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Kv v^^ry 

:' A {}\^ M 

l^arfaarlr College iifirarg 

Schlesinger Library 
Radcliffe College 

Culinary Collection 


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illtmiiUilimafBiirTliimB.Deatt. SuptrttiuaiaiL 

A CoRHER OP Washikotok's KrrcviEK at Mount Vernon 












HARVARD umVfeRa 1 1 ,^ 

b2\s MAY 2b 1921 


KoTtDooH 9re00 

J, fi. Cashing Co. —Berwick & Smith Co. 

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 


School and Home Cooking is a text which can be placed 
in the hands of the pupils and used by them as a guide both 
in the school and home. Its use eliminates note-taking 
(which in reality is dictation) and thus saves much time. 

The psychological method of education, which treats first 
of material within the experience of the beginner and with 
that as a basis develops new material to meet the needs 
of the pupil, was kept in mind in preparing this text. Al- 
though the grouping of foods rich in each foodstuflp may 
be considered a logical arrangement, the method of ar- 
rangement of the content of each division and the method 
of approach of each lesson is psychological. The manip- 
ulative processes and kinds of dishes are suflSciently varied 
to arouse and sustain the interest of a pupil. 

Experience with pupils in the classroom shows that their 
interest in any subject cannot be awakened by using a list 
or classification involving technical terms in introducing 
the subject. For this reason a classification of the food- 
stuffs is not placed at the beginning of the text; they are 
classified after each is considered. 

At the close of each division of the text there is placed 
a group of lessons called Related Work, which includes table 
service lessons, home projects, and meal cooking. Table 
service lessons are introduced in this way to emphasize the 
fact that a complete meal should be prepared before all types 
of foods are studied and manipulative processes are per- 

• • • 



formed. The cost and food valice of meals are considered 
in conjunction with their preparation. Wise selection and 
thrifty buying of foods are also treated in these lessons. 

Home projects which progressive teachers have found 
effective in making home economics function in the home — 
one of the goals to be attained in democratic education — 
contain suggestive material which may be adapted to the 
particular needs of the pupils in their homes. 

An adaptation of the "mefeil method," i.e,, meal cooking, 
is used both for the purpose of reviewing processes of cook- 
ing, and also for gaining skill and speed in the preparation 
of several foods at the same time. 

Experiments regarding food preparation and composi- 
tion and processes of digestion are found in this book. Spe- 
cial care has been taken to state these experiments in terms 
within the understanding of the pupil and to intersperse 
definite questions so that a pupil can follow directions, 
make observations, and draw helpful deductions. 

The recipes have been adapted from various sources. 
Where it is possible, without a sacrifice of flavor or food 
value, the least expensive food materials are used. The 
more expensive materials are used as sparingly as possible. 
Definite and practical methods of preparing foods follow 
the list of ingredients. The recipes have proved satis- 
factory in the home kitchen. 

Special thanks are due to Mrs. Mary Swartz Rose, As- 
sistant Professor of Nutrition, Teachers College, Columbia 
University, for criticizing portions of the text regarding 
dietetics; to Miss S. Gertrude Hadlow, Head of the De- 
partment of English, Longwood High School of Commerce, 
Cleveland, for valuable suggestions of material formerly 
prepared which aided in the preparation of this work; to 
Mrs. Jessie M. Osgood for painstaking reading of the manu- 
script; and to the following for the use of illustrative ma- 


terial: The Macmillan Company, D. Appleton and Com- 
pany, William Wood and Company, The Journal of the 
American Medical Association, The Journal of Home Eco- 
nomics, and the United States Department of Agriculture. 

July. 1920. 



List op Illustrations . , . ... . . . xvi 

List of Experiments xix 

Foreword 1 



I. Baked Apples — Dishwashing 5 

11. Measurements — Stuffed and Scalloped Tomatoes . 14 

III. Fuels and Combustion — Saut6d and Baked Squash 19 

IV. Coal Ranges — Corn Dishes 22 

V. Gas Ranges — Scalloped Fruit 27 

VI. Stoves and Heating Devices — Stuffed Peppers, 

Butterscotch Apples .33 


Body-regulating Food, — Water 

VII. Water and Beverages (A) 40 

Vni. Water and Beverages (B) 46 

Related Work 

IX. Home Projects .51 

X. Afternoon Tea 64 


Body-building and Body-regulating Foods, — Rich in 

Ash (Mineral Matter) 

XL Fresh Vegetables (A) 57 

XIL Fresh Vegetables (B) 61 

XIII. Fresh Fruits 64 




Related Work 


XIV. Review : Meal Cooking 
XV. Home Projects 



Energy-giving or Fuel Foods, — Rich in Carbohydrates 















Sugar : Digestion of Sugar . 

Sugar-rich Fruits : Dried Fruits (A) 

Sugar-rich Fruits : Dried Fruits (B) 

Cereals : Starch and Cellulose 

Cereals: Rice (A) 

Cereals: Rice (B) 

Cereals and the Fireless Cooker . 

Cereals for Frying or Baking 

Powdered Cereals Used for Thickening 

Toast : Digestion of Starch 

Root Vegetables (A) . 

Root Vegetables (B) . 

Root Vegetables (C) . 

Starchy Foods Cooked at High Temperature 

Related Work 

XXX. Dining Room Service . 
XXXI. Cooking and Serving Breakfast 
XXXII. Review : Meal Cooking 
XXXIII. Home Projects . 

















Energy-giving or Fuel Foods, — Rich in Fats and Oils 

XXXIV. Fat as a Frying Medium 131 

XXXV. Fat as a Frying Medium — Food Fats . . 135 

XXXVI. Fat as a Frying Medium — Digestion of Fat . 139 

XXXVII. Fat Saving 141 

Related Work 


XXXVIII. Dining Room Comtesy 146 

XXXIX. Cooking and Serving Breakfast . . . 150 

XL. Review : Meal Cooking 150 

XLI. Home Projects 150 


Energy-giving and Body-building Foods, — Rich in 


XLII. Eggs 152 

XLIII. Eggs : Digestion of Protein .... 157 

XLIV. Eggs : Omelets (A) 159 

XLV. Eggs : Omelets (B) 162 

XLVL Milk 163 

XLVn. Milk with Cocoa and Chocolate ... 166 

XLVIII. Milk and Cream 169 

XLIX. Cream Soups (A) 173 

L. Cream Soups (B) 175 

LI. Milk Thickened with Egg (A) . . . . 177 
LIL Milk Thickened with Egg (B) .... 180 
LIII. MilkThickened with Egg (C) .... 181 
LIV. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Ma- 
terials (A) 182 

LV. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Ma- 
terials (B) 184 

LVI. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Ma- 
terials (C) 185 

LVII. Cheese (A) 188 

LyiII. Cheese (B) 190 

LIX. Structure of Beef — Methods of Cooking 

Tender Cuts 192 

LX. Beef : Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts (Ap- 
plied to Chopped Beef) (A) . . . . 202 
LXI. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts (Ap- 
plied to Chopped Beef) (B) . . . .205 



LXII. Beef : Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (A) . 207 

LXIII. Beef : Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (B) . 213 

LXIV. Beef : Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (C) . 215 

LXV. Beef : Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (D) . 217 

LXVI. Beef : Uses of Cooked Beef . . . .220 

LXVII. Gelatine (A) 222 

LXVIII. Gelatine (B) 225 

LXIX. Fish (A) 226 

LXX. Fish(B) 229 

LXXI. Fish(C) 232 

LXXII. Legumes (A) . . . . . . .234 

LXXIII. Legumes (B) 237 

LXXIV. Legumes (C) 239 

Related Work 

LXXV. Cost of Food 240 

LXXVI. Cooking and Serving a Breakfast . . . 243 

LXXVIL Review : Meal Cooking 244 

LXXVIII. Home Projects 244 


Health and Growth-promoting Foods, — Rich in Vi- 


LXXIX. Vitamines — Vegetables of Delicate Flavor 

LXXX. Vitamines — Vegetables of Strong Flavor 

LXXXI. Salads (A) 

LXXXII. Salads (B) 

LXXXIII. Classification of Foodstuffs 

Related Work 


LXXXI V. Selecting Food t 258 

LXXXV. Cooking and Serving a Luncheon or Supper . 261 

LXXXVI. Review : Meal Cooking 262 

LXXXVII. Home Projects 262 


Flavoring Materials : Food Adjuncts 


LXXXVIII. Dishes Containing Food Adjuncts — Home- 
made Vinegar 264 

Related Work 

. LXXXIX. Spending for Food 268 

XC. Cooking and Serving a Luncheon or Supper . 272 

XCI. Review : Meal Cooking 272 

XCII. Home Projects 273 

Food Combinations 

XCIII. Vegetables with Salad Dressing (A) . 

XCIV. Vegetables with Salad Dressing (B) . 

XCV. Fish Salad and Salad Rolls 

XCVI. Cream of Tomato Soup and Cheese Straws 

XCVII. Veal and Potatoes .... 

XCVIII. Mutton and Lamb Dishes 

XCIX. Pork, Vegetables, and Apple Sauce . 

C. Chicken and Rice .... 

CI. Chicken and Peas .... 

CII. Oyster Dishes 

cm. Meat-substitute Dishes 

CIV. Meat Extenders and One-dish Meals 

Related Work 


CV. Menu-making 318 

CVI. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Luncheon 

or Supper 327 

CVII. Review : Meal Cooking . . . . .328 
CVIII. Home Projects 328 


Quick Breads : Pour Batters 


CIX. Leavening with Steam and Air : Popovers . . 329 
ex. Leavening with Baking Soda and Som* Milk : 

Spider Corn Bread 334 

CXI. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and 

Molasses: Gingerbread 336 

CXII. Leavening with Baking Powder : Griddle Cakes . 338 
CXIII. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and 

Baking Powder : Sour Milk Griddle Cakes . 342 
CXIV. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and 

Cream of Tartar : Steamed Brown Breads . 345 
CXV. Formulating Recipes — Waffles .... 349 

Related Work 

CXVI. Measurement of the Fuel Value of Foods . . 351 

CXVn. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner . . 359 

CXVIII. Review : Meal Cooking 362 

CXIX. Home Projects 362 


Quick Breads : Drop Batters 

CXX. Fine and Coarse Flours — Muffins . . 363 

CXXI. Comparison of Wheat and Other Grains — 

Muffins 367 

CXXII. Baking Powder Loaf Breads 371 

CXXIII. Eggs for Quick Breads — Cream Puffs . . .373 

Related Work 

CXXIV. Food Requirement . ... . .377 

CXXV. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner . . 385 

CXXVI. Review : Meal Cooking 386 

CXXVII. Home Projects 386 

• • • 


Quick Breads : Soft Doughs 


CXXVIII. Method of Mixing Fat in Quick Breads- 
Drop Biscuit . . . . . .387 

CXXIX. Quantity of Fat in Quick Breads — Short 

* Cake 389 

CXXX. "Cut" Biscuit . . . . .390 

Related Work 

CXXXI. Measurement of the Fuel Value of Food Ap- 
plied to the Daily Food Requirement . 393 
CXXXII. Planningj Cooking, and Serving a Dinner . 401 
CXXXIII. Review : Meal Cooking .... 401 
CXXXIV. Home Projects 402 


Yeast Breads : Stiff Doughs 

CXXXV. Yeast — Loaf Bread . . . . .403 

CXXXVI. Wheat Flour — Bread Sponge . . .407 

CXXXVIL Modifications of Plain White Bread . 410 

CXXXVIIL Rolls and Buns 413 

Related Work 

CXXXIX. Food for Girls and Boys 417 

CXL. Planning a Day's Diet — Cooking and Serv- 
ing a Meal 420 

CXLI. Review : Meal Cooking . . .421 
CXLIL Home Projects 421 


CXLIII. Cake without Fat — Sponge Cake . . 422 

CXLIV. Cake Containing Fat — One-egg Cake . . 424 



CXLV. Cake Containing Fat — Plain Cake and Its 

Modifications (A) 428 

CXLVI. Cake Containing Fat — Plain Cake and Its 

Modifications (B) 432 

CXLVII. Cake Containing Fat — Cookies . . . 435 

CXLVIII. Cakes without Eggs 438 

Related Work 

CXLIX. The Luncheon Box 440 

CL. Planning and Preparing Box Luncheons - 444 

CLI. Review — Meal Cooking 444 

CLII. Home Projects 445 


CLIII. Pies with Under Crust 446 

CLIV. Pies with Upper Crust 449 

CLV. Two-crust Pies 450 

Related Work 

CLVI. Infant Feeding 452 

CLVII. Modifying Milk 457 

CLVIII. Review — Meal Cooking 457 

CLIX. Home Projects 458 


Frozen Desserts 

CLX. Method of Freezing — Water Ice . e . 459 

CLXI. Frozen Creams .462 

Related Work 

CLXII. Diet for Young Children 465 

CLXIII. Planning and Preparing Menus for Children . 472 

CLXIV. Review — Meal Cooking 472 

CLXV. Home Projects 473 


Food Preservation 


CLXVI. The Principles of Preserving Food . . .474 
CLXVII. SteriKzation with Little or No Sugar — Canned 

Fruit 481 

CLXVIIL Sterilization with Much Sugar — Preserves, 

Jams, and Conserves 489 

CLXIX. Sterilization with Much Sugar — Jellies . . 494 
CLXX. Sterilization with Vinegar and Spices — Rel- 
ishes . . . . . . . 500 

CLXXI. Canned Vegetables 502 

CLXXII. Dried Vegetables . . . . . .508 

Related Work 

CLXXIII. The Sick-room Tray 514 

CLXXIV. Preparing Trays for the Sick and Convalescent 518 

CLXXV. Review — Meal Cooking 519 

CLXXVI. Home Projects 519 



I. Thanksgiving Sauce 520 

II. Thanksgiving Desserts 521 

III. Christmas Sweets . . . . . . 523 

IV. Christmas Candy ...... . . 526 

Appendix . 3 

Suggestions for Teaching . . . . . . 3 

Books for Reference 6 

Index .....••••••7 


A corner in Washington's kitchen at Mt. Vernon . . Frontispiece 


1. Skewer and knitting needle for testing foods ... 6 

2. A sink arranged for efficiency in dish-washing ... 7 

3. Utensils for dish-washing 8 

4. Dish-drainer 10 

5. Dish-drainer 10 

6. Dish-rack 11 

7. Dish-rack 11 

8. A rack for drying dishes 12 

9. Utensils for measuring and weighing foods .... 15 

10. Coal range, showing course of direct draft .... 23 

11. Coal range, showing course of indirect draft .... 24 

12. Gas burner, showing mixer 27 

13. Gas burners 28 

14. Gas range, showing direction of draft 29 

15. Cross-section of wickless kerosene stove .... 33 

16. Electric range 35 

17. Pressure cooker 36 

18. Steam cooker, containing various foods .... 37 

19. Scene on a tea plantation 42 

20. Tea-ball teapot 45 

21. Coffee berries 47 

22. Coffee percolator 50 

23. Grains of starch 81 

24. A cupful of rice before and after boiling .... 86 

25. Insulated wall of a refrigerator 90 

26. Fireless cooker, having excelsior packing .... 91 

27. Fireless cooker, with stone disks 92 

28. Electric fireless cooker 93 

29. Gas range, having fireless cooker attachment, insulated oven 

and hoods 94 

30. Method of folding filter paper , . . . . . 102 




31. Utensil for steaming, — a ** steamer " 108 

32. "Steam" without pressure, and "steam" which has been 

under pressure . * 1 16 

33. Table laid for an informal luncheon 119 

34. Wheel tray 127 

35. How to hold the knife and fork 146 

36. Keeping the fork in the left hand to carry food to the mouth 147 

37. The teaspoon should rest on the saucer 148 

38. How to hold the soup spoon 149 

39. Apparatus to determine the temperature at which eggs 

coagulate 154 

40. Method of holding pan to turn an omelet on to a platter . 161 

41. Cocoa pods 167 

42. Dried bread crumbs . . ' 176 

43. Structure of meat 193 

44. Club or Delmonico steak 194 

45. Porterhouse 195 

46. Sirloin, — hip steak 196 

47. Sirloin, — flat bone 196 

48. Sirloin, — round bone 197 

49. First cut prime rib roast 198 

50. Second cut prime rib roast ^ 198 

51. Blade rib roast , 199 

52. Chuck rib roast 200 

53. Colonial fireplace, showing a " roasting kitchen " . . 201 

54. Round 203 

55. Chuck 204 

56. Cuts of beef 210 

57. Rump .215 

58. Cross rib, Boston cut, or English cut 218 

59. Skirt steak; flank steak 219 

60. Fish kettle, showing rack 230 

61. A suggestion for the division of each dollar spent for food 270 

62. The composition of roots and succulent vegetables . 275 

63. The composition of butter and other fat-yielding foods . . 277 

64. The composition of milk and milk products .... 284 

65. Cuts of veal 286 

66. Cuts of lamb or mutton . 291 

67. Lamb chops 293 

68. The composition of fresh and cured meats .... 295 



69. Cuts of pork . . . . 296 

70. The composition of fresh and dried fruits .... 298 

71. Removing tendons from the leg of a fowl* .... 301 

72. Fowl trussed for roasting, — breast view .... 302 

73. Fowl trussed for roasting, — back view .... 303 

74. Composition of fish, fish products, and oysters . . . 307 

75. The composition of eggs and cheese 311 

76. The composition of legumes and corn 313 

77. The composition of bread and other cereal foods . . . 314 

78. Foods containing calcium 320 

79. Foods containing phosphorus 321 

80. Foods containing iron 322 

81. Oven heat regulator . 331 

82. Illustrating the amount of heat represented by one Calorie . 354 

83. Comparative weights of 100-Calorie portions of food . . 355 

84. 100-Calorie portions of food 357 

85. Longitudinal section of wheat grain, showing bran, floury 

part, and germ 364 

86. Growing yeast plants 404 

87. Graduated measure and dipper for measuring the ingredients 

of modified milk 455 

88. Some species of molds . . 475 

89. The four types of bacteria 478 

90. Canning foods . . 483 

91. Rack for holding jars 485 

92. The composition of fruits and fruit products .... 499 

93. Drier for vegetables or fruits 510 

94. The composition of sugar and similar foods .... 524 



1. Measurement equivalents 14 

2. Use of the wooden spoon 16 

3. Lack of draft 20 

4. Presence of draft . 20 

5. The regulation and purpose of a gas mixer .... 27 

6. The dissolving power of water 40 

7. Presence of gases in water . 41 

8. . Simmering and boiling of water 41 

9. Tannin in tea 43 

10. The solubility of granulated sugar in cold water ... 70 

11. The solubility of granulated sugar in hot water ... 70 

12. The solubihty of powdered sugar 71 

13: The solubility of caramel . . . ... . .74 

14. The starch test 79 

15. The effect of cold water on starch .80 

16. The effect of heat on starch 80 

17. Stiffening of cooked starch 80 

18. The structure of starch 80 

19. Separation of cellulose and starch 80 

20. The difference in the nutritive value of boiled rice and rice 

cooked over boiling water 86 

21. Retention of heat . . .91 

22. Starch grains and boiling water 99 

23. Separation of starch grains with cold water .... 99 

24. Separation of starch grains with sugar 99 

25. Separation of starch grains with fat 99 

26. The change of starch into dextrin 101 

27. The solubility of dextrin 102 

28. Starch in cracker 103 

29. Action of saliva upon starch 103 

30. The effect of soaking starchy vegetables in water . . 110 

31. Temperature at which fats and oils decompose or "burn" 131 

32. Bread fried in " cool" fat ' . .132 




33. The temperature of fat for frying 132 

34. Saponification of fat ...;... . 135 

35. Action of oil and water . . . 139 

36. Eniulsion of fat 139 

37. The coagulation of egg-white 153 

38. The solubility of albumin . . . . . . , 153 

39. Temperature at which eggs coagulate 153 

40. Comparison of cooked and boiled eggs . . . 154 

41. Effect of beating a whole egg 160 

42. Comparison of eggs beaten with a Dover egg beater and 

with a wire spoon 160 

43. Effect of beating egg yolk and white separately . . . 160 

44. Separation of milk into foodstuffs 165 

45. Scalding milk . . 166 

46. Comparison of the conducting power of metal and earthen- 

ware 169 

47. Effect of rennet on milk 188 

48. Separation of curd and whey 188 

49. Effect of acid on milk 189 

50. Division of muscle 192 

51. Effect of dry heat on {a) connective tissue, (b) muscle fiber 192 

52. Effect of moisture and heat on (a) connective tissue, 

{b) muscle fiber . . 193 

53. Comparison of starch and dextrin for thickening . . . 206 

54. Effect of cold water on meat . . ... . . 207 

55. Effect of boiling water on meat 207 

56. Effect of salt on meat 208 

57. Effect of cold water on gelatine 222 

58. Effect of hot water on gelatine 222 

59. Effect of soaking fish in water 226 

60. Effect of boiling fish rapidly 227 

61. Effect of acid on milk . 283 

62. Neutralization of acid by means of soda . 283 

63. Protein in oyster liquor . . . . . . . 306 

64. Leavening with steam and air 329 

65. Comparison of thick and thin quick breads .... 329 

66. Preparation of flour for quick breads 330 

67. Action of baking soda on sour milk 334 

68. Chemical change 334 

69. Quantity of baking soda to use with sour milk . . . 335 



70. Action of baking soda on molasses 336 

71. Quantity of baking soda to use with molasses . . . 337 

72. Effect of cold water on a mixture of cream of tartar and 

baking soda 338 

73. Effect of hot water on a mixture of cream of tartar and 

baking soda 338 

74. Effect of hot water on baking powder . . . . . 338 

75. Starch In baking powder 339 

76. Comparison of the time of action of different types of 

baking powders 339 

77. Conditions for growth of the yeast plant . . . . 403 

78. Protein in flour 407 

79. Mixtures for freezing 459 

80. Effect of air, light, and drying upon the growth of molds . 475 

81. Effect of moisture and light upon the growth of molds . . 475 

82. Effect of moisture and darkness upon the growth of molds 476 

83. Effect of moisture and low temperature upon the growth of 

molds 476 

84. Growth of molds on cut fruit 476 

85. Growth of mblds upon whole fruits 476 

86. Growth of molds on other foods 476 

87. Growth of molds upon wood 476 

88. Growth of molds upon cloth 477 

89. Contamination of fresh food by means of moldy food . 477 

90. Growth of bacteria 477 

91. Effect of boiling upon the growth of bacteria . 477 

92. Effect of preservatives on the growth of bacteria . . 477 

93. Use of sugar as a preservative 489 

94. Pectin in fruit juice 494 

95. Pectin in the inner portion of orange and lemon peel . . 494 


One of the slogans of the World War, — " Food will win 
the War," — showed that food was much more important 
than many persons had believed. It confirmed the fact 
that food was not merely something that tastes good, or 
relieves the sensation of hunger, but that it was a vital factor 
in achieving one of the noblest ideals of all time. 

The subject of food is a broad one, — one that is growing 
in interest. Many present-day scientists are finding a life- 
work in food study. " Tell me what you eat and I will tell 
you what you are," was spoken many years ago. The most 
recent work in science confirms the fact that the kind of 
food an individual eats has much to do with his health and 
his ability to work. If you would be well, strong, happy, 
and full of vim choose your food carefuUy. 

A study of food means a knowledge of many things. Be- 
fore purchasing foods one should know what foods to select 


at market, whence they come, how they are prepared for 
market, by what means they are transported, and how they 
are taken care of in the market. There is a great variety 
of foods in the present-day market ; some are rich in nutrients ; 
others contain little nourishment, yet are high in price. It 
has been said that for food most persons spend the largest 
part of their incomes ; it is a pity if they buy sickness in- 
stead of health. Whether foods are purchased at the 
lunch counter or at market, it is necessary to know what 
foods to choose to meet best the needs of the body. 

Meal planning is an important factor of food study. 
The matter of combining foods that are varied in composi- 
tion or that supplement one another in nutritious projierties 
deserves much consideration. Not only nutriment but 
flavor enters into food combination. It is most important 
to combine foods that "taste well." 

In learning to prepare foods* the exj)erience of those who 
have cooked foods successfully is most helpful. Hence the 
pupil is told to follow directions for cooking a type of food 
or to use a recipe. Following a direction or recipe in a 
mechanical way, however, does not result in rapid progress. 
Keen observation and mental alertness are needed if you 
would become skilful in food preparation. 

One class of food or one principle of cooking may be re- 
lated to another or associated with another. For example, 
the method of cooking a typical breakfast cereal may be 
applied to cereals in general. There may be some exceptions 
to the rule, but when the basic principle of cooking is kept 
in mind, the variations can be readily made. If a pupil has 
learned to prepare Creamed Potatoes she should be able to 
apply the principle to the cooking of Potato Soup. In 
making chocolate beverage, the pupil learns to blend choco- 
late with other ingredients. The knowledge gained in mak- 
ing chocolate beverage should be applied to the flavoring of 


a cake or of a dessert with chocolate. In all the thousands 
of recipes appearing in cook books, only a few principles of 
cooking are involved. The pupil who appreciates this fact 
becomes a much more resourceful worker and acquires skill in 
a much shorter time. 

The resvlts of every process should be observed. Careful 
observations should be made when work is not successful. 
There is no such thing as "good luck" in cooking. There is 
a cause for every failure. The cause of the failure should be 
found and the remedy ascertained. The same mistake 
should never be made a second time. Progress is sure to 
result from such an attitude towards work. Moreover, con- 
fidence in the result of one's work is gained. This is of in- 
calculable value, besides being a great satisfaction, to the 

A dining table with carefully laid covers is always inviting. 
Graceful serving of food at such a table is an art. The 
ability to serve food in an attractive way is an accomplish- 
ment that no girl should fail to acquire. 

Considerations regarding success in learning to cook may 
be summed up as follows : 

(a) Know what foods to select from the . standpoint of 
economy, nutriment, and flavor. 

(6) Observe and think when working. Relate or asso- 
ciate one class of foods with another and one principle of 
cooking with another. 

(c) Note the results of your work; know why the results 
are successful or why they are unsuccessful. 

Food selection, food combination, and food preparation 
are all important factors of good cooking. It is to be hoped 
that the pupil will realize that the study of food and cooking 
means the ability not only to boil, broil, and bake, but to 
select, combine, use, and serve food properly. All this 
demands much earnest thought and effort. 



Baked Apples — Dish-washing 

BAKED APPLES (Stuffed with Raisins) 

6 apples 6 tablespoonf uls brown sugar 

Seeded raisins 6 tablespoonfuls water 

Wash the apples; with an apple corer or paring knife, 
remove the core from each. Place the apples in a granite, 
earthenware, or glass baking-dish. Wash a few raisins and 
place 6 of them and 1 level tablespoonful of sugar in each 
core. Pour the water around the apples. 

Bake in a hot oven until tender. Test the apples for 
suflScient baking with a fork, skewer, or knitting needle 
(see Figure 1). During baking, occasionally " baste " the 
apples, i.e, take spoonfuls of the water from around the apples 
and pour it on the top of them. The time for baking apples 
varies with the kind of apple and the temperature of the oven. 
From 20 to 60 minutes is usually the required time. 

Dish-washing and Efficiency. — There is almost invariably 
a waste of effort in both the washing and the drying of 
dishes. This may be due to : 

(a) Poorly arranged dish-washing equipments. 

(h) Inadequate utensils for dish-washing. 



(c) Lack of forethought in preparing the dishes for wash- 
ing and in washing and drying them. 

Since dish-washing is one of the constant duties of house- 
keeping, efficiency methods, i.e. methods which accomplish 
satisfactory results with the fewest motions and in the least 
time, should be applied to it. The washing of dishes, in- 
variably considered commonplace, may become an interesting 
problem if it is made a matter of motion study. 

Figure 1. — Skewer and Knitting Needle for Testing Foods. 

Note that the knitting needle has one end thnist into a cork, which 

serves as a handle. 

For thorough and rapid dish-washing, the following equip- 
ment is desirable : 

A sink placed at a height that admits of an erect position 
while washing dishes,^ and equipped with two draining boards, 
one on each side of the sink, or with one draining board on the 
left side ; dish and draining pans ; dish-drainer (see Figures 
4 and 5) ; dish-rack (see Figures 6 and 7) ; dish-mop (see 
Figure 3) ; wire dish-cloth or pot-scraper (see Figure 3) ; dish- 
cloths (not rags); dish- towels; rack for drying cloths and 
towels ; soap-holder (see Figure 3) or can of powdered soap ; 
can of scouring soap and a large cork for scouring; tissue 
paper or newspapers cut in convenient size for use ; scrubbing- 
brush ; bottle-brush (see Figure 3) ; rack made of slats for 
drying brushes (see Figure 2). 

Preparing Dishes for Washing. — If possible, as soon as 
serving dishes, i.e, dishes used at the dining table, are soiled, 

'^ In case it is necessary for one to wash dishes at a sink which is placed 
too low, the dish-pan may be raised by placing it on an inverted pan or 
on a sink-rack, which may be purchased for this purpose. 


scrape away bits of food from them. The scraping may be 
done with : (a) a piece of soft paper, (6) plate-scraper (see 
Figure 3), (c) a knife or spoon. The latter is doubtless the 
most commonly used for dbh scraping, but it is less efficient 

Figure 2. — A Sink Arranqed for Efficibnct ii 

and may scratch china. If it is impossible to wash dishes 
soon after soiling, let them soak in water until they can be 

Cooking utermh need special care before washing, espe- 
cially if they have held greasy foods. " Oil and water 
do not mix ! " The grease from dish-water often collects 
in the drain-pipe and prevents or retards the drainage of 


waste water. This often means expensive plumber's bills 
and great inconvenience. Bear in mind the following cau- 
tions: Before putting a utensil which has held fat into the 
dish-water, always wipe it carefully with a piece of paper. 

After wiping most of the grease from a pan or kettle, the 
remaining fat can be entirely removed by filling the utensil 

Figure 3 — Utensils p 

with hot water and tben adding washing-soda. Boil the 
solution a few minutes. Fat and washing-soda combine and 
form soap; hence the effectiveness of this method. (See 
Experiment 34, p. 135.) (This method should not be ap- 
plied to aluminum utensils; washing-soda or any alkaline 
substance makes a dark stain on aluminum.) 

Utensils used in cooking can generally be washed with 
greater efficiency if they are soaked before washing. Fill 


each dish or pan with water, using cold water for all utensils 
which have held milk, cream, eggs, flour, or starch, and hot 
water for all dishes having contained sugar or sirup. 

Arranging Dishes. — Arrange dishes and all the requisite 
dish-washing utensils in convenient order for washing, placing 
all of one kind of dishes together. Also place the dishes to 
be washed at the right of the dish-pan. Wash them and 
place the washed dishes at the left of the pan. A dish-washer 
invariably holds a dish that is being washed in her left hand 
and the dish-cloth or mop in her right hand. That there 
may be no unnecessary motions, the dishes should be placed 
to drain after washing at the left of the dish-pan. In this 
way there is no crossing of the left hand over the right arm 
as there would be if the washed dishes were placed at the 
right of the dish-pan. A cupboard located above the draining 
board at the left makes the storing of dishes an efficient 
process (see Figure 2). 

Washing and Scouring Dishes and Utensils. — Fill the 
dish-pan about two thirds full of hot water. " Soap " the 
water before placing the dishes in the pan ; use soap-powder, 
a soap-holder, or a bar of soap. If the latter is used, do not 
allow it to remain in the water. Fill another pan about two 
thirds full of hot water for rinsing the dishes. A wire basket 
may be placed in the rinsing pan. 

Place the dishes, a few at a time, in the dish-pan. Wash 
the cleanest dishes first, usually in the following order: 
glasses, silverware, cups, saucers, plates, large dishes, platters, 
cooking utensils, then the soap-dish and dish-pan. In washing 
decorated china, use soap sparingly. Do not wash glass- 
ware in very hot water. Use slices of potato, finely torn 
bits of blotting paper, or egg shells to clean the inside of 
water bottles or vinegar cruets. Wooden-handled utensils 
or the cogs of the Dover egg beater should not soak in water. 


If the cogs of the egg heater are soiled, wipe them with a 
damp cloth. . Change the dish-water occasionally, not allow- 
ing it to hecome cold or greasy. 

Wash steel knives and forks and place them without rinsii^ 
on a tin pan to scour. With a cork apply powdered bath brick 
or other scouring ma- 
terial to the steel. 
Again wash the scoured 
utensib, rinse, and dry. 
If there are anystains 
on tin, iron, or enamel 
ware, remove with 
scouring soap. Apply 
the latter with a cork, 
or wring out the dish-cloth as dry as possible, rub scouring 
soap on it, and apply to the utensils. Scrub meat, pastry, 
or bread hoards, wooden rolling pins, and wooden table tops 

Figure S. — Dieh-d 

with cold water and scouring soap. Then rinse and wipe 
the scoured wood with a cloth, which is free from grease. If 
it is not necessary to scrub meat, pastry, or bread hoards on 



both sides, they should be rinsed on the clean side to prevent 

Rin^ng and Draining Dishes. — Place the washed dishes in 
wire baskets (see Figures 4 and 5) or in dish-racks (see Fig- 
ures 6, 7, and 8). If 
the former has been 
placed in the rinsing 
pan, the basket may be 
lifted out of the water 
to drain the dishes. 
In case the washed 
dishes are placed in 
dish-racks, rinse them 
by pouring hot water 
over them and let them 
drain again. 

Drying Dishes and 
Utensils. — If such 
dishes as plates, platters, and saucers are placed upright to 
drain and are rinsed with very hot water, no towel-drying is 
required. Glassware and silver should be dried with a soft 
towel. Towels made 
from flour sacks or from 
glass toweling are good 
for this purpose. 

Coarser towels may 
be used to dry cooking 
utensils. To prevent 
rusting, dry tin, iron, 
and steel utensils most 
thoroughly. After us- 
ing a towel on these 
wares it is well to place 

Figure 6. — Dish-r 

FlQURB 7. DlSH-R. 


them on the back of the range or in the warming oven. 
Woodenware should be allowed to dry thoroughly in the 
open air. Stand boards on end until dry. 

Care of Dish-towels and Cloths. — Use dish-toweb and 
doths for no other purpose than washing and drying dishes; 
It is a matter of much 
importance to keep dish- 
towels and cloths clean. 
To clean the towels and 
cloths soak them in cold 
water. Then wash in 
hot soapy water and 
rinse them well. Wring, 
stretch, and hang to dry 
on a rack, or preferably 
in the sun. At least 
once a week boil the 
towels. First soak, 
wash, and rinse them as 
directed above. Then 
place them in cold water 
and heat the water 
until it boils. Wring, 
stretch, and hang to 

Care of the Sink. — 
If the sink is of por- 
celain or enamel, it may 
be cleaned with soap, 
but not with scouring soap or powder. The latter wears away 
the smooth finish, makes it slightly rough and hence more 
difficult to clean. Before applying soap to a sink, wring out 
the cloth used in cleaning it as dry as possible and then with 


the hand push any water standing in the sink down the drain- 
pipe. Then apply soap to the cloth and wash the sink. Bo 
not let the water run from the faucet while cleaning the sink. If 
the dirt and grease on a sink do not yield to soap, apply a 
small quantity of kerosene. After cleaning, rinse the sink 
by opening the hot-water faucet, letting a generous supply of 
water flow down the drain-pipe so as to rinse the trap. 

The drain-pipe and trap of a sink need special cleaning 
occasionally. This is often done by pouring a solution of 
washing-soda down the drain. If this is used, special care 
should be taken to rinse the drain with miich hot water. 
As previously explained, grease and washing-soda form soap. 
If the latter is allowed to remain in the trap, it may harden 
and stop the drain-pipe. Because of the formation of soap 
and the possible stoppage of the drain-pipe when washing- 
soda is used, kerosene is advised. To use this, first flush 
the drain with about half a gallon of hot water. Immediately 
pour in one half cupful of kerosene. Let the kerosene re- 
main in the trap for at least 5 minutes. Then rinse with 
another half gallon of water. Kerosene emulsifies grease 
and makes it easy to rinse away. 

Suggestions for Personal Neatness in the School Kitchen 
and at Home. — For both comfort and cleanliness a washable 
gown should be worn in the kitchen or the gown should be 
well covered by an apron. It is advisable to cover the hair 
with a hair net or cap. Rings are an inconvenience when 
worn in the kitchen. The hands should be washed before 
preparing or cooking food, and after touching the hair or 
handkerchief. It is desirable to have a hand towel conven- 
iently placed. 

Clean cooking means clean tasting. This can be done by 
taking some of the food with the cooking spoon and then 
pouring it from the cooking spoon into a teaspoon. Taste 
from the teaspoon. 



Are apples sold by weight or by measure, i.e. by the pound or 

What is the price per pound or per peck of apples? 

Why should dishes which have held milk, cream, egg, flour, or 
starch be rinsed with cold water? 

Why should dishes having contained sugar or sirup be soaked in 
hot water? 

Why should greasy dishes and utensils be wiped with paper and 
then rinsed with hot water before washing? 

Why should not a bar of soap **soak '* in dish-water? 

Why not jiU the dish-pan with soiled dishes? 

Why should glass be washed in warm (not hot) water? 

Why should not wooden-handled utensils and the cogs of the Dover 
egg beater "soak" in dish-water? 

Why should glass and silver be wiped with a soft towel? 

Why should tin, iron, and steel utensils be dried most thoroughly? 

Why should woodenware be allowed to dry in the open air? (See 
Experiment 87, p. 476.) 

Why should dish-towels be placed in boiling water during launder- 

Why should scouring soap or powder not be used in cleaning a 
porcelain or enamel sink? 

What is the purpose of wringing out dry a sink-cloth and letting 
no water run from the faucet while cleaning a sink? 


Measurements — Stuffed and Scalloped Tomatoes 

Experiment 1 ^ : Measurement Equivalents. — In measuring 
solid materials with teaspoon, tablespoon, or standard measuring 
cup (see Figure 9), fill the measuring utensil with the material 
and then " level " it with a knife. 

Use both water and flour or sugar for the following measurements : 

^ The pupil should record each experiment in a notebook in a method- 
ical way, giving (a) the aim of the experiment, (h) the process, (c) the 
result, and {d) the conclusion or practical application. 


(a) Find the number of teaspoonfula in one tableepoonful. 

(b) Find the number of tablespooofuls in one cup. 

(c) Find the number of cupfula in one pint. 

Half Bk Bpoonful is obtained by dividing through the middle length- 

A quarter of a spoonful is obtained by dividing a half crosanise. 

Floube 9.— Utensils for Measuring and Weiohino Foods. 

An eighth of a spoonful is obtained by dividing a quarter diagon- 

A third of a spoonful ie obtained by dividing twice crosswise. 

A set of measuring spoons (see Figure 9) la most convenient for 
measuring fractional teaapoonf uls. 

Need of Accuracy. — When learning to cook, it is neces- 
sary to measure all ingredients with exactness. Experienced 
cooks can measure some ingredients for certain purposes 
quite satisfactorily "by eye." The result is satisfactory, 
however, only when the cook has established her own stand- 
ards of measurements by much practice. Even then many 
housewives are not sure of success. For certain foods the 


ingredients should always be measured accurately, no matter 
how skilful the cook. As far as possible, the exact quantity 
of a recipe is given in this text. When the quantity of an 
ingredient is too small for practical measurement, merely 
the name of the ingredient is given and no definite quantity 
indicated. When large quantities of materials are to be meas- 
ured, a quart measure on which the pint and half pint quan- 
tities are indicated usually proves more convenient than a 
measuring cup. Many foods, especially fats, are more con- 
veniently weighed than measured. Kitchen scales are a useful 
equipment for cooking (see Figure 9). 

The amateur should, however, train her eye to approxi- 
mate measurements. She should learn to estimate the size 
of saucepans and other cooking utensils, and also of serving 
dishes. Measure by cupfuls the capacity of several utensils 
in constant use and thus establish a few standards of measure- 

Also it is well to be on the alert to learn the proper quan- 
tity of food to buy at market, and the proper quantity of 
food to cook for a stated number of persons. She would 
make a sad failure who would prepare just enough rice to 
serve four persons when six were to be seated at the table. 
She might be able to cook the cereal well and to tell many 
interesting facts concerning its growth, composition, and prep- 
aration, yet for the lack of a little homely knowledge the 
meal would be disappointing. A thrifty housekeeper would 
not buy enough lettuce or spinach for ten people when there 
were only six to be served. In the school kitchen always 
note the quantity of the materials used, and then observe 
the quantity of the finished product. 

Experiment 2 : Use of the Wooden Spoon. — Place a tin and a 
wooden spoon in a saucepan of boiling water. After the water has 
boiled for at least 5 minutes grasp the handles of the spoons. Which 
is the hotter? Which would be the more comfortable to use when 


stirring hot foods ? What kind of spoon — tin or wood — should be 
used for acfd foods? Why? (See Suggestions for Cooking Fruits^ 
p. 65.) 

Explain why it is that the handles of teakettles, knobs on covers 
for saucepans, etc., are of wood. 


6 ripe tomatoes Dash pepper 

2 cupfuls soft bread crumbs f teaspoo'nful mixed herbs 

li teaspoonfuls salt 2 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

Wash the tomatoes, remove a slice from the tops, and 
take out most of the seed portion. Add the seasoning to 
the bread crumbs, melt the fat, then add the seasoned bread 
crumbs to the fat. Fill the tomatoes with the prepared 
crumbs, place them in an oiled baking-pan, and bake slowly 
(about 20 minutes) until the tomatoes are soft but not 
broken, and the crumbs brown. Test the tomatoes with 
a knitting needle or skewer (see Figure 1) rather than 
with a fork. 

For mixed herbs use equal parts of marjoram, savory, and thyme. 

Soft bread crumbs are prepared from stale bread, i.e. bread that 
has been out of the oven for at least twenty-four hours. 

Vegetables, such as com and canned peas, may be used instead 
of bread crumbs to stuff tomatoes. Use salt, pepper, and butter 
with these vegetables. 

Use a granite, glass, or earthenware utensil for cooking tomatoes. 
(See Suggestions for Cooking Fruits^ p. 65.) 


1 can or 1 quart tomatoes Dash pepper 
1 tablespoonf ul salt 3 cupfuls bread crumbs 

3 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

1 Note to the Teacher. — Recipes for both fresh and canned vege- 
tables are given so that a selection depending upon the season can be 


If fresh tomatoes are used, plunge them into boiling 
water, then drain and peel and cut into pieces. 

Mix the salt and pepper with the tomatoes and pour into 
a buttered baking-dish. Cover with buttered crumbs (see 
StuflPed Tomatoes, p. 17) and bake in a slow oven for ^ hour or 
longer. Cover during first part of baking to prevent the 
crumbs from browning too rapidly. Serve hot. A scalloped 
dish should be served from the dish in which it is baked. 

Green tomatoes may be scalloped in the same manner as ripe 

Soft or dried bread crmnbs (see p. 176) may be used in scalloping 

To Grease or Oil a Pan or Baking-dish. — Heat slightly 
the pan or dish to be oiled. Put a bit of fat on a small piece 
of clean paper. Then rub the heated pan or dish with the 
paper. This is a most satisfactory method because little fat 
is required and the utensils used for oiling do not have to be 
cleaned. Often a spoon or cup that has contained fat may 
be wiped with a piece of paper and the latter used for greas- 
ing a pan. It is well for a housekeeper to have a boxful 
of pieces of paper in the kitchen for this purpose. Some 
authorities consider a pastry brush a satisfactory means of 
applying melted butter for oiling. Much fat, however, 
clings to the bristles of the brush and the brush needs fre- 
quent and careful cleaning. 

Butter, oleomargarine, lard, vegetable fats, or oils may 
be used for oiling pans or baking-dishes. 


In stuffed tomatoes, note that the seasonings are added to the 
crmnbs before they are buttered. Why ? 

Why test the tomatoes with a knitting needle or skewer rather 
than with a fork? 

What kind of baking-pan — tin, granite, or earthenware — is 


best to use for Stuflfed or Scalloped Tomatoes? Why? (See Sugr 
gestions for Cooking Fruits j p. 65.) 

Are tomatoes sold by weight or by measure, i.e. by the pound or 

What is the price of tomatoes per pound or peck? 

How many slices of bread are required to make 2 cupfub of 
crumbs? How many slices in one loaf o'f bread? 


Ftjels and Combustion — Sauted and Baked Squash 

Fuel. — In order to cook foods, heat in some form must be 
applied. This heat is obtained usually by burning some 
substance. Thus the first requisite for obtaining heat is 
something to burn, i.e. a fuel. The fuels commonly used in 
households are, — wood, coal, kerosene, and gas. Although 
electricity is not a fuel, its use in cooking is so well estab- 
lished that it should be mentioned as a source of heat. 

Heat; Kindling Temperature. — There are fuel sub- 
stances everywhere, — paper, cloth, wood, etc. These 
materials do not burn unless heated; even gas does not 
burn by simply turning on the stopcock. But if a piece "of 
paper is placed in contact with glowing iron, the paper 
bums. It burns because it is heated. If the blazing paper 
is placed in contact with kindling wood and coal, the kindling 
wood soon begins to burn because it is heated by the burning 
paper. The coal burns when it is heated by the burning 
wood. All fuels must be heated before they will burn. 

When one thinks of the ease with which paper "catches 
fire '' and of the difficulty of making hard coal burn, it 
becomes evident that some substances require only a small 
amount of heat before they will bum, while others require 
much heat. Different materials, then, require diflPerent 


degrees of heat to burn. The phosphorus and other sub- 
stances on the tip of a match ignite readily. The heat that 
is developed by rubbing the tip over some surface is sufficient 
to make the > phosphorus burn. The burning phosphorus 
and other substances heat the match stick to the temperature 
at which it begins to burn ; the burning match stick applied 
to paper heats the latter to the temperature at which it 
burns. The temperature to which a substance must be 
heated in order to burn is called the kindling temperature of 
that substance. 

Draft; Oxygen. — 

Experiment 3 : Lack of Draft. — (a) Place a short candle on a 
pan. Light the candle and put a tall slender lamp chimney over 
it. Does the candle continue to bum ? Why? 

(6) Again light the candle and replace the chimney, but this time 
support it on two sticks of wood or on the handles of a knife and fork 
so that it will not rest directly on the pan. Place a saucer or a piece 
of cardboard over the top of the chimney. Does the candle continue 
to bum? Why? 

Experiment 4 : Presence of Draft. — Remove the cover from the 
top of the chimney, and again light the candle. Does it continue 
to bm-n? What substance necessary for combustion is present in 
the chimney? Explain why the candle soon went out in Experi- 
ment 3, but continued to bum in this experiment. 

If a blanket is thrown upon a burning stick of wood, the 
wood soon ceases to burn. The wood stops burning because 
the oxygen of the air is excluded from it. The act of burning, 
i.e. combustion, is the union of any substance with oxygen, with 
the result thai heat and light are ^produced. We have learned 
that a fuel cannot unite with oxygen until heated to a certain 
temperature. And, no matter how hot it is, the fuel will 
not burn unless it unites with oxygen. Oxygen, then, is 
the third requisite for combustion. 

The necessity for a draft, i.e. a continuous supply of fresh 
air which furnishes oxygen, is shown by Experiments 3 and 4. 



Wash summer squash. Cut it in slices f inch thick. (Do 
not remove the skin or the seeds.) Dip each slice in flour. 
In a frying pan put some fat and heat it. Add the squash 
and cook each slice on both sides until golden brown in color. 
Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Then place a cover over 
the frying pan and continue to cook the squash until it is 
tender. Serve at once. 


Wash a squash and cut or split it into pieces of suitable 
size for serving. Remove the seeds from each piece and 
make several gashes (at right angles to one another) cutting 
through the pulp down to the shell. Place the pieces (shell 
down) on the grating in the oven and bake (at moderate 
temperature) until the pulp is tender. Serve hot, with butter, 
salt, and pepper. 


Name the three requisites for combustion. 

Which has the higher kindling temperature, wood or coal? Ex- 
plain your answer. 

What is the price of summer and of winter squash? How much 
of each kind of squa,sh is required to serve 6 persons? 

^ To saut6 is to brown in a small quantity of fat (see p. 140). 
« See " Note to Teacher," p. 17. 



Coal Ranges ^ — Corn Dishes 

Examination of a Coal Range. — Remove the lids from the 
coal range. Note the location of the fire box. What is its 
purpose? How is the floor of the fire box constructed? 
Where is the check damper ? What is its purpose ? Where 
is the ash pan? Where is the front damper? W^hat is its 
purpose? Note the place where the stovepipe joins the 
range. What is the purpose of the stovepipe? Note the 
damper in the stovepipe. What is its purpose? Note the 
location of the oven. By what is the oven surrounded? 
Find the oven damper. Open it. In what direction do the 
hot gases pass out when the oven damper is open? What 
part of the range is heated when the oven damper is open ? 

An open damper permits a direct draft to pass through the 
range (see Figure 10). 

Close the oven damper. Trace the direction of the hot 
gases when the damper is closed. What parts of the range 
are heated when the oven damper is closed ? 

A closed oven damper permits an indirect draft to pass 
through the range (see Figure 11). 

How should the front, oven, check, and chimney dampers 
be arranged when the fire is kindled ? 

Products of Combustion. — What is found deposited on 
the inside of the stovepipe of a coal range ? To what is the 
upper end of the stovepipe joined? What does one often 
see coming from the top of a chimney ? 

^ Note to the Teacher. — The principles of building a coal fire and 
of regulating dampers may be applied to furnaces and heating stoves 
as well as to kitchen ranges. In case there are no cooking or heating 
stoves or furnaces in which coal is burned in the homes of the pupils, 
this lesson may be omitted. 


In the previoua lesson it was found that when a material 
burned, it united with oxygen. It is a matter of common 
observation that when aD solid fuels — coal, wood, paper — 
bum, they decrease in size, and that fuel gas is consumed. 
Apparently only a few aahes remain when sohd fuels have 

FccuRB 10. — Coal Range Skowihq Course of Direct Draft. 

been burned, and only a disagreeable odor remains when 
gas has been burned. Yet soot is deposited in the stove- 
pipe and smoke issues from the chimney. Both solid and 
gaseous materials, such as ashes, soot, and smoke, are formed 
when fuels bum. Such materials are called products of com- 

Fire Building in a Coal Range. — It is necessary to have the 


fire box, ash pan, and other parts of the stove clean before 
building a fire. After cleaning, place a generous layer of 
loosely crumpled paper over the bottom of the fire bos, then 
about four layers of kindling wood, placed so that there are 
air passages between the pieces, and on top of the wood put 
two shovelfub of coal. Regulate the dampers for a direct 

FicuRE 11. — Coal Ranch Showinq Course of Indcrect Draft. 

draft, replace the stove-lids, and brush the surface of the 

Before lighting the fuels, polish the range in the following 

To the nickel of the stove apply whiting and ammonia or 
any satisfactory metal cleanser. 


To the iron of the stove apply oil rather than " blacking." 
Light paraffin oil may be used for this purpose. Apply the 
oil with cotton waste, or a soft cloth. (Care should be taken 
not to apply an excess of oil.) Polish with soft cotton or 
woolen cloth. One should remember, however, that oil must 
be used with caution. It shoiiid never be applied to a 
stove containing burning fuels. If the stove cloth, saturated 
with oil, is not destroyed after using, it is well to keep it in a 
covered tin can or stone jar. 

After polishing the stove, light the fuels. When the 
wood is reduced to glowing embers and the coal is burning, 
add more coal. If tjiis bums well, change the dampers to 
make an indirect draft. 


In selecting com for cooking, choose those ears that are 
filled with well-developed kernels, from which milky juice 
flows when pressed with the thumb. Cook as soon as 
possible after gathering. 


To boil green com remove silk and husk from the com, 
place the ears in boiling water. Cook the com until no 
juice flows from the kernels when pressed (usually from 12 
to 20 minutes). Serve whole on a platter. The platter 
may be covered with a folded napkin. 

To bake green com select 12 ears. Remove the corn 
from the cob as follows : Cut through the center of each 
row of grains, slice off the tops of the kernels, and then 
scrape the pulp thoroughly from the cob. Put in a baking- 
dish, add : 

i cupful milk 2 teaspoonf uls salt 

1 tablespoonf ul butter or substitute Pepper 

Bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes. Serve hot. 


Green com which has been cut from the cob may also be cooked 
on top of the range. To the com cut from 12 ears, add the same 
ingredients, using less milk. Cook at simmering temperature until 


1 can com Dash pepper 

) cupful milk 2 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

Ijt teaspoonfuls salt 2 cupfuls soft bread crmnbs 

Mix the corn, milk, and seasonings. Mix the crumbs and 
fat, and place one fourth of them in the bottom of a buttered 
baking-dish, add one half of the com mixture, then another 
fourth of the crumbs, the remainder of flie com mixture, and 
finally the remainder of the buttered crumbs. Bake 20 to 
30 minutes. Serve hot. 


Explain why it is necessary to have the fire box, ash pan, and 
other parts of a coal range clean before building a fire. 

If both hard and soft woods are used in building a fire, which 
should be placed next to the paper? Explain your answer. 

What is the advantage in using oil rather than blacking in clean- 
ing a range? 

Explain why a stove cloth, saturated with oil, should be kept in 
a covered tin can or stone jar. 

Compare the method of mixing the crumbs in Scalloped Tomatoes 
(see p. 17) and in Scalloped Com. Which contains the more mois- 
ture, — com or tomatoes? From this explain the difference in 

What is the price of 12 ears of green corn or of 1 can of com? 


Gas Ranges — Scalloped Fruit 

Bzamiiuttioii of a Gas Burner. — Inspect a gas burner and 
iind the following parts : 

(a) Supply pipe. (c) Burner. 

(6) Stopcock. (rf) Mixer {gee Figure 12). 

To light a gas burner, observe the following directions, 
and in the order named : 

(a) Strike the match. (6) Turn the stopcock. 

(c) Apply the match to the open burner. 

(d) If necessary, reg- 
ulate the stopcock and 
mixer, so that the flame 
is blue in color. 

Experiment S; The 
Regulation and Purpose 
of a Gas Mixer, — Light CD„rt«y gi ctert aww co 
a gaa burner and then p^^^^^ i2.-Cas Burner Showcno Mixer. 
completely close the mixer 

of the burner. If the mixer ia stationary, it may be closed by wrap- 
ping a piece of paper about it. Wliat is the color of the flame? 
Now open the mixer. What is the color of the flame? What aub- 
atance has been " mixed " v/ith the gas by opening the burner? 
What is the purpose of the mixer? 

Examination of a Gas Range. — Inspect a gas range and 
find the following parts : 

(a) Top burners — regular, giant and simmering (see 
Figure 13). 

{b) Stopcocks of top burners. (e) Pilot (if there is one), 

(c) Oven burners. (/) Baking oven. 

(d) Stopcocks of oven burners, (g) Broiling oven. 
(A) Warming oven and its burner (if there b one). 
(i) Supply pipe. (j) Stovepipe. 



The method of lighting oven burners varies in different 
ranges, and for this reason it is impossible to give directions 
for lighting which will apply to all oven burners. There is, 
however, one important direction that should always be 
borne in mind. Always open the oven door before lighting 
the oven burners. If such caution is not observed, the gas 

may escape into the 
oven and cause an ex- 
plosion. In case there 
is a pilot-lighter, open 
the oven door and see 
that the oven burners 
are turned off before 
lighting the pilot.. 

Adjusting a Gas 
Burner. — The products 
of combustion of fuel 
gas that most interest 
the housekeeper are car- 
bon and carbon dioxide. 
Carbon dioxide is not a poisonous gas, but it does not sup- 
port animal life. Air containing much carbon dioxide does 
not contain enough oxygen for perfect respiration, hence the 
need of an outlet for the products of combustion of a gas 
stove ; good flue construction is quite as necessary for a gas 
range as for a coal range (see Figure 14). 

When gas burns with a yellow flame, it deposits soot on 
cooking utensils and does not give as much heat as it should. 
This is caused by incomplete combustion, i,e, not enough 
air is supplied for the quantity of gas consumed. Moreover, 
when combustion is incomplete, carbon monoxide sometimes 
escapes without burning. This is an exceedingly poisonous 
gas. Hence it is specially necessary for a housewife to see 

Courtesy of Clark Stove Co. 

Figure 13. — Gas Burners. 

A, giant ; B, regular ; C, simmering. 


that the gas burner is clean, well regulated, and properly 
constructed, so that sufficient air can mix with the gas to 
produce a blue flame. 

Conserving Gas. — According to authoritative informa- 
tion,' " the demands for natural gas are now greater than the 

FiouRE 14 — Gas Ranoe Showing Direction of Drait. 

available supply. Food and treea can be grown. Water 
supplies are constantly replenished by nature, but there is 
no regeneration in natural gas." It is thought that natural 
gas forms so slowly that millions of years will be required 

' United States Fuel AdmimBtration Bulletin. " Use and Conservation 
ol Natural Gas," 


to make the present concentrated supply. As far as we are 
concerned, when the present supply is used up, it is gone 
forever. Since natural gas is a most efficient fuel, every 
housekeeper and householder should feel obligated to waste 
none of it. Suggestions for conserving gas follow : 

(1) See that the mixer is properly adjusted so that the 
flame is light blue in color. 

(2) In selecting a gas stove, see that the burner is so lo- 
cated that the cooking surface is the correct distance above 
the biuner. The tip of the flame should touch the bottom 
of the utensil. If it is necessary to have a long flame in 
order to bring this about, there is considerable waste of gas. 

(3) If the flame is long, the gas pressure is greater than 
necessary. Regulate the gas pressure by adjusting the 
valve in the supply pipe. A short flame will save gas and 
produce satisfactory results, provided the cooking surface 
is the proper distance above the burner. 

(4) After the contents of a cooking utensil boils, turn the 
gas cock so that only " gentle " boiling takes place. A 
food becomes no hotter in rapidly boiling than in gently 
boiling water. 

(5) When possible, use the simmering burner rather than 
the regular or giant burner. 

(6) Let the flame touch only the bottom of the cooking 
utensil. There is a wastage of gas when the flame streams 
up the sides of the cooking utensil. 

(7) Turn off the gas immediately when fuel is not needed. 
Matches are cheaper than fuel gas. 

Care of Gas Range. — Daily Care. — If any substance 
on the stove cannot be removed easily, loosen it with a knife, 
and then wipe the stove with a newspaper. Clean the stove 
with waste or a cloth having a little light paraffin oil on it. 
Polish with soft cotton or flannel cloth. Remove the tray 
that is beneath the top burners, and wash. 


Weekly Care, — Wash the inside of the oven and the 
movable tray with water to which washing soda solution 
has been added. It is well to light the oven burner to dry 
the stove after washing the ovens. Polish the nickel, • if 
necessary. Clean the stove with oil as directed for a coal 
range. {Since oils ignite most readily, care should be taken not 
to apply the oil when the stove is lighted!) Wipe the burner 
with the oil. Clean the small holes of the burners by using 
a knitting needle or wire kept for this purpose; or, if the 
openings in the burners are slots, use a knife to clean them. 


2 cupf uls soft bread crumbs i teaspoonf ul cinnamon 

2 tablespoonfuls butter or i teaspoonf ul nutmeg 
substitute § lemon, — juice and grated 

3 cupfuls apples rind 

I cupful sugar I cupful water 

Mix the bread crumbs with the fat as directed for Stuffed 
Tomatoes (see p. 17). 

Chop or cut the apples in small pieces, and add the re- 
maining ingredients to the apples. Arrange the crumbs and 
apple mixture in a baking dish as directed for Scalloped 
Corn (see p. 26). Bake 40 to 60 minutes (until the apples 
are tender and the crumbs brown), in a moderate oven. 
Cover during first 20 minutes of baking. Serve hot with 
sugar and cream or Hard Sauce. Care should be taken in 
grating lemon rind. Only the thin yellow portion should be. 
' used as flavoring. 


i cupful butter 1 teaspoonful vanilla 
1 cupful powdered sugar 

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, then the flavor- 
ing. Chill and serve over hot puddings. 



In the Scalloped Apple recipe substitute bananas for 
apples, omit the water, and use J teaspoonful of cinnamon 
and I teaspoonful of cloves for the spices. Bake until the 
bananas are heated through and the crumbs browned. (It 
will take about 15 minutes.)^ Serve as Scalloped Apples. 


Explain fully why the oven door of a gas range should be opened 
while the oven burners are being lighted. 

K a gas stove has no pipe for waste products, what special caution 
must be observed in ventilating the kitchen ? 

What are some of the advantages of a gas range over a coal range? 

What disadvantage other than gas wastage is there when a 
flame streams up the sides of a cooking utensil? 

What causes pared apples to become discolored? 

Give the order of preparation of ingredients for Scalloped Apples 
so that discoloration of the apples will be avoided. 

How many mediumnsized apples are required to make three cup- 
fuls of chopped apples? 

What is the pmpose of covering the Scalloped Apples during the 
first half of the time for baking? 

What is the effect of the air on peeled bananas? 

Give the order of preparation of ingredients for Scalloped Bananas. 

Why should the banana mixture be baked a shorter time than the 
apple mixture? 

What is the effect of too long baking on bananas? 

What is the most practical method of cleaning a grater? Why 
should not the dish-cloth be used in cleaning it? 



Stoves and Heating Devices — Stuffed Peppers, 


Kerosene Stoves.' — Where gas is not available for cook- 
ing, kerosene may serve as a fuel. In case a house is equipped 
with a coal range, a 
kerosene stove may abo 
he desirable for use in 
summer time. 

There are two types 
of kerosene stoves, viz., 
■wick and wickless 
stoves. The burners of 
the former type are sup- 
pUed with cotton wicks 
which become saturated 
with kerosene. When 
a match is applied to 
the wick, the kerosene 
on it vaporizes and the 
vapor bums. The burn- 
ing kerosene vapor va- 
porizes more kerosene 
and thus the burning 

continues. coutttw oi Dtu«u vavor suit co- 

in one type of wick- Ficure IS.-Cross-sechoh of Wickless 
■ , , . Kerosene Stove. 

less stove it is necessary 

to heat the burner so that the kerosene will vaporize when it 
comes in contact with it (see Figure 15). Such a burner may 

' Note to T^aii Teacheh. — In case no keioBene, g&soline, or electric 


be heated by pouring a small quantity of gasoline into it. A 
lighter is then applied to the burner. When the latter is 
sufficiently heated, the kerosene is tmned on. The kerosene 
then vaporizes as it flows into the hot burner and bums. 

In other types of so-called wickless stoves, the burners 
are equipped with asbestos or other incombustible material. 
This material becomes saturated with kerosene and carries the | 

fuel to the tip of the burner somewhat as does a cloth wick. \ 

It is especially necessary to keep kerosene burners clean. 
Bits of carbon collect in them and prevent perfect combustion. 
This results in " smoke " or soot issuing from the burner. 
It is well to keep the burners and wicks free from charred 
material, and to renew the latter when they become short. 

Most kerosene stoves are equipped with removable con- 
tainers for the fuel. These should be kept filled with suf- 
ficient kerosene for burning. A wick burner should never 
be allowed to biu'n after all the kerosene in the container 
is exhausted. 

Gasoline Stoves.^ — Since gasoline is a much more readily 
inflammable fuel than kerosene, it requires a different type 
of burner and stove. As a usual thing gasoline cannot be 
burned in kerosene stoves nor kerosene in gasoline stoves. 
(In the stove shown in Figure 15, p. 33, however, either fuel 
may be burned.) 

When gasoline is used in a stove, it is necessary to vaporize 
the gasoline before lighting the burner. This is accomplished 
in most stoves by letting the gasoline flow into a cup situated 
underneath the burner, turning off the supply of gasoline, 
and then applying a match to the cup. By the time the 
gasoline is burned the burner is heated. Then the stop- 
cock is turned on, a match applied to the burner, and the 
gasoline vaporizes and burns. 

1 See note to the teacher, p. 33. 


Gasoline burners, like those in which kerosene ia burned, 
should be kept clean. When a mixture of gasoline vapor 
and air ia heated, an explosion may result. It is for this 

Figure 16. — Ei-ECTHrc RANbE. 

reason that the tank or gasoline container of a stove should never 
be fiUed while the burners of the stone are lighted or even hot. 

Electric Stoves.* — It was mentioned previously that 

electricity is not a fuel. Hence electric atoved are not pro- 

I See note to the teacher, p. 33. 


vided with burners. They have heaters which contain coils 
of wires through which an electric current passes. 

Electricity is the cleanest source of heat for cooking. But 
in order to operate an electric stove economically, it is neces- 
sary to ulilize the cur- 
rent required for a 
heating element to its 
greatest extent. For 
example, if the current 
is turned on to heat 
the oven as many foods 
as possible should be 
cooked in the oven 
(see Figure 16). 

Devices and Uten- 

8ilB for Saving Fuel. 

— The pressure cooker 

(see Figure 17) in 

which a temperature 

higher than that of 

boiling water is m^- 

., „ _ tained is a great saver 

FiouRH 17- — Pressurb Cooker. , , . , . , 

of fuel. A food can 

be cooked in from one third to one fourth the usual length 

of time in one of these devices. Moreover, pressure cookers 

are especially valuable for high altitude cooking, where water 

boils at a temperature lower than at sea level. 

The steam cooker (see Figure 18) is a fuel saver, when 
several foods are cooked at one time in it. Sufficient fuel 
for only one burner is required to operate it. 

The so-called clover leaf pans or utensils of such shape that 
two or three can be placed over one burner or heater save 
much fuel or current (see Figures 16 and 27, p. 92). 


The fireless cookers described in Lesson XXII, p. 90, are 
practical fuel and heat savers. 

6 green peppers 1 teaspoonful salt 

1 cupful cooked meat, 2 cupfula soft bread crumbs 

chopped 1 tablespoonful butter or 

I tablespoonful aoraped onion substitute 

Cut a slice from the 
stem end of each pep- 
p>er or cut each pepper 
lengthwise in halves. 
Remove the seeds. 

Mix the chopped 
meat, onion, and salt. 
Mix the bread crumbs 
and fat &s directed in 
Stuffed Tomatoes (see 
p. 17). Combine the 
ingredients and stuff 
the peppers with the 
mixture. Place the 
peppers in a baking- 
dish or pan, and pom- 
enough boihng water 
into the dish or pan to 
cover the bottom of it. 
30 to 45 minutes or until the peppers 
in place of meat. 

If desired, } cupful freah or canned tomatoes may be added to 
the stuffing mixture. Cooked rice may be substituted for the 

d Peppers or Butterscotch Apples may be 

Couneay of TotedB Cooter Co. 
Figure 18. — Steam Cooker CoNTAiNitia 
Various Foods. 

Bake in a moderate oven for from 
tender. Serve hot 


bread crumbs. A mixture of cooked rice and cheese sauce (see p. 
87) also makes a tasty stuffing for peppers. 

If a slice is cut from the top of the pepper, it may be used as a lid 
to cover the pepper after stuffing. 


5 apples 1 tablespoonful com-starch 

) cupful brown sugar | teaspoonful salt 

i cupful water J to 1 tablespoonful butter 

} cupful milk i teaspoonful vanilla 

Wash the apples, and cut them into quarters, pare and 
core them. Into a saucepan put the sugar and water, and 
heat. When the sirup boils, add the apples. Cover and 
boil gently until the apples are tender. Remove the apples 
from the sirup with a skimmer or a wire egg beater, placing 
the fruit in sherbet glasses or other suitable dishes for serving. 

In another pan, mix the milk and corn-starch thoroughly. 
Stir and cook until the mixture reaches the boiling point, 
then add it to the sirup in which the apples were cooked. 
Boil for a few minutes. Add the salt, butter, and vanilla. 
Stir these into the mixture, then pour the sauce over the 
apples. Serve Butterscotch Apples hot or cold for a dessert. 


State at least two reasons why gas, kerosene, and gasoline are 
more popular fuels in summer time than coal. 

Mention a possible cause for smoke issuing from a kerosene 

Why should a wick burner never be allowed to bum after all the 
kerosene in the container is exhausted? 

Carefully explain why the tank of a gasoline stove should never 
be filled while the stove is lighted or hot. 

Why are electric stoves not provided with burners ? 

Why is a pressure cooker regarded as a fuel saver? 

How should a steam cooker be used in order to save fuel? 

1 See footnote, p. 37. 


Explain how it is possible to save fuel by using clover leaf pans. 

Note that no ground pepper is added to the stuffing for peppers. 
Give the reason for this. 

What is the purpose of pouring boiling water in the dish or pan 
in which peppers are baked? 

Did the sirup in which the apples were placed completely cover 
the fruit? From this explain why it is advisable to cover the apples 
during the cooking. 

Note to the Teacher. — If the course in food study is begun in 
the fall, when fruits are in season, the lessons of Division Seventeen — 
The Preservation of Food — may follow this lesson. The plan of 
canning fruit in the autunm is desirable, especially if the course in 
foods covers but one year. If more than one year is devoted to food 
study, the teacher may find it more satisfactory to can fruits in the 
autumn of the second year, or at the close of the spring semester of 
the first year. The pupils at these times will have become more 
skilful, so that the canning of foods can be accomplished with greater 
satisfaction. The high cost of fruits and sugar make it imperative 
that as little spoilage as possible result from food preservation. (Also 
see the note on p. 67.) 



Water and Beverages (A) 

Experin^ent 6 : The Dissolving Power of Water. — Put J tea- 
spoonful of salt in a test tube, half fill it with water. Cover the 
mouth of the test tube with the thumb, then shake the tube. Do 
the contents become clear? Set the tube aside for a few minutes. 
Does the salt separate from the water? 

When a solid substance, by mixing with water, disappears 
in the water and does not separate on standing, the solid 
substance is dissolved. The salt was therefore dissolved in 
cold water, or it may be said that salt is soluble in cold water, 
or that water is a solvent of salt. 

Solution and Digestion. — The change of foods in the body 
from insoluble to a soluble form is one step in digestion. 
Foods are dissolved in the digestive juices of the mouth, 
stomach, and intestines. Some foods such as salt and certain 
sugars are readily dissolved. Other foods have to undergo 
changes before they will dissolve. Corn-starch, for example, 
does not dissolve in cold water. It must be changed into 
sugar (which is easily dissolved) in the process of diges- 
tion. Dissolving then is an important step in the process of 

Use of Water in the Body. — A person might live for a 
number of weeks without eating food, but he could live only 



a few days without drinking water. Water has many uses 
in the body. 

(a) It is the greatest known solvent. Because of this 
property, water is extremely important in the processes of 
digestion. (See Solution and Digestion,) 

(b) It is a great carrier. Water helps carry food mate- 
rials to all parts of the body ; and it aids in carrying oflf the 
wastes of the body. 

(c) It assists in regulating the temperature of the body. 
Because water is present in blood, and blood flows from the 
warmer interior of the body to the colder exterior, the water 
aids in distributing the heat of the body. The evaporation 
of perspiration, which is largely composed of water, also, 
aids in regulating body temperature. 

It is thus readily seen that water is 'needed to keep the 
machinery of the body working smoothly. The uses of 
water may be summed up in the statement : Water aids in 
regidating body processes. 

Foreign Materials in Water. — Since water is such a ready 
solvent, it contains many foreign materials. In passing 
through the air and in flowing through the ground, it dis- 
solves many substances. Some of these substances are 
harmless, while some contain disease bacteria and are dan- 
gerous. Well water is frequently contaminated. It is often 
not safe to use for drinking purposes unless boiled. 

