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31 & 33 KING ST., WEST. 

Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight, by Hart & Company, in 
the office of the Minister of Agriculture. 

To My Husband. 


As I have been induced by kind friends to give 
publicity in this form to my notes and observations 
while on my journey to Hawaii and stay there, I 
must ask them and others who may care to 
read them, to be lenient in criticism, and to remem- 
ber my only wish is to interest by telling them a 
little of this small Kingdom in the Pacific, generally 
known only as the most encouraging exemplification 
of the noble efforts of missionaries to civilize and 
christianize a savage and voluptuous race. Alas, 
for this, the finest example of self-sacrificing men 
and women, for the boast is, sad to say only a 
boast ; and alas, as the group of Islands which 
Captain Cook discovered in 1776 — and on one of 
which, Hawaii — he was murdered on his second 
visit in 1778, at Kealakekua Bay. 

On Captain Cook's first visit his large ships and 
cannon so worked on the natives superstitious minds 
that they regarded him as a god, he and his crews 
were given everything they desired. On his visit 
in 1778, being struck by a stone or spear, he gave a 
cry of pain which not agreeing with the native idea 


of a god, they immediately murdered him. The 
spot is marked by a granite monument brought by 
a man-of-war from England. 

'b 1 

The Hawaiian Kingdom formerly known as the 
Sandwich Islands, lies between the 20th and 22nd 
degrees of latitude, a group of seven inhabited 
Islands, viz : — Oahu, on which is Honolulu, the 
Capital and seat of Government ; Hawaii, the 
largest, on which are active the Volcanoes ; Maui, 
Lanai, Kauai, -Nihau, and Molokai, on which is 
the leper settlement. It is now of some importance 
from its position, owing to the anxiety of many 
nations to possess it as a strong strategetical point 
and their consequent jealousies. It is about 2000 
miles from San Francisco, and 4000 from Aukland. 
in the direct route to Australia from North America. 
Its independence was guaranteed in 1847 by Eng- 
land and France, and the year following the United 
States joined them ; as two of these nations regard 
treaties as binding, the Hawaiian Kingdom is likely 
to retain its independence, unless war in Europe 
overthrows the balance of Power, or to the time 
Seward thought of when he said " The Pacific 
Ocean is destined to become the theatre of the 
world's greatest events." 


The cable between British Columbia and Aus- 
tralia, for which soundings are now being made, 
will bring into notice Honolulu, near which is to 
be a landing station for the cable; or, perhaps , a 
rise in sugar may again make prominent her fertile 

The Government is carried on by King, Lords 
and Commons — Lords arid Commons meeting and 
voting together in one Legislative Hall with 
a Cabinet of five to advise His Majesty—His 
Majesty had the power, by the Constitution, of 
vetoing any Bills his faithful Commons sent him, 
lately much curtailed. When I was in Hawaii the 
King practically controlled all measures or rather 
the power behind the throne, for the King, though 
well educated and intelligent, was credited with 
the Hawaiian trait of extreme indifference to 
matters of importance, or matters of any kind, 
if they in anyway interfered with his own personal 

The population is about 80,000, of which the 
natives number some 35,000, Chinese 20,000, 
Portugese and Japanese 15,000, the rest British 
subjects, many of them Canadians ; United States 
subjects ; German, French, Danish, Swedish and 


other nations subjects with a few South Sea Is- 
landers. The native race is fast dying out. A 
century ago their number was estimated at 
400,000 ; this is due, without doubt to the taste 
for strong waters given to them by their white 
friends, as well as the germs of the horrible leprosy 
which is now so imbued in their blood that all 
are tainted. 

In the hope that these few pages which have 
been reprinted in part from the columns of the 
" Week," may amuse and interest, I venture to 
send forth my little book, trusting that it may give 
something of the pleasure to my readers, that it 
has given me to write it. M. F. G. 



San Francisco.— Chinese.— "The Australia."— His Hawaiian 
Majesty. — English cricketers — The invalid.— First glimpse 
cf Honolulu. — Kalakua's reception. — Young swimmers. — 
The natives. — Tax for residents. — Royal Hotel. — Mos- 
quitoes. — Persian Powder. — Sunday in Honolulu. — 
Flowers.— St. Andrew's Cathedral I 


Welcome to the King. — Procession in palace grounds. — Danc- 
ing girls. — Fire brigade.— Concert in opera house. — 
Hawaiian band and Herr Berger. — Moonlight in Hono- 
lulu. — Expedition up the Pali. — Riding party. — Waikiki.— 
Luncheon party at the Kings. — Her Majesty Queen Kap- 
iolani. — Leis. — Old Wahine with fish. — Tabu. — Hawaiian 
curiosities at the palace. — Feather rebes. — Kahilis. — Queen 
Kapiolani's gift to Queen Victoria 14 


The yacht " Wanderer. "—Mr. Lamberts' invitation to Queen 
Emma. — Poi. — Taro patches. — Method of making poi. — 
Method of eating it.- Excellent food.— Poi dogs.— Taro 
flour. — Chinese making poi 31 



Voyage between Honolulu and Ranai. — Home at Rapaa: — 
Arrival at Kilavvee. — " Wailele Hale." — Garden there. — 
Different Fruits. — Mowers. — Trees. — Variety of colour in 
Landscape 37 


Servants ! — Chinese Family. — Mary Mahoi. — Ah Sam and his 
Pretty Bride. — Portugese. — Da Souza. — German Servants. 
Ah See and his Antics. — Chinese New Year. — "Salt 
Eggs." — Opium Smoking. — Hing Hoi and his Music ! — 
Sin Fat. — Chinese Gamblers. — Theives. — Scribblings. — 
Decorations. — Japanese Servants 52 


Rides and drives about Kilauea. — Kalikiwai Valley. — Valley ol 
Hanalei. — After glow of Sunset. — Swarm of Red Fish. — 
Death of the last of the Karumehamahas Queen Emma. . . 71 


Volcano of Mauna Loa. — Visit to Crater and Burning Lake. — 
Superstition of Natives. — Like-like dies.— Superstitions 
about Deaths. — Lomi— lomi. — Awa Root. — Intoxicating 
Beverages. — Old Native. — Natives Riding. — Breaking 
Horses. — Leprosy. — Molokai. — Father Damien. — Old 
Leper at Kilauea 82 


Invitation to King Kalakua's Coronation. — Drive to Kealia and 
Kapaa. — The Parsonage. — Home at Lihue. — Honolulu 
again. — Ship in harbour. — Flowers. — Carriages. — Coron- 
ation Day. — Coronation Ceremonies. — Coronation Ball. — 
Queen leaving the Palace. — Coronation Fireworks. — 
Hookups. — Grand Luau. — The Dandy and his Dancers. — 
Races at Waikiki. — Unveiling of the statute of the great . 
Kammehameha 99 



Life on a Plantation. — Work in the Cane "Fields'. — Labourers. 
— Chinese. — Portugese. — South Sea Islanders. — Looking 
after the Labourers. — Holidays on the Plantations. — The 
Doctor's Orders. — Chinese with Sickness. — Visit of H. B. 
M. S. " Constance" 140 


Opening of the Legislature in Honolulu. — Ceremony.— The 
Debate. — The Wonderful Interpreter. — News Flies Fast. 
My First and ouly Scorpion. — Other Insects.— Visit to the 
Market. — Climate. — Amusements. — Easter Decorations. — 
Queen Kapiolani gives Teas l rr 


An interesting episode. — Johnnie. — Kealia House. — Pic-nic up 
the Waialua.— Koloa.— The Judge's Home.— Mrs. Sinclair 
and Family.— Ideal Life. -Waimea River.— Kekaha.— 
Visit there.— Lepers at Waimea.— Cane at Kekaha. — Old 

Kahuna. — Blue Lake at Kekaha. — Barking Sands. 

Wachiava Ranche.— Burial Caves. — Hanamaula.— Home 
again at Kilauea . ■ j-j 



San Francisco. — Chinese.— " The Australia." — His Hawaiian 
Majesty. — English cricketers — The invalid.— First glimpse of 
Honolulu. — Kalakua's reception. — Young swimmers. — The 
natives. — Tax for residents. — Royal Hotel. — Mosquitoes. — ■ 
Persian Powder. — Sunday in Honolulu. — Flowers. — St. An- 
drew's Cathedral. 

H7HE City of San Francisco is said to be the 
most cosmopolitan city in the world, and to 
the traveller from Northern Latitudes presents a 
strange mingling- of elements, foreign and other- 
wise. Irish seemed to predominate, the brogue of 
of the Emerald Isle being heard in all directions. 
French, one hears constantly. Color of every 
degree is met in the passing faces, and the 
ubiquitous Chinaman pervades the streets, hotels, 
ferries, and tram cars, or rather did some short 

time ago, for now, like the Wandering Jew, he is 
condemned to " move on ! " 

Almost all the household servants are Chinese, 
and very smart they look, with their silken coats 
and white trousers, sometimes profusely embroid- 
ered, their long queues hanging down their back 


almost to their heels, (I found out afterwards that 
the queue is frequently made chiefly of silk or 
cotton braid, which is introduced into the plaid, 
the natural hair being scarcely longer than below 
the shoulders), and invariably with a small, round 
silk cap on top, which seemed to be the correct 
finishing touch to their indoor dress. 

On arriving at the pier, the Mongolian again 
appeared, and on board the good ship " Australia," 
bound for Honolulu, we found them acting in the 
various capacities of waiters, stewards, sailors, etc., 
these latter very untidy and dirty in appearance, 
and always, to me, having a look of surprise on 
their impassive, yellow faces, owing in part to the 
fact of their always shaving the hair of the fore- 
head, except when they wear a fringe over their 
brows, a sign of being what we call " in mourning." 
What a Chinaman calls it, I do not know, as outward- 
ly, he never mourns except at his gambling losses. 

The sun was shining in a brilliant flood of light 
through the " Golden Gate," as we left the steep 
hill of San Francisco in the hazy distance, and set 
sail for tropical climes : the soft, warm, air, and 
summer-like arrangement of the ships cabins 
making one anticipate with delight, the genial 
atmosphere we were soon to enter. 


Dark complexioned faces in the dining saloon as 
well as amongst the crew, shewed the probability 
of there being native Hawaiians and Portuguese 
down below, besides the usual complement of 
white waiters ; they all appeared to work well 
together, however. 

The Captain, a big, burly Saxon in appearance, 
was very kind and pleasant, an immense favourite 
on the line, and apparently having plenty of spare 
time to give to his passengers, especially as the 
passage was a fine, though not particularly smooth 
one. The Pacific disappointed nearly everyone in 
this respect, as, though not stormy, and the sun 
shining brightly, the long, steady, continuous roll 
never ceased for a day. 

The upper decks were immensely long and large, 
and in a few., days, those of the passengers who 
could tumble up the companion, managed to do 
so, and the rows of sea-chairs were soon filled by 
convalescents enjoying the fine, soft air. 

There were a number of cabins opening on to 
the decks, each door being arranged with a pretty, 
cool looking curtain, which blew about in the most 
refreshing way, a great boon as the nights grew 


Now, as to the passenger-list ; first comes 
Royalty and its surroundings, for we were honoured 
by the presence of no less a personage, than His 
Majesty King Kalakua of the Hawaiian Islands, 
who was returning to Honolulu after a liesurely 
tour round the world, accompanied by his chamber- 
lain, Colonel Judd, a fine looking man, son of one 
of the early American Missionaries to Hawaii, 
and a suite. The King was a large, tall man, 
rather too stout for his height, his complexion deep 
copper-colour, dark curly hair and whiskers, and 
fine white teeth. 

The Captain's cabin was beautifully decorated 
with flowers, for His Majesty's reception, in defer- 
ence to the Hawaiian fashion, and in it he spent 
most of the time, rarely appearing except when 
the gong sonnded in the dinning saloon, probably 
glad enough to keep quiet after eighteen months of 
sight-seeing and being seen. For, happening to 
have been in London during his visit there, I had 
been witness to the way in which King Kalakua 
had been hailed as the lion of the hour, and his 
carriage fairly mobbed whenever he appeared as 
" the king of the Cannibal Islands." 

Shortly after leaving San Francisco, I was intro- 
duced (or presented ! ) to His Majesty, and he was 


always most kind to us afterwards. His natural 
dignity of manner was very marked, his voice 
soft, musical, with a slight foreign accent, and his 
English, owing to the fact that he was educated 
chiefly in California, was perfect. He told me that 
when he was present at an audience given him in 
Rome by the Pope, he supplied a word in English, 
at which Cardinal Mazzini hesitated, doubtless 
thinking that a native of the Pacific Islands might 
not be a proficient in that language. On the fifth 
day of the voyage, officers, stewards, and the king 
also, appeared in white linen raiment, and the 
Chinese steward in a loose coat and short trowsers 
of shining black calico. This latter in spite of his 
comical appearance, tempted one gentleman to 
wish that he was " dressed like that Chinaman." 
Some English professional cricketers were with us 
also, on their way to Australia, a jolly, good 
tempered lot, adding much to our enjoyment by 
their capital singing of choruses, one especially, I 
remember, called " My little Yorkshire Lass,' in 
which all joined most heartily, sung in the approved 
dialect by the stentorian English voices. 

A sad incident of the voyage was my casual 
acquaintance with a young girl, who, we were told, 
was dying of some wasting disease. Her father 


of high legal standing in Honolulu, was a German, 
her mother a native of the Islands. Often in pass- 
ing her cabin, where she lay always, I used to peep 
through the chintz curtains hung in the doorway, 
wish her good morning, and stand to chat with her 
for a few minutes. Her face was small, thin, and 
yellow ; her eyes large, dark, and very melancholy. 
One hand was bound up, and we had heard she 
had lost the other, also a foot. Some weeks later, 
when she was wasted almost to a shadow, I saw 
her again at her invitation. Shortly afterwards 
she died, and the suspicion arose that for the 
only time during our stay in the Islands I had 
seen a person dying of leprosy, that fatal disease 
which is surely exterminating the Hawaiian race. 

The bold bluff called Diamond Head, which was 
the first point of land visible, was perceived early 
on the morning of the seventh day. Towards the 
afternoon every one who could do so, was busily 
engaged in watching for the first glimpse of 
Honolulu through glasses of every size, but we 
sailed smoothly enough along the shore for a 
long time, and were delighted at seeing the grove 
of cocoa-nut trees which are outside the town, 
and whose graceful, towering tops give a tropical 
look to any scenery. 


Some little distance from the wharf, the tide 
was adverse, and the ship had to be towed in by 
immense ropes, and during this rather ignominious 
process several people left the ship in small boats* 
and our attention was drawn by the appearance of 
numerous officials who were rowed from the shore 
to meet His Majesty on board, who presently 
appeared with his suite, all in most fashionably cut 
London clothes, high hats, etc. He went about 
among the passengers, saying good-bye in the 
kindest way, and I should be afraid to tell how 
many royal autographs were asked for and pre- 
sented. The officials were clad in the most 
gorgeous uniforms, all gold lace, cocked hats, 
swords, etc., something between a diplomatic and 
full dress naval uniform ; and numerous greetings 
were passed between the friends who met perhaps 
after an absence of many months. 

A beautiful gig, manned by natives dressed in 
white, wearing wreathes of flowers and leaves round 
their necks and hats, and flying the royal Hawaiian 
standard, was ready for the King, and in it he em- 
barked, followed by his suite in their different 
crafts, and in the distance we could hear the strains 
of a band playing a welcome to their returned 


During the time which elapsed before we were 
able to land, we were amused by the antics of a 
crowd of youthful savages, who had appeared from 
the town, and who were swimming all round the 
ship, and now and then diving for the pieces of 
silver thrown to them by the passengers, and which 
seemed all part of the performance to be gone 
through with when a ship came into harbour. The 
children looked like so many polly-wogs, and did 
not seem to mind how far down they had to dive for 
a sixpence, bringing it up in their mouths, and yell- 
ing with delight every time a fresh one was thrown. 
They seemed wonderfully good swimmers. 

The wharf was crowded with natives of every 
age ; the women, as a rule, tall, walking with a 
long, swinging gait, very dark in colour, and all 
dressed in flowing cotton garments, called by 
them holokus. They all wore straw hats, of 
every shape, but the sailor shape seemed to be the 
one most affected, with broad, bright ribbons round 
them. There seemed to be two modes in the 
fashion, one to be tilted over the nose, resting on a 
huge tortoise shell comb ; and the other worn more 
back from the forehead, and untidy masses of black 
locks streaming down to the waist. 

The men, some of them very fine-looking fel- 


lows, wore blue or white cotton trousers, bright 
coloured shirts with buttons the size of a shilling, 
and plenty of them ; straw hats, some very small ; 
the feet either bare, or clad in high leather riding 
boots, with immense Mexican spurs, jingling as 
they walked ; the more noise a native can make 
with his spurs the much finer man he thinks 
himself. All, men and women, wore leis or 
wreathes of flowers round their hats and necks ; 
some of the blossoms being so strongly scented as 
to be overpowering to the olfactory nerves. 

The taxes paid, in the shape of a $2 bill, to be 
given by each person intending to reside in the 
Island, for the support of the Queen's Hospital, we 
presently found ourselves at the hotel, a fine, large 
wooden building, with beautiful grounds about it 
and huge double verandahs. 

All the servants were Chinese — no women ser- 
vants to be seen ; the Chinaman being equally good 
as house-maid, waiter, or cook. 

The rooms were comfortable, each bed being 
provided with the inevitable mosquito curtain, 
made of fine netting, generally hung from the ceil- 
ing by means of a rope and pulley arrangement, 
which enables the traveller to raise or lower it 
according to his requirements. 


As soon as daylight wanes, in comes a Chinaman 
to pull down the net all round the bed and tuck 
it securely between the matrasses, so as to prevent 
the fast-coming hordes of mosquitoes from pene- 
trating the folds. Strangers have to get accus- 
tomed to this piece of daily routine, or, in 
consequence, the occupant, thinking he has done 
all that is necessary, will be just dozing off when 
the fatal sing-sing of the little tormentor will be 
heard, and then good-bye to a night's rest till the 
murder is committed. 

A most valuable addition to one's comfort is a 
box of the Persian insect powder, which is prepared 
from the blossom of the yellow pyrethrum, which 
is brought down from the Pacific Coast in barrels 
and sold in any quantity. 

A small quantity of this kept burning in a little 
tin will deal an immense amount of destruction, 
the fumes rendering the mosquitoes perfectly help- 
less, and, if burned long enough, killing them in 
such numbers that frequently the dustpan will be 
filled with them the next morning. A small box 
of this powder can be easily put in a corner of one's 
portmanteau, and anyone who suffers from the 
attacks of these pests should never be without it. 

The next day was Sunday, and a walk about 


the town shewed it to be quite as pretty in the 
interior as it appeared from the harbour. Nearly 
all the streets were shaded by rows of trees on both 
sides, and the houses, built in every form of archi- 
tecture — brick, adobe, wooden and rough-cast, and 
all with verandahs, — -were overgrown with Mexican 
creepers, honeysuckles, and passion flowers in the 
loveliest profusion. The hedges of scarlet ger- 
anium and coleus were wonderful to look upon, 
and the air was scented with heliotrope and roses 
of every hue. There is so little change in the 
seasons that many of these flower: bloom all the 
year round. 

The bougainvillier was one mass of purple of 
every shade, growing in a marvellous state of 
luxuriance — it is a different looking plant altogether 
from that grown in a conservatory, the colour is 
so rich and the foliage so thick and massive. 

The palms in the pretty gardens were a great 
source of admiration, so large were the glossy 
leaves, and so imposing in size. 

Alamandas grew their lovely yellow bells on 
shrubs and trees ; crotons were six feet high, and 
the lillies and beautiful red spotted leaves of the 
cultivated taro or Calladiums were something for 
northern eyes to wonder at. 


An effort to find the Anglican Church resulted 
in our missing the way and finding ourselves in a 
Methodist house of worship, known as the " Fort 
Street Church," which was well lighted and most 
comfortably fitted with cushioned pews. An ex- 
cellent choir was seated on a large platform, in 
front of which were the usual arrangements of 
chairs, desk, etc., for the minister. 

Sitting there, one could hardly realize the fact 
that home was so many thousand miles away, but 
one had to remember that the month was Novem- 
ber, and the light dresses of the many fair and 
dark women about seemed to tell us that we were 
in another atmosphere, much more like June than 
anything else. 

Coming back to the hotel we saw a large open 
gateway, and wandering in we found that the 
Cathedral of Honolulu was inside a large com- 
pound, with fine large trees about it and the 
Rectory, which was close by. Beside the church 
was a school for natives and whites (girls) presided 
over by the members of the Anglican sisterhood. 

We peeped in and saw a large, plain wooden 
building with a flower-decked altar at the far end, 
and a surpliced choir on each side of the chancel. 


Sometime later, a most ambitious building- was 
begun to take the place of the Old St. Andrew's, 
and it is still in process of construction. It will be 
a beautiful church when finished, and the town may 
well be proud of such a handsome structure. The 
stone was all sent from England, and the church 
will be a memento of the untiring exertions of 
bishop, pastor and congregation. We found there 
were two native services in the Hawaiian language 
besides the English ones. The rector, the Rev. 
Alexander Mackintosh generally taking the native 
services, his many years of residence in Honolulu 
having made him perfectly familiar with all the 
dialects of Hawaii. 



Welcome to the King. — Procession in palace grounds. — Dancing 
girls. — Fire brigade. — Concert in opera house. — Hawaiian 
band and Herr Berger. — Moonlight in Honolulu. — Expedition 
up the Pali. — Riding party. — Waikiki. — Luncheon party at the 
Kings. — Her Majesty Queen Kapiolani. — Leis. — Old Wahine 
with fish. — Tabu. — Hawaiian curiosities at the palace. — Feather 
robes. — Kahilis. — Queen Kapiolani's gift to Queen Victoria. 

TT7HE next day was ushered in brightly and 
-*■ noisily, the firing of guns and letting off 
of crackers going on without intermission. 

The streets were gaily decorated with bunting, 
and numbers of arches erected, some of them very 
pretty. The oddest was the Chinese one, which 
was very large, in the shape of a pagoda, and quite 
brilliant in its effect at a distance by dint of lan- 
terns of every shape and form, paper flowers of 
every hue, and numerous strange looking objects, 
of which the " reason why " would be known to a 
Chinaman only. On all sides, in letters of flowers, 
bunting, etc., appeared the words, " Aloha " — 
" Aloha nui " — which is the general salutation of 
Hawaiian welcome and greeting. 

At mid-day we took up a position near the gates 
opening into the grounds surrounding the King's 


new palace, which was then in an unfinished state, 
to watch the procession, which was to be held in 
honour of the King's return. Presently the strains 
of the band were heard and the long stream of 
natives began to pass, clad in every colour of the 
rainbow, profusely be-ribboned, and carrying large 
silken banners, gorgeously embroidered and bearing 
mottoes in English and Hawaiian ; one of these 
inscriptions roused our curiosity, being " Hail, 
David," till we found that David was the King's 
English name. 

One old native, bent and gray, carried a lighted 
torch, made of some hard, yellow nuts called 
ku-kui, very oily and idflammable, which were 
bound together at the top of a large staff. The 
custom of bearing a lighted torch in the day-time 
is a right belonging only to those who can claim 
true descent from the High Chiefs, or relationship 
with the royal family. We saw but the one, so 
apparently the connection was not a large one ! 

Without exception, men, women and children 
wore leis of flowers and leaves. We followed the 
crowd presently into the meadow-like grounds and 
sat down on the grass under a tree to watch the 
curious sight. 


The sun shone down hotly as though it was 
June, and the white walls of the palace were quite 
dazzling. Behind the palace, a little to one side, 
were the houses of the King and Queen, long, low 
structures, with wide verandahs, enclosed with pink 
lattice work. At the top of the steps stood His 
Majesty, attired in snowy white, with his black- 
head uncovered, and behind him stood several 
members of the royal family. His appearance was 
greeted with loud shouts of " Aloha ! Aloha ! " He 
made a speech in Hawaiian, and ended with a loud 
"Aloha," and then disappeared, the ladies being 
seen now and then through the lattice. The crowd 
dispersed about the grounds, sitting and lying 
under the trees, some eating and drinking, and 
each talking and chattering at the top of their 
voices, which when raised are anything but musical, 
but good nature seemed to reign, and the effect of 
the whole mass was that of jolly, dark faces, 
flashing eyes, gleaming white teeth, light dresses, 
and brilliant flowers, making a bright, tropical-like 
picture never to be forgotten. 

In the evening, we returned to the palace 
grounds, where the crowd was more dense than 
even in the morning, especially in the vicinity of 


the King's house, the verandahs and surrounding 
trees being brilliantly lit up. 

We noticed a group of girls standing together 
dressed somewhat differently from others. They 
appeared to have white holokus on, but instead of 
being long and flowing, these were drawn up 
through a girdle of sweet-smelling leaves, forming 
a short, full skirt, their arms and feet were bare, 
with curious fur-like anklets, their hair hanging 
down with wreaths of flowers and leaves amongst 
it. These were the dancing girls, professional 
dancers, who were to perform during the evening 
for the amusement of the King and his friends. 

There was a procession of some fire engines 
going on, and they filed in and passed before the 
King, who is intensely interested in the Honolulu 
Fire Brigade, rendering great service himself on 
many occasions. The Chinese have a very good 
engine amongst others. 

Later in the week we were asked to go to a 
concert to be given on the occasion of opening the 
Royal Opera House, and of course we accepted the 
invitation gladly. The British vice-consul had 
kindly given us seats in his box, from which we 
had an excellent view of the whole house, including 
the royal box, which was opposite. 


The concert itself was a good amateur one ; 
no natives taking part in the programme. 

One beautiful contralto voice thrilled the audi- 
ence with the pathetic strains of " Three Fishers," 
and there was some unusually good playing on 
the piano. 

The house is a pretty one, fitted up in bright 
crimson, and well lighted. Only two boxes, but 
both very large ; in the one opposite was His 
Majesty, and his sisters, Princesses Lydia Lillio- 
kalani, and Like-like, both very dark, and in even- 
ing dress. I could not help recalling the occasion 
of seeing King Kalakua in Her Brittannic Majesty's 
box at Covent Garden a few months before, where 
he had been watched with great interest by a 
London audience, listening to the great Diva. 

Honolulu boasts, and rightly, of a most excellent 
band, composed entirely of natives, led and taught 
by a German band-master, whose untiring energy 
has brought out a great deal of musical Hawaiian 
talent. I always regarded Herr Berger, as the 
most wonderful man in Hawaii ; when one knows 
the difficulty of inducing a native to stick to 
any one duty, one can only marvel at the patience 
and tact he must have possessed and exercised 
to attain the result he has. Not knowing the 


Hawaiian language on arrival, he had not only 
to learn that well enough to speak it in an 
ordinary way, but he had, no doubt, to invent 
words, to make natives understand the use of 
instruments they had never seen. Herr Berger 
gets out all the new music, and it is indeed most 
delightful to listen to the strains of the band, 
minded now and then with the voices, which 
take up certain parts, and sing them together. 
The men's dress was very effective, a combination 
of white trousers, scarlet tunics faced with black and 
gold, and white peaked caps, which must have taken 
their fancy amazingly, as Hawaiians in common 
with others of a tropical climate, love brightness 
of colour in every shape. 

Herr Berger had also composed a national 
anthem, called " Hawaii Ponoi," which was ex- 
tremely pretty, and rather stately, and was played 
at the royal entrance, and at the conclusion of 
a programme. 

