CHILDREN'S BOOK COLLECTION LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES ^ - - - . A 3fAP OF SCENES IN AMERICA, FOR THE AMUSEMENT AND INSTRUCTION OF LITTLE TARRY-AT-HOME TRAVELLERS. BY THE REV ISAAC TAYLOR, HARTFORD: PUBLISHED BY S. ANDRUS & SON. 1848. INTRODUCTION. ONCE again your friend a hearing Claims from you, my little miss ; With a volume neat appearing,, FuL of pictures, see, 'tis this. Long ago he gave a promise O'er America to roam ; Travelling far and wide, tho' from his House, ne'er moving, still at home. Yet o'er many a volume poring, Such as you could hardly read ; Distant realms and climes exploring, Your inquiring minds to feed. He has travelled thro' and thro' them. Often wearied with his toil ; That at ease you here might view them, Gath'ring knowledge all the while. True some scenes will raise your laughter, They're so differenymd so strange : Yet perhaps, your feelings after, May to approbation change. INTRODUCTION. Possibly the very climate Forces men to clumsy modes ; Frozen blasts appropriate time it, Thickening dress, or dark abodes. View the Ourtes of North West Coasters Buried deep beneath the ground : They, not we, may be the boasters If thus warmth and life are found. While the sun's o'er-head direction Makes West Indian natives pant, Need they under-ground protection ? 'Tis the cooling breeze they want. Wonder not if but a feather .-J* ..; ; , Seems a dress for Hayti beaux ; While the fierce and stormy weather Wraps in fur the Esquimaux. From the icy northern ocean Southward, to Darien turn ; Sluggish some are, some all motion ; There they freeze, and here they burn Go still southward, climes are colder, Ice locks up Magellan's Straits : Hardships make the natives bolder, Warmth dissolving strength abates. INTRODUCTION. View the roving Indian fighting, Hunting wild his scanty food : But bis senses sharpen, brighten, Agile, tho' of manners rude. Mexico with gold resplendent, Rich Peru in brilliance shines : Riches make them weak, dependent. Mind seems buried in their mines. Thus abundance, and privation, Changing, mingling, balance well : Where exists a perfect nation ; Each in something can excel. Let us strive to learn by reading. That ourselves may wiser grow Better manners, better breeding, Let our daily conduct show. They are sad barbarians truly Who untaught and savage roam:- Worse are they, examined duly, Who refuse to learn at home. Those who never saw a letter, Ignorant, and dull may be : But we hope for something better Where we education see. INTRODUCTION. Are you then all hoity toity, Or a gentle, worthy child ; Fit to grace genteel society, Or to run in desarts wild. Ask your parents, playmates, sisters, If your conduct they approve ; Little misses, little misters, Do they fear, or do they love. Rank is marked by knowledge, goodness. Not by riches, or by name ; Worst of Indians they, whose rudeness. Makes their friends to cry out * ; bhome. ' SCENES IN AMERICA. 1. Portrait of Christopher Columbus. Portraits of heroes who the world destroyed, And raised themselves right famous by their crimes; Making of regions fair an empty void, Are prized : of ancient, or of modern times. Shall we not rather prize, the man who gave A world he found himself, in western skies ? Who pierced thro' unknown seas, sublimely brave Nor turned, nor doubted, till he saw it rise. Methinks old Ocean from his oozy bed, Must startle, when th' adventurous prow was seen, Foaming the waters o'er his ancient head ; Disturbing his domain of liquid green. 8 COLUMBUS. Long had he slept, untroubled his repose ; The light canoe was nothing he could feel ; - The refluent tides might wake his slumbering doze ; Or fierce tornadoes make bis palace reel. Unnumbered keels the liquid surface cleave, Since thou Columbus, showed the daring way, With loaded fleets his struggling waters heave ; And Britain's thunders claim the trident sway. We have several times glanced at Colum- bus. We have seen him struggling through all the learning of the times, determined to understand all that was then known, respecting navigation, and the shape and situation of the various parts of our earth. Yet like a true genius he was not satisfied, where no satisfac- tion is given. He found he was obliged to think for himself. All his reasoning led him to surmise, that looking westward, he must reach the Indies if he went straight forward, supposing all were open sea, and nothing were to intervene : and if there were lands and na- tions between them, in keeping his course due west he must come upon them, and find them out ; what they were, and how placed. Many S; COLUMBUS. 9 a day dream had he indulged; till, his mind becoming all on fire with the subject, he re- solved to explain his scheme, to such persons as might help Jiim to give it a fair trial. He was a Genoese by birth, and with true patriotism, he made the first offer of his grand discovery to his native country. But the no- bles of Genoa, though sufficiently rich, and proud, did not abound in science, and learn- ing: and as it is easier with some to call names, than to reason, they pronounced him an absurd speculator, and sent him off. This did riot convince him that his scheme was wrong. He applied to other powers, he met with many rebuffs, much contempt, and delay ; and at last was furnished by Isabella, queen of Castile in Spain, with three small vessels, utterly unfit for so important, so hazardous an undertaking, in 1492. Contemplate him however having actually set sail, and pressing onward due west, penetrating into unknown seas. Are all his difficulties now ended ? Alas he had to contend with the ig- norance of his seamen, with their absurd fears, and superstitious notions. Columbus as a great man, bore it all with magnanimity; calmly 10 COLUMBUS. reasoning when they would listen to him, and making the best of every circumstance as it arose. He sailed five weeks, continuing his course, till he was above 5000 miles distant from home. At last behold the object of all his hopes, labours, and sufferings. On the morning of October 12 he distinctly saw stretched before him, the new world, after which his imagination had so long panted. Bright rose the cheerful morning, The Sun in brilliance gay The new found world adorning, Bade every beauty play. *Twas after many a season Of midnight dark and dull ; That science, courage, reason, Obtained this victory full. So brighter was the beaming Of joy and rapturous glee : 'Twas sober truth, not dreaming ; What every eye could see. The shores' long length delighted, Green hills, and mountains blue ; COLUMBUS. . 1 1 The Indian half affrighted, Aghast at things so new. COLUMBUS, 'twas a feeling Could pay for toil and blame j Thy wisdom clear revealing, * And giving deathless fame. 2. Columbus first Landing. With great alacrity the boats were ordered out. Columbus got into the principal boat, being accompanied by a band of armed men, with flags flying, and martial music sounding. As they drew near the shore, they found it covered with vast numbers of the simple na- tives ; whose curiosity was greatly excited by such strange visitors, in every respect so differ- ent from themselves. Columbus on this occasion dressed himself m his best apparel. With a drawn sword in his hand, he stepped out of the boat, and had the pleasure of feeling himself on the firm ground, in his new world. It is impossible for us to enter into his feelings. As a pious man, his first emotions were gratioide to God, who f2 COLUMBUS. had made his voyage prosperous. All his com* panions joined him in this feeling, and the whole company knelt down, and with enthusi- asm kissed the shore, on which they had so happily landed. During all this, the simple natives stood gazing around. Looking with amazement, sometimes at the strange beings hefore them, sometimes at the floating houses in which they came. The natives were of a dark copper colour. They were mostly naked, except as they were gaily ornamented with feathers, shells, and bits of gold. Soon the Spaniards began to make them pre- sents of glass beads, ribands, and showy toys, of a similar value. For these ihe ignorant creatures were willing to part with any thin they possessed. The grand object of the ava- ricious Spaniards was the gold, which in sfl plenteous a manner the natives wore, as rings, bracelets, and broad plates. And the constant inquiry was after the country from which it was procured. They affirmed that there was none in their islands, but pointed continually to COLUMBUS. 13 countries southward, where they said gold was plentiful enough. They kept, therefore, steering southward, till they came to a very large island ; not flat like those they had seen already, hut consisting of high lands, slopes, and mountains. It was called Cuba. Still the gold country was not discovered. On the 6th of December he ar- rived at Hayti, and was told the gold country was in the eastern part of that island. He, therefore, again set sail, impatient to come at the source of incalculable riches. 3. Columbus visited by a Caztque. Columbus having passed to another part of the island, near the dwelling of the principal Cazique, he found his Indian Majesty had a great curiosity to come and see these white people : and sent to say he would visit the ad- mira! on board his own vessel. With a very splendid train of attendants he came, brought in a sort of palanquin. His behaviour to his subjects was dignified, and commanding, bnt he had no distinguishing 14 COLUMBUS. dress ; indeed he was as little encumbered with dress as any of them. He went on board without showing any signs of fear. Finding the admiral was just going to dinner, he called two of his attendants, went into the great cabin, and seated himself with dignity and familiarity, by the side of Columbus. He partook of whatever was pre- sented to him, and then sent the remainder to his retinue upon deck. After dinner he presented Columbus with some pieces of sheet gold, and a girdle of very curious workmanship. In return, Columbus gave him a string of beads, and a pair of red slippers. In the evening he requested to be set on shore again. 4. Firing the Cannon. Sailing on, Columbus was much alarmed in the middle of the night, by the shock of the vessel striking on a rock. What was his dis- may on looking around him, to perceive the sea full of rocks on every side. The ship soon bulged, and all hopes of saving her were gone. COLUMBUS. 1 The next morning he sent notice of his dis aster to his friendly Cazique, Guakanahari. He came with many of his people, expressing the deepest sorrow, and yielding them every relief in their power. In a short time the principal stores of the stranded vessels were got on shore. The Cazique took many of them under his immediate care ; and by many kind messages endeavoured to comfort the shipwrecked admiral. Though kindly treated, Columbus was ha- rassed by anxieties. He had lost his best , ship. Pinzon had deserted him with the second best : and the only one remaining, was too small to accommodate half the people, and too crazy to be fit for a long and hazardous voyage home. He determined at last, that himself, and part of his people, would hazard the voyage home. While the others should remain on shore as a colony, till Columbus returned. Many of the crew were glad to stop, where they were treated as heavenly visitants. The Cazique was delighted with the plan. It ap- peared, that from islands towards the south- east, came often a people whom he called 16 COLUMBUS. Caraibs, who were strong, and fierce : the Cazique and his people could only fly into the woods at their approach. Columbus promised the Cazique, that he and his people should be protected from them, and from every enemy. And in order to give him courage, determined to exhibit to him some of the European modes of warfare. The Indians were amazed at the force and rapidity of their movements, but when the cannon saved from the vessel were fired, they all fell down flat with astonishment. Columbus sailed as he intended on his re- turn to Spain, in his crazy vessel; he also overtook Pinzon, whom he was glad to join again. But he encountered several tremen- dous storms, which put their lives in great danger. The God of tempests, who had watched over them through so many dangers. . brought them all safe to Spain again. There he attracted attention from all parties. The common people flocked to discover among the men, a brother, a son, a father, at last re- turned. His enemies could no longer jeer at his scheme, for there he stood, having actually discovered a new world. He was invited to COLUMBUS. 17 court in the most honourable manner. Ferdi- nand and Isabella, king and queen of Spain, paid him all possible honours, and provided a seat at the king's right hand, where Columbus sat, recounting to the astonished court, the story of his discoveries; exhibiting at the same time the gold, the strange birds, and the strange people, he had brought over with him. Columbus was too great a man to be overset with all these honours. He had one thing in view, dearer to him than all he had already attained ; which was the new world, which he knew he had only begun to discover. That which gratified him most, was the king's giving orders to equip a large fleet, in which he might return to encounter anew all his distresses and dangers. In a short time se- venteen vessels were ready for sea. And from among the numbers who crowded to the land of gold, he chose out fifteen hundred. With a fair wind they reached the spot, where they had left their companions, but could find no Spaniards, no fort, only a few dead bodies scattered around. In a short time the brother of their friendly B 18 COLUMBUS. Cazique Guakanahari, came down, and gave them the particulars of the dismal story. It appeared that soon after the departure of Co- lumbus, the Spaniards left behind forgot his advice to keep on friendly terms with the Indians ; and began to rove all over the country, 'in parties of two and three, plunder- ing and ill-treating the people, beyond a)l bearing. This was done chiefly in the part called Civao, because gold was there so much more abundant. The Cazique of that district at last flew to arms, cut off all the stragglers, and then set fire to the fort and burnt it. Columbus's first care was to erect a new fort, which, when built, he called Isabella. When all was safe, Columbus set sail in ordet to discover yet more of his new world. He returned after a long cruise, and found that his countrymen had brought all to ruin, much as before. All the Caziques were assembling their people to drive these tyrants away. And he found an army of an hundred thousand men, gathered to sweep away the Spaniards at one stroke. COLUMBUS. 