Experiment 7 : Presence of Gases in Water. — Fill a beaker half 
full of water, and note its temperature. Heat the water, and observe 
the changes which take place. What appears on the sides and 
bottom of the beaker? What does water contain which is driven 
ofiFby heat? 

Experiment 8 : Simmering and Boiling of Water. — Continue to 
heat the water of Experiment 7 until the larger bubbles form and 
disappear at the siuface of the water. Note the temperature. Con- 
tinue to heat the water imtil bubbling occurs on the surface of the 


iftt is indicated by the larger 

Heating Water. — When bubbling occurs below the sur- 
face, water is simmering. When the surface is in motion 
and steam b given off, water is boiling. 

Figure 19. — Scene on a Te* Plahtation. 

The loss of gases makes boiled water taste flat or insipid. 
This flatness can be overcome somewhat by aeroHng the 
water after boiling, i.e. by pouring it from one vessel into 
another and thus mixing air with it. 

Tea and its Selection. — Tea shrubs grow in India, Ceylon, 
China, and Japan (see Figure 19). The buds and leaves of 
these shrubs are cut .and dried and sold as tea. 


In buying tea the size of the dried leaves should be noted. 
The smallest leaves are those which have grown nearest the 
tip of the twig and hence are the youngest. These make 
the choicest tea. The older and larger leaves make tea of 
less fine flavor. " Flowery Pekoe " and " Orange Pekoe " 
are choice India teas. These brands consist of the buds and 
youngest leaves. 

Another point to consider in buying tea is its color. Tea 
leaves are either black or green. The chief difference be- 
tween black and green tea is that black tea leaves are fer- 
mented after picking, while green are not. Tea leaves con- 
tain flavoring and stimulating materials and a substance 
called tannin (sometimes called tannic acid) which interferes 
with digestion. The presence of tannin in both black and 
green tea can be shown by the following : 

Experiment 9 : Tannin in Tea. — (a) Put i teaspoonful of black 
tea in a cup. Add J cupful of boiling water. Let it stand for 5 
minutes, then strain the infusion. 

(6) Repeat (a) substituting green tea for black. 

(c) Into 2 test tubes put 1 teaspoonful of each kind of beverage. 
To each tube, add J teaspoonful of ferrous sulphate solution and 
let the tubes stand. If a black substance appears in the tubes, tannin 
is present. Which kind of beverage, — black or green tea, — shows 
the greater quantity of tannin ? 

By fermentation, tannin is changed into a less solvhle form, 
so the beverage made from black tea contains less tannin 
than that made from green tea. Hence, black tea is pref- 
erable. It is, however, slightly more stimulating than green 
tea. Good black tea is grayish black in color, not dead 
black. " English Breakfast " is a black tea. It consists 
of a mixture of several black teas. '' Oolong " is black in 
appearance, but has the flavor of green tea. This is because 
it is only semi-fermented. Teas grown in various countries 
have different flavors. 


Tea is sometimes adulterated by using the leaves of other 
plants or by adding large leaves and stems. It is said the 
finest brands of tea do not reach this country. 

Making the Beverage. — Because tea contains tannic 
acid, an earthen, enamel, china, or silver teapot should be 
used; a tin teapot should never be used. (See Suggestions 
for Cooking Fruits, p. 65.) The ingredient in tea that gives 
it its odor and flavor is a volatile substance. Hence tea 
leaves should be kept in closely covered jars or cans. 

Boiling water draws out substances which give the bever- 
age its flavor and stimulating properties, while water below 
the boiling point only partially draws out these substances. 
If, however, the leaves are boiled or are allowed to remain 
in water for more than five minutes, much tannin is drawn 
out in the water. Therefore, never boil tea, but pour boiling 
water over it and in five minutes strain out the tea leaves. 

TEA (proportion for one cupful) 

i to 1 teaspoonful black tea leaves 
1 cupful freshly boiled water 

Heat the teapot by pouring boiling water into it. Pour 
out the water and add the tea leaves. Pour over them the 
freshly boiled water. Place the teapot in a warm place to 
steep, and in 5 minutes strain out the tea leaves. 

Teapots provided with perforated cups or with tea-balls 
(see Figure 20) for holding the tea leaves are most convenient, 
as the cup containing the leaves may easily be removed or 
the tea-ball can be drawn above the surface of the liquid 
after steeping the tea for 5 minutes. Or two teapots may 
be used, the beverage being strained from one teapot into 
the other. 

The quantity of tea to be used varies with the strength 
of tea desired. If the leaves are closely rolled, less tea is re- 
quired than if they are loosely folded. 


Tea may be served with cream and sugar, or with lemon 
and sugar. The hitter is called Russian Tea, and is often 
served with a preserved cherrj-. 

In warm weather Iced Tea may be served. " Left over " 
tea may be utilized in this way, or hot tea may be cooled 
quickly by adding ice to it. While the latter method re- 
quires more ice, the tea is considered of a finer flavor. Iced 
Tea is served usually with 
sugar and lemon. Since 
sugar does not dissolve as 
readily in cold solutions 
as in hot (see Experi- 
ments 10 and 11, p. 70) 
a sirup may be prepared 
for sweetening Iced Tea. 

Even though tea is care- 
fully selected and pre- 
pared it contains some 
tannin. This, as has been mentioned, is injurious. The stim- 
ulating material in tea also distresses some persons. Chil- 
dren, nervous persons, and those who suffer from constipation 
are advised not to drink tea. 

Spread crackers or wafers with a small quantity of cheese. 

Season the cheese with a sprinkhng of salt and paprika. 

Brown the wafers in the oven. When the cheese is melted, 

the wafers are ready to serve. 
If thick crackers are used, they may be split open and 

the broken surface spread with cheese. 


By what roeaoB is flavor extracted from tea leaves? 

How can the extraction of much tannic acid be avoided in tea? 


Give the reason for using freshly boiled water for tea. (See 
Experiments 7 and 8, p. 41.) 

Which is the better kind of tea to use — black or green ? Explain. 

Why should tea be strained after steeping 5 minutes ? 

From your grocer learn the names and prices of two green and 
two black teas. From what countries do they come? 

How many cupfuls in one pound of tea leaves? How many tea- 
spoonfuls in a pound? 

Determine the approximate number of wafers in a poimd. Also 
estimate the quantity of cheese needed for one poimd of wafers. 


Water and Beverages (B) 

Water as a Beverage. — Most foods contain water. Not 
only moist foods such as milk and watermelon, but solid 
foods such as potatoes and rice contain water. The water 
present in foods, however, is not sufficient for the needs of 
the body. It is necessary to use water as a beverage. 

When one rises in the morning, it is well to drink one or 
two glassfuls of water. From one to two quarts of water, — 
either as plain water or in beverages, — should be taken 
each day. It used to be thought that water drinking during 
a meal was harmful. Scientific investigations have shown 
that this is a mistaken idea. Water may be drunk at meal- 
time. Indeed it has been found that it aids in the digestive 
processes, provided foods are not " rinsed down " with it 
and provided very cold water is not used. 

Water, a Foodstuff. — The body is nourished by food 
and there are many different kinds of food. Moreover, 
most foods are made up not of one substance, but of a number 
of materials. The chemical substances of which foods are 
composed are called nutrients or foodstuffs} (Foodstuffs 

1 The difference between the scientific and popular meaning of the 
word foodstufifs should be noted. Foodstufifs is defined and used as a 
scientific term in this text. 


were formerly called food principlea.) A few foctda contain 
but one foodstuff, some contain several foodstuffs, many 
contain all the foodstuffs. 

Water is a foodstuff. There are other foodstuffs about 
which we shall study later. Each foodstuff has a certain 

Figure 21. — Coffee Berries. 

function to perform in the body. As explained in the 
previous lesson, water is a body-regtdating foodstuff. 

Use of Water in Cleaning and in Preparing Foods. — Water 
is a cleansing agent because most soil is soluble in water. 
It also plays a most important part in the preparation of 
foods, since it serves as a medium for the cooking of foods. 


as in the processes of steaming and boiling. Because water 
dissolves many substances, it acts as a carrier of flavor as in 
fruit drinks, tea, and coffee. Although there are some foods 
which can be cooked without a water medium, baked potatoes 
and roast meat for example, certain foods such as rice and 
dried beans require water during cooking. It is readily 
seen that water is indispensable in cooking. 

Coffee. — Coffee is the seed of the fruit of an evergreen 
tree grown in tropical countries (see Figure 21). Each fruit 
contains two seeds or berries. The fruit is picked, allowed 
to ferment, and the seeds removed from their pulpy covering. 
The seeds, which are also called coffee beans, are then roasted 
and sent to market. The flavor of the coffee bean is due to 
the variety of coffee tree, the maturity of the fruit when 
picked, and the time subjected to the roasting process. 
Mocha ^ and Java are choice brands of coffee. Although 
originally grown in Arabia and Java, their names are not 
used to designate the localities in which they grow, but 
the variety of coffee. Much of our coffee now comes froni 

Coffee is somewhat like tea in composition. It contaii^ 
tannic acid, and therefore a tin coffeepot should never be 
used. The flavor can be extracted from coffee by boilipg 
it or by pouring boiling water through it. Coffee should 
not boil longer than three minutes, as much tannic acid is 
extracted by long boiling. 

Because coffee contains volatile substances, it should not 
be purchased ground, unless in small quantities, and it should 
then be kept in tightly covered jars or cans. When freshly 
roasted, coffee has the best flavor. In this condition, it is 
crisp and emits a strong aroma. 

^ Mocha is a port in Arabia. Mocha coffee was so called because much 
of the coffee grown in Arabia was exported from Mocha. 


BOILED COFFEE (proportion for one cupful) 

1 heaping tablespoonful Bit of crushed eggnshell or a 
coarsely ground coffee little egg white 

2 tablespoonf uls cold water 1 cup boiling water 

(1 egg-shell or i egg white is sufficient for 8 heaping tablespoonf uls 
of ground coffee.) 

Into a well-cleaned coffeepot, place the coffee, 1 table- 
spoonful of the cold water, and egg. Mix ; then add the 
boiling water and boil for not more than three minutes. 
Remove from the fire; pour out about one half cupful of 
coffee, in order to rinse the grounds from the inside and 
from the spout of the coffeepot. Return the coffee to the 
pot; add the second tablespoonful of cold water. If the 
spout is not covered, a piece of paper may be inserted 
so that the aroma will be retained. Allow to stand in a 
warm place for about 5 minutes for the coffee to become 

Cold water may be used instead of boiling water in making 

Care of Coffeepot. — The coffee should never be al- 
lowed to stand in the coffeepot, but should be turned out 
at once after using. If any clear coffee is left, it may be 
used for spice cakes, jellies, or other desserts. The coffee- 
pot should be washed well, and scoured if necessary. The 
spout needs special care in cleaning. 


I cupful finely ground coffee 
5 cupfuls freshly boiled water 

(For the following method of preparing coffee, a drip 
coffeepot is used. A drip coffeepot is provided with a per- 
forated receptacle or a muslin bag in which the finely ground 


cofFee is held. The boiled water is poured through the ground 

Heat the coffee by steaming it, placing a little boiling 

■water in the bottom of the coffeepot and the ground coffee in 

the coffee bag or perforated cup. Remove the bag or cup and 

pour the water from the pot. Setum the bag or cup to the 

coffeepot and slowly pour 

over it the freshly boiled 

water. If it is desired to 

I Toake the coffee stronger, 

the beverage may be poured 

over the ground coffee a 

second time. Care should 

be taken, however, not to 

cool the coffee in so doing. 

Wash the coffee bag in clear 

cdd water and dry in the air. 

Renew the bag occasionally. 

" Black," or After Dinner Coffee may be prepared in a 

drip coffeepot. Use 1 cupful of finely ground coffee to 5 

cupfuls of freshly boiled water. 

Filtered coffee may also be prepared in a coffee percolator 
(see Figure 22). A percolator is so constructed that the 
water is heated in the pot and kept at boiling temperature 
while passing through the ground coffee. The method of 
preparing the beverage depends upon the construction of 
the percolator. Follow the directions that come with it. 


1 egg 1 cupful rolled oats 
i cupful HUgar 1 cupful flour 

} cupful fat or ) teaspoonful salt 

i cupful vegetable oil i teaspoonful baking soda 

2 tablespooofuls aour milk 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder 


Break the egg in a mixing bowl. Beat it, then add the 
sugar. If solid fat is used, melt it. Add the fat or oil to the 
sugar and egg mixture. Add the sour milk and rolled oats. 

Sift the flour, then measure it. Turn it into a sifter, add 
the salt, baking soda, and baking powder: Sift these dry- 
ingredients into the first mixture. Wash the raisins, dry 
them on a towel, then sprinkle a little flour over them and 
add to the other ingredients. Mix well and drop the mixture 
by the teaspoonfuls on an oiled baking sheet. Bake in a 
moderate oven until golden brown in color. 

These cookies may be served with coffee. 


How long should coffee boil? Why not boil it longer? 

When the coffee is poured from the coffeepot, examine the grounds 
and then explain the use of the egg white and egg-shell in preparing 

Why is a cupful of coffee poured out and returned to the coffeepot 
after the coffee is boiled? 

Why should cold water be added to coffee after boiling? 

In what form, — groimd or whole, — should coffee be purchased? 

In what kind of jars should tea and coffee be kept? Explain. 

How many cupf uls in one pound of coffee ? Estimate the number 
of heaping tablespoonfuls in one pound of coffee. 

What is the average price per pound of coffee? 


Home Projects^ 

Worthy Home Membership. — Each member of a home 
has certain obligations to fulfill. The course in foods which 

1 Note to the Teacher. — One of the most insistent ideas of modern 
educators is that the pupil be taught not merely to get him ready to live, 


you are following in school offers an unusual opportunity 
for you to contribute your share in performing home duties. 
In a most definite way, it may help you to qualify for *' worthy 
home membership." 

but that he be taught to live. It is thought that the processes of present 
growth will serve as the best trailing for future needs. If the school girl 
is living in her home, she is in immediate need of such training as will 
help her contribute her share to the workings of her home. To a certain 
degree, success in school activities can be measured by the way they 
function in the home. 

Perhaps there is no more eflFective way of making the school work 
function in the home than by the educative process called the project. 
Stevenson defines a project as a problemcUic act carried to completion in 
its natural setting, while Kilpatrick says a project is a whole-hearted 
purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment. 

In order to aid the pupils in their home work, it is necessary to know 
the needs of the home. If possible, interest and cooperation of the 
pupils' mothers in this matter should be secured. It is hoped that the 
afternoon tea suggested in the following lesson may afford means for the 
teacher to become acquainted with the mother to find out something of 
the needs of the home and to secure the mother's cooperation for her 
daughter's work in the home. 

In order to assign definite projects to the pupils, it will be necessary 
to confer with the girl. By discussing plans for home work you can 
doubtless discover what type of work interests her and what she can 
contribute Vith profit to her home. You can thus assign a project 
which will be performed in a "hearty" manner. 

Definite plans should be made for carrying out the work in the home. 
For successful results it is most necessary that the pupil understand 
that a project is an act which involves mental effort, and that the activity 
must be carried to completion. The fact that the project is to be per- 
formed in the home carries out one of the premises of the project, viz., 
that the act be performed in its natural setting or in a social environ- 
ment. Reports concerning the progress and results of work should 
be submitted by the pupil. Home visitation on the part of the teacher 
is most desirable and in most cases necessary for satisfactory results. 

The following articles regarding Projects are most illuminating: 

Teachers College Record, Volume XIX, Number 4 (Sept. 1918), 
"The Project Method" by William H. Kilpatrick; The Journal of 
Home Economics, Volume X, Number 3 (Mar. 1918), "The Project in 
Home Economics Teaching" by W. W. Charters; School Science and 
Mathematics, Volume XIX (Jan. 1919), "The Project in Science Teach- 
ing" by John Alford Stevenson. 


Appl3ring School Activities to Home Work. — There is no 
more effective way of gaining skill in cooking and house- 
keeping than by applying the methods learned at school in 
your home. It is not enough for you to make cookies or 
cook potatoes once in the school kitchen. If you would 
become an expert in these processes, repeat them many 
times in your home. Your efforts will be more than repaid 
by your own growth and by the satisfaction your achieve- 
ments will bring to the entire household. 

Discuss your school work in food study with your mother. 
You will doubtless find many things of mutual interest and 
your mother will be glad to have your cooperation in house- 

Household duties assigned by the teacher and performed 
in the home with a determination to accomplish a definite 
aim, we will term " Home Projects." To secure successful 
results, your home work must be done thoitgktfvlly, and 
earnestly, and in a whole-hearted way. We shall suppose, for 
example, that your teacher assigns you the home project of 
setting the table of the evening meal for one week. She also 
instructs you to keep in mind the following aims : 

(1) To make as few trips as possible from the cupboard 
to the dining table. 

(2) To plan the entire number of dishes, knives, forks, 
spoons, and other things needed during the meal, and then 
place these on the dining table or other suitable place where 
they may be conveniently obtained when the meal is being 

In order to accomplish these things, you must work with 
a determination to succeed at what you are doing and to keep 
your mind steadfastly on the work at hand. With such an 
attitude toward your work you will doubtless have accom- 
plished several things by the end of a week. You will have 
set the table in an orderly manner, and thus have given real 


assistance and satisfaction to the members of your family ; 
you will have become more skilful in spreading the table, 
and you will have made it possible to spend less time in setting 
the table in the future. You could not have accomplished 
all this if you had not earnestly thought as you worked. 

You will find it interesting and beneficial to make each 
assignment of home work as complete as possible. If, for 
example, you are to make cakes, it will be most desirable 
if you not only mix and bake cakes, but, if possible, select 
and purchase the materials for them and compute their cost. 

Suggestions for Home Projects: 

Make the beverages for one or more meals each day. 
Wash the dishes of the evening meal. 
Prepare a scalloped dish or any of the foods given in 
Lessons I to V once a week. 

Stiggested Aims: 

(1) To prepare tea or coffee so as to draw out as little 
tannin as possible. 

(2) To wash dishes well but to make as few movements 
as possible. To note the time required to do the dishes each 
day and by means of efficiency methods strive to lessen the 

(3) To utilize left-over pieces or crumbs of bread in pre- 
paring scalloped dishes. To prepare seasonable fruits and 
vegetables so well that the members of your home will find 
them most palatable. 


Afternoon Tea 

Planning the Tea. — To entertain friends is a pleasure. 
Meeting friends or having them become acquainted with 


one another is also a pleasure. This lesson is arranged that 
you may entertain your mother at afternoon tea and that 
she may visit with your teacher and classmates. 

In planning for any special occasion, it is necessary to 
decide upon the day and hour for the party. If the occasion 
is at all formal, or if a number of persons are to be present, 
it is also necessary to plan how to entertain your guests, — 
what you will have them do to have a pleasant time. If 
it is desired to serve refreshments, you must decide what 
to serve, how much to prepare, and when to prepare the 
foods. The method of serving them must also be considered. 

The Refreshments for an afternoon tea should be dainty 
and served in small portions. Tea served with thin slices 
of lemon or cream and sugar and accompanied by wafers, 
sandwiches, or small cakes is the usual menu. Sweets or 
candies are often served with these foods. 

The following menu may be prepared for your first tea : 

Tea with Lemon (or Cream) and Sugar 
Toasted Wafers with Cheese or Oatmeal Cookies 
Coconut Sweetmeats 

Prom previous work, estimate the quantity of tea, lemons 
(or cream), sugar, wafers, or cakes you will need. A recipe 
for Coconut Sweetmeats follows. It makes 20 sweetmeats 
about one inch in diameter. 


i cupful powdered sugar i teaspoonf ul salt 

li cupfuls shredded coconut 1 teaspoonf ul vanilla 
2 tablespoonf Ills flour 1 egg white 

Mix the dry ingredients, then add the vanilla. Beat the 
egg white stiflf. Add the other ingredients and mix thor- 


Grease a baking sheet and dredge it with flour. Drop 
the coconut mixture by the teaspoonfuls on the baking 
sheet. Bake in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes or 
until slightly browned. Remove from the pan, place on 
a cake cooler. When cold store in a tin box. 

Serving the Tea. — For an afternoon tea, the beverage 
may be poured in the kitchen and carried into the dining 
room or the other room where the guests are assembled, or 
it may be poured in the dining room in the presence of the 

When the latter plan is followed, the teapot, cups, plates, 
spoons, and napkins are placed on the dining table. Seated 
at the table, one of the pupils ^ pours the tea, and places 
a filled cup and a teaspoon on a plate. The tea (with a 
napkin) is then passed to the guests; the lemon or cream 
and sugar, wafers or cakes and sweets are also passed. The 
slices of lemon should be placed on a small plate or other 
suitable dish and served with a lemon fork. Wafers, sand- 
wiches, or small cakes should be placed on plates or in dainty 
baskets. No article of silver is provided in serving them ; 
the guests take them from the plates with their fingers. 

Those who are serving the tea should be watchful and note 
when the guests have drunk their tea and relieve them of 
cup and plate. They should also replenish the teapot, and 
see that the one pouring the tea has all the materials and 
dishes needed. 

1 If afternoon tea is served in a home to a number of guests, an inti- 
mate friend of the hostess or a member of the household usually pours 
tea. In this way the hostess is free to greet every guest and to see that 
every one is having an enjoyable time. 





Fresh Vegetables (A) 

Ash. — In a previous lesson, it was mentioned that most 
foods do not consist of one material, but of several sub- 
stances. Ash or mineral matter is a common constituent 
of food. It is a foodstuff. The term " ash " does not apply 
to one substance; it is used to indicate a group of sub- 
stances. Milk, eggs, vegetables, both fresh and dried fruits, 
and cereals are valuable sources of ash. They do not all, 
however, contain the same kind of ash. 

The presence of ash in food is not apparent until the food 
is burned. The substance that remains after burning, i,e. 
the " ashes," is mineral matter or ash. 

Although ash exists in combination with other substances 
in m<!>st foods, a few materials consist almost entirely of 
ash. Common salt is a mineral substance; another ex- 
ample is the white scaly substance which sometimes forms 
on the inside of a teakettle or on any pan in which water has 
been heated. Soda is still another familiar mineral substance. 
The condiment salt — ordinary table salt — (see Condiments, 
p. 264) must not be confused with the term " salts " ; the 
latter applies to many mineral substances besides common 

Use of Ash in the Body. — Ash as well as water does not 
burn in the body. It is therefore considered an incom- 



bustible foodstuff. Bones, teeth, and many other parts of 
the body contain certain mineral materials. Ash helps to 
build the body. 

Ash exists in the fluids of the body. For example, there 
is salt in perspiration and in all excretions of the body. 
The digestive juices also contain mineral materiab, and ash 
aids in the digestive processes of the body. Scientists have 
shown that ash participates in many ways in the regulation 
of- body processes. 

Thus ash has two main uses in the body : (a) it aids in 
building the body; and (6) it aids in regulating body processes. 
Ash, therefore, is an absolute necessity in diet. 

Fresh Vegetables. — It was mentioned above that fresh 
vegetables are one of the most valuable food soiu'ces of ash. 
The leaves, stems, pods, and roots of certain plants, and also 
those fruits which are used as vegetables, may be classed as 
fresh vegetables. Some of these are : cabbage, brussels 
sprouts, lettuce, water cress, spinach, celery, onions, tomatoes, 
cucumbers, beets, carrots, and turnips. 

Fresh vegetables contain not only the foodstuff ash, but 
water. Indeed most fresh vegetables contain from 75 to 
90 per cent of water. 

In addition to these two foodstuffs, vegetables contain 
cellulose. The latter is a fibrous substance which foritis for 
the most part the skins and interior framework of vege- 
tables and fruits. The strings of beans and celery and the 
" pith '^ of turnips and radishes, for example, contain much 

Foods containing both ash and cellulose have a laxative 
effect. Hence the value of fresh vegetables in diet. The 
use of fresh vegetables cannot be too strongly urged. Certain 
vegetables, especially the green leaved vegetables, also con- 
tain substances which are necessary to make the body grow 
and keep it in good health (see Division Seven, p. 245). 


Most persons should use fresh vegetables more freely than 
they do. 

Suggestions for Cooking Green Vegetables. — If ash is 
such a valuable constituent of vegetables, the latter should 
be cooked so as to retain all the ash. Unfortunately vege- 
tables are not always cooked in such a way that the minerals 
are saved. Just as salt dissolves readily in water, so many 
of the mineral materials found in green vegetables dissolve 
in the water in which vegetables are cooked. Hence if it is 
necessary to drain off water from vegetables after cooking, 
it is evident there may be much loss of nutriment. 

Ash is also one of the substances which gives flavor to 
vegetables. Insipid flavors of certain vegetables may be 
due to iniproper cooking. 

A most important point to consider in the cooking of 
vegetables is the saving of the minerab. This can be ac- 
complished in several ways : 

1. Cooking in water with their skins. 

2. Cooking in water and using the water which must be 
drained away after cooking for sauces and soups. 

3. Cooking in such a small quantity of water that none 
needs to be drained away after cooking. 

4. Cooking in steam. 

5. Cooking in the oven by means of dry heat. 

Cooking Vegetables in Water. — Water in which vegetables 
are cooked should be salted. Use 1 teaspoonful of salt for 
each quart of water. The water should be boiling when the 
vegetables are added and should be kept boiling gently during 
the entire cooking. Rapidly boiling water wears off the 
edges of vegetables and breaks them. 

The water in which vegetables are cooked is called vege- 
table stock. When vegetables are pared or scraped before 
cooking in water, the stock should be utilized in making 
vegetable sauces. 


Test vegetables for sufBcient cooking with a fork or knitting 


Clean beets by scrubbing them with a small brush, using 
it carefully so as not to break the skin. Leave two or three 
inches of the stems on until the beets are cooked. Cook 
them whole in boiling salted water (see Cooking Vegetables 
in Water). Test only the largest beet for sufficient cooking. 
Use a knitting needle or wire skewer for testing. Drain 
and cover with cold water and rub off the skin with the 
hands. Cut the beets into slices, sprinkle generously with 
salt and pepper, and add a little butter. A small quantity 
of vinegar may be added, if desired. Serve hot. 

Beets may also be served with a aaiice. Prepare the sauce like 
White Sauce (see p. 109), using for the liquid three parts of water 
and one part of vinegar. 

Beets may be jnckled by slicing them or by cutting into cubes 
and placing in plain or spiced vinegar. Serve cold. 


2 cupfuls sliced onions Salt and pepper 
2 cupfuls tomatoes 1 cupful bread crumbs 

1 tablespoonful fat 

Parboil the onions for 15 minutes ; drain.^ Into a greased 
baking-dish put a layer of tomatoes, then one of onions, and 
sprinkle with salt and pepper. Repeat until all the vegetables 
are added. 

Mix the bread crumbs and fat as directed for Stuffed 
Tomatoes (see p. 17). Sprinkle these crumbs on top of the 

1 When the water is drained from the onions, there is a loss of nutri- 
ment. In cooking onions, however, we usually consider it advisable to 
lose some food value for the sake of flavor. See "Nutriment versus 
Flavor," p. 251. 


vegetables. Bake in a moderate oven for about 30 minutes 
or until the onioiis are tender. Serve hot. 


Wash and cut tomatoes in halves, crosswise ; do not peel 
them. Place them (with cut surface up) in a " frying " pan 
(without fat). Cook on top of the range or in the oven at a 
low temperature for about 30 minutes, or until the tomatoes 
are soft, but not broken. Add a bit of butter to each half 
of tomato and season with salt and pepper. Serve at once. 


Since sugar is manufactured from beets, the latter must contain 
considerable sugar. From this fact and the results of Experiment 11 
(p. 70), explain why beets must not be pared or cut in pieces before 

State another reason why beets should not be pared or cut into 
pieces before cooking. Also give the reason for leaving a portion 
of the stem on beets during cooking. 

Explain why only one beet should be tested for sufficient cooking, 
and why it should be tested with a knitting needle or wire skewer 
rather than with a fork. 

What is the price of beets per pound ? How many beets in a 

Carefully explain how the nutriment is retained by cooking beets 
and tomatoes according to the recipes of this lesson. 

What is the advantage and disadvantage in draining water from 
onions after parboiling them? 


Fresh Vegetables (B) 

Food Prejudices. — Most persons have decided likes and 
dislikes for certain foods. These opinions very often have no 
reasonable foundation. One taste of a food poorly prepared 
or a disparaging remark heard in childhood may be the cause 
for a lifetime's aversion for a food. 


There is no better way to overcome food prejudices than 
by learning to prepare foods well — to make them tasty and 
nutritious — and to appreciate their nutritive value. Food 
prejudices like most others may be overcome by a thorough 
knowledge of the subject. 

Come to the school kitchen with an open mind. When 
you understand why certain foods are valuable in diet and 
are able to prepare them skilfully, you may learn to enjoy 
them. To discover that foods which you previously con- 
sidered commonplace and uninteresting are tasty, is really 
a pleasing experience. 

Time for Cooking Fresh Vegetables in Water. — It is not 
possible to state just how long a vegetable will be required 
to cook in water. The time varies with the kind of vegetable, 
its size, and age. Usually the older a vegetable, the longer 
the time required for cooking. Young vegetables, especially 
green corn and tender cabbage, may be spoiled by too long 

For novices, a time table may be helpful not only in 
determining when a food is sufficiently cooked but in decid- 
ing how long to allow for cooking a food before it is to be 
served. But do not depend entirely upon a time table. 
Judging by appearance and using the fork or knitting needle 
is the most reliable test. 


Asparagus . 
Beets (young) 
Beets (old) 
Carrots . 
Celery . 
Green Com 
Lima beans (fresh) 

15-20 minutes 
45-60 minutes 
3-4 hours 
15-30 minutes 
30-60 minutes 
20-30 minutes 
20-45 minutes 
12-20 minutes 
45-60 minutes 

Onions .... 
Parsnips . . . 
Peas (fresh) . . 
Potatoes . . . 
Spinach . . . 
Squash (summer) 
String Beans . . 
Sweet Potatoes . 
Turnips . . . 

30-45 minutes 
30-45 minutes 
20-30 minutes 
25-30 minutes 
15-30 minutes 
20-30 minutes 

1-3 hours 
15-25 minutes 
30-45 minutes 


Paring Vegetables. — If the outside skin of a vegetable 
is removed, it should be pared as thin as possible. The 
covering of the carrot and new potato is so thin that it can 
be removed by scraping, thereby saving the valuable nutritive 
substances just beneath the skin. 

Turnips are an exception to the rule, a thick layer of cellular 
material covers them. For this reason, a thick paring is 
cut from turnips. (Cut a turnip in two and note the thick- 
ness of its skin.) 


6 medium turnips Salt and pepper 

2 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

Scrub and pare the turnips. Cut each into cubes. Place 
in the top part of a steamer (see Figure 31) and cook until 
tender when tested with a fork or knitting needle. 

Mash the turnips with a potato masher. Add butter or 
substitute and enough salt and pepper to season. Serve hot. 


4 cupfuls carrots, cut into strips 2 teaspoonf uls salt 

2 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute Dash pepper 

Scrub and scrape carrots, cut them into strips. Put them 
in a saucepan and add just enough water to cover. When 
the carrots are tender and only a small amount of water 
remains, add the butter or substitute and seasonings. Con- 
tinue to cook slowly until almost all of the remaining water 
has evaporated. Serve the vegetables and surrounding liquid 

Young string beans cut in halves lengthwise and parsnips cut in 
strips may be cooked in the same way. 

(Adapted from a United States Department of Agriculture 



Why should the outside skin of a vegetable be pared as thin as 
possible? What is the exception to this rule? 

How should vegetable stock be utilized? Why? 

Housekeepers usually add milk to potatoes when mashing them. 
Why is moisture not added to mashed turnips? 

What advantage is there in steaming turnips rather than cooking 
them in water? 

Why are carrots cooked in a small quantity of water rather than 
a large amount? 

What are the prices of turnips and carrots per pound? How 
many of each of these vegetables in a pound? 


Fresh Frxhts 

Fruit, a Necessity. — An authority ^ on diet says that at 
least as much money should be spent for fruits as for meat, 
eggs, and fish. Fruit should no longer be considered a luxury 
but a necessity in diet. 

Fruits as well as vegetables are effective in preventing 
constipation, — the common disorder which may lead to 
serious disturbances. Most fruits, especially those con- 
taining considerable acid, such as lemons, oranges, and 
apples, are laxative. Prunes and figs are also valuable in 
constipation. Blackberries are unlike other fruits in this 
respect, — they are constipating. 

A disease called scurvy is often due to a lack of fresh 
vegetables and fruits in diet. Orange juice is especially 
valuable in preventing scurvy. Fruits are valuable not 
only because they aid in preventing constipation and scurvy, 
but because they contain ash. Fruits are rich in mineral 

1 See "Feeding the Family" (p. 240), by Mary Swartz Rose, Ph.D. 


Kinds of Fruits. — In a broad sense fruits are seed vessels. 
This classification includes many foods that are ordinarily 
considered vegetables. So in this text seed vessels that are 
used as desserts are tenned fruits. Rhubarb is not properly 
a fruit ; it is a vegetable, but because it is used in the diet 
the same way as fruit, it is classed as such. 

Fruits are sometimes classified as food fruits and flavor 
fruits. This distinction depends upon the quantity of 
sugar and water that fruits contain, — those containing 
much sugar, such as ripe bananas and dried fruits, being called 
food fruits and those containing much water and less sugar, 
such as oranges and strawberries, being termed flavor fruits. 
This classification may be somewhat misleading, however, 
for all fruits may be considered food fruits. Fruits containing 
much water are generally rich in ash and other valuable 
substances and hence have decided food value. 

'When to add the sugar to cooked fruits — before or after 
cooking — is a practical problem for every housewife. Fruits 
contain acids, and most cooked fruits require the addition 
of sugar to make them palatable. 

The flavor of fresh fruit is generally popular. In cooking 
fruit it is desirable to retain the fresh fruit flavor. House- 
keepers have found that a less desirable flavor results — the 
fruit " loses ** more of its " fresh flavor " — if the sugar is 
cooked with the fruit. Moreover, when sugar is cooked with 
fruit, -a sirup is formed, which is more apt to scorch than 
a mixture of fruit and water. For these reasons, it is well to 
add sugar to fruit after cooking, unless it is desired to preserve 
the shape of the fruit or unless fruit is made into jelly. 
Fruit is cooked in a sirup if it is desired to preserve its shape. 

Suggestions for Cooking Fruits. — Fruits should be 
washed, cut into pieces, and then pared or peeled, unless 
they are to be strained after cooking. For some fruits it is 
not necessary to remove the skins before straining. 


We have all seen the dark stain on a steel knife that has 
been used for paring fruit or certain vegetables. This black 
substance is formed by the ojdion of the acid of the fruit or 
vegetable on the metal. It is disagreeable in taste and may 
produce harmful results. For this reason all fruits should 
be cooked in granite, earthenware, or glass utensils. 

The characteristic odors from cooking fruits indicate loss 
of flavor. This can be prevented somewhat by cooking 
fruits at a low (simmering) temperature in a covered utensil. 
The casserole used on top of a range or in the oven is most 
desirable for cooking fruits. Slow cooking prevents some 
fruits from breaking into pieces. 


Cook fruit in enough water to keep from scorching. When 
the fruit is tender, remove it from the fire, stir or beat until 
smooth, or press through a colander or strainer. Add the 
sugar at once and stir until the sugar is dissolved. Use 
I to J cupful of sugar for each cupful of cooked fruit. 

If fruit is somewhat lacking in flavor, it is often improved 
by adding spices or other flavoring. Some apples are made 
more palatable by adding cinnamon, nutmeg, or lemon juice. 


Make a sirup of sugar and water, using one cupful of water 
and J to 1 cupful of sugar. When the sirup is boiling, add 
the fruit and cook gently until tender. If the sirup is not 
thick enough when the fruit is tender, remove the fruit from 
the sirup, cook the sirup until of proper consistency, and 
then pour over the fruit. 

Very firm fruit, such as quinces and sweet apples, as well 
as some unripe fruits, should be cooked in clear water until 
tender and then sweetened. 


Comparison of Fruit Sauce and Stewed Fruit. — Use the 
same kind of fruit and the same quantity of sugar, and 
make a Fruit Sauce and a dish of Stewed Fruit. Compare 
the fruit cooked by the two methods as to flavor and appear- 
ance. Which is more like fresh fruit in flavor ? 

At* what time during its preparation should sugar be 
added to cooked fruit? Explain your answer clearly. 
Give two exceptions to this rule. Should sugar be added 
to cooked fruit while the fruit is hot or after it is cool? 
Why? (See Experiments 10 and 11, p. 70.) 

What is gained by not paring or peeling fruit that is to 
be strained after cooking? When fruit is cooking, what 
indicates a loss of flavor? What two precautions can be 
taken to preserve the flavor of fruits? What means, other 
than cooking in sirup, can be employed to retain the shape 
of cooked fruit? 


Cut rhubarb (without peeling) into one-inch pieces. Place 
these in the top of a double boiler. Cook in a double boiler 
until soft, stirring occasionally. When cooked, add ^ to J 
cupful of sugar for each cupful of cooked rhubarb. 

The casserole may be used for cooking rhubarb. Place 

the rhubarb in a casserole. Add one tablespoonful of water 

for each cupful of rhubarb. Cover and simmer on top of a 

range, or bake in a slow oven until soft. Add sugar as 

directed above. 


How many pounds in one peck of apples? How many medium 
sized apples in a pound? 

What is the price per pound of fresh peaches? 

For what substances is fruit especially valuable in diet? Give 
suggestions for retaining these nutritious materials when cooking 
fruit. Make a list of fresh fruits, stating when each is in season. 

Note to the Teacher. — If desired, the lessons of Division Seven- 
teen, The PreaenxUion of Food, may foUow this lesson. Also see the note 
on p. 39. 





Review: Meal Cooking 


Scalloped Corn 
Baked Apple 

Outside Preparation of Lesson. 

(a) Examine the recipes for these foods given in the text. 
(6) Determine the number of servings each recipe will 

(c) Study the methods of preparation so that no written 
directions regarding the process of cooking will be needed 
in class. 

(d) Note the kind of utensils to be used for each food. 

(e) Plan the order of preparing these foods so as to cook 
them in the least time. 

(/) Plan the preparation so that all foods may be ready 
to serve in the proper condition — hot or cold — at one time. 

Preparation of Lesson in Class. 

(a) Having your plans well in mind, begin to work at 
once. Work independently. 

1 Note to the Teacher. — The "menu" of a *'meal" lesson is to 
be assigned during the lesson previous to the "meal" lesson, so that its 
preparation can be planned before class time. Since only review foods 
are assigned, no instruction otjier than criticism of the finished product 
is to be given during the lesson. By cooking the group of foods in in- 
dividual quantity, it is possible for pupils to complete the " meal" lesson 
in a 90-minute class period. It is more desirable, however, to cook 
enough of each food to serve five or six persons, provided the laboratory 
period is sufficiently long and the foods can be utilized in the lunch room. 


(6) Cook a sufficient quantity of each food to serve one 
or more persons as the time permits. 

(c) Soil the least number of dishes possible. 

(d) Keep the table and utensils neat while working. 

(e) Have the serving dishes ready, — warmed, if neces- 

(/) Taste the food before serving to see if properly seasoned. 

(jg) Just before serving food, clear the table so that it may 
be ready for serving. 

(h) Serve all the foods at once, as a hostess cooking and 
serving without a maid. 

(i) If your work is a failure in any way, determine the 
cause of the failure and its remedy. 


Home Projects^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Prepare vegetables for 
at least one meal daily. 

Cook fruit at least once a week. 

Suggested Aims: 

(1) To cook vegetables in such a way that no nutriment 
is lost. 

(2) To retain as much of the nutriment and fresh flavor 
of the fruits as possible. 

^ See Lesson IX, p. 51. 





Sugar: Digestion of Sugar 

Energy ; Fuel. — An automobile is a machine. The use of 
gasoline in this machine gives it energy or the power to move. 

The human body is also a machine. Certain *foods are 
taken into the human machine. The utilization of these 
foods gives the body energy or the power to move (i,e. to 
do work). The body is capable of both voluntary and 
involuntary work. Walking and running are examples of 
the former kind of work, while the beating of the heart and 
the circulating of the blood are examples of the latter kind. 

At the same time that the body works, heat is generated. 
Hence foods not only give the body the power to do work, 
but incidentally they heat the body. Foods which enable 
the body to work are termed energy-giving or fuel foods. 

There are a number of energy-giving or fuel foods : sugar 
is the first one to be considered. 

Experiment 10: The Solubility of Granulated Sugar in Cold 
Water. — Place half a teaspoonful of granulated sugar in a test 
tube, add a little cold water, shake. Is the mixture clear? Set it 
aside for a few minutes. Does the sugar separate from the water? 

Experiment 11: The Solubility of Granulated Sugar in Hot 
Water. — Dissolve half a teaspoonful of granulated sugar in hot 
water. Compare with Experiment 10. Which dissolves sugar more 
readily, — cold or hot water? If you desired to dissolve some sugar 
quickly, at what temperature would you have the water? 



Experiment 12 : The Solubility of Powdered Sugar. — Dissolve 
half a teaspoonful of powdered sugar in the same quantity of hot 
water used in Experiment 11. Does it dissolve more readily than 
granulated sugar? Explain this difference. If you desired to dis- 
solve some lumpy sugar quickly, how would you prepare it? 

The Digestion of Sugar. — Since sugar is so readily dis- 
solved, and since dissolving is an important step in the 
process of digestion (see Solution and Digestion, p. 40), it 
would seem that the digestion of sugar would be easy. Some 
sugars, such as glucose, need no digestion in a chemical sense, 
and are wholesome provided their solution is not too con- 
centrated. The digestion of other sugar, such as granulated 
sugar, is slightly more complex. 

Because the digesting of some sugar is simple, one should 
not conclude that this food should be used in large quantities 
or in preference to other fuel foods. If sugar is eaten in 
large quantities there is so much dissolved sugar for the organs 
of digestion to take care of that the stomach and small 
intestines become irritated. This is especially true when 
candy is eaten between meals, — at a time when the stomach 
is empty. Then, too, it may ferment in the stomach or in- 
testines and produce digestive disturbances. All sweets 
should be eaten only in moderation and either during a meal 
or at its close. When sugar is mixed with other foods, it is 
diluted, and is not so apt to cause distress. 

Sugars and Sirups. — In various plants and in milk, the 
chemist finds a number of different kinds of sugar. These 
may be classified into two groups : — (1) single sugars and 
(2) double sugars. Dextrose or glucose is one of the single 
sugars, while sucrose or cane sugar is an example of a double 

The solid sugars and sirups found at market and having 
different trade names consist of one or more of the different 
kinds of sugars. A discussion of these follows : 


(a) Granvlated sugar is made either from the sugar cane 
or sugar beet. The juice is pressed or soaked out of Aese 
plants, then purified, refined, and crystallized. Powdered 
sugar is prepared by crushing granulated sugar. Confec- 
timers' sugar is a very finely ground form of cane or beet 
sugar. Granulated sugar is 100 per cent sugar. Crushed 
sugars sometimes contain flour or other materials. 

Brown sugar is made from the cane or beet, but is not 
refined as much as is granulated sugar. It contains some 
ash and moisture. 

(6) Com sirup is made by boiling corn-starch with an acid 
and then refining the product. This sirup contains no cane 
sugar. Its sweet flavor and sirupy consistency are due to the 
presence of 38.5 per cent glucose and 42 per cent dextrin 
(see p. 102). Glucose is not as sweet as granulated sugar. 
Hence, in depending upon corn sirup alone, the tendency is 
to use more sugar than is advisable so as to satisfy our taste 
for sweets. At least Ij times as much corn sirup as granu- 
lated sugar is needed to produce the sweetness of the solid 
sugar. A mixture of corn sirup and granulated sugar is 
often used for sweetening foods. 

(c) Molasses and Sorghum. — Molasses is a by-product 
of cane sugar. In addition to sugar, it contains certain 
mineral materials such as lime. Since it is especially neces- 
sary that foods given children contain lime, the use of molasses 
in place of sugar may be recommended for children. 

One should remember, however, that much sugar of any 
kind is not good for children. Molasses contains some 
acid. Because of modern methods of sugar refining, however, 
molasses is less acid than the sirup of former days. It also 
differs in flavor. 

Sorghum is a sirup prepared from the sorghum plant. 
It contains ash and has a characteristic flavor. If the flavor 
of molasses or sorghum is too strong to be pleasant, a mixture 


of equal parts of com sirup and molasses or sorghum may 
be found desirable. Mixtures of different sirups sold under 
various trade names may be purchased. 

(d) Honey is sugar extracted from flowers. Its limited 
supply and cost prevent its general use. It is not so rich in 
mineral matter as is molasses. 

(e) Maple Sirup and Sugar. — Maple sirup and sugar 
are prepared from sap extracted from the maple tree. They 
both have a distinctive flavor in addition to their sweet 
taste. Maple sugar contains approximately 83 per cent 
of sugar, while maple sirup contains about 71 per cent. 


2 cupfuls granulated sugar or } cupful chopped peanuts 
1 cupful granulated sugar and i teaspoonf ul salt 
1 cupful com sirup (dark) 

Mix the peanuts and salt and place in the warming oven 
to heat. If sugar is used alone, put it in an iron pan. 
Place the pan over a low flame and stir constantly until the 
sugar is changed to a light brown sirup. 

If a combination of sugar and sirup is used, put them in 
a pan, stir, and cook until the mixture is very brittle when 
tried in cold water. 

Add the chopped peanuts and salt to either kind of sirup, 
stirring them in as quickly as possible. Pour immediately 
into a hot, unbuMered pan. When slightly cool divide into 
squares with a chopping knife. 

Puffed cereals or 8hredde4 coconut may be used instead of peanuts. 
Conunercial salted peanuts may be used also. When the latter are 
used, the salt in the recipe above should be omitted. 

Caramelized Sugar. — It should be noted that when heat 
is applied to granulated sugar, the latter liquefies and be- 


comes brown in color. This brown liquid is called caramel. 
The process of making it is called caramelization. 

When sugar is caramelizing^ it reaches a high temperature. 
The melting point of tin is near the temperature of cara- 
melized sugar. The enamel of granite ware is apt to chip 
off if subjected to great changes of temperature. Iron is 
not affected by the highest cooking temperature, hence it 
is desirable to use an iron utensil for caramelizing sugar. 

Note. — When cane or granulated sugar is caramelized, a small 
quantity of an injurious substance called furfural is formed. (See 
Journal of Home Economics, Vol. IX (April, 1917), p. 167.) The 
more sugar is heated, the more of the injurious substance is produced. 
Also, cane sugar yields more furfural than glucose, — the kind of 
sugar that is present in com sirup. When caramelized sugar is 
boiled with water, however, the furfural is expelled. 

In making Peanut Candy, the caramelized sugar cannot be 
boiled with water, hence it is desirable to use a combination of 
granulated sugar and com simp and heat the mixture until it is 
only light brown in color. 

Experiment 13 : The Solubility of Caramel. — Inunediately after 
removing the candy from the iron pan, pour hot water into the pan. 
Allow it to stand for several minutes, then examine. Is caramel 
soluble in water? Does it dissolve more or less readily than granu- 
lated sugar? What practical application can be drawn from this 
experiment with regard to washing a pan in which sugar has been 


Weigh one pound of granulated sugar. How many cupfuls does 
it measure? 

Weigh one pound of powdered sugar. How many cupfuls does 
it measiu*e? 

What is the price per poimd of granulated and of powdered sugar? 

What is the price of com sirup per can? How much does a can 

Calculate the cost of peanut candy made entirely with granulated 
sugar and that made with granulated sugar and sirup. 


Note the proportion of unshelled to shelled peanuts. How many 
unshelled peanuts are required for one cupful of shelled peanuts? 

Why is an iron rather than a granite pan used for making peanut 

What is the advantage of heating the pan? 

Why is it necessary to pour the mixture into the pan immediately 
after adding the peanuts? 

Why is a mixture of granulated sugar and com sirup used in the 
making of peanut candy rather than com sirup? (See Com Sirupy 
p. 72.) 

From your work in physiology, explain the relation of the diges- 
tion, absorption, and assimilation of foods. 


Sugar-rich Fruits: Dried Fruits (A) 

Dried Fruits. — The wrinkled skins of dried fruits in- 
dicate that there has been a loss of some material. The 
water of fresh fruits evaporates as they are dried. Hence 
dried fruits contain very much less water than fresh fruits. 
But weight for weight they contain a greater quantity of 
sugar and ash.' 

Like all fruits, dried fruits are especially valuable for their 
ash. They are also valuable for their sugar. Three fourths 
of the weight of most dried fruit is sugar. 

Dried fruits such as raisins, dates, figs, and prunes are 
valuable sweets for boys and girls. It is much better to eat 
one of these fruits than candy. This is because the sugar 
is mixed with other materials and as explained previously 
does not irritate the digestive organs as does the concen- 
trated sugar existing in most candies. (See the Digestion 
of Sugar, p. 71.) The fact that mineral materials exist along 
with sugar is another point in favor of the sweet fruits. All 
the above-mentioned fruits contain iron. Very young 
children are fed prune juice because of its laxative effect. 


The unpopularity of prunes is unfortunate. This may be 
because prunes were formerly one of the cheapest fruits or 
because they are cooked and served in the same way too 
often. A pleasing variation may be made by combining 
them with other food materials. Many kinds of very tasty 
desserts containing prunes may be made. Many varieties 
of prunes may be cooked without the addition of any sugar. 
Desirable results can often be secured by combining prunes 
and other dried fruits with tart fruits such as apricots, 
apples, and rhubarb. 

Raisins are a favorite food of mountain climbers and those 
tramping long distances. They serve as a satisfying, diet 
on such trips because of their high sugar content (sugar has 
been mentioned previously as energy-giver, see p. 70). 
Since they are a dried fruit, a small quantity furnishes much 
food. This is an advantageous factor in carrying them. 

General Rules for Cooking Dried Fruits. — Wash the fruit 
carefully. Place it in the saucepan in which it is to be 
cooked and pour enough cold water over the fruit to cover 
it. Cover the saucjepan and allow the fruit to soak for sev- 
eral hours or overnight. Then cook the fruit at simmering 
temperature in the water in which it was soaked. When 
the fruit is tender, remove the saucepan from the fire, add 
sugar if desired, and stir carefully until the sugar is dis- 
solved. Serve cold. 


Prepare according to the general rule. For each 2 cupfuls 
of prunes add about J cupful of sugar and one tablespoonful 
of lemon juice. The sugar may be omitted and only the 
lemon juice added. 


Prepare according to the general rule. For J pound of 
apricots add § cupful of sugar. 


To Prepare Raisins for Cooking. — Raisins that are sold in 
packages need only slight washing. Before using, they 
should be separated and examined for any bits of stem that 
have not been removed before packing. It is desirable to 
cut each raisin in halves when used for cakes and breads. 

Raisins that are sold by " bulk " need careful washing. 
Place seeded raisins in a strainer and pour cold water over 
them; drain well. If the raisins are to be used at once or 
in a cake, dry them on a towel. 

If raisins are to be seeded, cover them with boiling water. 
When they are soft, drain and press out the seeds. 

To Prepare Currants for Cooking. — *' Package '' currants 
need but little washing, but they should be examined care- 
fully for bits of stem before using. To clean '* bulk " cur- 
rants place them in a colander or strainer, . shake flour over 
them, and rub the floured currants between the hands. 
Pour water through the strainer until the water comes 
through clear. If the currants are to be used in a cake, 
dry them in the sun, on a towel, or in a " cool " oven. 


J pound dried apricots 1 lemon, — juice 

1 pint water 1 orange, — juice and grated rind 

1 cupful raisins f cupful sugar 

i teaspoonful salt 

Soak the apricots for several hours or overnight in the 
water. Add the other fruits and cook the mixture at simmer- 
ing temperature until the apricots and raisins are tender. 
Add the sugar and salt. Stir until dissolved. Serve the 
sauce cold as a dessert. 


Weigh 1 cupful of dried fruit and record weight. 
Weigh and measure soaked fruit (1 cupful before soaking) and re- 
cord weight and measure. To what is the increase in measure of the 


soaked fruit due ? What use should be made of the water in which 
dried fruit is soaked ? What does this water contain ? (See Experi- 
ment 10, p. 70.) 

What is the piUT)ose of soaking dried fruit before cooking? 

What is the purpose of covering the fruit while soaking? 

Using the data regarding fresh fruit obtained in Lesson I, p. 14, 
and that obtained by weighing dried fruit before and after soaking, 
estimate the difference in the cost of one pound of fresh and of soaked 
dried fruit. 

State two reasons for combining raisins with apples and apricots 
in Baked Apples, p. 5, and Mixed Fruit Sauce, p. 77. 

LESSON xvin 

Sugar-rich Fruits: Dried Fruits (B) 

Desserts and Food Value. — Very often dried fruits and 
nuts are used as accessories after a meal. For this reason, 
they are digested with difficulty by some people, because 
the meal itself has taxed the digestive organs. These foods 
should be considered as a part of the meal and should not 
be added after enoujgh other foods have been eaten. Not 
only dried fruits and nuts but other desserts often prove 
distressing, not because they are unwholesome, but because 
too much food has been eaten. 


1 cupful cooked prunes, 1 tablespoonful butter or 

seeded and chopped substitute, melted 

J cupful sugar 3 crackers (rolled fine) or 

1 cupful chopped nuts \ cupful dried bread crumbs 

J cupful milk or prune water 1 teaspoonful baking powder 

1 teaspoonful vanilla Salt 

Mix all the ingredients. Pour into a buttered baking- 
dish. Place the baking-dish in a pan of hot water. Bake 
in a moderate oven for 20 minutes, or until the mixture is 
firm. Serve hot or cold with plain or whipped cream. 



i cupful sugar 1 teaspoonful baking powder 
1 egg Salt 

i cupful flour 1 cupful dates, seeded, and cut in pieces 
1 cupful California walnuts, chopped 

Mix the sugar and egg. Mix the fruit, nuts, and dry 
ingredients ; then add to the first mixture. Mix, and turn 
into an oiled baking-dish or pan. Bake in a moderate oven 
from 30 to 40 minutes or until it is firm. Serve hot or cold 
with plain or whipped cream. 


How many dry, uncooked prunes are required to make 1 cupful of 
cooked pnmes? (See Questions, p. 77.) 

What are the prices per poimd of figs and dates? 

How many will the above recipes serve? • 

What ingredients in these puddings scorch readily? Why is 
Prune Pudding surrounded with hot water during baking? 


Cereals: Starch and Cellulose 

Starch is a very important fuel food ; like sugar, it gives 
energy to the body. Starch is closely related to sugar; it 
has much the same composition and the same use in the 
body. In certain respects, however, starch differs from 

Experiment 14 : Tll^ Starch Test. — Put a drop of tincture of 
iodine on, — corn-starch, flour, rice, cream of wheat, wheatena, 
oatmeal, tapioca, potato, meat, and egg. What is the result? 

If a substance contains starch, it changes to a blue color when 
tincture of iodine is added to it. 

From these experiments determine in which class — animal or 
vegetable — the starchy foods belong. 


Experiment 15 : The Effect of Cold Water on Starch. — Mix 
i teaspoonf ul of comHstarch or flour with cold water in a test tube 
or glass cup. What happens to a solid substance when it is dis- 
solved? (See Experiment 6, p. 40.) Set the mixture aside for a 
few minutes, then note its appearance. Is starch soluble in cold 
water? What important difference between starch and sugar does 
this experiment show? 

Experiment 16 : The Effect of Heat on Starch. — Hold to the 
light the starch and water mixture from Experiment 15. Is it 
opaque or transparent? Turn the mixture into a saucepan, heat, 
and stir it ; return the mixtmre to the test tube or cup and agaiu 
hold it to the hght. What change was caused by heating it? Set 
the mixture aside for a few minutes. Have the starch and water 
separated as in the imcooked starch? Can you say it is insoluble, 
like uncooked starch? Can you say it is soluble, like sugar? What 
term indicating a half-dissolved condition can you apply to the 
cooked starch? 

Experiment 17 : Stiffening of Cooked Starch. — Place the test 
tube containing cooked starch from Experiment 16 in cold water. 
After ten minutes examine it. Can you pour it out of the tube? 
How does cooked starch change when cooled? 

Experiment 18 : The Structure of Starch. — Examine starch 
under the microscope. While you are still looking through the 
microscope, make a drawing of several grains of starch. Insert 
this drawing in your notebook. 

Cellulose. — Cellulose is a tough substance found in the 
fiber of wood. As previously mentioned (see p. 58) the 
outside covering of vegetables and fruits and their interior 
framework contain much cellulose. The fibrous material 
found in rolled oats consists almost entirely of cellulose. 

Experiment 19 : Separation of Cellulose and Starch. — Place a 
heaping teaspoonful of rolled oats in a cup and add just enough 
water to cover it. Allow it to stand for at least 15 minutes. Poiur 
the mixture into a cheese-cloth and press out the moisture and much 
of the starch, catching it in a saucepan. Rinse the starch out of the 
cloth as thoroughly as possible by holding it under running water. 
Examine the substance remaining in the cloth. Tear it into pieces. 
Is it tough? Does it suggest any common material? What is it? 
Heat the contents of the saucepan. What is this substance? 


The tiny grains of starch shown under the microscope 
(see Figure 23) contain both starch and cellulose. The latter 
forms the outer covering of the microscopic grains. Starchy 
vegetables contain much cellulose : (a) in the outside cover- 
ing; (6) in the interior framework; (c) in the covering of 
the starch grains. 

Some plants rich in cellulose can be eaten in the raw state. 
But certain fibrous foods, especially cereals or grains, are 
irritating if eaten in the uncooked condition. It is necessary 
to soften them if used as food. 
Now cellulose itself is not soluble 
in cold or hot water nor is it 

softened by boiling in water. \^l^ ^^ CS 

But other materials existing with ^ ^^^M (3 

cellulose are softened or changed ^|pr ^^^ 

by cooking. Hence changes in <^ b 

- , • . • 1 From Household Chemistry, 

these substances m contact with by j. m. sianchard. 

the cellulose brought about by Figure 23.-Grains op Starch. 

boiling water soften the food and ^' P<>*^*° s*^^^^ • *' corn-starch. 

„ , «, (Much magnified.) 

separate cellulose fibers. 

Heat and moisture applied to starchy foods serve three 
important purp>oses : 

(a) They soften the food ; (b) they change the starch to 
a paste or make it semisoluble; (c) they improve the 

Cellulose is not a fuel material ; it does not serve in the 
body as an energy-giver. Its value in diet is due to the fact 
that it is bulky and furnishes ballast for the alimentary 
canal. It stimulates the flow of the digestive juices as it 
brushes against the walls of the digestive tract, and thus aids 
in the digestion of foods and in the elimination of waste 

Carbohydrate, a Foodstuff. — Because sugar, starch, and 
cellulose have somewhat the same composition and some 


properties in common, they are grouped into one class, viz. 
carbohydrate. Sugar, starch, and cellulose are all included 
in the term carbohydrate. Carbohydrate is one of the food- 
stuffs. Sugar is a food containing only the carbohydrate 
foodstuff. Cereals contain not only carbohydrates but 
other foodstuffs. They contain, however, a larger quan- 
tity of carbohydrate than any of the other foodstuffs, for 
which reason they are classed as carbohydrate-rich foods. 

Cereals. — Cereals are cultivated grasses, the seeds of 
which are used for food. The most important are wheat, 
Indian corn or maize, rice, oats, rye, and barley. Prom 
these many different kinds of flours, meals, and breakfast 
foods are prepared. 

Cereals rank high in nutritive value. Many of them con- 
tain about 75 per cent of starch. They also contain ash 
and a substance which builds the body. Because they are 
widely distributed in various climates, they have an im- 
portant place in man's diet. 

At market one finds two classes of cereals sold as break- 
fast foods — (1) the ready to eat and (2) the uncooked or 
partially cooked grains. The ready-to-eat cereals cost much 
more per pound than the cereals that require cooking. The 
difference in the price per pound, however, is not an accurate 
difference in the cost of the two, for the cost of the fuel in 
cooking grains at home must be taken into consideration. 

Of the cereals that require cooking, those that are partially 
cooked are doubtless the more popular. Many of these 
such as rolled oats or wheat are steamed and rolled. Hence 
they take much less time to prepare in the home kitchen 
than the uncooked grains. 

All breakfast cereals require long cooking to make them 
most palatable, the time of cooking depending upon the 
character of the cellulose and the method of preparing 
the cereal for market. 


Most partially cooked grains are improved by a longer 
cooking than is usually given them. It is interesting to 
measure equal quantities of a rolled cereal and cook one 
quantity for 20 minutes and the other for 1| hours and 
taste each. The superior flavor and texture of the well- 
cooked cereal is well worth the additional length of time 
of cooking. Grains are also found on sale in bulk and in 
package. The latter cost more but insure greater clean- 
liness. Since, however, cereals sold in bulk are those that 
require cooking, they will be thoroughly sterilized before 
serving and need occasion no concern regarding their 

General Rules for Cooking Cereals. — Pour the cereal 
slowly into boiling salted water. Cook directly over the 
flame for about 10 minutes. Then place over boiling water 
and cook from | to 8 hours. Usually one teaspoonfid of salt 
is used for each cupful of cereal. The quantity of water de- 
pends upon the kind of cereal. The double boiler is par- 
ticularly good for cooking cereals. The flreless cooker (see 
p. 90) also is a most satisfactory device for cooking these 
foods easily and economically. 

Starchy foods are most easily digested when well masti- 
cated. Dry foods require more mastication than moist 
foods. It .is well then to have the water used in cooking 
the cereal entirely absorbed. If, when nearly done, the 
cereal is too moist, uncover the vessel and cook until the 
excess of water is evaporated. 

Care should be taken, however, not to allow a tough skin 
to form on the top of the cereal. This digests with difficulty. 
Its formation can be prevented by keeping the cereal covered 
or by stirring occasionally. 

Heat ready-to-eat cereals in the oven until they are 



3 cupf uls boiling water 1 teaspoonf ul salt 

1 cupful cereal 

Prepare according to the general directions, cooking in 
the double boiler at least 1| hours. 


3 cupfuls boiling water 1 teaspoonful salt 

J cupful cereal 

Prepare according to the general rule, cooking in the 
double boiler at least § hour. 

A few minutes before taking from the fire, ^ pound of 
dates, cleaned, stoned, and cut into pieces, may be added. 
Raisins or figs may also be used with Cream of Wheat and 
other cereals. 


How would the temperature of boiling water be affected if a cup- 
ful of cereal were poured into it all at once? From this explain why 
cereals should be added slowly to the boiling water. 

Compare the cooked and uncooked cereal. How does it change 
in appearance and quantity? 

Why are cereals not cooked entirely over the naked flame? 

What is the price, weight, and measure of a package of Rolled 
Oats or Wheat? Of a package of Cream of Wheat or Wheatena? 

What is the cost of the quantity of cereal indicated in the recipes 
above ? 

Calculate the difference in the cost per pound of ready-to-eat and 
uncooked cereals. 


Cereals: Rice (A) 

Polished and Unpolished Rice. — At market one finds 
two kinds of rice, — one white and pearly in appearance 

RICE 85 

called polished rice, and the other, gray or brown and luster- 
less called unpolished rice. In preparing rice for market, 
the outer husks of the grain are removed and the rice is 
cleaned. It may then be sold as unpolished rice or it may 
be further treated by rubbing or polishing to make it ready 
for market. Rice is subjected to this latter process merely 
to satisfy the demand of purchasers. The food value of 
polished rice is inferior to that of the unpolished grain. 
Much valuable ash and other material are lost. Indeed, a 
certain disease,^ due to improper notuishment, has been 
cured by giving the sufferer rice polishings. The flavor of 
rice is also impaired by polishing it. Unpolished rice is 
much the more valuable food. It requires, however, longer 
cooking than polished rice. Soaking in water before cook- 
ing shortens the length of time required for cooking. 

To Clean Rice. — To wash rice, put it in a strainer and 
allow the water from a faucet to run through the strainer. 
Rub the rice between the hands. 

RICE (cooked over boiling water) 

3 cupfuls boiling water 1 teaspoonf ul salt 

1 cupful rice 

Follow the General Rules for Cooking Cereals (p. 83); 
when the rice is added to the boiling water, stir it to pre*- 
vent adhering to the pan. Cook over hot water, i.e. in a 
double boiler, until the grains are soft (usually about 45 

The above ingredients may be placed in a steamer (see Figure 31, 
p. 108) and cooked in steam until the rice grains are tender. It is then 
called Steamed Rice. 

Rice is most palatable combined with various fruits. 

^ Beri-beri, a disease common among those inhabitants of Oriental 
countries whose diet consists almost entirely of polished rice and fish. 


Figure 24. — A Cupful of Rice Before and After BoruNO. 
The large ulensU was required to boil it; the water drained from It 


3 qtiarte boiling water 2 t«aspoonfuls salt 

1 cupful rice 

Add the salt to the boiling water. When the water boils 
rapidly, add the rice slowly, so that the water does not stop 
boiling. Boil rapidly for 20 minutes or until the grains are 
soft. Turn into a colander or strainer to drain. Rinse 
with hot water, drain well, then sprinkle with salt. 

Save the water from the Boiled Rice for the experiment below 
and for preparing Cheese Sauce for class work. 

When the rice ia boiling, decide whether or not it should be 
covered tightly. 

Experiment 20 : Tbe Difference in Nutritive Value of Boiled Kice 
and Rice Cooked over Boiling Water. — Four a little of the water 
from the boiled rice into a test tube. Cool the rice water and test 

■ Reserve some of the cooked rice of this lesaoii for the foUoning leason. 

RICE 87 

it with iodine for starch. Is any of the. starch from rice cooked 
over boiling water wasted? Which method of cooking rice leaves 
more nutriment in the cooked product? 

CHEESE SAUCE (made with rice water) 

1 pint rice water i teaspoonful paprika 

1 tablespoonful corn-starch i cupful cheese grated or cut 

1 teaspoonful salt . into pieces 
i teaspoonful mustard 

Mix the corn-starch with about 2 tablespoonfuls of cold 
rice water. Heat the remainder of the liquid. Add the 
corn-starch mixture to the hot rice water. Stir and cook for 
about 10 minutes. Then add the seasonings and cheese. 
Continue stirring and cooking until the cheese is blended 
with the other ingredients. Serve hot over cooked rice. 

One cupful of tomatoes or a small quantity of pimentos (cut into 
pieces) may be added along with the cheese to the sauce. If 
pimentos are used, the paprika should be omitted. 


How is rice tested for sufl&cient cooking? 

Why does rice take a shorter time to cook than most of the wheat 
and oat foods? (See CerealSj p. 82.) 

Note the difference in the quantity of water used for boiled rice 
and for rice cooked over boiling water. Note that the saucepan is 
used for cooking one and the double boiler for cooking the other. 
From this explain the reason for the difference in the quantity of 
water used. 

Which method of cooking rice takes longer? Explain the differ- 
ence in the length of time of cooking. 

Measure the rice after cooking. How much has it increased in 

If one desired 2 cupfuls of cooked rice, how much uncooked rice 
should be used? 

Compare the individual grains of rice cooked in boiling water 
and rice cooked over boiling water, — are the grains separated or 
pasted together? Explain the difference in appearance. 


What ingredients do cereals contain that make it possible to mold 
them (see Experiment 17, p. 80) ? Which is the better for molding, 
— boiled rice or rice cooked over boiling water? Why? 

What is the advantage in using rice water rather than plain 
water to prepare Cheese Sauce? 

What other use could be made of rice water? 

Cereals: Rice (B) 


Steamed rice may be prepared for a simple dessert by using 
both milk and water. Follow the recipe for Rice Cooked 
over Boiling Water, p. 85, using 1| cupfuls of water and 
1§ cupfuls of milk. Cook the water and rice until the water 
is absorbed, add the milk, and continue cooking over water. 
Serve with cream and sugar, or with a suitable sauce. 

RICE PXTDDmO (made with cooked rice) ^ 

2 cupfuls cooked rice i cupful raisins 
J-l cupful milk 1 cupful sugar 

Grated rind } lemon 

These ingredients may be cooked in several different ways. 
By changing the flavoring, method of serving, and sauce, 
rice desserts of pleasing variety may be made from the 
materials above. 
The pudding may be baked in the following manner : 
Mix the ingredients, place in a buttered baking-dish, and 
bake in a slow oven until the rice has absorbed the milk and 
is brown. Vanilla or nutmeg, or both, may be substituted 
for the lemon rind. 

1 A portion of the rice cooked in the previous lesson may be utilized 
in making this pudding. 

RICE 89 

This dessert may be cooked over water by mixing the in- 
gredients in the top of a double boiler and cooking until the 
milk is absorbed. Then butter hot custard cups or tea cups 
and press some rice into each. Tiu^n out at once and serve 
with Caramel, Chocolate (see p. 186), or other sauce. 

Lemon Sauce (see p. 114), in which dates, cut into pieces, have 
been cooked, makes a tasty sauce for this pudding. When Lemon 
Sauce and dates are used, the raisins should be omitted and the 
pudding flavored with nutmeg. 


i cupful sugar 1 cupful milk 

2 tablespoonfuls flour § teaspoonf ul vanilla 

1 tablespoonful butter or substitute Salt 

Mix the sugar, flour, and butter in a frying pan; then 
heat the mixture to caramelize the sugar, stirring constantly. 
Scald the milk in a double boiler. When the sugar is cara- 
melized, add it to the hot milk and heat the mixture until 
the caramelized sugar is dissolved. Add the salt and vanilla.^ 
Serve hot or cold over puddings. 


Why is it advisable to use a double boiler for cooking rice? (See 
Lesson XX, p. 84.) 

If rice is cooked in a double boiler and milk is to be added, why 
should not the milk be added until the rice mixture is placed over 
hot water? (See statement regarding the scorching of milk in 
Questions, p. 101.) 

Which method of cooking the Rice Pudding — baking or cooking 
over water — requires more milk? Explain your answer. Also ex- 
plain why a definite quantity of milk cannot be stated in the recipe. 

See " Note," p. 74. Is any of the injurious substance formed in 
caramelizing sugar present in Caramel Sauce? 

1 If the sauce is to be served cold, it is well to allow the cooked mix- 
ture to cool before adding the vanilla (see Flavoring Extracts, p. 265). 



Cerelus and the Firei;ebs Cookek 

The Fireless Cooker. — The fact that fueb are expen- 
sive and that the supply of some fueb is diminishlDg, makes 
it advisable to conserve heat. This can be done in no more 
satisfactory way than by means of a fireless cooker. 

It has been said that future historians in summing up the 
great achievements of the first quarter of the twentieth 
century will probably name as the most important, wireless 
telegraphy, aviation, 
and fireless cookery. 
The fireless cooker can- 
not be used with all 
methods of cooking, but 
its possibilities are 

The Principle of Fire- 
less Cookeij. — In Ex- 
periment 2 (p. 16) it 
was found that wood 

Coanait of McCrat mflitirisiir Co. 

did not transmit heat p,^„„ 25. -Insula™ Wall op a 
rapidly, while tin did, Repriobratimi. 

Another familiar illus- 
tration will show the difference between wood and metal in 
transmitting heat. A metal door knob feeb very cold on a 
winter day, because the metal conducts the heat away from 
the hand rapidly, while a wooden knob is comfortable to 
touch. Wood is termed a poor conductor of beat. Metab 
are good conductors of heat. 

