199, 410. 

• Hopper or Hoppen may have been a Norwegian. See Excursus II., in 
Part I. 



BRONCK. 181 

"History of Cornells Maessen Van Buren" (1913) contains a brief 
genealogy of the Bronck family. See also New York Genealogical 
and Biographical Magazine, Vol. 39, p. 274. 



PIETER BRONCK. 

Pieter Bronck was in New Amsterdam as early as 1643 or 
before. He was present in 1643 at the inventory of the goods and 
effects in the house of Jonas Bronck. He must have been a rela- 
tive of Jonas, in all probability his son. In a document 
of 1646 he is called Pieter Jonassen Bronck. This would go to 
prove that he was the son of Jonas Bronck. The same document 
— Pieter's will — makes mention of "Engeltje Mans, father, 
mother and other kindred." Engeltje Mans was from Sweden, 
she was the wife of Burgher Joris.^^*^ 

Pieter Bronck came to Beverwyck in 1645. He became the 
owner of several house-lots and a brewery at this place, where he 
also built a tavern, then the third tavern of Beverwyck. He sold 
it in 1662, and bought 126 morgens of land at Coxsackie, where 
he settled. In 1665 his farm consisted of 176 morgens (352 acres), 
besides a calf pasture of six morgens. ^^''' 

When he removed to Beverwyck he gave, on October 9, 1646, 
Burgher Joris of New Amsterdam, the husband of the above- 
mentioned Engeltje Mans from Sweden, power of attorney to 
collect debts due him.^^s 

In the colony of Rensselaerswyck he is charged with an an- 
nual rent of four beavers for a lot, in the village, on which he 
received permission to build. He paid this rent 1650 — 1652 and 
perhaps longer.^^^ 

On May 29, 1657, judgment was obtained against him in a 
court proceeding for his having with a knife assaulted a person. 
He was fined 100 guilders. ^20 

On January 22, 1658, Lewis Cobus, Secretary of Albany, sued 



416 See article "Jonas Bronck". B. Fernow, Calendar of (N. Y.) Wills, 
p. 55. 

417 E. B. O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, I., pp. 441, 591. 

418 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 35. 

419 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 840. 

420 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 314. 



182 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Pieter Bronck and Dirck Bensingh, a Swede, for his fees in taking 
an inventory of Hans Vosche's property at Katskil. The Court 
ordered the defendants to pay the fee.^-^ 

Pieter Bronck married Hilletje Tyssinck. He died 16G9, in 
Coxsackie, leaving two children : Jan who was born in Beverwyck, 
or Albany, 1650 ; and Pieter.422 

Jan was a member of the Reformed church at New Albany.423 
He married Commertje Leendertse Conyn. He became the heir of 
his father. A part of the inheritance was the old Bronck House, 
still standing, though the brick parts were added in the eighteenth 
century. 

Jan had nine children. Agnietje married Jan Witbeck, son 
of Andries and Engeltje Vokertse (Douw) Witbeck. Antje mar- 
ried, 1733, Rev. George Michael Weiss. Pieter married Antje 
Bogardus, daughter of Pieter and Wyntie Cornelise (Bosch) 
Bogardus. Jonas married, in 1689. Philip, baptized in 1691, 
died young. Philip, baptized 1692, married. Hilletje married, 
1712, Thomas Wiliams. Caspar married, 1739, Catharine, daugh- 
ter of Gerit van Bergen and Annatje Meyer. Leendert married, 
1717, Anna, daughter of Johannes de Wandelaer and Sarah 
Shepnoss. 

The Bronck family has a military record. 

Jan, the grandson of Jonas Bronck, pioneer at Bronx, became 
a lieutenant in 1709, and a Justice of the Peace in Albany in 1728. 

Jan Leendertsen, the great-grandson of Jonas Bronck, married 
Elsie Van Buren, and "established the rights of his descendants 
to all societies with early military claims by becoming Captain of 
Militia in 1740, and in 1770 was commissioned to that rank by 
Lieutenant-Governor Cadwalder Colden ; later he was promoted to 
the rank of Major of the 11th Regiment." 

The sole male heir of Jan Leendertsen, Leonard, born 1751, 
was First Lieutenant in 1778, Major in 1793, Lieutenant-Colonel 
in 1796. He was a member of the New York State Assembly 
1786—1798, State Senator, 1800. He was first Judge of the 
Court of Appeals of Green County. 

421 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 317. 

422 Munsell's Collections on the History of Albany, IV., p. 104. 

423 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1904, p. 4. 



CAESTENZ. 183 

Many of the members of the Bronck family took part in the 
French and Indian wars. 

The Bronck genealogy of the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- 
turies would cover several pages in this work. The reader may be 
referred for further details to Miss Van Buren Peckham's 
"History of C. M. Van Buren." 



y 



PETER BRUYN. 



Peter Bruyn, from Rensborg, Schleswig, was a member of 
the company of soldiers at Esopus, in March, 1660. He lived 
in the village of Wiltwyck (Esopus) in 1661, where he was listed 
as paying excise on beer and wine.^-^ 



JOHAN CARSTENZ. 

Johan Carstenz, from Barlt, in Holstein, came to New Am- 
sterdam by the ship "den Houttuyn", August 4, 1642. He was 
employed by Van Rensselaer in his colony, drew wages from 

August 4, 1642. In July, 1644, he appears as servant of Michael 
Jansz.425 

In November, 1655, Coenraet Ten Eyck sued "Jan Carsten- 
sen from Husum" for fl. 204.8. He had sold him goods to this 
amount, and requested the court to condemn him to pay the amount 
in beavers. Carstensen acknowledged the debt — he had given a 
note for it — and said he would pay in seawan, as he had no 
beavers for the time being. The court, however, condemned Car- 
stensen "to pay plaintiff the aforesaid sum of fl. 204.8 according to 
a signed note, in beavers." ^^e 

In 1660 a Jan Carstensen, from Husum, Denmark, served in 
a regiment in Albany. Johan Carstensen from Barlt and Jan 
Carstensen from Husum likely are the same person.'*-''' 

424 New York Colonial Documents. XIII., pp. 154, 212. 

425 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, pp. 609, 827. 

426 Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 399f. 

427 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 154. 



184 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

PIETER CARSTENSEN. 

Pieter Carstensen, from Holstein, arrived at New Amsterdam 
in 1663. He came over, accompanied by his son, who was sixteen 
years of age, on the ship "de Statyn," which sailed September 27, 
1663.428 



PIETERSEN (CARSTENSEN). 

Pietersen (Carstensen), son of the abovementioned Pieter Car- 
stensen, came over from Holstein in 1663. He was then sixteen 
years old. 



CRIETGEN CHRISTIANS. 

Crietgen Christians arrived at New Amsterdam in 1659. He 
was from Tonning [now belonging to Germany], Denmark. He 
came over on the ship "de Bever," which sailed April 25, 1659. ■*-^ 

He had a house lot in Schenectady with a front of 100 feet 
on Union Street, one half being now included in the lot of the 
First Reformed church. He sold this lot in 1694 to Neetje Claes. 
We owe this information to Jonathan Pearson's "Early Records 
of . . . Albany," p. 485. In that work is also found the following 
deed, which refers to the property of Crietgen Christians : 

"Appeared before me, Ludovicus Cobes, secretary of Albany, 
in the presence of the honorable Herren commisaries, etc., Philip 
Pieterse Schuyler and Jan Hendricxe Van Bael, Paulus Janse, who 
declares that in true rights, free ownership, he grants, conveys and 
makes over by these presents to and for the behoof of Christiaen 
Christiaense, dwelling at Schaenhechtede, in his plantation lying 
there, consisting of one and a half morgens and bounded accord- 
ing to the patent thereof from the right honorable general of New 
York, Francis Lovlace. dated the 24th of Mav, 1669. to which 



428 Year Book of the HoUand Society of New York, 1902. 

429 Ibid. 



CHRISTIAENSEN. 185 

reference is herein made ; free and unincumbered, with no claims 
standing or issuing against the same, excepting the lord's right, 
without the grantor's making the least claim thereto any more, 
acknowledging that he is fully paid and satisfied therefor, the first 
penny with the last and therefore giving plenam actionem cessam, 
and full power to the aforesaid Christiaen Christiaense, his heirs 
and successors or assigns, to do with and dispose of said planta- 
tion, as he might do with his patrimonial estate and effects ; promis- 
ing to protect and free the same from all such troubles, claims 
and liens of every person as are lawful, and further, never more 
to do nor suffer anything to be done, with or without law, in any 
manner, on pledge according to law therefor provided. 

"Done in Albany, the 23d of June, 1671. 

"Philip Pieterse. 

"Jan Hend: Van Bael. 

"Poulys Jansen. 

"In my presence, Ludovicus Cobes, Secretary." 



\,; HANS CHRISTIAENSEN. 

Hans Christiaensen, or Hans Kettel, was from Holstein. He 
was in New Amsterdam as early as 1658 or before. On August 
10, 1659, he married, in New Amsterdam, Marritje Cornelis, from 
Flensborg in Holstein. His first wife was Engeltje Jans.^^*^ 

Hans and Marritje had a child, Neeltje. who was baptized on 
November 12, 1660.431 

Hans was dead when Marritje, on May 31, 1665, married 
Cornelis Beckman, of "Stift" Bremen. -^^s 

What we otherwise know of Christiaensen is found in an 
entry in the court minutes, the substance of which is as follows : 

[September 10, 1658.] Hans Christiaensen was sued by 
Mathys Boon who complained that Christiaensen's dog has bit 
his [Boon's] hogs, one of which lies sick, several of which are 
missed. Christiaensen declared, he did not know whether this 



430 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 31. 

431 Ibid., II., p. 59. 

432 Ibid., I., p. 31. 



186 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

occurred or not, as he locks up his dog by day, and lets him loose 
at night. Boon's farm was enclosed, but the hogs could get through 
the enclosure. After getting this testimony the court appointed 
Pieter Jansen Noorman and Teunis Gysbersen Middag to inspect 
the fence. ^^^ 

The case was to be tried at the next court session. But both 
litigants were sick when the session was announced. Perhaps the 
matter was settled out of court. 



PIETER HENDRICKSEN CHRISTIANS. 

Pieter Hendricksen Christians was in New Netherland as 
early as 1659. On January 17, of that year, he married, in New 
Amsterdam, Christina Bleyers from "Stoltenon," in Liineburg. 
The marriage record ^^^ states that Christians was from "Voor- 
burg" (Varberg in Sconia), which belonged to Denmark until 
1658, but since then is part of Sweden. 



\ HENDRICK CORNELISSEN. 

Hendrick Cornelissen, from Holstein, was at Esopus as early 
as 1658 or before, witnessing, in May, 1658, the massacre com- 
mitted by the Indians.^^s 



;jc 



Signature of Hendrick Cornelissen. 



On August 17, 1659, he signed a petition requesting the govern- 
ment to appoint the Rev. Bloem as pastor at Esopus. He signed 
the document with his mark : '^^^ In the same vear he signed 



433 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, III., pp. 7, 12. 
484 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I-, 
p. 23. 

435 New York Colonial Manuscripts, XIII., p. 78. 

436 Ibid., XIII., 103f. 



COENELISEN. 187 

a declaration sent by the inhabitants of Esopus, stating that no 
blame could be attached to Ensign Smith in certain military 
troubles which they were involved in when fighting the savages. ^^"^ 
In June, 1661, Cornelissen did military duty at the local gar- 
rison.^^* 

On April 25, 1663, he was given a grant of land at Esopus, 
"a piece of land, situate at the Esopus, in the village of Wiltwyck, 
bounded on the East by the Kill, on the West and South by the 
meadow lying under the village, containing in these bounds between 
the Kill and the meadows two morgens and five hundred sixty 
rods." On November 7, in the same year, he received an additional 
grant of six morgens (twelve acres ).^^^ 

In 1667 there were some riots in Esopus between the soldiers 
of Captain Brodhead and the inhabitants which terminated in the 
death of Cornelissen. In the proceedings and sentences of the 
local court, April 25 — 27, 1668, resulting from complaints of the 
inhabitants against the violence of the soldiers and illtreatment 
from Captain Brodhead, it was shown that Hendrick Cornelissen 
Lindrayer was "by William Fisher, without any the least reason, 
wounded in his belly'" and that he died of the wound (this part 
of the document is missing, but the title shows that Cornelissen 
died of the wound). ^4*^ 



• JAN CORNELISEN. 

Jan Cornelisen, from Flensburg, Denmark, received the small 
burgher's right in New Amsterdam, April 14, 1657. In 1659 he 
was a carrier of beer with wages of a trifle more than six guilders 
a week.'*'*^ On December 31, 1660, he and some other beer car- 
riers appeared in court to defend themselves against a complaint, 
made by the Farmer of Beer and Wine. The complaint was, that 
they had taken beer from the breweries and brought it to the 
burghers' houses without having a permit from the Farmer. They 



437 Ibid., XIII., p. 118f. 

438 Ibid., XIII., p. 202. 

439 Ibid., XIII., pp. 240, 241. 

440 Ibid., XIII., p. 407; III., p. 150. 

441 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, VII., p. 236. 



188 



DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 



were also represented as having brought an anker of strong beer 
to Johannes de Decker's house without a permit. The reply made 
by the accused was that the Farmer was mistaken : there was a 
permit for it, and Mr. Decker knew it. The court recommended 
the "comparants not to remove any beer without having a permit 
for so doing." ^42 




THE NORTHERN PART OF FLENSBURG. ABOUT THE CLOSE OF THE 
SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 
From Braunius: Theatrum urbium, iv. 



On January 10, 1661, Jan Cornelisen and seven others ap- 
peared in the city hall offering their services as watchmen. They 
were accepted by the burgomasters as Watch. The wages for 
each watchman was eighteen guilders a month. Cornelisen took 
the usual oath of fidelity to the "Instructions for Watchmen." ^^^ 

Under date of March 13, 1659, it is stated in an instrimient 
of conveyance that Cornelisen bought of Reinhout Reinhoutsen 
a lot in New Amsterdam, situated on the Schape Weitie, west of 
the Prince Graft. His lot was bounded on the south by a lot, 
for some time owned by Reinout Reinoutsen but transferred by 



442 Ibid.. VII., pp. 152, 262. 

443 Ibid., VII., p. 265. 



COENELIS. 189 

him, March 13, 1659, to Thomas Verdon/^ On the north it was 
bounded by a lot belonging to Pieter Rudolphus; on the west by 
the tannery of Reinhoutsen; on the east by Prince Graft. Its 
dimensions were on the east side 24 feet ; on the west side, 17 ; 
north and south side, 119. 

On July 15, 1661, Cornelisen deeded to Willem Jansen Van 
Borckloo this lot, and a house that he had built upon it.f 



"'• LAURENS CORNELISSZEN (COECK). 

Laurens Corneliszen (Coeck), from Denmark, was in New 
Amsterdam as early as 1676, or before. The marriage records of 
the Dutch Reformed church in New Amsterdam states that he was 
from Denmark. He married Margriet Barents, March 5, 1676.^^* 
He is not to be taken for another resident of New Amsterdam, 
known as Captain Laurens Cornelissen. 

On March 21, 1677, Laurens Corneliszen and Margariet 
Barents had a child baptized, Cornells, the sponsors were Barendt 
Arentszen and Marritie Cornells, perhaps a sister of Laurens. 
Their child, Grietie, was baptized, December 21, 1678; their daugh- 
ter, Marritje, June 22, 1687. 

On March 1, 1691, their son Barent was baptized. The 
father's name in the baptismal records is, in this instance, entered 
as Laurens Corneliszen Coeck. ^'^^ 



' MARRITJE CORNELIS. 

Marritje Cornells, from Flensburg, was in New Amsterdam 
as early as 1659, when she was married to Hans Christiaensen, 
from Holstein. After his death, she married. May 31, 1665, Cor- 

* D. T. Valentine, Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York, 
1865, pp. 657-8. 

t Ibid., 1865, p. 681. 

444 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 41. 

445 Ibid., pp. 127, 135, 180, 202. 



190 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

nelis Beckman, of "Stift Bremen." By Christiaensen she had a 
daughter, Neeltje, who was baptized November 12, 1660. 



PAULUS CORNELISSEN. 

Paulus Cornelissen was in New Netherland as early as 1654. 
He was from Flensburg, in Denmark. Under date of September 
1, 1654, a note was given, at Fort Orange, of the following con- 
tent: "I, the undersigned Claes Cornelissen, acknowledge and con- 
fess that I am well and truly indebted to Paulus Cornelise (Van 
Flensburgh), now ready to depart for Patria, in the sum and num- 
ber of six beavers."^^^ Whether he be the Paulus Cornelissen 
who, in New Amsterdam, in January, 1668, sued Thomas Lourens, 
and who worked for the Dane Laurens Duyts, I can not determine. 

Paul Cornelissen is also mentioned as late as 1671.^'*^ 



V PIETER CORNEL! S. 

Pieter Cornelis, or Pieter Cornelis Low, a laborer from Hol- 
stein, came to New Amsterdam in 1659, in the ship "de Trouw," 
which sailed on February 21, 1659.^^^ 

He married Elisabeth, a daughter of Mattys Blanchan, and 
had issue, i. e., Cornelis, who was born 1670 in Esopus, and mar- 
ried in New York, July 5, 1695, Margaret Borsum. Pieter had 
other children also. 

Under date of November 1, 1676, is a testamentary document 
of Pieter and his wife, which reads as follows : 

". . . The survivor shall possess the entire estate ; at remar- 
riage one-half thereof shall go to the children. If both parties 
should die without having remarried, the children are to inherit 
the property, the minors first being brought up. If either party 



446 Munsell, Collections on the History of . . Albany, III., p. 199. 

447 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, VI., p. 108. Ibid., IV., 
p. 86. 

448 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902. 



CORNELISSEN. 191 

should survive and not marry, such survivor shall have the use of 
the estate until death. "^49 

There is a later will, dated December 20, 1690, in which Pieter 
designates himself as "Pieter Cornelissen Low," yeoman of Kings- 
ton.450 

His progeny have been numerous and widespread. 



, PIETER CORNELISSEN. 

Pieter Cornelissen was from "Warbeer" (Varberg in Sconia), 
in Denmark. Varberg has been a Swedish town since 1658, and 
hence Cornelissen may have received the surname "the Swede" : 
in a document of 1666 he is spoken of as Pieter Cornelissen, alias 
the Swede. Or he may have been called Swede, because his wife 
was Swedish. He had married on August 5, 1656, in New Am- 
sterdam, Brieta Ollofs, from Goteborg, Sweden. By her he had 
a daughter, Margariet, who was baptized on April 15, 1657. 

In December, 1666, Brieta, having become a widow, married 
Jan Jacobsen from Friesland. The Orphanmasters appointed, in 
the same month, Focke Jans and Cornelis Aerts as guardians for 
her daughter.'*^^ 

Whatever else is recorded of Pieter Cornelissen, is limited to 
a notice in the court records, viz., that he on November 1, 1664, 
sued Bastian the Wheelwright for an ox he had sold to him, for 
which he demanded 230 guilders. The matter was likely settled 
out of court, as arbitrators were appointed to reconcile the parties. ^^^ 



'■ SYBRANT CORNELISSEN. 

Sybrant Cornelissen, a soldier in the service of the West 
India Company, was in New Amsterdam about 1664. On Jan- 

449 G. Anjou, Ulster County (N. Y.) Wills, 1906, I., p. 35. 

450 Ibid., I., p. 73. 

451 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 128. 

452 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1673, V., p. 149. 



DUYTS. 193 

uary 31, in that year, he made a declaration, at the request of one 
Paul Pietersen, in regard to a quarrel between Maritie Tomas and 
Tryntie Martens, the wife of Paul.'*^^ 

Sybrant Cornelissen was from Flensburg in Denmark, as we 
learn from a notice of July 17, 1664, stating that he, on that date, 
was appointed assistant surgeon, and that he was to be employed 
in shaving, bleeding, and administering medicine to the soldiers.'*^'* 
In other words, Sybrant appears to have been an old-time barber- 
surgeon. In E. B. O'Callaghan's "Register of New Netherland," 
p. 124, Sybrant is listed as "Physician and surgeon at Esopus." 



URSEL DIRCKS. 

Ursel Dircks, from Holstein, came in 1658 to New Amster- 
dam with his two children, aged two and ten, by the ship "de Moes- 
man," which sailed May 1, 1658, for New Netherland.'*^^ 



LAURENS DUYTS. 

Laurens Duyts came over to New Netherland in 1639 in the 
ship "de Brant van Trogen." Among his fellow passengers were 
the Danes Captain Jochem Pietersen Kuyter, Jonas Bronck (?), 
and Pieter Andriesen. Duyts and Andriesen were to work for 
Jonas Bronck : to clear a tract of five hundred acres, which Bronck 
had purchased from the Indians. Duyts thus became one of the 
pioneers of the present Borough of Bronx. He was commonly 
known as Laurens Grootschoe (Big Shoe). He was born in Hol- 
stein in 1610. 

He married Ytie Jansen. By her he had three children : a 
daughter, Margariet, who was baptized on December 23, 1639, the 
sponsors being Gerrit Jansen of Oldenburg (perhaps he was Ytie's 
brother), Teuntje Joris and Tyntje Martens; a son, Jan, who was 



453 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 157. 

454 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 278. 

455 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York. 1902. 



194 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

baptized on March 23, 1641 ; another son, Hans, who was baptized 
in 1644: Jochem Pietersen Kuyter was sponsor at the baptism 
of the boys.^^^ 

Duyts appears to have been farming in different places, leas- 
ing the lands he tilled. 

In March, 1654, he had a land dispute with Francoys Fyn. 
Fyn had a certain parcel of land lying on Long Island over against 
Hog Island (now Blackwell's Island). Duyts had sold this with- 
out Fyn's knowing it, claiming it was his own land."*^^ 

Duyts leased for some time the bowery of the Norwegian 
woman from Marstrand, Anneke Jans. He was to pay her two 
hogs in rent. As he had paid only one, he was sued, in May, 
1658, by Anneke's son-in-law, Johannes Pietersen Verbrugge, later 
mayor of New York, and was condemned to deliver the hog to 
the plaintiff.^58 

Duyts's moral life does not deserve mention. But in order to 
show hos Laurens "Big Shoe" trampled upon the laws of decency 
and how such a lawbreaker was punished, we relate that Laurens 
Duyts of Holstein received a most severe sentence from Stuyvesant 
on November 25, 1658. For selling his wife, Ytie Jansen, and 
forcing her to live in adultery with another man and for living 
himself also in adultery, he was to have a "rope tied around his 
neck, and then to be severely flogged, to have his right ear cut off, 
and to be banished for fifty years. "'*^^ 



A 

Signature of Laurents Duyts. 

Laurens died at Bergen, New Jersey, about 1668. His son, 
Hans, lived at Harlem in 1667. Also the other son, Jan, lived 
there. "He bore a good name at Harlem, and did not deserve the 



456 See articles "Bronck," "Kuyter," "Pieter Andriessen." J. Riker, 
Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, p. 256. 

457 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 183f. Tradition says 
that Francois Fyn was an Englishman. Could he have been a Dane — from Fyn, 
Denmark? See Excursus. Part II. 

458 Ibid., II., p. 380. 

459 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 203. 



EGGERT. 195 

taunt uttered one day by Jeanne de Ruine, in presence of Mons 
Pietersen, a Swede or Finn : You villain, run to your father Dane." 
Pietersen claimed that Jan had said nothing to provoke it. Jan 
married in 1667, again in 1673. 

Hans had a daughter, Cathrine, who at the age of fourteen 
(1688) was married to Joost Paulding from Holland. Paulding 
went to Westchester. He was the ancestor of John Paulding, one 
of Major Andre's captors. '^^o 



.. CARSTEN JANSEN EGGERT. 

Carsten Jansen Eggert, from Dithmarschen, in Schleswig- 
Holstein, was in New Amsterdam in 1655, or before. On Jan- 
uary 8, 1666, Luycas Eldersen sued him for rent. Eggert claimed 
that he did not owe Eldersen. The Court, however, referred the 
matter to arbitrators, who were to try to reconcile the contending 
parties. (Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, II., p. 5.) 

On October 26, 1656, Eggert appeared as attorney for a Dane, 
Herman Smeeman, in a suit started by Jan Barentsen. (See arti- 
cle "Herman Smeeman." Part II.) 

On January 8, 1657, Pieter van Couwenhoven sued Eggert 
for 101 lbs. tobacco, which had been delivered to Eggert "in excess 
by Thomas Hall." Eggert did not deny that he had received the 
tobacco, but said he "must have from Hall fli. 19 for freight and 
3.10 for labor," and consequently could offset that. His papers 
were in Virginia, but he would furnish the court with proof upon 
the arrival of Hall. The court decided to postpone decision until 
the arrival of Hall. (Ibid., p. 257.) 

On March 16, 1660, David Jochimzen sued Eggert, demanding 
to know why he had given up his agreement, entered into with 
Jacob Hay and Pieter Claesen. He had leased from them some 
land, once owned by Dirk Holgersen, a Norwegian, but later trans- 
ferred to Hay. The land lay in the present Greenpoint, Brook- 
lyn. Eggert said, in his defense, that he could not remain dwell- 
ing on the bowery, as the government had ordered those who were 
dwelling on the boweries in that region to move away and form a 

460 J. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, p. 256. 



196 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

village. He also said that he could not make use of the land, as 
he had to transport his grain over three and a half thousand paces 
through the rough forest. The court decreed that Jochimzen 
must first deliver the house standing on the farm at the village 
at his own cost, and then the lessee shall fulfill the conditions of 
the lease. (Ibid. III., p. 144.) 

On July 12, 1661, Christina Capoens, wife of Jacob Hay, later 
wife of David Jochimsen, sued Carsten Jansen Eggert and Hen- 
drick Janzen Sluyter because they had taken sods from her mea- 
dow. She wanted them to indemnify the loss she had sufiFered, 
"and, moreover, to pay something for the poor." The defendants 
replied that they did not know that the land belonged to the 
plaintiff. The Court dropped the matter by reprimanding the 
defendants, charging them not to repeat the offense. (Ibid., II., 
p. 342.) 

On November 28, 1673, Eggert sued Dirck Claessen Potte- 
backer, claiming that he had lent Pottebacker's wife three beavers, 
of which he had only received one back. Pottebacker was con- 
demned to return the other two also. (Ibid., VII., p. 27.) 

Carsten Jansen Eggert was listed in 1674 as possessing in 
New Amsterdam property on the present South William Street, 
then known as The Mill Street Lane. It was rated as "fourth 
class" property, no value being given. (Year Book of the Holland 
Society of New York, 1896.) 

Eggert had several relatives in New Amsterdam, as is seen 
by his will, in which his sister Anneke Jans, who was from Hol- 
stein, is mentioned; also his sister, Grietje Jans, who is mentioned 
in the marriage records as being from Dithmarschen ; and finally 
Dirck Jansen. 

Under date of May 9, 1678, we find in "Collections of the 
New York Historical Society," I., p. 48, this interesting entry: 

"Whereas, Carsten Jans Eggert, of this city, did in his last 
will bequeath his estate part by way of legacy, and the rest to be 
disposed of by way of gifts to his next relations, that is to say the 
sum of 500 guilders, wampum, to the Lutheran Church, as a legacy, 
and to his sister, Greetje Jans, wife of Jacob Pietersen, 150 
guilders, wampum, the rest to be divided equally between his 
brother, Dirck Jansen De Groot, his sister, Greetye Jansen, and 



ELDEESEN. 197 

Bruyn Ages, the son of his other sister, Annatje Jans and Bruyn 
Ages, both deceased, making Hendrick Williams and David 
Westells executors, as in said will, and additions the 7th and 19 of 
April last. The same was confirmed May 9, 1678." 

So far as we know, Eggert was one of the few Lutherans in 
the new world, who at such an early period bequeathed a legacy 
to the Lutheran church of the City of New York. 



JACOB ELDERSEN. 

Jacob Eldersen, sometimes called Jacob Eldersen Brower 
(the brewer), was in New Amsterdam as early as 1656, when 
Gerrit Fullewever conveyed a lot to him. In the instrument of 
conveyance it is said that Jacob was from Liibeck, where the 
Danes are numerous. He was probably a Dane.^^^ After having 
lived in New Amsterdam, he went to Harlem, of which he was 
one of the founders (1661). ^^2 Hq ^y^s at Esopus in 1667. In 
a document of 1670 his name is written Eldessen; in a document 
of 1674, Elbertsen.463 

When he was in New Amsterdam he signed the petition of 
the Lutherans (1657), requesting that the Lutheran preacher 
Goetwater might stay in the city instead of being deported.'*"'* 

Jacob Eldersen's record in New Amsterdam, however, does 
not give much evidence of his being a model churchman. 

From the court minutes we glean the following: 

In February, 1656, Andries Van der Sluys brought action 
against him for rent.*^^ 

On September 18, Marritje Pietersen sued him for shooting 
her dog. She requested indemnification for it to the amount of 

461 D. T. Valentine, Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York, 
1861, p. 582. 

462 .T. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, p. 190. Riker says he 
was a Dane. 

463 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1897, p. 122. 

464 See note 42. 

465 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, II., p. 47. 



198 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

fl. 16. Eldersen acknowledged that he had shot the dog in self- 
defense. In catching a stone to drive him away, Jacob was bit 
in the finger, so that he was obliged to have it dressed by a surgeon. 
The plaintiff replied that he "shot the dog when she called him and 
he was by her person," and she denied that the dog bit him. On 
the next court day, the surgeon, Hans Kierstede's, declaration rela- 
tive to the wound was exhibited by Eldersen, in court. But the 
plaintiff was absent. 

On January 14, 1658, Eldersen again appeared in court, sum- 
moned by the Schout, and charged with striking Bruin Barensen, 
a cooper at Brooklyn. Eldersen now claimed he had struck Baren- 
sen w^ith a broom stick, warding off Barensen, who drew a knife. 
He averred he had not used a club. Barensen was severely beaten 
and lay a long time abed. Eldersen was put in prison. 

A few days later, intercession was made for his release from 
imprisonment, but the Court took no action. 

On January 23, Eldersen escaped, and the Schout requested 
that "his goods and effects, which he has in this country, may be 
provisionally seized and he be summoned by bell ringing to appear 
in person within eight days and to hear such demand and conclu- 
sion as the Schout shall have to make." The request was approved 
by the court. 

On January 28, an order was given that no one should harbor 

or hide the fugitive. He was summoned, February 15 and 22, 

was found February 25, but would not appear. Hence he was 

arrested. He secured the aid of an attorney, and through him he 

obtained release, promising to reply within 48 hours to the answer 

"in reconvention of the Fiscal entered before the Director- 
General."466 

On February 12, 1658, Bruin Barentsen. whom Eldersen 
struck, died. 

On March 11, the Court therefore passed the following sen- 
tence : 

"Whereas, Jacob Eldersen, brewer's servant, a good while ago 
seriously beat and wounded one Bruyn Barensen with a sledge 
hammer with which wood is cleft, according to declaration thereof, 
and with a broom handle according to his own confession, whereby 
the above-named Bruyn Barensen lay a long time bed ridden, and 



466 Ibid., II., pp. 166f., 298, 301, 309, 318, 339, 340. 



ELDERSEN. 199 

he, Jacob Eldersen, was placed provisionally in confinement by the 
Sellout at the request and with the consent of the Court, and again 
released on bail ; nevertheless, as the longer it was with the 
wounded, the worse, and the bail importuned the Schout to have 
the bail bond discharged, the above-named Jacob Eldersen was 
again placed in close confinement to await the issue of the patient, 
to be then proceeded against according to the circumstances of the 
case; therefore, he, the above-named Jacob, having remained a 
few days, violated the public prison, broke out of the same and 
fled away. Whereupon the Schout, demanding citation of the 
absconder from the Director-Gen ( era )1 and Council, obtained it 
from their Honors, and thereupon (he) was three several times 
summoned by sound of the bell to hear all such demand and con- 
clusion as the Schout should have to make against him : finally, 
three days after the third citation he again made his appearance, 
whereupon the Schout placed him for the third time in his former 
prison after communication with the Court of this City, and 
whereas Dirck van Schelluine being allowed and authorized by the 
aforesaid Jacob Eldersen to act for the above-named Jacob, re- 
quested release of the prisoner, and having obtained it from the 
Court, has proceeded in virtue of authority and consent for the 
above-named Jacob Eldersen against the Schout in his case, which 
he, the Schout, had against him, Jacob Eldersen ; which papers, 
documents and proofs, used in the suit on both sides, being seen 
and maturely weighed by the Court as before, they cannot find, 
that they avail anything in behalf of the aforesaid Jacob Eldersen 
by sufficiently proving that he acted on the defensive; moreover, 
the breaking jail perpetuated by him was a sign, that he was con- 
vinced in his mind of his guilt : They, therefore, hereby condemn 
Jacob Eldersen above-named, to pay as a fine for having inflicted 
a wound on Bruin Barentsen above-named, the sum of three hun- 
dred guilders; as he has broken the public jail, which justly de- 
serves corporal punishment, yet in consideration, that he willingly 
surrendered himself he was therefore condemned in the sum of 
one hundred guilders, all to be applied as is proper; and further in 
the costs of suit. Thus done and sentenced in the Court of Burgo- 
masters and Schepens of the City of Amsterdam in N. Netherland. 
Datum ut supra [March 11, 1658]. 

"By order of the Burgomasters and Schepens of the City 
above named, "Joannes Nevius, Secret(ar)y.-*6" 

467 Ibid., II., p. 352f. 



200 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Five years later Jacob Eldersen was severely beaten in Har- 
lem by some workmen, who perhaps were trying to pay off Elder- 
sen for the death of their countryman. (See the article Pieter 
Jansen Slot. Part II.) 

Eldersen had other litigation in New Amsterdam. On Sep- 
tember 3, 1658, Mighiel Jansen sued him for a debt, and a week 
later Christian Pieters, a Dane, did the same. 

In June, 1662, Eldersen himself brought action against Wil- 
liam Britton, George Jewel, James Clerk, and John Too, of New- 
ton, for "alleging that he had stolen said Britton's tobacco."'*^^ 

The material at our disposal does not permit of forming any 
judgment as to Eldersen's character. His weakness was perhaps 
his temper coupled wnth a demeanor or disposition which caused 
people to tease him or indulge in merriment at his expense. He 
has nevertheless the honor of being one of the founders of 
Harlem.469 



THOMAS FREDERICKSEN. : 

Thomas Fredericksen, from Oldenburg, Holstein, was in i 
New Amsterdam as early as 1650. He was a cooper, and was 
known as Thomas Fredericksen de Kuyper. On July 11, 1651, he \ 
signed a document as witness in a transaction, the particulars of j 
which need not be stated here.^'^" 

His wife was Marretie Claes Adriaens, by whom he had chil- ; 
dren : Adrian, baptized September 18, 1650 ; Tryntie, baptized ' 
February 23, 1653; Francyntie, April 4, 1655; Tryntie, January ; 
16, 1658; Cornelis, January 15, 1659; Tryntie, September 3, 1662; i 
Thomas, February 4, 1672.^^1 

As early as 1655, Fredericksen was engaged in distilling 
brandy. In February, 1656, he petitioned for permission to keep 
a tavern, which was granted him by the Court of New Am- 1 
sterdam.^"2 

On June 22, 1656, he secured a lot in Sheep Pasture, the pres- 



468 Ibid., III., pp. 3, 7. 

469 Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals. 

470 New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 142. 

471 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II., 
pp. 27, 33, 39, 47, 51, 66, 104. 

472 The Records of New Amsterdam, 16531674, I., p. 403; II., p. 33. 



FEEDEEICKSEN. 201 

ent William Street, west side, near Exchange Place. In August 
he conveyed it to Coenrat Ten Eyck.'*'^^ 



Signature of Tomas Fredericksen, 1659. 

His wife was no exception to many of the early New York 
women in finding her way to the court of justice. She had a 
quick tongue. 

In October, 1654, she complained against Hendrick Egberts 
that he had railed at her and said that "General Stuyvesant had 
caused her to be dragged from the ship and that he would have a 
post fixed for her, and other such expressions. Egbert denied that 
he had used such injurious words, but acknowledged that he called 
her a whore, because she first called him a banished knave and 
rogue, and such like names." Marritje denied this. The parties 
were ordered to prove their mutual statements.^"'* 

On September 18, 1656, she was again before the Court, this 
time as defendant. The entry in the court minutes referring to 
this case is as follows : 

"Schout N. de Silla, pltf. vs Marretie Claes, and Jochem 
Beeckman's wife, for quareling and slander perpetrated on 
Highway (Broadway). Marretie Claesen appears in court, com- 
plaining that Jochem Schoester's wife scandalously slandered her, 
while she stood at the door, with many dishonorable speeches and 
proposals, and requesting that she be ordered to let her in peace. 
Jochem Beeckman and his wife appeared both in court complain- 
ing that they were slandered by Martie, and fiew at each other 
in court with hard words, without having proof on the one side 
or other. — Therefore the Court imposed silence on parties and 
ordered them to live henceforth quiet and in peace and order, as 
good neighbors ought to ; or failing therein, that on first complaint 
and proof, other disposition shall be made in the matter ; condemn- 
ing Jochem Beeckman or his wife in the penalty of fl. 10. and 



473 D. T. Valentine, Manual . . of the City of New York, 1861, p. 588. 

474 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 258. 



202 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Thomas Fredericksen or his wife in the penahy of fl. 6 for the 
benefit of the deaconry of this City."^'^^ 

Thomas Fredericksen seems to have been of a more peaceable 
disposition than his wife. In March, 1657, he was appointed j 
weigh house laborer at the warehouse of the West India Company, j 
having, with others, joint supervision of the scales and the car- 
riage of beer and wine. In September, 1659, he resigned his of- 
fice, "thanking the magistrates for the favor ; who accept it, thank- j 
ing him for the service."^'''^ i 

In the fall of 1660 he had a dispute with Abraham Lubbersen i 
in regard to a small boat. Lubbersen demanded of him sixty j 
florins for this boat. Fredericksen was at the time at Fort Orange, i 
When he returned, the court authorized two citizens to decide j 
the question and if possible reconcile the litigants.^'^''' \ 

I 
Fredericksen had considerable property in New Amsterdam, j 

On June 29, 1656, he conveyed to A. Lubberszen a lot "situated i 
west of the Prince Graft boundary to the South on the house and ' 
lot of Nicholaas Dela Plaine and to the North the tannery of Coen- | 
rat Ten Eyck. Wide in front on the street or West side twenty- 
six feet, in the rear twenty-seven feet, length on the South as well 
as the North side fifty-nine feet."* 

On July 15, 1659, he deeded another lot to Abraham Lub- 
berszen, "A lot west of the Prince Graght; bounded east by 
Prince Graft; south, by house and lot of said Tomas Frericksen; j 
west, by lot of Touseyn Briel ; and north, by lot of said Frericksen. j 
Broad, in front on the street, the east side, 26 feet; in the rear, 
the like ; deep, 35 running feet."t 

On July 10, 1660, he, in company with Dirck Jansen, deeded ' 
to Boel Roeloffsen a lot east of the Prince Graght. See article 
Dirck Jansen, under date of July 10, 1660. 

On February 12, 1664, Fredricksen conveyed to Cornelis | 
Barensen Van der Kuyl : "a house and lot north of the Bever's 
Graft; bounding west the lot of Touseyn Briel; east, the Prince i 
Graft. Front and rear, S^y^ feet; east and west sides, 51 feet 7 ; 



475 Ibid.. II., p. 166. 

476 Ibid., VII., p. 146; III., p. 43. 

477 Ibid., III., pp. 203, 222. 

* Collections of the New York Historical Society, XLVI.. p. 77f. 
t Valentine, Manual of the . . City of New York, 1865, p. 661. 



HAEMENS. 203 

inches." Under same date he conveyed to Abraham Lubbersen : 
"a lot west of the Prince Graft ; bounding south, the house and lot 
of Nicolaas De la Pleine ; and north, the tannery of Coenraat Ten 
Eyck. In front, 26 feet ; rear, 27 feet ; south and north sides, 59 
feet."| He had once before sold this lot. 



TRYNTIE HARDERS. 

Tryntie Harders, from Tonning, which formerly belonged to 
Denmark, was in New Amsterdam before 1643, when she as widow 
of Hendrick Hoist, was married — June 14 — to Hugh Aertsen, 
widower of Annetje Theunis. 

After the death of Aertsen, Tryntie married, December 23, 
1648, Albert Corneliszen Wantenar, from "Vechten."'*'''^ 



JAN PIETERSEN HARING. 

Jan Pietersen Haring was in New Amsterdam as early as 
1669, when, on February 31, his child Cozyn was baptized. 
Haring's wife was Grietje Cozyns, who had been married to Her- 
man Theunissen Van Zell, April 19, 1654. Haring's second child, 
Marytie, was baptized October 11, 1679. Haring was, as the 
name indicates, a Dane: Haring is in Denmark. He was deceased 
before 1685, when his widow married Daniel de Clerq. 



LAURENS HARMENS. 

Laurens Harmens came over to New Netherland in 1660. He 
was a farmer from Holstein. He arrived, accompanied by his 
wife, on the ship "de Leide," which sailed March 4, 1660.^'^^ 

t Ibid., 1865, p. 706. 

478 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
pp. 12, 14. 

479 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 12. 



204 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

MRS. LAURENS HARMENS. 

Mrs. Laurens Harmens arrived, with her husband, in New 
Netherland in 1660. Laurens Harmens was a farmer from Hol- 
stein. It is probable that both he and his wife were Danes, and 
not Germans. 

MARTEN HARMENSEN. 

Marten Harmensen, from Krem (Krempe), in Holstein, about 
four miles N. N.-E. of Gliickstadt, was in Esopus 1660-1663. He 
was a mason. His name was on the muster roll of the soldier's 
company at Esopus, March 28, 1660.'*^*' In 1661 he subscribed 
fl. 25 towards supporting the preacher Hermanus Bloem, who had 
been called as pastor by the inhabitants of Esopus. *^^ 

On January 29, 1662, he married Claesje Teunis, widow of 
Cornelis Teunissen.^^^ 

He owned a bowery in Wiltwyck (=Esopus). On June 7, 
1663, after the massacre in this new village, he was found killed 
and stripped naked behind a wagon. From his bowery one woman 
and four children were taken prisoners.'*^^ 



\ BERNARDUS HASSING. 

Bernardus Hassing, from Hassing, in Denmark, was in New 
Amsterdam before November 13, 1666, when he acted as sponsor 
at a baptism. On July 7, 1669, he married Aeltje [Neeltje] Cou- 
wenhoven. They had children. Warnardus was born 1670; 
Jacob, 1672; Hester, 1674; Heyltje, 1677; Johannes, 1678; Pieter, 
1679. and Lysbeth, 1685. Hassing and his wife were members of 
the Dutch Reformed church in 1686, and lived "Longs de Wall" 
(Wall St.). 

480 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 153. 

481 Ibid., XIII., p. 214. 

482 R. R. Hoes, Baptismal and Marriage Register of the . . . Dutch Church, 
Kingston, p. 499. 

483 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 245. 



HELMSZ(EN). 205 

HEYLTJE MASSING. 

Heyltje Hassing acted as sponsor at a baptism in New Am- 
sterdam, November 13, 1666. She was possibly a relative of 
Bernardus, and a Dane. 



JOHANNES HASSING. 

Johannes Hassing stood sponsor Nov. 13, 1666, at a baptism 
in New Amsterdam. He was probably a relative of Bernardus 
Hassing, and a Dane. An Anna Hassing became a member of 
the Dutch Reformed church in New Amsterdam, 1668. Was she 
his wife? 



JAN HELMSZ(EN). 

Jan Helmsz(en) (Jan de Bock), from Barlt in Holstein, ar- 
rived at New Amsterdam by" den Houttuyn" on August 4, 1642, 
and drew wages from August 13, 1642, in the colony of Rensse- 
laerswyck. From about 1650 to 1658 he is charged with an an- 
nual rent of fl. 445 for a farm at Bethlehem, which he appears 
to have taken over from Jan Dirksz from Bremen. In 1651 he 
had on this farm six horses and seven cattle.^^"* 

On October 9, 1650, he acted as sponsor in New Amsterdam 
at the baptism of Arent, son of Barent Jacobsen.'*^^ 

A letter of May 5, 1660, from Stuyvesant to Ensign Smith of 
Esopus, seems to refer to Jan Helms : "At the request of I. . . . 
Helms, made to us, we have given him permission to bring twenty 
or twenty-tive schepels of bread from the Esopus. "^^^ 



484 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 827. 

485 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II., 
p. 28. 

486 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 165. 



206 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

FREDRICK HENDRICKSEN. 

Fredrick Hendricksen (Kuyper=Cooper) was a Dane from 
Oldenburg. He was in New Amsterdam as early as 1659. On 
June 1, in that year, he married Annetje Christoffels, of Amster- 
dam.'*^''' He must not be taken for Frederick Hendricksen, a skip- 
per, who was his contemporary in New Amsterdam. 

Frederik the cooper had his share of litigation. His wife also 
had hers. 

In 1661, his wife was litigating with Jan Hendricksen from 
Bommel, whom she accused of having said that she stole pork 
and sausage from him. The parties appeared several times before 
the court. But "inasmuch as no sufficient proof was produced 
on both sides in their suit" the court ordered that they "shall re- \ 
main at peace towards each other, nor further trouble one another ! 
regarding previous disputes, and each bear his own costs. ""^^^ j 

On November 8, 1664, Frederick Hendricksen was sued by ' 
Balthazar de Haart, who demanded of him thirty-seven and a half , 
guilders for a half year's rent due. He also demanded that Hen- { 
dricksen's wife should vacate the house. Hendricksen replied ; 
that he had rented it from people who had gone to Holland, and i 
that he had paid them. De Haart rejoined that Hendricksen had i 
promised to pay him the rent. Hendricksen denied this, but was j 
ordered by the court "to satisfy and pay the plaintiff." 

On December 6, De Haart demanded execution of the judg- 
ment, which he obtained against Hendricksen, with costs. The 
court granted this and ordered the marshal to put "these in execu- 
tion with the costs accrued thereon. "^^^ 

Hendricksen appeared as plaintiff in the court of New Am- 
sterdam on November 8, 1664. He sued Huge Barentzen and 
Annetje Jacobs, saying that "the defendants accused him and no 
one else, of having robbed Annetje Jacobs to the amount of the 
sum of forty guilders." Annetje said, in defense, that no other 
person than Hendricksen and his wife could come into the house. 



487 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 24. 

488 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, III., pp. 268, 289, 299, 
314, 331. 

489 Ibid,, v., pp. 153, 169. 



JACOBS. 207 

Barentzen now demanded a copy of the declaration to give an 
answer thereunto, and the court granted this request, ordering 
Hendricksen to prove on the next court day that the defendants 
had accused him of theft. The case, it would seem, was dropped, 
as the records contain nothing more about it.^^*^ 

From a list of the inhabitants of New Amsterdam who were 
assessed in 1665, we learn that Hendricksen lived in High Street.'^^i 

He was employed by the West India Company as a cooper. 
In January, 1662, he petitioned the Council for an increase of wages. 
The Council granted it.^^^ 

On August 22, 1665, Hendricksen was sued by Jan Bos, who 
demanded of him the sum of fl. 10 in seawan. Hendricksen ad- 
mitted the debt and was ordered by the court to pay it and the 
costs of the suit.^^3 

In March, 1667, Jan Otten sued Hendricksen for fl. 18 in 
seawan to pay a debt. Hendricksen's wife "admitted the debt," 
whereupon the court ordered that it should be paid.''^'* 

In 1670, Mary Mattheus sued Hendricksen for fl. 45.16 to 
cover a debt contracted by him. He was ordered to pay the debt 
with costs of the suit.^^^ 



ENGELTJE JACOBS. 

Engeltje Jacobs "van Hoogharsteen in Holsteyn" was married, 
February 15, 1658, in New Amsterdam, to Christiaen Toemszen 
"van Strabroeck in Brabant." ^^^ 



490 Ibid., v., p. 154. 

491 Ibid., v., p. 222. 

492 Calendar of Manuscripts, I., p. 233. 

493 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, V., p. 289. 

494 Ibid., VI., p. 61. 

495 Ibid., VI., p. 259. 

496 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 22. 



208 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

PIETER JACOBSEN. 

Pieter Jacobsen came to New Netherland by the ship "de 
Trouw" which sailed on February 12, 1659. He was, as is stated 
in the list of passengers, from Holstein.'*^^ He was a miller, and 
settled in Esopus or Wiltwyck. The Baptismal Register of the 
old Dutch church in Kingston (==Esopus) giving the date of the 
baptism of Pieter's son, Pieter, — October 1, 1662, states that the 
father is "miller here." "^"^ In September, 1663, the court induced 
him "to give his mill for forty or fifty soldiers to lodge them." -^^^ 

In 1664 he is mentioned as being in partnership with Pieter 
Cornelissen.^oo 

On January 15, 1663, he and others, belonging to the local 
militia of Wiltwyck, wrote a letter to Director Stuyvesant, com- 
plaining that the civil magistrates of Wiltwyck had pulled down 
an ordinance published by them (the militia). 

In the same year he signed an ordinance "to be observed in 
time of need," made by the officers of the "train band." ^"^ 

The wife of Pieter Jacobsen was Grietjen Hendricks Wester- 
camp. ^^2 Pieter died at or before the beginning of 1665.-^°^ 



ANNEKE JANS. 

Anneke Jans, from Dithmarschen in Holstein, was marri^c 
March 29, 1653, in New Amsterdam, to Hage Bruynsen. from 
Vexio, in Smaaland, Sweden. ^°^ She was a sister of Dirck Jansen, 
Carsten Jansen Eggert, and Greetje Jansen. ^*^^ Hage Bruynsen 
bought a house in New Amsterdam, in 1653, apparently upon the 



497 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 8. 

498 R. R. Hoes, Baptismal and Marriage Registers of the old Dutch Cliurch 
. . in Kingston, p. 2. 

499 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 341. 

500 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1897, p. 124. 

501 New York Documentary History, XIII., pp. 236f. 

502 See reference 498. 

503 See reference 500. 

504 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 18. There were many having the name Anneke Jans in New Netherland. 

505 Collections of New York Historical Society, I., p. 48. 



JANS. 209 

site of No. 255 Pearl Street. This house is one of interest, as 
the lodging place, in 1679, of the Labbadist missionaries Danker 
and Sluyter.^*'*^ 

In October, 1653, Bruynsen bought a house lot in Beverwyck, 
with the intention, it would seem, of moving to that place. His 
wife was to accompany him. But, for a time at least, she was 
obliged to postpone the journey. This postponement was due to 
a suit which she had brought against Mrs. Abraham Genes. 

On July 14, 1653, she made the complaint before the court, 
that "on Tuesday last, when four napkins, bought by her of her 
master Croon from Holland were lying out to bleach," Mrs. Gennes 
"picked them up and carried them away." The minutes proceed : 
"Deft, says she had been robbed, and pltf. demands proof that 
they [the napkins] had been stolen from deft, or else return of 
the napkins and suitable satisfaction. Deft, admits having taken 
up and away from the bleaching ground 4 napkins in the presence 
of Martin Loockermans and Engeltje Mans, because they belonged 
to her, and she says, that she misses other napkins and linen, which 
she had not yet seen or found ; also that neighbors have compared 
the said napkins with others, daily used by her, and have found 
them to be of the same pattern and linen, while upon one of them 
there is the same mark as shown by affidavit ; she has left it with 
Anneke Loockermans and Tryntie Kips for safekeeping. The 
latter, called into Court with it, state, that it is the same napkin, 
as left at their house, but is not like the one, shown by pltf. 
Having been examined by pltf., she says, that two of the napkins, 
taken by deft, are changed and that the one with the mark may 
have been mixed with hers by Engeltie Mans at her wedding. The 
Court examines and compares the four napkins with those of the 
deft, and find them to be alike." 

Under date of September 8, 1653, the court minutes, again re- 
ferring to this case, state: 

"Madame Genes being summoned into court by the Schoui 
... is asked (since Madame Genes intends to remove to Father- 
land, and Annetiie aforesaid intends to go to Fort Orange) 
whether she can produce any further proof. She gives for answer : 
No other proof than before : that they are found in all respects like 
her napkins, and she is willing, if she can retain her napkins and 



506 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 379. J. H. Innes, New 
Amsterdam and Its People. 



210 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

will remain unmolested on that account, to forgive the said Annetie 
her fault, and, never to trouble her on that account." 

Under date of September 9 the minutes state the following: 
"Annetie . . . , wife of Age Bruynsen, appeared in Court ; requests 
a pass to go to Fort Orange. Wheras she instituted the suit about } 
the four napkins of Mme. Genes, and the case has not been j 
prosecuted by her, therfore Burgomasters and Schepens notify 
her, the petitioner, first to settle with Mme. Genes, or else prosecute j 
her suit, and remain bound over to the Court, so that their I 
Worships of the Court may remain exempt from any complaint > 
of refusing justice, etc.^^'^ 

The records say nothing as to how the case was settled. } 

Anneke and Hage had a son, who was born in 1654, and j 

married Gessi Schuman of New York, in 1681.^*'^ Anneke was i 

dead when Hage, April 7, 1661, married Egbertie Hendricks, of i 

Meppel. ; 



CILETJE JANS. 

Ciletje Jans, from Christianstad, which before 1658 belonged 
to Denmark, now to Sweden, was married on April 7, 1661. in 
New Amsterdam, to Hendrick van der Wallen.^*^^ Her husband 
was from Harlem in Holland and had been sent over as an ex- 
perienced clerk to assist Claes van Ruyven.^^'^ 

A daughter, Elizabeth, was born to Ciletje and Hendrick. 
She was baptized July 2, 1662. Ciletje's husband and two other 
men had united their efforts in liberating a slave belonging to 
Nicholas George, for ten pounds sterling. The money was not 
paid. On March 25, 1664, suit was therefore brought against 
Ciletje, who was then a widow, to obtain the amount. The Court 
decreed, however, that Ciletje should not pay more than one third 
of it.511 

Her husband was dead before November 23, 1663, when she 



507 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., pp. 87, 113f., 118. 

508 See article "Hage Brxiynsen." Part III. 

509 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 143. 

510 New York Colonial History, XIV., p. 418. 

511 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, V., p. 40. 



JANS. 211 

declared in court that she knew "nothing about her deceased 
husband's business in Holland." ^^^ 

On February 9, 1664, she married Paulus Richard "Van 
Rochel" in France. Johannes Schivelberg was appointed guardian 
of her child.^^2 

She seems to have married a third husband, Jan Hoppen, who 
may have been a Norwegian. They joined the Dutch Reformed 
church. 

On January 11, 1665, she petitioned the Court that she be re- 
leased from a house in which she was residing, and which had 
been rented by her deceased husband : "She finds it difficult to make 
up the rent, and says that Jacques Cousseau stated to her," that 
the curators of the estate of the owner of the house "told him, 
she should be released from the last year's lease ;" she also under- 
stood that they "have offered to rent the house to Juffw. Wessels." 
The curators had made an attachment on her goods for rent. On 
January 31, she produced an extract from the Register of the 
Resolution of the Orphan chamber, wherein it was proved, accord- 
ing to the order of the Burgomasters and Schepens, that Jacques 
Causseau told her that the curators should have to release her from 
the last year's rent. The court looked over the extract and decreed 
that she should be released from the last year's rent. — "If she was 
to have paid anything on it, they ought to have notified her there- 
of." It declared that the attachment made on the goods was 
vaHd.514 



^ DOROTHEA JANS. 

Dorothea Jans, from "Breestede" (Bredstedt) came in companv 
with her brother, Jan Jansen and Engeltje Jans, to New Amster- 
dam, in 1636. She was married to Volckert Jansen from Fred- 
rickstad, and had several children. She also had two sisters and 
one brother in New Amsterdam. See the articles "Engeltje Jans," 
"Tryntie Jans," "Jan Jansen van Brestede," "Volckert Jansen." 
(Part II). 



512 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 125. 

513 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, V., p. 53. 

514 Ibid., v., pp. 176, 181. 



212 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

'''eLSJE JANS. 

Elsje Jans, from "Breestede" (Bredstedt), a daughter of Jans 
Jansen and Engeltje Jan van Breestede, came with her parents 
to New Netherland in 1636. She was married, on May 17, 1643, 
to x\driaen Pietersen van Alcmar, widower of Grietje Pietersen. 

The Council minutes of that period tell us how Adriaen wooed 
and won her as his wife. It appears that Elsje was in the service 
of Cornells Melyn of Staten Island. She left the service before 
her term had expired, in order to marry Adriaen. Melyn was 
much displeased at this, and brought suit against Egbert W'outer- 
sen, her stepfather, "husband and guardian of Engel Jan, her i 
mother," for damages on account of Elsje's marriage engagement. | 

Elsje appeared in court on September 11, 1642, and testified j 
that "her mother and another woman had brought a young man i 
to Staten Island." She claimed she had never seen him before, j 
They desired that she should marry him. She declined at first, but ! 
finally consented. "She concluded her testimony by returning in 
court the pocket-handkerchief she had received as a marriage 
present." 

Five days later she made the declaration that she sent for 
Adriaen Pietersen, and that on his coming to Staten Island she j 
accompanied him on board his yawl. ' 

A week later, Melyn and the Fiscal had Pietersen before the 
court, charged with Elsje's abduction. Pietersen was ordered ta 
bring her into court, deliver her to Melyn, and receive her again 
from him "on giving security for the payment of the damage Melyn 
may have sufifered."^^^ 

After the death of Adriaen Pietersen, Elsje married Hen- 
dricksen Jochemsen, of Esopus. After his death she married Cor- 
nells Barentsen Slecht (Sleght), who w^as in New Amsterdam in 
1662, and at Wiltwyck (Esopus) in 1664.^16 

Elsje had three sisters and one brother in New Netherland. 

See articles "Dorothea Jans," "Engeltje Jans," "Tryntie Jans," 
and "Jan Jansen van Breestede." 



515 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VII., p. 117. 

516 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1G53 1674, IV., p. 170. T. F. Chamber. 
The Early Germans in New Jersey, 1895, p. 497. 



JANS. 213 

^ ENGELTJE JANS. 

Engeltje Jans, from '"Breestede" (Bredstedt, in Schleswig), 
came with her husband, Jan Jansen, to New Amsterdam about 
1636. By him she had the following children: 1) Tryntie, who 
was married to Rutger Jacobsen Schoonderworth or Van Woert. 
and whose descendants assumed the name of Rutgers; 2) Jan 
Jansen van Breestede, who in 1647 married Marritje Lucas f An- 
dries) ; 3) Dorothea Jans van Breestede, who in 1650 was married 
to Volckert Janszen from Frederickstadt, and whose descendants 
comprise the Dow family of New York; 4) Elsie Jans van Bre- 
stede, who was married three times. ^i''' See articles "Dorothea 
Jans," "Elsje Jans," "Tryntie Jans," "Jan Jansen van Breestede." 

After the death of Jan Jansen, Engeltje Jans was married, 
on September 1, 1641, to Egbert Woutersen, of Isselsteyn. He is 
often mentioned in the Court Record of New Amsterdam 1653 — 
1674 as arbitrating in disputes. He and his wife were frequently 
invited to stand sponsors at baptisms. 

They made their will on June 20, 1652.^^^ 

Woutersen took the lease of a bowery on December 1. 1646, 
on Manhattan ; and on May 10, 1647, he obtained a patent for a 
tract of land, called in Indian Apocalyck, lying across the North 
Kiver, west of the Manhattan. 

Woutersen died 1680, without issue. 



GRIETJE JANS. 

Gnetje Jans was from Dithmarschen, in Schleswig-Holstein. 
She was a sister of Dirck Jansen, Anneke Jans (Holstein), and 
Carsten Jansen Eggert, in whose will she is mentioned. See article 
Carsten Jansen Eggert. On October 6, 1652 she was married, in 
New Amsterdam, to Jacob Pietersen Van Leyden.^^^ They had 
a son. Pieter, who was baptized on August 31, 1653. 



