LIBRARY OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
- - - .
A 3fAP OF
SCENES IN AMERICA,
AMUSEMENT AND INSTRUCTION
REV ISAAC TAYLOR,
PUBLISHED BY S. ANDRUS & SON.
ONCE again your friend a hearing
Claims from you, my little miss ;
With a volume neat appearing,,
FuL of pictures, see, 'tis this.
Long ago he gave a promise
O'er America to roam ;
Travelling far and wide, tho' from his
House, ne'er moving, still at home.
Yet o'er many a volume poring,
Such as you could hardly read ;
Distant realms and climes exploring,
Your inquiring minds to feed.
He has travelled thro' and thro' them.
Often wearied with his toil ;
That at ease you here might view them,
Gath'ring knowledge all the while.
True some scenes will raise your laughter,
They're so differenymd so strange :
Yet perhaps, your feelings after,
May to approbation change.
Possibly the very climate
Forces men to clumsy modes ;
Frozen blasts appropriate time it,
Thickening dress, or dark abodes.
View the Ourtes of North West Coasters
Buried deep beneath the ground :
They, not we, may be the boasters
If thus warmth and life are found.
While the sun's o'er-head direction
Makes West Indian natives pant,
Need they under-ground protection ?
'Tis the cooling breeze they want.
Wonder not if but a feather .-J* ..; ; ,
Seems a dress for Hayti beaux ;
While the fierce and stormy weather
Wraps in fur the Esquimaux.
From the icy northern ocean
Southward, to Darien turn ;
Sluggish some are, some all motion ;
There they freeze, and here they burn
Go still southward, climes are colder,
Ice locks up Magellan's Straits :
Hardships make the natives bolder,
Warmth dissolving strength abates.
View the roving Indian fighting,
Hunting wild his scanty food :
But bis senses sharpen, brighten,
Agile, tho' of manners rude.
Mexico with gold resplendent,
Rich Peru in brilliance shines :
Riches make them weak, dependent.
Mind seems buried in their mines.
Thus abundance, and privation,
Changing, mingling, balance well :
Where exists a perfect nation ;
Each in something can excel.
Let us strive to learn by reading.
That ourselves may wiser grow
Better manners, better breeding,
Let our daily conduct show.
They are sad barbarians truly
Who untaught and savage roam:-
Worse are they, examined duly,
Who refuse to learn at home.
Those who never saw a letter,
Ignorant, and dull may be :
But we hope for something better
Where we education see.
Are you then all hoity toity,
Or a gentle, worthy child ;
Fit to grace genteel society,
Or to run in desarts wild.
Ask your parents, playmates, sisters,
If your conduct they approve ;
Little misses, little misters,
Do they fear, or do they love.
Rank is marked by knowledge, goodness.
Not by riches, or by name ;
Worst of Indians they, whose rudeness.
Makes their friends to cry out * ; bhome. '
SCENES IN AMERICA.
1. Portrait of Christopher Columbus.
Portraits of heroes who the world destroyed,
And raised themselves right famous by their crimes;
Making of regions fair an empty void,
Are prized : of ancient, or of modern times.
Shall we not rather prize, the man who gave
A world he found himself, in western skies ?
Who pierced thro' unknown seas, sublimely brave
Nor turned, nor doubted, till he saw it rise.
Methinks old Ocean from his oozy bed,
Must startle, when th' adventurous prow was seen,
Foaming the waters o'er his ancient head ;
Disturbing his domain of liquid green.
Long had he slept, untroubled his repose ;
The light canoe was nothing he could feel ; -
The refluent tides might wake his slumbering doze ;
Or fierce tornadoes make bis palace reel.
Unnumbered keels the liquid surface cleave,
Since thou Columbus, showed the daring way,
With loaded fleets his struggling waters heave ;
And Britain's thunders claim the trident sway.
We have several times glanced at Colum-
bus. We have seen him struggling through
all the learning of the times, determined to
understand all that was then known, respecting
navigation, and the shape and situation of the
various parts of our earth. Yet like a true
genius he was not satisfied, where no satisfac-
tion is given. He found he was obliged to
think for himself. All his reasoning led him
to surmise, that looking westward, he must
reach the Indies if he went straight forward,
supposing all were open sea, and nothing were
to intervene : and if there were lands and na-
tions between them, in keeping his course due
west he must come upon them, and find them
out ; what they were, and how placed. Many
a day dream had he indulged; till, his mind
becoming all on fire with the subject, he re-
solved to explain his scheme, to such persons
as might help Jiim to give it a fair trial.
He was a Genoese by birth, and with true
patriotism, he made the first offer of his grand
discovery to his native country. But the no-
bles of Genoa, though sufficiently rich, and
proud, did not abound in science, and learn-
ing: and as it is easier with some to call
names, than to reason, they pronounced him
an absurd speculator, and sent him off. This
did riot convince him that his scheme was
wrong. He applied to other powers, he met
with many rebuffs, much contempt, and delay ;
and at last was furnished by Isabella, queen
of Castile in Spain, with three small vessels,
utterly unfit for so important, so hazardous an
undertaking, in 1492.
Contemplate him however having actually set
sail, and pressing onward due west, penetrating
into unknown seas. Are all his difficulties now
ended ? Alas he had to contend with the ig-
norance of his seamen, with their absurd fears,
and superstitious notions. Columbus as a great
man, bore it all with magnanimity; calmly
reasoning when they would listen to him, and
making the best of every circumstance as it
arose. He sailed five weeks, continuing his
course, till he was above 5000 miles distant
At last behold the object of all his hopes,
labours, and sufferings. On the morning of
October 12 he distinctly saw stretched before
him, the new world, after which his imagination
had so long panted.
Bright rose the cheerful morning,
The Sun in brilliance gay
The new found world adorning,
Bade every beauty play.
*Twas after many a season
Of midnight dark and dull ;
That science, courage, reason,
Obtained this victory full.
So brighter was the beaming
Of joy and rapturous glee :
'Twas sober truth, not dreaming ;
What every eye could see.
The shores' long length delighted,
Green hills, and mountains blue ;
COLUMBUS. . 1 1
The Indian half affrighted,
Aghast at things so new.
COLUMBUS, 'twas a feeling
Could pay for toil and blame j
Thy wisdom clear revealing,
* And giving deathless fame.
2. Columbus first Landing.
With great alacrity the boats were ordered
out. Columbus got into the principal boat,
being accompanied by a band of armed men,
with flags flying, and martial music sounding.
As they drew near the shore, they found it
covered with vast numbers of the simple na-
tives ; whose curiosity was greatly excited by
such strange visitors, in every respect so differ-
ent from themselves.
Columbus on this occasion dressed himself
m his best apparel. With a drawn sword in
his hand, he stepped out of the boat, and had
the pleasure of feeling himself on the firm
ground, in his new world. It is impossible for
us to enter into his feelings. As a pious man,
his first emotions were gratioide to God, who
had made his voyage prosperous. All his com*
panions joined him in this feeling, and the
whole company knelt down, and with enthusi-
asm kissed the shore, on which they had so
During all this, the simple natives stood
gazing around. Looking with amazement,
sometimes at the strange beings hefore them,
sometimes at the floating houses in which they
The natives were of a dark copper colour.
They were mostly naked, except as they were
gaily ornamented with feathers, shells, and bits
Soon the Spaniards began to make them pre-
sents of glass beads, ribands, and showy toys,
of a similar value. For these ihe ignorant
creatures were willing to part with any thin
they possessed. The grand object of the ava-
ricious Spaniards was the gold, which in sfl
plenteous a manner the natives wore, as rings,
bracelets, and broad plates. And the constant
inquiry was after the country from which it
was procured. They affirmed that there was
none in their islands, but pointed continually to
countries southward, where they said gold was
They kept, therefore, steering southward,
till they came to a very large island ; not flat
like those they had seen already, hut consisting
of high lands, slopes, and mountains. It was
called Cuba. Still the gold country was not
discovered. On the 6th of December he ar-
rived at Hayti, and was told the gold country
was in the eastern part of that island. He,
therefore, again set sail, impatient to come at
the source of incalculable riches.
3. Columbus visited by a Caztque.
Columbus having passed to another part of
the island, near the dwelling of the principal
Cazique, he found his Indian Majesty had a
great curiosity to come and see these white
people : and sent to say he would visit the ad-
mira! on board his own vessel.
With a very splendid train of attendants he
came, brought in a sort of palanquin. His
behaviour to his subjects was dignified, and
commanding, bnt he had no distinguishing
dress ; indeed he was as little encumbered with
dress as any of them.
He went on board without showing any signs
of fear. Finding the admiral was just going
to dinner, he called two of his attendants,
went into the great cabin, and seated himself
with dignity and familiarity, by the side of
Columbus. He partook of whatever was pre-
sented to him, and then sent the remainder to
his retinue upon deck.
After dinner he presented Columbus with
some pieces of sheet gold, and a girdle of very
curious workmanship. In return, Columbus
gave him a string of beads, and a pair of red
slippers. In the evening he requested to be
set on shore again.
4. Firing the Cannon.
Sailing on, Columbus was much alarmed in
the middle of the night, by the shock of the
vessel striking on a rock. What was his dis-
may on looking around him, to perceive the
sea full of rocks on every side. The ship
soon bulged, and all hopes of saving her were
The next morning he sent notice of his dis
aster to his friendly Cazique, Guakanahari.
He came with many of his people, expressing
the deepest sorrow, and yielding them every
relief in their power. In a short time the
principal stores of the stranded vessels were
got on shore. The Cazique took many of
them under his immediate care ; and by many
kind messages endeavoured to comfort the
Though kindly treated, Columbus was ha-
rassed by anxieties. He had lost his best ,
ship. Pinzon had deserted him with the
second best : and the only one remaining,
was too small to accommodate half the people,
and too crazy to be fit for a long and hazardous
He determined at last, that himself, and
part of his people, would hazard the voyage
home. While the others should remain on
shore as a colony, till Columbus returned.
Many of the crew were glad to stop, where
they were treated as heavenly visitants. The
Cazique was delighted with the plan. It ap-
peared, that from islands towards the south-
east, came often a people whom he called
Caraibs, who were strong, and fierce : the
Cazique and his people could only fly into the
woods at their approach.
Columbus promised the Cazique, that he
and his people should be protected from them,
and from every enemy. And in order to give
him courage, determined to exhibit to him
some of the European modes of warfare. The
Indians were amazed at the force and rapidity
of their movements, but when the cannon
saved from the vessel were fired, they all fell
down flat with astonishment.
Columbus sailed as he intended on his re-
turn to Spain, in his crazy vessel; he also
overtook Pinzon, whom he was glad to join
again. But he encountered several tremen-
dous storms, which put their lives in great
danger. The God of tempests, who had
watched over them through so many dangers. .
brought them all safe to Spain again.
There he attracted attention from all parties.
The common people flocked to discover among
the men, a brother, a son, a father, at last re-
turned. His enemies could no longer jeer at
his scheme, for there he stood, having actually
discovered a new world. He was invited to
court in the most honourable manner. Ferdi-
nand and Isabella, king and queen of Spain,
paid him all possible honours, and provided a
seat at the king's right hand, where Columbus
sat, recounting to the astonished court, the
story of his discoveries; exhibiting at the
same time the gold, the strange birds, and
the strange people, he had brought over with
Columbus was too great a man to be overset
with all these honours. He had one thing in
view, dearer to him than all he had already
attained ; which was the new world, which he
knew he had only begun to discover. That
which gratified him most, was the king's
giving orders to equip a large fleet, in which
he might return to encounter anew all his
distresses and dangers. In a short time se-
venteen vessels were ready for sea. And from
among the numbers who crowded to the land
of gold, he chose out fifteen hundred.
With a fair wind they reached the spot,
where they had left their companions, but
could find no Spaniards, no fort, only a few
dead bodies scattered around.