Paper, hay, excebior, sawdust, cork, wool, feathers, and 
many other materiab are poor conductors of heat. If any 
hot substance is surrounded by any of these poor conduct- 


ing materials, the heat of that substance is retained for some 
time. Also, if any cold substance is surrounded by a poor 
conductor, the substance remains cold. In throwing a piece 
of carpet or newspaper over an ice cream freezer, to prevent 
the ice from melting, one makes use of the latter principle. 

FiouRE 26, — FiRELESs CooKER Havjmo Excelsior Packino. 

The walls of a well-built refrigerator consist of a number 
of layers of non-conducting materials {see Figure 25). 

To understand the principle involved in " cooking with- 
out fire," try the following : 

Experiment 21 : Retention of Heat. — Fill 2 tin measuring cupa 
haJf full of boiling water. Immediately inclose one cup of water in 
a paper bag or wrap paper about it so there will be considerable air 


space between the cup and paper. After 15 minutes, insert a ther- 
mometer into the water in each of the cups. Which is hotter? 
Wha,t has " kept in " the heat of the hotter water? 

The fireless cooker is a device containing cooking kettles 
which are surrounded by some poor conductor. When food 
is heated thoroughly, the heat can be retained for a number 
ot hours by phicing the hot food in the fireless cooker. 

FioURE 27. — Fireless Cooker with Stone Disks. 
Note Ihe ketiles of various shapes. 

In the ordinary fireless cooker it is possible to cook all 
foods that can be cooked in water at a temperature below 
the boiling point of water, i.e. simmering temperature. An- 
other type of fireless cooker has a metallic or an enamel 
lining and is provided with movable stone disks. Both the 
stones and food are heated on a range and then introduced ■ 


into the cooker in such a way that the stones are under and 
over the kettle of food. By this arrangement, foods can be 
cooked at a higher tempwrature than in the ordinary fireless 
cooker (see Figures 26 and 27), 

There are also electric fireless cookers (see Figure 28). 
Such cookers are equipped with a heating element which is 

placed in the bottom of .- ^ — _ _ 

the insulated box. With 
these it is not necessary 
to heat the food before 
placing it in the cooker. 
The uncooked food is 
put into the cooker and 
the current turned on. 
By means of a clock ar- 
rangement the current 
may be cut off when the 
desired length of time of 
heating has passed. 

The principle of the 
fireless cooker is used on 
some of the modem gas 
and electric ranges. The 
walls of the ovens of 
these ranges are sur- 
rounded by insulating CourKav or Hk simaara lata'tc .liuoe Co. 
materials When an f'"^'''*^ 28. — Electric Fireless Cooker. 
oven is heated and has "*= * •'«*''''8 e'efne" '" 'he boitom of 
reached the desired tem- 
perature, the gas or electricity is cut off, but the baking 
temperature is retained for some time. The top burners of 
some gas ranges have a fireless cooker attachment in the form 
of an insulated hood. The food is first heated over the 
burner, then the hood is lowered over the food, and the gas 


is cut off. The food continues to cook, however, by the re- 
tained heat (see Figure 29). 

Suggestions for UBing a Fireless Cooker. — One 3hoii]il keep 
the following in mind in using the ordinary fireless cooker: 

0>iirt«ay of Itie CJiombrrs Manu/aaurinff Co, 

Figure 29- — Gas Range Havinc Fcreless Cooker Attachment, 
Insulated Oven and Hoods. 

1. Have the food heated thoroughly before placing in the 
fireless cooker. (This direction does not apply to an electrical 
fireless cooker such as shown in Figure 28.) If the foods are 
small, as cereals, 5 minutes' boiling is usually sufiBcient cook- 


ing on the range ; if large in size, as a piece of beef, 30 minutes 
is required to heat it through. 

2. After heating, place the covered kettle containing the 
food into the cooker immediately. It is well to have the 
cooker near the range so as to waste but little heat while 
getting the food into the cooker. 

3. The kettle should be well filled. A small quantity of 
food should not be placed in a large kettle. It is possible, 
however, to fill the large kettle almost full of boiling water, 
then rest a wire rack on the rim of the kettle and place a 
small pan containing the food in the wire rack (see Fig- 
ure 26). Or place the food in a pan with sloping sides and 
broad rim, such as a " pudding pan," which may be set in 
the large kettle so as to rest on the rim. 

4. Do not open the cooker to '' see how the food is getting 
along." If the box is opened, the food must be removed at 
once. The food may, however, be reheated and returned to 
the cooker. It is sometimes necessary to follow this plan, 
where food requires very long cooking. 

5. The length of time a food must be left in the fireless 
cooker varies with the kind of food and style of cooker. In 
many of the homemade boxes, the water does not remain 
hot enough for cooking after 12 hours; in some, for not 
more than 8 hours. If foods require longer cooking than 
this, they should be removed and reheated as mentioned 
above. Food should never be allowed to become cool in a fire^ 
less cooker. 

6. After using any type of fireless cooker, let the lid re- 
main wide open for 2 or 3 hours. Except when in use do 
not close it tightly. 

Every thrifty housekeeper should possess and use a fire- 
less cooker. As has been mentioned, it saves fuel, prevents 
the strong odor of food permeating all parts of the house, 
lessens work and care in cooking, prevents burning and 


scorching, and provides workers and picnickers with warm 
lunches. A fireless cooker can be made satisfactorily at 
home with little expenditure of effort and money. It has 
been found that paper crumpled so as to afford considerable 
air space is a satisfactory non-conducting material for a fire- 
less cooker. Detailed directions for making a fireless cooker 
are given in United States Department of Agriculture, 
Farmers' Bulletin 771, '' Homemade Fireless Cookers and 
Their Use " and in several popular books. 


4 cupf uls boiling water 1 cupful corn-meal 
1 teaspoonful salt 

Mix the ingredients in the small pan of the fireless cooker 
and cook directly over the flame of a range, boiling for 5 
minutes, and stirring occasionally. Cover and place in the 
large kettle of the fireless cooker which contains boiling 
water. Place in a fireless cooker for 5 to 10 hoiu^. 

Note. — If corn-meal mush is to be cooked over a flame in a 
double boiler, prepare according to the general rule for cereals and 
cook over boiling water for at least 3 hours. 



2 cupfuls com-meal 2 teaspoonfuls salt 

2 tablespoonfuls flour 2 cupfuls cold water 
1 quart boiling water 

Mix the dry ingredients, add the cold water, and mix 
thoroughly. Place the boiling water in the small pan of the 
fireless cooker. Stir the com-meal mixture into the boiling 
water and cook 10 minutes directly over the flame, stirring 
constantly. Cover and place in the large kettle of boiling 
water. Place in the fireless cooker 5 to 10 hoiu^. Remove 
the pan of mush from the water and allow the mush to cool. 


Note. — Corn-meal Mush for frjring may be cooked over a 
flame in a double boiler according to the recipe given above. Cook' 
it for several hours. 


} cupful rice 1 cupful tomatoes 

1 tablespoonful butter or substitute 1 teaspoonf ul salt 

1 slice onion i teaspoonful celery salt 

1} cupfuls boiling water \ teaspoonful pepper 

In the small pan of the fireless cooker cook (over a flame) 
the rice, onion, and fat, stirring constantly until they are 
slightly brown. Add boiling water and cook until the 
water is almost absorbed. Add the tomatoes and season- 
ing and heat the mixture until it boils. Cover and place 
in the large kettle of boiling water belonging to the 'fireless 
cooker. Place in the fireless cooker for f hour. This food 
may be served as a border around meat. 


In your own way, explain the principle of '^ cooking without fire." 

What ingredient does Corn-meal Mush for '' Frying " contain 
that plain Corn-meal Mush does not? What is the use of this in- 
gredient in Corn-meal Mush for "Frjring"? (See Wheat Flour 
and Corn-meal f p. 369.) 

How does the method of preparing Corn-meal Mush for " Pry- 
ing " differ from the usual method of cooking cereals? 

How many cupfuls of corn-meal in one pound? Of rice in one 
pound? What is the price per pound of corn-meal and rice? 


Cereals for Frying or Baking 
"fried" or baked mush 

Cut Corn-meal Mush for " Frying " (see p. 96) into slices 
^ inch thick. Dip each slice in flour and brown in a litlie hot 


fat (butter or substitute, or a slice of salt pork fat may be 

The slices of mush may be spread with softened fat, or 
dipped in melted fat, and browned in the oven or broiling 

Instead of spreading the mush with fat, the slices may be 
dipped in cracker or fine dried bread crumbs (see p. 176), then 
dipped into egg mixture — 1 egg beaten and diluted with 1 
tablespoonful of water — and again dipped into cracker or 
bread crumbs. Place the " breaded slices " in a dripping 
pan, put fat in bits over the top and bake for about § hour 
or until the cnunbs are brown. 

Hot mush may be served plain or with sirup. 

In the same way, left-over wheatena, cream of wheat, farina, and 
other breakfast cereals may be molded, cooled, and then '' fried " or 


1 or 2 eggs 1 cupful milk 

i teaspoonf ul salt 6 or 8 slices of stale bread 

Beat the eggs slightly, add the salt and milk, and dip the 
bread in the mixture. Heat a griddle or " frying " pan and 
place a little butter or substitute, or a combination of butter 
and some other fat, in the pan. Brown the bread on one 
side in the hot fat. Place a bit of fat on the top of each 
slice, turn, and brown the other side. Serve hot. A mixture 
of powdered sugar and cinnamon, or sirup is sometimes used 
in serving French Toast. 


} cupful com sirup (dark) } cupful boiling water 

2 tablespoonf uls brown sugar J teaspoonf ul salt 

1 teaspoonful vanilla 

Mix the corn sirup, sugar, water, and salt. Heat until 
the boiling point is reached. Cool and then add the vanilla. 


If it is desired to serve the sirup hot, its flavor is im- 
proved by the addition of 1 teaspoonful of butter. 


In preparing French Toast, what care must be taken in dipping 
the stale bread in the milk and egg mixture? 

Since it is desirable to serve the sUces of toast whole, which are 
the better for French Toast, — large or small pieces of bread ? 

What is the advantage of placing a bit of fat on each slice of 
bread just before turning it? 

Why is it advisable to add butter to the sirup only when the 
latter is to be served hot? 

What is the purpose of adding sugar to com sirup? (See Com 
Sirup, p. 72.) 


Powdered Cereals Used for Thickening 

Experiment 22 : Starch Grains and Boiling Water. — Pour 2 
tablespoonfuls of boiling water over 1 teaspoonful of flour. Stir 
and heat over the flame. Is the mixture smooth? Examine the 
center of a "lump." How does it compare with uncooked starch? 
Are all the starch grains swelled and semisoluble? 

Experiment 23 : Separation of Starch Grains with Cold Water. — 
Mix 1 teaspoonful of flour with 1 teaspoonful of water. Add 2 
tablespoonfuls of boiling water, stir, and heat. Is the mixture 
smooth? Explain clearly the use of cold water in this mixture. 

Experiment 24 : Separation of Starch Grains with Sugar. — Mix 
1 teaspoonful of flour with 1 teaspoonful of sugar. Add 2 table- 
spoonfuls of boihng water, stir, and heat. Is the mixture smooth? 
Carefully explain the use of sugar in the mixture. 

Experiment 25 : Separation of Starch Grains with Fat. — Mix 
1 teaspoonful of flour with 1 teaspoonful of fat. Add 2 tablespoon- 
fuls of boiling water, stir, and heat. Is the mixture smooth? Ex- 
plain the use of fat in this mixture. 

To cook starch successfully, it is necessary to swell every 
grain of starch contained in the starchy food. To accomplish 


this each grain must be surrounded by heat and moisture. 
In vegetables and cereals, the cellular framework separates 
the starch grains so that they are uniformly cooked. Since 
there is nothing to separate the grains in a powdered starchy 
substance, as shown in the foregoing experiments, it becomes 
necessary to mix it with certain materials so that the heat 
and moisture can penetrate every grain at the same time. 


2 cupfals milk 2 teaspoonfuls vanilla 

i cupful corn-starch Nutmeg 
I cupful sugar Salt 

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Mix the sugar and 
corn-starch. Add the hot milk slowly to the sugar and corn- 
starch mixture, stirring rapidly. Return to the double 
boiler and cook 30 minutes, stir rapidly until the mixture 
thickens. Add the salt and flavoring and pour into a mold 
which has been moistened with cold water. Cool, turn from 
the mold, and serve with sugar and cream. 

If a softer and more creamy dessert is desired, the com-starch 
may be reduced to 3 tablespoonfuls. If this quantity of thickening 
is used, the cooked dessert should be poured into sherbet glasses 
or other suitable dishes for serving ; it will not become stiff enough 
to mold. 

Note. — While cooking Blanc Mange, note the number of 
minutes that is required to thicken the mixture and the length of 
time of cooking given in the recipe. Why is it necessary to cook 
the mixture for so long a time after it thickens? (See CereaUp 
p. 82.) 


Proceed as for Blanc Mange, using f cupful of sugar in- 
stead of i cupful. Cut into pieces 1 square (i.e. 1 ounoe) of 
Baker's chocolate. Add to it J cupful of boiling water. Stir 
and heat until smooth and thoroughly blended. Add this 


to the corn-starch mixture just before taking from the fire. 
Add J teaspoonful of vanilla. Mold and serve as Blanc 

Note that the quantity of sugar is increased when chocolate is 
added to the comnstarch mixture. Chocolate mixtures require 
considerable sugar to make them tasty. 

3 tablespoonfuls of cocoa may be substituted for the chocolate. 
When this is done, mix the cocoa with the comnstarch and sugar and 
add no water to it. Proceed as in making plain Blanc Mange. 


Name three substances that can be used to prevent the lumping 
of powdered cereals used for thickening. 

Give the reason for mixing the sugar, comnstarch, and hot milk of 
Blanc Mange as directed. 

For how long a time after placing in the double boiler is it neces- 
sary to stir the corn-starch, sugar, and hot milk mixture? 

Milk, especially a milk and starchy mixture, scorches readily 
(see Scalding Milkj p. 166). From this explain why Blanc Mange 
is cooked entirely over boiling water, and not over the flame and 
then in a double boiler, as cereals. 

Why is the flavoring not added while the mixture is cooking 
(see Flavoring Extracts y p. 265) ? 

What is the price per package of corn-starch? 

How much does a package of corn-starch weigh and measure? 

Which material — flour or corn-starch — is the cheaper to use for 

How many persons does the quantity of Blanc Mange above 


Toast: Digestion of Starch 

Experiment 26 : Change of Starch into Dextrin. — Place a tea- 
spoonful of flour in a frying pan and heat slowly until it becomes 
very dark brown and uniform in color. Put a httle of the browned 
flour into a test tube, add water, then shake. Add a few drops of 
iodine. What indicates the presence of starch? Is starch present? 



The starch has been changed to dextrin. Dextrin gives a 
purple (reddish blue) color when treated with iodine. 

Experiment 27 : The Solubility of Deztrm. — Pour the remainder 
of the browned flour from Experiment 26 into a test tube. Add 
water and shake. Pour through filter paper ^ into another test 
tube (see Figure 30). Notice the color of the hquid that has 
been filtered. Add a few drops of iodine to the filtered Uquid. Is 
dextrin present? Is dextrin soluble in water? 


Figure 30. — Method of Folding Filter Paper. 

Prom these experiments, we find that dry heat has changed 
insoluble starch into a soluble substance called dextrin. 
Dextrin is found in small amounts in the crust of bread 
and in toast. 

Digestion of Starch. — It was found in a previous lesson 
(Lesson XVI) that sugar is entirely soluble in water, and 
since digestion and solution are closely related, the diges- 

1 Liquids pass through filter pai)er, but solids do not. Hence if a 
mixture of solid and liquid is poured upon filter paper, the liquid passes 
through, but the solid remains on the paper. 


tion of some sugar is simple. Starch was found to be in- 
soluble in cold water and only semi-soluble in hot water. In 
the process of digestion it would seem that some change 
must take place in the starch to make it soluble. Such a 
change does take place; starch is changed into a soluble 
carbohydrate or a sugar before it is digested. 

Substances called enzymes which are in the saliva of the 
mouth 1 and in the digestive juices of the intestines ^ cause 
this change. To show that this change takes place to some 
extent in the mouth, try the following experiments : 

Experiment 28 : Starch in Cracker. — Test a bit of cracker with 
iodine for starch. What indicates the presence of starch ? Does the 
cracker contain starch? 

Experiment 29 : Action of Saliva upon Starch. — Thoroughly 
chew a bit of cracker. As you chew the cracker, note that it be- 
comes sweeter in flavor. Remove from the mouth, and place upon a 
piece of paper. Test it with iodine. A purple (reddish blue) color 
indicates a soluble carbohydrate (see Experiment 27, p. 102). 
What substance does the masticated cracker contain? Explain 
the change that has taken place in the cracker by mastication. 

Toast. — Bread is properly toasted when it is dried out 
thoroughly and then browned on the outside. Both the 
crumb and the crust of the toast are thus made crisp. Crisp 
toast crumbles during mastication. 

Fresh bread contains much moisture. When it is toasted 
quickly, the moisture is inclosed in the interior of the slice 
and the resulting toast is very soft. This kind of toast is 
almost as difficult to digest as fresh bread. Instead of toast 
breaking into bits during digestion, it remains in a solid mass 
and is digested with difficulty. 

Give at least two practical methods of toasting bread to 
produce the desired kind of toast. 

^ Ptyalin and amylopsin are the ferments found in the mouth and 
intestines, respectively. 



1} tablespoonfuls butter or substitute i teaspoonful salt 

2 tablespoonfuls flour 2 cupf uls milk or cream 

6 to 8 slices of toast 

Heat the fat; when it bubbles, add the flour and salt, 
mixing thoroughly. Add a small portion of the milk. 
Heat and stir continually until it thickens. Add another 
portion of the milk and proceed as before. Continue until 
all the milk has been added. The sauce is suflSciently 
cooked when it reaches the boiling point after the last quan- 
tity of milk has been added. Pour this sauce over dry or 
moist toast. 

Moist toast is prepared by dipping dry toast quickly into hot, 
salted water or hot milk, If the crust has not been cut from bread 
for toasting, only the outer edges of the toast may be moistened. 

The flavor of butter in Cream Toast is pleasing. To secure some 
butter flavor and at the same time economize, a combination of 
butter and a mild flavored fat or oil may be used. 


Give the reason for mixing flour and fat as directed in White 
Sauce (see Experiment 25, p. 99). 

What is the proportion of fat and flour? What is the proportion 
of flour and liquid? Using this proportion, how much flour should 
be used for one cupful of liquid? 

What is the use of flour in White Sauce? 

Note the consistency of the sauce, and keep it in mind as a stand- 
ard of comparison for the thickness of other sauces. 

What should be the condition of the crumb of toast to be most 
quickly digested? Give reasons for your answer. 


Root Vegetables (A) 

Plant Roots. — Plants used for food have their stored-up 
food largely in the form of starch and to some extent in 


the fonn of sugar. The parts of the plant underneath the 
ground as well as the seeds serve as a storehouse for the 
plant. All roots and tubers contain carbohydrates, al- 
though not in so. large a proportion as cereals. Those most 
commonly used as foods are potatoes, tapioca, parsnips, 
carrots, beets, and turnips. Potatoes and tapioca contain 
the most starch in this group. Parsnips, carrots, and beets 
contain a little starch and much sugar. Turnips contain 
much cellulose. Carrots, parsnips, and beets are also rich in 

All root vegetables as well as leaf and stem vegetables 
contain ash. 

Comparison of Vegetables Cooked with or without the 
Skins, and in Water or in Steam. ^ — Clean, prepare, and 
cook in water pared and unpared potatoes, scraped and 
unscraped carrots, and cook in steam pared potatoes and 
scraped carrots. 

Clean the vegetables by scrubbing with a brush ; cook 
them in gently boiling water. Use the same quantity of 
water in each case (when cooked in water) and add one 
teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water. When the 
vegetables are tender (test with a fork or knitting needle), 
drain each thoroughly, catching the water in a bowl. Dry 
each vegetable by shaking the saucepan containing it over 
a flame. 

I - Pour into a test tube a little of the water from each water- 
cooked vegetable ; cool, and then test with iodine for starch. 

Also pour some of the water from each water-cooked vege- 
table in an evaporating dish. Boil the water until the mois- 
ture is entirely evaporated. Then continue to heat the contents 

1 Note to the Teacher. — This lesson can be conducted most ex- 
peditiously by dividing the class into groups of six and having each 
group clean, prepare, and cook in water and in steam, potatoes and 
carrots as directed above. 


of the dish until charred material appears and then disappears. 
Is any solid material left ? If so, it is mineral matter. 

Which vegetables, — those cooked (in water) with or with- 
out the skins, — lose the more starch and ash ? 

Which vegetables without the skins, — those cooked in 
water or those cooked in steam, — lose the more starch 
and ash? 

As far as saving nutriment is concerned, which method of 
preparation is better for vegetables cooked in water ? Which 
method of cooking is better for vegetables without the skins ? 

Peel the vegetables that were cooked with the skins. Cut 
all into dice. Prepare about half as much White Sauce as 
you have of the vegetable, using the ingredients for the sauce 
in the following proportion : 

li tablespoonfuls flour 

} teaspoonful salt 

1 tablespoonful butter or substitute 

1 cupful liquid 

For the liquid of the sauce for those vegetables cooked in 
water without the skins, use half milk and half vegetable 
stock. Use only milk for the sauce for the vegetables 
cooked in water with the skins and for steamed vegetables. 
(For method of making White Sauce, see Cream Toa^t, 
p. 104.) Add the vegetables to the sauce, reheat, and serve. 
Divide the vegetables among the pupils of each group so 
that each tastes the six vegetables. 

Which vegetables, — those cooked with or without the 
skins, — have the more pleasing color ? 

Which vegetables, — those cooked with or without the 
skins, — have the more pleasing flavor ? 

As far as appearance and flavor are concerned, which 
method of preparation is better for potatoes? Which 
method for carrots ? 


As far as both nutriment and flavor are concerned, which 
method of cooking is better for both vegetables ? 

Suggestions for Cooking Root Vegetables. — All vegetablfes 
growing beneath the ground should be cleaned by scrubbing 
with a small brush. Unless a vegetable is dried or wilted, 
it should not be soaked in water for any length of time before 

The comparison just made shows that the. outside skins 
of vegetables should not be removed before cooking in water 
if we wish to retain all the nutriment. There are some who 
contend, however, that a more delicate and pleasing flavor 
results when old and strong-flavored vegetables have their 
skins removed before cooking, and that the flavor is more 
to be desired than a saving of all nutrients. Often vege- 
tables are more pleasing in color when cooked without their 

The nutrients lost by paring root vegetables and cooking 
them in water consist not only of carbohydrates, but of ash 
and other valuable materials.^ 

Satisfactory results may be obtained by baking or steam-- 
ing vegetables. By using the latter method, vegetables 
can be pared and cut into pieces and then cooked with little 
loss of nutrients. It has been pointed out,^ however, that 
there may be considerable loss of nutrients in steamed 
vegetables. The extent of the loss depends in part upon 
the type of steamer and the method of using it. If the bottom 
of the upper pan of a steamer is perforated and the vegetables 
are placed in contact with the perforated portion, the con- 
densed steam " washes " the mineral matter from the vege- 
table. This " vegetable broth " then drops into the lower 
pan of the steamer. 

^ Vitaminest see Division Seven, page 245. 

2 See Journsd of Home Economics, Vol. XI (May, 1919), "Changes 
in the Food Value of Vegetables," by Minna C. Denton. 


An e^'idence of this can be secured hy steaming spinach 
or squash in the manner described above and observing the 
ciJonng which appears in the water beneath the steaming 
vegetable. Loss of nutrients in such a steamer can be 
avoided by placing the vegetable in a pan or plate and in- 
serting the latter in the upper portion of the steamer. The 
pan or plate should, of course, be of smaller diameter than the 
top of the steamer. By using 
the type of steamer which has 
perforations at the top of the 
upper pan (see Figm« 31), no 
loss of nutrients occure, pro- 
vided the accumulated vege- 
table broth is used. 

Care should abo be taken not 
to steam vegetables for long 
periods at a very high tempera- 
ture as is sometimes done in 
using the pressure cooker. This 
coaiaiaoiaeo.n.Bmmanco. results in both loss of nutrients 

Figure31.— Utenslli-orSteam- ^nd flavor. 

iNo. -A -Steamer." jj ^^^^^^y vegetables are 

cooked in water, when tender immediately drain away the 
water and dry them. Serve at once or let them remain un- 
covered in a warm place. The steam is thus allowed to es- 
cape. Condensed steam makes starchy vegetables soggy. 


If potatoes are to be cooked without their skins, pare them 
as thin as possible, or in the case of new potatoes, scrape 
them. Cut away any green portion ' which appears on the 

' Green spots on potatoes are caused by the tubers growing too neat 
the surface o( the ground. This colored portion contains an injurious 
substance called solanin. 


potato. If the potatoes are sprouted/ also cut away the 
portion around the sprouts. 

In cooking potatoes in water, follow the directions given 
on page 59, Cooking Vegetables in Water. When they are 
tender, drain off the water immediately; shake gently and 
dry on the back of the range with the saucepan uncovered or 
with a cloth folded over the top to absorb the moisture. 
Sprinkle generously with salt. Boiled potatoes may be put 
through a ricer before serving. 

Creamed and Scalloped Vegetables. — Cooked vegetables 
may be creamed by cutting them into cubes, adding White 
Sauce, and then reheating. If the cut vegetables are cold, 
they can be heated by adding them to the sauce with the 
last portion of liquid. By the time the sauce reaches the 
boiling point, the vegetables will be heated. Care should 
be taken not to break the vegetables while heating them in 
the sauce. Care should also be taken to prevent the sauce 
from scorching. An asbestos mat over a gas burner is de- 
sirable for this purpose. Use one part of White Sauce with 
2 or 3 parts of diced vegetables. 

Vegetables may be scalloped by placing Creamed Vege- 
tables in an oiled baking-dish, covering with buttered crumbs, 
and browning in the oven. 


li tablespoonfuls flour j tea^poonful salt 

1 tablespoonful butter or substitute White Deooer 

§ cupful milk 

2 tablespoonfuls flour j ^^^^^ vegetable stock 
li tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 



Sprouted potatoes also contain some solanin. Potatoes should not be 
allowed to sprout since nutritious material is used up by the growing 
sprouts and, as mentioned above, an injurious material is formed. 
Potatoes can be prevented from sprouting by storing them in a dry, 
dark, cool place. 


Cook as directed for Cream Sauce (see Cream Toast, 
p. 104). The thickness of White Sauce for vegetables de- 
pends upon the kind of vegetable. The thinner sauce is 
generally more satisfactory with starchy vegetables. 


1 cupful soft bread crumbs White pepper or cayenne 

i teaspoonf ul salt 1 tablespoonful butter or substitute 

Mix seasonings and crumbs together, then add to the 
melted fat, or place the fat in bits over the seasoned crumbs. 


How should the water boil in cooking vegetables? Why? 

Why should not potatoes be covered with a tin lid or plate after 

Are potatoes sold by the pound or bushel? What is the price 
per pound or bushel? 

Mention at least three ways of cooking root vegetables so as to 
retain their nutriment. 

LESSON xxvn 

Root Vegetables (B) 

Experiment 30: The Effect of Soaking Starchy Vegetables in 
Wateir. — Over several pieces of potato pom* enough water to cover. 
Allow the vegetable to stand at lesist 15 minutes. Pour the water 
from the vegetable into a test tube and heat it. Cool, then test the 
water with iodine. What does the water contain ? What conclusion 
can you draw concerning the soaking of vegetables in water before 


Cook sweet potatoes with or without the skins (see Cooking 
Vegetables in Water, p. 59). Peel (if cooked with the skins), 
mash, add a little hot milk, salt, and butter, beat thoroughly 
and serve. 


Ck)oked sweet potatoes may also be cut into halves lengthwise, 
spread with butter or substitute,, sprinkled with a very little sugar, 
and browned in the oven. 

SWEET POTATOES (Southern style) 

3 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 6 sweet potatoes 
2 tablespoonfuls sugar Salt and pepper 

Boiling water 

Scrub and pare the sweet potatoes, cut them into halves 
lengthwise. Put the butter and sugar in a frying pan and 
when hot, add the sweet potatoes. Brown the potatoes, add 
the salt and pepper and enough boiling water to cover the 
bottom of the frying pan. Cover and cook slowly until 
the potatoes are tender. Nearly all the water should be 
evaporated when the potatoes are cooked. That which re- 
mains should be poured over the potatoes as a sauce for 

Sweet potatoes may also be cooked in a casserole in the oven. 
Uncover the casserole when the potatoes are almost tender, in order 
to brown them. . 

MOCK OYSTERS (parsnips with nuts and rice) 

4 parsnips 1 cupful cooked rice ^ 

2 eggs 4 tablespoonfuls flour 

1 cupful nuts, chopped 1 teaspoonful salt 
i teaspoonful pepper 

Boil or steam the parsnips until tender. Press them 
through a coarse sieve or colander. Add the beaten eggs. 
Then add the remainder of the ingredients. If the mixture 
is too thick to drop from the spoon, add a little milk. Drop 
by tablespoonfuls on to an oiled baking-sheet. Bake until 
slightly brown. Serve hot with Tomato Sauce. Tomato 

* If the rice is cooked by boiling, use the rice water instead of plain 
water in makins Tomato Sauce. 


Catsup or Celery Sauce (see below and p. 501) may also be 
used in serving Mock Oysters. • (Adapted from Ninety Tested 
Recipes, Teachers College.) 


i can tomatoes 2 sprays of parsley 

1 cupful water 3 tablespoonfuls fat 

2 cloves 2 slices onioti 

3 allspice berries I cupful flour 

3 peppercorns 1 teaspoonf ul salt 

Allow tomatoes, water, spices, and herbs to simmer 15 to 
20 minutes. Brown the onion in the fat, add flour and salt, 
then the tomato mixture. Follow the method of making 
White Sauce (see Cream Toast, p. 104). Strain and serve. 


From the results of Experiment 30, p. 110, explain why vegetables 
should be placed in boiling rather than in cold water for cooking. 

Why should the water be drained from boiled vegetables im- 
mediately after cooking? 

From your grocer, find out in what quantities sweet potatoes are 
usually purchased. What is the price of them? How do they 
compare in price with white potatoes? 

What is the price per pound of parsnips? 

In preparing Tomato Sauce, what is the purpose of cooking the 
tomatoes and spices together for 15 or 20 minutes? 

Why are the tomatoes strained after thickening rather than 

LESSON xxvm 

Root Vegetables (C) 

Tapioca is a food material prepared from the roots of the 
cassava plant grown in South America. Like many other 
foods prepared from the roots of plants, it consists of a large 
per cent of starch. In its preparation, tapioca is heated so 


that the starch is partially cooked. Tapioca is prepared for 
the market in two forms, — pearl tapioca, and minute or 
granulated tapioca. The latter requires a much shorter time 
to cook. If granulated tapioca is substituted for pearl 
tapioca, but one half the quantity is required. 


} cupful pearl tapioca or \ teaspoonful salt 

} cupful granulated tapioca 6 apples 

2} cupfuls boiling water \ cupful sugar 

If pearl tapioca is used, cover it generously with cold 
water and allow it to stand one hour or overnight. While 
soaking keep the tapioca covered. If any water is unab- 
sorbed, do not discard it, — use less than the given quantity 
of boiling water. 

If granulated tapioca is used, no cold water is needed. 
For either granulated or pearl tapioca, add the boiling 
water and salt to the tapioca and cook over the naked flame 
and then over hot water as in the case of breakfast cereal 
(see General Rules for Cooking Cereals, p. 83). Cook in 
the double boiler until transparent. Wash, core, and pare 
the apples ; place them in a buttered baking-dish ; fill the 
cavities with sugar, pour tapioca over them, and bake in a 
moderate oven until the apples are soft. Serve with sugar 
and cream, or with Lemon Sauce. 

Other fruits may be substituted for apples. If canned fruits are 
used, substitute the fruit sirup for part of the water in which the 
tapioca is cooked. 


Use the same in^dients for the rhubarb dessert as for 
Apple Tapioca, substituting for the apples 3 cupfuls of 
rhubarb, cut into pieces, and using twice the quantity of 
sugar. Bake until the rhubarb is soft. 



f cupful sugar 2 cupfuls boiling water 

2 tablespoonfuls flour 1 lemon, — juice and rind 

1 tablespoonf ul butter 

Mix sugar and flour thoroughly; then slowly add the 
boiling water. Cook 10 minutes. Add the lemon juice 
and rind, then the butter. Stir until the butter is melted, 
when the sauce will be ready to serve. 

For economy, the butter may be omitted. It adds to the flavor, 

Sweet Sauces. — Sweet Sauces usually contain sugar and 
butter and are thickened with a powdered cereal. It is in- 
teresting to consider which of the two materials — sugar or 
butter — should be used to separate the grains of the flour 
or corn-starch. 

The quantity, of fat used with the flour of White Sauces 
(see below) is a little less than that of the flour. It is 
difficult to separate starch grains when the quantity of fat 
equals only one half the quantity of flour. On the other 
hand, when starch grains are separated by means of sugar, 
the quantity of the sugar should equal at least the quantity 
of the starchy material (see Blanc Mange, p. 100). In the 
recipe for Lemon Sauce above, it will be noted that the 
quantity of fat is one half that of the flour ; the quantity 
of sugar greatly exceeds that of the flour. Hence the sugar 
affords a more satisfactory means of separating the starch 
grains in Lemon Sauce. 


Flour Fat Liquid 

Thin White Sauce 1 tablespoonf ul, | 'tablespoonf ul, 1 cup 
(Toast, sweet sauce, cer- 
tain cream soups, etc.) 

Medium White Sauce 2 tablespoonfuls, 1| tablespoonfuls, 1 cup 


Flour Fat Liquid 

(Vegetables (see page 109), 
gravy, tomato sauce, etc.) 
Thick White Sauce 3 tablespoonfuls, 2 tablespoonfuls, 1 cup 

(Gravy, tomato sauce, etc.) 

Very Thick White Sauce 4 tablespoonfuls, 3 tablespoonfuls, 1 cup 
(Croquettes, etc.) 

(If richer sauces are desired, equal quantities of fat and flour should 
be used.) 


What is the purpose of soaking pearl tapioca in water before 
cooking? Give the reason for covering pearl tapioca while it is 
soaking. Why is it necessary to cook it in a double boiler? 

What is the use of flour in Lemon Sauce ? Why is the flour mixed 
with the sugar before adding the boiling water (see Experiment 24, 
p. 99) ? How long does it take the flour to thicken? How long a 
time does the recipe give for cooking the flour mixture? What is 
the purpose of cooking it for so long a time? 

What precautions can be taken to prevent the sauce from scorch- 

If, after cooking the required length of time, the sauce is not thick 
enough, what is the simplest method of thickening it? 

For a sauce recipe in which very little fat and no sugar are given, 
devise a method of preparing smooth sauce. 


Starchy Foods Cooked at High Temperature 

Steam under Pressure. — Which is hotter, — the "steam " 
(i,e. water vapor) coming from boiling water in an uncovered 
saucepan or teakettle or the "steam" which has been held 
underneath the lid of a covered saucepan or teakettle (see 
Figure 32). Steam confined in a small space or held under 
pressure may reach a temperature higher than that of boil- 
ing water. 



Effect of High Temperature upon Pop Com and Potatoes. 

— Pop com contains water. When heated, the water 

changes to steam. The covering of cellulose holds the steam 

in the kernel. When the steam expands and reaches a 

temperature far above 

the boiling point of 

water, it finally 

bursts the covering 

and the starch swelb 

at once. 

In baking potatoes, 
the water contained 
in them vaporizes. 
The vaporized water 
or steam is held under 
pressure by the skin of 
the vegetable. The 
steam thus becomes 
hotter than boiling 
water, hence a baked 
potato is cooked at 
a higher temperature 

„ „^ „ „ „ than a boiled potato, 

FcauRE 32. — "Steam" wtthout Pressure 

AND "Steam" which has been under ^'^" "° nutrients are 

Pressure. lost. 

Mobten pop com with cold water. Almost cover the 
bottom of a popper with the kemeb. Hold the popper 
first at some distance from the heat and then gradually 
bring it closer, shaking it well all the time to keep the com 
from burning. The com should not begin to pop before 
three and one half minutes. When popping commences, 
most of the kernels should open. If there is some time 


between the popping of the first and last kernels, the com 
will become tough. 


4 quarts freshly popped com i cupful butter 


Melt the butter and pour it over the corn, stirring with a 
spoon. Sprinkle at once with salt from a salt shaker, con- 
tinue stirring. 


1 tablespoonful butter and 1 tablespoonful oil or 

2 tablespoonfuls oil i cupful shelled pop corn 


Put the fat in a large frying pan ; when melted, add the 
salted corn. Stir until the corn is evenly coated with fat. 
Cover closely and heat gradually, shaking the pan vigorously 
all the time. 


Scrub potatoes and place them on the grate of a hot oven. 
(Potatoes should be baked in a hot oven, to prevent them 
from becoming waxy or soggy.) Bake until they are soft 
when tested with a fork or knitting needle. Break the 
skin at once to allow the steam to escape, or make two gashes 
in the top of each potato, one at right angles to the other. 
Gently press the potato so that the steam may escape. 
Serve in an uncovered dish. It is well to place the steaming 
potatoes on a folded napkin for serving. 


2 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 1 teaspoonful salt 

3 tablespoonfuls milk Pepper 

6 baked potatoes 


Cut the baked potatoes in halves lengthwise. Remove 
the inside, taking care not to break the skin; mash the 
potatoes, add the milk, butter, and seasoning, and beat tliem 
as ordinary mashed potatoes. Return the mixture to the 
potato shells, place the stufTed potatoes in a pan, and bake 
in a hot oven until brown. 

Before browning the stuffed potatoes, grated cheese may be. 
sprinkled over them. 


Explain why pop com can be cooked thoroughly in about 5 minutes 
while rolled oats or wheat requires 1} hoius for sufficient cooking. 

Analyze the difference in taste of a baked and a boiled potato. 
To what is the sweet taste of a baked potato due (see Experi- 
ment 26, p. 101) ? Explain fully why baked potatoes are more easily 
digested than boiled potatoes (see Experiment 26 and. SoliUion 
and Digestion, p. 40). 

Which contains more nutriment, — baked potatoes or boiled 
potatoes? Explain (see Comparison of Vegetables Cooked with 
and withovi the Skifis, and in Water or in Steam, p. 105) . 

What is the pmpose of breaking the skins of potatoes at once 
after baking? Why are baked potatoes served in an uncovered 
dish? What could be used to cover them ? 


Dining Room Service^ 


Basic Principles. — Practically all rules for laying the 
table and all methods of serving have been formulated to 
bring about neatness, convenience, and order. The standard 
of living,^ the occasion, the size of the dining room, the num- 
ber of guests, and the attendants, all have to be taken into 

1 Note. — See Suggestions for Teaching, p. 3, Appendix. 


consideration in dining room service. Therefore the method 
of serving must be governed by conditions. It is possible 
here to give only general suggestions. 


Table Linen. — Table padding, or a silence cloth, should 
first be placed on the table, then the table-cloth should be 
laid straight and smooth. 

Kapkins should be folded simply and laid at the left of 
the plate. A dinner napkin is folded four times ; a luncheon 

Figure 33. — Table Lajd for an Informal Lunckeoh. 

napkin is folded twice to form a square, or three times to 
form either a triangle or an oblong. 

If desired, the table-cloth may be omitted for breakfast or 
luncheon. Doilies with pads underneath them, lunch or 
breakfast cloths, or table runners (see Figure 33) may be used 
instead of the table-cloth. The two latter coverings are 
especially practical, since they are more quickly laundered 


than table-doths. Their initial cost is also usually less than 
that of a table-doth. 

Doilies may be placed on the serving tray. They are 
also often used on plates containing crackers, bread, and 
cakes. Baked potatoes, com, and hot breads may be served 
in a folded napkin. 

China and Glassware. — The term " cover " means the 
space, with its china, silver, and glassware, allowed for each 
guest. At least twenty-two inches of space should be al- 
lowed for a cover (see Figure 33). 

The quantity of china on the table depends upon the 
occasion and the style of serving. In any form of service, 
the first course, if cold, may be placed on the table before 
the guests are seated. If the first course is a hot food, it is 
always placed on the table after the guests are seated. For 
informal occasions, and sometimes for formal occasions, the 
bread-and-butter plate is used. It is placed beyond the tines 
of the fork. Glasses are placed beyond the tip of the knife. 
A sugar bowl and cream pitcher, salts, peppers, etc., may 
also be placed on the table. A salt and a pepper shaker 
should be placed so as to be accessible to each two covers. 
Dishes containing olives or nuts are sometimes placed on the 
table before the guests are seated. 

For breakfast, the coffeepot, hot-water pitcher, milk and 
cream pitchers, spoon tray, and cups and saucers may be 
placed so as to form a semicircle about the hostess's place. 
The coffeepot should be placed at the right, and the cups and 
saucers at the left. If tiles or stands for the coffeepot and 
hot-water pitcher are used, they should also be a part of 
the table service. A large tray may be used to hold all of 
the coffee service. 

If the serving is to be done without a maid, it is advisable 
to place all the china, glass, and silver to be used for the 
meal either on the table or on the serving table. 


Silver. — Convenience and order have determined the 
customary way of placing the silver at each cover. At 
the right of the plates place the knives, the spoons, and 
the forks that are to be used without knives (as for oysters, 
fish, or salad).. At the left, place all the forks that are 
to be used with knives. Many prefer, however, to place 
all the forks, except the oyster fork, at the left of the 
plate. Enough silver for all courses, except the dessert 
course, is usually placed on the table; it is permissible, 
however, to place the silver for all courses. If the silver for 
any course is not "placed on the table before the meal is 
announced, it may be brought in on a tray and placed at 
each cover just before serving the course ; or it may be laid 
on each serving dish of the course. 

WhUe a general rule for laying silver is to plac« each piece 
at each cover in the order of its use, the knives are usually all 
grouped together at the right of the plate and the spoons laid 
together at the right of the knives. It is advisable, however, 
to place the spoons and knives in the order of their use, i.e. 
place the spoon that is to be used first farthest to the right 
and the knife that is to be used first, farthest to the right of 
the group of knives. Since only forks are placed at the 
left of the plate, they should be laid in the order of their use, 
that first to be used being placed farthest to the left (see 
Figure 33). 

All silver should be placed from one half to one inch 
from the edge of the table ; the sharp edges of the blades of 
the knives should be turned towards the plates ; the spoons 
and forks should be placed with their bowls and tines tinned 
up. The butter spreaders may be laid across the bread- 
and-butter plates. Generally when soup and raw oysters are 
served, the oyster fork is laid across the soup spoon. If the 
silver that is to be used in serving a dish of food is placed 
on the table, it should be laid beside not in the dish of food. 


Table Accessories. — A low bowl of flowers or fruit, taste- 
fully arranged, makes a pleasing centerpiece. A centerpiece, 
however, should be a real source of pleasure ; it should not 
obstruct the view of guests opposite (see Figure 33). 

Place cards afford a graceful means of seating guests. 
When used, they should be placed on the napkin. Menu 
cards, sometimes used for occasional dinners, are also placed 
on the napkin. 


There are several styles of serving : 

English (ordinary family service). — The foods are served 
at the table, the host serving fish, meat, and vegetables ; the' 
hostess serving soup, salad, and dessert ; and other members 
of the family serving fruit and the vegetables that are served 
in individual dishes. The served dishes may be passed to 
each guest by the maid, or when no maid serves, they may 
be passed from one person to another. This method is used 
for family and informal service, and also when serving is 
done without a maid. 

Russian (serving from the side). — This may be observed 
in one of two ways : 

(a) Foods are separated into portions on individual plates 
and placed before the guests. 

(6) Foods are separated into portions on the serving dishes 
and passed to the left of each guest so that he may help 
himself, or the portions may be served by the maid. The 
necessary serving spoon or fork should be provided with 
the serving dishes. The Russian style of serving is the 
most formal and requires the service of at least one maid. 

Compromise. — Sometimes it is desirable to use one style 
of serving for one course and another style for another 
course, as the Russian style for the soup course, and the 
English style for the meat course. Or the foods of one 


course may be in such form that it is convenient to follow 
both styles of serving, as meat served in English style and 
" side dishes " served in Russian style. Such style of serv- 
ing is termed the compromise. 


Established Rules for Serving. — While each hostess 
follows her own inclination in the details of serving, there are 
certain rules that are always observed : 

Cold foods are served on cold dishes; hot foods on hot 

Dishes offered to a guest are passed to the left of the 
guest ; other dishes are placed to the right of a guest, except 
when a plate is placed at the same time a soiled or served 
plate is removed, ' — it is then placed at the left. Plates are 
removed from the right when possible. 

When the Russian style of serving is observed, the follow- 
ing plan of removing and placing plates at the close of a 
course is followed : 

The maid carries the clean or served plate of the follow- 
ing course in her right hand and goes to the left of the guest. 
She removes the soiled plate of the course just concluded 
with her left hand and then places the empty or served 
plate before the guest with her right hand. She then goes 
to the kitchen or pantry with the soiled plate, returns with 
a clean or served plate, and proceeds as before. 

In following the English style in serving plates, the maid 
first places the dish to be served (the platter of meat, for 
example) in front of the host. Then an empty plate is 
placed before the host. The maid then gets another clean 
plate, returns to the left of the host, takes up the served 
plate in her left hand, and places the empty plate before 
him. She then places the served plate before one of 
the guests from the right side. Again she goes to the left 


of the host, places a plate before him, and proceeds as 

At the end of a course, remove the dishes of each cover, 
then such dishes as the platters and tureens, and finally the 
crumbs. All dishes belonging to a particular course should 
be removed at the end of that course. Soiled dishes are 
always unsightly; hence care should be taken to remove 
them in the neatest way. Plates should not be piled on 
top of one another. When the dinner plate, the bread-and- 
butter plate, and the side dishes are to be removed, the 
smaller dishes (bread-and-butter plates and side dishes) 
should be removed on the serving tray. The larger plates 
may be removed one at a time, and an empty or service 
plate may be put in the place of each. If no empty or 
service plate is to be placed for the next, course, two soiled 
plates may be removed at the same time, one in each hand. 

Use of the Buffet and Serving Table. — Many dining rooms 
have both a buffet and serving table. When such is the 
case the serving table is used for holding the dishes and 
foods that are used in serving the meal, such as dessert 
plates, creamer and sugar, plate of bread, etc. ; the buffet is 
used for holding dishes that are used occasionally, such as 
the coffee service, chafing dish, etc. 

Accidents at the table may be quickly remedied, if extra 
silver and a soft (i.e. unfolded) napkin are placed on the 
serving table before the meal is announced. 

Use of the Serving Tray. — The serving tray should be 
used for carrying all silver. It should also be used for 
small dishes, such as preserves, olives, sauces, and for the 
creamer and sugar, and the cups and saucers. In passing 
large dishes, such as plates, platters, and tureens, use a folded 
napkin underneath the dishes instead of a tray. 

Removing the Crumbs from the Table. — For a table with 
a cloth, the crumb tray and scraper, or better, a plate and 


folded napkin are used to remove the crumbs. A brush is 
not desirable for " crumbing " the table. For a table with- 
out a cloth, the folded napkin and plate are used. The 
table may be crumbed before and after the salad course or 
before the dessert course. 

Use of Finger Bowls. — Finger bowls are used after the 
fruit course of breakfast, and at the end of a luncheon or 
dinner. They should be placed on plates, with a doily be- 
tween the plate and finger bowl. 

For breakfast, the finger bowls and plates may be brought 
in first. The finger bowl and doily should be removed to the 
left so that the same plates may be used for the fruit course. 

For formal luncheon or dinner, finger bowls on doilies 
and plates are brought in, one at a time, when removing the 
main dish of the dessert. The finger bowls and doilies are 
then set aside and the plate used for bonbons and nuts, 
which are passed on a tray. Or, if desired, the finger bowls 
may be brought after the bonbons. In this case the finger 
bowl and plate are exchanged for the plate of the dessert 
course. An informal way is to pass finger bowls on plates 
and doilies before the dessert course. Then the finger bowl 
and doily are set aside as at breakfast and the dessert served 
on the same plate. 

Order of Seating and Serving Guests. — The host and 
hostess usually sit opposite each other, i.e, at the head and 
foot of the table. If there is a waitress to do the serving, the 
head of the table should be farthest from the entrance of the 
dining room. If there is no maid, the hostess's chair should 
be nearest the kitchen door or pantry. A woman guest 
of honor sits at the right of the host; a gentleman guest, 
at the right of the hostess. 

The order of serving guests varies in different homes and 
for different occasions. Sometimes the women at the table 
are served before the men. This is usually done, however, 


for home service or when only a few persons are at the table. 
At a large dinner table or a banquet, guests are usually 
served in the order in which they sit. In many homes, the 
guests are served first, while in others the hostess is always 
the first to be served. At a family meal, when no guests are 
present, the hostess should always be served first. 


When there is no maid, a woman has a threefold duty to 
perform when serving a meal. She must act as cook, as 
waitress, and as hostess. Much skill, ingenuity, and prac- 
tice are required to do this successfully. The underlying 
principle of its accomplishment is forethought. A hostess 
must plan, even to the minutest detail, the performance of 
each duty. 

Preparation before Announcing the Meal. — In planning 
the menu, a wise selection should be made. Simple foods 
should be selected and but few courses should be served. A 
young hostess should remember that a simple meal easily 
served is more enjoyable and more fitting than an elaborate 
dinner where the hostess must frequently leave the table. 
Foods should be selected that can be prepared before the meal 
is served, and that will not be harmed by standing. A souffle 
which must be served immediately when taken from the 
oven is not a wise choice for such a meal. 

For almost all meals some of the dishes and foods must 
be left in the warming oven or in the refrigerator, but as 
many dishes and foods as possible should be taken to the 
dining room before the meal is announced. The suggestion 
has been made that dishes be kept warm by placing them 
in a pan of hot water on the serving table. This would 
mean, however, that a tea towel be at hand to dry the dishes 
before using. Special hot-water dishes for the purpose 
can now be obtained in city shops. 


A serving table or a wheel tray (see Figure 34) is of great 
service to a woman acting as hostess and waitress. It 
should be placed near the hostess so that she can reach it 
without rising from her chair. In the absence of a wheel 
tray, a large serving tray is a great convenience in setting 
and clearing the table ; it saves many steps. 

FiauRE 34. — Wheel Tray. 

Serving at the Table. — The English style of serving 
(see p. 122) should be followed. The hostess may thus have 
the aid of the host and the other members of the family in 
serving. Moreover, serving in this manner gives an air of 

As hostess, a woman must not leave her place at the table 
many times or for many minutes. If the details of the meal 
have not been well planned, she will have to make many 


trips to the kitchen. This is one of the indications that the 
presence of guests is a burden to the hostess. She should 
never leave or enter the dining room empty-handed, for a 
saving of energy is more sensible than faithful adherence to 
form. The soiled dishes, as they are removed from the 
table, may be placed upon the serving table. By the use of 
the latter, the dining table can be kept free from an over- 
crowded appearance and the hostess saved many steps. 
The lower shelf of the serving table is the most desirable 
place for the soiled dishes. 

For a family meal, the table may be crumbed as follows : 
Let the hostess use the crumb tray while seated at her place, 
and then let her pass it on so that each member of the family 
may in turn remove the crumbs from his own cover. It is 
perfectly proper to omit crumbing when guests are present 
and where there is no maid. 

The host and the other members of the family can do 
much to add to the pleasure of a meal by introducing an 
interesting topic of conversation that will occupy the atten- 
tion of the guests during the absence of the hostess. If the 
hostess is sole entertainer, she would do well to start an 
absorbing subject of conversation just before leaving the 
dining room. 


Why is it desirable to use doilies on plates containing crackers, 
bread, and cakes? 

Why should baked potatoes, com, and hot breads be served on a 
folded napkin ? 

Why should the coffeepot be placed at the right of the hostess's 
cover and the cups and saucers at the left of her cover? 

In laying the table, why should the knives, spoons, and the forks 
that are to be used without knives be placed at the right of the plates ? 
Why should the forks that are to be used with knives be placed at the 
left of the plates? 


In serving, why should dishes which admit of choice be passed to 
the left of a guest ? Why should dishes which do not admit of choice 
be placed at the right ? 

Why should this order of clearing the table at the end of a course 
be followed : first, the soiled dishes, then the food, then the clean 
dishes, and finally the crumbs? 

Why should all dishes belonging to a particular course be re- 
moved at the end of the course? 

Why is a brush not desirable for crumbing the table? 

Why are finger bowls used after the fruit course of breakfast and 
at the end of luncheon or dinner? 

Make a list of the linen, silver, glass, and china needed for the 
dining and serving tables, when serving the menu given below. 
Give method of serving each coiuise, using the English style. 

Cream of Tomato Soup Soup Sticks 

Veal Cutlets 


Rolls — Butter 

Cucumber Salad Wafers 

Snow Pudding, Custard Sauce 

Cakes — Coffee 


Cooking and Serving Breakfast 

Cook and serve a breakfast. 

If the lesson, period is limited to 90 minutes, it is advisable 
to plan only a simple meal. The following menu is sug- 

Seasonable Fruit, — fresh or cooked 

French Toast with Sirup 

Detennine the number of persons each recipe for the 
foods above will serve. It may be necessary to prepare only 
a portion of a given recipe or more food than the quantity 
stated in the recipe. The pupil should become accustomed 
to dividing or multiplying the quantities given in recipes. 


Commence your work at such a time that the food will 
be in proper condition — hot or cold — at the time set for 
serving the breakfast. 

Follow the English or family style of serving. 

Serve the breakfast with or without a maid (see previous 

LESSON xxxn 

Review: Meal Cooking 


Seasonable Fruit Sauce 
Breakfast Cereal 

See Review, p. 68, for suggestions regarding the preparation 
of the lesson. 

LESSON xxxm 

Home Projects ^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — If cooked cereals are 
desired for breakfast at your home, prepare breakfast cereals 
in the evening for the following morning. 

Make a dessert for the evening meal at least three times a 

Suggested Aims: 

(1) To cook the cereal a sufficient length of time to pro- 
duce a sweet flavor and make it tender, to evaporate the 
moisture sufficiently so that mastication will be necessary, to 
allow no scum to form on top. 

(2) To select a variety of desserts so that a different 
one may be served each time. 

1 See Lesson IX, p. 51. 





Pat as a Frying Medium 

Comparison of Fats and Carbohydrates. — ¥ai is a food- 
stuff. Fat and oil ^ form another great class of energy- 
giving or fuel foods. In the body, these foods, like carbo- 
hydrates, give energy ; in fact weight for weight they furnish 
more than twice as much energy as carbohydrates. There 
is, for example, about as much fat by weight in one pound 
of butter as there are carbohydrates in one pound of tapioca. 
By measurement it has been found that one pound of butter 
gives to the body almost two and one fourth times as much 
energy as does one pound of tapioca. 

Fats and oils are not only used as food (butter for example) 
and as constituents of foods (fat in pastry), but as a medium 
for cooking. The use of fat as a cooking medium follows : 

Experiment 31 : Temperature at which Fats and Oils Decompose 
or " Bum." — Into each of 6 test tubes put 2 teaspoonfuls of butter, 
cottonseed oil, com oil, beef drippings, lard, and Crisco. Gently 
heat each one of the fats or oils until fumes first arise from them. 
Then insert a thermometer * in each tube and note the temperatures. 
These are the temperatures at which the various fats decompose. 
Record these temperatures in your notebook. 

1 Fat. and oil are very similar, oil being fat that is liquid at ordinary 

2 Care should be taken in using a thermometer in hot fat. It should 
be allowed to cool before washing. 


^ I 


How do the decomposing temperatiires of fat compare with that 
of boiling water? Which would be the hotter medium for cooking 

— hot fat or boiling water? 

Which fat reaches the Jbighest temperature before it begins to 
decompose? If fat is used as a medium of cooking, which of these 
fats, as far as temperature is concerned, would be the most desirable? 
Give a reason for your answer. 

What is the price per pound or pint of each of these fats or oils? 

Which of these are vegetable and which are animal fats or oils? 

Fats for Deep-fat Fiying. — As shown by the above ex- 
periment, fat reaches a high temperature when heated. 
For this reason fat may be used as a cooking medium. The 
process of cooking food in deep fat is called frying. From 
the standpoint of temperature the best fat for frying is that 
which can be heated to a very high temperature without 

Other factors such as flavor and cost, however, have to 
be taken into consideration. Fat not only heats foods, but 
it imparts flavor since some of the fat in which a food is 
cooked, clings to the food. The costs of the various fats 
differ greatly. This must be regarded in selecting fats for 
cooking. Taking these factors into consideration, many 
prefer the cheaper vegetable fats for frying, while others 
jfind a mixture of beef drippings and lard satisfactory. 

Experiment 32 : Bread Fried in '' Cool '' Fat (Class Experiment). 

— Put some suitable fat for frying in an iron pan and heat. Note 
carefully the change that takes place in fat as it heats. When the 
fat " foams " or bubbles, or reaches a temperature of about 300° F., 
drop into it a piece of bread. After one minute remove the bread 
from the fat ; examine the bread by breaking it apart to see if the 
fat has soaked into the bread. Is it desirable to have the fat soak 
into fried foods? What conclusion can you draw as to frying foods 
in "cool "fats? 

Experiment 33 : The Temperature of Fat for Frying (Class Experi- 
ment). — Continue to heat the fat of Experiment 32. When f tunes 
begin to rise from the fat, or the fat reaches a temperature of 365° F., 


again drop a bit of bread into it. After one minute remove the bread 
and examine it as above. Has as much fat soaked into it as in the 
first bit of bread? What conclusion can you draw from this in re- 
gard to the proper temperature for frying foods? 

Cooked foods and foods needing but little cooking require 
a higher temperature than batters or other uncooked foods. 
If a bit of bread is browned in 40 seconds, the fat is of proper 
temperature for cooked foods and for oysters. If bread is 
browned in 60 seconds, the fat is of proper temperature for 
uncooked foods. 

. General Rules for Frying. — Since fat, when heated, reaches 
such a high temperature, the kettle in which it is heated 
should be of iron. 

If there is any moisture on foods, it must be evaporated 
before the foods brown. Excessive moisture also cools the 
fat considerably, hence, foods that are to he fried shotdd be 
as dry as possible. 

Place the foods to be cooked in a bath of fat deep enough 
to float them. The kettle should not be too full, however, 
as fat is apt to bubble over especially when moist foods are 
placed in it. 

Foods may be placed in a frying basket, or they may be 
lowered into the fat and taken from it with a wire spoon. 
All fried foods should be drained on paper. 

When one quantity of food has been removed, the fat 
should be reheated and its temperature tested before adding 
the second quantity of food. 

Fat used for frying should be cooled and clarified with 
potato as directed on the following page. 

If a coal range is used for heating the fat, sand or ashes 
and a shovel should be near at hand in case the fat takes 

If hot fat must be carried or lifted, wrap a towel about 
the hand before grasping the handle of the kettle. 


To Try Out Fat. — The fat of meat consists of fat held by 
a network of connective tissue. To make meat fat suitable 
for frying it is necessary to separate the fat from the tissue. 
This is done as follows : 

Remove the tough outside skin and lean parts from meat 
fat and cut it into small pieces. Put the fat into an iron 
kettle, and cover it with cold water. Place it uncovered on 
the stove and heat. When the water has nearly all evapo- 
rated, set the kettle back, or lessen the heat, or place in a 
*' cool " oven, and let the fat slowly try out. 

As the fat separates from the pieces of tissue, it is well to 
strain or drain it into a bowl. If this is done, the fat is less 
apt to scorch. The heating of the connective tissue should 
continue, until it is shriveled in appearance and no fat can 
be pressed out from it with a fork. The strained fat should 
be set aside to become firm and then stored in a cool place. 

To Clarify Fat. — Add a few slices of raw potato to fat and 
heat slowly until it ceases to bubble. Cool, strain through 
a cloth, and let stand until solid. 


Large oysters Dried bread crumbs 

Salt and pepper Eggs 
1 tablespoonful water or oyster juice for each egg 

Remove pieces of shell from the oyster by running each 
oyster through the fingers. Wash the oysters, drain imme- 
diately, and dry them on a soft cloth or towel (see Clean- 
ing Oysters, p. 309). Season with salt and pepper. Beat 
the eggs slightly and dilute by adding one tablespoonful of 
water or ^trained oyster juice to each egg. Sprinkle salt and 
pepper over the dried bread crumbs (see p. 176). Dip the 

1 Note to the Teacher. — If the price of oysters is too high, some 
seasonable small fresh fish such as pike may be used in place of oysters. 
These may be prepared for frying in the same manner as oysters. If 
desired, corn-meal may be substituted for dried bread crumbs. 


oysters into the prepared crumbs^ then into the egg mixture, 
and finally into the crumbs. Fry one minute, drain, place 
on paper, and serve. 

Lemons cut into eighths are desirable to serve with fijed oysters. 
Parsley makes a pleasing garnish. 

To Clean Utensils that have Contained Fat. — An alkaline 
substance such as washing soda is effective in cleaning 
utensils that have held fat. To show the action of washing 
soda on fats try the following : 

Experiment 34 : Saponification of Fat. — Into a test tube put 
i teaspoonful of washing soda and 1 teaspoonful water, then heat 
until the washing soda is entirely dissolved. Melt 1 teaspoonful 
of solid fat and add it to the soda solution. Boil the contents of 
the tube for a few minutes and then examine it. What substance 
does the foaming suggest? What has been formed by the union of 
fat and soda ? What application can be drawn from this with regard 
to the use of soda in cleaning utensils that have contained fat? 

Wipe out with soft paper the utensil that has held fat. 
Fill it full of water, add some washing soda, and heat. 
Empty the water and wash. Do not use washing soda in 
aluminum utensils (see Preparing Dishes for Washing, 
p. 8). 


What is taking place when hot fat emits an odor? 
Name two advantages in dipping foods that are to be fried in egg. 
Why are dried rather than soft bread crumbs used for covering 
foods that are to be fried? 


Fat as a Frying Medium — Food Fats 

Food Fats. — Fats and oils are extracted from various 
materials and refined so as to make them suitable for food. 


Food fats are of both animal and vegetable origin. Fats 
separated from milk (butter), meat fats (suet, lard) are 
animal fats while those separated from seeds (cottonseed 
and peanut), cereal (com), fruit (olive), nuts (coconuts) are 
vegetable fats. A discussion of various food fats follows : 

(a) BvMer is made by churning ripened cream so as to 
separate the fat from the other ingredients contained in 
milk. It is salted and usually colored before putting it on 
the market. 

The popularity of butter is dependent upon its flavor, 
for its fuel value is not greater than any other fat. Indeed 
butter does not contain as much fat as do the vegetable oils 
and fats, and certain other animal fats. Butter contains 
85 per cent of fat while many vegetable oils and fats and 
lard contain 100 per cent of fat. Butter contains, however, 
certain growth-producing substances called vitamines (see 
Division Seven, p. 245). All fats do not contain vitamines. 
The latter are found in butter, but are not present in vegetable 
oils and fats and in pork fat. 

Butter is one of the most expensive foods of a household. 
Its use, therefore, must be carefully considered. Because 
of its pleasing flavor, for some purposes no fat is as desirable 
as butter. If, however, fat is to be combined with foods of 
pronounced flavor, i,e, foods whose flavor is strong enough to 
cover up other food flavors, other fats may be substituted 
with satisfactory results. 

(b) Oleomargarin is a combination of several different 
fats. It is usually made by churning soft beef fat (called 
oleo oil) and neutral (i.e. carefully rendered) lard with milk 
or cream. Sometimes butter and cottonseed and peanut oils 
are added. Because colored oleomargarin is highly taxed, this 
fat is usually not colored in its preparation for the market. 

The term oleomargarin is used not only as the trade 
name for fat of the composition stated above, but as the legal 


name of any food fat prepared as a butter substitute. To 
comply with the law, solid fats found at market and contain- 
ing no oleo oil are labeled oleomargarin. 

(c) Nut Margarin is also a mixture of various fats. It 
usually consists of coconut oil combined with cottonseed 
or peanut oil. 

(d) Meat Fats, — The fat of pork is commonly " tried 
out " or " rendered " to free it from connective tissue. 
That obtained from trying out the fat from around the 
kidneys is called leaf lard; ordinary lard is obtained from 
the fats of other parts of the animal. The former is con- 
sidered of superior quality. 

Beef suet or the fat from around the kidneys and loin of 
beef is also tried out and used for cooking. All scraps of 
fat — cooked or uncooked — as well as any drippings from 
beef, veal, pork, and chicken, should be saved and used in 
cooking. The fat from mutton has a peculiar flavor and so 
cannot«be used in food, unless cooked with certain flavoring 
materials (see Mutton, p. 290). It may be saved for soap- 
making. Fat from soup and drippings need only be clarified 
before using for cooking; suet and other uncooked fat of 
meat must be first tried out. 

(e) Vegetable Oils, — The oil from cottonseed, corn, and 
peanut is prepared for table use and sold under various 
trade names. Oil is also extracted from the olive. This is 
an extremely expensive oil. Its food value is no greater 
than that of other vegetable oils ; only " olive flavor " is 
secured for the greater price. Refined cottonseed and com 
oils are bland in flavor. Peanut has a characteristic flavor 
pleasing to most persons. When these vegetable oils be- 
come rancid, however, their flavor is disagreeable. 

Fat Combinations. — Every thrifty housekeeper should 
have several kinds of fats in her larder, and should 
use all with discretion. Fats may be combined for certain 


purposes. Many times in making pastry or in saut^ing and 
frying, it is desirable to use a firm and a soft fat together, 
such as butter and lard, suet and oil, or suet and chicken fat. 


1 cupful salt codfish 1 egg 

4 small potatoes } tablespoonful butter or substitute 

J teaspoonful pepper 

Wash the fish in water and tear into small pieces ; wash 
and pare the potatoes. Cook the fish and the whole pota- 
toes together in gently boiling water, containing no salt, 
until the potatoes are soft. Drain and shake over the fire 
until dry; mash, add the beaten egg, fat, pepper, and salt 
(if needed), and beat until light. Take up the mixture by 
spoonfuls, mold slightly, and place in hot deep fat. Do not 
fry more than six balls at one time. Fry until brown, drain, 
garnish, and serve at once. White or Cheese Sauce may 


be served over Fish Balls. • 

The potatoes used in fish balls may be steamed. The codfish, 
however, must be soaked or cooked in water. 


Why is it not necessary to soak codfish for Fish BaUs in water 
before cooking? 

Why is salt not added to the water in which codfish and potatoes 
are cooked? 

If a food that is to be fried contains much water, what happens to 
the water when placed in the hot fat ? Explain why it is better to 
leave the potatoes whole rather than cut them into pieces for cook- 
ing. Why is it especially necessary to dry the fish and potato mix- 
ture before frying? 

What ingredient do Fish Balls contain that hardens immediately 
on being heated? Of what advantage is this ingredient in mixtures 
that are to be fried? 

What is the price per package of codfish? What is the weight 
and measure of a package? 



Fat as a Frying Medium — Digestion of Fat 

Experiment 36 : Action of Oil and Water. — Pour a little com or 
cottonseed oil into a test tube, add the same quantity of water, and 
shake the tube. Set the tube aside for a minute and examine. 
Which material rises to the top? Is oil soluble in water? What 
application can be made from this concerning the effectiveness of 
cleaning the fat of meats with water? 

Experiment 36 : Emulsion of Fat. — In a test tube put a bit of 
soap and 2 tablespoonfuls of water. Heat until the soap is melted. 
Add J teaspoonful of vegetable oil. Shake the mixture and then 
examine. What familiar food does the mixture look like? Set the 
tube aside for a minute. Does the oil rise to the top as in Experi- 
ment 35? The fat is in an emulsified condition. 

Breaking Up of Fats. — Fats and oils are not soluble in 
any substance found in the digestive juices, but they are 
acted upon by an enzyme^ and by an alkaline substance 
found in the pancreatic juice. The enzyme breaks up some 
of the fat into a fatty acid ^ and glycerin. 

During digestion, fat is emulsified, i.e, divided into tiny 
globules which do not coalesce. 

When a fat is emulsified, it often looks like milk. (Milk 
contains fat in an emulsified form ; ' the fat separates, how- 
ever, by standing and rises to the top to form cream.) Fats 
can be emulsified by several different substances. A soap 
solution is one of the substances that will emulsify fats. (The 
action of soap solution in emulsifying fat was shown in 
Experiment 36.) 

If fats are emulsified by means of soap, one might ask 
where the soap comes from in the process of digestion. The 

1 Steapsin or lipase is the enzyme found in the pancreatic juice which 
acts upon fat. 

^ Fatty acids are substances related to fats ; they have certain acid 


soap is thought to be formed by the action of the alkali of 
the pancreatic juice upon some of the fatty acids formed by 
the splitting up of the fat. By means of the soap thus 
formed, fat is emulsified during digestion. During digestion, 
fat is broken up into fatty acids and glycerin. 

Frying and Digestion. — Fat is a slowly digesting food- 
stuff. Not only fats, but foods coated with fat are digested 
slowly. Because of the longer time in the digestive tract, 
foods may cause digestive disturbances. 

When fats are heated to a high temperature, they are de- 
composed and irritating substances (free fatty acids) are 
formed. These substances are absorbed by foods which are 
browned in fats. 

It is well, then, to have the least possible quantity of fat 
soak into foods cooked in fats. It has been found that foods 
soak up much more fat when saut^ (i,e. browning in a small 
quantity of fat) than when fried. The greatest care should 
be taken in frying, however, to have the fat and the food to 
be fried in such condition that as little fat as possible will 
be absorbed. The fat should be sufficiently hot (see Ex- 
periments 32 and 33, page 132), the food as dry as possible, 
and the browned food drained on pai>er. 

Care should be taken not only in frying foods, but in 
avoiding the use of an excessive amount of fat such as butter, 
cream, and vegetable oils in sauces, dressings, and pastry. 

Croquettes. — Croquettes are cooked vegetable, cereal, 
meat, or fish mixtures dipj>ed in dried crumbs and eggs 
and browned in deep fat. These food mixtures are shaped 
in various ways. Rice and potato croquettes are usually 
cylindrical in shape, while chicken croquettes are formed 
into cones. 

Croquettes may he dipped in melted butter or substitute 
or they may be " dotted " with bits of fat and browned in 
the oven or broiling oven instead of frying in deep fat. 


Starch occurs in considerable quantity in the vegetables 
and cereals commonly used for croquettes. Meat and fish 
are usually mixed with a thick White Sauce when used for 
croquettes, hence croquettes invariably contain a starchy 
substance. If croquette ingredients are heated while mix- 
ing, it is necessary to cool them thoroughly before shaping, 
in order that the starch may be as stiff as possible. 


1 pint mashed potatoes Celery salt 

2 tablespoonfuls butter Onion juice 

Cayenne 1 teaspoonf ul chopped parsley 

1 teaspoonf ul salt 1 egg-yolk or i egg 

Mix ingredients together, shape into smooth round balls 
and then into cylinders. Roll in dried bread crumbs, eggs, 
and crumbs again (see Fried Oysters, p. 134). Fry in deep 
fat until brown. 