517 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VIII., p. 117. 

518 Calendar of (N. Y.) Wills, Compiled by B. Fernow, p. 480. 

Engeltje Jans stood sponsor several times. In 1642, she stood sponsor at 
the baptism of a child of Hans Nieholaeszen, who was possibly a Dane. All the 
sponsors at this baptism seem to have been Scandinavians. 

519 The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 81. 



214 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

MAGDALENTJE JANS. 

Magdalentje Jans, from Dithmarchsen, was married January 
22, 1650, in New Amsterdam, to Jan Peers.^^o 



V 



TRYNTIE JANS. 



Tryntie Jans from "Breestede" (Bredstedt) came to New 
Netherland with her parents, Jan Jansen and Engeltje Jans, in 
1636.^2^ She had two sisters and one brother in New Netherland. 
See the articles "Dorothea Jans," "Elsje Jans," "Jan Jansen van 
Breestede." 

On June 3, 1646, she was married, in New Amsterdam, to 
Rutger Jacobsen, a resident of Rensselaerswyck (Albany). 

Rutger Jacobsen came from Schoonderwoert, a village some 
twelve miles south of Utrecht, Holland. He served as a farm hand 
on the farm of Teunisz from Breuckelen, for the term of six 
years, beginning in April 1637, at fl. 100 a year. 

In 1643 he was engaged as foreman on the great Flats in 
Rensselaerswyck at fl. 220 a year and some clothes. 

From 1648 to 1654 he is charged with an annual rent of 
fl. 125 for a saw mill on the fifth creek, and for the same period 
he is charged, jointly with Barent Pietersz, with an annual rent 
of fl. 550 for a saw mill and grist mill, also on fifth creek. From 
about 1648 he owned a sloop plying upon the Hudson between 
Rensselaerswyck and New Amsterdam. 

Signature of Rutger Jacobs, husband of Tryntie Jans. 

On April 4, 1649, he agreed to pay fl. 32 a year, for three 
years, for rent of his house-lot and the right to fur trade. In 
October 1860, he and Goossen Gerritsz were authorized to brew 



520 Ibid., VI., p. 38. 

521 Munsell, Collections on the History of . . . Albany, IV., pp. 89, 158f. 



JANS. 215 

beer, on condition of paying a duty of one guilder for every barrel 
of beer and of brewing, free of charge, the beer needed for the 
households of Van Slichtenhorst and de Hooges.^-2 

Jacobsen seems to have lived most of the time in Rensselaers- 
wyck, though he and his family occasionally resided in New Am- 
sterdam, where he, in 1649, bought a lot on High Street, on which 
he built a house. In 1656, at Fort Orange, he mortgaged this 
house and lot for the amount of 1528 guilders.^-^ His wife gave 
another mortgage in this house and lot in 1658, when she also 
mortgaged her house and lot at Fort Orange. This was done to 
meet what the officer Cornells Steenwyck was trying to collect 
from the Jacobsens : a sum of 5,482 guilders. ^^^ Jacobsen re- 
tained the house in New Amsterdam till the fall of 1660, when 
it was sold at public auction to one Johannes Withart, his own at- 
torney. Jacobsen contested the sale in Court, and requested an 
advance on the price, claiming that the house and lot were not 
"held up" before they were sold. The Court considered the com- 
plaint. After having several hearings, it decided that Jacobsen 
had no reason to start suit. But as Jacobsen started litigation 
anew, arbitrators were appointed to decide the matter.^^s 

Tryntie's husband was a prominent man in Beverwyck.^26 
On April 23, 1652, he secured a lot in this town. He was engaged 
in public life, being a councilor, from 1649 to 1651, in Rensselaers- 
wyck, for which he received fifty florins a year.^27 j^ 1656 he 
was a magistrate of Rensselaerswyck, and laid the corner-stone 
of the new Dutch Church, situated at the intersection of the present 
State Street and Broadway in the city of Albany. 

We know very little about Tryntie. Her daughter Engel was 
baptized April 10, 1650; and her daughter Margrietje was married, 
in 1667, to Jan Jansen Bleecker, from Meppel in the province of 
Overyssel, ancestor of the Bleecker family, well known in the 
annals of New York.^^s 

Rutger Jacobsen died before December 9, 1665. 

522 Van Rensselaer Powier Manuscripts, p. 812. 

523 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 161. 

524 Ibid., 1900, p. 165. 

525 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, III., pp. 224, 229, 236, 238, 
254, 261, 297. 

526 E. B. O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, II., p. 587. 

527 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 812. 

528 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 173, note. , 



216 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

BARENT JANSEN. 

Barent Jansen (Van Ditmars) married, in 1664, in New 
Netherland, Catalyntie De Vos. She was the widow of Arent 
Andriessen (p. 34), a Norwegian, and the daughter of Andries De 
Vos, deputy director of Rensselaerswyck. He was killed in the 
French and Indian massacre in 1690, when the town of Schenec- 
tady, where he lived, was destroyed by Indians. 



DIRCK JANSEN. 

Dirck Jansen (de Groot), from Dithmarschen, was a cooper j 
in New York. He was brother of Carsten Jansen Eggert, Greetje i 
Jansen (wife of Jacob Pietersen), and Anneke Jans (wife of Hage j 
Bruynsen).* 

At the death of his sister, Anneke Jans, in 1661, Dirck was i 
appointed guardian of her son Bruyn Hage. In 1668, Bruyn's i 
father died, whereupon Dirck Jansen and two others requested the ; 
court that they might proceed to administer the estate of Bruynsen. i 

Under date of September 4, 1674, the Records of New Am- i 
sterdam state this : j 

"Dirck Jansen, cooper, appearing in Court as guardian of ' 
Bruyn Haagen, late servant of Hendrick Bosch ; exhibits in Court i 
an award of the arbitrators appointed, respecting the binding out | 
of said Bruyn Haagen, requesting that this W. Court may be pleased 
to approve it and to order the abovenamed Bosch to observe and 
fulfill it. The W. Court having seen and examined the said 
award, together with the indenture of said Bruyn Haagen made 
by the Notary Math, de Vos, approve said award of the arbitrators, ! 
and order said Hendrick Bosch to observe and fulfill the same 
punctually, and to pay the costs herein incurred. Costs together, j 
fl. 12."t I 

On July 22, 1677, Dirck Jansen married Rachel Detru (du 



* Collections of the New York Historical Societj', I., p. 48. 
f Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, VI., p. 147; YII., pp. 120, 130f. 
Hendrick Bosch was a chimney sweep. 



JAN SEN. 217 

Trieux), widow of Hendrick Van Bommel. His first wife was 
Wybrug Jans. By his second wife he had a son, Jan, who was 
baptized March 27, 1678 ; a daughter Grietie, who was baptized 
February 8, 1679; again a son, Abraham, baptized April 26, 1682. 
His second wife is sometimes called Rachel Rosella du Trieux, 
also Rachel Philips. She was a member of the Dutch Reformed 
Church in New York, 1686. 

Dirck and his wife lived on Marckvelt Straat (Market- 
field St.). 

Dirck Jansen of Dithmarschen, must not be taken for Dirck 
Jansen of Oldenburg, a contemporary in New York who was 
woodsawyer, ship builder, and real estate dealer. See article "An- 
neke Jans," "Carsten Jansen Eggert," "Greetje Jans." Part II ; 
"Hage Bruynsen," Part III. 



HANS JANSEN. 

Hans Jansen, or Hans Hansen, van Nordstrand, in Holstein, 
came to New Netherland in 1639. We do not know, who was his 
wife. He married early, as he had a child, Rommetje, who was 
baptized on December 8, 1641, in New Amsterdam. The sponsors 
at this baptism were Laurens Pieters, a Norwegian, Janneke Melyn 
and Styntie Jans. 

On November 29, 1652, he married Janneke Gerrits van Loon 
op't Sandt. 

He was a farmer and owned Bruyenburg or Buyennesburg. 

His will is dated August 20, 1679.* 



JAN JANSEN. 

Jan Jansen, the progenitor of the Ditmars family in this 
country, was from Dithmarschen in Holstein. He was known 
as Jan Jansen platneus (flatnose). He had land in New Amster- 



* Teunis G. Bergen, Register . . of the Early Settlers of Kings County, . . . 
N. Y., p. 349. Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, 
I., p. 17; II., p. 12. 



218 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

dam, in 1643 or earlier. ^29 On March 23, 1647, he obtained a 
patent for fifty-eight acres of land. Sometime before 1650 he sold 
this land to Joris Stevensen.^^*^ 

He died before 1650. His widow, Neeltie Douwes, married 
January 9, 1650, Lovis (Tennis?) Joriszen, "Van der Veer in Zea- 
landt." ^21 Jan Jansen had two children : John and Douwe or 
Dow. 

John settled at Flatbush, and married.^^^ 



/ 



JAN JANSEN. 



Jan Jansen, from "Breestede," (Bredstedt), came over to j 

New Netherland with his parents, Jan Jansen and Engeltje Jans, | 

and his three sisters, Elsje, Dorothea and Tryntie Jans, in 1636.^'^ | 

Jan Jansen married, November 1, 1647, in New Amsterdam, i 

Marritje Lucas (Andries), by whom he had six children, who were ' 
born and baptized in New Amsterdam. 

Jannetje was baptized July 19, 1648; Wouter, December 25, 

1650; Johannes, October 27, 1652; Engel, November 29, 1654; | 

Pieter, June 15, 1656; Simon, February 10, 1658.^34 | 

Jansen and his wife joined the Reformed Church in New 
Amsterdam before 16^0. 

Jan Jansen was a cooper. In 1658 he was appointed marker | 
of beer barrels, or ganger. On April 25, 1659, he appeared in \ 
court "requesting, as he is gauger, that the magistrates would be | 
pleased to fix a time, when he shall stamp the barrels and what 
he may demand for stamping, and marking a small number of 
barrels. Whereupon Burgomasters resolved that the marking of 
barrels shall take place in the month of May, and for each barrel 
under the number of ten, marked at one time to take two stivers, | 



529 New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 49. 

530 Ibid., XIV., p. 141. 

531 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 15. New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 142. 

532 J. Riker, Annals of Newtown, p. 390. 

533 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 37. Regarding 
his parents, see article Engeltje Jans. Part II. 

534 Ibid., v., pp. 91, 95, 118, 153, 176, 182. 



JANSEN. 219 

and above ten one stiver each, but to communicate it to the whole 
Board of Burgomasters and Schepens."^^^ 

In 1668 he was appointed inspector of pipe staves and the 
packing of meat. The city record says : 

(Jan. 28, 1668). "Jan Jansen van Breestede and Jurian 
Jansen van Aweryck being sent for to Court, the W. Court pro- 
poses to them the necessity, that some persons may be appointed 
within this City for the inspection and counting of pipe staves, 
packing of meat and pork and they being asked to perform the 
said service. The same was accepted by them, and they have taken 
the oath in this regard at the hands of the W. Court." ^^^ 

On January 5, 1674, Jan Jansen van Breestede and several 
others were appointed firewardens and chimney inspectors in the 
city of New Orange [new name for New Amsterdam] "for the 
term of the current year." ^^" 

We append the report of these men, and the resolution of the 
Council acting upon it. 

"Pursuant to the commission of the Worship Magistrates, the 
Schout, Burgomasters and Schepens of this city N. Orange, we 
the undersigned have, as Firewardens, visited on the 12th January, 
1674, the houses of all the inhabitants of this city aforesaid, and 
found divers fire places very much exposed to cause a conflagra- 
tion, wherefore we warned and notified them to remedy and im- 
prove the same, thus to prevent mischief ; we have also caused 
the City Crier to publish and make known, that if any of the in- 
habitants of this City had by them any City fire buckets they are 
to deliver them up without delay at the City Hall or to hand them 
to us Firewardens : we however have not as yet been able to col- 
lect more than 57 Buckets, three of which are at Abel Harden- 
broecks to be repaired : we have also found two old fire hooks 
with one old fire-ladder at the City Hall, but they are unfit for 
use in case of fire or other misfortune; we therefore request your 
Worships to be pleased to provide therein, that so many fire ladders 
and fire hooks may be made as your Honors shall think necessary. 



535 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, VII., p. 221. On Nov. 10, 
1676, an Andrew Brested Cooper was assessed 12s, 6d. in the City of New York; 
Jan van Bresteed Witt was assessed 6s, 3d. 

536 Ibid., VI., p. 113. 

537 Ibid., VII., p. 35. New Orange was the name given the City of New 
York by the Dutch in 1673. 



220 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

"Herewith we remain Your Worship's humble and faithful 
Subjects and obedient servants 

"(was signed) Jan van Bresteede 

"Reynier Willemsen 
"Jonas Bartelsen. 

"The annexed petition of the Firewardens of this city being 
considered, read and taken into serious deliberation in Court, as 
well as their representation of the necessity of making some pro- 
vision of fire hooks and ladders &c to be used occasionally and in 
time of fire — It is apostilled — 

"The petitioners are fully authorized by the W. Court to have 
made such supply of ladders, hooks and such like materials at the 
expense of the City as they shall consider to be necessary (Feb. 
26, 1674)." 538 

Two of Jansen's sons followed the earlier calling of the 
father: gauging barrels. 

Jansen died, it is supposed, about the year 1675. 

His descendants in later years have been known as Breestede. 



JAN JANSEN. 

Jan Jansen, from Flensborg, married on April 11, 1680, in 
New Amsterdam, Willemyntie Huygens de Kleyn, a daughter of 
Hugh Barents Kleyn (Clein), resident of New Amsterdam.-'^^^ 
Willemyntie was the widow of Barthemeus Schaet.^^*' Jan Jan- 
sen had several children by her . The twins, Maria and Catharina, 
who were baptized December 10, 1680; Maria, baptized January 
20, 1682; Johannes, February 15, 1684. After her death, he mar- 
ried, April 14, 1687, Margaret Martens (from Boston, 1678), 
widow of Claes Roelofsen. By her he had a daughter, Catharina, 
who was baptized July 24, 1689.5^1 He joined the Dutch Reformed 
Church in New Amsterdam on December 4, 1679. It would seem 
that he was a baker.* 



538 Ibid., VII., p. 66f. 

539 Ibid., VII., p. 2. 

540 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VII., p. 33. 

541 Ibid., VIII., p. 38. 

• Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, 1675-1776, 
I., p. 176. 



JANSEN. 221 

JEURIAN JANSEN. 

Jeurian Jansen arrived at New Amsterdam in 1662. He 
came on the ship "de Vos," which sailed August 31, 1662. In the 
list of passengers, it is stated that Jansen was from Holstein.^^2 
He must not be taken for Jeurian Jansen from East Friesland, a 
cooper who married, June 1, 1658, in New Amsterdam. If Jansen 
from Holstein was a soldier, it is probable that he was the Jansen 
who died on September 25, 1663, by falling out of a canoe and 
drowning.^'*^ 



\ LAURENS JANSEN. 

Laurens Jansen, from Denmark, was in New Amsterdam as 
early as in March, 1647, when he secured a lot which he conveyed 
to Pieter Jacobsen Marius, ten years later, October 4, 1657. It 
was in Pearl Street, between the lot of Paulus Schrick (A German 
from Nlirnberg), on the east, and the house of Thomas Lamb on 
the west; or — as we would say: the lot was on the south side 
of Pearl Street, between State Street and Whitehall Street.-^^^ 

Laurens married Lysbeth Hendricks. But he was dead be- 
fore July 19, 1659, when she married Jan Gervan . . . , a soldier. 
In the marriage record she is called the "widow of Laurens Jansen 
of Denmark." 

Laurens Jansen of Denmark must not be confounded with the 
Laurens Jansen who is frequently mentioned in the "Records of 
New Amsterdam," as inhabitant of Gravesend. 



\i VOLCKERT JANSEN. 

Volckert Jansen, sometimes referred to as Volckert Hans, or 
Volckert Jans Douw, was in New Netherland as early as 1638. 

542 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900. 

543 New York Colonial Documents, XII., p. 342. 

544 D. T. Valentine, Manual of . . the City of New York, 1861, p. 593. 



222 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

In the marriage record of the Dutch church in New York, it is said 
that he was from "Frederickstadt." Whether this means Fredrik- 
stad in Norway or Friedrichstadt in Schleswig-Holstein, founded 
in 1621 for Dutch Arminians, is difficult to decide. ^^^ 

One writer claims that Volckert descended from Jan Douw 
of Leuwarden, a province of Friesland in Holland; that he was 
a captain in the Dutch army when driven from his home by the 
persecution waged against the Mennonites ; that he fled to Fried- 
crichstadt, taking his family along. The same writer says that 
Volckert Jansen married Dorothea Jans van Breestede while in 
Holland.546 

This claim is in part contradicted by the sources. For Volck- 
ert Jansen married Dorothea Jans van Breestede on April 19, 
1650, in New Amsterdam, not in Holland. In 1673 he appears 
as a Lutheran : in that year he and some others signed, in Albany, 
a petition requesting that their "congregation of the Augsburg 
Confession at Willemstadt (Albany)" be given "free exercise of 
their religious worship, without let or hindrance, to the end that 
they may live in peace with their fellow burghers." ^^'^ 

If he was from Holland, he may have been a Mennonite. 
The change in confession might then have been due to his wife, 
who likely was a Lutheran. But if he was not from Holland, he 
must have been a Dane or a Norwegian, judging from the entry 
in the church record. Fredrikstad, founded, 1570, in Norway, 
was better known than the younger Danish city, the present 
Friedrichstadt, founded a half century later. Naturally the 
person who wrote "Frederickstadt" in the church record would 
not add a geographical explanation to it if he had the Norwegian 
town in mind. He probably would have done so if he thought 
of the twenty-nine years old Danish town. On the other hand, 
the latter was well known among the Dutch. 

Volckert Jansen is mentioned in Albany under date of April 
27, 1642. In 1647 he was employed at the Vlackte. From 1647 
to 1649 he and John Thomas (Witbeck) are jointly charged 32 
florins a year for ground rent and the right to trade. From 1649 



545 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, III., p. 82. Ibid., VI., 
p. 39. 

546 Cuyler Reynold, Hudson Mohawk Genealogical Family Memoirs. N^ew 
York, 1910, p. 384f. 

547 Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York, I., p. 636. 



JANSEN. 223 

to 1652 Jansen is charged with 32 florins a year for his place 
"on the hill," on which he built a house.^'*^ 

In 1650 he accompanied Arent van Curler, manager of the 
colony of Rensselaerswyck, on an embassy to the Maquas. In 
1654 he was sponsor for Engel, his niece, a daughter of Jan Jansen 
van Bresteede. 

Volckert Jansen was a trader, brewer, and dealer in real 
estate. 

On April 23, 1652, he acquired a lot in Beverwyck.^^^ 
From May 1, 1653, to May 1, 1658, he, Pieter Hartgers and 
Jan Thomas are jointly charged with an annual rent of fl. 560 
for a farm on Papscanee Island, formerly occupied by Jurian 
Bestval. Volckert Jansen and Jan Thomas bought this farm in 
1658 for 950 beavers or 7,600 florins. On March 31, 1659, Volck- 
ert Jansen secured a plantation at Fort Orange ^^^ and later one 
of 33 morgens at Esopus.^^^ 

In company with Jan Thomas he conducted a brewery. This 
brewery situated on the east half of the Exchange block (in Al- 
bany) and extending to the river was sold in 1675 to Harmen 
Rutgers, son of Rutger Jacobsen, who was Volckert's brother- 
in-law. 

In 1663 Volckert and his partner bought, of the Indians, 
Schotack and Apjens Island and the main land lying east of it.^^^ 
On January 24, 1664, the Council of Rensselaerswyck passed a 
resolution annulling the purchase of land from the Indians, at 
Schodac," without the consent of the colony. When notice of this 
resolution was served on Volckert and his partner, they produced 
a patent from Director Stuyvesant, dated November 3, 1663. 

Volckert Jansen also owned Constaples Island, lying opposite 
Bethlehem, half of which he sold, in 1677, to Pieter Winne. 

In 1672 he owned Schutter's Island, below Barent Island, 
which he sold to Barent Pietersen Coeyman. 



548 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts. 

549 E. B. O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, II., p. 587. 

550 Ibid., II., p. 591. 

551 Ibid., II., p. 592. 

552 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, III., p. 82f. 



224 



DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 



Volckert Jansen died in 1686, his wife Dorothea in 1701. The 
descendants comprise the Dow family in New York.^^^ 

There were eleven children born to Volckert and Dorothea, 
four boys and seven girls: Jonas, Andries, Volckert je, Dorothe, 
Catrina, Engeltje, Hendrick, Elsje, Rebecca, Volckert, Grietje.-'^^'' 

Jonas married first Magdalena, daughter of Pieter Quacken- 
bos, on November 14, 1683, and secondly, Catrina, daughter of 
Jan Thomas Witbeck (the partner of his father) and widow of 
Jacob Sanders Glen on April 24, 1691. He had four children. 
He died 1736. 




^)U Bloqmrunfir^jitpi mS)^U^^,''f6 to^aruC^)cmSl Sr,^ ^^ifli vorgengca, . un JuUcjfzs 



/ 



/^^ 



d- 








^^^Qs 



■^^^d^k^-i^-'^ili^^^^ 







f s 




SIEGE OF KREMPE AND GLUECKSTADT, 1628. 



Andries was, in 1684, master of the open boat "John," plying 
between Albany and New York. He married three times and had 
five children. 

Hendrick married Neeltje, daughter of Meyndert Fredricksen 
from Jeveren, October 3, 1697. He died 1754, leaving six children. 

Volckert married Margaret, daughter of Abraham van Fricht. 
November 16, 1701. He died 1753, leaving five children.^^s 



553 Munsell, Annals of 

554 See reference 546. 

555 See reference 552. 



. . Albany, IV., p. 118. 



JEURIANS. 225 

\ PIETER JANSEN. 

Pieter Jansen was from Gliickstad (now a part of Germany), 
Denmark. All that we know about this person is contained in a 
notice in the Court Record of New Amsterdam. It appears that 
he died about 1663. On November 29, 1663, Jan van Gelder and 
Claas Gangelofzen Visser (or Claas Jansen Visser) were ap- 
pointed curators of Jansen's estate. As Visser went to Curacao, 
Gelder requested, on November 2, 1664, that another might be ap- 
pointed in his stead. The court then appointed Pieter Wolferzen 
van Couwenhouven as curator.^^^ 



JACOB JANSZ. 

Jacob Jansz, from Nordstrand, Schleswig, was in the colony 
of Rensselaerswyck as early as 1642, when supplies furnished to 
him are charged to Cornelis Hendricks Nes. He took the oath of 
fealty, November 28, 1651. (Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts 
p. 830.) 



THOMAS JANSEN. 

Thomas Jansen was in New York in 1677. In the marriage 
records it is stated that he was from Denmark, and married, on 
June 11, 1677, in Brooklyn, Jannetje Brouwers. He must not be 
taken for his namesake, also called Thomas Franszen, mentioned 
in Teunes G. Bergen's "Register of the early Settlers of King's 
County," p. 117, and in "Dr. Valentine's Manual of . . . the City 
of New York." 1865, pp. 664, 684. 



TEUNTJE JEURIANS. 

Teuntje Jeurians (Sofia, Antonia), w^ho came to New Nether- 
land in 1689 or before, was the wife of the Dane, Jonas Bronck, 

556 The Records of New Amsterdam, V., p. 151. 



226 DANISH IMMlcrSANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

who died in 1643. Bronck married her in Europe, perhaps in Den- 
mark. She was probably Danish, as Marritje Pieters of Copenhagen 
mentions Teuntje in her marriage contract, as an heir. The fact 
that she mentions Teuntje first and Bronck second, would indicate 
that the relationship existed between the women. 

She had at least one son by Bronck, Pieter Bronck. Could 
Jems Bronck, who died in 1653, and whom we have mentioned in 
the article "Jo"^s Bronck," have been her other son? 

After the death of Bronck, she married Arent Van Curler, 
sheriff in Rensselaerswyck. In a letter, addressed to Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer and dated at the Manhattans, June 16, 1643, Van Curler 
writes : 'T am at present betrothed to the widow of the late M. 
Jonas Bronck. May the good God vouchsafe to bless me in my 
undertaking, and please grant that it might conduce to His honor, 
to our mutual salvation." 

Anthonia Jeurians is also called Anthonia Slachboom, or 
Slaghboom. "Slag" and "bom" appear as first syllables in Danish 
proper names. "Slagbom" is Danish-Norwegian = turnpike, bar- 
ricade, bar. In German the equivalent is "Schlagbaum," in Dutch 
"Slagboom." From the name alone we can form no conclusion as 
to the nationality of Anthonia, or Teuntje. 

She was an aunt of Catalina De Boog, who married Wilhel- 
mus Beekman in New Amsterdam, in 1649. Catalina De Boog 
was a daughter of Hendrick de Boog, of Albany, the surname 
of whose wife was Slagboom. Anthonia stood sponsor, June 26, 
1650, at the baptism of Maria, daughter of Beekman and Catalina 
de Boogh, whose name also occurs as De Bough and De Hoogh. 
Hendrick de Boog or Hendricks De Hoogh was captain of a Hud- 
son trading-vessel. 

Teuntje married Van Curler, probably in 1643 (1646, accord- 
ing to Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography). He was 
a gifted person, and only eighteen years when he sailed from Hol- 
land to New Netherland, at the end of December, 1637. He was 
a cousin of Kiliaen van Rensselaer, became secretary and book- 
keeper of the colony of Rensselaerswyck. In 1644 he sailed for 
Holland, but returned to New Netherland, probably in 1647. He 
was now appointed a Gecommitteerde. For a while he was trustee 
of voluntary contributions for the erection of a school. He early 



JEURIANS. 



mastered the tongue of the Iroquois Indians, 
chosen to go on an embassy to the Maquas. 



227 

In 1650 he was 



Van Curler and his wife, after returning from Netherlands, 
lived on their farm near West Troy, N. Y. Here he worked for 
peace with the Indians and for checking the sale of "fire water." 
He may be considered as the "real founder of that Dutch policy 
of peace with the Indians that was afterward followed by the 
English, which by making an invincible obstacle to French ambi- 
tion, aided so powerfully to secure this continent to Germanic in- 
stead of Latin civilization." 

In 1661, being tired of the semi-feudal ideas of the patroon 
system, he became one of the leaders of a company of free settlers 
from Holland to Schenectady, where he founded an agricultural 
settlement, in which all purchasers could hold land in fee simple. 

In 1667, while on a visit to Canada, he was drowned in Lake 
Champlain. 




Signature of Arent van Curler, second husband of Teuntje Jeurians. 



He left about 2000 letters and papers, which are preserved 
chiefly in Albany, New York. 

His uncle, Kiliaen van Rensselaer, sent him many a word of 
admonition and censure, and asked him to follow the advice of 
older people. In 1643 he wanted to know to what extent Van 
Curler was intemperate, as he had heard rumors about his drinking 
and participating in attendant evils. In the same year he was dis- 
pleased at his having contributed to the erection of a church : 

"I also hear that he [Arent] has contributed some muddles 
of wheat toward the erection of the church at the Manhatans. 



228 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

What orders has he to give away my goods in this fashion? I 
could use them very well for the erection of my own church. I 
hope that it is not true. These young people, like Arent and Van der 
Donck do not think at all of my interests, each one thinks of his 
own advancement ..." [1643]. 

Teuntje survived also her second husband. She died in 
Schenectady, Dec. 19, 1676. Three years before this, she had 
petitioned as "widow of Arent van Curler for leave to trade with 
the Indians at Schenectady." * 

We give below a fac-simile of a part of Kiliaen van Rens- 
selaer's letter, Dec. 29, 1637, to Peter Minuit, Director of New 
Netherland. It begins "The bearer of this letter, my cousin Arent 
van Corler, sailing to my colony as assistant, is recommended to 
you to accomodate him as much as your honor's situation will 
allow. I should also be much pleased, inasmuch as he is still 
young and inexperienced, if you had a little instruction given to 
him in the process of ship's bookkeeping as well as in the keeping 
of land accounts, as his master Jacob Planck, with whom he will 
be, is not too expert in these matters himself." The conclusion, 
of which the fac-simile is given, reads, as translated in "Bowier 
Manuscripts" : 

"With him go the following young men engaged for my colony 
to wit : 

"Arent van Corler, assistant, 18 years old. 
"Elbert albertsen, 18 years old 
"Claes Jans en, 17 years old 
"Gerrit hend, 15 years old 
"Gijsb Arentsen, 22 years old 

"Loaded also 

one barrel 

of pitch, well hooped 

flS 

2 barrels of tar, together 

f 5 
"On Saturday, with the goods went : 
Jacob Arentsen, 25 years old 



Calendar of Council Minutes, 1668-1783, p. 18. 



230 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

"Together six persons, who are recommended to your honor 
and whom, with my goods, you will please cause to reach the 
manatans at the earliest opportunity that circumstances will allow. 
From there I hope they will get further. I wish your honor good 
luck on the voyage." 



MARRITJE JEURIANS. 

Marritje Jeurians was from Copenhagen, Denmark. She was 
married on June 2, 1657, in New Amsterdam, to Pieter Janszen 
Romeyn (Van de Lange straet), a widower. Jansen's first wife 
was Dirckie Jansz Van Meffelen, daughter of Jan Ruthers. By 
her, Jansen had a son who was born about 1651, and who at his 
father's second marriage received Jan Ruthers and Jan de Jongh 
as guardians.^^''' 

By Marritje, Jansen had several children: Jeurian, who was 
baptized November 15, 1662; Dirck, baptized July 25, 1666; 
Belitje, baptized July 25, 1666 ; twins who were baptized on Octo- 
ber 26, 1668. 

Jansen was a tavern keeper. His partner was a Dane, Seve- 
ryn Laurenszen, from Roskilde. (See article "Severyn Lauren- 
szen," Part II.) 

Marritje and the Rev. Jacob Fabritius, who in 1669 was sent 
by the Lutheran consistory of Amsterdam to New Amsterdam and 
who managed to get into various kinds of trouble in New Amster- 
dam, being frequently in court, had a dispute in which the pastor 
was worsted. The Fiscal charged him with having "used force and 
violence against Marritje Jeurians in her own house." He de- 
manded a fine of five beavers with payment of costs. Fabritius 
admitted the charge, but said that Marritje "did provoke him with 
harsh language." After the court had heard the witnesses, it fined 
Fabritius "two Beavers with costs." ^^^ 



557 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 113. 

558 New York Colonial Documents, II., pp. 692, 693. 



KOCK. 231 



PETER KLAESEN. 



Peter Klaesen [Claessen] arrived, with his wife and his two chil- 
dren, — the one ^ years old, the other six — at New Amsterdam 
in the year 1658. He was from Holstein, and a farmer by occupa- 
tion. He came over in the ship "de Vergulde Bever," which sailed 
May 17, 1658.^59 

On December 7, 1664, Pieter Claessen van Dietmarssen was 
by Governor Richard Nicoll granted a request, he had made, to 
pass on the ship "Unity" to any port or harbor in Holland. It is 
probable that this is the Klaesen who came over in 1658. His 
wife and children may have died in the mean time.^^*^ 



MRS. PETER KLAESEN. 

Mrs. Peter Klaesen arrived at New Amsterdam in 1658, ac- 
companied by her husband and two children. Klaesen and his 
wife were from Holstein, and probably were Danes. 



PIETER LAURENSZEN KOCK. 

Pieter Laurenszen Kock was from "Alberrch," Denmark. Al- 
berrch is not to be identified with Albjerg, but with Aalborg, 
which on the map of Denmark in Theatri Europai, Part V, 
(Anno M. DC. XLCII) is spelled Alborch. He was in New 
Netherland as early as 1643, or perhaps before. In 1643 he com- 
manded, as sergeant, an expedition against the Indians. He and 
one Baxter then had sixty-five men, who marched to Wetquescheck, 
which consisted of three Indian "castles." These castles "were 
empty, though thirty Indians could have stood against 200 soldiers, 
in as much as the castles were constructed of plank five inches 
thick, nine feet high, and braced around with thick plank studded 



559 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902. 

560 New York State Library Bulletin on History, No. 2, 1899. 



232 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

with port holes." Kock's party burned two of the "castles", re- 
serving the third for a retreat. "Marching eight or nine leagues 
further, they discovered nothing but a few huts, which they could 
not surprise, as they [themselves] were discovered [by the enemy]. 
They returned, having "killed only one or two Indians, taken some 
women and children and burnt some corn." ^^^ 

In the same year Kock and Roelof Jansen Haes, a Norwegian, 
made a report to the Secretary of the Colony that "the colony be- 
hind the Col" had been destroyed by the Indians : 

"Before me Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of New-Nether- 
land appeared Pieter Cock, 30 years old and Roeloff Jansen, 20 
years old, well known to me, the Secretary, who at the request of 
Cornells Jansen Coelen, declare and testify, promising to con- 
firm their attestation by solemn oath, if so required, that after 
the Colony behind the Col had been burnt by the savages, it was 
impossible to go there by land or by water to examine the place 
and its condition, because of the great number of savages who 
burn and slay whatever they can lay hold of in the woods, on the 
Kill or elsewhere. This the deponents declare to be correct and 
true, etc. 

"Done the 3d of November 1643 at Fort Amsterdam. 



t>x 



Signature of Pieter Laurenszen Kock. 

"Roeloff Jansen Haes."5«2 

On March 28, 1647, Kock bought a lot on Manhattan Island, 
opposite H. Kip.^6^ 

In 1653 he was considered to be one of the "principal 
burghers and inhabitants" of New Amsterdam, and was as such 
consulted in regard to measures intended by the city government 
to increase the treasury. ^^^ 

In February, 1653, if not before, Kock brought action before 
the court against Annetie Cornelissen Van Vorst, whose step- 



561 New York Colonial Documents, I., p. 186f. 

562 Ibid., XIII., p. 16. 

563 Year Book of the Holland Society, 1901, p. 130. 

564 Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 126. 



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KOCK. 233 

father was Jacob Stoffelzen. They had been engaged and she had 
broken the engagement. This brought on the suit. We shall not 
give the history of it, but content ourselves to state the findings of 
the court, given on May 18, 1654. 

"The Commissioners to examine the papers in the suit be- 
tween Pieter Kock and Anna van Vorst made their report to the 
Board and their opinion, which is the following judgment, and the 
same being examined. Burgomasters and Schepens decide, that said 
judgment shall for reasons not yet be pronounced but remain in 
abeyance until future occasion and request of parties. 

"A suit has been instituted before the Court of the City of 
New Amsterdam by Pieter Kock, bachelor, a burgher and in- 
habitant of said City, pltf. against Anna van Vorst, spinster, liv- 
ing at Ahasimus [in New Jersey] deft., respecting a marriage con- 
tract, or an oral promise of marriage, mutually entered into be- 
tween said Pieter Kock and Anna van Vorst, and in confirmation 
thereof, certain gifts and presents were made by the pltf. to the 
aforesaid deft. ; however, it appears by the documents exhibited 
by parties, that the deft, the fiancee of pltf., in consequence of 
certain misbehavior, is in no wise disposed to marry said Pieter 
Kock, and also proves by two witnesses (see affidavit dated the 
24 December 1653) that Pieter Cock had released her, with promise 
to give her a written acquittal to that efl^ect, therefore Burgo- 
masters and Schepens of this City having attentively perused and 
examined all the documents by parties, adjudge, as they do hereby, 
that the promise of marriage having been made and given before 
the Eyes of God, shall remain in force, so that neither pltf. nor 
deft, shall be at liberty without the knowledge and approbation of 
the Worsh. Magistrates and the other one of the interested parties 
to enter into matrimony with any person, whether single man or 
single woman. Also that all the presents made in confirmation 
of marriage shall remain in possesion of deft, until parties with 
the pleasure, good will, contentment and inclination of both shall 
marry together, or with the knowledge of the Magistracy shall 
release and set each other free. Furthermore, both pltf. and deft, 
are condemned equally in this cost of the suit. Thus done and 
adjudged in the Court aforesaid this 18th of May, 1654."565 



565 Ibid., I., p. 199f. 



234 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Pieter Laurensen Kock married another, however, June 13, 
1657. This was Marries Anneken Dircks. A child was born to 
them and baptized "Gallas" on September 21, 1659. Not long 
afterward Kock died, for on November 26, 1660, Marries re- 
quested as "the widow of Pieter Kock" that Daniel Litschoe and 
Jacob Hendricks Varrevanger should be appointed guardians of 
her child. ^^6 

Meantime Kock's name had appeared quite often in the court 
minutes of New Amsterdam. 

On December 1, 1653, Kock petitioned the Court that he might 
be indemnified for theft committed at his house by Jan Gerritsen, 
a smith. The Court directed him to apply to the officer^^'^ 

On January 18, 1655, Cornelis Jacobsen Steenwyck instituted 
action against Kock, demanding repayment of fl. 200 in wampum, 
which he had loaned him. Kock acknowledged the receipt and 
debt, but "requested that the money be paid to him which had been 
realized from the sale of the property of John the Smith, who 
absconded for robbery committed in his house, in consequence o'f 
which he had been obliged to contract this debt, in order to restore 
the Wampum to the Deaconry ; in order therewith to meet this 
obligation." The Court decided that Kock should pay Steenwyck. 
But it also decreed the following: 

"Whereas Jan Gerritsen, Smith, being accused of stealing 
about 5 to 600 guilders in wampum from the house of Pieter Kock, 
Burger and inhabitant of this city, has absconded, and to this date 
has not returned to answer; therefore the Burgomasters and 
Schepens of this City, have, at the request of the aforesaid Pieter 
Kock, and for the restoration of the stolen wampum, consented, 
that, he shall appropriate the monies, accrued from the old iron 
work sold to Burger Jorissen, according to obligation of fl. 111.7^. 
together with 6 beavers sequestered by the Secretary and should 
he know of anything else belonging to the aforesaid Jan Gerritsen, 
he shall report the same, so as to obtain something back towards 
his loss. Therefore Secretary Kip is ordered to hand over to him 
the aforesaid obligation with assignment, in the name of the Burgo- 
masters and Schepens, together with the sequestered Beavers. "^^® 

Under date of April 19, 1655, the court minutes state in 



566 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 85. Year 
Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 120. 

567 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 134. 

568 Ibid., I., p. 277. 



KOCK. 235 

regard to this matter: "On the obhgation, order and insinuation 
against Borger Jorissen, relative to the payment of fl. 111.71/^. 
for purchased ironwork from the shop of Jan the Smith, according 
to a note drawn in favor of Peter Kock, is endorsed — Whereas 
aforesaid obligation concerns only Peter Kock, and ironwork was 
sold for his behoof, Borger Jorissen is again condemned to pay 
the same, on pain of execution, whereunto the Constable is author- 
ized.^^^ 

Kock's next case of litigation, in December, 1656, was started 
in consequence of one of his sheep having been bit and killed by 
a dog. He brought suit against the owners, who after much argue- 
ing, were condemned to pay him for the loss of the sheep, each 
(Pieter van Couwenhoven and Jan Gillesen Verbrugge) "one half 
of three merchantable beavers, besides the costs incurred here- 
in."5'0 

In September, 1659, he was ordered by the court to produce 
by next court day his papers, made use of in a suit between him 
and Solomon La Chair, Farmer of the Burger Excise of beer and 
wine. La Chair accused him of smuggling: Kock had eleven ankers 
of liquor, he disposed of one, consumed one himself, presented 
three ankers for tapper's and Burgher's excise. The remaining six 
ankers were seized by the Fiscal. The court dismissed La Chair's 
suit, but both he and Kock were condemned to pay the costs. 
Notwithstanding as Kock had been intended to tap, and had not 
taken out any license, as the Law required, he was fined twelve 
guilders in another suit instituted against him by the Schout. He 
was also condemned to pay the costs of this suit, January 20, 
1660.5'fi 

Aside from what the court records tell us, we know but little 
of Kock's doings. In July, 1659, he and a Willem Pietersen were 
examined "regarding expressions by Jacop Coppe concerning a 

will." 

The court minutes relate several matters concerning his 
widow, who continued keeping the tavern which Kock had built on 



569 Ibid., I., p. 308, cfr. p. 324. 

570 Ibid., II., pp. 248, 257, 270. 

571 Ibid., III., p. 105. 



236 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

the opposite side of the Marckveldt in New Amsterdam, near the 
place where the country people landed their country boats. We 
shall mention a few of the lawsuits in which she was the defendant. 
A suit instituted against her on May 24, 1661, by Robert Rol- 
lantsen and Abraham Janzen, carpenters, shows the patriarchal 
character of the Court of New Amsterdam. They claimed that 
they had contracted to build a house for her deceased husband; 
but she had "agreed for it with another." She replied that with 
the death of her husband, the contract is also dead. The Court, 
however, ordered the "defendant to allow the plaintiffs to build 
the house or satisfy them." ^'^- The house, which Anneke Kock 
occupied in her widowhood was "large and fine," situated on the 
corner of Battery place (Valentine's History of the City of New 
York, 98). Her neighbor was one of the notable citizens of that 
period, Martin Cregier.^'^^ 

Four other suits against her show her as the tavern keeper. 

On February 18, 1662, she was asked by the court why she 
charged a certain Abraham Pieters so much for pins. To this she 
replied he had charged her a very high price for hogs. She had 
also charged him nine guilders expenses: "three given to the officer, 
three to the Notary, and three spent on drink." The court decided 
that she had to pay those expenses herself. ^'^^ 

But on September 12, 1662, Geertruyd de Witt brought a suit 
against Anneke Kocks, which was of a more serious nature. In 
the words of the court minutes : 

"Pltf. says, that deft, besides other insulting expressions has 
abused her husband as a cuckold, struck and kicked her in the side 
and bit her in the ear. Deft, denies having struck her first and 
says, that her husband threatened to beat her maid, that they 
mumbled at each other and that she, the pltf., first seized her by 
the cap, tearing the same from her head ; can prove the same by 
Martin Cregier's daughter; whereupon she [Anneke] gave her a 
slap or two. The officer concludes, that the deft, shall be amerced 
in a fine of two hundred guilders, for that the deft, struck and 
kicked the pltf. on her body, being a pregnant woman, going on 
close of her term. Jan de Witt, husband and guardian of the 



572 Ibid., III., pp. 310, 364. 

573 D. T. Valentine, History of the City of New York, p. 

574 The Records of New Amsterdam, IV., p. 34. 



KUYTEE. 237 

pltf., concludes in writing, that deft, shall repair the injuries in- 
flicted on him and his wife, honorably and profitably at the estima- 
tion and taxation of this W. Court ; and pay, in addition on the 
taxation as above, for the suffered pain, smart, loss and surgeon's 
fee. . . ." On October 10, the Court condemned Anneke Kock 
"for having dared to beat Jan de Witt's wife, being pregnant, to 
pull the hair from her head and treat her rudely, in the fine of 
fifty guilders payable to the Deaconry of this City; all with costs 
of suit.5'^5 

On October 29, 1667, she was condemned to pay a fine of 
eighty guilders wampum and charges of a suit brought against her 
for having sold liquor to Indians on a Sunday. 

On August 4, 1668, she was again fined five pounds sterling 
with costs of suit for having sold "Rom (rum) to the Indians, 
contrary to the Law." 

Very likely, Anna Cornelisen, who was deceased in September, 
1658, and whom Kock had sued for breach of marriage contract 
would have been the better wife of the tavern keeper from ancient 
Aalborg. 



JOCHEM PIETERSEN KUYTER. 

Jochem Pietersen Kuyter, one of the most influential colonists 
in New Netherland, arrived at New Amsterdam, in July, 1639. 
He was a native of Dithmarschen (not Darmstad, as some have 
said). He came in a private ship "De Brant von Trogen" (The 
Fire of Troy). Captain David Pietersz De Vries, who was not 
far from New Amsterdam at the time, and who has left us ac- 
counts of several of his voyages, has also given us some informa- 
tion about Kuyter: 

". . . We found two ships had arrived from our Patria, one 
of which was a ship of the company, the Herring, the other was a 
private ship. The Fire of Troy, from Hoorn, laden with cattle on 
account of Jochem Pietersz, who had formerly been a commander 



575 Ibid., IV., pp. 130, 134, 140, 146. 



238 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

in the East Indies, for the King of Denmark. It was to be wished 
that one hundred to three hundred such families with laborers, 
had come, as this would very soon become a good country." 

Where Kuyter got his name, often spelled Cuyter, has 
not been ascertained. Sometimes it occurs as Kayser. Could the 
original have been Keyser or Reyser or Knyter? For twelve years, 
he had been, according to tradition, in the service of the Danish 
East India Colonies. Mr. N. Andersen, of Denmark, who has 
written about Bronck (Personalhistorisk Tidsskrift VI R. Vol. V, 
Part I) leaves it an open question as to what the position which 
Kuyter held, actually was. Kuyter may, h'e says, have been in the 
service of the fleet, or in the service of the East India Company 
as "capitaine d' armes" or as skipper, "capitaine de vaisseau." 

Kuyter was a man of good education, what is evident by his 
dealings with Governor Kieft, whom he gave many a thrust in his 
well-written documents. 

It has been said by historians that Kuyter's friend, Jonas 
Bronck, another Dane, came over in the same vessel with Kuyter: 
1639. I will not dispute this. But I have seen no direct proof 
of the statement. If E. B. O'Callaghan's list is correct in "History 
of New Netherland" II, 531, Bronck got land in New Netherland 
as early as 1637. This early date, however, seems to be a mere 
conjecture. 

Kuyter associated much with Bronck, whose sister he seems i 
to have married. But his name is more intimately connected with 
that of Cornelis Melyn. Both he and Melyn were pleading for 
justice to the Indians, when the government of New Netherland 
was flagrantly disregarding the rights of the Red Man. 

A Mandamus of April 28, 1648, shows that the government j 
had received a communication from Kuyter and Melyn, stating 
with what difficulty they had to wrestle in coming over to New 
Netherland and in their endeavor to colonize parts of it. It says: 

'The States General of the United Netherlands, To the first 
Marshal or Messenger having power to serve when requested, 
Greeting: Make Known, that we, having received the humble 
supplication presented to us by and in behalf of Jochem Pietersz 
Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn, containing that they, petitioners, with 
permission and leave of the Assembly of the XIX of the General 
West India Company, with wife and children and with private 



KUYTEE. 239 

means, besides a large herd of cattle, in the year one thousand six 
hundred and thirty nine, transported themselves from these coun- 
tries to New Netherland, so that they, petitioners, after enormous 
expenses, difficulties and inexpressible labor, got into condition, in 
the year sixteen hundred forty three, their lands, houses and other 
undertakings which in the aforesaid year on account of the war 
(waged by Director Kieft unjustly and contrary to all interna- 
tional law, with the savages or natives of New Netherland) they 
have been obliged to abandon and as a consequence lost all their 
property.''* 

What is set forth in this Mandamus is correct except as to 
the year of Melyn's arrival. He came with his family to New 
Netherland in 1641, not 1639, but he had made an inspection of 
it earlier. 

Cornelis Melyn, formerly a leather dresser at Amsterdam, 
sailed for New Netherland in May 1638, by the ship " het Wapen 
van Noorwegen" (The Arms of Norway), arriving at Amsterdam 
about August 4. Melyn was supercargo. The colony of Rens- 
selaerswyck had a half interest in the ship which on its trip. May — 
August, 1638, was so heavily laden that the sailors protested that 
they would not risk their lives on it. It carried over a number 
of colonists and a large quantity of goods, including eighteen young 
mares, thousands of bricks, ironwork, clothing material, spices, 
cheese, soap, oil and a box filled with earth in which were planted 
young grape vines. ^'^^ 

After arriving in New Netherland and after inspecting the 
new country, Melyn conceived the plan of founding a colony on 
Staten Island. He returned to Holland, and in July, 1640, got a 
deed for all of Staten Island save that which David Pietersz De 
Vries had occupied. In August, in the same year, he set sail for 
New Netherland with his people, cattle, goods and all other im- 
plements necessary for agriculture, but he was taken by a Dunkirk 
\ frigate. He got assistance, however, and arrived, 1641, with the 
ship "Den Eyckenboom" (The Oaktree) in New Netherland on 
Staten Island with 41 persons. He began to build houses, to 



* Collections of the New York Historical Society, Second Series, Vol. III., 
p. 88. 

576 Bowier Manuscripts. 

About this ship, see Education Department Bulletin, No. 462. Not all the 
ships were so aptly named as The Arms of Norway. One entering the port of Nexr 
York was called "King David," another "King Solomon," a third "Adam and 
Eve," etc. 



240 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

plough land, and to do everything conducive to establishing a good 
colony. 

The Indians were restless. One of them, of the Weckqua- 
skeek tribe, murdered a white man. The government promptly 
demanded of the tribe that it surrender the murderer. Governor 
Kieft was looking for an opportunity to exterminate the Indians. 
A savage massacre of them was the result of his plotting with a 
few citizens, for the vast majority of the white population would 
have no war with the Indians. The Indians retaliated. Within 
a short time they reduced some thirty farmhouses on Manhattan 
Island to four or five. Melyns colony was saved for a time, but 
late in 1643 it was attacked. This attack left everything in ruin. 

Kuyter's plantation was devastated by the Indians in the fol- 
lowing year. 

Melyn and Kuyter, having sustained enormous loses, knew 
that the government, with Kieft at the head, was to blame. Its 
shortsighted policy in dealing with the Indians had brought on 
the disaster to the whites. They therefore made their influence 
felt against Kieft, and worked for getting a better government. 

But — to come back to the beginnings of Kuyter's plantation. 
Kuyter settled with his farmers and herdsmen upon a tract of four 
hundred acres of fine farming land, of which he had obtained a 
grant from the West India Company. This tract stretched along 
the Harlem River from about the present One Hundred and 
Twenty-seventh to One Hundred and Fortieth streets, and was 
commonly known, long after his memory had faded away among 
men, as 'Jochem Pieter's Flats'. Kuyter himself called it Zegen- 
daal, or 'Vale of Blessing'."* 

Kuyter spent much of his time at the other end of Manhattan. 
But he was interested in the growth of the village. In 1642, he 
was chosen 'kerkemester,' to oversee the erection of the new church 
in the fort. His insight into architecture and command of people 
and building material was, no doubt, better than his command of 
Reformed theology. He had evidently been a Lutheran when in 
Dithmarschen, and the assertion of the pastor in New Amsterdam, 
that Kuyter was a "good Calvinist" was possibly made to ward off 



* Cfr. J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 108f. 



KUYTEE. 241 

current ideas to the contrary. Kuyter was also Elder of the 
church. 

None of the other Danes in New Amsterdam obtained the 
social prestige of Kuyter. He was a member of the Board of 
Twelve Men from August 29, 1641, to February 18, 1642 ; of the 
Board of Eight Men which board existed from September, 1643, 
to September, 1647. After a journey to Holland he was made a 
member of the Board of Nine Men, which existed from September 
25, 1647, until the city was incorporated, in 1653, when he was 
made Schout or Sheriff. 

Kuyter's plantations were yielding good returns of tobacco. 
But they were exposed and unprotected, and could be ruined by 
the Indians speedily and without opposition. Like most of the 
Twelve Men, Kuyter was opposed to using violent measures 
against the Indians. He foretold Director Kieft the quick retribu- 
tion which would ensue for their massacre. 

His own bowery house was well palisaded. It therefore 
escaped the first devastation of the Indians, but on March 5, 1644, 
his buildings were set on fire in the night and destroyed by the 
savages. Kuyter himself was absent. The house was guarded, 
but little resistance was offered. Among the guards was Pieter 
Jansen, a Norwegian. (See article Pieter Jansen. Part I.) 

One of Kuyter's concerns was, as has been indicated, to get 
a better government, and a better Director. 

Director Kieft, in order to increase the finances of the West 
India Company, imposed an excise upon the wines and spirits at 
the rate of four stivers per quart, likewise upon every beaver skin 
one guilder. In proclaiming this excise, Kieft acted in opposition 
to the Board of Eight Men. They claimed that imposing taxes 
was an act af sovereignty which the West India Company did not 
possess, and that the hiring and keeping of soldiers was the busi- 
ness of the company and not of the settlers. Kieft showed himself 
rude in dealing with the Board of Eight Men. Once he snubbed 
the board by summoning three of its members — Kuyter, Melyn 
and Hall — to come a certain day at eight o'clock in the morning. 
They came and waited till past noon. Kieft had gone off some- 
where on other business, and the three finally went off "as wise as 
they came." 



242 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Another error of Kieft's was that once when the brewers re- 
fused to pay the taxes, he caused sundry casks of hquor to be con 
fiscated and handed over to thirsty soldiers! 

After six months of wrangHng, the Eight Men sent their 
eloquent "Memorial" to the States General, in which they described 
the condition of the country and registered their gravamina. The 
petition asked for a new governor and for some limitation of his 
power by representatives of the people. 

Meantime Kuyter had been forced, on account of the burning 
of his bowery house, to move to New Amsterdam. He purchased 
a small house at the corner of Pearl and Broad Streets. His for- 
mer neighbor, Cornelis Melyn, proved a faithful ally to him. 
But like Kuyter he was a thorn in the flesh of Director Kieft. 

Kieft was now replaced by Peter Stuyvesant, who had been 
governor of the island of Curacao. Stuyvesant had lost a leg in a 
fight with the Portuguese at San Marin, had returned to Holland 
in 1644, and was appointed as Director General of New Nether- 
land in May, 1645, but did not arrive before in May, 1647. 

When Kieft surrendered the government, he asked the people 
to give his administration their formal endorsement. They refused. 
Kuyter and Melyn declared they had nothing to thank him for. 
Within a few days after Kieft had delivered up his office, Melyn 
and Kuyter, as representatives of the old Board of Eight Men, 
brought a formal complaint against Kieft and asked for an in- 
quiry in the abuses of his late government and respecting his 
treatment of the Indians. 

Stuyvesant was averse to entertain the complaint. He saw 
that it would form a precedent in case his own administration 
proved inefficient. His dignity was ruffled : the sacredness of the 
Directorship must be sustained. 

Kieft was enraged and accused Kuyter and Melyn of being 
the real authors of a "Memorial of the Eight Men" sent to the 
States General. He said the memorial was a false libel, which 
Kuyter and Melyn had sent to Holland without the knowledge of 
their colleagues. 

They were accordingly summoned to show cause why they 
should not be banished as "pestilent and seditious persons." They 
appeared and answered so well for their acts that Kieft had to 



KUYTER. 243 

take up a new line of proceeding. They offered to bring forward 
the four survivors of the Eight Men to testify that these had signed 
the charges against Kieft of their own will and not through the 
influence of the persons accused. 

John Fisk says: "Indictments were brought against Kuyter 
and Melyn, on sundry trumped-up charges, chiefly alleging treach- 
erous dealings with the Indians, and attempts to stir up rebellion. 
With shameless disregard of evidence, a prearranged verdict of 
guilty was rendered." Melyn was sentenced to seven years' ban- 
ishment and a fine of 300 guilders. Kuyter to three years' ban- 
ishment and a fine of 150 guilders. They were sentenced on July 
25, 1647. 

On August 17, in the same year, Kieft set sail for Holland. 
He took with him Melyn and Kuyter as prisoners. In the same 
ship was Domine Bogardus, who had his share of trouble with 
Kieft and was to answer charges in Holland. By some error of 
reckoning, the ship struck on the rocks near Swansea. Eighty-one 
persons, including Ex-Governor Kieft and Reverend Bogardus, 
were drowned. Twenty reached the shore in safety. Among 
these were Kuyter and Melyn. Kuyter told how he had lashed 
himself to a portion of the after deck of the vessel and how when 
the first dim light broke after the night of horror, he had discov- 
ered himself to be alone upon the floating fragment, except for 
what he took to be another person likewise lashed fast. Speaking 
and receiving no answer, he concluded that the man was dead ; it 
turned out to be a cannon, which with the wreck and Kuyter was 
thrown by the violent storm upon the beach.* 

Kuyter and Melyn had the shallow waters dragged, for three 
days, until they brought up a chest containing their most impor- 
tant papers. 

Kuyter and Melyn reached Netherlands at the end of the 
year 1647 and laid their case before the States General. This body 
was favorably disposed to them. An appeal was granted from the 
verdict pronounced upon them by Governor Stuyvesant and his 
Council. Stuyvesant was summoned to appear before them to 
justify his acts. 

It was arranged that Melyn should go back to New Nether- 



* J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 114f. 



244 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

land and have the papers served on Stuyvesant. Kuyter should, 
however, remain in the Netherlands, to be in readiness if Stuyve- 
sant acted treacherously or arbitrarily. 

Melyn arrived in Nev^ Netherland in March, 1649, Kuyter 
followed later. 

There is on record a letter from the Prince of Orange to 
Director Stuyvesant, informing him that Melyn and Kuyter had 
received permission to return to New Netherland, and ordering 
the Director not to molest them. It reads thus: 



"The Prince of Orange 

"Honorable, Prudent, Discreet, Dear Sir: 

"You will receive by the bearers here of Jochem Pietersen 
Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn, the commands, which their High: 
Might : the States General have concluded to issue to you, direct- 
ing you to allow these men to enjoy their property there free and 
unmolested by virtue of the provisional appeal, granted to them 
by their High : Might : with the clause suspending the sentence 
passed over them by you on the 25th of July 1647. 

"Although I do not doubt, that you will obey and respect 
these orders, yet I desire hereby to admonish you earnestly and 
advise you expressly, that you allow these men to enjoy quietly 
and without contradiction the result of the resolution passed by 
their High: Might: 

"Herewith, etc., 
"At the Cravens' Hague, 

"May 19th, 1648. Your very good friend 

"W. d'Orange. 
"To the Honorable 
Prudent, Discreet, Our 
Dear and Special Friend 
Petrus Stuyvesant 

"Director of Netherland."^^'^ 

Kuyter made his peace with Stuyvesant, whom with two 
others he admitted in 1651 into joint ownership with himself in 
his plantation on the Harlem flats, where he was now actively en- 



577 New York Colonial Docmnents, XIV., p. 87. 




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AA. Houses on the Marckveldt. BB. Houses on Marckveldt Steegh and Bever 
Graft. C. Rear of the "Five Houses." D. Brewery of West India Co. E. Old 
Chureli. F. Old Parsonage, where Anneke Jans, from Norway, lived. G. Hend. 
Hendricksen Kip. H. Anthony Jansen van Vees. I. Hendr. Jansen Sniit. J. Hendr. 
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hoven. Q. Adriaen Vincent. 



LAEASON. 245 

gaged in restoring his impaired fortunes. But in 1654 he was 
murdered by the Indians at Harlem. 

Kuyter was married to Lentie Martens, who possibly was a 
sister of his friend, Jonas Bronck. As Bronck's full name appears 
to have been Johannes or Jonas Martensen Bronck, his father's 
name was Marten or Morten ; hence the daughter's surname would 
be Martens. 

On April 24, 1654, "Leyntie Martens, widow of Jochem Pr. 
Kuyter, late elder and schepen of New Amsterdam, confers powers 
of attorney upon Govert Loockermans, merchant, and Dirck Van 
Schelluyne, notary public, especially for the purpose of represent- 
ing her in settling affairs regarding lands named Segendael with 
.... Stuyvesant . . . ., Roodenborch, Cornells Potter, as per con- 
tract dated Sept. 23, 1651. Witness Arent Van Hattem, Burgo- 
master, and Paulus Leendersz Van die Grift, schepen."* 

Lentie Martens did not long remain a widow. On December 
18, 1654, she was married to Willem Jansen, from Gelderland, the 
superintendent of the Harlem plantation. But during the outbreak 
in the fall of 1655, she too was killed by the Indians. She was a 
member of the Dutch Reformed Church. 

Kuyter left no children. 

J. Riker, the historian of Harlem, says about Kuyter: 
"By his bold defense of popular rights he conferred invalu- 
able benefits upon his fellow colonists and those succeeding him, 
and which entitles him to a place on the roll of public benefactors. 
Kuyter should have a memorial in Central Park" in New York 
City. 