19 5. Attack of the Indian Army. The awful moment appeared at hand, in which the fate, the freedom, or the slavery, of the native Indians, was to be won or lost for ever. But what an inequality was seen. On the one side a hundred thousand irritated men, armed with darts, wooden swords, spears, and arrows. On the other side were about two hundred European infantry, twenty cavalry, and a small body of Indians under Guakana- hari : but the grand balance lay in their courage, their regular tactics, their arms, horses, and dogs. Columbus determined to make his attack on the Indian army by night. As soon, there- fore, as it was quite dark, he began his march, and came on the unsuspecting Indians like a hurricane. The noise they made was confound- ing and terrifying, the thundering and light- ning of their fire arms, the snorting and tramp- ling of the horses, and the barking of the dogs. The Indians were too much confused to make much resistance. They soon fled in all di- rections, when the destruction and havoc "xiade in their flying tribes was dreadful. 20 COLUMBUS. The Indians never made any further resist ance, but submitted to their conquerors ; and the Spaniards treated them as an enslaved people, taking possession of all as their own. Columbus had many enemies, who endea- voured to set the king and queen of Spain against him, which obliged him to return to Spain, that he might defend his own cause and character. But in one instance his enemies prevailed shamefully. They procured a commission to be sent over professedly to examine into the admiral's conduct, but it was given to an in- solent man of the name of Bovadilla, who without any examination, put the admiral in chains, and sent him to Spain as a culprit. The Court were much hurt at his ill-treat ment, ordered him immediately to be set at liberty, and received him with all due ho- nours. Another fleet was sent over to redress grievances, and set aside Bovadilla and his party. But the command of this fleet was not given to Columbus, he had to remain idle at home. Like a great man, however, he kept his main object in view. He wished much to COLUMBUS. "1 ascertain, whether there was any sea beyond the Continent he had discovered ; and espe- cially whether there might not be some open- ing or narrow strait, into it ; through which he might sail to the Indies. He, therefore, laid before the Court, a plan for ascertaining these points ; the king and queen were glad of an opportunity to rid themselves of the continual presence of a man whom they had treated so ill. Orders were given to fit out four ships for his use. The fitting them out was in the hands of his ene- mies ; and he found four miserable little sloops, provided for so important an enier- prize. Columbus, who was never daunted by diffi- culties, set sail ; and after many struggles reached the Western Continent, near Hon- duras. From thence he kept coasting, in hopes of discovering the Strait which he so much wished to find. 6. Indian alarmed at the Pen and Ink. His brother, Bartholomew, landed in one plate, where the natives in a very friendly man- 22 COLUMBUS. ner, invited him to sit down with them on the grass. He did so, asking them many ques- tions, to which they gave him answers. He requested his secretary to write them down. But scarcely did the natives perceive the pen, and its operations, than they suddenly rose, and ran away in the greatest alarm ; and as they suspected some magic was in action ; it was with difficulty their fears were overcome. 7. Indians catching Anchovies. This fish, when pursued by others, being ac- customed in desperation to jump upon land ; the Indians covered their canoes with palm leaves, and sailing about in the rivers, dis- turbed the water as much as possible with their oars. The terrified fish mistaking the palm leaves for land, would jump upon them, and be easily caught. 8. Columbus delivered by an Eclipse. In one place the Indians grew weary of sup- plying their voracious guests, and lest they COLUMBUS. 23 should think to settle there, determined to bring them no more provisions. Here the* knowledge and sagacity of Columbus served him well. He knew that an eclipse of the moon was nigh. He therefore gathered their chiefs together, and by the aid of an inter- preter, he informed them, that the Spaniards worshipped the most high God, who made the sun and moon, who rewarded the good, and punished the wicked. That God was angry with them, for refusing to his servants, the Spa- niards, necessary food ; and would certainly pu- nish them. That as a token of his displeasure they would see the moon rise with an angry and bloody appearance. The Indians laughed at the threat, but when the moon rose, when the eclipse appeared, when the darkness gra- dually increased, their consternation became great. They entreated the admiral to pray to God to forbear his punishments, and solemnly promised to bring him regular supplies in future. We shall have little more to do with Colum- bus. .Yet anxious as we have been for him in his various difficulties, we shall be interested to hear the little remainder concerning him. After being shipwrecked, deserted, and abused. 4 COLUMBUS. he made his way to Spain. On his arrival he found to his great dismay, that his last friend and patron, queen Isabella, was dead. He experienced nothing but slights from king Fer- dinand, exhausted, neglected, this discoverer of the new world died in the 65th year of his age. 9. Planting the first Sugar Cane in th' West Indies. Ovando, who had been appointed Governor of Hispaniola, had conducted affairs so, as to bring the colony into some regular order. One thing too he did, well worthy our notice ; he procured from the Canaries, plants of the Sugar Cane, which have taken well to the soil, have spread all over the West India Islands, and now have become the staple mass of wealth to them ; affording us, what by custom is be- come one of the necessaries of life. One can- not get one's breakfast without sugar. From a little trifling thing Which we glance at carelessly, Great effects will sometimes springy Swelling to the wondering eye. . COLUMBUS. 95 Those few plants of Sugar Cane Were a curiosity : But what treasures now remain, Bringing wealth and luxury. Let me then where'er I can Drop a seed for future use . Give a hint, or lay a plan : Who can say 'twill nought produce ? Let me o'er the infant mind Exercise this constant care. Principles for good design'd Root, and grow, with fruitage fair. During the long course of Columbus's life, many of the islands he had discovered had been colonized : and different governors ap- pointed to them, especially Cuba, where Ve- lasquez commanded. He was impatient to make discoveries too, but he had not sufficient courage to" undertake such a hazardous employment himself. He equipped several little fleets, and the testimony uniformly was, that there was much land in the west ; that the people were cultiva- 2C CORTEZ. ted, and more warlike than the natives of the islands, over whom they domineered. At last he fitted out a fleet of ten large ships, and gave the command to Cortez, who sailed Dec. 18th, 1518. He took the same course which had been taken by Grijalva, a former commander; and arrived at the island Cozumel. Here he found a poor Spaniard, who had been shipwrecked, and had lived among the natives eight years. He became of great use to them as an inter- preter. 10. Cortez landing. He steered towards Tabasco, hoping to find as friendly a reception, as Grijalva had done before him. On the contrary, the natives as- sembled in great numbers to oppose him. He was obliged to attack them ; one volley of artillery drove them all away, and he landed his men. But the opposition of the natives was not yet abated, he had to fight them again next day, and then to attack them in their fortified town Tobasco. He had still another battle to fight. Fortv thousand native? were CORTEZ. 27 gathered, and Cortez could only by dreadful havoc defeat them. He took several prisoners, whom he kindly treated, and sent home. The effect this had was wonderful, in softening the minds of the Indians. They sent in all man- ner of provisions, and the Cazique sent presents, and sued for peace. 11. Marina is presented to Cortez. Among other things, the Cazique presented Cortez with twenty young women, who knew how to make bread of Indian corn. One of these afterwards called Marina, was the daugh- ter of a Cazique, who had been taken captive. She was a woman of great talent, she soon learned the Spanish language, and became of great service and importance, as an interpreter. Cortez had said to the messenger sent to request his departure, that his master had sent him with proposals to Montezuma ; and he therefore declared his determination to have an interview. All the Caziques, and great men, were astonished to find any man who would dare dispute the repeated order of their 28 CORTEZ. mighty emperor. After in vain endeavouring to move him, they all retired in great anger. While they were preparing for battle, they were surprized with a message from the Cazique of Zernpoalla, offering them a friendly alliance. 12. Burning Mexican Idols The zeal of Cortez was blind and furious ; hearing that a human sacrifice was about to take place, at a neighbouring temple, he was determined to prevent it. So far he was right. But not content with this, he commanded the priests to destroy their idol gods; and as they were struck with horror at the proposal, he commanded his soldiers to do it by force. The huge, ugly, idols, were tumbled head- long, and broken to pieces. The temple was cleared out, and the human blood washed from the walls and pavement. 13. Spaniards destroying their own ships. Cortez had much to fear from the cowardice, and discontent of many of his own people. He CORTEZ. 29 discovered that a plan was laid by some of them, to seize one of the ships and return home. He determined on a desperate measure, and re- solved to destroy his whole fleet ; that every soldier might feel he had only to conquer or die. He ordered them, therefore, to be com- pletely unrigged. He prevailed with the car- penters to declare their bottoms unsound ; and in an inflammatory speech, worked upon the passions of his soldiers so, that they flew under the intoxication of the moment, and pulled them all to pieces. The determination of Cortez to have an in- terview with Montezuma, was now to be put in force. He proceeded with his little army of 500 infantry, fifteen cavalry, and six field pieces. From the friendly Caziques of Zem- poalla, he accepted four hundred men, with two hundred Tamenes, or carriers, to convey stores and provisions. As long as his route lay through the lands of the friendly Caziques, all was quiet. But in a few days time they entered the territories of the Ilascalans, a very warlike people. Cor- tez endeavoured to pacify them, and gain them over to his side ; but his endeavours were all 30 CORTEZ. in vain. One of the chiefs, a high spirited young man, named Xicotencatl, declared for war, and roused the whole nation to resistance. In a few days march, Cortez found himself opposed by an innumerable army of Ilasca- lans, who fought desperately. Again the Ilas- calans assembled in immense numbers ; their attack was furious, the issue for a long while appeared doubtful, but at last European tactics prevailed. The enemy fled on all sides, and Jcft the Spaniard master of the field. After this, the Ilascalans superstitiously imagining that the Spaniards, were children of the Sun, and defended by him, resolved to attack them in his absence, and came upon the Spaniards by night. But the vigilance of Cortez could not be surprised, they were furiously resisted, and driven off with great loss. At length their opposition appearing to be all in vain, they sent an embassy to sue for peace ; at the head of which came the valiant Xicotencatl himself. Cortez and his whole army were conducted to Ilascala, where they were received rather as heavenly visitants, than as men. Cortez steadily pursued his march towards CORTEZ. 