How does the temperature of fat hot enough for fr3ring compare 
with that of boUing water? Why is an iron kettle preferable to one 
of tin or granite for heating fat (see Caramelized Sugar ^ p. 73) ? 

What happens to foods that are cooked in fat too cool for frying 
(see Experiment 32, p. 132) ? 

What is the purpose of covering with egg, mixtures that are to be 
fried? How should the egg be prepared for " dipping " ? 

How can the remaining white or half an egg be utilized in pre- 
paring Potato Croquettes? 

If '^ left over " mashed potatoes are used for making croquettes, 
what ingredient in the recipe above should be omitted? 

LESSON xxxvn 

Fat Saving 

Baking vs. Frying. — Foods fried under the most ideal 
conditions and in the most skilful manner absorb much 


fat. Many foods well fried, especially doughnuts, are about 
J fat. 

Fish Balls and croquettes, as mentioned previously, can be 
baked instead of fried. Baked croquettes seem somewhat 
more dry, however, than the fried food. If this is objection- 
able a sauce may be poured over them before serving. 

Tomato, cheese, and brown sauces are tasty with most 

Doubtless many housekeepers who dislike the odor of 
hot fat and the cleaning of utensils used in frying foods, 
will consider the process of baking croquettes very much 
more satisfactory than that of frying. 


i cupful rice 2 teaspoonfuls salt 
3 cupf uls boiling water 

Wash the rice, add the water. (If unpolished rice is used, 
let it soak for several hours.) Then add the salt and heat 
the mixture until it boils. Proceed as directed on page 85, 
Rice (cooked over boiling water). (Unpolished rice requires 
about 2 hours of cooking.) Make a White Sauce of the fol- 
lowing ingredients : 

4 tablespoonf uls flour Dash pepper 
1 teaspoonful salt 3 tablespoonfuls fat 

1 cupful milk 

To f of the White Sauce add : 

Cooked rice 

1 or 2 hard-cooked eggs, chopped 

1 tablespooDful parsley, chopped 

(Reserve the remainder of the White Sauce for the prepara- 
tion of Cheese Sauce.) Shape the mixture into cutlets. 
Dip in dried bread crumbs (or corn-meal) and egg as directed 
for Fried Oysters, p. 134. 


Place the cutlets on greased dripping pan. Place bits of 
fat on top of the cutlets, then bake in a hot oven until they 
are browned. Serve hot with the following sauce : 

Remainder of the White Sauce 

} cupful milk 

} to § cupful cheese, cut in small pieces 

1 pimento chopped 

Dilute the White Sauce with the milk. Add the cheese 
and pimento. Heat and stir until the cheese is melted. 
If necessary, add seasoning. Serve hot over the cutlets. 

Fat Saving and Soap-making. — The housekeeper who 
endeavors to waste no food may find that she has saved 
some fat which is not suitable for food. Such fat can be 
utilized in soap-making. By using " modern lye," soap- 
making is not the laborious task as was the preparation of 
soft soap in colonial days. 

The fat for soap-making need not necessarily be decolor- 
ized. It should, however, be tried out (if it is meat fat) and 
clarified before using in the preparation of soap. (These 
processes are given on p. 134.) 

Soap made at home differs somewhat from that made at a 
factory. When fat and lye are combined chemically, soap 
and glycerin are formed. A commercial soap-maker ex- 
tracts the glycerin from soap, the housekeeper does not. 

Homemade soap, however, usually proves very satis- 
factory. When the time consumed in making it is not 
needed for other duties or obligatioiis, it is a saving to make 
soap at home. 


1 can Babbit's lye 6 pounds clarified fat 

1 quart cold water 2 tablespoonf uls ammonia 

Turn the lye into a granite kettle, slowly add the cold 
water, stirring with a stick or a wooden spoon. Work most 


carefully to avoid getting the lye or the lye solution on the 
hands. When the water is added to the lye, the mixture 
becomes very hot. Let it stand until it is cool. 

Put the fat into a large kettle or dish pan. Heat it until 
it melts. Then remove it from the fire. Let it cool suf- 
ficiently to bear the hands in it. Slowly add the lye solution, 
stirring constantly. Add the ammonia and continue stirring 
until the mixture becomes about the consistency of thick 
cream. Then turn the soap into a wooden box lined with 
pai>er or into a granite dripping pan. When the soap be- 
comes firm, cut into pieces of suitable size. 

The materials above will make about 8^ pounds of soap. 

Note. — If desired one small cake of soap may be prepared by 
each pupil in the classroom. The following recipe may be used : 

1 teaspoonf ul lye 2 tablespoonf uls fat 

4 teaspoonf uls cold water i teaspoonf ul ammonia 

Proceed as directed for the large quantity. Pour the mixture 
into one cup of a granite muffin pan or into a small pasteboard box. 


How does unpolished rice differ from polished rice? Explain 
why the former takes a longer time to cook than the latter (see 
Polished and Unpolished Rice, p. 84). 

Explain why baked croquettes require a sauce to make them 
most tasty for serving, while fried croquettes do not. 

State at least 3 advantages of baking croquettes rather than fry- 
ing them. Under what conditions do you think it would be desir- 
able to make soap at home ? 



LESSON xxxvm 

Dining Room Courtesy 
the value of good table manners 

No matter how cultivated in mind and spirit one may be, 
if there is an absence of refinement of manners, the higher 
qualities are likely to be overlooked. No 6ne can afford to 
slight the study of good manners. The basis of all good 
manners is tact, i,e, a kindly consideration of others. This 
consideration may be shown at the dining table quite as well 
as at a social gathering. Graceful and easy table manners 
and a knowledge of how to serve and be served add to the 
comfort as well as to the pleasure of one's associates in the 
dining room. 

Most of the rules of table conduct have been adopted be- 
cause they lend ease and grace or because they are sensible ; 
others have been established by custom and long usage. 


The Chair. — If the chair is placed so that the front 
edge of the seat just touches the table-cloth, there is no ne- 
cessity for moving the chair when taking one's seat or when 
rising. One should stand back of the chair until the hostess 
moves to seat herself and then move to the left of the chair 
to assume the seat assigned. One should also rise at the left 
of the chair. 

The Elnife and Fork. — There is but one " right" way to 
hold the knife or fork. When the knife and fork are used 
together, grasp the handle of the knife or fork with the first 
finger and the thumb so that the end of the handle touches 
the center of the palm of the hand. The hands should 


almost cover the handle, but the first finger should not 
extend down on the blade of the knife or on the prongs 
of the fork (see Figure 35). The knife is held in the right 
hand only, and is used for cutting foods and spreading but- 
ter on bread. For the latter, a small knife, called a butter 
spreader, is sometimes provided. After the knife has been 
used for cutting, it should be so laid on the plate, that it 
rests wholly on it, never partly on the plate and partly 
on the table. It is not pleasing to see a guest at the table 

Figure 35. — How to Hold the KwrFE and Fork. 

holding his knife upright or waving it in the air while he is 

The fork is held sometimes in the left hand and sometimes 
in the right. It should be in the left, when holding foods 
that are being cut with the knife. It may be held in either 
hand when conveying food to the mouth. It used to be 
considered " good form " to use only the right hand in lifting 
food to the mouth, though this necessitated changing the fork 
to the right hand after the knife had been laid aside. The 
lethod of keeping the fork in the left hand to 


carry food to the mouth is now accepted (see Figure 36). 
When the fork is held in the right hand and used for con- 
veying such food as mashed potato to the mouth, its handle 
should be grasped by the thumb and first finger in some- 
what the manner as a pen is held. 

When a second serving is desired, the knife and fork should 
be placed together on one side of the plate, in order to make 
room for the food. At the end of a course the knife ajid fork 
should be placed side by side in the center of the plate. 

The Folk and Spoon. — Since both the fork and the 
spoon are used to convey food, there may be some indecision 
as to the best use of each. The fork should be used when- 
ever it is possible and sensible to do so. Soft foods, such as 
soft-cooked eggs, custards, certain fruits, and desserts served 
with cream or sauce, should be eaten with a spoon. The 
fork should be used for brick ice-cream or stiffly frozen 
desserts. All vegetables, salads, and pastry are eaten with 
a fork. In the case of salads and pastry, it is sometimes 
, necessary to cut them with a fork. It is unconventional to 


cut lettuce with a knife at the table ; it may be shredded or 
torn into pieces before it is served. 

For beverages, the spoon is used for stirring and tasting, 
but not for sipping. After the spoon has been used it should 
be placed in the saucer (see Figure 37). When tasting with 
a spoon, the side — not the tip — of the spoon should be 
used. When using a spoon for serving, or for sipping soup, 
there is less danger of spilling the food if the spoon is moved 
away from, rather than toward, oneself (see Figure 38). 

FiouRE 37. — ^The Te>lSPOON Shoulo Rest on the Saucer, 

Tta« Fingers. — Almost all foods are served with a fork, 
or a spoon. The serving-dish for all such foods should of 
course be provided with a fork or a spoon. There are a few 
foods, however, such as bread, cake, and wafers, which should 
be taken with the fingers. A slice of bread should not be cut 
in pieces at the table. It is better to break off a piece of bread 
and then butter it than to spread the entire slice at one 
time. If cake is soft, it should be eaten with a fork. Celery, 
hard cheese (if cut into pieces), radishes, confections, and 
most uncooked fruits are taken with the Sogers, and eaten 
from them. Olives and salted nuts may be taken from the 


serving-dish with the fingers, but usually spoons are pro- 
vided for the purpose. Keees of chicken or chops should 
he handled only with the knife and fork. Special utensib 
are sometimes provided for holding corn served on the cob. 
Fruits served whole are sometimes difficult to manage. 
When possible the hostess should prepare them before they 
are served. Oranges and grapefruit may be cut into halves 
or peeled and sliced ; bananas may be peeled, scraped, and 
sliced. If fruits, such as apples, pears, and peaches, are 

FiouRE 38. — How TO Hold the Soupspoqh. 

served whole, they should first be cut into quarters, and each 
quarter should be pared separately and eaten. Peaches may 
be cut into halves and eaten with a spoon. 

Th« Napkin. — When the napkin is placed on the lap, 
it need not be spread entirely out, but may be left with 
one fold in it. A guest who is to be present at consecutive 
meab should fold his napkin after eating: if, hovever, he 
is dining in a hotel or restaurant, or if he is in a home for 
but one meal, the napkin should be laid on the table without 


Quiet Eating. — Quiet mastication without hurry and 
without noise is an obligation that we owe ourselves and our 
companions. It is well to refrain from talking during mastica- 
tion. One cannot eat quietly unless the lips are kept closed 
while chewing. 


Cooking and Serving Breakfast 

Cook and serve a breakfast. 

The following is a suggestive menu : 

Breakfast Cereal with Dried Fruit ( 

Baked Fish Balls with White Sauce 
Toast — Butter 

Follow the English or family style of serving. Serve the 
breakfast with or without a maid (see Lesson XXX, p. 118). 


Review; Meal Cooking 


Cooked Fruit, — fresh or dried 

Creamed Toast 


See Review (p. 68) for suggestions regarding the prepara- 
tion of the lesson. 


Home Projects^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Save all scraps of fat or 
bits of meat fats which are unfit for food. Try out the 

^ 8ee Lesson IX, p. 51. 


latter kind of fat. When you have 3 or more pounds of 
fat, make soap. When the soap is firm and ready for use, 
weigh it. 

Prepare Fish Balls (either fried or baked). Rice Cutlets 
with Cheese Sauce, or some other fish or cheese dish which 
could be used as a substitute for meat. 

Suggested Aims : 

(1) To calculate the cost of the soap made at home. To 
calculate the cost of an equal weight of factory-made soap. 
To determine how much you have saved by making soap at 
your home. 

(2) To determine the difference in cost between meat and 
meat-substitute sufficient to serve the family. 






Protein, a Body-Builder and Repairer. — An automobile 
requires not only fuels for its use but occasional repair. 
The body also needs not only fuel but building and re- 
pairing materials. The function of the fuel foods con- 
sidered thus far is to give energy to the body. But there 
is another great class of foods, or foodstuffs — those 
included under the term protein — that not only give 
energy to the body but also build up or promote growth 
and repair it or support life. The process of building and 
repairing takes place in the body cells. Hence the body 
differs from an automobile in that it possesses the property 
of self-building and repairing. 

The child must have protein food so that it can grow and 
live when growth is completed, the adult must have protein 
food so that it can live and maintain health. The slightest 
using of the body causes the wearing away of some of the 
tissues, hence the importance of food containing the food- 
stuff, protein. 

1 Note to the Teacher. — If the egg lessons come in the mid-winter 
months, they may be omitted until the price of eggs is reasonable ; or the 
"theory" concerning eggs and the experiment concerning the tempera- 
ture of cooking protein-rich foods may be given, and the cooking of eggs 
take place later in the year. 


EGGS 153 

Protein is a very broad temi, including many different 
materials, having different properties. Some proteins will 
promote the growth of the body and support life, while others 
are growth promoting but not Hfe supporting, while still 
others are only life supporting. 

The first type of protein is sometimes called complete 
protein, while the two latter types are called incomplete 
protein. In food study and meal planning, it is not sufficient 
to know that a food contains protein; one should know 
whether the protein is complete or incomplete. The in- 
complete proteins need to be supplemented with other foods 
containing the lacking type of protein. Milk, eggs, cheese, 
meat, and fish contain complete proteins, while beans, peas, 
gelatine, and certain cereals contain incomplete proteins. 

A consideration of eggs, a food rich in complete protein, 
follows : 

Experiment 37 : The Coagulation of Egg White. — Put the white 
of an egg in a dish and break the membranes by cutting with a pair 
of scissors. Then place a small quantity of the white of egg in a 
test tube. Apply heat. Into what form is the liquid egg white 
changed by heat? 

When eggs are cooked, the protein in the white called 
albumin stiffens or coagvlates. The yolk also contains a 
kind of protein which coagulates when heated. 

Experiment 38 : The Solubility of Albumin. — Put a small por- 
tion of the broken egg white in a test tube. Half fill the tube with 
cold water. Then turn the contents of the tube on to a folded filter 
paper, and catch the filtrate in another test tube. Are the contents 
of the tube clear? 

Apply heat to the filtrate. What happens? Does this prove 
that egg albumin was dissolved in the water before applying heat 
to the contents of the tube? Explain. 

Experiment 39 : Temperature at which Eggs Coagulate. — Place 
a teaspoonful of white of egg in a test tube. Insert a thermometer 


in the test tube and place the teat tube in a beaker of water (see 
Figure 39). Heat the water (frorfuaWy- Note and record : 
(a) Temperature at which coagulatioo first appears. 
(6) Temperature at which the egg white is entirely coagulated. 
Has the water reached the boihng point when the egg white has 
entirely coagulated? What application can you draw from this as 
to the temperature of the water in 
which eggs may be cooked? 

Experiment 40: Comparison of 
Cooked and Boiled Eggs. — Remove 
at once about half of the coagulated 
I egg from the test tube ot Experiment 
39. Kxamine it and press it between 
the fingers. 

Continue to heat the remainder of 
the egg in the test tube, allowing the 
water to boil a few minutes. Then 
remove the egg, examine it, and press 
it between the fingers. Compare it 
with the egg cooked below the boiling 
point of water. Which is more ten- 
der? Which breaks more easily? 
Which do you consider more palata- 
ble? What conclusion can you 
draw concerning the temperature at 
s~ which eggs should be cooked to make 

them most tender and palatable? 
FinuHE 39. — Apparatus to Digestibility and Palatablllty of 
Determine the Tempera- Eggs. — The experiments of this 

TTJHE AT WHICH EoGS COAO- . L ^i ■ 1 i . 

,jij^jE_ lesson show that eggs cooked at 

simmering temperature are more 
tender than those cooked at boiling tempwrature. The ques- 
tion may arise, is the tender egg more wholesome than the 
tough egg? It is true that eggs cooked below the boiling 
temperature will digest in a little less time than those cooked 
in boiling water. Since, however, the tougher egg is as com- 
pletely digested as the more tender, the difference in the time 
of digestion is a matter of little importance. 

EGGS 155 

But even though the difference in digestion is not con- 
sidered, the difference in pcdatabUity is worth some attention. 
If soft-cooked and soft-boiled eggs are compared, the soft- 
cooked will be foimd to be much more uniformly cooked. 
The white of a soft-boiled egg may be firm, while its yolk 
is very soft or the white may be soft while its yolk is 

Structure of Eggs. — A hen's egg consists of shell, mem- 
brane, white, yolk, and the little mass in the yolk called the 
embryo, from which the young chicken grows. The yolk 
is kept in place by two twisted cords of white membrane. 
This membrane is the first part to disappear when the egg 
begins to spoil. 

Care and Use of Eggs. — (a) Wash eggs just before us- 
ing. ^ The shells may be used for clearing coffee. 

(b) Keep eggs in a cool place. 

(c) The unbroken yolk of an egg may be kept from hard- 
ening by covering with cold water. 

(d) All protein-rich foods contain substances which spoil 
or decompose readily. The egg loses water by evaporation 
through the pores in the shell ; air enters to take the place 
of this and since the air contains micrborganisms, the egg 
spoils. Eggs may be kept fresh by keeping air out of 
them. They may be preserved by packing them, small end 
down, in bran, sawdust, or sand; by immersing them in 

(e) When using several eggs, if not sure of their fresh- 
ness, break each separately into a saucer and examine before 
adding to the rest. 

(/) When using a number of eggs, it is well to scrape 
out the bit of white clinging to the inside of the shell. 

^ Washing removes a coating on egg-shells. This coating prevents the 
entrance of microdrganisms. Hence eggs should not be washed until they 
are to be used. 


Tests for Freshness. — (a) A fresh egg has a rough shell. 
(b) Drop an egg into cold water. If it sinks, it is fresh ; 
if it floats, it is stale. 


Place eggs in enough boiling water to cover. Remove 
from the fire, cover, and allow to stand from 5 to 8 minutes. 

The time of soft-cooking an egg varies with the different 
conditions. The time depends upon : 

(a) Temperature of the eggs. 

(b) Number of eggs cooked. 

(c) Quantity of water used. 

(d) Place on the stove. 

One must determine by experience the length of time of. 
cooking to produce the desired results. 

By following the method above, eggs may be cooked at 
the dining table. 

Hard-cooked Eggs.^ — Place eggs in cold water and heat 
the water gradually until it reaches the boiling point. Re- 
move from the fire at once ; cover and place on the back of 
range, or in a warm place, for 20 minutes. Plunge into cold 
water, so that the shells may be removed easily. 

Eggs may be hard-cooked by using the same method as for soft- 
cooked, allowing the eggs to remain in the hot water for 40 minutes 
or longer. 

Eggs may also be hard-cooked in the double boiler. Put boiling 
water in the top and bottom of the double boUer. Place the eggs 
in the top part and cook 40 minutes. 

If hard-cooked eggs are not well masticated, they are apt 
to cause distress during digestion. To insure thorough 
mastication, it is well to chop them fine and mix them with 

^NoTE TO THE Teacheb. — The Hard-cooked Eggs prepared in this 
lesson may be used in the preparation of Goldenrod Eggs of the follow- 
ing lesson. 


some other food (see Goldenrod Eggs, p. 158). Hard-cooked 
eggs used in this way cause no digestive disturbances to 
the normal person. 


Is it possible to cook eggs hard in water that is below the boiling 
point? Explain your answer. 

Why should eggs be called hard- or aoftrcooked rather than hard- 


Eggs: Digestion of Protein 

The Digestion of Protein. — It was mentioned on p. 153 
that proteins are made up of many different substances. 
The materials composing proteins are called amino dcids. 
There are 18 common amino acids. All proteins are not 
made up of the same amino acids. Amino acids in the 
various proteins differ not only in kind, but in quantity. 

When proteins are digested, they undergo certain changes 
and are finally separated into their amino acids. As amino 
acids proteins are finally absorbed and carried to all parts 
of the body. 

The digestion of protein begins in the stomach and con- 
tinues in the intestines. The digestiye juices ^ of these 
organs change protein into soluble forms. 


Fill a shallow pan about two thirds full of boiling water. 
Add § teaspoonful of salt to each pint of water; place 
buttered muffin rings in the pan. Break separately each egg 
into a saucer and carefully slip it into a buttered muffin 

1 The pepsin and hydrochloric acid of the stomach, the trypsin of the 
pancreatic juice, and the erepsin of the intestinal juice digest proteins. 


ring. Cover the pan and place it where the water will keep 
hot bvi not boil. Pour a spoonful of the hot water on each 
yolk occasionally. 

Let stand (about 5 minutes) until the white is coagulated 
and a film covers the yolk. Take up with a skinuner, drain, 
place on slices of toast, and serve at once. 

An egg poacher may be used in place of the muffin rings, or the 
water in the pan may be stirred in a circular motion and the eggs 
dropped at once into the " whirlpool." This tends to keep the white 
of egg from separating into pieces. 

Eggs are thought by some to be much more tasty when poached 
in milk rather than in water. 


3 or 4 hard-cooked eggs 1} tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

2 tablespoonfuls flour 1^ cupfuls milk 

J teaspoonful pepper 6 pieces of toast 

} teaspoonful salt Parsley 

Separate the yolk and white of the cooked eggs, and chop 
the whites. Make a White Sauce of flour, seasoning, fat, 
and milk. Add the chopped egg whites to the sauce and 
pour it over the toast. Press the yolks through a strainer 
or crush them with a fork and sprinkle them over the top 
of the toast. Garnish with parsley and serve at once. 

If the crusts are not cut from bread in making toast, it is 
well to dip the edges of each slice of toast for an instant in 
hot, salted water before adding the sauce (see Cream Toast, 
p. 104). 


Why is it advisable to pour occasionally a spoonful of hot water 
over the yolks of eggs that are being poached ? 

Explain why the chopped hard-cooked eggs in Goldenrod Eggs 
should be more easily digested than plain hard-cooked eggs (see 
Experiment 12, p. 71, and Solution and Digestion^ p. 40). 



Eggs: Omelets (A) 

To Break an Egg and Separate the White and Yolk. — An 
egg is sometimes broken by cracking the shell with the blade 
of a knife or by striking the egg on the edge of a bowl or 
pan. The following method has also been found satisfac- 
tory, especially when it is desired to separate the white and 

Strike the egg one blow upon the surface of the table. 
Put the thumbs together at the crack in the shell, then hold 
the egg upright, and gently break the shell into two parts. 
Then slip the yolk several times from one part of the shell 
to the other until all the white has run over the edge into a 
bowl or plate. Scrape out the shell of the egg. 

Two kinds of egg beaters are used for eggs, ^- the Dover 
egg beater and the wire spoon. If the former utensil is 
used, the egg is generally dropped into a bowl ; if the latter, 
the egg is placed on a plate. • 

To Beat an Egg. — When the wire spoon is used to beat 
an egg, draw the spoon straight and swiftly through the 
egg, tilting the dish and lifting the egg beater so that the 
material will be turned over at each stroke. Egg whites are 
beaten stiff when the impression made by the beater is re- 
tained; and they are beaten dry, when the gloss has dis- 
appeared and flaky bits fly off as the egg is beaten. Egg 
yolks are beaten thoroughly when they are thicker and 
much lighter in color than before beating. 

To Cut and Fold Beaten Egg Whites and Other Materials. 
— Pour the beaten egg whites into the material with which 
they are to be mixed ; then with a tablespoon edgewise, cut 
the ingredients, lift them, and turn them over the whites. 
Repeat quickly until the ingredients are mixed thoroughly. 


Experiment 41 : Effect of Beating a Whole Egg. — Break an egg 
into a bowl. What is its approximate measure ? With a Dover egg 
beater or wire spoon beat it thoroughly. What is the approximate 
increase in quantity? What has been beaten into the egg? What 
other difference is there between a beaten and an unbeaten egg? 

(Use this egg for making Scrambled Eggs. See below.) 

Experiment 42 : Comparison of Eggs Beaten with a Dover Egg 
Beater and with a Wire Spoon. — Half the pupils of the class beat 
eggs with Dover egg beaters and the other half with wire spoons. 
Compare results. What is the difference in the size of the air cells 
made by using the different utensils? Is there any difference in the 
quantity of the beaten eggs? Which contains the more air? 

Experiment 43 : Effect of Beating Egg Yolk and White Separately. 

— Separate an egg and beat thoroughly the white and then the yolk 
with a Dover egg beater or wire spoon. What is the approximate 
increase in quantity? Which becomes lighter when beaten, — a 
whole or a separated egg? From this explain why every bit of yolk 
should be removed from the egg white before beating, if it is desired 
to beat the egg white as stiff as possible. 

(Use this egg for making Foamy Omelet. See below.) 


4 eggs ' Pepper 

1 teaspoonf ul salt } cupful milk 
1 teaspoonful butter 

Scald the milk in a double boiler and add the butter. 
Beat the eggs and add the seasoning. Pour the hot milk 
over the egg mixture ; return the whole to the double boiler, 
and cook, stirring constantly. When the mixture is thick 
and " lumpy *' but still tender, remove from the double 
boiler and serve at once. 

For economy, the butter may be omitted. 


4 eggs i teaspoonful salt 

4 tablespoonfuls milk or water Pepper 
2 teaspoonfuls butter or substitute 


Separate the yolks and whites of the eggs. Beat the 
yolks of the eggs until creamy ; add seasonings and milk or 
water. Then beat the whites until stiff and cut and fold 
them into the yolk mixture. Place the fat in an omelet 
pan, heat, and turn the omelet into it. Cook slowly, oc- 
casionally turning the pan so that the omelet may brown 
evenly. When the omelet is set and delicately browned 

Figure 40- — Method dp Holdino Pan to Turn an Omelet on to 

underneath, place it in a hot oven for a few minutes to dry 
the top. Fold and serve immediately. 

To Fold an Omelet. — Run a spatula underneath the omelet 
to loosen it. Make a slight incision with a knife through 
the middle of the omelet at right angles to the handle of 
the pan, and foM the omelet over upon itself away from the 
handle of the pan. Grasp the handle of the pan in the 
right hand, placing the back of the hand underneath with 
the thumb pointing away from you. Then turn the omelet 
upon a platter (see Figure 40). 



How are Scrambled Eggs usually cooked? From your work con- 
cerning the effect of intense heat upon eggs, explain the advantages 
of the method given above for Scrambled Eggs. 

What is the proportion of liquid and salt for each egg of a Foamy 
Omelet ? 

Explain why it is especially important to cook a Foamy Omelet 

What causes a Foamy Omelet to " fall "? 

What is the test for the sufficient oven-drjong of a Foamy Omelet ? 

How many persons may be served by using these recipes for 
Scrambled Eggs and Foamy Omelet? 


' Egg^: Omelets (B) 

white sauce omelet 

3 tablespoonfuls flour 2} tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 
1 teaspoonful salt 1 cupful milk 

Pepper 4 eggs 

2 teaspoonfuls butter or substitute 

Make a White Sauce of the milk, fat, flour, and season- 
ing. Separate the whites and yolks of the eggs, and beat 
them until light. When the White Sauce is cool, stir in 
the yolks and fold in the whites. Cook and serve as Foamy 


Prepare a White Sauce Omelet. Instead of turning it into 
a frying pan, pour it into an oiled baking-dish. Place in a 
hot oven and bake for about 20 minutes, or until it is 
'* puffed'' in appearance and golden brown in color. Serve 
at once from the dish in which it was baked. 

ModificatioQ of Foamy and White Sauce Omelets. — Mix 
and cook a Foamy or White Sauce Omelet. As soon as the 

MILK 163 

omelet begins to set, spread it while cooking with finely 
chopped cooked ham, veal, or chicken. Continue to cook 
and then dry, fold, and serve as with the usual omelet. 

Cooked peas, asparagus, cauliflower, or flaked fish may be 
added to the sauce of White Sauce Omelet. Cheese may 
be used in place of meat with either omelet. 

Foamy Omelet may be varied by using tomato juice instead 
of milk. Tomato sauce may be served with either of these 

Sweet Omelet may be made as follows: Add 4 table- 
spoonfuls of powdered sugar to the Foamy Omelet mixture ; 
after cooking, spread with softened jelly; after folding, 
sprinkle with powdered sugar. Use § cupful of jelly for 
the Foamy Omelet recipe. 


Why is the White Sauce cooled before adding the egg yolks in 
White Sauce Omelet? 

Point out the most important differences between a Foamy and a 
White Sauce Omelet. 


What is the purpose of cutting and folding in the whites of eggs in 
omelets? . 

What is the purpose of beating eggs? 

What are the tests that show when egg white is beaten stiff and 
when dry? 

What are the tests for thoroughly beaten egg yolk ? 



Milk, an Invaluable Food. — It has been said that there 
is no one food except milk which cannot be eliminated from 
the diet. Milk is the only food for which there are no easily 
found substitutes. The housekeeper or one who plans the food 


for the family should purchase daily, if possible, a pint of milk 
for each adult and a quart for each child under ten years. 
She should see to it that this amount of milk is entirely used 
either as a beverage or in cooked foods. If one must econ- 
omize in foods, less should he spent for meat, and more for milk. 
Although more than f of milk is water, it contains only 
a little more water than do potatoes and lean meat. The 
value of milk is due to the fact that it contains : 

(a) Proteins of " excellent quality." An authority on diet 
says 1 : " There can be no doubt that the proteins of milk 
are far superior to those of any foods derived from vegetable 
sources." The most important protein existing in milk is 
called casein. 

Casein is a complete protein and is very important for 
growth. It has a peculiar property ; it precipitates when acid 
is added to milk. When milk sours, the sugar contained in 
the milk changes to an acid, and this acid causes the casein 
to precipitate. Casein is also clotted by an enzyme occurring 
in the digestive juice of the stomach. 

(b) Valuable ash. Lime which is so essential to body- 
building is one of the minerals in milk. The following dia- 
gram from United States Food Leaflet No. 11 shows that 
milk is especially rich in lime. (Lime is calcium oxide.) 


1 cup of milk 

1 See "The Newer Knowledge of Nutrition," by McCollum, p. 74. 

MILK 165 

(c) Vitamines. These are substances contained only in 
certain foods. They are essential for maintaining life and 
health. Milk is riph in these indispensable materials (see 
Division Seven, p. 245). 

Milk also contains fat and carbohydrate. The presence 
of the foodstuffs in milk is shown by the following : 

Ezperiment 44 : Separation of Milk into Foodstuffs. 

(a) By means of a cream dipper, remove the cream from a bottle 
of milk. Place a drop of the cream on a piece of paper. Let the 
paper dry. What foodstuff is indicated by the stain on the paper? 

(6) Take i cupful of the skimmed mUk. Heat it to blood tem- 
perature (test by dropping the milk on the wrist, see Junket Custard, 
p. 189). Crush J jimket tablet and add it to the warm milk. Stir' 
until the powder is dissolved. Let the milk stand in a warm place 
until it is clotted. Heat the clotted milk and boU 1 minute. Pour 
it into a filter paper. Catch the filtrate in a beaker. What is the 
foodstuff that remains in the filter paper (see Proteins of "ex- 
cellent quality," p. 164) ? 

(c) Put 15 cubic centimeters of Fehling's Solution^ in a flask. 
Boil for 2 minutes. Add 2 cubic centimeters of the filtrate from (6) 
and boil one minute. To what color does the blue mixture change? 
A red precipitate indicates sugar. What foodstuff does this test 
indicate that milk contains? 

(d) Put the remainder of the filtrate from (6) in a custard cup 
and evaporate over hot water to dryness. Note the residue. What 
foodstuff other than sugar is contained in the residue? 

(e) What foodstufif has passed off in the form of vapor during 

(/) As mentioned above, milk also contains vitamines. 

^ Note to the Teacher. — Fehling's Solution is made as follows : 
Prepare a solution of Rochelle salts, — 175 grams of Rochelle salts, 50 
grams of sodium hydroxide, and 250 cubic centimeters of water. Prepare 
a solution of copper sulphate, — 57.73 grams of copper sulphate, 250 
cubic centimeters of water, and 0.4 cubic centimeter of sulphuric acid. 
Then combine 1 part of the alkaline Rochelle salt solution, 1 part of 
copper sulphate, and 4 parts of water. Boil the mixture. 

This solution deteriorates readily. The best results are obtained by 
using a "fresh" mixture for testing sugar and by boiling just before 



Milk with Cocoa and Chocolate 

Experiment 45 : Scalding Milk. — Fill the lower part of a double 
boiler one third full of boiling water. Put J cupful of milk in the top 
of the double boiler, cover, and heat over the boiling water. In a 
few minutes examine. Carefully note the appearance of the surface 
of the milk. Explain why it is that dishes that have contained milk 
should be soaked in cold water, and then washed in warm water. 

Insert a thermometer in the milk and record temperature. Is it 
possible to boil milk over hot water? Explain your answer. (Use 
this scalded milk to make cocoa and chocolate.) 

The taste of milk is changed by heating it above 158° F. 
Less change, however, is produced by scalding than by boil- 
ing. Milk is also apt to scorch if cooked at boiling tempera- 
ture. It is sometimes necessary to boil milk to sterilize it. 

Cocoa and Chocolate as found at market are prepared from 
cacao beans. The latter grow in pods, — the fruit of the 
tropical cacao trees (see Figure 41). The beans are taken 
from the pods, allowed to ferment, dried, and roasted. The 
husks loosened by roasting are then removed from the beans. 

Cacao beans are ground, molded, and sold as bitter or 
baker's chocolate. In the preparation of sweet chocolate 
sugar is added to the powdered chocolate before molding. 
Cocoa differs from chocolate in that some of the fat is re- 

Cocoa and chocolate contain protein, fat, and carbo- 
hydrates. These materials, in addition to the milk and sugar 
used in preparing the beverages, make the cocoa and chocolate 
beverages high in food value. But in addition to the materials 
mentioned above, there is present in cocoa and chocolate 
some tannin and stimulating materials. The large percentage 
of fat existing in chocolate may produce distressing effects 
when taken in addition to a full meal. If, however, the Ufie 


of these beverages causes no ill effects, they may be ctaased 
among the nutritious foods and are much preferable to tea 
and coffee especially for girls and boys. 

Neither cocoa nor chocolate is soluble in water. Some 
cocoas are very finely ground and are termed soluble cocoas. 

Flqure 41. — Cacao Pods. 

When mixed with water these cocoas do not separate as 
rapidly as others, but they are not soluble. Because of its 
insolubility, chocolate should be blended as thoroughly as 
possible with other materials. A satisfactory and practical 
method of accomplishing this is to make a stnooth paste of 
chocolate and boiling water. 


To develop flavor, it is well to cook both chocolate and 
cocoa at boiling temperature, especially when combining 
with liquids. The flavor of the cocoa beverage is improved 
by much cooking. Long cooking of the chocolate beverage 
causes the fat to separate and float. 


} cupful cocoa 3 cupf uls milk 

1 to 3 teaspoonfuls corn-starch i to | cupful sugar 

1 cupful water I teaspoonful salt 

Mix cocoa, corn-starch, and water and boil for 10 min- 
utes. Add the milk and sugar to the mixture and cook 
over hot water for ^ hour. Add salt. Beat well and serve. 
Vanilla may be added to cocoa if desired. 

Varjdng quantities of com-starch and sugar are given so that the 
beverage may be thickened and sweetened to suit one's taste. If 
desired, the com-starch may be omitted entirely. 


2 squares chocolate 3 cupfuls milk 

1 cupful boiling water i teaspoonful salt 

i cupful sugar i teaspoonful vanilla 

Cut the chocolate into bits and put it in a pan ; add the 
boiling water. Stir and cook until it reaches the boiling point 
and is perfectly smooth. Heat the milk in a double boiler. 
Then gradually add the hot milk to the chocolate mixture, 
add the sugar, and heat all in a double boiler. Add salt 
and vanilla, if desired. If there is a scum over the beverage, 
beat well. Serve hot. 

Whipped cream or marshmallows are often served with chocolate. 
The use of whipped cream with chocolate, however, makes the bev- 
erage excessively rich in fat. 



What is the difference in method between scalding milk and boil- 
ing it? How can one determine when milk is scalded? 

If it is necessary to heat milk, give two reasons why it is usually 
better to scald it than to boil it. Under what conditions should it be 

What is the present cost of milk per quart? When is the price 
highest and when low^t? 

If sweetened chocolate is used, how should the recipe for chocolate 
beverage be changed? Give two reasons why cocoa and chocolate 
should not be boiled after adding the hot milk. 

Why is vanilla not added imtil the beverages are ready to be 
served (see Flavoring Extracts, p. 265) ? 

What is the weight of one square of chocolate? How many 
squares in an ordinary cake of chocolate? What is the price per 

How many cupf uls are there in a half poimd box of cocoa ? What 
is the price per box? 

See Chocolate Comnstarch Pudding, p. 100. How much cocoa 
may be used for 1 ounce of chocolate when one is substituted for 
the other? What is the difference in cost of these quantities of 
chocolate and cocoa? 


Milk and Cream 

Whipping Cream. — A popular way of preparing cream 
for serving is to whip it. This is done most successfully 
when the cream is cold and kept cold, i.e. surrounded with 
ice water during the beating process. 

To show one of the points involved in chilling materials 
try the following : 

Experiment 46 : Comparison of ^e Conducting Power of Metal 
and Earthenware. — Select a tin and . an earthenware utensil of 
about the same size and shape. Put an equal quantity of water 
of the same temperature in each utensil. Surround each with ice 


water and cover. After 5 minutes, take the temperature of the 
water in the tin and in the earthenware utensil. Which is colder? 
Through which material, — tin or earthenware, — is heat trans- 
mitted more readily? When cream is to be surroimded by ice 
water for whipping, in which kind of utensil should it be placed? 
Explain your answer. 

Use a Dover egg beater or a cream whip for whipping 
cream. Since cream " spatters " when being beaten, a 
cream whip arranged with a cover is very satisfactory. To 
prevent spattering, the bowl of cream may be covered with 
paper while the cream is being whipped. Cut a slit in a 
piece of paper, insert the Dover egg beater in the slit, 
put the beater in the cream and push the paper down to 

Since cream contains considerable fat, under certain 
conditions, it is possible to mass the fat together, that is, sepa- 
rate it from the other constituents, and form biUter. For 
making butter the cream should be " ripened," i.e, it should 
contain certain bacteria. It should then be churned. 

On the other hand, if it is desired to beat or whip the 
cream, but not to form butter, it is necessary to prevent the 
fat from massing together. To accomplish this, use thick 
cream (containing 20 per cent or more of fat) from 12 to 24 
hours old ^ and have it very cold ; it will then whip quickly. 
Cream may be chilled by placing it on ice for some time 
before whipping or by surrounding it with ice water while 
whipping. In warm weather, it is safer not only to chill 
the cream but also to surround it with ice water while 

A harmless substance called viscogen may be added to 
thinner cream {ix, the so-called coffee or 16 per cent cream) 
to make the latter whip. Viscogen is prepared by mixing 
the following ingredients : 

^ Such cream contains a small amount of lactic acid. 


} cupful sugar 
1 cupful water 
1 tablespoonf ul milk of lime ^ 

Mix the sugar and water and heat the mixture until it 
boils. Cool and add the milk of lime. Let the mixture 
stand at least 24 hours before using. Add 1 teaspoonful 
to each pint of cream, then whip the mixture as directed 

Comparison of Milk and Cream. — Cream is richer in 
fat than milk^ average cream containing 16 per cent of fat 
and whole milk about 4 per cent. But cream contains less 
protein and ash than whole milk. 

Since cream is always more expensive than milk, it is in- 
teresting to compare the food value of quantities of each 
which may be purchased for the same price. Although the 
prices of cream and milk vary in different places, usually 
^ pint of cream costs about as much as 1 quart of milk. The 
following shows the approximate quantity of nutrients shown 
in the two quantities : 

In 1 quart of milk ' In i pint of cream 

As much protein as in 5 eggs As much protein as in 1 egg 
2i tablespoonfuls of fat 3 tablespoonfuls of fat 

3 tablespoonfuls of sugar } tablespoonf ul of sugar 

Although § pint of cream contains § tablespoonful more 
of fat than does 1 quart of milk, the latter contains 2§ table- 
spoonfuls more of sugar and as much more protein as is 
contained in 4 eggs. This comparison makes us question 
the advisability of buying much cream. 

If whole milk is purchased, its top milk may often be used 
in place of cream. The skim milk that remains is a valuable 

1 Milk of lime may be prepared by mixing 1 part of slaked lime with 
3 parts of water. 

^ By permission Journal of Home Economics, Vol. X (August, 1918, 
p. 379). 


food. Although whole milk contains more fat and vitamines 
than does skim milk, the latter has as much protein, lime, 
and sugar as whole milk. The use of both whole and skim 
milk is advised. 

Care of Milk. — Milk is one of the foods that require the 
greatest care, and should be well cared for not only in the 
home but also on the dairy farm. It is one of the foods 
that afford ideal conditions for the growth of microscopic 
vegetable organisms, called bacteria (see Why Foods 
Spoil, p. 474). Many varieties of these bacteria or tiny 
plants produce changes in the milk which cause it to sour. 
A few varieties of disease-producing bacteria also sometimes 
exist in milk. 

Milk can be kept reasonably free from bacteria by : 

(a) Perfect cleanliness on the dairy farm. 

(b) Cooling it immediately after being drawn from the 
cow, and by keeping it cool. 

(c) Placing it in sterilized utensils. 

(d) Covering it, thus keeping it free from dust. 
Utensils for holding milk should be of glass, earthenware, 

or smooth, bright tin. They should be washed, scalded, or 
even better, boiled, and placed in the sun for two or three 
hours. In the home, milk should not be used after long 
standing, even though it is sweet. It is well to buy milk 
in small quantities and in bottles. The upper rim of a 
milk bottle should be washed before pouring milk from it. 
Because milk readily absorbs odors and flavors, it should be 
kept away from any substance having a strong odor or flavor. 


I cupful cooked rice f cupful powdered sugar 

i cupful fruit, cut into pieces i to f cupful cream, whipped 

Mix the rice, fruit, and sugar, then fold in the whipped 
cream. Pineapple, shredded or diced; bananas cut into 


pieces (not slices) ; dates, seeded and cut into pieces ; or 
cooked apricots are desirable fruits for this dessert. 


1 quart milk or \ teaspoonful salt 

1 quart milk and water } cupful sugar 

\ cupful rice Grated rind of \ lemon 

Wash rice; put it and all the other ingredients into a 
buttered pudding dish. Bake in a slow oven until firm. 
This usually takes three hours. While baking, stir the 
mixture occasionally. 

If desired, one half cupful of raisins may be added to the mixture, 
and nutmeg may be substituted for lemon rind. 


From your knowledge of the effect of intense heat upon milk, ex- 
plain why Cream of Rice Pudding should be baked in a slow oven. 

What change in quantity takes place in the milk of this pudding 
diuing long cooking? What change in quantity takes place in the 
rice diuing long cooking ? From this explain why so much milk when 
combined with a little rice forms a solid mixture. 

What is the price per pint of thin or coffee cream ? 

What is the price per pint of heavy or whipping cream? 

What is the least quantity of cream that can be purchased? 

Explain why it is that scalded milk does not sour as soon as un- 
cooked milk (see Care of Milk, p. 172). 

Why should the utensils that have contained milk be scalded or 


Cream Soups (A) 

Thick Soups. — Milk combined with various vegetables, 
grains, and fish is used in making Cream Soups and Purees. 
The vegetables are cooked and mashed or forced through a 
strainer and combined with a liquid, — usually milk or 


milk with vegetable stock. In order to have the vegetable 
pulp uniformly mixed through the liquid, it is necessary to 
thicken the liquid with a starchy material. Flour with 
butter or substitute, mixed and cooked as in White Sauce, 
is used for this purpose. It is said to " bind " the vegetables 
and the liquid. Thus, Cream Soups and Pur^s are simply 
White Sauces to which vegetable pulp is added. 

General Proportions. — The ttsrud proportion of vegetable 
pulp or pur^e to liquid is : One part of vegetable pulp or pur^ 
to 2 parts of liquid, i.e. milk, vegetable stock, or meat stock. 

The proportion of flour to liquid is: ^ tablespoonf ul flour 
to 1 cupful liquid, if a starchy vegetable is used, or, 1 table- 
spoonful flour to 1 cupful liquid, if a vegetable having little 
thickening property, as celery, is used. 

Sometimes an egg or two is added to soup for thickening 
or flavor, and to increase the food value. 

Different kinds of vegetables are sometimes mixed for a 
soup, as : Peas and beans, or corn and beans. 


3 potatoes 1 tabiespoonful flour 

1 pint milk or 1? teaspoonfuls salt 

1 pint milk and potato stock i teaspoonful pepper 

2 slices of onion Celery salt 

f tabiespoonful butter or substitute 2 teaspoonfuls chopped parsley 

Cook and mash the potatoes, heat the milk and onion in 
a double boiler, then add them to the mashed potatoes. 
Press the potato mixture through a strainer and use it as 
the liquid for a White Sauce, using all other ingredients ex- 
cept the parsley in the sauce. If necessary, add more liquid, 
or evaporate to the desired consistency. Add the chopped ■ 
parsley just before serving. 

" Left over " mashed potatoes may be utilized in making this ^ 



Cut stale bread into half-inch cubes. Bake slowly in the 
oven until a golden brown. Stir often. Serve with soups. 

Save the crusts and prepare Dried Bread Crumbs with 
them (see p. 176). 


What is the proportion of flour and liquid in one cup of White 
Sauce for Vegetables (see p. 109) ? 

How does the proportion of flour and liquid for one cup of Cream 
Soup differ from the above proportion? 

Why are the potatoes pressed through a strainer after rather than 
before adding the hot milk? 

Why should the cubes of stale bread be baked slowly (see 
Toast, p. 103) ? 


Cream Soups (B) 

Food Value of Cream Soups. — Since thin or clear soups 
contain much liquid, their food value is not as high as most 
solid foods. Cream Soups, however, are as concentrated as 
a potato ; they are the most nourishing of all soups. The 
use of milk instead of water or stock and of flour and fat, to 
say nothing of vegetable pulp, increases their food value. 
Cream Soups are more suitable to serve at a meal of few 
courses such as luncheon or supper rather than at dinner 
where there is a greater variety of foods. 

Thick soups may serve as a valuable part of a meal ; a hot 
liquid taken into an empty stomach is easily assimilated, acts 
as an appetizer, and thus prepares for the digestion of the 
remainder of the meal. 



I can of com 2 tablespoonfuls 6oiir 

I pint water 1 teaspoonful salt 

li tablespoonfuls butter or substitute i teaspoonful white pepper 

1 slice onion 1 pint milk 

Add the water to the canned com and simmer 20 
minutes. Melt the fat, add the onion, and cook until Hght 
brown. To this add the dry ingredients and proceed as 
in making White Sauce. Add the cooked com and strain. 
Reheat before serving, if neces- 

Note. — The method of adding 
onion flavor to this soup (i.e. brown- 
Ing onion in fat) is often used in the 
preparation of other foods, especially 
meats and sauces. 

Cut 3tale bread into slices, re- 
move the crusts, and spread with 
butter. Cut into strips and 
brown slowly in the oven. Save 
the crusts and prepare Dried 
Bread Crumbs with them. 

Figure 42. — Dried Bread DRIED BREAD CRUMBS 

Crumbs. (Note thai Ihe jar ■ i. < ^ . i 

is covered with a cloth.) D"ed Bread Cmmbs may be 

prepared from crusts and small 
pieces of bread. Dry the bread in a slow oven or in a 
warming oven. Crumb it by rolling on a pastry board or 
putting it through a meat grinder. If fine crumbs are de- 
sired, sift the crushed bread. Place the fine and coarse 
crumbs in separate jars. Cover the jars by tying a piece of 


muslin over each. (The muslin covering can also be con- 
veniently secured by means of a rubber band.) If each jar 
is tightly covered with a lid, air is excluded from the crumbs 
and molds often grow on them. Bread crumbs thoroughly 
dried and stored as directed will keep for several months 
(see Figure 42). 


Explain why thick soup may serve as a valuable part of a meal. 

Why is it served as the first com^e of a meal? 

Is the mashed potato of Potato Soup strained before or after 
adding it to the other ingredients ? When is the Corn Soup strained ? 
How is the flavor extracted from the onion in preparing Potato 
Soup? How is the flavor extracted for Corn Soup? From this 
explain the difference in straining the soups. 

If fresh com were used for this soup, how would its cooking differ 
from that of canned com? 

How should fresh com be cut from the cob for soup (see Green 
Cam, p. 25) ? 

What is the price per can of corn? 

In preparing Soup Sticks, why are the crusts removed from the 
bread before buttering it? Why is the bread spread with butter 
before cutting it into strips? Aside from flavor, what is the purpose 
of spreading the bread for Soup Sticks with butter? 

How should dried bread crumbs be covered for storing? Why? 

What is the difference between soft bread criunbs (see note under 
recipe for Stuffed Tomatoes, p. 17) and dried bread crumbs (see 
p. 176)? Which should be used for scalloped dishes? Which for 
covering fried foods? Think of the dishes which contain bread 
crumbs and then state for which foods either kind of crumbs could 
be used. Explain. 


Milk Thickened with Egg (A) 

Custards. — Since eggs have the property of stiffening 
when heated, they are often used for thickening liquids, 
especially milk. Milk thickened with eggs is called custard. 


There are two kinds of plain custards: (a) steamed or 
baked custard and (b) soft custard. The method of mix- 
ing these custards is the same, but the methods of cooking 
and the tests for sufficient cooking differ. 

That the milk may not scorch and that the egg may not 
cook too hard, all milk-and-egg mixtures should be cooked 
below the boiling temperature of water. They should never 
be cooked directly over the fire, but over hot water or in a 
double boiler. That the egg may cook evenly and not too 
quickly, the water in the double boiler should not boil rapidly. 

If a custard is properly cooked, the egg is in a soft-cooked 
condition. It exists in a jelly-like mass throughout the 
milk. The custard has a creamy appearance. If, how- 
ever, a custard is cooked too much, the egg becomes hard- 
cooked and the particles of egg appear in " lumps " in the 
milk mixture. The custard is then said to be curdled, 

A curdled custard may be made smooth by placing the 
upper part of the double boiler in a pan of cold water and 
then beating the custard ai once with a Dover egg beater. 
This applies to all types of plain custards. 


1 pint milk i teaspoonful salt 

2 or 3 eggs 2 tablespoonf uls caramel sirup or 
i cupful sugar ^ teaspoonful nutmeg 

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Beat the eggs slightly, 
add the sugar and salt, mix. Add the hot milk to this mix- 
ture. Strain the mixture, flavor, and pour it into a mold. 
If steamed custard is desired, steam (without stirring) until 
the custard is firm. Let the water in the steamer boil gently 
rather than vigorously. Test for sufficient cooking by in- 
serting a knife into the custard. If it comes out clean, the 
custard is done. 


If baked custard is desired, place the cups of custard in a 
pan of hot water, and bake in a moderate oven until firm. 
Test as steamed custard. 

If a Baked or Steamed Custard is to be turned out of the mold 
after steaming, 3 or 4 eggs should be used with each pint of milk. 
By placing a Uttle Caramel Sirup in the bottom of each mold, a 
custard may easily be turned out of the mold. The custard mix- 
ture should be poured very gently on top of the sirup to prevent 
the custard and sirup from mixing. The caramel also serves as a 
sauce for the custard when served. (Caramel Sirup may be pre- 
pared by caramelizing sugar (as directed in making Peanut Candy y 
see p. 73) and then dissolving the carameUzed sugar in boiling water. 
Use equal quantities of sugar and water.) 


1 pint milk } cupful sugar 

2 eggs i teaspoonf ul salt 

i teaspoonful vanilla 

Mix the materials in the same way as for steamed or baked 
custard. Instead of pouring the mixture into molds, return 
it to the double boiler and cook (stirring constantly) until 
it thickens or forms a coating over the spoon. Strain, cool, 
and flavor. Note that steamed custard is strained and 
flavored before cooking, and soft custard, after cooking. 

In preparing soft custard, the eggs may be separated and the 
yolks cooked with the milk and other ingredients. The whites may 
be beaten stiff and beaten into the hot mixture with a Dover egg 
beater. Soft Custard may be used as a sauce over cooked rice, cake, 
bananas, peaches, and other foods. 

To Decrease the Eggs in Custard 

When eggs are expensive omit 1 or 2 from a custard 
recipe. Substitute J tablespoonful of com-^tarch for each 
omitted egg. For methods of thickening milk with both 
eggs and starchy materials, see Lessons LIV, p. 182. 



What is the purpose of eggs in custard? 

Why are eggs beaten slightly for custards? 

How do Steamed Custards and Soft Custards differ in method of 
cooking? What are the tests for sufficient cooking of each? 

What is the purpose of straining custards? Why is Steamed 
Custard strained and flavored before cooking, and Soft Custard, after 

In what condition is the egg when a custard is curdled? How 
can a curdled custard be made smooth? 


Mile Thickened with Egg (B) 
floating island 


1 pint milk i cupful sugar 
3 egg yolks i teaspoonful salt 
i teaspoonful vanilla 

3 egg whites 3 tablespoonfuls powdered sugar 

The custard may be made thicker by using 4 (instead of 
3) eggs. 

Prepare the custard as Soft Custard. 

Prepare the Meringue by beating the whites of eggs stiflF 
and then adding 1 tablespoonful of sugar for each white of 
egg. Drop the Meringue by spoonfuls on the custard. If 
desired, garnish the Meringue by bits of jelly or colored 

From the results of Experiment 42, p. 160, which egg beater 
do you consider most advisable for preparing Meringue ? 

If desired, the Meringue may be cooked. This may be accom- 
plished in several ways : (a) place it on the hot custard at once after 



preparing the custard, (b) Steam it by dropping it by spoonfuls 
on the hot milk before preparing the custard. Cover, and let the 
egg white cook for about 2 minutes, then remove from the milk 
and proceed to thicken the milk with the egg yolks, (c) Drop the 
uncooked Meringue on the cooked custard as directed above, then 
cook and brown it slightly by placing the custard in the broiling 
oven or in the top of a hot baking oven. 


In making custards, why should the hot milk be added to the 
eggs, instead of the eggs to the hot milk? 

How does Floating Island differ from Soft Custard? 

What is Meringue? 

Compare Floating Island made with three eggs to that made with 
four eggs. How does it differ in thickness, color, and cost? 


Milk Thickened with Egg (C) 
apricot dainty 

1 cupful dried apricots i cupful powdered sugar 

3 egg whites 

Wash and soak the apricots. Steam until soft. Mash 
the apricots, or press through a coarse strainer or colander ; 
add the sugar. Beat the whites of eggs until very stiff; 
fold them into the apricots and sugar mixture. Chill and 
serve with Custard Sauce. 

Dried prunes may be substituted for apricots, using less 
sugar and adding a little lemon juice. 

If it is desired to make Apricot Dainty some time before serving, 
it should be stiffened with gelatine. To do this, mix } tablespoonful 
of granulated or powdered gelatine with 2 tablespoonfuls of cold 
water. Add the gelatine mixture to the hot mashed or strained 
apricots, stir until the gelatine is dissolved, then proceed to add the 
sugar and egg white as directed above. 



Use the recipe for Soft Custard (p. 179) for Custard Sauce, 
substituting 3 yolks for 2 whole eggs. 


Why is it desirable to steam the fiuit rather than cook it in water 
for this dessert? 

Compare the custard made with the entire egg to that made with 
the egg yolk. What is the difference in thickness and color? 

How many egg yolks are equivalent to two whole eggs in thicken- 


Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials 


Egg and Starch. — How long is it necessary to cook milk- 
and-starch mixtures so that the starch will be cooked thor- 
oughly (see Blanc Mange, p. 100) ? How long does it 
take to cook eggs when used for thickening? Are eggs 
used for thickening harmed by long cooking? Explain 
your answer. If both starch and egg are used for thicken- 
ing a mixture, devise a way whereby the starch can be 
cooked thoroughly, and the egg can be cooked without 


1 pint milk i teaspoonf ul salt 

i to i cupful granulated tapioca 1 egg 
i cupful dark brown sugar i teaspoonf ul vanilla 

i to 1 tablespoonf ul butter 

Scald the milk, add the tapioca, and cook the mixture over 
hot water until the tapioca is transparent (see Apple 


Tapioca, p. 113). Mix the sugar, salt, and egg. Add a 
portion of the hot tapioca mixture to the egg mixture. Mix 
thoroughly, then return the mixture to the double boiler. 
Stir and cook until the egg thickens. Add the vanilla and 
butter and turn into dishes for serving. Cool. Serve with 
plain or whipped cream. 

The quantity of tapioca determines the stiffness of the 
dessert. If a very soft consistency is desired, use the smaller 
quantity of tapioca. 

Chopped nuts may be added to the dessert just before turning 
into the serving dishes. 

For economy, the egg and butter may be omitted. If the egg is 
omitted, the greater quantity of tapioca should be used. 


3 potatoes 1 teaspoonful salt 

2i cupfuls milk Pepper 

2 egg yolks or 1 egg i teaspoonful celery salt 

Cook the potatoes until soft, drain, and mash. Scald the 
milk and add it to the potatoes, then strain the mixture. 
Beat the eggs, add seasoning, combine with the potato mix- 
ture, and cook in the top part of the double boiler, stirring 
constantly, until the egg thickens. Serve immediately. 


In Butterscotch Tapioca what ingredient could be substituted 
for tapioca? How much of this ingredient should be used (see 
Blanc Mange f p. 100) ? 

What is the purpose of the eggs in Cream of Potato Soup ? 

Why should the soup be served inunediately after cooking the 

How does this soup differ in thickening materials from Potato 
Soup (see p. 174) ? 

What would be the effect of adding 1 egg to plain Blanc Mange? 


When and how should the egg be added? Give reasons for your 
method of adding the egg. 

Write a recipe for Soft Custard (see p. 179) in which corn-starch is 
substituted for one of the eggs. Write out the method of cooking 
such a custard. 


Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials 



1 can com or 1 teaspoonful salt 

6 ears green com \\ tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

2 tablespoonfuls flour 1 cupful milk 

2 eggs 

Make a White Sauce of the flour, salt, butter, and milk. 
Add the corn (for method of cutting green corn from the 
cob, see p. 25). Beat the eggs, add them to the com mix- 
ture. Turn the mixture into a buttered baking-dish, and 
place the dish in a pan of hot water. Bake in a moderate 

oven until the mixture is firm. Serve hot as a vegetable. 


One egg may he omitted and the flour and fat increased to 3 and 2 
tablespoonfuls respectively. 


1 cupful cheese grated or cut into pieces 1 egg 

1 cupful milk } teaspoonful salt 

} cupful dried bread crumbs or granulated tapioca Cayenne 

Beat the egg slightly, and add the other ingredients. 
Turn into a buttered baking-dish, custard cups, or ramekins. 
Place in a pan of hot water, and bake in a moderate oven 
until the mixture is firm. Serve hot (for method of pre- 
paring Dried Bread Crumbs, see p. 176). 



What ingredients in Com Custard thicken the mixture? 

What ingredients in Cheese Pudding thicken the mixture? 

What is the purpose of placing the baking-dish containing Com 
Custard or Cheese Pudding in a pan of hot water? At what tem- 
perature should these two foods bake? Give a reason for your 

In Cheese Pudding, why are the starchy material and egg cooked 
for the same length of time? 

Compare the cost of a can of com and six ears of green com. 

How many persons will the recipe for Com Custard serve? 

How many will the Cheese Pudding serve? 


Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials 


Bread Puddings are made by adding bread to a custard 
mixture, and then baking in the oven like Baked Gustard 
(see p. 179). For these puddings either stale or dry bread 
is used. The bread should be softened with the milk. 

How many eggs are used 'to thicken one pint of milk in 
Steamed or Baked Custard (see p. 178)? How many eggs 
are used to thicken one pint of milk in Bread Puddings 
(see recipe below) ? Account for this difference. 


2 cupfuls milk 1 egg 

1 cupful bread crumbs i teaspoonful salt 

1 tablespoonful butter 1 teaspoonful vaniUa or 

3 tablespoonfuls sugar J teaspoonful spices 

3 tablespoonfuls cooked currants 

Scald the milk ; add the bread crumbs. When the crumbs 
are soft, add the remaining ingredients. Pour the mixture 
into a buttered baking-dish, and place the baking^sh in a 


pan of hot water. Bake the pudding slowly until it becomes 
firm and golden brown. Cover during the first 15 minutes 
of baking. Serve with cream. Hard Sauce (see p. 31), 
Chocolate or Vanilla Sauce (see below). 

If chocolate were added to the recipe for plain Bread Pudding, 
what change should be made in the other ingredients (see Choco- 
late Com-starch Puddingy p. 100) ? Since chocolate contains much 
fat, what ingredient could be omitted, if chocolate were used? Com- 
pare the recipes for Bread Pudding and Chocolate Bread Pudding. 


1 cupful bread crumbs } cupful sugar 

2 cupfuls scalded milk 1 egg 

1 ounce chocolate i teaspoonful salt 

i cupful boiling water J teaspoonful vanilla 

Add the bread crumbs to the scalded milk and allow them 
to soak until soft. Cut the chocolate in pieces, add the 
boiling water to it, and cook gently until a smooth paste is 
formed. Add this to the bread mixture. Proceed as in the 
preparation of plain Bread Pudding. Serve with plain or 
whipped cream or Lemon Sauce (see p. 114). 


i cupful sugar 2 cupfuls boiling water 

2 tablespoonfuls flour 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls butter 

1 teaspoonful vanilla 

Mix sugar and flour thoroughly, then add boiling water 
slowly. Cook 10 minutes. Dilute or evaporate if necessary. 
Add the butter and vanilla ^ just before serving. 


J cupful sugar i cupful cocoa or 

4 tablespoonfuls flour 1} squares (or ounces) chocolate 

1 cupful water J teaspoonful salt 

1 cupful milk i teaspoonful vanilla 

^ See footnote on p. 89 regarding the adding of vanilla. 


Mix the sugar^ flour, and cocoa (if the latter is used). 
Add the water; stir and cook until the mixture thickens. 
Then add the milk and cook over boiling water for at least 
15 minutes. 

If chocolate is used, cut it in pieces, add 5 tablespoonfuls 
of boiling water. Stil* and cook until a smooth paste is 
formed. Add the chocolate to the other ingredients, then 
the salt and vanilla.^ Serve hot or cold over desserts. 


What is the purpose of the egg and bread in the Bread Pudding? 

What care must be taken in combining the egg mixture with the 
hot milk mixture? 

Think of the effect of intense heat upon the ingredients of Bread 
Pudding, and then explain why the pudding should bake slowly. 
What is the result, if baked in a very hot oven? 

What is the reason for covering the pudding during the first 15 
minutes of baking? 

Name combinations of spices that would be desirable for the 

What care should be taken in cooking chocolate in boiling water? 

In preparing Vanilla Sauce, why is the flour mixed with the 
sugar (see Experiment 24, p. 99) ? 

How does the quantity of thickening for Vanilla Sauce compare 
with the quantity of thickening for the Sauce for Cream Toast 
(seep. 104)? 

Give the four different quantities of flour generally used to thicken 
one pint of sauce (see p. 114). 

What care should be taken in cooking Vanilla Sauce? 

Compare the recipe for Chocolate Corn-starch Pudding (p. 100) 
with that for Chocolate Sauce. What material and how much of 
it is used for thickening each? What difference in consistency is 
there in the two cooked mixtures? What liquids are used in each 
mixture? Why is the sauce cooked directly over the flame and 
then over boiling water, while the pudding is cooked only over 
boiling water? 

1 See footnote on p. 89 regarding the adding of vanilla. 



Cheese (A) 

The Relation of Cheese to Milk. — To show the relation 
of cheese to milk, and to understand the manufacture of 
cheese, try the following : 

Experiment 47 : Effect of Rennet on Milk. — Put a small quan- 
tity of milk in a test tube and heat the milk a very little, taking care 
not to boil it. Add to it i teaspoonful liquid rennet, or i jimket 
tablet, and set aside. After a few minutes examine the milk. How 
has the rennet changed the milk? What substance in the milk has 
been clotted by the rennet (see Lesson XLVI, p. 163) ? 

Experiment 48 : Separation of Curd and Whey. — Again heat the 
contents of the test tube of Experiment 47, turn the mixture into a 
cheese-cloth, and press the cloth until the mixture is dry. Examine 
the material left in the cloth. How does it differ from ordinary 
cheese in color and texture? In cheese making what names are 
given to the solids and Uquids of clotted milk? 

Cheese is prepared for the market in a way somewhat 
similar to that shown in Experiments 47 and 48, except that 
it is colored, salted, pressed into shape, and allowed to ripen. 
While ripening, changes take place in the ingredients of 
cheese which develop characteristic flavors and make the 
cheese firm. 

There are two general classes of cheese, — hard cheese 
and soft cheese. A hard cheese commonly known as " Ameri- 
can Cream Cheese " is generally used in this country. 

Action of Rennin in Digesting Milk. — The rennet or 
junket used to clot the casein of the milk is obtained from 
the digestive juices of the stomach of a calf. An enzyme 
called rennin exists in the gastric juice of the human stomach 
also. When milk is digested, it is first clotted by the enzyme 
in the stomach. 


Experiment 49 : Effect of Acid on Milk. — Add a few drops of 
vinegar to warm milk in a test tube. What is the result? What 
substance in the milk has been curdled by the acid? 

To what substance in milk is its sweet taste due ? Into what has 
this substance changed when milk sours? What causes the change 
in this material (see Care of MUk^ p. 172)? Knowing the effect 
of acid on milk, explain the clotted condition of sour milk. 


1 quart milk 1 tablespoonful liquid rennet or 

I cupful sugar 1 junket tablet 

1 teaspoonful vanilla Powdered cinnamon or nutmeg 

Heat the milk in a double boiler until it is lukewarm only ; 
do not heat it to scalding temperature. Test milk for luke- 
warm, i.e. body temi>erature, by letting a drop fall on the 
wrist. If the milk " feels like the wrist '' — neither warmer 
nor colder — it is lukewarm in temperature. If a junket 
tablet is used, crush it. Add the sugar, vanilla, and rennet 
or junket, and stir until dissolved. Pour into a glass dish 
and stand in a warm place until it thickens. Then set the 
Junket " Custard '' in a cool place. When cold, sprinkle 
with a little cinnamon or nutmeg, and serve with cream. 


1 quart thick sour milk J teaspoonful salt 
Cream, top milk, or butter 

Pour at least 2 quarts of boiling water into the sour milk. 
Allow the mixture to stand until the curd separates from 
the whey. Strain the mixture in a cloth, pressing the cloth 
until the curd is dry, or allow it to drip for several hours 
or overnight. Put the curd in a bowl, add salt and a little 
cream, top milk, or melted butter, and mix thoroughly. 
Serve lightly heaped, or molded into balls. 



Why should junket tablets be crushed before adding to the milk 
(see Experiment 12, p. 71) ? 

In what way is the preparation of milk for Junket " Custard " 
like the digestion of milk in the stomach? 

Tell why Junket " Custard " is quickly digested. 

How much Cottage Cheese is obtained from 1 quart of milk? 

Explain the use of boiling water in preparing Cottage Cheese from 
sour milk. 

What is the price per pint of Cottage Cheese prepared at home? 

What is the price per pint of Cottage Cheese obtained at market? 


Cheese (B) 

Food Value and Use of Cheese. — Cheese is concentrated 
food, 'i,e. it contains much nourishment in small bulk. One 
pound of cheese contains as much protein as two pounds of 
eggs or one and one half pounds of meat, and as much 
fat as three pounds of eggs and one pound of beef. 
In addition to protein and fat, cheese contains ash and vita- 
mines (see Division Seven, p. 245). 

Cottage Cheese is a particularly good food. Since it is 
less expensive than most foods rich in protein, it should be 
used to a greater extent than it is at the present time. Most 
tasty salads and meat substitute dishes (see p. 310) may be 
prepared from cottage cheese. 

Cheese was formerly considered somewhat difficult of 
digestion, but investigations (see Farmers' Bulletin 487, 
The Digestion of Cheese, p. 15) show that cheese differs but 
little from meat in ease of digestion. Cheese, like protein 
foods in general, if cooked at all, should be heated at low or 
moderate temperature. 


It IS well to cook cheese in combination with other food 
materials. The use of cheese at the close of a dinner, when 
sufficient food has already been eaten, is not advisable. 

Care of Cheese. — Molds grow rapidly upon cheese, espe- 
cially if it is placed in a warm place and the air is excluded 
from it (see Why Foods Spoil, p. 474). For this reason, 
cheese should never be placed in a tightly covered dish or 
jar. It may be placed in a dish or jar and covered with a 
cloth. To keep cheese that has been cut from drying, wrap 
it in paraffin paper, then in a slightly dampened cloth, and 
then in paper. It should not, however, be kept in the damp 
cloth too long ; molds will grow upon it. 


1 cupful macaroni } cupful grated cheese 
IJ cupfuls medium White Sauce (see p. 114) 

2 cupfuls buttered crumbs (see p. 110) 

Break macaroni into one-inch pieces. Cook in a large 
quantity of boiling, salted water, in the same manner as 
Boiled Rice (see p. 86). When tender, pour into a col- 
ander, and run cold water through it. Make the sauce, using 
half milk and half " macaroni water " for the liquid ; then 
add the cheese and macaroni to it. Pour into a buttered 
baking-dish. Cover with the buttered crumbs and bake until 

Rice or noodlea, cooked in the same way, may be substituted for 


What must be the condition of cheese in order to grate it? If it 
is very soft, how should it be prepared to add to the sauce? 

What is macaroni? What foodstuff does it contain in large 


What is the effect of cold water on cooked macaroni (see 
Experiment 17, p. 80) ? 

Why is it cooked in a large quantity of boiling water? 

What does the water in which the macaroni was cooked contain ? 

What use can be made of the water that is drained from the 
macaroni (see Cheese Saucey p. 87) ? 

What is the price per pound of macaroni? What is the price 
per pound of rice? What is the price per pound of cheese? 

How much cheese, by weight, is required for one cupful of grated 

How many will this recipe for Macaroni and Cheese serve? 

How does cheese compare in price per pound with beefsteak? 
How does it compare in nutritive value? How much of the cheese 
is waste material? How much of beefsteak is waste material? 
Which is the cheaper food? 


Structure of Beef — Methods of Cooking Tender 


Meat. — The flesh of animals is called meat. In market 
this term is applied to the muscle, bone, and fat of beef 
(cattle), veal (calf), mutton (sheep)^ lamb, and pork (pig). 

To show the structure and properties of the substances in 
lean meat, try the following experiments with beef : 

Experiment 60 : Division of Muscle. — Scrape a piece of lean beef 
on both sides until nothing remains but the stringy mass or frame- 
work of the meat. What is the color and texture, i.e. toughness, of 
the two parts into which the muscle is divided ? 

Lean meat, or muscle, of animals may be divided into two parts : 
(a) connective tissue or framework, and (6) muscle fiber. 

Divide both the connective tissue and muscle fiber into two equal 
portions. Use them for Experiments 51 and 52. 

Experiment 51: Effect of Dry Heat on : (a) Connective Tissue. — 

Examine the connective tissue and note its toughness. Place it in a 
frying pan and heat it for a few minutes. Examine it again. Is it 
made more tender or tough by dry heat? 