Every Saturday afternoon the band played in the 
pretty gradens of Emma Square, so named after 
the well known and well loved Queen Dowager; 
and sometimes moonlight nights would be render- 
ed even more lovely in the Hotel grounds, by the 
band playing in a pavillion erected for them there 


Honolulu by moonlightjs indeed a <% dream of 
beauty," sitting on the verandah of the hotel with 
the palms, ferns, flowering shrubs,, and tall, feathery 
trees all silvered over, and the mountain throwing 
uncertain shadows, one felt that to be in a tropical 
country was a very charming experience. 

This mountain seemed to rise almost immedi- 
ately behind the town, and the lights and shadows 
were ever varying, now deep purple in the morning, 
growing brighter as the day wore on, until the 
setting sun made the peaks glow with roseate hues, 
and then fading with the rapidly descending, 
tropical twilight, and again bursting out with a 
new, soft beauty in the brilliant moonlight. 

The excursion up this Pali or mountain was a 
very beautiful one ; we were invited to join a 
large party going up to the point of view, and 
one fine morning had a delightful expedition. 

Many of the young people were on horseback, 
and to witness perfect enjoyment, one has to see 
a Honolulu riding party ; how they enjoy it ? 
and how, oh how, they scamper! up hill, and down 
hill, anywhere and everywhere at full canter, with 
the reins held in a fashion mainly peculiar to 
themselves, very far out to one side, whips going — 


spur often too. It was our first sight of a young 
lady riding astride like the natives ; I got used 
to it by seeing it so often afterwards, but never 
could like it — I think it is too ungraceful a position 
for a white woman ever to become it, though we 
saw many excellent riders. 

We mounted up, up, slowly enough at the last, 
until apparently not very far from the top, got out 
of the carriages, the young folks dismounting and 
tying up their horses, turned a corner of the road, 
and then, what a view from the bend of the hill 
before the path descended into the valley, lay before 
us. The sea was rolling calm and blue beyond, 
and between, were rice plantations with their tender 
green showing against the darker foliage of trees 
surrounding the white houses gleaming in the 

The coast-line bounded all this colour, and the 
dark, rugged background of the Pali made a beau- 
tiful picture, especially favoured as we were with a 
day of glorious sunshine and cool breezes. 

Shortly after our arrival in the capital we were 
bidden to a luncheon party at Waikiki, a suburb 
about two miles from Honolulu, where King Kala- 
kua has a pretty little country house, to which he 


was very fond of resorting for a change from the 
affairs of state, and we were very much pleased to 
aecept the kind invitation. 

It was a lovely summer-like day as we drove 
down with Her Brittanic Majesty's Commissioner, 
who was always a most kind friend to us, and who 
was going to the luncheon also. 

The drive itself was most enjoyable ; out of the 
town, past beautiful palm groves, houses fairly em- 
bowered (I never realized the real meaning of that 
word till I saw Honolulu) in flowering shrubs and 
luxuriant creepers of all kinds, then through a rice 
plantation, along the sea-shore, with a magnificent 
grove of cocoa-nut palms towering their graceful 
heights on the other side of us, and finally turning 
in through a garden, we found ourselves in front of 
a pretty wooden house, painted white, with upper 
and lower green verandahs. On the steps stood 
the King to receive us, attired as usual in snowy 
white, with a big lei of yellow blossoms round his 
straw hat and another about his neck. His 
Majesty welcomed us most kindly, and then we 
were taken into a pretty drawing room and pre- 
sented to Queen Kapiolani, a large, rather stout, 
woman, with a fine mass of jet black hair, dressed 


in a handsome dress of fawn coloured silk with a 
long train. The Queen did not speak English at 
all, but understood it fairly well, and, at all events 
made up for that by her cheery smile of welcome, 
shake of the hand, and most hearty " Aloha." She 
held a number of leis of sweet smelling flowers in 
her hand, which she presently gave to us, and we 
were each finally decorated with these indispensable 
additions to a native feast or party. The flowers 
are nearly always pulled off the stalk close to the 
head and strung together on some fine grass, the 
long ends of which are left to tie the lei on ; if the 
blossoms are small, several strings are put together, 
thus, mine on that occasion was made of the unopen- 
ed buds of the white jessmine and the six or eight 
threads of the blossoms made up a lovely mass of 
odorous ivory beads ; others were of the yellow 
ginger, roses, marigolds, etc. The custom is a 
graceful pretty one, and with the ladies' light 
summer dresses they always looked well, but with 
a gentleman's conventional attire of morning dress 
they looked out of keeping, and those unfortunates 
who disliked the strong perfume, generally con- 
trived to get rid of the leis as soon as possible. 

The dining-room was a good-sized room, exceed- 
ingly pretty, with walls and ceilings painted white 


and pink, the latter being made something like the 
roof of a tent ; matting on the floors, cane furniture 
and lace curtains, made up a " harmonious whole." 
The luncheon table was covered with flowers, and 
everything was most tastefully prepared. Curry, 
made of shrimps, which abound among the rocks, 
and flavoured with cocoa-nut, was served in the 
middle of the menu, and the rice, limes and chutney 
of mangoes, served separately, as the proper accom- 
paniments. The curry, by the -way, was pro 
nounced by one of the guests as being the best he 
had ever tasted out of India. Another dish which 
seemed to find favour with the gentlemen, was com- 
posed of caviare spread on small delicate biscuits, 
and on the top of each, a fresh raddish nicely pre- 
pared. Ices were served in small bowls of Japanese 
lacquer work, and magnificent fruits concluded 
the repast. Afterwards we all adjourned to the 
garden, where, while sitting under the cocoa palms, 
with the rolling of the Pacific heard close to us, 
coffee and cigarettes were brought. The lovely 
warmth of the day, and the soft air made it very 
hard to realize that it was the middle of November. 
Truly, life in the tropics has charms of its own, 
when one thinks of the cold north-east blasts in 
contrast. Amongst the friends gathered at lun- 


cheon that day were Mr. and Mrs. Lambert, whose 
splendid steam yacht was then in harbour, I believe 
then the largest afloat, and which naturally created 
great interest, though the " Sunbeam " had been a 
former visitor to Honolulu some years previously. 
Mr. Lambert's anecdotes were always amusing, and 
while listening to some of his stories, we were sud- 
denly aware of the presence of an old native woman 
crawling across the grass on her knees, holding 
a dish of freshly-caught fish of the most extra- 
ordinarily brilliant colours. They reminded me of 
some I had once seen in Bermuda, but these were 
even more wonderful in their opaline hues. The 
wizzened old creature held up the dish in front of 
the King, still crouching at his feet, and we 
all admired with the genuine admiration of 
strangers. At a nod from His Majesty, she fell 
almost fiat on her chest and writhed (there is no 
other word to express her motions) out of the 
garden laughing and chattering to herself. The 
servants were all natives, and probably friends, who 
would see that the old woman did not go away 
unrewarded. In old times no one could approach 
a high chief except by crawling, and in addition, 
had to take the risk of finding him in good humour. 
If in a bad temper and the chief chose to move so 


that his shadow fell on the person approaching, 
that person, be it he or she, became tabu, which 
signifies more than our word taboo, for tmce falling 
under tabu meant not only being shunned, but not 
allowed to touch anything belonging to others, and 
to live how they could, on what they could, apart 
from all. If the chief happened to be in a very bad 
humour he would order the tabued creature to be 
killed. Instant death followed such an order. 

Mr. Lambert had an artist friend with him on 
board the yacht who had wished to sketch some of 
these rainbow-colored fish, but I imagine the vivid 
hues would have faded before they could have been 
transferred to canvas. 

On taking our leave, the King said he was then 
going into the town to shew Mr. and Mrs. Lambert 
some ancient Hawaiian curiosities which were at 
the palace, and most kindly invited us to accom- 
pany them. We considered ourselves most fortunate, 
as now-a-days, unless in the houses of the high 
chiefs, one cannot see any good native work. 

Accordingly we drove back to the town behind 
His Majesty's carriage, and in a short time drew up 
in front of the lattice-worked verandah which we 
had seen on the day of the procession. The door, 


as usual, opened at once into the drawing-room, 
and here were the cabinets containing the interesting 
relics of ancient Hawaii, and there was a goodly 
show indeed. Rolls of the finest tapa cloth, of 
which the dresses of both men and women used to 
be made, were unfolded for inspection. This tapa 
is made by beating the fibres of certain bark into a 
pulp, by means of a heavy mallet of wood or stone 
on a large flat log, and when pulled and stretchy! to 
the desired thickness and width, the pulp is left to 
dry in the sun, and when in condition for it, is dyed 
various colours and patterns, some of which are 
most ingenious. Sometimes Grecian borders; wedge 
shaped figures ; round, square and triangular figures ; 
dots, crosses, fine lines and coarse ones ; red, black, 
fawn and yellow, were the favourite colours, which, 
no doubt were made from herbs and plants. The 
tapa is seldom or never made now, though in old 
days, the malos of the men, and skirts for the women 
were made of many folds of the cloth, as well as 
coverings of all kinds ; but that industry has passed 
away with the arrival of American and English 
prints and calicoes ; and the valleys resound no 
more to the tap-tap of the tapa mallet. We saw 
beautiful calabashes; bowls of elaborately carved 
cocoa-nut, shining like ebony, quantities of fragrant 


sandal-wood. A perfect model of a native grass hut 
quite small, but most exact in each detail, was much 
admired, as were also the immense strings of tiny 
white shells, only found on Niihau, and which 
formed a lei to be worn by royalty. Massed 
together, these shells have a curious appearance, 
and we were told that when Queen Emma was 
presented to Her Brittannic Majesty, her enormous 
necklace of Niihau shells created quite a sensation. 

The great feather robe was also produced ; and it 
was indeed a wonder, as large as a counterpane, 
and made of millions of tiny gold coloured feathers, 
taken from a small black bird, called the Ooo, under 
the wings of which are found only two small yellow 

These feathers are woven into a fine kind of 
twine or fibrous lace work, one feather laid over 
the other, each feather only one inch long, and of 
the most brilliant gold colour imaginable. This 
robe had a broad border of sapphire blue satin, 
which threw the gold colour into high relief, the 
peculiar lustre being shown to great advantage. It 
was a most beautiful and wonderful piece of work 
and no doubt took years to accomplish. The very 
ancient cloak only worn by the Kammehame has 


by the wish of the Queen Dowager been buried 
with the last king of direct descent from that line 
of chiefs. 

The value of this cloak is of course not estimable 
in money, as probably the secret of making them 
will be lost in years to come, and besides this, 
the little bird which used to be in such myriads 
in Hawaii, is fast disappearing before the ruthless 
gun of the sportsman. 

Another ornament of feathers was also interesting, 
though perhaps in another way ! This was a 
strip of the fibrous canvas of about two yards 
in length and perhaps eight inches wide, also 
covered with the gold feathers, but with a double 
border of bright crimson feathers ; and laid across 
the strip at regular intervals, were rows of 
shining human teeth ! It gave one an uncanny 
kind of shiver ! His Majesty hastened to tell us 
of the old custom of which this is a relic, of 
extracting the teeth from any chief after death 
on the battle-field, and thus preserving them as 
a sign of prowess, for posterity to gaze and 
wonder at. Perhaps for more reasons than one, 
as the teeth themselves were magnificent, as nearly 
all Hawaiian teeth are. 


The tall Kahilis, or rods of white feathers with 
long handles of tortoiseshell, to be borne before the 
monarch on occasions of state, also were shown to 
us — and after conveying our warmest thanks to 
Their Majesties for the kindness extended to us, 
we left the palace with a bright remembrance 
of one of the happiest days spent in Honolulu. 

I have before me now, a picture of the jubilee 
gift of the Queen of Hawaii, to Queen Victoria. 
It is a royal monogram of large size, formed of 
the lovely gold feathers of the Ooo, surrounded 
by a wreath or border of gold and crimson feathers, 
the work of Queen Kapiolani's own hands. The 
monogram is mounted on royal blue plush, set 
in a frame of gold, with the Royal arms, and the 
arms of the Queen of Hawaii on either side. 
The outer border of blue is set with golden stars 
of eight points, representing the eight islands of 
the Sandwich group Above is the Royal Crown 
and cushion set with diamonds. Thousands of 
feathers were used in the manufacture of this 
gift ; which must have been interesting,- even amongst 
that marvellous display witnessed by so many of 
Her Majesty's subjects during the jubilee exhibition. 



The yacht "Wanderer." — Mr. Lamberts' invitation to Queen 
Emma. — Poi. — Taro patches. — Method of making poi. — 
Method of eating it.— Excellent food. — Poi dogs. — Taro flour. 
— Chinese making poi. 

TJ7HE visit of the steam yacht "Wanderer" was 
* a source of great pleasure to the people of 
Honolulu. Mr. and Mrs. Lambert were most kind 
and hospitable in their invitations, one of which we 
were delighted to avail ourselves. To my inexper- 
ienced eyes, it was as much unlike a "yacht "as 
anything could well be ; everything in such stately 
order, and room for everything and everybody. We 
greatly admired the beauty and convenience of all 
the arrangements. The cabins were most charming 
little bedrooms, the saloon a most comfortable 
diningroom, while the upper saloon was like a 
veritable museum, on account of all the curiosities 
which had been collected from all quarters of the 
globe, and suspended at every angle conceivable 
from the walls and ceilings ; delightful seats every- 
where, and afternoon tea, made us feel very much 
at home indeed. The "Wanderer" was said at 
that time to be the largest steam yacht afloat, but 
even her capacities were overtaxed, when, on Mr. 


Lambert kindly offering to convey Queen Emma 
to Hilo on Hawaii, Her Majesty graciously ac- 
cepting the courtesy, she sent word that she must 
bring a few attendants, and made her appearance 
with no less then eighteen followers in her suite ! 
However, a native can sleep anywhere, with no 
other provisions than a mat and a calabash of poi. 

This poi (pronounced with a short, sharp accent, 
indescribable to those who have not heard Hawaiian) 
is the staple food of the native, made from the root 
of the taro, I believe, a species of caladium, and 
which is grown in great quatities on all the islands. 
Anyone can see " patches " as they are always 
called, during a ride along the banks of any stream, 
or skirting a valley wherein the native loved to 
make his home. I say loved, for the once fertile 
valleys are now deserted, with only the traces of 
the terraces where, in the old days, the taro flourished 
in profusion. These terraces are often carried down 
the slope of a hill, so that a stream of water can, 
by an ingenious system of canals, be easily diverted 
from one to another, without any great exertion, 
a thing which the Hawaiian abhors with a holy 
horror. The root is planted from the stems with 
the young leaves, which are first put in mounds 
of rich, bog-like earth, and when the root has 


formed, are transplanted into rows some inches 
apart, the water is then turned into the irrigating 
ditches, and the plants left till fit for use. A hill 
side covered with a succession of these taro patches 
is a fresh cool thing to look at, each patch being 
outlined by banks of grass, on which one can 
walk from one terrace to another. When ready 
for use the roots are pulled up bodily with the 
stems and leaves adhering, the young stalks being 
boiled as a vegetable called luau, and the old leaves 
form a nourishing food for the dearly beloved pig, 
which animal plays as important a part in a native 
household, as in that of a Paddy ! The taro root 
is boiled over the fire which, as a rule is made in 
a hole in the ground outside the house, and when 
soft enough to have the tough, fibrous skin pulled 
off is placed in a large wooden bowl, almost fiat 
— very like an ordinary mincing board ; generally 
hollowed out of one piece of wood. The natives, 
sometimes women, sometimes men, then take up 
their position on either side of the board, sitting 
a la Ttirque, each with a heavy stone mallet, and 
break up the smoking pile of roots into a thick, 
heavy paste, in which condition it is called pai-ai. 
Before it is to be eaten, it is stirred with the 
addition of cold water to the consistence of thick 


sago, left to ferment for a few days, until it gets 
the sour taste supposed to be correct, and then 
put into calabashes, (perhaps one for the general 
table) and the whole family assemble to enjoy it. 
One often sees a circle seated on the ground near 
a hut, at all hours of the day, with a huge calabash 
of poi in the middle. Each native, man, woman 
or child, dips two fingers, (the more grimy the 
better) into the glutinous mass, and with a kind 
of double twist gather as much as possible, and 
throwing back the he. id, the fingers are placed 
in the mouth, and the food sucked off them with 
immense gusto. I was anxious when I first went 
to the islands to witness the performance of eat- 
ing poi, but having once seen it, never cared 
to repeat the experiment. It was a horrible sight 
to strange eyes, though one must admit that the 
rapidity with which the whole thing is done, is 
indeed astounding. Poi has all the elements 
necessary to nourishment, and is often ordered 
to invalids as being remarkably easy of digestion. 
Many white people like it much, especially with 
salt fish or meat, but they, I need scarcely mention, 
eat it in a different manner to the native. Children 
consume quantities of poi mixed with milk and 
sugar. There is a kind of taro which is pink in 


colour, but which is kept for the king or high 
chief's use ; and a friend who travelled much on 
Hawaii with His Majesty, told us the poi produced 
from it was particularly delicate and good. The 
Hawaiians have also what are called Poi dogs, 
which are in appearence very much the same as 
small white French poodles, these are greatly 
petted, fed on nothing but poi, until they are of the 
desired age, and then — horrible thought ! are eaten 
as a special delicacy, but I must say I never 
heard of one English visitor being induced to taste 
poi dog, unless mayhap, under false pretences ! 

There is now a manufactory for making flour 
from the taro, which it is claimed will make ex- 
cellent poi, as well as cake, bread and blanc-mange, 
but it is not so satisfying or nourishing as the 
food made from the root itself. 

Poi is made by the Chinese, and sold in all 
stages by them, a common sight in the streets of 
Honolulu being a Chinaman, in his queer, loose 
blue garments, legs bare from the knees, and a 
big straw hat, bearing on his shoulders a pole at 
either end of which, is suspended a five gallon 
kerosene tin can, filled with pai-ai or poi, 
which is retailed to the native who is too lazy 
to make his own food. Passing along the Chinese 


quarters one day, I peeped in an open door, and 
there' beheld two Chinamen, one on either side of a 
huge tin bath, pounding away with all their might 
at poi, their yellow skins shining with the exer- 
tion, and very little clothing on ; the day was hot, 
and the little shop was hotter still, I shuddered, 
notwithstanding the heat, and did not envy the 
consumers of that poi ! 

One small taro patch will almost keep a native 
in food, the poi being generally made once a week ; 
the root is very good boiled or baked, and broken 
in pieces, is a mottled purple colour, and is a 
standard vegetable at almost every table in the 




Voyage between Honolulu and Ranai. — Home at Rapaa. — Arrival 
at Kilawee. — " Wailele Hale."— Garden there. -- Different 
Fruits. — flowers. — Trees. — Variety of colour in Landscape. 

CHORTLY after the festivities in honour of 
King Kalakua's return were over, we de- 
parted for Kauai, " The Garden Island," as it is 
called, where our plantation home was. The small, 
and then, most uncomfortable inter-island steamer 
left at about five in the afternoon, and we were on 
board the tossing little boat in good time to watch 
the curious scene about us. 

Any steamer leaving the wharf at Honolulu is a 
source of immense interest always to the natives ; 
they are very iond of travelling from one island to 
another, and invariably accompany their friends for 
a final leave-taking. The chattering and laughing 
is also mingled often with the shedding of tears 
and wailing, in both of which accomplishments the 
Hawaiian excels. They can command tears with- 
out any provocation, and it is a most curious sight 
to see two old women meet on a wharf, not having 


seen each other for some time. They will cry 
" Aloha " — embrace in the fondest manner, and 
with a jerk of their Holokus (peculiar to them- 
selves, and not to be described in words alone), sit 
down in the dust d la Turque, throw their 
arms around each other's portly form, and forth- 
with begin a swaying motion, the tears pouring 
down their brown faces, with hats on the back of 
their heads from which the black hair streams, and 
wailing at intervals, with a long cry, low at the 
beginning, and getting louder and louder, till it 
finally sinks away to silence, only to be raised 
again immediately, in precisely the same manner. 

After several minutes' duration the wailing 
would stop as suddenly as it had begun ; the tears 
dry up, and the much loved pipe, black, short and 
very dirty would make its appearauce. One of the 
friends would produce the rank, strong tobacco 
which is grown plentifully on the islands, fill and 
light up, take a whiff or two, and present it to the 
other, who would follow suit ; their countenances 
clear as if by magic, and presently the old ladies 
would rise, take each other by the hand, and march 
off together to see some mutual acquaintance, 
where in all probability the whole performance 
would be repeated. In travelling, they always take 


their mats with them, and generally some gourds 
of poi. With these they are quite independent, and 
on getting on board they at once disappear behind 
the curtain of matting, which is supposed to divide 
the steerage from the cabin. If the weather be 
smooth, they will laugh, talk and chatter most of 
the night, in all likelihood playing cards, of which 
they are passionately fond. But, generally speak- 
ing, the passage is a rough one ; and being bad 
sailors, as a rule, the results are not, strictly speak- 
ing, pleasant. Cabin passengers are each given a 
narrow, clean mattress, and two pillows; to be placed 
on deck and one has to make the best of this 
scanty accommodation. Meals are served in the 
dark, musty little saloon below, but I never de- 
scended, even to explore these regions. One could 
take fruit, biscuits, etc., and thus be tolerably com- 

Very early the next morning we anchored some 
distance from the low shore, and between the 
steamer and wharf there appeared to me to be a 
very angry looking stretch of sea. Presently a 
large boat was brought to the side of the steamer, 
rowed by natives, and a little gangway was let 
down for the passengers to descend by. The 
Captain jumped in first, and as I grasped the ropes, 


wondering if I should not drop into the sea instead 
of the boat, which was bobbing about far beneath 
me in a most uncomfortable, wobbling kind of 
fashion, I felt two strong arms seize me, and a 
voice saying, in a strong American accent, "Just 
leave yourself to me, and let go ! " which I immedi- 
ately did, and was deposited at once on a very rough 
wooden seat, with my feet far from the ground ! If 
one can use such an expression with regard to a 
boat ! The Captain remarked in a tone of satisfac- 
tion, " If the lady who sprained her foot last week 
in trying to help herself had done what you did 
and ' let go,' she would have been all right now." 
So my advice to unwary lady travellers is to " let 
go " when you are told. An old, rather stout lady, 
who had come on another occasion by the same 
steamer, happened to tell me that when she was 
hanging mid-way between the sea and boat, that 
the Captain remarked cheerfully, " Now, ma'am, 
you just leave go and skip ! " " But, Captain," she 
cried, "my skipping days are over." " Never mind, 
ma'am, you just skip, and I'll fix you ! " 

We danced over the surf into smooth water, and 
on landing found that a large rockaway with a pair 
of mules had been most kindly and thoughtfully 
sent to meet us by a friend, to convey us over 


the fifteen miles which lay between us and our 

But first we availed ourselves of a most hos- 
pitable invitation to take breakfast with Mrs. Dole, 
wife of the manager of Kapaa plantation, on which 
we now were. Their pretty home stood on a high 
hill, visible for miles about, and from the plateau in 
front of the house could be seen one of the finest 
views on the island. Mr. Dole, who had come with 
us from Honolulu, preceded us by a short cut, a 
bridle path, up which he rode, and we followed more 
slowly by a road which wound gradually up to the 
house itself, and at the door stood Mrs. Dole to 
welcome us. Such a bonnie sweet face, with the 
loveliest golden brown hair and fair complexion, 
which shewed no traces of the hot sun and salt 
winds, to which she had been accustomed all her 
life. The house was a large one with a huge 
verandah running round three sides, one big sitting 
room the width of the house, opening at once at 
both ends on the verandah, and a dining room in 
the same way ; beyond the sitting rooms were bed- 
rooms, some opening only on to the verandah ; the 
kitchens were a little beyond the house, as is the 
case almost universally ; and a few hundred yards 
away were a couple of tiny cottages, each with one 


room — a dressing room— and a verandah. These 
cottage rooms are generally kept for visitors, and a 
most sensible fashion, (when so many houses are 
built on one floor), thus ensuring peaceful solitude, 
if wished, for one's island friends. 

Mr. Dole's hospitable table was a picture to be 
remembered ; the fine, stalwart figure and kind 
face of the master of the house, the sweet, fresh 
looks of the wife, and no less than eight blooming 
young faces gathered round. We were very hungry 
and did full justice to the good fare, with appetites 
sharpened by the see breezes, and in less than an 
hour afterwards we had said good-bye to our 
friends and were on our way to Kilauea. But 
many a pleasant day did I spend afterwards with 
them. Nothing could exceed the true kindness 
with which we were treated at that house, and I 
think we all felt a bitter pang when we finally said 

The drive from Kapaa was a very beautiful one, 
though very tiring, from the number of hills to be 
surmounted, or, as they say in Hawaii, " gulches 
crossed." The mules galloped up and down hill 
and walked on the level, a mode of travel remark- 
able to my unused eyes. Fording was another 


experience, not pleasant ; the water apparently 
going one way and you striving for another is not 
the most delightful sensation ; however, we con- 
quered all obstacles, and the day was still young 
when we turned in at a wooden gate, which was 
surmounted by an arch of evergreens as a welcome. 
I saw several flags flying from different parts of the 
plantation, also in our honour, and in a few minutes 
we passed under another arch and drew up in front 
of " Wailele Cottage," or " Wailele Hale," as the 
natives called it, meaning "House by the Water- 
fall." The house was most beautifully situated, 
almost on the brink overlooking the Kilauea River, 
which rushed down from the lovely fall just above 
the house. 

The river was very wide just opposite the side 
verandah, and looking down the high bank the 
ferns and foliage were in lovely profusion. 

In the marshy land across the river, at the foot 
of the bank was a splendid grove of bannanas, of an 
especially good kind, and many a feast did we have 
from them. 

The verandahs were soon covered with creepers ; 
passion flowers of a deep purple colour grew in wild 



luxuriance, as also honey suckle and begonia.vanus- 
ta, the last a most gorgeous climber, bearing blos- 
soms of a deep gold colour. A hedge of scented ge- 
ranium ran up on each side of the pathway to the 
gate ; double scarlet geraniums with enormous 
blossoms, pink begonias, oleanders all nourished ; 
a bed of variegated caladium marked a damp 
corner ; shrubs of scarlet hibiscus, and clumps of 
the Australian castor oil trees made bits of colour, 
and handsome stalks of sunflowers stood up in 
all their glory. Tuberoses grew beautifully, mari- 
golds of every shade of yellow ; and balsams, 
which were unwittingly planted, grew in such pro- 
lific quantities that we had to have a periodical 
rooting up ; also vincas ; some cocoa palms from 
Tahiti, the nuts given to us by a friend, and a tiny 
grove of orange trees soon promised well. A 
large tree of mangoes gave delicious fruit, and a 
huge grove of Oheas gave us the cool juicy moun- 
tain apples. 

At a distance of about two miles was a capital 
grove of lime trees, and one of the favourite expe- 
d : tions was a visit to the grove, on horseback, well 
armed with saddle-bags. 

Arrived there, or rather as close to the valley, in 


which the grove was, as we could get, we would 
dismount, scramble down the hill, whereon grew 
several fine bread-fruit trees, and after many 
struggles with the thorn-covered branches of the 
lime trees, we would emerge, victorious, and laden 
with the green and golden spoil. The limes were 
quite as good as lemons, and if they had been left 
to attain full growth would, no doubt, have been as 
large, but the Portuguese labourers liked them as 
well as we did, with the lamentable result that after 
a fine Sunday or public holiday (of which there 
were many) we would find that our favourite grove 
had been well ransacked. 