JOHN LARASON (LARSEN). 

John Larason (Larsen), was a "Danish nobleman, compelled 
to flee and lose his estates by confiscation on account of a con- 
spiracy, in 1660, because of taxes. He fled to Scotland, and, hear- 
ing that a price was set on his head, came to America, and pur- 
chased a large tract, about 1,700 acres, near Brooklyn, L. I." 



Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 178. 



246 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

John Larason is on the rate list of Newton, L. I., 1683. He 
probably married, (1) May 22, 1683, Jemima Halsey; (2) Decem- 
ber 22, 1686, the widow Mary Howell. He died at Chester (?), 
N. J., at an advanced age. He probably had a son. 

"Larason" may be a corruption of "Lauridsen," or an as- 
sumed name. "Larasen" often occurs in older Norwegian records. 

Catharine Larason, who was married in 1779; Anne Larason, 
married in 1768; David Larason, married in September, 1780; 
James Larason, married in 1783 (see New Jersey Archives, First 
Series, XXH., pp. 236, 247), may be descendants of John Larason. 




RIBE, ABOUT THE CLOSE OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 
From Braunius: Theatnim urbium. 

I must add that this information is given mainly on the author- 
ity of Theodore Freylinghuysen Chambers. The flight of Lara- 
son, as well as the price on his head, would perhaps throw some 
interesting light on the so-called Revolution in Denmark in 1660, 
when the nobility lost their power and the king was made an abso- 
lute monarch. The flight, if at all historic, must have been due 
to something else than a "conspiracy" connected with the change 
in the government of Denmark in 1660.^"^ 



JAN LAURENS. 

Jan Laurens, from Ribe, in Denmark, is on the list of sol- 
diers who were to sail to New Amsterdam, April 15, 1660, on the 



578 Theodore F. Chambers, The Early Germans of New Jersey, their History, 
Churches, and Genealogies, 1895, Dover. New Jersey, p. 437. 



LAUEENSZEN. 247 

ship "de Bonte Koe." In a footnote the list says: Presumably 
some of these soldiers will be found missing. Whether Jan Lau- 
rens was among the missing, cannot be ascertained, as the sources 
reveal nothing more about him.^'^^ 



SEVERYN LAURENSZEN. 

Severyn Laurenszen, from Roskilde, in Denmark, was in New 
Amsterdam as early as 1656. On May 25, in that year, he married 
Tryntie Reynderts, of Hengel, widow of Arent Theuniszen.^^o 

We meet him first as a soldier, then as a tavern keeper, finally 
as a farmer and public official. 

On April 12, 1658, he was sentenced for theft. The sentence, 
as entered in the Records, reads: "Severyn Lourens, Lance Cor- 
poral, for theft to be stripped of his arms and publicly flogged and 
branded."58i 

He was committed to jail, but broke jail before the sentence 
of April 12 was executed. On May 28, 1658, he was pardoned 
and permitted to live on Long Island.^^^ He returned to New 
Amsterdam and became a tavern keeper, in partnership with Jan 
Jansen Romeyn. On May 11, 1662, both he and Jansen were 
prosecuted for selling liquor during divine service. ^^^ On July 3, 
1664, he was sentenced in court for "permitting persons to play 
nine pins on his premises on Sunday. "^^^ 

On August 10, 1661, Laurenszen stood sponsor at the baptism 
of Adrian, a son of his partner, Jan Jansen, and wife, Marretje 
Adrians (Jeurians), from Copenhagen. (See article Marritje 
Jeurians. Part IL) 

In November, 1661, Captain Post sued Laurenszen for "forty- 
one guilders, five stivers according to account." But Laurenszen's 
wife came forward and produced an offset account and "besides 

579 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902. 

580 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 84. 

581 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 194. 

582 Ibid., I., p. 196. 

583 Ibid., I., p. 237. 

584 Ibid., I., p. 248. 



248 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

this, some claim." The Burgomasters and Schepens referred the 
matter in question to Thomas Hall and Frerick Lubbersen to hear 
the parties, "to examine and decide their affairs, and if possible, 
reconcile them; if not, to report their decision to the Court."^8o 

Under date of April 25, 1662, the court calendar stated that 
"Severyn Lauwersen and Jan Janszen van de Lange Straat" had 
a suit against Daniel Vervelen, and that both parties were in de- 
fault. The suit seems to have been about a debt.^^^ 

On May 2, 1662, Johannes de Witt brought suit against 
"Severyn Lauwerens and Jan Janszen van de Lange Straat." He 
demanded of them two hundred guilders. They acknowledged 
the debt, but said that for the sum of one hundred guilders they 
gave an assignment to de Witt on Daniel Vervelen. De Witt, 
they claimed, was content with this. De Witt replied, he was sat- 
isfied only "if Vervelen paid it." The Court having heard the 
parties, ordered Laurenszen and Janszen to pay the two hundred 
guilders. ^^'^ 

On May 6, 1664, Laurenszen with five others appeared before 
the Director-General and stated that "the General has enclosed the 
Highway heretofore made use of and made another road, which 
is not passable in winter." The result of this visit was a promise 
of the General that he would "attend to it."^^^ 

The next notice of Laurenszen in the court records is under 
date of July 4, 1665: "Mr. Harmen Wessels entering requests, 
that the attachment issued by him on Jan Damen's goods in the 
hands of Severyn Laurensen, may be declared valid. Fiat quod 
Petitur."589 

On October 3, 1665, the Court in New Amsterdam took notice 
of Laurenszen by deciding the following: 

"Whereas, complaint has been made to us on the part of 
Wolphert Webber, that he has suffered much damage in his garden 
through the cattle of Severyn Laurenszen, with requests that some 



585 The Records of New Amsterdam, III., p. 411. 

586 Ibid., IV., p. 67. 

587 Ibid., IV., p. 72. 

588 Ibid., v., p. 52. 

589 Ibid., v., p. 271. 



MARTENSEN. 249 

persons may be appointed to inspect the same and estimate the 
damage, therefore the Major and Aldermen of the City of New 
York this day appoint and authorize Mr. Thomas Hal, Dirck 
Siecken, and Arien Cornelissen to inspect the aforesaid garden, 
to estimate the pretended damage and to determine how the same 
occurred, whether by imperfect fencing or otherwise, and if pos- 
sible to reconcile parties ; if not, to report their finding to the W. 
Court."-'^9o 

In 1662, "Severyn Lourens, of Roodschildt in Denmark" and 
his wife made their joint will. "Her children were Reiner, Mary, 
and Hendrick Arents (Van Engelen)."^*^! 

On August 5, 1671, Severyn Laurenszen being a widower, 
married a second time. His second wife was Grietje Hendricks, 
widow of Focke Janszen, "both residing at the bowery. "^^- 

In 1672, the Court of New Amsterdam elected Severyn as 
overseer of fences and highways. ^^^ 



HENDRICK MARTENSEN. 

Hendrick Martensen (Hendrick Martensen Wiltsee), from 
Copenhagen, was in New Netherland before 1660. On January 
10, 1660, he married in New Amsterdam, Margaret Meyers (Mey- 
ring, Meyrinck), widow of Herman Jansen and daughter of Jan 
Meyrinck. 

Previous to this, he may have been for some time at Esopus, 
as he, on August 21, 1659, deeded property at Esopus to Lukas 
Dircksen.^^^ 

Shortly after his marriage he brought action, at New Amster- 
dam, against Herman van Borssum, demanding remuneration for 
damage to a canoe, which van Borssum committed by sailing against 



590 Ibid., v., p. 295. 

591 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 142. New York 
Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 74. 

592 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653 1674, VI., p. 335. 

593 Ibid., VI., p. 374. 

594 Munsell, Collections on the History of . . . Albany, VI., p. 154. 



250 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

it with his boat. At the first hearing van Borssum denied that he 
had done any damage. At the second hearing, the wife of Mar- 
tensen appeared against him, declaring that he had stated that he 
would let the canoe be repaired. Van Borssum admitted this, and 
said he had stated this to prevent trouble. The court informed 
him that it was better to let the canoe be repaired than to proceed 
further, which would be more expensive. Van Borssum then I 
promised he would repair the damages. The court informed Mrs. 
Martensen of this and ''ordered her to be satisfied therewith to | 
prevent further costs."^^^ ! 

At the close of the year Martensen was at Esopus, or Kings- jji 
ton, where his daughter Sophia was baptized, December 11, 
1660.5'J6 On May 2, 1661, he "drew a lot at Esopus: lot No. 2, 
and was allotted same."^^'^ 

He was at this time a soldier at the garrison on the Esopus. ^^^ 
In the summer of 1663 he was in the Esopus war. He was cap- 
tured by the savages and reported killed,^''^ but this proved to be a 
mistake, and he soon obtained his liberty. 

On April 28, 1667, he signed, with other burghers of W'ilt- 
wyck, a document, stating that they had been in arms in the Brod- 
head mutiny, when Captain Brodhead had threatened to burn the 
village.600 

In 1673 Martensen petitioned the court of New Amsterdam to 
render judgment in a matter, not known to us, regarding Staten 
Island. This court, however, referred him "to the Court at Staten 
Island to demand justice there from them, or otherwise to act as 
he thinks proper; as this Court has no connection with that of 
Staten Island."6oi 

In early records, Martensen was sometimes called Wiltsee. 
He is the ancestor of many families bearing this name, commonly 
written Wiltsie. He had >i^ sons : Martin, who was baptized in 
Wiltwyck, April 3, 1667; Hendrick, baptized in New Amsterdam, 



11»- 



595 The Records of New Amsterdam, III., pp. 147, 153. 

596 R. R. Hoes, Baptismal and Marriage Register ... of the old Dutch 
Church of Kingston. 

597 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 195. 

598 Ibid., XIII., p. 202. 

599 Ibid., XIII., p. 245. 

600 Ibid., XIII., p. 414. 

601 The Records of New Amsterdam, VII., p. 20. 












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Orig-innl View by ^ohan aM4::g„Djj 
From J. A. Frideija'l |, .;,jj^j 



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k, ei'-aved by Johan Diricksen. 
RigeaSistorie. 1588-1699. 
CopQiagen. 



NISSEN. 251 

November 24, 1669; Meyndert, February 11, 1672; Teunis, Jan- 
uary 10, 1674; Jacob, March 18, 1676. They all married and had 
families. Their posterity is now numerous, particularly in West- 
chester and Dutchess Counties.^*^^ 

Of his daughters, Sophia was baptized in 1660 (see above) ; 
Jannetje was baptized January 7, 1663. One of the sponsors at 
this baptism was Marten Hoffman, a Swedish Lutheran. Barbar(a) 
was baptized March 1, 1665.^*^^ 



PIETER MARTENSEN. 

Pieter Martensen, from Dithmarschen, arrived at New Am- 
sterdam in 1663, on board the ship "de Rooseboom," which sailed 
March 15, 1663. He was accompanied by his child, seven years 
old.604 

In 1701 he seems to have resided in Albany.^os 



CHRISTIAN NISSEN. 

Christian Nissen, Christian Nissen Romp, from Holstein, was 
in New Amsterdam as early as 1657. On February 4, in that 
year, he married Styntie Pieters, of Copenhagen. 6*^^ He was a 
Lutheran by creed : he signed the petition of the Lutherans in New 
Amsterdam, October 10, 1657, requesting that the government 
might permit the Lutheran pastor Johannes Goetwater to remain 
in New Netherland instead of being deported.^*''^ 

We find Nissen as sponsor at the baptism of several children 
in New Amsterdam. On January 27, 1657, he was sponsor for 
a child of Carl Margen and Cathalyntie Hendricks ; November 6, 
for a child belonging to Gustavus Daniels and Annetje Loons; 



602 Riker, Annals of Newtown, p. 372. 

603 See Reference 596. 

604 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 23. 

605 New York Colonial Documents, IV., p. 939. 

606 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 85. 

607 See note 42. 



252 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

November 24, for a child belonging to a Dane, Christian Pieter- 
sen ; April 4, 1659, for a child of Mathys Boone. ^^^^ On December 
11, 1660, he was sponsor in Kingston, at the baptism of Sophia, 
the daughter of the Dane Hendrick Martensen.^o^ 

Christian and his wife had boarders for some time during 
their residence at New Amsterdam. For on February 11, 1658, 
Nicolas Velthuysen was ordered by the court to pay Nissen for 
"board, drink, attendance and washing for Jan van Deventer's 
account 8 gl. per week, amounting for six weeks to fl. 48."* 

On June 27, 1659, Nissen conveyed a lot in New Amsterdam 
to Gerrit Hendricksen. The lot was "situate in the Marckvelt 
Steegh ; bounded west by the house and lot of Frerick Aarsen; 
on the north, by the lane aforesaid ; on the east, the house and lot of 
Nicolaas Boot ; on the south, by house and lot of Teunis Tomassen 
Van Naarden. In breadth and length, according to deed of Oc- 
tober 25, 1658. "t Not much later Nissen moved to Esopus. On 
March 28, 1660, he went as sergeant, with a company of seventy- 
seven men, to "Manathes."^^*' 

In 1661 he commanded the garrison at Wiltwyck ( Kings- 
ton). <^ii New York Colonial Documents (II, pp. 453, 455, 463) 
give data as to how much powder his garrison at various intervals 
possessed. The same work contains several communications from 
Nissen, addressed to Director Stuyvesant.^^^ 

Nissen was a faithful commander, and was held in esteem by 
the government, as is seen by the following letter of his to the 
Director and Council and by the action taken upon it. 

Nissen's letter, written in June, 1662, reads as follows: 
"To the Noble, Worshipful Director-General and the Honor- 
able Council of New Netherland. Shows with all due reverence 
Christian Nissen, chief sergeant in the service of your Hon. Wor- 
ship that I have had charge in this quality for some time of the 



608 Clollections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II. 

609 R. R. Hoes, Baptismal and Marriage Registers of the . . . Church of 
Kingston. 

* The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674. II., p. 329. 

610 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 153. 

t Valentine, Manual of the . . . City of New York, 1865, p. 660. 

611 Year Book og the Holland Society, 1897, p. 125. 

612 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., pp. 191, 323, 367f. 



NISSEN. 253 

garrison at the Esopus and find that my pay is not sufficient for 
my subsistence, to attend duly to my position and therefore I re- 
quest that your Hon. Worships will please, to consider, that I need 
a little higher pay, and I do not doubt that after your Hon. Wor- 
ships have taken it into consideration, they will favor me with 
higher pay. Which doing I remain Your Hon. Worships' servant 
Christian Niessen." 

The Director and Council acted favorably on the request : 
"The Director-General and Council considered the expenses 
which the petitioner must now and then necessarily incur in the 
discharge of his duties, and as the same have been attended to with 
great diligence and vigilance since his appointment, it is decided. 
That the petitioner shall henceforth receive twenty guilders 
monthly pay. Date as above [29. June, 1662]. ^^^ 

On August 19, 1663, Ensign Nissen was sent out with fifty- 
five men to certain corn plantations to look for savages who had 
been committing ravage and murder. Two months before this, 
he had evinced great courage in the war against the Indians. Of 
his forty-two men, one was killed, sixteen wounded. 

Notwithstanding, Nissen, as little as any one else, could escape 
the censure of Director Stuyvesant, who sent him a reprimand 
at the close of the year, censuring him for disobedience of orders. 
It reads : 

"Honorable, Valiant Sir : We are very much surprised by 
your improper disobedience in not carrying out our so plainly ex- 
pressed orders and directions to send back the saddles, the surplus 
hand and side arms, not in use, the three bronce pieces and the 
old rope. Although we cannot, on account of the unfavorable 
season, correct at present your disobedience and disregard, as it 
ought to be done, yet we warn you not to disobey henceforth any 
of our orders upon so unfounded presumptions and made up pre- 
texts, but to execute and obey them, as it is proper, else we shall 
be obliged to proceed with cashiering or otherwise according to 
circumstances. Meanwhile we command you herewith to send 
down the required things promptly, if the state of the weather 
permit, which is left to the judgment of the bearer. Closing here- 



613 Ibid., XIII., p. 223. 



254 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

with etc. Actum Fort Amsterdam December 19, 1663. To En- 
sign Christian Nissen.''^^* 

Evidently Nissen acted in good faith and knew better than the 
Director what was needed at Esopus. He retained the confidence 
of Stuyvesant, however, and sent him a letter dated April 21, 1664, 
in regard to an Englishman who said that the English would pos- 
sess New Netherland in six or eight weeks. ^^^ 

The Englishman was not mistaken, for in September, 1664, 
New Netherland became the possession of England. 



CLAES PETERSEN. 

Claes Petersen came to New Amsterdam in 1660. He was a 
soldier, "Adelborst"* from Dithmarschen, who left Holland by the 
ship "de Bonte Koe," which sailed April 15, 1660. In the list of 
passengers kept by the ship, it is stated that he assigned two months' 
wages per year to Marritie Hendrixen, his betrothed. 

He seems to have been in Esopus in 1663.^^^ 



614 Ibid., XIII., p. 320. 

615 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 306. 

* An Adelborst, as Dr. L. Daae says, was a soldier of the navy, who drew 
greater wages than the common file, received better treatment, and had better 
prospects of advancement. Hence many young men of education and good family 
often started on their career as Adelborsts. In the Introduction (in this volume) 
we have referred to the fact that the Dutch fleet had many Scandinavians in its 
service. In 1665 the Norwegian hero. Curt Sivertsen Adelaer, was asked to accept 
the position of vice-admiral in the Dutch fleet. (Danske Samlinger, 2. Ra?kke. 5. 
p. 18.) 

In 1672 Holland had a navy of 135 vessels manned by 20,738 men. The 
navy and mercantile fleet must have had altogether 40-50,000 sailors. Naturally a 
little country like Holland had to employ a great number of foreign sailors, many 
of whom were Danes and Norwegians. 

Says the English writer Molesworth, in "An Account of Denmark in 1692": 
"The best seamen belonging to the King of Denmark are the Norwegians; but most 
of these are in the service of the Dutch, and have their families established m 
Holland." 

Another English writer, criticising Molesworth's account, admits: "The 
Danes and Norse are very good seamen, the Dutch are mighty desirous of them, 
and consequently have several of them in their service; yet not so but tliiit tliey 
would return upon occasion; and indeed all the seamen are so ready to be employed 
in the King's service, that there is no need of pressing to man the fleet." See 
"Animadversions on a pretended Account of Denmark." 

616 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. ^4; 1897, p. 127. 



PIETEES. 255 

ANNEKE PIETERS. 

Anneke Pieters, from Holstein, widow of Jacques Kinnekom, 
was married November 22, 1652, in New Amsterdam, to Barent 
Jansen Bal, from Velthusysen in Benthem. Barent Bal's name is 
met with as early as 1640, when he was sponsor at a baptism. 

On August 31, 1651, Remmert Jansen gave Barnt Jansen Bal 
and Hendrick Jansen lease of a bowery on the south side of Hans 
Hansen's brewery, called in Indian Rinnegackonck. See Calendar 
of Manuscripts, I., p. 55. 



ELSJE PIETERS. 

Elsje Pieters, from Holstein, is registered in the Church Record 
of the Dutch Reformed Church in New Netherland as Elpken 
Neven van Eckelvaer in Holstein. The transcriber, no doubt, had 
difficulty in reading the original. Elpken is a corruption for 
Elsje, Aeltie, or Heyltie. "Neven" represents an obstinate at- 
tempt to decipher Pieters or Peters. Eckelvaer is another cor- 
ruption. Can it mean Eckernforde? "Elpken Nevens van Eckel- 
vaer" was married, September 14, 1652, in New Amsterdam, to 
Albert Jansen. He was widower of Hilletje Willems. "Elpken" 
was widow of David Clement. At the baptism of a child of 
Jochem . Kalder, February 9, 1653, Albert and his wife were 
sponsors. Her name is given in the records under that date as 
Heyltie Pieters.^^'^ Elsje is the name she is generally mentioned 
by in the Church Record. 

Albert was a carpenter from Amsterdam. He was in New 
Netherland as early as 1642. On August 7, 1644, he is credited 
with 191/^ day's wages at sixteen stivers a day for work done at 
the house of Domine Megapolensis in Albany.^is 

In 1643 he signed the resolution of the commonalty of the 



617 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., n. 81. Ibid., V., 
p. 148. 

618 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 830. 



256 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Manhattans; in 1654 he acted as sponsor at a baptism in New 
Amsterdam. 61^ 

He worked in 1653 for Harmen Smeeman, a Dane.^^*^ 

He had property in New Amsterdam, in 1655, when he was 
taxed for fifteen florins.^-^ On February 28, 1658, he requested 
of the Court that, as he was about to build a small house and his 
lot was too little, an adjoining lot be granted him. The Court 
granted him a lot next to that of Jannetje Bones, on condition of 
paying what it was valued at.^-- 

lie was doing carpenter work for a Mr. Stickely in 1658. He 
seems also to have been tanning hides for upholstery. In June 
Stickely brought suit against Albert for three hides. Albert an- 
swered that he had made for Stickely two pillows and a bedstead, 
for which he was to have 500 pounds of tobacco. The Court set- 
tled the dispute by ordering that Albert should pay Stickely what 
the hides weighed, in hides or beavers, on the condition that 
Stickely should give security to pay what he owed Albert.^-^ 

Albert and Aeltie had several children. 

Albert Jansen was dead February 26, 1659, when guardians 
were appointed for his widow and the five surviving children, of 
whom four were girls, and one a boy. The eldest child, Catryn, 
was born about 1651, perhaps her father was Aeltie's first husband. 
Gritie was baptized July 13, 1653; Elsje, July 8, 1654; Marritje, 
September 17, 1656; Jan, March 31, 1658.62-1 

The fact that Jochem Kalder, his wife Magdalene Waele, and 
Annetje Jans were sponsors at the baptism of Albert and Aeltie's 
daughter, 1654, and that Albert and Aeltie (Heyltie Pieters) were 
present at the baptism of the daughters of Jochem Kalder, Feb- 
ruary 9, 1653, and September 17, 1656, shows that the two fami- 
lies were related, or had other ties in common, based on sympathy, 
nationality, or religion.^^s 



619 New York Colonial Documents, I., p. 193. 

620 The Records of New Amsterdam, I., p. 58. 

621 Ibid., I., p. 371. 

622 Ibid., II., p. 343. 

623 Ibid., II., p. 406. 

624 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 116. Albert's 
wife is here called Aeltie. 

625 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, H-, 
pp. 33, 37, 43. 



PIETEES. 257 

MARRITJE PIETERS. 

Marritje Pieters was from Copenhagen. She was married, 
1639, in New Amsterdam, to Jan Jacobsen of "Vrelandt," a 
brother of CorneHus Jacobsen van Vrelandt, alias Cornelius Jacob- 
sen Stille. She seems to have been a relative of the famous Jonas 
Bronck or his wife. 

The marriage contract between this Danish lady and her hus- 
band is the earliest recorded instance of a marriage contract in New 
Netherland. It is found in the New York Colonial Manuscripts, 
vol. I., page 163, and in New Jersey Archives, First Series, vol. 
xxii., page 20. The translation is by Mr. George R. Howell, at 
one time Archivist of New York. The contract bears the date of 
August 15, 1639, and reads thus: 

"In the name of God, amen. Be it known unto all men that 
on the 15th of August in the year 1639, before me Cornelius van 
Tienhoven, Secretary residing in New Netherland on the behalf of 
the Incorporated West India Company, and the undersigned wit- 
nesses, appeared the worthy Jan Jacobsen fram Vrelant, future 
bridegroom, assisted by Marritje Peters from Copenhagen, his 
future bride, on the other part, and they the appearers declared 
that they had mutually resolved, engaged and agreed to enter to- 
gether the holy state of matrimony, and that under the following 
nuptial contract, praying the Almighty God that his divine Majesty 
would be pleased to bless their future marriage and let it redound 
to his honor. 

"First, in regard to the property which he, the bridegroom, 
shall leave behind, in case he come to die, whether movable or im- 
movable, or such as may rightfully belong to him, it shall belong in 
free propriety to Marritje Pieters aforesaid, without any of Jan 
Jacobsen's blood relations having any claim thereto. On the other 
hand, if Marritje Pieters, the future bride, first happens to die, 
Jan Jacobsen shall, in like manner, own all her means and goods, 
whether movable or immovable, in free propriety, without his 
giving any account thereof to any of her blood relations. Provided 
always that he, the bridegroom, or she, the bride, aforesaid, which- 
ever of them both come to live the longest, shall not possess the 
property longer than the day of his or her death, and then be par- 
titioned and divided by the brothers or lawful heirs of him, the 



258 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

bridegroom, and Teuntje Jewriaens of [New] Amsterdam, or 
Jacob Bronc, her present husband, as heirs of Marritje Pieters 
aforesaid, each the just half. 

"Thus done and executed in the presence of the undersigned 
witnesses in Fort Amsterdam, this day and year aforesaid. 

"This is the -|- mark of 

"Jan Jacobsen above named. 

"This is the M mark of 

"Maritje Peters above named. 
"Claes van Elslant, witness. Hermanus A. Booghardij, witness." 

We know but little in regard to Maritje Pieters. It is prob- 
able that she was a guest at the parlor of the City Tavern, in New 
Amsterdam, on the night of March 15, 1644, where besides her 
husband, Dr. Hans Kiersted, Domine Bogardus, Nicholas Coorn, 
Gysbert Opdyck, and others were present with their wives, spend- 
ing, as it seems, an agreeable evening together. But the entire 
gathering was put to flight by the brazen effrontery of Captain 
John Underbill. 



IM 



Signature of Marritje Pieters. 

"About an hour after supper there came in John Onderhil, 
with his lieutenant Baxter, and drummer, to whom . . . Philip 
Gerritsen [the owner of the parlor] said, 'Friends, I have invited 
these persons here, with their wives ; I therefore request that you 
will betake yourselves to another room, where you can be furnished 
with wine for money.' They finally did so, after many words. 
Having been gone a short time, said Onderhil and his company, 
who had then been joined by Thomas Willet, invited some of our 
company, to take a drink with them, which was done. George 
Baxter, by Onderhil's orders, came and requested that Opdyke 
would come and join them, — which he refused. Thereupon he, 
Onderhil and his companions, broke to pieces, with drawn swords, 
the cans which hung on the shelf in the tavern ; endeavoring by 
force, having drawn swords in their hands, to come into the room 
where the invited guests were. This was for a long time resisted 



PIETEES. 259 

by the landlady, with a leaden bolt, and by the landlord, by keeping 
the door shut; but finally John Onderhil and his associated, in 
spite of all opposition, came into the room, where he uttered many 
words. Captain Onderhil, holding his sword in hand, — the blade 
about a foot out of the scabbard, — said to the minister, as reported, 
whilst he grasped his sword : 'Clear out of here, for I shall strike 
at random!' In like manner, some English soldiers came imme- 
diately (as we presume, to his assistance), . . . Onderhil being then 
guilty, with his companions, of gross insolence." 

Several officers and a guard from the fort were sent for. But 
this had no effect on the drunken English visitors. Underhill, 
when threatened that Governor Stuyvesant would be sent for, 
replied : "If the Director come here, t'is well. I had rather speak 
to a wise man than a fool." In order to prevent further mischief, 
the Dutch-Scandinavian crowd broke up. (Kiersted, Bogardus, 
Jacobsen had Scandinavian wives.) 

Interesting as Marritje's marriage contract is, equally interest- 
ing is the Memorandum of the engagement of some farm laborers, 
including her brother-in-law, Cornelis Jacobsen of Mertensdyk, in 
1632 (?) The Memorandum is in the handwriting of Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer : 

[June 15, 1632?] 

The following persons have been engaged as farm laborers 
for the term of four years commencing on their arrival on their 
farm in that country, on condition that they receive for the out- 
going and return voyages a gratuity hereafter specified and on 
pain of all their monthly wages and eft'ects if they leave their service 
[before the end] of their term, or if they obtain any furs of 
beavers, otters or like animals by trade, gift or exchange, which 
they have expressly agreed not to do; and in case they are asked 
by their farmer to do any other work besides farming, such as 
felling of trees or other work which they are able to do, they may 
not refuse it but must diligently and willingly do everything and 
also serve under such farmer as the patroon shall direct. 

Hendrich frerixsen Van bunnick, 26 years old, shall receive 
120 guilders a year and a pair of boots once in four years and as a 
gratuity for the passage 25 guilders. 

Cornelis Jacopsen van Marttensdijck, 23 years old, shall re- 
ceive 110 guilders and as a gratuity for the passage 25 guilders. 



PIETEES. 261 

Cornells thonissen van Meerkerc, 20 years old, shall receive 
Can write a 80 guilders and two pairs of boots, but if he behaves 
little well he shall receive the last year some increase and 

as a gratuity 50 guilders. 

gs Marcus Mensen van Cuijlenburch, 17 years old, shall receive 

40, 50, 60 and 70 guilders during the four years and as gratuity 
18 guilders. 
[Signed] 

the mark of the mark of 

X X 

hendrick frerixsen Cornells Jacopsen 

Cornis Thonis the mark of 

X 
Marcus Mensen 
Gerrit de reus would like to have Hendrick frerixsz, Cornelis 
thonisen and Marcus Mensen. 

Marritje's husband, it appears, was a brother of Secre- 
tary Cornelis Van Tienhoven, whose patronymic appeared in the 
name of Cornelis Jacobsen. Two brothers had the same name, 
according to J. H. Innes, "New Amsterdam and Its People," p. 313. 

On August 15, 1639, Jonas Bronck leased some of his land 
for a period of six years to Marritje's husband and Cornelis Jacob- 
sen Stille, her brother-in-law (not the secretary). 

After the death of Bronck, his widow married Arent van 
Curler who sold the Bronck property to Jacob Jans Stoll, evidently 
a son of Marritje and her husband. The "Bronx" thus remained 
for some time in the hands of a person of Danish blood. 



STYNTIE PIETERS. 

Styntie Pieters, from Copenhagen, was the wife of Ensign 
Christian Nissen, to whom she was married February 4, 1657, in 
New Amsterdam. She and her husband were sponsors for sev- 
eral children in New Amsterdam. About 1660 they removed to 
Esopus, where Nissen was appointed commander of the garrison. 
(See article "Christian Nissen." Part II.) 



262 



DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 



y 



CHRISTIAN PIETERSEN. 



Christian Pietersen, from Husum, was in New Amsterdam 
as early as 1657, when he, on October 28, married Tryntie Corne- 
lis, from Durgerdam in the northern part of Holland.^-^ She was 
the daughter of Adriantje WaHch or WaHngs and Cornelis Jansen 
Shubber. After the death of her father, her mother was married, 
in 1650, to Dirck Theunissen, a Norwegian. (See the article 
Dirck Theunissen. Part I.) 







— ^ — ^ — '--■' 



HUSUM, ABOUT THE CLOSE OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 
From Braunius: Theatrum urbium, iv. 



Christian and Tryntie had several children: Pieter, who was 
baptized, November 24, 1658, the sponsors being the Dane, Chris- 
tian Nissen, and Marritje Cornelis; Marie, baptized, December 22, 
1660; Cornelis, January 8, 1662; Paulus, June 22, 1664; Jacob, 
October 21, 1668. 

Tryntie and her mother joined the Dutch Reformed Church 
between 1649 and 1660. Christian did not join it. 

From the court records we obtain the information that Pie- 
tersen sued Jacob Eldersen, a Dane, August 28, 1658, for work 



626 New York Genealogical and Biographical Report, VI., p. 86. 



PIETEESEN. 263 

done in the latter's brewery. He demanded fl. 12:10 for "three 
days and two nights and one-fourth of a day's work earned in 
Jacob 'Wolfersen's' brewery." After the Court had heard both 
parties, Eldersen was ordered to pay Christian Pietersen (here 
called Barents) the demanded sum. Eldersen was slow in settling 
his accounts, and on September 10, 1658, Pietersen again brought 
the matter before the Court, whereupon the bailiff was instructed 
to collect the money from Eldersen.^27 

On November 22, 1658, Pietersen received the small Burgher 
Right, took the Burgher oath and signed an obligation to pay the 
Treasurer 20 gl. in beavers, within eight days.^^^ 

On August 31, 1660, Pietersen was made defendant in an 
action brought against him by Jan Janzen van Breestede. The 
latter demanded fl. 44 for rent due in May according to a lease 
which he exhibited in court. Pietersen replied that he had rented 
a house with a number of trees standing in the garden. But one 
tree had been taken from the garden, from which "he could have 
made money to the extent of three beavers." The court referred 
the matter to Pieter Cornelissen van der Veen and Isaac Grevenrat 
to decide the question between the parties and if possible reconcile 
them, "if not, to report to the Court." ^^^ 

On October 4, 1661, Gerrit Hendricksen, of Hardewyk, deeded 
to Christian Pietersen "a lot south of the Marckvelt Steegh 
(Marketfield Street) ; bounded east by the house and lot of 
Nicholas Boot; south, by lot of Jacob Teunissen Kay; west, by 
the house and lot of Frerick Aarsen; and north, by the steegh 
aforesaid. On the north and south sides, 20 feet 8 inches; east 
side, 48 feet; west side, 47 feet 6 inches. On the same date 
Pietersen deeded this property to Jacob Leendersen Van der Grist 
(Valentine, Manual of . . . the city of New York, 1865, p. 684 f.). 

On April 25, 1662, Nicolaas Meyer, a well-to-do citizen of 
New Amsterdam, formerly a resident of Hamburg, brought suit 
against Pietersen, demanding of him the balance of a note and 
book debt, amounting to the sum of 104 guilders and four stivers. 

627 The Records of New Amsterdam, II., p. 428; III., p. 7. 

628 Ibid., VII., p. 200. 

629 Ibid., III., p. 196. 



264 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

The defendant said that Meyer must deduct eighteen guilders for 
"a canoe and a half " of hewn stones, which he delivered him. 
Meyer acknowledged that he had received the stones, but said that 
there were but three carts full. The Court ordered Pietersen to 
pay Meyer the 104 guilders. 

The case was again before the court May 23. Meyer ex- 
hibited the judgment which he had obtained against Pietersen and 
requested "fulfillment thereof, whereupon the Court ordered 
Pietersen to satisfy and pay Meyer the judgment ... on pain of 
execution. ""3" 

On June 19, 1663, Isaack Grevenraat appeared in court against 
Pietersen. But the latter was on "public service," as his wife, who 
appeared for him, said. She requested time until the fair. The 
court ordered Pietersen to appear on the next court day. As 
Pietersen did not appear on that day, July 3, Grevenrat demanded 
that the attachment issued against him be declared valid. The 
Court concurred in the demand.^^^ 

The matter remained unsettled as late as February 14, 1665. 
For under this date the court minutes read as follows : " . . . Schout 
Allard Anthony, arrestant and pltf. vs. Christiaen Pietrs, arrested 
and deft. Pltf. says, it appears by Tonneman's book, that the de- 
fendant has violated an attachment prosecuted on the 2d. July 
1663, by Isaack Grevenraat; demanding in consequence from the 
defendant the fine of sixty guilders with costs. Defendant says, 
as it was in the Indian war he was allowed by Burgomasters to 
go home on condition of appearing at the next court day, and in 
the meanwhile two Christians living in the village with him were 
killed by the Indians. Isaack Grevenraat also entering, states that 
the defendant was allowed to go away. The Ofiicer replying says 
the deft, has not fulfilled the promise of his wife to appear on 
the Court day; and therefore the attachment is prosecuted and 
declared valid. Burgomasters and Schepens condemn the deft, to 
pay to the Officer the sixty guilders fine," unless he can prove, 
that he had the Burgomaster's consent to go.^^- 

Pietersen was interested, it would appear, in the welfare and 



630 Ibid., IV., pp. 65, 85. 

631 Ibid., IV., pp. 259, 273. 
682 Ibid., v., p. 18G. 



PIBTERSEN. 265 

protection of wronged youth, though his effort, indicative of this, 
in 1671, was not crowned with success. 

In May 1671 Abel Hardenbrook brought suit against Jan 
Roelofzen, complaining that Roelofzen "kept his runaway boy 
fourteen days." He demanded satisfaction for this. Roelofzen 
denied that he had detained the boy, but said he had given him 
lodgings for about eight days ; after he had understood that the 
boy belonged to Hardenbrook he "brought the same himself to 
him." Christiaen Pietersen and Jochem Beeckman complained that 
Hardenbrook beat and treated the boy in such a way that he could 
not possibly live longer with him. The court thereupon discharged 
Roelofzen from arrest and ordered that the boy should remain 
with his friends until next court day, when the complaint on both 
sides, relative to the boy, should be further heard and decided. ^^•'^ 

On the next court day Pietersen and Beeckman appeared as 
witnesses for the boy, whose name was Hendrick van der Borgh. 
Hardenbrook stated that he had hired the boy for the term of four 
years to learn the shoemaker's handicraft and he had now for 
divers reasons run away. The witnesses testified that Hardenbrook 
did not provide proper board for the boy, abused him, beat him, 
kicked him, so it was impossible for the boy to stay any longer 
with him. The Court after having heard the testimony, ordered 
that the parties on both sides should be released from each other, 
and that the boy should pay Hardenbrook "for board etc. to date 
hereof the sum of one hundred guilders zewant and settle the costs 
incurred herein . . .^^"^ 

In the same year Assur Levy brought suit against Pietersen. 
But it appears that the latter was twice in default. The records do 
not state what the nature of the case was.*'^-^ It was perhaps re- 
garding commercial transactions. We have, it would seem, a 
similar case under an earlier date, to wit : 

On May 24, 1663 "Hendrick Jans Spieringh of "Gemoenepa" 
made a declaration at the request of Jurian Hanel regarding com- 
mercial transactions with Christian Pietersen and a conversation 
regarding the same with Plans Dietrich. Witness Hendrick Lou- 
wersen Van der Spiegel. "^^^ 



633 Ibid., VI.. p. 284f. 

634 Ibid., VI., p. 288. 

635 Ibid., VII., pp. 302, 351. 

636 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York. 1900. p. 156. 



266 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

In 1662 Christian Pietersen seems to have lived for some 
time in Bergen, New Jersey. For in December, that year, he and 
other inhabitants of Bergen and Comunipaw petitioned the govern- 
ment to be excused from fencing in their land, as timber was 
scarce and the fence would therefore be very expensive.*^^^ 

As late as 1675 we find him a settler in Esopus.*^^^ 

We have two petitions from him at about this time, which 
show that he had outstanding accounts and that he again was, 
as his wife had testified in 1663, "on public service." 

In 1674 he petitioned the Commandant and Court of Willem- 
stadt (the new name of Albany) against Collector Kregier what 
Messrs. Lovlace and Lavall owed him. He was referred to the 
"Commissioners thereunto appointed to whom it belongs to examine 
the justice of his claim." He was at the same time ordered to 
pay the excise which he owed.®^^ 

Pietersen was more successful in his next petition, the nature 
of which we ascertain from the following action taken on it: 

"On the petition of Christian Pietersen it is allowed that the 
little freight which will be earned in coming down and going back 
shall not be paid to the public treasury, but to him individually, 
inasmuch as he was pressed by the Commandant and Court of Wil- 
lemstadt to bring down the Committees and French prisoners."** 

Pietersen was listed in 1674 as possessing, in New Amster- 
dam, property, rated as "third class," on the present Stone Street, 
between Whitehall and Broad St. (Year Book of the Holland 
Society of New York, 1896) He died before 1686. 



JAN PIETERSEN. 

Jan Pietersen, a woodsawyer, from Husum, was in New Am- 
sterdam about 1639. Under date of March 3, 1689. we have an 
indenture of Thomas Wesson to serve Jan Pietersen from Husum 

637 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 234. 

638 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York. 1897. p. 127. 

639 New York Colonial Documents, II., p. 687. 

640 Ibid., II.. p. 708. 



PIETEESEN. 267 

for three years. Under the date of June 20, 1640, we find a 
receipt of Jan Pietersen of Husum for three mares and three milk 
cows which he hired from the West India Company.^^i 

It seems that he married twice. The name of his first wife 
was Elsje. By her he had a daughter Neeltjen, who was baptized 
September 9, 1640 ; a son, Jan, baptized June 28, 1643 ; again a 
daughter, Annetje, baptized January 28, 1646. 

After the death of his first wife, it would seem that he, on 
May 15, 1652, married Grietje Jans, of Groeningen.*''*^ By her 
he had a daughter Elsje, who was baptized, July 13, 1653. 

On March 28, 1658, Nicasius de Silla sold to "Jan Pietersen, 
woodsawyer from Holstein a lot in the Sheep Valley, length on the 
east side seven running feet; on north eighty-nine, on west side, on 
the Prince Graght, twenty-nine, and on the south side ninety-four 
running feet." This would be on the east side of the present Broad 
Street, south of Exchange Place, says D. T. Valentine (1861).*'^3 
In 1659 Pietersen bought land of Symon Leen.*^^^ 
On June 1 "Jan Pietersen Van Holstein conveyed to Thomas 
Wandel "a house and lot east of the Prince Graght ; bounded north 
by house and lot of Fiscal De Sille ; east by lot of said De Sille ; 
south, by house and lot of Hermen Van Hoboocken ; west, by the 
said Graght. On the east, 7 feet ; on the north, 89 ; on the west, 
29; on the south, 94." (Valentine, Manual of the . . . City of New 
York 1864, p. 664.) 



H» 



Signature of Jan Pietersen van Holstein, 1659. 

On August 22, 1659, he appeared before the Council stating 
that he had an account against the city for four guilders, "for rid- 
ing timber." He was directed to take a note from the president and 
bring it to the treasurer.^'*^ 

641 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I. The Records of New Amsterdam 
1653-1674, III., p. 38. 

642 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 81. Cfr. dates 
of December 18. 1672, May 16. 1678, February 8, 1680, in the Record of Baptisms 
of the Dutch Reformed Church in New Amsterdam. 

643 D. T. Valentine, Manual of . . . the City of New York, 1861. p. 598. 

644 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1658-1674, III., p. 38. 

645 Ibid., VII., p. 231. 



268 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

In 1661 Arent Cornelis Vogel brought suit against him. But 
as they both had accounts against each other, they requested 
arbitrators. The arbitrators, however, were not able to settle it 
that year, and in 1662 Vogel brought new proceedings against 
Pietersen for four guilders, eight stivers and eight pence — "and 
moreover a seven years cow and its increase." Pietersen's account 
against Vogel amounted to fl. 165,17:8 in beavers. He requested 
that the case might be finally disposed of by arbitrators under 
proper submission. The court appointed arbitrators to decide the 
case, and, if possible, to reconcile the parties. *'^^ 



JAN PIETERSEN. 

Jan Pietersen, from Dithmarschen. was a soldier whose name 
is on the list of passengers that sailed from Holland to New Am- 
sterdam in "de Bonte Koe", April 15, 1660.64' 



MARRITJE PIETERSEN. 

Marritje Pietersen, from Copenhagen, was married on July 
28, 1641, in New Amsterdam, to Albert Pietersen of Hamburg, 
commonly known as Albert the Trumpeter, being a trumpeter in 
the service of the West India Company.^'^s 

On February 22, 1649, he bought, in New Amsterdam, a lot 
of Jan Corn(elis) van Hoorn. It was situate on the West side of 
the Graft between the lot of Frederick Lubbertsen and Conrate 
Ten Eyck : "breadth in front of the road or east 2% rods and 
Yz a foot ; in the rear on the west, 3 rods. Depth on the north, 
7 rods, 2 feet; on the south, 7 rods less 2 feet." Albert built a 
house upon this lot and sold both to Reynhout Rynehoutsen, 
January 19, 1656.«49 



646 Ibid., IV., p. 168f. 

647 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York. 1902, p. 14. 

648 New York Grenealogical and Biographicnl Record, VI., p. 33. 

649 T). T. Valentine, Manual of the . . . City of New York, 1861, p. 582. 



PIETERSEN. 269 

On July 1, 1652, he bought a lot on the north side of Prince 
Street, and about eighty-five feet east of the present Broad Street. 
Here, too, he built a house.**^*^ 

In 1654 he asked for and obtained permission to sell beer and 
wine by small measure. It would appear that he also sold fish 
and perhaps other merchandise, like butter or pork.'^^i 

Marritje was several times in court. On November 9, 1654, 
she sued Maria de Truwe, demanding payment of fl. 3.11 for fish 
sold to her. Maria defended herself by saying that she had "sent 
the money by the servant, and it fell into the ditch." She had 
no more money for the time being, but promised payment at the 
earliest opportunity. Marritje was satisfied with this explanation, 
and the two women left the city hall reconciled. 

Marritje was often obliged to visit the court in order to give 
her testimony m regard to the conduct of visitors who came to her 
husband's place *'for beer and wine by small measure" or for 
merchandise. 

She appeared in court on September 21, 1660, testifying in 
behalf of Jan Rutgersen, who was prosecuted for having struck 
the wife of Frerick Aarsen. The defendant "denied it, bringing 
with him Merritje Pieters, Albert Trumpeter's wife, as witness, 
who declares, that she did not see him strike Frerick Aarsen's wife." 
Grietje Pieters, Aarsen's wife, claimed, however, that Rutgersen 
had struck her, and "if she had not prevented it, he would have 
beaten in her brains." She now related the causes which gave rise 
to it. Marritje's testimony did not save Rutgersen, nor did Grietje 
Pieters, the wife of Aarsen, gain anything by using strong lan- 
guage. Rutgersen was fined six guilders ; Grietje Pieters. three 
guilder* "for her evil speaking."*'^^ 

A week later Marritje appeared in court again, and this time 
her testimony saved her husband from a fine for selling fish on a 
Sunday morning. 

The court records give this information concerning her testi- 
mony : 

"[Tuesday, 28 September] . . . Schout Pieter Tonneman, pltf. 
vs. Albert Trompetter, deft. Pltf. says, that deft, sold fish on Sun- 

650 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 150. 

651 The Records of New Amsterdam, I., pp. 261, 269. 

652 Ibid., III., p. 215. 



270 DANISH IMMIGKANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

day morning, and that Resolveert Waldron has subjected him to 
the fine. Resolveert Waldron appearing in court declares he fined 
him because he sold fish on Sunday morning. Deft.'s wife appears 
in Court, says it occurred before the ringing of the bell." The 
Court dismissed the Officer's suit as the occurence took place be- 
fore the preaching.^^3 

Of other lawsuits which directly concerned Marritje's hus- 
band, we shall mention the following. 

On November 1, 1660, "Johannes Nevius, rising in the court 
room of New Amsterdam prosecuted an arrest made on a tub of 
butter in the possession of Albert Trumpeter belonging to Jan 
Arcet alias Jan Coopal ; having a claim thereon." The court de- 
clared the arrest valid. ®^* 

On September 16, 1664, Albert Trumpeter prosecuted "an 
attachment made on a hog." The Court also declared this attach- 
ment valid. *'^^ 

On September 2o. 1664, Marritje's husband prosecuted Daniel 
Tourner for taking a hog from Barent Island. Tourner, who de- 
clared he "thought it was his own, was ordered by the Court to 
make good the removed hog to Albert Trumpeter."''^^ 

On October 11, 1664, Marritje appeared in court protesting 
against a fine that had been imposed upon her husband. We know 
very little about the particulars. From the minutes we infer that 
Albert had been engaged in a brawl : 

"Schout Pieter Tonneman, pltf. vs. Albert Trumpetter, deft. 
Pltf. demands from deft, pursuant to award of arbitrators, the sum 
of thirty guilders for a fine imposed. Deft.'s wife appearing says, 
she does not know for what the fine is to be given, as her husband 
was struck ; admits to have demanded arbitrators to settle the 
matter in order to prevent further mischief, but is not content with 



653 Ibid., III., p. 218. 

654 Ibid., III., p. 243. 

655 Ibid., v., p. 114. 

656 Ibid., v., p. 117. 



PIETERSEN. 271 

the award. The W. Court decree, as deft, is not content with the 
award of arbitrators, that the Officer shall enter his case anew 
and for this purpose summon the deft, again. "•'^'^ 

Marritje and Albert had a child, Griet, who was baptized on 
May 24, 1649. They lived, in 1674, on the present William Street, 
between Hanover Square and Wall Street, then known as the 
Smith street. In 1679 their house was assessed at 4s. 

In 1673, he sold the lot he had bought in 1652. 

The deed of sale (Collections of the New York Historical 
Society for . . . 1913, v. XLVL, pp. 16f.) reads: 

"Appeared before me Nicholas Bayard, Secretary of the City 
of New Orange the worthy Albert Pietersz Trompetter, burgher 
and inhabitant of this City, who in the presence of the subscribed 
Messrs. Schepens (by virtue of certain deed of Mr. Petrus Stuyve- 
sant, dated July 1, 1652 & confirmation of the same by Col. Richard 
Nicolls under date of Feb. 14, 1667) declared to cede, transfer and 
convey in a right true and free ownership to and in behalf of Mr, 
Gabriel Minvielle, Merchant within this City, a certain his house 
& lot with everything on and in the same fixed to the earth and 
rights as the said Albert Pietersz has possessed and owned the 
same, as the said house and lot is fenced in, erected and confined, 
standing and situated within this city in the Sheep Meadow, now 
named the Prince's Street broad on the South side of the Street 
three Rods, one foot in the rear broad on the North side two rods 
and seven feet ; long on the East side Nine rods seven feet and 
on the West side ten rods ; all free and unencumbered without any 
charge neither resting on nor emanating from the same, excepting 
the Lord's right, For which said house and lot said Albert Trom- 
petter acknowledged and declared to be well and thankfully satis- 
fied and paid. Consequently said Albert Trompetter in behalf of 
the said Gabriel Minvielle declares to cede and convey all property 
right, claims and pretensions he has possessed in said house and 
lot, promising not to proceed nor cause to be proceeded against the 
same either in law or otherwise, pledging his person and goods, 
real and personal none excepted. In testimony of the truth the 
present has been subscribed to by grantor besides the Messrs. 



657 Ibid., v., p. 134. 



272 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Schepens at New Orange on the island Manhatans, September 30, 
1673. Guilain Verplanck. 



''This is 
made by 
Pietersz 
[alias] 
himself. 



I 



the mark 
Albert 
Swart 
Trompetter 



Signature of Albert Pietersen, husband of Marritje Pietersen. 

"In my presence 

"Epraim Herman 
"Clerk." 



MICHEL PLES. 

Michel Pies, from Holstein, came to New Netherland in 1658. 
He sailed on the ship "de Bruynvis", which left Holland on June 
19, 1658. He was accompanied by his wife and two children, one 
of whom was four years old, the other an infant. ®^^ 



CLAES POUWELSEN. 

Claes Pouwelsen a mason from Dithmarschen, came to New 
Netherland in "de vergulde Otter", which sailed December 22, 
1657.^^*^ He must not be taken for Claes Poulisen, who was taxed 
in New Netherland in 1655. It is possible that Claes Pouwelsen re- 
turned to Dithmarschen, and thence came a second time to New 
Netherland in the ship "de Pumerlander," which sailed October 
12, 1662. ^6*^ A Clause Pouwelsen took the oath of allegiance in 
1664, when the English conquered New Netherland. 



658 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 7. 

659 Ibid., p. 6. 

660 Ibid,, 1902. 



EANZOW. 273 

JURIAEN POUWELSEN. 

Juriaen Pouwelsen was from Schleswig, Denmark. He came 
over by "den Houttuyn," which sailed from Texel, in June, 1642, 
arriving at New Amsterdam on August 4, 1642. He began to 
serve in the colony of Rensselaerswyck August 13, in the same 
year. He must have been quite young at the time, as he is referred 
to as Jeuriaen Poulisz Jongen (the boy). In July, 1644, he was a 
servant of a Michiel Jansz. He does not appear in the accounts 
of the colony of Rensselaerswyck after 1644.^^^ 



JONAS RANZOW. 

Jonas Ranzow (Ranzo, Ranson, Rantson) ,from Holstein, 
was in New Netherland as early as 1659 or before. On April 
12, in that year, he was sponsor, in New Amsterdam, at the baptism 
of Jannetje, a child of Peter Van Doren and "annetje Ranken" 
(perhaps a sister of Ranzow). ^^^ 

In 1661 he was Corporal in the garrison on the Esopus. He 
paid in the same year excise on beer and wine.^^^ 

In 1663 he was an important member of the council of war in 
Kingston (Esopus). ^^^ 

On September 21, 1664, he married in New Amsterdam Catha- 
ryntie Hendricks, daughter of Hendrick Hendricksen, from Er- 
langen, in Germany.^^^ 

Under date of September 30, in the same year, Nicholas Gosten 
brought suit against Ranzow. The charges are not specified in 
the minutes of the court. Ranzow was in default.^^^ 

In December Ranzow and his wife, and her parents were 
permitted, on their own request to leave New York for Europe. 



661 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 828. 

662 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II., 
p. 52. ,{ 

663 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1897, p. 128. New York 
Colonial Documents, XIII., pp. 153, 201, 212. 

664 Ibid., rV., p. 88. 

665 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 146. 

666 The Records of New Amsterdam, V., p. 121. 



274 DANISH IMMlcrEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Evidently the change in government caused many to return to 
Europe. 

We append a copy of the pass which the Governor gave them. 

"Whereas the Bearer hereof Hendrick Hendrickse van Er- 
langer hath requested of me Liberty to Transport himself, wife 
and Sonn in Law Jonas Ranzo, and his wife, unto Holland, these 
are therefore in his Maties name to require all Persons to permit 
and suffer the persons above said ... to pass in the Ship Unity . . . 
unto any Port or Harbor of Holland.®^''' 

"Manhatans 7th day of Dec. 1664. 

'"Richard Nicolls.' 



HANS RASMUSSEN. 

Hans Rasmussen, judging from the name, was a Scandinavian, 
probably a Dane. He served as a soldier in New Netherland, and 
the records state that in the year 1662 he was paid for a certain 
term of service Fl. 124. 15. S.^es 



MATHYS ROELOFS. 

Mathys Roelofs, from Denmark, arrived at New Amsterdam, 
with wife and child, in 1659. He sailed with the ship "de Trouw." 
which left Holland for New Netherland February 12, 1659. His 
child was at that time three years of age.^"^ 

In August, 1659, he acquired land in Esopus. At about the 
same time he joined with others in petitioning the authorities in 
New Amsterdam for the appointment of Rev. Bloem as a pastor 
in Esopus.^'^" Two months later he and some other settlers in 
Esopus signed a letter addressed to Director Stuyvesant, stating 



667 Colonial Records of General Entries, VI., 1664-65. In University of the 
State of New York State Library Report, 1898. 

668 New York Colonial Documents, II., p. 182. 

669 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 8. 

670 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 103. 



SLOT. 275 

that they were besieged by Indians at the Fort. He signed with 
mark. 

Signature of Mathys Roelofs. 

We next find him designated in the muster roll as "Constable 
in the Netherland service."^''^ 

In May, 1661, he obtained a lot in Esoptis.^'- 

From the Baptismal Registers of the old Dutch Reformed 
Church of Kingston we learn that the name of Roelofs wife was 
Aeltje Sybrants, and that his son Sybrant was baptized in 1661 
(the date is torn out of the Register). Among the sponsors at this 
baptism were three Danes, Christian Nyssen. Jan Pietersen, Jonas 
Ransou (Ranzow).^'''^ 

Under date of June 7, 1663, an entry states that "two little 
boys of Mathys Roelofs were killed by Indians at Wiltwyck."'^"* 
These boys must have been the infant Sybrant, and his brother 
who came over, with his parents, in 1659. 

In April, 1664, Mathys Roelofs himself followed his little 
sons in death, being killed by Wapping savages. ®^^ His wife sur- 
vived him. 



JAN PIETERSEN SLOT. 

Jan Pietersen Slot, the ancestor of the Slottes or Sloats of 
Orange County, New York, came over in 1650 from Holstein. He 
was accompanied by his two sons Johan and Pieter, who had been 
born in Amsterdam. He settled at Harlem, where he became 
prominent. He was a carpenter by trade. From 1660 to 1665 
he served as magistrate. In 1662 he sold a house and lot to Dirck 



671 Ibid., XIII., p. 119. 

672 Ibid , XIII., p. 195. 

673 R. R. Hoes, Baptismal and Marriage Registers of tlie old Dutch Church 
of Kingston, p. 2. 

674 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 246. 

675 Ibid., XIII., p. 371. 



276 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Jansen, the Cooper. In 1665 he bought land at the Bowery in 
New Amsterdam. He acquired land in 1667 also. At about this 
time he moved to New Amsterdam, where he resided till 1686. 
He lived for a while in Wall Street. He died in 1703.6'6 

His wife, Claertje Dominicus was a member (1686j of the 
Dutch Reformed Church in New Amsterdam. 



JOHAN JANSEN SLOT. 

Johan Jansen Slot came over with his father, Jan Pietersen 
Slot and his brother Pieter Jansen Slot, in 1650. His father was 
from Holstein, who before coming to New Netherland resided a 
while in Amsterdam, where his two sons were born. 

On April 28, 1672, Johan married, in New Amsterdam, Judith 
Elswarts.^''"^ He made his residence in New Amsterdam. Some 
of his children removed to Hackensack. On November 10, 1676, 
he was assessed in the city of New York 12s. 6d. In February, 
1677, he had a credit, on the books of the city of New York, of f70 
in wampum.* 



PIETER JANSEN SLOT. 

Pieter Jansen Slot, a son of Jan Pietersen Slot, a Dane, 
came over with his father in 1650. He was born in Amsterdam, 
to which his father had immigrated. 

On May 14, 1657, he bought fifty acres of land at Communi- 
paw in Bergen County, New Jersey, on which he was located in 
1665. 

On August 22, he was sponsor for Jannetje. daughter of 
Francois Leerhie and Jannetje Hillebrants. 



676 Teunis G. Bergen, Register of Early Settlers of Kings County, p. 264. 
J. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, p. 217. Cornelius B. Harvey. Genea- 
logical History of Hudson and Bergen Counties, pp. 19, 182. 

677 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 36. 

• Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York. I., pp. 32, 44. 



SLOT. 277 

On February 2, 1663, he married Maritie Jacobs Van Hoorn, 
or Winkle, of Bergen. "^"^ He became a member of the Dutch 
Church. 

In regard to the marriage festivities of Slot, Mr. J. Riker 
relates the following: 

"It happened that Pieter Jansen Slot, son of the ex-schepen, 
was to wed a fair damsel of Ahasimus,* by name Marritie Van 
Winckel. The young roysters of the village hearing, on Friday, 
February 2d. 1663, that the bans had that day been registered, 
were jubilant over the news, and set to work, — it was an ancient 
rustic custom of fatherland, — to honor the happy Pieter by 
planting a May-tree before his door. Now some workmen in 
the employ of Mr. Muyden and others, in for ruder sport, not only 
raised 'a horrible noise in the village by shouting, blowing horns, 
etc., while others were asleep,' but proceeded to deck the May-tree 
with ragged stockings ; at which, when discovered by Pieter, he 
was very wroth, taking it a 'a mockery and insult.' He at once cut 
the tree down, but the young men brought another to take its 
place ; when, as it lay before the house, along came Muyden's men 
and hewed it in pieces. Not to be baffled, the young folk the same 
night procured and raised a third tree, which, however, shared 
the same fate. 

"On Sunday morning, February 4th, Jan Pietersen, at whose 
house Pieter was staying and all this happened, made his com- 
plaint to Montagne, the schout ; the masters also informing him 
that their men were plotting other mischief, but that they had no 
power to prevent it. The schout, now going thither, ordered the 
rioters to disperse ; but they only defied him, and even threatened 
him with their guns and axes. Only more enraged, they gave the 
Sabbath to cutting down and burning the palisades around Jacques 
Cresson's barn. Next morning Jacob Elderts, who had lately 
bought a lot on Van Keulen's Hool, was engaged bringing thatch 
from Bronck's meadow. Before he had spoken "a single word" 
they caught and beat him, also wounding him on the head. In 
vain 'Meester Willem' who witnessed the assault, commanded them 
to desist. Perhaps it was to pay off Elderts for the death of their 



678 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 28. 

* New Jersey. 