(b) Muscle Fiber. — Shape one portion of the muBcIe fiber into a, 
ball. Place it in a frying pan and heat as directed in (a). Is the 
fiber made more tender or tough by 
dry heat? Sprinkle a bit of aalt 
over it and taste. What can you 
aay regarding the flavor of the fiber ? 

Experiment 52 : Effect of Mois- 
ture and Heat on: (a) Connective 
Tissue. — Place the second portion 
of connective tissue in a pan and 
cover it with water. Let it simmer 
for at least 15 minutes. How do 
moisture and heat affect its tough-^ 

(6> Muscle Fiber. — Use the 

second portion of muscle fiber and 
cook in water at simmering temper- 
ature as directed in (a). How do 
heat and moisture affect its tough- 
ness? Sprinkle a bit of salt over it 
and taste. Compare its flavor with 
muscle fiber cooked by dry heat. 
Which has a more pleasing flavor? 

From these experiments what 
conclusion can you draw with regard 
to the length of time — hmg or skort 
— that conntctu'e tissue must be 
cooked in order to make it tender? 
What conclusion can you draw with 
regard to the kind of heat — dry or 
moist — that must be applied to con- 
nective tissue to make it tender? 

What conclusion can you draw 
regarding the effect of dry and moiat 
heat upon muscle fiber? Which 
makes it more tender? Which de- 
velops the more pleaaing flavor? ^'""^^^S^^'*'^ 

Figure 43. — Structure o 

Th« Structure and Composi- 
tion of Meat. — The connective 


tissue of meat is the material which holda the muscle fiber 
in place. One can get an idea of the structure of muscle 
fiber from some cuts of meat such as the rump. This meat 
when cooked can be torn into strands. On closer examina- 
tion, however, one finds that these strands are made up 
of tiny tubes, microscopic in size, which are also held to- 
gether by a network of connective tissue (see Figure 43). 
The microscopic tubes hold the muscle juice, which consists 
of water, protein, ash, coloring and flavoring materials. The 

Figure 44. — Club oh Delmohcco Steak. 

latter give to meat its characteristic taste ; they are called 
extractives. In the network of connective tissue, there is 
fat as shown also in Figure 43. 

The muscle juice found in muscle fiber not only contains 

protein, but the walls of muscle fiber and connective tissue 

contain protein. These proteins differ greatly in quality, 

however. They will be discussed in the following lesson. 

Care of Heat. — As soon as meat comes from the market 

e the paper in which it is wrapped, and put the meat 


away in a, cool place. Before cooking, wipe the meat with 
a damp cloth. Do not allow it to stand in cold water. If 
meat is to be roaated, it should be weighed before cookiag. 

Searing Meat. — Since the juice of meat contains both 
nutriment and flavor, it is desirable to retain the juice when 
meat is cooked. This can be accomplished by subjecting 
meat to intense heat. By so doing, the protein coagulates 
and " seals " the outside of the meat so that its juices are 
prevented from escaping. This process w called searing. 

FiouRE 45. — Porterhouse. 

Prom the results of Experiment 51 (6), one can understand 
why seared meat tastes good. Dry heat tends to develop 
flavor. Hence it is desirable to sear meat not only to pre- 
vent waste of its juices, but to make it tasty. After meat is 
seared, it is usually necessary to reduce the temperature of 
cooking in order to cook the interior of meat. 

Tender Cuts of Beef. — Certain muscles of an animal 
used for food contain more connective tissue than others. 
Such muscles are considered tough cuts of meat. Other 


ColuUBy ol Burtati V ftMtiauoni, Tousnen College. 
Figure 46. — Sirloik, — Hip Steak (portion next to the porterhouse). 


muscles contain either less connective tissue or the connective 
tissue is less tough. These are considered tender cuts. 

Muscles which are the least used by the animal are most 
tender. What parts of the beef would one expect to find 
most tender? 

Certain methods of cooking meat are adapted to cooking 
the tender cuts. Unless meat is chopped, only tender cuts of 
meat can be cooked successfully by dry heat. The following 

methods are used for tender cuts of meat: (a) broihng, 
(6) pan-broiling, and (c) roasting (baking). 

The best steaks of beef for broiling or pan-broiling are 
club (see Figure 44), porterhouse (see Figure 45), sirloin 
(see Figures 46, 47, 48), and first cuts of round, . The best 
cuts for roasting are porterhouse, prime ribs (see Figures 49, 
50), and sirloin. 

Long shoulder or chuck (see Figures 51, 52), top round, and 
rump (see Figures 64 and 57) are inferior roasts. 


FcoURE 49. — First Cut Pmmb Rib Roast. 


" Select one of the tender steaks for broiling. Tender steaks 
should be cut from 1 to 2 inches in thickness. Clean it as 
directed on p. 195, remove the excess fat, and place the meat 
on a broiler. Broil over glowing coals or in the broiling oven, 
holding the broiler very close to the coals, or placing it near 
the gas flame. The meat should be thoroughly seared on 
both sides. Finish cooking the meat by holding it farther 

away from the coals or the gas flame and turning it about 
every 10 seconds. Steak 1 inch thick should be cooked at 
least 5 minutes ; 2 inches thick, at least 10 minutes. Season, 
place on a hot platter, and serve oj tmce. 


Clean the meat, remove excess fat, and place the meat in 
a very hot frying pan vnthout any fat. Sear the meat on 
both sides, then cook more slowly until done. When thick 


chops are broiled, stand them on end to brown the edges. 
Keep the pan free from fat. The time for pan-broiling is the 
same as for broihng. 

Difference between Pan-Broiling and Saut£ing. — Pan- 
broiled steak differs from saut^ed steak (commonly termed 
fried steak) in: (a) ease of digestion and (b) flavor. As 
explained on page 140 {Frying and Digestion), fat cooked at 

Figure 52. — Chuck Rib Roast (9lh and 10th ribs). 

high temperature is not easily digested. For this reason, 
as far as digestion is concerned, it is better to omit the fat, 
and to broil a steak. 

Meat has a distinct and characteristic flavor. Browned 
fat also has a pronounced flavor. In broiled steak, the pure 
meat flavor exists ; in " fried " steak there is meat flavor 
plus browned fat flavor. Since the flavor of meat is most 
pleasing, it is not advisable to modify it by the addition of 
any other flavor. 



Roasting was accomplished formerly by placiag thick 

pieces of meat before an open fire (see Figure 53). " Roasts " 

are now placed in the oven and baked. The term roasting, 

however, is still used. Meat is roasted as follows : 

FiouRE 53. — Colonial Fireplace, Showing a " Roastjno Kitchen " — 
a device for roasllngmeat — at lower right-hand corner. 

Weigh the meat and clean it. Then skewer it into shape 
and place it on a rack in a roasting pan. If the meat has 
but little fat, place extra fat in the bottom of the pan. Place 
the pan on the upper shelf of a hot oven forebout 10 minutes 
or until the meat is seared. Season the exposed surface with 
salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and remove the pan to 
the floor or lower shelf of the oven. Baste often. When the 
meat is about half done, turn it over, season, dredge with 
flour, and continue baking as before. 


Since less evaporation takes place in a large roast than 
in a small one, the larger roasts are more juicy, hence more 
desirable. A good roast of beef should weigh at least 4 

The time for roasting varies with the weight of the meat. 
Usually, for beef roasts, 15 mintUes to each pound is allowed. 


Explain the purpose of searing meat. 

If meat is to be roasted, pan-broiled, or broiled, how is it 

Why is it necessary to remove the fat from meat that is to be 
broiled or pan-broiled ? 

Why cannot meat be broiled over blazing coals? 

What is the price per pbund of porterhouse and of sirloin steak? 

What is the average weight of sirloin steak? Of porterhouse 

How many persons will each serve? 


Beef: Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts (Applied 

TO Chopped Beef) (A) 

Protein in Meat. — It was mentioned on p. 194 that 
there are several different kinds of protein in lean meat. 
It was also stated that proteins exist in : 

(a) Connective tissue. 
(6) Walls of muscle fibers. 
(c) Muscle juice. 

Two proteins exist in connective tissue, viz., collagen and 
elaatin. Collagen is changed into gelatine by cooking in 


water. Elasdn is found not only in connective tissue, but 
in the walls of muscle fibers. In muscle juice, there are two 
proteins, — myosin or miiscle globtdin and albumin. 

Both myosin and albumin coagulate by heating. It is 
possible to sear meat because it contains proteins. The 
scum which invariably forms when meat broth is heated 

Courtt*/ grSimMu of PuMInulinii, Teicbeni College. 

I'lauRE 54. — RouMP. 

consists largely of protein, probably in the form of albumin. 
This protein as shown in experiments on eggs (see p. 153) is 
soluble in cold water, but is coagulated by heating. If meat 
broth is skimmed, much of its nutriment is lost. 

Of all proteins in meat, myosin is the most important; 
it exists in greater quantity than the other proteins. Myosin 
b practically insoluble in both hot and cold water, though 


somewhat soluble in a salt 
solution. As not much my- 
osin is extracted from meat 
in soup making, the solid part 
of -meat muat he eaten in 
order to obtain the greatest 
nourishment. Meat broth 
does not contain as much 
food value as meat. 

Chopped Beef. — If meat 
is chopped, what is- the 
effect of the cutting on its 
structure ? How would this 
affect its toughness? 

It is possible to pan- 
broil or roast some of the 
tough cuts of meat, if 
the meat is chopped fine. 
Round (see Figure 54, p. 
203) and shoulder or chuck 
(see Figure 55) are espe- 
^"^tUS^c^^""'^- cially desirable cuts for this 

FiauRE 55. — Chuck. purpose. 

1 pound beef steak, chopped 1 to 2 table^xxinf uls chopped parsley 
1 onion, grated 1 teaspoonful salt 

\ cupful water or \ cupful i teaspoonful pepper 

Mix all the ingredients and shape into Arm cakes. Heat 
an iron frying pan until hot; oil it with a bit of fat from 
the meat ; then remote the fat. Sear the cakes ; then reduce 
the temperature to finish cooking. Turn the cakes often. 
Season with salt and pepper. Serve at once. 


Half a cupful of soft bread crumbs and 1 egg may be added to 
this meat mixture. 

The addition of 1 tablespoonful of lemon juice, or a dash of nut- 
meg is thought by some to improve the flavor of chopped beef. 

Instead of shaping chopped beef into small cakes, it may be 
formed into one large cake or steak. The chopped steak may be 
either broiled or pan-broiled. If the latter method is followed, a 
pan-cake turner is useful in turning over the steak. 


Use the ingredients for Chopped Steak, adding the bread 
crumbs and egg. Shape into a loaf, and place in a greased 
baking-pan. Bake in a hot oven for about 30 minutes. 
Serve hot, plain, or with Tomato or Brown Sauce (see pp. 112 
and 207). 

The use of tomatoes instead of water in Beef Loaf makes the 
meat especially tasty. 


Why is it necessary to reduce the temperature to finish cooking 
meat after searing it? 

What are the prices per pound of round and long shoulder? 

How many cupfuls are there in one pound of chopped meat? 

How many servings of Chopped Steak can be obtained from one 
pound of meat? 


Beef: Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts (Applied 

TO Chopped Beef) (B) 


2 pounds chopped meat 2 teaspoonfuls salt 
J teaspoonful pepper 

Mix these ingredients. Take about three fourths of the 
mixture, put it into a greased baking-dish or pan, shape it 


into a loaf> and make a large cavity in the center. Into the 
cavity, put a stuffing prepared as follows : 

2 cupf uls bread crumbs } teaspoonf ui thyme 

1 teaspoonful salt J teaspoonful savory 

} teaspoonful marjoram } teaspoonful pepper 

2 tablespoonfuls fat 

Mix the crumbs and seasoning. Melt the fat, add the 
seasoned crumbs. Stir and heat until the crumbs are slightly 

Put the remainder of the meat mixture on top of the 
crumbs, so that the latter are entirely surrounded by the 
meat mixture. Place in a hot oven and bake from | to f 
hour. Serve hot, — plain or with Brown Sauce (see p. 207). 

Instead of bread stuffing, potato stuffing prepared as 
follows may be used in Stuffed Meat Roast 

Tomatoes may be added to the meat mixture (see Beef Loaf) , 


2 cupf uls dry mashed potatoes 1 stalk celery finely minced or 

1 egg (beaten) i teaspoonful celery salt 

1 small onion, grated 1 teaspoonful salt 

1 tablespoonful fat Pepper 

Mix the ingredients and use in place of ordinary bread 

Experiment 53 : Comparison of Starch and Dextrin for Thicken- 
ing. — When flour is browned what substance is formed from some 
of the starch (see Experiment 26, p. 101) ? 

Make a White Sauce, using 1 teaspoonful of fat, i tablespoonful 
of flour, and i cupful of water. Make a Brown Sauce with the same 
ingredients, browning the fat and flour. Compare the Brown and 
White Sauce as to thickness. Which has the greater thickening 
property, — starch or dextrin? Estimate the quantity of flour to 

^ From United States Food Administration Bulletin. 


use for Brown Sauce in order to make it equal in thickness to a 
White Sauce made by using 1, 2, and 3 tablespoonfuls of flour to 1 
cupful of liquid. 

Note. — If a suitable fat has been used, the Brown Sauce may 
be seasoned and used with the Stuffed Meat Roast. 


li tablespoonfuls fat Pepper 

2 tablespoonfuls flour 1 cupful meat stock or hot water 

i teaspoonf ul salt 1 teaspoonful scraped onion 

If there is any meat stock in the roasting pan, remove it 
and make the " Brown Sauce " in the pan. Put fat and 
onion in the pan, and brown them. Add the flour and brown 
it, then add the other ingredients and cook as White Sauce, 


What cuts of meat are suitable for roasting? Why? 
Explain how it is possible to use tough cuts of meat and roast 
them successfully. 


Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (A) 

Experiment 64 : Effect of Cold Water on Meat. — Place a bit of 
meat in a test tube or glass measuring cup and add cold water. 
Allow it to stand for a few minutes and note the appearance. What 
has been drawn out into the water? What practical application 
as to washing meat can be made from this? 

Heat the water in which the meat has been soaked. What does 
the water contain ? In soup making, should this material be strained 
out of broth? Explain. If broth must be strained, should a coarse 
or a fine strainer be used? Why? 

Experiment 55 : Effect of Boiling Water on Meat. — Pour boil- 
ing water over a bit of meat, then heat it. Has the juice been drawn 
out into the water? Explain how hot water prevents the juices 
from being drawn out. 


Experiment 56 : Effect of Salt on Meat. — Sprinkle some salt on 
a piece of meat. Let stand for 10 minutes or longer and note residts. 
What practical application as to seasoning meats can be drawn from 

Note. — The bits of meat used in these three experiments shoidd 
be saved and used for soup-making. 

Tough Cuts of Beef. — From the Experiments of Lesson 
LIX, p. 192, what was found to be the toughest portion 
of the muscle of meat? What method of cooking was used 
to make this tough part tender (see Experiments 51 and 
52) ? Toughness of meat depends upon (a) amount of con- 
nective tissue, and (6) character of the walls of muscle-fiber 
tubes (thick or thin). These conditions depend upon (a) the 
age of the animal, and (b) locality of muscle or cut of meat. 

Although meat contains some materials which are better 
slightly cooked, tough cuts of meat contain so much con- 
nective tissue that long cooking is necessary to make them 
palatable. The long cooking must be accomplished in water or 
steam in order that the meat may not burn or become too 

Meat from old animals is usually tough. Veal and lamb 
are more tender than beef and mutton. The muscles that 
are used most are toughest, because they are developed to a 
greater extent and contain more connective tissue. Muscles 
that are constantly used contain more extractives, hence 
tough cuts of meat have more flavor than tender cuts. This 
is not always appreciated, however, since all the flavor of 
tough meat is rarely extracted because it is so hard to chew. 
Moreover, as mentioned previously, dry heat usually ap- 
plied to tender cuts tends to develop flavor in meat. 

Use of Bone and Fat in Soup-making. — Bone contains a 
substance which long cooking changes into a jellylike mass 
called gelatine. In the center of the bone there is a fatty 
substance called marrow. This fat in the bone and that in 


and around the muscles liquefies in making soup stock. In 
cooling, the fat rises to the top, hardens, excludes the air 
from the stock, and thus prevents it from spoiling readily. 
Hence, in soup-making, it is of advantage to use both the fat 
and the bone with the lean meat. The fat, however, should 
be removed carefully from the stock before using. 



2 pounds meat, bone and fat 2 cloves 
i teaspoonf ul celery seed 2 quarts cold water 

5 peppercorns i bay leaf 

2^ teaspoonf uls salt 

Cut the meat and fat into small pieces. Try out some of 
the fat and brown about ^ of the meat in it. Put all the 
meat in a kettle, add the seasoning and water ; cover, and 
allow to soak one hour. Then cook below boiling tempera- 
ture for 3 hours ; strain through a coarse strainer. Pour it 
through a fat separator or set aside to cool. If the fat has 
been allowed to solidify, skim it from the surface when the 
stock is to be used. 

1 can of tomatoes, 1 carrot, 1 turnip, and 1 onion (all cut 
in small pieces) may be added to the ingredients of beef 
stock. Trimmings and bones of fresh meats or bones and 
pieces of roasts or unused meat may be cut into small pieces 
and used for soup stock. No smoked or charred pieces of 
meat or bone should be used, however. Stock may be 
colored with caramel, provided the sugar has been cooked 
sufficiently to lose its sweetness. 

Cuts of Beef (see Figure 56). — The feeding, care, and age 
of an animal have much to do with the quality of its meat. 
It is considered that good beef is obtained from an animal 
four or five years old. Beef should be firm, of bright red 
color, and of fine grain. There should also be a generous 
supply of suet. The latter should be dry and easily crumbled. 


In most markets, meat is made more tender by allowing it 
to hang for several days at a temperature near freezing. 

The cost of the different cuts of meat varies greatly. The 
difference in cost is based upon the tenderness of the cut of 
meat, and upon the demand, — not upon the nutritive value. 
Pricea vary in different localities, and in different seasons. 

The waate of a cut of meat is a factor which the house- 
keeper needs to consider in determining the cost of meat. 
The cuts of meat containing no waste may be " cheaper " 
than some cuts whose price per pound is lower. 

AdIplM Itoiii dlMTsm Id VnOersOi/ oflUtnols Bulletin, No. l&S. 

Figure 56. — Cuts op Beep. 

The line dividing the rib and loin cuts and the plate and 
flank, marks the division of the beef into hind and fore quar- 
ters. The position of the various cuts is indicated by letters. 
The names of the cuts are indicated around the outer bound- 
ary of the diagram. 

The closely spaced lines such as shown in the round cut in- 
dicate that the cut is sliced into steaks, while the more widely 
spaced lines such as shown in the rib cut, indicate that the 
cut is separated into pieces for roasting or stewing. The nu- 
merals indicate the number of steaks or pieces into which a 
cut is usually divided. 



Namb and Fobm of Cxtt Method* of Cookino 

Round < 



A. Rump. 

1. Rump piece (see Fig- 
ure 57, p. 216). 




B. Round (not including 
rump and shank). 
2-14. Roimd steaks (see 
Figure 54, p. 203). 


C. Horseshoe or Heel. 
15. Pot roast. 


D. Hind shank. 

16. Knuckle soup bone. 
17-19. Soup bones. 





1-4. Round-bone sirloin 

Roasting (when 

cut into 

steaks (see Figure 48, 

thick pieces) 

p. 197). 

5-6. Flat-bone sirloin 

steaks (see Figure 47, 

p. 196). 

7. Hip-bone sirloin steak 

(see Figure 46, p. 196). 



Broiling. , 

8-15. Porterhouse steaks 

Roasting (when 

cut into 

(see Figure 45, p. 195). 
16-18. Club or Delmonico 

thick pieces). 

steaks (see Figure 44, 

p. 194). 

G. Flank steak (see Figure 59, 
p. 219). 


RoUing and Braising. 

H-H, Flank stew. 



Name and Form of Cut 

Mkthod of Cooking 


Rib roasts. 

1-4. Prime-rib roasts (see Fig- 
ures 49 and 50, p. 198). 



J. Chuck rofl^ts and steaks. 

1. Chuck-rib roast (see Figures 
51 and 52, pp. 199 and 200). 
2-9. Chuck or shoulder steaks 

(see Figure 55, p. 204). 
10-13. Pot roasts. 
NoTJU. — In some localities, a pot 
roast is cut from the lower portion 
{ of the chuck. It is called Cross 
Rib, Boston Cut, or EngUsh Cut 
(see Figure 58, p. 218). 

14. Clod, no bone (over knuckle 
soup bone). 






L. Neck. 
15. Stew. 





M, Rib ends. 
1, 2. Stews. 




N. Navel. 
3. Stew. 




0. Brisket. 

4. Stew. 






P. Shin. 

1. Stew. 

2. Knuckle soup bone (under- 
neath clod, J, 14). 

3-6. Soup bones (" 3 " under- 
neath clod, J, 14). 


Skirt steak, — diaphragm inside of 
ribs (see Figure 59, p. 219). 

Rolling and Braising. 





Other than the differences in cost, what advantages are there in 
using tough cuts of meat for soup? 

Name at least three cuts of meat that would be suitable for soup- 
making. Give the price per pound of these cuts. 

In soup-making, what is the purpose of cutting the meat into pieces 
and of cracking the bone? 

Why should salt be added to the water in which meat is soaked 
(see Experiment 56, p. 208) ? 


Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (B) 

Examination of Cold Beef Stock. — Examine the beef stock 
of the previous lesson. Why has the fat risen to the top 
(see Experiment 35, p. 139) ? Why is fat cooked with meat 
and bone in making soup stock ? What use can be made of 
the fat after removing it from the stock? Remove the fat 
from the stock. Stir the stock with a spoon. How do you 
account for its jellylike consistency? From what material 
has the gelatine been formed ? What solid material is found 
in the stock? Should this be strained out when the stock 
is used for soup? Explain your answer (see Experiment 
54, p. 207). 


2 quarts beef stock 1 carrot 

2 tablespoonfuls fat 1 turnip 

1 onion, sUced } stalk celery or dried celery leaves 

Heat the fat and sliced onion. Cook until the onion is 
browned ; add a small quantity of water. Cut the vegetables 
into dice, add them to the water containing browned onion 
and cook until the vegetables are tender. Add the beef 


stock to the vegetables and vegetable stock; heat; evapo- 
rate, if necessary, and thdn serve. 

The vegetables may be strained from the soup, and cooked 
rice, macaroni, or barley added; or the rice, macaroni, or 
barley may be cooked with the vegetables. Pearl barley 
should be soaked in water before being cooked in the 

Other vegetables may be used for soup-making, as toma- 
toes, green peas, asparagus, and cauliflower. Indeed, in- 
genuity in combining flavors and utilizing " left overs " 
should form no small part of soup-making. 


Examination of Meat Left from Soup-making. — Which 
contains the more nutriment, — beef stock or the meat from 
which the stock was prepared? What valuable protein 
material does the solid meat contain (see Protein in Meat, 
p. 202) ? Taste a bit of the meat. What does it lack ? In 
what does the flavoring of this meat exist? What can be 
added to this " left over '* meat as a substitute for its flavor ? 
In the recipe for Baked Hash (below), what supplies flavor 
to the meat? 


li cupfuls chopped meat and fat J cupful (or more) boiling water 
li cupfuls mashed potatoes or stock 

Salt and pepper 1 cupful cracker crumbs, or 

1 teaspoonful scraped onion 2 cupfuls soft bread crumbs 

Chopped parsley 2 tablespoonf uls butter or sub- 


Mix all the ingredients, except the fat and crumbs. Add 
enough water or stock to moisten all ingredients. Place the 
mixture in a buttered baking-dish. Mix the fat with the 
bread or cracker crumbs. Cover the hash mixture with the 
crumbs, and bake slowly until the meat is thoroughly 
heated and the crumbs browned. Serve at once. 


Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cirrs (C) 


1 pound round steak i teaapoonful atdt 

1 cupful soft bread crumbe 1 amall onion, chopped 

i teaspoonf ul ground cloves Hot water or milk, eaJt, pepper. 

Pepper flour, &ud fat 

FiauRE 57. — Rump. 

Cut round steak of J inch thickness into pieces 3 by 4 
inches. Make a stuffing of the bread crumbs, chopped 
onions, cloves, salt, pepper, with enough hot water or milk to 
moisten. Spread the stuffing over the pieces of steak, roll 
up each piece and tie it with a piece of string, or skewer it 
with toothpicks. Dredge generously with flour and add 
salt and pepper. Brown io beef drippings or other fat, 
cover with boiling water, and simmer for 1^ hours or until 
tender. Remove the strings or toothpicks, and serve the 
meat with the sauce in which it was cooked. 


If the meat has not been cut thin enough, it may be pounded 
with a wooden potato masher or mallet to make it sufficiently thin. 


2 pounds beef 1 quart hot water 

i cupful flour 2 carrots, cut in dice 

2 teaspoonfuls salt 1 turnip, cut in dice 

i teaspoonful pepper 4 potatoes, cut in dice 

1 onion cut into slices -■ 1 tablespdonful kitchen bouquet 

Remove the fat from the meat to be stewed; cut the 
meat into 1-inch pieces. Dredge the meat with the flour ; 
add the salt and pepper. Try out the fat in a frying pan ; 
remove the scraps. Brown the onion and then the meat in 
the hot fat. Add the hot water and pieces of bone and cook 
in the frying pan for 2 hours at a low temperature ; or turn 
into a double boiler and cook for the same length of time, 
Add vegetables, except potatoes, and cook for 1 hour longer ; 
add the potatoes | hour before the stew is done. If desired, 
more flour, — mixed with enough cold water to pour easily, 
— may be added when the potatoes are added. Remove 
the bone, add kitchen bouquet, and serve. 

Thickening the Sauce of Meat Cooked in Water. — When 
meat is dipped in flour, then browned in fat, and finally 
cooked in water, the flour thickens the water and forms a 
sauce around the meat. Usually, however, more flour needs 
to be added to the sauce to make it sufficiently thick. Some- 
times directions for adding a flour-and-water paste to the 
hot meat stock are given, but unless the flour-and-water 
paste is cooked for some time (boiled for 5 minutes at least) 
the sauce does not have a pleasing flavor. This is because 
the starch is insufficiently cooked or the flour is not browned. 
It has been found much more satisfactory to sprinkle a 
little extra flour into the hot fat while browning the floured 
meat. Thus the sauce is made smooth, and the starch 
cooked thoroughly by the time the sauce is ready to serve. 



If round steak has been cut too thick for rolling, what is a practical 
way of making it of one half inch thickness? 

For what purpose is rolled steak browned in fat before cooking 
in water? 

Explain why the rolled steak is cooked in water at simmering 
rather than at boiling temperature. 

What is the piupose of dredging these meats in flour? 

Why are not the vegetables added to the Beef Stew when the boil- 
ing water is added ? Why are not the potatoes added with the other 

Why is the bone added to the Beef Stew? 

Name at least two cuts of beef that would be suitable for Beef 
Stew. What are the prices per pound of these cuts? 


Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (D) 

swiss steak 

1) pounds roimd steak, cut 1 to 1} inches thick 
} to 1 cupful flour i onion, sliced 
Suet or bacon fat Salt and pepper 

With the edge of a saucer, pound the flour into both sides 
of the steak. In a frying pan, put the suet or bacon fat and 
brown the onion in it. Then brown both sides of the floured 
meat in the fat. Cover with boiling water and let the meat 
cook at simmering temperature either on top of the range 
or in the oven from 1| to 2 hours or until it is tender. Add 
enough salt and pepper to season the meat. If necessary, 
evaporate the sauce around the meat until it is of suflScient 
thickness to serve as Brown Sauce. Serve the meat and 
sauce hot. 

If desired, the meat may be stewed in tomato juice instead of 
water. (If tomato is added, what kind of frying pan (i.e. of what 


material) should be lued in cooking the meat? See p. 65, S-uggea- 
Hons for Cooking Fruits.) 

This variation may also be made : One half green pepper may be 
chopped and sprinkled over the surface of the steak while the latter 
is simmering. The onion may be omitted, if desired. 


3 pounds beef 6 peppercorns 

Flour Salt and pepper 

Salt pork or suet } cupful each, — diced carrot, 

) bay leaf turnip, onion, and celery 

Figure 58. — Cross Rib, Boston Citt, oh English Cut. 

Try out the fat and remove the scraps. Dredge the meat 
generously with Sour and brown the entire surface in the 
fat. Place the meat on a rack in the kettle; surround it 
with the vegetables and spices, and season it with salt and 
pepper. Add 3 eupfuls of boiling water ; cover closely and 
simmer for 4 hours. Turn after the second hour. 

Serve hot both the meat and the sauce containing vege- 


Note. — This meat may be saved and used in the following 
lesBOD regarding the uses of cooked beef. 

Summaiy of the Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts of Meat. 
— There are many recipes for cooking meats. All, how- 
ever, are modifications of a few methods. Moist heat 

must be applied to tough cuts of meat {see Toiigk Cvts 
of Beff, p. 208). The methods of cooking such cuts can be 
summed up as follows : 

1. Soup-making, — Soak meat, bone, and fat in cold salted 
water, and then cook below boiling temperature in the water. 


2. " Boiling " or Stewing, — Plunge meat into boiling water ; 
boil until well seared ; then cook in water below the boiling 

3. Pot-roasting and Braising, — Sear meat by boiling or 
browning in fat, then cook in steam. If the cooking is done 
on the top of the range, it is called pot-roasting. If it is 
done in the oven, it is called braising. 


What is the chief difference between pot-roasting and braising? 

Why is it not necessary to baste meats cooked by these methods? 

What is the difference between braising and roasting meats 
(see Roasting y p. 201) ? Why is braising suitable for tough cuts, and 
roasting for tender cuts (see Experiments 51 and 52, p. 192) ? 

Name at least three cuts of meat suitable for pot roasts. Give 
the price per pound of each. 


Beef: Uses of Cooked Beef 

" Left Overs," — Small pieces of cooked meat should not 
be thrown away; they can be used in many ways. Even 
though the meat has been cooked so as to extract its juices, 
there still remains practically all of the myosin, and this is 
a valuable constituent. If the juices have been drawn from 
the meat, a little fresh meat should be added to it, or it 
should be seasoned well with condiments, spices, or herbs. 
Water in which the meat has been cooked, and " left over " 
gravy, should be utilized in making sauces for cooked meats. 
Cooked meat of tender cut should merely be reheated, not 
recooked. Hence it is usually well to cut it into pieces or 
chop it fine in order to heat it quickly. 

As in soup-making, ingenuity in combining and using 
" left over " materials is required in making meat dishes. 


Stewed tomatoes can be substituted for stock or gravy, and 
one starchy food substituted for another. The recipes here 
given simply serve as suggestions. The ingredients and 
proportions should be changed to utilize available materials. 


2 cupfuLs chopped meat 1 teaspoonful scraped onion or 

2 tablespoonf Ills fat chopped parsley 

3 tablespoonf uls flour 1} cupfuls milk, stock, or water 
1} teaspoonfuls salt 2 cupfuls buttered crumbs 

i teaspoonful pepper (See Crumbs for ScaJHoped Dishes, 

p. 110.) 

Make a Brown Sauce of the fat, salt, pepper, flour, onion 
or parsley, and milk or stock (see p. 207). Mix with the 
meat. Butter the crumbs, and place about one half cupful 
in the bottom of the buttered baking-dish. Add the meat 
mixture, and cover the top with the remainder of the 
crumbs. Bake in the oven until the mixture is thoroughly 
heated and the crumbs are brown. 

Cold fish may be shredded and used in the same way. 

Cottage Pie. — Use the same ingredients as for Scalloped 
Meat, substituting mashed potatoes for buttered bread 
crumbs. Place the potato only on the top of the mixture. 
A little nutmeg may be substituted for the onion. 


How does meat left from beef stock differ from fresh meat in nutri- 
tive value? How does it differ in taste? 

Name a starchy food that could be substituted for potatoes in. 
Baked Hash (see p. 214). 

Why are spices and herbs added to left over meat dishes? 

Name at least three vegetable-and-meat combinations that would 
be desirable for hash. 


How many cupf uls of chopped cooked meat can be obtained from 
one pound of fresh meat? 

Why should cooked meat of tender cut be reheated rather than 


Gelatine (A) 

Experiment 57 : Effect of Cold Water on Gelatine. — Pour 1 
teaspoonful of cold water on } teaspoonful gelatine. Cover and let 
stand a few minutes. Examine. Has the water combined with the 
gelatine? Press a bit of the gelatine with a spoon. How does it 
compare with l^he dry gelatine as to hardness? 

Experiment 58 : Effect of Hot Water on Gelatine. — Pour 1 tea- 
spoonful boiling water on } teaspoonful gelatine. Place the mixture 
over hot water. Stir. What is the effect of boiling water on 
gelatine ? 

Note. — Use the gelatine from these two experiments for the 
preparation of the gelatine dessert of the lesson. 

Gelatine. — When the beef stock of Lesson LXII, p. 207, 
was strained and cooled, what material, other than fat and 
protein, was present in it? From what substance in the 
meat and bone was this material formed (see Protein in 
Meat, p. 202 ; Use of Bone and Fat in Soup-^making, p. 208 ; 
Examination of Cold Beef Stock, p. 213) ? 

The gelatine which is found at market is prepared from 
the bones, gristle, skin, and other portions of animals. Al- 
though gelatine may be piuxjhased in several different forms, 
liousekeepers find the granulated or pulverized gelatine the 
most convenient to use. 

One ounce of granulated gelatine will stiffen 1^ to 2 quarts 
of jelly. In hot weather more is required. If fruit, vege- 
tables, or nuts are to be molded in the jelly, use IJ ounces 
of gelatine. 

Gelatine should be first hydrated (i.e. combined with 


water) by means of cold water, and then dissolved in boil- 
ing water. 

The Value of Gelatine. — Gelatine is an incomplete pro- 
tein, i,e, it is lacking in certain amino acids and hence 
while a good fuel, it does not, without the help of other pro- 
teins, both build and repair the body. 

The usual gelatine dish contains such a small quantity 
of gelatine that the question of its food value may be dis- 
regarded. The sugar and fruit, however, that are invariably 
used in gelatine dishes give them food value. Since gelatine 
liquefies readily by heating, it is valuable in liquid diet. 


1 tablespoonf ul granulated gelatine or | cupful sugar 

i ounce shredded gelatine Salt 

i cupful cold water li cupfuls boiling water 

i cupful lemon juice 

Mix the gelatine and cold water. Let them stand until 
the water is absorbed. Add the boiling water, sugar, and 
salt. Stir until the gelatine is dissolved completely, then 
add the fruit juice, strain, and pour into a mold. Set in 
a cool place to harden. Gelatine mixtures should be covered 
while soaking and cooling. 

To remove jelly from the mold, apply a cloth wrung out 
of hot water to the outside of the mold. 


Prepare lemon jelly mixture. Cover and allow to cool 
until it begins to stiffen. Peel oranges and bananas ; cut 
them into small pieces or slices. Cut nuts into pieces. Stir 
in the prepared fruit and nuts. Turn into a mold, cover, and 
put in a cool place until firm. Serve cold, with or without 


Other fruits may be used instead of those mentioned in 
the recipe. If pineapple is used it must be cooked before 
adding to jelly. Pineapple contains an enzyme which liquefies 
gelatine. Hence jelly containing fresh pineapple fails to 


When a gelatine mixture is cool and begins to stiffen, it 
may be whipped with a Dover egg beater. Air beaten into 
a gelatine dessert changes it in appearance and quantity. 

Lemon Jelly may be varied as follows : 

Prepare lemon jelly mixture. Cover and set aside to 
cool. Then divide into two portions. Add fruit to one 
portion and turn it into a mold and set aside in a cool place. 

Whip the second portion of jelly. When the jelly in the 
mold is stiff, pour the whipped jelly over it and set aside to 
cool. •• 

When ready to serve, unmold, garnish with fruit or nuts, 
if desired. Serve with top milk, plain or whipped cream 
(see p. 169) or Custard Sauce (see p. 182). 


What is the purpose of covering the gelatine while soaldng and 

Why is it necessary to dissolve the gelatine completely? 

What would be the effect of adding cold fruit juice to the hot 
gelatine mixture? What must be the temperature of water to dis- 
solve gelatine? From this explain why the gelatine should be dis- 
solved before the fruit juice is added. 

What is the piupose of straining gelatine mixtures? 

Through what should gelatine mixtures be strained? 

Of what material should jelly molds be made? Why? 

How are jellies removed from the molds without breaking or 
marring the jellies? Explain. 

When fruit is to be added to jelly, what is the purpose of allowing 
the jelly to cool and almost stiffen before adding the fruit? 



Gelatine (B) 
snow pudding 

1 tablespoonful granulated gelatine Salt 

i cupful cold water 1 cupful boiling water 

1 cupful sugar 1 cupful lemon juice 

2 or 3 egg whites 

Mix these ingredients (except egg whites) as for Lemon 
Jelly (see p. 223). Set aside to cool. Beat the egg whites 
until stiff. When the gelatine mixture begins to stiffen, 
beat it (surrounded by ice water) until it becomes frothy, 
then add the beaten egg whites and continue beating until 
the mixture begins to stiffen. Turn into a mold and set aside 
in a cool place. Serve with chilled Custard Sauce. 

For the sauce, follow the recipe for Soft Custard given on 
p. 179, using egg yolks (instead of whole eggs) and f cupful 
of sugar (instead of \ cupful). In case only 2 egg yolks are 
used in making the custard, 1 teaspoonful of corn-starch 
may be used for additional thickening, as suggested on 
page 179. 

The addition of i cupful of chopped nuts to Snow Pudding makes 
a pleasing variation. The nuts should be added just before turning 
the mixture into the mold. 

Snow Pudding may be prepared by whipping plain Lemon Jelly 
as directed in the previous lesson and serving it with Custard Sauce. 
The use of egg whites, however, adds to the food value of the dessert 
and makes it more tasty. 


1 tablespoonful gelatine J cupful sugar 

i cupful cold water Salt 

1 small can (8 ounces) shredded 2 tablespoonfuls lemon juice 

pineapple J cupful (or more) whipped 

Boiling water cream 


Mix the gelatine and cold water and let stand until the 
water is absorbed. 

Drain the sirup from the shredded pineapple and add 
enough water to it to make 1| cupfuls. Heat the pineapple^ 
sirup, and water to boiling point. Then pour it over the 
gelatine mixture. Stir until the gelatine is dissolved. Add 
the sugar and salt and continue stirring until they are dis- 
solved. Add the lemon juice. Cover and set aside in a 
cold place until the mixture begins to stiffen. 

Whip the cream (see p. 170). Add the shredded pine- 
apple and whipped cream to the gelatine mixture. Surround 
this with ice water and beat until the mixture again begins 
to stiffen. Turn into a mold and set aside in a cool place. 
Serve cold. 


What is the price per package of gelatine? 

How many ounces are there in one package? How many table- 
spoonfuls in one package ? 

Determine the cost of Lemon Jelly. Of Snow Pudding. What 
is the difference in the cost? 

Which is lighter in weight, — beaten egg white or plain Lemon 
Jelly? From this, explain why it is necessary to set the gelatine 
mixture aside until it begins to stiffen before adding the beaten 
egg white in the preparation of Snow Puddmg. 

Explain why. the gelatine mixture should be in a slightly stiffened 
condition before the whipped cream is added to it in the preparation 
of Bavarian Cream. 


Fish (A) 

Experiment 59 : Effect of Soaking Fish in Water. — Soak a piece 
of fresh fish in water for at least 10 minutes. Strain the water and 
heat it to the boiling point. What foodstuff is found in the water? 
What practical application can be drawn from the result of this ex- 
periment as to washing fish? 

FISH 227 

Experiment 60 : Effect of Boiling Fish Rapidly. — Boil a small 
piece of fresh fish rapidly for a few minutes. What happens to the 
fish? Judging from this experiment, what care must be taken in 
cooking and serving fish ? 

From the results of Experiments 59 and 60, which method, — 
boiling or baking, — would be more desirable for cooking fish? 

Comparison of Beef with Fish. — Fish is an animal food 
containing protein. It differs from beef in structure and 
composition. Most fish contains more water thaii does beef, 
hence it has not as high a nutritive value. In the quantity 
of protein, however, fish is about equal to beef ; its protein is 
also complete. Hence many consider it quite as nutritious 
as beef. It is lacking in extractives, and needs careful 

Fat of Fish. — The fat content of fish varies greatly in 
different kinds of fish. A few fish, such as salmon for 
example, contain considerable fat. The edible portion of 
most fish, however, contains less fat than beef. The ease 
with which we digest fish depends upon the fat it contains. 
Fish containing the least quantity of fat is the most easily 

Classes of Fish. — According to the quantity of fat it con- 
tains, fish may be divided into two classes : (a) dry, or lean 
fish, and (6) oily fi^h. Cod, haddock, smelt, flounder, perch, 
bass, brook trout, and pike are dry, or lean fish. Salmon, 
shad, mackerel, herring, eel, halibut, lake trout, and white 
fish are oily fish. (This latter group contains from 5 to 10 
per cent of fat.) 

Fish may also be divided into two classes, according to 
the water in which they live, fish from the sea being termed 
salt-^ater fi^hf and those from rivers and Isikes fresh-^ater fi^h. 

Since fish contains about as much protein as does beef, 
it should be generally used as a meat alternative. Inspection 


of the fish found at market will doubtless acquaint you with 
many kinds of fish. 


1 can salmon Pepper 

1 cupful soft bread crumbs 1 or 2 eggs 

li teaspoonfuls chopped parsley 1 tablespoonful lemon juice 

i teaspoonf ul salt i to i cupful milk. 

Mix all the ingredients thoroughly, adding enough milk 
to moisten. Pour into buttered timbale molds or into one 
bowl. Place on a rack in a pan, surround with hot water, 
and cover. Bake in the oven or cook on top of the range 
until the fish mixture is firm and is heated thoroughly. 
Turn out, and serve with White Sauce to which chopped 
parsley has been added (for White Sauce, see White 
Sauce for Vegetables, p. 109. For the fat of the White Sauce, 
use the oil drained from the salmon). 

Peas in White Sauce make a pleasing addition to Salmon Timbale. 
Tuna fish or other cooked fish may be used instead of salmon. 


Cook 1 cupful of rice or barley (see page 85). Measure 
the ingredients given in Salmon Timbale or Loaf, using 
salmon or any kind of canned or cooked fish, and prepare 
a fish loaf. 

Let the cereal cool slightly after cooking. Then line a 
baking dish or a mold with about three fourths of the cooked 
rice or barley, pressing it in the dish firmly with a spoon. 
Put the fish mixture in the cavity and cover it with the re- 
mainder of the cereal. Steam the food 30 to 45 minutes. 
Turn from the mold and serve hot with White Sauce as 
directed for Salmon Timbale. 

FISH 229 

Any kind of cooked and chopped meat may be used instead of fish 
and combined with rice or barley as described above. 


What purpose do the eggs serve in Sahnon Loaf? 

Think of the effect of intense heat upon the different ingredients 
in this fish mixture, and then explain why it should not cook for a 
long time or at a high temperature. 

What is the price per can of salmon? Of tuna fish? 

Name two fresh fish that are in market now. What is the price 
per pound of each ? 


Fish (B) 

Freshness of Fish. — Fish is a food which spoils very 
quickly, and which is dangerous to eat if not fresh. For 
this reason the housekeeper should be able to judge of the 
freshness of fish. In fresh fish : ' 

(a) The flesh is firm and elastic, especially along the 

(6) The gills are bright. 

(c) The eyes are bright and bulging. 

The sinking of fish when placed in water has also been 
given as an indication of its fitness for use as food. De- 
cayed fish floats on water. 

Since fish spoils readily, it must be frozen if kept for any 
length of time. Frozen fish is not undesirable provided it 
is kept in a frozen state until used ; it should be thawed 
out by placing it in cold water just before cooking. Fish 
that has been thawed out and kept for some time before 
cooking may contain at times poisonous substances called 
ptomaines. Ptomaines in food may produce distressing 
effects or may even prove fatal. 


Fresh fish should be kept in a cool place until used, but 
should not be placed uncovered in the refrigerator. It may, 
however, be tightly covered, — put in a tin pail or glass jar, 
— and placed in the rehdgerator. Before cooking, fish 
should be washed thoroughly with a wet cloth. On account 
of the odor, all utensils used in the oraking of fish should 
be washed in salted water. 

Clean and wash a large fish. The head or tail may or 
may not be removed before baking. If the head is retained, 

Figure 60. — Fish Kettle, Showing Rack- 

the eyes should be removed before serving; this is done 
more easily after cooking. If the tail is retained, it should 
be wrapped in oiled paper to prevent it from burning. 

Sprinkle salt on the inside of the fish and also on the out- 
side, and then fill with stuffing. Skewer the cut edj^ ot 
the fish together or close the incision as follows : 

Hold the edges of the skin together and thrust toothpicks 
across the opening, through both cut edges of the fish. Then 
fasten the opening by " lacing " string around the toothpicks. 
Cut gashes on each side across the fish and put strips of salt 

PISH 231 

pork into them or insert strips of pork with a larding needle. 
Oil a baking sheet or the rack of a fish kettle (see Figure 60) 
and place the fish on it, forming the fish into an " S " by 
means of skewers. Place the sheet in a baking-pan and add 
pieces of salt pork. Bake 15 minutes for each pound, or 
until the flesh can be separated easily from the bones by 
means of a skewer or a fork. If the baking-pan is uncovered, 
baste every 10 minutes. When done, carefully remove the 
fish from the pan and place on a platter, garnish with parsley 
and lemon, and serve with Tomato Sauce (see p. 112) or Sauce 
for Fish (see below). 

In the absence of a baking sheet, two well oiled strips of muslin 
may be placed across the baking-pan, imdemeath the fish. When 
baked, the fish may be removed easily from the pan by means of 
the strips of muslin. 


2 cupf Ills soft bread crumbs 1 teaspoonful scraped onion 

i teaspoonful salt 1 teaspoonful chopped parsley 

i teaspoonful pepper 1 teaspoonful capers or chopped 

Cayenne pickles 

2 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

Mix the ingredients in the order given (see Crumbs for 
Scalloped Dishes, p. 110). 


3 tablespoons butter or substitute If cupfuls hot water 
i cupful flour i cupful vinegar or 

i teaspoonful salt 1 large lemon, — juice 

Cayenne 1 tablespoonful chopped parsley 

Prepare the first five ingredients as in White Sauce (see 
White Sauce for Vegetables, p. 109). Then add vinegar or 
lemon juice and chopped parsley. Serve hot over fish. 


Hard-cooked eggs make a pleasing addition to this sauce. Chop 
the whole eggs or slice the whites and mash the yolks with a fork; 
then add to the sauce. 


Why should fish not be left uncovered in the refrigerator? 

Why should fish be cleaned by wiping with a cloth, rather than by 
placing ip a pan of water (see Experiment 59, p. 226) ? 

What is the purpose of placing fish on a baking sheet or placing 
strips of muslin underneath for baking (see Experiment 60, 
p. 227) ? 

How is fish tested for sufficient cooking? 

How can the odor be removed from utensils in which fish has been 


Fish (C) 
planked (broiled) fish 

An oak plank, — one inch in thickness and as long and 
wide as a large platter, — is a satisfactory device for broil- 
ing fish. For planking or broiling, fish steaks or thin, flat 
fish, such as mackerel or bluefish, should be selected. 

Clean the fish, then place it, skin side down, on the plank. 
Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and spread with softened or 
melted butter. Place in the broiling oven and broil until 
done, usually 15 or 20 minutes. 

A border of potato puff mixture makes a pleasing addition 
to the fish (see Potato Puff, p. 289). A few minutes be- 
fore the fish is done, remove it from the oven and arrange 
the potato mixture around it. (A pastry bag and tube 
may be used for this purpose.) Brush the potato with egg 
diluted with water (1 tablespoonful of water to 1 egg). Re- 
turn the plank to the oven to finish broiling the fish and 

FISH 233 

to brown the potatoes. Serve the fish and potatoes on the 


Clean fish and season with salt and pepper. Mix equal 
parts of com-meal and flour. Dip the fish in this mixture. 
Fry in deep fat or saut^. Drain and serve with a sauce. 
Dried bread or cracker crumbs, and egg may be used for 
dipping instead of the com-meal and flour mixture (see 
Fried Oysters, p. 134). 


i pound salt fish or 1 onion, chopped 

2 pounds fresh fish 2 tablespoonf uls com-meal 

1 quart potatoes cut in pieces 1 pint milk 

2 tablespoonfuls bacon drippings or Crackers 
other fat 

If salt fish is used, hold it under running water for a few 
minutes (why ?), then shred it. 

If fresh fish is used, wash it, remove bones if possible, and 
cut it into six or eight pieces. 

Brown the onion in the fat. Into a kettle put layers 
of fish and potatoes and add a little browned onion and 
com-meal to each layer. Cover with hot water and boil 
gently until the potatoes are tender. Add the milk and 
continue heating until the mixture is hot. Just before 
serving, add a few crackers broken into pieces. 


State the advantages of using a plank for broiling fish. 
Why select fish steaks or thin, flat fish for broiling? 
What is the purpose of brushing the potato mixture with egg? 
Give two reasons for using well seasoned sauces and stuffing 
with fish (see Comparison of Beef toUh Fish, p. 227). 



Legumes (A) 

The Legumes include peas, beans, lentils, and peanuts. 
These plants bear pods containing seeds ; the seeds — green 
or ripened — and the pods of some of the plants are com- 
monly used as foods. 

Protein in Seeds. — Many foods rich in protein belong 
to the animal kingdom. The seeds of plants, however, con- 
tain protein. The common cereals, wheat and corn, con- 
tain almost 10 per cent of protein, while oats contain about 
16 per cent. But the dried seeds of legumes exceed all 
seeds in protein content. Peas, beans, lentils, and peanuts 
contain more protein than most cuts of meat. About 25 
per cent of their composition is protein. Soy-beans are 
much richer in protein than any of the legumes. They con- 
tain about 37 per cent. 

It has been mentioned that proteins differ in quality. 
Although the dried legumes are especially rich in protein, 
they do not all contain complete protein. With the excep- 
tion of peanuts and soy-beans, these foods need to be sup- 
plemented with other protein-rich foods such as milk, eggs, 
and cheese. 

Since the dried legumes are a much cheaper source of 
protein than meat, they should be used oftener than they are. 
Legumes supplemented with milk or combined with a small 
quantity of meat furnish economical sources of protein food. 
The protein in legumes is called legumin. 

Cooking Dried Legumes. — The dried legumes should 
be soaked overnight in water, to which a little baking soda 
has been added. These vegetables require long cooking to 
soften them, and also to develop flavor. A little soda added 
to the water in which they are cooked also aids in softening 


them and neutralizes the vegetable acid found in some of 
the legumes. During the long heating, dried legumes break 
up, if not carefully cooked. 

Dried soy-beans have a strong flavor which is objectionable. 
This 'can be removed as follows : Soak the beans over- 
night in a large quantity of hot water, drain, add fresh 
water and baking soda (about 1 teaspoonful for each cupful 
of beans), and cook the beans for about 40 minutes, then 
drain, add more water, and cook until they are tender. 
Dried soy-beans require long cooking, — usually 4 or 5 
hours. After the 40-minute cooking, they may be drained, 
heated in more water, and then placed in a fireless cooker. 
The pressure cooker may be used effectively in cooking these 
dried beans. 

Soy-beans may also be baked after the 40-minute cooking 
in the same manner as navy beans (see Boston Baked 
Beans), Serve cooked soy-beans with Tomato Sauce (see 
p. 112). 

Although dried legumes are comparatively cheap, the fuel 
required to cook them for so long a time may increa'se their 
cost to a considerable extent. In cooking these foods, care 
should be taken to utilize fuel that is already required for 
some other purpose. The fireless cooker is most satisfactory 
in cooking these dried foods. 


2 cupfuls navy beans 2 teaspoonfuls salt 

2 tablespoonf uls molasses or brown 2 ounces salt pork or bacon 

sugar i teaspoonful mustard 

Soak the beans overnight as directed in Cooking Dried 
Legumes, Add a little baking soda and gradually heat to 
the boiling point. Then add the seasoning to the beans; 
place half of them in a bean crock ; and add the pork which 


has been scraped and scored. (To score salt pork cut gashes 
in it nearly to the rind.) Add the remainder of the beans 
and enough water to cover them slightly. Bake in a slow 
oven 6 to 12 hours. Keep the beans below the boiling point 
and see that they are covered with liquid. 

LentiU may be baked in the same way as beans. 


i cupful salt 1 cupful shelled unroaflted peanuts 

3 cupf uls water 2 teaspoonf uls butter or substitute 

Remove the skins from the peanuts by placing them in 
boiling water for 3 minutes ; drain, cover with cold water ; 
and then slip off the skins. Heat the salt and water, and 
when boiling, add the peanuts. Cook 8 minutes. Drain, 
rinse off the salt, place in a baking-pan, add the fat, and 
bake until slightly browned, stirring often. Turn from the 
pan on paper. 


Why should dried vegetables be soaked in water before cooking? 

Measure the beans after soaking. How much have they in- 
creased in bulk? 

What is the reason for keeping the beans below the boiling point 
while baking? 

Devise a method for preparing Baked Beans, when they can re- 
main in the oven but an hour or two. 

How are fatty meats cleaned? Why can they not be cleaned by 
washing in water (see Experiment 35, p. 139) ? 

What is the purpose of scoring the salt pork or bacon? 

What is the advantage of seasoning peanuts by cooking in strong 
salted water rather than sprinkling salt over them after browning? 

What are the prices of beans and raw peanuts per pound? 

How many cupf uls in a pound of each? 



Legumes (B) 
bean soup 

2 cupfuls beans 2 slices onion 

3 quarts water Cayenne 

Baking soda } teaspoonf ul pepper 

1 piece of celery root or 2 teaspoonfuls salt 

i teaspoonful celery salt or \ teaspoonful mustard 
Dried celery leaves 2 tablespoonfuls flour 

1§ tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

Soak the beans overnight; add soda, onion, and celery. 
Cook slowly until the beans are soft. Add more water, if 
more than one quart evaporates. Press through a strainer. 
Use the remainder of the ingredients in making a sauce. 
The strained beans should be used as the liquid for the sauce 
(see Thick Soups, p. 173). 

Slices of lemon and of hard-cooked eggs may be used as a garnish 
for this soup. 


1 cupful split peas i teaspoonful pepper 
2i quarts water 1^ teaspoonfuls salt 
Baking soda 3 tablespoonfuls flour 

2 slices onion 2 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

1 pint milk 

Soak the peas overnight ; add soda and onion ; and cook 
slowly until the peas are soft. Press through a strainer. 
Make a White Sauce of the remainder of the ingredients. 
Add the strained peas, heat, and serve. 

Cooking a ham bone with the split peas changes the flavor. 



1 pint or can of peas Pepper 

i teaspoonful sugar 1 teaspoonful salt 

1 pint liquid round peas 1 J tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

and water 1 pint milk 

2 tablespoonfuls flour 

Turn the peas into a saucepan ; add the liquid, water, and 
sugar ; and cook until very soft. Press the peas through a 
strainer. Make a White Sauce of the remaining ingredients. 
Add the strained peas, heat, and serve. 

Peas too old to serve as a vegetable may be used for soup. Some 
of the pods of fresh peas may be cooked with the peas. 


Spread thin crackers very lightly with butter. Brown in 
the oven and serve with soup. 


How should the water boil to prevent dried legumes from break- 
ing (see Cooking Vegetables in Water, p. 59) ? 

What is the simplest way of thickening soup, if it is too thin ? Too 

If a ham bone is cooked with split peas, what ingredient should be 
omitted in making the soup? Why? 

How many persons wiU these recipes for soup serve ? 

How many cupf uls in a pound of split peas ? What is the cost per 
poimd of split peas? How much does one cupful of split peas in- 
crease in bulk by soaking? What quantity of split peas would be 
equal to a can of peas? What is the cost of a can of peas? How 
much is saved in making soup by using split peas rather than green 



Legumes (C) 
bean roast 

1 cupful white beans, cooked 1 teaspoonful salt 
1 cupful roasted peanuts Speck pepper 

J cupful bread crumbs i cupful milk 

Put the beans and peanuts through a food chopper, add 
the remaining ingredients. Mix and shape into a loaf. 
Place in an oiled dish and bake 30 minutes in a moderate 
oven. Serve hot with Tomato Sauce (see p. 112). 


1 cupful peanut butter 3 cupfuls milk 
i cupful chopped celery 2 teaspoonfuls salt 
li cupfuls water J teaspoonful pepper 

1 grated potato 

Mix the peanut butter with 1 cupful of milk. Heat 2 
cupfuls of milk in a double boiler. Cook the celery in the 
water until the vegetable is tender. Add the grated potato, 
cook, and stir until the mixture is thickened. Then add it 
to the hot milk. Also add the peanut butter mixture and 
seasoning. Heat until it is hot. Beat with a Dover egg 
beater. Serve hot. 

Dried celery leaves may be used instead of fresh celery (see 
p. 249). 


Mention the nutrients contained in the food materials of Bean 
Roast and Peanut Butter Soup. Discuss the value of each nutrient. 

Calculate the cost of Bean Roast. How many persons will it 


How many persons will one pound of chopped beef serve? Esti- 
mate the difference in cost of one serving of Bean Roast and of 
Chopped Steak. 

What is the purpose of grated potato in Peanut Butter Soup? 
What substance could be substituted for the grated potato? State 
the method of mixing and cooking if the substitution were made. 


^ Cost of Food 

Foods Differ Greatly in Cost. — One pound of rice costs 
much less than one pound of beefsteak. One cut of meat 
may cost less per pound than another. Twenty-five cents 
buys much less in weight of sweetbreads than of beefsteak. 

Many factors other than difference in cost must, however, 
be taken into consideration when determining the value of 

Cost of Food in Relation to Nutritive Value. — Foods differ 
in nutritive value per pound. One pound of dried split 
peas contains more than three times as much nutriment as 
one pound of fresh peas. The nutritive value of a pound 
of sweetbreads is much less than that of a pound of beef- 

Cost of Food in Relation to Refuse. — Although one cut 
of meat may sell for more than another, the higher priced 
one may be cheaper because there is less waste. In most 
localities flank steak costs more per pound than shoulder 
steak; yet flank steak is the cheaper meat because it is 
all edible, while there is about one fifth waste in most shoulder 
steak. One pays for some refuse even when purchasing 


Cost of Food in Relation to Season. — Most foods are 
higher in price when out of season. Strawberries may cost 
seventy-five cents per quart in February and twenty-five 
€ents in the spring or summer months. An unseasonable 
food is invariably expensive. 

Cost of Food in Relation to Weight. — Food labels often 
contain valuable information. The weight of the contents 
of a package, can, or bottle, and sometimes the composition 
of food appears on them. 

Packages, bottles, and cans of equal size do not always 
contain the same quantity of foods. The shape or thick- 
ness of a container also affects the quantity of its contents. 
By examining labels and noting weight and composition, 
the price and quality of one brand of foods may be compared 
with another. 

Household scales are useful in checking up the weight of 
foods, such as meats, fats, and vegetables. By weighing 
foods after they have been purchased, a housekeeper can 
determine if a dealer is giving her that for which she pays. 

Lessening the Cost of Foods. — There are many things, 
then, that the thrifty buyer should take into consideration 
when purchasing foods. It is one of the obligations of a 
woman who purchases and plans the foods for a family to be 
careful of expense. The following statement concerning 
thrift is both forceful and true : 

" It is not beneath the dignity of any family to avoid 
useless expenditure no matter how generous its income, and 
the intelligent housekeeper should take as much pride in 
setting a good table, at a low price, as the manufacturer 
does in lessening the cost of production in his factory." ^ 

Calculation of the Cost of Food. — In counting the cost 
■ of foods, it is necessary to know not only the price per 

* United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin 391, 
** Economical Use of Meat in the Home," p. 43. 



pound, quart, dozen, or package, but the measurement in 
cupfuls of the given weight. Most of the data for the list 
given below can be obtained from labels on the containers 
and from the notes on the weights and measures of various 
foods prepared from the " Questions " of this text. The 
dashes indicate that data are not required. The cost should 
be calculated to four decimal places. 


Apricots (dried) (see p. 77) 
Baking Powder . . . 
Beans, dried (see p. 236) 
Butter .... 
Butter Substitute 
Cheese (see p. 192) 
Cocoa (see p. 169) 
Coffee (see p. 51) 

Corn-meal (see p. 97) . 
Corn-starch (see p. 101) 
Cream of Wheat (see p. 84) 
Cream (see p. 173) . . 
Currants (dried) . . . 
Eggs (see Experiment 41, p. 
Flour, white .... 
Flour, entire .... 
Flour, graham . . . 
Gelatine (see p. 226) 


Macaroni (see p. 192) . 
Meat, chopped (see p. 205) 
Milk (see p. 169) . . 
Potatoes (see p. 110) . 

Prunes (dried) 
Raisins (dried) 

























Rice (see p. 97) 

Rolled Oats (see p. 84) . . 


Split Peas (see p. 238) . . . 

Sugar, brown 

Sugar, granulated (see p. 74) . 
Sugar, loaf 

Sugar, powdered (see p. 74) . 


Tea (see p. 46) 


Vegetable Oil 

Wheatena (see p. 84) . . . 





ure IN 
















Cooking and Serving a Breakfast 

Cook and serve a breakfast. The following menu is 
suggested : 

Oranges or Baked Apples 
Goldenrod Eggs 
Baked Mush with Honey or Marmalade 


Follow the English or family style of serving (see p. 122). 
Serve the breakfast with or without a maid. 

Calculate the cost of the meal. In determining the cost, 
use the data from the previous lesson for the staple materials. 
The cost of fresh foods such as oranges or apples may be 
secured from the one who did the marketing or from the 
grocer's statement. 


Review: Meal Cooking 


Cereal with Fruit 
Poached Egg on Toast 

See Lesson XIV, p. 68, for suggestions regarding the preparation 
of the Lesson. 


Home Projects^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Set the table for the 
evening meal each day. 

Cook at least one tough cut of meat each week. 

Suggested Aims: 

(1) To lay the cloth smooth and straight. 

(2) To place the dishes in a neat and orderly way on 
the table. 

(3) To make as few trips as possible from the cup- 
board to the dining table. 

(4) To plan the entire number of dishes, knives, forks, 
spoons, and other things needed during the meal, and then 
place these on the dining table or other suitable place where 
they may be conveniently obtained when the meal is being 

(5) To prepare the tough meat so that it is tender, 
moist, and tasty. 

(6) To determine the cost of meat. 

^ See Lesson IX, p. 51. 





ViTAMiNES — Vegetables of Delicate Flavor 

Vitamines. — In detennining the proper diet for perfect 
nourishment, scientists long since came to the conclusion 
that the body needed a certain quantity of carbohydrates, 
fats, protein, ash, and water. They were all agreed that 
all these foodstuffs needed to be represented in the foods 
making up a day's diet. Scientists also found that these 
foodstuffs must exist in a certain proportion in a day's food, 
— that there should be enough of each of the foodstuffs to 
meet the needs of the body. A diet made up of foods in 
which all the foodstuffs were represented in the proper 
proportion was termed a balanced ration. 

Investigations of recent years, however, show that these 
foodstuffs alone do not afford perfect nourishment. Much 
valuable scientific work is being done on the question of ade- 
quate diet. It is found that certain substances contained 
in foods in small amounts are absolutely essential in diet. 
When animals are fed foods containing only the foodstuffs 
mentioned above and none of these other substances, they 
cease growing, become diseased, and eventually die. 

These materials so necessary to the growth and main- 
tenance of animal life are termed Vitamines by some authori- 
ties. There are three classes of Vitamines, called Fai-solvble 
Ay Water-solvble B, and Water-soluble C, 



Although vitamines exist in foods only in minute quanti- 
ties it is necessary to use foods containing all the kinds of 
vitamines to promote growth and to keep in health. 

The use of fat-soluble A prevents rickets and a disease 
of the eye, called xerophthalmia. During the war, because 
of inadequate diet, many cases of this disease developed 
among the inhabitants of Europe. 

Water-soluble B is called the anti-^euritic vitamine be- 
cause it is necessary to prevent a disease called polyneu- 
ritis or beri-beri (see Polished and Unpolished Rice, p. 84). 

Water-soluble C is called the anti-scorbuiic vitamine be- 
cause it is necessary to prevent a disease called scurvy. 

Foods Containing Fat-soluble A are milk, eggs, and leafy 
vegetables. Leafy vegetables include: spinach, lettuce, 
celery tops, beet tops, Swiss chard, coUards, cabbage, Brus- 
sels sprouts, and onions. Milk products, such as butter and 
cheese, and cod-liver oil also contain fat-soluble A. It is 
also thought to be present in certain vegetables such as car- 
rots, which are not leafy vegetables. Not all fat foods con- 
tain fat-soluble A. It does not exist in the vegetable oils. . 

It has been demonstrated that foods rich in fat-soluble A, 
especially milk, eggs, and leafy vegetables, are most es- 
sential in diet. According to McCoUum, dry leaves contain 
3 to 5 times as much total ash as do seeds ; the former are also 
especially rich in the important elements calcium, sodium, 
and chlorine, in which the seed is poorest. Hence leafy 
vegetables not only abound in the growth-promoting vita- 
mine but in certain essential minerals. Cereals, root vege- 
tables, and meat need to be supplemented with milk and 
leafy vegetables. Because milk, eggs, and leafy vegetables 
are so valuable and essential in diet, these foods have been 
termed protective foods. Fresh milk contains fat-soluble 
A and a small quantity of water-soluble B and water-soluble 
C. Its value as a food has been previously discussed (see 


p. 163). Doubtless the leafy vegetables are not as gen- 
erally and as constantly used as they should be. Root vege- 
tables and cereals seem to be a much more popular form of 
vegetable food. The pupil should realize the importance 
of these foods and when possible explain their use in her 
home. Learning to prepare leafy vegetables so as to retain 
their nutriment and to make them appetizing would doubt- 
less do much in promoting their use. 

Foods Containing Water-soluble B. — Water-soluble B 
is more widely distributed in foods than is fat-soluble A. 
It occurs for the most part, however, in vegetable foods. 
Plants containing this vitamine include seeds, root, stem, 
and leafy vegetables. Whole grains, legumes, spinach, 
cabbage, potatoes, carrots, onions, turnips, beets, and to- 
matoes and all other commonly used vegetables contain 
water-soluble B. It is thought that the germ of whole 
grains, rather than the bran, furnishes water-soluble B. 
Yeast contains more of this vitamine than any other ma- 

Foods Containing Water-soluble C include both animal 
and vegetable foods, but fresh fruits and green vegetables 
contain the largest quantity. Orange juice and uncooked 
cabbage and carrots are valuable sources of this vitamine. 
Milk and meat contain only a very small quantity of water- 
soluble C. 

Saving the Nutriment and Flavor. — It was mentioned 
in Suggestixms for Cooking Fresh Vegetables (see p. 59) 
that a saving of ash in vegetables meant a saving of both 
nutriment and flavor. If vegetables of delicate flavor are 
to be made tasty, it is especially necessary to lose none 
of the ash constituents. Note that in the methods of cooking 
the vegetables of delicate flavor in this lesson that either 
the vegetables are cooked in such a way that no moisture 
needs to be drained from them, or the vegetable stock drained 


from them is used in making sauce for the vegetable. By 
these methods both nutriment and flavor are retained. 


1 pound or J peck spinach i teaspoonf ul pepper 

i tablespoonf ul salt 2 tablespoonfuls butter 

If the spinach is at all wilted, place it in cold water until 
it becomes fresh and crisp. Cut off the roots, break the 
leaves apart, and drop them in a pan of water. Wash well^ 
and then lift them into a second pan of water ; wash again^ 
and continue until no sand appears in the bottom of the pan. 
Lift from the water, drain, and place in a granite utensil, 
and add the seasoning. Steam until tender (usually about 
30 minutes). Add the butter, cut the leaves with a knife 
and fork. Turn into a hot dish and serve at once. 

Spinach is most pleasing if served with a few drops of 
vinegar or a combination of oil and vinegar. If desired, the 
pepper may be omitted and 1 tablespoonf ul of- sugar added. 
Spinach may also be garnished with slices of hard-cooked 
eggs, using 2 eggs to i peck of spinach. 

Spinach may be cooked directly over the flame, as follows : wash 
the spinach as directed above. Then drain, and place in a sauce- 
pan or casserole. Do not add water unless the spinach is old. 
Add the seasoning, cover, and cook for 10 minutes, pressing down 
and tinning over the spinach several times during the cooking. Cut 
with a knife and fork in the saucepan or casserole. Add the butter, 
and simmer for 5 minutes. Serve at once. 


1 pound spinach | cupful cheese, cut in pieces 

1 cupful thick White Sauce (see 2 to 3 hard-cooked eggs, 

p. 116) sliced 

2 cupfuls buttered bread crumbs (see p. 110) 

Wash the spinach and cook it by either of the methods 
given above. Season it with ^ tablespoonful of salt. 


Drain the moisture from the cooked spinach. Use this 
liquid combined with milk for the liquid of the White Sauce. 
Season the sauce with ^ teaspoonf ul of salt and add the cheese 
to it. Stir the mixture until the cheese is blended with the 

Divide the spinach, sauce, and eggs into 2 portions and the 
bread crumbs into 3 portions, as directed for Scalloped Corn 
(see p. 26). Place a layer of crumbs in a baking-dish, add a 
layer of spinach, sauce, and eggs. Add another layer of 
each material and finally the third layer of crumbs. Bake 
in a moderate oven until the materials are heated and the 
crumbs browned. Serve hot. 


Wash celery leaves and remove the stems. Place the 
leaves on a platter or granite pan, cover with cheese-cloth, 
and set aside to dry. When perfectly dry, crumble the 
leaves and place them in a covered jar. Use for flavoring 
soups and stews. 


In what kind of soil does spinach grow? 

What is the advantage of using two pans in washing spinach? 

What is the advantage of cooking in steam green vegetables of 
delicate flavor? 

If green vegetables are cooked in water, what is the advantage 
in using a small, rather than a large quantity of water? 

What is the price of spinach per pound or peck? How many 
persons does one pound or peck serve? 

What is the price of celery per bunch? 

What vitamines are present in spinach'and celery leaves and stems ? 

^ The stems of celery from which the leaves are cut, should be utilized. 
They may be used in a salad or cooked and served with White Sauce as 
Creamed Celery. If the vegetable is cooked, it should be steamed or 
cooked in a small quantity of boiling water. In case the latter method 
is followed, the celery stock should be combined with milk and used in 
the preparation of the White Sauce. 



ViTAMiNES — Vegetables of Strong Flavor 

The* Effect of Cooking and Drying Vitamine-rich Foods. — 
Since vitamines are so essential in food, the eflFect of cooking 
and drying upon the vitamine content of a food needs to be 
considered. There has been some difference of opinion 
regarding this matter. Indeed, the question of whether 
or not vitamines of all vitamine-rich foods are destroyed 
by cooking and drying has not been determined. It is 
thought, however, that fat-soluble A may be destroyed in 
part by cooking at boiling temperature and that prolonged 
cooking may almost entirely destroy it. 

Fat-soluble B is thought to be little affected by ordinary 
home cooking processes. But when foods containing it are 
heated above boiling temperature, as in commercial canning 
and cooking in the pressure cooker, the vitamine is believed 
to be partially or completely destroyed. Whether or not 
the water-soluble B vitamine present in foods is destroyed 
by cooking them in water to which baking soda or any alka- 
line is added has not been definitely determined. 