Guavas grew in quantities also close to our 
home"; they are a lovely fruit to look at with their 
golden skin, and when opened disclose a brilliant 
pink colour with dozens of seeds packed close 
together. There are different varieties, some soft 
and sweet, some sharply acid, and again others, 
called the strawberry guava, from its resemblance 
in flavour to that fruit. The guava grows on a 
shrub of varying height, bearing fruit when very 
small ; the leaf not unlike a birch, and the blossom 
white, with a scent and appearance akin to the 


Excellent jelly and marmalade are made from 
guavas, as well as other dishes. I well remember 
a good planter of Mauai telling me his wife had 
sent one hundred pounds of guava jelly, of her own 
making, to her people in Norway as a Christmas 
present, not a cheap one either, as the express, 
etc., was $1.00 a pound. 

The papaia tree is another well-known in Kauai, 
and we had a number of our own planting. This 
tree has several good qualities to recommend it in 
a tropical climate. It grows with astonishing rapi- 
dity, a plant from seed shooting up in a few months 
to a full-grown tree ; the leaves which are long, 
with curiously cut-out edges, grow from the tops, 
gathering themselves together and springing out in 
form not unlike an umbrella tree, with the fruit 
hanging in a great clump immediately beneath. 

The latter vary in size, the largest being that 
of an ordinary melon, with a smooth hard skin, 
and slightly pear-shaped. As the fruit gets a 
slightly yellow colour, it is picked and in a few 
days is fit for use. When cut open in the middle, 
the two halves are found full of small round seeds, 
which are carefully removed, leaving about an 
inch of the yellow flesh, and when these hollows 


are filled with sugar and lime juice, and baked, 
the dish is a most appetizing one, and one which 
never failed to find favour with our friends. 

The toughest meat if wrapped in the papaia 
leaves will become tender after such treatment, 
and a valuable medicine is made from the fruit 
itself, which alone has an anti-scorbutic effect. 
Aligator pears have a great attraction for many, 
these have a tough greenish brown skin, and 
the soft white meat is taken out and spread on 
bread, eaten with salt and pepper. 

Hawaiian oranges are delicious, and a kind 
German having given us permission to invade his 
kuliana, or vegetable and fruit garden, we drove 
over to it, to find orange trees of enormous height, 
with their golden fruit lying in heaps which we les- 
sened considerably ; they grow wild in many parts 
of the islands and bear in profusion. And, can 
anyone imagine anything much more poetic in 
idea, or delicious in flavour, than honey made from 
orange blossoms ? A friend told me that at certain 
times of the year, the bees used to gather their 
material from the orange groves on her father's 
ranche, and that honey was always known as the 
" orange-blossom honey," most idyllic, that ! The 


bread fruit tree ( I wonder why bread fruit ? As 
unlike that staple production of northern climes as 
anything can well be!) is a very fine, handsome 
tree, with large irregular leaves growing in bunches, 
and the round, knotty fruit growing singly. It 
must be picked in a certain condition of ripeness to 
be eaten, as if left until it is yellow, it falls to the 
ground to be found quite decayed. So when it is 
desired for the table, a native or South Sea 
Islander is sent on a climbing expedition, and 
soon discovers one with the proper greenish yellow 
hue, a hole is cut in the rind to the required 
depth, and filled with salt ; it is then baked, in 
the coals if possible, and broken into rough pieces 
when dished. 

To my taste it was anything but nice, and in 
fact I thought I had by mistake got on my plate 
some bad sweet potatoes once, when dining at a 
friends, and naturally said nothing of it, when I 
heard my neighbor remark to our hostess, " Well ! 
I do think that is the very nicest bread fruit I 
ever tasted ! " All my ideas anent the bread 
fruit in the " Swiss Family Robinson," were im- 
mediately put to flight, and I never cared to 
repeat the experiment. 


Everything nearly grows almost without care 
and culture, and a small amount of trouble will 
repay the flower and fern lover in a marvellous 
fashion. A few tea boxes filled with fern roots 
made a lovely window garden, and for months 
they flourished, throwing out fresh fronds as the 
old ones decayed. 

The tree ferns in the damp depths of the 
mountain forest were a wonderful sight, the golden 
brown vieing with the brilliant green of the great 
drooping fronds ; and one day a Chinaman brought 
me a most curious plant, which grows parasite- 
fashion around the forest trees. The stalk was 
long with rings around it. A huge scarlet cup 
of a very brillant colour, had long drooping edges, 
which seemed to fade off into a pale green, the 
tips being quite eighteen inches in length, inside 
the cup were three enormous brown stamen, as 
large as the very biggest cigar, and much the same 
in appearance ; it was a very curious and beauti- 
ful plant. A native told me it was called the ii 
(ee-ee), and only grew in warm, damp places. 

The only tree which to me had a familiar look, 
were some tall, thin tapering yews, or what were 
very like them ; at the foot of a steep bank close 


to Wailele were three of these trees planted close 
together, by an early settler, and their churchyard 
appearance was more evident, when I discoveerd 
that there were in olden days two graves on that 
spot. Certainly the luxuriance and variety of vege- 
tation is forcibly suggested by the varying tints of 
green in a Hawaiian view. I remember Miss 
Bird speaking of this in her " Six months in the 
Sandwich Islands," and fully agree with all she 
says as to the extreme beauty of the foliage there, 
though perhaps no colour but green may be seen 
for miles. The ragged — always ragged — leaves 
of the banana have a deep green, slightly yellowish 
tint; the cocoanut palm has even more yellow 
in its feathery tops; the Ohia, or mountain apple, 
has the rich green of an oak, the niaille, mangoe, 
and lime trees the same ; while the kukui is a 
light, almost pea-green colour. The pauliala or 
catiJiala (co-ha-la) is, while a sapling very like a 
young aloe, the leaves being long, pointed, and of 
two shades of green ; in growing it assumes a 
curious shape, the main trunk throwing out strag- 
gling branches and clumps of leaves, each clump, 
like a separate plant, growing at the ends of these 
strange-looking arms ; at a distance they are very 


tropical in appearance. The koa is an ugly tree, 
but the wood is beautiful in appearance, and is 
much prized for furniture. At one time sandal 
wood was found in great quantities in the Islands, 
but from sheer carelessness the tree has almost 
disappeared. The magnolia is especially admired 
from its lovely white blossoms, set like ivory jars 
among the thick glossy leaves of deep shining 



Servants ! — Chinese Family. — Mary Mahoi. — Ah Sam and his 
Pretty Bride. — Portugese. — Da Souza. — German Servants. — 
Ah See and his Antics. — Chinese New Year. — " Salt Eggs." — 
Opium Smoking. — Hing Hoi and his Music ! — Sin Fat. — 
Chinese Gamblers.— Theives. — Scribblings — Decorations. — 
Japanese Servants. 

[10 question now-a-days raises much more inter- 
est in a household than that of Servants ! 
Even in the most civilized countries one has to 
confront this, to the mistress of the house; important 
problem and consider the best way of solving it. 

How much more then must the stranger, accus- 
tomed to the comfort of the modern " Registry 
Office for Servants," feel the weight of this ques- 
tion on arriving in a far off land like Hawaii ! 
where, except in the capital, Honolulu, one must 
take what is presented, and be thankful if patience 
and temper will alike hold out during the weary 
work of training a new : ' hand " or " help " as the 
servants were often called ; ignorant of each other's 
language even ; and the knowledge that the mere 
necessaries of every day comfort must seem to those 


to be taught, the most uncalled for and absurd 
superfluities of existence. 

The large number of Chinese in the Islands, and 
the almost impossibility of making the natives into 
the most ordinary domestics, render it generally 
the best thing to do, to employ Chinamen alto- 
gether, inside and outside the house. On my first 
arrival at our house I found a family of Chinese 
Christians had been provided for my comfort ; they 
were considered a wonderfully lucky chance, and 
had been living in a very small bachelor household 
for some months in the hope of proving thoroughly 
competent servants, which hope, however, was soon 
dashed to the ground. 

The family consisted of one old woman, who was 
supposed to look after the poultry, her daughter, 
engaged as genaral indoor servant, and her hus- 
band, who was cook, also their two small children. 

They all lived in two rooms outside the house, 
and thought a great deal of themselves, as they 
were " Christians," the younger woman having 
been brought up by the family of the Anglican 
Bishop of Demerara, from whence they had come 
to Hawaii. 

Ting was the name of the man, Emily that of 


his wife, and I never heard what name the old 
woman went by ; Ting appeared delighted to see 
me, laughing and nodding a great deal ; Emily 
likewise beamed on me, and the grandmother kept 
in the distance with the two children clinging to 
her, grinning a friendly welcome. 

The two women were clad in the short full 
trousers and long jacket made of dark blue linen, 
fastened with tiny round buttons, common to all 
ordinary classes of Chinese women ; the old woman 
had a blue cloth covering disposed in folds on her 
head and falling about her face, but Emily's black 
locks were arranged in a most complicated coiffure, 
held together by long silver pins and a big comb. 
Both women had bare feet and wore silver or 
metal bangles on their arms. 

Ting was an excellent cook like many of his 
race, and could make most appetizing dishes out of 
almost nothing, but his kitchen was best beheld 
from a distance ! Emily was both lazy and im- 
pertinent, flatly refusing to do any work at all after 
two o'clock, and in a few days we found out that 
they had been merely making use of the house 
given to them, and had been making their own 
arrangements to go off as soon as they found they 


could not do exactly as they liked ; so we parted 
with no very kind feelings, and so ended our one 
experience of Christian Chinese, Christian only in 
name, I fear. 

I had profuse offers of help from the daughter of 
the native minister, Mary Mahoi by name, a tall, 
stout girl with a very black face and quantities of 
frizzy black hair ; she bore a good character, and 
I thought I would try and make a servant out 
of her ; so I tried and, like many others, failed in 
the attempt. She agreed to come at eight o'clock 
every morning and stay as long as I wanted her. 
At the first visit to arrange matters, Mary sat, I 
should say, for quite two hours looking at me, and 
saying at intervals in a funny kind of " coaxing 
way," " I'm awful glad to come and help you ; " 
my ignorance of the custom of being often obliged 
to tell a native visitor that it was time to go, pre- 
venting me from doing what I thought might hurt 
the girl's feelings, and I was only relieved from my 
post by the entrance of some one who was more 
familiar with Hawaiian etiquette. For the first 
three days Mary appeared punctually, and my 
hopes ran high ; the fourth morning she did not 
come till ten o'clock ; the fifth her mother sent for 


her long before her work was done, and after that, 
the novelty of her situation having worn off, her 
days were scattered over broad intervals, and I was 
obliged to own that native " help " was beyond 
me ! Mary would go off to a wood close by and 
make long wreathes of ferns and flowers and I . 
would find them disposed gracefully about the 
table and over the toilet glass. One day when I 
was in what is called in Island parlance a " great 
pilikia," meaning trouble of any description, the 
Chinese cook having run off, Mary promised, in 
answer to my pathetic appeals, that she would come 
without fail ; but not a bit of it ; she never appeared 
until three days afterwards, when I saw her in a 
dirty holoku and bare feet, coming in the back 
verandah looking very sheepish, and on my asking 
her the reason of her non-appearance, she replied 
her " mother had company ; " evidently their com- 
pany was of infinitely more importance than my 
wishes, so I gave up the idea for ever of being able to 
implant the word "duty" in that direction, though 
Mary and I were always great friends, and she wept 
freely when I told her we were going away. I took 
great interest in her, giving her books to read and 
neat articles of attire to put on her fat person, with- 
out much effect, however, as all her pocket money 


went in silver bangles, rings, etc., which she always 
brought to shew me. One day I met her walking 
up the plantation holding a large parasol over her 
head, which was extremely funny, as the sun does 
not exist that a native cannot enjoy with impunity. 

Every few months Mary used to bring one or 
two hats for the gentlemen, made by herself from 
the tassel of the sugar cane, and very light and 
nice they were. She had two sisters married to 
white men, mechanics, and was very anxious to be 
the bride of another herself, but I fear her wish 
was never realized. 


Many native women do marry white men, but 
the custom is not so frequent now as it was some 
time ago. Chinamen also marry native wives, and 
are generally very good to them, giving them ser- 
vants, horses and all necessaries of comfort to 
Hawaiians, poi, fish, etc. A Chinaman who had 
a large " store " a few miles from Kilauea, wherein 
he did a large trade in the dearly loved forbidden 
fruit of the native, viz., whiskey and gin, married 
an extremely pretty half-white girl who was known 
as " Carry," and Mary came one day to tell me of 
the festivities which were to celebrate the wedding. 

The young lady was to be married at her future 


home, and the bridegroom was to give a right 
royal feast, for which the most extensive prepara- 
tions were being made ; a pavilion, or lanai as it is 
called, was erected for the ceremony, and vast 
quantities of roast pig, fish, cooked and uncooked, 
sweet potatoes, poi, all the delicacies known were 
to be displayed. Mary's father was to officiate in 
the Hawaiian language, as Chinese nearly all speak 
that tongue as well as their own lingo. 

" And what will Carry wear, Mary ? " " Oh, a 
beautiful white satin holoku trimmed with white 
Jace, and a long train, all tied back like the Alii's 
(white chief's) dress." 

" Dear me," I said, knowing the high prices 
asked for the simplest dress, " and how much will 
she pay for it ? " " Eighty dollars, ma'am," said 
Mary, "and Carry has got a black silk holoku 
and a red one." " Why, a regular trousseau," I 
said. " Has Carry got a lot of money ? " " No, 
ma'am," said Mary, grinning to shew all her big 
white teeth ; " Ah Sam (the Chinaman) he give it 
all." " What, before he marries," I cried. " Yes, 
ma'am," said Mary, chuckling greatly at my aston- 
ishment, " and Ah Sam he give all the luau too, and 
he have Carry's father and mother to live with him, 


too." An accommodating husband, I thought ; for 
I had seen Carry's mamma, who was a huge, fine- 
looking native, not one who would be very likely 
to do very much for herself or anyone else. Carry 
was quite a picture, as we would meet her riding in 
a deep Mexican saddle, wearing a bright crimson 
holoku, a straw hat wreathed with flowers, perched 
on the top of a small, well shaped head, and a big 
lei of leaves round her shoulders. She was a very 
haughty looking damsel, and very rarely vouch- 
safed a smile in return for our aloha. Ah Sam was 
not an ideal bridegroom in his appearance, being 
fat and greasy, wearing his hair cut in a fringe on 
his forehead and a long queue. He sent me a 
present of some chickens at the time of the wedding 
(probably repaying himself from my poultry yard.) 

Mary having failed us so lamentably, I was 
obliged to revert to the services of Chinese, and 
many odd experiences we had. Portuguese make 
good servants when trained, but there are not 
enough of them, and they were good labourers in 
the field, so my trials of that nation were few. 

A man called Manuel da Souza, and his wife 
Jivita were bright examples of thrift, honesty and 
eleanliness. I taught Souza easily so that he 


became a most excellent, faithful servitor to the 
time of our departure, filling up the gaps left by 
the many Chinamen, (who would run away at a 
moment's notice) with the utmost cheerfulness. 
Victorina was a Portuguese of immense size and 
strength, and would come and help me when- 
ever asked, and has often sent messages through 
Souza, (from whom we have heard more than once) 
to the " Signora." 

Again, a German woman, Dorotea, was a 
capital servant, and she was very loth to leave us, 
but her husband was determined to try his fortune 
in New Zealand, so with many tears on Dorotea's 
part she had to go with him. 

After Ting and his family had departed, our 
next experiment was " Charlie," — a raw hand out 
of the fields, but he wished to go back to the field 
work soon He spoke very broken English, and 
when he had to go off to the baker on the planta- 
tion, would always tell me he " was going to get 
bled ! " 

Ah See followed him, and was with us nearly a 
year. A most excellent servant was Ah See, a 
funny-looking little fellow, very quick and active 


and cooking the plain food attainable, in such a 
way as to be really delicious at times. 

He had a keen sense of the ridiculous, and I was 
always in doubt as jto whether the mistake he 
made in his cooking one evening was done on pur- 
pose, or as a bit of fun on his part to provoke us. 

We were expecting two strangers to dine with 
us, and as on these occasions, one has frequently to 
depend on what Americans call " canned goods," 
I told Ah See to open a tin of curried fowl and 
serve it with the rice, which only a Chinaman can 
cook properly. These curries were always in tins 
covered with green paper, and Ah See knew their 
appearance perfectly. In the storeroom on another 
shelf I had put away some half dozen of " cherry 
tooth paste " which compound was much affected 
by one of the members of our household. These 
were white china pots, as unlike the tins of curry as 
could well be imagined. 

Our friends arrived, and the inevitable beef hav- 
ing been removed, I was thinking the curry would 
be an agreeable change, and was pleased at the 
appearance it presented, when Ah See brought the 
dish in, with the limes and chutney all de rigueur, 
and put it down with a grand flourish, and then 


stood beside his master's chair, with his usual 
demure look of attention. I was talking at the 
time the plate was put before me, and at first did 
not notice anything peculiar, but on tasting - , oh, 
horrors ! the first mouthful, it was evident some- 
thing was wrong. I turned the mass over, and 
looked at it again and suddenly found what ? 
" Cherry tooth paste ! " I said with a gasp, " Ah 
See, what did you take the curry out of?" He 
made a kind of jump to the door, which opened on 
the verandah, rushed into the kitchen, and brought 
back the empty china pot ! 

"Yes Missee, yes Missee, you see cully all the 
same " — his face distorted by the true Chinese grin, 
quite charmed at his own handiwork. 

We felt sure Ah See meant the whole thing as a 
delightful practical joke, though he would not allow 
it, but the expression of his face I shall never for- 
get. There was nothing to do, of course, but to 
scold and laugh — our friends joining in heartily. 

New Year is the great Chinese festival. It 
begins with the first moon in January, and every 
one who employs Chinese is obliged to give in to 
the universal custom, and allow their servants to 
go off for three days at least. 


One day, the first of the festival, Ah See made 
his appearance dressed in the most ultra fashion- 
able way. Someone had given him a white linen 
waistcoat which he had carefully buttoned over the 
white full coat usually worn by Chinamen ; on top 
of this he had a wadded garment of blue silk with 
large sleeves ; white trousers much too long for 
him, were turned up in several folds above his 
ankles, displaying the heavy shoes of embroidered 
felt ; his head well shaved, and his queue wrapped 
neatly round it. But to crown the toilet he had 
got somewhere a very high stiff collar which he 
was endeavouring to fasten on a refractory button ; 
having at last succeeded, he displayed himself 
with pride, shewing also a large silver locket which 
dangled at a long chain, at his waistcoat, and 
strutting round like a small bantam, he assured 
me he was, " Allee same as Melican man ! " and 
went off beaming with complacency. One day he 
brought me a small lacquer work-box containing 
some eggs which had a very queer look, almost blue 
white, and on taking one up I found it quite 
solid. Ah See said they were " Salt eggs," and 
" welly good." I gave them back, and that even- 
ing the whole house was pervaded with a most 
awful odour, horrible ! Ah See had been eating 


these salt eggs, which were nothing more or less 
than putrid ! The rest of the offensive articles 
were confiscated and thrown into the river at 
once, amidst wailings and tears from the little 

We found that Ah See was gradually be- 
coming an opium smoker, and one night finding 
him trucked up in bed smoking inside his mos- 
quito curtains his master took possession of the 
long wooden pipe and tin of opium ; he entreated 
to have the pipe returned, saying, " He was welly 
much flight one Chinaman killee him if he no 
give pipe back," and finally, finding his lamenta- 
tions of no effect, he brought me three silver 
dojlars and begged me to take them, buy some 
cigars for the master as a bribe, and, "Then, 
Missee, you give him cigars, he give me back 
pipe ! " 

At last, however, Ah See became such a victim 
to the opium, that we were obliged to have him 
sent to prison, but, on his trial by the native 
judge, was acquitted, as he bribed both Judge 
and lawyer alike, though the pipe was produced 
in Court as it had been found in his possession. 

Opium is the great curse of the Chinese — they 


lose their health, are unable to attend to their 
work or business, but still the drug has such a 
fascination for them that they cannot give it up. 
I have seen them with their faces the colour and 
appearance of parchment, their eyes heavy and 
dull, their hands trembling, and yet the perni- 
cious habit is so strong that they are unable to 
avoid it. 

The opium in the smoking state is like a thick 
black paste, with a heavy, sickly smell. This is 
lighted in a huge wooden pipe with a long stem 
and deep bowl ; a {ew whiffs are enough to pro- 
duce the stupor neccessary to the smoker's enjoy- 

Ah See, was, apparently, something of a fire-wor- 
shipper, as one morning, when a Chinese feast was 
in progress on the plantation, we heard a tremen- 
dous cracking and fizzing, and on going out to 
enquire into the cause of the noise we found he 
had lighted two bundles of fire-crackers, which 
were going off in every direction, and Ah See, with 
his hands up to his forehead, was bowing and grim- 
macing to the crackers, as though they were so 
many spirits, and muttering what I supposed were 

charms against evil. 


One servant we had, Hing Hoy by name, used 
to employ all his leisure moments twanging on a 
musical instrument with absolutely no tune what- 
ever in it, but that appeared to make no difference 
to his enjoyment. 

The last one was Sin Fat, a most excellent, 
clever servant, but a great thief, and with no regard 
whatever for the truth. He ran away one night, 
having bundled up all his belongings while we were 
at dinner, and, throwing them out of the window, 
he walked off and no policeman or sheriff, white 
man or native, could be induced to take the trouble 
to arrest him, though we knew he was on the plan- 
tation ; so we came to the conclusion, unwillingly, 
that his bribes had been especially tempting. 

With Chinese servants one has to conform to 
the custom of letting them have at least two or 
three hours to themselves every day, and these 
recreations are frequently employed in gambling. 

Chinamen are inveterate gamblers, and coming 
through the quarters on a pay day the clink of 
silver dollars can be heard all over, with the inces- 
sant cackle of the voices, as Chinamen always talk 
together.; they will gamble anything, clothes, 
trinkets, wages — anything they can get hold of. 


They are also great thieves, anything in the 
shape of gold or silver is quite irresistible to them. 

Sin Fat was left in charge once during our 
absence of some weeks, and everything was found 
in perfect order on our return ; but a day or two 
afterwards a lamp, clock, and mincing machine 
disappeared out of the kitchen ; Sin Fat declaring 
that " Some man, he come at night, and stealee 
him," and always thereafter, made a great show of 
locking the kitchen door, which was a precaution 
hitherto deemed quite unnecessary. We always 
put Sin Fat himself down as the thief, as he 
imagined himself free from suspicion ; but, I fear 
it was a case literally, of locking the stable after 
the horse had gone. 

A friend of ours had a Chinaman called Tarn, 
whom he thought all the world of, but he was sent 
away for opium smoking, and coming back one 
day when he knew the family were at dinner, he 
broke open a desk and stole a number of bank 
notes. Tam was arrested and searched, but nothing 
found, till his master noticing a look of anxiety in 
his face when they took up an under garment to 
shake again, said, " rip it open," which was accord- 
ingly done, and the money found neatly sewn into 


the fokls of the waistcoat, so Tarn was sentenced to 
two years' imprisonment. 

They have a curious custom when leaving a place, 
to write in their queer hieroglyphics on a door, or 
perhaps the wall, any hints with regard to the 
habits of the family, they think may be of use to 
their successors ; and it is as well to look well 
about before engaging a new servant, for these 
treacherous scribblings. 

During the New Year they have processions to 
honour their saints, and on the plantation their 
joss houses are trimmed up with long lines of small 
flags of every hue hung on top of the roofs ; the 
smell of pork cooking is savoury on the air, and the 
shop keepers have open houses for the three days. 
Those with whom you deal invariably bring offer- 
ings of the best they have ; thus, the Chinaman 
who had the plantation " store," Kong Lung by 
name, sent us always a ham, a big box of Itches 
(a kind of soft nut very sweet and nice), a bottle 
of vile brandy, jars of ginger, sometimes a caddy 
of tea, silk handkerchiefs and quantities of dried 

They also grow plants of narcissus so as to have 
them in bloom at that time, and the china pots and 


dishes full of the yellow and white flowers, look 
very sweet and fresh. 

Cards are exchanged then, too, being in the 
form of extraordinary black signs on slips of pink 
paper, which are sometimes pasted on the doors 
as well. 

Huge coloured lanterns, several feet in circum • 
ference, hang in their verandahs, and all day, and 
sometimes all night, will be heard the twang of 
their favourite musical instrument, a cross between 
a banjo and a guitar, which has literally no music 
in it, but which seems to furnish an unending source 
of amusement. 

Woe to the unlucky ones who have the pleasure 
of owning a poultry yard, as for weeks before the 
New Year they are infested with human foxes in 
the shape of Chinamen, who do their best to 
denude the roosts, to furnish their tables with good 
cheer for their festival. 

Japanese have made their way well in Hawaii 
lately, and are extremely liked as domestic ser- 
vants. The women look very grotesque walking 
on their high clogs ; dressed in queer, bunched up, 


narrow garments, wrapped tightly round them, 
and most awkward for moving about in ; but they 
are very clean, very clever, and most courteous in 
their manner, always doffing their caps when they 
meet a stranger, with a beaming smile. Their 
living rooms always contain a large platform about 
eight inches in height, and on these they sleep, eat, 
and sit. Enormous pots of hot water are always 
seen near their houses, for their daily ablutions, 
which they do not mind in the least, performing in 



Rides and drives about Kilauea. — Kalikiwai Valley. — Valley of 
Hanalei. — After glow of Sunset. — Swarm of Red Fish. 

Death of the last of the Kammehamahas Queen Emma. 


COME of the rides and drives about our planta- 
tion home on the Island of Kauai (Kow-why), 
which was about one hundred miles by sea from 
Honolulu, were beautiful in the extreme, so diverse 
in their beauty that we never got tired of them, but 
always found fresh loveliness to look on and to 
remember. Two especially were always attractive 
for ourselves and visitors, and many a delightful 
day we had taking our friends to the valleys of 
Kalihiwai (Kalee-hee-why)and Hanalei (Hannalay). 

In the first named valley lived our Chinese 
friend, Ah Sam, who had married the half-white 
Carry, and who proved such an extremely generous 
husband. His house was quite down in the valley, 
through which ran a river, meandering quietly to 
the sea ; it was deep at its mouth, but at certain 
times was fordable just before it curved down to 
the ocean. Ah Sam's house was close to the river, 


and on the opposite bank another Celestial had 
taken up his abode (both kept illicit grog shops), 
also with the intention of selling spirits, and it was 
said that signals could be given and returned if by 
any chance the sheriff and his officers were seen 
coming one way or the other ; and thus prevent 
trouble, as, of course, neither of these charming 
law-breakers had a license to sell anything like 
whiskey or gin, in which latter beverage truly the 
soul of the native delighteth. 