278 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

countryman Bruyn Barents, a cooper, five years before; perhaps 
not. 

"The Schout, seeing that the rioters heeded not his authority, 
and apprehending further trouble, hastened the same day, to in- 
form the Director, who with the Council, referred the matter to 
the Attorney-General to take further information about it."^'^^ 

In 1671, Pieter Jansen sold the Bergen lands and removed 
to New Amsterdam, remaining there until 1677, when he removed 
to Esopus and followed his trade as a builder. 

In 1673, after the Dutch regained possession of New Nether- 
land, he requested of the magistrates of New Orange (= New 
Amsterdam) a lot.^^^* 

Pieter Jansen Slot had five children : John, born in 1665 ; 
Jacobus, 1669; Tryntie, 1671; Aeltie, 1678; Jonas, 1681. The 
descendants of these are thickly scattered over Rockland County, 
New York, and Bergen County, New Jersey.^^^ 

Pieter died in 1688. In 1692 his widow was married to 
Jean de Mareets.^^^ 



HERMAN SMEEMAN. 

Herman Smeeman, from Dithmarschen, was in New Amster- 
dam as early as 1645 or before. On December 4, of that year, 
he married, in this city, Elisabeth Everts, the widow of Barent 
Dircksen. 

On April 2, 1647, he obtained a patent of 23 morgens, 480 
rods of land on the East river, "north of the West India Company's 
great bouwerey."^^^ 

On May 4, 1653, Michael Jansen conveyed to Smeeman "25 
morgens of land with the house and all that is thereon." In the 



679 J. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, p. 196. 

680 New York Colonial Documents, II., p. 631. 

681 Harvey, Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen Counties, p. 182. 

682 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I-. 
p. 71. 

683 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 374. 



SMEEMAN. 279 

same year Smeeman leased 25 morgens, belonging to Olof Steven- 
sen Cortland, at 38 guilders in annual rent.^^^ 

From the court records we glean the following in regard to 
Herman Smeeman. In February, 1653, he was sued by Sybout 
Clousen, who demanded the payment of six beavers, earned from 
Volckert Evertsen deceased, whose estate had gone into the hands 
of Smeeman, as heir. Evertsen seems to have been a relative of 
Smeeman's wife. Smeeman denied the debt on the ground that 
it had not been mentioned in former accounts or been talked of ; 
and he demanded of Clousen a payment of thirteen beavers, ac- 
cording to judgment of the Court on October 7, 1652. The Court 
decided the case in favor of Smeeman. On the next court day 
Clousen brought his account books into court, and Smeeman now 
acknowledged that he had not paid for the coffin for the deceased. 
The Court, however, ordered that Clousen should swear to his 
accounts. If he could not swear to them, his demand was to be 
refused. Later Clousen swore to the truth of the statement, and 
Smeeman was condemned to pay for the coffin. ^^5 

On May 11, 1654, Smeeman petitioned the city council that 
he might retail wine and beer to the traveler, out of the city on 
his own farm, by paying the usual excise or the sum the Council 
and he could agree on. But the Council declared : "the petitioner 
can not have his prayer granted for sufficient reasons. "^^^ 

On October 23, 1656, Jan Barentsen sued Smeeman for the 
sum of fl. 65.10. Smeeman acknowledged the debt and offered to 
pay, but said that Barentsen had "arrested his pease in the straw 
and therefore cannot thrash them to make money and pay the 
defendant." The court decided, after having heard both parties, 
that Smeeman should have "eight days from this date" to pay 
the defendant. But the "arrest" was declared invalid "as the 
defendant is a burgher here."^^'^ 

On January 21, 1658, Michael Jansen brought suit against 
Smeeman. He demanded payment of the price of his bowery, 
"about the sum of fl. 900 in good pay, which one trader can pass 



684 Ibid., I., p. 378. 

685 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., pp. .50, 52. 58. 

686 Ibid., I., p. 197. 

687 Ibid., II., p. 196. 



280 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

off the other." Smeeman admitted the debt, and requested that 
the bowery be sold in order that Jansen might get his pay, as the 
bowery was mortgaged. The Court, however, ordered Smeeman 
to pay Jansen the sum demanded within one month's time.^^s 

In 1654, Smeeman is mentioned as an administrator of some 
property, and in 1656 as guardian for six minor children of Aryan- 
tie Curn, widow of Cornelis Claesen Swits.*^^^ 

Harmen Smeeman was one of the signers of the Lutherans' 
petition (165 f.), asking that the Lutheran pastor Goetwater might 
be permitted to stay in New Netherland, instead of being deported 
as the government had unjustly ordered. ^^^ 

In 1661, Smeeman went to live in Bergen, New Jersey. 
Bergen obtained, on September 15, 1661, a patent of incorporation. 
It was called Bergen, after the town of that name in North Hol- 
land. Michael Jansen, Herman Smeeman, Casper Steinmets, and 
Tielman van Neck were the first magistrates of earliest court of 
justice erected within the limits of the present state of New Jersey. 

In 1661 Smeeman and the three other magistrates of Bergen 
petitioned the Director-General and Council "that they may have 
a God-fearing man and preacher, to be an example to, and teach 
the fear of God in, the community of Bergen and its jurisdiction." 
They had passed a list for voluntary subscriptions towards paying 
the salary of a minister. Twenty-seven persons had voluntarily 
subscribed fl. 417, which sum would be the approximate annual 
salary of the minister. Smeeman himself subscribed fl. 25.^^^ 

Smeeman often acted as sponsor at baptisms in New Amster- 
dam. 

On April 7, 1647, he was sponsor at the baptism of Aeltie. 
child of Hendrick Van Duisberg; July 4, 1649, at the baptism of 
Geertie, child of Cosyn Gerritsen ; October 23, 1650, at the baptism 
of Christian, child of Claes Martensen ; February 18. 1657. at the 
baptism of Christian, a child of Christiaen Barentsen and Jannetje 



688 Ibid., II., p. 307. 

689 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York. 1900. pp. 173, 112. 

690 See reference 42. 

691 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 233. 



SWENSBUEG. 281 

Jans; Dec. 29, 1661, at the baptism of Marritie, child of Jan Lub- 
bertsen ; May 24, 1662, at the baptism of Johannes, child of 
Adriaen Hendrickszen and Gritie Warnarts ; August 5, 1663, at 
the baptism of Caspar, child of Caspar Steenmuts ; Dec. 22, 1676, 
at the baptism of Judith, child of Daniel Waldron and Sara Rut- 
gers; October 11, 1676, at the baptism of Marritie, child of 
Hendrick Gerritszen and Marie Waldron; July 16, 1679, at the 
baptism of Annetje, child of Jan de Lamontagne and Annetje 
Josephs. ^^^ 

After the death of his first wife, Smeeman married, on 
December 1, 1668, Anneke Daniels, the widow of Joseph Waldron. 
She was a member of the Reformed Church in New Amsterdam, 
in 1660. After the death of Smeeman. she was married, 1682, to 
Conraetd ten Eyck. She is sometimes called Annetje Dama.^-'^ 

In 1674 Smeeman was listed in New Amsterdam as possessing 
property on the present east side of Broadway, between Beaver 
and Wall St., then known as a part of the Markfield and Broadway. 
His property was classed as "third class" and rated at $1000. 
(Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1896.) In 1677 
this house was taxed 6s. 



ROELOF SWENSBURG. 

Roelof Swensburg appears to have been in New Amsterdam 
as early as 1661. On February 19, 1661, his widow, Styntie 
Klinckenborg, from Aachen, was married to Jan Doske, from 
Tongeren, a soldier. As the name indicates ( Swensburg = Svend- 
borg) Roelof Swensburg was a Dane.^^* 



692 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II. 

693 Ibid., I., pp. 33, 51. 

694 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 27. 



282 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

AELTIE SYBRANTSEN. 
Aeltie Sybrantsen, the wife of Mathys Roelofs, from Den- 
mark, came to New Netherland in 1659 by the ship "de Trouw". 
She was accompanied by her husband and her child, three years of 
age. It is probable that she was Danish, not Dutch. See article 
"Mathys Roelofs." Part II. 



PIETER TEUNIS. 

Pieter Teunis, from Flensborg, was among the soldiers listed 
to sail from Holland to New Netherland in the ship "de Otter," 
sailing April 27, 1660.695 



ANDRIES THOMASEN. 

Andries Thomasen, of Jutland, was in New Netherland about 
1659. All we know about him is, that he fled from Fort Amstel 
to Maryland, in 1659, and that Vice-Director Aldrich wrote to 
Governor Fendall of Maryland, on June 25, of the same year, 
that Andries Thomase, of Jutland, Denmark, a soldier "has de- 
serted and is skulking within your Honor's jurisdiction." He re- 
quested that he be sent back-^^is 



JURIAEN TOMASSEN. 

Juriaen Tomassen, from Ribe, arrived at New Amsterdam, by 
the ship "de Bonte Koe," which sailed from Europe on April 16, 
1663. About ninety persons were on board on this voyage, one of 
whom was Jan Laurens, also from Ribe.^^T 



695 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 15. 

696 New York Colonial Documents, II., p. 64. 

697 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 25. It hsB 
been claimed that this ship sailed from Ribe, Denmark. There is nothing that sup- 
ports this contention, though it is a fact that Danish ships came to New Netherland 
as early as 1644. See New York Colonial Documents, I., p. 145. 



WILBEEGEN. 283 

Tomassen married on May 25, 1667, in New Amsterdam, 
Tryntie Hermans, by whom he had several children : Thomas, 
baptized January 28, 1668; Gerrit, September 27, 1670; Aeltje, 
December 21, 1672; Marritie, April 28, 1680; Harmen, October 
21, 1682; Herman, December 8, 1686.698 

On July 16, 1671, Thomassen acted as sponsor for Johannes, 
son of Jan Andrieszen and Grietje Jans; January 26, 1680, as 
sponsor for Gerrit, a child of Adriaen Pos and Catharina Geirits.^^^ 

Juriaen Tomassen died September 12, 1695. Some of his 
descendants are called Yereance or Auryansen (= Juriansen). 

One of his descendants was Daniel van Ripen, a smith. He 
served as lieutenant in the army of George Washington. Later he 
became Justice of the Peace in the county of Bergen, N. J. He 
died in July, 1818. Another descendant, Reeltje van Ripen, was 
in 1814 married to John van Buskerk. 

In Jersey City, N. J., one of the avenues bears the name of 
the pioneer immigrant from Ribe : "Van Ripen Avenue." It was 
here that Tomassen had his land. 



TOBIAS WILBERGEN. 

Tobias Wilbergen was in New Netherland as early as 1655. 
He married on July 4, 1655, in New Amsterdam, Hilletje Jaleff 
from 'Oldenburgerlandt'. In the marriage record it is stated that 
Wilberg was from 'Torreb' (Torup), in Jutland, Denmark."''*' 



C98 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I. 

699 Ibid., II. 

700 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 83. 



Excursus. 

I. 

CHRISTIAN BARENTSEN.* 

Christian Barentsen, who is sometimes called Christian van 
Hoorn in the documents, was probably a Scandinavian, a Dane 
(though we do not count him among our 188). A recent work 
on ''Christian Barentsen Horn and His Descendants," by C. S. Wil- 
liam, in treating of Barentsen takes "van Hoorn" as meaning that 
Barentsen was either from the city of Hoorn in Holland, or a 
descendant of the old Dutch Van Hoorn family. 

It has been difficult for me to get away from the supposition 
that Barentsen is a Dane. Were he Dutch, it is strange that he both 
had a name so pronouncedly Scandinavian as, "Christian Barent- 
sen," and that he signed the petition of the Lutherans in New Am- 
sterdam in 1657. A Dutchman from Hoorn would in all probabil- 
ity have been adhering to the Reformed Church. Secondly, a 
Lutheran, from Dithmarschen, Herman Smeeman, stood, in the 
same year, sponsor at the baptism of Johannes, Barentsen's son. 
Thirdly, the names of his children appear to be those that a Scandi- 
navian rather than a Dutchman would select, especially the name 
of Barent (Bernt). 

As to the use of "van Hoorn," there is nothing to show that 
Barentsen ever used it himself. There are several places on the 
map called Horn : Horn, formerly a suburb, now a part, of the city 
of Hamburg; Horn in Lippe, Germany; Horn in Austria; Horn 
in Norway; Horn in Island, and Horn in Denmark. 



* What we here state concerning Barentsen lies hard by the field of con- 
jectural criticism, wliich is not without merits in genealogical research also. 



EXCUESUS. 285 

It may be objected that these places are spelled Horn, and 
not Hoorn. But anyone familiar with the orthography in our 
early records will not take this objection seriously. Moreover, a 
town named "Home" in Home Parish (Ribe Amt), Denmark, is 
spelled Hornae and Hoorn about the year 1340 (J. T. Trap, 
Kongeriget Danmark, p. 74). "Van Hoorn" may mean any of 
the Horns mentioned, if they all existed in the days of Barentsen. 
We may leave the Horn in Lippe and Austria out of consideration, 
for if Barentsen were a German he would probably not have had 
the patronymic termination of "sen." Horn near Hamburg may 
be the place from which Barentsen came. This place was hard by 
the jurisdiction of the Duchy of Holstein, and not a few Danes 
were living in the vicinity of Hamburg. It is significant that 
Cornelius B. Harvey in "Genealogical History of Hudson and 
Bergen Counties" makes the statement — ■ on what authority I 
do not know — that "Barent Christianse" (likely the same as 
Christian Barentsen) is from Holstein. 

- However, we need not exclude the Horn of northern Den- 
mark as the original home of Barentsen, if it existed in the seven- 
teenth century. The same may be said of Horn in Norway* and 
in Island. For early New York had immigrants even from Faroe 
Islands (Jonas Bronck), and probably from Spitsbergen.*" 

But may not "van Horn" have an entirely local meaning? 
May it not mean a pointed corner (spitzige Ecke) ? Barentsen's 
lot and house in New Amsterdam — which he bought in 1657 — 
formed a pointed corner. What would be more natural, according 
to the usage of Scandinavians, than to call the resident on this 
lot Christian van Horn, or Christian from (or, at) the corner? 
The fact that Laurens Andriessen (who married Christian's 
widow), became later known as Laurens van Buskirk (from the 
church by or near the bush), shows how easily new names of local 
significance were invented and applied. Now Barentsen. to my 
knowledge, is not called "van Hoorn" before he had purchased 
the house and lot, just mentioned — in 1657. 

Another solution, if the one given be too hypothetical : 
Barentsen may have got his name at the South River. See docu- 



* Horn in Norway is not far from Bronno in Helgeland. In older Norwegian, 
Horn signifies corner. 

** Tennis Cornelise Spitsbergen, at Fort Orange (1661-1687). 



286 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

ments published in William's book on Barentsen and dated Aug. 
28, and Dec. 18, 1658: July 16, 1659; January 30, 1660. 

To maintain, in view of the indefiniteness of the sources, that 
"van Hoorn" in the present instance must mean either a member 
of the Van Hoorn family or an immigrant from Hoorn in Holland 
would be just as faulty as it would be to contend that every one, 
with "van Bergen" attached to his name in the records of early 
New York, must be "from Bergen" in Norway, since there is no 
van Bergen family in that country. In fact, "van Bergen" in these 
records, when "Norway" is not added to it, may — and it often 
does — mean "from Bergen in Holland," "from Bergen in New 
Jersey," or "from Bergen in Germany." 

The reader will pardon this digressive introduction to the 
record of Christian Barentsen. It shows how difficult it sometimes 
is to decide the nationality of early immigrants. Barentsen may 
have been a Dutchman, but this is only a possibility, not amounting 
to probability — not to speak of as an established fact. 

As stated, he probably was a Dane. He married Jannetje 
Jans, by whom he had three children: Barent, Cornelis. Johannes 
Christense (New Jersey Archives, First Series XXI, p. 193). His 
second son, Cornelis, was baptized in New Amsterdam, August 3, 
1653. Johannes or Jan was baptized, at the same place, March 
18, 1657. Probably Annetje's fourth son Andries, baptized in 
March, 1659, also was by Barentsen (see article "Laurens Andries- 
sen. Part II.). 

Christian Barents was a carpenter. At various times he was 
appointed by the Court to inspect carpenter work. 

In 1654 he was a partner of Auken Jans. These two had 
constructed a "sheet-piling" at the Graft but it had fallen down, 
caved in, in consequence of heavy rain and water. The Court 
summoned them, but being told what was the cause of the falling 
down, it agreed with the carpenters to pay them for reconstructing 
it, the sum of thirty-two guilders (besides providing two men 
as "diggers") on condition that all should l)e done and properly 
repaired. (The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653 — 1674, p. 23.) 

On February 26, 1656, Barentsen and two others were ap- 
pointed firemasters by the burgomasters of New Amsterdam — 
to inspect, whenever "they please, all the houses and chimneys in 



EXCUESUS. 287 

jurisdiction of the city and there to do for the prevention of fire 
what is necessary and to collect such fines, as are prescribed by 
the published orders and the customs of our fatherland." Most 
of the houses were built of wood, some were roofed with reed. 
The wooden and plastered chimney was not uncommon (1. c. 2 If.). 

Barentsen signed the Petition of the Lutherans in New Am- 
sterdam (October, 1657), requesting that the government permit 
the Lutheran pastor Goetwater to remain in the country. (See 
note 42, Part L) 

Barentsen was engaged at South river (Delaware river) when 
he died, June (?) 26, 1658. On August 28, the court messenger 
handed a letter to the Council, communicating "the demise of 
Christian Barentsen." (See Year Book of the Holland Society of 
New York, 1900, p. 114.) 

The Minutes of the Orphanmasters of New Amsterdam state 
(We quote from C. S. William's book) : 

"August 28, 1658, Orphanmaster Pieter Wolfersen Van Cow- 
venhoven produces a letter received through Court Messenger, 
Pieter Schabanck, which having been opened, was found to have 
been written and sent by the Hon. Alrichs from the South River 
and to report the death of Christian Barentsen Van Hoorn on the 
2()ch of July, 1658, with a statement by inventory of his estate 
and request to assist his widow." 

He had property. Under date of November 7, 1657, it is 
recorded that Cornells Jansen Plavier, of New Amsterdam, ac- 
knowledged that he owes Barentsen 1233 guilders and 17 stivers 
purchase money of a house and lot at New Amsterdam, west of 
the broad "Heerewegh" bounded by the east and north side by 
the said "Heerewegh" and the city wall, to the west Do (mine) 
Drysius, to the south the house and lot of Jacob Vis and of the 
Company. Plavier mortgaged the lot. (Year Book of the Holland 
Society of New York, 1900, p. 167.) 

Under date of May 3, 1658, we find an entry that Hendrick 
Hendricksen, a tailor, was indebted to Barentsen for the sum of 
500 guilders, the balance of purchase money for a house and lot 
at New Amsterdam, near the land to the Gate, the Heerewegh 
to the west. Barentsen had bought it on August 1, 1657. Hen- 
dricksen mortgaged his house to him. (Ibid, p. 165.) 



288 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

Barentsen's estate was sold to Solomon Hansen in January, 
1660. It brought the sum of 574 guilders. The one who super- 
vised the sale was Laurens Andriessen, who had married Barent- 
sen's widow, December 12, 1658. (Ibid., p. 119.) 

It appears that Barentsen had a grist-mill on the estate of 
his wife's father in the colony of New Amstel, and that Vice- 
Director Alrich, who governed this colony was concerned about 
the welfare of the widow of Barentsen. He wrote a letter to 
Director Stuyvesant, August 17, 1658, in which he asked the 
Director to help her and her affairs, recommending her to the 
orphan masters. He again wrote to Stuyvesant, September 5, 
1858: 

"In regard to the widow of Christian B[arents] as she desired 
beyond measure to go there and requested it within three days 
after her husband's burial by word of mouth and by writing, also 
that the property, which he left behind, might be sold immediately, 
all of which has been agreed to and permitted at her repeated in- 
stances or demands and arranged for the best of the heirs, so 
that they have been benefited more than usually by some presents 
or words of consolation, as your Honor will have seen from the 
transmitted letters and account and sale of the property, there- 
fore there is no cause given the aforesaid widow to complain, but 
I only advised or proposed to her. that it would be for her best 
to remain in possession, she should be assisted in completing the 
mill, with the income of which through the grist she would be 
able to diminish the expenses and live decently and abundantly 
Vv'ith her children on the surplus; besides that she had yet o or 4 
good cows with sheep and hogs, which also could help her to 
maintain her family, she and her children should have remained 
on and in her and the father's estate, which was in good condi- 
tion here, wherein the widow with the children could have con- 
tinued reputably and in (good) position to much advantage: but 
she would not listen to advice . . . that she was to be restricted in 
her inclinations and wellbeing, which I shall never think of, much 
less do. This God may grant and give, and I will ask him to 
take your Honor and us with our families in his Almighty care 
and protection." (New York Colonial Documents, XII., p. 224.) 

Jannetje may have been Norwegian. (See Laurens Andriessen. 
Part" II.) 



EXCUESUS. 289 

In the following excerpts which we quote from C. S. Williams, 
Barentsen is called "van Hoorn" : 

1) From the Records of New Netherland. 

"December 18, 1658. Before the Board appeared Burgomaster 
Olaf Stevensen Cortlandt who is informed by the Orphanmasters, 
of the inventory of his property here, made by the widow, wherein 
differences appearing with which they do not know what to do, 
the widow of the said Christian Barentsen Van Hoorn, called 
Jannetje Jans, is called and asked whether the payment for the 
house near the Land Gate had been received ; she answers, yes, 
by Hendrick Van Dyck who had Power of Attorney from her 
husband ; asked about the payment for the house where Hendrick 
Hendricksen, the tailor, lives, she says not to have received it, 
but it is still due and charged. 

"Jannetje Jans, widow of Christian Barentsen Van Hoorn, is 
ordered to send to the South River the last inventory made here, 
as they have the case in hand. She has asked the people on the 
South River to have the proceeds of the goods there forwarded 
to her, which was promised to her, if she can give bail or security; 
she is therefore advised to write to the South River that she will 
give security for the money and offers as such a house." 

2) Letter to magistrate at the South River. 
"Amsterdam, N. N. July 16, 1659. 

"At the request of Lauwrerens Andriessen, drayer, who 
has married the widow of Christian Van Hoorn, deceased, at the 
South River last year, we inform you herewith that there are de- 
posited in your Orphans Court the goods belonging to his children 
as paternal inheritance, while the children are here in this City, 
and we request, that following the usages of other places, said 
goods may be sent to the Orphans Court here. You will find us 
in similar cases willing to reciprocate, with which we remain. 

"Yours ... 
"By Order, J. Nevins, Secretary." 

3) "January 30, 1660. Laurerens Andriessen appearing de- 
clares not to have received more from the estate left by Christian 
Barentsen [Van Hoorn], deceased, his wife's former husband, than 
574 Guilders from Solomon Hanzen. He also says there are still 



290 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

outstanding at the South River about 13 or 14 Guilders heavy 
money at the rate of ten heads of Wampum for one Stiver, and 
shows an account of the estate with what it owes and what is due 
to it. The Orphanmasters reply that a copy of the account shall 
be made by the secretary Nevins and the original shall be returned 
to him; they shall further order him to bring to the next session, 
the statement and inventory, shown to the Director-General and 
Council, with their marginal order thereon." 

As we have seen, Jannetje did not remain long in her widow- 
hood. Laurens Andriessen married her six months after the death 
of Barentsen and gave her such social advantages as she did not 
have in her first marriage nor could have had as a widow on the 
estate of her father. 

In studying the genealogy of the Van Horn family, the de- 
scendants of Christian Barentsen, one will readily see that this fam- 
ily merits the predicate of distinguished. To it belongs e. g. Robert 
T. van Horn (b. 1824) who founded, and for forty years, edited the 
"Kansas City Journal." He served in the Civil War and was 
member of Congress. Another distinguished member of this 
family was Wm. H. Carbusier, Lt. Col. U. S. Army, who also 
served in the Civil War. A third member is Alfred C. Johnson, 
who has been U. S. Consul in Germany. 



II. 

UNCLASSIFIED NAMES. 

It is possible that the following persons in New Netlierland 
were Danes (we do not count them among our 188 immigrants): 



SIMON JANSEN ASDALEN. 

Simon Jansen Asdalen, who in 1663 purchased a house and 
lot in New Amsterdam, was, if we can depend on the reading 
"Asdalen," either from Norway or Denmark. There is an Asdal 



EXCURSUS. 291 

in Nedenes Amt, Norway. It is spelled Aasdal in 1610, Asdahl 
in 1670, Asdal now. (Norway has also an Asdol) The ending 
"en" is the definite article. Asdalen thus means : the bowery at 
Asdal. ( Rygh, Norske Gaardnavne. VIII., p. 112). 

There is also an Asdal (parish) in Denmark. In a niche above 
the main entrance to the leading manor building in this Asdal, 
one can see "Karl Poises Flask," a shrunken ham-bone, which is 
referred to the legend about Karl Poise of Asdal, who had a con- 
troversy with the lord of the manor of Odden. The two men, 
in order to settle the controversy, parted a hog. One part was 
hung up at Odden, the other at Asdal. He whose half-hog first 
decayed, was to stand confessed as the wronging party. Odden 
proved to be guilty, for Asdal's part of the hog is still on exhibition. 
Hence the saying: "Odden hin olde, Asdal hit bolde." 



JOHN ASCOU. 

John Ascou, who in 1661 hired a canoe from the Dane Pieter 
Kock, which he was sued for by Kock's widow, may have been 
from Askov, Denmark. 



JAN SNEDINGH. 

Jan Snedingh (Snedinck, Smedingh, Snediger) a tavernkeeper 
in New Amsterdam (1648), magistrate of the Midwout (1654), 
was possibly from the manor of Snedige, Denmark, that had been 
owned by families like the Grubbes and Trolles. He was married. 
When Nicolaes de Meyer sued him, 1658, for about 350 guilders, 
the wife of Snedingh appeared for her sick husband, who claimed 
he could not pay before the corn would be ripe. It was told in 
court that Mrs. Snediger, when requested to pay the plaintiff, had 
said, "Where there is nothing, Caesar has lost his right." In 

1659 Snedigh sued Matthys Boon for "fl. 10., balance of fl. 14, 
one pair of stockings, one pair of shoes for his son's wages." In 

1660 he sued the Swede (or Finn) Moenes Pietersen. He had 



292 DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

hired a house from the defendant for twenty-four gl. a year. 
After six months he moved out. He paid thirteen guilders to Pieter- 
sen, who seized eleven guilders with Jan van der Bilt, Snedingh's 
money ; he also let a new party move into the house. The court 
decided that Snedingh had a right to the eleven guilders. — 
Snedingh sold timber and kept boarders in 1660^ — 1661. In 1663 
he was sued for taking away bricks from the strand and removing 
them to his house. The Schout demanded that he "shall be con- 
demned to go to prison and there to remain on bread and water 
for the term of one month or to redeem the same with a sum of 
100 guilders with costs." Snedingh answered, he was innocent of 
having so done, as the bricks were not in a heap, but lay scattered 
around and that he saw some boys also there picking up bricks. 
He claimed therefore that he could not be fined. The court thought 
differently, and fined him twenty-five guilders. 



KERRY ALBERTSE. 

Herry (Harry or Hendrick) Albertse "van londen", who 
came over in 1639 and worked in Rensselaerswyck, is regarded by 
the editor of "Bowier Manuscripts" (pp. 609, 822) as being from 
London, England. But may not "van londen" signify "from 
Londenis," or still better, from "Londen" (south of Husum), 
places in Denmark and found on the map of Denmark in "Theatri 
Europ^ei. Pars V." (1647)? 



HENDRICK HENDRICKSEN OBE. 

Hendrick Hendricksen Obe, often mentioned in the Records 
of New Amsterdam 1653—1674, may have been from Oby in Den- 
mark. (See map in Theatri Europaei. Pars V.") He was city 
constable in 1665, a juryman in 1667, collector of Excise in the 
same year. 



EXCUESUS. 298 

JAN VOLKARSEN OLY. 

Jan Volckarsen Oly, Notary in New Amsterdam in 1664, was 
probably from Oby in Denmark. "Oly" being, I conjecture, in- 
tended for "Oby." 



Also the following names of persons in New Netherland lend 
themselves to favorable consideration by such as are desirous of 
increasing the list of Danish immigrants in early New York : 

Hans Nicholaeszen, who had a child (Laurens), baptized in 
1642, in New Amsterdam. The sponsors appear to have been 
Scandinavians. 

One of these sponsors was Hans Fredericksen, a soldier, 
whose name seems to be Norwegian or Danish. 

Another sponsor was Christina Vynen. It has been said that 
she was English, and that her real surname was "Fine." In the 
baptismal record (see under: Nicholaeszen, 1642), the word 
"engelsman" is appended to her name. No doubt "engelsman" 
here does not stand for "Englishman" but for Engel Mans, who 
was a Swedish woman, and sponsor at the same baptism. 

Vynen — I take it — means the island of Fyen (or Fihien), 
Denmark. Christina often appeared as sponsor in New Amster- 
dam. 

Rachel Vynen (1641) was likely her sister. Capt. Francois Fyn, 
(Ffyn), it would appear, was another relative of hers. He ac- 
quired land (Hog Island) near Hellegat, 1651; and 26 morgens at 
Long Island, 1656. He had a family.* 

Of other persons with Scandinavian names in New Nether- 
land, mention may be made of Peter Hanse and Ferick Janscn. 



"Fyhu, " ''Pyen,'' "Pine'' are names not infrequently met with in Danish 
and Norwegian genealogy. It is therefore not necessary to connect "Vynen'" with 
the place-name in Denmark. However, as Guillaume Vigne, who had immigrated 
from Valenciennes, Prance, had two daughters called Christine (wife of Dirck Hol- 
gersen) and Rachel, it is possible that "Vynen" or "Fyn" is a corruption of 
"Vigne." In that case these names are French. 



294 DANISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Hanse gave Jansen power of Attorney to receive moneys due 
him by the West India Company for service at Curacao (1649). 

Jan Christiansen Andersen (1660) appears to be another 
Scandinavian. 

Laurens Hansen and Knut Mauritz, who served as soldiers 
in New Netherland, resp. 1654 and 1660 (Esopus), and were, 1662 
and 1674, in New Amsterdam, immigrated, it would seem, from 
Norway, Sweden, or Denmark. 

Elling Morgen who about this time stood sponsor at a baptism 
is likely a Dane or a Norwegian. 



PART III 

SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS 

IN NEW YORK 

1630-1674 



ANDRIES ANDRIESSEN. 

Andries Andriessen was in New Amsterdam as early as 1655. 
He married, on October 17, 1655, in New Amsterdam, "Weiske" 
or Niesje Huytes, from "Coulum" in Friesland. The marriage 
record states that Andriessen was from Vesteras, in Sweden. 

Only two days before his marriage, he was assessed six 
guilders at the house of J. V. Couwenhoven, where, it would ap- 
pear, he was lodging.'''*'^ Couwenhoven and his wife were sponsors 
at the baptism of Andriessen's first child, November 19, 1656. 
In the beginning of 1657, Andriessen and Couwenhoven were prob- 
ably not so friendly as at the baptismal festivities. For Andriessen 
brought, in January, suit against Couwenhoven. We know nothing 
as to the particulars of the litigation. 

In September, 1655, Andriessen bought a plantation and a 
house on Long Island, adjoining Hellgate. Perhaps he moved 
thither after his marriage. 

The deed he received reads as follows : '^^- 

"Before me, Cornells van Ruyven, Secretary, in New Nether- 
land in the service of the General Priv. West India Company and 
before the undernamed witnesses, appeared the worthy Lieve Jan- 
sen of the one part, and Andries Andriesen from Vesteras in 
Sweden, of the other part. 

"The abovenamed Lieve Jansen declared, that he has sold, 
and Andries Andriesen, that he has purchased a certain plantation 
belonging to the vendor, situate on Long Island, beyond the Hell- 
gate, extending on the east side along Simon Josten's land, 
and on the west side abutting Juriaen Fradel's land, as large and 
small as appears by the groundbrief thereof, together with the 
house standing thereon, and all that is thereon constructed, built. 



701 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 374. 

702 New York Colonial Documents. XIV^, p. 332. 



298 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

set off or planted, and 13 hogs old and young, as seen by the 
purchaser. For which plantation and what is abovementioned, the 
purchaser promises to pay the sum of four hundred and ten guilders 
right down, to wit : 100 guilders in merchantable beavers and 130 
guilders in good current wampum. The purchaser shall also pay 
all costs, which attend the sale and conveyance as well as those 
parties respectively pledge their persons and properties, present 
and future, submitting the same to all courts and judges. 

"In testimony whereof this is signed by parties with the 
witnesses at Amsterdam in New Netherland the 10th of September 
Anno 1655. 

"Lieve Jansen. 

"This is the mark ^t^ made by Andries Andriessen himself. 

Signature of Andries Andriessen. 

"By me, Stoffel Michielsen, as witness. 
"In my presence, Cornelis Van Ruyven, Secretary." 

Andriessen had several children. Andries, whom we have 
mentioned, was baptized November 19, 1656; Jacob, May 11, 1659; 
Tietie, March 31, 1662; Marritje, October 22, 1664; Huybert, 
November 20, 1667; Tietje, February 20, 1669; Huybert, Decem- 
ber 28, 1672.703 

He was deceased before February 23, 1682, when his widow 
was married to Jan Vinge, the widower of "Emmerens Van Nieu- 
werzhuys."'^04 

There were several persons having the name of Andries 
Andriessen, in New York, in the middle of the seventeenth century. 
This makes it very difficult to trace the history of any one of these 
persons in particular. One was a mason (Metselaer), but he is 
not mentioned as such in the Records of New Amsterdam before 
1666. One was a ship carpenter, who in 1660 married Anneke 
Salomon. Another was a skipper; still another a weighhouse 
laborer. We can not, therefore, state what was the trade of 
Andriessen of Vesteras, or Andries the Swede, as he was called 



703 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. II. 

704 Ibid., I., p. 25. 



BENSINGH. 299 

in December 1655, when Jan Rutgersen brought suit against him, 
as to the nature of which nothing is said in the court minutes. 
Perhaps he worked in the weigh-house. 



ANDRIES BARENTSEN. 

Andries Barentsen was in New Amsterdam as early as 1666. 
But nothing can be related of him beyond his marrying, on January 
24, 1666, in New Amsterdam, "Grietje Cregires." The marriage 
record says, he was from Stockholm, and his wife from Amster- 
dam.'''''^ 

There was an Andrew Barentsen in Bushwyck in March, 
1662 -J^^ another, or perhaps the same one. in Kingston, in 1662. 
The latter was the husband of Hilletje Hendricks. '^^'^ 



DIRCK BENSINGH. 

Dirck Bensingh (Benson) was a Swede who, after he had 
left Sweden, resided for some time in Groeningen and in Amster- 
dam, and thence sailed to New Netherland. On August 2, 1649, 
he bought a lot "situate northeast of the bastion" of Fort Am- 
sterdam.'''*'^ In the next year he bought another lot, on Broadway. 

On June 21, 1651, he gave a mortgage to Fiscal Van Dyck, 
"of his house and lot on the east side of the Great Highway, Man- 
hattan." 709 

In 1654, he went to Fort Orange. On June 29, 1654, he re- 
ceived a permit "to return up the river and attend to his busi- 
ness."'^io 

He secured a lot in Fort Orange, upon which he built a house. 



705 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 
p. 31. 

706 New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 511. 

707 R. R. Hoes, Baptismal and Marriage Registers of the Old Dutch Church 
of Kingston, p. 2. 

708 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 47. 

709 Ibid., I., p. 86. 

710 Ibid., I., p. 139. 



300 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

He was a carpenter by trade, and worked on the new church in 
Fort Orange, built in 1656. In August, in the same year, he con- 
veyed a parcel of land to the Reformed pastor, Johann Megapolen- 
sis : it was lying on the present west side of Broadway opposite 
Bowling Green.'^i^ 

He must have made several journeys between Fort Orange 
and New Amsterdam. In November, 1655, he was to have ap- 
peared as defendant in a suit before the court of New Amsterdam. 
The court minutes, however, contain nothing specific about the 
suit, and merely state that "the defendant had departed in spite of 
arrest." John Kip was the plaintiff.'^^^ 

In 1658, Bensingh loaned the deacons in Fort Orange 100 
guilders. 

He died February 12, 1659. 

The wife of Bensingh was Catarina Berck (Berg). After 
the death of Bensingh, she was married to Harman Thomassen. 

Of Bensingh's children, Dirck was born in 1650. He became 
a skipper on the Hudson, and lived in Albany. Samson was born 
in 1652. He set up a pottery in Albany, and was known as 
"Pottebacker." Johannes was born on February 8, 1655. He 
chose the vocation of innkeeper and went to Harlem. Catarina 
was born 1657. She married a physician, Reyner Schaets, and, 
later, Jonathan Brodhurst. Maria was born in 1659. 



HAGE BRUYNSEN. 

Hage Bruynsen (Brynson) was in New Netherland as early 
as 1646, when he entered the service of Burger Joris, a blacksmith 
at the Smith's Fly and owner of a grist mill at Dutch Kills.'^^' 
Burger Joris was from Silesia, and his wife from Sweden. The 
church record says, she came from "Coinxte," in Sweden. Per- 
haps Hage was a relative of hers. Possibly they both came 
from the same place. Coinxte may be a corrupt reading (as is 



711 D. T. Valentine, Manual of the . . . City of New York, 1861, p. 581. 

712 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 400. See also J. 
Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Earlv Annals, p. 426. Munsell, Collections of the 
History of Albany, FV., pp. 97, 278,' 322. 

713 J. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, p. 236. 



302 SWEDISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

also Weische) of \'exi6, the place from which Hage Bruynsen 
came. 

On March 23, 1653, Hage Bruynsen, from "Weische, in Smaa- 
land, Sweden" married Anneke Jans of Holstein. (See article 
"Anneke Jans, of Holstein," Part H.)^" 

In 1653 he bought a house in New Amsterdam, apparently 
upon the site of No. 255 Pearl Street. This house is of some 
interest as the lodging place, in 1679, of the Labbadist mission- 
aries, Danker and Sluyter. In October, of the same year, Bruyn- 
sen bought a house and lot in Beverwyck.'^^^ His wife was 
desirous of moving to this place, but a suit that she had brought 
against a Mrs. Abraham Genes, who she supposed had taken some 
napkins from her, detained her in New Amsterdam. For the Court 
did not allow her to go before she had settled with Mrs. Genes 
or prosecuted her suit against her. 

By Anneke, Bruynsen had a son, Hage, who was baptized 
November 29, 1654, and married Geesie Schurman of New York, 
in 1681. 

After Anneke's death Bruynsen married, on April 7, 1661, 
Egbertie Hendricks of Meppel, the sister of the wife of Cornelius 
Matthyszen, a Swede. By his second wife. Bruynsen had a son, 
Hermanns, who was baptized on January 24, 1662. 

On February 16, 1654, Dirck Holgersen, a Norwegian, sued 
Bruynsen for payment of a certain lot. As Holgersen had not 
given the deed to Bruynsen, the Court ordered that the"plaintiff 
shall deliver the deed, and defendant shall then pay." '^^^ 

On August 17, 1654, Bruynsen brought suit against William 
Harck, requesting that he might get back a canoe which Harck 
had taken away from him. This canoe Bruynsen had bought of 
the Indians "for a cloth coat, that cost him one beaver and one 
guilder, making in all nine guilders." Harck explained that he 
bought the same canoe of Indians, in presence of Govert Loocker- 
mans and that he gave fl. 11 :10 for it, which canoe Harck's mate 
found, and took away as if it were his own." Harck offered to 
pay the half of what Hage Bruynsen gave for it. After the 



714 New York Genealogical and Biographical Report, VI., p. 82. The famous 
singer, Christine Nilsson, was born near Vexio. 

715 E. B. O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, II., p. 588. 

716 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 161. 



BRUYNSEN. 303 

parties had been heard, the Court decided that Harck should be 
bound to restore the canoe to Bruynsen.'^i''^ 

When the city of New Amsterdam, in 1655, requested a volun- 
tary contribution from its citizens, to defray the expenses of 
strengthening the fort around the city, Hage Bruynsen offered to 
work "three days at the city works. "'^^^ 

On October 23, 1655, he sued the Skipper of the "Spotted 
Cow" for taking away certain stones which he drew and had before 
his door, to repair the street. He requested the payment of fl. 6, 
as "he had worked for them two days." The skipper replied that 
he asked for the stones and was allowed to take them away with- 
out any payment being asked for them, being about %. ballast for 
a boat. The Court, after hearing both parties, condemned the 
skipper to pay to Bruynsen fl. 4 for the stone.'^^ 

On March 8, 1658. Bruynsen began a suit against Simon 
Joosten. He demanded the payment of the sum of fl. 88., the 
balance of an obligation of the year 1655 "exhibited in court 
proceeding from three ankers of brandy sold him, defendant, with 
interest thereon and costs of suit." Joosten admitted the debt, 
and said that he had offered Bruynsen tobacco in payment, but 
that he would not accept it. Bruynsen explained that the tobacco 
was not good. The Court after hearing the parties, decided that 
Simon Joosten should pay Bruynsen according to obligation, with 
costs of suit.'^2o 

On March 28, 1658, Bruynsen and Dirck Holgersen appeared 
in court and said that Bruynsen requested his lot to be "set off." 
The magistrates answered that the surveyor should be ordered to 
"measure off their share for parties and to satisfy parties." 

In April Bruynsen sued Holgersen. He demanded that he 
might set off his place, which he had bought of Holgersen. The 
burgomasters informed the Court concerning the inspection taken 
by them of the ground in question, also concerning the contract 
made thereof and that "Holgersen cannot fulfill it." The Court 
therefore allowed Bruynsen to set off his ground as Holgersen had 
no ground to make a common passage.'^^i 

On November 4, 1659. Bruynsen was sued by Jan vSnedigh. 



717 Ibid., I., p. 227. 

718 Ibid., I., p. 370. 

719 Ibid., I., p. 386. 

720 Ibid., II., p. 351. 

721 Ibid.. II., pp. 366. 368. 




STOCKHOLM IBM: 
From r»uii 




jp^jNORil ABOUT 1600. 
1 urhm, iv. 



306 SWEDISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

who said that Bruynsen had seized his money, three guilders, in 
the hands of a farmer, on Jacob Hayens (Hey) land. Bruynsen 
said that if Snedigh had paid what he owed him, this would not 
have happened. Snedigh replied by stating that the claim of 
Bruynsen against him concerned also his comrade, and he had 
paid for him. Bruynsen rejoined that "he agreed for it with the 
plaintiff." After the Court had heard both sides, it ordered "the 

plaintiff and his comrade to give the defendant each thirty stiv- 

ers.'"^22 

On June 1, 1660, Govert Lookermans sued Bruynsen for cut- 
ting sod from the best of his land. He demanded an indemnifica- 
tion of fifty guilders. The Officer, as guardian accordingly de- 
manded "the fine according to placard." Bruynsen replied that he 
did not know whose land it was. A week later, however, he was 
condemned by the Court to pay the fine according to the Placard 
"at the discretion of the officer.""^^ 

On September 19, 1662, James Davidts brought suit against 
Bruynsen for demanding too much for wages. Bruynsen had 
fastened a "piece of a mizzen mast and half a hatch" and was not 
content with a rix dollar, the sum Davidts had offered him. The 
Court then asked Bruynsen how much he demanded. He replied, 
a pair of cargo-shoes or ten guilders in seawan. The Court then 
ordered Davidts to pay Bruynsen, "for wages, six guilders in sea- 
wan; wherewith he should be content."'^24 

On July 3, 1664, when Bruynsen's son by his first wife was 
about ten years old, Bruynsen himself and Dirck Jansen, who was 
the brother of Bruynsen's wife, appeared before the orphan 
masters' court, in regard to the boy. Dirck Jansen said he would 
take care of the boy without charge. Dirck was one of the 
guardians of young Hage. The other guardian, Cornelis Janszen 
Clopper, consented to this arrangement."-'' 

On September 22, 1668, the Court at New York made pro- 
visions for the administration of the estate of Bruynsen, deceased. 
The records state : "On petition of Dirck Jans, Jan Adams and 
Cornelis Mattysen, next of kin of the deceased Hage Brynsen, re- 
questing in substance that they the petitioners may be authorized 
with a fourth person, to take the estate left by the abovenamed 



722 Ibid.. III., p. 72. 

723 Ibid., III., p. 173. 

724 Ibid., IV., p. 136. 

725 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York. 1900, p. 126. 



DAVIDSEN. 307 

Hage Brynsen and to administer it for the advantage of the in- 
terested ; is apostilled as follows : — In case no administrator has 
been appointed by the will of the deceased, the petitioners with 
Sieur Jacob Kipp are authorized as curators, to administer the 
estate left by the late Hage Brynsen for the advantage and greatest 
profit of the interested, provided they shall render to the orphan 
court of the city due account and explanation ; and those of the 
Haerlem court are ordered to hand over the goods of the deceased 
to said curators." '^^'^ 

In January, 1669, the curators sued Martin Hoffman, a Swede, 
for fl. 735 seawan arising from an unpaid bill of exchange of 
fl. 200 Hol*^^ according to an agreement with Bruynsen. Hoff- 
man was condemned to pay the bill and costsJ-" 



JAN CORNELISSEN. 

Jan Cornelissen, of Goteborg, in Sweden, was in New Nether- 
land as early as 1668. On May 11, 1668, he married, at Kingston, 
Willemtje Jacobs, widow of Albert Gerritsen.^^s He was deceased 
before December 24, 1679, when Willemtje was married to Jan 
Broersen Decker, widower of Heltje Jacobs.'''-^ The marriage 
register says that Cornelissen and his wife were "married by the 
Honorable Justice." 



JAN DAVIDSEN. 

Jan Davidsen appears to have been in New Netherland as 
early as 1663, serving in the "second Esopus war" at Kingston. "^*^ 
He had some experience as an Indian interpreter. On June 18, 
1676, he married, in New Amsterdam, Jannetje Jans. The mar- 



726 The Records of New Amsterdam. 1653-1674, VI., p. 148. 

727 Ibid., VI., pp. 153, 167. See articles "Cornelis Matthysen, ' ' Part III; 
"Dirck Jansen," Part II. 

728 R. R. Hoes, Baptismal and Marriage Registers of the Old Dutch Church 
of Kingston, p. 502. 

729 Gustave Anjou, Ulster County Wills, I., p. 30. See article "Jan Broer- 
sen." Part II. 

730 New York Colonial Documents, IV., p. 51. 



308 SWEDISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

riage record states that he was from Sweden. Jannetje was the 
daughter of Jacob Loper, a Swede. (See article "J^^ob Loper," 
Part III.) 

After his marriage, Davidsen seems to have resided in New 
Amsterdam, where all his children were baptized : Marie was 
baptized May 2, 1677; Jan, May 29, 1680; Margariet, November 
5, 1681; David, March 31, 1683; Pieter, February 3, 1686. 

On January 9, 1679, Davidsen and his wife were sponsors at 
the baptism of Lucretia, daughter of Jan Corneliszen and Helena 
Hendricx. They were sponsors in 1681 also ; and in 1697, at the 
baptism of Jacob, son of Dominicus Poulse and Dorothe Wil 
lems.'^-''^ 



EVERTJE DIRCX. 

Evertje Dircx was in New Amsterdam sometime before 1656. 
She may have immigrated to New Sweden, and thence to the Man- 
hattans. All we know about her is gleaned from an entry dated 
October 26, 1656: 

"As complaints have been made against Evertje Dircx, a 
Swedish woman . . . that she has been in bad repute tor a long 
time already, therefore in order not to involve her in a public 
scandal, she was told to transport herself within eight days from 
the Manhattans either to Long Island or to the South River, 
wherever it might suit her best, without delay.""^^ 



ROELOF DIRXSZ. 

Roelof Dirxsz arrived at New Amsterdam in 165'9. He was 
from Sweden. He came over in "de Otter," which sailed on 
February 17, 1659. One Sweris Dirxsz (Severus Dircksen) from 
Sweden was on board the same ship. Perhaps they were related. ^^^ 



731 Collections of the New York G-enealogical and Biographical Society, I., II- 
Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1904, p. 49. 

732 New York Colonial Documents, XII., p. 131. Cfr. Calendar of Historical 
Manuscripts, I., p. 176. 

733 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902. 



EVERSEN. 309 

SWERIS DIRXSZ. 

Sweris Dirxsz came to New Netherland in 1659. He was 
from Sweden. He came over in "de Otter" which sailed on 
February 17, 1659.'^^^ In the court records of New Amsterdam 
he is called Severus Dirckszen. With two others he appeared, on 
March 28, 1662, as witnesses for a Geertje Teunis, who had been 
accused of tapping on the day of General Fast, March 15. Dirck- 
szen and his companions testified that she did not tap on the 
day of General Fast when they were at her place. After hearing 
the parties concerned, the Court dismissed the case, but ordered 
that a negro who had falsely accused Greetje Teunis should be 
imprisoned.'^^^ 



BARNT EVERSEN. 

Barnt Eversen was in New Netherland as early as 1658. He 
was from Stockholm, Sweden. All we know about him is found 
in the court minuets of New Amsterdam, where we have the 
following statement, dated September 17, 1658. 

"Jan Rutgerzen, pltf. vs. Mr. Allerton, deft. Pltf. again 
demands from deft, payment of the sum of fl. 121.6 for two obliga- 
tions executed by Pieter Janzen of Frederickstatt and Barent Ever- 
sen of Stockholm, for which the deft, has signed as bail to pay 
him. Deft, says, he will prove, that the abovenamed Pieter Janzen 
of Frederickstatt and Barent Evertsen of Stockholm had de- 
termined to run away from the ship ; maintaining therefore he is 
not bound to pay. The Court orders the deft, to give security for 
the monies, and to prove within three weeks that the abovenamed 
Pieter Jansen of Frederickstatt and Barent Eversen of Stockholm 
were willing to run away from the ship." '^^^ 



734 rbid., 1902, p. 10. 

735 The Records of New Amsterdam. 1653-1674, IV.. p. 56. 

736 Ibid., p. 10. 



,ii4'i;;.:!,iM!liilB!l,i'lJiyi:: 




l.,:..ilJ| 




•■■■.ir*!!!;-'!!"! 







FORBUS. 311 

JAN FORBUS. 

Jan Forbus (Forbis, Forbish) was in New Netherland as 
early as 1638. The marriage record of the Dutch Reformed 
Church in New Amsterdam states that he was from Vesteras, in 
Sweden. He married, December 7, 1642. in New Amsterdam, 
Margaret Frankens, who was from "Loster" (Leicester?), in Eng- 
land^^^ About 1644 he acquired a parcel of land on Long Island. 
It lay close to the land that Claes Carstensen, a Norwegian, which 
he acquired shortly afterwards or perhaps already possessed. In 
1644 he gave Claes Carstensen a note of 150 guilders purchase 
money, "balance due on plantation." 

On May 15, 1647, he obtained a patent for sixty-five morgens, 
on Long Island, on East river.'^^s 

In 1649 he sold seventy five morgens to a Norwegian, Pieter 
Jansen Noorman. This land was formerly occupied by Claes Car- 
stensen, David Andriesen and George Baxter. 

He had not formally conveyed it to Jansen as late as 1658. 
Jansen, on the other hand, had not paid him. A litigation about 
some other matter caused this negligence to be discussed in court. 
The Court accordingly sent a letter to Forbus, February 7, 1660, 
ordering him to convey the land in question to Pieter Jansen "and 
in default thereof to bear all costs that may accrue thereto."^^^ 

After 1680 Forbus took up about 400 acres on the Raritan, 
about twenty miles above Amboy.'^" 

Under date of July 19, 1662, we find Forbus and his wife 
acting as sponsors at the baptism of a child belonging to William 
Solby (Salby). 

On May 20, 1666, Forbus made his will: "I, John Forbus, of 
Flushing, do make my wife Margaret Forbes, my sole heir and 
executor of my estate. To be for her sole use and for heirs." 

On August 28, 1682, "Letters of administration on the estate 

of John Forbus of Flushing were granted to his wife Mar- 
gariet."'^4i 



737 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 35. 

738 New York Colonial Documents, XIV., p. 69. 

739 See articles "Claes Carstensen," "Pieter Jansen Noorman." 

740 Teunis G. Bergen, Register ... of the Early Settlers of King's County, 
p. 113. 

741 Collections of the New York Historical Society: Abstract of W^ills, I., 
pp. 469, 119. 



312 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

WILLIAM GOFFO. 

William Goffo arrived at New Amsterdam in 1663. He came 
over in the ship "de Bonte Koe," which sailed on April 16, 1663, 
for New Amsterdam. In the list of passengers on board this ship, 
his name is given as "Guilliam Goffo [in credit account: Gouffon], 
from Sweden. ""■*- 



ANDRIES HANSEN. 

Andries Hansen, or Andries Hansen van Schweden [Sweden], 
was in New Netherland as early as 1660. We find him at Fort 
Orange in that year, when he and another Swede, Dirck Hendrick- 
sen, signed a document. His surname is sometimes given as 
Scherf, Sharp, Scharf (also Barheit). His name appears in a 
list of soldiers at Esopus, March 28, 1660. 

On January 28, 1663, Jan Andriesen and Andries Hansen 
offered themselves as "sureties and principals for the presence of 
Rutger Jacobsen," the husband of Tryntie Jans, a Danish woman. 
Hansen put his mark to the document. '''^^ 



+ 



Signature of Andries Hansen. 

Andries Hansen was married to Gerretie, daughter of Teunis 
Teunissen Metselaer. He made his will in 1685. 

He had two sons, Johann and Gysbert, who settled at Kinder- 
hook and had large families. 

In 1683 Andries Hansen was a member of the Church of 
Jesus Christ at New Albany.'''^^ 



742 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1902, p. 25. 

743 Documentary History of New York, XIII., p. 153. Pearson, Early Rec- 
ords of Albany . . ., p. 281. 

744 Ibid., p. 44. Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1904. 



HENDRICKSEN BYE. 313 

DIRCK HENDRICKSEN [BYE]. 

Dirck Hendricksen [Bye] (alias De Sweedt) seems to have been 
from Goteborg, in Sweden."^^ In 1660 he was a member of the 
company of soldiers staying at Esopus."^^ Under date of August 
27, 1660, we have a document to which he and Andries Hansen 
affixed their names as witnesses.'^^^ 

Dirck Hendricksen Bye made Esopus or Wiltwyck his per- 
manent home. He was one of the burghers at that place who 
signed a document, April 28, 1667, stating that he and other 
burghers had been in arms during the Brodhead mutiny. Captain 
Brodhead had threatened to burn up the village.'''^^ The document 
was presented to a court held at Esopus to investigate the troubles 
caused by and on account of Brodhead. Among other matters 
it was revealed that George Porter, a soldier, "coming in the 
barn of Pieter Hillebrandt's and finding there Dirck Hendrix, took 
his sword and thrust the same through the said Dirck Hendrixe's 
breeches." '^'*^ 

On May 31, 1671, Dirck Hendricksen is mentioned in a docu- 
ment as the possessor of land in the neighborhood of another 
Swede, Andries Hansen ( Sharp). '^^o 

A document of 1676 states that the wife of Dirck Hendrick- 
sen was Sarah Verhaele. By this document Hendricksen conveyed 
a lot to Pieter Du Moree. The wording was as follows : '^^'^ 

"Appeared before me, Robert Livingston, secretary, etc., and 
in the presence of the honorable commissaries, etc., Mr. Philip 
Schuyler, and Pieter Winne, Dirk Henderickse Sweedt, who de- 
clared that he in true rights free ownership, has granted, conveyed 
and transferred by these presents, to and for the behoof of 
Pieter Du Moree, for a certain lot of land lying behind the Kin- 
derhoeck; to the west of the kil, to the south of Jan Martensen, 
to the east of Jan Martensen, and that free and unencumbered, 
with no claim standing or issuing against it, excepting the Lord's 



745 Mnnsell, Collections on the History of Albany, rV., p. 87. 

746 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 153. 

747 Pearson, Early Records of Albany . ., p. 281. 

748 New York Colonial Documents, XIII.. p. 414. 

749 Ibid., VIII., p. 407. 

750 Pearson, Early Records of Albany, p. 484. 

751 Ibid., p. 123f. 



314 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

right, without the grantors having the least claim any more upon 
the same, and acknowledging himself fully satisfied and paid 
therefor, the first penny with the last, giving therefore plenam 
actionen cessam, and full power to the aforesaid Pieter Du Moree, 
his heirs and successors or those who may hereafter acquire title 
from him, to do with and dispose of the aforesaid lot as he might 
do with his patrimonial estate and effects; promising to defend the 
same against claims and charges, which may hereafter arise and 
are lawful, and further, never more to do or allow anything to 
be done against the same, either with or without law, in any 
manner whatsoever, under obligations as provided therfor by law. 

"Done in Albany, the 7th of March 1676. 

"This is the mark of Sarah + Verhaele, wife of Dirk Hen- 
driks. 

"Philip Schuyler, 

"Pieter Winne, 

"In my presence, 

"Ro. Liviningston, Seer." 



JAN HENDRICKSEN. 

Jan Hendricksen was a Swede, whom we find as party in a 
suit noted in the court minutes of New Amsterdam under date of 
November 29, 1655. Isaac Hansen brought this suit against him. 
But both were in default."^^- Jan Hendricksen may be the same 
person as John De Sweet, of Flushing, whom John Kip, on Octo- 
ber 20, 1661, sued for the recovery of a canoe.^^^ 



MARTIN HOFFMAN. 

Martin Hoffman (Martin Hermansen Hoffman) was in New 
Netherland as early as 1657. We find him in Esopus, where he in 



752 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, I., p. 410. 

753 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 230. 



HOFFMAN. 315 

1658 joined with other residents in warfare against the Indians. 
In 1659 he was a member of a company of soldiers. The Ensign 
of the Fort reported, September 29, 1659, to Director Stuyvesant 
that 'on the twentieth Marten Hoffman and other alarmed" him 
and the guard, whereupon he sent out nine or ten men to see what 
was to be done.'''^^ 

Hoffman was born about 1625 at Reval, in Esthonia, which 
from 1561 to 1710 belonged to Sweden. Hoffman, no doubt was 
a Swede, though the name is also German. He was interested in 
getting aid from the Swedes on the Delaware: In 1672 he made 
a journey from Albany to the Swedish settlement in Delaware 
to collect money for the Lutheran church in Albany. Racial rather 
than creedal affinity likely determined this action. 

He was a saddler by trade. He spent some of his time in 
New Amsterdam, some in and about Albany. In 1660 he stood 
sponsor in New Amsterdam at the baptism of a child belonging 
to Jan Woutersen and Arentje Arets. In 1661, his name occurs 
in the Directory of New Amsterdam, which states that he was 
living in De Heere Straat. He was paying taxes on his house. 

In 1662 we find him living in Beverwyck. He occupied at 
the beginning of that year a house belonging to Jan Lambertsen of 
Bergen.'^^^ 

In 1663 he was again at New Amsterdam. His house on De 
Heere Straat was, in 1665, assessed for one guilder. '^^^ 

He sold it in 1669 to John Manning. '^^7 After 1670 or 1672 
he seems to have lived in Albany, following his occupation as 
a saddler though he was no mean adept at auctioneering. 

He contracted two marriages. His first wife was Lysbeth 
Hermans of Oertmarsen in Overyssel, whom he married in Brook- 
lyn, April 22, 1663.'''-^^ His second wife, whom he married, May 

16, 1665, in New Amsterdam, was Emmerentje DeWitt of "Esens 
in Embderlandt."'^59 

By his first wife he had no children. 



p. 28. 



754 New York Colonial Documents, XIII., p. 115. 

755 Pearson, Early Records of Albany, p. 299. 

756 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, V., y. 221. 