Water-soluble C is decidedly affected by heat. Vege- 
tables cooked for even twenty minutes at boiling tempera- 
ture lose much of their usefulness in preventing scurvy. 
It is thought, however, that very young carrots cooked for 
a short time, and canned tomatoes, contain water-soluble C. 
Drying also destroys to a great extent the anti-scorbutic 
effect of foods containing water-soluble C. Most dried 
vegetables and fruits have been found valueless in checking 

Since there is no question about the vitamine content of 
Uncooked vegetables, the use of salads containing lettuce 
and raw vegetables such as cabbage and carrots should 
find favor. Spinach is a valuable food not only because it 


contains vitamines, but because it is rich in iron. Young 
beet tops so often discarded contain too much valuable 
material to be wasted. 

Nutriment versus Flavor. — If vegetables of strong flavor 
are cooked carefully in a large quantity of boiling water 
(at least 4 quarts), a mild flavor results, but much of the 
ash is lost. If vegetables are steamed there is little loss of 
ash but the strong flavor is retained. In the cooking of cab- 
bage, for example, investigation has shown that almost four 
times as much ash may be lost by boiling as by steaming. 

In the cooking of such vegetables as cabbage and onions 
the question arises : Is it better to steam them and thus 
lose little nutriment but preserve the strong flavor; or to 
boil them in much water and thus lose much nutriment but 
secure delicate flavor? If strong cabbage flavor is not dis- 
tasteful, steam it or cook it in a small quantity of water 
by all means. If delicate cabbage flavor is much more 
pleasing, cook it in much water. Onions have such a strong 
flavor that most housekeepers prefer to sacrifice nutriment 
for flavor. 

CREAMED CABBAGE (Cooked in Much Water) 

A head of cabbage should be cut into quarters and placed 
in cold water. If it is wilted, it should remain in the water 
until freshened. Cook the cabbage uncovered from 15 to 
25 minutes in a large quantity of boiling water (1 teaspoon- 
ful of salt to 1 quart of water). The time depends upon 
the age of the cabbage. Drain well. With the knife and 
fork cut the cabbage in the saucepan. (Do not discard the 
core of young cabbage since it contains valuable nutrients.) 
Mix with White Sauce, using two parts of cabbage to one of 
White Sauce. Heat and serve (see Creamed and Scalloped 
Vegetables, p. 109). 


Scalloped Cabbage may be prepared by placing creamed cabbage 
in a baking-dish, covering with Buttered Crumbs (see p. 110), and 
baking until the crumbs are brown. 

Instead of using White Sauce with the cabbage, butter (or substi- 
tute), pepper, and more salt (if required) may be added. Use 1 
tablespoonful of butter (or substitute) to each pint of cabbage. 

CABBAGE (Cooked in Little Water) 

Clean cabbage, then cut or chop both the leaves and core. 
Cook in a small quantity of boiling water from 15 to 25 min- 
utes. The small quantity of stock which remains after 
cooking should be served with the vegetable to which butter 
(or substitute) and seasonings are added. 

The stock may also be drained from the cabbage and used in 
making White Sauce in which the vegetable is served. 


Cut and clean cabbage as directed above. Place in a 
granite utensil and steam until tender (usually about 45 
minutes). Cut the leaves and add White Sauce as directed 

OKIONS (Cooked in Mttch Water) 

1 poimd onions 1 to 2 tablespoonf uls butter 

\ cupful milk I teaspoonful salt 


Peel and wash the onions; then cook uncovered in a 
large quantity of boiling salted water ; change the water at 
the end of 5 minutes and again in 10 minutes ; cook until 
tender. Drain ; add milk and seasonings and cook until the 
milk is hot. 

Note. — It is advisable to save the water drained from onions, 
boil it down, and use it in soups, stews, or hash for flavor. 

Onions may also be served with White Sauce, or they may 
be scalloped, i.e. cut into quarters, placed in a baking-dish, covered 


with White Sauce and Buttered Crumbs, and tlien browned in the 

The stain and odor may be kept from the hands if onions are 
held under water when peeled. 

If onions are cooked uncovered in a large quantity of gently boiling 
water in a weU-venliUUed kitchen, not much odor is noticed. The 
fireless cooker, however, provides satisfactory means of cooking 
onions without the disagreeable odor (see Lesson XXII, p. 90). 
Place the onions in a large quantity of water and boil for 5 minutes. 
Then cook in the fireless cooker from 2 to 8 hours, according to the 
size and the age of the onions, and the type of cooker. 


Compare the three methods of cooking cabbage given in this 
lesson. State the advantages and disadvantages of each. 

Why should the core or thick stem of cabbage be used as food? 

What is the price per pound of cabbage? What is the weight of 
one cabbage of average size? Give suggestions for selecting a cab- 

Why should onions be peeled under water? 

What is the purpose of changing the water twice in cooking 
onions ? 

Why is it advisable to save the water drained from onions and 
use it in soups and other foods? 

What is the price per pound of onions? How many persons will 
one pound of onions serve? 


Salads (A) 

Preparation of a Salad. — A well-prepared salad is a good 
food. It is necessary, however, to prepare it so that it may 
be pleasing in appearance as well as in taste. The green 
vegetables used for salads should be crisp, cold, and dry 
when served. If several food materials are used, the flavors 
should blend. Have the salad dressing well seasoned, and 


its ingredients well proportioned. Add the dressing to a 
salad just before serving. 


Either leaf or head lettuce forms a part of almost all salads. 
It is often used as a bed for a salad^ or as a border. For the 
latter purpose, leaf lettuce should be used and cut into strips 
with the scissors. Keep lettuce in a cold place; separate 
the leaves, and place them in cold water until crisp and fresh. 
Wash and look over carefully to see that no insects cling to 
them. Shake the water from the leaves or place them in a 
cloth bag or a wire basket. Then place the bag or basket 
in the refrigerator to drain. The leaves may also be dried 
with a towel. 

Lettuce served with French Dressing makes a plain but 
pleasing salad. When lettuce is used as a bed or border for 
a salad, it should be eaten and not left to be turned into the 
garbage can. 


Clove of garlic or 1 teaspoonful salt 

Slice of onion 6 tablespoonfuls salad oil 

\ teaspoonful paprika 

2 tablespoonfuls vinegar or lemon juice 

Rub a bowl with the clove of garlic or slice of onion. 
Add the remainder of the ingredients, and stir until well 
blended. More vinegar or lemon juice may be used, if 
desired. Chopped parsley or mint may be added. 

Some find it convenient to put the materials for French 
Dressing in a bottle or jar and mix the ingredients by shaking 
the bottle. 

For Fruit Salads, the addition of 1 tablespoonful of sugar and 
1 teaspoonful of lemon juice to the French Dressing recipe above 
makes a pleasing flavor. Celery salt is thought by some to improve 
the flavor. From i to J teaspoonful may be added. 



3 cupfuls shredded cabbage 1 teaspoonful sugar 

i teaspoonful salt 1 egg or 2 egg yolks 

i teaspoonfiil mustard i cupful milk 

Cayemie 2 teaspoonfuls butter or substitute 

i cupful vinegar 

Heat the milk in a double boiler. Beat the eggs, add the 
dry ingredients. Then add the milk to them. Return the 
mixture to the double boiler and cook as a custard (see 
Soft Cuatardy p. 179). Remove from the hot water, add 
the fat and vinegar, and at once strain over the cabbage. 
Set aside to cool. Serve cold. 


1 medium-sized carrot \ cupful roasted peanuts 

2 cupfuls cabbage French or Cream Salad Dress- 


Clean and scrape the carrot. Wash the cabbage. Put 
the carrot (uncooked), cabbage, and peanuts through the 
food chopper. Mix with French or Cream Salad Dressing. 
Add more seasoning if necessary. Serve at once. 


Explain why it is necessary to dry the salad materials before 
adding the salad dressing. 

Give at least three different vegetable mixtures that would be 
palatable and pleasing if served with French Dressing. 

How is cabbage cleaned? How should it be cut for salad? 

When is the dressing usually added to salads? When is the 
dressing added to the Coleslaw? Give the reason for this exception. 

What is the purpose of the egg in this salad dressing? What 
could be substituted for the egg? Give the method of preparation 
if this substitution were made. 

What is the price per pound of leaf lettuce? Of head lettuce 
per pound or per head? What is the average number of leaves in 
a pound? 


What materials in Carrot and Cabbage Salad contain vitamines? 
State the kind of vitamine present in each material. 


Salads (B) 


Cut hard-ccK)ked eggs into halves crosswise. Remove 
the yolks, mash them, and for each egg add the following 
ingredients : 

1 tablespoonfnl chopped chicken, 6 drops vinegar 

ham, or other meat } teaspoonful mustard 

Dash salt Cayenne 

1 teaspoonful vegetable oil or melted butter 

Mix the ingredients. Refill the whites with the yolk 
mixture. Serve the stuffed eggs on lettuce leaves. 

The chopped chicken or meat may be omitted from the egg 
mixture, or a little chopped pickle or olive or cheese may be used 
instead of the meat. Salad dressing may be served with Stuffed 


3 tablespoonfuls butter or \\ teaspoonfuls salt 
substitute \ teaspoonful mustard 

4 tablespoonfuls flour 1} cupfuls milk (sweet or 
2 tablespoonfuls sugar soiu) 

Pepper 1 cupful vinegar 

1 to 2 eggs 

Make a sauce of the fat, flour, and milk. Beat the eggs, 
add the seasonings. Add the first mixture gradually to 
the egg mixture and cook over hot water as a custard (see 
&ojt Custard, p. 179). Add the vinegar, strain. Cool before 

Less mustard may be used, if desired. 



Peel and scrape bananas. Place them on lettuce leaves 
or surround with a border of shredded lettuce. Cover with 
Cream Salad or Mayonnaise Dressing and sprinkle chopped 
peanuts or California walnuts over them. Serve at once. 

Banana Salad may be varied by serving it with Cream Salad 
Dressing to which peanut butter is added, — (i cupful salad dress- 
ing and i cupful peanut butter). Do not use the chopped peanuts 
with this combination. A mixture of sliced apples and bananas 
served with the peanut butter dressing makes a pleasing salad. 


Name the food materials contained in the above recipes which 
contain vitamines. What kind of vitamines does each contain ? 

Give two methods of hard-cooking eggs (see Hard-cooked Eggs, 
p. 156). 

In Stuffed Eggs what meats could be substituted for chopped 
chicken or ham ? 

What material could be substituted for one of the eggs in Cream 
Salad Dressing? 

If yolks of eggs are used in Cream Salad Dressing, how many 
should be substituted for two whole eggs? 

Why should bananas be scraped? 

Why should they be served at once after preparing? 


Classification of the Foodstuffs 

Substances that nourish the body may be classified as 
follows : 

,_,,,, f (a) Starch 

Carbohydrates • < ^j,) g 

Energy Givers \ Fats 

[ Protein 

^ Carbohydrates also include cellulose. But because cellulose does 
not yield any appreciable amount of energy, it is not listed with starch 
and sugar. 


f Complete Proteins 
Body Bmlders | ^^ I Incomplete Proteins 

Body Regulators i Water [ (a) Fat-soluble A 

[ Vitamines ^ I (f>) Water-soluble B 

I (c) Water-soluble C 

Make lists of foods rich in : 

(1) Water. 

(2) Ash. 

(3) Carbohydrates. Subdivide foods rich in carbohy- 
drates, into foods rich in (a) sugar, (6) starch, (c) cellulose 
{i.e, bulky foods). 

(4) Fats. 

(5) Protein. Indicate those foods that contain complete 
proteins and those that contain incomplete proteins. 

(6) Vitamines. Subdivide foods rich in vitamines into 
foods rich in fat-soluble A, water-soluble B, water-soluble C. 

Explain why certain foods are contained in two or more 


Selecting Food 

Marketing versus Telephoning. — Visits to food markets 
or grocery stores are most essential, especially if one is learn- 
ing to buy. It is first necessary to find desirable market 

. ^ So little is known regarding the chemical composition of vita- 
mines that it is difficult to classify them. Since the three food essentials 
termed as fat-soluble A, water-soluble B, and water-soluble C are in- 
dividual substances and very different in character, it may be that they 
will be classified later as three separate foodstuffs. It could then be 
said that there are eight foodstuffs. 


places or stores, — those that are clean and reliable. 
Screened windows and doors, and adequate bins, boxes, 
jars, or other receptacles for storing foods are necessary in 
keeping foods clean. After one has found desirable places 
for marketing, it is well to become acquainted with desirable 
brands of staple canned or package goods. After this knowl- 
edge is gained such foods may be ordered by telephone, or 
by messenger with satisfaction. 

But no matter how experienced the buyer, it is more 
satisfactory to select at markets perishable goods such as 
meat, fish, fruits, and vegetables that wilt readily. In 
certain cases where the housekeeper has such obligations or 
so many duties that a personal visit to markets is impossible, 
food must be purchased by telephone or messenger. Such 
a procedure, however, is usually followed at the sacrifice of 
economy and satisfaction in buying. 

Fresh versus Canned Foods. — Fresh foods of good quality 
are generally more desirable both from the standpoint of 
flavor and nutriment than canned goods. When, however^ 
fresh foods are unseasonable, their price may greatly exceed 
that of canned foods. A good rule to follow is to buy fresh 
foods when they are in season and the canned ones when 
fresh foods of reasonable price cannot be secured. The 
practice of buying perishable foods, especially fruits, when 
they are abundant and canning them for later use is thrifty. 

To buy factory-canned fruits and vegetables when fresh 
winter fruits, such as cranberries, oranges, and apples, and 
root vegetables may be purchased is questipnable both from 
the standpoint of economy and nutriment. It is often more 
economical to purchase dried rather than canned fruits. 
The former usually contain more food value per pound. 

Bulk versus Package Goods. — Time spent in placing 
and sealing foods in packages and the cost of the containers 
make the price of package foods exceed those sold in bulk. 


Moreover, large packages usually cost more proportionately 
than small ones. On the other hand, package foods may be 
cleaner, require less handling, and are often much more in- 
viting because of their attractive wrapping. It does not 
follow, however, that all foods sold in containers are cleaner 
than those sold in bulk. Unsanitary conditions sometimes 
prevail at factories where the foods are packed. It is a 
safe rule to buy in package form only those foods which can- 
not be washed or sterilized by cooking. 

Uncooked versus Cooked Foods. — Not only breads, 
cakes, certain cereals, and canned goods may be purchased 
ready cooked, but other foods, such as salads and puddings, 
may be bought in certain markets and stores. Such foods 
are much higher in price than those of equal quality pre- 
pared at home. The cost of labor, fuel, and " overhead 
expense" as well as of materials must be paid for by the 
purchaser. Unless one is engaged in business other than 
housekeeping or one's housekeeping duties are too arduous it is 
generally not wise to make a practice of buying cooked foods. 

Large versus Small Quantities. — It is usually wasteful 
to purchase perishable foods in large quantities. Fresh 
meats, perishable fruits such' as berries, and green vege- 
tables should be purchased only in quantities sufficient for 
immediate use. It is sometimes ebonomical, as far as fuel 
and time are concerned, to buy enough fresh meat for two 
days' consumption, provided all of it can be cooked on the 
first day, and then used cold or merely reheated on the 
second day. 

Unless storage space is limited, flour should not be pur- 
chased in less than 25 pound sacks. In less quantity than 
this it usually costs more per pound. It is wise for small 
families, however, to purchase flour and other grains in smaller 
quantities in the summer time since weevils may infest such 
food materials. 


When a non-perishable food such as sugar, or any of the 
grains, sells for a fractional sum per pound, it is economical 
to buy several pounds so as not to add to the cost per pound. 
It is wiser, for example, to buy 2 pounds of dried beans at 12^ 
cents per pound than one pound at 13 cents. 

Semi-perishable foods such as eggs and fats can usually be 
purchased with satisfaction in quantities sufficient for a week. 
They should, of course, be stored in a cool place. Many 
persons find it economical to buy eggs in large quantities in 
the summer time and pack them in water glass for winter 

Root vegetables and canned goods are cheaper when 
bought by the bushel and case. There must, however, be 
cool, dry storage space to make the purchase of the former 
in large quantities practical. 

It is impossible to purchase certain foods for small families 
in small enough quantities for immediate consumption. A 
can of molasses, for example, is usually more than enough 
for use at one time. When this is the case, the greatest care 
should be exercised to store such foods carefully and to utilize 
them before they spoil. 

Cooperative buying usually means a saving. Such foods as 
flour, potatoes, dried vegetables, sugar, apples, and dried 
fruits may be purchased by the barrel, box, or other measure. 
If several families jointly purchase such quantities of foods, 
the expense is reduced. It is also of advantage to buy from 
the producer. The middle man's profit is thus eliminated. 


Cooking and Serving a Luncheon or Supper 

Cook and serve a luncheon or supper. The following 
menu is suggested : 


Cream of Pea Soup — Croutons 

Macaroni and Cheese 

Lettuce Salad 

Bread and Butter 

Oatmeal Cookies Tea 

Follow the English or family style of serving (see p. 122). 
Serve the luncheon or supper without a maid. Calculate 
the cost of the meal per person (see p. 242). 


Review: Meal Cooking 


Chopped Steak 

Boiled or Steamed Potato 



See Lesson XIV, p. 68, for suggestions regarding the preparation 
of the lesson. 


Home Projects^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Prepare salads or other 
foods containing leafy vegetables at least twice a week. 

Calculate the quantity of milk used by each member of 
your household. 

Suggested Aims: 

(1) To prepare salads which are both pleasing in ap- 
pearance and tasty. (Make sure that they are properly 


1 See Lesson IX, p. 51. 


(2) To vary either the materials used in salad-making 
or the method of serving and preparing the same salad 

(3) If the vegetable is cooked, to prepare it in such a 
way that no nutriment is lost. 

(4) To compare the quantity of milk used by each 
member of the family with the quantities suggested at the 
top of p. 164. 



Dishes Containing Food Adjuncts — Home-made 


Food Adjuncts. — Besides the foodstuffs there are edible 
substances called food adjuncts. These cannot be termed 
foods, as they do not perfonn the functions of such, but 
they give flavor to them and they may excite the secretion 
of the digestive juices, and thus ai4 in the digestion of real 
foods. For the most part, food adjuncts are contained in 
these classes of materials, — condiments, flavoring extracts, 
and beverages. 

Condiments. — Seasoning materials and spices are called 
condiments. They are used with foods to give the latter a 
pleasing flavor. But condiments should be eaten in modera- 
tion. They are often used to cover up the flavor of inferior 
or poorly prepared foods and they are often used to ex- 
cess in sauces. Highly seasoned sauces should be served 
only with foods that are insipid in taste, but valuable for 
their nutritive properties. Good foods, well cooked, have a 
flavor which needs little change. We should train our- 
selves to enjoy the natural flavor of foods, so that there is no 
craving for condiments. 

Salt may be classed both as a condiment and as a food 
(see Ask, p. 57). When used in moderation, it has un- 
doubted value in diet. It is used in many types of foods, 



especially meats and vegetables. The flavor of sweet foods 
such as cakes and sweet sauces is invariably improved by 
the addition of a small quantity of salt. 

Vinegar is an acid flavoring material prepared by ferment- 
ing apple or grape juice or other materials. It contains 
acetic acid. 

Cinnwnum is a spice obtained from the inner bark of a 
small tree. Like most spices, it contains a volatile oil, Le, 
an oil which evaporates. Cinnamon is sometimes adulter- 
ated with cassia, a spice prepared from the bark of the cassia 
tree which grows in China and Dutch West Indies. Cassia 
is similar to cinnamon in flavor. 

Cloves are the flower buds of an evergreen tree which grows 
in Brazil, Ceylon, and West Indies. 

Nutmeg is the dried kernel of a fruit which grows on a 
tree native to the Malay Archipelago. 

Ginger is the root of a tropical plant. It contains starch 
and oil of ginger. 

Mustard is prepared from the seed of mustard plants. 

Blajck pepper is obtained from the unripe berry of a tropical 
vine while white pepper is prepared from the ripe berries. 
The latter is not as pleasing in flavor as black pepper and is 
more expensive. It is sometimes desired, however, because 
of its more pleasing appearance. 

Cayenne pepper is prepared from the dried ripe fruit of the 
Capsicum plant. 

Paprika is also prepared from the fruit of the Capsicum 
plant, but the seeds and stems of the fruit are removed. It 
is a much milder spice than cayenne pepper. 

Marjoram, savory, and thyms are the leaves of herbs used for 

Flavoring Extracts. — Alcoholic solutions of volatile oils 
derived from plants are termed flavoring extracts. By 
dissolving the vanilla bean and lemon and orange peel in 


alcohol vanilla, lemon, and orange extracts are prepared. 
Since volatile oils evaporate readily, especially when heated, 
flavoring extracts should be added, if possible, to cold foods. 

Beverages. — The stimulating materials contained in the 
common beverages, ■ — tea, coffee, cocoa, and chocolate, — are 
food adjuncts. 1 Except for the value of the water they con- 
tain, in carrying on the needs of the body, and for the small 
quantity of sugar. and cream used with them, tea and coffee 
have no food value. But cocoa and chocolate are rather 
rich in food value (see Cocoa and Chocolate, p. 166). These 
beverages contain both foodstuffs and food adjuncts. 


1 pint kidney beans 1 teaspoonful curry powder ' 

2 tablespoonfiils fat 1 teaspoonful salt 

1 onion 2 tablespoonf uls flour 

1 pint tomatoes 

Wash and soak the beans overnight. Boil gently until 

Brown the onion in the fat, then add the curry powder, 
salt, and floiu*, and proceed as for Tomato Sauce (see 
Tomato Sauce, p. 112). Add the cooked beans to the mix- 
ture and cook all together for a few minutes. Serve hot. 

Chili con cami may be prepared by adding 1 pound chopped 
beef to the ingredients above and substituting chili powder for 
curry powder. If this change is made, brown the onion in the 
fat, then add the meat. Stir and cook until the meat loses its red 
color. Add the cooked beans and seasonings. Mix the flour with 
a smaU quantity of cold tomato. Add this and the remainder of 
the tomatoes to the meat mixture. Stir and cook for a few minutes. 
Serve hot. 

^ Caffeine is the stimulating material in coffee; theine, in tea; and 
theobromine, in cocoa and chocolate. 

* Curry powder is a mixture of various spices including turmeric and 
coriander-seed powders. 



5 apples Water 

5 tablespoonfuls sugar 1 lemon 

Whole cloves 

Wash and core the apples. They may be pared if desired. 
Stick 2 or 3 whole cloves in each apple. Place the apples 
in a baking-dish, put 1 tablespoonful of sugar in the cavity 
of each apple, and a slice of lemon on the top. Add enough 
water to cover the bottom of the baking-dish. Cover, bake 
in a slow oven until soft. Serve cold. 

If the apples are very sour, more sugar should be used. 


Apple parings 1 tablespoonful molasses 

Water 1 tablespoonful sugar 

Put clean apple parings into a jar. Add enough water 
merely to cover the parings. Tie a piece of muslin over the 
jar and let it stand in a warm place for 2 or 3 days. Then 
strain the liquid into a quart jar, add the molasses and sugar. 
Tie a piece of muslin over the jar and set it aside in a warm 

When more apples are pared, add water to the parings, 
cover with a cloth, and let stand in a warm place as directed 
above. After 2 or 3 days, strain the liquid and pour it into 
the quart jar containing the liquor from the first lot of 
parings. Do not add any more molasses or sugar. 

Repeat the process of covering apple parings with water, 
straining the liquid, and adding the latter to the other por- 
tions of liquor until the quart jar is filled. Continue to let 
the jar (covered with muslin) remain in a warm place until 
the liquid has a sour taste. It then contains acetic acid and 
vinegar has been formed. (Several months are required 
to complete this process of vinegar-making.) 


If each time apple sauce or pie is made, the apple parings 
are treated in this way, a household can be supplied with 
desirable vinegar at little expense. Such vinegar, however, 
contains only about half as much acid as is required in com- 
mercial vinegar. 

Note. — In the preparation of vinegar several chemical changes 
occur. When sugar ferments, alcohol and carbon dioxide are formed. 
The alcohol is then oxidized and converted into a substance called 
an aldehyde. This latter material is in turn oxidized and becomes 
acetic acid. 


In which ingredients of the Curry of Kidney Beans, and Spiced 
Baked Apples are the food adjuncts found? 

Beans contain what ingredients that require long cooking? 

What material can be added during cooking that will soften them 
(see Cooking Dried Legumea, p. 234) ? 

What is the purpose of covering apples during baking? Why 
should they be baked in a slow oven (see Suggeationa for Cooking 
Fruits, p. 65) ? 

What kind of substance do all spices contain? 

Why should spices be used in moderation? 

Explain why flavoring extracts should be added, if possible, to 
cold foods. 

Mention at least two forms in which the following spices may be 
purchased : 

Cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, ginger, mustard, and black pepper. 

What is the cost per quart of vinegar? How much per quart 
is saved by preparing vinegar at home? 

In preparing vinegar at home, why should the liquid undergoing 
fermentation be covered with a cloth rather than a glass or metal 


Spending for Food 

What to Buy. — Dr. Langworthy of the United States 
Department of Agriculture has listed foods into five groups 


and has advised that food from each group be used daily. 
The five groups follow : 

'* 1. Fruits and Vegetables. 

2. Milk, Cheese, Eggs, Fish, Meat, Beans, Peas, Pea- 

3. Cereals — Corn-meal, Oatmeal, Rice, Rye, Wheat, 
Flour, Bread. 

4. Sugar, Sirups, Jelly, Honey, Candies. 

5. Fats — Butter, Margarine, Cottonseed Oil, Olive 
Oil, Drippings, Suet, Bacon, Chocolate." 

From studying the previous contents of this textbook the 
pupil will doubtless recognize in these groups foods to supply 
all the needs of the body. By following this plan of using 
some food from each group every day, the needs of the body 
will be supplied. 

How Much to Spend for Food. — Any one no matter how 
ignorant or thoughtless can get rid of money. But it takes 
a wise person, one who understands values and quality, 
to get value received for money spent. Whether one is 
piu*chasing food for all the meals of a family or is only select- 
ing a luncheon or one meal, it is desirable to spend money 

The five food groups may serve as a basis for the purchase 
of foods. It has been suggested that each dollar used in 
buying foods be divided into 5 parts of 20 cents each. 

" Out of every dollar spent use : ^ 

20 cents, more or less, for vegetables and fruits 
20 cents, or more, for milk and cheese 
20 cents, or less, for meat, fish, eggs, etc. 
20 cents, or more, for bread and cereals 
20 cents, or less, tor sugar, fat, tea, coffee, chocolate, flavor- 

1 From United States Thrift Leaflet #15. 



Note. — Compare these groups of food with thoBe given on 
p. 269. Not« that the first division of money should be used for 
the foods of Group 1 ; the second and third divisions for the foods 
of Group 2 ; the fourth division for the foods of Group 3 ; and the 
fifth division for the foods of Groups 4 and 5. 

According to Lucy H, Gillett of the Dietetic Bureau of 
Boston, when strictest economy is necessary, tme fourth of 
each dollar spent for food should be used to purchase bread 
and other grain products. The remainder of the dollar 
should be spent about equally for the groups of food men- 


tioned above. If 25 instead of 20 cents is spent for cereal 
products, however, care ^should be taken to buy sufficient 
milk to meet the needs of each member of the family (see 
Milk, an Invaluable Food, p. 163). This is especially 
necessary where there are young children in the family. 

Comparing the Cost of Foods. — The pupil should note 
that the different foods contained in the same groups (see 
p. 269) differ in cost. One can economize by using the 
cheaper foods in the group or by using the more expensive 
only occasionally. If you find that fresh vegetables cost 
less than fruits, use the latter more sparingly than the former. 

Meats are more expensive than dried peas or beans and 
cheese, especially Cottage Cheese. Cottage Cheese or peas 
and beans in combination with milk or eggs may take the 
place of meat. A small quantity of meat may be combined 
with the dried legumes or cereals and a saving effected. 

The third, fourth, and fifth groups contain energy-giving 
foods (see Divisions IV and V, pp. 70 and 131). Of 
the three groups of foods, cereals are by far the cheapest 
source of energy. A generous use of cereals is economical. 
In buying grains one gets much nutriment at Uttle cost 
(when compared with other foods). If the food bills must be 
curtailed, use cereals generously and meat sparingly. Do not 
eat cereals, however, to the exclusion of the foods of the other 
groups. It is especially necessary to use milk and leafy 
vegetables with cereals. The latter are lacking in the fat- 
soluble A vitamine. 

The fats included in Group 5 differ in cost. It is. necessary 
to select these wisely in order to economize. A wise and 
economical use of fats is discussed on p. 137. 

Planning before Buying. — It is not only an obligation 
but a necessity to waste no food. The bit of cereal left 
from breakfast, the crust of bread, and the scrap of meat 
represent money. They must be utilized. 


The thrifty housekeeper sees to it that left-over food is 
property cared for so that it need not be wasted because of 
spoilage. She covers food and stores it in a cool place. She 
uses it before it begins to spoil. 

In order to buy wisely it is necessary to take account of 
the foods already in the house or in the garden. It is neces- 
sary to decide before going to market just what is needed to 
supplement the materials already on hand. 


Cooking and Serving a Luncheon or Supper 

Cook and serve a luncheon or supper. The following 
menu is suggested : 

Salmon Timbale with White Sauce 

Stufifed Baked Potatoes 

Stewed or Scalloped Tomatoes 

Bread and Butter 
Prime Pudding with Top Milk 

Analyze this menu. Is food from each of the groups 
given on p. 269 contained in it? 

Follow the English or family style of serving (see p. 122). 
Serve the luncheon or supper without a maid. Calculate 
the cost of the meal per person. 


Review: Meal Cooking 

Cream of Tomato Soup 

Cheese Pudding 

Spiced Baked Apples 

See Lesson XIV, p. 68, for suggestions regarding the prepara- 
tion of the lesson. 




Home Projects 

. Suggestions for Home Work. — If possible secure lists 
of foods purchased for use at your home during a week or a 
month. List each article and price in one of the five groups, 


AND Fruits 



Meat, Fish, 


Bread and 

Sugar, Fat 
AND Other 


Add up the each column. Compare the sums. 
Suggested Aims: 

(1) To determine if the money for the various groups 
of food has been spent according to the plan suggested on 
p. 269. 

(2) If not, to use the food lists actually purchased as a 
foundation and change them so as to embody the division 
of the dollar suggested on p. 269. 

1 See Lesson IX, p. 51. 



Vegetables with Salad Dressing (A) 

Food Combinations. — From a dietetic standpoint, it is 
well to combine foods of different compositions. If a food 
is lacking in one or more of the foodstuffs, it should be 
combined with a food that supplies the missing nutrient. 
Bread contains little fat, and butter contains no carbohy- 
drates; hence these two foods make a desirable combina- 
tion. Vegetable oils, butter, and other fats make desirable 
additions to vegetables. Macaroni contains little fat, while 
cheese is rich in this foodstuff. Moreover, macaroni con- 
tains a small quantity of incomplete protein, while cheese 
is rich in complete protein. Hence macaroni and cheese 
make a good combination. In selecting foods to be used 
together, careful attention should be given to their com- 

Emulsion of Oil ; Salad Dressing. — As has been stated 
(see Breaking Up of Fats, p. 139), to emulsify fat it is neces- 
sary to separate it into tiny globules, and to coat each 
globule with some materials, so that the droplets will remain 
separate. Various materials serve to emulsify fats. During 
digestion, fat is emulsified by means of a soap (see Ex- 
periment 36, p. 139). Egg is another material which emulsi- 
fies fats. This fact is made use of in making Mayonnaise 

Dressing from vegetable oil and eggs. If one understands 




EU _J Crj CZ3 ^ ■,'i!'. 



that the oil must be divided into globules, and that each 
globule must be coated with egg, the preparation of salad 
dressing becomes interesting and successful. It is evident 


that the fat should be added to the egg slowly and should 
be beaten while being added. If the oil and other ingredients 
are cold, a thicker dressing results. Quick mayonnaise^ 
however, is an exception to this rule. 

Since emulsion of fat is one of the processes of digestion, 
it would seem that fat in emulsified form would be most 
readily digested. This is true of some emulsified fats, — 
the fat of milk is one of the most readily digested. But 
when an emulsified fat is mixed with protein as in Mayon- 
naise Dressing, the digestion of the mixture is slower than if 
either of the foodstuffs were alone. Hence to some persons. 
Mayonnaise Dressing proves distressing. 


1 egg yolk I teaspoonful salt 

1 tablespoonf ul vinegar i teaspoonful sugar 

1 tablespoonful lemon juice Cayenne 

i teaspoonful mustard 1 cupful vegetable oil 

2 tablespoonf uls boiling water 

Put the egg yolk into a mixing bowl, add hot vinegar, 
and mix thoroughly. Then add the lemon juice and dry 
ingredients. Let the mixture stand until cool. Then beat 
it with a Dover egg beater and while beating add the oil in 
small quantities, — about ^ tablespoonful at a time. Con- 
tinue beating and adding the oil. When the mixture begins 
to thicken, the oil can be added in greater quantities. After 
all the oil is added, add the boiling water. Beat until the 
latter is thoroughly blended. 

It has been found that the oil may be added more rapidly 
if the egg is acidified before mixing it with the oil.^ The 

^ This is due to the fact that the acid reacts with the albumin of the 
egg to form a kind of salt which hydrates and takes up water from the 
mixture. The more water that can be taken out of an emulsion in the 
form of hydrates, the more easily will an emulsion be formed. 


Figure 63. — The Composition of Butter and Othfr Fat-yielding 

Foods. (Revised edition) 

addition of boiling water to the mixture iafter the egg and 
oil have been blended, prevents the oil from separating from 
the other ingredients. 


If desired, the whole egg may be used in place of the egg 
yolks. In case this substitution is made, all the ingredients 
other than the egg should be doubled in quantity, since 1 
whole egg will emulsify 2 cupfuls of oil. 

The flavor of refined corn, cottonseed, or peanut oil is 
mild and pleasing. These oils have less flavor than olive 
oil but are as nutritious. Their use lessens the cost of May- 
onnaise Dressing. After opening a bottle of vegetable 
oil, it should be kept in a cold place. If it is rancid, it should 
not be used in salad dressing. 

If Mayonnaise Dressing is made successfully, it is thick ancf 
smooth. If the dressing is thin and curdled, the oil has been added 
too quickly, i.e. it has not been emulsified. 

To remedy Mayonnaise that has curdled, beat the yolk of an egg 
slightly, then add the dressing to it gradually, beating constantly. 

Mayonnaise Dressing may he varied by the addition of chili or 
celery sauce (see p. 501), chopped hard-cooked eggs, chopped parsley, 
pimentos, and green peppers. 


2 egg yolks or IJ teaspoonfuls salt 

1 whole egg 1 teaspoonful sugar 

2 tablespoonfuls vinegar J teaspoonful mustard 
2 tablespoonfuls lemon juice Cayenne 

1 cupful vegetable oil 

Into a mixing bowl put the eggs and vinegar. Mix well. 
Add the other ingredients. (It is not necessary to stir 

^ Adding the entire quantity of oil at oiie time and mixing it with 
hot paste may seem an unusual procedure .for making an oil dressing. 
The fact that the method is successful may be explained as follows: 
Mixing the acid with the egg forms a salt which hydrates the mixture, 
and thus aids in making favorable conditions for emulsifying the oil as 
explained in the footnote of a previous page. The starch paste also 
takes up water from the mixture. This makes it possible to emulsify 
the oil easily, and also to make a stable iBmulsion. 


Prepare a thick paste as follows : 

In the top part of a double boiler put 

i cupful flour 1 cupful cold water 

1 tablespoonful butter 

Mix thoroughly. Then stir and cook over boiling water 
at least 10 minutes. At once (while it is hot) turn this paste 
into the egg and oil mixture. Beat all the ingredients with 
a Dover egg beater until a thick, uniform dressing results. 

(Adapted from a recipe by Mrs. Hill.) 


Use seasonable vegetables in salads. Cucumbers, toma- 
toes, celery, and cooked cauliflower may be used in the fall. 
Cooked beets, cabbage, carrots, and olives may be used in 
the winter, and head lettuce, radishes, and cooked asparagus 
in the spring. Vegetables should be chilled, cut into desirable 
shap>es, and served on lettuce with salad dressing. Beets 
are greatly improved by cutting into pieces, after cooking, 
and soaking for one hour in vinegar to which salt has been 
added. They may also be soaked in French Dressing (see 
p. 254). 

A combination of vegetables and fruits makes a pleasing 
salad. Cucumbers and pineapple, celery and apples, olives 
and cooked cranberries are successful salad mixtures. The 
use of cheese, nuts, and peanuts with vegetables and fruits 
adds to the flavor and food value of salads. Uncooked 
carrots, cabbage, and peanuts dressed with French Dressing 
make a tasty salad (see p. 255). 

Canned vegetables, " left over " cold vegetables, meat, 
and fish have a better flavor in salads if they are mixed with 
French Dressing and allowed to stand in a cold place for one 
hour before serving. This process is called marincUing. 


If several meats or vegetables are used in the same salad, 
they should be marinated separately. Just before serving, 
Cream Salad Dressing or Mayonnaise Dressing (see p. 256) 
may be added to marinated salad materials. 

A salad consisting of lettuce or other uncooked leafy vege- 
tables should not be dressed until it is ready to be served. 
The acid in salad dressing wilts the leaves. 


Explain why it is necessary to add the oil to the egg mixture in 
small quantities. 

Explain why it is that a curdled dressing can be remedied by 
adding it gradually to an egg. 

What is the price per quart of olive oil? Of peanut oil? Of 
cottonseed oil? Of com oil? 

Find the difference in cost between a Mayonnaise Dressing made 
with com, cottonseed, or peanut oil and one made with oUve oil. 

From the standpoint of composition, explain why fresh vege- 
tables and Mayonnaise Dressing make a suitable combination 
(see Figures 62 and 63, pp. 275 and 277). 

How much Mayonnaise Dressing is generally used for one serving? 
How many will the above recipe serve? 

Make a list of combinations of materials which make tasty salads. 


Vegetables with Salad Dressing (B) 

Salad Gamishing. — Successful garnishing of a salad re- 
quires a sense of good color combination, judgment in 
blending flavors, and ingenuity in arranging materials. 
Usually it is well to use only edible materials for gamish- 
ing. Certain flowers and greens may be used to advantage, 
however, in garnishing the salad for an occasional dinner 
or luncheon. Celery with " fringed ends," stuffed olives cut 


in slices, lettuce shredded or whole, pimentos, parsley, hard- 
cooked eggs sliced or pressed through strainer, and vegetables 
of pronounced color (as beets or carrots) cut into slices, cubes, 
or fancy shapes, — all these make pleasing garnishes. 


2 tablespoonfuls granulated gelatine i cupful sugar 

i cupful cold water 1 teaspoonful salt 

i cupful vinegar IJ cupfuls sliced celery 

1 lemon, — juice li cupfuls shredded cabbage 

2 cupfuls boiling water 3 pimentos chopped 

Prepare all ingredients, except the vegetables, as for a 
gelatine mixture (see Lemon Jelly, p. 223). When the 
mixture begins to set, stir in the vegetables, and pour into 
a mold. Serve on lettuce leaves with Mayonnaise Dressing. 

Other vegetable mixtures such as cucumbers and tomatoes or peas 
and celery molded in jelly make tasty salads. 


Mention at least four different kinds of salads, with a suitable 
garnish for each. 

What should be the condition of all green vegetables used in 

How should lettuce be kept and prepared for salads? 

From U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate 
the percentage composition of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, 
cabbage, lettuce, celery, and onions. 

Which contains the most water? Which contains the most 

Aside from the fact that sugar improves the flavor of Perfection 
Salad, why is it a valuable ingredient of the salad mixture (see 
Figure 94, p. 624) ? 

Explain why Mayonnaise Dressing with wafers or rolls would 
make a valuable food addition to Perfection Salad. 



Fish Salad and Salad Rolls 
salmon or tunny salad 

1 can salmon or tunny 1 cupful shredded cabbage 

(or tuna) fish or shced celery 

Drain the oil from the fish; remove the bone and bits 
of skin. Add the cabbage or celery, and Mayonnaise or 
Cream Salad Dressing (see p. 256). Arrange on lettuce and 
garnish as desired. 

If Cream Dressing is used with salmon, the oil drained from the 
salmon may be used for the fat of Cream Dressing. 

The salmon may be marinated before adding the other ingre- 
dients. When this is done, the salad dressing may be omitted. 
Salmon contains so much fat that it is not well to add more oil after 

salad rolls 

2 cupf uls flour 4 tablespoonf uls vegetable oil or 

3i teaspoonfuls baking powder melted butter or substitute 
i teaspoonful salt } cupful milk 

1 egg 

Sift some flour, then measure 2 cupfuls of it. Add the 
baking powder and salt to the flour. Beat the egg, add the 
milk and oil or melted fat to it. Through a sifter add the 
dry ingredients to the milk mixture. Thoroughly mix the 
ingredients by cutting them with a knife. Roll out on a 
floured board, cut into oblong pieces, and with a floured knife 
make a deep crease through the center of each roll. Brush 
the top with diluted egg (use 2 tablespoonfuls of water to 
1 egg) and sprinkle granulated sugar over it. Bake in a 
moderate oven. 



Why is the top of the salad roll mixture brushed with egg? Why 
should the egg be diluted for such purposes? 

What reason is there for combining fish, salad dressing, and rolls? 

How much fat and protein does canned salmon and tunny con- 
tain (see U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 28) ? 

Compare this with the quantity of fat and protein in beef steak 
(see Figure 68, p. 295). 


Cream of Tomato Soup and Cheese Straws 

Combining Milk with Acid. — In the preparation of Cream 
of Tomato Soup, it is necessary to combine milk with to- 
matoes, — a food containing acid. If the following ex- 
periments are performed, and applications drawn from the 
results of the experiments, it should be possible to make this 
soup successfully. 

Experiment 61 : Effect of Acid on Milk. — Put a small quantity of 
milk in a test tube, heat it slightly, and add a few drops of some acid 
substance, — tomato juice, lemon juice, or vinegar. What is the 

Experiment 62 : Neutralization of Acid by Means of Soda. -* 

Put a small quantity of any of the acids mentioned above in a test 
tube and add i teaspoonful baking soda. What happens? Now 
add a Uttie milk to the mixture. Does the milk curdle ? How has 
the acid been changed so that it does not curdle the milk? What 
conclusions may be drawn from this as to the use of soda in cooking 
tomato and milk mixtures? 


1 can tomatoes ^ cupful flour 

J teaspoonful baking soda i cupful butter or substitute 

1 quart milk 1 tablespoonful salt 

i teaspoonful pepper 


Turn the tomatoes into & saucepan, cover them ; cook at 
sunmering temperature for about fifteen minutes. Press 



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FiouRB 64. — The Compositiok of Milk and Milk Products. 
through a strainer and add the baking soda. Make a White 
Sauce of the milk, flour, and fat ; remoBe from the fire. Add 


the hot tomatoes slowly to the White Sauce, stirring con- 
stantly. Add the seasonings. Do not heat the mixture 
after combining the tomatoes and White Saitce. Serve at once. 

Cream of Tomato Soup may also be prepared by making a sauce 
of the tomatoes, flour, and fat, adding the baking soda and pouring 
the sauce into the hot milk and finally adding the seasonings. 

Note that in either method of preparation, the tomato is added 
to the milk and the salt is added just before Serving. Only enough 
baking soda is used to affect a portion of the acid of the tomatoes 
so that the pleasing acid flavor of the tomatoes still predominates. 


f cupful flour 1 cupful soft bread crumbs 

J teaspoonful salt 1 cupful grated cheese 

Cayenne 2.tablespoonfuls milk 

Mix the ingredients in the order given in the recipe. 
(The milk should merely moisten the ingredients so they 
will stick together. It may be necessary to increase the 
quantity.) On a slightly floured board roll the mixture 
to ^ inch thickness. Cut in strips J inch wide and 4 to 6 
inches long. Place on an oiled pan. Bake until brown in a 
moderate oven. 


Why should tomatoes be covered when cooked for soup? 

Why should they be cooked at simmering rather than boiling 

From the results of your experiments (see Experiments 61 and 
62) explain why soda is added to the tomatoes in Cream of Tomato 

What is the purpose of adding the strained tomatoes or Tomato 
Sauce slowly to the White Sauce or milk? 

Why should the soup be served at once after combining the tomato 
and milk mixture? 

If enough Cream of Tomato Soup were prepared for two meals, 
how and when should the tomatoes and White Sauce be mixed? 

What is the price per can of tomatoes? 

How many cupfuls in one can of tomatoes? 


With the aid of United Stales Department of AgrictdluTe, Bulle- 
tin No. 28 and illuatratione in this text, tabulate the composition 
of tomatoes, whole milk (aee Figure 64), cheese (see Figure 75, 
p. 311), flour, and bread (seeFigureTT, p. 314). Explain why Cream 
of Tomato Soup 'and Cheese Straws make a desirable combination 
from the standpoint of composition and use id the body. 

LESSON xcvn 

Veal and Potatoes 

Muscle of Young Animals. — The muscle of an unde- 
veloped animal contains more water than does the muscle 
of a mature animal. It is also lacking in flavor and usually 

FiGURE 65. — Cuts of Veal. 

contains little fat. The meat does not keep so well as that 
of a mature animal ; therefore it should be used at once and 
not allowed to hang. 



Cuts op Veal (see Figure 65) 

Namb or Cirr 

Form of Ctrr 

Method of Cooking 

A. Loin. 

Thick Pieces. 


B, Leg. 

Steaks — veal cutlets 

or veal steak. 
Thick Pieces. 




C Knuckle. 



D. Rib or Rack. 

Thick Pieces. 


E. Shoulder. 

Thick Pieces. 

Stuffing and Roasting. 

F. Neck. 

Thick Pieces. 


G, G. Breast. 

Thick Pieces. 


(thymus glands) 
— "Throat" and 
"Heart" Sweet- 

Whole ^— in pairs. 

Parboiling and Saut6- 
ing, Broiling, etc. 

Veal. — Veal is the muscle of the calf or young cow. It 
has the characteristic qualities of undeveloped muscle. Be- 
cause it is lacking in flavor, it should be seasoned with 
herbs and spices, or served with a sauce of pronounced 
flavor. It is also improved by adding some fat, or some 
meat containing considerable fat such as pork. A calf is 


usually killed when it is six or eight weeks old. The season 
for veal is spring ; it can usually be purchased, however, 
throughout the year. The muscle of the veal should be 
pink in color, and the fat, white. The meat of a calf less 
than six weeks old is lacking in color. 

The connective tissue in veal is abundant, but it is easily 
changed to gelatine by cooking. Veal is generally considered 
diflScult of digestion. 


Clean the meat ; then remove the bone and tough mem- 
branes. Cut the meat into pieces for serving. Cover the 
bone and the tough pieces of meat with cold water and cook 
at a low temperature. (This stock is to be used in the sauce.) 
Small pieces of meat may be put together by using wooden 
toothpicks for skewers. Season the veal with salt and 
pepper. Roll in dried bread crumbs, dip in beaten egg, then 
in crumbs again. Put 2 tablespoonfuls of drippings or other 
fat in a frying pan. Brown the cutlets in the fat. Remove 
the veal ; in the frying pan prepare the following : 


3 tablespoonfuls drippings i teaspoonful pepper 

i cupful flour 2 cupfiils stock or water 

} tablespoonf ul salt 2 tablespoonfuls chopped parsley 

1 teaspoonful Worcestershire sauce 

Make a brown sauce, using all ingredients except the 
Worcestershire sauce (see Brovm Sauce, p. 207). Add the 
cutlets to the sauce, and cook them at simmering temper- 
ature for 1 hour or until tender. Just before serving, add 
the Worcestershire sauce. 

Beef may be prepared in the same way. 



1 pound veal steak, sliced thin } cupful flour 

2 eggs Salt and pepper 

Cut the meat into pieces of suitable size for serving. 
Brown each piece in fat. (Use scraps of fat cut from the 

Mix the egg, flour, and seasoning. Spread both sides of 
each piece of meat with the egg mixture. Again brown the 
pieces of meat in fat. Then add boiling water and let the 
meat cook at simmering temperature for at least 2 hours. 
Serve hot. 

Beef may be substituted for veal. 


2 cupfuls mashed potatoes 1 teaspoonful salt 

2 tablespoonfuls milk Pepper 

1 tablespoonful butter or substitute 1 egg 

Mix all the ingredients except the egg. -Separate the 
egg, and beat the white and the yolk. Beat the yolk into 
the potato mixture; then add the white by cutting and 
folding-in. Turn into a buttered baking-dish or drop by 
spoonfuls on a buttered baking-sheet. Bake until the egg 
is cooked and the top brown. Serve at once. 

The egg may also be added unbeaten to the potatoes, and the 
entire mixture beaten vigorously. 


Why is cold water, rather than hot, used for making meat stock? 

How does veal stock compare in color with beef stock? What is 
the stock called that is made from veal? 

Why is this meat cooked at simmering rather than at boiling 

Why is it desirable to use parsley and Worcestershire sauce 
with veal? Is it desirable to use Worcestershire sauce with beef 


or mutton? Explain your answer. Why is Worcestershire sauce 
not cooked with the brown sauce? 

Locate veal cutlets or veal steak (see Figure 65). To what cut 
of beef does it correspond? 

What cut of veal corresponds to the tenderloin cuts of beef? 

How does the cutting and the using of the rib section of veal 
differ from that of beef? 

What are the prices per pound of each cut of veal? Arrange in 
tabulated form and record the date. 

From U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate 
the percentage composition of veal cutlets or veal steak. Compare 
with the percentage composition of beef steak (see Figure 68, p. 295). 

Potato Puff may be prepared from either hot or cold mashed 
potatoes. Should the temperatm^ of the oven be the same for 
each? Explain your answer. 

What is the purpose of the egg in the potato mixture? 

Which would give the better result when added to the potato 
mixture, beaten egg or unbeaten egg? Give the reason for your 

How many persons will the Potato Puff recipe serve? 

From U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate 
the percentage composition of fresh potatoes (see Figure 62, p. 275) and 
boiled potatoes. How much nutriment is lost by boiUng one pound 
of potatoes? By what method can potatoes be cooked in order to 
retain the most nutriment? 

Give reasons for combining veal and potatoes. 

LESSON xcvm 

Mutton and Lamb Dishes 

Mutton. — Mutton is the meat obtained from the sheep. 
The animal is usually about three years of age when killed. 
Like beef, mutton needs to hang a few days before using. 
It is considered as nutritious and as easily digested as beef. 
Its strong flavor may be destroyed by removing the " pink 
skin " and much of the fat. The latter has such a strong 
flavor, that it cannot be used for cooking unless it is tried 


out with onion, apple, and dried herbs. Mutton fat so pre- 
pared is sometimes termed savory fat. It is thought that the 
fat dissolves certain flavoring materials present in the fruit, 
vegetable, and herbs. The caramelized carbohydrate formed 
by browning the apple and onion also adds to the flavor.' 
Mutton fat is useful for soap-making (see p. 143). 

Figure 66. — Cirre of Lamb or Mutton- 

Lamb. — Lamb is meat obtained from the young sheep, 
killed when from six weeks to one year old. As the ani- 
mal matures, the blood recedes from its joints ; hence the 
joints of lamb are pink in color, while those of mutton are 

Lamb has the characteristics of the meat of immature 
animals. It contains more water and a little less fat than 
mutton, and should not be aUowed to hang. It is more deli- 
cate in flavor than is mutton. Lamb should be well cooked ; 
mutton is sometimes served rare. 

'See DepartmenI of Agricull-ure, Farmers' BuUelin. No. 526. 



Cuts op Lamb and Mutton (see Figure 66) . 

Namk op Cut 

Form of Cxtt 

Method of Cooking 

A. Loin. 

Chops — Loin chops (see 
Figure 67, p. 293). 

Thick Pieces (loin sections 
of both hind quarters in 
one piece called " Saddle 
of Mutton"). 



B. Leg. 

Thick Pieces. 




C. Rib. 

Chops — rib chops (see Fig- 
ure 67) (when trimmed 
called '* French " chops, 
see Figure 67) . 

Thick Pieces (rib sections 
of both fore quarters in 
one piece called " Rack 
of Mutton ") . 


D. Shoulder. 

Chops — blade shoulder 
chops (see Figure 67) 
and round shoulder 
chops (see Figure 67). 

Thick Pieces. 



Stuffing and Roast- 

E. Breast. 

Thick Pieces. 


F. Neck. 

Thick Pieces. 



4 to 5 pounds shoulder of lamb, boned, cleaned, and stuflPed 
with the mixture used in Stuffed Meat Roast (see p. 205). 
(Double the quantity of ingredients for the shoulder of 


lamb.) Add the stuffing to the meat ; then " iace " {see 
Baked Fish, p. 230) or skewer into shape. Season, and 
dredge with flour. Place drippings or other fat in a frying 
pan or iron roasting pan, and brown the surface of the meat. 
Place the lamb on the rack in a roasting pan, add boiling 
water ; cover ; and bake in a moderate oven, allowing one 
half hour to the -pound. 

Shoulder oS vad may be prepared and atufFed in the some way. 

FrauRE 67. — Lamb Chops. 
Upper row: Rib chops, — French Loin chops 

Lower row : Rib chops Blade shoulder chop Round bone shoul- 
der chop. 


1 cupful fresh mint \ cupful vinegar 

i cupful sugar 

Chop the leaves and the tender tips of the mint. Dis- 
solve the sugar in the vinegar, and add the mint. Let the 
sauce stand one hour before using. Heat over hot water 
before serving. 



2 pounds neck, breast, or shoulder 4 carrots 

of lamb or mutton 2 cupfuls peas 

Flour 2 teaspoon! uls salt 

Fat for browning Pepper 

Water or stock i bay leaf 

3 allspice berries 

Cut the meat into pieces suitable for serving. Roll in 
flour, and brown in a frying pan with hot fat. Remove to 
the casserole, and cover with boiling water or stock. Wash, 
scrape, and cut the carrots into halves. Add them and the 
spices to the meat in the casserole. Cover, and cook at 
simmering temperature for two hours. Then add the peas 
and the seasoning. Cook until tender. Serve hot from the 

One half cupful of cooked rice may be used instead of the carrots 
and peas. Tomatoes also make a pleasing addition. 

The Casserole. — The casserole is a popular utensil fot 
cooking and serving. It is suitable for foods that need to 
be cooked at a low temperature for a long period of time; 
hence its adaptability to tough cuts of meat. Because the 
casserole is tightly covered, foods may be cooked in it with 
little loss by evaporation. The flavor is retained also, if the 
cooking is carefully done. The use of the casserole in serving 
is a distinct advantage, since the foods may be served hot. 
The casserole may be used in the oven or on top of the range. 

If a covered crock is used in place of the regulation cas- 
serole, a dinner napkin should be folded neatly around it 
for serving. 


Tell how lamb can be distinguished from mutton. Give two 
reasons for adding dried herbs to the stufl&ng for lamb. 

Give two reasons for serving Mint Sauce with lamb. What is the 
purpose of first browning the lamb that is to be roasted? 



What is the easiest method of adding extra flour to the sauce 
ELTOund lamb or mutton in the casserole (see Thickening the Sauce of 
Meat Cooked in Water, p. 216) ? 

How many persons wiU this recipe serve? 



Name the advantages of cooking meat in a casserole. 

Give a dietetic reason for combining carrots, peas, or rice, with 
lamb or mutton. 

Distinguish between rib and loin chops of lamb or mutton. What 
is a French chop? 

Obtain the prices per pound of each cut of mutton or lamb. 
Arrange in tabulated form and record the date. 

From U. S. Department of AgricuUure BvJletin No. 28 j tabulate 
the percentage composition of the hind quarter of mutton. Com- 
pare it with the composition of beef steak. 

Tabulate the percentage composition of beets, carrots, parsnips, 
and turnips. Which contains the most carbohydrates? Which 
the most ash? 


Pork, Vegetables, and Apple Sauce 

Pork. — Pork is meat obtained from the pig. In all 
meats, much fat is entangled in the network of connective 
tissue that binds the muscle fibers. Pork, however, contains 

Figure 69. — Curs of Pork. 

more fat than does any other meat. The fat is most in- 
timately mingled with the lean. For this reason it is digested 
slowly. Fresh pork should be used sparingly. Its use 


should be confined to the winter months. Pork should 
be thoroughly cooked. It sometimes contains organisms 
which may produce serious results, if not destroyed in the 
cooking. Pork is made more wholesome by curing, salting, 
and smoking. The fat of bacon is readily digested. 

Cuts op Pork (see Figure 69). 

Name of Cut 

Form of Cut 

Method of Cooking 

A. Loin. 

Chops — rib and loin 
chops (freed from fat 
called '* spare ribs ") 
— cut into chops or 
thick pieces. 


B. Ham 
(usually smoked) . 


" Boiling." 

C. Back (all fat). 


"Tried out" (its fat 
used for saut^ing, 
frying, and flavor- 
ing) . Larding. 

D. Shoulder 
(smoked or fresh) . 


" Boihng." 

E. Bacon (smoked) 

or Salt Pork. 

Thin or thick slices. 



Pare sweet potatoes, and place them in the bottom of a 
roasting pan. Wipe the pork chops, and place them on top 
of the potatoes. Place the roasting pan on the top shelf 
of a hot oven, in order to brown the chops. Brown on one 


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vA>ui: |_J Pi» -ou-o 

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Figure 70. — The CoMPosmoN of Fresh a 
(Revised edition) 

side ; turn the chops with a fork, and brown on the other side. 
Then remove the roasting pan from the oven, sprinkle the 
chops with salt, pepper, and powdered sage. Add a little 
boiling water. Return to the oven. 


Cover and bake 1 hour, or until the potatoes are tender. 
Baste the potatoes and meat occasionally. 

Remove the chops to the center of a hot platter, and sur- 
round them with the potatoes. Serve at once with Apple 
Sauce (for preparation of Apple Sauce, see Fruit Sauces, 
p. 66). 


li pounds fresh pork (shoulder) 1 tablespoonful salt 

3 medium sized turnips 2 tablespoonf ills flour 


Clean the meat, put it in a saucepan, and add enough boil- 
ing water to cover. Cook at simmering temperature for 
1| hours. 

Pare the turnips, cut them into cubes. When the meat 
has cooked | hour, add the turnips and salt and continue 
cooking for 1 hour or until the meat and vegetables are ten- 
der. Mix the flour with enough cold water (about 2 table- 
spoonfuls) to make a thin batter. Add it to the meat and 
turnips. Stir and cook for at least 10 minutes. Add a dash 
of pepper. Serve hot. 


Parboil in boiling water for 10 minutes a slice of ham 
about I inch thick. Place in a broiler and broil, or place 
in a " frying " pan and pan-broil, turning often. Garnish 
with parsley and serve at once. 


Place thin slices of bacon (from which the rind has been 
removed) in a hot frying-pan. As the fat tries out, drain it 
from the bacon. Scorching of the fat is thus prevented. 
Cook the bacon until it is brown and crisp, turning once. 

Bacon fat should be saved. It can be used in cooking. 



4 medium potatoes Salt, used sparingly 

} pound sliced bacon Pepper 

Flour Milk 

Pare the potatoes and cut them into thin slices. Cook 
the bacon until brown ; cut each slice of bacon into several 
pieces. Oil a baking-dish and place a layer of potatoes in 
it, then a layer of bacon and some of the tried-out bacon 
fat. Sprinkle with flour, salt, and pepper. Repeat, until 
all the ingredients are used ; . the top layer should be of 
bacon. Add milk until it reaches the top layer. Bake in a 
moderate oven for one hour, or until much of the milk has 
evaporated and the potatoes are tender. Serve hot. 

} cupful of bacon drippings may be used instead of sliced bacon. 


Why should fresh pork be used in winter rather than in summer? 

Why is pork slow in digesting? 

Explain why vegetables and Apple Sauce are desirable foods to 
serve with pork (see Figure 62, p. 275, Figure 68, p. 295, and Figure 

For what reason should pork be cooked thoroughly? 

What is the piupose of parboiling ham before broiling it? 

What ingredient, invariably used in Scalloped Potatoes, is 
omitted in Scalloped Potatoes with Bacon? What is substituted 
for this material? 

Why should salt be added sparingly to potatoes cooked with 
bacon ? 

How many persons does the given quantity of Scalloped Potatoes 
with Bacon and of Turnips with Fresh Pork serve? 

To what cut of beef does ham correspond? 

From U, S. Department of Agriculture BvUetin No, 28y tabulate 
the percentage composition of fresh and salted ham. Compare it 
with the composition of beef steak (see Figure 68). 

Obtain the price per pound of each cut of pork. Arrange in 
tabulated form and record date. 


CmcKEN AND Rice 

Poultry. — Poultry includes chicken {or eominon fowl), 
turkey, duck, and goose — domestic birds suitable for food. 
Pigeon and squab are not considered poultry. Chickens 
that are three or four months old are called spring chickens 

Figure 71. — Removing Tendoms from the Leg of a Foul, 

or broilers. Birds older than one year are sometimes called 

Selection of Chicken and Fowl, — Chickens and fowls have 
certain characteristics which make them readily distinguish- 
able. Chickens have soft feet, a soft and flexible breast 
bone, many pin feathers, and little fat. Fowls have hard 


and scaly feet, rigid breast bone, long hairs, and much fat 
surrounding the intestines. 

Digestion of Poultry. — The muscle of chicken, fowl, and 
turkey contains little fat; the fat that exists is in layers 
directly under the skin and around the intestines. The 
fibers of the muscle are short. For this reason, and also 
because they have so little fat, these meats are readily 
digested. The white meat contains less fat than the dark. 

Figure 72. — Fowl Trussed for Roastimo, — Breast View. 

Dressing and Cleaning Poultry. — Singe, by holding the 
bird over a flame of gas, alcohol, or burning paper. Cut off 
the head, push back the skin, and cut off the neck close to 
the body. Cut through the skin around the leg one inch 
below the leg joint. If it is a fowl, take out the tendons ; 
remove them separately, using a skewer (see Figure 71). 
Remove the pin feathers with the point of a knife or with 
a strawberry huller. Cut the oil bag from the tail. 

The internal organs are not always removed before the 
chicken is sold. If they have not been removed, make an 


openii^ under one of the legs or at the vent, leaving a strip 
of akin above the vent. Remove the organs carefully, — 
the intestines, gizzard, heart, and liver should all be removed 
together. Care must be taken that the gall bladder, which 
lies under the hver, is not broken ; it must be cut away care- 
fully from the liver. The lungs and kidneys, lying in the 
hollow of the backbone, must be carefully removed. Press 
the heart to extract the blood. Cut off the outer coat of 

FtQURB 73. — Fowl Trussed foh Roashng, — Back Vlew. 

the gizzard. The gizzard, heart, and liver constitute the 
giblets to be used in making gravy. Wash the giblets. Place 
them all, with the exception of the hver, in cold water; 
heat quickly and cook (at simmering temperature) until 
tender. Add the liver a short time before removing the 
Other giblets from the stove, as it does not require long 

Clean the bird by wiping it thoroughly inside and out 
with a damp cloth, stuff and truss for roasting, or cut into 
pieces for fricassee or stew. If the bird is stuffed, the in- 


cision in the skin may be fastened together as directed for 
Baked Fish (see p. 230). 

Trussing Fowl. — Insert a skewer through the fowl just 
underneath the legs, then thrust another skewer through 
the wings and breast. With a piece of string, tie the ends 
of the legs together and fasten them to the tail. Then 
wind the ends of the string fastened to the tail, around the 
ends of the skewer beneath the legs. Cross the strings over 
the back, and wind them around the ends of the skewer 
through the wings; tie the strings together at the back. 
If trussed in this manner, there is no string across the breast 
of the fowl. A fowl should be served breast side up (see 
Figures 72 and 73). 

Cutting a Fowl. — Cut off the leg, and separate it at the 
joint into " drumstick " and second joint. Cut off the wing 
and remove the tip ; make an incision at the middle joint. 
Remove the leg and wing from the other side ; separate the 
wishbone with the meat on it, from the breast, cut through 
the ribs on each side, and separate the breast from the 
back. Cut the breast in half lengthwise and the back 
through the middle crosiswise. There should be twelve 
pieces. The neck and the tips of the wings may be cooked 
with the giblets for making gravy. 


Cover the pieces of chicken with boiling water, and cook 
at boiling temperature for 15 minutes ; then add one table- 
spoonful of salt and cook at sinmiering temperature until 

Arrange the pieces on a platter, placing the neck at one 
end of the platter and the " drumsticks " at the other, and 
the remaining pieces in order between. Cover with a sauce. 

' Stewed Chicken may be utilized for Chicken Croquettes (see p. 305) 
or Creole Stew (see p. 317). 


The chicken may be placed on pieces of toast or served 
in a border of cooked rice (see p. 86). 


3 tablespoonfuls tried-out chicken fat or butter or substitute 
J cupful of flour 1 pint stock 

1 teaspoonful salt 2 egg yolks or 1 egg 

2 tablespoonfuls chopped parsley i teaspoonful pepper 

Prepare the sauce (see Cream Toa^t,p. 104), and pour it over 
the well-beaten eggs, stirring until thoroughly mixed. Cook 
until the eggs are coagulated. Serve at once over chicken. 


Why is chicken more readily digested than other meat? 

What is the reason for cooking stewed chicken 15 minutes in 
boiling water? Why is the salt not added at first? Why should 
the chicken finally be cooked at simmering temperature rather than 
at boiling? 

What use can be made of the fat of a fowl? 

What is the piupose of the eggs in Sauce for Chicken? 

Explain fuUy why rice or toast makes a desirable addition to 
Stewed Chicken. 


Chicken and Peas 
chicken croquettes 

2} cupfujs chopped chicken or fowl 2 tablespoonfuls lemon juice 
Onion juice 1 tablespoonful parsley 


1 pint cream or milk 1} teaspoonfuls salt 

1 cupful fat i teaspoonful pepper 

§ cupful flour 1 teaspoonful celery salt 

Chop the chicken very fine; add the seasonings. Make 
the sauce (see Cream Toast, p. 104). Add the chicken to 


the sauce. Cool the mixture. Shape into cones. Cover 
with dried bread crumbs and eggy and cook in deep fat (see 
Fried OysterSy p. 134). Drain on paper. Serve at once with 
green peas. 

An egg may be beaten and added to the sauce, before mixing it 
with the meat. 


What is the purpose of cooling the chicken mixture before shaping 
it into croquettes (see Experiment 17, p. 80) ? 

How many croquettes does this recipe make? 

How many cupfuls of chopped meat can be obtained from fowl 
of average weight? 

What is the average weight of a chicken one year old? How 
long does it take to cook it? 

What is the average weight of a spring chicken ? 

What is the present market price of spring chicken? Of fowl? 

Compare the composition of fowl with that of roimd steak, using 
U. S. Department of AgricvUure BuUetin No. 28. Also record the 
percentage of refuse in a fowl when it is purchased. Considering 
the refuse in fowl, what is the price per poimd? 

Tabulate the percentage composition of fresh and dried peas and 
beans, and of dried lentils. Which are richer in protein, the fresh 
or the dried vegetables (see Figure 76, p. 313) ? 


Oyster Dishes 

Experiment 68. Protein in Oyster Liquor. — Pour a small 
quantity of oyster liquor into a test tube and boil it. What change 
takes place? From your previous experience with eggs, what food- 
stuff would you infer that oysters contain? What inference can 
you draw from this as to the temperature at which oysters should 
be cooked? 

Oysters. — An oyster is an animal covered with shell. The 
shell, which consists of mineral matter, protects the animal. 



I FVBtan Vol Ca-bil-rtoUs Alt, WMr ^| 1«& CoK 

'■', COD 

l» Lean F«t, jjUj cOD 

The oyster has no head, arms, or legs, but it has a mouth, 
liver, gills, and one strong muscle. The mouth is near the 
hinge-end of the shell ; by means of the hinge, the shell is 


opened and water and food taken in; by means of the 
muscle, the shell is closed. (Find the muscle in an oyster; 
then the dark spot, — this is the liver ; also find the fluted 
portions that partly surround the liver, — these are the 


Oysters are in season from September until May. They 
are sometimes eaten during the sunmier months, but are not 
so palatable and are more apt to be contaminated by the 
bacteria of warm water. The bluish green color of some 
oysters is due to the oyster's feeding upon vegetable ma- 
terials. This does not harm the flavor of the oyster. 

Oysters are sometimes placed in fresh water streams or 
in water which is less salt than that in which they have 
grown to " fatten them." The animals take in the fresh 
water, become plump, and increase in weight. If the water 
is sewage-polluted, the oysters become contaminated with 
dangerous bacteria. Methods of cooking usually applied 
to oysters, such as stewing and boiling, may not destroy all 
bacteria. Hence, the danger in eating oysters taken from 
polluted water. 

When oysters are prepared for market, they are sorted 
according to size. Blue points, or small oysters originally 
grown in Blue Point, are prized for serving raw in the half 
shell. This name, however, no longer indicates the place 
from which the oysters come, but is applied to small oysters 
in the shell. Large oysters selected for frying may be pur- 
chased. Oysters are found at markets either in the shell or 
with the shell removed. 

Since oysters spoil readily, they must be kept cold during 
transportation. They are now shipped in containers sur- 
rounded by ice. Formerly ice was placed in contact with 
the ovsters. 

Note the percentage composition of oysters (see Figure 
74). With such a large quantity of water, the oyster 


has little food value. Oysters are prized for their flavor, 
but make an expensive food. Cooking makes oysters some- 
what tough, but it sterilizes them and makes them safer 
to use. It is considered that oysters properly cooked are 
easily digested. They should be eaten when very fresh. 
They spoil quickly and develop poisonous products. 

Cleaning Oysters. — Drain off the liquor. If the liquor is 
to be used, strain it through a fine strainer. Place the 
oysters in a strainer or colander, and wash them. Do not 
allow oysters to stand in water after washing. Run each 
oyster through the fingers to remove pieces of shell that 
may be clinging to it. 


1 cupful milk Salt and pepper 

1 pint ojrsters 1 tablespoonf ul butter 

Heat the milk in a double boiler ; add the seasonings and 
butter. Clean the oysters ; cook them in a saucepan until 
they become plump and the edges curl. Add the hot milk 
and serve at once. 

The milk may be thickened with 1 tablespoonful of flour (see 
recipe for Thin White Sauce j p. 114). 

Serve crackers or bread with Oyster Stew. 


1 pint oysters 3 cupfuls soft bread crumbs 

\ teaspoonf ul salt 3 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

Cayenne \ cupful oyster juice or milk 

Wash the oysters, strain the juice, and butter the crumbs. 
Add the seasoning to the oysters. Place one fourth of the 
buttered crumbs in the bottom of a buttered baking-dish. 
Add one half of the oysters, another fourth of the crumbs, 
then the remainder of the oysters, the liquid, and finally 
the remaining half of the buttered crumbs. Bake in a 
moderate oven from 30 to 40 minutes. 


If baked in individual baking-dishes, only 15 minutes 
will be required for baking. 


Count and record the number of oysters in one pint. 

From Figures 64, p. 284, and 74, p. 307, tabulate the percentage 
composition of oysters and milk. 