3i Mexico ; overcoming all opposition, whether secret or open. At length he crossed the mountains of Chalco, when^with astonishment and rapture, the Spaniards beheld a beautiful country, spreading farther than the eye could reach ; in the centre was a large lake, glitter- ing with villages, and Mexico, with temples, and turrets, towering as queen of all. The whole appeared like some fairy land, so daz- zling, so superb, was all they saw. 14. Meeting of Cortez and Montezuma. Cortez made his way along the borders of this lake, and was surprised one day, to per- ceive a grand procession issuing towards him from the city. Above a thousand, whoso adornings with plumes and mantles showed them to be persons of high rank ; then came two hundred of the body guard, all in uniform ; these withdrew on one side, in order to give a view of Montezuma himself, carried in a chair, or palanquin, of gold, and borne by nobles. As soon as the emperor approached suffi- ciently near, Cortez dismounted, and advanced in a respectful attitude. At the same time Mrn- 32 CORTEZ. tezuma alighted from his palanquin, arid rest- ing on the shoulders of two princes, advanced at a slow and stately pace ; his attendants covering the way with pieces of cotten cloth, that his feet might not touch the ground. Cor tez accosted him with a profound reverence, such as was customary in Europe. Monte- zuma showed his courtesy, by touching the earth with his hand, and then kissing it. A? Montezuma was accustomed to salute even his his gods with a nod, his people became con- vinced, that the strangers before whom he humbled himself thus, must be something more than human. Cortez wore a necklace of false diamonds, which he intended as a present for Montezuma. As soon, therefore, as the first compliments were paid, he took off this ornament, and hung it about Montezuma's neck ; who seemed well pleased with it ; and sent for one of his most valuable treasures, a necklace of shells, on both sides of each hung a golden crab : he placed this ornament on Cortez, with his own hands, a sort of condescension which greatly increased the astonishment of his subjects. The procession now returned, attended by CORTEZ. 33 all these visitors. A very large palace was given as an habitation for Cortez, which he for lined, and surrounded with sentinels, and cannon. Ah Montezuma ! 'twas a great mistake To show thy treasures vast at such an hour. Thy grandeur, and thy gold, could only make These visitants, wish all within their power. Wouldst thou drive off a fox, by rich display Of poultry fat, and flourishing, and fair : Or think to send the hungry wolf away By flocks of bleating sheep, or lambkins rare Gold is the Spaniard's object ; thou hast gold . Thoucouldst not hide it, hadst thou known the case . Thy presents to appease, made rapine bold ; Thy rich display, roused every feeling base . Ah vain the struggle 'twixt the weak and strong ; Resistance but spreads devastation wide, Thy rights are feeble, for his spear is long. Thy gold or his ? his sword will soon decide Think not to make him grateful, or to bind Thy safety to his oaths, or promises : 34 CORTEZ. He will cajole thee, if to keep thee blind May soonest reach thy treasures' deep recess. Look at his sword ; his sinewy arm observe ; The rampant horse,that beats the tremblingground , His bullets murderous range : nor thinkhe'll swerve, Till all thou hast, within his grasp is found. 15. Mexican Worship. Montezuma wished to show his guests the grandeur of his temples. He conducted them to one of the largest. He explained every part to Cortez ; recounted the names of his gods, the principal of them was Vizlipuzli. The whole horde of Mexican idols were ugly and contemptible ; but there is something hor- rible in their modes of worship, which consisted principally in human sacrifices. They frequently made war on neighbouring states only to procure prisoners, to fatten and slay them on their altars in honour of their gods ; and then themselves devoured their flesh. The manner of it was as follows. Six priests were principal actors. The victim was laid on his back on a large stone ; two priests held CORTEZ. 35 down his legs, two of them his arms, and ano- ther his head and neck. When the principal priest, with a sharp flint, cut open his body, and tore out the yet beating heart of the pal- pitating wretch, and holding it up towards the sun, offered the fume of it as an acceptable sacrifice. 16. Montezuma seized. Cortez it is true had accomplished his ob- ject, and obtained an interview with Monte- zuma. But it is equally true, that by entering the city, and being shut up in a palace, he had put himself, and his whole army, completely in the power of a man who would be glad tu cut him off. In this situation, his only choice was to be- come a prisoner himself, or to seize Monte- zuma, and keep him in custody. By threats and flatteries he prevailed on the emperor, as a voluntary compliment, to come and spend a few days in the Spanish quarters. After he had been there a little while, he came in an angry manner, and reproached him with the conduct of some of his Mexican chiefs ; who had at- 36 ^ CORTEZ. tacked the Spaniards left behind, had killed a Spaniard, and sent his head to Mexico. In a great rage he ordered the emperor to be put in irons ; thus he aimed to humble Montezuma, and break his spirit ; that he might not under- take any thing against him. But though Montezuma himself was humbled, his people were not. They made incessant at- tacks on the Spanish quarters, set some of their buildings on fire, and seemed determined to drive away the Spaniards at all hazards. Poor Montezuma 1 thou'rt a tim'rous dove, Beneath the eagle's talons making moan. What now can save thee ; gentle pity, love, His stern breast knows not ; 'tis a heart of stone Once thou wert grand, endued with high command, And distant nations trembled at thy frown ; Once thou wert rich, with gold on every hand : Thy riches ruined thee, and cast thee down. Gold, O what mischiefs haunt th' alluring name : Tho' meant for mercy, thou'rt abused to guilt ; Those bow to thee, who do not bow to fame. How much for thee has human blood been spilt. CORTEZ. 37 High station, brings a desperate cruel fall ; Great riches, tempt the murderer's steel to kill \ I'm thankful for the mercies given me, all ; But covet not great wealth, so oft great ill. 17. Montezuma harangues his Subjects. At one time, when a furious attack was commencing, Montezuma, who still resided in the Spanish quarters, determined to dress him- self in his grandest attire, and show himself to hi-s subjects. Accordingly one of his at- tendants ascended the wall, and announced the approach of their sovereign. At the name of Montezuma the combatants desisted. The monarch ascended the wall, at sight of him the greatest veneration was expressed. He t'nanked them for the submission they showed, assured them that he was not kept a prisoner, that it was his wish to continue among the Spaniards ; and begged them to lay down their arms, and return home peaceably. The moment he* ceased to speak, a violent murmur arose among the crowd. They be- gan to abuse their monarch. They let fly a shower of arrows, and a large stone struck 38 CORTEZ. him, and he fell senseless to the ground. The wounds, but still more his rage at being as- saulted by his own subjects, overcame him, and he died. This made a great change in the circum- stances of the Spaniards. The Mexicans im- mediately chose a new emperor, Guatimozin, and their zeal and fury increased without re- straint. Only one way remained to Cortez, which was to effect his retreat. He accordingly got his whole army in motion, and in the dead of night began his march. But he found the bridges broken down, and the whole lake covered with canoes of armed, and enraged enemies. Though exerting all their usual courage, yet so, desperate was his situation, that he lost half his army before he gained the open country. 1 8. Seizing the great Mexican Standard. After marching about six days, through many difficulties, and almost without food ; on ascending a hill, they saw a vast plain before them, filled with an innumerable army. Cortez arranged his little company, and told CORTEZ. 39 them they must either conquer, or die : he spoke in a manner so cheerful, as raised the spirits and hopes of his companions. They rushed forwards to the carnage, till through weariness of killing, they were scarcely able to fight. Cortez observed the Mexican general, with the grand standard of the empire. He assem- bled a few of his bravest men, whose horses were not disabled ; and placing himself at their head, pressed on towards the standard with an impetuosity which was irresistible. With one blow, he slew the general, and took possession of jjie standard. The Mexicans considered all as lost now. At the same instant every stand- ard was lowered ; a sudden panic seized their whole army, they made no more resistance, but threw down their arms and fled. This victory was good in another view. For as all the Mexicans were richly drest, the Spa- niards found an immense booty in stripping the slain. Yet Mexico was not subdued, nor the people brought into subjection. Cortez gathered all his forces, determined to take the city. While Guatimozin with a courage rendered desperate. 40 BALBOA. opposed him inch by inch. The combats were furious, and often repeated ; but in the end the Spaniards conquered. The nobles of Mex- ico were slaughtered; the emperor Guatimo- zin was taken ; and the whole country sub- mitted to a handful of strangers. Yes Cortez, 'twas judgment that taught thee to dart, Like an eagle to pounce on thy prey. Thy blow at that rag, cut each Mexican's heart. His courage soon melted away. When courage on principle fixes, 'tis sure, No dangers can daunt, or appal. But when superstition with charms would allure, 'Tis false, and must lead to a fall. Though we have kept unbroken the histories of Columbus and Cortez, we must not suppose the Spaniards were idle every where else. On the contrary many sets of adventurers were pushing, some this way, and some that. Among these a man of the name of Balboa, came with a parcel of his countrymen, to the Isthmus of Darien ; where he soon distin- guished himself, and was chosen commander. 1.3 BALBOA. 41 He formed an alliance with one friendly Ca- zique, who presented them with a considera- ble quantity of gold, which the Spaniards seized with great eagerness. The son of the Cazique perceiving it, said he could show them a country, where they might obtain as much as they pleased. This hint was not lost upon the Spaniards. They became impatient to come at this land of gold. But Balboa's whole force consisted only of an hundred and sixty men. ' According to the account of Comagre's son, there was beyond those western mountains, a vast ocean. Balboa immediately surmised, that this was the ocean after which Columbas had searched in vain, and across which a west- ern course would lead to the East Indies. 19. Balboa's first Sight of the Sea. The journey across these mountains was ex- tremely difficult; but the courage of Balboa was not to be daunted. He determined to un- dertake the journey. After five-and-twenty days incessant fatigue, they came to the last moun- tain ; up this he went alone, being determined 42 BALBOA. that none should rob him of the first sight. He attained the summit, whence he saw the vast Pacific Ocean rolling before him. He fell upon his knees, and lifted up his hands in a state of ecstacy. This in order of time took place, five years before Cortez set out against Mexico. Long doubted, long sought for with labour in vain ; To gain it at last, what a prize. The labour seems nothing when once we obtain ; We gaze, and absorbed, feast our eyes ! May always our object be worthy and good, No trifles deserve our regard : Then let it with zeal and address be pursued, Success then will richly reward. Balboa was infamously treated, and by Ped- rarias, a new governor, executed. This man re- moved across the mountains, and built Panama, where all thoughts of attacking Peru were laid aside. Pedrarias was not qualified to under- take any thing dangerous. Among the persons drawn together at Panama, were three, deter- mined to distinguish themselves. These were PIZARRO. 43 Pizarro, Almagro, and Luque, a priest. These agreed to advance their whole property, in an expedition against Peru. As Pizarro could not advance so much as his companions, he undertook the part of danger ; and was to com- mand the expedition. Almagro wa to gather reinforcements, and follow him, while Luque was to remain at Panama, and keep Pedrarias the governor in good humour. The whole force these parties could raise. to conquer the vast kingdom of Peru, was one single ship, with a hundred and twelve men. With this did Pizarro set sail, Nov. 14, 15* He suffered much in his hazardous vo ; ^e; as did Almagro, who joined him with fresh re- cruits. At last they landed at Tacames. in the province of Quito. Here they found them- selves so weakened, as not to be able to un- dertake any thing. It was determined that Pizarro should remain, and that Almagro should return, to gather new recruits. 20. Pizarro separating his men by a line. Almagro on his return to Panama, found a new governor ; a man of no enterprize, and 44 PIZARRO. who thought the undertaking of the three as- sociates so absurd, and so hazardous, that he forbad Almagro to raise new recruits : and sent out a vessel to recall Pizarro and his com- panions. Upon sight of this order, Pizarro refused to comply, but he perceived that many of his soldiers were weary of their sufferings, and longed to return. He therefore drew a line upon the sands with his sword ; and bade every soldier whojwas desirous of leaving him to pass over that line. To his great mortifica- tion, the greatest part went over it, and there remained with him only fourteen, one of whom was a mulatto. These waited under every privation five months, before any vessel arrived for their re- lief. Instead of returning to Panama, they steered south for Peru, near Tumbes. Pizarro had scarcely anchored when he was visited by several Peruvians, whose astonishment was great, both at the floating house and its white inhabitants, with long beards. They soon sent in a large supply of provisions, with liquor, in gold and silver vessels. All that Pizarro saw convinced him, that it was in vain to attempt conquering such a PIZARRO. 