757 Ibid., XI., p. 190. Pearson, Early Records of Albany, p. 127. 

758 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I., 

759 Ibid., I., p. 30. 



316 



SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 



By his second wife he had five: Annetje, baptized March 1, 
1665; Marritje, baptized December 12, 1666. The date of the 
birth or baptism of his other three children is not given. Their 
names were Zecharias, Nicolaes ,Taatje. 

In January, 1665, a Freryck Gysberzen van den Bergh pro- 
secuted a suit in the Court of New Amsterdam against Hoffman. 
He demanded of him forty four guilders "balance per account for 
rent and consumed drink." Hoffman replied that the plaintiff took 
no cognizance that one Claes Pietersen occupied the house with 
him. He oft'ered to pay his share. The court decided that Hoff- 




REVAL, ABOUT 1600. 

man should pay the plaintiff" half the rent "and the remaining two 
guilders for the wine he drank."'^^^ 

On September 19, 1665, Hoffman brought suit against Jan 
Hendricksen van Gunst for having done damage to his boat, which 
he had hired to him on the express condition that it should be 
returned uninjured. Hendricksen claimed, however, that the 
"rigging belonging to the boat was rotten and worn." The Court 
ordered that Hendricksen should repair the boat, and that arbi- 



760 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, V., p. 17' 



HOFFMAN. 317 

trators should see what damage it suffered during the time the 

defendant had it, and if possible reconcile the parties/^^ 

Hoft"man had also some dealings with his countryman Hage 

Bruynsen, whom he owed 735 florins at the death of the latter 
(1668)J62 

In 1669 he was sued by Arent Jansen Moesman because he 
had sold his house to Captain Manning, without regard to the 
mortgage, dated November 19, 1664, which Moesman had in it. 
The Court accordingly condemned Hoffman to pay the debt to 
Moesman, within three months' time, with costs. '^^^ Captain Man- 
ning later brought another suit against Hoffman. 

On December 18, 1670, the wife of Hoffman appeared in 
court in a suit which William Merit had brought against him, 
charging him for freight on goods brought from Delaware. She 
asked that hearing might be postponed until the return of her 
husband from Albany.'^^'* 

In 1671 Hoffman was sued by a Lutheran pastor in New Am- 
sterdam, Jacob Fabritius, for defamation. Fabritius had very little 
of character. There was no end to his quarrels. The Court ruled 
in this case, as it did in two other suits, which Fabritius had 
brought against other persons : "The difference being about de- 
famation, the court ordered these causes to be thrown out of 
court, they being found only vexations." 

In the same year Hoffman sued Jan Roelofsen "Seubringh" 
for the payment of a debt of one hundred guilders sewan and 
400 lbs. of tobacco. He had warned the plaintiff three times to 
come to New Amsterdam from Flatbush to pay what he owed. 
Hoffman won the suit.'^^^ 

In January, 1672, Hoffman, who was a Lutheran, got a pass 
from the governor of New York, to go to Delaware to collect 
money towards erecting a church for the Lutherans in Albany. 
In Delaware there were many Lutherans, especially in the Swedish 
settlement. Hoffman, being a Swede, no doubt was well qualified 
to solicit funds among his countrymen. '''^^ 

In 1672 he bought a lot in Albany, which he, on December, 



761 Ibid., v., p. 292. 

762 Ibid., VI., p. 153. 

763 Ibid., VI., p. 190. 

764 Ibid., VI., p. 264. 

765 Ibid., VI., pp. 313, 318. 

766 Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York, I., p. 622. 



318 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

1676, sold, with house on it, to Cornelis Cornelisen van der 
Hoeve.'^" 

Hoffman was still in Albany in 1678. 

Of Hoffman's children, Annetje married. January 4, 1702, 
Hendrik Pruyn. 

Zacharias, married, 1706, in the Reformed Dutch Church at 
Kingston, N. Y., Hester, a daughter of Jacobus Bruyn, from Nor- 
way, and Gertruy Esselstein. He lived at the old homestead at 
Shawangunk until 1744, when he died. He had several children: 
Zacharias, Jacob, Geertruyd, Ida, Janneke (who married William 
Rosenkrans), Margaret. 

In 1716 he was captain of a Company of Militia in Ulster 
County. 

The third of Hoffman's children to marry, was Nicolaes. He 
married Jannetje Crispel, a Huguenot, born 1686. He acquired, 
like his brother, Zacharias, much property. He, too, commanded 
as captain a company of the Ulster County Regiment at Kingston 
in 1717. He was trustee of the town of Kingston, and deacon 
of the Reformed church. Nine children were born in this mar- 
riage. 

The last of Hoffman's children was Tjaatje who. 1697, mar- 
ried, at Kingston, Everhardus Bogardus. He was born 1660. 
They had six children. 

The Hoffman family numbers preachers and lawyers, states- 
men, authors, college presidents. One of the family was engaged 
to marry Washington Irving, but died in her eighteenth year. 
Another, The Hon. John Thompson Hoft'man, was Governor of 
the State of New York. 

Members of the family are found intermarried with families 
of Benson, Livingston, Brinckerhoff, Du Bois, Ogden, Vreden- 
burgh, Verplanck, Beekman, Schuyler, Provoost, Storm, Van 
Cortlandt. Some of the Roosevelt and the Rosenkrans families 
are related to the Hoffmans. 

The "Genealogy of the Hoffman Family : Descendants of 
Martin Hoffman" was published in 1899, — a book of almost 550 
pages. It contains the arms of the family, many portraits, includ- 
ing the portrait of Martin Hoffman himself. 



767 Pearson, Early Records of Albany, p. 148. 



JANS. 319 

CATRINE JANS. 

Catrine Jans, of Helsingborg, in Sweden, was in New Nether 
land as early as 1656. She seems to have been a resident in the 
Swedish colony on the Delaware, which at about this time was an- 
nexed to New Netherland. We mention her here, because she 
figures in a marriage contract. It might be compared with the 
marriage contract in which a Norwegian woman, Eva Albertse 
was a party, or with that of the Danish woman Marritje Pieters, 
the earliest recorded instance of a marriage contract in New 
Netherland. (See Part I., article "Albert Andriessen" ; Part II., 
article "Marritje Pieters."). 

"To-day, date as below, appeared before me, A. Hudde, Secre- 
tary at Fort Casimir on the South-River, appointed by the Hon&/e 
Mr. Peter Stuyvesant and High Council, residing at the Manhat- 
tans, in presence of the undersigned witnesses, the worthy Jan 
Picolet, a native of Bruylet in France with the maiden Catrine 
Jans, born in Elsenborgh in Sweden. Together and each for him 
or herself they have made, of their free, preconsidered and un- 
biased will and deliberate opinion a promise of marriage, under 
the condition that on account of special reasons the marriage 
solemnization should be delayed, until a preacher came here. And 
Jan Picolet promises faithfully to Catrine Jans to keep the afore- 
said engagement unbroken, likewise Catrine Jans promises in the 
same manner to adhere steadily, firmly and inviolably to the 
promise of marriage made to Jan Picolet, to which end we, the 
engaged, submit ourselves, each individually, to such punishment, 
as is ordered by law for convicted adulterers, if one of us or 
both should retract the foregoing promise or violate or break it. 
We bind us, for the vindication and satisfaction of justice, to 
keep ourselves pure and undefiled in our engagement, until the 
complete consummation of the marriage, as decency and the laws 
of our magistrates require it. We declare by signing this, that we, 
for further confirmation of this our foregoing promise, place our 
persons, goods, movable and immovable, now belonging or here- 
after coming to us, all under the control of the pertinent laws. 
In attestation of the truth we have signed this without reservation 
or deceit. 



320 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

"Done at Fort Casimir, this 24th of February of this Year 
1656 on the South River of New Netherland. 

"Jan Picolet 
her 

"Catrine + Jans." 

mark 

Mr. VVilHam Nelson, editor of New Jersey Archives, First 
Series, Vol. XXII, comments upon this document after this 
fashion : 

"On the 24th of the following May the contracted couple ap- 
pear before the Council, when Jan requests in writing and verbally, 
that he might be discharged from his promise of marriage, made 
to the aforesaid Catrine Jans on January [ ?] 24, 1656, and that 
the same be declared null and void. He had asked her, he said, 
'with serious intention, upon honor and faith, to be his wife, and 
that he did not know else, but that she was a virtuous girl.' About 
a month after, to his direct question, she assured him to that ef- 
fect, and 'they would have been married if a preacher had been 
at hand.' It subsequently became evident that she was not as she 
pretended to be. Catrine then confessed to the Council that in the 
fall of 1655 she had been engaged to a soldier. . . The Commissaries 
adjudged that she had gone 'outside of her first betrothal, from 
which she had not been released, neither by the death of the bride- 
groom nor by other lawful reasons, and had by her second be- 
trothal deceived the plaintiff, contrary to the written law,' and 
they gave judgment that the aforesaid Picolet be released from his 
betrothal and marriage contract and they declared the same null, 
ineffectual, of no value and as if the same had never been made, 
passed, written nor signed.' They moreover condemned Catrine 
to appear in Fort Casimir, and there, before the Council, to release 
the plaintiff and with bent knees to ask the pardon of God and 
justice and promise henceforth to behave as a virtuous woman. 
On June 16th the couple once more appeared before the Council, 
and having heard the above [given] judgment, 'the parties giving 
each other the right hand, discharged one the other legally before 
the Council of the promise of marriage.' " 

Catrine shortly afterward, on December 24, 1656, was mar- 



JANSEN. 321 

ried to Lauritz Pietersen, from Leyden, aged twenty-three years, 
she being only nineteen. "^^ 



BARENT JANSEN. 

Barent Jansen, or Barent Jansen Blom, from Sweden, was 
one of the early settlers in New Netherland. He was born in 1611 
in Stockholm, and not, as Riker says, at Ockholm (in Schleswig). 
The marriage record of the Dutch church in New Amsterdam 
states that both he and his wife, Styntie Pieters, whom he married 
September 15, 1641, were from StockholmJ^^ 

He was for some time overseer of Van Twiller's farm on 
Ward's Island. He was known as "Groot Barent," the Barent of 
huge proportions. He removed to Brooklyn in 1652, after van 
Twiller was discharged by the government. 

On January 23, 1652, Barent bought of Peter Linde twenty 
morgens of land on the shores of Long Island, between the lands 
of Andries Hudde and Claes Jansen Ruyter,'^'^*^ near the Wallabout, 
where he lived till he died. 

Two islands were named after him, Great Barent's Island, 
and a smaller adjacent one, Little Barent's Island.'^'^^ 

Barent Jansen died June 5, 1665, from a stab wound in the 
side given by Albert Cornelis Wantenaer, and at once fatal. Riker 
says that as Albert set up the plea of self-defense, the Court of 
Assize, at his trial, October 2, convicted him only of manslaughter. 
He was "then and there burnt in the hand according to law" ; the 
further penalties, which were the loss of his property and a year's 
imprisonment, being remitted by the government. 

By his wife, Barent had two sons, Jan, born 1644 and Claes 
(Nicolaes), born 1650; likewise two daughters, Engeltje, born 
1652, and Tutie, born 1654. 

Engeltje was married to Adam Vrooman, of Schenectady. 
Tutie was married to Lembert Jansen Van Dyck. 



768 New Jersey Archives. First Series, vol. XXII., p. xxxi; New York 
Colonial Documents, XII., pp. 154, 156. 

769 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 34. 

770 Calendar of Manuscripts, I., p. 100. 

771 J. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, p. 127. 



322 SWEDISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

Jan, surnamed Barentsen Blom, became a farmer at Flatbush. 
He married Mary, a daughter of Simon Hansen. 

Claes married, 1685, Elizabeth, daughter of Paulus Dircksen 
and widow of Paulus Michielse Van der Vort.'^'^- 

Regarding the wife of Barent Jansen, we can add only this: 
On March 11, 1646 ,she was sponsor at the baptism of Annetje, 
daughter of Jochem Kalder. (See article Jochem Kalder. Part I.) 



JAN JANSEN. 

Jan Jansen, of Goteborg, Sweden, was in New Amsterdam 
as early as 1651. On September 9, in that year, he got a mortgage 
in the house of the Norwegian Roelof Jansen Haes. On May 11, 
1654, he brought suit against Claes Jansen Ruyter and Harmen 
Douwesen. But both he and the defendants were in default. On 
October 12, 1654, the case was tried. Jan Jansen demanded fl. 329, 
balance of a note signed by Claes Jansen Ruyter and Harmen 
Douwesen, dated September 4, 1651, with interest on it from August 
1, 1652, to the time of payment. The payment should be made 
"in beavers," according to the obligation. Ruyter acknowledged 
the debt, but said that Jan of Goteborg "was satisfied with tobacco," 
which he, Ruyter, had promised to deliver on first opportunity. 
The Court, after hearing the evidence, disposed of the case by 
condemning Ruyter to pay the obligation "in beavers." ''"^^ 

On July 16, 1654, Jan Jansen of Goteborg, mate of the ship 
"Conick Salomon," about to return to Holland, "conferred powers 
of attorney upon Dirck Van Schelluyne, to collect for him certain 
money owing to him by parties in this country."''"''^ 

Jan Jansen may have returned to Europe ; if so he came back 
again ; for he was a resident of New Amsterdam as late as 1667. 
On July 2, 1667, Johannes d'Wit brought suit against him, but he 
was in default. The Court then ordered that the "defendant shall 
within the term of twenty-four hours give security for his ap- 
pearance at the next court day."'"^ 



772 Ibid., p. 128. 

773 The Records of New Amsterdam, 16531674, I., pp. 196, 251. 

774 Year Book of the Holland Society of N"ew York, 1900, p. 174. 

775 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, VI., p. 81f. 



324 SWEDISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

PIETER JANSEN. 

Pieter Jansen, from Stockholm, in Sweden, was in New 
Netherland as early as 1658."'^*' He appears to have lived in 
Albany. 



CORNELIS JURRIAENSEN. 

Cornelis Jurriaensen appears to have been a Swedish soldier 
from Winseren (Vintjern?), in Sweden. In the New York Colo- 
nial Documents (II., p. 64) it is stated that he had fled from 
Fort New Amstel to Maryland, in the year 1659. Another Swede, 
Hans Roeloflf, seems to have been his companion in the flight. The 
Vice-Director Alrich informed Governor Fendal, of Maryland, 
about this flight, and requested that Jurriaensen and his companion 
be sent back. 



JACOB LOPER. 

Jacob Loper was a Swede, from Stockholm, who settled in 
New Amsterdam about the year 1647. For some time he had 
held a naval appointment in the Dutch service. He had been 
captain lieutenant at Curacao.''"^^ 

On June 30, 1647, he married, in New Amsterdam, Cornelia 
Melyn, the eldest daughter of Cornelius Melyn. Melyn was one 
of the leading men in New Amsterdam, a friend of the Dane 
Captain Jochem Pietersen Kuyter, and, like him, an outspoken 
critic of Director Kieft's administration. We have related about 
Melyn's being deported from New Netherland, in company with 
Kuyter, and that he returned. (See article "Jochem Pietersen 
Kuyter," Part II.) But Melyn's entire family suffered for many 
years on account of the malignant disposition of the officers of 
the West India Company towards him. Loper, his son-in law, felt 



776 Munsell, Collections on the History of Albany, IV., p. 89. 

777 New York Colonial Documents, I., p. 358. 



LOPER. 325 

it only too keenly. On June 14, 1649, he presented a petition to 
proceed to the South River of New Netherland and sail there with 
a chartered sloop and goods. He was refused, however, to trade 
on South River. The Council resolved, "Whereas said Loper has 
married the daughter of Cornelis Melyn and having regard to the 
dispatch of the Lord Mayors, dated January 27, 1649, the request 
cannot be granted." To this resolution the following is appended 
in the minutes of the Council : "Mr. Duncklage is of the opinion 
that Loper's petition can be granted, provided he do nothing to the 
prejudice of the Company. La Montague has scruples in the case, 
in consequence of the dispatch of the Lord Mayors. Bryan Nuton 
idem." "^"^s 

Melyn had made, July 11, 1647, a deed of his house in Broad 
street to his daughter Cornelia. According to J. H. Innes, it ap- 
pears to have been a two-story house of small size, in all probability 
built of brick. It seems to have been situated in the easterly half 
of the present Broad Street, midway between Pearl and Stone 
streets. Here Loper and his wife lived. 

They had two children, Jacob, who was baptized in the Dutch 
Church, October 25, 1648, and Janneken, who was baptized Octo 
ber 30, 1650. Jochem Pietersen Kuyter was one of the sponsors 
of Janneken. Loper himself was sponsor, September 15, 1650, of 
Jacobus, a son of Jan Martyn.'^'''^ 

Loper was deceased before April 7, 1653, when his widow 
was married to Jacobus Schellingen of Amsterdam. 

In regard to the inheritance of Loper's children, the follow- 
ing documents may give us an insight into the administrative 
minutes of New Amsterdam. 

"In Amsterdam in N : Netherland the 22d January 1658. 

"Whereas the contract made between the Burgomasters and 
the Orphan Masters relative to the house and lot of the children of 
Jacob Looper, deceased, situate on the Heeren Graght, which was 
written by the former Secretary Timotheus de Gabry, is lost, the 
Burgomasters therefore resolved to order a certificate of said 
contract and to write a letter concerning it to the late Secretary ; but 
the order for the certificate is deferred and the letter reads as 
follows : — 



778 Ibid., XII., p. 50f. 

779 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, I. 



326 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

"To Sieur Timotheus Gabry. 

"A^ 1658, this 25. January in Amsterdam in N : Netherland. 

"Hon^'*^ Discreet and good Friend, Health. 

"These serve to let your Hon*' know, that the Burgomasters 
of this City have enquired through me their Secretary for the 
contract made with the Orphan Masters of this City, respecting 
the house and lot of the children left by N. Looper, deceased, 
which stood by the Hecren Graght next to the house and lot of 
Jochim Pietersen Cuyter, deceased, which was written by you ; 
and whereas the abovenamed have need of the aforesaid contract, 
and do not find it either among the papers lying at the City Hall, 
nor at the Secretary's, nor is it registered, which seems strange 
to their Worship's ; they, therefore, request, should the above- 
mentioned contract be accidentally among your papers, that you 
would please to send it over by first opportunity ; or should it 
not be among your papers to advise us, where it may, to the best 
of your recollection, be found, as much is depending on it. Which 
expecting we commend you as well as friends in general to the 
merciful protection of the Most High. Your sincere friend 

"Joannes Nevius. 

"By order of the Burgomasters of the City aforesaid. "'^^'^ 

The son of Captain Jacob Loper, Jacob, did not possess the 
comforts of his rich married sister. For in the beginning of 1677. 
he had a dwelling house that lacked chimneys. It is mischievously 
said, that there is a state in the United States where house-chimneys 
are such luxuries that every man possesing a house with two 
chimneys is called "colonel." If New York had resembled this 
state in the seventeenth century, it would have been difficult for 
Loper's son to perpetuate the title his father had. For the son's 
name is found in the following curiously spelled document, written 
under English rule. It shows he had a house without a chimney, 
and reads : 



780 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674. VII., p. 168f. 



\ 



W B 



3 1 



•If 






^' "-^ 



^ i 1 



■.:i^: 



Ul 



2 ^ 



*^'':?r/'*»U: 



t-4'*:^^^ fT^ 






-5fS*, 



L 



> Aldermen 



LOPER. 327 

City off 
New Yorke 

ATT a meetinge att AI^' Mayo'"* house the 
28*^ day of ffebruary 1676 [-7]* 
Before Nicho Demyer Mayo^ 

M'" Thomas Gibbs deputy Mayo'" 
M"" Stephanus Van Courtland 
M'' Johannes De Peister 
M^ ffrancis Rumbolt 
M^ Thomas Snawsell 
Persons that haue no Chimneys or not fitt to keepe fire in 
Claus Ditlos noe Chimney 
Adam Miller the Like 
Cobus de Looper the Like 
John Penacooke the Like 
Peter Powell the Like 
ffredrick the Shoemaker the Like 
Jacob the Jew the Like 
Sibrant Jansen the Like 
Clem* Salmon the Like 
Isack Molyne not fitt to keepe fire in 
John the Glass maker noe Chimney 
Arien hee not fitt to keepe fire in 
Beinge Returned as aboue by Rob* W'hitte Constable 
JTT IS ORDERED that all and Euery the r^son & T^er.^ons 
aboue menconed shall build or Repayre his or their seu'ali and 



* Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, 1675-1776. I., 
pp. 42f. 

In new style the date would be February 18. 1677. Protestant Netherlands 
ended the old style Friday, Dec. 21, 1582. It began the new style next day, Satur- 
day, Jan. 1, 1583. The Records of the Dutch in New York accordingly follow the 
new style, which we, as much as possible, haxc followed in the present volume. 
Norway and Denmark introduced the new style in 1700. Sweden sradunlly adopted 
the new style after 1696. by making no leap-year after 1696 until 1744, by which 
plan 11 days were dropped. England ended the old style on Wednesday, Sept, 2, 
1752, beginning the new on the following Thursday, Sept. 14, 1752. Columbus dis- 
covered America on Friday, Oct. 12, 1492. O. S. By N. S. this event happened Oct. 
21. George Washington was born Friday, Feb. 11, 1732. We celebrate his anni- 
versary Feb. 22. omitting eleven days. 

In changing Old Style to New Style nine days must be omitted for the period 
beginning M:\rch 1, A. D. 1400. and ending March 1, 1500. Ten days must be 
omitted for the period March 1, 1500, to March 1, 1700; eleven davs for the period 
March 1. 1700 to Sept. 2, 1752. 

The first of January is the beginning of the historical year. But for many 
centuries the Ecclesiastical, or Legal, og Civil year obtained, beginning March 25. 
March would thus be the first month in the year. September t>'e seventh (septem); 
October, the eighth (oeto) ; November, the ninth (novem) ; December the tenth 
(decern); .January, the eleventh; Februarj', the twelfth. 

The observance of the historical and civil year caused doubledating to be 
resorted to, as e. g. in the New York document given above. 



328 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Respectiue Chimneys in his and their houses w*^in the Time or 
Space of Three months next after the date hereof Vpon paine 
that hee or they that shall neglect Soe to doe shall depart their 
houses and not bee suffered to Liue in the same they not only 
Endangeringe their owne houses but alsoe their Neighbours to be 
burnt by fire &c. 

Jannetje, the daughter of Loper, was married, 1676, to Jan 
Davidsen, a Swede, residing in Albany. (See article Jan Davidsen, 
Part III.) 

After the death of Davidsen, she married, on June 5, 1681, 
Hendrick Beekman, first son of Wilhelmus Beekman. Hendrick 
Beekman's grandmother was a Slagboom, probably Danish. (See 
article Teuntje Jeurians. Part II.) 

Hendrick, became Justice of the Peace, of Ulster County, 
N. Y., 1684. 

By Jannetje (Joanna Lopers) he had three children : William, 
who died in Holland; Catharine, born 1683, married three times, 
died 1745, leaving no children; Cornelia, born 1696, married Gil- 
bert Livingston. 

Gilbert's father, Robert Livingston, was the founder of the 
distinguished Livingston family in America. Robert Livingston 
was wealthy. In 1685 he purchased about 160,000 acres of land, 
extending along the eastern shore of the Hudson for about twelve 
miles. He became known as first Lord of Livingston Manor. 

For genealogical data see Wiliam B. Aitkin, "Distinguished 
Families in America descended from Wilhelmus Beekman and Jan 
Thomasse Van Dyke." (1912). 



JONAS MAGNUS. 

Jonas Magnus, from Sweden, was in New Amsterdam about 
1660. In November, of that year, he brought suit against Mons 
Pietersen, also a Swede or a Finn. But both were in default. 
Nothing is said as to the nature of the suit.'^^^ 



781 The Records of New Amsterdam, III., p. 289. 



MANS. 329 

On January 31, 1665, Cornelius van Ruyven sued Jonas Mag- 
nus. He demanded an attachment to Ije declared valid, and that 
the "officer be authorized to put the defendant in prison, whenever 
he comes hither." The Court finally declared the attachment valid, 
"authorizing- the Officer to imprison the defendant on his coming 
to New Amsterdam. "'^^ 

A Jan the Swede, mentioned in a court transaction in Decem- 
ber, 1653, is likely another person. '^^^ 



ENGELTJE MANS. 

Engeltje Mans was one of the early residents in New Am- 
sterdam, where she was married, December 18, 1639, to Burger 
Joris. In the marriage record it is stated that she was from 
"Coinxte," in Sweden. '^^ Can this mean "Vexio," from which 
Hage Bruynsen (a Swede, who worked for Joris) came? 



l^^'K. U<P ^xcto 



^ 






An entry in the Church Book of the Dutch Reformed Church in New Amsterdam, 1639. 

Burger Joris was in New Amsterdam in 1637 and was secured 
as smith in the colony of Rensselaerswyck, where he worked until 
sometime in August, 1639, when he moved to Manhattan. His 
original home was in Hirschberg, in Silesia. '''^^ 

In 1641 he built one of the first dwelling houses, if not the 
very first, in New Amsterdam, east of the present Broad Street 
upon Hoogh Straet. He sold it, December 17, 1644, to Cornelis 
Melyn. It was situated on a plot of about 135 English feet 
frontage. '^^^ 



782 Ibid., V. p. 179. 

783 Ibid., I., p. 143. 

784 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 33. 

785 Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 815. 

786 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, pp. 104, 128. 



330 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

On April 28, 1643, he received a groundbrief for sixty acres 
of land on Mespath KillJ^''' The deed reads, according to Collec- 
tions of the N. Y. Historical Society, XLVL, p. lOOf. : 

"We, Willem Kieft Director General and Councillors for the 
High Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands, 
his Highness of Orange and the Hon. Heeren Managers of the 
privileged West India Company, residing in New Netherland, 
Make known and declare by these presents that on this under- 
written date we have granted to Burger Joorissen a lot situated ok 
the bank of the East River on the Island Manhatans to the East 
of the Fort, extending to the East eleven rods and to the North ten 
rods, being an uneven square amounting to one hundred and ten 
rods of land ; with express conditions and stipulations that he, 
Borger Joorisen, or those acquiring by virtue of this present his 
right, shall acknowledge the aforesaid Heeren Managers as his 
Lords and Patroons under the Sovereignty of the High Mighty 
Lords States General, and here their Director and Councillors to 
obey in everything as good inhabitants are bound to do ; and pro- 
vided he, Burger Joorisen further submits to all such charges and 
duties as have already been imposed or shall yet be imposed by 
the Hon. Heeren. It is also stipulated that Burger Joorissen, in 
one or two years time, on the said lot on the strand shall yet cause 
to be built a good house. Therefore conferring upon said Burger 
Jorissen, or those entering upon his right in our stead real and 
actual ownership of said lot, granting him by these presents abso- 
lute and irrevocable power and authority and special order to build 
on, inhabit, and use said lot, as he might do with other his patri- 
monial lands and possessions, without we grantors, in our afore- 
stated quality, having, reserving or retaining any the least share, 
ownership or authority in the same, but in behalf of as above 
from now on and forever renouncing everything, promising further 
firmly, irrevocably, and unbreakably to observe and carry out this 
their Conveyance, all under pledge as expressed by law ; without 
guile or craft this has been subscribed by us and confirmed with 
our seal in red wax, in Fort Amsterdam April 28, 1643, New Style. 
Was signed Willem Kieft. 



787 E. B. O'Callaghan, History of New Amsterdam, II., p. 582. 




A. House belonging to Cornells van Tienhoven. B. House belonging to 
Adriaen Vincent. C. The old Bark Mill. D. House of Caret Van Brugge. E. House 
of Wessel Evertsen. F. House of Rutger Jaeobsen, who married Tryntie Jans, a 
Danish woman. G. House belonging to Richard Smith. H. House belonging to Bur- 
ger Joris, who married Engeltje Mans, a Swedish woman. 



MANS. 331 

"By order of the Hon. Heeren Directors and Councillors of 
New Netherland. 

"Cornelis Van Tienhoven 
"Secretary. 
"Lib A. fo. 58. 
"A true Copy. 
"David Jamison 
"Endorsed in Dutch 
"Grant of Burger Jorison, of the 28th April 1643." 

On January 20, 1644, he bought a lot in New Amsterdam ;'^^^ 
likewise in September, the same year, a "house, garden and brew- 
ery," which had been the property of Hendrick Jansen.'^^^ 

As intimated, Joris was a smith (hoefsmid) by occupation, 
but being a thrifty man he was soon in position to engage in other 
pursuits. 

He was the owner of a sloop, with which he occasionally 
made a trading voyage up the Hudson river. 

He often appeared in Court. He was independent, and 
wanted everything his own way. In 1664 when the English con- 
quered New Netherland he raised such an uproar — he was a 
great "swearer" — about the ears of the timid spirits, that the 
surrender to the English was delayed for several hours. 

We meet his wife quite often as sponsor, for instance as early 
as 1642, for a child of John Suycker and for one of Hans Nicho- 
laeszen. In the baptismal record, giving the name of the sponsors 
at the baptism of Nicholaeszen's son, her name is apt to be over- 
looked. The record says "engelsman," which some have taken for 
"Englishman," and for being in apposition with the name of Chris- 
tina Vynen, another sponsor, who thus has been erroneously con- 
sidered as English. (See Excursus, "Unclassified Names, B. in 
Part II). No doubt "engelsman" here refers to Engeltje Mans. 

D. T. Valentine, who speaks of the boisterous way of Burger 
Joris, regards Engeltje as one of the "notable women of olden 
times." ''^^ A statement of J. H. Innes would indicate that she 
was not unequally yoked with her husband : 



788 Ibid., II., p. 583. Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 
1902, p. 124. 

789 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., p. 29. 

790 D. T. Valentine, Manual of . . . the City of New York, 1855, p. 521. 



332 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

"Engeltje appears to have been a vigorous old lady of some- 
what masculine disposition. She was frequently, as witness or 
litigant, before the Court at the Stadt Huys, where she was much 
dreaded on account of her loquacity, the magistrates being forced 
to protest against her upon their minutes, as being addicted to, 
'an outpouring of many words'. "^^^ 

She appeared in court on January 24, 1656, producing a de- 
claration of what was left on her husband's bowery. Thomas 
Griddy, who had lived there, was the cause of her presence 
in court. He brought the suit against Joris.'^- 

In November, the same year, she appeared again in court for 
her husband, who had sued Cornelis Van Tienhoven ;^^^ likewise in 
December, when a case between her husband and another German, 
Hans Vos, was to be tried.'^^^ 

On January 29, 1657, she sued Geertie Jacobsen, wife of 
Geurt Coerten ,for having circulated a false report about her. 
She demanded proof of any dishonor or "in default thereof, 
that deft, be punished therefor as an example to others, as the 
Court deems proper." Geertie explained that she did not disgrace 
Engeltje with what she had said, declaring she knew no dishonor 
of the plaintiff. "The Schout as guardian of the pltf. concludes 
that deft, be condemned to ask pardon of God, Justice, and the 
wronged party in Court, and be moreover amerced in a fine at the 
discretion of the Court." The Court now declared that Geertie 
"shall demand pardon of God, Justice, and the wronged party and 
further declare that she knows no dishonor of her, and moreover 
be fined ten guilders for the Honble. Schout." Geertie complied 
with this verdict, and added that she "is thankful for impartial 
law." 

Under the same date the court records relate the following in 
regard to a suit instituted against Engeltje by Jacob Strycker: 

"Pltf. says that they (pltf and deft.) disagree about a beast; 
and whereas the deft, says that he, pltf. asserted, she and 
the Honble. Silla acted and complotted together, demands that 
she, deft, shall acknowledge the same or deny having said so. 



791 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 234. 

792 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674. II., pp. 13, 23. 

793 Ibid., II., p. 222. 

794 Ibid., III., p. 94. 



MANS. 333 

Deft, answers, that pltf. has said, that she and Honble Silla acted 
together. Honble. Silla being present, standing up. declares himself 
a party, and says if the Deacons can prove, that it is their beast, 
that the same falls to the Church. Deft. Engeltje says, that the 
beast in question was last Thursday taken from her stall. The 
Deacons answer, they are ignorant of it. And whereas the Honble. 
Silla, as party, being asked for proof, that it is the beast of the 
Poor, says he can give no other proof, than that John Snediger's 
wife should have said, the beasts, belonging to the Poor, should 
have a cut like a half moon on the ear. Parties being heard, and 
the court having examined the proofs, produced by the Deacons, 
of those, who had raised the cow from a calf and also, who 
wintered it last year, decide that said proof is sufficient and that, 
consequently, the cow in question belongs to the Poor and there- 
fore commission the Hon : Willem Beeckman and Jan Vinge to 
tax the costs incurred by deft, and if parties think they have any 
particular difference, they may institute their action therefor." 

Burger Joris received, in 1658. a distinction that was given to 
very few in New Amsterdam, that of the great Burgher's right, in 
spite of his having violated various ordinances of the city. He 




Signature of Burger .Joris, 1659, husband of Engeltje Mans. 

had e. g. recived from a Hendrick Jansen a brew-house, and began 
to sell beer without paying excise tax. He was prosecuted for 
this in 1646. He denied the general charge, but admitted that three 
half-barrels were drunk in his house "with some company"! He 
was provoked at the ado made about the matter and threatened to 
"cut a slice" of the fiscal. The aggrieved fiscal brought suit against 
him, whereupon he appeared before the Council and begged pardon 
of the officer. But the fiscal insisted that Joris should be fined. 
Arbitrators were appointed. However, their work proved to be in 
vain. They reported to the Council that Joris "made game of 
them." The Council finally took the afifair in hand, and fined 
Joris 60 guilders. Upon his addressing that body in a derogatory 



334 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

manner, it ordered him "to remain four and twenty hours in 
chains."795 

In 1654 Joris estabHshed a mill upon his bowery, for a long 
time it was called the "Burger's Mill." In the same year, when it 
was planned that new streets should be made in New Amsterdam, 
and that one street must pass through the garden of Joris, he de- 
termined to sell the house in which he had been living for fourteen 
years. He sold it 1655. The street was laid out the next year 
and received the name Smith Street (Smee Straat) from the 
blacksmith (Joris). whose land it ran through. Later it was named 
William Street. 

About 1660 Joris sold off in small parcels all of his land re- 
maining upon the west side of this street. His later house, the 
site of which is covered by New Cotton Exchange was at the 
eastern corner of William and Stone streets, and here he resided 
during the remainder of his stay in New Amsterdam. 

In the early part of the eighteenth century, this house 
became of interest as being the residence and place of business of 
William Bradford, the first established printer in New York ; here, 
in 1725, is supposed to have been issued the first number of the 
'New York Gazette,' the pioneer newspaper of the City.'"^^^ 

Joris left New Amsterdam about 1664 and took up his re 
sidence upon his Long Island bowery. Here, too, he proved him- 
self a man of considerable prominence. He was one of the 
patentees named in the Nicol Patent (Cfr. Collections of the New 
York Historical Society XLVL, p. 80f.) of the town of Newton, 
and one of the several commissioners appointed in 1670 to lay out 
and regulate roads in that town. 

Joris and his wife had many children. Catharyn was bap- 
tized December 16, 1640; Maryken, December 14, 1642; Joris, 
July 28, 1647; Janneken, January 30, 1650; Hermanus, March 
3, 1652; Elsje, December 7, 1653; Claes, June 17, 1657; Lysbeth, 



795 J. H. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its People, p. 231. 

796 Ibid., p. 234. Valentine. Manual of . . . City of New York. 1865, pp. 
665, t)66. 



MAETENSEN. 335 

May 18, 1659; Johannes, February 16, 1661; Elias, April 2, 
1664.'»7 

The sons took the patronymic Burger. They were repeatedly 
called to assist the civil government in the township in which they 
resided. 

Burger Joris died in 1671, at his farm on the Dutch Kills. 

In 1674, his widow lived in New Amsterdam in her house 
rated as "second class" and valued at $1,500, on the present Old 
Slip, between Stone and Pearl St., then a part of the street called 
Waterside. Sometime before 1683, she purchased the house of 
Richard Smith upon Hoogh Straet (now No. 56 Stone Street). 
Here she resided for many years, with her sons Hermanus and 
Johannes. They appear as members of the Dutch Church in the 
list of 1686. Both Engeltje and her husband had joined this 
Church before 1660. 

Engeltje Mans attained a great age. She was still living in 
1701. 



CORNELIS MARTENSEN. 

Cornelis Martensen, from Sweden, was in New Netherland in 
1655. A notice in the Calendar of Historical Manuscripts states 
that "Dirck Michielsen, a Finn, and Cornelis Martensen, a Swede, 
were, on July 31, 1656, ordered discharged from confinement on 
a charge og giving beer to Indians." Their plea was ignorance of 
the law. 

In New Amsterdam such pleas were listened to. September 
21, 1656. Martensen petitioned for the "restitution of wine seized 
by the Fiscal in 1655." It would appear that the order of July 31 
gave Martensen the courage of asking for "restitution." of his con- 
fiscated liquor.'^^^ 

Cornelis Martensen must not be confounded with Cor- 
nelis Martensen of Steenwyck, likewise residing in New Amster 
dam. 



797 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. 11., 
pp. 11, 14, 22, 27, 31, 36, 46, 53, 60, 72. 

798 Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, I., pp. 171, 174. 




STOCKHOLM, SEE1,'HJ_. „„ 
From Brij!j|;i, 




yOUl^i ABOUT 1600 
urbita, iv. 



338 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

CORNELIUS MATTHYSEN. 

Cornelius Matthysen, or Nels (Nelis) Matthysen, was from 
Stockholm, in SwedenJ^** He must not be taken for his con- 
temporary countryman in Delaware, Nils Matson. 

Cornelius Matthysen was in New Amsterdam as early as 1658. 
Under date of August 12, 1658, he brought suit against Cornelius 
Janzen, a woodsawyer, demanding "the sum of fl. 128.4 balance as 
appears by account exhibited in Court." Janzen was angered and 
denied that he owed so much. He accused Matthysen of being 
"a thief, saying he stole a crow-bar from the General and sold it 
to little Abramje; moreover, advised him to steal his timber from 
the General and sell it ; offering to prove it." No decision was 
given then ; and in September Matthysen requested that the ac- 
count between him and Janzen might be taken up by arbitrators. 
On November 7, the same year, Matthysen obtained judgment 
against Janzen.^***^ 

On February 26„ 1661, Cornells Matthysen and Barentje 
Dircks of Meppel were married in New Amsterdam. 

He was one of the founders of Harlem (1661), where he was 
well esteemed. "By occupation a carpenter and timber-hewer, he 
was the first tenant of the land first known as the Church farm, 
from which he cut and cleared the primeval forest trees." His 
lease on this property expired in 1668, when he left the town and 
bought a small place at Hellgate Neck, Newtown. 

The Court minutes of New Amsterdam have on record several 
cases which are suggestive of the troubles of a pioneer timber- 
hewer in New Netherland when it was a question of delivering 
timber "at its proper time" and "of the right measure." We have 
mentioned one case, where Matthysen was a litigant, we shall men 
tion another: 

In November, 1664, Matthysen started suit against Denys 
Isaacksen, claiming that he bargained with him for some timber 
for the sum of fifty-five guilders. He demanded the half of this. 
Isaacksen, however, claimed that he had bargained for the timber 



799 New York Genealogical and Biographical Records, VI., p. 143. 

800 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, II., pp. 418, 422; III., pp. 
4, 19; v., p. 245. 



MATTHYSEN. 339 

for skipper Claas Gangelofzen Visser, and had spoken to him about 
it, further that Matthysen had not delivered the timber either at 
its proper time nor of the right measure. The Court, after having 
heard the parties, appointed two men to arbitrate the case.^**^ 

On June 12, 1666, Matthysen was elected by the Court of 
New York as one of the Overseers of New Haerlem. He had 
been nominated by the inhabitants of New Haerlem. His office 
was for one year. It had jurisdiction in all cases up to fl. 200. 

Matthysen's oath was as follows: "You solemnly swear in 
the presence of almighty God, that to the best of your knowledge 
and with a clear conscience, according to the laws of this govern- 
ment and without regard to person, you will in all cases up to 
200 fl., brought before you, maintain law and justice; you will as 
much as possible, endeavor to further the welfare of your village 
and inhabitants. So help you God."^^^ 

Matthysen, it appears, was a relative of Hage Bruynsen. 
For in a petition, September 22, 1668, he and two other men re- 
quested the Court that it would appoint the petitioners, who were 
"next of kin of the deceased," and a fourth person to take the 
estate left by Hage Bruynsen, of Sweden. The petition was 
granted. ^''^ 

In 1673 Matthysen and Christina Lourens requested by peti- 
tion that they might be granted the proprietorship of a "piece of 
land called Pattry's Hook, situated between Lewis Morris's land 
and the Two Brothers." The government, in acting upon this 
petition, ordered that it "be for the present declined." ^^^ 

Matthysen sold his property at Hellgate to Thomas Lawrence, 
and obtained a grant of sixty acres at Turtle Bay, in 1676. This 
he sold to Joh. Pietersen. He perhaps went to Hackensack (as 
did his family) after 1681. 

He had children : Mathys, Hendrick, Anna, Maria, Catherine, 
Sarah, and Rachel. 

Mathys was baptized December 18, 1665 : Hendrick, Decem- 



801 Ibid., v., p. 152f. 

802 Ibid., VI., pp. 15, 21. 

803 Ibid., VI., p. 147. 

804 New York Colonial Documents, II., p. 643. 



340 SWEDISH IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

ber 5, 1669; Catharine, February 19, 1676; Sarah and Rachel, 
twins, December 23, 1681; Anna ? Maria ? 

Sarah was married to Jacob Matthews, Maria to Samuel 
Hendricksen, both of Hackensack. 

Mathys (surname: Cornehssen) married Tryntie Hendricks, 
1692. He died at Hackensack, 1743 — 8. His descendants re- 
tained the name of Cornelissen.**^ 



HENDRICK OLLOFSEN. 

Hendrick Ollofsen (de Sweet — the Swede) was in New Am- 
sterdam about 1655. On March 8, of that year, he was sued by 
WilHam Hallett, who demanded payment of fl. 177. A week later 
Ollofsen replied in court that Hallett's claim and account were not 
correct. He requested proof from Hallett, and would pay the sum 
if proof was forthcoming. On the other hand, he demanded 
damage for what Hallett's cattle had done to his plantation in 
turnips, pumpkins, tobacco, maize, etc.. the extent of the damage 
to be determined by the Court. The Court ordered the parties to 
settle their claims before arbitrators. Ollofsen chose Jan van 
Leyden to arbitrate. The court minutes state that Ollofsen was a 
Swede, but convey no information as to which part of Sweden he 
came from.^*^^ 



BRIETE OLOFS. 

Briete Olofs (Brielle Oule), from Goteborg, Sweden, was in 
New Amsterdam as early as 1656. She may have immigrated to 
New Sweden and thence to New Amsterdam. On August 5, 1656, 
she was married in New Amsterdam to Pieter Corneliszen of Var- 
berg in Sconia, a Dane. He was later — perhaps on account of 
his wife — known as Pieter Corneliszen the Swede. (See article 



805 J. Riker, Harlem, Its Historj- and Early Annals, p. 229. Hnrvey, Genea- 
logical History of Hudson and Bergen Counties, p. 45. 

806 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674. I., p. 1!96. 



PIETERSEN. 341 

' Pieter Cornelissen," Part II.) A daughter. Margariet, was Ijorn 
to them in 1657. She was baptized April 15, in the same year.'**'" 
Pieter was deceased before December 1666, when Jan Jacob- 
sen, a Frieslander, informed the orphan masters that it was his 
intention "to marry Briete Olofs, widow of the deceased Pieter 
CorneHssen Sweet." Focke Janzs and Cornehs Aerts were ap- 
pointed guardians. Jan Jacobsen married Briete. December 4. 
1666.808 

Upon becoming widow for the second time, Briete was mar- 
ried to a German, Gabriel Carbosie. who was born in Lauflfen 
near Manheim and was widower of Teuntie Straelsman. whom 
he had married in 1657.^"^ 

Briete Olofs must not be taken for Helena Olofs who. like 
Briete, was married to a Jan Jacobsen. 



STYNTIE PIETERS. 

Styntie Pieters, from Stockholm, wife of Barent Jansen 
Blom, also from Stockholm, was in New Amsterdam as early as 
1641 or before. (See article "Barent Jansen," Part III.) 



MONS PIETERSEN. 

Mons Pietersen (Mons Pietersen Staeck) was either a Swede, 
or a Finn, from Abo, Finland. He was one of the founders of 
Harlem. He owned a house in New Amsterdam in 1660, as is 
shown in a notice in the court minutes. Under date of April 13, 
1660, the minutes report : "Jan Snedingh. pltf . vs. Moenes Pieter- 
sen, deft. Pltf. says he hired a small house from deft, for 24 gl. 
the year and has occupied it half a year; is on a bowery, where he 
is going to live the half year and that others reside in the house ; 



807 Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, II., 
p. 45. 

808 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1900, p. 128. 

809 .J. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals, p. 376. 



342 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

and he paid the defendant thirteen guilders and that the defendant 
has seized eleven guilders with Jan van der Bilt; asks v^^hy he 
has done so? Answers, for the remaining rent. Defendant is 
asked, if the others have gone to dwell in the house with his 
consent? Answers, Yes. Burgomasters and Schepens having 
heard parties decree, as the defendant allowed others to reside in 
the house, that, in that case he has no claim on the plaintiff. There- 
fore the plaintiff may receive the money from Jan van der Bilt.''^^^' 
In November, 1660, "Jonas de Sweet" (Jonas the Swede) 
brought suit against "Moens de Sweet" (the Swede). But the 
defendant, who can be no other than Mons Pietersen, was in de- 
fault. Nothing is said as to what was the nature of the suit.^^^ 

On January 24, 1663, Mons Pietersen married, in Brooklyn, 
Magdalentje Van Tellickhuysen. She was widow of Adam Dirck- 
sen from "Colen" of New Haerlem, and was sometimes called 
Magdaleentje Lamberts; she had come from Steinfurt, Ger- 
many.^^- 

Pietersen had taken part in laying out the village of Harlem. 
At first he rented a house and a bowery. He soon disposed of 
these and entered into a "three years' partnership, January 17, 
1662, with Jan Cogu, from whom he received the half of his allot- 
n.ent of land with house, barn, etc., for 125 guilders and the 
balance in cash . . . With farm and lime kiln, with a canoe valued at 
fifteen guilders, and the herding to attend to, they also engaged, 
August 22, 1662, to work Tourner's land, already under the 
plough." Cogu died about the time the partnership expired, 
February 1, 1665. 

Mons Pietersen held minor offices in the town of Harlem. 
He was an unlettered man, but by nature gifted. Riker says, 
"Much reliance was placed upon his judgment ; yet strong drink 
often made him abusive and violent and this failing marred his 
whole life." 

In 1665 heavy penalties were imposed on Pietersen by the court 
in Harlem. This may have caused him to leave Harlem. He re- 



810 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, III., p. 153. The marriage 
register states that Pietersen was from "Arbon in Sweden." 

811 Ibid., III., p. 239. 

812 New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, VI., p. 145. Year 
Book of the Holland Society of New York, 1897, p. 140. 



PIETERSEN. 343 

moved to Elizabethtown, New Jersey, "taking his lumber thither 
in a canoe, aided by Gillis Boudewyns." Here Mons took the oath 
of allegiance, on February 19, 1666. 

We shall let the court minutes of New Amsterdam speak in 
regard to his standing in court : 
[October 3, 1665] 

"Jan Montague, Moenes Pietersen and N. Verneltje, pltfs. 
vs. Daniel Terneur. Pltfs. communicate in form of complaint, 
that a dispute arose a while ago between them and the defendant 
(all inhabitants of N. Harlem) on account of deft.'s dog having 
bitten one of the pltf.'s Montague's pigs; concerning which the 
deft, summoned them before the constable and Commissaries of 
N. Haerlem, who condemned the pltfs severally on the 28th Sep- 
tember last in a fine of one pound Flemish for the benefit of the 
poor. Deft, delivers in copy of aforesaid judgment and main- 
tains that the same was justly pronounced and delivered. He re- 
quests therefore that the same be approved of. The Mayor and 
Aldermen having heard parties' verbal debates, and the produced 
judgment being examined, they approve and ratify the same, and 
for reason condemn each in his costs.^^^ 

This case was of little account. Far more serious and, as 
above intimated, likely determinative for Pietersen's leaving Har- 
lem, was his beating of a herdsman and threat to treat the town 
constable in a similar manner. 

The version of the Court minutes dealing with this matter 
is as follows: 

"Resolveert Waldron,' Constable at N. Haerlem, pltf. vs. 
Moenes Pietersen, deft. Pltf. says, that deft, has been condemned 
by the Court of Haerlem in a fine of one hundred guilders for and 
because he had sorely beaten the herdsman of said village, named 
Jacques, according to the declaration thereon being, but in place of 
satisfying said judgment he threatened to treat the Constable in a 
like manner; requesting approval of said judgment, etc. Deft. 
denies that he beat the abovenamed Jacques the herdsman or 
threatened the Constable, etc. Jacques the herdsman appearing 
in person declares, that the defendant struck him, because he had 
driven the deft.'s oxen with the young cattle of the whole village 



813 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, V., p. 296f. 



344 SWEDISH IMMIGKANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

away from the milk cows ; proving the same by a declaration made 
to this effect by Joost Oplines (Oblinus). The Mayor and Alder- 
men having heard parties, condemn the deft, first the fl. 100 ac- 
cording to the previously rendered judgment approving the same, 
and further, to be imprisoned until he give security for his (good 
behavior) and to demean himself as becomes an honest in- 
habitant."^i4 

As we have already noticed, Pietersen was a resident of 
Elizabethtown in 1666. "Within ten years he v.ent to the Swedish 
Colony at Upland, Penn.. and got land at Calkoen Hook, where 
he was yet living in 1693." 

"Too often mastered by his bad habit, once for scolding a 
magistrate, he was fined 1000 guilders, but the fine was remitted 
at the request of the injured party, upon Monis asking pardon for 
his abuse, and pleading that he said it 'in his drink.' His native 
frankness and good sense disarmed resentment, and, despite his 
weakness, won respect. His sons, Peter, Matthew, and Israel are 
understood to have been the ancestors of the Stuck family." ^^^ 



SIMON DE SWEEDT. 

Simon de Sweedt was in New Amsterdam about 1661. As 
the name indicates, he was from Sweden. What we know about 
him is due to the following notice in the court minutes of New 
Amsterdam : 

[January 25, 1661]. Jan Janzen van de Langh Straat, pltf. 
vs. Simon de Sweedt, deft. Pltf. demands from deft, twenty five 
guilders balance of a piece of land sold him for ninety guilders. 
Deft, says, that pltf. cannot deliver him the land. Pltf. replies, 
that he sold the deft, the land as he bought it and that deft, had 
sold the piece of land back to the man, from whom he bought it. 
Deft, rejoins, that the pltf. had promised him a ground brief, which 
pltf. denies. The Court refer the matter in dispute to Cornelis 
Aarsen and Peter Stoutenburgh to reconcile parties if possible as 



814 Ibid., v., p. 297. 

815 J. Riker, Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals. 



DE SWEET. 345 

regards the piece of land in question, if not to report their pro- 
ceedings to the Court." ^^^ 



HANS ROELOFF. 

Hans Roeloff, from Stockholm, was a soldier, in service of 
New Netherland, who fled from Fort New Amstel to Maryland in 
the year 1659, as per New York Colonial Documents, H., p. 64. 
Another Swede, Cornelius Jurriaensen (See article "Cornelius 
Jurriaesen." Part HI.) seems to have been his companion in the 
flight. In the years 1659-1662 a "Roelof Swenske" (Roelof 
Swede) is listed among the soldiers receiving pay in the military 
service at Fort Amstel in New Netherland. (Ibid., II., p. 179.) 
Whether he is the same person as Hans Roeloff can not be 
definitely stated. 



CLAES DE SWEET. 

Claes de Sweet (the Swede) was in New Amsterdam about 
1655. The words "de Sweet" indicate that he was from Sweden. 
We know nothing of him beyond what can be inferred from the 
court minutes of New Amsterdam : 

On June 14, 1665, Marritie Jorisen prosecuted a suit against 
Andries de Haes, and said that de Haes had scolded her as a 
whore, and her husband as a rogue, in the presence of Claes 
Michelsen and Claes de Sweet. 

July 5, 1655, she "sustained by these two witnesses that de 
Haes had used abusive language against her and her husband." 
Andries de Haes objected, that the two witnesses were servants of 
Marritie Joris. She replied that they were not her servants. De 
Haes acknowledged that as she said she was not indebted to him, 
— he replied, "Whores and knaves act so." He now declared be- 
fore the court that he knew the plaintiff and her husband as honest 

816 The Records of New Amsterdam, 1653-1674, III., p. 251. Is he the same 
person as Simon Hansen? 



346 SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

and decent man and wife, and that the words had been expressed 
in haste. The Court condemned de Haes for his calumnies in a 
fine of six guilders for the behoof of the deaconry of New Am 
sterdam, and dismissed the plaintiff's claim.^^'^ 



ROELOFF TEUNISSEN. 

Roeloff Teunissen was a seacaptain from Goteborg, in 
Sweden, who settled in New Amsterdam about 1651. In 1651 he 
had found employment in the Dutch service, and was then "Master 
of the ship the Emperor Charles". In New Amsterdam he was a 
neighbor of Dirck Holgersen, a Norwegian. He bought, on 
September 18, 1651, Holgersen's original house on a parcel of 
ground in Smit's Vly. This house had been built by Holgersen 
about the year 1649. It must have stood upon the whole or a part 
of the site of the modern building, No. 259 Pearl Street. Roeloff 
Teunissen resided there till 1657, when he sold the premises to 
Jan Hendricks Steelman (J. F. Innes, New Amsterdam and Its 
People, p. 323f.). Teunissen and Steelman must have had busi- 
ness transactions with each other before. For, on March 8, 1655, 
jan Hendricksen Steelman was sued by Jacobus Bakker on account 
of some property. But Steelman answered "in writing, showing 
by letter from Roeloff Teunissen to Sieur Schrick (a German), 
and bill of sale, dated July 4, that he lawfully bought" the 
property in question. ^^^ 



817 Ibid., I., p. 322. 

818 Ibid., I., p. 296. 

Note: The early records of New Netlierland probably present less difficul- 
ties for tracing Swedish names than the Danish or Norwegian. In the preface we 
have mentioned ,Tan Swaen. whom a Scandinavian would take to be Swedish, iis a 
negro. He is sometimes called Swaen .Tanse. According to Bergen's "Knrly Spt- 
tlers of Kings County," he came from Lnane, to this country in 1654. When Cor- 
nelius B. Harvey's "Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen Counties, New 
Jersey,'' states that Jan Swaen was a Swede, this depends on reading ''Stockholm" 
for ''Stockem" (?). In the church register of New Amsterdam, it is stated tlmt 
Jan Swaen was "van Stockem in landt van Luyck" ( — Liege or Luttich). This 
was another person. 

Kldert Engelbertszen. who in 1656 married Sara Walker, of Boston, is men- 
tioned by Riker as a Swede. He came, however, from Eland in East Friesland. 



Retrospect. 



More than a century has passed since an American man of 
letters, Washington Irving, whose parents were immigrants from 
Great Britain, wrote what is known as the Knickerbocker History 
of New York. This burlesque was produced not long after he 
had recovered from his depressed state of mind, caused by the 
death of a young lady he was to marry, Mathilde Hofmann, a 

; descendant of a Swedish immigrant Martin Hoffman, whom v;e 

' have treated in this volume. Washington Irving never married. 
He remained true to the memory of his early attachment. 

Had he been equally faithful in writing the history of New 
York, we should not have had the Washington Irving school of 
writers which has done sorry work in distorting the history of 
the Empire State. This school, says Mr. J. H. Innes. "has done 
so much to propagate false and unworthy notions of New Nether- 
land History.'" It is to be lauded that Mrs. Van Rensselaer 
shows, in her large work on New Amsterdam, an undisguised and 
proper contempt for these notions ; but it is to be deplored that 
they are almost daily propagated by teachers of literature who 
in all seriousness recommend "Diedrich Knickerbocker" as a guide 
in colonial history. Any one familiar with the authentic records 
of New Netherland will, upon taking Irving's farcical "History" in 
hand, immediately see how utterly fantastic, even anachronistic, 
his descriptions are, and how willingly the author yielded to a 
bias that might be looked for in older English descriptions of the 
nearest Teuton neighbor across the channel or his offspring on 

, this side of the Atlantic. 

j Washington Irving was born in New York. He was an 

American by virtue of his birth on American soil, not by virtue 
of having English speaking parents. He would have been no less 
American if his parents had come from Holland, or if he had 
been born in Sweden, or if he had come over to our country as 

; a "foreigner" and naturalized as a citizen. 



348 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

It is not pedigree that makes a man an American. Politically 
he may be an American, but in other respects something else. But 
politics is not everything. Philip Schaff used to say that he was 
a Swiss by birth, a German by education, an American by choice. 
But that does not mean that he renounced his German education 
in favor of the American. For he considered the former quite 
superior. It is conceivable that a person may be politically an 
American, though biologically a Greek, intellectually a German, 
religiously a Russian, aesthetically an Italian, and recreatively an 
Englishman. 

Nor is it language that makes a person an American. A free 
country like Switzerland does not discriminate against its citizens 
because they speak French and not German, or German and not 
French. 

Nor do customs make a man a citizen. The Bavarian does 
not regard the Mecklenburger as un-German or unpatriotic, though 
he has some different customs. 

It is not easy to define an American. He is not an Anglo- 
American in the sense that he discriminates against the Dutch- 
American or the German-American or the Scandinavian-American. 
Biologically, or racially, he may be a hyphenated American, and 
as such make use of the hyphen, prefixing Irish, Danish, Swedish, 
English, etc., to his "American." But the biological factor, as an 
authority on Sociology proper, Dr. J. H. W. Stuckenberg, says, is 
not one of the social forces that go to make up society. The 
American is above all a cosmopolitan ; that is he is, or should be. 
removed from the clannishness that regards the naturalized citizen 
as an inferior because he speaks another tongue or has antecedent 
spouses who were born under another flag than the stars and 
stripes. The true American shows the same kind of consideration 
for the immigrants of the twentieth century as Mr. Theodore 
Roosevelt and Rev. Dr. David Burrell do in their speeches on the 
Dutch immigrants, before the Holland Society of New York. 
This society, founded in 1885 for historical and social purposes, 
includes only direct descendants in male line of the Netherlanders 
by birth or adoption who immigrated before the final establish- 
ment of English dominion 1674 — 75. As many of the Scandi- 
navians treated in the present volume must have been Nether- 
landers by adoption before they came to America, not a few of 



RETROSPECT. 349 

their descendants are eligible to membership in this organization. 

At its banquet in 1903, Dr. Burrell, in speaking of the Dutch 
fathers of early New York, said : 

"... Our Dutch fathers were not aliens ; they were not 
refugees ; they were never foreigners in any sense ; they came here 
to be Americans, and they were Americans from the first moment 
when they set foot on the soil of the New World. They were 
never hyphenated Americans, and they are not hyphenated to this 
day. I remember when Romulus founded Rome he had a lot 
of heterogeneous people gathered around him, and they were very 
much like the population that comes to us from every quarter 
of the world to-day in the steerage of all the ships. He gathered 
them around him, and, as he dug the foundation of the ancient 
city, he required every man among them to take from his neck 
a little bag of earth which he had fondly brought from his own 
fatherland, and empty the bag of earth and say, 'civis romanus 
sum.' That is the only qualification for American citizenship, 
and our forefathers set the example." 

Practically the same thought was expressed seven years be- 
fore by Mr. Roosevelt, who, like Dr. Burrell, is of Dutch 
ancestry. Mr. Roosevelt addressed the Society as follows: 

"... I am glad to answer to the toast, "The Hollander as 
an American." The Hollander was a good American, because 
the Hollander was fitted to be a good citizen. There are two 
branches of government which must be kept on a high plane, if 
any nation is to be great. A nation must have laws that are 
honestly and fearlessly administered, and a nation must be ready, 
in time of need, to fight, and we men of Dutch descent have 
here to-night these gentlemen of the same blood as ourselves who 
represent New York so worthily on the bench and a Major- 
General of the Army of the United States. 