In a short time the brother of their friendly
Cazique Guakanahari, came down, and gave
them the particulars of the dismal story. It
appeared that soon after the departure of Co-
lumbus, the Spaniards left behind forgot his
advice to keep on friendly terms with the
Indians ; and began to rove all over the
country, 'in parties of two and three, plunder-
ing and ill-treating the people, beyond a)l
bearing. This was done chiefly in the part
called Civao, because gold was there so much
more abundant. The Cazique of that district
at last flew to arms, cut off all the stragglers,
and then set fire to the fort and burnt it.
Columbus's first care was to erect a new
fort, which, when built, he called Isabella.
When all was safe, Columbus set sail in ordet
to discover yet more of his new world.
He returned after a long cruise, and found that
his countrymen had brought all to ruin, much as
before. All the Caziques were assembling
their people to drive these tyrants away. And
he found an army of an hundred thousand
men, gathered to sweep away the Spaniards
at one stroke.
5. Attack of the Indian Army.
The awful moment appeared at hand, in
which the fate, the freedom, or the slavery,
of the native Indians, was to be won or lost for
ever. But what an inequality was seen. On
the one side a hundred thousand irritated men,
armed with darts, wooden swords, spears, and
arrows. On the other side were about two
hundred European infantry, twenty cavalry,
and a small body of Indians under Guakana-
hari : but the grand balance lay in their
courage, their regular tactics, their arms,
horses, and dogs.
Columbus determined to make his attack
on the Indian army by night. As soon, there-
fore, as it was quite dark, he began his march,
and came on the unsuspecting Indians like a
hurricane. The noise they made was confound-
ing and terrifying, the thundering and light-
ning of their fire arms, the snorting and tramp-
ling of the horses, and the barking of the dogs.
The Indians were too much confused to make
much resistance. They soon fled in all di-
rections, when the destruction and havoc
"xiade in their flying tribes was dreadful.
The Indians never made any further resist
ance, but submitted to their conquerors ; and
the Spaniards treated them as an enslaved
people, taking possession of all as their own.
Columbus had many enemies, who endea-
voured to set the king and queen of Spain
against him, which obliged him to return to
Spain, that he might defend his own cause and
But in one instance his enemies prevailed
shamefully. They procured a commission to
be sent over professedly to examine into the
admiral's conduct, but it was given to an in-
solent man of the name of Bovadilla, who
without any examination, put the admiral in
chains, and sent him to Spain as a culprit.
The Court were much hurt at his ill-treat
ment, ordered him immediately to be set at
liberty, and received him with all due ho-
nours. Another fleet was sent over to redress
grievances, and set aside Bovadilla and his
party. But the command of this fleet was not
given to Columbus, he had to remain idle at
Like a great man, however, he kept his
main object in view. He wished much to
ascertain, whether there was any sea beyond
the Continent he had discovered ; and espe-
cially whether there might not be some open-
ing or narrow strait, into it ; through which he
might sail to the Indies.
He, therefore, laid before the Court, a plan
for ascertaining these points ; the king and
queen were glad of an opportunity to rid
themselves of the continual presence of a man
whom they had treated so ill. Orders were
given to fit out four ships for his use. The
fitting them out was in the hands of his ene-
mies ; and he found four miserable little
sloops, provided for so important an enier-
Columbus, who was never daunted by diffi-
culties, set sail ; and after many struggles
reached the Western Continent, near Hon-
duras. From thence he kept coasting, in
hopes of discovering the Strait which he so
much wished to find.
6. Indian alarmed at the Pen and Ink.
His brother, Bartholomew, landed in one
plate, where the natives in a very friendly man-
ner, invited him to sit down with them on the
grass. He did so, asking them many ques-
tions, to which they gave him answers. He
requested his secretary to write them down.
But scarcely did the natives perceive the pen,
and its operations, than they suddenly rose, and
ran away in the greatest alarm ; and as they
suspected some magic was in action ; it was
with difficulty their fears were overcome.
7. Indians catching Anchovies.
This fish, when pursued by others, being ac-
customed in desperation to jump upon land ;
the Indians covered their canoes with palm
leaves, and sailing about in the rivers, dis-
turbed the water as much as possible with
their oars. The terrified fish mistaking the
palm leaves for land, would jump upon them,
and be easily caught.
8. Columbus delivered by an Eclipse.
In one place the Indians grew weary of sup-
plying their voracious guests, and lest they
should think to settle there, determined to
bring them no more provisions. Here the*
knowledge and sagacity of Columbus served
him well. He knew that an eclipse of the
moon was nigh. He therefore gathered their
chiefs together, and by the aid of an inter-
preter, he informed them, that the Spaniards
worshipped the most high God, who made the
sun and moon, who rewarded the good, and
punished the wicked. That God was angry
with them, for refusing to his servants, the Spa-
niards, necessary food ; and would certainly pu-
nish them. That as a token of his displeasure
they would see the moon rise with an angry
and bloody appearance. The Indians laughed
at the threat, but when the moon rose, when
the eclipse appeared, when the darkness gra-
dually increased, their consternation became
great. They entreated the admiral to pray to
God to forbear his punishments, and solemnly
promised to bring him regular supplies in future.
We shall have little more to do with Colum-
bus. .Yet anxious as we have been for him in
his various difficulties, we shall be interested
to hear the little remainder concerning him.
After being shipwrecked, deserted, and abused.
he made his way to Spain. On his arrival he
found to his great dismay, that his last friend
and patron, queen Isabella, was dead. He
experienced nothing but slights from king Fer-
dinand, exhausted, neglected, this discoverer
of the new world died in the 65th year of his
9. Planting the first Sugar Cane in th'
Ovando, who had been appointed Governor
of Hispaniola, had conducted affairs so, as to
bring the colony into some regular order.
One thing too he did, well worthy our notice ;
he procured from the Canaries, plants of the
Sugar Cane, which have taken well to the soil,
have spread all over the West India Islands,
and now have become the staple mass of wealth
to them ; affording us, what by custom is be-
come one of the necessaries of life. One can-
not get one's breakfast without sugar.
From a little trifling thing
Which we glance at carelessly,
Great effects will sometimes springy
Swelling to the wondering eye. .
Those few plants of Sugar Cane
Were a curiosity :
But what treasures now remain,
Bringing wealth and luxury.
Let me then where'er I can
Drop a seed for future use .
Give a hint, or lay a plan :
Who can say 'twill nought produce ?
Let me o'er the infant mind
Exercise this constant care.
Principles for good design'd
Root, and grow, with fruitage fair.
During the long course of Columbus's life,
many of the islands he had discovered had
been colonized : and different governors ap-
pointed to them, especially Cuba, where Ve-
He was impatient to make discoveries too,
but he had not sufficient courage to" undertake
such a hazardous employment himself.
He equipped several little fleets, and the
testimony uniformly was, that there was much
land in the west ; that the people were cultiva-
ted, and more warlike than the natives of the
islands, over whom they domineered. At last
he fitted out a fleet of ten large ships, and
gave the command to Cortez, who sailed Dec.
He took the same course which had been
taken by Grijalva, a former commander; and
arrived at the island Cozumel. Here he found
a poor Spaniard, who had been shipwrecked,
and had lived among the natives eight years.
He became of great use to them as an inter-
10. Cortez landing.
He steered towards Tabasco, hoping to find
as friendly a reception, as Grijalva had done
before him. On the contrary, the natives as-
sembled in great numbers to oppose him. He
was obliged to attack them ; one volley of
artillery drove them all away, and he landed
his men. But the opposition of the natives
was not yet abated, he had to fight them again
next day, and then to attack them in their
fortified town Tobasco. He had still another
battle to fight. Fortv thousand native? were
gathered, and Cortez could only by dreadful
havoc defeat them. He took several prisoners,
whom he kindly treated, and sent home. The
effect this had was wonderful, in softening the
minds of the Indians. They sent in all man-
ner of provisions, and the Cazique sent presents,
and sued for peace.
11. Marina is presented to Cortez.
Among other things, the Cazique presented
Cortez with twenty young women, who knew
how to make bread of Indian corn. One of
these afterwards called Marina, was the daugh-
ter of a Cazique, who had been taken captive.
She was a woman of great talent, she soon
learned the Spanish language, and became of
great service and importance, as an interpreter.
Cortez had said to the messenger sent to
request his departure, that his master had sent
him with proposals to Montezuma ; and he
therefore declared his determination to have
an interview. All the Caziques, and great
men, were astonished to find any man who
would dare dispute the repeated order of their
mighty emperor. After in vain endeavouring
to move him, they all retired in great anger.
While they were preparing for battle, they
were surprized with a message from the Cazique
of Zernpoalla, offering them a friendly alliance.
12. Burning Mexican Idols
The zeal of Cortez was blind and furious ;
hearing that a human sacrifice was about to
take place, at a neighbouring temple, he was
determined to prevent it. So far he was right.
But not content with this, he commanded the
priests to destroy their idol gods; and as they
were struck with horror at the proposal, he
commanded his soldiers to do it by force.
The huge, ugly, idols, were tumbled head-
long, and broken to pieces. The temple was
cleared out, and the human blood washed from
the walls and pavement.
13. Spaniards destroying their own ships.
Cortez had much to fear from the cowardice,
and discontent of many of his own people. He
discovered that a plan was laid by some of them,
to seize one of the ships and return home. He
determined on a desperate measure, and re-
solved to destroy his whole fleet ; that every
soldier might feel he had only to conquer or
die. He ordered them, therefore, to be com-
pletely unrigged. He prevailed with the car-
penters to declare their bottoms unsound ; and
in an inflammatory speech, worked upon the
passions of his soldiers so, that they flew
under the intoxication of the moment, and
pulled them all to pieces.
The determination of Cortez to have an in-
terview with Montezuma, was now to be put in
force. He proceeded with his little army of
500 infantry, fifteen cavalry, and six field
pieces. From the friendly Caziques of Zem-
poalla, he accepted four hundred men, with
two hundred Tamenes, or carriers, to convey
stores and provisions.
As long as his route lay through the lands
of the friendly Caziques, all was quiet. But
in a few days time they entered the territories
of the Ilascalans, a very warlike people. Cor-
tez endeavoured to pacify them, and gain them
over to his side ; but his endeavours were all
in vain. One of the chiefs, a high spirited
young man, named Xicotencatl, declared for
war, and roused the whole nation to resistance.
In a few days march, Cortez found himself
opposed by an innumerable army of Ilasca-
lans, who fought desperately. Again the Ilas-
calans assembled in immense numbers ; their
attack was furious, the issue for a long while
appeared doubtful, but at last European tactics
prevailed. The enemy fled on all sides, and
Jcft the Spaniard master of the field. After
this, the Ilascalans superstitiously imagining
that the Spaniards, were children of the Sun,
and defended by him, resolved to attack them
in his absence, and came upon the Spaniards
by night. But the vigilance of Cortez could
not be surprised, they were furiously resisted,
and driven off with great loss.
At length their opposition appearing to be
all in vain, they sent an embassy to sue for
peace ; at the head of which came the valiant
Xicotencatl himself. Cortez and his whole
army were conducted to Ilascala, where they
were received rather as heavenly visitants, than
Cortez steadily pursued his march towards
Mexico ; overcoming all opposition, whether
secret or open. At length he crossed the
mountains of Chalco, when^with astonishment
and rapture, the Spaniards beheld a beautiful
country, spreading farther than the eye could
reach ; in the centre was a large lake, glitter-
ing with villages, and Mexico, with temples,
and turrets, towering as queen of all. The
whole appeared like some fairy land, so daz-
zling, so superb, was all they saw.
14. Meeting of Cortez and Montezuma.
Cortez made his way along the borders of
this lake, and was surprised one day, to per-
ceive a grand procession issuing towards him
from the city. Above a thousand, whoso
adornings with plumes and mantles showed
them to be persons of high rank ; then came
two hundred of the body guard, all in uniform ;
these withdrew on one side, in order to give a
view of Montezuma himself, carried in a chair,
or palanquin, of gold, and borne by nobles.
As soon as the emperor approached suffi-
ciently near, Cortez dismounted, and advanced
in a respectful attitude. At the same time Mrn-
tezuma alighted from his palanquin, arid rest-
ing on the shoulders of two princes, advanced
at a slow and stately pace ; his attendants
covering the way with pieces of cotten cloth,
that his feet might not touch the ground. Cor
tez accosted him with a profound reverence,
such as was customary in Europe. Monte-
zuma showed his courtesy, by touching the
earth with his hand, and then kissing it. A?