The road down which we wended our way, per- 
haps on horseback, perhaps in a pony phaeton 
'drawn by a stout little mule, most sure-footed of 
animals, was very steep, cut out of the side of a 
high hill, a bank of rock covered with ferns and 
moss, and streams babbling down like miniature 
falls, on one hand, and on the other, the sea rolling 
into a curved sandy beach, which formed the mouth 
of the valley. At the foot of the road was a stretch 
of green turf, of a thick, soft, reed-like grass, called 
Mainanea, which grew most luxuriantly near the 
sea, and was capital pasture for horses and cattle, 
extending a short distance with a few native houses 
scattered about, each almost buried in creepers and 
mango groves. Having passed these, the ford was 


reached, and a dilapidated old ferry was supposed 
to be in readiness for passengers, though I can safely 
say, I never knew it to be on the side one wished. 
At times the river was easy enough to cross on 
horseback, but at others the current was very stiff 
to encounter, and the water deep. I have often 
watched natives urge their horses in, and have seen 
them sink deeper and deeper, till at length the horse 
would be swimming, with the man or woman rest- 
ing their feet on the horse's neck, finally getting 
them as high as the animal's ears, sitting perfectly 
at ease, and probably urging the poor creature into 
a canter immediately on landing. 

When we drove to the ferry, the natives were 
intensely interested in helping to unharness the 
mule, and roll the carriage by means of two boards 
laid for the wheels, from the edge of the shore to 
the ferry, laughing and chatting at the top of their 
voices, probably accompanying us to the opposite 
bank, where the performance was repeated. Our 
little Canadian-built phaeton, four-wheeled and 
without a covered top, was always a source of 
curiosity to the natives, and great was their astonish- 
ment, as was that of our white friends, when we 
afterwards made the tour of Kauai in it, up hill, 
down almost precipices, along the rocky sea-shore. 


120 miles in all — a most delightful experience 
Kalihiwai, bathed in sunshine, was a lovely picture, 
the mountains throwing their shadows of purple 
and blue down the valley, and bringing out the 
delicate tints of the rice patches grown by the China- 
men, and finally ending in a glittering water-fall, 
like a stream of silver, which came rushing down 
the rocks at the extreme head of the valley, making 
a vista for the eye to rest upon never to be forgot- 
ten, the wonderful tints of green in the thick foliage 
contrasting with a creeper of surpassing beauty, 
which bore an enormous white bell-like flower, the 
sweet heavy scent of which filled the air for some 

Mounting a steep hill, which rose abruptly out of 
the valley, a little way from the river (always a very 
hot part of the expedition), one can see the lovely 
little valley at one's feet, with the sea beyond, glow- 
ing in the sun ; and when at the top of the hill, the 
salt breeze comes cool and refreshing. The road 
was very good, and one could canter, or trot on 
quickly, with the sea on one hand, and the glorious 
mountains on the other, across level plains, with 
herds of cattle grazing quietly, only lifting their 
heads and staring, apparently, in astonishment at 


the strange-looking vehicle passing. In one place 
the road made a dip into a hollow, going over a 
river, which rushed down there into a quiet, deep 
pool, fringed with ferns and ohia trees, and after- 
wards found its way into Kalihiwai. Soon, the 
plains began to show signs of life, with a glimpse 
of sugar-cane fields, and presently we were on the 
edge of the Valley of Hanalei. The natives have 
a saying, to express the beauty of the far-famed 
valley, "See Hanalei, and die;" and one cannot 
wonder at their admiration of such a lovely spot. 
We left the road, and walked a few steps beyond, 
where there is a rough sign board nailed on an old 
tree stump, and painted in rude letters, " Crow's 
Nest," attached to which there is a melancholy 
interest from the fact that Lady Franklin used to 
spend hours sitting there, looking with, doubtless, 
sad and wistful eyes for the arrival of the then 
numerous whaling ships which -she hoped might 
bring tidings from the far North of her gallant and 
ill-fated husband. Lady Franklin wished much to 
have a native Anglican Church built on this very 
plateau, and, I believe, bought the ground and gave 
it for that purpose, but the church was never built ; 
still the interest of the story remains, and it must 
always be a true one. 


A small plateau ran out a little further, and from 
there we gazed on the picture before us. A very 
large valley lay at our feet, with a broad river wind- 
ing through it down to the sea. On the left, or 
Mauka side, the grand mountains, lifting their 
heights up till lost in the clouds of mist which rest- 
ed like snow-wreaths on their deep shadows ; the 
rice plantations, with tender green, below us, min- 
gled with the purple tassels of the sugar-cane ; the 
picturesque white and green houses, with broad 
verandahs and roofs all in one ; the barges drifting 
slowly down the river, laden with the cane to get 
ready for the mill, which stood almost in the centre 
of the valley ; the brilliant sunshine, bathing the 
masses of foliage on either side of the river in light ; 
the planter's homestead, half-way down the hill, 
almost buried in flowers and shrubs of every hue ; 
and the broad Pacific beyond all, — made up the most 
wonderfully beautiful view imaginable, scarcely 
perhaps to be excelled. Unlike Kalihiwai, which 
is seen first from its mouth, Hanalei is approached 
from the head, making the effect perhaps more 
intense by one's being able to see it more suddenly. 

On a bright day, when the mists had lifted, 
countless streams could be seen, like silver threads, 
on the purple sides of the mountains, which added 


much to the beauty of the view. After gazing for 
a long time at the picture before us, we drove for 
a short distance on the level, and then were able to 
descend to the river by a broad road, where we 
could drive for a long distance, and crossing a hand- 
some bridge, could see the fine cane, which in all 
stages of its growth is a singularly beautiful crop. 
Down in the damp warmth of the valley it was 
most luxuriant, as the high trade winds which at 
times laid the fields of cane on the plains low in 
the red dust, which forms such a feature in Kauai 
landscape, were unable to reach the deep shelter oi 
the valley. 

A great deal of rice also was grown by China- 
men in the valley, and when the grain was almost 
ready to gather in, it was of a deep golden colour, 
and the noise made by the owners to drive the 
little rice-birds away from their favourite food was 
deafening. Tin cans tied to a revolving pole, bang- 
ing unceasingly in the breeze, was considered a 
valuable mode of warfare ; added to this, guns 
were fired incessantly, and loud cries uttered by the 
watchful Chinamen, who began their work at dawn 
and carried it on without intermission till the sun 
went down, when for a few short hours they were 


able to sleep without fear of the rapacious little 
destroyer undoing their labour of months. 

A sunset at Hanalei was wonderfully beautiful, 
as it sank gradually into the depths of the ocean, 
the valley's mouth being due west ; and at the time 
of the Java eruption the after-glow extended for 
miles over the country. The first time we saw it 
we were six miles away from Hanalei, and could 
see only the ridge of mountains which hid it from 
our view. We thought the deep red glare must 
mean that there was some terrible conflagration on 
the plantation, and were immensely relieved to find 
that that terror of the planter, fire, was not the 
cause; but our friends told us that as they watched 
the crimson glow flooding the sea and mountains 
with colour, they were equally sure that Honolulu 
itself must be entirely in flames. It lasted for days, 
almost weeks, and the natives were terror-stricken, 
believing thai: some terrible judgment must be 
coming on them ; but as days went on, and no harm 
did approach, they, with characteristic indifference, 
forgot all about the freak of nature. 

The native superstition is very great, as no doubt 
all aboriginal superstition must be; but there is 
one thing which — one must say so from personal 


experience on our own part — is most extraordinary, 
and I can imagine that some of my readers will 
scarcely credit what I have to tell. As the death 
of a high chief approaches, a swarm of tiny red 
fish invariably come about the harbour of Honolulu 
or his birthplace. At no other time do they appear. 
During our stay in the islands the three last great 
chiefs of the line of Kamehameha died, and each 
time, just before their death, did the swarm of fish 
come, reddening the waters till they looked like 
blood. The first to die was Princess Ruth (Keeliko- 
lani), a woman of enormous stature, and extraordin- 
ary plainness of appearance. She had been ill for 
some time, and had been under the influence of her 
native Kahunas, or praying doctors, to such an extent 
that she had made a journey to the foot of Mauna 
Loa,on Hawaii intending to be carried up the mount- 
ain to sacrifice white chickens and pigs to the burn- 
ing lake, thereby hoping to appease the wrath of 
the Goddess Pel£; who is supposed even yet to be 
the presiding Deity of the Volcano. On arriving 
at the mountain, however, it was found that Her 
Royal Highness' enormous bulk quite precluded 
the hope of getting up herself, so she was obliged 
to have the sacrifice made by proxy, sending some 
of her numerous retinue to perform the rites; but 


of no avail, as some time later she died. Mrs. Pan- 
hahi Bishop was the next to follow : she was a half- 
white, but on her mother's side was a direct descend- 
ant of Kamehameha I. She was a very handsome 
woman, and of great wealth, holding large properties 
in the islands. She had married a Mr. Bishop, an 
Englishman and a banker. Their home in Hono- 
lulu was a very beautiful one, with lovely gardens, 
and the house itself a perfect museum of Hawaiian 
curiosities. Mrs. Bishop's death was almost unex- 
pected, but the deadly swarm of red fish came into 
the harbour, again the herald of disaster. 

The last death was indeed a grievous calamity, 
for with Queen Emma expired the last of her race ; 
she was the last lineal descendent of Kamehameha 
I., her own son dying at an early age. Queen Emma 
was adored by the natives, and she might well be, 
tor she made herself almost poor by her constant 
charities among them ; and she supported many of 
them entirely herself. She also had a lovely house 
and grounds in Honolulu, but spent most of her time 
at a country home down by Pearl River, some miles 
east of the town. The queen was a sweet-faced 
woman, with a low musical voice, and great dignity 
of manner. She died very suddenly, indeed with- 


out warning almost, and this time the red fish made 
their appearance at Kona on Hawaii, where much 
of Queen Emma's early youth was spent; the 
natives there being terribly frigthened, not know- 
ing what had befallen, until the mail from Hono- 
lulu brought the sad news. Her funeral was, of 
course, accompanied by all the rite and customs of 
Hawaiian royality. Natives came in from all the 
islands to attend it, and the wailings were heard 
without intermission from the boats as they ap- 
proached Honolulu. Her body was taken at night 
(after being embalmed) to the old native church 
— and lay in state for a week, with the fea- 
ther Kahilis waving continually, the bearers cha- 
nging every two hours — six walking up the aisle 
in step, and changing the Kahilis, so that there 
was no intermission even for a moment, and the 
native melees, or chants of praise, were sung by 
the different choirs and musical societies ; the scent 
of the leis and wreaths of flowers was overpowering. 
The procession was enormous, and took two hours 
to pass a given point — nearly all the natives on 
foot — and so passed to the tomb of her fathers a 
gentle Christian woman and a good queen. 



Volcano of Mauna Loa. — Visit to Crater and Burning Lake. — 
Superstition of Natives. — Like-like dies. Superstitions about 
Deaths. — Lomi-lomi. — Awa Root. — Intoxicating Beverages. — 
Old Native. — Natives Riding. — Breaking Horses. — Leprosy. — 
Molokai. — Father Damien. — Old Leper at Kilauea. 

/I MONGST the many places to be visited on 
the Hawaiian Islands, the volcano of Mauna 
Loa, and the lake of fire at Kilauea on Hawaii 
are, perhaps, the most interesting to those who do 
not mind a rough voyage between the islands, and 
an equally rough journey by land. The inter- 
island steamers vary much in their degrees of 
comfort, but perhaps the largest and best are those 
which convey the tourist to the port of Hilo, from 
where one must take horse for a long, steady ride 
up hill to the Volcano house, as the stopping place 
for visitors to the far-famed volcano is called. 

Hilo is the port next in importance to Honolulu, 
and there travellers make arrangements for the 
ride up the great Crater of Kilauea. 

A mule purchased in Honolulu for $150 turned 
out a valuable animal ; for, besides being stronger 


and more sure-footed than a horse, he was sold for 
$25 advance in price at the end of the expedition, 
having carried his rider well and thus having cost 

The ride is a long one — thirty miles — and very 
lonely and quiet, the road lying partly through 
forests of ohia and ku-kui trees principally, nearly 
all covered with a species of creeper, which, as it 
grows, throws out branches which have tops like 
palm trees, only with smaller leaves. The tree ferns 
in this forest were very high, quite twenty feet or 
more, most luxuriant in growth, some green, some 
brown, others a deep red, and with those half dead or 
quite decayed, gave colouring to the mass of jungle. 

During the twenty miles one was supposed to get 
some refreshment at two " half-way " houses, but 
the houses were apparently deserted and nothing 
to be seen but a pail of water and a tin cup hang- 
ing beside ; a veritable drinking fountain, of which 
both mule and rider were glad to take advantage. 
The Volcano House was reached in due time, a 
comfortable enough hotel, not far from the crater, 
which is obliging enough to provide travellers with 
excellent sulphur baths, which soon remove all 
stiffness incurred from the long ride. The dinner 
consisted of shoulder of wild goat, excellent pota- 


toes and Indian corn. Wild goats are plentiful 
and good game ; the meat when young is tender 
and very palatable to the hungry visitor. 

From the verandah of the hotel the red glare of 
the crater was seen very distinctly through the deep 
tropical darkness, and though undoubtedly the best 
time for seeing the lake of fire, the guide refused to 
take us at night, so a good rest after the' fatigues of 
travelling was most acceptable. 

The next morning, after breakfast, the guide 
accompanying us, we started for the crater, walking 
at first through a jungle of small ohia trees, then 
in full blossom, bright crimson in colour, mingled 
with a shrub called by the natives turkey wings, 
bearing red berries, which the guide declared good 
to eat ; they were much the same in appearance as 
small cherries. 

The jungle sloped down, and at the foot of the 
bank we came on the bed of cooled lava, and 
walked over it to within a hundred yards of the 
burning lake of lava, called by the natives Ha- 
lemau-mau, a truly grand sight. About fifty 
feet off was a hill, or crest of lava, on which the 
guide would not let us go, as he said it probably 
would give way at any moment, for the lava on 
which we were then standing was quite hot. 


For more than two miles we had walked on 
lava, merely a thin crust over the fires, and liable 
at any moment to burst out with fresh force. 
About a hundred and fifty yards from where we 
stood the guide shewed us a dark-looking hole from 
which a fortnight before, an immense quantity of 
lava had issued, and only six months before, the 
lava had flowed up to the very edge of the bank 
which we had come down. 

The lake itself, about four hundred feet by one 
hundred, w r as of an iron gray colour and here 
and there we could see the red hot lava flowing 
along the surface ; then a wave would cross, the 
sun shining so brightly on it, one might fancy it a 
wave of the sea, topped by a red crest instead of a 
" white horse." The edge of the lake was all fire, 
and on the side nearest to us, at short intervals, the 
red lava would be thrown up twenty to thirty feet. 
Often it is thrown as high as one hundred feet, we 
were told. For a few seconds all would be appa- 
rently quiet, and then a rolling wave would cross 
and burst into a myriad of leaping fires, shewing 
a constant terrible force at work below the earth's 
surface. The lake and its surroundings are con- 
stantly changing— immediately below us, and on 


our right, the lava was quite still, and only three 
days ago it was a heaving mass, flowing and molten. 
The guide then volunteered to take us to where 
he said only three visitors had gone ; so off we set, 
and soon stood on the western side within eight 
feet of the very edge of the lake itself, so close that 
the lava broke off, so brittle and hot was it, with a 
slight blow of the pole we each carried. Watch- 
ing the gray, sullen mass before us, broken every 
few seconds by the leaping flames, thrown in some 
instances far above us, one could only feel in the 
presence of some terrible invisible power working 
quite independently of human agencies. Only a 
short time could we stand so close to this " fire 
fountain," as Miss Gordon dimming calls it, as the 
fumes of the sulphur threatened to suffocate us. 
As it was, we were not free from headache in con- 
sequence of our venture. 

The bed of lava in the crater is quite four miles 
in extent, probably more, and specimens very 
beautiful in shape and colour can be picked up in 
many directions — and some curious material, like 
spun glass, brittle and shining, very fine in sub- 
stance. It is known as " Pele's Hair," Pele being 
the presiding goddess of the volcano, and to this 


day the natives sacrifice to her by throwing silver, 
or white pigs or hens into the fires, thinking to pro- 
pitiate her, and perhaps avert the calamity of an 
overflow of lava, which superstition has a curious 
resemblance to the offering made by the Scottish 
peasants to their holy wells of olden fame, into 
which are thrown pennies and sixpences ; formerly 
the killing of a red cock was considered a necessary 
rite to appease the wrath of the earth spirits. 

When any unusual eruption of the volcano takes 
place the natives are terror-stricken, believing that 
some fresh sacrifice is demanded of the people to ap- 
pease Pele's wrath, and in the days of the autocra- 
tic government by the great chiefs human lives were 
offered for that purpose, and such is the supersti- 
tion of the Hawaiian of to-day that a few months 
ago the sister of the present monarch, Princess 
Like- Like, who had been ill for some time, but who 
was recovering, hearing of the sudden stoppage of 
the fires of the crater, which then threatened to 
burst forth in a terrible overflow of lava, hurling 
destruction on all villages between it and the sea, 
and believing that by giving her life she could pre- 
vent such a calamity, literally turned her face to 
the wall and died from sheer inanition, refusing all 


nourishment for three days, and disregarding all 
appeals from her physician ; probably her own 
native Kahunas had induced her to believe that her 
life was a necessary sacrifice. What has Christi- 
anity done for these poor people when such things 
can be ? The missionaries and church people have 
worked hard, but apparently to little effect, when 
one of their highest chiefs can think of nothing 
better than to yield to one of their oldest super- 
stitions. Hanamau-mau signifies " House of Ever- 
lasting Burning. 

The native superstition is something extraordin- 
ary to this day. If any member of a family dies 
in the house, it is soon deserted, as they believe 
that the spirit of the departed, no doubt in company 
with "kindred spirits" will take possession of the 
hut, making it uncomfortable for those left behind 
in this world of woe. 

My friend Mary astonished me very much one 
day, with the account she gave me of a luau, or 
feast which had been held at the house of a neieh- 
bour; it appeared that an old man, a grandfather 
of the flock, fell ill, and, as apparently he could not 
be cured, the Kahuna ordered a luau to be arranged 
in a piece of ground close by. This was done, a 


lanai being hastily constructed of young saplings 
tied together, bananna leaves thrown across for a 
roof, and the inevitable pig being baked in a hole 
in the ground, poi and fish produced, the poor old 
native, in a dying condition, was placed on his mat 
in the middle of the feast, so that one fears that his 
end was not peace. Lizards, of which there are 
many varieties in the islands, are held in great fear 
by the superstitious Hawaiian, and the appearance 
of one in a home is regarded as an omen of evil. 
A strange coincidence of ancient Hawaiian customs 
with modern medical treatment is that of lomi-lomi 
as compared with the massage of the present day. 

The high chiefs always had some natives in their 
retinue whose duty it was to perform this lomi-lomi 
when required. After a long ride, or fatigue of an 
undue kind, such as the expedition to the volcano, 
it is said to be most refreshing in its effect. The 
compressing of the muscles, rubbing of the skin, 
pulling of joints, all being almost precisely the same 
as massage. Also, after a feast which might be 
continued for some days, the lomi-lomi was called 
in to help to disperse the effects of dissipation. 
Medical men frequently ordei the lomi-lomi for 
cases of acute rehumatism with excellent results, 


and I have seen a sufferer from sick headache having 
her head lomi-lomied, hoping to get relief from the 
distressing pain. 

When the chiefs went on one of their frequent 
inter-island expeditions, they had native girls whose 
duty it was to prepare the drink made from the awa 
root; the root is chewed into a slimy pulp (a most 
revolting idea) by these female retainers, then put 
into bowls, and left to ferment. It is very intoxi- 
cating, but it is still used in large quantities ; and 
commands a high price. A kind of whiskey is 
made in Hawaii from the ti root, and also a liquor 
from the sweet potatoe. A native will however get 
tipsy on anything almost. A native boy we had 
for a long time, had a great orgie on eau de cologne 
once. Perry Davis's pain killer is a favourite 
stimulant, and even Worcester sauce if they can 
get enough of it. 

The old natives had excellent manners, which 
have sadly degenerated in those of the present day. 
A very old man called Pihi (fish) used to give us a 
bow worthy of a courtier, sweeping his hands towards 
us with a most eloquent gesture expressive of greet- 
ing in answer to our aloha. He was one of the very 
few who did not ride, we would meet him trudging 
along, up and down the many gulches which were 


so frequent between the plantation church and his 
home, generally carrying a huge blue umbrella, his 
white hair shewing out against his copper hued 
face, and bearing the weight of years with remark- 
able rigour ; while it is said of the Hawaiian of 
the present time that he will walk for half an hour 
to catch his horse to ride twenty minutes. They 
are capital riders, being inured to the saddle from 
baby-hood, literally, as babies are frequently carried 
on pillows in front of their mothers. 

The women ride astride, with the stirrup held 
between the toes, and as a rule have firm easy seats, 
and attired on gala days present a fine appearance 
with long flowing garments, flying back from their 
knees along the horse's flanks, of some brilliant 
colour, this latter addition being called a pua, form- 
erly nearly always worn by a Hawaiian equestrienne, 
but now only affected on great occasions. A crowd 
of Hawaiians on horseback coming back from any 
holiday rejoicing is a thing to be avoided, for they 
ride at a reckless pace, and scatter themselves in all 

Nearly all use the deep Mexican saddle, with 
the enormous wooden and leather stirrups, and 
their bridles are often works of art. The natives 
admire good riding immensely, and my husbnnd 


was presented once with a leather bridle made of 
round twisted hide, ornamented at intervals with 
tufts of horse-hair, a very smart affair, made by a 
native friend, and given by him with a word of 
approbation as to some feat of horsemanship which 
had probably attracted his notice. They value 
these bridles rather highly themselves, and we heard 
that a substantial offer had been made for the 
possession of this special one to the maker, so when 
it was given, we were delighted to have such a 
trophy to bring away. 

Hawaiian horses rarely are allowed to trot, they 
have a kind of rocking canter, which they will keep 
up for miles at a stretch. Some would make 
capital jumpers if they were encouraged, but un- 
fortunately their spirit is broken before they are in 
fit condition to ride. A native's idea of breaking 
in a horse is to tie a handkerchief over the animal's 
eyes, have himself tied on to the bare back, and 
then tear up and down the road as hard as Tarn 
O'Shanter of bye-gone fame, till the poor creature, 
trembling from fear and exhaustion, bathed in sweat, 
and rejoicing to get rid of his most unwelcome 
burden, is ready to acknowledge in his dumb fashion 
that man is indeed his master. 


The native, pure and simple is really dying out, 
and the chief cause is that dread disease of leprosy 
which, without doubt has exterminated whole 
generations of Hawaiian families. It is very loath- 
some and repulsive to onlookers, but to white peo- 
ple, the incomprehensible thing is, the indifference 
of the native to the most ordinary precautions 
against infection. For instance, not far from our 
home, close to a fordable river, there was a large 
grass hut, in which dwelt several members of a 
family, one of which a young lad, was afflicted with 
this fatal sickness ; no one saw him in passing, but 
he was known to be there. He lay, probably, on 
the same mats with others, shared the food, eat out 
of the same calabash, smoked the same pipe, they 
knowing: all the time that some of the infected 
poison might be conveyed to another of their 
number. But if by chance the sheriff was known 
to be in that district, with his attendant body of 
policemen, probably on the look-out for lepers, 
the boy was at once conveyed in secret to one of 
the numerous hiding-places, in the recesses of the 
hills and caverns, known only to themselves, and 
the sheriff might look till he was tired, and find 
nothing, though he was well aware, that as soon as 
he was gone, the danger over for that time, the 


sufferer would be brought back to his old quarters 
and so the ball would roll on, gathering the deadli- 
est of mosses on its way. 

The island of Molokai is given up entirely to the 
lepers, steamers freighted with these hapless beings 
are frequently sent from Honolulu, the poor lepers 
being gathered from all parts of the islands, and 
great are the wailings, and loud and deep the 
lamentations of the families, when parting at the 

The greatest kindness is shewn by the govern- 
ment, and private families, headed by Royalty, to 
the inhabitants of this great hospital island. They 
have comforts and attention from all classes. 

They have churches, schools, workshops, amongst 
them, gardens to look after and cultivate for their 
own benefit, and the utter indifference of the natives 
to the future, makes the living death before them 
less a subject of dread, than we might believe 
possible. White people rarely get leprosy, but, 
sad to say indeed, the devoted and Christ-like life 
of Father Damien, a priest who has literally laid 
down his life for others, has been covered with the 
mantle of death in the midst of his most self-sacri- 
ficing work. For years Father Damien has lived 


on Molokai, teaching, exhorting, helping one and 
all ; and now he has become a victim to the same 
disease which he has watched in all its terrible 
stages, and so, well knowing the awful future in 
store for him, he asks for others of his church to 
come and follow in his footsteps, a request which 
we hear has been nobly responded to by some who 
are willing to try and emulate his saint-like devotion 
to these poor people. 

The only definite case I had any contact with, 
was that of an old woman at Kilauea. Our native 
washerwomen, who for some months had come 
regularly for their bundles, riding up from their 
pretty little home by the river, carrying their work 
in front of their saddles, failed one day to appear, 
and instead of the portly form of the old lady, who 
used to dismount w T ith such surprising quickness, 
followed by a grave, handsome daughter, Quevna 
by name, I found a miserable wizened-up little 
woman sitting on the steps of the verandah, who 
made me understand that my laundress was "sick," 
and that being a friendly neighbour she had volun- 
teered to come for the bundles instead. I had often 
seen this old wahine, (woman) but knew nothing of 
her particularly; so gave her the linen, and rather 


pitied her as she staggered off under her load. My 
friend Mary Mahoi had come to pay me a visit, and 
had watched these proceedings with lazy interest, 
putting in a word now and then; but after the old 
woman had departed, Mary said in the abrupt 
fashion peculiar to natives, "I don't like that old 
woman." "Why not, Mary?" "Oh, her hands are 
all white inside, you no see her hands?" "No," I 
said, "What is the matter with them?" Mary looked 
rather taken aback at this, and then blurted out, 
" Oh, her hands have all white skin inside, and her 
feet too, and some stuff come out of them, and my 
father, he give her medicine." "Mary!" I said, 
now in a genuine fright, "you mean the old woman 
has leprosy?" Mary did not deny this assertion, but 
calmly said the old woman would " scold," if she had 
told me not to let her have the clothes, and made 
me promise not to tell. I consented to this if she 
would go off to the fields and get someone to go 
with her to bring back the linen, which she did ; but 
it was a true instance of the total indifference dis- 
played by natives to the chance of bringing this 
horrible disease near. 

Science has apparently exhausted itself in the 
direction of arresting or curing leprosy. Doctors 
of all nations have tried their knowledge in vain. 


A physician came from Germany during our sojourn 
in Hawaii, to report on all the different stages, and 
a strange thing happened to him. During some 
process of dissection, the poison entered some slight 
scratch on his hand, which must have been insuffi- 
ciently protected, and in a very short time the whole 
arm swelled up and became discoloured. What 
the result of this accident may be, it will probable 
take years to tell, as one is told that frequently, 
leprosy will take seven years to develope itself. 
Segregation is the only cure and that, all the natural 
instincts of the Hawaiian native make him fight, 
but the result is that the extinction of the race is 
a certain consequence. 

The native language of the Hawaiians is distinct 
from that of other inhabitants of the many Pacific 
groups, it is composed almost entirely of vowels, 
and when spoken by the educated is remarkably 
soft and liquid. The chiefs of old days spoke in a 
dialect which differed from that used by the lower 
orders, and the white men who are much thrown 
with natives and who understand the lang-uap-e 
perfectly, say the difference is quite perceptible 
still. A few words are very quickly picked up by 
the new comer, and some seem easily applicable. 