"It seems to me, at times, that the Dutch in America have 
one or two lessons to teach. We want to teach the very refined 
and very cultivated men who believe it impossible that the United 
States can ever be right in a quarrel with another nation — a little 
of the elementary virtue of patriotism. And we also wish to teach 
our fellow citizens that laws are put on the statute books to be 



350 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

enforced ; and that if it is not intended they shall be enforced, 
it is a mistake to put a Dutchman in the office to enforce them. 
"The lines put on the programme underneath my toast begin: 
'America! half-brother of the world!' America, half-brother of 
the world and all Americans full brothers one to the other. That 
is the way that the line should be concluded. The prime virtue 
of the Hollander here in America and the way in which he has 
most done credit to his stock as a Hollander, is that he has ceased 
to be a Hollander, and has become an American, absolutely. We 
are not Dutch-Americans. We are not "Americans" with a hyphen 
before it. We are Americans pure and simple, and we have a 
right to demand that the other people whose stocks go to compose 
our great nation, like ourselves, shall cease to be aught else and 
shall become Americans." 

We shall not quote the entire speech. But we wish to quote 
what the American press often has overlooked in referring to this 
speech. For Mr. Roosevelt said more than this. We put it in 
italics : 

"And further than that, zve have another thing to demand, 
and that is that if they do honestly and in good faith become 
Americans, those shall be regarded as infamous who dare to dis- 
criminate against them because of creed or because of birthplace." 

He adds: "... These, then, are the qualities I should claim 
for the Hollander as an American : In the first place that he cast 
himself without reservation into the current of American life: 
that he is an American, pure and simple, and nothing else. In the 
next place, that he works hand in hand and shoulder to shoulder 
with his fellow Americans, without any regard to differences of 
creed or to differences of race and religion, if only they are good 
Americans. ..." (Year Book of the Holland Society of New 
York, 1896.)* 

The words of these two descendants of Dutch immigrants — 
incidentally Mr. Roosevelt styles himself a Dutchman — also ap- 
ply to the Scandinavian immigrants of early times. They were 



* The recent discussion about the hyphenated Americans (cfr. Scotch-Irish, 
Canadian-French) is not responsible for my quoting Burrell and Roosevelt. Seven 
years have passed since I transcribed their speeches before the Holland Society 
with the view of incorporating them in the present volume. 



EETEOSPECT. 351 

good Americans because they were good Scandinavians. And they 
had something to their credit that the New Netherland government 
did not have. They were tolerant of the established Dutch Re- 
formed church, and still maintained that they had a right to as- 
semble for worship according to their own creed, the Lutheran. 
The government of New Netherland was intolerant of Lutherans, 
Quakers, Independents, Mennonites and Catholics. The Dutch in 
early New York were not quite as tolerant as Mr. Roosevelt's 
speech makes them appear. This part of his speech has therefore 
been criticised, and Mr. Roosevelt has accepted the criticism with 
good grace, stating he was glad that we were now enjoying re- 
ligious liberty in a broader sense than that which obtained in early 
New York. 

But, in order to be just to the Dutch, how much toleration 
could be expected of any people of the seventeenth century? Hol- 
land (and Turkey) was then the only European power that 
sanctioned the toleration which now prevails in nearly all modern 
states. But even Holland did not know religious liberty and 
equality as we know it to-day. 

Notwithstanding, New Netherland was more democratic than 
Virginia or New England. The mixture of many nationalities — 
more than twenty — in the Dutch province broadened the 
democracy of the population, in strong contrast to the clannish- 
ness of the neighbors north and south. New England paid defer- 
ence to blood, education, wealth, social distinction. On the list 
of Harvard College the students were ranked not alphabetically 
but according to their social standing, a system that persisted until 
1773. The title of Mr. is prefixed to only eight names out of 
231 on a list of persons that took the freeman's oath in Con- 
necticut in 1650—1660.* 

The nobility in New Netherland, as such, played no role in 
the development of the national spirit. "Only three or four scions 



* The conventional usage which does not allow that the honorific prefix "Rev- 
erend" by immediately followed by a surname (Rev. Jones), but insists that it should 
be immediately followed by a Christian name (or initials) or instead by a title (Rev. 
John Jones, Rev. J. Jones. Rev. Mr. Jones), is rooted in the class distinction 
which prevailed in the 17th century in places like Connecticut, where, as we have 
seen, only eight names out of a list of 231 freemen v.ere entitled to the prefix 
"Mr." Naturally, an English parson was Master or Mister by tacit consent, as 
"Mr." (formerly Sir) was a translation of "dominus," a title that the par- 
sons in England had used for a long time. When "Reverend" came to be ha_bit- 
ually xised of the parochial clergy of the Church of England — and that was since 
the end of the 17th century — tlie clergyman became, among the few "Misters," 
the "Reverend Mister." "Reverend was not the property of the Anglican clergy 
alone. It was also applied to the priest (Roman Catholic) and the minister (Dis 



352 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

of the old Netherlands aristocracy ever saw its shores ;" and only 
one nobleman from Scandinavia, a Dane. 

It is true that the records of ancient Nev^ York are richly 
sprinkled with the particles "van" and "de". But "van" was not 
the same as the German "von". It meant of or from. Thus, 
Vandeventer meant "from Deventer." "Van Buskirk" was added 
to the name of Laurens Andriessen, a Dane, to show that the 
Laurens Andriessen meant was the one living by the church 
(kerk) in or near the woods (bosch). Van Hoorn could mean 
"from the city of Horn" but also "from or at the corner." Nor 
was "de" indicative of aristocracy. It was nothing but the article 
the. Pieter Andriessen de Schoornsteenveger, a Dane, was Pieter 
Andriessen the chimneysweep (p. 156). Dirck de Noorman was 
Dirck the Norwegian (p. 73). Simon de Sweedt was Simon 
the Swede. Laurens de Drayer was Laurens the turner (p. 153). 

The feeling of the New Netherlanders was no more aristo- 
cratic than the blood. Every citizen was in theory at least a "full 
brother" to every other citizen irrespective of language or nation- 
ality. The Scandinavians intermarried among the Germans, and 

senter), though an attempt was made in the English court to prohibit the use of 
"Reverend" on a tombstone of a Wesleyan minister. 

To speak of a Scandinavian, a G-ermau, or a Dutcli Lutheran pastor of the 
seventeenth century ;!S a "Reverend Mister" is anachronistic. For the Lutheran 
view of the ministry, as then held, was decidedly democratic as compared to that 
of the Anglican Churcli or to that of the Dissenters, who followed Calvin and ad- 
hered more or less to the English class distinction. More democratic than these 
were the Dutch Reformed. The Dutch Reformed were often at one with the 
Lutherans in putting the prefix "Reverend," without further ado, immediately 
before the clergyman's surname. The "Ecclesiastical Records of the State of 
New York," (I-VI., 1901ff.), edited by Mr. Hugh Hastings, State Historian of New 
York, use "Rev. So-and So" and "Rev. Mr. So-and-So" indiscriminately, e. g. : 
Rev. Polhemius, pp. 317, 326. 337: Rev. Wellius, p. 376; Rev. Goetwater. preface 
XX ; Rev Blom, p. 464: Rev. Drisius. Rev. Schaats, p. 605: Rev. Weeksteen, p. 
764: Rev. Dellius. pp. 845, 880. 893; Rev. Selyn, p. 851; Rev. Varick. p. 1067: 
Rev. Voskuil, Rev. Klingant. Rev. Groenewegeu, Rev. Elias. p. 1183; Rev. Freer- 
man, p. 1140; Rev. Leydt, p. 3862; Rev. Ritzema, p. 3886; Rev. Kalkoen, p. 4026; 
Rev. Leadley, p. 4049; Rev. Kuyper. p. 4119; etc. 

Those who condemn this use of "Reverend" without a titular appendix as 
inconsistent with the English idiom, should register their grievances with the State 
Historian of New York. 

But it is not in the official translation of the Dutch Reformed Documents 
alone, that "Reverend" is used in this unceremonious manner. The Minutes ol 
the Twelfth Session of the "Evangelical Lutheran Synod of West-Pennsylvania, 
Gettysburg, 1836, register ministers like Rev. Helm, Rev. Heyer, Rev. Yenger. 
Rev.' Stroh, Rev. Lochman. Rev. Martin, Rev. Oswald, Rev. Moser, Rev. Keyl, 
Rev. Gottwald, Rev. Anspacb, etc. T)ie Minutes of the same Synod for the year 
1860 speak, e. g. of Rev. Ide. Revs. Berry, Gotwald, and Guss. 

This conventional latitude of the New York Dutch Reformed, and the West 
Pennsylvania Lutherans also appears in Rev. .7. C. Jensson's (now Roseland) 
"American Lutheran Biographies," Milwaukee. 1890. — a large work of some 900 
pages: Rev. Albrecht, p. 23; Rev. Andersen, p. 35; Rev. Ansbach. p. 39; Rev. 
Dahl p 153; Rev. Dietrichsen, p. 163; Rev. Eberhardt. p. 181; Rev. Eggen p. 
184;' Rev. Goetwater, p. 213; Rev. Haupt. p. 309; Rev. Kuhl, p. 439; Rev^ Meoh 
ling p 507; Rev Paulson, p. 581; Rev. Preus, p. 595; Rev. Reck, p. 607: Kev. 
Ruth, p. 629; Rev. Telleen, p. 798; Rev. Kildal, p. 890: Rev. Lenker, p. 891 

Finally a testimonv from the official weekly paper of the General ^ynoa 
of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of .\raerica, lUf 



RETROSPECT. 353 

the French, but especially among the Dutch. A Scandinavian 
intermarriage with the English belonged, however, to the excep- 
tions. 

For example, Hans Hansen, from Bergen, Norway, married 
the daughter of a Walloon father and a Parisian mother. The 
ancestor of the American Vanderbilts married, as his first wife, 
Anneken Hendricks, also from Bergen, Norway. Laurens Pieter- 
sen, a Norwegian, married a lady from Germany. Anneke Jans, 
the famous Norwegian lady from Marstrand was married, as 
widow, to a Hollander, Rev. Boghardus. Engeltje Mans, of 
Sweden, was married to a German. Hage Bruynsen, of Denmark, 
married a Swede. That a Dane married a Dane, a Norwegian a 
Norwegian, a Swede a Swede, was rather uncommon. Intermar- 
riage was the rule. And remarriage was the rule among widows 
and widowers. Many married for the third time. In the days 
of Lovlace, one man, a German, is mentioned as being the fourth 
husband of his first wife, and the third husband of his second 
wife whose forebears had been a Dane and a Hollander. Briete 
Olofs, from Sweden, married in succession a Swede, a Frieslander, 



Lutheran Church Work and Observer" (Harrisburg and Philadelphia), in the last 
issue of the year 1915. This paper mentions on p. 2, Rev. Cannaday, Rev. Spang- 
ler, Rev. Dunkelbcrger ; on p. 15, Rev. Botsford; on p. 16, Rev. Richard. 

All this proves conclusively that "Rev. Mr." is not universal usage. And 
as shown, it owes its origin to a social classification, which obtains no longer. We 
say Bishop Ball and Doctor Hall, Professor Hart and Dean Hort, without a "Mr." 
either prefixed or affixed. Why, then, should not "Reverend Jones" be treated 
in the same way? Some may object, "Reverend" is an adjective, the other 
prefixes mentioned are nouns. But why should "Reverend" perpetually remain 
an adjective or be a mere appellative petrifaction, excluded from the laws of evo- 
lution, since it is used as a noun in many sections of our country, notwithstanding 
the conservative label it luis been given by the dictionary. To illustrate, the 
Greek word "Christos" (anointed) was at first an adjective. Later it became 
also a proper noun. Now, "Reverend" as a honorific prefix has gone through a 
similar development. It is well known that "The" as a sine qua non prefix to 
"Revei-end" is no longer insisted upon in sections where provincial standards 
have given way to broader views. And what is there to hinder the "Mr." from 
following suit as a conventional, but provincial and undemocratic drag, that the 
doctor and professor has dismissed. We have no "Dr. Mr." and no "Prof. Mr." 

Perhaps it would be well to dismiss "Reverend" entirely as the stereotyped 
«tyle for clergy. substituting "Pastor" or another equivalent. Certain Ministerial 
Associations have tabood it. And they have been wise in so doing, — just as wise 
as Sir William Ramsey, who has dropped "Saint" as the prefix to the apostle Paul. 

Says this distinguished English professor in "The Teaching of Paul in 
Terms of the Present Day" (1913): "I have intentionally avoided using the hon- 
orific prefix "St.". vsiiich places Paul on a conventional pedestal, and obscures 
the man, the missionary, and the teacher. It has in English lost entirely its 
original force in Greek usage. In Greek we use ho hagios (the holy) with the 
names of angels and archangels and the spirit of God. and so in Latin sanctus; 
but in English the convention would not allow St. Raphael. St. Michael, or St. 
Spirit." 

I. too, have intentionally avoided using in the present work "Rev. Mr." 
as prefix to the surname of ministers. At best "Rev. Mr." can be only on par 
with "Rev." The address "Rev. .Tones," whether English or not English, solves 
a dilemma when one does not know if "Rev. .Jones" (Christian name or initials 
unknown) is a man or a woman (there are several hundred ordained lady preach 
ers), a "Mr.", a "Mrs.", or a "Miss." (See my article "Pastor or Min- 
ister?" in the "Lutheran Obseiwer." Vol. LXXVL. No. 10. (Philadelphia, 1908). 



354 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

and a German. Divorce suits were few in number, fewest among 
the Scandinavians. 

The matrimonial democracy of the parents was perpetuated 
by the children, and these were many. The Norwegian-French mar- 
riage of Hans Hansen, of Bergen, gave life to nine children. The 
Norwegian-Dutch marriage of another Norwegian from Bergen, 
Herman Hendricksen, resulted in ten children. The German-Nor- 
wegian matrimonial alliance of Dr. Kierstede and Sara Roelofs. 
from Marstrand, enriched the population of New Amsterdam by 
half a score. The marriage of Bording, a Dane, with a Hollander 
increased his family by ten. Thomas Fredricksen, a Dane, and 
his wife, from Holland, were parents of eight children. Martin 
Hoffman, a Swede, had by his second wife, who was German or 
Dutch, five children. Burger Joris, a German, married a Swedish 
lady and had ten children. 

In business affairs, racial differences were as little in evidence 
as in matrimony. It was not uncommon for Scandinavians to 
be in partnership with Dutch or Germans. 

As Dutch was spoken by the majority, this language played 
much the same role among those who were not of Dutch blood 
as English plays to-day among our city immigrants from foreign 
lands. Those who did not speak Dutch belonged to the exceptions. 
And up to the time of the American Revolution, New York city 
remained a characteristically Dutch-German-Scandinavian city in 
custom and feelings. It is related that travelers noticed the un- 
English aspect and atmosphere of the place. Notwithstanding, 
New York was distinctively American. And taking its rank as a 
fullfledged city as early as 1653, when it had no rival in the English 
colonies, it is the oldest of American cities, as well as the greatest. 
As the Scandinavians did not have Scandinavian churches, schools, 
and papers, they must have learnt Dutch more rapidly than the 
immigrants of to-day acquire English. 

The factors at work in retarding the learning of English to- 
day in various rural sections of our country were much the same 
as those which made the Dutch in New York and the Germans 
in Pennsylvania slow in turning to English. They were in no 
hurry to bid adieu to the continental tongues. 

Says Mrs. Van Rensselaer: "For two or three generations 



RETROSPECT. 355 

even a colloquial acquaintance with the English tongue was not 
universal on Manhattan; and all through colonial times the English 
speech of its people was very corrupt, for a large proportion of 
them heard only Dutch in the family, the church, and the school. 
The Reformed church permitted no English sermons to be 
preached from its pulpits until 1764 and did not abolish Dutch 
sermons until the end of the century ; no master taught English 
in its school until 1773 and the first who taught it exclusively 
took charge in 1791." 

The Dutch language had the same hold on the population of 
Manhattan as the German on that of Pennsylvania. As late as 
1783 a motion was made in the legislature of Pennsylvania to 
the effect that the official language of the state from then on 
should be Gennan. The motion was lost by a majority of one 
vote, and this vote was cast by a German. 

There is indeed nothing particularly commendable in an ex- 
clusive adherence to the language of one's forefathers when ex- 
pediency demands a greater command of the tongue that is spoken 
by the majority of the land. On the other hand, there is nothing 
supremely heroic in renouncing, perhaps denouncing, the language 
of parents or grandparents to the exclusive cultivation of the of- 
ficial language of the land. Emerson's rule to read nothing but 
English, to read even the classics of foreign nations only in 
English translation, is, to .say the least, fully as much at fault as 
was the attitude of the older Dutch and German pioneers towards 
English. An asset of the Jew is his linguistic ability. Even a 
man so remote from commercial motives as Paul of Tarsus knew 
several languages : Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and probably Latin. 
The sudden growth of Germany as a commercial power at a time 
when the routes and markets of commerce were pretty well estab- 
lished, is, in no mean degree, due to the stress which that country 
lays on the study of languages. The educated American and his 
insular cousin the Englishman are linguistically no match for the 
cultured Dane or Dutchman of Europe. As for the Dutch, the 
Scandinavians, and the Germans in our country, they are as a rule 
bilinguals. As such they can appreciate the spirit of America's 
greatest poet, Longfellow, who after finishing college spent many 
years in studying foreign languages. 

But — to give our digression a point. American citizenship 



356 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

is not inconsistent with paying homage to a tongue that is not 
English. For otherwise American citizens must cease blaming, 
for example, Germany for forcing German upon the Danes of 
Schleswig-Holstein, and Russia for Russianizing Finnland and 
compelling the Poles to speak Russian. America, the new home 
of many tongues, should be fully as democratic as was imperial 
Rome, where perhaps almost three fourths of the population spoke 
Greek, but only a little more than a fourth knew Latin. The 
Apostle Paul, one of the greatest organizers that history knows, 
a cosmopolitan in the best sense of the word, a traveler that visited 
Spain as well as Eastern Antioch, — separated from each other 
by the distance of some 3000 miles — was probably better at home 
in Greek and Hebrew than in the official language of the land which 
had bestowed upon him the rights of Roman citizenship. But — 
to come nearer to our age, our America of to-day should be fully 
as democratic on the language question as was ancient New York. 

Respect for foreign speech is a twin brother of respect for 
colored race. And here, too. New Netherland teaches the modern 
American a lesson, especially such as discriminate against negroes 
and Indians. 

As to the New Netherlanders' treatment of the Indian, Mrs. 
Van Rensselaer says : "In general the Dutchman tried to treat the 
Indians well. By nature they were more gentle than the Puritan 
Englishman ; they did not share his hatred and contempt for aliens 
and heathen : and they were more strongly inclined by their social 
needs to a friendly policy. ... In theory at least the Hollander 
considered the Indian a man like himself with analogous rights." 

This statement applies equally well to the Scandinavian im- 
migrants. One of the first among them to remonstrate against 
Governor Kieft for his unfair treatment of the Indians, was the 
Dane Jochem Pietersen Kuyter. The signing of a treaty of 
peace between the government and an Indian tribe took place at 
the house of another fairminded and democratic Dane, Jonas 
Bronck (p. 179). Leading interpreters of Indian in New Nether- 
land were Claes Carstensen (p. 51) and Sara Roelofs (p. 106), 
both Norwegians ; and Jan Davidsen, a Swede. 

To keep or sell natives of the soil as slaves was never sanc- 
tioned in New Netherland by law, by custom, or by public opinion. 
But a few Indian slaves were introduced from foreign parts, and 



EETROSPECT. 357 

two governors saw fit to export a few captives in a time of war. 
The Norwegian woman Sara Roelofs (107) mentions in a will 
her "Indian, named Ande," whom she gave to one of the sons 
she had by her first husband, Dr. Kierstede from Magdeburg. But 
she, the excellent Indian interpreter, may have proved a good 
mistress for Ande, who served under English — not Dutch — 
rule. 

The Indians adopted Teutonic names, for example, Hans. 
Hendrick. Some of them joined towards the close of the century 
the Dutch Reformed church. But no special effort was made 
by the New Netherlanders to carry on any missionary enterprise 
among them, such as the Swedish minister John Campanius 
planned in the Swedish settlement at the Delaware. Rev. J. Cam- 
panius, who was born in Stockholm about 1601, was in New Swe- 
den from 1643 to 1648. His home was at Tinicum Island, nine 
miles south-west of Philadelphia. He translated Luther's Small 
Catechism into the language of the Delaware Indians. The trans- 
lation antedates that of Eliot's Indian Bible.* It was, however, 
not published until 1696. Its pages alternate with Swedish and 
Indian. (A copy of it is found in the archives at the Theological 
Seminary, Gettysburg, Pa. ; in the Library of Congress ; and in one 
of the libraries in Philadelphia.) 

Commercially the red men were outwitted by the Europeans. 
It suffices to point to the negotiation which resulted in their sale 
of Manhattan, 24,000 acres, for $24. or $120 in present value. 
But they also knew how to strike a bargain as they attempted to 
do, when they captured Pieter Andriessen, a Dane, and demanded 
a high ransom. The greatest weakness of the Indian was his liking 
for fire-water. The government was obliged to issue several 
ordinances prohibiting the sale of liquor to him. 

Less deference M'as paid to the negro. The blacks were 
bought and sold as slaves. But slave-traffic as such was not in- 
dulged in. There never were many slaves in New Netherland 
until after the first conquest by the English. The first that came 
directly from Africa arrived in 1665, about a century after the 
first English slave ship carried off from Africa its cargo of 



* The first edition of the entire Bible printed in the New World in a Euro- 
pean language was the German Bible of 1743, from Sauer's press, Germantown. 
Pennsylvania, with 1272 pages, quarto form. No Bible had been printed in the 
Kngliwh language in the colonies before the German Bible of 1743. 



358 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

vendible natives. Sir John Hawkins, later vice admiral of the 
Armada, owned the ship, whose name of "Jesus" harmonized but 
poorly with its mission to Africa in 1562. 

The Netherlanders employed the negroes as house servants 
They could not chastise them without permission of the magistrate. 
Manumission was an easy matter and quite inexpensive. The 
husband of Ciletje Jans, Danish, united with two other men to 
liberate a slave. They had to pay ten pounds sterling. Pieter 
Andriessen, from Denmark, kept negro slaves, one of whom dis- 
played on a certain occasion that well known but unaccountable 
weakness of a black man in the presence of chickens which often 
leads, and then did lead, to pleadings in the court. Pieter Jansen, 
from Norway, seems to have had a negro slave. And Sara Roe- 
loefs, Norwegian, owned several slaves. She mentions them in her 
will : a negro boy Hans ; "a little negress called Maria" ; a negro 
boy, Peter ; two negresses Susannah and Sarah. Marritje Janse, 
likewise from Norway, owned a slave, "a negro boy," whom she 
bequeathed to her son. 

In those days it was not considered wrong even for churches 
to own slaves. One of the Swedish Lutheran congregations in 
the settlement at the Delaware owned a negress called Peggy. 
She was servant at the parsonage. Ministers could come and go. 
But she had to remain. However, she had a mind of her own. 
She got so stubborn at last that the congregation sold her for $25. 
Some of the negroes in New Netherland joined the church. 
A negro with the sonorous sounding name of Franciscus Bastian- 
zen joined the Dutch Reformed church in 1674. In the year fol- 
lowing, also his wife Barbara Manuels, "Negerinne," joined it. 
Two other negroes belonging to this church were Claes Emanuel? 
and Jan de Vries. Several blacks had Teuton names, e. g. Swaen 
Janse, Anna Jans, Emanuel Pietersen, Lucas Pietersen, Andries 
de Neger. Slaves from Africa were called Angola slaves. They 
were thievish and lazy. African nativity was sometimes indicated 
by names like Jan Van Angola Neger, Dorothea Angola Negerin- 
ne. The oft repeated statement that a negro was the official hang- 
man of New Amsterdam is a fiction. 

We have thus far considered the attitude of the Dutch and 
Scandinavians in their matrimonial and business relations to one 
another and in their general relation to colored races. We shall now 



RETROSPECT. 359 

consider to what extent the Dutch were willing to give the Scandi- 
navians a share in the administrative affairs of the colony. Was 
democracy as evident in this field as in others? 

Now, the Scandinavians had not left their native or adopted 
land because of religious or political discontent or for the lack of 
industrial opportunity. They came to New Netherland voluntarily, 
being recruited for the service they might render the West India 
Company. Some even brought their wives and children along, 
though the large majority married in the New World. They came 
by way of Holland, commonly from Texel. Originally they may 
have started out from harbors like Bergen, Copenhagen, Goteborg. 
Their sojourn in Holland lasted perhaps for a few weeks or 
even for years. They were their own masters. Thus being more 
or less acquainted with Dutch institutions, it was not difficult for 
them to assimilate with the Dutch in New Netherland, whose 
language, closely related as it is to Danish, Norwegian, and 
Swedish, they easily acquired. Dutch was in those days the 
language of commerce. Even the instructions on the Danish men- 
of-war were printed in Dutch for some time during this period, 
not because the Danish fleet was manned with more Dutchmen 
than Danes, but because Dutch was pre-eminently the language 
of the sailors, and there were a good many sailors of foreign 
speech in the Dano-Norwegian navy, as there likewise were many 
Danish and Norwegian sailors with the Dutch fleet. 

New Amsterdam was visited quite early by Scandinavian 
ships, but it does not appear, that they carried immigrants direct 
from Scandinavian harbors. Holland's harbors were then for 
Scandinavian immigrants what English harbors have been for them 
in the nineteenth century : the passengers went off one ship in 
order to get aboard another. This accounts for the fact that 
Scandinavian passengers, as the rcords show, came over by Dutch 
ships, for example, "de Eendracht," "Rinselaers Wijck," "de 
Rooseboom," "de Bruynvis," "de Statyn," "de Trouw,' "de Moes- 
man," "de Bonte Koe," "den Houttuyn." "de Leide," "de Vos," 
"de vergulde Bever," "de Otter," "de vergulde Otter." "De Brant 
von Trogen" carried Jonas Bronck. the Dane, to our shores. It 
was a private ship. "Het Wapen van Noorwegn" (The Arms of 
Norway) is mentioned several times in the records. Jan Jansen. 
a Swedish immigrant was mate of "de Coninck Salomon." Roelof 
Teunissen, another Swedish immigrant, was master of the ship 



360 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

''Emperor Charles." Skipper Syvert van Bergen, probably Nor- 
wegian (p. 145), was commander of "Broken Heart." 

The Scandinavians were always eligible to public oflices in 
New Netherland. As early as 1632 two Norwegians, Roelof Jan- 
sen and Laurens Laurensen were schepens in the region about 
Albany. The Dane Jochem Kuyter was, as we have shown 
elsewhere, successively a member of the Board of Twelve men, 
Board of Eight Men, and Board of Nine Men. And in 1653, 
when he died, he was schepen. Though the West India Company 
stated in 1653 that the officials in New Netherland ought to be 
"as much as possible of the Dutch nation" on the ground that they 
would give the most satisfaction to the people at large, yet no 
discrimination was ever made against Scandinavians. They con- 
tinued eligible also after 1653. For example, Claes Bording, the 
Dane, was several times nominated for the office of schepen. 
Matthys Roelofs, Danish, served as constable. Smeeman and 
Laurens Andriessen, Danes, were magistrates of the court of 
Bergen. The Dane Jan Broersen was magistrate of Horly and 
Marble in 1674. Dirck Holgersen, the Norwegian, was magistrate 
of Bushwyck in 1681. Matthysen, the Swede, was overseer of the 
court at Harlem, and Jan Pietersen Slot was magistrate in the 
same village from 1660 to 1665. 

Among those appointed by the Governor to positions of trust 
was Roelof Jansen Haes, a Norwegian. He was Receiver-General 
of Excises in 1647 at a salary of fl. 480. [The Schout-fiscal re- 
ceived fl. 920, the Secretary fl. 632, the commisary and bookkeeper 
fl. 800, the preacher fl. 1400.] The salary that Haes got was con- 
sidered by the Company as an evidence of Governor Stuyvesant's 
"good knowledge of his (Haes') honesty." Some of the Jansens, 
from Bredstedt in Denmark, were inspectors of staves or fire- 
wardens. Also Christian Baerents, probably a Dane, was fire- 
warden. Dirck Holgersen, from Norway, was "city carpenter.'' 
The Scandinavians, however, did not acquire the political influence 
of their German cousins who came from the commercial centers 
of what the Records designate as the "Kayserreich." They did 
not ascend to the top of the political ladder as Nicholas de Meyer, 
from Hamburg, who was mayor of New York city in 1676; or 
as Jacob Leisler, from Frankfurt am Main, who became lieutenant- 
governor of the entire province. On the other hand, the Scandi- 



RETROSPECT. 361 

navian women, especially the Norwegian, constituted a good part 
of the New Amsterdam aristocracy. 

Before considering the status and influence of the women, 
a word might be said in regard to Scandinavians as soldiers. The 
first soldiers came to New York in 1633. But the professional 
soldiers were too few in number to give adequate protection to 
the citizens, who therefore organized themselves into private 
military companies. Among the Danish immigrants serving in 
military capacity were Ensign Nissen, distinguished for his "great 
diligence and vigilance" ; John Ranzow, corporal ; Sybrant Corne- 
lissen, barber surgeon ; also Pieter Laurenszen Kock, sergeant ; 
Jan Laurens ; Severyn Laurensen ; Hendrick Martensen ; Jan 
Pietersen ; Hans Rasmussen ; Andries Thomassen. On the whole 
they seem to have had a good record, though Thomassen deserted; 
and Severyn Laurensen, Lance Corporal, was stripped of his arms, 
publicly flogged and branded because of theft. 

Among the Norwegian soldiers were Laurens Andriessen, 
who was wounded in the war against the Indians, and whose shoes 
during his state of helplessness on the battlefield were pulled ofl[ 
by a soldier comrade and sold for whisky ; also Roelof Jansen 
Haes, who fought the Indians in 1643. Andries Pietersen was 
another soldier. And Dirck Holgersen, though advanced in years, 
was ensign of the local militia at Bushwyck in 1689. 

Among the Swedish soldiers were Dirck Hendricksen Bye 
and Cornelius Jeuriansen, who deserted. Jacob Loper, from 
Sweden, who had ben captain lieutenant at Curacao, in the navy 
was no doubt an expert in military as well as in naval matters. 

The enemy that these Scandinavian pioneers had to encounter 
in battle was the Indian, the Englishman, and the Frenchman. The 
Indian outbreaks at Manhattan, the massacres at Esopus and 
Schenectady bear testimony to that. 

But what sheds lustre upon the Scandinavian in New Am- 
sterdam was less the martial bravery of the men than the quiet 
influence of the women. 

Tryn, or Catharine, Jonas from Marstrand, Norway, was the 
first midwife of New Netherland. She was paid from the public 
purse, and certainly earned what she got by her patient waiting 
upon the sick. 



362 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

A daughter of hers was Anneke Jans, of New York fame, 
who married the Dutch pastor. Rev. Bogardus. She was the first 
woman in the city of New York to marry a minister. By her 
husband she inherited land that to-day is rated at some $300,- 
000,000, being in the very heart of New York city. The de- 
scendants of Anneke Jans, from the Norwegian fishing-town of 
Marstrand, are very numerous and very wealthy. 

A daughter of Anneke augmented the New Amsterdam aris- 
tocracy by marrying Dr. Kierstede, a German physician. He was 
the first permanent physician in the city of New York. The first 
recorded coroner's inquest ever held in that city was conducted by 
Dr. Kierstede and two assistants. 

Another daughter of Anneke, Fyntie, was married to a 
magistrate of Albany, an expert at estimating Indian money. 

Her third daughter, Katrina, was married, first to the Vice 
Director of Curacao ; then, as a widow, to a wealthy merchant, 
later mayor of New York. Katrina's daughter, Elizabeth, was 
married to the son of Augustyn Herrman, from Prague, who 
became the owner of some 30,000 acres of land. 

But midwife Tryn Jonas had also another daughter and an- 
other grandchild who became the wives of distinguished men. Her 
daughter Marritje was married first to the leading shipwright of 
the colony ; and later to Govert Loockermans, one of the wealthiest 
men in the province. Marritje's daughter, Elsie, was first married 
to a Dutchman, a schepen of New Amsterdam ; as a widow she 
became the wife of Governor Jacob Leisler, mentioned in the text 
books on United States history as the one who called the first 
colonial Congress. 

Another famous woman was Engeltje Mans, from Sweden, 
the wife of Burger Joris, who was one of the Great Burghers and 
a schepen. By his determined attitude he delayed by several hours 
the surrender of New York to the English. He was a smith. 
But this "smith, a mighty man was he." Tryntie Jans of Den- 
mark was married to a magistrate of Rensselaerswyck, and her 
sister became the wife of a capitalist. Eva Albertse, Norwegian. 
was married to Anthony De Hooges, superintendent of the colony 
of Rensselaerswyck; and later to a sheriff of Ulster County. Mar- 
ritje Pieters of Copenhagen married the brother of the Secretary 
of the colony. Pier marriage contract is the first instanced mar- 
riage contract in New Netherland (1639). It is given on page 257 
in this work. 



RETEOSPECT. 363 

Incidentally it might be mentioned that Hans Hansen, of 
Bergen, married the first girl born of European parentage in New 
Netherland; and that Dirck Holgersen, another Norwegian, mar- 
ried the sister of the first boy born of white people on the same 
soil. Holgersen was thus the brother-in-law of the Secretary of 
the colony. 

These marriages went far to strengthen the ties already 
formed between Scandinavians and Dutch, and to make those 
characteristics count which were more peculiar to the pioneers 
from Denmark, Norway and Sweden than to those from Holland. 

As law-abiding citizens, the immigrants from northern Europe 
stood in the front ranks. As industrious men and women they 
were excelled by none. They were determined, aggressive in their 
efforts to secure religious liberty, fearless in defending their rights. 
But they were also mindful of their duties, and reasonable in their 
dealings with other nationalities and races. Their women were 
active in commercial life as shopkeepers, as farmers and even 
traders in the wilderness. Sarah Roelof's ability to speak Indian 
was not acquired by living in a town. Like their Dutch sisters, 
the Scandinavian women pleaded their own cases in court, had 
power of attorney in their husband's absence. They were thus 
more emancipated than their good sisters of the New England 
states. 

Woman's equality in court, especially in matters of pleading, 
was due to the fact that Law in New Netherland was inexpensive, 
for it was common sense. There were no lawyers in this province, 
only notaries whose assistance was invited in framing legal docu- 
ments. The local government was fashioned after that of the 
cities of Holland, where even the smallest village had its elected 
judiciary of five or seven schepens. The schepens in the villages 
of New Netherland were usually four in number. They and the 
burgomasters formed the court. The schout was the sheriff or 
prosecuting attorney. When not acting as prosecutor, he could 
preside over the court. The presiding officer was to see that 
justice was done to the litigants concerned, in getting at the 
evidence pro and con. The court often referred the litigants to 
arbitrators. The cases in which the Scandinavians figure were 
mainly civil cases, which were referred to arbitrators or settled by 
mutual agreement or by the wronging party's paying a small fine. 



364 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

begging pardon of God and man etc. The criminal code was 
lenient as compared with that of European states. One of the 
severest verdicts rendered was the one that sentenced the Dane 
Laurents Duyts to "have a rope tied around his neck, and then to 
be severely flogged, to have his right ear cut off, and to be banished 
for fifty years." Mild in comparison was that which was rendered 
against Jacob Eldersen, also a Dane, who, more by accident 
than by intent, caused the death of a fellow cooper. He was con- 
demned to pay 100 guilders and costs. Amusing indeed was the 
verdict rendered against Hans Hansen from Bergen, who was 
charged with having aided in smuggling. The Court considering 
that he had been "for fourteen years a respectable resident of New 
Amsterdam" dismissed the charge "on condition that he beg 
pardon of God and the Court." 

We look in vain for any hardened criminals among the 
Scandinavians in New Netherland. When the lawsuits to which 
they were a party, did not concern the payment of debts, fulfill- 
ment of contracts, they commonly dealt with sins of the tongue. 
Mere trifles — a dog biting a hog — were sufficient to create liti- 
gation. And few were those whose names never figured in the 
courts. Deference was paid to none. The Lutheran pastor 
Fabritius, likely a Pole, had his actions sifted in court by Marritje 
Jeurians, Danish. And Hans Pietersen, a Norwegian, sued the 
Swedish Lutheran pastor Lars Lock, of the Swedish settlement 
at the Delaware, for "the recovery of a mare." 

As a rule it was differences between employer and employee, 
between creditor and debtor that occasioned most of the suits. And 
considering the various vocations of the litigants, there arose from 
time to time various matters that called for adjustment by the 
Court. 

What were these vocations? 

We have first the fanners who had let a part of their land 
and were looking for stipulated returns. A majority of the in- 
habitants owned farming land and farmed, though they had learnt 
one or more trades. Some of them w^orked in saw mills and grist 
mills. The Norwegians, especially, proved themselves experienced 
hands in sawing lumber. The forests and waterfalls of Norway 
had offered abundant opportunity for those millers that were not 
used to the windmills of Holland. Laurens Andriessen, Norwegian, 



RETROSPECT. 365 

Operated "two large sawmills," run by a "powerful waterfall." 
Another Norwegian, Laurens Laurensen, owned a saw mill. Jan 
Pietersen, a Dane, was a woodsawyer. Also two other Danes, 
Pieter Jacobsen and Volckert Jansen, operated mills. 

Not a few owned yachts and boats, and were engaged in 
fishing, freighting lumber and other merchandise on the Hudson, 
or the Delaware. Laurens Laurensen, Norwegian, used several 
yachts for timber transport. He also built yachts for the market. 
One of them "Swarten Arent" (Black Eagle) was valued at 
fl. 1400. Hans Carlsen, Norwegian, sailed a large boat and em- 
ployed hired men on it. Christian Pietersen, a Dane, plied his 
boat up and down the Hudson. The Swedes Jan Jansen and Roelof 
Teunissen commanded larger ships. Danes like Bording, Kuyter, 
Bronck were experienced navigators. Norwegians like Albert and 
Arent Andriessen were used to the seas. The great ship "New 
Netherland," built at Manhattan, was the work of Scandinavian 
carpenters, engaged by Pieter Minuit. It was of 600 to 800 tons 
burden, fitted to carry thirty guns. "It was one of the largest 
merchantmen afloat, and not for two hundred years was another 
as large launched in the same waters. Sent at once to Holland 
and employed in the West India trade, everywhere it excited 
wonder by its size and by the excellence and variety of timber 
used in its construction." (Mrs. Van Rensselaer). Among the 
early ship carpenters was Hans Hansen, from Bergen ; and Ty- 
men Jansen, husband of Marritje Jans, from Marstrand. 

Among the general carpenters, mention can be made of Dirck 
Holgersen, a Norwegian ; Jan Pietersen Slot, a Dane ; Dirk Ben- 
singh, a Swede. The latter worked on the New Church at Fort 
Orange. A number of houses in New Amsterdam were built by 
Scandinavian carpenters. Among the masons were Danes like 
Marten Harmensen and Claus Paulson. Laurens Andriessen, 
Danish, was an expert at the lathe. Pieter Andriessen, another 
Dane, was a professional chimney sweep. Hage Bruynsen, Swede, 
had worked as a smith. Marcus Pietersen, Norwegian, was a 
cobbler. But he quarrelled with his master, Jochem Beckman, 
and nicknamed him "black pudding." 

Some were "jack-of-all-trades." 

Not a few were coopers, brewers, and tavernkeepers. Volck- 
ert Jansen, a Dane, had a brewery. The Danes Jacob Eldersen 



366 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGEANT8 IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

and Thomas Fredricksen were brewers and coopers. The Danes 
William Adriaensz, Jan Jansen, and Frederick Hendricksen were 
coopers. Claes Claesen, Norwegian, was versed in "brandy-mak- 
ing" and "beer-brewing." Pieter Kock, Pieter Andriessen, Seve- 
ryn Laurensen, Danes, were tavernkeepers. 

Apparently the Danes were more concerned about liquor than 
were the Swedes or Norwegians. But 'it would not be fair to 
stamp them as worse than the Dutch. Drunkenness, says Mrs. Van 
Rensselaer, was everywhere the great sin of the Dutch. 

Every one drank beer, wine, and whisky at this period. 
Water was the only alternative. Tea, coffee, and chocolate were 
all unknown until the close of the seventeenth century. Beer was 
served at every meal. This explains why many were brewers. 
The coopers were in demand, because liquor in those days was 
not bottled but kept in casks and kegs. As for the taverns, they 
served as hotels, restaurants, clubhouses, news-exchanges. 

Twelve tavernkeepers were counted in New Amsterdam in 
March 1648. But only one of them was a Scandinavian, Pieter 
Andriessen. The city numbered in the same year seventeen 
tapsters. Rev. J. Backerus wrote regarding them in a letter of 
September 2, 1648, to the Classis at Amsterdam : 

"The congregation here numbers about 170 members. Most 
of them are very ignorant in regard to true religion, and very 
much given to drink. To this they are led by the seventeen tap- 
houses here. What bad fruits result therefrom, your Reverences 
will readily understand. ... If you could obtain from the Hon. 
Directors an order for closing these places, except three or four, 
I have no doubt, the source of much evil and great offense would 
be removed." 

Nine years later, the number of tapsters in New Amsterdam 
had increased to twenty-one. But none of them were Scandi- 
navians. 

That liquor was freely indulged in on festive occasions, may 
be inferred from what happened at the German-Norwegian wed- 
ding of Dr. Kierstede and Sara Roelofs, when Governor Kieft 
took advantage of the alcoholic hilarity of the guests and induced 
them to subscribe toward the building funds of the church. They 
competed with one another in subscribing sums that made their 



BETEOSPECT. 367 

hearts ache when they on the next day realized how generous they 
had been. 

Not infrequently quiet gatherings at the taverns would be 
subjected to the same treatment as that which an Englishman, 
Captain John Underbill, proferred to a company of guests who 
had been invited for a social time at the chief tavern of the town. 
Five of the leading citizens of New Amsterdam and their wives, 
three of whom were Scandinavians, were being entertained one 
evening by the host, when Captain Underbill rushed in and 
threatened dire destruction if he did not have things his own 
way (p. 258). The guests were sober, but the Captain who has been 
called one of "the right New England military worthies" failed 
sadly in this respect, and therefore broke up the party. His 
conduct, it seems, was on par with his spelling. He spelled by 
ear. It has been pointed out that in his letters to Winthrop he 
invented 'favarabell,' 'considderachonse,' 'menchoned,' and 'ling- 
grin,' wrote that the 'last chip' which had 'arifd' from England 
was 'but nine wicks in her viagse,' and described John Browne 
as a 'jentiele young man, of gud abilliti, of a louli fetture and gud 
behafior.' 

But to change the subject from tavern to church (as Governor 
Kieft did at the wedding), it must be stated that no less than 
five of those who signed the petition of the Lutherans at New 
Amsterdam in 1657 (requesting that Rev. J. Goetwater might re- 
main in the country as a Lutheran minister) were brewers. There 
were twenty-four signers in all. Five of them were Scandinavians. 
Of these five, one was a brewer, Jacob Eldersen. As for the 
efifort of the Lutherans to get denominational recognition in New 
Amsterdam see Appendix IV. Suffice it here to mention that 
Laurens Andriessen, from Norway, defied Governor Stuyvesant 
by giving Rev. Goetwater lodging at his house for an entire winter. 
In denominational matters the Scandinavians co-operated with 
the Germans more than with the Dutch. 

Turning our attention, from the more or less public affairs, 
to the homes, we inquire, How did the homes of the Scandinavian 
immigrants look? 

The present volume contains several views conveying an idea 
of the houses they lived in. They present the houses of Roelof 



368 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Jansen Haes, Sara Roelofs, Christina Capoen (wife of Jacob 
Haes), Anneke Jans, Jochem Kuyter, Jacob Loper, Engeltje Mans. 
The views date from 1652, when New Amsterdam had about 100 
houses. The dwellings were not large. Even Secretary Van Tien- 
hoven lived in one not larger than thirty feet long and twenty 
feet wide. 

It would be interesting to have a view of the dwelling 
of Jonas Bronck. It was a stone house, covered with tiles. 
Among other things it contained an extension table, around which 
such people dined as were no strangers to table cloths and 
napkins, alabaster plates and silverware. It contained other 
articles that may have been stored in different rooms ; for ex- 
ample, a Japanese cutlass, two muskets and three guns, a black 
cloth mantle, some satin suits, four tankards with silver chains, etc. 
Bronck's library collection was perhaps the most interesting object 
in the entire house, being the first known library in New York. 
It consisted of twenty bound volumes in Danish, Dutch and Latin, 
including a Danish Calendar, a Danish Child's book, a Danish Law 
book, a Danish Chronicle, Luther's whole catechism, a Lutheran 
hymnal, a German Bible, Calvin's Institutes ; also seventeen books 
in manuscript, and a number of pictures. This library, of which 
the inventory was taken in 1642, was a trifle larger than those 
that -were owned by Danish ministers at that time. Bronck was 
a God-fearing man. He called his house Emmaus, and his motto 
was "Ne cede malis" (Do not yield to misfortunes). His name is 
perpetuated in the Borough of Bronx, New York City. 

Among the names of the old Scandinavian immigrants none 
are so well known in New York to-day as Bronck and Anneke 
Jans. We know but little as to how Anneke lived. In her will 
she makes mention of some beds and silver mugs. Her daughter 
Sara speaks of silver spoons; perhaps they were inherited from 
the mother. Anneke's sister makes mention of gold earrings, a 
diamond rose ring, the Great Bible, silver spoons, a silver chain 
with keys, a silver chain with a case and cushion, and a silver 
bodkin. 

The houses of the Scandinavian immigrants were doubtless 
modestly furnished, perhaps much like those of the immigrants 
from Holland, the kitchen being the living room. 

We will not venture to describe the bill of fare. The New 



RETEOSPECT. 369 

Netherlanders had no difficulty in obtaining fruit and vegetables. 
The wild strawberry and wild grapes grew in abundance. The 
potato which as late as 1616 was a rare dish on the table of French 
royalty, was no stranger to New Netherland, one of whose citizens 
went by the nickname of Potato : Hendrick Claesen Pataddes. 
There was plenty of game: pigeons, partridges, venison and wild 
turkey. Fish was a common dish, including lobsters a foot and 
a half long. Marritje Pietersen, of Copenhagen, was frequently 
visited when people were in want of fish. At her place, fish and 
beer could be obtained at all seasons not proscribed by law. She 
made it a point of honor not to sell fish on Sundays "after the 
ringing of the church bell." 

Among the articles imported from Europe, mention can be 
made of the Edam and Leyden cheese, salt and vinegar. Van 
Rensselaer sent his colony such merchandise as Flemish stock- 
ings, linen underwear, watertight leather shoes, blankets (green 
and white), soap, dishes, winnowing baskets, gunpowder, fire- 
locks, canvasses, axes, Norwegian files, and "Norwegian kerseys". 
The ship "The Arms of Norway" had on one occasion so much 
of these and kindred articles, that the sailors protested against 
sailing, not being willing to take the chances of reaching the New 
World with the entire cargo. 

The medium of exchange among the settlers of New Nether- 
land was not gold, silver, or copper. Nor was it in any marked 
degree naturalia. It was Indian money called wampum, the 
Indian name for it. It consisted of beads of two colors, white 
and black. The white "were made from periwinkle shells, the 
black which were twice as valuable, from the dark spot at the base 
of the shells of the clam. Both kinds were about as thick as a 
straw and less than half an inch in length. They were drilled 
and polished. For use as currency they were strung on deer 
sinews or strands of fibre and then measured by the span or cubit." 
Wampum, as the English called it, or zeewant as the Dutch called 
it, was the only legal tender between individuals. Debts of thou- 
sands of guilders were discharged with this kind of money. Of 
course these beads were never sent to Europe. As an expert in 
the value of this shell money, the records mention Pieter Hartgers, 
husband of Fyntie Roelofs, a Norwegian. 



370 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

As to recreation, skating and sleighing must have been 
quite common in their season. But the modern buggy ride, foi 
example, was unknown. Only utilitarian carts were built, none 
for comfort. Horseback riding and boat riding must have been an 
every day occurence. New Amsterdam had a number of "porters'' 
or carmen. One of them was Jan Carelsen, fro Norway. The 
celebrations of Christmas, New Year, and Mayday was not much 
saner than some modern foarth of July celebrations. 

As for the intellectual status of our pioneers under the Dutch 
dominion, it must have been on a fairly high level. Some of the 
early documents are drawn up in Latin. Kuyter no doubt knew 
this language. Bronck was versed in this and in several other 
tongues. Three other Scandinavians, whom we have noticed, were 
versed in the Indian languages. Doubtless all the Danish, Nor- 
wegian and Swedish immigrants spoke at least two tongues, their 
native language and the language of their adopted country. And 
as the mastery of one of the Scandinavian languages means also 
the ability to understand the other two languages, — the Scandi- 
navians could boast of four tongues to the Dutchman's one. Of 
course, none of the pioneers from the north made any attempts 
at writing literature. Even among the Dutch immigrants there 
was none that wrote with literary intent, and only three that wrote 
poetry : Jacob Steendam, Nicasius de Silla, and Domine Sellyn. 
Whatever printing the New Netherlanders needed, was done in 
Holland, which at that time occupied the same position as Ger- 
many does now, printing more than the remaining countries taken 
together. 

As to the marks used in signing documents, they are in many 
cases inconclusive as proofs of inability to write. We know 
many plain people who prefer to put a mark on a paper instead 
of writing their names in full, and that not because they do not 
know how to write, but because they think they can not write a 
fair hand. Anneke Jans appears to have written a mark when it 
did not suit her to write her name. Jan Broersen appears to have 
had a good hand, and yet he made use of a mark (see p. 155). 
The cases of Hans Hansen, Laurens Pietersen, and Dirck Holgersen 
are more doubtful. Hansen's "H" is sometimes constructed on 
the vertical order, and sometimes on the horizontal (p. 59). 
Laurens Pietersen sometimes wrote his "P" upside down (p. 130). 



EETKOSPECT. 371 

Dirck Holgersen showed manifest improvement in his respective 
marks of 1651, 1658, 1661 (p. 69). At least they were more 
ingenious than the mark of the ancestor of the Vanderbilts, which 
mark "resembles a window sash — with four panes of glass.'" 
(p. 61.) 

But no matter what the immigrants were educationally, they 
were a thrifty people who chose, of their own accord, to settle 
in our country, to take upon themselves the burdens of pioneer 
life. With their fellow citizens of New Amsterdam they share 
the honor of having been the first "to put on American soil the 
public school." They also deserve honor for the firm stand they 
took in championing, against a majority, the rights of religious 
liberty ; in protecting a man whom the government exiled because 
he was a Lutheran minister; and in promoting such a spirit of 
voluntaryism that one of their numbers, a Dane, willed — what 
was unheard of in those days — a legacy to a modest church 
which had been obliged to beg the English government, no less 
than the Dutch, for permission to exist: he thus set a good ex- 
ample for his brethern whose ideas of giving was what could be 
expected from men that had been trained in the "established 
church." 

And where are the descendants of the nigh 200 Scandinavian 
immigrants? By birth or intermarriage they are connected with 
well known families whose branches extend over the entire United 
States. 

The first of the Putnams in America married the daughter 
of Arent Andriessen from Norway. 

The Bradts of New York are descendants of the same 
Andriessen. 

The first of the Vanderbilts married Anneken Hendricks. 
from Bergen, Norway. 

Her daughter — half Dutch, half Norwegian — was married 
to Rem Remsen, a German, the progenitor of the Remsen family. 

The American Rosenkrans family are descendants of Herman 
Hendricksen of Bergen. Best known among these is General Wil- 
liam Stark Rosecrans, Brigadier General of the Regular Army in 
the Civil war, afterwards U. S. Minister to Mexico, later Congress- 
man from California, and first Register of the Treasury under 
President Cleveland. 



372 SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Related to Anneke Jans, of Marstrand, Norway, are the 
families of Bayard, De Lancey, De Peyster, Governeur, Jay, 
Knickerbocker, Morris, Schuyler, Stuyvesant, Van Cortland, and 
Van Rensselaer. 

The Van Buskirks are descendants of Laurens Andriessen 
from Holstein. Among these is the first American-born Lutheran 
minister in the United States, and Dr. John Alden Singmaster, 
President of the Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, Pa. 

The Broncks are descended from Jonas Bronck, the Dane 
from Faroe Islands. His grandson was a lieutenant in the army, 
his great-grandson was a major; and another great-grandson 
served as major and lieutenant colonel, as member of the New 
York Assembly, and as New York State senator. 

Descendants of the daughter of Tryntie Jans, Danish, are the 
Bleeker family. 

The ancestor of the Wilsies is Hendrick Martensen, a Dane. 

The Van Ripens are descendants of Juriaen Tomassen from 
Ribe, Denmark. 

Member of the Swedish Hoffman family are intermarried 
among the families of Benson, Verplanck, Beeckman, Benson, Liv- 
ingston, Brinckerhoff, Du Bois, Vredenbnrgh, Provoost, Storm 
Ogden, Van Cortland, Schuyler. 

Some of the Rosenkrans and the Roosevelt family are re- 
lated to the Hoffmans. Hon. John Thompson, once Governor of 
the state of New York, was a descendant of Hoffman. The Hoff- 
man family numbers statesmen, preachers and lawyers, authors 
and college presidents. Mathilda Hofmann, one of the family, 
was, as has already been referred to, engaged to marry Wash- 
ington Irving. 

The Stuck family is descended from Mons Pietersen. 

There is Swedish blood in the Melyn family. 

The Burger family is originally Swedish on the mother's 
side, German on the father's. 

The Livingston family has Swedish blood by the Lopers, the 
granddaughter of Captain Loper marrying the son of Robert 
Livingston, who as first Lord of the Livingston Manor owned 
160.000 acres of land. 

A descendant of Jacob Brnyn of Norway served several 
terms in both branches of the New York state legislature and was 
for many years an associate judge in Ulster county. 



RETROSPECT. 373 

A descendant of Andries Andriessen represented the county 
of Albany in the provincial assembly. 

By intermarriage there is also Scandinavian blood in a branch 
of the Van Buren family, to which Van Buren, once United States 
President, belonged. 

The Dows are descendants of Volckert Jansen, a Dane. 

Descendants of Christian Barentsen, who was in all probabil- 
ity a Dane, were Robert T. van Horn who founded and, for forty 
years, edited the "Kansas City Journal"; and Wm. H. Carbusier, 
Lt. U. S. Army, later a member of congress, 

AND SO FORTH. 



Appendix I. 



SCANDINAVIANS IN MEXICO AND SOUTH 
AMERICA, 1532-1640. 

Probably the first Scandinavian in America was "Jacob from 
Denmark." In 1532 he was in Mexico, and is counted among the 
Augustinian monks who in that year went thither. The catholic 
historian, P. Wittman, quoted in Dr. Chr. H. Kalkar's "Den 
Christelige Mission Blandt Hedningerne" (1879), says that Jacob 
from Denmark was related to the Danish royal family, "which has 
remained faithful to the church of the fathers" (Roman Catholic). 

Another Scandinavian who came to the New World in the 
sixteenth century was Christian Jacobsen, a Danish explorer. He 
was born in Copenhagen, 1528, where he studied theology. He 
went to Peru in 1551, and served in the civil wars of that country. 
At the advice of a cousin he entered the Roman Catholic Church 
in order to get an appointment in the army. In 1557 he went to 
Chili. In 1565 we find him in Buenos Ayres. Thence, sailing 
again for Peru, he settled in Lima, where he devoted his 
leisure to literary labors and where he died in 1596. See Appleton's 
Cyclopedia of American Biography. 

Jens Munk, born 1579, in Barbu, near Arendal, Norway, was 
destined to try the hardships of South America as well as of 
Canada. His father was a Danish nobleman, who had lived for 
many years in Norway, an able soldier and mariner, but despotic 
in rule, and licentious in life. His son Jens inherited the father's 
ability in commanding the seas, but was his opposite in life and 
character. At the age of twelve Jens Munk began his life as a 
sailor. He went to Oporto to learn the Portuguese language, he 
then hired out on a ship sailing for Brazil. After great difficulties 
he arrived at Bahia, where he for some time worked for a shoe- 




JACOB JENSS0N NORDMAND. 
"Norges Historie," IV., by Prof. Yngvar Nielsen. 




FRIGATE "DEN NORSKE L0VE" (THE NORWEGIAN LION). 

Model in Ivory, by Jakob Jensson Nordmand, 1654. 

From "Norges Historie,'' IV., by Prof. Yngvar Nielsen. 



NORDMAN. 375 

maker and a painter, and was at length initiated into the merchant's 
business. After having, through a bold deed of his, saved some 
Dutch merchants from an attack planned against them by some 
Spaniards, he was obliged to flee from Bahia. He returned to 
Europe in 1598. He got a ship of his own in 1605, and was ap- 
pointed captain in the Danish fleet in 1611. Eight years later he 
was requested by the king of Denmark to take the charge of an 
expedition, whose object was the discovery of the way to China 
through what was then known as the Northwest passage. See 
Appendix H. 

Jacob Jensson Nordman (1614 — 1695), a Norwegian who was 
noted for his carving in ebony, spent five years in Brazil as a soldier 
in the service of the Dutch. Returning to Norway about 1640, he 
was appointed constable at Akerhus, and served in the war against 
Sweden. In 1648 Frederik HI., king of Denmark and Norway, 
became acquainted with him, and later appointed him instructor of 
the royal family. He taught both the king and the queen, and 
other members of the family, to carve. He carved beautiful pieces 
in ebony, now preserved at Rosenborg, Copenhagen. His most 
finished production is his grand model, in ivory, of the frigate 
"Den norske love" (The Norwegian lion). 



Appendix II. 

SCANDINAVIANS IN CANADA, 1619-1620. 

The first arrival of Scandinavians in Canada took place in 
1619. Christian IV., King of Denmark and Norway, being desir- 
ous of sending an expedition to discover the way to China through 
the "Northwest passage," requested Captain Jens Munk, who has 
been mentioned above, to take charge of it. The expedition, when 
leaving European waters, consisted of sixty-four men, forty-eight 
of whom were on the ship "Enhiorningen," and sixteen on a smaller 
ship "Lamprenen." 

Captain Munk and his crew sailed from Copenhagen, May 9, 
1619. Two days later, the log records, one of the sailors jumped 
overboard and drowned. A week later, because of a leak in one 
of the ships, it was found necessary to lie over for five days in 
Karmsund, Norway, where three new men were added to the crew. 

They passed the Shetland Island and Faroe Islands, Cape 
Farewell, crossed Davis Straits, entered Frobisher Bay, then 
Hudson Straits. In July they came to Salvage Islands, where 
they met some Eskimos . After sailing around for some time 
in Ungava Bay, they re-entered Hudson Straits, and crossing 
Hudson Bay, which Munk called Mare Christian, the crew landed, 
on September 7, 1619, at the mouth of Churchhill River. 

Meantime he had lost, on August 8, one of his crew, Anders, 
from Stavanger, Norway, who was buried in Haresund (Icy 
Cove). And before he left winter quarters, the rest of his crew 
perished, save two with whom he started and completed his return 
voyage to Europe, reaching Norway on September 21, 1620. 

Munk had taken possession of the new land, in the name of 
his king, calling it Nova Dania. Due to the intense cold, massive 
snow drifts and lack of proper equipment for living in such frigid 
regions, the crew could not obtain fresh food by hunting. They 



THE MUNK EXPEDITION. 