Montezuma was accustomed to salute even his
his gods with a nod, his people became con-
vinced, that the strangers before whom he
humbled himself thus, must be something more
Cortez wore a necklace of false diamonds,
which he intended as a present for Montezuma.
As soon, therefore, as the first compliments were
paid, he took off this ornament, and hung it
about Montezuma's neck ; who seemed well
pleased with it ; and sent for one of his most
valuable treasures, a necklace of shells, on
both sides of each hung a golden crab : he
placed this ornament on Cortez, with his own
hands, a sort of condescension which greatly
increased the astonishment of his subjects.
The procession now returned, attended by
all these visitors. A very large palace was
given as an habitation for Cortez, which he for
lined, and surrounded with sentinels, and
Ah Montezuma ! 'twas a great mistake
To show thy treasures vast at such an hour.
Thy grandeur, and thy gold, could only make
These visitants, wish all within their power.
Wouldst thou drive off a fox, by rich display
Of poultry fat, and flourishing, and fair :
Or think to send the hungry wolf away
By flocks of bleating sheep, or lambkins rare
Gold is the Spaniard's object ; thou hast gold .
Thoucouldst not hide it, hadst thou known the case .
Thy presents to appease, made rapine bold ;
Thy rich display, roused every feeling base .
Ah vain the struggle 'twixt the weak and strong ;
Resistance but spreads devastation wide,
Thy rights are feeble, for his spear is long.
Thy gold or his ? his sword will soon decide
Think not to make him grateful, or to bind
Thy safety to his oaths, or promises :
He will cajole thee, if to keep thee blind
May soonest reach thy treasures' deep recess.
Look at his sword ; his sinewy arm observe ;
The rampant horse,that beats the tremblingground ,
His bullets murderous range : nor thinkhe'll swerve,
Till all thou hast, within his grasp is found.
15. Mexican Worship.
Montezuma wished to show his guests the
grandeur of his temples. He conducted them
to one of the largest. He explained every
part to Cortez ; recounted the names of his
gods, the principal of them was Vizlipuzli.
The whole horde of Mexican idols were ugly
and contemptible ; but there is something hor-
rible in their modes of worship, which consisted
principally in human sacrifices.
They frequently made war on neighbouring
states only to procure prisoners, to fatten and
slay them on their altars in honour of their gods ;
and then themselves devoured their flesh.
The manner of it was as follows. Six priests
were principal actors. The victim was laid on
his back on a large stone ; two priests held
down his legs, two of them his arms, and ano-
ther his head and neck. When the principal
priest, with a sharp flint, cut open his body,
and tore out the yet beating heart of the pal-
pitating wretch, and holding it up towards the
sun, offered the fume of it as an acceptable
16. Montezuma seized.
Cortez it is true had accomplished his ob-
ject, and obtained an interview with Monte-
zuma. But it is equally true, that by entering
the city, and being shut up in a palace, he had
put himself, and his whole army, completely
in the power of a man who would be glad tu
cut him off.
In this situation, his only choice was to be-
come a prisoner himself, or to seize Monte-
zuma, and keep him in custody. By threats
and flatteries he prevailed on the emperor, as
a voluntary compliment, to come and spend a
few days in the Spanish quarters. After he had
been there a little while, he came in an angry
manner, and reproached him with the conduct
of some of his Mexican chiefs ; who had at-
36 ^ CORTEZ.
tacked the Spaniards left behind, had killed a
Spaniard, and sent his head to Mexico. In a
great rage he ordered the emperor to be put in
irons ; thus he aimed to humble Montezuma,
and break his spirit ; that he might not under-
take any thing against him.
But though Montezuma himself was humbled,
his people were not. They made incessant at-
tacks on the Spanish quarters, set some of
their buildings on fire, and seemed determined
to drive away the Spaniards at all hazards.
Poor Montezuma 1 thou'rt a tim'rous dove,
Beneath the eagle's talons making moan.
What now can save thee ; gentle pity, love,
His stern breast knows not ; 'tis a heart of stone
Once thou wert grand, endued with high command,
And distant nations trembled at thy frown ;
Once thou wert rich, with gold on every hand :
Thy riches ruined thee, and cast thee down.
Gold, O what mischiefs haunt th' alluring name :
Tho' meant for mercy, thou'rt abused to guilt ;
Those bow to thee, who do not bow to fame.
How much for thee has human blood been spilt.
High station, brings a desperate cruel fall ;
Great riches, tempt the murderer's steel to kill \
I'm thankful for the mercies given me, all ;
But covet not great wealth, so oft great ill.
17. Montezuma harangues his Subjects.
At one time, when a furious attack was
commencing, Montezuma, who still resided in
the Spanish quarters, determined to dress him-
self in his grandest attire, and show himself
to hi-s subjects. Accordingly one of his at-
tendants ascended the wall, and announced
the approach of their sovereign. At the name
of Montezuma the combatants desisted. The
monarch ascended the wall, at sight of him
the greatest veneration was expressed. He
t'nanked them for the submission they showed,
assured them that he was not kept a prisoner,
that it was his wish to continue among the
Spaniards ; and begged them to lay down their
arms, and return home peaceably.
The moment he* ceased to speak, a violent
murmur arose among the crowd. They be-
gan to abuse their monarch. They let fly a
shower of arrows, and a large stone struck
him, and he fell senseless to the ground. The
wounds, but still more his rage at being as-
saulted by his own subjects, overcame him,
and he died.
This made a great change in the circum-
stances of the Spaniards. The Mexicans im-
mediately chose a new emperor, Guatimozin,
and their zeal and fury increased without re-
straint. Only one way remained to Cortez,
which was to effect his retreat. He accordingly
got his whole army in motion, and in the dead
of night began his march. But he found the
bridges broken down, and the whole lake
covered with canoes of armed, and enraged
enemies. Though exerting all their usual
courage, yet so, desperate was his situation,
that he lost half his army before he gained the
1 8. Seizing the great Mexican Standard.
After marching about six days, through
many difficulties, and almost without food ; on
ascending a hill, they saw a vast plain before
them, filled with an innumerable army.
Cortez arranged his little company, and told
them they must either conquer, or die : he
spoke in a manner so cheerful, as raised the
spirits and hopes of his companions. They
rushed forwards to the carnage, till through
weariness of killing, they were scarcely able
Cortez observed the Mexican general, with
the grand standard of the empire. He assem-
bled a few of his bravest men, whose horses
were not disabled ; and placing himself at their
head, pressed on towards the standard with an
impetuosity which was irresistible. With one
blow, he slew the general, and took possession
of jjie standard. The Mexicans considered all
as lost now. At the same instant every stand-
ard was lowered ; a sudden panic seized their
whole army, they made no more resistance,
but threw down their arms and fled.
This victory was good in another view. For
as all the Mexicans were richly drest, the Spa-
niards found an immense booty in stripping the
Yet Mexico was not subdued, nor the people
brought into subjection. Cortez gathered all
his forces, determined to take the city. While
Guatimozin with a courage rendered desperate.
opposed him inch by inch. The combats were
furious, and often repeated ; but in the end the
Spaniards conquered. The nobles of Mex-
ico were slaughtered; the emperor Guatimo-
zin was taken ; and the whole country sub-
mitted to a handful of strangers.
Yes Cortez, 'twas judgment that taught thee to dart,
Like an eagle to pounce on thy prey.
Thy blow at that rag, cut each Mexican's heart.
His courage soon melted away.
When courage on principle fixes, 'tis sure,
No dangers can daunt, or appal.
But when superstition with charms would allure,
'Tis false, and must lead to a fall.
Though we have kept unbroken the histories
of Columbus and Cortez, we must not suppose
the Spaniards were idle every where else. On
the contrary many sets of adventurers were
pushing, some this way, and some that.
Among these a man of the name of Balboa,
came with a parcel of his countrymen, to the
Isthmus of Darien ; where he soon distin-
guished himself, and was chosen commander.
He formed an alliance with one friendly Ca-
zique, who presented them with a considera-
ble quantity of gold, which the Spaniards
seized with great eagerness. The son of the
Cazique perceiving it, said he could show them
a country, where they might obtain as much as
This hint was not lost upon the Spaniards.
They became impatient to come at this land of
gold. But Balboa's whole force consisted
only of an hundred and sixty men. '
According to the account of Comagre's son,
there was beyond those western mountains, a
vast ocean. Balboa immediately surmised,
that this was the ocean after which Columbas
had searched in vain, and across which a west-
ern course would lead to the East Indies.
19. Balboa's first Sight of the Sea.
The journey across these mountains was ex-
tremely difficult; but the courage of Balboa
was not to be daunted. He determined to un-
dertake the journey. After five-and-twenty days
incessant fatigue, they came to the last moun-
tain ; up this he went alone, being determined
that none should rob him of the first sight.
He attained the summit, whence he saw the
vast Pacific Ocean rolling before him. He
fell upon his knees, and lifted up his hands in
a state of ecstacy. This in order of time took
place, five years before Cortez set out against
Long doubted, long sought for with labour in vain ;
To gain it at last, what a prize.
The labour seems nothing when once we obtain ;
We gaze, and absorbed, feast our eyes !
May always our object be worthy and good,
No trifles deserve our regard :
Then let it with zeal and address be pursued,
Success then will richly reward.
Balboa was infamously treated, and by Ped-
rarias, a new governor, executed. This man re-
moved across the mountains, and built Panama,
where all thoughts of attacking Peru were laid
aside. Pedrarias was not qualified to under-
take any thing dangerous. Among the persons
drawn together at Panama, were three, deter-
mined to distinguish themselves. These were
Pizarro, Almagro, and Luque, a priest. These
agreed to advance their whole property, in an
expedition against Peru. As Pizarro could
not advance so much as his companions, he
undertook the part of danger ; and was to com-
mand the expedition. Almagro wa to gather
reinforcements, and follow him, while Luque
was to remain at Panama, and keep Pedrarias
the governor in good humour.
The whole force these parties could raise.
to conquer the vast kingdom of Peru, was one
single ship, with a hundred and twelve men.
With this did Pizarro set sail, Nov. 14, 15*
He suffered much in his hazardous vo ; ^e;
as did Almagro, who joined him with fresh re-
cruits. At last they landed at Tacames. in
the province of Quito. Here they found them-
selves so weakened, as not to be able to un-
dertake any thing. It was determined that
Pizarro should remain, and that Almagro should
return, to gather new recruits.
20. Pizarro separating his men by a line.
Almagro on his return to Panama, found a
new governor ; a man of no enterprize, and
who thought the undertaking of the three as-
sociates so absurd, and so hazardous, that he
forbad Almagro to raise new recruits : and
sent out a vessel to recall Pizarro and his com-
panions. Upon sight of this order, Pizarro
refused to comply, but he perceived that many
of his soldiers were weary of their sufferings,
and longed to return. He therefore drew a
line upon the sands with his sword ; and bade
every soldier whojwas desirous of leaving him
to pass over that line. To his great mortifica-
tion, the greatest part went over it, and there
remained with him only fourteen, one of whom
was a mulatto.
These waited under every privation five
months, before any vessel arrived for their re-
lief. Instead of returning to Panama, they
steered south for Peru, near Tumbes. Pizarro
had scarcely anchored when he was visited by
several Peruvians, whose astonishment was
great, both at the floating house and its white
inhabitants, with long beards. They soon sent
in a large supply of provisions, with liquor, in
gold and silver vessels.
All that Pizarro saw convinced him, that it
was in vain to attempt conquering such a
country, with ihe force he had with him. He
was once more obliged to return to Panama.
By application to Spain, he obtained sup-
plies, and once more sailed for Peru, with three
small ships, and a hundred and eighty men,
thirty six of whom were cavalry.