46 country, with ihe force he had with him. He was once more obliged to return to Panama. By application to Spain, he obtained sup- plies, and once more sailed for Peru, with three small ships, and a hundred and eighty men, thirty six of whom were cavalry. The Peruvian empire had flourished three or four hundred years, before the Spaniards arrived. Their own story is, that two persons suddenly made their appearance among them, called Manca Capac, and his wife, Mama Ozello. These persons called themselves chil- dren of the sun. They taught the savage tribes to cultivate the earth, to make cloathes, and to build houses ; and instructed the women in spinning, and housewifery. They abolished the barbarous worship of the natives, whir-h consisted much in sacrificing human vic- tims ; and bade them imitate, and worship, the source of all their blessings, which they said was the sun. The descendants of these two per- sons were called Incas, they kept themselves distinct, confined to themselves all the offices or royalty, and officiated as priests of the sun, to whom they caused temples to be built. 46 PIZARRO. 21. Peruvians* anxiety at an Eclipse. They considered the rnoon too as a deity, but of an inferior order. And were always fearful during an eclipse, that the moon was sick ; they apprehended it would die, and fall- ing from heaven destroy the earth. At such times, therefore, they made all manner of noises the most violent. Tied up their dogs, and beat them, to increase the noise by their howling. All the while incessantly reoeating " Mama Cuilla," or dear mother moon. When the eclipse began to wear off, they began to re- vive ; and when it was all over, a universal shout of joy arose. There are two productions of Peru which have proved of immense benefit. One is the potato, whose native soil is the fertile pro- vince of Quito ; although as we received it from Virginia, we have been apt to regard it as a native of North America. How many thou- sands have been supported by this root, how "important is it now Hcom.e to the existence of nations ? PIZARRO. 47 22. Discovery of the Bark. The other, is as important in medicine, as the potatoe is for food ; it is the Cinchona, com- monly called the bark. The mode of disco- vering its virtues is said to have been as follows : Some Cinchona trees had been blown down into a pool of water, by which means it be- came so bitter that nobody could drink it. However, a poor Indian, reduced extremely by a fever, drank it; being unable to procure any other. He soon recovered : and relating the circumstance to others, they were induced to try it, and all became well presently. When they came to examine, they found the water owed its virtues to the trees, and that in the bark of the tree, resided its medicinal quality. How many lives are saved every d;iy by this Peruvian bark. Sickly sufferer come and drink, Tho" the nauseous draught repel. Little did the sufferer think, This alone would make him well. 48 PIZARRO. Had he been less feeble, he To some purer stream had gone i Forced by strong necessity, This he drinks, and this alone So in providence 'tis found, What we hate, refuse, despise : Shall make health or wealth abound , Source of peace, and purest joys. " No I wo'nt" I dare not say ; Since I know not what is best. Let me keep the prudent way, And to God leave all the rest. When Pizarro landed in Peru, he soon dis covered that there were dissentions in the em- pire, between two brothers to whom the two grand provinces of the kingdom were left. Hu- ascar was to have the old kingdom of Cusco; and Atahualpa, the lately conquered kingdom of Quito. The latter had a vast army, and de- termined to rule both. He soon subdued his brother, and took him prisoner. When Pizarro began his march up the country, he was not opposed, therefore, because all parties were too PIZARRO. 49 busy in their private quarrels. Indeed each party hoped to obtain the assistance of these terrible strangers ; and therefore rather aimed to conciliate, than oppose. Pizarro had penetrated till he came very near the camp of Atahualpa. Then embas- sies, and presents, and professions of friend- ship, took place. The Inca promised to come and pay the Spaniards a visit. 23. Pizarro seizes the Inca. Accordingly he came in great grandeur, He was seated in a palanquin, richly adorned with gold, precious stones, and feathers. While all appeared peaceable, and friendly, on a sudden the drums beat, the cannon roared on the astonished Peruvians, the cavalry gal- loped among them, and all was confusion, and despair. Pizarro attacked the corps which surrounded the Inca, penetrated *o his palan- quin, tore him from his seat, and dragged him towards his own head quarters. The Inca thus a prisoner, soon perceived that the ruling passion with these marauders was the love of gold. From hence he indulged D 50 PIZARRO. a hope of gaining his liberty. The room in which he was confined was twenty-two feet long, by sixteen wide. The Inca offered to fill it with golden vessels, as high as he could reach, for his ransom. This offer was accepted. And Atahualpa dispatched orders all over his empire, ta bring in the needed treasures. But when all was punctually paid, in vain did the Inca solicit for his liberty. Nothing like justice, or kindness, had place in the heart of Pizarro, or his companions. 24. Discovering that Pizarro could not read. There were none of the European Arts which so much delighted the Inca, as reading and writing. He wanted to know whether this was natural to them all, or acquired hy education. He requested therefore one of the soldiers who stood guard over him, to write the name of their God, on his thumb-nail. He then presented his thumb to every one who came near him ; to his great surprise he found them all pronounce it ex- PIZARRO. - 51 actly the same. At length Pizarro came hi, and he asked him the same question. Pizarro, who in his youth had been^a swineherd, had not learned to read, and was under the ne- cessity of telling the Inca he did not know. From that moment Atahualpa seemed to de- spise him, as a person of no education. Ah Mr. Pizurro your coat's very gay, Pearl, purple, and gold well refined ; But certain it is, all these fine garments may But cover an ignorant mind. Your fin'ry and grandeur are splendid indeed, But then you're a divice Sir, you know you can't read. You are high in command, like a king on his throne, Men tremble and start at your frown ; Your sword is a strong one your enemies own, Your word can lift up, or cast down. But in every sentence assistance you need, Because you can't write, nay, you can't even read. Now thanks to my friends, if I'm not very fine, My clothes are sufficient you see ; I am but a child, I can call nothing mine, My parents and friends command me. In pretty books tho\ I have treasures indeed, Because tho' a child, I am able to read. 52 PIZARRO. Pizarro could ill brook being treated with contempt, and that too by an Indian. A plot was soon laid, charging the Inca with an in- tention to massacre all the Spaniards. In vain the Inca protested his innocence. His judges all thirsted for his blood, and he was condemned to die. On the death of Atahualpa many competi- tors started up, claiming the Peruvian throne. This threw the whole empire into confusion. Pizarro rejoiced at it, as he knew how much more easy it would be for him to conquer a divided people. He, therefore, determined to attack Cusco, the capital. He was opposed by vast armies, but European skill and cou- rage overcame every opposition. Every battle ended in a dreadful slaughter of the poor natives. The booty they found in this capital was immense, exceeding the ransom paid by the Inca. 25. Founding the City of Lima. Pizarro was desirous of building a city in the midst of his conquests, and to make it the PIZARRO. 53 capital of them all. He selected a beautiful valley on the sea coast, upon the mouth of a little river, from which it was called Lima. This city rose rapidly. Pizarro and all his chiefs adorning it with sumptuous palaces. It remains to this day the capital of Peru. The capital, too, of all the riches, pride, and luxury, of those vast regions. The conduct of Pizarro was extremely ty- rannical. The cruelty and treachery to the Pe- ruvian princes was hateful ; and when all oppo- sition on their part had ceased, he showed the same spirit, in his conduct towards his prin- cipal officers. Some he exalted, and some he violently cut off; leaving to neglect, poverty, and every distress, many who had deserved well at his hands. Acting in the most impe- rious manner, that his pride, arrogance, and prosperity, could dictate. It is seldom that such conduct continues long. It creates jealousies, heartburnings, and revenge. Among many, he had exceed- ingly ill-treated an old and honourable officer, called Almagro. He deprived him of his go- vernment, and finally of his life. The adhe- rents and friends of Almagro he treated with 54 CHIMBORAZO. contempt, and neglect; so as to make them desperate. 26. Death of Pizarro. Several of them began to associate, and plan some deed of deep revenge. Accord- ingly, they rushed upon him one day at noon, and slew him ; when he little expected such an attack. 27. Chimborazo. In South America, we find the highest mountains in the world. One range, or rather cluster of ranges, runs from north to south, at the back of Peru, called the Cordilleras of the Andes. They begin at the Isthmus of Darien, and form a sort of back-bone through the whole land to Chili. In this long course, some of the mountains stand prominent, and receive distinct names. That which seems to be the highest, is called Chimborazo. It stands much by itself, the summit is twenty-two thousand feet, or above four miles high. One of the most remarkable animals of Peru is the Llama. Something like a small CHIMBORAZO. 55 camel, with wool like sheep. It is about four feet in height, of which its neck is half. It is one of the most useful animals, not only on account of its flesh, and its wool ; hut be- cause it is so admirably adapted to carry burdens. It will climb the steepest moun- tains, carrying above two hundred pounds weight. There is a large tract of country on the southern part of America, which is very little known. It may be called the Magellanic regions. It is cut across at its lower extre- mity, by the Straits of Magellan. The sepa- rated part is called Terra del Fuego, or the land of fire, because a volcano exists upon it. The upper part on the eastern shore, is called the coast of Patagonia. The Straits were discovered by Ferdinand Magellan, who was aiming to sail to the Indies by a westerly course. He suffered much, especially by the intense coMncss of the weather. The whole land consist? of high bleak mountains. There are few inhabitants, and they are in a half starving, wretched state. 56 PENGUINS. 28. Penguins. There is no want of inhabitants, however, of the feathered tribes, especially penguins, who here maintain an undisturbed possession. So tame are they, so little used to man, and disturbance from him ; that when sailors ac- cidentally land on any of these islands, they may walk among them without occasioning any alarm ; or tuck one or two under each arm, as they choose. Qjuack, quiick, quack, how dost thee neighbour ? Stretch your pinions to the sun. I'm too fat for any labour, Glad I am I need not run. Let's enjoy our health and beauty, None with penguins can compare : .- Clumsy birds may talk of duty ; We are free, as free as air. What d'ye think's that great thing yonder, Is't an albatross, or goose, Come t'admire us now, I wonder : Are his wings of any use ? ^SSs^^^sssiissgs^^' i..- " FATAGONIANS. 67 Ah ! he nips me. I'm a dying. My fat sides will choke my breath. Am I swimming now, or flying ? Quack qua qu I'm pinched to death. 29. Patagonians. Coming up the eastern coast, we find the country very desolate. It seems to be thinly inhabited, by a people whose gigantic size is remarkable. The early voyagers represented them as eight feet high 5 but when Commodore Byron touched there, though he saw none so large, yet the general size of the men was gigantic. All the English, looking very small by their side. They are clothed with a skin, which they wear hair inwards. They ride much on horseback, though their breed oi horses is not large. They- paint themselves frightfully, with broad circles round the eye* but of different colours. 30. Antics with a Mirror. Captain Wallis took several of them on board his ship; but no curiosity, or wonder, 58 PARAGUAY. appeared to be excitable in them. At last one of them saw himself in a looking-glass. This afforded them infinite diversion. They advanced, retreated, and played a thousand antics before it ; laughing violently. PARAGUAY. The river Amazon is seen stretching all across the widest part of South America. It has its rise in the Andes, and receiving many tributary streams of great magnitude, after running three thousand miles, it becomes a mighty stream ; a hundred and fifty miles wide at its mouth, it pours into the ocean with a force, which repels the water of the sea to a distance of many leagues. This river gives the name of Amazonia to a great extent of country, of which we know almost nothing. Below this, spreads another wide region, called Paraguay, which comes down to the river Plata ; on which is situated the capital city, Buenos Ayres. The rivers of Paraguay are many, and very large. They unite their PARAGUAY 59 waters, and issue in the river Plata; which becomes a stream of immense extent, its width being upwards of an hundred and fifty miles, and at Buenos Ayres, two hundred miles from its mouth, forty miles wide. Buenos Ayres is not only the centre of very fruitful lands; but much of the treasures of Peru and Chili, are brought across the country hither, to be shipped for Europe. The country properly called Paraguay, is very fertile ; but extremely flat Consisting of boundless plains, destitute of wood. The native inhabitants are wild. In 1580, the Jesuits represented to the court of Spain, that the grand hindrance to the propaga- tion of religion among the natives, was the immoral lives of the Spaniards. They soli- cited, and obtained, leave to shut up the country entirely to themselves. 