377 



had no snow-shoes or "ski." They had very little fur clothing. 
They were thus compelled to spend their time on and near the 
ships, without sufficient exercise and without proper food. The 
never-varying fare of salt meats brought on scurvy. Every week 
witnessed several deaths. The conditions aboard the ships were 
frightful. In the annals of polar travelers the experience of the 
Munk expedition is one of the most terrible. On February 25, 
Munk had twenty-two dead, on April 10, forty-one, on June 4, 
sixty-one. 

First on June 18, the ice gave way to the ships. With extreme 
difficulty, Munk and his surviving crew of two got the lesser ship. 




MAP OP CAPTAIN MUNKS SAILING ON HUDSON BAY. 1619. 
From Jens Munk: Navigatio Septentrionalis. 



on June 26, ready for sailing. On July 16, they left what may 
be called the first Scandinavian, we may also say, the first Lu- 
theran cemetery in North America. For almost all of the mariners 
were Lutherans by faith. They even had in their midst Rev. Ras- 
mus Jensen from Aarhus, Denmark, who preached his first and 
last Christmas sermon in America on Christmas day, 1619. 

Jensen died on February 20, the following year. The first Lu- 
theran minister in America lies buried in Canada. 

Captain Munk has left us a book which describes his journey 



378 



SCANDINAVIANS IN CANADA, 1619-1620. 



to and from Hudson Bay: "Navigatio Septentrionalis," 1624, 
edited and published anew by P. Laurissen (Copenhagen, 1883. 
An English translation has been made for the Hakluyt Society), 
From this carefully kept book, or Relation, as Munk calls it, we 
see the piety of the author and learn when and under what cir- 
cumstances the several members of the expedition died. 

At least two of the crew were English, the mates William 
Gordon and John Watson (died May 6, 1620). Less than a dozen 
may have been Germans and Swedes. At least twelve were Nor- 
wegians, while the majority were Danes. 




CAPTAIN MUNK'S WINTER QUARTERS IN "NOVA DANIA (CANADA). 
From Jens Munk: Navigatio Septentrionalis. 



The Norwegians were : 
Anders Staff uanger (d. Aug. 8, 1619, seaman). 
Laurids Bergen (d. Feb. 5, 1620, seaman). 
Hans Skudenes (d. March 1). 
Christoffer Opslo (Oslo, d. April 5, chief gunner). 



THE MUNK EXPEDITION. 379 

Oluff Sundmoer (d. April 24, mate to the captain of the hold). 

Halffward Bronnie (d. April 27). 

Thoer Thonsberg (d. April 28). 

Anders Marstrand (d. May 3). 

Morten Marstrand (d. May 4, boatswain's mate). 

Suend Marstrand (d. May 12). 

Erich Hansen Li (d. May 19). Munk says, Li "had been very 
industrious and willing and had neither offended anyone nor 
deserved any punishment. He had dug many graves for 
others, but now there was nobody that could dig his, and his 
body had to remain unburied." 

Knud Lauritzsen Skudenes (d. in May). 

Of the Danes we give these names : 
Jens Helssing (d. Jan. 27, seaman). 
Rasmus Kiobenhauffn (d. Feb. 17). 
Rev. Rasmus Jensen (d. Feb. 20, minister). 
Jens Borringholm (d. March 1). 
Erich Munk (a nephew of the captain, d. April 1). 
Mauritz Stygge (d. April 10, lieutenant). 
Peder Nyborg (d. in May, carpenter). 

No doubt also the majority of the following are Danes: 
Hans Brock (d. Jan. 23, 1620, second mate). 
Oluff Boye (d. March 8). 
Anders Pocker (d. March 9). 

M. Casper Caspersen (d. March 2L He was probably a German 
surgeon). 

Povel Pedersen (d. March 21). 



380 SCANDINAVIANS IN CANADA, 1619-1620. 

Jan OUufsen (d. March 25, skipper), navigating officer of Enhior- 
ningen. 

Ismael Abrahamsen (Swede ? d. March 29). 

Christen Gregersen (d. March 29). 

Suend Arffuedsen (d. March 30, carpenter). 

Johan Pettersen (d. March 31, second mate. He was buried in 
the same grave with Erich Munk). 

Rasmus Clemendsen (d. April 5, mate of the chief gunner). 

Lauritz Hansen (d. April 5, boatswain). 

Anders Sodens (d. April 8). 

Anders Oroust (d. April 16). 

Jens Bodker (d. April 16). 

Hans Bendtsen (d. April 17). 

Oluff Andersen (d. April 17, servant). 

Peder Amundsen (d. April 19). 

Morten Nielsen, Butelerer (d. April 28, butler). 

Jens Jorgensen (d. May 12). 

Jens Hendrichsen (d. May 16) "skipper,'' master of Lamprenen. 

On the fourth of June, Munk gave up all hope of life. We 
give below the entry which Munk on that day made in his book. 
We accompany it with a facsimile of a page of his manuscript, 
which is preserved in the University Library of Copenhagen. 

"On the 4th of June, which was Whit-Sunday, there remained 
alive only three besides myself, all lying down, unable to help 
one another. The stomach was ready enough and had appetite for 
food, but the teeth would not allow it ; and not one of us had 
the requisite strength for going into the hold to fetch us a drink 
of wine. The cook's boy lay dead by my berth, and three men 
on the steerage; two men were on shore, and would gladly have 
been back on the ship, but it was impossible for them to get there, 
as they had not sufficient strength in their limbs to help themselves 
on board, so that they and I were lying quite exhausted, as we 



THE MUNK EXPEDITION. 381 

had now for four entire days nothing for the sustenance of the 
body. Accordingly, I did not now hope for anything but that God 
would put an end to this my misery and take me to Himself and 
His Kingdom; and, thinking that it would have been the last I 
wrote in this world, I penned a writing as follows : 

(FACSIMILE OF MANUSCRIPT OF CAPTAIN MUNK. LIBRARY OF THE UNI- 
VERSITY OF COPENHAGEN.) 



^^ -;jf/^^ 't^fu?^ /CtEn^t^ n*^ ^^r^ ^t^.t4- »>y^f*«^ 

In print the above given writing appears thus : 

"[Efterdi at Jeg nu icke haffuer 
forhaabning at kunde leffue] 
her boss beder Jeg Nu for guts skuld om 
Naagen Krestne Menisker hender hied 
att kome att die Met Arme Legom 
med die Andere som Nu her boss findes 
udi Jorden wille Lade Kome, och tagendis 
Ion aff gud i hemelen. Och att dene 



382 SCANDINAVIANS IN CANADA, 1619-1620. 

min Relasion Maate blifue Min Naad 
dig here och Koning tilstelet 
thie det er sanferdigt Alt huad i 
hrude findes Ord for ord skreffuet paae 
Att Min fatig hustru och boren Maatte 
Nyde Min YnkeHge Affgang Noget gaat 
Att, her med Alluerden gode Natt och min 
Siel i det Euige Rige : Jens Munk" 



We append this translation : 

"Inasmuch as I have now no more hope of life in this world, 
I request, for the sake of God, if any Christian men should happen 
to come here, that they will bury in the earth my poor body, 
together with the others which are found here, expecting their 
reward from God in Heaven; and, furthermore, that this my 
journal may be forwarded to my most gracious Lord and King 
(for every word that is found herein is altogether truthful) in 
order that my poor wife and children may obtain some benefit from 
my great distress and miserable death. Herewith, good-night to 
all the world ; and my soul in the eternal kingdom. 

"Jens Munk." 

Munk concludes his "Relation" with this prayer: 
"O Almighty, Eternal God, Gracious Father, and Heavenly 
Lord, who hast commanded us to call upon Thee in all necessity 
and adversity, and also dost promise that Thou wilt graciously 
hear our prayer and save us, so that we may thank Thee for Thy 
loving kindness and Thy wonderful acts, which Thou doest to- 
wards the children of men : I have now, on this long and perilous 
journey, been in danger and necessity, in which I have nevertheless 
experienced Thy gracious help and assistance, in that Thou hast 
saved me from the ice bergs, in dreadful storms, and from the 
foaming sea. Thou wast my chief pilot, counselor, guide, and 
compass. Thou hast led and accompanied me, both going and 
coming. Thou hast led me out of anxiety, disease, and sickness, 
so that by Thy help I have regained my health, and have returned 
to my native country, which I entirely believe to be Thy doing. 
Nor has it been accomplished by my own understanding or 
providence, wherefore I humbly and heartily give thanks to Thee, 



THE MUNK EXPEDITION. 383 

O Thou my gracious Father. And I pray that Thou wilt give 
me grace of Thy Holy Spirit, that I may henceforth be found 
thankful to Thee in word and deed, to Thy honor and glory, and 
for the confirmation of my faith with a good conscience. To 
Thee, O Holy Trinity, be Praise and Thanksgiving for ever, for 
these and all Thy benefits. 

"To Thee alone belongs all Power and Glory 
"for ever and ever 

"Amen. 
"Isaiah, Chap. xliv. 
"Fear not, for I have redeemed thee. When thou passest 
through the waters, I will be with thee, that the rivers shall not 
drown thee."* 



* The passage is Isaiah xliii, 1, 2. The translation differs slightly from the 
English version. 

In the "Lutheran Observer" (Philadelphia), Dec. 27, 1907, I have related 
about the articles in the American press which have dealt with the Munk expedition. 
Rev. Rasmus Andersen, of Brooklyn, New York, deserves the credit of havinsc <:ill('d 
attention to the fact that there were Scandinavians in Canada as early as 1619-20. 
The best from his pen on this subject is found in "Teologisk Tidsskrift, " I., 26ff. 
(1899), Decorah, Iowa. His article is a digest of the Munk journal in the edition of 
1883. Neither he nor the other American writers, however, have used the carefully 
edited English edition of the Hakluyt Society. The present writer has consulted 
both editions. 



Appendix III. 



SOME SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW 
YORK IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 

As this volume makes no pretensions to go beyond the seven- 
teenth century in its treatment of Scandinavian immigration, it is 
almost needless to state that the following is nothing but the result 
of incidental jottings on the part of the writer. He is confident 
that the sources of the eighteenth century contain much data for 
those who go to them with the express purpose of writing on 
Scandinavian immigration to our country after the year 1700. 

The Swedish immigrants are so numerous that the registering 
of their names in this appendix cannot be attempted. The Swedish 
colony in America lost its independence, but its settlers and 
their descendants attracted new immigrants from Sweden. The 
history of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania cannot be 
treated judiciously unless due notice be given to the Swedish 
element that helped to colonize and develop these states. The 
material for a detailed presentation of early Swedish immigration 
is not confined to American sources. Much of it is in foreign 
archives. 

A people that has given us the "Records of the Gloria Dei 
Church, Philadelphia," (Extracts translated in "Pennsylvania Maga- 
zine of History and Biography," II) ; "The Records of Holy 
Trinity (Old Swedes Church), Wilmington, Del.," 1697—1773 
(translated for and published by the Historical Society of Dela- 
are, 1890) ; Thomas Campanius "Kort Bescrifning om Provincien 
Nya Swerige uti America," 1702 (translated 1834) ; Johannes Dan, 
Swedberg "Dissertatio Svionum in America Colonia," 1709 ; To- 
bias E. Bjorck "Dissertatio gradualis de Plantatione Ecclesiae 
Svecanae in America," 1731 ; A. Hesselius "Kort Berettelse om 
Then Svenska Kyrkios narwarande Tilstand i America 1725; 



IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 385 

Israel Acrelius "Beskrifning Om De Svenska Forsamlingars Forna 
och Narwarande Tilstand Uti Det saaKallade Nya Sverige," 1759 
(translated 1874) ; Carl K. S. Sprinchorn's "Kolonien Nya 
Sveriges Historia," 1878; Prof. C. T. Odhner's "Kolonien Nya 
Sveriges Grundlaggning 1637 — 1642," in "Historisk Bibliothek. Ny 
foljd, 1876"; Otto Nordberg's "Svenska Kyrkens Mission vid 
Delaware i Nord-Amerika," 1893 — such a people, on their native 
soil or in America, are certainly not wanting in materials for pre- 
senting the history of Swedish immigrants from 1638 to the 
American Revolution. 

Americans of Swedish ancestry have translated and supple- 
mented the data given by the above mentioned writers. It suffices 
to mention the interesting articles contained in the Pennsylvania 
Magazine of History and Biography I ; II, 224f. ; 341f. ; III, 402f., 
409, 462ff.; VII; VIII, 107f.; XVII. Consult also Proceedings 
of Delaware County Historical Society, I, 269 ; Proceedings of 
New Jersey Historical Society, III ; etc. All this before the year 
1900. 

The present writer was making a study of these books 
or treatises and of other pertinent works with a view to 
writing a history of the Swedes in America in the seventeenth 
century. He then learned that another was covering the same 
ground. Thereupon he turned his attention to Scandinavian im- 
migration to New York, an almost entirely unexplored field. What- 
ever data he saw fit to publish regarding the Swedes at Delaware 
are contained in "The Lutheran Observer," Philadelphia. 1907 and 
1908. 

This explains why he finds it inexpedient to include the 
Swedes in this appendix : They have been, and are being, treated 
by competent writers like Dr. Amandus Johnson. 

It is different with the Danish and especially with the Nor- 
wegian immigrants. They are comparatively few and unknown. 
Many Danes came to the Moravian settlement in Pennsylvania in 
the eighteenth century. They have been ably dealt with by Prof. 
Vig in "Danske i Amerika," and we shall therefore not attempt 
to treat them, and several other Danish immigrants of the eigh- 
teenth century mentioned by him, here. Mr. Torstein Jahr has 
also treated this field in an interesting manner and, moreover, in- 
cluded Norwegian immigrants who joined the Moravian colony, 



386 SOME SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK. 

foremost of whom was perhaps Hans Martin Kalberlahn, a surgeon 
from Trondhjem, Norway.* 

What we give in the following is nothing but a few items, 
which, so to speak, have been "gathered by the wayside" and not 
noticed by others. 



FROM REV. JUSTUS FALCKNER'S CHURCH RECORD. 

With the year 1700 we date the arrival of Justus Falckner, 
born 1672 in Saxony, to New York. In 1703 he was ordained 
by Swedish ministers in Gloria Dei Church at Wicaco. He was 
the first Lutheran minister ordained in America, moreover the 
first Lutheran minister in this country to publish a work on re- 
ligion. The hymn "Auf, ihr Christen, Christi Glieder," published 
in the Halle Gesangbuch of 1697 is from his pen. It has been 
translated into English, "Rise ye children of Salvation," and, by 
Brorson, into Danish, "Op, I Christne ruster eder!" Falckner was 
not minister only of the Lutheran churches in New York and Al- 
bany, but of all the churches on the Hudson river, which he visited 
on a circuit. From the church register, which he kept, we give the 
following data: 

Oct. 12, 1707, he married "Peter Johansen, at house of Faes 
Vlirboom, N. Y., born at Bergen, Norway, and Maria, daughter 
of Pieter Lassen Brower's dau. beyond the Highland." 

Oct. 10, 1708, "in our church at N. Y. b(aptized) last summer 
beyond the Highlands, Johannes, y. s. of Pieter Norman and wife 
Maria. Witnesses : Jacob Jacobsen Halenbeck and Gertruyd Vasen 
Vlierboom has told me that she stood up as god-mother, signed 



My source for this is Holand's "De Norske Settlementers Historie, " which 
refers to "Decorah-Posten," Sept. 9, 1904. 

See also Moravian Emigration to Pennsylvania (1734-1765) by John W. 
Jordan, in "The Pennsylvania Magazine for History and Biography," 1909. 

The "Pennsylvania Archives," XVII., ff., no doubt contains names of many 
Scandinavians who came to Pennsylvania in the eighteenth century. Thus the name 
of Andries Evie (Evje), a Norwegian, who came to our country in 1728. It is found 
in the original list of passengers aboard the ship "Mortonhouse," commanded by 
John Coultas, and sailing in August, 1728. from Deal, near Dover, England. The 
Englishman promptly changed "Andries Evje" into "Andres Ente." 

It would appear that Andries' wife and children (wife, Elizabeth, age 28; 
children, Lisabeth, Katrina, John, age 8, 8, 6 respectively) followed him four years 
later, sailing from Rotterdam, on the ship "Samuel," of London (commanded by 
Hugh Percy). "Evje" has on this trip across the ocean become "Evy." 



IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 387 

(Rev) M. C. Knol (The entry in parenthesis was in a different 
handwriting.) 

April 18, 1710, "at our meeting at the house of Peter Lassen 
beyond the Highlands b. March 11, 1710, Catharina y. d. of Peter 
Jansen Noorman and wife Maria. Witness I, Justus Falckner, the 
pastor, Cornelia Lassen. 

April 30, 1713. "At the house of Pieter Lassen in the Lange 
Rack beyond the islands the following: Elisabeth b. last summer 
in Dutchess County, child of Andreas Pick and wife Veronica. 
Witnesses: Pieter Jansen Norman, and in his place Johannes 
Milltler, and Mary Jansen Normans." 



Jan Denemark was married in New York, by Falckner, June 
13, 1704, to Maria Ten Eyk. 

Frans Mulder, from Holstein, was married in New York, 
Sept. 30, 1705. 

Johan Volckertsen Van Husum was married, Nov. 25, 1705, 
in Albany, to Engel Jansen. 

Maria Denemarke was married in New York, July 26, 1707, 
to Arie Affel. 

Jan Thomas Vos "young man from Denmark," was married 
in New York, Dec. 9, 1711, to Willemyntie Brouwer. 

Christopher Dennemarcker and Christina Elisabeth, his wife, 
had their child Anna Dorothea, baptized by Falckner, Feb. 7, 
1714, in "Rosendak in Sopus" (Esopus). 

Laurens Ruloffsen, born in Copenhagen, 1689, residing at 
Raritan was married by Falckner, May 16, 1715, to Catharina 
Schumans, daughter of Herman Schuman, a German. Catharina 
was born 1695, died 1776. They had children : Laurents, baptized 
March 27, 1716, and Roelof. Roelof had many children: Laurence, 
John, Christian, Lea, Isaac, Anna, Abraham, Henry, Elisabeth. 



388 SOME SCANDINAVIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK. 

These were Norwegians or Danes. 
Falckner's record contains also Swedish names : 



On Sept. 14, 1704, Pieter Harlandt, young man of Gothland, 
Sweden, married Catarina, young daughter of Samuel Beeckman, 
"Voorleser" of "our church at N. Y." 

On April 20, 1707, Jurgen Woll, from Wiborg, Sweden, mar- 
ried Altje Browers of Roanes. 

On July 29, 1726, Jan Pell, born at Stockholm, married Jan- 
netje Browers, "both living at New York." 

The Church Record kept by Justus Falckner has been pub 
lished in Year Book of the Holland Society of New York. 1908. 



A MUSTER ROLL OF MEN RAISED AND PAST MUSTER 
FOR THE PROVINCE OF NEW YORK.* 

Sybriant Adrian, ship carpenter from Norway, age 27, 5 feet, 
7 inches tall, fair complexion, light hair, blue eyes, enlisted, April 
28, 1759, in the company commanded by Captain Richard Smith 
(Another source says Captain Hardenbuck). 

Albert Egeles, sailor, from Norway, age 33, enlisted June 10, 
1760, his company going to Canada. 

Dennis Anderseon, mariner from Norway, age 22, 5 feet, 5^ 
in. tall, enliste din company of Captain Deforest. 

Conrad Cor, mariner from Norway, age 35, stature 5 ft. 7^2 
in., enlisted, in May, 1761, in company of Lt. Welsh. 

Hans Jacobsenborg, mariner from Norway, age 30, stature 
5 ft. 9y2 in., blue eyes, brown hair, brown complexion, enlisted in 
county of New York March 27, 1762. 



• Collection of New York Historical Society, XXIV. Report of the (N. Y.) 
State Historian, 1897. Col. Series II. 



IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 389 

John Christian Enevoldsen, age 36, born in Denmark, stature 
5 ft. 7 in., brown complexion, sandy hair, eyes do., cordwainer by 
trade, enlisted in New York City for Captain Richard Smith's 
Company April 26(28), 1759. 

Albert Thomas joined the same company April 23, 1759. He 
was born in Denmark, 24 years of age, 5 ft. 7 in. tall, of light 
complexion, blue eyes, smith and mariner by trade. 

John Frederick Mattheson, blacksmith, joined Smith's com- 
pany April 16, 1659. He was born in Copenhagen, age 24, stature 
5 ft. 7 in., of brown complexion, brown hair, brown eyes. 

John Henry Brown (Bower) enlisted with N. Y. Provincial 
troops. Company of Captain R. Livingston April 16, 1659. Brown 
was born in Denmark, 44 years of age, stature 5 ft. 5^ in., of 
brown complexion, brown hair, blue eyes. By trade, a mason. 

Andries Andries, born in Copenhagen, joined Captain Moore's 
Company, April 20, 1759. Age 28, stature 5 ft. 7 in., of brown 
complexion, brown hair, blue eyes. Mariner. 

Paul Sanders, born in Denmark, mariner (miner?), age 28, 
stature 5 ft., "round face," light hair, blue eyes ; was member of a 
company of soldiers, 1758, in Westchester County. 

Johannes Hogoland, sailor, from Denmark, age 28, stature 
5 ft. 9I/2 i"v. joined Captain Deforest's Company, May 25. 1761. 



Appendix IV. 
GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK. 1630-1674. 

In the Preface to our work it is shown that, judging by Prof. 
Flom's scholarly "A History of Norwegian Immigration" and by 
Mr. Roland's more popular "De norske Settlementers Historie," 
the immigration of Scandinavians to New York in the seventeenth 
century must have been practically (and professionally) a terra 
incognita as late as 1909, when these authors published their works 

Much the same may be said in regard to the German im- 
migration to New York during the Dutch rule, if we judge by 
Prof. Albert Bernhardt Faust's (Cornell University) "The Ger- 
man Element in the United States," published in the same year. 
This standard-work, submitted in a contest to the Germanic De- 
partment of the University of Chicago, obtained for the author 
the first prize, $3000, given by Mrs. Catherine Seipp, of Chicago. 
Excellent as Prof. Faust's work is, it makes only two statements 
that might permit of a conclusion as to the numerical strength of 
the Germans in New Netherland. 

The first is this : 

"There were Germans in the Dutch settlement of New Nether- 
land, and among them two who were second to none in moulding 
the destinies of the colony. The one was the first governor of 
New Netherland, Peter Minuit, and the other the first governor 
of New York to represent the popular party, Jacob Leisler." 

The second reads: 

"Dwelling with the Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam, there 
was undoubtedly quite a sprinkling of Germans. A good example 
is that of Dr. Hans Kierstede, who came from Magdeburg in 1638 
with Director Kieft. He was the first practising physician and 



GERMAN LEADERS. 391 

surgeon in that colony. He married Sarah Roelofse, daughter of 
Roeloff and Anneke Janse, the owner of the Annetje Jans farm 
on Manhattan Island." 

The latter statement is somewhat hypothetical. The former 
is rather indefinite. They offer nothing tangible for answering 
the question, How great was this sprinkling? Professor Faust 
makes mention of no other Germans in New Netherland than 
Minuit, Kierstede, Augustin Herman, and Leisler. Though his 
treatment of Minuit is as elucidating as his description of the 
activities of Leisler is sympathetic, he fails to call attention to 
German leaders like Schrick, Ebbing, Van Beeck, Burger Joris, 
and Nicholaes De Meyer the burgomaster of New York city in 
1676. 

This criticism does not aim to detract anything from the 
value of Prof. Faust's splendid contribution to the history of the 
German element in our country. Its object is merely to indicate 
that the German immigrants in New York 1630 — 1674 have re- 
ceived no more attention than the Scandinavian. 

As the background for a treatment of these German im- 
migrants would be much the same as what our volume outlines 
in treating the immigrants from the Scandinavian countries, we 
venture in the present Appendix to register the names, with more 
or less pertinent data, of some 180 immigrants from various cities 
and districts of Germany, including a few from Switzerland and 
Austria. The list does not claim to be exhaustive. A more ex- 
tended examination of the sources will increase the number of 
names, and, of course, add to the data, which I have collected, 
but of which I here present only a part. 

Prof. Faust states a fact when he says that October 6, 1683, 
is "the date celebrated by all Germans in America as the begin- 
ning of their history in the United States." But we believe that the 
history of the Germans in the leading state of the United States 
begins (like that of the Scandinavians) more than a half century 
earlier. 

Long before 1683, scores of places in Germ-any were repre- 
sented in New Netherland and registered in the records of the 
Empire State. 

It is as if a part of the history of the Middle Ages and the 
era of the Reformation passes in review before us when the 
records present names as these : Aachen, Stade, Fulda. Wrede, 



392 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Wesel, Eislehen, Mansfeld, Magdeburg, Worms, Jena, Augsburg, 
Niirnberg, Hesse, Ziirichsee, Bern, Mulhausen, Munster, Tubingen, 
They are suggestive of the coronation of emperors, of monastic- 
ism ; of a forerunner of the Refonnation ; of the history of Luther 
and diets; of a PhiHp of Hesse; of Zwingli; of the Peasants' War 
and the Anabaptists ; of the theological efforts of Andrea to re- 
store peace among contending theologians. 

And what a variety of associations are connected with names 
like Bremen, Hamburg, Lubeck, Cologne, Frankfurt am Main, 
Berlin, Konigsberg, Wolfenbiittel, Erlangen, Giessen, Berg, Bonn, 
Bocholt, Borken, Brunswick, Emden, Ems, Elberfeld, Elsfleth, 
Falkenburg, Gemen, Herborn, Hirschberg, H ammelwarden, Jever, 
Johannisberg, Lauffen, Lemgo, Lippstad, Kremmen, Mannheim, 
Osnabriick, Rodenkirchen, Soest, Struckhausen, Xanten; and 
Baden, Berg-Cassel, Cleves, East Friesland, Julich, Oldenburg. 
Waldeck, Westphalia. Even Transylvania and Prague are repre- 
sented, and the name "Das 'Kayserreych' " is not failing. 

But enough. These places together with the one hundred and 
eighty men and women who represented them in New Netherland 
before the close of the Dutch Dominion on American soil are suf- 
ficient to merit at least the brief treatment that is accorded them 
in the present Appendix, which endeavors only to call attention to 
the fact that the Germans, no less than the Scandinavians, were 
by no means a quantite negligeable in the history of New York, 
1630-1674. 

Like the Dutch, the Germans and Scandinavians are Teutons. 
They have the same civilization. And yet, so far as New York is 
concerned, the German and Scandinavian immigrant in the seven- 
teenth century had more in common with each other than with 
the Dutch: 

First, the majority of the German pioneers had the same 
creed as the Scandinavian : They were Lutherans. 

Secondly, in number they were inferior to the Dutch, who 
had some reason for priding themselves on being natives from 
what was then the most flourishing state in Europe. Moreover, 
these sons of Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Norway were not so 
apt as the Dutch immigrants to overlook difficulties and expect 
immediate rewards. 



A COSMOPOLITAN LUTHERAN CHURCH. 393 

What Mr. J. K. Riker says of the pioneers of Harlem also 
holds true, it would seem, of the entire population of New Nether- 
land : "Though the Dutch and French elements were dominant in 
giving tone to the community, the Scandinavians and Germans, few 
in number . . . were second to none for sterling common sense, 
while foremost to bear danger and hardship, to wield the axe 
whose ring first startled the slumbering forest, or to turn the first 
furrow in the virgin soil." 

Mr. Riker's contention is supported by the court records. 
They reveal that the German and Scandinavian element on the 
whole showed a greater respect for law and order than the more 
adventurous elements from Dutch- and French-speaking Nether- 
lands of Europe. 

As to the creedal factor, the Scandinavians were Lutherans 
"by birth" so to speak. Their native states recognized no other 
creed than the Lutheran. As this creed was not tolerated by the 
Governor and Council of New Netherland, who were bent on 
keeping the Reformed creed (especially the canons of the Synod 
of Dort) the state religion of New Netherland, — the Scandi- 
navians , in their efforts to get religious liberty, received allies in 
the Lutheran immigrants from Germany. The majority of these 
German pioneers were Lutherans of the seventeenth century type ; 
though not a few of them, coming from the western part of Ger- 
many, were Reformed or Roman Catholic. 

Settled in New York, a number of these Lutherans, both 
German and Scandinavian, joined the Reformed church. They 
intermarried among the Reformed. But the large majority adhered 
to the "faith of their fathers," even if this adherence at times 
savored of "zeal without knowledge." This majority had a com- 
mon enemy in the politico-ecclesiastical measures of the Governor 
and Council, and found little or no sympathy with the Dutch 
colonists, who in ecclesiastical matters were of the same cloth 
as Stuyvesant. In fact, the Dutch Lutherans in early New 
York were hardly in evidence. The story that the oldest Lutheran 
church in New Netherland was Dutch, lies hard by the realm of 
myths. 

The first Lutheran church in New Netherland was cosmo- 
politan ;* perhaps better, essentially German-Scandinavian — with 



* I have made this statement before: in Ruoff's "Volume Library," p. 404; 
"Realencyclopadie fuer protestantische Theologie und Kirche" v. XXIV, 538 (Leip- 
zig, 1913), edited by Albert Hauck. 



394 GERMAN IMMIGEANTS FN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

emphasis on German. It is significant that the petition of the Lu- 
therans in New Amsterdam, 1657, requesting that Rev. Goetwater 
be permitted to remain in New Amsterdam, appears to have been 
signed by sixteen Germans, five Scandinavians and three Hol- 
landers, (pp. 37 fl.) 

It is also significant that the Reformed preachers in New Am- 
sterdam expressly mention Paul Schrick, from Niirnberg, as the 
leader among the Lutherans (p. 88) ; Pieter Jansen as a "northern 
er," "stupid" enough to take sides with the Lutherans in discus- 
sing baptism (p. 87) : the Norwegian, Laurence Noorman, as a 
Lutheran sponsor and as the host who for a winter concealed the 
Lutheran minister on his farm (p. 39) when the government had 
ordered him to go into exile; and Magdelene Kallier (-Waele), 
a Scandinavian woman, as a godparent. These preachers do not 
complain, however, of Dutch Lutherans. And the records tell 
nothing about squabbles between Dutch Reformed preachers and 
Dutch Lutheran laymen, though they do not fail to set forth the 
dispute, in 1680. between Rev. Gideon Schaets, Dutch Reformed 
minister of Albany, aiid Meyndert Fredricksen, a German Lu- 
theran. 

Does not this indicate that the Dutch Lutherans, in propor- 
tion to the German and Scandinavian, were too few in number or 
too much wanting in aggressiveness? 

And, does not the presence of a man like Jan Goetwater as 
the first Lutheran minister in New Amsterdam indicate the pre- 
ponderance of the German element in the church he was to serve? 
The Reformed preachers at times called him "Goetwater," though 
"Gutwasser" was the form he used in signing his name. Was 
"Goetwater" his real name? If so, "Gutwasser" is a Germaniza- 
tion of it, showing that strong German influences likely were at 
work in the circle he was sent over to serve. It is more probable, 
however, that "Gutwasser" is the original ; and that the bearer 
of this name was a German, who was at home in the Dutcli 
language as well as in his native tongue. The Consistory of Am- 
sterdam presumably acted according to the desire of Paulu? 
Schrick and his countrymen when they sent over to New Nether- 
land a preacher, who probably was of German extraction, but 
could preach in Dutch. 

As has been indicated in various places in our book, the Lu- 
therans in New Netherland were not allowed the exercise of 



EELIGIOUS INTOLEEANCE. 395 

public worship according to the dictates of their conscience or 
in harmony with their creed. It was the policy of the new govern- 
ment whose subjects they were to make and keep the Reformed 
"religion" the religion of the entire province. 

This policy was not a new one. In 1638 the government pro- 
claimed that "every man shall be free to live up to his own con- 
science in peace and decorum ; provided he avoid frequenting any 
forbidden assemblies or conventicles, much less collect or get any 
such." This proclamation was confirmed, in reality explained, in 
the West India Company's New Charter of Patroonship, 1640, 
which specified that "no other religion shall be publicly admitted 
to New Netherland except the Reformed, as it is at present 
preached and practiced by the public authority in the United 
Netherlands." 

The Council waived this, however, so far as the English were 
concerned. It proclaimed in 1641 that the "English shall have 
free exercise of their religion." It also decreed when New Sweden 
was conquered, 1655, that the Swedes living there should be per 
mitted to adhere to the Augsburg Confession and to have their 
own minister. But these concessions were dictated by policy, and 
not by principle. 

The English Independents were as little recognized as were 
the Lutherans. The "fate" of the Independents was also the 
"fate" of the Lutherans, Mennonites, Quakers and Catholics. 
Stuyvesant and his predecessors in office were not able to com- 
prehend the spirit of liberty, which found such energetic spokes- 
men as Gustavus Adolphus and Oliver Cromwell. 

And therefore, even as late as February, 1656, the Director- 
General and Council regarded it as their duty to decree the fol- 
lowing: 

"The Director General and Council have credibly been in- 
formed, that not only conventicles and meetings are held here and 
there in this Province, but that also unqualified persons presume 
in such meetings to act as teachers in interpreting and expounding 
God's holy Word without ecclesiastical or temporal authority. 
This is contrary to the general political and ecclesiastical rules 
of our Fatherland and besides such gatherings lead to troubles, 
heresies and schisms. Therefore to prevent this the Director 
General and Council strictly forbid all such public or private con- 



396 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

venticles and meetings, except the usual and authorized ones, 
where God's reformed ordained Word is preached and taught in 
a meeting for the reformed divine service conform to the Synod 
of Dort and followed here as well as in the Fatherland and other 
reformed churches of Europe, under a fine of 100 pounds of 
Flemish to be paid by all, who in such public or private meetings, 
except the usual authorized gatherings, on Sunday or other days 
presume to exercise without due qualification the duties of a 
preacher, reader or precentor and each man or woman, married 
or unmarried, who are found at such a meeting, shall pay a fine 
of 25 pounds Flemish [=$60.00]. The Director General and 
Council do not however hereby intend to force the consciences, 
to the prejudice of formerly given patents, or to forbid the preach- 
ing of God's holy Word, the family prayers and divine service 
in the family, but only all public and private conventicles and 
gatherings, be they in public or private houses, except the already 
mentioned usual and authorized reformed divine service. In 
order that this order may be better observed and nobody plead 
ignorance thereof the Director General and Council direct and 
charge their Fiscal and the inferior Magistrates and Schouts, to 
publish it everywhere in this Province and prosecute the trans- 
gressors, whereas we have so decreed it for the honor of God, 
the advancement of the Reformed service and the quiet, unity and 
welfare of the country in general. 

"Thus done etc., February 1, 1656." 

The Directors in United Netherlands were not altogether 
pleased with this placard, and still less with Stuyvesant's enforcing 
of it. For, according to a letter of the Directors, in June of the 
same year, Stuyvesant actually committed some Lutherans to 
prison. It reads: 

"We would have been better pleased, if you had not published 
the placard against the Lutherans, a copy of which you sent us, 
and committed them to prison, for it has always been our inten- 
tion, to treat them quietly and leniently. Hereafter you will there- 
fore not publish such or similar placards without our knowledge, 
but you must pass it over quietly and let them have free religious 
exercises in their houses." 

The sources accessible to us do not give the names of these 
prisoners or help us to establish the accuracy of the statement in 



IMPEISONMENT OF LUTHEBANS. 397 

regard to any imprisoning of Lutherans. Perhaps the Directors 
in United Netherlands were laboring under some misapprehension. 
The probability, however, is that Stuyvesant did what the letter 
claimed he did. It suffices to mention his subsequent treatment 
of Rev. Goetwater. 

The Lutherans in New Amsterdam, while obediently acting 
upon the prohibitive order of February, 1656, received word from 
their friends in United Netherlands (who had interceded for them 
there with the Directors of the West India Company) that the 
Directors "in a full meeting" resolved that the doctrines of the 
Unaltered Augsburg Confession should be tolerated in the West 
Indies and New Netherland "under their jurisdiction, in the same 
manner as in the Fatherland, under its excellent government." 

The Lutherans in New Netherland informed Stuyvesant and 
the Council in regard to this, October 24, 1656, praying "that 
henceforth we may not be hindered in our services. These with 
Gods blessing we intend to celebrate, with prayer, reading and 
singing, until, as we hope and expect, a qualified person shall come 
next spring from the Fatherland to be our minister and teacher, 
ctnd remain here as such." 

But the Council at New Amsterdam would make no conces- 
sion, and simply reiterated that no one should be prevented from 
having family worship. Public worship was to remain under the 
same restriction as before. 

Meanwhile Rev. Jan Goetwater arrived in the summer of 
1657. But the Reformed pastors sent in to the Burgomasters and 
Schepens their objections against his taking up any pastoral work 
among the Lutherans in New Netherlands. Among the objec- 
tions were these : 

If the Lutherans should have public worship, the result would 
be "great contention and discord" not only among the inhabitants 
and citizens in general, but also in families, "of which we have 
had proofs and complaints during the past year. For example, 
some husbands have forced their wives to leave their own church, 
and attend their conventicles." Secondly, the numbers of hearers 
in the Reformed church would be "perceptibly diminished. Many 
of that persuasion [Lutheran] have continued attentive hearers 
among us, and several have united themselves with our church. 



398 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

These would separate themselves from us." Thirdly, "the treasury 
of our deacons [the poor fund] would be considerably diminished, 
and become unable to sustain the burdens it has hitherto borne," 
as "there is no other means provided for the support of the poor, 
save what is collected in the church." Fourthly, "if the Lutherans 
should be indulged in the exercise of their (public) worship, the 
Papists, Mennonites and others would soon make a similar claim. 
Thus we would soon become a Babel of confusion, instead of 
remaining a united and peaceful people. Indeed it would prove 
a plan of Satan to smother this infant rising congregation, almost 
in its birth, or at least to obstruct the march of truth in its 
progress." 

The Burgomasters and Schepens were pleased with these 
arguments, and adopted measures accordingly. They summoned 
Rev. Goetwater. They charged him not to hold any public or 
private religious exercises in New Amsterdam, and informed the 
Director General and Council of what their views were and what 
they had done. This latter body and Stuyvesant ratified their 
action, and requested them strictly to enforce the placard of Feb- 
ruary. 1656. Goetwater got orders to leave the country. 

The Reformed ministers now sent a report, Aug. 5, 1657, to 
the Classis of Amsterdam, stating that they could not have believed 
that the Directors in United Netherlands should have permitted 
the Lutherans to have public worship. But they were disillusionized 
when Rev. Goetwater arrived, as they wrote, "to the great joy of 
the Lutherans, but to the special displeasure and uneasiness of 
the congregation in this place ; yea, even the whole country, in- 
cluding the English, were displeased." They urged that Goet- 
water, "the snake in our bosom", be sent back to Holland. 

It was now that the Lutherans sent in their well known peti- 
tion of Oct. 10, 1657, so often referred to in this volume, and 
given in full on page 37 ff. The Reformed ministers later claimed 
that this petition was "signed by the least respectable" of the Lu- 
therans, and that "the most influential among them were unwilling 
to trouble themselves with it." 

Their petition of October 10, followed by a letter from Rev. 
Goetwater to the Director General and Council, proved to be in 
vain. Goetwater was again commanded to leave the country. 



AN EXILED MINISTER. 399 

But he was in no hurry to depart. 

He remained during the winter of 1657 — 58 at the farm of 
a Norwegian. (See p. 39.) His opponents, the Reformed minister 
wrote that Goetwater, instead of returning to Holland "went out 
of the city and concealed himself with a Lutheran farmer during 
the whole winter," where the congregation "supported him at the 
rate of six guilders ($2.40) per week. On the fourth of August 
last, when we celebrated the Lord's Supper, they made a collec- 
tion among themselves for him. The Fiscal was again directed 
to arrest him, and compel him to leave by one of the earliest ships. 
In the meantime the Lutherans came and represented to the 
Director-General that their preacher was sick at the farmer's, and 
besought the privilege of bringing him within the place for treat- 
ment. This was granted them. The Fiscal was at the same time 
empowered to watch over him, and when well again to send him 
to Holland. Whether on his recovery, he will return or conceal 
himself again, time must show." 

The Council not long thereafter, on November 11, 1658, 
passed a resolution, that Goetwater "remain in New Amsterdam 
until otherwise directed." He did not preach, however. 

Stuyvesant did all in his power to make Lutheran preaching 
in New Netherland an utter impossibility. In 1662 he again pub- 
lished a proclamation against the preaching of any other than the 
Reformed doctrine "either in houses, barns, ships or yachts, in 
the woods and fields." 

Not before the English conquered New Netherland, in 1664, 
did the Lutherans in this colony get a "charter," granting them 
the right of free and public exercise of divine worship according 
to their conscience ; provided they would "not abuse this liberty 
to the disturbance of others . . ." 

This "charter" was far from implying complete parity. 
It did not mean autonomy. And when the Dutch, in 1675. 
reconquered their territory, the Lutherans were legally in the same 
position as before, petitioning anew for permission to exercise 
public worship. But the Dutch government proved more liberal 
now than before. It permitted the free exercise of worship to the 
Lutherans (September, 1673), but forbade, in March, 1674, Jacobus 
Fabritius, Lutheran pastor from Grosglogan in Silesia, to act as 



400 GERMAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

clergyman for a year, because he had solemnized a marriage, without 
having been lawfully authorized to act as clergyman. This attitude 
to a clergyman that in 1669 had received permission from Gover- 
nor Lovelace to become pastor of the Lutherans in New York and 
Albany, shows that the Dutch government was in continuity with 
itself, though it was trying to follow a more lenient policy than 
before. Fabritius, who preached in Dutch, but seems to have been 
a Pole, had already at the outset proved himself a troublesome 
clergyman, quarreling with his parishioners and the state authori- 
ties : he had domestic troubles, and now and then got drunk. He 
was obliged to resign in 1670, and became the pastor of the Swedes 
on the Delaware. But his weakness is no excuse for the sentence 
imposed upon him by the restored Dutch rule under Colve. 

After the restoration of the English rule, in 1674, the Lu- 
therans enjoyed their rights as before. Fabritius, however, fared 
no better. The Swedish and Finnish Lutherans at Cranehook re- 
monstrated against him in August, 1675, because they could not 
understand his language. In September, in the same year, the 
English government again suspended him "from exercising his 
function as a minister, or preaching any more within this govern- 
ment either in public or private." The reason for this suspension 
was his "irregular life and conversation." 

The treatment of Rev. Goetwater by the Dutch Government, 
the sad experiences with his successor who was morally unfit for 
his position may have discouraged the Lutherans, and caused that 
a number of them joined the Reformed church. Meanwhile the 
differences between the Reformed and Lutherans were gradually 
disappearing in the consciousness of the common people, though 
the problem of election caused ill feeling among members of the 
respective denominations as late as 1680. 

Later, when James IL ascended the throne of England, the 
fear that Catholicism would become a power in the colonies drew 
the contending Protestants in New Netherland closer together. 
And the spirit of Protestantism, whether originally imbibed from 
the Lutheran "doctrine" or from the Reformed "religion" or both, 
was at the close of the century so strong that the attempt to make 
even the Episcopal church the state church of New York proved 
abortive. 



A GERMAN MAYOR AND A GERMAN GOVERNOR. 401 

This is not the place to indulge in denominational polemics. 
But the fact that Germans and Scandinavians played an important 
role in the life of our present metropolis is a factor that must be 
reckoned with in considering the religious developments in early 
New York. 

As for the political influence, it suffices to point to a Dane 
like Captain Kuyter, to Germans like Mayor Nicholas de Meyer 
and Governor Jacob Leisler. 

We can not here discuss the social, economic, and industrial 
assets of the early German immigrants. The list * of names im- 
mediately following may throw a little light on these and kindred 
questions. For us it is sufficient to point out the Germans in 
polyglot New Netherland, and to assist in giving an impulse to the 
study of the German element in the United States prior to 1683 ; 
yes, prior to 1674, when the Dutch rule, excellent as it was in 
many ways, gave way to the rule that Avas to obtain for a whole 
century but ended in the American Revolution. 



LIST OF GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK 
1630—1674. 

Jan Adamsen (Metselaer-Messler) was born at Worms, Ger- 
many, 1626, died 1696. His name appears in the court records 
of New Amsterdam in 1656. In 1665 he lived in Marketfield 
Alley. In 1669 he was one of the curators of the estate of Hage 
Bruynsen, a Swede (p. 306). His sons, Sebastian, Dirck, Abraham, 
Isaac were born in 1658, 1661, 1662, 1678 respectively. Of these. 
Abraham married, 1694, Harmetje Gerrits. 

Barent Andriessen, from Wrede in Westphalia, married, in 
1654, Elken Jans "van Voorden, int Graefschap Zutphen." They 
lived in New Amsterdam. Two years later, Andriessen was dead, 
the widow having married Thomas Franszen, of Boston. 

Hans Albertsen, from Brunsivick, got land in September, 
1656, near Roelof Jansen de Haes, a Norwegian, in New Am- 
sterdam. In 1658 he is mentioned in the court records, as a wit- 
ness in a lawsuit. 



* Immigrants from Schleswig and Holstein have been treated in Part II. 



402 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Harmon Arentsen was in New Amsterdam in 1644 (or 
earlier), when he was thirty-eight years old. He was from 
Bremen. 



Jan Barentssen, of Liibeck, married in New Amsterdam, 
1685, Maryken Jillis, widow of Robert Rotges. In 1694 he mar- 
ried Marritie Webbers. 

Meyndert Barentszen, from J ever, in Oldenburg married iu 
New Amsterdam, June 6, 1659, Anneke Cornelis. In October, 
1657, he signed the petition of the Lutherans, requesting that Rev. 
Goetwater be retained as a Lutheran pastor in New Amsterdam. 
He was a cooper, and had several hired men. In 1665 he lived 
in Smith Street. He got the small burgher's right in New Am- 
sterdam, 1657. He had children. 

Paulns van der Beeck, from Bremen, married, 1644, in New 
Amsterdam, Maria Thomas, widow of Willem de Cuper. In 1657 
he was farmer of weigh scales ; in 1660 farmer of burgher excise 
of wine and beer. In his official capacity he was often in court, 
prosecuting. He owned several lots in New Amsterdam. In 
1662 he let a contract for a house "40 ft. X 20 ft. X 6 ft." He 
was one of the leading citizens in New Amsterdam. 

Cornelis Beckman, from Stift Bremen, married, in 1665, in 
New Amsterdam, Marritje Cornelis, widow of Hans Ketel, or 
Hans Christiaenszen. She was from Flensburg (p. 185). 

Jochem Beeckman was in New Amsterdam in 1639 or before. 
He was a cobbler by trade. He had a quick hand and a ready 
tongue wherewith to defend himself, what brought him several 
times into court. His wife was a faithful ally in matters of self- 
defense. He was in all probability a German, as he is seen to 
have associated much with Germans, being frequently called in 
as sponsor in German families. In October, 1657, he signed the 
petition of the Lutherans that they might retain Rev. Goetwater 
as Lutheran pastor in New Amsterdam. He had a house and 
lot on the east side of Heere Graft, "to the North of Pine St., to 
the East the house and lot of Jacobus Baker, West the said 
Gracht." He had children. 



BUER. 403 

Christina Bleyers, from "Stoltenon" in Liineburg, was mar- 
ried, Jan. 17, 1659, in New Amsterdam, to Pieter Hendricksen 
Christians, from Denmark (p. 186). 

Adam Brouwer Berkhoven immigrated to New Netherland 
from Cologne, in 1642. He married Mag(reta) Jacobs Verdon. 
In 1677 — 80 he and his wife were members of the Dutch Re- 
formed Church at Brooklyn. 

Matys Blanjan (Blanchan), from Mannheim, is mentioned in 
the records of New Amsterdam in 1662, when reference is also 
made to his son-in-law. Matys Blanjan jr. married in Kingston, 
N. Y.. 1679. As there were in New Amsterdam several French- 
men from Mannheim, Matys may have been one of them. He 
was a Protestant. 

Jan Bosch, from Westphalia, arrived at New Amsterdam, by 
the ship "de Vos," which sailed from Texel, August 31, 1662. 
When the English Governor, in 1665, desired to billet off soldiers, 
Bosch claimed he could not receive soldiers, as "he has no bed" 
for them. 

He is mentioned in the court records as late as 1674. He 
was dead before May, 1679, when his widow, Rachel Vermelje, 
married Dirck Wesselsen, from Arnhem. 

Adam Bremen, from Aachen, sailed for New Amsterdam 
Dec. 23, 1657, by "de Jan Baptiste." His wife, Elsie Barents, and 
a servant girl followed in 1663, by "de Bonte Koe." He was dead 
before 1670, when his widow married Marius de Vos. 

Aeltie Van Bremen is mentioned, in 1668, in the records of 
New Netherland. She is probably the woman who was married, 
1643, at New Amsterdam, to Pieter Collet, from Konigsberg. 

Michiel Bronval is listed among the passengers, who were 
to sail for New Netherland, by "de Bonte Koe," April 15, 1660. 
He was from Berg-Cassel, and probably sailed as a soldier. 

Albert Buer, from Jiilich, sailed for New Amsterdam, April 
8, 1662. by the ship "de Hoop." 



404 GERMAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Johannes Burger, from Gemen (Munster) is mentioned in the 
records of New Amsterdam in 1663. In 1691 he married Helena 
Turck. 

* 

Claes van Campen, of Oldenburg, is designated as a farmer 
boy in the records of New Netherland, 1660. 

Matthys Capita, surnamed Boon, Bon, Bontze, was probably 
from Bonn, Germany. In August, 1650, in New Amsterdam, he 
married Elsje Pieters, from Hamburg, widow of Hans Webber. 
Capito signed, in October, 1657, the petition of the Lutherans in 
New Amsterdam, requesting that Rev. Goetwater be allowed to 
remain as their pastor. In 1659 Capito was commissary at South 
River. After about the year 1660 he was secretary of the village 
of Esopus, mustermaster, secretary of the council of war (Indian 
wars were waged). He was schout of Wiltwyck, Dec. 1663 — 
April, 1664. The name "Capito" is a Latinization of "Kopfel." 
Capito's wife was killed and burned in the Indian war at Esopus, 
1663. He died about 1667. His name often occurs in the records 
of New Netherland. He figured frequently in the courts. He 
had at least one child : Hendrick, born in 1653. A letter of 
Capito, June 29, 1663, to Gov. Stuyvesant and the Council of New 
Netherland, speaks of his poverty after he had lost all he had in 
the war. It reads : 

"Gentlemen. Whereas I, your Hon. Worships' humble petitioner have also 
been brought to ruin during these late troubles in the village of Wiltwyck, caused 
by the savages, not having lost only my dear wife, who was killed by the barbarians 
and then burned with the house, to which they set flre, but in the same fire also all 
my moveable effects, that nothing else is left to me, but my honest name. Now, as 
I need during my further life, for covering my body and keeping clean, some linen 
and cloth, which at present cannot be obtained here, and which, even if it were to 
be had here, I cannot pay for, therefore I am compelled to turn to your Hon. Wor- 
ships, in pity of my distressed circumstances and misery; (you) will please to assist 
me and provide me with low-priced clothing, to-wit, some cheap plain cloth for a suit 
of clothes and what is needed for it, two or three store-shirts or linen to make them, 
one or one and a half els of linen for handkerchiefs and nightcaps, a blanket and 
enough coarse linen for a straw tick and a pillow, two pairs of Icelandish socks and 
a pair of shoes — and charge these goods according to their prices to my account. I 
promise to make it good to your Hon. Worships as soon as I can, and as with God's 
blessing I shall have again prospered somewhat. Not doubting that I expect to re- 
ceive thejn by the first opportunity, because my needy circumstances require them, 
closing with greetings, I commend your Honr. Worships to the Almighty's protection, 
wishing and praying sincerely, that the good God will save your Honbl. Worships and 
us all from all such and similar misfortune and troubles wliile I remain Mateus 
Capito.' ' 

Gabriel Carbosie (Carpesy), born in Lauffen. near Mannheim, 



CLUTE. 405 

married, in New Amsterdam, 1657, Teuntje Straelsman. He later 
married Briete Olofs, a widow, from Sweden (p. 340). 

Wolfgang Carstensen, soldier, from IVolfenbuttel, married 
July 3, 1660, in New Amsterdam, Elsje Jans Bresteede, widow of 
Hendrick Jansen. 

Jan Christiaen (De Jon Christiaen), from Germany, was in 
New Netherland in April 1660. 

Dirck Claeszen, from Bremen, married, in November, 1650, 
in New Amsterdam, Aechtje Jacobs (Van "Hertogenbusch"). He 
seems to have been a potter. 

Valentine Claesen, from "Saxenlant, in Transylvania," mar- 
ried, April, 1662, in New Amsterdam, Maritje Beest, from "Cuy- 
lenborg." In 1673 he was Schepen of Fordham village. As Riker 
says, the Valentines of our country are not descendants of Benja- 
min Valentine, a French dragoon in French military service in 
Canada, but from Valentine Claesen. 

Jan Van Cleef (Cleves) was in New Amsterdam as early as 
1653, when he was twenty-five years of age. In company with 
Titus Gyre he bought a horsemill belonging to Jacob van Couwen- 
hoven. He later became the sole owner of it, but soon sold it, 
what brought on considerable litigation in the court. 

Ulderick Cleen, [Uldrich Klein], from Hesse, married, in 
July, 1641, in New Amsterdam, Afje Pieters, of Amsterdam. 
They had at least one child, baptized in 1642. 

Cornells Jansen Clapper, from Kloppenborg, petitioned, in 
1655, the council of New Amsterdam for permission to tap. It 
appears that he had just returned from Brazil to New Amsterdam, 
where he had resided before he went to South America. He had 
been "driven away" from Brazil. He was a smith, and had hired 
workmen. In 1660 he acquired a parcel of ground in Smith's 
Valley. He served on the jury in 1667. 

Johannes Clute came to Beverwyck about 1656 from Niirn- 
berg. He was commonly called captain and was held in esteem by 
the Mohawks. He was a trader and large land-holder in Loonen- 
burg, Niskayuna, and Albany. His name was sometimes spelled 



406 GEEMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Cloete. There were many in early New York who had the name 
Chite. Johannes died about 1684. 

Hans or Jans Coenratse was from Nilrnberg. He is men- 
tioned in the records of New Netherland in 1660. 

Hendrick Coenratse, from Bonn, was in New Netherland in 
1660. 

Pieter Collet, from Kbnigsberg "in Pruysen," married, in Au- 
gust, 1643, in New Amsterdam, Aeltje Jans, from Bremen, widow 
of John Cornelisen, of Rotterdam. He signed the well-known re- 
solution adopted by the Commonalty of Manhattans in October, 
1648. He had a child baptized in December, 1644. 

Jan CorneUssen de Ryck was probably a German. He mar- 
ried in May, 1658, in New Amsterdam, Marritje Gerrits. They 
had children. The Jan Cornelissen who, in October, 1657. signed 
the petition of the Lutherans, in New Amsterdam, to retain Rev. 
Goetwater as pastor is possibly Jan Cornelissen de Ryck. In 1671 
Cornelissen was overseer of Roads. 

Hendrick Cornelissen Van Valckenburg was. judging by the 
name, from Falkenburg in Germany, not far from Jiilich. In 
May. 1650, he married, in New Amsterdam. Marie Bowens. from 
London. He seems to have been a rope maker. 

Lambert van Valckenburch was in New Amsterdam as early 
as 1644, and received a patent of land there, March 16. 1647. He 
removed to Fort Orange. See Plate facing p. 62. 

Jan Coster [Koster], of Aachen, bought a lot in Beverwyck 
in March, 1661. In 1669 he was called Jan van Aecken. 

Barent Court [Coerten] "van Rhenen" in "Stift Milnster" 
married in December. 1664, in New Amsterdam. Anna Jans, 
widow of Andries Spiering. He joined the Dutch Reformed 
Church in 1666. In 1686 his wife was Christina Wessells. They 
lived on High Street. His property in this street was. in 1674, 
valued at $8000. 



\ 



DREPER. 407 

Michael Croes, from Danzig, married in June, 1661, in New 
Amsterdam, Jannetje Theunis. 

Coenraet Croos, from Sivitserland, was among the soldiers to 
sail, April 15, 1660, by "de Bonte Koe," for New Netherland. 



Hans Diederick, of Isleven [Eisleben] married, in New Am- 
sterdam, 1664, Grietje Warnaerts, widow of Adriaen Hendr. 
Zips. In 1673 he was elected Lieutenant at the nomination of 
the town of Bergen, N. J. In 1684 he appears as a witness in a 
lawsuit. 

Carsten Dircksen, from Bremen, a shoemaker by trade, got 
the small burgher's right in New Amsterdam, in 1657. 

Jan Dircksen, from Bremen, was in New Amsterdam as early 
as 1639. In 1643 was skipper of a vessel, receiving orders from 
Kiliaen van Rensselaer. His wife was Tryntie Anders. They 
belonged to the Dutch Reformed church in New Amsterdam, and 
had a child baptized in February, 1644. In 1665 it appears that 
he had a scow, on which he employed hired men and took pas- 
sengers. Dircksen was a "tar of the old sort," who loved strong 
drink and took pleasure in striking terror into his servants. 

Lucas Dircksen, from Berg, Germany, was one of the signers 
of the Lutheran petition in October, 1657, in New Amsterdam. 
His wife was Annetje Cornelis. They had several children. 
Dircksen came to New Netherland in 1652 or before. In 1654 
he was given a license to retail beer and wine. Up to that time 
he seems to have been employed as a soldier. His business brought 
him a number of times into court, — to collect an account or to 
be fined for tapping after the hours of closing. He seems to have 
resided for some time at South River, where he possessed a house. 

Hans Dreper, or Draper (Drapier) was no doubt a Teuton. 
His signing the Lutheran petition in October, 1657, for retaining 
Rev. Goewater in New Amsterdam, and again a Lutheran petition 
at Albany, in 1673, seems to indicate that he was from Lutheran 
Scandinavia or Lutheran Germany. He was probably a German. 



408 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

In 1654 he had a son baptized in New Amsterdam, and two years 
later a daughter. His wife was Marritie Pieters [also called 
Margritie Jans]. In October, 1656, Dreper requested by petition 
leave to tap beer and wines. The petition was granted. He had 
several lawsuits, prosecuting people for board and drink. He was 
often fined for using unbecoming language, and at one time even 
imprisoned for six weeks on bread and water. Also his wife was 
given to petty quarreling. 



Hieronymus Ebbing, from Hamburg, married, in 1659, in 
New Amsterdam, Johanna de Laet, widow of John de Hulter. 
They had several children. Ebbing was for many years church 
warden of the Dutch Reformed church at New Amsterdam. In 
1658 he supervised the paving of Brewer St. with cobblestones 
as an "ornament and for the use of the city." He was curator 
of the estate of the Dane Jochem Pietersen Kuyter. In 1658 he 
was made Great Burgher. He was elected schepen of the city 
in 1661, and was often re-elected. He had the title of Sieur. In 
1665, living at Brewer Street, he was assessed fl. 4 ; only nine other 
citizens paying so high a tax. In 1670 he was juryman, and in 
1673 was nominated burgomaster, but not elected. He often served 
as arbitrator in disputes. 

Harmen Eduardsen (Eduwarsen) signed the petition of the 
Lutherans of New Amsterdam, 1657, to retain Rev. Goetwater. 
Eduardsen was probably a German. In 1662 we find him in 
Bergen, New Jersey, where he, in company with Laurens Andries- 
sen Boskerk (p. 152) and others, subscribed money to defray the 
salary of a preacher. He owned some sixty-nine acres of land in 
Bergen. In 1674 he acquired land on Staten Island at the mouth 
of "Kill von Koll." 

Elbert Elbertsen (Eldert Engelberts) from an island off the 
coast of East Friesland was at Midwout in 1654 or before. In 
March, 1656, he married, in New Amsterdam, Sarah Walker, of 
Boston. Their daughter Anna Maria was born in December of 
the same year at Maspeth Kills. Elbertsen was one of the "good 
men" in an arbitration suit in 1656, the other arbitrator being 
Domine Megapolensis. Riker's History of Harlem registers El- 



FEEDERICKSE. 409 

bertsen as a Swede. The spelling Engelberts would point to 
Swedish antecedents. It is probable though that, coming from 
East Friesland, he was German. 