The Peruvian empire had flourished three
or four hundred years, before the Spaniards
arrived. Their own story is, that two persons
suddenly made their appearance among them,
called Manca Capac, and his wife, Mama
Ozello. These persons called themselves chil-
dren of the sun. They taught the savage
tribes to cultivate the earth, to make cloathes,
and to build houses ; and instructed the
women in spinning, and housewifery. They
abolished the barbarous worship of the natives,
whir-h consisted much in sacrificing human vic-
tims ; and bade them imitate, and worship, the
source of all their blessings, which they said was
the sun. The descendants of these two per-
sons were called Incas, they kept themselves
distinct, confined to themselves all the offices
or royalty, and officiated as priests of the sun,
to whom they caused temples to be built.
21. Peruvians* anxiety at an Eclipse.
They considered the rnoon too as a deity,
but of an inferior order. And were always
fearful during an eclipse, that the moon was
sick ; they apprehended it would die, and fall-
ing from heaven destroy the earth. At such
times, therefore, they made all manner of
noises the most violent. Tied up their dogs,
and beat them, to increase the noise by their
howling. All the while incessantly reoeating
" Mama Cuilla," or dear mother moon. When
the eclipse began to wear off, they began to re-
vive ; and when it was all over, a universal
shout of joy arose.
There are two productions of Peru which
have proved of immense benefit. One is the
potato, whose native soil is the fertile pro-
vince of Quito ; although as we received it from
Virginia, we have been apt to regard it as a
native of North America. How many thou-
sands have been supported by this root, how
"important is it now Hcom.e to the existence of
22. Discovery of the Bark.
The other, is as important in medicine, as the
potatoe is for food ; it is the Cinchona, com-
monly called the bark. The mode of disco-
vering its virtues is said to have been as follows :
Some Cinchona trees had been blown down
into a pool of water, by which means it be-
came so bitter that nobody could drink it.
However, a poor Indian, reduced extremely
by a fever, drank it; being unable to procure
any other. He soon recovered : and relating
the circumstance to others, they were induced
to try it, and all became well presently.
When they came to examine, they found the
water owed its virtues to the trees, and that
in the bark of the tree, resided its medicinal
quality. How many lives are saved every d;iy
by this Peruvian bark.
Sickly sufferer come and drink,
Tho" the nauseous draught repel.
Little did the sufferer think,
This alone would make him well.
Had he been less feeble, he
To some purer stream had gone i
Forced by strong necessity,
This he drinks, and this alone
So in providence 'tis found,
What we hate, refuse, despise :
Shall make health or wealth abound ,
Source of peace, and purest joys.
" No I wo'nt" I dare not say ;
Since I know not what is best.
Let me keep the prudent way,
And to God leave all the rest.
When Pizarro landed in Peru, he soon dis
covered that there were dissentions in the em-
pire, between two brothers to whom the two
grand provinces of the kingdom were left. Hu-
ascar was to have the old kingdom of Cusco;
and Atahualpa, the lately conquered kingdom
of Quito. The latter had a vast army, and de-
termined to rule both. He soon subdued his
brother, and took him prisoner. When Pizarro
began his march up the country, he was not
opposed, therefore, because all parties were too
busy in their private quarrels. Indeed each
party hoped to obtain the assistance of these
terrible strangers ; and therefore rather aimed
to conciliate, than oppose.
Pizarro had penetrated till he came very
near the camp of Atahualpa. Then embas-
sies, and presents, and professions of friend-
ship, took place. The Inca promised to come
and pay the Spaniards a visit.
23. Pizarro seizes the Inca.
Accordingly he came in great grandeur,
He was seated in a palanquin, richly adorned
with gold, precious stones, and feathers.
While all appeared peaceable, and friendly, on
a sudden the drums beat, the cannon roared
on the astonished Peruvians, the cavalry gal-
loped among them, and all was confusion, and
despair. Pizarro attacked the corps which
surrounded the Inca, penetrated *o his palan-
quin, tore him from his seat, and dragged him
towards his own head quarters.
The Inca thus a prisoner, soon perceived
that the ruling passion with these marauders
was the love of gold. From hence he indulged
a hope of gaining his liberty. The room in
which he was confined was twenty-two feet
long, by sixteen wide. The Inca offered to fill
it with golden vessels, as high as he could
reach, for his ransom. This offer was accepted.
And Atahualpa dispatched orders all over his
empire, ta bring in the needed treasures.
But when all was punctually paid, in vain
did the Inca solicit for his liberty. Nothing
like justice, or kindness, had place in the
heart of Pizarro, or his companions.
24. Discovering that Pizarro could not
There were none of the European Arts
which so much delighted the Inca, as reading
and writing. He wanted to know whether
this was natural to them all, or acquired
hy education. He requested therefore one
of the soldiers who stood guard over him,
to write the name of their God, on his
thumb-nail. He then presented his thumb to
every one who came near him ; to his great
surprise he found them all pronounce it ex-
PIZARRO. - 51
actly the same. At length Pizarro came hi,
and he asked him the same question. Pizarro,
who in his youth had been^a swineherd, had
not learned to read, and was under the ne-
cessity of telling the Inca he did not know.
From that moment Atahualpa seemed to de-
spise him, as a person of no education.
Ah Mr. Pizurro your coat's very gay,
Pearl, purple, and gold well refined ;
But certain it is, all these fine garments may
But cover an ignorant mind.
Your fin'ry and grandeur are splendid indeed,
But then you're a divice Sir, you know you can't read.
You are high in command, like a king on his throne,
Men tremble and start at your frown ;
Your sword is a strong one your enemies own,
Your word can lift up, or cast down.
But in every sentence assistance you need,
Because you can't write, nay, you can't even read.
Now thanks to my friends, if I'm not very fine,
My clothes are sufficient you see ;
I am but a child, I can call nothing mine,
My parents and friends command me.
In pretty books tho\ I have treasures indeed,
Because tho' a child, I am able to read.
Pizarro could ill brook being treated with
contempt, and that too by an Indian. A plot
was soon laid, charging the Inca with an in-
tention to massacre all the Spaniards. In
vain the Inca protested his innocence. His
judges all thirsted for his blood, and he was
condemned to die.
On the death of Atahualpa many competi-
tors started up, claiming the Peruvian throne.
This threw the whole empire into confusion.
Pizarro rejoiced at it, as he knew how much
more easy it would be for him to conquer a
divided people. He, therefore, determined to
attack Cusco, the capital. He was opposed
by vast armies, but European skill and cou-
rage overcame every opposition. Every battle
ended in a dreadful slaughter of the poor
The booty they found in this capital was
immense, exceeding the ransom paid by the
25. Founding the City of Lima.
Pizarro was desirous of building a city in
the midst of his conquests, and to make it the
capital of them all. He selected a beautiful
valley on the sea coast, upon the mouth of a
little river, from which it was called Lima.
This city rose rapidly. Pizarro and all his
chiefs adorning it with sumptuous palaces.
It remains to this day the capital of Peru.
The capital, too, of all the riches, pride, and
luxury, of those vast regions.
The conduct of Pizarro was extremely ty-
rannical. The cruelty and treachery to the Pe-
ruvian princes was hateful ; and when all oppo-
sition on their part had ceased, he showed the
same spirit, in his conduct towards his prin-
cipal officers. Some he exalted, and some he
violently cut off; leaving to neglect, poverty,
and every distress, many who had deserved
well at his hands. Acting in the most impe-
rious manner, that his pride, arrogance, and
prosperity, could dictate.
It is seldom that such conduct continues
long. It creates jealousies, heartburnings,
and revenge. Among many, he had exceed-
ingly ill-treated an old and honourable officer,
called Almagro. He deprived him of his go-
vernment, and finally of his life. The adhe-
rents and friends of Almagro he treated with
contempt, and neglect; so as to make them
26. Death of Pizarro.
Several of them began to associate, and
plan some deed of deep revenge. Accord-
ingly, they rushed upon him one day at noon,
and slew him ; when he little expected such an
In South America, we find the highest
mountains in the world. One range, or rather
cluster of ranges, runs from north to south, at
the back of Peru, called the Cordilleras of
the Andes. They begin at the Isthmus of
Darien, and form a sort of back-bone through
the whole land to Chili. In this long course,
some of the mountains stand prominent, and
receive distinct names. That which seems to
be the highest, is called Chimborazo. It stands
much by itself, the summit is twenty-two
thousand feet, or above four miles high.
One of the most remarkable animals of
Peru is the Llama. Something like a small
camel, with wool like sheep. It is about four
feet in height, of which its neck is half. It is
one of the most useful animals, not only on
account of its flesh, and its wool ; hut be-
cause it is so admirably adapted to carry
burdens. It will climb the steepest moun-
tains, carrying above two hundred pounds
There is a large tract of country on the
southern part of America, which is very little
known. It may be called the Magellanic
regions. It is cut across at its lower extre-
mity, by the Straits of Magellan. The sepa-
rated part is called Terra del Fuego, or the
land of fire, because a volcano exists upon it.
The upper part on the eastern shore, is called
the coast of Patagonia.
The Straits were discovered by Ferdinand
Magellan, who was aiming to sail to the
Indies by a westerly course. He suffered
much, especially by the intense coMncss of
the weather. The whole land consist? of high
bleak mountains. There are few inhabitants,
and they are in a half starving, wretched state.
There is no want of inhabitants, however,
of the feathered tribes, especially penguins,
who here maintain an undisturbed possession.
So tame are they, so little used to man, and
disturbance from him ; that when sailors ac-
cidentally land on any of these islands, they
may walk among them without occasioning
any alarm ; or tuck one or two under each
arm, as they choose.
Qjuack, quiick, quack, how dost thee neighbour ?
Stretch your pinions to the sun.
I'm too fat for any labour,
Glad I am I need not run.
Let's enjoy our health and beauty,
None with penguins can compare : .-
Clumsy birds may talk of duty ;
We are free, as free as air.
What d'ye think's that great thing yonder,
Is't an albatross, or goose,
Come t'admire us now, I wonder :
Are his wings of any use ?
^SSs^^^sssiissgs^^' i..- "
Ah ! he nips me. I'm a dying.
My fat sides will choke my breath.
Am I swimming now, or flying ?
Quack qua qu I'm pinched to death.
Coming up the eastern coast, we find the
country very desolate. It seems to be thinly
inhabited, by a people whose gigantic size is
remarkable. The early voyagers represented
them as eight feet high 5 but when Commodore
Byron touched there, though he saw none so
large, yet the general size of the men was
gigantic. All the English, looking very small
by their side. They are clothed with a skin,
which they wear hair inwards. They ride
much on horseback, though their breed oi
horses is not large. They- paint themselves
frightfully, with broad circles round the eye*
but of different colours.
30. Antics with a Mirror.
Captain Wallis took several of them on
board his ship; but no curiosity, or wonder,
appeared to be excitable in them. At last
one of them saw himself in a looking-glass.
This afforded them infinite diversion. They
advanced, retreated, and played a thousand
antics before it ; laughing violently.
The river Amazon is seen stretching all
across the widest part of South America. It
has its rise in the Andes, and receiving many
tributary streams of great magnitude, after
running three thousand miles, it becomes a
mighty stream ; a hundred and fifty miles
wide at its mouth, it pours into the ocean with
a force, which repels the water of the sea to a
distance of many leagues. This river gives
the name of Amazonia to a great extent of
country, of which we know almost nothing.
Below this, spreads another wide region,
called Paraguay, which comes down to the
river Plata ; on which is situated the capital
city, Buenos Ayres. The rivers of Paraguay
are many, and very large. They unite their
waters, and issue in the river Plata; which
becomes a stream of immense extent, its width
being upwards of an hundred and fifty miles,
and at Buenos Ayres, two hundred miles from
its mouth, forty miles wide.
Buenos Ayres is not only the centre of very
fruitful lands; but much of the treasures of
Peru and Chili, are brought across the country
hither, to be shipped for Europe.
The country properly called Paraguay, is
very fertile ; but extremely flat Consisting
of boundless plains, destitute of wood. The
native inhabitants are wild. In 1580, the
Jesuits represented to the court of Spain,
that the grand hindrance to the propaga-
tion of religion among the natives, was the
immoral lives of the Spaniards. They soli-
cited, and obtained, leave to shut up the country
entirely to themselves.