For instance, instead of saying on the right, or left, 
one always says, " mauka," or " makai," meaning 
towards the sea, or mountain ; a road will run 
mauka or makai ; a piece of furniture will be on 
the mauka or makai side of the room. Yes, is 
" ai," pronounced sharply like " aye," and often a 
native will simply put out his or her tongue to 
indicate " ai," without a word being spoken. The 
heard " mahoppi " was a terror ! as it meant by- 
and-bye, and that with a native was remarkably 
like to-morrow, which never comes, " Pilikia " 
meant a trouble of any description, domestic or 
otherwise, an overflow of lava caused a terrible 
pilikea ; a Chinaman literally taking up his bed 
and walking off when friends were expected, was a 
pilikia very likely to occur at any moment ; leaving 
the unfortunate mistress in a great pilikia ! " Hoo- 
hoo ' was, an expressive word indicating that he 
or she was offended, and constantly used by 
whites, believe the ordiniry scholar in Hiwiiian 
finds it difficult to understand the speech of each 
island, but I am equally sure that " pilikia," and 
" mahoppi " are universal. 



Invitation to King Kalakua's Coronation. — Drive to Kealia and 
Kapaa. — The Parsonage. — Home at I.ihue. — Honolulu again. 
— Ship in harbour. — Flowers. — Carriages, — Coronation Day. 
— Coronation Ceremonies. — Coronation Ball. — Queen leaving 
the Palace. — Coronation Fireworks. — 'Hookupu. — Grand 
Luau. — The Dandy and his Dancers. — Races at Waikiki. — 
Unveiling of the Statue of the great Kammehameha. 

DURING the month of January, 1883, we receiv- 
ed a card of invitation of enormous size, with 

a border of scarlet and gold, engraved in gold 

letters, and with the royal coat of arms emblazoned 

at the top. It ran thus : 

"The King's Chamberlain is commanded by His 
Majesty Ki"ng Kalakua to invite you to be present 
at the Coronation ceremonies, to be held at the 
Iolani Palace, on February 12th, at 11.30 o'clock. 

C. H. Judd, Colonel. 

The direction accompanying this magnificent 
card assigned us seats in the " Pavilion." We had 
heard a great deal of the fact that King Kalakua, 
having reigned some twelve years, now thought it 
necessary to have himself crowned formally in the 


pre- of his loving subj - _ n himself 

great deal of abuse from those in opposition to 
his Government. But His Majesty calmly pursued 
the even tenor of his way. paying no attention 
whatever to the flood of newspaper articles wh 
deluged the country even- week, heaping satire. 
_rs. and unkind rema: - ks ill s rts diversified 
now and then by dignified announcements of the 
diftere: monies which were to take place dur- 

ing the fortnight of fesl - and also by pra 

no the Government organ for his determination 
to earn,- through his own wishes. Party politics 
run high in Hawaii, and the contemptuous expres- 
sions indulged in by the rival papers, the Pacific 
Ad ' and the Hawaiian Gazette, always re- 

minded us of the celebrated journals of Pickwick 
fame. We determined to take advantage of a 
lull in the plantation work just then, and accept our 
ration. And one beautiful morning we set off". 
A friend from San Francisco, who was on a visit to 
the islands was a welcome addition to our small 
party, enjoying all our adventures with all kindnc ss 
and good humour. Our equipage consisted of a 
large double rockaway, with leather which 

could be pulled down for shelter from any of the 
fier; sudden rain storms which assail one often 


in the tropics, especially if the road runs near the 
sea. The carriage was drawn by two stout mules, 
preferred to horses, as they are so sure-footed, and 
our way ran up and down many a steep gulch. 
Strapped to the back of the carriage was a bag 
containing necessaries for a night, in case accidents 
should happen to our conveyance, or perchance the 
steamer be delayed in starting, a very fortunate 
provision, as we found later on. Following us was 
a native boy on horseback, with a long, stout rope 
tied on his saddle, to do what the natives call 
"hookey-up" the very steep hills, a most necessary 
adjunct to the part}-. 

The air was fresh and cool when we started, and 
the dew was lying heavily on the grass and leaves, 
the mountains deep in purple shadow and white 
mist. We looked anxiously at the towering head 
of the Prophet, our only " Weather probabilities " 
but he did not say rain, so we drove across the 
meadow-like compound, and turned into the long 
red road with easy minds. 

The road itself was an excellent one, but a little 
tiresome at first, for, in the short distance rf a mile 
after we left our gate, we went up and down no less 
than five gulches. All along our journey the 


mountains towered on our right hand, and the 
broad Pacific glowed and sparkled on the left. The 
road was not shady, except at intervals, but the 
large clumps of Pauhala trees, growing closer to 
each other as they approached the mountains, made 
a refreshing vista of green leaves for the eye to rest 
on. Some four miles from our gate we entered a 
magnificent grove of ku-kui trees, which stretched 
for miles on either side of the road. The trees 
were the largest I saw on the islands, the leaves of 
a delicate pea-green, and something the same shape 
as a maple ; their great roots lay on the surface of 
the ground, all gnarled and twisted for yards in 
every direction, reminding one of the famous oaks 
of old England. This ku-kui grove was an unend- 
ing source of pleasure to us, as our visitors always 
admired it so much,, aud the shade was delightful 
after driving along the dusty high-road ; and by 
turning off towards the sea one could imagine one- 
self in a lovely park, driving here, there, and every- 
where amongst these noble trees, casting flickering 
shadows, and always opening fresh avenues, with a 
glimpse of the sea beyond. Only one native hut 
was to be seen, not far from the steep bank, down 
which a road, or rather footpath, led to a white, 
sandy beach, carved in the hollow of the rocks ; 


deserted, but apparently keeping jealous watch over 
a large native tomb, which was much like a cairn, 
made of rough stones heaped together, a small 
stone wall surrounding it and the hut. No native 
will willingly remain in a hut where a death has 
taken place, and for that reason, when one of a 
family may be sick unto death, he or she is taken 
outside to breathe their last ; but if such a ceremony 
is not possible, the hut is almost invariably deserted 
by all, the grave made near at hand, and avoided 
in consequence of fear of evil spirits, 

Passing through the cool shade of the grove we 
emerged into the brilliant sunshine again, and sea 
and mountains once more came into view. On the 
right hand rose a green hill, quite alone and distinct, 
called the Round hill, from its conical form, from 
the top of which a wonderfully beautiful bird's-eye 
view of the surrounding country could be obtained, 
with the Plantation and old Crater lying peacefully 
together. Now the road wound down into a valley 
called Anahola, where was a nourishing rice plant- 
ation, cultivated by the ubiquitous Chinaman, pass- 
ing on the way the hut, nestled in among some 
magnificent mangoe trees, of an old chieftainess, 
of very high rank, who rarely left her dwelling. 
When other high dignitaries came to Kauai, how- 



ever, they always paid her a visit. I saw Her 
Highness once, and she looked uncommonly dirty 
and untidy. 

We presently found ourselves near the tremend- 
ously steep gulch of Molovvaa, a really terrific 
descent and ascent, the terror of any person of a 
nervous disposition. At the time I speak of we 
had to go down this formidable hill with brakes 
held back, and at a slow pace ; just at the foot a 
very awkward turn in the road made it doubly 
dangerous. Since then a stage with four horses, 
and full of passengers, went crashing over the bank, 
killing a child and inflicting bruises and broken 
bones on the others. The turn in the road brought 
us down on the sea shore, and after toiling through 
the heavy sand, a ford had to be crossed, where 
the current ran up in a rushing stream, which thus 
made a terrible shifting quicksand. The native 
who was riding behind dashed into the water at 
once, to try. the best footing for the mules; he 
waved his hand to indicate our course, the mules 
were urged in. I heard my husband's voice encour- 
aging them on, and go on they did. The next 
moment we seemed to be floating in the sea ; still 
the shouts went on, and the good animals responded 
famously. The waters poured over the floor of the 


carriage, but we had taken the precaution of tuck- 
ing our feet up on the opposite seat, so were none 
the worse. In the middle of the roaring of the 
current, die shouting voices, and the labouring of 
the mules, who were half swimming, I opened my 
eyes for a second, and saw a white helmet floating 
on the water : in the excitement of the moment it 
had tumbled off the coachman'-, head, but in some 
unexplained fashion he made a dive at it and re- 
claimed it ; dripping wet, but still useful. A moment 
or two more and with a final rush up the opposite 
bank we were landed safely on the beach in front 
of us. Since our expedition a bridge has been 
built inland, which has done away with the necessity 
of crossing the quicksand, so that visitors nowadays 
have nothing of the excitement attendant on that 
part of the drive. 

The plains spread out before us were very beau- 
tiful; the deep shadows of the mountains * lying 
green and cool, and large herds of cattle grazing 
^ave life to the picture. We travelled on presently, 
pointing out to our friend the perfectly round hole 
which appeared to be cut in the rock as cleanly as 
though with a knife, and telling him the tradition 
attached to it, which was to the effect that once, in 
olden times, the chief of Ohau was at enmity with 


the chief of Kauai, and as neither could settle their 
disputes in the ordinary way, the chief of Kauai 
threw his spear at his opponent in Ohau, and the 
latter, infuriated, threw his spear with all his 
strength at Kauai. So great and deadly was the 
aim, that the spear cut through the mountain rock, 
making a perfectlly circular hole, which remains to 
this day as a mark of the prowess of the chiefs of 
that time. Truly, there were giants in those days ! 
The blue sky has a strange effect, shining through 
the small hole, which always looks the same, and 
catches one's attention at once. A low stone fence 
divided part of one pasture from the other, and by 
that we knew we had passed the boundaries of 
Molowaa and entered the lands of the Kealia plan- 
tations, a magnificent estate, comprising splendid 
fields of sugar cane anddarge herds of cattle. We 
passed quite through the middle of a field of cane 
in fulj tassel, which is always a pretty season for 
the crop, each stick waving its purple feathers in 
the slightest breeze. 

The road ran under the great water flumes which 
carried the cane down to the mill, and also under 
the remains of an experiment in the shape of some 
wonderful baskets swung on endless wires, which 
were supposed to have solved the question as to 


the best method of sending the cane direct from 
the fields to the mills. It proved the reverse of 
labour-saving, and very expensive, the cane having 
to be cut into exact lengths to fit the baskets ; 
whereas all lengths can be sent floating down the 
watet flumes, and the trifling loss of the saccharine 
matter by immersion in the water is more than 
counterbalanced by the expense of time and labour 
of the other method. The cost of putting up the 
,; Wire Tramway " was enormous, and though a 
fair trial had been given to test its merits, it was 
pronounced not a success. We drew up at the 
entrance of a pretty little garden, brilliant with 
blossoms of every hue, and a lovely shrubbery in- 
side the fence ; it was the Parsonage of the first 
Anglican Church in Kauai, and though the service 
was held in a large upper room over the plantation 
carpenter's shop, still it was none the less a church, 
and the congregation, as a rule, was very good. 

The pastor was a wonderful gardener, and every- 
thing he took in charge seemed to grow, when no one 
else could make progress. In a small piece of 
ground he grew vegetables of all kinds, and, as in 
most tropical climates, the seeds came up and bore 
fruit in such profusion that it was found impossible 
to consume the produce. As he was the only per- 


son who had vegetables for miles around, his neigh- 
bours were only too thankful to be able to relieve 
him of the superabundance. Our friend had married 
the very sweet sister of Bishop Willis, of Honolulu; 
they always showed us great kindness aud hospi- 
tality, and on this occasion we were glad to take 
advantage of the luncheon ready for us. The 
cottage had a wide, shady verandah covered with 
that most prolific creeper, the purple passion flower ; 
and openings had been cut in the masses of green 
leaves and tendril, so that one could look out over 
the bright little garden, flanked by handsome red 
Australian castor-oil trees, and catch a dazzling 
glimpse of the ocean. As in all houses in the 
island, the sitting-room was entered at once from 
the verandah, well protected from mosqu toes by 
the wire doors and windows. Matting and rugs 
covered the floors, and easy chairs, sofas, tables, 
large and small ; bookcases well filled, with pictures 
on the walls, made it all look very pretty and home- 
like. The dining-room was a little detached from 
the house, with the kitchen beside, where the China- 
ma^ when he chooses, can make the plainest food 
palatable. The pastor also possessed two cows, and 
was very proud of the fresh, sweet butter churned, 
often by his own hand, for himself and his friends, 


by whom it was much appreciated ; for, except on 
the ranches, butter is bad, tinned, and almost im- 
possible to procure. 

We still had some four miles to go, so we said 
" Alohas " many, and left to catch our steamer at 
Hanamaula, where we supposed it to be waiting. 
Judge, however, of our dismay when we learned on 
our arrival that the boat would leave from Naw'illi- 
willi Bay the next afternoon. Nothing for it now 
but to follow the Island custom and beg the hospi- 
tality of the next planter's house, which we did ; 
and, after driving through cane-fields, and following 
the road immediately through Lihue plantation, we 
found ourselves driving up a magnificent avenue of 
royal palms, whose feathery branches almost formed 
an arch, which led us to a fine modern house, with 
immense verandahs and large, handsome rooms in 
suites. This house was. built almost on the same 
site as one of the first mission houses, but that 
must indeed have been a contrast to the present 
one. Only the host himself was to be found, his 
wife and family having gone to Honolulu ; but we 
were installed in a huge bedroom, with every 
luxury of carpets, curtains, books, ornaments, etc., 
and with a sitting-room opening from it ; and after 
a rest — for which I was profoundly grateful — we 


had a. substantial supper, served in a dining-room 
all furnished and made of polished woods, and were 
waited on by a comical-looking little Japanese. A 
walk in the garden the next morning brought new 
beauties to light. Our friends were evidently fond 
of flowers, for there was an immense variety, and 
all cultivated to perfection. Such pink geraniums 
I have never seen ; the rOses were like trees covered 
with blossoms, and the Norwegian pines, rearing 
their dark green branches among the delicate k 
liness of blossom and colour, heightened the effect. 
The verandah pillars were wreathed in creepers of 
even.- hue, and altogether it was such a garden as 
one could seldom see. 

There were a number of small cottag ss : II .red 
about in the grounds, for the purpose of putting 
up friends when the house was full — ?. .nd 

custom, and one that might be adopted by those 
who like to have a country house full. The cot- 
: iges have sometimes two rooms, and occasions 
a bath-room, with a verandah to each house, so that 

sts and sts are at times quite independent of 
each other. 

Before we started once more to join the steamer 
our kind host brought us in some ripe pine app! 


cut in the correct fashion, or rather pulled in rough 
pieces from the centre with a fork. They certainly- 
tasted deliciously and were cut from a huge bed 
which was planted on a rugged hill-side, with the 
sandy soil that pine apples there flourish in. At 
Kona, on Hawaii, the pine apples grow in such 
extraordinary profusion on a dry sand-bank close 
to the sea that an excellent canning establishment 
was begun and flourished there for some time. At 
last we said farewell to our kind friends and drove 
down to the wharf, where as usual, everyone for 
miles around had congregated to watch the steamer 
off. It lay in the lovely little harbour, which, sur- 
rounded by high, dark rocks, gleamed blue and 
bright in the sunshine. Presentlv we were handed 
into a big, rough gig, manned by natives, and rowed 
to the ship's side, whence, after several ineffectual 
efforts to reach the swinging gangway, which danced 
back and forth tantalisingly we were finally landed 
on the deck of the ship, which was moving about in 
a way that promised us a rough night, End alas ! 
we all soon had occasion to know that the promise 
was fulfilled. • 

After a very stormy, rough passage on the little 
tossing steamer, we came into the beautiful Hono- 
lulu harbour on a lovely fresh morning. In the 


harbour itself were no less than four ships of 
war ; one was her Brittanic Majesty's Mutine, two 
were American, and the other was either Russian 
or French, I forget which — I think French, however. 
They gave quite a warlike appearance to the scene, 
and as one English ship had just departed, and a 
few days later the large flagship Siviftsure, with 
Admiral Lyons on board, anchored just outside the 
reef, it provoked a remark from our cabman to the 
effect, " I guess it looks as though England means 
to swamp us here ! " The coronation was to take 
place in a day or two, and already bunting was 
beginning to be shown, and .the gardens were in 
perfection of beauty, after rain, and before any heat 
had come to wither them ; the Bougainvillier was 
really in extraordinary masses, it seemed to run riot 
everywhere, from the handsomest mansion to the 
lowliest hut. At the hotel there were two huge 
pillars supporting the double verandah at the back, 
and from ground to roof there was a blaze of rich 
purple colour, quite different from the sickly hue 
the same plant seems to take in greenhouses. The 
Mexican creeper also was like pink coral spread 
over the roofs (its favourite clinging place) in profu- 
sion. This last requires a hot sun, and on some of 


the islands will not grow, but it makes the houses 
in Honolulu especially attractive in appearance. 

Our kind friend, the wife of Her Britannic 
Majesty's Commissioner, brought us tickets for 
excellent places from which to view the coro- 
nation ceremonies, and asked us to join her party, 
going to the palace with her, which offer we 
accepted most gratefully. 

The next thing was to engage a cab, or "express," 
as cabs are always designated in Honolulu ; the 
true cab, as we understand the vehicle, is unknown 
there. A small, covered rockaway, with leather 
sides, drawn by one horse, is what is invariably used 
as a public conveyance, and the private carriages 
are similar in appearance, except that in many cases 
they are much larger, and require two animals. 

I must also except the equipage of His Majesty, 

which was a large English landau, imported direct 

from London for him, and which, driven by a native 

coachman, with a small cape of the red and yellow 

feathers before described added to his trim English 

livery, and a footman, similarily attired, beside 

him on the box, presented a very smart appearance, 

and was always regarded with great interest by the 

native citizens. The distance being short from the 


hotel to the palace, we were very punctual in our 
appointment with the friends who were to chape- 
ron us. We found Her Britannic Majesty's Com- 
missioner and his family party, consisting of his wife 
and two fair daughters, all in full evening dress, the 
young ladies in white, with feathers de rigiteur in 
their hair, and the Commissioner himself in full 
diplomatic uniform, his wife in richest black, all on 
their own pretty verandah. In a few minutes our 
numbers were increased by the arrival of half-a- 
dozen officers from the English war ships then in 
harbour. They were magnificent in full dress naval 
uniform, which is rarely, if ever worn, only on the 
occasion of a royal ceremony— -indeed, one of the 
officers assured me that during the years he had 
been in the navy he was certain he had not worn 
the full dress more than twice, so that the amount 
of gold lace by which we were surrounded was 
something truly startling. 

We approached the palace from a side gate, at 
which were sentries ready to admit us after leaving 
the carriages. Immediately inside the gate was a 
broad footpath, strewn with rushes several inches 
deep ; this led us to the entrance of a kind of coli- 
seum, which was built in a half-circle, with tiers of 
seats facing the front of the palace, where the double 


verandahs on each side of the grand entrance were 
o-aily decorated and fitted up with chairs for the 
officials and their families and the diplomatic corps. 

Directly opposite the entrance doors of the palace 
a broad platform ran out from the top step to a very 
pretty pavilion, with open sides, beautifully painted, 
and decorated with chains and wreaths of flowers, 
on which were the throne-like chairs of crimson and 
gold, with the gorgeous yellow feather robe thrown 
on one. The pavilion had a pointed top, which 
was painted in red, white, and blue stripes, present- 
ing a lovely, tent-like effect, and the erection being 
on a level with the lower verandah, at least six feet 
from the ground, gave every one a full view of the 
ceremony, which was to take place in the pavilion 

As we neared the palace the guards presented 
arms, and the band struck up the familiar strains of 
" God Save the Queen," in accordance with the 
honour due to our Queen's representative, and it 
was delightful to our home-loving hearts to hear it 
once more, as we had so often in Canada. 

Our friends, of course, turned off to the left to 
gain their own seats on the verandah, while we were 
shown into delightful ones under the cover of the 


coliseum, and soon found that we could not have 
had better ; above all, we were in the cool shade, 
which was an inestimable boon on the warm July- 
like day, especially as we were without covering on 
our heads, our own individual party being in 
dinner dress. It certainly was an interesting 
and curious sight to look around and see the differ- 
ent faces and garb of those about us. The ordinary 
native women had Holokus on, many of most 
expensive and rich materials, trimmed profusely 
with laces and embroideries ; their hats, in most 
cases, a mass of feathers, of the Gainsborough type, 
set on top of huge coiffures, with leis of leaves and 
flowers ad libitum, and strongly scented handker- 
chiefs, the nrtives delighting in such perfumes as 
musk and patchouli. Quite close to us were the 
boy pupils of St. Louis College, a Roman Catholic 
school for native boys, in neat dark uniforms, with 
white caps. The verandah soon presented a very 
gay appearance, the ladies' costumes were most rich 
and beautiful, and the official and diplomatic corps 
fairly blazed with gold lace and orders. On the 
left side of the entrance sat a fine old native, who 
attracted an immense deal of attention, Governor 
Kanoa, of Kauai, a very old man, with a magnifi- 
cent head of white hair, from underneath which his 


strongly-marked, dark features and copper-coloured 
skin showed curiously amongst all the delicate 
colours of the ladies' apparel, for His Excellency 
was given a place of honour, owing to hi: high rank 
as a chief. He also was in gorgeous uniform, with 
a star on his broad breast. He was a remarkably 
fine specimen of the old native aristocracy, whose 
manners were singularly courteous and graceful ; 
and, alas ! the generation is fast dying out. 

As each representative of the foreign courts 
entered, the national air was played by the really 
excellent Hawaiian band, and, as we waited for the 
royalties, an old native lady in a flowing white 
Holoku, profusely 'decorated with flowers, suddenly 
began in a loud, monotonous, singing voice, an 
apparently endless mele, or " chant of praise," which 
was a very ancient custom ; it was, I should say, 
improvised, and was an account of Kalakua's virtues 
and achievements, and praise of every kind, con- 
tinued at intervals throughout the ceremonies. 
Presently another raconteur took up the theme, 
while the first stood and flopped her scented hand- 
kerchief to cool her shining face. It appeared to 
be highly interesting to those who understood the 


The arrival of the Japanese ambassador and suite 
excited general interest, as they were the only per- 
sonal representatives from another country who 
were bearers of greetings and congratulations to 
King Kalakua. They were the tiniest little fellows 
possible, to be grown men ; and their round, smooth- 
shaven faces added to their childlike appearance : 
in fact, they looked like small boys of diminutive 
stature, arrayed in full evening dress. They all 
carried high hats, and wore different ribbons and 
orders. One of the most beautiful gifts presented 
to the King was that sent from Japan : an immense 
pair of vases, urn-shaped, on pedestals fully eight 
feet high. At first sight we all. thought they were 
bronze, but on closer inspection, they proved to be 
of polished dark wood. Every inch of the surface 
being most exquisitively carved in strange figures 
and animals — a truly royal gift. On either side of 
the platform stood a double row of Kahili bearers, 
reaching from the palace doors to the lowest step. 
The Kahilis themselves were wonderful to look 
upon. We were told that months of labour had 
been bestowed in their manufacture. The staffs 
were fully ten feet high, and half of that space was 
taken up by the feathers, massed in some curious 
way on stiff straws, so that nothing could be seen 


but the waving plumes.* Those made of the 
shining dark, green, and black cocks feathers and 
of the beautiful bronze turkeys, were marvellous in 
their effect, while the red, white, and yellow ones 
were a splendid contrast in colour. The bearers 
were in a kind of livery of scarlet and black, also 
wearing high hats*; and capes of the red and yellow 
feathers, worked in bold patterns. The old Kahilis 
belonging to the Royal Family were much smaller, 
of pure white feathers mounted on sticks of sandal- 
wood, and tortoise shell, and some of these ancient 
relics were in readiness inside the pavilion. 

The actual ceremonies of the coronation of King 
Kalakua and Queen Kapiolani were not short, but 
I think every one was greatly interested in watching 
the proceedings, ' particularly as no one of the 
spectators knew what was coming next Suddenly 
the band struck up the Hawaiian national anthem, 
" Hawaii Ponoi," a very stately march and most 
melodious, and we knew that the royal procession 
must be coming. The procession was headed by 
the marshal of the kingdom, with gold staff of 
office. After him came the chamberlain, in gor- 
geous attire, and then a page, bearing on a crimson 
and gold cushion the two crowns, which were high 
structures of gold and jewels, with crimson velvet 


adornments. Other officers of the household fol- 
lowed, and then came his Majesty, wearing a very 
handsome German uniform in white and blue 
colourings. Ribbons and different orders crossed 
his broad chest ; he wore no covering on his head. 

A little behind the King came Queen Kapiolani, 
in a superb dress of white silk Or satin, and court 
train of crimson velvet, most magnificently em- 
broidered in gold the pattern being taro leaves, the 
national emblem. Her Majesty's coiffure was very- 
high, and a veil depended from the comb, which 
seemed to add also to the height. The train was 
borne by several ladies-in-waiting all costumed 
alike in white satin petticoats and bodices and trains 
of black velvet, a most harmonious combination of 
colour altogether. 

Almost immediately behind them walked Princess 
Kaiulani (or Victoria), a pretty little lady of seven 
years old, and heir-apparent to the kingdom, attired 
in bright blue, with her dark curls tied by a ribbon 
of the same hue, and carrying some flowers in her 
hands, Kaiulani was the daughter of the Princess 
Like-Like, a sister of the King, who died a (ew 
months ago (His Majesty's eldest sister, Lilliokilani, 
having no family, the little Kaiulani is in the 
direct succession to the throne). 


The other members of the royal family followed 
in their order of rank, the mother and aunt of the 
little princess being most superbly dressed, one in 
a satin of crushed strawberry colour, covered with 
glittering embroidery of every hue, and Princess 
Lydia (who attended the Jubilee in London with 
Queen Kapiolani) in a Parisian costume of cream 
satin, with the front of the dress made into little 
puffs, each puff being held by a small gold bird. 
Amidst all this moving mass of colour the pure 
white surplice of the Rev. Mr. Mackintosh, rec- 
tor of the cathedral, who had dwelt many years in 
the islands, seemed by its familar simplicity to 
give dignity to the whole bright scene. 

The procession filed along the platform and passed 
into the pavilion, the ladies-in-waiting and some 
of the household retiring to the verandah ; the band 
ceased, and the familar tones of the rector rose on 
the soft air, reading first in English, and then in 
Hawaiian, the service, which was neatly printed in 
a small pamphlet form, and given to all "who chose 
to read. 

During the service, certain ancient customs 
seemed to be observed, such as presenting the King 
with a sceptre, placing a ring on his hand, throwing 


the beautiful feather robe over his shoulders, and 
waving" of the royal kahilis. Finally, after several 
prayers had been said and a hymn sung, the 
audience again • rose, and the King, also stand- 
ing, placed the crown on his own august head. 
Another prayer, with a response from His Majesty, 
and then he turned to place the other crown on the 
head of his consort ; but — alas for royal dignity ! — 
the Queen's coiffure was high and elaborate, and 
apparently no thought had been given to the crown, 
The audience watched with intense interest, while 
hairpins, comb, and veil were being removed. In 
vain ! the crown would not fit, and in desperation, 
and apparently in no very good temper, the King 
made a final effort, and literally crammed the 
insignia of royalty down on Her Majesty's temples, 
Another prayer and response, the blessing pro- 
nounced by the rector, and again were heard the 
strains of " Hawaii Ponoi " (Hawaii for Ever), and 
the King took up the sceptre, and with the crown 
on his head, and the feather robe hanging from his 
shoulders, His Majesty led the way from the pavi- 
lion into the palace — kahilis waving — band playing 
— cheers rending the air. Pacing majestically 
along, the crown just a little on one side of the 
royal head, the scene of the funny King and Queen 


of " Alice in Wonderland " came irresistibly to my 
mind as I watched the burly form of Kalakua I. 
marching along, his black curly hair making the 
pose of the rich gold circlet even more remarkable. 
One would not have been astonished to have heard 
the counterpart of the order, " Off with his (or her) 
head," issuing from the royal lips. I think,- though, 
that it was the Queen who was the blood-thirsty one 
in " Alice," and certainly none could connect such 
an order with the kindly countenance of Kapiolani, 
who walked behind her royal spouse, beaming good 
nature and happiness on all near her. 