31. Jesuits instructing. With great skill and prudence, therefore, they proceeded in their plan. They persuaded forty or fifty families to come and live together ; 60 PARAGUAY. they instructed them, brought them into order, and without any violence, ruled them to their own benefit. Gradually by the same gentle means, they gained over more, and yet more such societies ; till a vast extent of country, was, without force, subdued, and kept in ex- cellent order. Gentle persuasion suits the human mind, Which silently is won by dealings kind. Which yields unconscious, ere it is aware ; And loves the teacher, for his friendly care. But then the teacher must be cool, and wise, Nor let his spirit into anger rise. The stupid and perverse must patient bear ; Still showing friendliness, and constant care. But who will act this part, so calm, so good ? Teachers are often blusterous, rough, and rude ; They'll tell you once, the thing you ous^ht to know With angry words enforce it, or a blow If dulness does not instant comprehend . Or carelessness with deference due atte* d. So they ensure disgust with those who t* ach, Perhaps with what is taught, beyond the r reach. Here we observe a far more pleasing tcene. E'en Indians listen to that placid mien. PARAGUAY. 61 No fear is roused, or anger, or disgust. They do not learn it just because they must. But want to know, and find they learn with ease, From teachers who oblige themselves to please. So spreads the gentle feeling far and wide ; Those once led gently, gently learn to guide. 32. Catching wild Cattle. In these vast plains the cattle have multi- plied prodigiously. So that as many as are wanted, may be had at any time. They are often hunted only for their hides, and the car- case is left, as of no value. They have two ways of catching them, with the spear, and with the noose. The hunters go out on horseback, in companies, with a long spear pointed with iron. They dexterously strike the hind leg of the bullock, so as to cut its sinews 5 it then becomes unable to run, and drops presently. The huntsmen leave them to pursue others, and come back at their leisure, to kill and flay them. Others pursue them at full speed, and dex- terously throw the noose over the head, or horn. While another dismounts, and with a knife kills it. 62 PARAGUAY. 33. Drinking Mate. In Paraguay grows a herb which is called by that name; and which is in high repute among the Spaniards of Buenos Ayres, and Monte Video. It serves them for breakfast; the use of tea, or coffee, being very uncom- mon. They drink it as soon as they rise, at all hours of the day, and frequently at their meals. Instead of using it as we do tea, they put the plant into a calabash, mounted with silver ; or a globular goblet of silver, on a silver stand, among the richer classes. This vessel is called a Mate', and gives its name to the whole affair. They pour boiling water on the plant, and sometimes sugar, and milk. Hot as it is, they drink it in summer or winter. But they do not pour it out as we do tea. They suck the infusion through a silver tube. A whole fa- mily, or large party, sucking in turns, from the same bowl, and through the same tube. BRAZILS. 63 BRAZILS. t From the river de la Plata, to the river of the Amazons, is a length of country of 3000 miles; it includes almost the whole of the eastern coast of South America. This country is called the Brazils. It was discovered by accident. The Portuguese had sailed round the Cape of Good Hope, and had actually arrived at India. Willing to improve so grand a dis- covery, the Court of Portugal in the year 1500, fitted out a large fleet under the command of Don Pedro Alvarez de Cabraal. 34. CabraaVs discovery of the Brazils. As all his precursors had suffered dreadfully in their voyages from currents, storms, and tempests, in running down the coast of Africa to the Cape ; he was determined to keep clear of it, and stood out far to the westward. In so doing, he found himself on an unknown coast. He landed, and as the custom then was, he took possession of it for the crown of Portu- 64 BRAZILS. gal ; by erecting a cross and causing mass to be said under a tree. He called it the Land of the Holy Cross ; but on account of the Brazil wood obtained here, so useful in dyeing, that name was given it. The northern parts are liable to tempests, and floods ; but the country more to the south, is very fine, fruitful, and pleasant. The Por- tuguese had been long in possession of the country, carrying on great trade in its pro- duce ; before they discovered that it contains mines of gold, and in one part abounds with diamonds. He who watches, oft will see Providence's guiding hand. 'Twas not seeing it, that he Touched upon this unknown land. Oft we know not what will come, But to watch our duty is. Looking round, has given to some Excellent advantages. Carelessness throws all away, Giddy childhood lets it go. Would you rend, and think, and pray ; You would see, and learn, and know. BRAZILS, 65 35. Diamond Washing. The principal mines are on the river Jigiton- honha. The persons employed turn the water of the river by a canal, till it is laid dry. They then dig a considerable quantity out of the bed of the river, which they take away for washing. This washing is performed in a long shed, where are a number of troughs, into each of which a parcel of the earth, is put, and a run of water is let in upon it. This is then raked about by the negroes, till the water runs clear. They then search narrowly for the diamonds. When a negro finds one he stands upright, and holds it between his finger and thumb; the overseer then comes, and receives it of him, and puts it in a bowl of water. When a negro is so fortunate as to find a diamond beyond a certain size, he is crowned with flowers, and carried before the adminis- trator, who gives him his freedom. 36. The Royal Family of Portugal, taking shelter in the Brazils. In the year 1807, the power of Buonaparte, E 66 MODERN WEST INDIES. emperor o the French, extended through Spain, to Portugal. French troops were pour- ing in ; so that the Prince Regent of Portugal, with the principal nobility, were glad to escape by the assistance of a British fleet, which ianded them safely in the Brazils. MODERN WEST INDIES. We saw much of the West Indies when we accompanied Columbus in his adventurous voy- ages ; but that is more than three hundred years ago, and things are much altered since. The Spaniards who went over to settle in the islands, indulged the most avaricious expec- tations of getting gold. They parcelled out among themselves the poor natives, as so many cattle, and obliged them to dig in the mines ; in a way their feeble constitutions could not endure. They sunk under their toil very fast, so as to disappoint their covetous masters. With a kind intention of relieving these In- dians, it was resolved to purchase negroes, from the coast of Africa. This did indeed re- MODERN WEST INDIES. 67 lieve the Indians, .but brought many thousand negroes every year into slavery. We have given some account of the infamous Slave Trade, in the SCENES IN AFRICA. Jamaica, with many of the smaller islands, belong now to the English. Some to the French, and the hold the Spaniards have of them is very feeble. 37. Slaves at Work. Although the Slave Trade is happily put an end to, so that no more can be brought over ; yet there are many thousand negroes who are still slaves. It has made no difference to them, except that their masters are not so oppressive to them, as they cannot easily replace them if they die. The principal employ of the slaves is in cul- tivating the sugar cane. For this they are out at early dawn, working in parties. The canes are planted in rows, and the slaves with a hoe, clear the ground between them. To ev.ery party there is an overseer, who stalks among them with a long whip, ready to lash any who do not work fast enough to please him. 68 MODERN WEST INDIES. 38. Free Inhabitants. There are many different ranks among these, chiefly regulated by their colour. The English planter, who glories in the number of his slaves, is rendered miserable by the means. He need not do any thing, he therefore does nothing ; and becomes weak, both in body and mind. He lounges all day, fanned by his slaves, smok- ing, and drinking rum and water. Sometimes the negroes obtain their liberty j become possessed of property, and masters oi slaves themselves. More frequently the mu- lattoes do so. These are not so deep in colour as the negroes, having a white father, though a black mother. These people of colour, as they are called, love to dress very fine ; this shows they are free, for slaves have but little dress, and that of very poor materials. ' 39. Black King of Hayti. During the long and bloody contests in Eu- rope, under Buonaparte ; Spain, which was at all times weak, became utterly unable to con- trol her American possessions. The black po- MODERN WEST INDIES. 69 pulation of the Spanish part of Hispaniola. rose upon their white masters, and completely subdued them. They soon formed themselves into a state, which they called by the original name of the island, Hayti. Proclamation of the new order of things was made in February, 1807; Christophe being declared president, and afterwards king. Like most ?ov*-rrjments where power is assumed by untutored indivi- duals, Hayti was ruled with rigour by Chris- tophe, which naturally created him many ene- mies, and a revolution broke out on the 6th of October, 1820, which threatened immediate destruction to his power. Finding the few forces he collected unable to stand against the revolutionists, and having no chance of escape, he shot himself through the heart on the 8th. Whatever may be said of the despotic conduct of this man, he must bs regarded as a person of extraordinary enterprize, decision, and energy. The Black Government is continued, under his rival in power, the president Boyer. 70 MODERN WEST INDIES. 40. Bay of Honduras. This coast is very fine land, yet there are no inhabitants, and it is quite a desert. What makes it however of "very great importance, is the abundance of logwood trees, which are so useful in dyeing. And the mahogany tree, which here grows in great perfection. At the proper season, therefore, great num- bers of logwood cutters come over. When the trees are felled, they are transported to Eng- land, and become of great value. 41. Acapulco. This appears but an inconsiderable town, for the greatest part of the year. But at the annual fair, which lasts about a month, it suddenly becomes a very populous city, crowd- ed with the richest commodities. It is here, that at this time, comes the Manilla galeon ; a very large ship, full of all the richest commo- dities of India, and Persia, and all Asia. And also from Peru, an annual ship laden with gold and silver, and all the treasures of those regions. And once more, all sorts of Euro- NORTH WEST COAST. 71 pean goods, which are brought over land from Vera Cruz. 42. Nootka Sound. This is a harbour on the western coast of North America ; discovered in 1778, by Cap- tain Cook. There are two principal villages of the natives, supposed to contain two thousand souls. Their houses are constructed of very long planks, resting upon the edges of each other, and tied here and there with withies of pine bark. They cure their fish inside their houses, and leave the bones and fragments in filthy heaps before the doors, to putrify. The sides of the house within, are divided into compartments, for distinct families : but not so as to hinder seeing from end to end. NORTH WEST COAST. If we look at the most western extremity of North America, we shall see it almost joins 72 NORTH WEST COAST. Asia. Behring's Straits, which run between, being scarcely forty miles wide. 43. Inside of an Ourte at Oonalashka. i In all northern climates, warmth is essen- tial ; especially in the winter season. They, therefore, dig in the ground a pit thirty feet long, and fifteen, or twenty, broad. Over this, they form a roof of wood, which they cover with earth. A square opening at one end serves to admit light ; a similar one at the other, gives entrance, by means of a post cut into steps, something like a ladder. Round the sides and ends of the building are separate compartments, where each family resides. 44. Obtaining Ught. They have two ways of doing this. Some- times they strike two stones together, on one of which some brimstone has been rubbed. The other method is, by rubbing together two pieces of wood ; whirling one of them briskly, a? a drill, when fire is nuiokly produced. West Coast ^.American India i NORTH WEST COAST. 73 Come Jacky and Tommy, can you do the trick, Could you obtain light in this way ? What get a good blaze just by twirling a stick I You neither will try, I dare say So then, you see those whom you savages call, Know better, and better can do. So don't be conceited, as if you knew all, To lesrn, is becoming in you. 45. Dog-ribbed Indians. These poor people live very far north ; and are destitute of many conveniences. The men have two double lines, either blue, or black, tattooed on each cheek, from the ear to the nose ; the cartilage of which has a hole through it to admit a goose-quill to pass. Their clothing is the dressed skin of the rein- deer. When the father of a family takes a journey, he cuts a lock of hair from his head ; dividing this into several parts, he fastens one of them on the head of his wife, and one on each of his children ; blowing on it as he does it, three times, with all his might. 