Find the weight of one cupful of oysters and of one cupful of 
milk. How do they compare as to the amount of water, protein, 
and fat contained in one pint of each? 

What is the difference in cost of one pint of each? 

What is the purpose of straining the oyster liquor? 

Why should not 03rsters stand in water after washing (see 
Experiment 38, p. 153) ? 

Explain why oysters should be cooked only a short time. What 
is the effect of long cooking upon oysters? 

In Scalloped Oysters, why is the liquid added before the last 
layer of crumbs? 

How many persons do each of these oyster recipes serve ? 

What dietetic reason can be given for combining oysters and 

From U. S, Department of AgricuUure BvUetin No. 28, tabulate 
the percentage composition of the following fish : Fresh and salt cod, 
fresh and smoked herring, fresh and salt mackerel, fresh and canned 
salmon, fresh perch, and fresh white fish. Which contains the most 
fat? How can fish be classified with regard to fat content (see 
Classes of Fish, p. 227) ? Which fish contains the most protein? 

How do fish, shellfish, and beef compare in protein content? 
Whicl^ is the cheapest source of protein (see Figures 68, p. 295, and 
74, p. 307) ? 


Meat-substitute Dishes 

Meat-substitute Materials. — Cottage cheese, eggs, pea- 
nuts, and other legumes are valuable substitutes for meat 
(see pp. 189, 153, and 234). The legumes with the excep- 
tion of soy-beans and peanuts, however, do not contain com- 


plete protein (seep. 153). Hence, their use with eggs or milk 
13 desirable. 


■H r I ^m MM ^m ^u ''"■i '^•^ I 

Mn Fri Cab.h,*'.!. A<h VKUr ^| K»l c<U^I 

E tec " ■ 




695 d,umt 




Figure 75. — The Composition op Eggs and Cheese. 

(Revised edition.) 

Nuts are a form of fruit. They are rich in nutritive 

materials. If they can be digested readily, they make 

a valuable food. They need to be ground fine or chewed 


thoroughly, however, to make them digestible. Nuts con- 
tain much fat, protein, and little carbohydrates. Chest- 
nuts, however, contain much of the latter foodstuff. Be- 
cause they contain protein, nuts may be used as substitutes 
for meat. But most nuts are expensive. For this reason 
in many households they are impractical as everyday foods. 


1 cupful cottage cheese \ teaspoonful pepper 

1 cupful chopped nuts 2 teaspoonfuls lemon juice 

1 cupful soft bread crumbs 2 tablespoonfuls scraped onioni 

1 teaspoonful salt 1 tablespoonf ul fat 

Mix the cheese, nuts, bread crumbs, lemon juice, salt, 
and pepper. Cook the onion and fat together until they 
are brown. Add a small quantity of water and then add 
the onion mixture to the other ingredients. If necessary, 
add moi'e water to moisten the mixture. Pour into a baking- 
dish and bake until brown. 

(From United States Food Administration Leaflet.) 


6 hard-cooked eggs 

2 cupfuls medium White Sauce (see p. 114). 

2 cupfuls buttered soft bread crumbs (see p. 110). 

t cupful cheese 

Grate the cheese, or cut it into pieces, and add it to the 
White Sauce. Cut the eggs in slices. Oil a baking-dish, and 
place the materials in the dish in layers, having the lower 
and top layers of bread crumbs. Bake in a moderate oven 
until the mixture is heated through and the crumbs are 
browned. Serve hot in place of meat. 


1} cupfuls dried bread crumbs 4 teaspoonfuls baking powder 

Milk 1 egg 

1} cupfuls shelled peanuts Salt and pepper 



Cover the bread crumbs with milk^ and soak them mitil 
soft. Chop the peanuts very fine, and mix with the bak- 

U 5 Deportmenl of Agrvculture 

Stat«*s Relations Sorvire 

AC True: Director 

Prepared by 


Chief. Office of Homo Ectwioinics 

Fuel Voluc 
1 5q h Equai» 
1000 Calories 



Protein Fat Carbohydrote* Ash 


Cdrhohjdraies: 2.9.1 

FVotein: 9.4-3 8^ Ash:2.0 

Fuel value 





Water: 89.2- 



1 90 L Ai D= Lb ^'l H H Qu'C 



Protein: 3.1 



J4s'4%«;i!? J**^^^'*' 


Fuel JB^~j46G i'Ainwits 


>■ HrfJ*ft.v^^y ;^■4-J^«?TOJfS^^^;;">• 

Figure 76. — The Composition of Legumes and Corn. 

(Revised edition.) 

ing powder; beat the egg. Mix thoroughly all the ingre- 
dients, and turn into an oiled bread pan. Bake about 45 



liSOworlnent ol Avicullyn 

1 &w iroe^i [S£^.TEiai:ALSo 

mi©a.lE miHEAT BHEAB 

"-Figure 77. — The Composition of Bejead and Other Cereal Foods. 
(Revised edition.) 

minutes in a moderate oven. Serve hot with Tomato Saucb 
(see p. 112). 

Commercial salted peaauta may be used for Peanut Roast. 



From U, S, Department of Agriculture Bulletin No, 28, find the 
percentage of protein in Cream and Cottage Cheese, eggs (see Fig- 
ure 75), walnuts, peanuts, dried peas, and l)eans (see Figure 76), 
and beef. How many oimces of protein does a poimd of each of 
these foods contain ? What is the price per pound of each of these 
foods? Which food is the cheapest source of protein? 

Why are bread crumbs a valuable addition to Scalloped Eggs with 
Cheese (see Figure 77) ? 

Name other meat-substitute foods and dishes. 

Meat Extenders and One-dish Meals 

Meat Extenders. — The flavor of meat is generally liked. 
Doubtless the flavor accounts more than any other char- 
acteristic for the popularity of meat. By using a small 
quantity of meat and combining it with various cereals and 
vegetables, the flavor of meat permeates the mixture although 
its quantity is reduced and price consequently lowered. 
Foods containing such a combination of food materials are 
termed meat extenders. Those desiring to reduce the quantity 
of meat consumed either for the sake of health, or economv 
will find meat-extending dishes desirable. 

One-dish Meals. — When many demands other than 
those of housekeeping are made upon homekeepers it is 
often wise to lessen housekeeping duties. It is both possible 
and satisfactory to cook an entire meal in one dish. A meal 
consisting of one dish with a few accessories is termed a one- 
dish meal. It is obvious that the one-dish meal is both 
simple and economical; it saves time, fuel, and food; it 
is a wise conservation measure. 

In preparing the one-dish meal use a combination of two 
or more of the following groups of food : 


(1) Vegetables, 

(2) Milk, or cheese, or eggs^ or fish, or meat, or beans, or nuts, 

(3) Cereal, such as com, barley, rice, oats, or buckwheat. 

To two or more of these groups of food a small amount of fat or 
oil is generally added. 

The use of such foods with a dessert or fruit or a plain 
salad makes a meal that satisfies the most exacting. 

It is most interesting to select foods from the groups above 
that would " eat well " together. The one-dish meal gives 
one the opportunity for a fascinating study of food combina- 
tions. If the casserole or fireless cooker is used in their prepa- 
ration, the possibilities are limitless (see pp. 294 and 90). 

An examination of the meat-substitute dishes and meat 
extenders will show that most of these foods make one-dish 


1 poimd mutton 2 quarts water, boiling 

1 onion 4 potatoes 

i cupful pearled barley Celery leaves (fresh or dried) 

Cut the fat from the meat, cut the meat into pieces. 
Put the fat and sliced onion in a frying pan. Brown the 
meat in the fat. Add the barley and water and let the 
mixture cook at simmering temperature for at least 1^ 
hours. Pare the potatoes^ cut them into quarters. Add 
the potatoes and celery leaves and cook the mixture at 
boiling temperature until the potatoes are tender. Serve hot. 

(Adapted from United States Department of Agriculture 


} cupful corn-meal 1 pound chopped meat 

1} teaspoonfuls salt 2 cupfuls tomatoes 

3 cupfuls boiling water Dash Cayenne pepper, or ' 

1 onion 1 small chopped sweet pepper 

1 tablespoonful fat 1} teaspoonfuls salt 


Make a mush by stirring the corn-meal and 1| teaspoons 
salt into boiling water. Cook in a double boiler or over 
water for 45 minutes. Brown the onion in the fat, add the 
chopped meat, and stir until the red color disappears. Add 
the tomato, pepper, and salt. Grease a baking-dish, put 
in a layer of corn-meal mush, add the seasoned meat, and 
cover with mush. Bake 30 minutes. 

(Adapted from United States Department of Agnctdture 


1 pound lean beef or 1 medium fowl § cupful rice 

1 tablespoonf ul fat 1 cupful carrots or okra 

} cupful chopped onion (cut into small pieces) 

1 cupful chopped sweet peppers 2 cupfuls tomatoes 

1 cupful boiling water 1 teaspoonful salt 

Cut the meat into small pieces or cut the fowl into joints 
(see p. 304). In a frying pan melt the fat, add the onions, 
peppers, meat, or chicken. Brown for a few minutes. 

Pour these materials into a casserole or kettle of the fire- 
less cooker and add the other ingredients. If the casserole 
is used, cook at simmering temperature for 2 hours. If the 
stew is to be cooked in the fireless cooker, cook it directly 
over the flame for | hour and then place it in the fireless 
cooker from 2 to 3 hours. Serve hot. 

With chicken and okra this is the famous Creole Chicken of the 

(Adapted from United States Department of Agricvlture 


Make a list of meat-extending dishes. 

Make a list of foods suitable for the main food of one-dish meals. 

How many persons will one pound of meat serve? 


How many persons will the dishes of this lesson (each containing 
one pound of meat) serve ? 

Tell why the foods comprising these dishes are desirable food 
combinations. • 




Representation of All Essentials of Diet. — All the food- 
stufls or nutrients should be represented in the foods of a 
meal, or at least in the foods composing a day's diet. The 
meal, or the day's ration, should consist of: 

Food rich in carbohydrates and fat, to supply energy to 
the body. 

Food rich in protein ^ and ash, to build the body. 

Food in the form of ash and water, to regulate the processes 
of the body. 

Food containing vitamines, to promote the health and 
growth of the body. 

Food containing cellulose, to give bulk to diet. 

Water is supplied to some extent with almost all the foods 
of a meal, but as mentioned previously (see p. 46), a generous 
quantity should be used as a beverage. 

A consideration of the kinds of food to meet the different 
needs of the body follows : 

A. Food for Energy, — Although both starch and sugar 
are carbohydrates which furnish energy to the body, this 
need of the body should be supplied for the most part by 

» Protein is not only a body-builder, but also a fuel. But since it 
should be used chiefly for body-building (see Daily Carbohydrate and 
Fat Requirement, p. 381) its energy-giving power is not considered in meal 


starch. The harmful effects of excessive sugar eating were 
mentioned on p. 71. 

A certain amount of fat is needed for energy-giving. A 
meal containing fat " stays by " a person for a longer time 
than one devoid of foods rich in fat. This is because fat is 
more slowly digested than other foodstuffs (as explained 
on p. 140) . Hence a vigorous person leading an active outdoor 
life may feel much more comfortable when fat is included in 
his diet. On the other hand, those exercising little find that 
fat-rich foods distress them greatly, since they are too slowly 
digested. For many persons, the use of much fat is harm- 
ful. Since butter contains the fat-soluble vitamine (see 
p. 246), it is valuable not only for energy-giving, but for 

B. Food for Body-huilding and Repairing. — Both pro- 
tein and a>sh are needed for body-building. The former 
foodstuff contains the element nitrogen, -t- one of the 
necessary elements for the growth and maintenance of the 

Since there are several kinds of food containing protein, 
the question arises whether protein is best supplied by meat, 
eggs, milk, cheese, or vegetable protein foods. There are 
some who contend that meat is the least desirable source of 
protein food. The use of much meat may lead to the forma- 
tion of an excess of uric acid which is eliminated by some 
persons with difficulty. It may also cause intestinal putre- 

Many find that by using meat once a day their health 
is normal. Others find that by using meat but several times 
a week a more desirable condition is maintained. Doubtless 
many people would find themselves much benefited by using 
less meat. If the quantity of meat eaten is greatly lessened, 
care should be taken that protein is supplied by other foods, 
such as eggs, legumes, cheese, and the various meat-substitute 


dishes. Care should also be taken to see that complete 
proteins (see p. 153) are included in diet. If foods containing 
incomplete protein such as some of the legumes and cereals 
are used for body-building, they should be supplemented 
by foods rich in complete protein such as milk and eggs. If 
much meat is eaten, a generous quantity of water and of 
fresh vegetables and fruits should be used. 

While all the mineral materifds found in the body ' are nec- 
essary for its growth and maintenance, calcium, phosphorus, 

Figure 78.^ Foods Containing Calcium. 

a. Dried beans * b, dried figs ; c. rutabaga; d, celery \ e. milki 

/. cauliflower; g, almonds; h, egg yolk; i'. cheese. 

and iron are the elements most likely to be used in insuf- 
ficient quantities (see Figures 78, 79, and 80). 

Calcium is needed for building the hard tissues such as 
the teeth and bones, A diet deficient in calcium is some- 
times the cause of poor teeth. Calcium is equally important 
for body-regulating functions. It is especially necessary that 
calcium-rich food be given to children, 

' The oah constituents existing in the body in largest quantity aie: 
Sulphiu Chlorine Calcium Iron 


The most practical and elective way of (Staining calcium, m 
to use a generous supply of milk. Cheese, eggs, and the leaves 
and stems of plant-foods are also valuable sources of cal- 

Milk, egg yolk, cheese, whole grains, and 'Begetables are the 
most satisfactory sources of phosphorus. A free use of these 
foods is especially desirable since it has been found that 
phosphorus is quite as necessary as nitrogen. The whole 
grains are a very valuable source of ash. Many of the ash 
constituents in cereab are found next to the outer coat of 

FiouRE 79. — Foods Contaimino Phosphorus. 

a, Dried peas ; b, chocolate ; c, dried beans ; d, whole wheal j 

e, peanuts ; /, cheese ; f . cocoa ; h, «es yolk. 

bran, hence fine white flour is not so rich in ash as whole 
wheat flour. 

In the formation of blood and for the welfare of the body 
as a whole, iron is needed. For this reason, it is often a 
constituent of " tonics." If foods rich in iron were more 
generally used, the body would not be so likely to get into 
a condition requiring such tonics. The iron found in eggs, 
milk, and vegetable foods is thou^t to be more completely 
assimilated than that found in meat. Spinach and prunes 
are valuable sources of iron. This is one of the reasons why 


they are most desirable foods for children. The need of eggs, 
dried fruiit, fresh vegetables, and whole grain in diet to furnish 
iron should he emphasized. 

Sulphur is one of the necessary elements of the body. It 
is usually found, however, as a component of protein; 
hence if enough protein is supplied to the diet, sulphur will 
be present in sufficient quantity. 

As mentioned on p. 246, leafy vegetables not only supply 
calcium but sodium and chlorine, — two of the needed 


I, Dried peas; b. dried (igs: c, whole wheal; rf, lentils; e, spinach; 

minerab of the body. If fresh vegetables and fruits along 
with foods rich in calcium, iron, and phosphorus are used, 
and these foods are cooked and served so as to retain all their 
nutriment, one can be assured that the diet contains all the 
necessary ash constituents. 

C. Food for Regulating. — Although ash is needed for 
body-building, it also serves to regulate certain body pro- 
cesses as explained on p. 58. Hence if the mineral matter 


valuable for building is used, the body is also supplied with 
regulating materials. 

D. Food for Promoting Growth. — A discussion of vita- 
mines, — the materials essential for growth of the body and 
the maintenance of health, — was given in a previous lesson 
(3ee p. 245). It is most necessary that foods rich in vita- 
mines be included in diet. 

E. Food for Bulk. — The use of foods containing cellulose, 
which adds bulk to diet, is needed by most persons (see 
p. 81). Many foods rich in mineral matter also contain 
much cellulose. Vegetables, fruits, and whole grains furnish 
both of these materials. 

Other Factors to Be Considered in Menu-making. — For 
successful menu-making, a number of factors other than the 
selection of foods to meet the needs of the body should be 
considered. A discussion of these follows : 

A. Appetizing Foods. — If the appetite needs stimulation, 
foods which have an appetizing effect may be used for the 
first course of meals. Fruit is very often served for the first 
course of a breakfast and sometimes for the first course of a 
luncheon. Soup may serve as the appetizer of either a 
luncheon or dinner. Cream soup being especially nourish- 
ing because of its milk content not only serves as an appetiz- 
ing food, but as one of the nutritious foods of a meal. 

B. Foods of Contrasting Flavor. — If beef or some other 
protein-rich food is chosen for the main dish of a meal (such 
as dinner), root vegetables or grains rich in starch, but bland 
in flavor, are good additions. By combining foods of de- 
cided flavor with those of less pronounced taste and those 
rich in one foodstuff with those abounding in another 
nutrient, combinations that are both pleasing and varied 
in flavor may be secured. A housekeeper needs to use 
" imagination " in selecting foods that will taste well to- 


C. Variation of Foods, — The same food should not be 
used twice in the same meal, even though it is prepared in a 
different form. It would be monotonous to serve tomato 
soup and tomato salad, or bean soup and baked beans at the 
same meal. Neither would one care to have hash served for 
both breakfast and luncheon on the same day. Of course 
such foods as bread and butter may be used with every meal.' 

D. Moist and Dry Foods. — A combination of " moist " 
and ^' dry " foods is more pleasing than a combination of 
foods of equal dryness or moisture. This does not mean 
that dry foods should be " rinsed down " with liquids ; that 
is unwise from a physiological standpoint. To the majority 
of persons, creamed potatoes are more desirable with broiled 
steak than plain boiled potatoes. The latter would be more 
pleasing with meat served with a sauce or gravy. 

E. Sweet Foods, — A sweet food should not be eaten at 
the beginning of a meal. Such sugar-rich foods as preserves 
and jellies may be served with the main course of a meal or 
at its close. As explained previously (see p. 71), the sugar 
is then diluted with other food materials and proves less 
irritating. If desserts are included in a menu, the practice 
of serving them at the close of a meal is desirable from a 
dietetic viewpoint. When the appetite is partially ap- 
peased, there is less tendency to eat large quantities of sweet 

A dessert that is rich in both fat and sugar such as pastry 
should be served only with a light meal, while a light dessert 
such as fruit or gelatine may be used at the close of a heavy 

Very often dried fruits and nuts are used as accessories 
after a meal. They are then often digested with diflSculty, 
because the meal itself has taxed the digestive organs. These 
foods should be considered as a part of the meal and should 
not be added after enough other nutrients have been eaten. 


There is no reason why a wholesome dessert should not be 
considered one of the nutritious foods of a meal. 

F. Milk and Beverages, — Since milk is necessary for 
perfect nourishment it is well for adults to use it as a beverage 
for at least one meal each day. Children should use it at all 
meals. If milk is distasteful to any or all members of a 
family, cocoa made with much milk may be served in its 
stead. In meal planning, a housekeeper should see to it 
that the proper quantity of milk either as a beverage or 
constituent of such dishes as cream soup, vegetables, and 
custards is used by each member of the family. 

When tea and coffee are included in meal plans, the fact 
that these beverages have no food value except the milk 
and sugar added to them, should be taken into consideration. 

G. Foods on Hand. — When menus are made the thrifty 
housekeeper considers those materials she has on hand and 
especially those which would spoil if not used at once. Very 
often left-over material serves as a basis on which to plan 
one or more meals. ^ 

A housekeeper may drain from a vegetable the water in 
which it was cooked. But she sees in it for the next meal or 
for the next day several possible uses. The vegetable stock 
may be used in soup or it may be combined with milk or 
cheese and serve as a sauce for some left-over vegetable. 
Bread crumbs combined with milk, peanuts, or egg make 
a tasty meat substitute one week; or they may be utilized 
in making bread pudding the second week ; a scalloped dish 
the third week; and a meat loaf the fourth. If several 
pieces of dry cake are on hand, a tasty dessert may be made 
by pouring over them some hot sauce such as apple or 
chocolate. Dry cake may also be crumbed and used in 
place of flour and sugar in a steamed pudding. 

It is possible, of course, for a housekeeper to spend an 
undue amount of time in utilizing left-overs or to defeat her 


efforts in thrift and buy expensive supplementary foods in 
order to use food on hand. Often it is wise to cook just 
enough so that there are no left-overs. On the other hand, 
it is sometimes economical as far as fuel and time are con- 
cerned to plan to cook enough food at one time for more 
than one meal. This is especially true of foods requiring 
long cooking such as baked beans and other dried foods. 

Menu Plans. — Serving meals in a number of courses 
should be attempted only where the housekeeper is assisted 
in her work. For everyday living the meals of most families 
are served only in one or two courses. 

Although there are a great many things to be considered 
in menu-making, it is not necessary to use a great variety of 
foods to meet the requirements of successful meal planning. 
A breakfast consisting of fruit, rolled oats, and top milk, 
for example, is simple, but it embraces all the factors in- 
volved in the planning of a desirable meal. 

As previously mentioned, the groups of foods on p. 269 
may serve as a basis for menu planning. After selecting 
foods from each group that are seasonable, economic, and 
that will " taste well " together it is wise to analyze the menu. 
See if it contains all the essentials of diet to meet the needs 
of the body as explained on p. 318. Some housekeepers 
find it helpful to have lists of dishes found to be satisfactory 
for serving, such as lists of meat dishes, vegetables, salads, 
desserts, etc., and glance over these when planning meals. 

The menu plans which follow are merely suggestive. 
Both simple and more elaborate menus are given for each of 
the three meals. 

A breakfast may consist of : 

Fruit Fruit or Cereal (or both) 

Cereal or Eggs and Toast m f Meat, Egg, or Vegetable 

Beverage 1 Bread and Butter 



A luncheon or supper may consist of : 

Cream Soup Fruit or Cream Soup 

Bread and Butter or f Fish or Meat Substitutes 

Salad or Fruit \ Vegetables 

Beverage I Bread and Butter 


A dinner may consist of : 

r Meat Clear Soup 

\ Vegetables Fish 

l Bread and Butter w f Meat 

Salad or Dessert { Vegetables 

Beverage [ Bread With or Without Butter 



Mention several combinations of two or more foods that are 
varied in moisture, dr3rness, and composition, and that are of con- 
trasting flavor. Give reasons for making the combinations. 

Make out suitable menus in your home for a week. Compute 
the cost of the week's menus. If the cost does not come within the 
Umit that can be spent for food in your home, change the menus so 
that the cost does not exceed the food allowance. 


Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Luncheon or 


Plan a^ luncheon or supper/ making it a one-dish meal or 
using a meat substitute instead of meat. Also use season- 
able food-materials and follow the suggestions given in 

^ If the laboratory period is limited to 90 minutes, all this time will 
be required to cook and serve the meal and wash the dishes. Hence, 
it will be necessary to do the meal planning in a previous lesson. 


Lesson CV (p. 318). Compute the cost of the menu. If 
it exceeds 20 cents per person, change the menu so that its 
cost comes within this amount. Analyze the menu. Is food 
from each of the groups given on p. 269 contained in it? 

Cook and serve the luncheon or supper. Follow the 
English or family style of serving (see p. 122). Serve the 
meal without a maid. 


Review: Meal Cooking 


Seasonable Vegetable Salad 
Salad Dressing 
Salad Rolls 

See Lesson XIV, p. 68, for suggestions regarding the preparation 
of the lesson. 

LESSON cvra 

Home Projects ^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Plan and prepare one- 
dish meals or meals containing meat-substitute, — at least 
one a week. 

Plan and prepare meals containing meat, — at least one 
a week. 

Compute the cost of these meals. Also note the time 
required to prepare them. 

Suggested Aims : (1) To determine the difference in time 
required to cook a one-dish meal and a meal containing several 
different dishes. 

(2) To determine the difference in cost of a meal with- 
out meat and one containing a meat-substitute. 

^ See Lesson IX, p. 51. 



Leavening with Steam and Air: Popovers 

When flour is to be moistened and baked to make bread 
or cake, other ingredients are usually added to improve the 
grain, texture, and flavor. 

To understand some of the principles of mixing and light- 
ening baked flour mixtures, try the following : 

Experiment 64 : Leavening with Steam and Air.^ — Mix i cupful 
of flour and i cupful of cold water. Beat thoroughly with a Dover 
egg beater. Note the consistency of the batter. Pour at once into 
an oiled mufiGui pan. Bake in a hot oven for at least 20 minutes. 
Remove from the pan, break it open, and answer the following 
questions : 

What happened during baking to the cold air inclosed in the 
mixture? With what material did the flour combine during bak- 
ing?. Into what form was a part of the water changed during bak- 
ing? Explain fully how the mixture was made porous. 

Experiment 65 : Comparison of Thick and Thin Quick Breads. — 

Repeat Experiment 64, using i tablespoonful of cold water instead 
of i cupful. After baking, examine and compare with the bread 
of Experiment 64. Which is the more porous? Explain how the 
difference in quantity of moisture accounts for the difference in 
grain. K a mixture is to be leavened with steam and air, what 
should be the consistency of the mixture? 

1 Note to the Teacher. — Experiments 64 and 65 can be performed 
most expeditiously by dividing the class into groups of two and having 
each group do the two experiments. 



Some simple flour mixtures are lightened by the method 
indicated above. In most cases, however, more air is intro- 
duced into the mixture by using lightly beaten eggs, or by 
using ingredients that produce gas, on being moistened and 

Experiment 66 : Preparation of Hour for Quick Breads. — 

Measure i cupful of pastry flour just as it comes from the can. 
Sift it, and return it carefully to the measiuing cup, using a tea- 
spoon. How much does the flour measure now? What does this 
experiment teach with regard to sifting flour before measuring? 
Of what advantage is it to sift flour not only before measiuing, but 
when adding it to the other ingredients of a quick bread? 

[Note. — Use this sifted flour for making Popovere.] 

In preparing all quick bread mixtures, pastry flour (see 
Wheat Flour, p. 408) should be used. It should be sifted 
before measuring. Usually any other powdered ingredient, 
such as baking powder, soda, or spices, is added to the flour 
and mixed thoroughly (by sifting) into the other materials. 
Baking powder and soda need not be sifted before measuring, 
but should be stirred. 

Oven Thermometers and Temperatures. — The ovens of a 
number of ranges are equipped with thermometers. Al- 
though it is possible to secure more satisfactory results with 
a thermometer than without, oven thermometers do not 
always indicate the temperature of an oven accurately. If 
a thermometer is fastened on an oven door, for example, 
and the door does not heat as quickly or to as high a degree 
as the interior of the oven, the true temperature of the oven 
cannot be ascertained by this device. By making allowance 
for the difference, however, such a thermometer may prove 
very useful. It is much more accurately and conveniently 
read than a thermometer which is hung or rests inside the 
oven unless the oven is provided with a glass door. 

A device known as an " Oven Heat Regulator " (see Fig- 


ore 81 ) may be attached to gas ranges. These devices do not 
merely measure the heat of an oven, but control it and keep 
the oven temperature constant. A " temperature wheel " 
(shown at B) b set for a desired temperature and the oven 
burner lighted. By the expansion or contraction of a 
sensitive copper tube placed in the top of the oven (shown at 

CourUBy ot Ibe NalUmal Save Co. 

Figure 81. — Oven Heat Regulator. 

A) the gas valve (shown at C) is opened or closed. When 
the valve is opened the amount of gas burning is increased 
or decreased so that the temperature of the oven is kept 
constant, i.e. at the temperature at which the wheel is set. 
Insulated ovens, i.e. ovens which are constructed ao as to 
retain heat and allow little to escape, are found on some of 


the modem gas, electric, and kerosene stoves. Some of the 
insulated electric ovens are provided with clocks or dials 
which may be adjusted so that the current is cut off auto- 
matically at the expiration of a certain length of time, or 
when a certain temperature is reached (see Figure 14, 
p. 29). Because of the insulated walls on such ovens, the 
food continues to cook on " stored heat." 

A chemical thermometer inserted in an oven is a fairly 
satisfactory means of obtaining oven temperatures. If one 
has the use of an oven provided with a chemical thermometer 
in the school kitchen, tests may be obtained so that the 
temperature of the oven in the home kitchen may be esti- 
mated. The tests are as follows : Heat the oven ; when it 
reaches a temperature of 250° F.,* place a piece of white 
paper in the oven. After 5 minutes, remove the paper, note 
the color. Continue to heat the oven; place paper in the 
oven at 350° F., 400° F., 425° F., 450° F., 475° F., 500° F., 
525° F., and 550° F. Note the color of each piece of paper. 

Baking temperatures have been classified as follows : ^ 

1. Slow oven (250° to 350° F.) for custards and meringues. 

2. Moderate oven (350° to 400° F.) for bread, ginger- 
bread, plain cake,^ all molasses mixtures. 

3. Hot oven (400° to 450° F.) for Parkerhouse rolls, and 
Popovers. In baking Popovers, the oven should be cooled 
to moderate heat after the first ten minutes. 

4. Very hot oven (450° to 550° F.) for pastry. After the 
first 6 minutes, the temperature should be lowered to " hot." 

Oven temperatures may be estimated also as follows: 
(a) note the number of minutes required to change white 

^ See footnote, p. 353, regarding the use of the Fahrenheit scale. 

> From Technical Education Bulletin, No. 22, *'Some Attempts to 
Standardize Oven Temperatures for Cookery Processes," by May B. 
Van Arsdale, Teachers College, Columbia University. 

' The lower temperature should be used for loaf cakes and the higher 
temperature for layer cakes. 


paper, flour, or bread to a light brown or to a golden brown ; 
(6) note the number of " counts " (one count per second) 
that the hand may be held in the oven. 

Pour Batter. — All breads may be divided into two classes : 
(a) Quick Breads and (6) Yeast Breads. The former are 
so named because a much shorter time is required in their 
preparation. Quick breads are divided into several classes, 
depending upon the proportion of flour and moisture in the 
batter. A pour batter is the thinnest quick bread mixture. 
It usually contains about equal parts of flour and moisture. 
A definite proi>ortion cannot be stated, since the thickening 
quality of different flours varies, and the wetting quality 
of different moist materials varies. Many pour batters con- 
tain a little more flour than moisture. Popover mixtiu'e is 
a typical pour batter. 


1 egg 1 cupful nulk 

i teaspoonful salt 1 cupful flour 

i teaspoonful fat (melted) 

Oil iron gem pans; place them in the oven, heat until 
very hot. Put all the Popover ingredients in a mixing bowl, 
and beat the mixture with a Dover egg beater. Pour it 
into the hot pans and bake 35 to 45 minutes in a hot oven, 
475° F. ; decrease the heat after 10 minutes. Earthen cups 
may be used instead of iron pans. 

Popovers may be served hot as a bread, for breakfast or Imicheon ; 
or may be used as a dessert with custard or lemon filling or sauce. 
Fruit makes a pleasing addition to Popovers. Before baking, drop 
a piece of apple, peach, or other fruit, into the batter in each cup. 


What change, other than moistening the flour, takes place in the 
milk that help's to lighten the Popovers? 


What changes take place in the eggs and in the air inclosed in 
them when they are heated quickly? 

What is the purpose of beating the Popover mixture thoroughly ? 
How many Popo vers will the given recipe make? 


LEAVENmo WITH Baking Soda and Sour Milk: 

Spider Corn Bread 

Besides the air that is beaten into the eggs and into the 
combined ingredients of quick bread mixtures, a gas — 
carbon dioxide — is often introduced into such mixtures. 
To find how this gas may be formed, try the following : 

Experiment 67 : Action of Baking Soda on Sour Milk. — Place a 
teaspoonful of sour milk in a test tube and add a pinch of baking 
soda. Do you notice any change in the ingredients? Apply heat 
to the contents of the tube. What kind of material (solid, liquid, 
or gas) is indicated by the bubbling (see Experiment 7, p. 41)? 
What does this experiment teach with regard to the use of baking 
soda and sour milk, for lightening a mixtiu*e? 

Experiment 68 : Chemical Change. — Measure i cupful of thick 
sour milk.i Dip the end of a piece of blue Utmus paper in it. What 
change in color takes place in the paper? When blue Utmus changes 
to pink, an acid is present. The sour milk therefore contains acid. 
Measure i teaspoonful of baking soda. Mix this with a Uttle water. 
Test with pink Utmus paper. When pink Utmus paper changes to 
blue, an alkaline substance is present. Baking soda is therefore 
alkaline in reaction. 

Pour the milk into a saucepan, add about } of the soda mixture, 
stir and heat until effervescence (bubbling) has ceased. Test the 
mixture in the saucepan with blue Utmus paper. If the blue Utmus 
paper changes color, carefuUy add a Uttle more of the soda solution. 
Test with Utmus again. If there is stiU a change in color, add soda 
solution until the Utmus does not change. Then test with pink 
Utmus. When neither pink nor blue Utmus paper changes color a 
neutral substance is present, i.e. a substance neither acid nor alkaline. 
1 The amount of acid in sour milk varies slightly. 


When this occurs, the mixture in the pan is no longer acid in 
reaction. Neither sour milk nor baking soda exists in the pan. 
A cfiemical change has taken place. From the union of sour milk 
and soda, entirely different materials are formed; one is the neu- 
tral substance in the pan ; another is the carbon dioxide gas which 
has escaped, and the third is water. When an acid and an alkaline 
material are mixed, a chemical change always occurs. Chemical 
changes are constantly taking place when certain food mixtures are 
cooked and digested. 

Experiment 69: Quantity of Baking Soda to Use with Sour 
Milk. — To the contents of the saucepan of Experiment 68, add 
i teaspoonful more of baking soda. Stir, heat, and test with pink 
Utmus. What is the reaction — acid or alkaline ?» Has the last quan- 
tity of soda been neutralized as was the first quantity ? Explain. 

If more baking soda than is necessary to neutralize the 
acid of the sour milk is used, some unneviralized soda will 
remain in the mixture. This is undesirable, since soda has a 
" bitter taste." An excessive quantity of imneutralized soda 
also discolors the mixture. 

Experiments 68 and 69 indicate that the approximate 
proportion of baking soda to sour milk is : 

^ teaspoonful of baking soda to 1 cupful of thick sour milk. 

The following " equations " indicate the importance of 
using the proper amount of baking soda to neutralize the 
acid materials : 
1 cupful of sour milk-h^ \ teaspoonful of baking soda — »■* 

water +carbon dioxide gas -I- neutral material. 
1 cupful of sour milk -I- 1 teaspoonful of baking soda — »■ 

water -|- carbon dioxide gas -|- neutral material +unneutral- 

ized " soda." 


f cupful corn-meal i teaspoonful baking soda 

i cupful flour 1 egg 

1 tablespoonf ul sugar 1 cupful sour milk 

\ teaspoonful salt 1 tablespoonful butter or substitute 

* The plus sign is read "with" ; the arrow is read "yields." 


Mix the dry ingredients. In a mixing bowl, beat an egg, 
add the sour milk, then the dry ingredients. Beat the 
mixtures until the ingredients are well blended. 

Melt the butter or substitute in a hot " spider " or frying 
pan. Pour the corn-meal mixture into it. Bake in a hot 
oven until sufficiently baked, usually about 20 minutes (see 
tests below). Serve hot. 

Tests for Sufficient Baking of Quick Bread. — Quick 
Bread is usually sufficiently baked : (a) when it is a golden 
brown in color ; (6) when the mixture shrinks from the pan ; 
(c) when the crust springs back, into place, if pressed gently 
with the fingers; or (d) when no batter or dough clings 
to a wire skewer or knitting needle (see Figure 1) that has 
been inserted. Usually it is not necessary to apply this last 
test) unless the quick bread is baked in a loaf or in a very 
thick layer. 


Mention the materials used in Spider Com Bread to make it 
light. Explain their action. 

Explain why satisfactory results could not be obtained by using 
1) teaspoonfuls of baking soda in this Spider Com Bread recipe. 

What is the price per half-pound of baking soda? 

How many persons does this Spider Com Bread recipe serve? 


Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and 

Molasses: Gingerbread 

Experiment 70 : Action of Baking Soda on Molasses. — Place a 
teaspoonful of baking molasses in a test tube and dilute with a little 
water. Test it with litmus paper. What is its reaction? Add a 
pinch of baking soda. Heat. What does effervescence indicate? 
What do we call the gas formed by the action of the baking soda and 


a substance having an acid reaction? Explain how baking soda 
and molasses could be used to lighten a quick bread. 

Experiment 71: Quantity of Baking Soda to Use with Molasses. 
— Carefully measure i cupful of molasses.^ Dilute it with much 
water. Carefully measure tV teaspoonful of baking soda and mix 
it with water. Add about J of the soda mixture to the molasses 
solution. Stir and heat. Test with blue Utmus. If it changes 
color, keep adding the soda mixture, until the litmus paper does not 
change, as in Experiment 68. When neither blue nor pink litmus 
paper changes color, what kind of substance, — acid, alkaline, or 
neutral, — is present? What change has taken place in the ma- 
terials placed in the saucepan? 

This experiment shows that the approximate proportion 
of baking soda to molasses is : 

^ teaspoonful of baking soda to 1 cupful of molasses. 

This *' equation " expresses the chemical change in the 
experiment : 
1 cupful molasses +| teaspoonful of baking soda — > neutral 

material + carbon dioxide gas + water. 


2 cupf uls flour J teaspoonful cloves 

i teaspoonful salt 1 egg 

f teaspoonful baking soda 1 cupful thick sour milk 

1 teaspoonful cinnamon } cupful molasses 

2 teaspoonf uls ginger } cupful sugar 

2 to 4 tablespoonf uls fat 

Mix all the dry ingredients except the sugar. Beat the 
egg in a mixing bowl. Add the sour milk, molasses, and 
sugar. If solid fat is used, melt it. Add the fat to the 
molasses mixture. Through a sifter, add the dry ingredients 
to other materials. Beat thoroughly and turn at once into 
a shallow oiled pan. Bake in a moderate oven (375° F. to 

^ The acidity of molasses may be due to fermentation or to the pre- 
servatives used in many brands. Its intensity varies. 


400° F.) 20 minutes or longer (see Tests for Sufficient Baking 
of Quick Bread, p. 336). 

Gingerbread without Eggs may be made. Omit the egg from the 
recipe above. To the dry ingredients, add 1 teaspoonful of baking 

Water Gingerbread may be made by substituting } cupful cold 
water for the sour milk, and using i teaspoonful baking soda (in- 
stead of f teaspoonful) and adding 3 teaspoonfuls of baking powder. 


Mention the leavening materials used in this Gingerbread, and 
explain their action. 

What is the price per quart of molasses? 
How many persons does this recipe serve? 


Leavening with Baking Powder: Griddle Cakes 

Experiment 72 : Effect of Cold Water on a Mixture of Cream of 
Tartar and Baking Soda. — Test a bit of cream of tartar with 
moistened litmus paper. Is it acid or alkaline in reaction? 

Put i teaspoonful of baking soda and twice the quantity of 
cream of tartar in a dry test tube. Does any change take place? 
Add about 1 teaspoonful of cold water to the mixture and examine. 
What change takes place? What substance is being formed? 

Experiment 73 : Effect of Hot Water on a Mixture of Cream of 
Tartar and Baking Soda. — Repeat Experiment 72, using hot water 
instead of cold with the baking soda and cream of tartar. Which 
causes greater effervescence, — hot or cold water? Is it desirable 
to have more of the gas formed before or after the mixture is placed 
in the oven? What, then, should be the temperature (hot or cold) 
of liquids and other materials used in the quick bread mixtures? 

Experiment 74 : Effect of Hot Water on Baking Powder. — Add 
about 1 teaspoonful of hot water to i teaspoonful of baking powder. 
Compare the effervescence with that of Experiment 73. From the 
comparison of Experiments 72 and 73, with Experiment 74, what two 
kinds of substances do you infer this baking powder contains? 

(Save the contents of the tube for the following experiment.) 


Ezperiment 76: Starch in Baking Powder. — Filter the con- 
tents of the tube used in Experiment 74 through filter paper (see 
p. 102, Figure 30). Add a drop of tincture of iodine to the in- 
soluble material left on the filter paper. What is the insoluble 
constituent of this baking powder? 

Composition of Baking Powder. — Baking powder consbts 

(a) baking soda, 

(6) a substance having an acid reaction, 

(c) a starchy material. 

The substance of acid reaction varies in different baking 
powders. Some powders in common use contain either cream 
of tartar, calcium or sodium acid phosphate, or alum * as the 
" acid " material. Certain baking powders contain a mix- 
ture of materials with acid reaction, such as cream of tartar 
with tartaric acid, and alum with calcium acid phosphate. 

The starch is added to keep the other materials dry, and 
thus prevent the possible formation and consequent loss of 
carbon dioxide. 

The trade name of a baking powder does not usually 
suggest its composition. But the latter is always stated on 
the label of the can. 

Experiment 76 : Comparison of the Time of Action of Different 
Types of Baking Powders. — Put i cupful of water of the same 
temperature into each of 3 tumblers or glass measuring cups. To 
one tumbler add i teaspoonful of tartrate baking powder; to the 
second, the same quantity of phosphate baking powder ; and to the 
third an equal quantity of alum (or alum and phosphate) baking 
powder. Stir each and note the length of time that chemical 
change occurs in each tumbler. Which type of baking powder 
reacts the longest time? 

1 Aluxna differ in composition. They are sulphates of various metals. 
The alum most commonly used in alum baking powder is sodium alumin- 
ium sulphate. 


Difference in Types of Baking Powders. — Although there 
has been much discussion regarding the superiority of one 
type of baking powder over another, it is thought that one 
standard baking powder is as little harmful as another. 
But, as shown by Experiment 76, the action of certain types 
is slower than that of others, i.e. the formation of the gas 
continues for a longer time. Certain types of baking powders 
which react very quickly when moisture is added may react 
to some extent while still in the can and thus lose some of 
their effectiveness in leavening. It is well to buy those 
baking powders in such quantities so that a fresh can can 
be purchased often. The price of certain types of baking 
powders is much greater than that of others. 

Quantity of Baking Powder in Quick Breads. — Since bak- 
ing powder contains both acid and alkaline materials, the 
quantity of baking powder used in a quick bread is de- 
pendent not upon another leavening material, but upon the 
quantity of flour and eggs. When no eggs are used, 2 tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder should be used with 1 cupful of 
flour. When eggs are added to a quick bread, the quantity 
of baking powder should be lessened ^ teaspoonful for each 


Two and one half teaspoonfuls of baking powder should be used 

with 1 cupful of coarse wheat flour or flour or meal other than 


Suggestions for Preparing Griddle Cakes. — : The general 
rules for mixing quick breads apply also to griddle cakes. 
When the yolk and white of the egg are separated, the 
mixture will be somewhat lighter. Most housekeepers, 
however, beat the eggs together quickly, and find the result 

The consistency of griddle cake. batter is most important. 
As suggested in the recipe (p. 341), the moisture should be 
added cautiously. Since the quantity of baking powder de- 


pends upon the amount of flour, it is better to change from 
a thick to a thinner batter by increasing the moisture, 
rather than to change from a thin to a thicker batter by in- 
creasing the flour. After mixing the batter, drop a small 
cake on the hot iron. The thickness as well as the grain 
of the browned cake depends largely upon the consistency 
of the batter. If too much moistiu*e has been used, the 
cake is thin, " pasty," and coarse grained. 

A griddle should be heated slowly, and should be hot 
when the cakes are mixed. If suflScient fat is used in the 
batter, it is not necessary to oil the griddle. The recipes 
for griddle cakes given in this book contain one and one 
half times the quantity of fat generally used in griddle cake 
batters. Hence oiling the griddle is unnecessary. It is 
well after each baking to wipe off the griddle with a cloth or 

Drop the batter by the spoonful (from the end of the 
spoon) on the hot griddle, brown on the under side thor- 
oughly. When the cakes have risen, when the tops are full 
of bubbles, and when the edges are brown, the cakes should 
be turned and browned on the other side. Serve cakes at 
once after baking. 


2 cupf uls flour 1 egg 

i teaspoonful salt 1} cupf uls milk 

3§ teaspoonfuls baking powder 3 tablespoonfuls fat 

Prepare according to the directions above. Add the milk 
cautiously. More or less (according to the absorbing 
property of the flour) than the given quantity may be re- 

J cupful of sugar or molasses may be added to the mixture. If 
desired, one more egg may be used in this recipe. Serve with maple 
or other sirup (see Sirup, p. 98). 



1) cupfuLs bread crumbs 1 to 2 eggs 
li cupfuls hot nulk i cupful flour 

3 tablespoonfuls fat i teaspoonful salt 

3 teaspoonf uls baking powder 

Soak the bread in the hot milk until soft. Add the other 
ingredients in the order given. 

1 cupful of cooked cereal may be used instead of bread crumbs. 
Rice Griddle Cakes are especially pleasing. 


Accoimt for the quantity of baking powder used in each of these 

What is the price per pound of cream of tartar? Of tartrate 
baking powder? Of phosphate baking powder? Of alum baking 
powder? Of alum-phosphate baking powder? 

What would be the ejffect of exposing baking powder to moist 
air? How should baking powder be stored? 

What kind of griddle cakes result when the batter is too thin? 
When too thick? 

What indicates that the griddle is too hot? Too cool? 

How should griddle cakes be served? 


Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and Bak- 
ing Powder: Sour Milk Griddle Cakes 

Additional Leavening for Sour Milk Mixtures. — Some 
housekeepers maintain that a superior flavor and quality is 
given to quick bread by the use of sour milk. It has been 
found that most quick breads are sufficiently light and porous 
when made with sour milk and baking soda, provided they 
contain as much or almost as much sour milk as flour and 
provided they contain eggs. If the quantity of sour milk is 


much less than that of flour and no eggs are present, it is often 
desirable to add leavening materials other than sour milk 
and baking soda. 

From the results of Experiment 69, p. 335, we know 
that an increased quantity of baking soda will not produce 
satisfactory results. Hence more carbon dioxide gas must 
be obtained by other means. Since baking powder consists of 
both baking soda and an '^ acid " material, it makes, a desirable 
substance for additional leavening. A combination of baking 
soda, sour milk, and baking powder is therefore used for 
leavening some quick bread mixtiu'es, especially those that 
contain only a small quantity of sour milk and no eggs. 
This involves a double reaction : 

(a) Baking soda+sour milk — > neutral material + carbon 
dioxide gas + water. 

(b) Baking powder (moistened and heated) -^ neutral 
material +carbon dioxide gas + water. 

About ^ of baking powder is baking soda. Hence J 
teaspoonful of bakmg soda (with the necessary quantity 
of *' acid " material) is equivalent to 1 teaspoonful of baking 
powder in leavening. If 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder 
are used to leaven 1 cupful of flour, J teaspoonful of baking 
soda (with the necessary quantity of " acid " material) 
should he used to leaven 1 cupful of flour. 

Two thirds teaspoonful of baking soda (with the necessary 
quantity of " acid " material) should be used to leaven 1 
cupful of coarse fUmr or flour or meal other than wheat. 

In determining the quantity of baking powder to use in 
materials leavened with sour milk and baking soda, note the 
quantity of baking soda and flour. Assuming that i tea- 
spoonful of baking soda (with " acid ") or 2 teaspoonfuls 
of baking powder leavens 1 cupful of flour, determine the 
amount of flour that the given quantity of baking soda 
(with " acid *') will leaven and then use suflScient baking 


powder to leaven the remainder of the flour. For example, 
if a recipe states (among other ingredients) ^ teaspoonful 
of baking soda and 2 cupfuls of flour, the baking soda (with 
"acid ") will leaven 1 cupful of flour. Hence baking powder 
sufficient to leaven 1 cupful of flour {Le, 2 teaspoonfuls) 
should be used. Again, if a recipe states that f teaspoonful 
baking soda and 2 cupfuk of flour, the baking soda (with 
" acid ") will leaven Ij cupfuls of flour. Hence baking 
powder sufficient to leaven J cupful flour {i.e. 1 teaspoonful) 
should be used. 

SOUR MILK GRIDDLE CAKBS (wlfhottt eggs) 


2 cupfuls flour i teaspoonful baking soda 

i teaspoonful salt If cupfuls sour milk 

i teaspoonful baking powder 3 tablespoonf uls fat 

Turn the sour milk into a mixing bowl. Melt the fat and 
add it to the sour milk. Add the dry ingredients (through a 
sifter) to the mixture. Mix thoroughly. If more moisture 
is needed, add water. 


1 cupful com-meal 1 cupful flour 

2 cupfuls water 1 teaspoonful salt 

3 tablespoonf uls fat i teaspoonful baking soda * 

1 cupful sour milk 2§ teaspoonfuls baking powder ^ 

1 to 2 tablespoonf uls sugar 

Add the corn-meal to the water, mix thoroughly, and 
cook 5 minutes. Add the fat. Cool. Then add the milk 
and dry ingredients. Mix thoroughly. Drop at once on a 
hot griddle. 

1^ The i teaspoonful of baking soda (with *'acid") is sufficient to 
leaven the 1 cupful of flour. Then 2^ teaspoonfuls of baking powder 
should be added, since 1 cupful of corn-meal is contained in the recipe 
(see Qtjiantity of Baking Powder in Quick Breads, p. 340) . 



Cook fresh fruit, or dried fruit that has been soaked 
in water, in a generous quantity of water until it is very soft. 
Press through a strainer. If it is not of the consistency 
of catsup, add more hot water. Add from one eighth to 
one fourth cupful of sugar for each cupful of sirup, or 
" sweeten to taste." Serve on griddle cakes, or use as a 
sauce for Bread Pudding or Rice Pudding. 

Fruit butters, marmalades, or jams may be diluted with water, 
heated, and used in the same way. 


If an egg or two were added to griddle cakes made with sour milk, 
how should the recipe be changed? Give reasons for the change. 

Explain the action of the leavening agents in Sour Milk Griddle 
Cakes (without eggs). 

In a quick bread leavened with baking soda, sour milk, and bak- 
ing powder, upon what ingredient does the quantity of baking soda 
depend ? Upon what ingredients does the quantity of baking powder 
depend? Explain your answers. 

What is the purpose of cooking the corn-meal before adding the 
other ingredients? Why should the cooked mixture be cooled 
before adding the other ingredients? 


Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and 
Cream of Tartar: Steamed Brown Breads 

Additional Leavening for Sour Milk Mixtures. — Instead 
of using prepared baking powder as additional leavening for 
sour milk mixtures (see previous lesson) cream of tartar 
with sour milk and baking soda may be used. Enough bak- 
ing soda must be used, however, to neutralize both the sour 


milk and the cream of tartar. This involves a double re- 
action : 

(a) Baking soda+sour milk — >- water +carbon dioxide gas 

+neutral substance. 
(6) Baking soda+cream of tartar — >- water+carbon 

dioxide gas+a neutral substance. 

If molasses is used with the sour milk and baking soda, 
a third reaction occurs : 
(c) Baking soda+molasses — >- water+carbon dioxide gas 

+neutral substance. 

It has been found that the following proportion of cream 
of tartar and baking soda is effective in leavening : Ij tea- 
spoonfvis of cream of tartar with J tea^poonfid of baking 
soda. These quantities of materials are sufficient to leaven 
1 cupful of flour. IJ tea^poonfuls of cream of tartar with 
f teaspoonful of baking soda are required to leaven 1 cupfid 
coarse wheat flour or flour or meal other than wheat. 


In determining the quantity of cream of tartar and baking 
soda to use with mixtures containing sour milk or other acid 
food, note the quantity of flour (or other cereal) in the recipe. 
Assuming that | teaspoonful of baking soda (with the neces- 
sary " acid " material) leavens 1 cupful of flour, determine 
the total quantity of baking soda, which (with the necessary 
" acid '' material) will leaven the flour. Then determine 
how much of the baking soda will be neutralized by the 
sour milk or other " acid '' food. Assuming that Ij tea- 
spoonfuls of cream of tartar are needed to neutralize J tea- 
spoonful of baking soda, use enough cream of tartar to 
neutralize the remainder of the baking soda. For example, 
if a recipe calls for (among other ingredients) 2 cupfuls flour 
and 1 cupful of sour milk, 1 teaspoonful of baking soda 
(with the necessary " acid " material) will be needed to 
leaven the flour. Since 1 cupful of sour milk will neutralize 


only I teaspoonful of baking soda, enough cream of tartar 
(i.e. Ij teaspoonfuls) will be needed to neutralize the re- 
mainder of the baking soda. 

General Suggestions for Steamed Quick Bread Mixtures. 

— A quick bread mixture that is to be steamed should be 
placed in a covered utensil. If the mold or the can used for 
steaming has no cover, an oiled paper should be tied over 
the top. As with all quick breads, the molds for steamed 
mixtures should be oiled. If the quick bread is a pour batter, 
the mold should be oiled and then sprinkled with flour. It 
should never be filled more than two thirds full. 

A steamer placed over boiling water may be used for the 
steaming; or a kettle of boiling water containing a rack 
may be used. If the latter device is employed, the boiling 
water in the kettle should come halfway to the top of the 
molds. As the water evaporates, add more boiling water. 
Less time is required in the steaming, if the mold is placed 
directly in the water. 

At least one hour is required for steaming breads. The 
longer brown bread is steatoed, the darker it becomes. A 
mixture in an earthen mold requires more time than does 
one in a tin or granite mold (see Experiment 46, p. 169). 


2 cupfuls graham flour | teaspoonful salt 
J cupful white flour If teaspoonfuls baking soda 

I cupful brown sugar IJ teaspoonfuls cream of tartar 

2 cupfuls sour milk 

Mix all. dry ingredients thoroughly. Turn the sour milk 
into a mixing bowl. Add the dry ingredients; mix well. 
Turn at once into an oiled bread pan, and bake in the oven 
from 50 to 60 minutes ; or fill one-pound baking powder 
cans (which have been oiled) two thirds full, and steam at 
least 4 hours. If the bread is steamed, remove it (after 


steaming) from the molds and dry in the oven for a few 


1 cupful rye meal or flour 2 teaspoonf uls baking soda 

1 cupful corn-meal 2 teaspoonf uls cream of tartar 

1 cupful graham flour 2 cupf uls sour milk 

i teaspoonful salt J cupful molasses 

Mix the dry ingredients thoroughly. Turn the molasses 
and sour milk into a mixing bowl. Add the dry ingredi- 
ents ; mix well. Turn at once into oiled molds, and steam 
at least 4 hours. Remove from the molds, and dry in the 
oven for a few minutes. 

Graham flour or bread crumbs may be substituted for the rye 

If dried bread crumbs are used, moisten them with a little cold 
water before adding to the other ingredients. 

1 cupful of raisins may also be added to the ingredients of the 
above recipe. If raisins are used, cut them in two and sprinkle 
flour over them. 


Cut firm butter into half-ounce pieces and place in a pan 
of ice water. Scrub the butter paddles; place in boiling 
water for 10 minutes; and then in the pan of ice water 
until chilled. Place a piece of butter on one of the paddles 
and hold the paddle stationary. Shap)e the butter with the 
other butter paddle, moving it in a circular direction. Hold 
the paddle over the ice water while shaping. Place the 
butter balls in a cool place. 


What gas is formed in these mixtures to leaven them? By what 
means is the gas formed in each mixture? 

How much baking soda and cream of tartar should be used in a 
recipe containing 2 cupfuls of flour, 1 cupful of sour milk, and J cup- 
ful molasses ? 


Account for the quantity of baking soda used in each of the Brown 
Bread recipes. 

Give two reasons why the paper used to cover a steamed quick 
bread mixture should be oiled. Why are molds for steamed mix- 
tures filled only two thirds full? 

Why should boiling water be used to replenish the water in 
steaming kettle? Why is a longer time required for steaming 
than for baking quick bread mixtures ? 

Why should butter paddles be cleaned with a brush rather than 
with a cloth ? 

What is the purpose of placing butter paddles in boiling water 
before using? 

Why hold the paddles over ice water while shaping the butter 


Formulating Recipes — Waffles 

Leavening Formulas. — A practical housekeeper needs to 
be able to formulate fundamental recipes. In preparing 
quick bread recipes, she should know the required consistency 
of flour mixtures, i,e, the approximate proportion of mois- 
ture and flour for each bread ; and the proportion of leaven- 
ing, seasoning, and " shortening " (fat) materials to use 
with flour. 

In previous lessons, general statements have been made 
concerning the quantity of leavening materials to use under 
various conditions. The following is the approximate 
amount of leavening material to be used for quick breads 
that contain little or no sugar : 


i teaspoonful baking soda to 1 cupful of sour milk 


i teaspoonful of baking soda to 1 cupful molasses 

1 See footnote, p. 337. 



2 teaspoonfuls baking powder to 1 cupful of flour when no eggs 
are used. 

When eggs are used, reduce the entire quantity of baking powder 
by i teaspoonful for each egg. 



2i teaspoonfuls of baking powder to 1 cupful of coarse flour or 


li teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar and i teaspoonful of baking 
soda to 1 cupful of flour. 


1} teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar and } teaspoonful of baking 
soda to 1 cupful of flour. 

Examine a number of recipes previously given, and note 
the quantity of salt and fat used with 1 cupful of flour. 

In general, the following quantities of salt and fat are 
used for quick breads that contain little or no sugar : 

I teaspoonful of salt to 1 cupful of flour 


1 tablespoonful of fat to 1 cupful of flour 

While these data are helpful in formulating recipes, the 
pupil should remember that they are all approximate and 
for plain breads only. When recipes are modified by the 
addition of a cereal, a fruit, or a flavoring material, some of 
the quantities will need to be changed. 



2 cupfuls flour 1 to 2 eggs 

3 to 3i teaspoonfuls baking powder li cupfuls milk 

i teaspoonf ul salt 2 tablespoonf uls fat 

Mix according to the directions for Plain Griddle Cakes 
(see p. 341). The quantity of baking powder depends upon 
the number of eggs. The greater .quantity should be used 
with one egg. Before using the waffle irons, they should 
be heated slowly on both sides and oiled thoroughly. 
Oleomargarine, oil, or lard may be used for this purpose. 

Pour the batter quickly into the hot irons, close the irons 
at once, and brown the waffles on both sides. Serve with 
sirup or gravy. 


Write a recipe for waffles, using sweet milk and baking powder and 
3 eggs. 

Write two recipes for waffles, using sour milk and soda and 1 egg 
in the one, and 2 eggs in the other. 

How many waffles does the given recipe make? 



Measurement of the Fuel Value of Foods 

How Food is Assimilated. — The uses of the foodstuffs, 
— carbohydrates, fats, protein, ash, water, and vitamines, — 
were given (see p. 257). It was stated that these foodstuffs 
either (a) " burned " (i.e. united with oxygen) and pro- 
duced energy, (6) built the body, or (c) aided in regulating 
body processes. 

All parts of the body are composed of microscopic cells. 
By the process of digestion the foodstuffs are made entirely 


soluble (see Solution and Digestion, p. 40); they are then 
further altered, i,e. split to their end products and absorbed 
through the walls of the alimentary canal. The blood 
carries the digestion products to all parts of the body. 
The blood also carries oxygen, — which has been breathed 
into the body from the air, — to all parts of the body. The 
body cells then select the foodstuffs that they need to carry 
on their work. Some cells pick out the fuel materials 
— carbohydrates, fat, or protein — and oxygen. Fuel 
foods when oxidized, produce energy. Other body cells 
select some of the body builders — protein or ash — and use 
these for building or repairing tissue. The cells which build 
bone choose ash and the other materials needed for building 
bones ; the celb which build muscle choose protein and the 
other materials needed for building muscle. 

Little is known regarding the use of vitamines by the body 
cells, other than that they are indispensable for the growth 
and maintenance of the body. 

How Energy or Fuel Value is Measured. — It was stated 
(pp. 70 and 152) that the human body could be compared 
to an automobile, i,e. the "burning" of the fuel foods in 
the body produced the ability to do work. The quantity of 
energy that fuel food is capable of giving off is termed the fuel 
value of that food. Energy has been defined as the ability 
to do work. Since heat is energy, the fuel value of foods 
shows, in part,^ their nutritive value. // the quantity of heat 
that is produced by burning a food is measured, the meas- 

^ Although ash, water, and vitamines nourish the body, it is impos- 
sible to measure their nutritive value in terms of fuel value. Fuel value 
expresses the nutritive value only of the combustible foodstuffs, — 
carbohydrates, fats, and protein. However, according to Sherman, 
" the most conspicuous nutritive requirement is that of energy for the 
work of the body." Hence, the fuel value of a food is often spoken 
of as its nutritive value (see " Chemistry of Food and Nutrition," 
Second Edition, by Henry C. Sherman, Ph.D., p. 138). 


urenient indicates the quantity of energy that the food is capable 
of giving to the body. 

Heat cannot be measured by weight or length, but by the 
change in temperature which it produces in a given weight 
of a certain material. The heat unit is not a pound or 
yard, but a Calorie, or a definite quantity of heat, which, 
when applied to materials, will produce change of tem- 
perature in those materials. If the temp)erature of one 
pound 1 of water is 70° Fahrenheit,^ and it is desired to 
increase the temperature of that water to 74° Fahrenheit, 
a certain quantity of heat will have to be applied. It has 
been found that the quantity of heat required to raise the 
temperature of one pound of water through any four degrees of 
the Fahrenheit scale is practically the same, i,e, the quantity 
of heat required to raise the temp)erature of one pound of 
water from 32° to 36° F. is about the same as the quantity of 
heat that must be applied to raise the temperature of one 
pound of water from 60° to 64° F. The unit of measurement 
of heat is taken as the quantity of heat required to raise 
the temperature of one pound of water through about 4° F. 

The Calorie,^ used for food calculation, is approximately the 
quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound 
(jnnt) of water through 4° F. If one pint of water were placed 
over a lighted burner and heated until it increased four de- 
grees in temperature, approximately one Calorie of heat 
would have been applied to the water (see Figure 82). 

1 Note to the Teacher. — The avoirdupois system of measurement 
and the Fahrenheit scale of temperature are used in this text. It is be- 
lieved by the author that less than ten per cent of all pupils taking this 
course will enter college. Hence, the use of the measurements that are 
more in keeping with the pupils' practical needs. For the small minority 
who will enter college, a thorough drill in the metric system is urged. The 
following formula gives the necessary information for changing from the 
Fahrenheit to the Centigrade scale : Subtract 32 and multiply by }. 

3 I.e. greater Calorie, distinguished from the lesser calorie by the 
capital C. 



How the Fuel Value of a Food Material is Measured. — 

Scientists have worked with care to obtain accurate data 
for the measurement of the heat produced by foods burning 
in the body. The data accepted to-day differ from those 
given by Rubner some years ago.^ 

1 gram protein 3delds 4 Calories 

1 gram fat yields 9 Calories 

1 gram carbohydrate 3delds 4 Calories 

Expressing grams approximately in ounces, these data become : 

1 oimce of protein yields 113 Calories 

1 oimce of fat jdelds 255 Calories 

1 omice of carbohydrate yields 113 Calories 

Figure 82. — Illustrating the Amount of Heat Represented by 

One Calorie. 

In order to find the fuel value of foods, it is necessary to 
know their composition. For such data United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture Bulletin No. 28 is a valuable source. 

Flour, — The fuel content of flour is (see United States 
Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 28, p. 58, All An- 
alyses Average) : 

10.6 per cent protein; 1.1 per cent fat; 76.3 per cent 
carbohydrates. Then, 1 ounce of flour contains, 0.106 

» See ''Chemistry of Foods and Nutrition," Second Edition, by Henry 
C. Sherman, Ph.D., p. 143, " Physiological Fuel Values." 


ounce of protein; 0.011 ounce of fat; 0.763 ounce car- 

The protein in one ounce of flour yields (113x0.106 = ) 
11.97 Calories. 






2.4 oz: 

^ FTQur r 




IW/jffe) L 


Sugar <kfoz\ 

Figure 83. — Comparative Weights of 100-Calorie Portions of Foods. 


The fat in one ounce of flour yields (255X0.011=) 2.80 
Calories. The carbohydrates in one ounce of flour yield 
(113X0.763=) 86.21 Calories. 

Total Calories furnished by 1 ounce of flour are (11.97+ 
2.80+86.21 = ) 100.98. 

Butter, — The fuel content of butter is (see United States 
Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 28, p. 54) : 

1 per cent protein ; 85 per cent fat ; no carbohydrates. 

1 ounce of butter contains 0.01 ounce of protein, 0.85 
ounce of fat, and no carbohydrates. 

The protein in one ounce of butter yields (0.01X113 = ) 
1.13 Calories. 

The fat in one ounce of butter yields (0.85X255 = ) 216.75 

Number of total Calories furnished by one ounce of butter 
is (1.13+216.75 = ) 217.88. 

Sugar, — The fuel content of sugar is (see United States 
Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 28, p. 65) no per 
cent protein ; no per cent fat ; 100 per cent carbohydrates. 

1 ounce of sugar contains no protein, no fat, and 1 ounce 
carbohydrates. 1 ounce sugar yields (113X1=) 113 

How the Weight of Food Materials Producing loo Calories 
is Measured. — For practical work in computing the fuel 
value of foods, it has been found more convenient to reduce 
all data to terms which express equal fuel value instead of 
equal weight as in the foregoing paragraph. One hundred 
Calories is the unit chosen. The weight of a food which, 
when "burned" in the body, will produce one hundred Calories 
is the desired data. This weight is termed a standard 
portion or a 100-Calorie portion (see Figures 83 and 84). 

From the previous work, it is a simple matter to compute 
in ounces the quantity of food materials which will yield 
100 Calories* 


If 1 ounce of fiour yields 100.98 Calories and x represents 
the number of ounces of flour which will yield 100 Calories, 

then - = or X = 0.99, the number of ounces of flour 

1 100.98 

which yield 100 Calories, i.e. a 100-Calorie portion of flour. 

If 1 ounce of butter yields 217.88 Calories and x represents 

the number of ounces of butter which will yield 100 Calories, 

which yield 100 Calories, i.e. a 100-Calorie portion of butter. 

FiauRE 84. — IOO-Calorie Portions of Foods. 
a, banana ; b, butter ; c, eggs ; d, meat ; e, bread. 

If 1 ounce of sugar yields 113 Calories and x represents 
the number of ounces of sugar which will yield 100 Calories, 
then -=. — or a; =0.88, the numberof ounces of sugar which 

will yield 100 Calories, i.e. a IOO-Calorie portion of sugar. 

How the Fuel Value of a Combination of Food Material is 

Measured. — It is possible to compute the fuel value of a 


food that is made up of several food materiab. To do this 
one must know or find : 

(a) Recipe for food. 

(b) Weight and measure of combustible food materials. 

(c) Number of Calories yielded by one ounce of each of 
the combustible foodstuffs. 

The recipe for one loaf of bread is (see p. 406) : 

1 cupful water i tablespoonf ul butter 

1 teaspoonf ul salt i cake compressed yeast 

1 teaspoonful sugar J cupful water 

3J cupfuls flour 

By weighing and measuring one finds : 

1 pound sugar measures 2 cupfuls 
1 pound butter measures 2 cupfuls 
1 pound flour measures 4 cupfuls 


1 teaspoonful sugar weighs 0.16 ounce 
J tablespoonful butter weighs 0.25 ounce 
3J cupfuls flour weigh 14.0 ounces 

(From data of How the Fuel Value of a Food Material is 
Measured (p. 354).) 

1 teaspoonful sugar yields (113X0.16 = ) 18.08 Calories 

i tablespoonful butter yields (217.88X0.25 = ) 54.47 Calories 

3} cupfuls flour yield (100.98X14=) 1413.72 Calories 

1 loaf of bread yields (18.08+54.47-1-1413.72 = ) 1486.27 Calories 

For the practical method of calculating diet (which is 
more fully treated on p. 393), it is convenient to have the 
100-Calorie portion of a recipe, or a " made " food. 

The 100-Calorie portion of bread is estimated from the 
result above in the following manner : 

Since 1486.27 Calories are yielded by one loaf of homemade 


bread, then 100 Calories are yielded by (100-M486.27 = ) 
.06 or 6 per cent of a loaf of homemade bread; hence, -j^^ 
(6%) or 1 slice of homemade bread yields 100 Calories. 


Find the number of Calories produced by one ounce of nulk. 

Find the number of Calories produced by one oimce of egg. 

Weigh out 100-CaIorie portions of flour, butter, and sugar. 

Measure these quantities, using a cup for the flour, a tablespoon 
for the butter, and a teaspoon for the sugar. 

Compute 100-Calorie portions of milk and the edible portion of 
eggs, then weigh these portions. 

Measure this portion of nulk in a cup. How many eggs make a 
standard portion ? 

Why are water, salt, and yeast not considered when the fuel value 
is computed? 

Compute the fuel value of 1 pint of Soft Custard (for data see 
p. 179). 

Find the 100-Calorie portion of Soft Custard. 

Note. — Forms A and B given on the following pages will be 
found convenient in recording the results of these calculations. 

LESSON cxvn 

Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner 

Plan a plain dinner. * Use seasonable foods. Follow the 
suggestions given in Lesson CV (p. 318). Plan the menu 
so that the cost of the materials used does not exceed 25 cents 
per person. Analyze the menu and see that it meets the 
requirements stated in Lesson CV. 

Cook and serve the dinner. Follow the English or family 
style of serving (see p. 122). Serve the meal without a maid. 

1 See footnote, p. 327. 


(^ e flu 



K ^h 



















ii 1 



1 ^ 



O V 






= ? 









s *• 

1 ^ 
1 ^ 


















■ ■ 














Cost of 

Given Welglit 

of Food 












>. S 










1 ^ 1 







1 1 


1 g ! 



s! i 


^ 1 £ 

1 1 i 


^ o< ^ 

u *3 I 

^ ° 1 






S 9 8 

o i • 



s 1 1 

o 5 J 





1 i ^ 

•e & 1i 


1 1 S 











■ ■ 






? J 









Percent of Total Caloriec 
by Calories derived front 



LESSON cxvra 

Review: Meal Cooking 


Cereal Griddle Cakes Butterscotch Apples 

Fruit Sirup cfr Gingerbread 

Coffee Tea 

See Lesson XIV, p. 68, regarding suggestions for the prep- 
aration of the lesson. 


Hoio: Projects ^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Prepare a quick bread 
such as Popovers or Gingerbread in your home at least once 
a week. 

If griddle cakes are served in your home, prepare cakes at 
least once a week. 

Calculate the cost of these breads. 

Suggested Aims : 

(1) To use various leavens in quick breads. To compare 
results secured by using sweet milk or water with baking 
powder, and sour milk with baking soda, or sour milk with 
baking soda and baking powder. 

(2) To use different liquids in Gingerbread, viz., sour 
milk, water, sweet milk. To compare results obtained by the 
use of each. 

^ See Lesson IX, p. 51. 



Fine and Coarse Flours — Muffins 

Differences in Wheat Flours. — Examine white flour, whole 
wheat flour, and graham flour. Notice the difference in 
color, grittiness, and quantity of bran (cellulose). 

As has been mentioned before, all cereab or grains have 
an outer hard covering of cellulose (see Celltdose, p. 80). 
Cereals also contain a germ from which the young plant 
springs. In the preparation of fine flours, the germ and 
most of the cellulose covering are removed. Whole wheat 
(erroneously named) has part of the outer covering 
removed. Graham^ flour, properly made, contains all the 
materiab of the wheat grain. The germ is rich in fat, 
protein, and ash. The outer part, called bran, contains 
more ash, fat, and protein than does the center of the grain. 
Hence with the removal of the germ and bran, much of the 
protein and ash is lost (see Figure 85, p. 364). However, 
much graham flour is a mixture of inferior flour and bran. 