Unfortunately, the King, having realized his 
ambition of being crowned, thought it was only 
proper he should have a court, and also a new table 
of precedence ; and, as for fifteen years certain 
people had enjoyed a distinct rank, they naturally 
looked upon such as an individiul right ; and when 
these new rules were inagurated, the result can 
easily be imagined to have been dissatisfaction and 
grumbling in all quarters. 

In a few days invitations were issued for a ball 
to be held in the Palace, as an important feature 
of the coronation festivities. The cards were much 
the same as those for the coronation itself, rather 


larger, perhaps, and with a gold crown resting on a 
crimson cushion engraved at the top. All the 
young people were in eager expectation of the en- 
joyment of the occasion, as it was the first really 
large ball given by the King. 

On the evening appointed we drove to the same 
gate used by the people the day of the coronation, 
but instead of being open, as at that time, to a rush 
strewn pathway, we found ourselves in a pretty 
passage lined and laid with crimson cloth, and 
flowers everywhere. In this we were received by 
an officer of the household, who conducted us to 
the. entrance of the large space which was enclosed 
by a tent of enormous size in front of the palace. 
The pretty pavilion which had been used for the 
coronation ceremonies was moved to one side, and 
in this the Hawaiian band was discoursing sweet 
music, and a state quadrille was going on opposite 
to the entrance door, His Majesty, in full uniform, 
dancinsr with the wife of the head official. The 
Queen, I think, was in a seat arranged for the 
royalties, looking on, as I fancy Her Majesty did 
not care for European dances, though the Princess 
Like-Like was a graceful and accomplished dancer, 
and the King himself waltzed beautifully. The 
steps leading up to the verandahs were covered with 


red cloth, and the palace hall and reception rooms 
were a blaze of light, the verandahs being provided 
with comfortable seats in every direction. We 
walked about, and looked with much interest at the 
many beautiful costumes worn by the ladies, which 
were interspersed by the brilliant uniforms of the 
royal household, and also of the many officers of 
the English and American war ships which were at 
that time in the harbour. 

We found many of our friends, and the dancing 
was delightful, the band rendering exceptionally 
good music. All went on merrily for some time 
and the fears of rain were almost naught, when 
suddenly a few drops were heard pattering gently 
on the roof of the huge tarpaulin covering. In a 
short time some found their way through, and pre- 
sently little pools were formed on the floor, in 
between which the dancers endeavored to wend 
their way. Still the rain poured steadily on, and 
in a short time the cloth on the steps leading 
up to the palace entrance was soaked the 
covering not having been extended over the steps 
to the tent roof, and so the open space afforded 
thereby was soon streaming with the rain. Ladies 
with delicate satin shoes looked askance at the 
shining stairs, which, covered with baize, at one 


time scarlet, were now black and sodden. What 
was to be done ? Some of the younger people 
made a rush and gained the haven of refuge, but 
those who wore trained gowns hung back, dodging 
the now fast-falling shower of drops. At last one 
lady courageously set an example by accepting the 
offer of a chair, which, raised by four stalwart arms, 
was carried at a quick run up to the vestibule ; 
others followed, and in a few minutes the tent was 
cleared of the guests, who found themselves trans- 
ported as if by magic to the brilliant rooms of the 
palace, where the beautiful dark polished floors of- 
fered even a more tempting field for the dancers 
than the temporary one of the pavilion. 

The hall of the palace was very large, and oblong 
in shape, with a handsome dark staircase at the far 
end, which ran straight up and then branched off 
right and left. The floor was dark ; on either side, 
ranged along in stands, were the magnificent feather 
kahilis, which had been displayed at the coronation ; 
bright, coloured carpets were laid from the door to 
the foot of the stairs, and brass and crystal chande- 
liers shed a flood of light on the scene. 

On the right hand were two sets of large double 
doors, opening into the reception room, in which the 


king was accustomed to give audiences to distin- 
guished visitors, a large, long apartment with polish- 
ed floor of dark native woods, huge windows open- 
ing on the verandahs, hung with crimson draperies, 
and very beautiful and unique cornices of brass made 
to represent the ancient Hawaiian spears, crossed 
at the tops of each curtain. Brilliantly lighted as 
it was, it was a splendid ball room, and the dancing 
was resumed as merrily as though no disturbing 
element had occurred to mar the enjoyment of the 

Later on we went to supper, crossing the former 
ball room — deserted now, but rendered less un- 
comfortable by the cessation of the rain, — which 
opened into another long, narrow inclosure, built 
specially for the occasion, with a table in the form 
of a T, at the top of which the king and his party 

Good things were in abundance, and huge bowls 
of punch, etc., were scattered about — the silver 
and glass were all nice — and flowers everywhere. 
"Of course there was grumbling, but as in the most 
civilized circles, that is not an unusual thing ; it 
was not to be wondered at that all were not satis- 
fied, though no trouble was spared on the part of 


the King and his assistants to make everything go 

A very funny incident occurred later in the even- 
ing, which was witnessed by myself and a few 
friends, showing, in a measure, the dislike, and even 
inability, of the Polynesian natives to bear the re- 
strictions of civilisation for any length of time. 
They can endure them up to a certain point, but 
when weariness sets in they seem obliged to suc- 
cumb to their own longing for ease and carelessness. 

A number of us were seated on the broad couches 
ranged on either side of the hall, talking over the 
events of the evening, when our attention was 
caught by three figures coming down the great 
staircase, in the full glare of light, and which looked 
so at variance with the pretty evening costumes 
about us that involuntarily we all stopped our talk- 
ing, and gaped in astonishment at the sight of a 
young native woman, clad in a bright scarlet holoku 
a straw hat, with a wreath of flowers round it, set 
on the side of her head, a wreath of leaves round 
her shoulders, and bare feet. Following her came 
an older, stouter lady, with a long loose garment of 
some dark stuff drawn carelessly round her, carry- 
ing a native straw hat in her hand, and with feet 


thrust into galoches. A momentary pause of 
astonishment on our part, and then some one said, 
with a gasp: "The Queen!" and we all rose to 
our feet and made obeisance, as Her Majesty calm- 
ly and smilingly returned our salutations, and 
turning round at the foot of the stairs, marched off, 
followed by another lady in waiting, costumed 
much as .the one in advance, and made her way out 
of the back entrance, which opened directly on the 
grounds, in the far end of which her own house lay. 

The fact was that the Queen, unaccustomed as 
she was to the discomfort of the very fashionable 
European costume in which she had appeared in 
public for many hours, had, after enduring it as 
long as she could, made up her mind to disappear 
into private life. After changing her gorgeous 
robes for the easy garments she always wore, she 
was no doubt happy in the idea of eluding observ- 
ation, and it was a mere accident that she was seen, 
as every one was supposed to be in the supper 
room. I was intensely amused at the sight, as it 
seemed to make one realize, as nothing else could 
have done, that the display and ceremony was, after 
all, but a thin veneer of outward show of civilisation 

laid on the native character of lazy ease, with which 

ISO SceNeS in Hawaii. 

Hawaiians are so impregnated. Equally were we 
struck by the :alm indifference of the Queen on 
being discovered in her undignified apparel. " A 
Queen once, always a Queen," must have been the 
motto which sustained Her Majesty. 

A few nights after the ball, we were bidden to 
witness some fireworks, which were displayed in 
the palace grounds, a treat which had been pro- 
vided for the natives mainly by the good nature of 
the King, and to hear the deep drawn " Oh's" and 
" Ah's" of the hundreds of Hawaiians when they 
saw a grand rocket, or Catharine wheel, for the first 
time in their lives, and their child-like delight at a 
" rocking ship" made of gaslights ingeniously 
amalgamated, must in itself have been a pleasant 
reward for His Majesty's kind thought. That 
evening the palace was gaily illuminated, and open 
to all visitors who choose to take advantage of the 
opportunity afforded of inspecting the beautiful 
rooms. The King was, as usual, kindness itself to 
one and all. 

Another feature of the homage paid to King 
Kalakua was the " Hukoopu," a very ancient cus- 
tom, but to the performance of which none but 
natives were admitted ; this was the laying at the 


King's feet presents of every description by every 
native who could possibly do so, and the majority 
of these presents were mainly of eatables, alive and 
dead, cooked and uncooked. Pigs, chickens, fish, 
notably the squid or cuttle fish, delight of the 
Hawaiian appetite, pink taro (grown for and eaten 
only by high chiefs) poi of many kinds, bread fruit, 
water melons, sweet potatoes, native fruits, such as 
mangoes, cocoa nuts, alligator pears, limes, etc., 
leis of feathers and shells, calabashes, rolls of tapa 
cloth, mats of every degree of fineness, all those 
were taken in such quantities, that the courtyard of 
the palace was heaped with the gifts offered. 

The greatest kindliness and good nature seemed 
to prevail everywhere, and certainly the news which 
comes to us at this time of the confusion and re- 
volt which is being experienced in Honolulu just 
four years after the carnival of the coronation seems 
hardly credible to those who remember the bright- 
ness of that period in the Hawaiian capital. 

Shortly after the coronation ball had taken place 
and we were wondering " what next," we received 
invitations to a large " Luau " or feast, to be held 
at Iolani Palace. The cards were quite as elaborate 
as those for the coronation itself, and we were asked 


to present ourselves at twelve o'clocck in the day 
most fortunately it was a brilliantly beautiful day, 
the sun shining brightly, but always tempered in 
its heat by the cool trade winds. At the appointed 
hour we walked down towards the gate which had 
admitted us on the former occasions, and 'found 
throngs of natives of every class on their way to 
the same destination, a Luau having much the 
same attraction for the Hawaiians that an immense 
feast would have for a lot of school children. All 
were dressed in their smartest array, the women in 
the brightest-coloured holokuswith, in nearly every 
case large hats with feathers and wreaths of flowers ; 
the men in gorgeous shirts of every hue, and the 
inevitable straw sailor-like hat, with leis .of roses, 
honeysuckle, and wild ginger,, flowers of every 
kind ; they almost always wear snowy-white trou- 
sers on gala days, and the result is a very picturesque, 
costume. They were laughing and chattering, no 
doubt chaffing each other, for the natives are very 
sarcastic, and always see the humorons side of a 
thing first, no matter at whose expense. We passed 
through the fast collecting crowd, and gained the 
entrance to the palace grounds, which were on this 
day thrown open to the public. Rushes strewed 
the pathway to the same large enclosure which, 


with its tent roof and tiers of seats, presented much 
the same appearance as on the coronation day, 
except that instead of the small pavilion, the centre 
space in front of the palace was taken up by two 
enormous tables running their full length between 
the seats. These tables were draped with white, 
but the entire tops were covered with ferns and 
leaves massed together so as almost to form a 
tablecloth of themselves ; quantities of flowers 
were placed about mingling with the ferns. All 
manner of native dainties were offered to the guests, 
who took their places, ate as much as they wished, 
and then withdrew to the seats to look, on at their 
hungry successors. At every second or third place 
was a great calabash of the inevitable poi, without 
which no Hawaiian meal is complete. At each 
plate was a small bundle of the ti leaves enclosing 
various fish which, being cooked in the leaves and 
also served in them, preserves the delicate flavour 
immensely. Sweet potatoes of enormous size, 
boiled and baked taro, sea weeds of different kinds 
boiled and eaten hot, kukui nuts grated up as 
a kind of salt relish, native onions, bananas, and 
native fruits in quantities,- — all these go to make up 
a native l.uau ; and above all, the noble pig baked 
in a hole made in the ground for that purpose, 


which is filled with hot stones and leaves, covered up 
for a certain length of time, and he finally emerges 
in a state of perfection unknown to those who have 
not been fortunate enough to taste Mr. Piggy in 
such a condition. No Northener can imagine the 
difference between the ordinary roasted pork and a 
pig baked in the ground — the flavour is totally 
different. Raw fish plays a conspicuous part at 
Luaus too. The method of eating these various 
delicacies is certainly not appetising, the rapidity 
with which they disappear being something mar- 
vellous, each fish is dexterously torn to pieces and 
passed to the next neighbour, and so on, the last 
person who receives it propably being the loser. 
Everything is eaten in that way, so that at the end 
of the feast the untidiness of the remains is generally 
something appalling. The only liquid served on 
the day I speak of was soda water, a bottle of which 
lay at each place. 

We sat down at a little distance, and watched 
the curious scene. The natives had turned out in 
great numbers, and the scent of their leis of flowers 
and maille leaves was almost overpowering. Many 
half-whites were there too, dressed in a wonderful 
attempt at European fashion. Two sisters we 
especially remarked, dressed in flowing black holo- 


kus and the very largest crimson plush hats I ever 
saw, with enormous plumes nodding in the air. 
There were numbers of attendants, male and female, 
all natives, who moved about in the leisurely way 
natural to Hawaiians, and did their best to clear 
each table, as it was vacated, for the next comers. 

The King had devoted many of the offerings at 
the Hukupoo to this Luau, which, strange as it may 
appear, actually went on for hours ; it had been 
going on for some time when we were there at 
twelve o clock, and it was still progressing late in 
the afternoon. On the verandah of the palace were 
Queen Kapiolani, Princesses Lilliokolani, LikeLike, 
and Kaiulani, surrounded by a large suite and many 
officials. Presently an aide-de camp, in a handsome 
German uniform, almost all white, was sent to ask 
us to go up to the piazza, and so we presently 
found ourselves in the court circle. Her Majesty 
was in the centre, attired in a beautiful holoku of 
rich white satin, whose flowing, ample folds suited 
her much better than her gorgeous coronation robes, 
and she looked much more comfortable, giving us 
her kindly smile of welcome as usual. The little 
heir-apparent looked pretty in a crimson velvet and 
pink costume, with a huge Kate Greenaway bonnet 
framing her dark eyes. Many of the white ladies 


had assumed the holoku in compliment to the 
natives, many in richest material ; but all paled 
before the wonderful tints worn by the wife 
of one of the Cabinet Ministers, . who was 
sitting close to us. She was a remarkably hand- 
some woman, a full native, very dark brown skin, 
enormous in stature and size, but with a really 
beautiful head and face, the features perfectly 
regular, of a half sad, almost statuesque expression. 
Round her shapely head was a wreath of various- 
coloured roses, but her dress was marvellous, the 
brightest yellow satin, shot with purple and trimmed 
with quantities of green — a brilliant grass green, 
too ! It was as near one's idea of a bird of paradise 
as could be ; a large lace collar lay on her shoulders, 
which was no doubt the finishing touch*. The 
whole combination made one's eyes fairly blink ! 

During the afternoon some ancient spear dances 
took place, mingled with others, and during the 
evening we heard the heathenish sounds of the 
small native drums, which invariably accompany the 
Hula-hula dances. 

The professional dancers (of whom the best come 
from Hanalei) are regularly trained by an extra- 
ordinary looking man, who is known by the name 


of "The Dandy;" he is, I think, a half-white, 
and the aim of his existence seems to be to 
make himself as conspicuous in appearance as 
possible. To this end, his costumes are of the 
most flashy kind, and quite different from those 
worn by ordinary individuals. I saw him one 
afternoon in Honolulu, attired all in purple velvet, 
with a green waistcoat ; the coat was similar in 
shape to an ordinary dress coat, but with unusually 
long tails, and there appeared to be some gold 
embroidery about his sleeves. A ridiculously high 
collar, with a stock and a tall white hat, com- 
pleted this most extraordinary — what ? one cannot 
call it dress ! 

I believe these Hula dances are a relic of the 
barbarism practised by the Hawaiians, and am 
told they are extremely coarse and ungraceful in 
every way ; the Government at times make spas- 
modic efforts to suppress them, but hitherto with 
little result. The girls are usually ugly, and wear 
a curious kind of short dress, drawn up through 
wreaths of leaves which are worn around the 
hips, and their bare ancles have small fur or 
feather rings ; the music consists of a small round 
drum which gives a monotonous sound, beaten 


continuously by the dancers or others placed for 
that purpose. 

The coronation festivities were closed with some 
races, which took place on the pretty race-course at 
Waikiki, about two miles from Honolulu, and we 
enjoyed the fun of it all immensely. The officers 
of the ships in the harbour got up a gentlemen's 
race on any scratch animals which could be got 
together, regardless of size, age, or weight ; which 
gave an interest to the friends looking on. A 
charming luncheon in the tent of the Kind's chain- 
berlain, at which His Majesty King Kalakua 
attended in person, garve us an additional pleasure, 
and having heard the strains of "Hawaii Ponoi " 
from the band, we drove back to the town, pausing a 
moment to see the start of a fine four-in-hand, 
coached in a masterly fashion by an ex-officer of 
Her British Majesty's cavalry. 

We also saw the unveiling of a very fine bronze 
statue of Kammehameha I., which was placed in 
front of the Hall of Legislature. The great chief 
was a man of enormous strength and grand appear- 
ance, and the statue shows the tall, manly figure 
clad in the malo ; the ancient feather robe falling 
from the shoulders. On the head was the head- 


dress assumed by chiefs going to battle, the form 
almost precisely the same as that of the ancient 
Greek helmet. This was also made of the 
glittering gold coloured feathers massed on some 
kind of firm foundation, and as the cloak and 
helmet were gilt, the effect against the dark 
bronze was really beautiful ; the right hand was 
extended holding the mighty spear, which it was 
said no chief but Kammehamcha could wield, so 
large and heavy was it. 



Life on a Plantation — Work in the Cane Fields — Labourers — 
Chinese — Portugese — South Sea Islanders — Looking after the 
Labourers — Holidays on the Plantations — The Doctors Orders. 
— Chinese with Sickness — Visit of H. B. M. S. "Constance." 

FTFE on a sugar plantation in the Hawaiian 
Islands is vastly different from the same 
existence on a similar estate in the south ; it 
is intensely primitive; very lonely; interesting at 
times, and always anxious to the planter, who has 
the several questions of labour, water, climate, and 
profit, or no profit ? to contend with, throughout 
the year. For in planting sugar there is no rest 
as there is in a winter season on a farm. As soon 
as one crop of cane is cut and taken to the mill to 
be ground, planting for the second, and sometimes 
third rotation has to be attended to ; these are 
called second and third ratoons, and on some of the 
finest plantations produce crops almost equal to 
the first season, The mills grind nine months 
out of the twelve, and of course cane has to be 
ready for the grinding without stoppage ; at busy 


seasons the mills grind at night, and one enterpris- 
ing planter who had one mill for two plantations 
had the electric light put in and the labour was 
incessant night and day. 

The hours for work are not so long as they are in 
a town, and as the weather is fine for many months 
out of the year, and every one is in the open air, it 
is not so enervating as employment in close rooms 
would be. I except, of course, the mill employees 
and the bookkeepers. The atmosphere in a sugar 
mill is something as close to that of the hold of a 
steamer as can well be, the heat being terrible, 
and the noise of the machinery being deafening. 

Whole families of the labourers turn out to work 
in the fields ; mothers, fathers, and as many children 
as can work, are in the fields before six o'clock ; at 
twelve they march off for their dinners, which they 
bring with them, and leave off for the day at half- 
past four. The labourers are divided into " gangs " 
each at different work ; planting, watering, hoeing, 
ploughing, cultivating between the rows, ditching, 
stripping, (tearing off the superfluous leaves to get 
the benefit of the light and sun), cutting, carting 
and finally loading the small tram cars, which are 
carried into each possible field on portable rails ; 


each gang- being watched by a luna, or overseer, 
almost always a white man, very often a young 
Englishman who has found his way out to the 
Islands, in search of " something to do." China- 
men have frequently their own head man, who 
lives in their quarters, engages the gangs, and 
generally looks after them. A chinaman's dress in 
the fields seems composed of motley rags ; an old 
cotton coat, once blue, and curious fiat hats with 
broad brims turned down all round, the crowns very 
small, inside of which they sometimes wear a kind 
of skull cap, and occasionally an old kerchief will 
tie down the hats, out of which their cunning faces 
look in a comical fashion. 

The Portugese women are always picturesque, if 
not very clean ! their fondness for bright colours 
denoted in the brilliant cotton handkerchiefs tied 
over their heads and round their necks ; their walk 
and actions are very graceful, carrying, as they do, 
immense weights on their head, beginning with 
small ones in childhood, which makes them move 
lightly and steadily, with head erect. It is a 
comical sight to see a women with perhaps a huge 
basket of linen on her head, or a heavy sack of 
flour, with the husband lounging behind bearing 
a burden in shape of the inevitable baby, which lies 


under the fences all day while the mother works 
near by. 

The South Sea Islanders were the most repulsive 
looking creatures ; their quarters were isolated by 
the sea shore, and one would be reminded of the 
" missing link " on the first glimpse of the gang 
stalking along in single file on their homeward 

The faces were very black, and most animal in 
feature ; their bushy hair, coarse beyond descrip- 
tion, stuck out all round, and their great tusk-like 
teeth, and staring black eyes, gave them a very 
monkey-like appearance. 

The women wore a kind of skirt, and sleeveless 
garment, made ont of the old sugar sacks, and in 
each ear, the holes bored were so large, that a 
bunch of matches, or twig full of leaves, were ge- 
nerally used as earrings ! They seemed devoid of 
intelligence to any extent, and I always disliked to 
meet them. 

The labourers are engaged by contract, some- 
times for two or three years, as the case may be ; 
and the more civilized ones, such as the Portugese 
and Germans, look on the Signora as the one to do 
much for them ; anything they want, they ask for, 
and most unreasonable demands are made at times. 


A sort of medicine chest room is always kept 
supplied for their use, and when a Portugese, man 
or woman, makes his appearance with his or her 
head tied up tightly in a handkerchief, then you 
know that " Oh, Signora, I got bad cold," or, " My 
hand, or foot, or leg/' as the case may be, " is sore, 
very sore," or, as they say, '" My stomach very 
sore," is sure to be the complaint ; but whatever it 
may be, the head is invariably wrapped up ! 

When a low fever broke out, we often visited 
them, to induce them to take the bitter quinine 
necessary, and would always try to show by ex- 
ample that fear would not make them well. One 
case only of typhus came. 

The quarters are divided up into small and large 
rooms, and all connected with a verandah, in which 
they chiefly live, taking their meals on the floor, 
and always sewing on the door steps. Their fire 
places are in front, made of bricks or stones built 
round holes dug out of the ground, and sometimes 
roofed over .by rough boards. 

The men are incessant smokers, and coming 
down each Saturday night for their money, will 
talk and smoke for hours if allowed to do so. 

The planter has to try and settle disputes, but 


being of an intensely excitable nature, they like to 
carry their differences into the law courts, and if 
the " Signor " decides his case against them, they 
show their disapprobation by the most outlandish 
shouts and gestures, on one occasion going through 
the form of hanging their master, making his grave, 
and finally stamping on it with great energy. 
However, their excitement goes as quickly as it 
comes, and a few minutes afterwards they will be 
as jolly as possible, having forgotten all their 

Public holidays occur frequently, and the Por- 
tugese take a great many religious ones also. 
Christmas and New Year's Days were ushered in 
by the glee singing and serenading of the natives, 
who roam about to all the houses from 1 1 p.m. to 
3 a.m. Germans sang too, and sweetly enough, 
though the hours chosen were rather inconvenient. 

On Christmas and New Years Days, the Planters 
used to get up races of all kinds, on foot and on 
horseback ; and one year we had an exhibition of 
lassoing by the most expert Spaniola on the Plant- 
ation, Manoa by name, a very good-looking native ; 
he threw the lasso with great grace and dexterity, 

trying it on some friendly Englishmen who offered 


themselves as victims, for the ladies benefit, they 
riding as fast they could induce their steeds to go, 
and Manoa galloping after and making the broad 
loop fall round the waist of his quarry with the 
greatest ease possible, amid shouts of applause 
from the bystanders. 

The natives also picked up half dollars from the 
ground, sweeping past us at full gallop without 
stopping, which was very pretty to watch. 

The Portugese were fond of arraying themselves 
in white, with immense paper heads of animals on 
their shoulders, and bringing out a May pole, with 
numbers of bright ribbons, would go through regular 
old-fashioned Morris dances to some music of their 

They also danced what they called " fandangoes," 
a kind of tarentella, and were very fond of them on 
these occasions. 

Kammehameha Day, and the King's birthday 
were the native holidays, and in old times they 
liked to give exhibitions of surf bathing, or swing- 
ing out on the top of a huge wave, armed with a 
plank, and then riding back on the crest of the 
wave, much as we do with our toboggans on the 
snow hills. But as with so many old native prac- 


tices surf riding is rapidly going out, aud only 
seldom now can it be seen. 

On all plantations good schools are provided 
by the Government, which also appoints the school 
teacher. At Kilauea there was a large building 
given to the Plantation by some kind donor for a 
church, and as it was too large for our scanty con- 
gregation, part of it was divided off into the school, 
and Hawaiian and English taught ad. lib. 

Pastor Mahoi had a great levee in the church 
when it was first built, and everyone young and 
old was supposed to pay down their silver dollar 
on entering the building, to pay for the painting of 
the walls. 

Long tables (an innovation) were spread with all 
the delicacies usual to the occasion ; the smoking pig 
being borne in by quite a procession of native and 
half-white damsels, with large leis of maille and 
flowers, Mr. Piggy being cut up into small pieces, 
disposed on plates, and eaten as usual with ' the 
fingers. A crowd of young people were hanging 
about outside, perhaps rather shy of facing their 
acquaintances ; this did not suit the Master of Cere- 
monies, a talkative lawyer, and he presently dashed 
out and after haranguing at the door triumphant 1 }' 
hauled in the delinquents, and marched them up to 


the table to deposit their dollars. Our boy Johnnie 
had anxiously requested an advance of wages that 
morning, and on my wanting to know what he 
wanted the money for ! It was : " Me want a coat," 
" all same at chinese store;" so to my astonishment 
I saw three youths being escorted up to the table 
by the M. C. and in one of the three sleek, brushed, 
white trousered, black coated trio I recognized 
Johnnie ! he had determined not to be outdone, and 
had paid his $15 for a black broadcloth! I don't 
suppose he ever wore it again, for a native detests a 
coat of any kind. 

Our English services were held on Sunday after- 
noons after the natives had got over their morning 
worship, which with them was a great event, the 
people all riding, women with babies in front, men 
with girls sometimes riding pillion-fashion. They 
sang a great deal, but when tired of Pastor Mahoi's 
exhortations would adjourn to the Chinese restaur- 
ant across the road, and have a cup of coffee or a 
pipe, then return to await the end. 

The only native who did not ride, was a very old 
man, Pihi (fish) by name, who probably, in the days 
of his youth had never mounted a horse, and now 
thought it late in life to begin. He walked several 


miles to church, and always carried a huge blue 
cotton umbrella, what for, I do not know, as sun and 
rain are alike to a Hawaiian. Pihi's bow, or rather 
salutation, was a thing to be seen, it was sweeping 
and stately to a degree, the wave of his hand and 
his cheering "Aloha, Aloha" quite charming. 