74 NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. Between the Pacific Ocean and the United States, lies a vast extent of country, but little known. The native inhabitants here dwell in distinct tribes, each claiming a certain space of ground as its own, for huating. The popula- tion is extremely thin, and the various tribes are dimishing every year, by the poverty in which they live, and especially by their cease- less state of warfare with their neighbouring tribes: in which pride, covetousness, and re- venge, continually keep them. In the year 1804, the government of the United States sent out Captains Lewis and Clarke, with a suitable company, to travel all across this vast continent, till they should reach the Pacific Ocean. With infinite toil, fatigue, and suffering, they accomplished the mighty undertaking. They left the United States in the summer of 1 803, to reach the remotest western settlement in which to winter. In May, 1804, they set out steering up the river Missouri ; on the banks of which they spent the next winter. NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 75 Setting out afresh in the spring of 1805, they traced the river to its source. They then found they had several ranges of steep and rugged mountains to cross ; after which they descended the river Columbia, and arrived at the Pacific Ocean, their grand object, in De- cember of the same year. 46. Captains Lewis and Clarke at the Pacific Ocean. Their small canoes would not bear the roll- ing of the water, at the mouth of the Columbia river. They were obliged to take a journey by land to the extreme point ; where the pro- spect actually attained, repaid them for all their labours, hazards, and privations. Roll, gently roll thy refluent wave, Thou boundless ocean, spreading far ; Or angry, toss thy foam, and lave The rocks high tops, thy destined bar. To us, to see thee is delight ; Long have we travelled to obtain This grand, this gratifying sight, Thy wide expanse of green domain 76 NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. Thro' perils, sufferings, labours, fears, We steadily pursued our way ; Thro' hostile tribes, thro' rolling years, Thro' winter's ice, and summer's ray. Far from our home, and all the heart Is apt most tenderly to prize :- 'Tis fame a balance must impart ; Thus daring deeds of honour rise. The way is opened : who can tell What traffic future years may see, To tame the savage Indian's yell, And bind in chains of amity. E'en trade can harmonize the mind, Curb angry passions, train to peace ; But the sweet Gospel, best can bind, Bid rage, and strife, and murder, cease. 47. Child preserved from Fire. In many places the country is in large flat plains, covered with high grass, called praries. These sometimes take fire; the flames spread rapidly, so that persons are often burnt to death, being unable to outrun the flames. NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 77 On one of these occasions, an Indian woman finding she could not carry off her son, laid him down, and threw over him a raw buffalo's hide. When the flames had passed, she re- turned ; and found the child perfectly safe. 48. darkens escape from a Flood. In one place, Captain Clarke with his inter- preter's wife, and child, took shelter in a dry ravine, under some rocks, because they saw a shower coming. The shower was at first mo- derate, but increased to a torrent of rain and hail. The hail choaked up the ravine, and the waters rising, came rolling as on a heap. Captain Clarke happening to observe its ra- pidity, climbed up the steep rocks, under which they had taken shelter, pushing the woman and her child before him. So instan- taneous was the rise of the water, that it reached his waist, before he could obtain his gun and begin to ascend. 78 NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 49. Meeting of two Indian Women. Affection is always valuable, and pleasing. And when we meet with it among those whom we are apt to call savages, it is doubly so. In Captain Clarke's journey, the wife of his interpreter, was an Indian woman ; who had been taken prisoner ; carried far from her native tribes, and at last was married to Chaboneau, a Frenchman. In passing beyond the mountains, this man and his wife were a hundred yards forward; when she began to dance, and show every mark of extravagant joy, for she saw a party of Indians coming up who were of her own tribe. When they met ? a young woman forced her way out of the crowd, and recognizing her long lost companion, with whom she had played in infancy, and with whom she had suffered in captivity, they em- braced, with all the symptoms of ardent affec- tion. Sacajewa, sister, friend, Art thou come again to life ! Will thy bitter sorrows end, Wanderings, sufferings, toil, and strife. NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 79 Oft beneath the pine's high bough Frisk'd we, when the sun was bright ; Chas'd the jumping squirrel now ; Caught the fire-fly's flickering light. Joys of childhood, doubly dear Now the cares of life intrude : Sweet remembrance, vivid, clear, Comfort in my solitude. 50. Consulting the Medicine Stone. Man generally desires to know what is likely to happen, before it comes. Among ignorant nations, therefore, there is always some method of divination. Many of the Indian tribes have some sacred cave to which they resort ; with others a stone serves for consultation. In the present case, a large stone about twenty feet in circumference, stands by itself. A de- putation from the tribe visit it every spring, to inquire what shall be done in the coming year. The deputies smoke before it, and present the pipe to the stone. After this they retire to an adjoining wood to sleep. In the morning they find white marks on the stone, telling them 80 NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS what they wanted ; which directions are im- plicitly believed by the whole tribe. It is easy to see, that during the night, some one of the company secretly comes, and makes what marks he pleases. 51. The Pipe of Peace. One of the most important customs among the Indians, relates to the use and efficacy of the pipe of peace. This has a long stem, and is decorated in a peculiar manner, with eagle's feathers. It is regarded as a flag of truce is among Europeans ; and the bearers of it are never insulted. When any nation is tired of war, they will send a deputation of chiefs to the adverse party, with the pipe of peace. A council is immediately held. The assistant to the great warrior, lights the pipe, taking care that no part of it touches the ground. He then turns the stem of it first towards the heavens, then to the earth, and then presents it horizontally all around, to the invisible Spirit. He then, holding the pipe himself, presents the stem to the principal chief, who takes two or three 49 ,:5 -- : -. NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. , 81 whiffs ; all the chiefs in turn, according to their rank do the same. In a murderous bleeding world, Where the angry passions rage, Where defiance stern is hurl'd, Spurning life, and sex, and age : Is there any thing can stay Slaughter, in his high career ; Stem the spite in battle day ; Bid the boisterous savage hear ? Hail it ! 'tis the Pipe of Peace. Signal known, and honoured well Once displayed ; contentions cease; Soothed the heaving bosoms swelL Yes, we'll hail the Pipe of Peace ! Glad it lives those tribes among : When shall truth, and Gospel grace, Rectify those passions strong ? * 52. Indian Sagacity. Persons who live in cultivated society have many advantages, especially as to mind. But those whom we call savage, have some ; F I 82 , NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. chiefly in the exquisite nicety, and keen ope- ration of their senses. Thus an Indian, will tett whether the enemy has passed any place ; will discern footmarks which ar\ European could not sec ; he will tell what tribe it w r as, and what were their numbers. On the smoothest grass, on the hardest earth, and even on the very stones, will he discern traces. Or if they are out hunting, they will track their prey in the same manner, and learn which way to go in the pursuit. See how he is poking his nose, And down to the very ground stooping ; To find out the track of his foes, Who silently passed, without whooping. I vow I can't see any marks, I think he'll be out in his guessing ; He smells I suppose, and he harks, He points, now lets onward be pressing, As sure as a gun he was right, He said there were more than a hundred ; Why now we can count them in sight ; Had I guided here, we had blundered. I NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 83 53. Hunting the Buffalo on the Ice. Every spring when the ice in the rivers be- gins to break up, the Indians set the praries on fire ; because then immediately springs up a new and sweet grass. The buffalo are aware of this, and often attempt to cross the .rivers to get at it. In so doing one will sometimes get upon a loose piece of ice ; the Indians watch their opportunity to surround him. The ani- mal is of course unsteady on his slippery ground. The Indian who gives him his death wound, then paddles the cake of ice, with his prize on it, to the shore. 54. Catching Deer in a Pound. When the Indians determine to hunt in this way, they diligently search for some deers 1 path, where they are accustomed to go. They then surround a large space with strong stakes, and bushes ; leaving a narrow entrance. From this entrance they plant two rows of bushes, widening as they are carried on, perhaps a mile or two. The hunters then pitch their tents on a rising ground, from whence they can see i 84 NORTH AMDR1UAN INDIANS. if any deer are roaming about. They then come behind them, men and women, mak- ing a line a mile long 5 and gently press on towards the pound. The deer finding them- selves pursued, go on, till they at kst enter the pound and are easily killed. 55. The Rattle-snake. This dreadful serpent belongs to the American continent. Its bite is certain death, in a few hours. Providence has, however, warned us of its vicinity, by a number of loose bones at the end of its tail ; which rattle whenever the crea- ture moves. Abhorred reptile, who can hear Thy warning rattle without fear. Who view thy fierce malignant eye, Thy mouth malicious, sulky, sly, Without a shudder : aud a mind Of boiling hate to all thy kind. True thou hast power. I envy not Thy despot, solitary lot. Who loves thee ! who e'er longs to play ; Who turns to watch thy wily way ? NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 36 All fear thee, hate thee, and pursue Thy caitiff life, with vengeance due. Let me be loved. I do not core Who domineerg, and lives to scare. Let all who see me, see a friend ; Let goodness all my. steps attend ; Let fond affection mark my power ; And bliss conferred, gild every hour. 56. The Humming Bird. There are many species of them. Some of them no bigger than a humble-bee, so that they are without doubt the smallest of the feathered tribes. Their plumage is exceedingly brilliant, they hover at a flower when they want to suck its sweetness, but do not alight on it. They are very passionate, and will tear to pieces a flower which disappoints them. Little lump of brilliance, burning, Sporting in the summer's day : Blue, and green, and gold, as turning To or from the solar ray. $6 NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. Art thou conscious of thy beauty ? While we gaze, we must forgive. Yet 'tis passion guides, not duty, For thyself thou lovest to live, Hovering o'er the beauteous tiowret, Seeking nectared juices bright ; Thou art welcome to devour it : Beauty to the best has right. But when beauty yields to passion, Loves to storm, and fight, and tear : All abhor the angry fashion ; All despise the fairest fair. 57. The Fire Fly. We have in England the glow worm, darting its brilliance beautifully, in a moist autumn evening. But in the West Indies, and in America, there are several species of insects very luminous ; which enliven their vallies, as soon as it is dark ; flitting in every direction, by thousands. The larger kind seem all on fire within 5 and from some point, comes a luirmous radiance of great brilliancy. Six or NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS, 87 eight of them put in a clear vial, will give lig**: enough to read or write by. Buzzing, glittering, flickering flame, This way, that way, mocking sight : Sporting, frisking, gay thy game, Dancing in self-shining light. When the shades of evening rise, Dark and gloomy all around, Then the blaze of thousand flies, Cheers, and gilds the dark profound. Let but daylight's brighter beam Glance, thy glories disappear : Darkness makes thee brilliant seem ; Thou art dull, when light is near. Let me shine, that all may see ; Works of goodness, clear, and bright. Moral brightness stream from me, Glowing with celestial light. 88 HEARNE'S JOURNEY. The government at fort Prince of Wales, belonging to the Hudson Bay Company, in the year 1770, and following, sent out Mr. Hearne to make discoveries. He went with an Indian chief who undertook to be his guide, and a large party. They travelled northward for six months ; when he came to the sea. Through astonishing difficulties, and sufferings, was the journey completed ; and he returned to the fort Prince of Wales, after an absence of a year and a half. 58. Indian Conjurer. All nations have their conjurers, who pretend to be able to do wonderful things. These im- postors abound especially in savage countries, as the more ignorant any people are, the more easily are they imposed upon. Mr. Hearne found such among the northern Indians. One of them pretended to swallow a bayonet ; making many grimaces, and wry faces, such as might be expected if he actually Jndians He ai lie's HEAKNE'S JOURNEY. 