31. Jesuits instructing.
With great skill and prudence, therefore,
they proceeded in their plan. They persuaded
forty or fifty families to come and live together ;
they instructed them, brought them into order,
and without any violence, ruled them to their
own benefit. Gradually by the same gentle
means, they gained over more, and yet more
such societies ; till a vast extent of country,
was, without force, subdued, and kept in ex-
Gentle persuasion suits the human mind,
Which silently is won by dealings kind.
Which yields unconscious, ere it is aware ;
And loves the teacher, for his friendly care.
But then the teacher must be cool, and wise,
Nor let his spirit into anger rise.
The stupid and perverse must patient bear ;
Still showing friendliness, and constant care.
But who will act this part, so calm, so good ?
Teachers are often blusterous, rough, and rude ;
They'll tell you once, the thing you ous^ht to know
With angry words enforce it, or a blow
If dulness does not instant comprehend .
Or carelessness with deference due atte* d.
So they ensure disgust with those who t* ach,
Perhaps with what is taught, beyond the r reach.
Here we observe a far more pleasing tcene.
E'en Indians listen to that placid mien.
No fear is roused, or anger, or disgust.
They do not learn it just because they must.
But want to know, and find they learn with ease,
From teachers who oblige themselves to please.
So spreads the gentle feeling far and wide ;
Those once led gently, gently learn to guide.
32. Catching wild Cattle.
In these vast plains the cattle have multi-
plied prodigiously. So that as many as are
wanted, may be had at any time. They are
often hunted only for their hides, and the car-
case is left, as of no value.
They have two ways of catching them, with
the spear, and with the noose. The hunters
go out on horseback, in companies, with a long
spear pointed with iron. They dexterously
strike the hind leg of the bullock, so as to cut
its sinews 5 it then becomes unable to run, and
drops presently. The huntsmen leave them to
pursue others, and come back at their leisure,
to kill and flay them.
Others pursue them at full speed, and dex-
terously throw the noose over the head, or horn.
While another dismounts, and with a knife
33. Drinking Mate.
In Paraguay grows a herb which is called
by that name; and which is in high repute
among the Spaniards of Buenos Ayres, and
Monte Video. It serves them for breakfast;
the use of tea, or coffee, being very uncom-
mon. They drink it as soon as they rise, at
all hours of the day, and frequently at their
Instead of using it as we do tea, they put
the plant into a calabash, mounted with silver ;
or a globular goblet of silver, on a silver
stand, among the richer classes. This vessel
is called a Mate', and gives its name to the
They pour boiling water on the plant, and
sometimes sugar, and milk. Hot as it is, they
drink it in summer or winter. But they do
not pour it out as we do tea. They suck the
infusion through a silver tube. A whole fa-
mily, or large party, sucking in turns, from the
same bowl, and through the same tube.
From the river de la Plata, to the river of
the Amazons, is a length of country of 3000
miles; it includes almost the whole of the
eastern coast of South America. This country
is called the Brazils. It was discovered by
The Portuguese had sailed round the Cape
of Good Hope, and had actually arrived at
India. Willing to improve so grand a dis-
covery, the Court of Portugal in the year 1500,
fitted out a large fleet under the command of
Don Pedro Alvarez de Cabraal.
34. CabraaVs discovery of the Brazils.
As all his precursors had suffered dreadfully
in their voyages from currents, storms, and
tempests, in running down the coast of Africa
to the Cape ; he was determined to keep clear
of it, and stood out far to the westward. In so
doing, he found himself on an unknown coast.
He landed, and as the custom then was, he
took possession of it for the crown of Portu-
gal ; by erecting a cross and causing mass to
be said under a tree. He called it the Land
of the Holy Cross ; but on account of the
Brazil wood obtained here, so useful in dyeing,
that name was given it.
The northern parts are liable to tempests,
and floods ; but the country more to the south,
is very fine, fruitful, and pleasant. The Por-
tuguese had been long in possession of the
country, carrying on great trade in its pro-
duce ; before they discovered that it contains
mines of gold, and in one part abounds with
He who watches, oft will see
Providence's guiding hand.
'Twas not seeing it, that he
Touched upon this unknown land.
Oft we know not what will come,
But to watch our duty is.
Looking round, has given to some
Carelessness throws all away,
Giddy childhood lets it go.
Would you rend, and think, and pray ;
You would see, and learn, and know.
35. Diamond Washing.
The principal mines are on the river Jigiton-
honha. The persons employed turn the water
of the river by a canal, till it is laid dry. They
then dig a considerable quantity out of the bed
of the river, which they take away for washing.
This washing is performed in a long shed,
where are a number of troughs, into each of
which a parcel of the earth, is put, and a run
of water is let in upon it. This is then raked
about by the negroes, till the water runs clear.
They then search narrowly for the diamonds.
When a negro finds one he stands upright,
and holds it between his finger and thumb;
the overseer then comes, and receives it of
him, and puts it in a bowl of water.
When a negro is so fortunate as to find a
diamond beyond a certain size, he is crowned
with flowers, and carried before the adminis-
trator, who gives him his freedom.
36. The Royal Family of Portugal, taking
shelter in the Brazils.
In the year 1807, the power of Buonaparte,
66 MODERN WEST INDIES.
emperor o the French, extended through
Spain, to Portugal. French troops were pour-
ing in ; so that the Prince Regent of Portugal,
with the principal nobility, were glad to escape
by the assistance of a British fleet, which
ianded them safely in the Brazils.
MODERN WEST INDIES.
We saw much of the West Indies when we
accompanied Columbus in his adventurous voy-
ages ; but that is more than three hundred years
ago, and things are much altered since.
The Spaniards who went over to settle in the
islands, indulged the most avaricious expec-
tations of getting gold. They parcelled out
among themselves the poor natives, as so many
cattle, and obliged them to dig in the mines ;
in a way their feeble constitutions could not
endure. They sunk under their toil very fast,
so as to disappoint their covetous masters.
With a kind intention of relieving these In-
dians, it was resolved to purchase negroes,
from the coast of Africa. This did indeed re-
MODERN WEST INDIES. 67
lieve the Indians, .but brought many thousand
negroes every year into slavery. We have
given some account of the infamous Slave
Trade, in the SCENES IN AFRICA.
Jamaica, with many of the smaller islands,
belong now to the English. Some to the
French, and the hold the Spaniards have of
them is very feeble.
37. Slaves at Work.
Although the Slave Trade is happily put
an end to, so that no more can be brought over ;
yet there are many thousand negroes who are
still slaves. It has made no difference to them,
except that their masters are not so oppressive
to them, as they cannot easily replace them
if they die.
The principal employ of the slaves is in cul-
tivating the sugar cane. For this they are out
at early dawn, working in parties. The canes
are planted in rows, and the slaves with a hoe,
clear the ground between them. To ev.ery
party there is an overseer, who stalks among
them with a long whip, ready to lash any who
do not work fast enough to please him.
68 MODERN WEST INDIES.
38. Free Inhabitants.
There are many different ranks among these,
chiefly regulated by their colour. The English
planter, who glories in the number of his slaves,
is rendered miserable by the means. He need
not do any thing, he therefore does nothing ;
and becomes weak, both in body and mind.
He lounges all day, fanned by his slaves, smok-
ing, and drinking rum and water.
Sometimes the negroes obtain their liberty j
become possessed of property, and masters oi
slaves themselves. More frequently the mu-
lattoes do so. These are not so deep in colour
as the negroes, having a white father, though
a black mother. These people of colour, as
they are called, love to dress very fine ; this
shows they are free, for slaves have but little
dress, and that of very poor materials.
39. Black King of Hayti.
During the long and bloody contests in Eu-
rope, under Buonaparte ; Spain, which was at
all times weak, became utterly unable to con-
trol her American possessions. The black po-
MODERN WEST INDIES. 69
pulation of the Spanish part of Hispaniola.
rose upon their white masters, and completely
subdued them. They soon formed themselves
into a state, which they called by the original
name of the island, Hayti. Proclamation of
the new order of things was made in February,
1807; Christophe being declared president,
and afterwards king. Like most ?ov*-rrjments
where power is assumed by untutored indivi-
duals, Hayti was ruled with rigour by Chris-
tophe, which naturally created him many ene-
mies, and a revolution broke out on the 6th of
October, 1820, which threatened immediate
destruction to his power. Finding the few
forces he collected unable to stand against the
revolutionists, and having no chance of escape,
he shot himself through the heart on the 8th.
Whatever may be said of the despotic conduct
of this man, he must bs regarded as a person of
extraordinary enterprize, decision, and energy.
The Black Government is continued, under his
rival in power, the president Boyer.
70 MODERN WEST INDIES.
40. Bay of Honduras.
This coast is very fine land, yet there are no
inhabitants, and it is quite a desert. What
makes it however of "very great importance, is
the abundance of logwood trees, which are so
useful in dyeing. And the mahogany tree,
which here grows in great perfection.
At the proper season, therefore, great num-
bers of logwood cutters come over. When the
trees are felled, they are transported to Eng-
land, and become of great value.
This appears but an inconsiderable town,
for the greatest part of the year. But at
the annual fair, which lasts about a month, it
suddenly becomes a very populous city, crowd-
ed with the richest commodities. It is here,
that at this time, comes the Manilla galeon ; a
very large ship, full of all the richest commo-
dities of India, and Persia, and all Asia. And
also from Peru, an annual ship laden with
gold and silver, and all the treasures of those
regions. And once more, all sorts of Euro-
NORTH WEST COAST. 71
pean goods, which are brought over land from
42. Nootka Sound.
This is a harbour on the western coast of
North America ; discovered in 1778, by Cap-
tain Cook. There are two principal villages of
the natives, supposed to contain two thousand
Their houses are constructed of very long
planks, resting upon the edges of each other,
and tied here and there with withies of pine
They cure their fish inside their houses, and
leave the bones and fragments in filthy heaps
before the doors, to putrify.
The sides of the house within, are divided
into compartments, for distinct families : but
not so as to hinder seeing from end to end.
NORTH WEST COAST.
If we look at the most western extremity
of North America, we shall see it almost joins
72 NORTH WEST COAST.
Asia. Behring's Straits, which run between,
being scarcely forty miles wide.
43. Inside of an Ourte at Oonalashka.
In all northern climates, warmth is essen-
tial ; especially in the winter season. They,
therefore, dig in the ground a pit thirty feet
long, and fifteen, or twenty, broad. Over
this, they form a roof of wood, which they
cover with earth. A square opening at one
end serves to admit light ; a similar one at
the other, gives entrance, by means of a post
cut into steps, something like a ladder.
Round the sides and ends of the building are
separate compartments, where each family
44. Obtaining Ught.
They have two ways of doing this. Some-
times they strike two stones together, on one
of which some brimstone has been rubbed.
The other method is, by rubbing together two
pieces of wood ; whirling one of them briskly,
a? a drill, when fire is nuiokly produced.
^.American India i
NORTH WEST COAST. 73
Come Jacky and Tommy, can you do the trick,
Could you obtain light in this way ?
What get a good blaze just by twirling a stick I
You neither will try, I dare say
So then, you see those whom you savages call,
Know better, and better can do.
So don't be conceited, as if you knew all,
To lesrn, is becoming in you.
45. Dog-ribbed Indians.
These poor people live very far north ;
and are destitute of many conveniences. The
men have two double lines, either blue, or
black, tattooed on each cheek, from the ear
to the nose ; the cartilage of which has a hole
through it to admit a goose-quill to pass.
Their clothing is the dressed skin of the rein-
When the father of a family takes a journey,
he cuts a lock of hair from his head ; dividing
this into several parts, he fastens one of them
on the head of his wife, and one on each of his
children ; blowing on it as he does it, three
times, with all his might.
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.
Between the Pacific Ocean and the United
States, lies a vast extent of country, but little
known. The native inhabitants here dwell in
distinct tribes, each claiming a certain space of
ground as its own, for huating. The popula-
tion is extremely thin, and the various tribes
are dimishing every year, by the poverty in
which they live, and especially by their cease-
less state of warfare with their neighbouring
tribes: in which pride, covetousness, and re-
venge, continually keep them.