Lucas Eldertsen, from Jever, was in New Netherland as 
early as 1643, when his name occurs in the records of the colony 
of Rensselaerswyck. He was in New Amsterdam 1646. In 1649 
he was given power of attorney by Jan Lawrensen Appel to col- 
lect money due at South River, when he is called "the worthy 
Luycas Eldertsen from Jeveren." In 1654 a son of Eldertsen 
and his wife, Annetje Jans, was baptized in New x\msterdam, and 
a daughter in 1656. In 1657 we find him as laborer at the weigh 
house. In the same year he signed the petition of the Lutherans 
requesting that Rev. Goetwater be retained as Lutheran pastor. 
In 1661 he was in Beverwyck. His widow married, in May, 1666, 
Laurens Jansen Van Wormer, a Hollander. Eldertsen seems to 
have been a person of quiet disposition, though he often appeared 
in court. 



Hendrick Folckertsen, born in 1634, married Feb. 26, 1655, 
at New Amsterdam. Geertie Claes. He was from Jever. He acted 
as sponsor in 1654. In 1674 he is mentioned in the court records 
as intending to make a voyage to the West Indies. Folckertsen and 
his wife had at least one child. 

Jurian Fradel, from Moravia, acquired sixty-nine acres of 
land at Long Island in September, 1644. A year later he, as the 
"husband of the widow of Hendrick Hendricksen," acquired some 
more land. He had a child baptized in New Amsterdam in 1653. 
Judging by the court records, he was a dealer in tobacco. 

Arent Francken, a baker from Jever, arrived at New Amster- 
dam by the ship "de Trouw," which sailed February 12, 1659. 

Carsten Frederickse, from Jever, a brother of Meyndert 
Fredericksen (see below), was a smith by trade (master smith). 
With his brother he had a smith shop in Albany; he owned also 
a lot on the north corner of Broadway and State Street. He was 
deacon of the Dutch Lutheran church, in the same city. 1680. 



410 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

His wife was Tryntie Warners. They made a joint will July 1, 
1689, which mentions their four children. 

Meyndert Fredericksen, from J ever, married, in August, 1655, 
in New Amsterdam, Catharyn Burchart (Burger) ; and secondly, 
in 1663, Pietertje Teunise Van Vechten. They lived in the city 
of Alban}'. He was a smith and had together with his brother 
Karsten, a smith shop on the north corner of Broadway and 
Spanish (later Hudson) St. He was sometimes designated as 
"armorer to the fort." He was elder of the Dutch Lutheran 
church in Albany in 1680. In 1673 he signed a petition of the 
Lutherans, requesting in "their own and in the name of their con- 
gregation of the Augsburg Confession at Willemstadt (Albany) 
... in substance free exercise of their religious worship, with- 
out let or hindrance, to the end that they may live in peace with 
their fellow burghers. . . ." They had enjoyed religious liberty 
under the English rule, but the Dutch, on reconquering Nev,' 
Netherland in 1673, were less liberal. However, the local Dutch 
government ordered, on receipt of this petition : "The petitioners 
are granted and allowed their aforesaid request on condition of 
comporting themselves peaceably and quietly without giving any 
oflfence to the congregation of the Reformed Religion, which is 
the State Church (de hooft kercke)." In 1701 Meyndert signed 
another Lutheran petition addressed to King William III. 

Meyndert and his wife were zealous defenders of Lutheran- 
ism, manifesting, however, a zeal which was deficient in know- 
ledge, as will be seen from the minutes of the Extraordinary Court 
held at Albany in March, 1680. The problem of election occupied 
the lay Lutheran mind of our country even as early as the seven- 
teenth century. It assumed such importance in the mind of Meyn- 
dert that he and his wife quarreled wnth the Reformed minister. 

"The Court met at the request of Domine Gideon Schaets (Dutch Reformed 
minister at Albany) accompanied by the W. Consistory, who complains that Myndert 
Frederickse Smitt came to his house and told him, the Domine, never to presume to 
speak to any of his Children on religious matters; and that he, the Domine, went 
sneaking through all the houses like the Devil; adding. Our Domine (meaning Domine 
Bernardus, Minister of the Lutheran Congregation) does not do so. 

"Domine Schaets further complains that Myndert Frederickse's wife grievously 
abused and calumniated him behind his back at Gabriel Thomson's house, as an 
old Rogue, Sneak, etc., and that if she had him by the pate, she should drag his 
grey hairs out of it; which the Domine offers to prove by witnesses. 

"Whereupon Myndert Frederickse and wife are sent for to Court, and 
Domine Schaets' accusation is read to Myndert, who denies it all, declaring that 
he has not given the Domine an ill word. 



FREDERICKSEN. 411 

■Pietertje, wife of Myndert Frederickse, denies having abused Domine 
Schaets as a rogue and sneak; but that the Domine hath abused her Religion as a 
Devilish Religion. 

"Hend. Rooseboom sworn, says that he was at Gabriel Thomson's last Mon- 
day when Pietertje, Myndert Frederickse's wife, entered, and wishing to go away, 
was called back by Gabriel, and conversing on the subject of Domine Schaets and 
her daughter, she said, — What business hath Domine Schaets to question mine 
daughter? To this Gabriel said — Why should he not do so? The Domine does well 
to question people. Whereupon Pietertje said, Domine Schaets, the old Rogue and 
Sneak; had she been by she should have caught him by the grey pate — adding he 
ought to look to his daughter, the W. . . .e, and take care of her — To which Gabriel 
replied, Meutie, why say that and scold the Domine so? who answered him — Yon 
d . . . . dog! you protect your w and knaves. 

"Cornelis Teunise Swart, being sworn, says, he was also at Gabriel Thom- 
son's last Tuesday, when Pietertie Myndert Frederickse's wife came in and en- 
quired for her daughter, who not being there, she was going away, but Gabriel 
called her back and said — sit a while, Meutie; and being in conversation about 
Domine Schaets' wishing to question her daughter, she said she had, herself, a 
teacher to do so, that if she had the old rogue, she would take him by the grey 
pate, and further knoweth not." 

"Mr. Sheriff Pretty requests their Worships that he may act herein, to insti- 
tute his action, at a more convenient period. 

"The W. Court postponed the matter to the next Court day to act on the 
merits. Meanwhile if parties can be reconciled, (through Respect for the Divine) 
they were particularly recommended to do so, saving Sheriff's action and costs." 

On the next day the Court met again, when: 

"Myndert Fredericksen and his wife appear before their Worships of the 
Court, requesting that they may be reconciled in love and friendship with Domine 
Schaets, as they have been with Gabriel. Whereupon their W. recommended him to 
call Domine Schaets, which being immediately done; 

"Domine Schaets appearing before their Worships is asked — if he were will- 
ing to be reconciled with the aforesaid persons? who answers. Yes, on the condition 
that they both acknowledge him an honorable man, and that they know nought of 
him except what is honest and virtuous (always excepting the Dispute, out of which 
this Case arose, namely — Universal Grace — being no political question)*, also the 
Sheriff's claim. 

"Whereupon Myndert aforesaid and his wife acknowledge the Domine in 
open Court to be an honest man,t and they know nought of him except all honor 
and virtue and are willing to bear all the costs hereof, also to settle with the 
Sheriff. 

"N. B. It is settled by And. Teller and for six Beavers and six cans of 
wine!" (Ecclesiastical Records of the State og New York, I., p. 737f.) 

In his will, 1704, proved May, 1706, Meyndert mentioned his 
"house and lot hard by the church in Cow St. (now Broadway), 
Albany, his garden behind the fort, and personal property, includ- 
ing a great silver tankard, a church book with silver clasps and 
chain, a silver tumbler, marked F . . . He had four children. 



* This is explained by the following testimony in another case- — ' Hans Dre- 
per further says that Gabriel's wife stated that Domine Schaets said at her house 
that whoever taught that Christ died alike for all men, taught a false and devilish 
Doctrine. 

t The Domine' s daughter was not without blame. Though unmarried she 
was the mother of a child by van Curler. 



412 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Cornells Gerloffs, a tailor from East Friesland, came to New 
Amsterdam in 1661 by the ship "Gulden Arent," which sailed 
January 1, of that year. However, he had lived in New Amster- 
dam before, as the court records indicate. 

Claes Gerritsen, son of Gerrit Lubbertsen, from Wesel, came 
to New Amsterdam by the ship "het Gekruijste Hart," sailing 
April 17, 1664. In 1671 he worked as a hired man. 

Otto Grimm, from Bremen, married, in September, 1664, in 
New Amsterdam, Elsje Jans, widow of Elbert Jans. In the docu- 
ments he is styled "captain at arms." In 1671 his wife, called 
Elsie Grimm, was sued by Jochem Beeckman. The records do not 
give any details as to this suit, only stating that, "Parties agreed." 
In 1674 Grimm's house in the present Broad St. was valued at 
$1,000. 

Margaret Grootjen, from Aachen, married on June 11, 1660, 
in New Amsterdam. Barent Christoffelszen Cruydop, widower of 
Ursel Coenrats. 



George Hanel, one of the signers of the petition of the Lu- 
therans in New Amsterdam, 1657, requesting that Rev. Goetwater 
might be permitted to remain in the country as Lutheran minister, 
was probably a German. He is also later mentioned in the records 
of New Netherland, even as late as 1663. In the court records 
he is called Jurien Hanel. A "George Hans [Holmes]" signed 
the Resolution of the Commonalty of Manhattan, 1643. Is he 
G«orge or Jurien Hanel? 

Hendrick Hansen arrived in New Netherland in 1663, by 
"de Rooseboom," which sailed March 15, 1663. In the pas- 
senger's list it is said that he was "from Germany." Was he the 
mayor of Albany in 1698? 

Jan Harberding [Harpendinck], from "Boeckholdt" [Boc- 
holt] in Westphalia, married, in December, 1667, in New Amster- 
dam, Mayken Barents, from Harlem [New York?]. He was a 
shoemaker by occupation. In 1674 his property on the north side 



HENDEICKSENZ 413 

of the present Stone St., between William and Broad St., wai 
valued at $3,000. He joined the Dutch Reformed church in 
April, 1664. 

Johannes Hardenhroeck, from Elberfeld, arrived, with his 
wife, Urseltje Duytman, and four children, in New Netherland 
by the ship "de Trouw," which sailed January 20, 1664. The 
children were eight, six, five and three years old respectively. Tn 
1665 he lived at the Prince Graft, in New Amsterdam. He be- 
came a prominent man in this city, often serving on the jury. 
An Abel Hardenberg (Obel Hardenbroeck), often referred to in 
the court records, and a well-to-do person, was possibly a relative 
of Johannes. The latter, it seems, was also ensign of the militia. 
He joined the Dutch Reformed church in 1686. 

Melem Harloo, from the province of "Middelsaxen," married 
in July, 1644, in New Amsterdam, Elsje Jans, widow of Jan Pie- 
tersen. 

Frederick Harmenszen, from Bremen, was a member of the 
Dutch Reformed Church in New Amsterdam in 1649. 

Hans Jacob Harting, from Bern, Switzerland, married in 
July, 1668, in New Amsterdam, Gertje Lambertsen Mol. 

Claes Hayen, from Bremen, sailed for New Netherland in 
the ship "de Bonte Koe," April 15, 1660. He was an "Adel- 
borst." He married Marritje Claes. 

Cornells Hendricksen, from Ens [Ems?], was probably a 
German. He came to New Netherland in "de Vergulde Bever," 
which sailed May 17, 1658. 

Gerrit Hendricksens, from "Waerdenbroeck" in Cleves, mar- 
ried in 1654, in New Amsterdam, Hermken Hermans, widow of 
Wilhelm Jansen. Gerrit acquired land in the vicinity of New 
Amsterdam as early as 1646. In 1663 he acquired land on the 
Schuykill. In 1658 he was farmer of excise in New Amsterdam, 
which office he continued to hold for several years. As such he 
often appeared in court to transact business. He was deceased 
in 1671. 



414 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Hendrick Hendricksen, from Westphalia, came to New Am- 
sterdam by the ship "de Rooseboom," which sailed March 15, 
1663. There were many Hendrick Hendricksens in New Amster- 
dam, including an Irishman. One was a drummer, another a tailor, 
a third a soldier, etc. To find the data for each particular person 
bearing this name in ancient New York, is a hopeless task. 

Hendricks Hendricksen, from Erlangen, was in New Amster- 
dam in 1664 (or before), when he is mentioned as plaintiff in a 
court proceeding. In the same year his daughter Catharyntie was 
married to Jonas Ranzow, of Holstein (see p. 273). A Hendrick 
Hendricksen signed the Lutheran petition of 1657, requesting that 
Rev. Goetwater be permitted to stay in the country as Lutheran 
minister. Was it the one from Erlangen? 

Hnybert Hendricksen, from Rodenkirchen (near Cologne), 
married, January, 1656, in New Amsterdam, Marritje Hendricks 
Van Norden in East Friestland. They had several children. In 
1663 he brought suit against Francis de Bruyn for tobacco. In 
1665 he lived in Brewer St. He was still living in 1672. when he 
stood sponsor for a child belonging to John Otten. 

Jan Hendricksen, from Struckhausen, in Oldenburg, acquired 
land in New Castle, in September 1656. 

Juriaen Hendricksen, from Osnabriick, was at New Amsterdam 
as early as 1639. He seems to have been a carpenter. He is 
frequently mentioned in the records. In 1662 he went to Holland. 

Marritje Hendricks "Van Norden" in East Friesland, was 
married January, 1656, in New Amsterdam, to Huybert Hendrick- 
sen, from Rodenkirchen. 

Marten Hendrickss, from Hamehvorden [Hammelwarden], 
near Freiburg on the Elbe, Hanover, came to New Netherland on 
"den Harinck", July 7, 1639, and was engaged for six years as a 
farm hand in the colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

Augustine Herrman, born in 1621 in Prague, Bohemia, came 
to New Amsterdam in 1643. He was the son of Augustine 



HEERMAN. 415 

Ephraim Herrmann and of Beatrice, a daughter of the patrician 
family of Redal. His father, a Protestant, was an honored 
citizen and merchant in the "Kohlmarkt," but was outlawed be- 
cause of having been involved in certain political affairs; he then 
removed to Amsterdam. The son was highly educated, spoke 
several languages. By profession he was a surveyor. Tradition 
says that he took part in the Thirty Years' War before settling 
in New Amsterdam. He seems to have been employed as a clerk 
by the West India Company, frequenting the South River Country 
before 1643. He married in 1651, in New Amsterdam, Janneken 
Varleth (from Utrecht). On his own declaration he was the 
"first beginner" of the important traffic in tobacco between Virginia 
and New Amsterdam. "On his farm, near the site of the Astor 
Library of later years, he seems to have experimented successfully 
with the cultivation of indigo." 

He was a member of the first "Board of Nine Men." 
Stuyvesant used him on many important embassies, the one of 
1659, when he went to Virginia to clear the government of New 
Netherland from the charge of exciting the Indians against the 
English, becoming the occasion of his settling in Maryland. 

He drew a map of the state of Maryland for Lord Baltimore, 
which was highly praised for its exactness, the first of its kind 
and printed in London in 1673. A copy of it is contained in the 
Grenville collection in the British Museum, adorned with Herr- 
man's autograph and portrait. In payment for it he received a 
large grant of land, at the head of Chesapeake Bay, now in Cecil 
and New Castle Counties. This grant together with other grants 
he received from Lord Baltimore amounted to 30,000 acres. It 
was known as the Bohemian Manor. Herrman removed from 
Manhattan to this new manor with his family in 1661. His son 
Ephraim married a woman of Norwegian blood (p. 103). Both 
father and son were for some time interested in the project of the 
Labadists to found a colony. Augustine Herrman gave them a 
grant of land, a step which he later was sorry for. He cursed 
his son for becoming a Labadist. 

In 1663 (1666?) Maryland by an act of legislature naturalized 
Augustine Herrman and his two sons — "the first act of the 
sort known to have been framed in any of the colonies." 

Augustine kept a journal, parts of which have been preserved. 
Augustine's wife was a member of the Dutch Reformed church 



416 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

in New Amsterdam. But his name does not appear as a com- 
municant. 

Roeloff Hermansen, from Germany, and his wife came to 
New Netherland by the ship "de Vos," which sailed Aug. 31, 1662. 

Barent Hoist, from Hamburg, arrived at New Netherland in 
the spring of 1663 by "de Rooseboom." He was at Esopus in 
1666, died 1667. A Laurents Hoist figures in the court records 
of New Amsterdam 1668 — 71. Was he a brother of Barent? 
Could he have been a Dane? Laurents Hoist and wife Hilletje 
Laurents were members of the Dutch Reformed church in 1686. 

Adriaen Huybertsen, from Jena, was in New Amsterdam as 
early as 1660. If there were not two persons in this city by this 
name, he is the Adriaen Huybertsen who worked for Swartwout 
in Rensselaerswyck in 1637. A person by his name is mentioned 
in the records as fencing in farms, navigating yachts. In 1663 
he was a widower, with three children. He lived in 1665 at High 
Street, New Amsterdam. 

Reyner Van Giesen, was, judging by the name, from Giessen, 
Germany. He was in New Amsterdam in 1670. 



Geertje Jacobs, from Stettin, was married, October 13, 1647, 
in New Amsterdam, to Geurt Coerton, from "Northhuysen in 
Gelderlandt." In 1657 Engeltje Mans, a Swedish woman, was 
fined 10 guilders for calumniating Geertje Jacobs, a woman 
"whom nobody would suspect." However, Geertje herself could 
vie with Engeltje in circulating gossip. 

Herman Jacobssen, a soldier from Emden, married, in Jan- 
uary, 1660, in New Amsterdam. Weyntie Martens. 

Jan Jacobsen, from East Friestland, came to New Netherland, 
with wife and two children, in "de Rooseboom," which sailed 
March 15, 1663. He is sometimes called Intje Jacobs in the 
records. 



JANSEN. 417 

Mrs. Jan Jacobsen (see above), coming, in 1663, to New Am- 
sterdam, from East Friesland, in company with her husband was 
probably a German. 

Pieter Jacobss, from East Friesland, came to New Netherland 
by the "Bonte Koe," which sailed April 15, 1660. 

Aeltje Jans, from Bremen, was married, in August, 1643, in 
New Amsterdam, to Pieter Collet, from Konigsberg. Prior to 
this marriage she was the widow of John Cornelisen of Rotterdam. 

Hilletje Jaleff, from " Oldenburg erlandt," married, on July 4, 
1655, in New Amsterdam, Tobias Wilbergen, from Torup in Den- 
mark (p. 283). 

Barent Jansz sailed from the Texel by "de Eentracht", March 
21, 1630, arriving at New Amsterdam, May 24, of the same year. 
He was from "Esen" ("Desens" ^ the man from Esens) that is 
Esens, in East Friesland. He sailed as farm servant of Brant 
Peelen (from Nykerck), of the colony of Rensselaerswyck. His 
name does not occur in the records of this colony after 1634. He 
was probably the first German settler in New Netherland.* 

Evert Jansen, from Emden, married, July, 1644, in New Am- 
sterdam, Susanna du Trieux. He acquired a lot in 1647, another 



* Arriving by the same ship and at the same time as Barent Jansz were Pie- 
ter Hendricksz and Rutger Hendricks, both from Soest. Whether from Soest in the 
province of Utrecht or from Soest in Westphalia, is not stated. 

There were in New Netherland before 1630 people from Germany, concerning 
whose nationality nothing definite can be said: 

Hendrlck Christiansen van Cleef (Cleves) may have been a German. He 
was a mariner. In 1610 or 1611 he and another mariner, Andriaen Block, chartered 
a ship and visited Manhattan. He later made several voyages to New Netherland, 
where he served for a time as factor for merchants in Holland. Late in 1614 or 
early in 1615 he erected the first building in Ne/w Netherland of which any valid 
record remains. It was, says Mrs. Van Rensselaer, a little foi't or blockliouse placed 
upon Castle Island, which, close to the western shore, is now within the limits of 
the city of Albany. It was built for defense and for the storage of furs. It was 
protected by two large and eleven smaller cannon, and was thirty-six by twenty-six 
feet in size, surrounded by a stockade fifty-eight feet square and a moat eighteen 
feet bi-oad. It was called Port Nassau. Jacob Eelkins was in charge of its little 
garrison of ten or twelve traders during Christiansen's absences. Hendrick Chris- 
tiansen was killed by an Indian. 

Peter Minnit, the first General Director of a self-governed New Netherland, 
was also from Cleves (Wesel). Prof. Faust claims that he was a German. Mrs. 
Van Rensselaer says, he was of French Huguenot extraction. He arrived at New 
Amsterdam in 1626. It was he who bought from the Indians the Island of Man- 
hattan for sixty Dutch guilders. Under his mle New Netherland got self-govern- 
ment, however, under the patroon system. This system aroused a great deal of op- 
position, because the patroons became manor lords, who carried on colonization as 
a private affair. Minuit was recalled in 1631. He left the colony in a prosperous 
condition in 1632. Later he became leader of the Swedish colonization at Delaware, 
and built Fort Christina, where he died and was buried in 1641. 



418 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

lot in 1652 at Bevervvyck. His name often occurs in the church 
registers of New Amsterdam. He died in 1655. 

Evert Jansen, from Jever, became a small burgher in New 
Amsterdam. 1657. He was either a shoemaker or a ferryman. 

Gerrit Jansen, from Oldenburg, lived at the Manhattans as 
early as 1635. In 1632 he had been foreman at the farm of Van 
Rensselaer. About 1639 he married. He had several children. 
He acquired ninety-two acres of land at "Pannebackers Bou" in 
1646. 

Harmen Jansen, from Hesse, married, on December 11, 1650, 
Maria Malaet, Angola (Mulatto?). Janzen was well versed in the 
Indian language. He removed to Esopus in 1661. There were 
two Herman Janzens in New Amsterdam. The one from Hesse 
probably signed the Lutheran petition of 1657, regarding Rev. 
Goetwater. 

Hendrick Jansen, from Jever, acquired fifty acres of land, 
August 25, 1654, on Long Island, near Hellegat. A Hendrick Jan- 
sen Smith, secured a lot in New Amsterdam as early as 1644. 
Was he the Jansen from Jever? 

Hendrick Jansen, from "Aschwaerde in't Stift Bremen" mar- 
ried, September, 1652, in New Amsterdam, Magdaleen Jans van 
Swol. He seems to have been a mariner, being in 1648 at Fort 
Nassau on the South River, 1655 at Fort Cassimir. He was a 
member of the Lutheran church on the South River, and requested 
in 1675, that two congregations, established under the Lutheran 
pastor Fabritius, be confirmed. A Hendrick Jansen was member 
of Jacob Leisler's council in 1689 — 90. Was he the one from 
Bremen ? 

Hilletje Jans, from Oldenburg, was married, October, 1652, 
in New Amsterdam, to Ide [ ?] Corneliszen Van Vorst. In 1662 
she was unjustly arrested for having baked a quantity of biscuits 
in order to sell them. She proved, however, that she had done it 
for "her lying in," and was acquitted. Her husband owned land 
at Schreyer's Hook in 1664. He is also mentioned in the records 
as late as 1674. 



JORIS. 419 

Jan Janszen, from Tubingen, married June, 1649, in New 
Amsterdam, Baertje Hendricks Kip, from Amsterdam. A Jan 
Jansen signed the petition of the Lutherans in New Amsterdam, 
1657. Was it the one from Tubingen? 

Netter Jansen, from Emden, came to New Netherland by "de 
Trouw", which sailed February 12, 1659. 

P. Janss, from Brunswick, acquired fifty acres of land in 
October, 1653, at Catskill, and twelve more, in November of the 
same year. Is he and Pieter Teunizs ,from Brunswick (see art.) 
the same person ? 

Rem Jansz, a smith from Jever in Oldenburg, was in New 
Amsterdam as early as 1638, and owned land on Long Island in 
1643. In May, 1650, he leased a garden near the church yard 
of Ft. Orange. He is the common ancestor of the Remsen family, 
one of whom has been president of the Johns Hopkins University. 

Gertruy Jochems, from Hamburg, came to New Netherland 
by "de Trouw," which sailed February 12, 1659. She had two 
children along. She was the wife of Claes Claesen, from Amers- 
foort, who had already emigrated. 

Barent Joosten, from "Wiltmont in Embderlandt," married, 
in December, 1658, in New Amsterdam, Sytie Laurens, of Long 
Island. She was the daughter of Laurens Pietersen, a Norwegian. 
Barent had several children. In 1664 he was a magistrate. 

Jacob Joosten, from "Moesel, Graach" , in Germany, was in 
New Amsterdam in September, 1662 (or before), when he is men- 
tioned as a widower. 

Pieter Jordaensen, from Ltlbeck, married, July, 1642, in New 
Amsterdam, Catharine van Coesvelt. 

Burger Joris, from Hirschberg, Silesia, was in New Amster- 
dam in 1637. For some time he worked in the colony of Rens- 
selaerswyck. In 1639 he removed to New Amsterdam, where 
he, the same year, married Engeltje Mans, of Sweden (p. 329). 



420 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Burger Joris was a smith. He was one of the few inhabitants 
of New York who got the great burgher's right (1658). He was 
prominent in public life. 



Jan van Kalcker, presumably from Kalkar, in Cleves, was in 
New Amsterdam in 1653, when he is mentioned as party in a 
lawsuit. 

Hendrick Karstens was born in 1610, in Oldenburg, West- 
phalia. Not long thereafter his father removed to Amsterdam. 
Hendrick went to sea, married in 1644 Femetje Coenrats, from 
Gronningen. Soon after the birth of their first child they came 
to New Amsterdam. They took up land at Harlem. Karsten is 
regarded as one of the founders of Harlem. Besides being a 
sailor, he was a mason. 

Abraham Kermer, from Hamburg, married, December, 1656, 
at New Amsterdam, Metje Davids, from Arnhem. They had 
several children. In 1665 they lived near the "City Wall," in New 
Amsterdam. In the same year they promised the government to 
lodge soldiers in their house. Kermer is mentioned in 1674 as 
sueing one Jan Raye. Metje joined the Dutch Reformed church 
in 1677. Abraham joined it in 1678. They lived at that time in 
Niew Street. 

Jochem Kettelheym (Kettel), from Kremmen, near Stettin, 
Pomerania, came to New Netherland by "den Houttuyn," which 
sailed August 4, 1642. He worked, 1646 — 48, in Van Rensselaer's 
colony (Vlackte). He leased a farm, 1649, formerly occupied by 
Simon Walichs. In 1661 the records show that he resided in New 
Amsterdam, where he owned a house. 

Hans Kierstede, from Magdeburg, was one of the earliest 
surgeons and physicians in New York. As early as 1638 he held 
the position of official surgeon of the West India Company. He 
married, June, 1642, at New Amsterdam, Sara Roelofs (p. 105), 
daughter of the Norwegian couple, Roelof Jansen and Annetje 
Jans. The present work contains an illustration showing the house 
of Hans Kierstede and his wife. Hans first joined the Dutch Re- 



LAUEENSZEN. 421 

formed church, January 11, 1664, the church which had been 
served by Rev. Bogardus, the step-father of Kierstede's wife. 

Jochem Kierstede, from Magdeburg, a brother of Hans Kier- 
stede, secured land in New Netherland in 1647. Not long there 
after he perished in the wreck of the "Princess." 

Styntie Klinckenborg, from Aachen, was first married to 
Roelof Swensborg, from Denmark, who died in New Amsterdam.. 
In February, 1661, she married again, in New Amsterdam, Jan 
Doske, a soldier from Tongeren. 

Franz Krieger, from Borken (in Westphalia or in Hesse), 
married in February. 1660, in New Amsterdam, Walburg de Silla, 
fiom Maestricht. 

Barent Jansen Kunst deeded, on October 13, 1662, to Albert 
Coninck, half of his house and lot in New Amsterdam. The other 
half was owned by Claes Carstensen, a Norwegian. Kunst was a 
Geiman (p. 52). 



Jan Jansen Lammertsen, from Bremen, came to New Nether- 
land by "de Bever," which sailed May 9, 1661. In 1663 and later 
we find him in Albany. A Jan Lammertsen [and his wife, Gretie 
Jans] joined the Dutch Reformed church in New Amsterdam 
October 7, 1663. 

Jeurian Jansen, from East Friesland, married June 1, 1658, 
in New Amsterdam. He was a cooper. 

Magdalentje Lamberts "Van Tellickhuysen," of Steinfurt, in 
Miinster, was married in 1661, at New Amsterdam, to Adam 
Dfrcksen "Van Colen op N. Haerlem." She was later (1663) mar 
ried to the Swede (or Finn), Mons Pietersen. from Abo. 

Laurens Laurenszen, from Bremen, married August 25, 1669. 
in New Amsterdam, Hilletje Gerrits, widow of Gerrit Hendrick- 
sen. 



422 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Jacob Leisler, the best known German in New Netherland 
in the seventeenth century, came to New Netherland in 1660, 
saiHng as a soldier, by the Otter (April 27). In the ship's list of 
passengers he is called "Jacob Leyseler, from Franckfort," prob- 
ably Frankfurt am Main, to which his father, a clergyman, had 
been driven by persecution from the Palatinate. On April 11, 
1660, he married Elsje Tymens, who had Norwegian blood in her 
veins, being a niece of the famous Anneke Jans, from Marstrand, 
Norway (pp. 113 f.) He acquired his wealth through trade with 
the Indians, becoming one of the richest men in New York. In 
1689 he bought a piece of land, the present site of New Rochelle 
in Westchester County : it was a humanitarian venture in behalf 
of the Huguenots who had come to New York. He was a 
champion of civic and religious liberty. "When, in 1675, Governor 
Andros fined a number of burghers because of their opposition 
to popery, Leisler refused to pay, preferring imprisonment to the 
renunciation of his principles. At another time, when a poor 
Huguenot family landed in New York and were to be sold as 
redemptioners, he instantly paid down the sum demanded for their 
transportation, thus delivering the refugees from years of servi- 
tude." (Prof. A. B. Faust.) 

When Gov. Nicholson had to flee from the country, Leisler 
was appointed by a committee on safety commander-in-chief of 
the fort and of the city, until the arrival of the new governor 
from England. He was finally appointed, by the same committee, 
supreme commander of the province. As such he made complete 
reports to King William, to whom he was as loyal as to the 
Protestant cause. On December 11, 1689, he assumed the com- 
mand as lieutenant-governor. Some of the old aristrocrats were 
his enemies. They were captured and sentenced to death. But 
they sued for mercy, and Leisler pardoned them 

In the course of events, they caused his ruin. Had he "em- 
ployed the thorough methods of the revolutionary dictator, he 
would have destroyed his enemies while they were in his power, 
and thereby forever ended their opportunities for doing harm. 
This act of grace on the part of Leisler, while it elevated him as 
a man, was undoubtedly a political mistake." (Faust). 

Meantime he was master of his enemies at home. But there 
were more powerful enemies abroad. The French in Canada, 
aided by Indians, planned to attack New York by way of the Mo- 



LEISLEE. 423 

hawk valley and Albany. The massacre of Shenectady, often re- 
ferred to in this volume, was the result. The fort was burned, 
the occupants were slain or taken prisoners. Albany, which form- 
erly had refused to recognize the authority of Leisler, now 
recognized it. He fortified the city, and his enemies fled to the 
New England states. 

As he perceived the value of co-operative action, he invited 
the governors of Massachusetts, Plymouth, East and West Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia to a common congress at New 
York. They were to discuss plans of resisting the enemy. 

The congress met on May 1, 1690. New York, Massachu- 
setts, Plymouth, New Jersey, and Maryland took part. It was the 
first congress of American colonies, the first of a series that was 
to culminate in the Continental Congress and deliver America 
from England. 

Owing to jealousies and misunderstandings among the leaders, 
the plans that were accepted, were only in part carried out. 
Canada was to be conquered. But the colonies failed in their 
attempt on land and sea. Leisler's enemies attempted to m.ake 
him responsible for the failure. 

He was arrested by his old enemies. They charged him with 
rebellion. He was convicted of high treason, and was condemned 
to death. His judges, conducting a sham trial, were Bayard, 
Nicolls, Philipse, Van Cortlandt and four Englishmen who had 
just arrived from England. 

Leisler and his son-in-law, Milborne, an Englishman, were 
executed on May 16, 1691. A judicial murder was thus committed. 
But the English Parliament later reversed the attainder against 
Leisler and Milborne, and restored to his heirs his property, which 
had been confiscated by the crown. 

In 1698 the remains of Leisler and Milborne were taken from 
the burial-place under the gallows to the cemetery of the Dutch 
Church (in the present Exchange Place). This removal was an 
occasion of much solemnity, 1500 persons taking part. "Prominent 
contemporaries in other colonies regarded the execution of Leisler 
as eminently unjust. Increase Mather, for instance, declaring that 
Leisler was 'barbarously murdered'." 

Leisler, as Prof. Faust says, was conspicuous for unquestioned 
honesty and integrity, unflinching firmness and energy. 

Of Leisler's daughters, Hester married Rynders, a Dutch- 



424 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

man. Mary, widow of Milborne, married Abraham Gouverneur, a 
person of brilliant attainments. "Mary's son, Nicholas Gouver- 
neur married Hester's daughter, Gertrude Rynders ; and a son 
of this marriage, Isaac Gouverneur, was the grandfather of 
Gouverneur Morris, one of the ablest members of the convention 
that framed the constitution of the United States." 

Mrs. Van Rensselaer's "History of the City of New York" 
gives about 200 pages to the treatment of Leisler. 

Johannes Levelin, from Miilhauscn, came to New Netherland 
by the ship "de Bonte Koe," which sailed April 15, 1660. He 
embarked as a soldier. 

Conraet Locker, from Niirnberg, was among the soldiers who 
were to embark for New Netherland on "The Otter," which sailed 
April 27, 1660. 

Hendrick Loef, from Fulda in Thuringia, married November, 
1657, at New Amsterdam, Geertje Hendricks, from Zutphen. 
They had children. Geertje, after the death of Loef, married 
Caspar Luttuer, from Augsburg. 

Ulrich Lupoid (Leopoldt), from Stade in the diocese of Bre- 
men, became Van Dinclages successor as schout-fiscal in New 
Amsterdam. In 1638 — 1639, while in the colony of Rensselaers- 
wyck, he corresponded with the patroon Kilian van Rensselaer, 
who was in Amsterdam. 

Caspar Luttuer, from Augsburg, a soldier, married in July, 
1664, in New Amsterdam, Gerritje Hendricks, widow of Hendr. 
Loef, from Fulda, in Thuringia. She was from Zutphen. 

Christian Luyersen (Carsten Luurzen), from "Ley in't Stift 
van Bremen" married, in 1665, in New Amsterdam, Anna de Vos. 
He joined the Dutch Reformed church April 6. 1664. He was 
a tanner and shoemaker. 

* 

Hans van Mansvelt (from Mansfeld) was in New Amster- 
dam as early as 1642 or before, when he had a son (Pieter) 
baptized. 



DE MEYER. 425 

Tryntie Martens, from Aachen, was married in 1658, in New 
Amsterdam, to Paulus Pietersen, of the diocese of Cologne. 

Adolf Meyer, from Westphalia ("Ulfen" or "Ulsen"?), was 
one of the founders of Harlem in 1661. He married, in the spring 
of 1671, in New Amsterdam, Maritje Ver Veelen. She joined 
the Dutch Reformed church in December, 1673. He joined it 
March 1, 1674. They had ten children. Adolf had two brothers, 
Andrew and John Meyer who also immigrated to America. 

Martin Jansen Meyer, from Elsfleth in Oldenburg, was a 
resident of Amersfort, Long Island, 1653, where he was magis- 
trate for some years. He was a smith. In 1662 he married, in 
New Amsterdam, Hendrickje Hermans. They owned a house and 
lot in Sheep's Lane, worth about $2,150. They were Lutherans. 
Martin signed a Lutheran petition in 1674. They made a joint 
will in 1693, which was proved in 1714. Their daughter, Elsje, 
born in 1668, married Burger Myndertsen, smith, probably a son 
of Meyndert Frederickse, from Jever. Martin and Hendrickje 
had nine children. 

Nicholas De Meyer, from Hamburg, was one of the most 
prominent among the Germans in New Amsterdam, becoming 
mayor of the city in 1676. The New York Genealogical Record 
(IX., 16) well says: "Perhaps no class among the early residents 
of New Amsterdam was more distinguished for the rapid strides 
they made to wealth and social distinction in their adopted home, 
than those who came from the old commercial cities of Germany. 
The most prominent representative of this class, which includes, 
among others, the heads of Van der Beeck, Santfort, Ebbing, 
Leisler, Schrick [They are all treated in the present Appendix] 
was Nicholas De Meyer." 

Mr. y. Riker, in his book on Harlem [city of New York] 
calls Nicholas De Meyer a Dane since his native city of Hamburg 
was claimed by the Duchy of Holstein. In all probability De 
Meyer was German. In the records he is often called Nicolaes 
van Holstein. He and his descendants seem to have preferred 
the ordinary appellation of De Meyer (= steward or farmer). 

He settled in New Amsterdam about 1655, marrying on June 
6, 1655, Lydia van Dyck, daughter of the ex-fiscal Hendrick van 



426 GERMAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Dyke. He engaged extensively in trade. In less than twenty 
years he became next to Fredrick Philipse the wealthiest inhabitant 
of the city, his fortune being equalled only by that of one person, 
Cornelius Steenwyck. De Meyer was elected schepen in 1664, 
alderman 1669 — 1670, again in 1675. In 1676 he was appointed 
Mayor of the city. 

He joined the Dutch Reformed church in 1660. 

His wife died in 1687, leaving Nicholas five children, the 
eldest of whom, William de Meyer, became a prominent citizen of 
Esopus and Kingston in the present county of Ulster. Nicholas 
married again : Sara Kellenaer, a widow. He died in 1690. 

Jan Meyndertss, a farmer from lever, came to New Amster- 
dam together with his wife by the ship "de Trouw," which sailed 
February 12, 1659. His wife was Belitje Plettenberg. 

Marie Moores, from Aachen, came to New Amsterdam by 
the ship "de Trouw," which sailed December 22, 1659. 



Pieter Van Oblinus, from Mannheim, married, in 1685, in 
New Amsterdam, Cornelia Waldron. He joined the Dutch Re- 
formed church in 1681. Was he of French descent? 



Evert Pels, from Stettin, Pomerania, came to New Nether- 
land in "den Houttuyn," in 1642. He was accompanied by his 
wife and a servant. He was a brewer, and was engaged to brew 
beer in the colony of Rensselaerswyck. He moved to Esopus in 
1661. We find him later as a contractor for the building of sloops. 
His widow, Breektje Elswaerts, married again in 1678. 

Albert Pietersen, "Trompeter," from Hamburg, married in 
1641, in New Amsterdam, Marritje Pietersen (see p. 268). 

Annette Pieters, from "Brutsteen in Duytsland," was married 
August 18, 1641, in New Amsterdam, to Laurens Pietersen from 
Tonsberg in Norway (p. 129). 

Elsje Pieters, from Hamburg, widow of Hans Webber, mar- 



EEUR. 427 

ried, in August, 1650, in New Amsterdam, Matthys Capito, a Ger- 
man. She was killed and burnt in the Indian War of 1663. 

John Pietersen, from Lubeck, married, in September, 1676, in 
New Amsterdam, Mary Brouwers, from Gauwanes. 

Paulus Pietersen, from "Merven" in diocese of Cologne, mar- 
ried in 1658, in New Amsterdam, Tryntie Martens, from Aachen. 
They had several children. 

Pieter Pietersen "van Bremen" acted as sponsor in New Am- 
sterdam in 1663. 



Oben (Abel) Reddenhasen [Reddinhaus], from the Princi- 
pality of Waldeck, married December 28, 1641, in New Amster- 
dam, Geertie Nannincks, widow of Van Tjerck Hendricskszen. 
They had children. As late as 1686 his wife is mentioned in the 
records (Geertruy Riddenhar). He died before August 2, 1644, 
when his widow sold her house in New Amsterdam, at the corner 
of the East River and the present Broad St. 

Andries Rees, from Lippstadt, was one of the signers of the 
petition of the Lutherans at Amsterdam, 1657, requesting that Rev. 
Goetwater be permitted to remain as Lutheran minister in the city. 
His wife was Ciletje Jans. Their son Johannes was baptized in 
New Amsterdam on April 26, 1656. Andries, on his arrival at 
New Amsterdam, was probably a soldier. In June, 1657, he was 
promoted to "the rank of a cadet." When the government de- 
sired to billet off soldiers in 1665, Andries, being approached, said 
he could take no soldiers, because he "is afraid of being robbed!" 
He was engaged in tapping in 1660 and afterwards, being several 
times arrested for tapping and playing at nine pins on holidays. 
When arrested in 1663, he admitted that he had "tapped on Sun- 
day," but "after the preaching," what he was entitled to. More- 
over, he did "no business during the week." He was liberated. 
In 1674 he had property on the present William St., between 
Hanover Square and Wall St., then known as Smith St. 

Hendrick Jansen Reur, from Miinster, Westphalia, was ap- 



428 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

pointed court messenger in the colony of Rensselaerswyck in 1651. 
He died before February 4, 1664, when his household effects were 
sold at auction. 

Jan Rict, from Bonn, was listed among the soldiers who were 
to sail to New Netherland by "The Otter," April 27, 1660. 

Robbert Roellants, from Berlin, is mentioned at various times 
in the early records of New Amsterdam. He appeared as sponsor 
in 1658, arbitrator in 1661. By trade he was a carpenter. He had 
contracted to build a house for Pieter Kock (p. 236). 

Lysbeth De Roode, from Dansig (wife of John Salme) and 
her child, three years old, came to New Netherland by the ship 
"de Trouw", which sailed January 20, 1664. Six months later 
her daughter Sara was baptized in New Amsterdam. 

Daniel Ruychou (Ritsco?), from Danzig, married, August 26, 
1661, in New Amsterdam, Catharyn van der Beeck. 



Adam van Santen [Xanten] came to New Netherland, ac- 
companied by his wife and two children, in "de Bruynvis," which 
sailed June 19, 1658. 

Jacob Abraham Santvort, from Germany, came over in 1661 
in "de St. Jan Baptiste." He became one of the leading men in 
New Amsterdam, By trade he was a tanner. His first wife was 
Zybe Ariaens. In 1677 he married Magdalentje van Vleet, from 
Bremen. In 1674 his property on High St., was valued at $5,000. 

Symon Scholtz (Schultz) came to New Netherland in the 
ship "de Vos," which sailed August 31, 1662. He was from 
Prussia. 

Paulus Schrick, from Niirnberg, was the leader of the Lu- 
therans in New Amsterdam, as is seen by a letter of August 28, 
1658, from the Reformed pastors in that city to the General Di- 
rector and Council (see p. 88). In 1654 he was in Holland, re- 
presenting the Lutherans and requesting the consistory to send 



SCHUT. 429 

over a Lutheran pastor. He lived a part of the time at Hartford. 
He and a number of other "colonists" from New Amsterdam were 
the earliest settlers of Hartford, being there before the English. 
The first notices of Schrick in New Amsterdam is on August 28, 
1651, under which date Laurens Cornelis van der Wei gave a 
promissory note to him, for fi. 361.58; again on Dec. 24, 1651, 
when he appeared as a sponsor at the baptism of Warnar, a son 
of Henrick Van Diepenroeck. Schrick was a merchant and free 
trader, a man of wealth. On October 29, 1652, he obtained a 
deed from Claes Jansen van Naerden of a lot in Pearl Street, New 
Amsterdam. He acquired four acres of land at "The Kolck," in 
October, 1653 ; again four acres at the same place, in 1662. He 
is one of the few in the records of New Amsterdam who are 
styled "Heer" or "Sieur." A notice of July 19, 1653, states that 
he had money coming in Germany. This may have been the prime 
cause of his sojourn abroad in 1654 — 1655, when he visited the 
Lutheran consistory in Amsterdam. 

Schrick married on November 29, 1658, in New Amsterdam, 
Maria Varleth, widow of Johannes van Beeck. She belonged to 
the aristocracy of the city. She had six brothers and sisters: 1) 
Nicholas, who married Anne Stuyvesant; 2) Janneke, married to 
Augustine Herrmans, a German from Prague; 3) Anna, wife of 
George Hawke; 4) Catharyn, wife of Francis de Bruyn ; 5) 
Sarah; 6) Judith, wife of Nicholas Bayard. 

Schrick had two children, Susanna and Paulus, who were 
born at Hartford. But both children were baptized in New Am- 
sterdam on the same day, September 2, 1663. Schrick died in the 
same year. His widow married a third husband in 1664, Wil- 
liam Teller. 

Hans Schroder, from Mansfeld, married, as widower, Aug. 
25, 1641, in New Amsterdam, Aeltje Jans. His first wife was 
Lysbeth Jans. 

Jan Hermanssen Schut, an "Adelborst," from Luheck, mar- 
ried, December 26, 1649, in New Amsterdam, Margreta Dircx 
(Denys?), a widow. They had a daughter, Fytie, baptized in 1651. 
Schut seems to have traded at the Delaware river. He was killed 
about 1651, when his widow married Jan Nagel. There was also 
another Schut in New Amsterdam, a Williamse Schut who acted 
as sponsor in 1642. 



430 GEEMAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Claes Claesen Sluiter, from Oldenburg, was in New Nether- 
land in 1679 (or before), when he married at Kingston. 

Lucas Smith [Schmidt van Jehansberch] (van Coerlant), 
from Johamiisberg in the district of Gumbinnen, in East Prussia, 
arrived at the Manhattans, on "den Conick David," Nov. 29, 1641. 
He at once entered the service of Domine Bogardus. In August, 
1642, he began working in the colony of Rensselaerswyck as a 
farmhand and clerk. In 1646 De Hooges testified in writing that 
Smith was an especially pious, faithful and honest young man. 

Annetje Sodelaers (Sedelaers or Sylers) from Konigsberg, in 
Prussia, married, Nov. 20, 1660, in New Amsterdam, Jan Sprongh, 
from Bon in the province of Drenthe. Mr. Bergen's Book on 
Kings County, N. Y., says that she came from "Connex in Bergen, 
Norway." This is erroneous. Jan and Annetje had several 
children. The records mention an Annetie Jacobs Sprongh as 
being dead in October, 1670, when her widower, Matthyas de 
Haert, married again. Was she the wife of Sprongh, or his sister? 
Bergen says that Annetje Sodelaers, as widow of Sprongh, was 
married to Claes Teunisse Clear, in September, 1694. 

Caspar Steinmetz, a German, possibly from Berlin, was in 
New Amsterdam in 1648 or before. In 1653 his wife is mentioned 
as having worked for Judith Verleth. Steinmetz had nine chil- 
dren. In 1655 he petitioned for leave to "tap beer and wine for 
the accommodation of the burghery and strangers," which petition 
was granted. In 1665 he hired his house as a city school for fl. 
260 a year. However, he had trouble in collecting the rent. He 
removed to Bergen, N. J., where he became magistrate. In 1674 
he signed a petition of the Lutherans. He died in 1702. 

Johan Steffen, soldier, from Herborn, in Prussia, came to 
New Netherland on the ship "de Moesman," which sailed March 
9, 1660. 

Engelbert Sternhuys, a tailor, from Soest in Westphalia, came 
to New Netherland on the ship "de Moesman," which sailed April 
25, 1659. He died in 1678. 



SWETERINCK. 431 

Harmen Stepfer, from the Duchy of Cleves, came to New 
Netherland by the ship "de Trouw," which sailed Dec. 23, 1660. 
In 1662 he is called Steppe or Stegge in a deed by which Pieter 
Jansen (see p. 81), Norwegian, portioned ofif a lot for him. 

Hartwick Stoeff, from Lilheck, arrived at New Amsterdam 
on the ship "Draetvat" in the spring of 1657. 

Jacob Stoffelszen, from Zilrichsee, Switzerland, came to New 
Netherland in the spring of 1639. In 1643 he is mentioned as 
purchasing a boat from Jacob Couwenhoven ; in 1653 as the step- 
father of Annetie Cornelissen Van Vorst, whom Pieter Kock 
(see art. p. 233) sued for breach of marriage contract. In 1654 
Jacob sued Ide [ ?] van Vorst, his stepdaughter, "who lays claim 
to half a negro." Jacob thought he should be entitled to look upon 
the negro as his own property. Incidentally we learn that it was 
a habit to give negroes as presents to the bride at weddings. Ide 
got two at her wedding. Jacob had a brother, Reyer, who is 
mentioned by the pastors of New Amsterdam as singing "German 
songs on shipboard" (p. 88). On August 17, 1657, Jacob married 
a second time : Trintje Jacobs, widow of Jacob Waelingen, from 
Hoorn. 

Reyer Stoffelszen, a brother of Jacob Stoffelszen, was from 
Zurichsee, Switzerland. He was a smith. He was at New Am- 
sterdam in 1638, and succeeded Burger Joris, of Silesia, as smith 
of Rensselaerswyck in 1639. He does not appear in this colony 
after 1647, but is mentioned in the records of New Amsterdam 
in 1653. He was dead before 1660, when his wife, Geertje Jans, 
was widow. A letter of the Reformed pastors in New Amsterdam, 
Megapolensis and Drisius, Aug. 23, 1658, says that Paul Schrick, 
the leader of the Lutherans in that city took Reyer to be a Lu- 
theran "because he sang German songs on shipboard on the way 
to Holland." (p. 88.) This must have been about the year 1654 
when Schrick visited Holland and Germany. Reyer's wife was 
a member of the Dutch Reformed church in 1686. She was then 
living at the "Deacon's House for the Poor." in Broad St. 

Hendrick Sweterinck, soldier, from Osnabriick, was among 
the passengers to embark for New Netherland, by the ship "de 
Bonte Koe," which sailed April 25, 1660. 



432 GERMAN IMMIGEANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

Herman Theunissen, from Zell in "Munsterland," married, 
April 19, 1654, in New Amsterdam, Grietje Cosyns. In 1659 he 
worked for Augustine Herrmans, from Prague, as "his farmer." 
Herman had several children. 

Pieter Teuniss, from Brunswick, is first mentioned in the 
colony of Rensselaerswyck under date of March 28, 1648, as 
taking with him cattle and implements to Catskill. In 1652 and 
1653 he and John Dircks of Bremen were summoned before court 
to settle accounts. He is also mentioned in the Albany records 
as late as 1684 — 85. 

Willem Janzen Traphagen, from Lemgo, in Lippe, widower 
of Jutge Claes Groenvis, married, June, 1658, in New Amsterdam, 
Aeltje Dircks, from Steenwyck. By her he had a son, Johannes, 
who was baptized April 9, 1659. He married a third time: Joosje 
Willems. Rebecca who was born in this marriage was baptized 
at Brooklyn, Feb. 9, 1662. 



Nicholas Velthuysen, or Langvelthuysen, from Liibeck, 
was in New Amsterdam in 1650 or earlier. He was married twice. 
His first wife Janneke Willems died in April, 1659, leaving chil- 
dren. In June, of the same year, he married Aeltje Lubberts, 
widow of one Bickers. Five months later they separated. 
He beat her, "could not live with her." He was engaged in many 
brawls, what his vocation, that of a tapster, invited. About 1660 
Velthuysen "absconded." It was decided that his estate should 
be sold. In 1662 a conversation was reported as having taken 
place in February, 1660, on board a ship, that Velthuysen had died 
on a trip to "Genee." 

Johannes Verveelen had property in 1674 in New Amsterdam, 
on the present Broad St., on South William St. and Broad St. 
It was valued at $3,000. In 1667 he was constable of N. Harlem, 
also overseer of the N. Harlem court. In 1671 he was appointed 
constable and clerk of Fordham. Before 1664 he and his wife 
Anna Tjersvelt [Jaarvelt] joined the Reformed church. 

The Verveelen family of New Amsterdam is of German stock 



WEMP. 433 

with infusion of French, as Riker, the historian of Harlem, says. 
It came from Amsterdam. 

Johan Verplanck, a smith and baker, sailed as a soldier to 
New Netherland .by the ship "de Bonte Koe," on April 15, 1660. 
He was from Bonn "above Cologne," as the passenger list states. 
In 1663 Sussana Verplancken and a child one and a half year old 
came to New Amsterdam. Was she a relative of Johan? 

Magdalentje van Vle»i^ from Bremen, was married, in 1677, 
in New Amsterdam, to Jacob Abraham Santvort, a German. 

Hans Vos, from Baden, came by "den Houttuyn," August 4, 
1642. He worked in the colony of Rensselaerswyck. Soon after 
his arrival he was appointed court messenger in the colony, a 
position for which he was reappointed several times . In 1658 
he appeared in court in New Amsterdam, though his residence 
was given as Fort Orange. In 1659 he had a contract on Burger 
Joris' [from Silesia] bowery. He was married. In 1661 he was 
deputy officer at the prison in New Amsterdam. In 1675 he is 
again mentioned as being at Esopus. 

Thomas Vorst, from Bremen, came to Netherland by the 
"Otter," which sailed April 27, 1660. 

/aw Vresen, "Adelborst," from Hamburg, embarked for New 
Amsterdam in the ship the "Otter," which sailed April 27, 1660. 
He was accompanied by his wife and two children, respectively 
eleven and nine years old. A Jan De Vries, and wife [name not 
given] joined the Dutch Reformed church in 1677. 

Jan Vreesen, from Hamburg, came to New Netherland in 
"de Statyn," which sailed Sept. 27, 1663. 



Jan Barentss Wemp, nicknamed Poest, was in the colony of 
Rensselaerswyck as early as 1643. He had charge for some time 
of a saw- and grist-mill, and leased land 1647 — 1654. Poesten 
Kill is named after him. He was born about 1620, probably in 
Germany. "Wemp" would suggest that he was from Vemb [In- 



434 GEEMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YOEK, 1630-1674. 

correct for Vem : J. P, Trap] in Denmark, but his real surname 
was Wimpel. A silver cup of 1657 bears the name Jan Barensen 
Wimpel. "The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record," 
XXXV., 190 f., claims that he was from Germany, adducing as 
proof that "Wampel" appears as a surname in Bavaria, 1604. 
"Vimpel," can be Danish, meaning, pennant. Wemp became one 
of the proprietors of Schenectady. His wife was Marritie Meyn- 
derts. They had six children. Wemp died in 1663. His widow 
married Sweer Teunis Van Velsen. Both were slain in the 
massacre of Schenectady in February, 1690. 

Anneke Wessels van Colen [Cologne] was married, April 19, 
1654, in New Amsterdam, to Hendrick Gerritszen "Van Nes in 
Embderlandt." He was a tailor. 

David Wessel, who signed the petition of the Lutherans, in 
1657, requesting that Rev. Goetwater might be permitted to remain 
in New Amsterdam as a Lutheran minister, was probably a Ger- 
man. His name as well as his close association with Germans, 
and his creed would indicate that. He was at Midwout in 1654 ; 
acted as sponsor for a child of Andries Rees, a German, in 1656. 
His wife was Tietje Gomme(ls). Their daughter, Amelia, was 
baptized July 4, 1660. Wessel was a turner. He lived, in 1665, 
on the Heere Graft in New Amsterdam. 

Jochem Wessel (Backer) was probably a German. He ob- 
tained a lot in Beverwyck in April, 1651. He was a baker. He 
married Gertuy Hieronimus. They had several children. In 1674 
he signed a petition of the Lutherans at Willemstad requesting 
permission to bury their dead. As it was, they were employing 
their own sexton, and were obliged to pay the Sexton (Aan- 
sprecher) of the Reformed Church besides. 

Vrit (?) Wessel, who signed a Lutheran petition in 1674, in 
the capacity as elder or principal of the "Augsburg Confession 
here" (Bergen, N. J.) was possibly a German. 

Wessel Wesselsen, from Miinster, came to New Netherland 
by the ship "de Hoop," which sailed on January 12, 1661. A 
person by this name is mentioned as deceased Feb. 14, 1661. A 



ZABEISKI. 435 

Wessel Wesselsen is mentioned as living at Esopus in 1667, and 
as having a wife called Maria ten Eyck, 1672. 

Jacob Barents Weyt, from Cologne, was a member of the 
Dutch Reformed church in New Amsterdam in 1649. 

Hendrick Wierinck, from Wesel, came to New Netherland 
in the ship "d'Eendracht," which sailed April 17, 1664. 

Geertruyd WiUekens, from Hamburg, widow of Hendrick 
Gulick (Giilch, near Cologne), was married, in September, 1653, 
in New Amsterdam, to Claes Claesen Smitt, from Amersfoort. 

Hendrick Willemse, who signed the petition of the Lutherans 
in New Amsterdam, 1657, requesting that Rev. Goetwater might 
remain in the city as Lutheran preacher, probably was a German. 
He is mentioned as early as 1648. He owned a house at the 
N. W. corner of the present Bridge and Broad Street. He was 
a baker, was appointed inspector of bakeries in 1663. He was 
later appointed overseer of streets. About 1670 we find him in 
Albany. In 1671 he and other Lutherans signed a petition com- 
plaining of their minister. His daughter, Geesje Hendricks, mar- 
ried Dirck Jansen van Cleef (Vanderclyf, probably from Alphen. 
in Brabant). Geesje had six daughters, most of them married 
persons of English descent. 

Reinert Willemszen, from " Oldenburgerland," married, April 
10. 1660, in New Amsterdam, Sussanna Arents. In 1655 the 
property of a Christian Jacobsen Backer of Sont was at his house. 
Willemszen was a baker, became Schepen and Firewarden of New 
Orange [New York] in 1673. His property on the present south 
side of Stone St., between William and Broad Street was valued 
at $6,000. 

Barnt Wittenhooft, tailor, from Milnster, came to New 
Netherland bv "de Trouw," which sailed March 24, 1662. 



Andrew Christian Zabriski, came to New Netherland by "de 
Vos," which sailed Aug. 31, 1662. In the ship's list of passengers 



436 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674. 

he is called "Albert Saborsiski, from Prussia.'" He was the 
progenitor of a prominent family of New York. Tradition says 
that he was a Pole. He may have been a German of Polish ex- 
traction. He had been intended for the Lutheran ministry, but 
as the authorities sought to force him into the army, he came to 
New Netherland. 






SUPPLEMENT. 

FORMER DUTCH COINS, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 
AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS. 

(From Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, p. 847 ff.) 

Coins. 
stuiver $0.02 

schelling (6 stuivers) ._12 

gulden 



„ , , J ^ (20 stuivers ) .40* 

Carolus gulden ' 

goud gulden (1% guldens) .56 

rijksdaelder (23^ guldens) 1.00 

ducaton (3 guldens, 3 stuivers) L26 

pond Vlaamsch (6 guldens) 2.40 

Weights. 
Amsterdam ons 1.085 ounces (avoirdupois) 

Amsterdam pond (16 onsen) 1 pound, 1.36 ounces (avps.) 

Linear measures. 

Rhineland duim 1.03 inches 

Rhineland voet 12.36 inches 

Rhineland roede (12 voeten) 12.36 feet 

Amsterdam duim 1.013 inches 

Amsterdam roede (13 voeten) 12.071 feet 

Square measures. 

Rhineland morgen (600 square roeden) 2.103 acres 

Amsterdam morgen (600 square roeden) 2.069 acres 



* In New Netherland one guilder beaver was worth $0.40. One guilder sea- 
want was worth one-third of a guilder beaver. A good merchantable beaver skin 
was worth from $3.20 to $4.00. 



438 



anker 



schepel 

zak 
mudde 
last 
ship's last 



SUPPLEMENT. 
Liquid measure. 



10.128 gallons (wine) 



Dry measures. 

0.764 bushel (wheat) 
1.29 bushels (salt) 

3 schepels 

4 schepels 
36 zakken or 82.512 bushels 

3.71 cubic yards, 2^^ tons burden 



(