The Portugese, being Roman Catholics went to 
a church at Molowaa, and a huge procession of 
carts and horses used to set off, looking picturesque 
indeed with the mass of bright colours. One of 
our labourers was anxious that I should be god- 
mother to a little baby girl, and it was to have one 
of my names. We found on searching their diction- 
ary that "Carolina" was familiar to them, so that 
suited admirably. On the Sunday appointed we 
drove over to Molowaa and found a great crowd of 
Portugese and natives assembled. The ceremony 
of the baptism was long and tedious, and during 
that time the child was carried to the door, where 
the priest, followed by all the relatives of the 
child and ourselves, went to meet it. Apparently 
it was to be received anew into the church, and on 
his Reverence asking for the god-mother, I stepped 
forward and was asked, " Are you a Catholic." On 
my saying " No " he at once declined to let me 
officiate, but said, " You cannot promise for the 


child, but you may promise she will be a good 
Catholic." I assented, and after giving a bright 
silk kerchief and some little presents for my god- 
child, we departed. 

We had many Scotch friends on the plantation : 
Our Manager was from Mid-Lothian ; the doctor, 
sugar-boiler ; school master and minister combined; 
and head blacksmith, were all Scotch ; also the 
engineer, who brought out and controlled the great 
steam plough, which did such capital work in the 
fields ; and it was curious to hear the broad soft 
Scotch accent, amongst the many dialects and 
languages which assailed one's ear on a walk through 
the plantation, English, Portugese, German, Native, 
Japanese, Norwegian, Chinese, made up a great 
medley ; and now and then would be heard a 
French word or so. 

There was a large restaurant in connection with 
the store for the convenience of the young white 
lunas, and the fare was generally good, the cook, 
Scharsh by name, being much above the average, 
quite a professional in fact. 

A small English club was got up at one time ; it 
flourished fairly well, but at different periods would 
be dissolved, and then re-assembled ; the members 


gave one or two little dances, especially when any 
lady visitors were to be had to swell the limited 
number of fair ones. Then riding parties were 
greatly in vogue, by afternoon, and by moonlight ; 
sometimes to the top of what was known as the old 
Crater, though no tradition survives as to its ever 
having been active. 

The Kilauea plantation was beautifully situated 
with the mountains on one side, the river running 
through it, and the Crater hill rising above the sea, 
which bounded the other line. A broad road ran 
through from the church to the store for nearly half 
a mile, with the mill and numerous rows of quarters 
on either side. Some of the cottages of the better 
class were quite pretty with bright gardens and 
verandahs covered with creepers of every kind. 

When anyone leaves from one cause or another, 
everything possible is sold by auction, and that is a 
gala day for the people, especially natives, who 
fairly love the excitement of buying in that way, 
and will spend the whole day looking on at others 
doing likewise. 

Accidents in the mill were not so frequent as one 
would imagine, but sometimes it was of course ine- 
vitable that they would come ; and our sympathies 


were always deep and sincere for the poor maimed 
fellows. Fortunately we had one excellent physi- 
cian on either side of the island, and our own doctor 
was a good friend as well. He had come from one 
of the great Royal Infirmaries in Scotland, and 
used to the untiring vigilance and prompt obedience 
of nurses and patients there, was at times fairly 
dismayed at the utter disregard to his orders ; and 
stupidity shown by those on whom he had to attend 
in Kauai. 

One day an elderly native woman broke her leg, 
the accident taking place some distance from the 
plantation, and she had been carried to the house 
of a relative who happened to live near at hand. 
The doctor set the limb, and bandaged it up com- 
fortably in the usual way ; what was his wrath, 
when on visiting the patient a day or two later, he 
found the bandages unfastened, the splints gone, 
and some leaves bound round in their place. He 
good naturedly reset the bone, and left strict orders 
not to touch ; however, on his next round, he dis- 
covered the same process had been gone through 
with, so he gave up the patient into the hands of 
her own kahunas, who had no doubt been the means 
of frightening the old wretch into this rebellion ; 


the old lady was a cripple in consequence, but not- 
withstanding, if a similar accident had happened, 
the doctor would have been certainly summoned, 
only to have his measures followed by the arrange- 
ment of what they termed " strong medicine " 

Chinese are much the same, but not knowing 
the fear of death, they will not even attend on each 
other in times of sickness, a thing from which they 
shrink in abhorrence, and not even extra pay will 
induce them to shew common humanity in times of 
illness ; their medicines are even more extraordinary 
than the native roots and leaves, one man asking 
one day if there was a certain drug to be obtained, 
which was made from the " monkeys brains," 
naturally his request could not be fulfilled. 

One bright remembrance often occurs to us, of 
the visit of H. B. M. S. " Constance," which event 
took place about six miles from Kilauea, the ship 
anchoring in the beautiful harbour of Hanalei. 
The " Constance " brought down the British Com- 
missioner from Honolulu, and as he came to stay 
with us at Wailele, and the Commander went to 
the manager's, our visitor dubbed Wailele the 
" British Legation," and the other home " The 


Everyone got together every available convey- 
ance and animal to bring our guests over to the 
plantation, and I .believe hosts and guests enjoyed 
themselves equally. One of our middy's, now 
doubtless a gallant lieutenant; turned out to be a 
son of a very old friend, which made the meeting 
even pleasanter, and their three days sojourn in 
the far off island home will be always remembered 
with the kindest feelings. 

On the last morning of .their visit, two of the 
officers walked over from Hanalei, to Wailele for 
breakfast, a feat which was looked upon by most 
people as an act of madness, in a country where no 
one ever walks any distance. 

Just below the house was a deep pool under the 
fall, and in that our merry naval friends disported 
themselves long, they declaring that the fresh water 
swim was the greatest treat they had since leaving 
England. We had many and welcome visitors to 
Wailele, but none more so than the officers of " The 
Constance." The Manager's home was also close 
to the river, which being very dark in colour just 
there, gave it the name of Waiuli Hall, or "House 
by the black water." There was always a great 
dinner given in the handsome dining room at 


Christmas time to all who could come, and the 
hospitality of Waiuli was well known in the 
island, the garden was lovely, sloping down to the 
river bank, with a large fountain round which grew 
ferns and red ginger in profusion ; and a border of 
large white spider lilies was beautiful to look on, 
and delicious in scent The view from the veran- 
dah steps was charming, the river winding down 
'til lost in the sea, and the varied tints of the luxur- 
iant foliage completing the picture. 



Opening of the Legislature in Honolulu — Ceremony — 'I lv Debate— 
— The Wonderful Interpreter — News Flies Fast — My First nnd * 
only Scorpion — Other Insects — Visit to the Market. 

TN a subsequent visit to the gay capital of Hono- 
*■ lulu, I experienced two things, of a widely dif- 
ferent character however. 

One was the opening of and the debate at the 
Hawaiian Legislature ; the other was my first and 
only introduction to a scorpion ! 

First, surely, should come the ceremony per- 
formed in person by His Majesty. 

The debates are carried on by. the reverend and 
grave Seigneurs in a large, handsome room in the 
Public Buildings, in front of which stands the really 
splendid statute of Kamamhamha I., and on the 
appointed day, of which we had been made aware 
by tickets "For the Floor" having been most kindly 
presented me, in company with Her Britannic 
Majesty's Commissioner, and Vice-Consul, we drove 
up to the great door through quite an avenue of 
King's Guards outside, and passed through a line 


of Kahili bearers with gorgeous feathered capes, 
inside the long hall, in waiting for the royal family. 

The room was thronged with all the elite of 
Honolulu, most of the ladies in handsome morning 
dress. We had excellent seats for observing, which 
we did with all our eyes. Facing us was a large 
dais, with a throne-like chair and canopy, all cover- 
ed with crimson and gold. To the right and left 
of the dais were arm chairs for the Judges of the 
Supreme Court and the Diplomatic Corps. The 
Judges, four in number, were arrayed in robes of a 
deep maroon satin, trimmed with fur of some kind. 
I heard they were like those assumed by the Judges 
in Switzerland, but cannot vouch for the fact. 

The British Commissioner, American Minister, 
(or in exact form, I should reverse that order) ; the 
Foreign Consuls and Staff were in uniform; and all 
the ladies had donned their brightest array. The wife 
of the Portugese Consul looked particularly attrac- 
tive in a pale heliotrope satin gown draped with a 
Spanish mantilla, which was worn with natural grace. 
Now we heard " Hawaii Ponoi," and presently the 
King and his sister, Princess Lydia, preceded by the 
Chamberlains and Kahili bearers, came in and took 
up their station in front of the throne, and while we 


all stood, His Majesty read the speech, first in 
English, then in Hawaiian. The King, as before 
described, has a remarkably soft musical voice, and 
I was glad to hear the Hawaiian language read by 
a chief, as there is an immense difference in the in- 
tonation, each syllable being so clearly and well 

The Princess stood calmly surveying the people, 
scarcely moving while the speech was being read, 
her crimson satin looking very handsome in the 
bright light. Her Royal Highness was in full 
evening dress, with an immense train, a bright 
crimson blossom in her dark hair, and carried a lace 
handkerchief and fan. 

At the conclusion, the King declared the session 
open, wished us all loha mui, handed the speech 
to the A.D.C., bowed gravely twice, and withdrew, * 
followed by the Kahili bearers. A curious mixture 
of the barbaric and conventional, and the impres- 
sion was always left that these people, though per- 
haps not all that we might desire in some ways, yet 
carry off their royalty with the mien of " To the 
manor born." Others may argue that there should 
be no display, look on it all as nonsensical in this 
nineteenth century ; but on occasions such as the 
one described, it was always curious to mark the 


grave dignity of bearing evinced by the Hawaiian 

A few days afterwards when we went to hear a de- 
bate, we found the aspect of the chamber somewhat 
changed ; the floor being taken up with desks, at 
each of which sat two members, the dark faces of 
the Hawaiians showing in contrast to their paler 
brethern. In two rows of chairs facing" each other 
on either side of the dais were respectively, on the 
right the members of the Cabinet, on the left the 
Nobles, who are always termed " Honourable " they 
answer something to our Senate, but have the same 
chamber as the Representatives. 

The venerable-looking President, as the office of 
our Speaker is termed, occupied a large chair 
at the front of the dais, the throne behind, being 
evidently only used on State occasions. Imme- 
diately below the dais was the Interpreter, who filled 
his office in a most marvellous fashion ; in front of 
him was a railed-in space enclosing a large table at 
which sat several reporters busily engaged with their 

An animated debate was going on, in which 
many members were constantly joining, but only 
one, of course was allowed the floor at a time. 


Now came into display the powers of the Inter- 
preter ; for instance, up would get a member ready 
for the fray, burning with eloquence, a flood of words 
pouring out in defence of his point, he would go on 
for perhaps three minutes if in English, when, lo, 
up would go the Interpreter's hand, the English 
tongue would be suddenly silenced, and the words 
taken red hot as it were out of his mouth and trans- 
lated into a much more eloquent flow of Hawaiian ! 
gestures telling of indignation, appeal, surprise, 
assertion, were all carried out most faithfully. In a 
few moments the stream of speech would cease, the 
former orator would take up his theme again, and 
would be about regaining what he had lost by the 
interruption, and begining to feel he was doing his 
subject justice, when up would go the hand of fate, 
and again the soft native words would translate the 
harsher English for the benefit of the Hawaiian 

The member for Honolulu got up to speak, but 
his eloquence was summarily disposed of in concise 
English. Again, a white brother took the floor, with 
the same result, as before, aad I began to feel some 
sympathy with the members, for no one, I should 
think, not even thegrandold man himself could carry 


on a debate in this fashion without feeling that he was 
at least being cruelly treated, to the detriment of his 
speech, and the failure of eloquence. The interpreter 
I am sure, took' care that his native hearers should 
lose nothing by his translation ; he walked up and 
down in quarter-deck fashion, always keeping his 
face to the house holding his audience by sheer 
force of clever interpretation ; in fact he was the 
whole house embodied in one man ; his apparent 
interest in everything was so extraordinary, no 
speaking by rote, but shewing a feeling of responsi- 
bility on every subject he took up, as though he was 
personally involved. Imagine all this in a not very 
airy room full of people, the thermometer probably 
registering at least jo° in the shade outside, and 
then think of all the exertion required for this, day 
after day. 

I came away deeply impressed with what I had 
witnessed, and also with the fact that news flies fast, 
as when I returned to the house where I was stay- 
ing, I was told with great glee by a young member 
of the household, that the evening paper already 
reported the fact that " Mrs. Captain Forsyth Grant, 
occupied a chair on the floor of the house this 
afternoon," at which we weregreatly amused. 


Now from the sublime to the ridiculous, comes 

my interview with a scorpion. Other insects, such 

as immense grey spiders, with legs as thick as a 

pen holder and hairy withal, I had learned to look 

on with a certain degree of tolerance, especially in 

the case of the spider, as I was always told by the 

Chinaman, "Nokillee him, he eatee mosquitto." 

Centipedes I did'not love, and was a bit frightened 

of the great black and red creatures, which if you 

did cut them in half did not seem to mind, but 

tradition said actually joined together again ! To 

the latter I cannot assert, but I certainly have 

seen both halves of the wretched creature move. 

Cockroaches as large as mice almost, were to be 

met with always, and the only thing which seemed 

really to get rid of them was an application of 

crushed borax, or Persian insect powder, both of 

these being in some way obnoxious to them, and in 

consequence a careful house-wife had to cover her 

linen shelves, and dose liberally everything which 

had to be put away for a time. Ants of every 

species carried their armies into everything, and the 

only way to get rid of them was to put the legs of 

tables and safes into cans of water, but as a friend 

said once to me, " Ants are so self-sacrificing, they 


will bridge with their bodies a way for their com- 
panions to gain the desired end." 

Frogs and snakes there were none. I remember 
being so struck by a mother of a family once asking 
me to tell her children exactly what a frog was like, 
for as she remarked, " The only thing they know of 
frogs are their pictures, and in an ordinary lesson 
book, frogs are made the same size as flies ! " 
perfectly true too ! 

All these creatures I was " well acquainted with," 
but never a scorpion had I seen until one morning 
I took up a sponge, and saw what I took to be a 
friendly grey spider ensconsced inside. I poked at 
it with my finger, when to my horror out wriggled 
a hideous looking, uncanny monster. I called to a 
young friend near, and she cried out, " Oh, what a 
big scorpion, wait a moment," which I did, and she 
hurried back with a huge hat pin, with which she 
impaled the beast against the wall, leaving him to 
die a lingering death, but from my observation I 
should say a scorpion had no feeling to speak of. 
It seemed to be all long claws coming forth from a 
thin, almost transparent body ; and a tail which 
curled right over its whole length, was almost trans- 
parent also, but the extreme tip of which had a 


bright scarlet spot, and my friend told me that was 
the only drop of blood in its whole body. The 
bite of the scorpion is supposed to be almost deadly 
in its effects, and is greatly dreaded, so I suppose I 
had a narrow escape when I put an enquiring finger 
into Mr. Scorpion s abode. 

While in Honolulu during this visit I went to the 
market one Saturday afternoon, and was much in- 
terested in watching the motley crowd making their 
purchases of fish, always tied up in green leaves, 
the long feelers of the squid hanging down in all 
directions ; fruit of every description, from piles of 
pineapples to baskets of limes, water melons, 
greatly liked by the natives, fresh figs, mangoes, 
alligator pears, etc., mingling with enormous 
bunches of bananas, which grow wild all over the 

Outside the market place were the women selling- 
their leis of flowers of all kinds ; they were all 
lounging in every conceivable lazy attitude on the 
ground, with their wares displayed on mats beside 
them. Roses, jasmine, oleander, wild ginger, all 
went to make up the fragrant necklaces. The 
vendors were chattering, smoking, talking at the 
top of their voices, laughing, all the while threading 


the blossoms on the thin fibre used to string the 
leis together. With their bright coloured holokus, 
dark faces, white teeth, and all the tropical sur- 
roundings of a brilliant sunshine, palm trees, the 
market stalls heaped with all kinds of curious 
things, Chinamen walking about carrying cala- 
bashes of poi for sale, and the general air of lazy 
inactivity which always prevails in a Hawaiian 
crowd, the contrast to a bustling northern market 
was strong indeed. 

The climate of Honolulu is most delightful from 
October to June ; the later summer months being 
hot and dusty ; and the young people have delightful 
parties of all kinds, to suit the climate ; pic-nics on 
horseback, when a thin dress is sent on in the pro- 
vision waggon to replace the heavy riding gear, in 
order to scramble about in the woods are charming-. 

Bathing parties by moonlight are a great recre- 
ation, many people having pretty summer homes 
down on the sea shore some distance from the 
town, and from the verandahs of which one can 
step into the sea. Tennis, cricket and baseball 
flourish, the two former games especially so when 
ship's officers are amongst the visitors to the town. 

The different public holidays are periods of fun 
and merriment of different kinds. 


Queen Victoria's birthday is always observed by 
a reception at the British Commissioner's ; some- 
times, as was the case on this visit, by a ball under 
the same hospitable roof, when the sailors from the 
flag-ship "Swiftsure" were the skilful decorators 
of the improvised ball room, and the beautiful band 
of the ship furnished the delightful dance music. 
Herr Beger's " boys " as he calls them, having 
given us a selection of English airs during the 
morning ; enjoyed extremely while sitting under 
the shade of the pomegranate trees then in full 

The other national holidays are always observed 
much in the same manner ; such as the 4th July, 
Kammehameha day, etc. 

The most ordinary ball-room can be easily trans- 
formed into beautifully decorated rooms with the 
masses of palms and flowers, mingled with ferns 
and maille always so easily obtained. One young 
lady was quite famous for her taste in arranging 
the different groups of green and colour, and was 
always greatly in demand during any special season 
of gaiety, and her kindness was as well known as 
her talent. 

In such a tropical climate flowers seem the 
easiest things in the world to obtain, and the 


decorations of the cathedral at festive seasons were 
most beautiful. One Easter I specially remember 
from the exquisite beauty of the arrangements. 

For many years the decorations have been 
divided into certain parts by different members of 
the congregation ; thus, the kindly wife of her 
Britannic Majesty's Commissioner always under- 
takes the pulpit, assisted by her daughters. Three 
charming girls, all cousins, took special charge of 
the font, and the lay sisters of St. Andrew's Priory 
made the altar beautiful by their work ; the 
members of the choir decorated other portions of 
the church ; and in that way all knew beforehand 
exactly what they were to do, and made their pre- 
parations accordingly — each getting together all 
the flowers for the special work Such division of 
labour makes it interesting to all, and one might 
recommend this plan to any parish. The Easter 
flowers are in such profusion in Honolulu that there 
is no lack of choice. One lady I heard saying, — 
" I am afraid that I shall not have enough tuberoses 
in the garden ; I must beg from my friends," — and 
apparently she had begged to good effect, for on 
Easter Even, going into her house, it seemed filled 
with the perfume of the lovely flowers, and on my 
asking where they were,' I was taken to see the 


huge wooden bath, about eight feet in circumference, 
simply filled with the sweet-scented things. There 
was no other receptacle large enough to hold the 
mass. The natives have their early service first, 
and we did not go till the mid-day one. The font, 
which was near the door, had its base wreathed in 
green and white, and the cover, which was a very 
high pointed one of wood, was literally covered 
with nothing but stephanotis and violets, making 
the most beautiful pyramid possible. The pulpit 
had small tin cases fastened in two rows, painted 
green, and thus concealing themselves behind and 
among the banks of tuberoses, heliotrope and cloth 
of gold and Marechal Niel roses. The altar was 
apparently standing almost in a shrubbery of 
flowers, and a very handsome cross of brass work 
rose out of the sweet blossoms, adding much to the 
•effect. The service is high in St. Andrew's, and 
the gorgeous robes of the Bishop and his assistants 
made a glowing picture in the rather dark interior 
of the chancel. Just in front of where I was sitting 
were the royal pews, and on the ledge were large 
crimson velvet covered books, with the royal coat 
of arms and motto emblazoned on them. The 
royal family are regular in their attendance at the 
two native churches, in both of which their Ma- 


jesties take great interest — the king himself not dis- 
daining to speak sometimes at meetings held in the 

On two occasions when visiting friends in 
Honolulu, the cathedral was well filled with blue 
jackets, several ships of war, English and American, 
being in the harbor at the time, and the bright, 
fresh faces of the men in trim and spotless uniforms 
were very plesant to see. A service on board the 
Swiftsure, a large flagship lying outside the reef, 
and to which we were taken in a beautiful steam 
launch is a bright remembrance. 

The kindness and hospitality of the people of 
Honolulu to their visitors is ijideed great, and I 
imagine the charming climate will obviate the 
necessity of a demand for anything more of a con- 
ventional state of society, as the life is naturally so 
much more in the open air and sunshine than could 
possibly be obtained in a northern climate, and 
people can therefore meet together readily, and 
without ceremony. 

I have heard, however not a tradition either, that 
since Her Majesty's return from England, Queen 
Kapiolani has given several " afternoon teas," to 
ladies only, and that the gatherings at the Palace 


were most popular, being enjoyed by hostess and 
guests alike, and no doubt gossip at Honolulu is 
indulged in, over the fragrant cup, as easily now-a- 
days, as the songs and legends were heard in years 
gone by, by the Hawaiians of old over the calabash 
of poi, or bowl of awa. 



An interesting episode. — Johnnie. — Kealia House. — Pic-nic up the 
Waialua. — Koloa. — -The Judge's Home. — Mrs. Sinclair and 
Family. — Ideal Life. — Waimea River. — Kekaha. — Visit there. 
— Lepers at Waimea. — Cane at Kekaha — Old Kahuna. — 
Blue Lake at Kekaha. — Barking Sands. — Wachiava R.tnche. — 
Burial Caves. — Hanamaula. — Home again at Kilauea. 

And now we were to have a most interesting- 
journey, one which created a good deal of surprise 
from our friends on all sides, and that was, a long 
drive of no less than 120 miles, as far round the 
island of Kauai as could be managed without cross- 
ing the mountain, and back to Kilauea, and all to be 
done in our little phaeton, with the assistance of a 
cart wherein to carry our luggage, which we were 
thus enabled to send from place to place, taking a 
bag in the phaeton to guard against contingencies. 

A stoical native boy, Johnnie, of whom mention 
has been made before, promised to come with us, 
and act as courier in general, and "hookey up" in 
particular, so on the appointed day he made his 
appearance in a very wonderful get up of white 
trowsers, blue flannel shirt with enormous white 
buttons, high boots with jugling spurs, a huge felt 
■ hat with a lei of ginger round it, and another lei of 


maille leaves over his shoulders, the finishing touches 
being given by a great leather belt, and a brilliant 
cotton handkerchief, like Joseph's coat, of divers 
colours, tied in a loose knot about his neck. Thus 
accoutered, I am sure Johnnie looked on himself as 
the one person of importance in the trio. Johnnie 
was supposed to ride a mule of well known steady 
manners, driving another in front, on which we had 
strapped the bulk of the luggage ; however, this 
last proved a dead failure, for after giving him at 
least two hours start, we drove off, and when pass- 
ing through a road some few miles away, we des- 
cried Master Johnnie riding in the degage manner 
peculiar to natives, and letting the pack mule 
wander at his own sweet will, which being of an 
erratic tendency, was just then taking him perilously 
near the edge of a very steep gulch thereby endan- 
gering our precious packages most uncomfortably. 
The truth was, Johnnie's dignity was hurt ; start- 
ing off was a novelty to him, but as the day wore 
on, " Ginger," the pack mule, got weary of his 
burden, and "Whiskey," the one Johnnie bestrode, 
did not object to following the quiet pace necessary 
to the pack mule, and as a native is only happy 
when going at full gallop, or loping canter, he 
thought he was being cheated out of his pleasure 


due him, and my firm belief is that Johnnie would 
not have been overcome with sorrow if Ginger had 
tumbled over the gulch. However, we encouraged 
him with cheery words, and drove on, leaving him 
most disconsolate, and he did not appear at the 
rendezvous until after ten o'clock that night. The 
next morning he was sent back to Kilauea for a 
small cart in which he thereafter drove the mules, 
and everything went smoothly enough. 

We spent two days at our friends the pastor's at 
Kapaa, and found him in the best of spirits, and his 
garden a blaze of colour and blossom as usual. 

While there we rode over t6 the handsome and 
hospitable residence of the owner of the two 
plantations, Kapaa, and Kealia ; the house, a 
modern two-storied structure with mansard roof 
stood in beautiful gardens, where roses of every hue 
grow almost into trees of exquisite beauty. In 
front of the house was a small artificial lake in 
which grew masses of pink water lilies, which were 
very lovely. Here the Australian Euchylyptus 
trees were in great profusion, their fragrant leaves 
diffusing a delicious odour when crushed. Olives 
grew there too, their dusky colour revealing the 
true " olive green." 


The rides and drives about were, as usual, lovely 
in the extreme. One pic-nic up the Waialua river 
lingers in my memory. We started a party of 
eight, a lot of young people with us, and sailed 
up the pretty river where the " windings " in and 
out were constantly opening visions of beauty ; 
ferns, reeds, grasses grew down to the edges, and 
were mirrored as in a glass. Magnificent guavas 
grew in such profusion that we stopped for 
luncheon where we could pick huge basketfuls 
without any trouble. Here a very funny incident 
occurred. A native had begged us to give him a 
seat in the boat, and his request being acceded to, 
he wished to take the whole command on himself, 
which was, however, calmly, but firmly objected to. 
He proceeded to talk a great deal, standing up in 
the boat, working his hand now in this direction, 
now in that, as he thought the course ought to be 
shifted, and we came to the conviction that the 
would be skipper had been indulging in his 
favourite tipple, whatever it might be, to the extent 
of making him slightly incoherent. 

When we landed he was very officious, and on 
being suppressed, he got sulky, lit his pipe, and 
established himself in an easy attitude on the 
forked branch of a tree several feet from the 


ground. There he lay, presently fell asleep and 
snored vociferously : but while we were trying the 
depths of the hospitable luncheon basket, we heard 
a tremendous report of breaking wood, and going to 
find out the mischief done, we discovered that the 
branch on which our friend had made his couch 
had completely broken from the tree the sleeper 
lay flat on his back, the pipe still in his mouth, 
but all the same the slumberer was undisturbed 
from his sleep ! Our laughter should have 
awakened him, if anything would, but he still slept 
so soundly that we thought it a pity to disturb him, 
and so left him to his fate. I might here remark 
that on our retnrning some hours later to bring our 
guavas, the native was still asleep ! What became 
of him I do not know ; the river lay between him 
and his home, but that is a small obstacle to a 

A long way up the Waialua we came to a once 
beautiful estate, where coffee had been' found in 
immense quantities, and flourishing crops were 
obtained until the blight came and destroyed every- 

Taro patches covered the valley, and on the top 


of the hill, we could make out the stone foundations 
of what once had been a lovely home. 

At a short distance a double waterfall made a 
really beautiful picture, and after gazing for a long 
time at the whirling rapids, and the varied foliage, 
we made our way down to the boat again, enjoying 
the sail home in the short tropical twilight. 

We left Kapaa on a brilliant morning, and after 
a drive of some hours through an undulating road, 
reached a pretty cottage home, where we were 
welcomed by the kind and courteous judge of that 
district, and his daughter, who was known for her 
beauty and sweet manners all over Kauai. 