In the year 1804, the government of the
United States sent out Captains Lewis and
Clarke, with a suitable company, to travel all
across this vast continent, till they should
reach the Pacific Ocean.
With infinite toil, fatigue, and suffering,
they accomplished the mighty undertaking.
They left the United States in the summer of
1 803, to reach the remotest western settlement
in which to winter. In May, 1804, they set
out steering up the river Missouri ; on the
banks of which they spent the next winter.
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 75
Setting out afresh in the spring of 1805, they
traced the river to its source. They then
found they had several ranges of steep and
rugged mountains to cross ; after which they
descended the river Columbia, and arrived at
the Pacific Ocean, their grand object, in De-
cember of the same year.
46. Captains Lewis and Clarke at the
Their small canoes would not bear the roll-
ing of the water, at the mouth of the Columbia
river. They were obliged to take a journey
by land to the extreme point ; where the pro-
spect actually attained, repaid them for all
their labours, hazards, and privations.
Roll, gently roll thy refluent wave,
Thou boundless ocean, spreading far ;
Or angry, toss thy foam, and lave
The rocks high tops, thy destined bar.
To us, to see thee is delight ;
Long have we travelled to obtain
This grand, this gratifying sight,
Thy wide expanse of green domain
76 NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.
Thro' perils, sufferings, labours, fears,
We steadily pursued our way ;
Thro' hostile tribes, thro' rolling years,
Thro' winter's ice, and summer's ray.
Far from our home, and all the heart
Is apt most tenderly to prize :-
'Tis fame a balance must impart ;
Thus daring deeds of honour rise.
The way is opened : who can tell
What traffic future years may see,
To tame the savage Indian's yell,
And bind in chains of amity.
E'en trade can harmonize the mind,
Curb angry passions, train to peace ;
But the sweet Gospel, best can bind,
Bid rage, and strife, and murder, cease.
47. Child preserved from Fire.
In many places the country is in large flat
plains, covered with high grass, called praries.
These sometimes take fire; the flames spread
rapidly, so that persons are often burnt to
death, being unable to outrun the flames.
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 77
On one of these occasions, an Indian woman
finding she could not carry off her son, laid
him down, and threw over him a raw buffalo's
hide. When the flames had passed, she re-
turned ; and found the child perfectly safe.
48. darkens escape from a Flood.
In one place, Captain Clarke with his inter-
preter's wife, and child, took shelter in a dry
ravine, under some rocks, because they saw a
shower coming. The shower was at first mo-
derate, but increased to a torrent of rain and
hail. The hail choaked up the ravine, and the
waters rising, came rolling as on a heap.
Captain Clarke happening to observe its ra-
pidity, climbed up the steep rocks, under
which they had taken shelter, pushing the
woman and her child before him. So instan-
taneous was the rise of the water, that it
reached his waist, before he could obtain his
gun and begin to ascend.
78 NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.
49. Meeting of two Indian Women.
Affection is always valuable, and pleasing.
And when we meet with it among those whom
we are apt to call savages, it is doubly so.
In Captain Clarke's journey, the wife of his
interpreter, was an Indian woman ; who had
been taken prisoner ; carried far from her
native tribes, and at last was married to
Chaboneau, a Frenchman. In passing beyond
the mountains, this man and his wife were a
hundred yards forward; when she began to
dance, and show every mark of extravagant
joy, for she saw a party of Indians coming up
who were of her own tribe. When they met ? a
young woman forced her way out of the crowd,
and recognizing her long lost companion, with
whom she had played in infancy, and with
whom she had suffered in captivity, they em-
braced, with all the symptoms of ardent affec-
Sacajewa, sister, friend,
Art thou come again to life !
Will thy bitter sorrows end,
Wanderings, sufferings, toil, and strife.
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 79
Oft beneath the pine's high bough
Frisk'd we, when the sun was bright ;
Chas'd the jumping squirrel now ;
Caught the fire-fly's flickering light.
Joys of childhood, doubly dear
Now the cares of life intrude :
Sweet remembrance, vivid, clear,
Comfort in my solitude.
50. Consulting the Medicine Stone.
Man generally desires to know what is likely
to happen, before it comes. Among ignorant
nations, therefore, there is always some method
of divination. Many of the Indian tribes
have some sacred cave to which they resort ;
with others a stone serves for consultation.
In the present case, a large stone about twenty
feet in circumference, stands by itself. A de-
putation from the tribe visit it every spring, to
inquire what shall be done in the coming year.
The deputies smoke before it, and present the
pipe to the stone. After this they retire to an
adjoining wood to sleep. In the morning they
find white marks on the stone, telling them
80 NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS
what they wanted ; which directions are im-
plicitly believed by the whole tribe. It is easy
to see, that during the night, some one of the
company secretly comes, and makes what
marks he pleases.
51. The Pipe of Peace.
One of the most important customs among
the Indians, relates to the use and efficacy of
the pipe of peace.
This has a long stem, and is decorated in a
peculiar manner, with eagle's feathers. It is
regarded as a flag of truce is among Europeans ;
and the bearers of it are never insulted.
When any nation is tired of war, they will
send a deputation of chiefs to the adverse
party, with the pipe of peace. A council is
immediately held. The assistant to the great
warrior, lights the pipe, taking care that no
part of it touches the ground. He then turns
the stem of it first towards the heavens, then
to the earth, and then presents it horizontally
all around, to the invisible Spirit. He then,
holding the pipe himself, presents the stem to
the principal chief, who takes two or three
-- : -.
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. , 81
whiffs ; all the chiefs in turn, according to their
rank do the same.
In a murderous bleeding world,
Where the angry passions rage,
Where defiance stern is hurl'd,
Spurning life, and sex, and age :
Is there any thing can stay
Slaughter, in his high career ;
Stem the spite in battle day ;
Bid the boisterous savage hear ?
Hail it ! 'tis the Pipe of Peace.
Signal known, and honoured well
Once displayed ; contentions cease;
Soothed the heaving bosoms swelL
Yes, we'll hail the Pipe of Peace !
Glad it lives those tribes among :
When shall truth, and Gospel grace,
Rectify those passions strong ?
* 52. Indian Sagacity.
Persons who live in cultivated society have
many advantages, especially as to mind. But
those whom we call savage, have some ;
82 , NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.
chiefly in the exquisite nicety, and keen ope-
ration of their senses.
Thus an Indian, will tett whether the enemy
has passed any place ; will discern footmarks
which ar\ European could not sec ; he will
tell what tribe it w r as, and what were their
numbers. On the smoothest grass, on the
hardest earth, and even on the very stones,
will he discern traces.
Or if they are out hunting, they will track
their prey in the same manner, and learn
which way to go in the pursuit.
See how he is poking his nose,
And down to the very ground stooping ;
To find out the track of his foes,
Who silently passed, without whooping.
I vow I can't see any marks,
I think he'll be out in his guessing ;
He smells I suppose, and he harks,
He points, now lets onward be pressing,
As sure as a gun he was right,
He said there were more than a hundred ;
Why now we can count them in sight ;
Had I guided here, we had blundered.
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 83
53. Hunting the Buffalo on the Ice.
Every spring when the ice in the rivers be-
gins to break up, the Indians set the praries
on fire ; because then immediately springs up a
new and sweet grass. The buffalo are aware
of this, and often attempt to cross the .rivers to
get at it. In so doing one will sometimes get
upon a loose piece of ice ; the Indians watch
their opportunity to surround him. The ani-
mal is of course unsteady on his slippery ground.
The Indian who gives him his death wound,
then paddles the cake of ice, with his prize
on it, to the shore.
54. Catching Deer in a Pound.
When the Indians determine to hunt in this
way, they diligently search for some deers 1
path, where they are accustomed to go. They
then surround a large space with strong stakes,
and bushes ; leaving a narrow entrance. From
this entrance they plant two rows of bushes,
widening as they are carried on, perhaps a
mile or two. The hunters then pitch their tents
on a rising ground, from whence they can see
84 NORTH AMDR1UAN INDIANS.
if any deer are roaming about. They then
come behind them, men and women, mak-
ing a line a mile long 5 and gently press on
towards the pound. The deer finding them-
selves pursued, go on, till they at kst enter the
pound and are easily killed.
55. The Rattle-snake.
This dreadful serpent belongs to the American
continent. Its bite is certain death, in a few
hours. Providence has, however, warned us of
its vicinity, by a number of loose bones at the
end of its tail ; which rattle whenever the crea-
Abhorred reptile, who can hear
Thy warning rattle without fear.
Who view thy fierce malignant eye,
Thy mouth malicious, sulky, sly,
Without a shudder : aud a mind
Of boiling hate to all thy kind.
True thou hast power. I envy not
Thy despot, solitary lot.
Who loves thee ! who e'er longs to play ;
Who turns to watch thy wily way ?
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 36
All fear thee, hate thee, and pursue
Thy caitiff life, with vengeance due.
Let me be loved. I do not core
Who domineerg, and lives to scare.
Let all who see me, see a friend ;
Let goodness all my. steps attend ;
Let fond affection mark my power ;
And bliss conferred, gild every hour.
56. The Humming Bird.
There are many species of them. Some of
them no bigger than a humble-bee, so that they
are without doubt the smallest of the feathered
tribes. Their plumage is exceedingly brilliant,
they hover at a flower when they want to suck
its sweetness, but do not alight on it. They
are very passionate, and will tear to pieces a
flower which disappoints them.
Little lump of brilliance, burning,
Sporting in the summer's day :
Blue, and green, and gold, as turning
To or from the solar ray.
$6 NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.
Art thou conscious of thy beauty ?
While we gaze, we must forgive.
Yet 'tis passion guides, not duty,
For thyself thou lovest to live,
Hovering o'er the beauteous tiowret,
Seeking nectared juices bright ;
Thou art welcome to devour it :
Beauty to the best has right.
But when beauty yields to passion,
Loves to storm, and fight, and tear :
All abhor the angry fashion ;
All despise the fairest fair.
57. The Fire Fly.
We have in England the glow worm, darting
its brilliance beautifully, in a moist autumn
evening. But in the West Indies, and in
America, there are several species of insects
very luminous ; which enliven their vallies, as
soon as it is dark ; flitting in every direction,
by thousands. The larger kind seem all on
fire within 5 and from some point, comes a
luirmous radiance of great brilliancy. Six or
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS, 87
eight of them put in a clear vial, will give lig**:
enough to read or write by.
Buzzing, glittering, flickering flame,
This way, that way, mocking sight :
Sporting, frisking, gay thy game,
Dancing in self-shining light.
When the shades of evening rise,
Dark and gloomy all around,
Then the blaze of thousand flies,
Cheers, and gilds the dark profound.
Let but daylight's brighter beam
Glance, thy glories disappear :
Darkness makes thee brilliant seem ;
Thou art dull, when light is near.
Let me shine, that all may see ;
Works of goodness, clear, and bright.
Moral brightness stream from me,
Glowing with celestial light.
The government at fort Prince of Wales,
belonging to the Hudson Bay Company, in
the year 1770, and following, sent out Mr.
Hearne to make discoveries. He went with an
Indian chief who undertook to be his guide,
and a large party. They travelled northward
for six months ; when he came to the sea.
Through astonishing difficulties, and sufferings,
was the journey completed ; and he returned
to the fort Prince of Wales, after an absence
of a year and a half.
58. Indian Conjurer.
All nations have their conjurers, who pretend
to be able to do wonderful things. These im-
postors abound especially in savage countries,
as the more ignorant any people are, the more
easily are they imposed upon.
Mr. Hearne found such among the northern
Indians. One of them pretended to swallow a
bayonet ; making many grimaces, and wry
faces, such as might be expected if he actually
He ai lie's
HEAKNE'S JOURNEY. 89
had it in his throat. After a while he brought
it up again. He did the whole so adroitly,
that although Mr. Hearne knew it was only a
trick, yet he could not discern wherein the de-
Nothing can kee^ us from heing deceived by
such tricks, but knowledge. Those who have
no opportunity of learning, may be pitied when
they are deceived : but those who don't try to
learn, are rightly served when cheated by the
cunning sleight of hand impostor.