89 had it in his throat. After a while he brought it up again. He did the whole so adroitly, that although Mr. Hearne knew it was only a trick, yet he could not discern wherein the de- ception lay. Nothing can kee^ us from heing deceived by such tricks, but knowledge. Those who have no opportunity of learning, may be pitied when they are deceived : but those who don't try to learn, are rightly served when cheated by the cunning sleight of hand impostor. 59. The Beaver. This is a surprising little animal, although many wonderful stories told of it are quite false. They will throw a dam, or bank, quite across a stream, to prevent its becoming dry. This dam is made of wood, mud, and stones. They build their houses on the banks of creeks, and small rivers. They proportion their houses to the number of inhabitants, which seldom ex- ceeds ten, or a dozen. Their work is chiefly executed in the night, and very rapid are they in it. 90 HEARNE'S JOURNEY. So William you thought you had done vastly well, Such a rabbit-hutch maker is clever ; Yet some of the bars are quite split with the nail, And one of the hinges is ready to fail ; I think you might learn of the beaver. How neat in his house, 'tis not clumsy in shape, Smoothed over with mud as with plaister : No cracks let in water, no crevices gape, No tying together with pack-thread or tape ; Could you do the same, my young master. The entrance is under the water, and there They go to their chambers and cellars. You will not go with them, although you might share Of the stores they've provided,all plenteous and rare; But content you to call them fine fellows. And look at that bank all across the clear stream, To keep the sweet waters from sinking ; What mud work, and stone work, and many a beam ,- How clever, and wise, and laborious they seem ; 'Tis wonderful well to my thinking. Ah could they enjoy it ! but man will one day Come hunting, and alter the matter ; He'll make all their dads, aunts, and sisters his prey ; Then travel a thousand miles off, far away, And sell their soft skins, to the hatter. HEARNE'S JOURNEY. 91 60. Boiling in Wooden Vessels. Aye indeed, how can they manage that. Will not the bottom burn out, as soon as it is set on the fire ? Certainly ! So these poor In* dians, who are not able to buy a brass kettle, are forced to take another method. Their ves- sels are large and upright, made of the rind of the birch tree. These they fill with water, and then put in stones made red hot ; the water will soon boil, when they proceed with their cookery. A little grit arnon^ their meat, they must not mind. Bring the stones all glowing hot, Let us have a glorious siss ; Drop them in the wooden pot, Don't let any be forgot ; See, the steam fast rising is. Now the meat, the rein deer's head, Body, entrails long, and paunch : Tender soon 'twill all be made ; We no cabbage want, nor bread. Claw his ribs, and tear his haunch. 92 HUDSON'S BAY. Fingers excellent are found ; Soon we shall the whole devour. Men and women squatting round ; Now let mirth and glee abound : Weeks we starve, enjoy the hour. HUDSON'S BAY. Captain Henry Hudson, -an intrepid seaman, was determined to discover if there was not a passage round the north of America, into the Pacific Ocean. He made three voyages, and discovered the vast bay which still goes by his name. In 1670, a charter was obtained by a com- pany of merchants, to trade to these parN,, who have several forts on its western coasts. 61. Annual Mart at Hudson's Bay. The animals which live in these northern parts, are provided by nature with furs, ex- tremely soft and warm. The Indians, there- fore, for some hundred miles round, hu-nt them, HUDSON'S BAY. 93 and bring their skins for sale, to the forts and establishments of the Hudson's Bay Company. What they bring is extremely valuable, and what they take in exchange, are our coarsest manufactures. The Esquimaux, who live dispersed over the country of Labrador, are a very peculiar i"ace; extremely distinct from the North American Indians. Short, square featured, they resemble rather the Greenlanders. 62. Sacrificing a Child on its Mothers Grave. The superstitions of an ignorant people, are often very cruel, even when they mean kind- ness. When a young child has lost its mother, they think it a kindness to the child, to kill it on its mother's grave ; supposing it will have a happy meeting with her, in the world of spirits. When both parties will be better *Tis true religion fills the heart With kindness and love : The Saviour's grace moulds every part, And bids compassion move. 94 HUDSON'S BAY. But superstition always leads To cruelty and blood ; Excites to rage, and barbarous deeds, And says, this pleases God. E'en when they kindness have in view. 'Tis cruelty in act ; With principles and feelings true,' They're barbarous in fact. They wish the little babe to be Under its mother's care ; That's kind, as in the grave is she, They send the baby there. Poor babe, the dagger's glittering blade, Excites thy infant smile ; And when within thy breast conveyed, One groan shall end thy toil. What shoals of babes, with savage glee, To cruel deaths are given : But Jesus says, " bring all to me, Such live with me in heaven." Sin urges on to deeds of shame, Exults in early graves ; Grace disappoints the tyrants' aim, And souls in thousands saves. HUDSON'S BAY. 95 I 63. Moravians among the Esquimaux. Dreary is the abode of these people. Their long wintry nights, the extreme coldness of the climate, the poverty of the people, and the privations of comfort which are unavoidable ; are enough one would suppose to make a European, accustomed to comforts, revolt from the idra of dwelling there. But what will not the love of Christ effect. With no other motive than the conversion of these heathen souls, have missionaries from the Moravian brethren penetrated into these forlorn regions ; subjecting themselves to all the hardships of such a life, in order to preach to them Christ, and his salvation. Their suc- cess after a while was encouraging, and they still continue to labour, not regarding the loss of this world's comforts, but looking for their reward another day. Men of this world calculate Where may wealth be easiest found ; There they go, and speculate, Where the rich returns abound. 90 HUDSON'S BAY. They will venture princely sums, * They will toil and hazard meet ; Nothing grudging if there comes Cent per cent, of profit sweet. If they disappointment find. See their gains are growing small. Quickly then they change their mind Interest is their all in all. Trade in thousand channels flows, Men leave home, dwell far away ; Distant Ind, to Esquimaux ? No ! they find this don't repay. Days a few they'll venture here. Rich fine furs to bear away ; Produce of their Arctic year, Traffic done, they will not stay. Who does stay then ? see a few Mingle with companions wild ; Men who Europe's comforts knew, Social joys, and climate mild. What :an bring them, what can . ] :<nep, "What can make them calm endure ; Is it worldly wealth they reap ; Ah ! they're poorest of the poor. Ih-ul.s.m NEWFOUNDLAND. 97 Tis the love of Jesus brings, 'Tis in hope to save a soul ; They endure terrific things, Daring climate to the pole. And they gain a rich reward ; See these savage bosoms bow ? Love, their loving dying Lord ; Sing, and pray, and worship now. Here's delight of sweetest kind, When success by grace is given : Now the fiercest climate's mild, Patient here they wait for heaven. NEWFOUNDLAND. Hudson's Bay, and Labrador, bring us to Newfoundland ; which completes the circuit of these very northern parts. It lies almost level with England, and yet it is intensely cold ; being covered with snow five months ip tb year. 98 NEWFOUNDLAND. 64. Wigwam Village. There are some native Indians live on one part of the island, governed by a Sachem or Chief. The wigwam, or hut, of these people, is constructed of poles, stuck in a circle, with their tops gathered to a point. This is covered with skins ; all but an aperture at top, to let out the smoke. They make their fires in the centre, over which they hang their deers' flesh, to dry it for winter stores. All the distinction enjoyed by the Chief, is, that he dwells in a square hut, boarded up at the sides. 65. Fishing on the Banks. The principal importance to us, of New- foundland, consists in its fishery. The banks where such immense quantities of cod are caught every year, are much larger than the island itself, and lie south east of it, stretching far out to sea. In the fishing season, the island is resorted to by thousands of people. Hundreds of British vessels come, and carry away five or NEWFOUNDLAND. 99 six hundred thousand quintals of salted fish : with which all Europe is supplied. Bright glows the yellow harvest o'er the plains, And precious fruits for man and beast are given ; All hearts rejoice ; the farmer and his swains, Both rich and poor live on the gifts of heaven. Some dig in mines, and precious metals gain From the deep bowels of the mountain bleak ; Some turn to commerce, plough the stormy main, Wealth,wealth, the object which they toiling seek. But who can say what wealth the seas include, What wholesome food in shoals immense is there ? Luxury delighted views, while nations rude Claim from the watry deeps their welcome share. The shoals advance, traced by the well known sign In one vast solid mass, they crouded come ; Nought -turns aside, or breaks the steady line; Heedless they rush upon their destined doom. Let down the baited hook, and instant raise, For instant do they seize the welcome spoil ; Let down again, again, with quick amaze, No patient anglers here, but sturdy toil. V 100 NEWFOUNDLAND. Thus thousands tars an annual living gain ; Merchants increase in wealth by every tide ; Thus hundred thousands poor their food obtain From the deep seas, by Providence supplied. 66. Salting Houses. The fish caught on the banks, is immediately brought on shore, to be cured ; and made fit for market. Every fish is split, and salted with great care, as we see the salt cod brought to England. In order to perform this opera- tion conveniently, very long stages ar^ erected on all the shores. These are supported by poles, have a flat top of dried fern. This is called a fish flake. At the end ol each stage is a hut, or small house, for receiving the salted cod, till it is removed to ths frues, where it is dried in the sun 101 CANADA. We are now coming among more civilized society. And glad may we be, to have es- caped all the dangers which occur, among such barbarian tribes as we have visited. Canada is a very large province ; seven hun- dred miles in length, and about two hundred in breadth. It is indeed now divided. Mon- treal is the capital of Upper Canada, and Que- bec of Lower Canada. The whole province was originally settled by the French, and the principal families are of French extraction ; but it was surrendered to the English at the peace in 1760. The winter lasts six months, and is very severe. It comes in with a few days' snow, after which all is bright and clear weather ; till it thaws, and the ice breaks up ; when in a few days more the grass is green, and the roads dusty. 67. Quebec. This is the capital of Lower Canada. It is a handsome city,- built upon a rock, it is divided 102 CANADA, into the upper and lower town, and is strongly fortified. The river St. Lawrence is here about a mile wide. Suddenly narrowing, as all the way from the sea, it had been twelve, or fifteen times, that width. 68. Carioling. Although the winter at Quebec is so long and severe, we must not think of it as a dreary seaspn. The weather is always clear and fine ; and the inhabitants find travelling then to be extremely safe and pleasant. Those who dwell in the country round, defer their journey to Quebec till this season; because travelling is so much more easy. The sledges they use are called Carioles, Those offhe common people go close to the ice, or snow ; but those of genteeler persons, have the seat raised about two feet. These too are made in every fantastic shape ; fashioned like birds, or beasts ; and they paint them very gaily. They go with so much ease, that the horses of the country who are used to it, will travel fifteen miles an hour. The people think nothing of going forty or fifty miles to see a friend, and returning home the same day. CANADA. 103 The snow's done its worst,and has covered the ground Ten feet, you my word may rely on : The Irost has succeeded, and every thing bound As hard, if not harder than iron. But shall we then shut ourselves up in despair, With dull melancholy and crying ; If the snow is so hard, why then surely 'twill bear Our sledges ; at least 'tis worth trying. See what a troop rushes, what creatures are these ; Bears, lions, elks, eagles, what mixtures ; The elephant here, and the camel, one sees ; All running, or flying, tho' fixtures. Full swiftly the horses these vehicles ply, Scarce touching the ground with their playing ; O'er hills, and o'er vallies, o'er rivers*they fly ; High spirited, active, and neighing. So ne'er let's be overcome whatever may hap, Try every way genius can mention : Don't whimper if one thing's amiss, my young chap, The stoppage should sharp your invention. 104 CANADA. 