Koloa was the name of the plantation, and it was 
almost a town, with shaded roads, and pretty old- 
fashioned houses with verandahs covered with 
creepers, varied by smaller habitations. There 
were two churches, a large district school, one or 
two " stores " and the usual plantation buildings. 

The house at which we were received was a small 
cottage in the main building with a verandah in 
front, round which wandered a beautiful grey and 
pink paraquet which was a great amusement to' all 
new-comers ; to the right of the house was the 
kitchen, and the judge's office ; to the left, a large 


room for visitors, all detached, in the usual island 

The cottage was almost buried "in sugar cane, 
which grew thickly in front of the house, and 
behind babbled a lively little brook through a 
pretty wood ; the judge was a great poultry fancier, 
and everywhere one went chickens of all sizes and 
ages seemed to appear from all sorts of nooks and 

We spent three pleasant days at Koloa, enjoying 
discussions on many things, from evolution to 
poultry, for the judge was a great reader and deep 
thinker, and was able, best of all, to impart his 
thoughts to his ready listeners. 

We left Koloa early one bright morning, and 
at mid-day passed through another plantation 
called Eeele-Eeele (Elly-elly), where we saw in the 
distance a white house-, seemingly nestled at the 
foot of the mountains, at which we later had a most 
pleasant visit. Further on we saw some extensive 
rice fields, which were so gaily decorated with 
poles from which fluttered streamers of every hue 
imaginable that at first one thought there must be 
some festa in progress, but the deafening noise of 
the cans hung up in the breeze, and popping of 

I 2 


guns, soon made us aware that all this display was 
for nothing but to frighten the little rice birds from 
the grain on which they vainly strove to feast. 

We came in sight of the sea, along which a rough 
road wound, and presently were confronted by a 
truly awful looking hill cut out of the rock, on 
which one could discern a narrow bridle path, well 
worn, with rocks of every shape and size on either 
side ; the carriage Jiad to go up, and so had we, so 
with a cheering word to Hop, our little carriage 
mule, a willing animal but a trifle treacherous with 
his heels at times, we began the ascent, the coach- 
man walking beside with reins in his hands. Such 
a bumping and shaking was seldom experienced, 
but we did manage it, and at last after a severe 
struggle during which the wheels were almost at 
right angles with each other at times, we reached 
the top, and looked down from our rocky elevation 
on the plains where stood a large rambling home- 
stead, white, with green blinds and wide verandahs, 
surrounded by trees and flowers. 

The descent was easier on that side, and at the 
foot of the hill we turned to the right through a 
gate into a road that led up to the house, across a 
primitive bridge, underneath which ran a wide 


stream with steep banks. As we approached the 
house, our kind friends came to the verandah steps 
to meet us. First came a fairy god- mother-like 
old Scotch lady, whose name is known far and wide 
in the Hawaiian Islands. By her side stood the 
eldest son and his wife ; two kind matronly faces 
smiled in welcome, also daughters of our hostess ; 
and again, another generation behind, in the two 
granddaughters, and grandsons. I may here 
mention the fact that many years ago, the head 
of this fine family with sons and daughters left 
Australia to seek another home in the wide 
Pacific, and they, being rich in the worlds goods 
took a ship for themselves, and " sailed, and sailed, 
and sailed," until they landed by preference on the 
shores of Kauai, and here made a home, or rather 
homes, for besides the house on the plains (the 
native name of which I forgot,) they have a charm- 
ine retreat in the mountains called " Makaweli," 
to which they can escape when the heat gets intense, 
and where, wonderful to relate, there is a fireplace ! 
And where the coolness of the climate is such that a 
fire is kept constantly burning, and to anyone who 
had not seen a fire for years, that of itself was an 
immense attraction. Another grandson had bought 


the Island of Niihau, and lived there in truly 
patriarchal fashion, amongst his flocks and herds 
and with no communication with the outer world, 
except what was attainable through an occasional 
visit of the steamer and a trip now and then in one 
of his many whaling skiffs. A young family grow- 
ing up, however, must eventually, one would think, 
disturb the calm and quiet of such a retired life. 

The house on the plain was built to accomodate, 
many a visitor, each bed-room being made to open 
on the verandahs all round the house, with a dress- 
ing-room at one end. And frequently eighteen in 
number sat down to the tabic, for another daughter 
and her family were settled within a few miles. The 
drawing-room was large, filled with evidences of a 
charming home life, piano, books, work, pictures, 
and all description of curious and interesting objects 
brought from abroad, where different members of 
the family would go for a prolonged visit to far-away 

Mrs. Sinclair owned immense tracts of lands, and 
the natives therefore owed to her allegiance in the 
way of work, in return for being able to keep their 
dearly loved grass huts and Taro patches intact. 

A great deal of land was being turned into sugar 


cane during our sojourn, and the rich soil promised 
abundant crops, if irrigation could be attained, and 
since our return we have seen accounts of engineers 
being employed to convey water from the numerous 
mountain streams to the fields, which will be all 
that is wanted to ensure phenonemal crops. 

We had a delicious luncheon, such home-made 
bread and butter, such vegetables, preserved man- 
goes and cream as seldom comes to one's lot in 
Hawaii, and our long drive had sharpened our 
appetites into being able to do full justice to the 
meal, which was served to us by an old white-haired 
native butler. After luncheon we went to see some 
beautiful Arab horses, which had been recently 
imported, and greatly admired the handsome crea- 
tures which poked their fine muzzles for the bread 
which they all contentedly took from kind hands, 
and pawed the ground with high-bred feet as 
though impatient for a swift galop on the breezy 

Towards evening we left our kind hostess as 
we were to reach Kekaha, the farthest plantation 
on Kauai, for a long promised visit ; and were very 
happy to have the opportunity again later on, of 
renewing our acquaintance with this ideal family 



party. For it was an ideal life, surrounded by their 
own kindred, charming homes, those dependent on 
them glad to be so, and with a feeling of attach- 
ment which can only come from a life-long service; 
a perfect climate, and with means to cross the broad 
seas whenever inclined for change, and health ; what 
can more closely realize the perfect life ? True, 
there is no church near at hand, but morning and 
evening brings family prayers, which in old days 
was the only form of worship known ; horses in 
abundance to ride, and carriages to drive gave 
exercise to all, the broad sea beach a quarter of a 
mile from the house invited those who wished to 
bathe to do so, the exquisite changes of atmosphere 
brought pictures of land and seas to gratify the eye, 
and the wonderful ferns and foliage gave subjects 
for the artists' pencil, as are seldom seen. 

Mrs. Frank Sinclair was an accomplished artist, 
and her sketches of flowers and plants, including or- 
chids, were really beautiful. I think they have been 
bound together for private distribution, and would 
be a valuable addition to a flower-lover's collection. 

A lodge in the mountains gave the gentlemen 
the means of " camping out" for days, while hunting 
wild cattle, a dangerous, and no doubt, an interest- 


ing pastime for a lover of sport ; and still another 
sylvan retreat, built in a picturesque spot in the 
high woods, added the touch of romance, when I 
may add that before we left Kauai, two of the 
young cousins got married, and went to spend their 
honeymoon in the pretty cottage, to which they 
rode after the ceremony, followed by the good 
wishes of the immense party of relatives assembled 
to the wedding. 

' After leaving Mrs. Sinclair's we drove to the banks 
of the Waimea River, which was very much swollen 
from the rain, and their found Johnnie with the 
cart and- mules. A large party of natives looked 
on with interest when we prepared to ford the 
river, but a second look made me sure the little 
phaeton would be submerged if we attempted to 
cross in it. What was to be done ? I could not 
ride across very well in my every-day raiment, 
with the chance of getting wet, and try the carriage 
I would not. The question was solved by putting 
me in the cart, which of course was much higher, 
and being driven with the mules, who never object 
to water. 

The phaeton was driven over by a native, and 
at one time it looked as if he and the carriage and 


Hop would all swim off together towards the sea, 

so deep were the waters ; however, .we were all 

landed at last in safety, and I was deeply relieved 

when we were able to start in our proper order 

again. There was a capital bridge built a little 

lower down, but the ends were not finished so that 

a carriage could go on it ; but after that experience 

I found I could walk across it well enough, and. 

wait while the carriage was driven across the ford. 

We drove on across a flat sandy road, passing the 

mill at Waimea, and came in sight at sun down of 

Kekaha plantation, which is built almost on the 

sea shore, the cane fields running up all towards the 


We passed a pretty house with a fountain and 
flower garden, and drove through a sort of com- 
pound in which were some grass huts, and taro 
patches beyond, and finally drew up in front of a 
modern house, one story as usual, with a wide 
verandah running round three sides, and shaded by 
some splendid mangoe trees. In a few minutes we 
were welcomed by the master of the house, a most 
kind courteous friend to us, and installed in a 
large and comfortable bed-room charmingly fur- 
nished, and we soon were at supper, where the 


host and his partner served the most delicious 
coffee I have ever tasted. Being both Germans, 
coffee was a necessity, and their little Vienna 
machine certainly produced a most excellent form 
of that beverage, strong, hot, and fragrant ; here we 
were introduced to the German combinations of food 
which are put up in tins in Germany, and thus find 
their way so many thousands cf miles. Cabbage 
with vinegar, small sausages, big sausages, cheeses 
all new to us, fish of a kind unknown to our primi- 
tive ideas, and other things excellent in their way 
were pressed on us. 

While at Kekaha we had fresh cocoa nuts fre- 
quently ; a native boy climbing up the trees, many 
of which grew close by, and bringing the young 
green fruit down for us ; in that state the meat was 
a delicate white pulp to be eaten with a spoon 
from the shell, and the milk was very cool and 
pleasant on a warm day ; and the days are generally 
warm at Kekaha. It was a cooler period than had 
been experienced for a long time, during our stay 
there, and seldom the therometer went below 75 in 
the shade, but the air was so softly tempered by 
the sea breezes, that we rarely felt the heat oppres- 
sive The air is extremely dry at Kekaha, more so 


than in other parts of the island, and is most benefi- 
cial to anyone suffering - from rheumatism or 
neuralgia ; several cases were brought to our notice, 
cases of severity as well as of long standing which 
gave way to the salubrious effect of the soft dry 

In the rides and drives about one saw many 
novel and curious sights. The river, or rather the 
valley of the Waimea is a purely native settlement, 
and the huts are of every size and shape, almost 
buried under glowing foliage of every hue. 

Oranges are particularly good there, and riding 
past a pretty little grass hut one day, we were 
attracted by the sight of a fine tall orange tree in 
full blossom, and bearing, I should think hundreds 
of the bright golden fruit ; I never saw a more 
perfect specimen of an orange tree. The natives 
swarmed in numbers through the valley, and they 
would lie about in the laziest of attitudes, returning- 
our "Alohas" with indifference. 

Many lepers are these too,poor unhappy creatures, 
but the movements of the Sheriff and his officers 
are too closely watched for justice to be done as it 
should. The fastnesses of the mountains are almost 
inaccessible except to those who are born near 


there and in consequence, know of all the secret 
hiding places which are sought immediately an 
alarm is given. The word Molokai means of 
course, banishment in its most awful sense, a living 
death indeed ; and to escape this in isolated cases, 
the whole Hawaiian race is being exterminated. 

The Government have proposed making a retreat 
for the lepers of Rauai on their own island, and I 
may here copy from one of the Honolulu papers, 
an account of an expedition of inquiry, undertaken 
by the members of the Board of Health to satisfy 
themselves as to whether it was practical to do so. 

" On Tuesday of last week His Excellency L. A. 
Thurston, Minister of Interior, Dr. N. B. Emerson, 
President of the Board of Health, and Mr. W. E. 
Rowell, Superintendent of Public Works, all of 
them members of the Board of Health, embarked 
for Kauai on the steamer Mikahala. They re- 
turned by the same steamer on Sunday, when a 
representative of this paper obtained from the 
President of the Board an account of the ex- 

" By an arrangement with the captain of the 
boat, with the consent of Mr. G. N. Wilcox, an 
I. I. S. N. Co. director, the Mikahala called at 


the valley of Kalalau on the morning of Thurs- 
day. Leaving Waimea they steamed along the 
coast for about 18 miles. The view of the 
mountain cliffs was wonderful, the carving of 
nature being declared by the members of the 
party as unsurpassed on these islands in beauty 
and sublimity. This was especially true of the 
pinnacles and gorges next to the above named 
valley. The mountains back are 4,000 or 5,000 
feet of elevation at their highest. The only ac- 
cess to the valley is by difficult trail over the 
mountains, or by another trail along the precipitous 
cliffs of the coast in the direction of Haena, on 
the Hanalei side. During nearly six months 
access by boats is forbidden on account of the 
breakers, the sand of the beach for that time 
being washed away so as to leave nothing but a 
rocky beach. This stormy period lasts from 
October or November to March or April. 

"The expedition left the steamer in boats and 
were carried through the surf in canoes, making 
very exciting business for which the party pre- 
pared by removing their foot gear. They found 
a fine sandy beach of about 200 feet in breadth 
to the overhanging bluffs. There horses were 


found in waiting, on which they rode to the 
village, a distance of about a third — or half a mile, 
accompanied by a large number of the population, 
which altogether approaches sixty or seventy souls, 
including about twelve lepers and one Chinaman, 
The rest of the population are a fine, healthy lot 
of people, above the average for large and sym- 
metrical physique. There was notably a healthy 
looking band of children, numbering twenty-three, 
attending the school. 

" The food resources of the valley are abundant. 
There are at least seventy-five acres of land either 
under cultivation in taro or capable of being so 
cultivated. Many more acres are suitable for 
raising Irish or sweet potatoes, yams, bananas, 
sugar cane, etc. There is a fine stream of water 
which in the present dry month is more than 
ample for all necessities, irrigation as well as 

•' Reaching the settlement, the expedition rode 
inland far enough to gain a fair view of the 
larger part of the valley, thus assuring themselves 
of its extent and resources." 

This is the valley to which the lepers of the Is- 
land of Kauai are said to desire to be transferred. 


that they may here be segregated from the rest of 
the people, and thus be permitted to escape removal 
to the leper settlement at Kalawao. It was with 
the purpose of gaining accurate information on this 
point, and seeing for themselves how the land lay, 
that these three members of the Board of Health 
made this visit to the valley. 

The cane at Kekaha was a marvellous sight, so 
enormous in height, thickness and quantity. Some 
of the sugar canes were thirty feet high, and we 
tried to count the number of sticks growing in one 
stool, as it is called, a clump in other words, and 
after counting thirty-six, we gave up in despairj the 
crops of sugar of course'are enormous, eight tons of 
sugar to an acre, and over seven and five tons for 
the second and third growths, or ratoons, as they 
are called. 

But to cap this, comes the question of irrigation, 
all surface water is brackish, and in consequence 
artesian wells have to be sunk in every direction, 
and pumped into the flumes to water the fields, the 
wells are kept going by steam power, and with 
coal at sixteen dollars a ton, it seems difficult to 
know how such huge .expenses can be met to any 
advantage. Some years ago the profits were so 


large that it seemed as though the planters must 
make large fortunes in a very few years, and they 
did, but when the Germans swept the markets of 
the world with their beetroot sugar, the splendid 
cane sugar sank into the background, and has con- 
tinued to sink ; whether it will rise, is a question ? 
I trow not, while the foreign labour clamours for 
high wages, and the native coolie is unknown. 

The water was often quite hot shortly after 
leaving the pumping house, and the servants used 
to be able to get hot water a few yards away with- 
out trouble ; there seemed to be an immeuse 
quantity of lime also in the water, and if the kettle 
was not carefully attended to it would get a solid 
incrustation of lime inside, leaving only a few 
inches of space for the water. Though sparkling 
and clear, it induced great thirst if much was drank, 
and there was a story told of a visitor, who drank 
the delightfully cold water with great avidity the 
first day of his arrival, at night he was still thirsty, 
and a large jug of water was left in his room for 
him ; sleep fled however, the thirst still continued, 
and by morning both jugs were emptied, as well as 
the water bottle. 

Near our temporary home, was a large native 


grass hut to which an addition had evidently been 
intended, as part of the roof and one side were done, 
but Hawaiian laziness had stopped just then, and 
there seemed little prospect of its being finished. 
In the habitable part lived a large native woman, 
with a shock of curly white hair, who invariably 
wore immense gold rimmed spectacles. She was a 
" lady doctor," and appeared to have a large num- 
ber of patients judging from the visitors constantly 
about the house. Passing there one day I was 
greatly edified to see the old dame sitting a la 
turque, her spectacles imparting a most learned air 
to her countenance, in front of her open fire in the 
ground, reading from a large book spread on her 
lap to an attentive audience : it was the Bible ! 

While at Kekaha, a kind friend sent me a present 
of some squid, as a rarity, but I did not much care 
to try it, so our host suggested my giving it to the 
old lady Kahuna, so we walked down to the hut 
and found her squatting over the fire of embers, on 
which was a tin pot of water ; on asking if anyone 
was ill, after receiving her thanks for the squid 
she said, "Ai, my husband is sick inside, he no like 
cold water to drink, so I make it warm." And she 
accordingly dipped her finger in now and then to 


see if it was the right temperature. I peeped into 
the hut and saw a man lying on some dirty mats 
with a little child nestling beside him, they both 
looked up with their big black eyes but said 
nothing, so after looking at the untidy place 
heaped up with all kinds of things, I dropped the 
mat which served for a door and was glad to breathe 
the pure air once more. We left the old dame still 
testing the water with her finger ! 

The same old Native met me one day when we 
were both riding ; she had a huge piece of sugar 
cane, several feet long, which she was tearing with 
her teeth to extract the sweet juice, and on seeing 
me she gave her horse a kick, grinned from ear to 
ear, and held out her sugar cane with a most cordial 
air of invitation to taste. I never cared much for 
the sugar cane, it was so tough and fibrous, and 
such a lot of trouble to get at the juice, but the 
natives young and old are excessively fond of it, 
and many white people too. 

One warm day our kind host asked us to come and 
see the far famed Blue Lake, and we accepted the in- 
vitation at once, as we knew from hearsay of this 
extraordinary phenomenon. We mounted and set 

off along a good road, but dusty, until after leaving 
r 3 


the actual road itself shaded by mangoe trees, we 
emerged on a broad plain, bounded on one side by 
the ocean, and on the other by frowning heights. 
The sides of the mountain range being in this 
place darker, and more bare of foliage than I saw 
them anywhere else ; deep gulches however, made 
a welcome break in the red earth and rock, shew- 
ing cool and green in their grassy depths. 

In many parts of Kauai the grass is infested with 
a small seed, called " piddy grass," which is most 
troublesome to anyone walking, as it covers the 
lower part of ones garments for several inches, 
and can only be got rid of by a violent scraping of 
the cloth with the back of a knife, a brush not 
being hard enough. 

But here at Kekaha the grass was soft, spongy, 
and a blue green colour, delightful to walk or ride 
on, and most nourishing feed for animals. On the 
plain were many clumps of cocoa-nuts, and herds 
of cattle feeding in all directions ; we crossed a 
slight depression in the ground, ascended a low hill, 
or rather rise, and before us lay the lovely Blue 

It lay immediately in front of our path, surround- 
ed the wide plain, which formed a bank, on which 


were ferns in varied beauty ; the tall cocoa-nut 
palms waved their graceful feathery heights over 
the clear blue water, which seemed to mirror all in 
its crystal reflections ; cattle stood enjoying the 
cool depths to their knees, the hot sun seemed to 
give a deeper, more intense hue to the water even 
as we looked, and a simultaneous " How lovely " 
came from us both. The shimmering waters of 
the broad Pacific on one side, and the rocky coast 
beyond, seemed to be a perfect perspective for this 
exquisite picture ; after gazing for a long time, we 
moved on to see if we could ford the lake, or skirt 
round it to reach the " Barking Sands " just beyond. 
The lake apparently was but a short distance, and 
every moment we expected to get a nearer view of 
it ; (a clearer one, could not be,) but as we rode, we 
appeared not to get closer, we passed the cocoa 
palms, the cattle, but still no water ; suddenly, as 
though in a vision, the lovely Blue Lake was gone. 
We looked, and looked again, but only bare sand met 
the eye ; we rode on, completely bewildered, when 
our host said, " Now, look back." We did so and 
there behind us was the crystal lake, mirroring the 
palms and the cattle laving the blue waters, but 
although, apparently, we must have gone through 


the deepest part, our own senses told us that we 
had come entirely on dry land. 

The Blue Lake of Kekaha was a mirage, and a 
mirage as must be seldom seen except in the far 
East, and even there one could not meet with a 
more complete transformation than was presented 
to the eye in those dry and sandy plains in the 
space of a few moments time. 

No scientific explanation has been given, that I 
know of, of this marvel of nature; the soil is strongly 
impregnated with salt, and would be very rich if 
cultivated, but let us hope that the hand of man 
will leave undisturbed the sweet, placid waters of 
the pictured Blue Lake. 

Quite close at hand was a large plot of ground 
which was said to be a most dangerous quick- 
sand, the surface was very light in colour, and 
much cracked ; we, not believing in the danger, tried 
one day to drive across, the mule refused several 
places, and was very uneasy, as if the animal was 
aware that there was something wrong, but after 
a little judicious coaxing, we managed to skirt 
the treacherous bog without evil results. 

The rocky coast is rugged and stern, but the 
spray from the breakers leaping high in the clear 


air, makes a delightful fresh atmostphere, and we 
enjoyed wandering about, picking up the numerous 
shells of all kinds which strew the beach. 

The " Barking Sands " are long, low hillocks of 
sea sand which, after a period of dry, hot weather, 
will, when stamped on, give out a curious bark- 
ing sound, like that of an angry dog. It is said 
that this comes from the sand being composed 
of myriads of tiniest shells, which when pressed 
with sudden violence make the sound I have 

How true this version may be I cannot tell, but 
the plains of Kekaha are certainly rich in marvels. 
At the extreme end of the plains another planta- 
tion has been taken up, and though the area 
cannot be very large the soil is so rich that the 
large crops of sugar will repay the enterprizing 
planter ; the isolation will be great, but the situa- 
tion a scene of surpassing beauty. 

There are many Swedes and Norwegians on 
this side of Kauai, and one of the partners in 
Kekaha plantation was a Swede, who lived in the 
pretty house alluded to, which had a fountain in 
front, and when hearing many voices in the 
Norse language, the effect is very curious, that 


tongue being more nasal and guttral than even 
the North German. 

We left Kekaha with the warmest remember- 
ances of all the kind welcomes extended to us, 
and after stopping to bid adieu to Mrs. Sinclair 
and her family, we drove back to Elle-Elle, 
where at Waihiava Ranche, we passed a charm- 
ing visit of a fortnight, at the white house, nestled 
at the foot of the hills. 

This ranche was a splendid estate, hundreds of 
cattle roaming over the hills and plains ; and most 
curious to see were the innumerable flocks of 
turkeys which one met everywhere in walks, or 
drives, or rides. Originally, I suppose they had 
been tame and in small numbers, but gradually 
wandering from the home yard, had gone farther 
away, and finally brought out their young ones in 
all sorts of inaccessible places, for a turkey hen 
loves to make her nest where no human hand can 
find it. And though we saw flocks of dozens in 
each, quite close to the garden fence, yet in the 
rockiest paths, .or most silent gulches, we would 
suddenly hear the peculiar cry of the bird when 
disturbed, and they would fly off the trees like 


The house was charming, so large, though only 
one story, but a range of pretty little cottage rooms 
ran down at right angles with the main building, 
connected with each other by a wide verandah. 

The rides up the mountain which rose up almost 
immediately behind the house were lovely, such a 
wide vista to look out on, bounded only by the sea ; 
groves of bamboo, and coffee bushes were in abund- 
ance, and solitary trees of koa shewed where this 
beautiful wood had once flourished in abundance. 

On the sea shore were splendid shells, so richly 
marked ; and close by the pools where we looked 
for them, were rocky ponds from which salt was 
taken in large quantities, dried, and exported, but 
I heard it was not so remunerative as to make 
the exportation a large business. 

Looking up from the " shelling," we were engaged 
on one day, I saw the rocks were very high, and 
curved round into a horse-shoe shape almost, run- 
ning inland several hundred yards ; and at various 
distances, some twenty feet from the ground, one 
could perceive apertures in the face of the rocks, 
almost like open doorways, apparently only reached 
by a narrow ledge marked in the rocks. 


I asked my companion, one of the charming 
daughters of our kind hostess of Waihiava what it 
meant, and she said they were supposed to be 
graves of natives, probably chiefs, whose bodies, 
after being embalmed were carefully deposited in 
these caves, and the natives to this day dislike ex- 
tremely any stranger to look into them. It seemed 
to bring the fact of the eastern fashion of putting 
the mummies into caves in rocks to one's mind, but 
there could scarcely be any connection, one would 

There was a collection of native curiosities in the 
room of the young master of the house, calabashes, 
mats, spears, stone poi pounders, etc., and the most 
perfect specimens of tapa cloth I saw while in the 
Islands ; great rolls of the cloth had been given to 
him, some new, and some old, bright colours and 
dull, and some with deep borders would have 
looked most quaint as curtains, and one square 
piece would have done for a table cloth ; they were 
exceptionally fine and well made, and no doubt 
before long it will be as difficulty to get tapa cloth 
from Hawaii, as it is to get silk from China. 

We said good bye to Waihiava and our kind 


and gentle hostess, and drove to Koloa one fine 
day, where we spent the night with the Judge, 
and the following day reached our destination for 
a short visit to some friends at Hanamoula, where 
indeed the offices of the good Samaritan were called 
into requisition, for a violent cold detained one of 
our party there for several days and the hospi- 
tality extended can never be forgotten. 

Captain L'Orange was a Swede, also his wife, 
and we heard many interesting stories of his sea- 
faring life before settling in Kauai ; Madame 
L'Orange was a notable housekeeper, and she 
told me of some quaint dishes customary in her 
country, and one day introduced us to beer soup, 
and rye bread with carraway seeds in it! also a 
strong liquor made very sweet, flavoured strongly 
with aniseed, which is frequently given in Sweden 
before dinner, to be eaten with a certain kind of 
hard dry biscuit as an appetizer. 

The linen of the household was the finest, and 
most elaborate I ever saw, even the pillow cases 
and sheets being most beautifully worked by hand : 
on each large pillow lay a tiny one, with a blue 


covering, and over that a second cover of finest 
cambric, with a large monogram embroidered in 
the centre, and edged with work to correspond. 
It is probable much the same custom as obtains 
in Germany, for each young. Swedish maiden to 
vie with the other for the possession of a large 
stack of household linen, which is kept, and added 
to, to be in readiness for the wedding day. 

We were almost at the end of our journey when 
we said a regretful good-bye at Hanamoula, and 
that same afternoon reached Kapaa where we spent 
a few days at Mr. Dole's before wending our way 
to Kilauea, where we found everything in capital 
order, and though Sin Fat expressed pleasure at 
our return, he two days later, as I have said before, 
I. firmly believe, walked off with some valuables ; 
with celestial cunning, he waited until we had re- 
turned, found things all safe, and. then expressed 
sorrow that he had left the door open one night ! 
No doubt, to make way for a friendly thief ! We 
were always so glad we had been enabled to take 
the trip round Kauai, thereby enabling us to see 
more varieties of life in a short time than we could 


possibly have done in any other way, as the many 
difficulties in merely travelling about would have 
deterred us, but with the phaeton, the mules, and 
Johnnie, we were quite independent of steamers 
and stages, and have, amongst our many happy re- 
collections, this last chapter of 




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