59. The Beaver.
This is a surprising little animal, although
many wonderful stories told of it are quite
They will throw a dam, or bank, quite across
a stream, to prevent its becoming dry. This
dam is made of wood, mud, and stones. They
build their houses on the banks of creeks, and
small rivers. They proportion their houses to
the number of inhabitants, which seldom ex-
ceeds ten, or a dozen. Their work is chiefly
executed in the night, and very rapid are they
90 HEARNE'S JOURNEY.
So William you thought you had done vastly well,
Such a rabbit-hutch maker is clever ;
Yet some of the bars are quite split with the nail,
And one of the hinges is ready to fail ;
I think you might learn of the beaver.
How neat in his house, 'tis not clumsy in shape,
Smoothed over with mud as with plaister :
No cracks let in water, no crevices gape,
No tying together with pack-thread or tape ;
Could you do the same, my young master.
The entrance is under the water, and there
They go to their chambers and cellars.
You will not go with them, although you might share
Of the stores they've provided,all plenteous and rare;
But content you to call them fine fellows.
And look at that bank all across the clear stream,
To keep the sweet waters from sinking ;
What mud work, and stone work, and many a beam ,-
How clever, and wise, and laborious they seem ;
'Tis wonderful well to my thinking.
Ah could they enjoy it ! but man will one day
Come hunting, and alter the matter ;
He'll make all their dads, aunts, and sisters his prey ;
Then travel a thousand miles off, far away,
And sell their soft skins, to the hatter.
HEARNE'S JOURNEY. 91
60. Boiling in Wooden Vessels.
Aye indeed, how can they manage that.
Will not the bottom burn out, as soon as it is
set on the fire ? Certainly ! So these poor In*
dians, who are not able to buy a brass kettle,
are forced to take another method. Their ves-
sels are large and upright, made of the rind of
the birch tree. These they fill with water, and
then put in stones made red hot ; the water
will soon boil, when they proceed with their
cookery. A little grit arnon^ their meat, they
must not mind.
Bring the stones all glowing hot,
Let us have a glorious siss ;
Drop them in the wooden pot,
Don't let any be forgot ;
See, the steam fast rising is.
Now the meat, the rein deer's head,
Body, entrails long, and paunch :
Tender soon 'twill all be made ;
We no cabbage want, nor bread.
Claw his ribs, and tear his haunch.
92 HUDSON'S BAY.
Fingers excellent are found ;
Soon we shall the whole devour.
Men and women squatting round ;
Now let mirth and glee abound :
Weeks we starve, enjoy the hour.
Captain Henry Hudson, -an intrepid seaman,
was determined to discover if there was not
a passage round the north of America, into the
Pacific Ocean. He made three voyages,
and discovered the vast bay which still goes
by his name.
In 1670, a charter was obtained by a com-
pany of merchants, to trade to these parN,,
who have several forts on its western coasts.
61. Annual Mart at Hudson's Bay.
The animals which live in these northern
parts, are provided by nature with furs, ex-
tremely soft and warm. The Indians, there-
fore, for some hundred miles round, hu-nt them,
HUDSON'S BAY. 93
and bring their skins for sale, to the forts and
establishments of the Hudson's Bay Company.
What they bring is extremely valuable, and
what they take in exchange, are our coarsest
The Esquimaux, who live dispersed over
the country of Labrador, are a very peculiar
i"ace; extremely distinct from the North
American Indians. Short, square featured,
they resemble rather the Greenlanders.
62. Sacrificing a Child on its Mothers
The superstitions of an ignorant people, are
often very cruel, even when they mean kind-
ness. When a young child has lost its mother,
they think it a kindness to the child, to kill it
on its mother's grave ; supposing it will have
a happy meeting with her, in the world of
spirits. When both parties will be better
*Tis true religion fills the heart
With kindness and love :
The Saviour's grace moulds every part,
And bids compassion move.
94 HUDSON'S BAY.
But superstition always leads
To cruelty and blood ;
Excites to rage, and barbarous deeds,
And says, this pleases God.
E'en when they kindness have in view.
'Tis cruelty in act ;
With principles and feelings true,'
They're barbarous in fact.
They wish the little babe to be
Under its mother's care ;
That's kind, as in the grave is she,
They send the baby there.
Poor babe, the dagger's glittering blade,
Excites thy infant smile ;
And when within thy breast conveyed,
One groan shall end thy toil.
What shoals of babes, with savage glee,
To cruel deaths are given :
But Jesus says, " bring all to me,
Such live with me in heaven."
Sin urges on to deeds of shame,
Exults in early graves ;
Grace disappoints the tyrants' aim,
And souls in thousands saves.
HUDSON'S BAY. 95
63. Moravians among the Esquimaux.
Dreary is the abode of these people. Their
long wintry nights, the extreme coldness of the
climate, the poverty of the people, and the
privations of comfort which are unavoidable ;
are enough one would suppose to make a
European, accustomed to comforts, revolt from
the idra of dwelling there.
But what will not the love of Christ effect.
With no other motive than the conversion of
these heathen souls, have missionaries from
the Moravian brethren penetrated into these
forlorn regions ; subjecting themselves to all
the hardships of such a life, in order to preach
to them Christ, and his salvation. Their suc-
cess after a while was encouraging, and they
still continue to labour, not regarding the loss
of this world's comforts, but looking for their
reward another day.
Men of this world calculate
Where may wealth be easiest found ;
There they go, and speculate,
Where the rich returns abound.
90 HUDSON'S BAY.
They will venture princely sums, *
They will toil and hazard meet ;
Nothing grudging if there comes
Cent per cent, of profit sweet.
If they disappointment find.
See their gains are growing small.
Quickly then they change their mind
Interest is their all in all.
Trade in thousand channels flows,
Men leave home, dwell far away ;
Distant Ind, to Esquimaux ?
No ! they find this don't repay.
Days a few they'll venture here.
Rich fine furs to bear away ;
Produce of their Arctic year,
Traffic done, they will not stay.
Who does stay then ? see a few
Mingle with companions wild ;
Men who Europe's comforts knew,
Social joys, and climate mild.
What :an bring them, what can . ] :<nep,
"What can make them calm endure ;
Is it worldly wealth they reap ;
Ah ! they're poorest of the poor.
Tis the love of Jesus brings,
'Tis in hope to save a soul ;
They endure terrific things,
Daring climate to the pole.
And they gain a rich reward ;
See these savage bosoms bow ?
Love, their loving dying Lord ;
Sing, and pray, and worship now.
Here's delight of sweetest kind,
When success by grace is given :
Now the fiercest climate's mild,
Patient here they wait for heaven.
Hudson's Bay, and Labrador, bring us to
Newfoundland ; which completes the circuit
of these very northern parts. It lies almost
level with England, and yet it is intensely cold ;
being covered with snow five months ip tb
64. Wigwam Village.
There are some native Indians live on one
part of the island, governed by a Sachem or
The wigwam, or hut, of these people, is
constructed of poles, stuck in a circle, with
their tops gathered to a point. This is covered
with skins ; all but an aperture at top, to let
out the smoke. They make their fires in the
centre, over which they hang their deers' flesh,
to dry it for winter stores. All the distinction
enjoyed by the Chief, is, that he dwells in a
square hut, boarded up at the sides.
65. Fishing on the Banks.
The principal importance to us, of New-
foundland, consists in its fishery. The banks
where such immense quantities of cod are
caught every year, are much larger than the
island itself, and lie south east of it, stretching
far out to sea.
In the fishing season, the island is resorted
to by thousands of people. Hundreds of
British vessels come, and carry away five or
six hundred thousand quintals of salted fish :
with which all Europe is supplied.
Bright glows the yellow harvest o'er the plains,
And precious fruits for man and beast are given ;
All hearts rejoice ; the farmer and his swains,
Both rich and poor live on the gifts of heaven.
Some dig in mines, and precious metals gain
From the deep bowels of the mountain bleak ;
Some turn to commerce, plough the stormy main,
Wealth,wealth, the object which they toiling seek.
But who can say what wealth the seas include,
What wholesome food in shoals immense is there ?
Luxury delighted views, while nations rude
Claim from the watry deeps their welcome share.
The shoals advance, traced by the well known sign
In one vast solid mass, they crouded come ;
Nought -turns aside, or breaks the steady line;
Heedless they rush upon their destined doom.
Let down the baited hook, and instant raise,
For instant do they seize the welcome spoil ;
Let down again, again, with quick amaze,
No patient anglers here, but sturdy toil.
Thus thousands tars an annual living gain ;
Merchants increase in wealth by every tide ;
Thus hundred thousands poor their food obtain
From the deep seas, by Providence supplied.
66. Salting Houses.
The fish caught on the banks, is immediately
brought on shore, to be cured ; and made fit
for market. Every fish is split, and salted
with great care, as we see the salt cod brought
to England. In order to perform this opera-
tion conveniently, very long stages ar^ erected
on all the shores. These are supported by
poles, have a flat top of dried fern. This
is called a fish flake. At the end ol each stage
is a hut, or small house, for receiving the salted
cod, till it is removed to ths frues, where it is
dried in the sun
We are now coming among more civilized
society. And glad may we be, to have es-
caped all the dangers which occur, among such
barbarian tribes as we have visited.
Canada is a very large province ; seven hun-
dred miles in length, and about two hundred
in breadth. It is indeed now divided. Mon-
treal is the capital of Upper Canada, and Que-
bec of Lower Canada.
The whole province was originally settled by
the French, and the principal families are of
French extraction ; but it was surrendered to
the English at the peace in 1760.
The winter lasts six months, and is very
severe. It comes in with a few days' snow,
after which all is bright and clear weather ; till
it thaws, and the ice breaks up ; when in a few
days more the grass is green, and the roads
This is the capital of Lower Canada. It is
a handsome city,- built upon a rock, it is divided
into the upper and lower town, and is strongly
fortified. The river St. Lawrence is here
about a mile wide. Suddenly narrowing, as all
the way from the sea, it had been twelve, or
fifteen times, that width.
Although the winter at Quebec is so long
and severe, we must not think of it as a dreary
seaspn. The weather is always clear and fine ;
and the inhabitants find travelling then to be
extremely safe and pleasant. Those who dwell
in the country round, defer their journey to
Quebec till this season; because travelling is
so much more easy.
The sledges they use are called Carioles,
Those offhe common people go close to the
ice, or snow ; but those of genteeler persons,
have the seat raised about two feet. These
too are made in every fantastic shape ; fashioned
like birds, or beasts ; and they paint them
very gaily. They go with so much ease, that
the horses of the country who are used to it,
will travel fifteen miles an hour. The people
think nothing of going forty or fifty miles to
see a friend, and returning home the same day.
The snow's done its worst,and has covered the ground
Ten feet, you my word may rely on :
The Irost has succeeded, and every thing bound
As hard, if not harder than iron.
But shall we then shut ourselves up in despair,
With dull melancholy and crying ;
If the snow is so hard, why then surely 'twill bear
Our sledges ; at least 'tis worth trying.
See what a troop rushes, what creatures are these ;
Bears, lions, elks, eagles, what mixtures ;
The elephant here, and the camel, one sees ;
All running, or flying, tho' fixtures.
Full swiftly the horses these vehicles ply,
Scarce touching the ground with their playing ;
O'er hills, and o'er vallies, o'er rivers*they fly ;
High spirited, active, and neighing.
So ne'er let's be overcome whatever may hap,
Try every way genius can mention :
Don't whimper if one thing's amiss, my young chap,
The stoppage should sharp your invention.
The lakes of North America are immense*
The waters run through each of them, making
their way to the river St. Lawrence, and the
sea. Accumulated as they are, they rush in a
vast body, with astonishing grandeur, down a
stupendous precipice, of a hundred and fifty
feet perpendicular; being at this part about
three quarters of a mile wide. The water wher*
it strikes the bottom, rebounds to a great height
in the air ; occasioning thick clouds of misty
vapours. On these the aun at times, paints the
most beautiful rainbows.