69. Niagara. The lakes of North America are immense* The waters run through each of them, making their way to the river St. Lawrence, and the sea. Accumulated as they are, they rush in a vast body, with astonishing grandeur, down a stupendous precipice, of a hundred and fifty feet perpendicular; being at this part about three quarters of a mile wide. The water wher* it strikes the bottom, rebounds to a great height in the air ; occasioning thick clouds of misty vapours. On these the aun at times, paints the most beautiful rainbows. Very near to the falls, is a small island, ut- terly inaccessible by man. Here some eagles have fixed their domain. Secure from all in- terruption ; and amply supplied with food, by the fish which are hurried down the stream, and are dashed in pieces by the fall. Down tumbling headlong with astounding noise, This world of waters delves its chosen way j To conquer, seems the summit of its joys > Its power resistless aiming to display. Canada . me UNITED STATES. 105 Must it not stop e'er long, such volumns thrown Incessantly, and passing swiftly on ; Their parent river leaving, now not known, In the far distant ocean lost and gone."- Ah stop I its whelming tides are hurried past By hackward waters, rushing to the brink : Five ocean lakes still urging, as in haste To try their prowess, leap, and boil, and sink. See the vast breadth, stupendously how wide ; Observe the solid mass that rushes o'er ; How swift it shoots its never ceasing tide ; Then calculate its bulk ; guess do no more. See too the cloudy spray, it rises high ; The waters torn are dissipate in air ; The boiling cauldron foams tormentedly ; Dashing, and whirling, as in vexed despair. Yet see the sun-beams paint the rainbow bright, Adorning well the unsubstantial spray : Rich in its radiance of prismatic light, Which flits, and dances in the noontide ray. UNITED STATES. By many emigrations from England at diffe^ rent times, were settlements made on the 106 UNITED STATES. eastern coast of North America. These mostly had patents from the king, stating their bounds, and forming them into governments ; but all of them dependent on the crown of Great Britain. These colonies increased very fast in population, in the produce of the land, and in commerce. The Parliament of Great Britain proceeding to tax these colonies, they resisted ; on the prin- ciple that they had always taxed themselves ; and as they had no representatives in our House of Commons, it was illegal and tyranni- cal in that house to tax them. This dispute produced a cruel war ; which cost England a hundred thousand lives, and a hundred mil- lions of money, all in vain. The various states had united, and formed a congress from them all; who, in 1776 declared themselves to be free, and independent states. This at last Britain was forced to acknowledge, in the treaty of peace at Paris, in 1783. 70. Emigrants for Conscience sake first landing in America. The Reformation in England was, though a good, a partial affair. There alwavs was a UNI TD STATES. 107 number of persons, who wished to carry it fur- ther, and restore every thing to scripture pu- rity. This obtained for them the nick name of Puritans. During the reigns of Henry VITI., Mary, Elizabeth, and James I., these Puritans were the objects of many bloody persecu- tions. It was to avoid these vexations and dis- tresses, that various parties of religious people sought refuge in the wilds of America. The first company which came over, be- longed to a religious society, under the care of the Rev. Mr. Robinson ; who may be called the father of New England. They were but a small part of his church ; about a hundred per- sons. These after encountering difficulties of every name, landed at a place, which from re- collection of their native country, they called Plymouth. Sure it was conscience sake : what else could lead These outcasts in this wilderness to dwell. In drearyness what prospects can exceed ; Their sufferings, toils, and wants, what tongue can tell 108 UNITED STATES. What gives the charm then to this dreary wild ? 'Tis liberty to serve their God aright ; Their holy Sabbath hours, not now are spoiled By base informers, insolence, and spite. He whom the pious soul would worship pure, Guiding his feelings br &<* ^ r ord divine ; Can well repay what we for him endure : His smiles give happiness, where'er they shine. 71. Maryland proclaiming Liberty of Con science. Although all who came over to people these wilds, fled from persecution ; yet the true prin- ciple of every man's right to serve God accord- ing to his conscience, was not understood. '1 ;ie \ariuns sects soon began to persecute one another. Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic, hud settled Maryland with a great number of his oppressed brethren. Among them were some men of au enlarged mind ; they passed a law, and proclaimed it, that no person should be molested on account of his religion in that state. Thus emanated the true principle of to- leration, from a sect famous for its persecuting spirit. UNITED STATES. 109 'Twas wise, 'twas noble, Maryland, in thec To snap these chains, to break this iron rod T" ordain " with us conscience in all is free ;" Religion solely should account with God 72. Carolina Rice. The rice plant has this peculiarity, that it grows best, where the ground is flooded with water. One large part of South Carolina is low marshy land, liable to be periodically over- flown. The rice will always keep its head above water, even though this should rise to twelve or fifteen feet. Vast quantities are thus grown, and Carolina rice, being far superior to that which comes from the East Indies, bears its proportionate price in our markets. 73. Rock Bridge, Virginia. This is a curious, and wonderful work of nature. The hill on which it is, seems as if it had been cloven through by some earthquake. This bridge hangs in the air, at a heigh t^of 270 feet above the water. The bridge is about ninety feet wide at top, it is sixty feet broad at 110 UNITED STATES. the top in the middle, and more at the ends. The sides of the bridge are solid rock in many ^places, yet few persons have courage, to walk up to them, and look over into the deep abyss. They involuntarily fall on their hands and knees, and creep towards it. If the view from the top is so painful, the .view at the bottom is most delightful. The bridge itself appears sublime, hoisted up that height in the air ; and the view through it shows the blue mountains in the dis- tance, with the cedar creek passing at your foot, through the arch-way. The bridge affords a commodious mode of crossing a valley, which could not be crossed any where else. 74. Travelling to a distant Settlement. The eastern states of America have long been settled, and are now overflowing with people. The western states on the contrary, are only now settling. As the lands are very (me j and as the travelling five hundred, or a thousand miles, is thought nothing of; and what is more, as the leaving home to go far away is lightly felt ; there is a continual pass- age of emigrants removing thither. Sometimes UNITED STATES. ill persons of property remove thus, with a long train of waggons and cattle. More often, a young man with a few dollars in a bag, and a horse to carry his wife and child, with a cow or two, if he is so rich ; sets out on his long jour- ney ; till he comes to the plot of ground where he intends to settle. Jiggity jog, the weary beast Step after step, goes many a mile. Day after day, without any rest ; On it proceeds with patient toil. 'Tis but five hundred they've wearily trode, Since they left fathers' and mothers' snug home \ One other thousand of similar road, Then to their own piece of land they will come. Yet they seem cheerful, the woman can smile ; Husband and child her heart's treasure are * found : They make her solace in every toil, They make her home, wherever the ground. All hail affection, invisible spell, Solace of life in its every day ; They may be blest who in wildnesses dwell. Comfort shall round their brisk fire side play. m ONITED STATES. 75. Kentucky Cavern. This may well pass among the wonders of America. This cavern is indeed a cluster of caverns, with long passages in which you may go many miles, all under ground. These pas- sages have upright sides, from sixty to a hun- dred feet high, arched at top. There are seve- ral large caverns, called cities ; the chief city as they term it, is a broad place the size of eight acres of land ; without a single pillar to support the roof, which is about a hundred feet high. Dr. Nahum Ward, who with two guides explored it a few years ago, says, " no- thing can be more sublime, and grand, than this sight. Only a faint idea of it can be conveyed by words." There are several other cities, some extending to four, and one to six acres ; these are several miles from each other, in different directions. They may go under ground who like it best, Groping and poring their ignorant way ; Glaring their flambeaux with terrified zest, Creeping, and slipping, without any rest : I like the fields, and the sweet light of day. UNITED STATES. 113 flow all the spars nnd the stalactites shine, Glittering a thous "d fold ever around ; 1 rue, one quite wonck * to see them so fine ; They shall ne'er glitter M h flambeau of mine, 1 like to jump on the plain open ground. Here a dark passage creeps zigz; v along, Puzzling one sadly to know whei n it leads ; Were it ell rubies, and diamonds, amon. Ready for me too ; I'd not change my song, - I'd rather frisk in the butter cup meads. So that vast cavern, how monstrously dark, Stretching eight acres, one cannot see where ; A flambeau at one end is but a dim spark ; No pillars, no pathway, nor yet any mark : I love the broad landscape ; you don't catch me there. 76. Penn's Treaty with the Indians. In 1681, Mr. William Penn, son of Admiral Penn, obtained of king Charles II. a grant of the country now called Pennsylvania. Thereby obtaining all the right which was thought necessary by the preceding settlers. Mr. Penn, however, when he came over, con- ceived that the Indians, the original inhabi- tants of the country, had a claim. He there- 114 UNITED STATES. fore, with various goods such as they preferred, purchased of their sachems, or chiefs, all the rights they claimed ; and so became in eve^ mode the lawful proprietor of the soil. M. Penn was a quaker, and the bulk of the inhabitants of Pennsylvania are of that per- suasion. The world will always praise an honest man, Altho' the sharping world won't imitate, They know the wisdom of an upright plan, To bless a neighbourhood, or rule a state. E'en savage Indians feel the difference, They know what's just, whoever would oppose. To buy, to barter, meets their common sense : Who drives them off, they must esteem as foes. Thy conduct, Penn, made Sachems call thee friend, They took the price agreed, and far retired. No lurking Indian will thy walks attend To seek thy death ; thy life were more desired. Nay, such the honour of thy well known dress Thro' distant tribes, who never saw thy face ; A Quaker may explore the wilderness, And welcome meet, from all the red-man race. So character well tried, and goodness known, An honourable name will always gain. Fraud, force, and mischief, soon are overthrown : But truth and fairness, ever w\ll remain. UNITED STATES. 115 77. Dr. Franklin drawing Electricity from the Clouds. Philadelphia is the principal city of Penn- sylvania. Under the mild government esta- blished by Penn, the province filled very fast, and the city became the chief mart for com- merce in the central States. Many Americans have rendered themselves famous. But there is one name which is well worthy to be pointed out, Dr. Benjamin Frank- lin. He was originally only a poor printer's boy ; but by industry and prudence, he rose in life ; and by an attentive and thinking mind, he made several important discoveries in na- tural philosophy* In his time electricity was quite a new science. All the philosophers of Europe were busy with it. Franklin studied it much. In his reasoning, he took up tire idea, that the thunder and lightning of the heavens, were electric ; and similar to the snap arid the spark of the machines. He was determined to try. One day when he saw a thunder-storm was coming on, he flew a kite he had prepared, to a considerable height. He inclosed a very small wire in the 116 UNITED STATES. string of the kite, to conduct the electricity. He fastened the lower end of the string to a post ; and when the cloud was just over the kite, he clapped his knuckle to the wire, and, much delighted, drew a spark just such as an electrical machine produces. 78. Washington's entrance into Philadel- phia. After the American war was over, General Washington, who had commanded their armies with so much prudence and success, resigned his commission, and retired to his private seat in Virginia. When the American Congress, in forming their government, came to chdose a president, the choice fell unanimously upon General Washington. He. accordingly came to Phi- ladelphia, to assume the functions of his office. To do the greater honour to the General, and to his new dignity, two hundred of the principal citizens met him some way out of town, on horseback ; with laurels, and colours, and every demonstration of joy ; and conducted him in grand procession to the Town House. UNITED STATES. 117 Blow the trumpets, beat the drums, Not for warlike deeds of blood ; See the civic hero comes, Washington, the just, the good. Time has been, he led the van Thro' the thick of battle roar ; Laid the wise, th' effective plan, Marched, and conquered, o'er and o'cr Ceased the din of armed host, Laid asleep each hostile feud : Now he comes, his country's boast, Still their patriot, hdpe for good. Great in council, and they need Wisdom their affairs to guide He, sedate, and firm, will heed What is right on every side. Choice deliberate of the free, Searching wide the country thro* All the States unite in thee ; High thy station 'tis thy due. Blow the trumpets, beat the drums, Citizens in best array Greet him ; at your call he comes. Freedom, 'tis thy triumph day.