Very near to the falls, is a small island, ut-
terly inaccessible by man. Here some eagles
have fixed their domain. Secure from all in-
terruption ; and amply supplied with food, by
the fish which are hurried down the stream,
and are dashed in pieces by the fall.
Down tumbling headlong with astounding noise,
This world of waters delves its chosen way j
To conquer, seems the summit of its joys >
Its power resistless aiming to display.
UNITED STATES. 105
Must it not stop e'er long, such volumns thrown
Incessantly, and passing swiftly on ;
Their parent river leaving, now not known,
In the far distant ocean lost and gone."-
Ah stop I its whelming tides are hurried past
By hackward waters, rushing to the brink :
Five ocean lakes still urging, as in haste
To try their prowess, leap, and boil, and sink.
See the vast breadth, stupendously how wide ;
Observe the solid mass that rushes o'er ;
How swift it shoots its never ceasing tide ;
Then calculate its bulk ; guess do no more.
See too the cloudy spray, it rises high ;
The waters torn are dissipate in air ;
The boiling cauldron foams tormentedly ;
Dashing, and whirling, as in vexed despair.
Yet see the sun-beams paint the rainbow bright,
Adorning well the unsubstantial spray :
Rich in its radiance of prismatic light,
Which flits, and dances in the noontide ray.
By many emigrations from England at diffe^
rent times, were settlements made on the
106 UNITED STATES.
eastern coast of North America. These
mostly had patents from the king, stating their
bounds, and forming them into governments ;
but all of them dependent on the crown of
Great Britain. These colonies increased very
fast in population, in the produce of the land,
and in commerce.
The Parliament of Great Britain proceeding
to tax these colonies, they resisted ; on the prin-
ciple that they had always taxed themselves ;
and as they had no representatives in our
House of Commons, it was illegal and tyranni-
cal in that house to tax them. This dispute
produced a cruel war ; which cost England a
hundred thousand lives, and a hundred mil-
lions of money, all in vain. The various states
had united, and formed a congress from them
all; who, in 1776 declared themselves to be
free, and independent states. This at last
Britain was forced to acknowledge, in the
treaty of peace at Paris, in 1783.
70. Emigrants for Conscience sake first
landing in America.
The Reformation in England was, though a
good, a partial affair. There alwavs was a
UNI TD STATES. 107
number of persons, who wished to carry it fur-
ther, and restore every thing to scripture pu-
rity. This obtained for them the nick name of
Puritans. During the reigns of Henry VITI.,
Mary, Elizabeth, and James I., these Puritans
were the objects of many bloody persecu-
It was to avoid these vexations and dis-
tresses, that various parties of religious people
sought refuge in the wilds of America.
The first company which came over, be-
longed to a religious society, under the care
of the Rev. Mr. Robinson ; who may be called
the father of New England. They were but a
small part of his church ; about a hundred per-
sons. These after encountering difficulties of
every name, landed at a place, which from re-
collection of their native country, they called
Sure it was conscience sake : what else could lead
These outcasts in this wilderness to dwell.
In drearyness what prospects can exceed ;
Their sufferings, toils, and wants, what tongue
108 UNITED STATES.
What gives the charm then to this dreary wild ?
'Tis liberty to serve their God aright ;
Their holy Sabbath hours, not now are spoiled
By base informers, insolence, and spite.
He whom the pious soul would worship pure,
Guiding his feelings br &<* ^ r ord divine ;
Can well repay what we for him endure :
His smiles give happiness, where'er they shine.
71. Maryland proclaiming Liberty of Con
Although all who came over to people these
wilds, fled from persecution ; yet the true prin-
ciple of every man's right to serve God accord-
ing to his conscience, was not understood.
'1 ;ie \ariuns sects soon began to persecute one
another. Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic,
hud settled Maryland with a great number of
his oppressed brethren. Among them were
some men of au enlarged mind ; they passed
a law, and proclaimed it, that no person should
be molested on account of his religion in that
state. Thus emanated the true principle of to-
leration, from a sect famous for its persecuting
UNITED STATES. 109
'Twas wise, 'twas noble, Maryland, in thec
To snap these chains, to break this iron rod
T" ordain " with us conscience in all is free ;"
Religion solely should account with God
72. Carolina Rice.
The rice plant has this peculiarity, that it
grows best, where the ground is flooded with
water. One large part of South Carolina is
low marshy land, liable to be periodically over-
flown. The rice will always keep its head
above water, even though this should rise to
twelve or fifteen feet.
Vast quantities are thus grown, and Carolina
rice, being far superior to that which comes
from the East Indies, bears its proportionate
price in our markets.
73. Rock Bridge, Virginia.
This is a curious, and wonderful work of
nature. The hill on which it is, seems as if it
had been cloven through by some earthquake.
This bridge hangs in the air, at a heigh t^of 270
feet above the water. The bridge is about
ninety feet wide at top, it is sixty feet broad at
110 UNITED STATES.
the top in the middle, and more at the ends.
The sides of the bridge are solid rock in many
^places, yet few persons have courage, to walk
up to them, and look over into the deep abyss.
They involuntarily fall on their hands and knees,
and creep towards it. If the view from the top
is so painful, the .view at the bottom is most
delightful. The bridge itself appears sublime,
hoisted up that height in the air ; and the view
through it shows the blue mountains in the dis-
tance, with the cedar creek passing at your
foot, through the arch-way.
The bridge affords a commodious mode of
crossing a valley, which could not be crossed
any where else.
74. Travelling to a distant Settlement.
The eastern states of America have long
been settled, and are now overflowing with
people. The western states on the contrary,
are only now settling. As the lands are very
(me j and as the travelling five hundred, or a
thousand miles, is thought nothing of; and
what is more, as the leaving home to go far
away is lightly felt ; there is a continual pass-
age of emigrants removing thither. Sometimes
UNITED STATES. ill
persons of property remove thus, with a long
train of waggons and cattle. More often, a
young man with a few dollars in a bag, and a
horse to carry his wife and child, with a cow or
two, if he is so rich ; sets out on his long jour-
ney ; till he comes to the plot of ground where
he intends to settle.
Jiggity jog, the weary beast
Step after step, goes many a mile.
Day after day, without any rest ;
On it proceeds with patient toil.
'Tis but five hundred they've wearily trode,
Since they left fathers' and mothers' snug home \
One other thousand of similar road,
Then to their own piece of land they will come.
Yet they seem cheerful, the woman can smile ;
Husband and child her heart's treasure are
* found :
They make her solace in every toil,
They make her home, wherever the ground.
All hail affection, invisible spell,
Solace of life in its every day ;
They may be blest who in wildnesses dwell.
Comfort shall round their brisk fire side play.
m ONITED STATES.
75. Kentucky Cavern.
This may well pass among the wonders of
America. This cavern is indeed a cluster of
caverns, with long passages in which you may
go many miles, all under ground. These pas-
sages have upright sides, from sixty to a hun-
dred feet high, arched at top. There are seve-
ral large caverns, called cities ; the chief city
as they term it, is a broad place the size of
eight acres of land ; without a single pillar to
support the roof, which is about a hundred
feet high. Dr. Nahum Ward, who with two
guides explored it a few years ago, says, " no-
thing can be more sublime, and grand, than this
sight. Only a faint idea of it can be conveyed
by words." There are several other cities, some
extending to four, and one to six acres ; these
are several miles from each other, in different
They may go under ground who like it best,
Groping and poring their ignorant way ;
Glaring their flambeaux with terrified zest,
Creeping, and slipping, without any rest :
I like the fields, and the sweet light of day.
UNITED STATES. 113
flow all the spars nnd the stalactites shine,
Glittering a thous "d fold ever around ;
1 rue, one quite wonck * to see them so fine ;
They shall ne'er glitter M h flambeau of mine,
1 like to jump on the plain open ground.
Here a dark passage creeps zigz; v along,
Puzzling one sadly to know whei n it leads ;
Were it ell rubies, and diamonds, amon.
Ready for me too ; I'd not change my song,
- I'd rather frisk in the butter cup meads.
So that vast cavern, how monstrously dark,
Stretching eight acres, one cannot see where ;
A flambeau at one end is but a dim spark ;
No pillars, no pathway, nor yet any mark :
I love the broad landscape ; you don't catch
76. Penn's Treaty with the Indians.
In 1681, Mr. William Penn, son of Admiral
Penn, obtained of king Charles II. a grant
of the country now called Pennsylvania.
Thereby obtaining all the right which was
thought necessary by the preceding settlers.
Mr. Penn, however, when he came over, con-
ceived that the Indians, the original inhabi-
tants of the country, had a claim. He there-
114 UNITED STATES.
fore, with various goods such as they preferred,
purchased of their sachems, or chiefs, all the
rights they claimed ; and so became in eve^
mode the lawful proprietor of the soil.
M. Penn was a quaker, and the bulk of the
inhabitants of Pennsylvania are of that per-
The world will always praise an honest man,
Altho' the sharping world won't imitate,
They know the wisdom of an upright plan,
To bless a neighbourhood, or rule a state.
E'en savage Indians feel the difference,
They know what's just, whoever would oppose.
To buy, to barter, meets their common sense :
Who drives them off, they must esteem as foes.
Thy conduct, Penn, made Sachems call thee friend,
They took the price agreed, and far retired.
No lurking Indian will thy walks attend
To seek thy death ; thy life were more desired.
Nay, such the honour of thy well known dress
Thro' distant tribes, who never saw thy face ;
A Quaker may explore the wilderness,
And welcome meet, from all the red-man race.
So character well tried, and goodness known,
An honourable name will always gain.
Fraud, force, and mischief, soon are overthrown :
But truth and fairness, ever w\ll remain.
UNITED STATES. 115
77. Dr. Franklin drawing Electricity from
Philadelphia is the principal city of Penn-
sylvania. Under the mild government esta-
blished by Penn, the province filled very fast,
and the city became the chief mart for com-
merce in the central States.
Many Americans have rendered themselves
famous. But there is one name which is well
worthy to be pointed out, Dr. Benjamin Frank-
lin. He was originally only a poor printer's
boy ; but by industry and prudence, he rose in
life ; and by an attentive and thinking mind,
he made several important discoveries in na-
In his time electricity was quite a new
science. All the philosophers of Europe were
busy with it. Franklin studied it much. In
his reasoning, he took up tire idea, that the
thunder and lightning of the heavens, were
electric ; and similar to the snap arid the spark
of the machines.
He was determined to try. One day when
he saw a thunder-storm was coming on, he flew
a kite he had prepared, to a considerable
height. He inclosed a very small wire in the
116 UNITED STATES.
string of the kite, to conduct the electricity.
He fastened the lower end of the string to a
post ; and when the cloud was just over the
kite, he clapped his knuckle to the wire, and,
much delighted, drew a spark just such as an
electrical machine produces.
78. Washington's entrance into Philadel-
After the American war was over, General
Washington, who had commanded their armies
with so much prudence and success, resigned
his commission, and retired to his private seat
When the American Congress, in forming
their government, came to chdose a president,
the choice fell unanimously upon General
Washington. He. accordingly came to Phi-
ladelphia, to assume the functions of his
office. To do the greater honour to the
General, and to his new dignity, two hundred
of the principal citizens met him some way
out of town, on horseback ; with laurels, and
colours, and every demonstration of joy ; and
conducted him in grand procession to the
UNITED STATES. 117
Blow the trumpets, beat the drums,
Not for warlike deeds of blood ;
See the civic hero comes,
Washington, the just, the good.
Time has been, he led the van
Thro' the thick of battle roar ;
Laid the wise, th' effective plan,
Marched, and conquered, o'er and o'cr
Ceased the din of armed host,
Laid asleep each hostile feud :
Now he comes, his country's boast,
Still their patriot, hdpe for good.
Great in council, and they need
Wisdom their affairs to guide
He, sedate, and firm, will heed
What is right on every side.
Choice deliberate of the free,
Searching wide the country thro*
All the States unite in thee ;
High thy station 'tis thy due.
Blow the trumpets, beat the drums,
Citizens in best array
Greet him ; at your call he comes.
Freedom, 'tis thy triumph day.