The Milling of Flour. — In the milling of fine fiour, the 
wheat kemeb are passed through a series of rollers and 
sifters that crush the wheat and separate the bran from the 
other materials. The greater the number of times the fiour 

I Graham flour is so called because Dr. Sylvester Graham advocated 
the use of the entire grain and devised a method of preparing it. 




is subjected to the rolling and sifting process, the more 
thoroughly are the parts of the grain separated and the 
more finely are they crushed. When the separation is com- 
plete, the resulting fine flour consists almost entirely of the 
center of the crushed grains (called middlings). Flour made 

with fewer rollings and siftings con- 
tains more of the outer coats. In 
general, the term patent is applied to 
flour made from the middlings. The 
flour containing more of the outer 
coats is called baker^s or family flour. 
Patent flour contains more starch 
than does baker's flour while baker's 
flour contains more protein than does 
patent flour. The terms patent and 
balcer's vary in meaning, however, in 
different localities. 

Value of Coarse Flour. — Analyses 
show that graham and whole wheat 
flours contain more protein and ash 
than fine white flour. So it would 
From MaineAo^icuuurai Experi- sccm that breads made from these 

meiu Station BvUetin No. 103. n » • i 11 

„^ , coarser flours furnish more body- 

FlGURE 85. — LONGITUDI- , .,,. a. • 1 T* ^ • a.* 

NAL Section of Wheat buildmg material. But mvestiga- 
Grain Showing Bran tions have shown that the protein 
p''*^\'inter'^^^^/^°"^^ contained in the coarse flours is not 
AN^GERM(b^Vof|^rin)'. entirely assimilated and that about 

the same quantity of protein is di- 
gested and absorbed from fine as from coarse flours. 

The coarser grain products, however, have more available 
ash than the fine flours. Indeed, experiments show that the 
bran of coarse cereals is a valuable source of ash^ and that 

* See " Chemistry of Food and Nutrition," Second Edition, H. C. Sher- 
man, p. 306, "Grain Products," and p. 308. 


whole wheat flour is a more complete food than fine or bolted 
wheat flour. ^ Doubtless, for many persons, whole wheat 
foods are more beneficial than fine flour products. 

Per Cent of Nutrients ; Nutritive Values. — The per cent of 
nutrients in a food does not always indicate the quantity of 
nourishment it will yield. The nutrient must be in a con- 
dition to be absorbed. Wheat grains contain as much pro- 
tein when whole as when ground into meal, yet uncooked 
whole wheat grains yield little nourishment to the body. 
They pass through the system with much nutriment unex- 
tracted. Even if the unbroken grains are thoroughly cooked, 
they will not furnish as much nourishment to the body as 
they will when in the form of meal. 

In the consideration of nutritive value, the personal factor 
enters, for some persons assimilate food much more easily 
or completely than others. In sunmiing up what has been 
said, it will be seen that three factors determine the nutritive 
value of a food : (a) per cent of nutrients, (6) form of nu- 
trients, and (c) personal digestive characteristics. 

Drop Batters. — All batters can be stirred with a spoon. 
Drop batters are somewhat stiffer than pour batters. They 
contain, approximately, two parts of flour to one part of mois^ 
ture. Compare the Plain Muffin recipe below with that for 
Popovers (see p. 333). Note how the recipes differ in the 
quantity of flour used. Why do muffins contain baking 
powder, while popovers do not? Muffin mixture is a typi- 
cal drop batter. 


2 cupfuLs flour 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls sugar 

Si teaspoonfuls baking powder 1 egg 
i teaspoonf ul salt 1 cupful milk 

2 tablespoonfuls fat 

1 See " The Newer Knowledge of Nutrition," E. V. McCollum, p. 140. 


Break the egg into a mixing bowl, beat it. Add the milk 
to it. Melt the fat, add it to the egg mixture. 

Measure the dry ingredients thoroughly. Add them 
(through a sifter) to the other ingredients. Mix quickly and 
thoroughly, and drop into buttered muffin pans. Bake in a 
hot oven from 25 to 30 minutes. 

WhoU wheat flour may be substituted for fine white flour. 

For graham muffins, use 1 cupful of fine white flour and 1 cupful 
of graham flour. 

li cupfuls of sour milk may be used instead of 1 cupful of sweet 
milk. If this substitution is made, use \ teaspoonful baking soda 
and decrease the baking powder to 2 teaspoonfuls. 

Molasses may be substituted for sugar. 


Account for the quantity of baking powder in the muffin recipes. 
What determines the quantity of baking powder? 

Write a recipe for muffins, using sour cream instead of milk. 
What ingredients may be .decreased in quantity if sour cream is used ? 

If all the cups in the muffin pan are not filled with batter, how 
should the empty cups be protected while in the oven? 

How many muffins will the recipes above make? 

From U. S. Department of Agriculture^ Bulletin No. 28, tabulate 
the percentage composition of patent wheat flour, of graham flour, 
and of " entire " wheat flour. Which contains the most protein and 
ash? Which probably yields the most protein to the body? Ac- 
count for the discrepancy (see Value of Coarse Flour j p. 364). 

Tabulate the percentage composition of baker's flour and of a high 
grade of wheat flour (patent roller process). Which contains the 
more protein? Which, the more carbohydrates? 

What is the weight of a barrel of flour? Of an ordinary sack of 

What is the present price per sack of baker's and of high-grade 
patent flour? 

How many cupfuls in a pound of flour? 

In what quantity are whole wheat flour and graham flour usually 
purchased for home use? What is the price per pound of each? 



Comparison of Wheat and Other Grains — Muffins 

Substituting Other Cereals for Wheat Flour. — A resource- 
ful worker in foods is able to follow a standard recipe and 
make such substitutions as her available materials permit. 
Such ability is most desirable. It enables one to work more 
independently, to produce more varied foods, and to utilize 
all materials, allowing none to waste. 

During the wheat shortage of the World War, many valu- 
able investigations were made regarding the substitution of 
other grains for wheat flour. It was found that the substitU" 
Hon should he based upon the relative weights of wheat flour 
and other flours or meals rather than upon their relative 

By comparing the weight of 1 cupful of wheat pastry flour 
with the same quantity of its substitutes, the following data 
have been obtained. 

For 1 cupful of wheat flour substitute : 

li cupfuls barley flour 1} cupfuls rolled oats, ground 
{ cupful buckwheat flour in food chopper 

H cupfuls fine corn-meal } cupful tapioca flour 

1 scant cupful peanut flour i cupful soy-bean flour 

i cupful rice flour } cupful potato flour 

1} cupfuls rolled oats 1 cupful rye flour 

Although yeast breads are not so satisfactory if made entirely 
of a grain other than wheat, quick breads of desirable grain 
and texture may be wxide withovi wheat. It has been found, 
however, that a combination of two or more wheat substitutes 
gives more satisfactory results than a single substitute. 

When no wheat is used in quick breads, the following 
combinations of substitutes are suggested by the United 
States Department of Agriculture, States Relation Service. 


Rolled oats (ground) or 
Barley flour or 
Buckwheat flour or 
Peanut flour or 
Soy-bean flour 



Com flour or 
Corn-meal or 
Rice flour or 
Potato flour or 
Sweet potato flour 

Since the wheat substitutes contain little or none of the 
kind of protein which when moistened forms a sticky and 
elastic substance, an increase in the number of eggs in quick 
breads containing no wheat produces a satisfactory tex- 
ture. The albumin of eggs aids in holding the materials 

By scalding certain of the wheat substitutes before add- 
ing them to other ingredients, a sticky starch paste is formed. 
This also aids in binding materials together. 

When using a wheat substitute instead of wheat (as sug- 
gested in Quantity of Baking Powder in Quick Breads, p. 340) 
it is advisable to increase the quantity of baking powder, — 
i teaspoonful for each cupful of the substitute used. Thus, 
if a muffin recipe calls for 3^ teaspoonfuls of baking powder 
and 2 cupfuls of com flour are substituted for wheat, the 
quantity of baking powder should be increased to 4| tea- 

Why Wheat is Popular. — In this country, wheat is doubt- 
less the most used of all grains. Its white or creamy color 
and mild flavor which blends well with that of many foods 
account in part for its popularity. From a culinary stand- 
point, wheat flour is more satisfactory to use than any other 
kind. It produces breads of pleasing texture, — tender but 
firm enough to hold their shape. Yeast breads made of wheat 
flour are larger than those made with other cereals. 

Although wheat is generally used, its food value is not su- 
perior to that of other grains. It is doubtless because we 
are " used to " wheat that we have favored it more than other 


Comparing Wheat with Other Grains. — Make a compara- 
tive study of the composition of the following : 

Wheat Flour and Corn-meal, — From U, S. Department of 
Agriculture, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate the percentage com- 
position of wheat flour and of corn-meal. Which contains 
the more fat? Which contains the more ash? 

Corn-meal does not contain as much protein as does wheat. 
The protein in corn-meal differs from that in wheat ; it does 
not have the elastic property of the protein of wheat. It is 
this property which makes the latter so satisfactory in 
bread making. For this reason, it is always best to com- 
bine corn-meal with wheat flour or some other cereal in pre- 
paring corn breads. 

It should be noted that corn-meal contains more fat than 
wheat flour, and it compares favorably in digestibility with 
wheat flour. There is a difference in flavor, but no difference 
in the nutritive value of .yellow and of white corn-meal. 

Wheat Flour and Oatmeal. — From U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate the percentage com- 
position of wheat flour and of oatmeal. Which contains the 
more protein, fat, and ash ? Which contains the more car- 
bohydrates ? 

Oatmeal contains more protein, fat, and ash than any of the 
cereab commonly used. It is a very tough cereal and re- 
quires long cooking in order to make it palatable. 

Wheat Flour and Rice, — From .U, S, Department of Agri- 
culture, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate the percentage composition 
of wheat flour (all analyses, average). Now tabulate the 
percentage composition of rice (average). Which contains 
the more carbohydrates ? Which, the more protein and 

Polished rice contains the least ash and protein of all the 
common cereals. It is also deficient in fat in comparison with 
the other cereals. 


Unpolished rice, however, contains more than twice as 
much ash as the polished cereal. It also contains more fat 
and protein. 1 Hence it compares favorably with the composi- 
tion of other grains. 

Wheat Flour, Barley, Buckwheat, and Rye. — From U, S. 
Department of Agriculiure, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate the 
percentage composition of wheat flour, of barley, of buck- 
wheat, and of rye. Note the quantity of fat in barley and 
in buckwheat, and the small amount of protein in buck- 
wheat and in rye. 


1} cupfuls flour \ teaspoonful salt 

I cupful com-meal 1 egg 

4 teaspoonfuls baking powder 1^ cupfuls milk 

1 to 2 tablespoonf uls sugar 2 tablespoonf uls fat 

Mix as plain muffins (see p. 365), and bake in oiled muffin 
tins 25 to 30 minutes. 
Rye meal may be substituted for corn-meal in this recipe. 


1} cupfuls flour 1 egg 

3} teaspoonfuls baking powder J cupful milk 

2 tablespoonfuls sugar i cupful cooked rice 
i teaspoonful salt 2 tablespoonfuls fat 

Beat the egg ; add the milk and the cooked rice. Add 
the dry ingredients (through a sifter) to the egg mixture; 
melt the fat ; add it to the flour mixture. Mix quickly and 
thoroughly, and bake in buttered muffin tins, as for plain 


Use the recipe for Plain Muffins given on p. 365, ,as 
a basic rule. Substitute 1 cupful rolled oats for 1 cupful of 

1 Composition of unpolished rice : protein, 8.02% ; fat, 1.96% ; carbo- 
hydrates, 76.98%; ash, 1.15%. 


wheat flour. Scald the milk, pour it over the rolled oats. 
Let the mixture stand for about i hour or until it is cool. 
Then add the other ingredients and mix as plain muffins. 
Use 4 teaspoonfuls of baking powder instead of 3^ tea- 


Explain why corn-meal is not used alone for corn-meal muffins 
(see Wheat Flour and Com-mealj p. 369). 

Compare the quantity of milk used in Rice Muffins with that 
used in Plain Muffins. Account for the difference. 

From U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate 
the percentage composition of boiled rice. Compare with the 
composition of the uncooked food. How much nourishment is lost 
by boihng? 

By what method can rice be cooked to retain the most nourish- 

Explain why the per cent of nutrients in a food does not always in- 
dicate the quantity of nourishment that the nutrients 3deld to the 
body (see Per Cent of Nutrients; Nutritive Values, p. 365). 


Baking Powder Loaf Breads 


Quick Loaf Breads. — The making of yeast bread requires 
kneading and covers a considerable period of time. A loaf 
of bread leavened with baking powder or other leavens suit- 
able for quick breads may be made in a short time. The 
ingredients used for such a loaf, and the method of mixing 
it are about the same as for muffins. Baking the mixture in 
a bread pan rather than in muffin pans saves some effort in 
pouring the batter in the pan and in washing them. For 
those whose time is limited for food preparation, the making 
of baking powder loaf breads is recommended. 

If it is necessary or desirable to use meals or flours other 
than wheat, baking powder loaf breads are advisable. Such 


grains can be used successfully in greater quantity (i.e. with 
the addition of little or no wheat flour) in quick breads than 
in yeast breads. 

A quick bread baked in a loaf should be placed in a moder- 
ate oven, — about 300° F. Moderate heat is applied so that 
the loaf will rise sufficiently before a crust is formed. After 
10 or 15 minutes, the temperature of the oven should be in- 
creased. Some secure desirable results by allowing a loaf of 
quick bread to stand 20 minutes before placing it in the oven. 
Such a procedure is unnecessary if the loaf is placed in an 
oven of proper temperature. 



3 cupfuls whole wheat flour 1^ teaspoonfuls salt 

3 tablespoonfuls sugar 1 egg 

2i teaspoonfuls baking powder IJ cupfuls sour milk 

i teaspoonful baking soda 3 tablespoonfuls fat 

Mix these ingredients in the same way as Plain Muffins (see 
p. 265). Pour into an oiled bread pan. Bake in a moderate 
oven 45 to 60 minutes. 

The egg may be omitted. If this is done, increase the baking 
powder to 3i teaspoonfuls. 

Peanut Bread may be made by adding 1 cupful chopped peanuts. 
If commercial salted peanuts are used, decrease the salt to i tea- 


2i cupfuls whole wheat flour h cupful prunes (measured 
i cupful sugar before soaking and cooking) 

5J teaspoonfuls baking powder 1 cupful Uquid (prune water 
1 teaspoonful salt and milk) 

1 egg 2 tablespoonfuls fat 

Wash the prunes, soak, and cook them as directed on p. 76. 
Drain, stone, and cut in pieces or chop them. 


Break an egg in the mixing bowl. Beat it and add the 
chopped prunes. Put the water drained from the prunes in a 
measuring cup and fill up the latter with milk. Add this 
liquid to the egg and prune mixture. Then proceed as in 
making Plain Muffins, see p. 265. Turn into an oiled bread 
pan and bake in a moderate Oven from 45 to 60 minutes. 

Raisins or dates may be used instead of prunes. These fruits may 
be cooked before adding to the other ingredients or they may be used 
uncooked. If the latter plan is followed, use IJ cupfuls milk instead 
of 1 cupful liquid. 


Write a recipe for Prune Baking Powder Bread in which no eggs 
are used. 

Write a recipe for Raisin Baking Powder Bread in which uncooked 
raisins are used, and sour milk is substituted for sweet milk. 

Use the recipe for Whole Wheat Baking Powder Bread as a basis, 
and write a recipe for a loaf of quick bread in which fine white flour 
is used. Decrease the sour milk to 1^ cupfuls. If the latter change 
is made, what ingredients will also require changing in quantity? 


Eggs for Quick Breads — Cream Puffs 

Dried Eggs. — Eggs are a most valuable food, but they are 
extremely high in price. In the packing and transportation 
of eggs, many are broken. To save these cracked eggs, 
methods of drying them have been devised. If dried or des- 
iccated eggs are cooked or used in cooked foods, they are not 
injurious. Their food value is high. 

It has been found ^ that desiccated eggs can be used success- 
fully in custards, quick breads, cakes, and salad dressings. 

* See Journal of Home Economics, Vol. XI, p. 108 (March, 1919), 
**The Use of Desiccated Eggs," by Lois Lhamon. 


Use 1 slightly rounded tablespoonfid of dried egg for each egg 
desired. To this amount of powder, add 3 tahlespoonftds of 
water. Cover the mixture and allow to stand from 30 to 45 
minutes, stirring occasionally. A solution is thus obtained, 
which resembles eggs in which the whites and yolks have been 
beaten together. 

Desiccated eggs should not be confused with the so-called 
egg-substitute powders. The latter contain little and some- 
times no dried egg. These usually are composed of starch, 
coloring material, with a little nitrogenous material in the 
form of gelatine, casein, or albumin. Their food value can- 
not be compared with that of eggs. For the amount of nutri- 
ment contained in egg-substitute powders, their price is high. 

The Preparation of Eggs for Delicate Quick Breads. — In 

all the quick bread mixtures given thus far, the whites and 
yolks of eggs were beaten together. It was shown in Ex- 
periments 41 and 43 (p. 160) that more air could be inclosed 
in an egg mixture when the white and yolk were beaten 
separately. It is well, therefore, to beat each part of an egg 
separately when a delicate bread is desired. 

The reason that meringues, unless cooked, fall after a time, 
is because some of the inclosed air has escaped. From this 
it is apparent why eggs used in quick breads should not be 
beaten until ready for use. 

It is possible, also, by much stirring and careless mixing, 
to lose some of the air inclosed in a beaten egg white. 
When the egg is to be separated, the method of cutting and 
folding, as used in Foamy Omelet (see p. 160), should be 
used for mixing the egg whites with the other ingredients 
of a quick bread. 

Cream Puff Batter. — The flour of cream puff mixture is 
usually cooked before baking so that a paste is formed. 
When the mixture containing the flour paste is dropped on a 
flat surface, it does not spread to a great extent and holds its 


shape. It is possible, however, to mix Cream Puffs in the 
same manner as Popovers (see p. 333). If this method is 
followed and uncooked flour is added to the batter, it becomes 
necessary to bake the cream puff mixture in mufEn tins or 
gem pans. 

The method of leavening Cream Puffs is similar to that 
used in leavening Popovers, i.e. by means of steam and air 
inclosed in beaten eggs. 


} cupful water { cupful flour 

3 tablespoonfuls vegetable oil i teaspoonf ul salt 

1 tablespoonful butter 2 eggs 

Mix the water and fat and heat the mixture until the water 
boils. Add all of the flour and salt and mix thoroughly. Stir 
and cook until the ingredients are well blended and the paste 
does not stick to the sides of the pan. (Care should be taken 
not to cook the mixture too long. If the fat separates from 
the other ingredients, the puffs will not be successful.) 
While the mixture is hot, add the eggs, unbeaten, one at a 
time. Beat until thoroughly mixed. Drop by tablespoon- 
fuls on an oiled baking-sheet, and bake in a moderate oven 
from 25 to 30 minutes. When cool slit one side open and fill 
with Cream or Chocolate Filling or Whipped Cream. 

Cream Puffs may also be filled with creamed chicken or veal, or 
a salad mixture. 


i cupful flour i tablespoonful butter 

2 cupful sugar 1 egg 

2 cupf uls scalded milk i teaspoonful salt 

1 teaspoonful vanilla 

Mix the flour and sugar together. Slowly add the hot 
milk. Pour the mixture into a double boiler and cook for 


20 minutes. Remove from heat. Beat the egg, add the 
egg and butter to the flour and milk mixture. Return to 
the fire and cook over water until the egg is coagulated ; then 
add the salt. Cool, and add flavoring. 

For economy the butter may be omitted. 

Chocolate FiUing may be made by following the recipe for Cream 
Filling, increasing the sugar to 1 cupful and adding a paste made by 
cooking 1 square (or ounce) of chocolate with i cupful of water as 
directed in Chocolate Corn-starch Pudding (see p. 100). 


Note the quantity of flour and water used in cream puff mixture. 
What kind of batter do these quantities of flour and moisture 
usually make? How do you account for the consistency of the 
cream puff batter when it is ready to bake? 

From the difference in the methods of preparing Cream Puffs and 
Popovers before baking, explain the difference in the stiffness of the 

By what gas is the mixture lightened ? By what means is this gas 
introduced into the mixture? 

Why is it necessary to bake the mixture for so long a time? 

What is the result of baking this mixture for too short a time? 

In Cream Filling, what is the purpose of mixing the flour and 
sugar before cookmg (see Experiment 24, p. 99) ? 

Give two reasons for cooking this mixture in the double boiler, 
rather than directly over the flame. 

How long a time does it take to thicken the flour mixture? Why 
is it necessary to cook it for 20 minutes? 

What is the use of eggs in the filling? Why are they not cooked 
as long as the flour mixture? 

Determine the number of Cream Puffs this recipe will make. 

From U. S. Department of AgricuUure, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate 
the percentage composition of the edible portions of whole eggs (see 
Figure 75, p. 311), of egg yolk, and of egg white. Compare the last two. 
Which contains the more fat? Which contains the more protein? 
Which contains the more water ? Which contains the more nutriment ? 

Tabulate the percentage composition of milk (see Figure 64, 
p. 284). 




Food Requirement 

Daily Energy Requirement. — One hears much concerning 
working efficiency, i,e. the ability to do the maximum amount 
of work of the highest type with a minimum waste of effort. 
There is no doubt that the kind and quantity of food that 
an individual consumes has much to do with his working 
efficiency, and that it is consequently a matter worthy of 
serious consideration. Enough gasoline is used in an auto- 
mobile so that there is produced sufficient p>ower to move 
the car at the desired speed. So sufficient food should be 
used by the individual that enough energy be supplied to 
his body for its greatest usefulness. 

Since foods furnish the body with energy, the energy which 
the body spends in doing its work is a measure of the fuel food 
needed. If the body requires a certain amount of energy for 
its needs, this energy, measured in Calories, can be supplied 
by a definite quantity of combustible food. Hence, daily 
energy requirements can be measured in Calories. 

Scientists have done much experimenting and investigat- 
ing concerning the quantity of food that individuals re- 
quire. They have concluded that many factors may be 
taken into consideration in determining daily food require- 
ments or dietary standards. Some of these factors are : 
(1) weight; (2) occupation; (3) age. 

(1) Relation of Weight, Size, and Shape to Daily Energy 
Requirement — In general the quantity of food required 
increases with the size of an individual but not at the same 
rate as the body weight increases. Two persons may be 
equal in weight, yet very different in height and shape. A 
tall, slender person requires more food than a short, fleshy 


person of the same weight. For this reason, size and shape 
rather than weight are found more accurate in computing 
the daily food requirement. However, for practical pur- 
poses, energy requirement is generally based upon body 

(2) Relation of Occupation to Daily Energy Requirement, — 
From the previous consideration of energy, it is obvious 
that muscular exercise, even though very slight, requires 
some expenditure of energy. It has been found that, even 
during sleep and rest, energy is required to carry on the 
functions of the body (such as the beating of the heart, 
etc.). Since the energy for both the voluntary and invol- 
untary activities of the body is furnished by the fuel 
foods, it is clear that one's occupation is an important factor 
in determining the kind and quantity of food an individual 
should use. 

The man who is doing hard physical work needs more 
food than the man who sits quietly at his employment. 

The following table, showing the energy required for 
different conditions of aptivity, has been formulated by 
scientists : * 

Man sleeping requires 65 Calories per hour 

Man sitting at rest requires 100 Calories per hour 

Man at light muscular exercise requires . . 170 Calories per hour 

Man at active muscular exercise requires . 290 Calories per hour 

Man at severe muscular exercise requires . 450 Calories per hour 

Man at very severe muscular exercise requires 600 Calories per hour 

From these data, it is possible to compute the dietaries 
of people of different occupations. For example, the 
energy requirement for a bookkeeper (male) leading an 
inactive muscular life is : 

1 Atwater and Benedict, United States Department of Agriculture, 
Yearbook 1904, p. 215. 


8 hours sleep (65 Calories per hour) 520 Calories 

9 hours work at desk (100 Calories per hour) . . . 900 Calories 
4 hours sitting at rest and reading (100 Calories per 

hour) 400 Calories 

3 hours walking (170 Calories per hour) 510 Calories 

2330 Calories 

The energy requirement for a man of severe muscular 
activity, such as excavating, is : 

8 hours sleep (65 Calories per hour) 520 Calories 

8 hours excavating (450 Calories per hour) .... 3600 Calories 

1 hour walking (170 Calories per hour) 170 Calories 

7 hours sitting at rest (100 Calories per hour) . . . 700 Calories 

4990 Calories 

Another authority ^ gives these data pertaining to men 
engaged in muscular work : 

Shoemaker requires 2001-2400 Calories per day 

Weaver requires . ....... 2401-2700 Calories per day 

Carpenter or mason requires . . . 2701-3200 Calories per day 

Farm laborer requires 3201-4100 Calories per day 

Excavator requires . 4101-5000 Calories per day 

Lumberman requires .... 5000 or more Calories per day 

The following data regarding the energy requirements of 
the average woman in some of her common occupations 
have been formulated ^ : 

At rest 1600-1800 Calories per day 

Sedentary occupations 2000-2200 Calories per day 

Milliners Teachers 
Bookkeepers Seamstresses 
Stenographers Machine operatives 
Occupations involving standing, walk- 
ing, or manual labor 2200-2500 Calories per day 

Cooks in family groups Chamber maids 

General housekeepers Waitresses 

Occupations developing muscular 

strength 2500-3000 Calories per day 

Laundresses Cooks for large groups 

1 " Textbook of Physiology," p. 141, Tigerstedt. 

* See "Feeding the Family," p. 76, by Mary Swartz Rose, Ph.D. 


(3) Relation of Age to Daily Energy Requirement — Young 
children, i.e. those under eight or nine years of age, do not 
require as much food as adults. The food requirement 
of a child and of an adult is not proportional to weight, how- 
ever. In proportion to his weight a child requires more 
food than an adult. The growing child needs food, not 
only to give energy to the body and rebuild tissue, but to 
build new tissue. An aged person needs less food to 
build new tissue. Furthermore, since an old person's 
strength is somewhat lessened, he needs less food to carry 
on the activities of the body. Hence, the aged person 
requires less food than the adult of middle life. The 
following table ^ gives the differences in energy requirement 
of children from one to seventeen years inclusive. It is 
thought that after the age of seventeen, food requirement 
will depend quite as much upon occupation as upon age. 
Hence, the foregoing tables can be used to estimate energy 
requirement for all ages abovQ seventeen : 

Children of 1-2 years inclusive . 
Children of 2-5 years inclusive . 
Children of 6-9 years inclusive . 
Girls of 10-13 years inclusive 
Boj^ of 10-13 years inclusive . 
Girls of 14^17 years inclusive 
Boys of 14-17 years inclusive . 

1000-1200 Calories per day 
1200-1500 Calories per day 
1400-2000 Calories per day 
1800-2400 Calories per day 
2300-3000 Calories per day 
2200-2600 Calories per day 
2800-4000 Calories per day 

The fact that the energy requirement of the boy from 10 
to 17 years is greater than that of the girl of equal age is due 
probably to the greater restlessness or muscular activity of 
the boy. 

Daily Protein Requirement. — If a person's energy require- 
ment were 2500 Calories, sufficient energy might be supplied 
by using butter or beef steak for a day's ration. Yet this 

1 From "Chemistry of Food and Nutrition," Second Edition, by 
Henry C. Sherman, Ph.D., p. 197. 


would be extremely unpalatable and would not meet the 
needs of the body. The body should be nourished by ail 
the combustible foodstuffs, — carbohydrates, fat, and 
protein. Now the question arises: How many of the re- 
quired Calories shall be supplied by each of these foodstuffs ? 
Too much or too little protein is often harmful and pro- 
duces serious results. As mentioned previously, too much 
protein may cause intestinal disturbances, and an overtaxing 
of the excretory organs. On the other hand, the use of too 
little protein may produce imperfect nourishment. Concern- 
ing the quantity of protein used in diet, there has been much 
difference of opinion. Atwater, an American authority, 
thought that there should be a generous supply, i.e. a sur- 
plus of protein, to supply the demands of body-building. 
Chittenden, another American authority, believes in just 
enough protein to meet the demands of the body. How- 
ever, the use of sufficient protein food to produce from ten 
to fifteen per cent of the total Calories has been found both 
practical and satisfactory. 

Daily Carbohydrate and Fat Requirement. — Although pro- 
tein may furnish the body with energy, it should not serve as 
the principal source of fuel. Its more essential function is 
to help build the body. If carbohydrates and fat are present 
with protein, the former supply energy and allow the protein 
to perform its more important function of body-building. 
There should always be enough carbohydrates and fat to 
furnish energy to the body, so that the protein can be used 
chiefly for body-building. In the growing period of youth 
or after a wasting disease, it might seem that " flesh " 
could be " put on " by increasing the quantity of body- 
building food. But such is not the case. The most effective 
work in building the body can be accomplished by using a 
normal amount of food rich in protein and a generous supply 
of foods rich in ash, carbohydrates, fat, and vitamines. With 


such a combination, the protein can be used to best advan- 
tage for body-building. 

For practical purposes, the following general statement 
concerning the carbohydrates and fat requirement is believed 
to be adequate : If the total Calories and the number of Calo- 
ries yielded by protein meet the requirement of a dietary stand- 
ard and the food composing the diet is varied in composition^ 
the carbohydrates and fat will exist in satisfactory proportion. 

Daily Ash Requirement. — Since ash is not a combustible 
foodstuff, it cannot be included in the foodstuffs whose 
energy requirement can be measured. Although ash exists 
in small quantity in food, the use of certain ash con- 
stituents is considered as necessary as the use of protein. 
A diet may meet the total energy, the protein, the carbohy- 
drate, and the fat requirements, yet may be lacking in certain 
essential mineral materials. It is especially necessary to 
include food containing phosphorus, iron, and calcium in 
one's diet (see pp. 320 to 322). 

The Appetite and Food Requirement. — The appetite is 
the most common measure of daily food requirement. If one 
relies upon his appetite as an index of the quantity of food 
he should consume, and if his health and weight remain nor- 
mal, the appetite may serve as a guide for daily food re- 
quirement. But one may be a little over weight or under 
weight, and yet have normal body functions. 

There can be no doubt, however, that the whims of the 
appetite often lead to unwise selection of food. A study of 
food composition is absolutely essential in overcoming this 
fault. Lack of energy or loss of flesh may be due to im- 
proper feeding. If the needs of the body and the kind and 
quantity of food that will supply these needs are understood 
by the home-keeper, she may do much in maintaining the 
health, happiness, and usefulness of the members of the 



Weight as an Index to Proper Nourishment. — It has 
been found that the diet of an individual has a most decided 
effect upon his weight. Dr. Thomas D. Wood has prepared 
























































































































5 to 8 6 o». 14 to 16 8 oz. 

8 to 11 8 oa. 16 to 18 4 oa. 

11 to 14 12 o». 

Weights and measures should be taken without shoes and in only the 

usual indoor clothes. 

156 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Courtesy of Child Health Organization. Prepared by Dr. Thomas D. Wood. 



tables showing the normal height and weight of girls and boys 
of various ages. These tables are most valuable in deter- 
mining whether or not a girl or boy is of the proper weight 
for his height. If the weight of a girl or boy is less than it 
should be, he is likely to be malnourished. 






































































































• • 














■ • • • 















5 to 8 6 oz. 

8 to 12 8 OB. 


12 to 16 16 OB. 

16 to 18 8 OB. 

Courtesy of Child Health Organization. Prepared by Dr. Thomas D. Wood. 


Dr. Wood's tables also indicate the proper rate of increase 
in weight. The rate of increase in weight is thought to be 
quite as important as is the correct proportion between 
weight and height. The use of scales in the home and school 
is to be recommended. They furnish a means of determining 
whether the proper amount is being eaten. 


Compute (from the table on p. 378) the energy requirement of at 
least two members of your family. Compute your own energy re- 
quirement from this table. 

Determine your height and weight. How does your weight com- 
pare with the normal weight given in the table for one of your height ? 
If you are under weight, discuss with your teacher the kind and 
quantity of food needed to increase your weight. At the end of a 
month, again determine your weight. How does the gain compare 
with that given in the table for one of your age? 


Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner 

Plan a dinner. ^ Use seasonable foods and a meat-substi- 
tute. Follow the suggestions given in Lesson CV (p. 318). 

Plan the menu so that the cost of the materials used does 
not exceed 25 cents per person. Analyze the menu and see 
that it meets the requirements stated in Lesson CV. 

Cook and serve the dinner. Follow the Russian or Com- 
promise style of serving (see p. 122). Serve the dinner with 
a maid, provided the pupils find it useful to know how to 
serve with a maid either in their own homes or in the homes 
of others. 2 

1 See footnote, p. 327. 

2 See Suggestions for Teaching (p. 3, Appendix), regarding service with 
and without a maid. 


Review — Meal Cooking 


Potato Soup 

Lettuce Salad with French Dressing 


See Lesson XIV, p. 68, regarding suggestions for the preparation 
of the lesson. 


Home Projects^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Prepare muffins, baking 
powder biscuits, or baking powder loaf breads at least twice 
a week. 

Suggested Aims : (1) To learn to work quickly. Note the 
time required to mix these quick breads. Strive to lessen the 
number of minutes each time you prepare them. 

(2) To use available materials. Use the food-materials 
you have on hand, — such as sour or sweet milk, left-over 
cooked cereals, and different kinds of flours or meals. 

^ See Lesson IX, p. 51. 


LESSON cxxvm 

Method of Mixing Fat in Quick Breads— r Drop 


Mixing Fat. — What method is used in mixing the fat in 
all batter quick breads (see previous lessons on Batters) ? 

In making quick breads, it is desirable to mix all ingredi- 
ents thoroughly. Fat is mixed in a quick bread most easily 
and thoroughly by melting it and stirring it into the other 
ingredients, provided only that the quick bread mixture is 
thin, i,e, a batter. 

When the quick bread is a stiff mixture, i.e. a dough, this 
method of mixing the fat is not considered satisfactory, al- 
though it has been found that biscuits of good quality can 
be made by adding melted fat, provided the dough is beaten 
thoroughly. Fat is usually added to doughs by working it, 
in solid form, into the dry ingredients, either with a knife 
or with the fingers. (In which method of mixing — with 
the knife or with the fingers — can the mixture be kept 
cooler? Which is the cleaner method?) If the fingers are 
used for mixing the fat, it is well to work it into the flour 
with the tips of the fingers rather than to rub the ingredi- 
ents between the palms of the hands. 

Soft Doughs. — Doughs are most easily mixed by using a 
knife instead of a spoon. A soft dough contains approxi- 



mately three parts of flour to one part of moisture. Baking 
Powder Biscuit (p. 391) is a typical soft dough mixture. 


2 cupf Ills flour i teaspoonf ul salt 

4 teaspoonf uls baking powder 2 tablespoonf uls fat 

Milk or water, about } cupful 

Mix the dry ingredients ; then work the fat into the mix- 
ture with the tips of the fingers, or cut it in thoroughly with 
a knife. With a knife mix the liquid with the dry ingredi- 
ents. The mixture is of proper consistency when it may 
be dropped from the spoon without spreading. Drop by 
spoonfuls on an oiled .pan, or into oiled muffin tins. Bake 
in a hot oven from 12 to. 15 minutes. 


Place sliced fruit — fresh, canned, or dried — in an oiled 
baking-dish. Cover the fruit with a biscuit mixture, made 
by using the ingredients in the same proportion as for Drop 
Biscuits. Two or three times as much fat as the given 
quantity may be used. Bake until the fruit is tender and 
the batter is firm and brown, usually from 15 to 30 minutes. 
Serve with cream or fruit sauce. Plain cream may be used, 
or the cream may be whipp)ed, or sweetened and flavored 
with a little nutmeg or vanilla. 


1 cupful whipped cream i cupful powdered sugar 

1 egg white J teaspoonful vanilla 

Chill the cream ; add the unbeaten egg ; then beat with 
an egg beater (for method of whipping cream, see p. 169). 
Add the sugar and vanilla. 



Explain why the fat in Drop Biscuit is not added in the same man- 
ner as in pour batters. 

If the fat is to be mixed with the dry ingredients, why rub the in- 
gredients together between the fingers rather than between the palms 
of the hands? 

Compare as to taste and appearance the biscuits made with lard 
or vegetable fat with those made with butter. 

Why should not a tin pan be used for the fruit pudding? 

Mention, at least four kinds of fruit that could be used for the 
pudding and tell how the use of some kinds of fruit would modify 
the time of baking. 

Why does the quantity of liquid given in Drop Biscuits vary 
(see Pour Battery p. 333 and Glvieny p. 408) ? 

Why is it necessary to svirround the cream with ice water while 
whipping it (see Whipping Cream, p. 169) ? 


Quantity of Fat in Quick Breads — Short Cake 

" Shortening." — The tenderness of a quick bread is an 
important consideration. It is dependent upon the quantity 
of fat in the bread. Oil and water do not mix (see Ex- 
periment 35, p. 139). Hence when much fat is used in a 
quick bread, particles of dough or batter, which contain 
both fat and moisture, do not adhere firmly. Quick bread 
containing much fat becomes tender, that is, it crumbles 

In preparing modified biscuit mixtures, — short cakes, 
fruit dumplings, etc., — in which the quantity of fat is in- 
creased, make very careful comparisons between the " rich " 
or " short " breads and those containing the standard quan- 
tity of fat. In making observations, note the following : 

(a) ease or difiiculty in removing from the pan without 


(6) tenderness or toughness, 
(c) difference in flavor. 


Make a biscuit mixture, containing two or three times the 
quantity of fat used in biscuit mixture. Place one half of 
the mixture in an oiled cake pan, then spread it with a scant 
quantity of melted butter or substitute. Add the remainder 
of the mixture and bake from 20 to 30 minutes. Remove 
from the pan, and place on a cake cooler for a few minutes. 
Split the cake open and fill with crushed and sweetened 
fruits. Place uncrushed fruits on the top, and serve with 
plain cream or Whipped Cream or Fruit Sauce ; or cover the 
cake with a meringue, garnish with whole fruit, and serve 
with a Soft Custard Sauce. 

J cupful of sugar may be added to the dry ingredients of Short 


•What general statement can you make with regard to the effect of 
increasing the fat in quick breads ? 

Knowing the change that takes place in a quick bread, when the 
quantity of fat is increased, state the effect of adding too much fat. 

What is the purpose of using melted butter or substitute in the 
Short Cake mixtvire? 

Mention some fruits, or fruit combinations, that would be palat- 
able in a Short Cake. 

How many persons can be served with a Short Cake made with 2 
cupfuls of flour? 


"Cut'' Biscuit 

Use of the Rolling Pin. — When dough is to be rolled and 
cut into biscuits, it needs to be a little stiffer than for Drop 
Biscuits. It should, however, be a soft dough. Biscuit 



dough should not be pressed down with a rolling motion^ 
but should be deftly and gently " patted " out with several 
successive " touches " with the rolling pin. 

In using the rolling pin for stifp doughs, when more pres- 
sure should be exerted, the pin should be lifted up at the 
end of each stroke. 


2 cupfuls flour i teaspoonful salt 

4 teaspoonf uls baking powder 2 tablespoonf uls fat 
Milk or water, about | cupful 

Mix as in drop biscuits, using less milk, so that the 
dough is just stiff enough to roll out. Roll gently to J 
inch thickness on a slightly floured board, and cut into 
small biscuits. If any dry flour clings to the top of the 
biscuits, moisten it with a little milk or water. Place on a 
slightly oiled pan, and bake in a hot oven from 12 to 15 
minutes. Serve hot. They may be placed on a folded nap- 
kin or doily. 


Make Baking Powder Biscuit dough. Roll until | inch 
thick and cut into pieces. Place an apple (cored and pared) 
in the center of each piece. Fold the dough over the 
fruit and bake or steam for ^ hour, or until the apples are 
soft. The dumplings may be browned in the oven after 

Rich biscuit dough or pastry (see p. 447) may be used for Apple 
Dumplings. Other fruits may be used instead of apples. 


Make a biscuit mixture, using 4 tablespoonfuls of fat 
instead of 2 tablespoonfuls, as given in the recipe for Baking 


Powder Biscuits. Gently roll to J inch thickness, and spread 
the following ingredients over it : 

1 tablespoonful butter or substitute i teaspoonf ul cinnamon 

2 tablespoon! uls sugar Fruit 

For the fruit use : 

J cupful dried currants, or 

1 cupful raisins and 2 tablespoonfuls citron, or 

2 cupfuls chopped apples 

Roll as jelly roll, then cut into pieces f inch thick and 
place (cut side down) on buttered tins. Bake in a hot oven 
15 to 30 minutes. If apples are used, serve the roll with 
cream and sugar as a dessert. If the dried fruits are used, 
serve the roll in place of a hot bread or cake. 


Compare recipes for " drop " and " cut " biscuits. How do they 

Why should biscuits be " patted " out rather than rolled out with 
the rolling pin ? 

If dry flour clings to the top of the biscuits after cutting, what is 
the result after baking? How can this be remedied? 

How can the biscuit cutter and rolling pin be prevented from 
sticking to the dough? 

Why are biscuits sometimes served on a napkin or doily ? 

Write a recipe for Baking Powder Biscuits, using 3 cupfuls of 
flour as the basis. 

How many apples of medium size are required for Apple Dump- 
lings, when 2 cupfuls of flour are used? 

Why do Apple Dumplings require a longer time for baking than 
Baking Powder Biscuits? 

How should citron be cut for use in cooking? 

If apples are to be used for the fruit of Fruit Rolls, give in order 
the measuring, the preparation, and the mixing of the materials. 



Measurement of the Fuel Value of Pood Applied 

TO Daily Food Requirement 

Practical Method of Diet Calculation. — The 100-Calorie 
portions can be used in a very practical way for computing 
the fuel value of one's daily diet. In Lesson CXVI, p. 351, 
the weights of 100-Calorie portions of flour, butter, sugar, 
etc., were determined, then these portions were weighed and 
measured. In much the same way, tables have been pre- 
pared containing the weight and measure of 100-Calorie 
portions. If such a table (see p. 396) is read and the quan- 
tity of the various ordinary foods that will produce 100 
Calories of heat is kept in mind, the computation of the meal 
becomes very simple. 

If a person knows his energy requirement, he can select 
such quantities of food for the day as will conform with the 
ideal standard. The quantity of food to be used at each 
meal is a matter of personal choice. The important point is 
to have the food of the entire day conform to the stand- 
ard. However, in computing the energy value of the 
foods of each meal, some find it convenient to divide the 
day's ration. The following is a convenient division : One 
third for breakfast, one fourth for luncheon, and five twelfths 
for dinner. 

But the division may vary with individual needs. Ascer- 
taining one's energy requirement and deciding upon a cer- 
tain division for the three meals, one can very easily select 
such quantities of foods for each meal as will conform with 
the ideal standard. If the energy requirement of a girl of 
fourteen years is 2200 Calories (see p. 380), her breakfast 



may yield approximately 750 Calories, her luncheon 550 
Calories, and her dinner 900 Calories. A luncheon consisting 
of an omelet made with one egg (50), one medium slice of 
homemade bread (100), orange marmalade (100), butter for 
bread (100), large banana (100), and a small glass of milk 
(100) would yield sufficient nourishment according to the 
requirement above. 

If it is desired to compute the Calories produced by the 
protein of a meal, data can be obtained from the table also 
(see Calories Derived from Protein, p. 396). 

The calculation of the protein content of the luncheon 
above is : 

Number of Calories derived from protein of egg 18.2 

Number of Calories derived from protein of bread 13.8 

Number of Calories derived from protein of marmalade 0.7 

Nimiber of Calories derived from protein of butter 0.5 

Nimiber of Calories derived from protein of banana 5.8 

Number of Calories derived from protein of milk 19.1 

Number of Calories derived from protein of entire meal 57.6 

If one tenth of the total energy requirement is taken as 
the desired protein requirement, the above luncheon ap- 
proaches the ideal. 

The Form C given on p. 395 will be found convenient 
to use in calculating the fuel value of menus from 100- 
Calorie portions. 


Calculate your own breakfast, limcheon, and dinner energy 
requirement, and those of at least two members of your family. 

From the table of 100-Calorie portions of p. 396 estimate the fuel 
value of all your meals served either at your home or at school for 
several days. Compare the result with the ideal energy require- 
ment obtained above. If the results vary greatly, strive to select 
the proper kind and quantity of foods so that the total Calories and 
Calories derived from protein approach the ideal. 

I i 

^ I 




Table of 100-Calobib Pobtions^ 

Appboximatb Mkasttbb 

IN Ounces 



Edzblb Pubtions 

OF IOO-Calorib 

OP 100- 







15 average 




2 medium 



Apricots, fresh . . . 

2 large 



Asparagus, cooked 

2 servings 



Bacon, smoked (un- 

cooked) . . . 

1 thin slice, small 




1 large 



Beans, baked, canned 

1 small serving (i cupful) 



string, canned . . 

5 servings 



lima, canned . . 

1 large saucedish 



Beef, corned . . . 



dried, salted, . . 


and smoked . . 

4 large slices 




Slice 4 in. X6 in. Xi in. 



porterhouse steak . 

1 serving 



ribs, lean . . . 

1 average serving 



ribs, fat ... . 



round, free from 

visible fat . . . 

1 generous serving 



rump, lean . . . 


• 41.0 

rump, fat ... 



* stew with vege- 

tables .... 

i cupful 



sirloin steak . . . 

1 average serving 



Beets, cooked . . . 

3 servings 



* Biscuits, baking 

powder .... 

2 small 



* Blanc Mange . . . 

J cupful 



Brazil nuts .... 

3 average size 



Bread, graham . . 

1 thick slice 



toasted .... 

2 medium slices 




^ The approximate measure of lOO-Calorie portions is based in part 
upon "Table of 100 Food Units," compiled by Dr. Irving Fisher. The 
weight in ounces of lOO-Calorie portions and Calories derived from 
protein are based upon data found on p. 410 of "Chemistry of Food 
and Nutrition," by Henry C. Sherman, Ph. D. Items marked *'♦" are 
from " Feeding the Family," by Mary Swartz Rose, Table III, p. 355. 


Tablb of 100-Catx)rib Portions — ( 


Appboxhiatb Mbasxtrb 

IN Ounces 


Edible PoimoNS 

OF 100-Gaix>rtk 

OF 100- 





Bread — Continued 

white homemade . 

1 medium slice 



average .... 

1 thick slice 



whole wheat . . . 

1 thick sUce 



Buckwheat flour . . 

i cupful 




1 tablespoonf ul (ordinary 




Buttermilk .... 

11 cupfuls (IJ glasses) 




2 servings 



* Cake, chocolate . . 

Piece 2iin. X2i in. X} in. 



* Cake, one egg . . 

Piece 11 in. X Ifin. X Ifin. 



Calf 8-foot jeUy . . 



Carrots, freah . . . 

2 medium 



CauUflower ^ . . . 







Celery soup, canned . 

2 servings 



Cheese, American pale* 

1} cubic inches 



American red * . . 

1} cubic inches 



Cheddar * . . . . 

li cubic inches 



Cottage .... 

4 cubic inches (i cupful) 



NeufchAtel . . . 

li cubic inches (i cupful) 



(} small package) 


Roquefort * . . . 



Swiss * 

1} cubic inches 



Chicken, broilers . 

1 large serving 



Chocolate .... 

" generous half '* square 



* Chocolate (beverage 

half milk and half 

water) .... 

i cupful (scant) 




2i tablespoonf uls 



* Cocoa (beverage, — 

half milk and half 


water) . . . 

f cupful 



Cod, salt .... 

2i tablespoonf uls 



* Cookies .... 

2, 2i in. diameter 



Com, green * . . . 

1 side dish 



Corn-meal .... 

2 tablespoonf uls 

. 1.0 


^ As purchased. 



Table op IOO-CatiOBie Pobtions — Continued 


IN Ounces 


Edible Pobtions 

OF 100-Calobik 

op 100- 







Crackers, graham . . 

3 crackers 




3 crackers 




3 crackers 



Cranberries ^ . . . 

1 cupful (cooked) 




i cupful 



Cucumbers .... 

2 large 



* Custard, cup . . . 

i cupful 



Dates, dried . . . 

4 medium 



Doughnuts .... 

i doughnut 



Eggs, uncooked . . 

li medium or 2 small 






Figs, dried .... 

1 large 



Flour, rye 

i cupful 



wheat, entire . . 

J cupful 



wheat, graham . . 

i cupful 



wheat, average high 

and medium . . 

i cupful 




4 tablespoonf uls 



* Gingerbread . . . 





1 large bimch 



Haddock .... 



Halibut steaks . . . 

1 average serving 



Ham, fresh, lean . . 



fresh, mediimi . . 

1 average serving 



smoked, lean . . 



Herring, whole . . 



Hominy, uncooked . 

i cupful 



* Ice cream, vanilla . 

i cupful 



Lamb, chops, broiled . 

1 small chop 



leg, roast .... 

1 average serving 



Lard, refined . . . 

1 tablespoonful (scant) 




3 mediimi 




50 large leaves 



Liver, veal, uncooked 

2 small servings 



* Macaroni and cheese 

i cupful 



Macaroni, uncooked . 

J cupful (4 sticks) 



Macaroons .... 




^As purchased. 


Table of 100-Calorie Pobtions — Continued 

Edible Pobtions 

Mackerel, uncooked 
salt .... 
Marmalade, orange 
Milk, condensed, 
sweetened . . 
skimmed . . . 
whole .... 

Molasses, cane . . 

* Muffins, corn-meal 

* Muffins, wheat . 
Muskmelons . . 
Mutton, leg . . 
Oatmeal, imcooked 
Olives, green . . 
Onions, fresh . . 
Oranges .... 
Oysters, canned 
Parsnips .... 
Peaches, canned 

fresh .... 
Peanuts . . . ; 
Peas, canned . . 
Peas, dried, Uncooked 

green .... 
Pies, apple . . . 

custard . . . 

lemon .... 

mmce .... 

squash . . . 
Pineapples, fresh . 

Pork, chops, medium 

lax, saiu ... 
* Potatoes, creamed 
Potatoes, white, 
uncooked . . 




1 large serving 
1 tablespoonful 

^iV cupfuls 

li cupfuls (scant) 

f cupful (generous half 

J cupful 
f muffin 
t muffin 
J average serving 

1 average serving 
i cupful 

7 to 10 

2 medium 

1 very large 
5 oysters 
1 large 

1 large serving 
4 medimn 

10 to 12 (double kernels) 

2 servings 

2 tablespoonfuls 

1 generous serving 

i piece 

J piece 

i piece 

i piece 

J piece 

£i slices 

1 small serving 

1 very small serving 

I cupful 
1 mediimi 


IN Ounces 

OF 100- 











































^ As purchased. 



Table of 100-Calorie Portions — Continued 


IN Ounces 


FiDiBLs: Portions 

OF 100-Calorib 

OP 100- 





Potatoes, sweet, 

uncooked . . . 

i medium 



Prunes, dried . . . 

3 large 



Raisins ..... 

J cupful (packed solid) 



Rhubarb, uncooked . 

3i cupfuls (scant) 



* Rice pudding . . 

i cupful 



Rice, uncooked . . 

2 tablespoonfuls 



Salmon, whole . . . 

1 small serving 



sauce, white . . . 

i cupful 



* Salmon, loaf . . . 

i cupful 



Shad, whole . . . 

1 average serving 



Shredded wheat . . 

1 biscuit 



* Soup, com . . . 

i cupful 




i cupful (scant) 



cream of tomato 

1 cupful 



Spinach, fresh * . . 

3 ordinary servings (after 




Succotash, canned 

1 average serving 
3 lumps, 5 teaspoonfuls 




6i teaspoonfuls pow- 
[ dered sugar 



Tapioca, apple . . . 

i cupful 



Tomatoes, fresh . . 

4 average servings 



canned .... 

1} cupfuls 




1 serving 




2 large servings (2 tur- 




Veal, cutlet .... 



fore quarter . . . 



hind quarter . . 



Walnuts, California . 

4 whole nuts 



Wheat, cracked . . 



White fish .... 



Zwieback .... 

1 thick slice 



^As purchased. 



Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner 

Plan a dinner. ^ Use seasonable foods. Follow the sug- 
gestions given in Lesson CV (p. 318). Plan the menu so 
that the cost of the materials does not exceed 30 cents per 
person. From the Table of 100-Calorie Portions (p. 396) 
estimate the total Calories and the Calories derived from 
protein produced by the foods of your menu. How do the 
total Calories compare with the dinner energy requirement 
of an average man or woman ? Are the Calories derived from 
protein from 10 to 15 per cent of the total Calories? If 
necessary, change your menu so that its total Calories meet 
the dinner energy requirements of an average man or woman 
and its Calories derived from protein are from 10 to 15 per 
cent of the total Calories. The pupil should note that the 
Calorific value of meals is usually correct if the suggestions 
for menu-making given in Lesson C V are followed. 

Cook and serve the dinner. Follow the Russian or Com- 
promise Style of serving (see p. 122). Serve the dinner with 
a maid.^ 

LESSON cxxxni 

Review — Meal Cooking 


Rolled Beef Steak 
StufiFed Baked Potato 
Drop Biscuits 

See Lesson XIV, p. 68, for suggestions regarding the preparation 
of the lesson. 

1 See Foot-note, p. 327. * See Foot-note, p. 385. 



Home Projects^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Plan and cook meals. 
From the Table of 100-Calorie Portions (p. 396) estimate 
the fuel value of the meals you prepare. 

Suggested Aims: To compare the fuel value of the meals 
with the energy requirements secured in answering the Ques- 
tions on p. 394. To use these comparisons as a basis on which 
to plan meals more nearly approaching the desired energy 

^ See Lesson IX, p. 51. 



Yeast — Loaf Bread 

Experiment 77: Conditions for Growth of the Teast Plant — (a) 
Mix 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, } cake 
compressed yeast, and 5 tablespoonfuls of cold water. Put 1 table- 
spoonful of the mixture in a test tube and mark the tube ^^ a/' Fill 
the tube nearly full of lukewarm water and stand in a warm place for 
15 minutes. Examine, noting especially the appearance at the top of 
the test tube. What kind of substance (gas, liquid, or solid) has been 
formed by the growth of the yeast plants? 

(6) Put 1 teaspoonful of the yeast mixture in a test tube, and fill 
nearly full of boiling water. Label it " 6 " and after 15 minutes ex- 
amine. Is thereany change in the contents of the tube? What has 
happened to the yeast plants? 

(c) Put 1 teaspoonful of the yeast mixture in a test tube, fill nearly 
full of cold water, and label it " c." Surround it with cracked ice or, 
if the weather is cold, place it out of doors. After 15 minutes ex- 
amine. Is there any change in the contents of the tube? Why do 
not the yeast plants grow? 

(d) Surround the tube marked " c " with lukewarm water and 
stand in a warm place. After 15 minutes examine. Are the yeast 
plants growing? Does freezing kill yeast plants ? 

(c) Mix J cake yeast with a little lukewarm water. Stand in a 
warm place and after 15 minutes examine. Will yeast grow in water 

(f) Mix } cake yeast, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, and a little luke- 
warm water. Set aside in a warm place so that the yeast plants 
may grow. Then examine under the microscope. Are there any 
budding yeast cells? Make a drawing of the plants as they appear 
imder the microscope. 




Draw at least two practical conclusions from these experiments as 
to the use and care of yeast for bread making. 

Properties of Yeast. — Yeast consists of a mass of micro- 
scopic plants (see Figure 86). When placed under proper 
conditions these plants grow rapidly, and in so doing they 
separate the sugar that exists in flour into carbon dioxide 
and alcohol. The carbon dioxide lightens dough. The 

alcohol passes off as 
vapor in baking. 

Plants need moisture, 
warmth, light, and the 
food that is furnished by 
the air and soil for their 
growth. Yeast plants 
require all of these ex- 
cept light. They are 
not green plants, hence 
they need no light. 
Moisture is obtained 
from the water, milk, 
or other liquids used in 
bread dough. Yeast 
thrives at a temperature of 90** F. It is killed by a tem- 
perature above 130° F. Hence the yeast is mixed with 
lukewarm water. The other liquids that are added to it 
are of the same temperature. Also, the dough is placed 
in a warm place while it is rising, or while the yeast plants 
are growing. The food required for the rapid growth of 
the yeast is obtained from the protein and carbohydrates 
in the flour. 

Compressed yeast cakes which are wrapped in tinfoil and 
received fresh at the market every day or two are the most 
satisfactory to use. This yeast must be fresh for successful 

From Fanners' BuUettn S80. 

Figure 86. — Growing Yeast Plants. 


bread making. It is fresh when it is of a Ught color, is 
free from dark streaks, and is crumbly in texture. 

Stiff Dough. — Approximately four parts of flour to one of 
moisture are used for stiff doughs. When sufficient flour has 
been added to stiff dough, it should not cling to the sides 
of the mixing bowl. This is an indication to the pupil of 
the proper stiffness of the dough. The test applies, how- 
ever, only when there is no coating of flour over the dough. 
One should remember that the softest dough will not 
" stick," if covered generously with flour. 

General Suggestions for Bread Making. — Use wheat 
bread flour, or a combination of wheat bread flour with whole 
wheat, or graham flour, or with flour or meal made from other 
grains, in making bread. Flour should be kept in a dry place. 
It is well to warm flour for bread before using. 

If milk is used, scald or boil it to prevent it from souring. 
Water should be boiled and then cooled (see Why Foods 
Spoil, p. 474). 

With 1 pint of liquid ^ to 1 cake of yeast should be used. 
When it is desired to mix and bake bread in a few hours, a 
greater quantity of yeast may be used. If the yeast is fresh, 
most satisfactory results are secured when this is done. 
The use of much yeast, however, adds to the cost of bread. 
The less quantity of yeast (^ cake) is used when the dough 
is allowed to rise overnight. Mix 1 yeast cake in 1 cupful 
of lukewarm water before adding the rest of the liquid. 

It is desirable to use sufficient yeast and to subject it to 
desirable conditions so that the dough will rise quickly. 
If the rising process occupies much time, certain kinds of 
bacteria which may be present in the yeast or other materials 
may act upon the alcohol present in the risen dough and con- 
vert it into acid. This produces sour dough and consequently 
bread of sour taste and odor. 

Although it is customary to allow bread to rise twice. 


tasty bread may be secured by one rising. Bread raised only 
once, however, is usually of uneven grain, because the carbon 
dioxide bubbles formed during rising are uneven in size or are 
unevenly distributed. By kneading bread, the larger bubbles 
are broken or distributed more evenly through the dough. 
Since considerable gas is pressed out by kneading, it is neces- 
sary to allow the dough to rise a second time. It is well to 
make the dough into small loaves, and place them in small 
pans, so that the bread will be baked through. 

Loaves of bread should bake at least 1 hour at a tempera- 
ture varying from 375° F. to 400° F. During the first 20 
minutes they should rise but slightly and just begin to 
brown ; during the second 20 minutes they should continue 
to brown; during the last 20 minutes they should shrink 
from the sides of the pan, while still continuing to brown. 

To soften the crust, rub it with a bit of butter or substitute 
a few minutes before taking from the oven and again after re- 
moving from the oven. After baking, place the loaves of 
bread on a bread cooler, or arrange them in such a way 
that the air may reach them on all sides. When cool, place 
in a covered tin box. 

BREAD (a loayes) 

2 cupfuls hot water or \ tablespoonful fat 

milk and water } to 1 cake compressed 

2 teaspoonfuls salt yeast 

2 teaspoonfuls sugar § cupful lukewarm water 

Bread flour (7 to 8 cupfuls) 

Boil the water or milk and water. Pour it into a bowl and 
add the salt, sugar, and fat. Stir until the salt and sugar are 
dissolved, and the fat is melted. Mix the yeast with luke- 
warm water. When the first mixture is cooled to lukewarm 
temperature, add the yeast mixture to it. Then add flour 
enough to make it of the proper consistency (see Stiff Dough), 


using a knife for mixing. Turn out on a floured board, and 
knead until soft and elastic. Return the dough to the bowl, 
moisten, cover, and let rise until doubled in bulk. Then 
divide it into loaves, or shape into biscuits. Cover and allow 
the loaves or biscuit to rise in the pan in which they are to 
be baked until they are doubled in bulk. Bake the biscuits 
30 minutes in a hot oven and the bread about 60 minutes in a 
moderate oven (see Oven Thermometers and Temperatures, 

p. 330). 


Why should the flour for bread be wanned before using? 

What should be the temperature of all materials mixed with yeast ? 

What should be the difference in the temperature of the oven for 
loaf bread and for biscuits? Explain. 

Why should bread be stored in a covered tin box? 

At what temperatures should biscuits and loaf bread bake? 
Why are these foods baked at different temperatures ? 

For how long a time should biscuits and bread bake? Explain 
the difference in the length of time of baking each. 


Wheat Flour — Bread Sponge 

Experiment 78 : Protein in Flour. — Make a stiff dough, using 2 
tablespoojifuls of bread flour and about i tablespoonful of water. 
Knead well, and allow to stand for 20 minutes. Then tie the dough 
in cheese-cloth, place it in a bowl of water, and knead for a few 

Pour a little of the water in a test tube ; drain the remainder of the 
water from the dough. Add more water to the bowl. Again knead 
the dough under the clean water. 

Examine the material in the cloth. What is its color? Feel and 
pull it. Put a little on a plate to dry, and bake some in the oven. 
Examine after drying and baking. How has it changed in size by 

Test the water in the test tube for starch. 


Gluten. — The material left in the cloth consists largely 
of protein. If flour is mixed with water, gluten is formed 
from the two kinds of protein that are to be found in all 
wheat flours. Gluten is yellowish gray in color, is ex- 
tremely elastic and sticky, and, if moistened and heated, 
expands to many times its original bulk. These qualities 
of gluten are most desirable for good yeast bread; hence, 
the more protein that flour contains, the better it is for 
bread making. As has been stated, some flours contain 
more protein than others. The protein of wheat as well as 
of other grains is incomplete, hence grains need to be supple- 
mented with other kinds of protein food. 

Wheat Flour. — The quantity of protein in flour is not 
only dependent upon the portion of the wheat kernel used 
in making the flour (see Difference in Wheat Flours^ p. 363), 
but also upon the kind of wheat from which the flour is 
made. Spring wheat, the seeds of which are sown in the 
springtime, usually contains more protein than winter 
wheat, the seeds of which are sown in the fall. The flour 
made from spring wheat is called hard wheat flxmr or bread 
fiour. This flour is creamy in color, rather gritty in feel- 
ing, and when pressed in the hand does not retain the im- 
pression of the fingers. Flour made from winter wheat is 
called soft wheat flour or pastry flxmr. This is white, very fine 
and velvety in feeling, and easily retains the impression of the 

On account of the greater quantity of protein in bread 
flour, this flour absorbs more moisture than pastry flour. 
Less bread flour than pastry flour, therefore, is required for 
the bread mixture. If bread flour is substituted for pastry 
flour, its quantity should be decreased, — 2 tablespoonfub 
for each cupful. 

Dry Yeast Sponge. — It is generally agreed that compressed 
yeast is more satisfactory for bread making than dry yeast. 


By the use of the former, the method is shorter, and the 
" rising " can take place during the daytime and be checked 
at the proper time. The use of dry yeast, however, is nec- 
essary under some conditions. For this kind of yeast cake, 
the yeast is made into a stiff dough by mixing it with starch 
or meal, and is then dried. In the dry state, yeast plants 
do not grow, but remain inactive until they are subjected 
to conditions favorable for growth. In order that dry yeast 
may begin to grow, it is necessary to make a sponge of the 
materials used in bread making. A sponge is a batter con- 
taining half as much flour as is required for the stiff dough. 
A thin mixture rises more quickly than does a stiff dough ; 
hence the advantage of " starting " dry yeast in a sponge. 

.The growth of yeast is somewhat retarded by salt and 
spices. Sugar in small quantity aids rapid growth; much 
sugar delays the rising of bread. Much fat and many eggs 
also make the process slower. In the preparation of buns, 
when much fat and sugar and many eggs are to be used, it 
is advisable to make a sponge. These materials are not to 
be added, however, until the sponge is stiffened. The yeast 
thus gets a good " start " before the eggs, etc., are added. 

BREAD (made with dry yeast) (2 loaves) 

2 cupfuls water 2 teaspoonfuls sugar 

i cake dry yeast 1 tablespoonf ul fat 

2 teaspoonfuls salt 6 cupfuls (or more) bread flour 

Soak the yeast in the water (lukewarm) until softened. 
Then add the salt, sugar, and fat. Stir until the salt and 
sugar are dissolved, and the fat is melted. Add one half the 
given quantity of flour. Beat until the mixture is smooth; 
cover. Let rise until very porous and foamy. Add enough 
flour to make a stiff dough ; knead ; and allow to rise until 
doubled in bulk. Proceed as for bread made with com- 
pressed yeast. 


Score Card for Bread^ — Determining its Quality 





Grain and texture 


Crust (color, depth, texture) 


Cnimb (color, moisture) 


Shape and size 






Under what conditions would dry yeast be used in bread making? 

For what reason is bread dough kneaded? 

What is the test for sufficient kneading of bread dough? 

In what part of the country is spring wheat grown? Winter 

How are the'flours distinguished that are made from these different 
kinds of wheat? 

From U. S. Department of Agriculture^ Bulletin No. 28, tabulate 
the percentage composition of winter and of spring wheat flour. 

Which contains the more protein; which, the more carbo- 
hydrates? Compare the quantity of ash in each. • 

Knowing the method of leavening, the time required for raising, 
and the properties of gluten, explain why spring wheat flour is better 
adapted to yeast breads than to quick breads. 

What is the price per sack of pastry and of bread flour? 

What is the price per cake of compressed yeast? What is the 
price per package of dry yeast? How many cakes in a package? 

LESSON cxxxvn 

Modifications of Plain White Bread 

Breads Other than Wheat. — As mentioned previously, 
wheat is the most popular grain in this country, largely be- 
cause we are most used to it, not because it is a better food 
than other cereals. The use of different starchy materials 

* "Selection and Preparation of Food," by Bevier and Van Meter, 
p. 82. 


and grains, especially the whole cereals, is advised to give 
variation not only in flavor, but in nutritive content. Yeast 
breads containing cereals other than wheat are more satis- 
factory in texture and in size of loaf when they are made by 
combinmg some wheat with the other grains. 

The housekeeper of olden days considered the potato 
most essential for bread making. It is possible to make good 
bread by using J as much mashed potato as wheat flour. 
Potato bread is moist; it keeps better than bread made 
entirely with wheat. It has been observed that bread con- 
taining potatoes or potato water rises quickly. It is possible 
that the growth of the yeast is stimulated by potato. Al- 
though bread containing potatoes is light, it is not as delicate 
or " fluffy " as plain wheat bread. 

Since potatoes contain much moisture, the quantity of 
liquid used in making potato bread should be lessened. Be- 
cause bread dough containing potatoes softens as it rises, 
sufficient flour should be added to make it very stiff or more 
flour added while kneading. 

Much experimenting with bread during the World War 
showed that bread containing cereals other than wheat is 
more satisfactory when potatoes are used in making it. It 
was found that less of wheat and more of the other grains 
could be used when potatoes were added to the dough. 

Bread made of grains other than wheat requires a greater 
quantity of yeast than wheat bread. The following explana- 
tion may account for this fact: Some recent scientific in- 
vestigations point out the fact that the activity of yeast is 
increased when vinegar or other weak acid material is added 
to bread dough. Since the proteins of cereals other than wheat 
absorb more of the free acid of the dough than do the pro- 
teins of wheat, the acidity of the dough is lessened. Hence 
more yeast is required to leaven dough containing grains 
other than wheat. 



Use one half white bread flour and one half graham flour 
in the recipe given for Bread (see p. 406) in order to make 
Graham Bread. One fourth cupful of molasses may be 
substituted for the sugar. Mix and bake as white bread. 

Some consider that it is much more satisfactory to make a 
sponge when using graham flour. If this is done, first make a sponge 
using only one half the given quantity of flour. Let the mixtiu'e 
rise, then add the remainder of the flour, and proceed as in making 
white wheat bread. 


Follow the recipe for Bread (see p. 406), substituting whole 
wheat for the fine wheat bread flour, but make a soft, not stiff 

Raisin Bread may be made by adding 2 cupfuls of seeded raisins 
to whole wheat bread mixture and increasing the sugar to i cupful 
or substituting J cupful molasses for the sugar. Use the greater 
quantity of yeast. Add the raisins to the mixture before adding 
the flour. 

POTATO BREAD (2 loaves) 

2 cupfuls dry mashed 2 tablespoonf uls sugar 

potatoes 1 tablespoonf ul fat 

1 cupful water in which i to 1 cake compressed 
potatoes were cooked yeast 

1 tablespoonful salt 5} to 6 cupfuls wheat 

J cupful lukewarm water bread flour 

Pare 6 medium-sized potatoes. Cut into pieces and cook 
in boiling water until tender. Drain the water from the 
potatoes, but save the potato water to use as moisture for 
the dough, and for mixing with the yeast. Mash the pota- 
toes; add the potato water, salt, sugar, and fat. Then 
proceed as directed for Bread on p. 406. 



1} cupfuls potato water 1 tablespoonful fat 

2 cupfuls rolled oats 2 cupfuls dry mashed potatoes 

1 tablespoonful salt 1 cake compressed yeast 

2 teaspoonf uls sugar 1 tablespoonful lukewarm water 

Wheat bread flour, about 6 cupfuls 

Heat the liquid to boiling point. Pour it over the rolled 
oats. Add the salt, sugar, and fat. Stir and let stand until 
the mixture is lukewarm. Add the potatoes, then proceed 
as for plain bread. Let the dough rise in the pans until 
it is from 2J to 2§ times its original bulk. 


From U. S. Department of Agriculture f. Bulletin No. 28, tabulate 
the percentage composition of white, of graham, and of whole 
wheat bread. 

Under what conditions should a sponge be made when compressed 
yeast is used? 

What kind of bread is most satisfactory in high altitudes, i.e, where 
the climate is dry ? Explain. 

Why is potato water a more valuable liquid for bread making 
than water? 

What is the purpose of adding boiling water to rolled oats in 
making Oatmeal-Potato Bread (see Suhatituting Other Cereals for 
Wheat Flour, p. 367) ? 

Compare the quantity of yeast used in Oatmeal-Potato Bread 
with that used in plain wheat bread. Account for the difference. 


Rolls and Buns 
plain rolls or biscuits 

For rolls or biscuits use the recipe for Bread (p. 406), add- 
ing twice the quantity of fat, and using milk for part of the 
liquid. Or they may be made by kneading more fat into any 


bread dough. Knead well after the first rising; then cut 
into pieces half the size of an egg, and shape into balls. Place 
the balls some distance apart in a pan or place the balb so 
that one touches another. The latter plan of placing in the 
pan produces biscuits having a small amount of crust. Allow 
the biscuits to rise to double their bulk ; then bake in a hot 


2 cupfuls hot milk and water 1 teaspoonful salt 

3 tablespoonf uls fat 1 yeast cake 

2 tablespoonf uls sugar i cupful lukewarm water 

Bread flour 

Make a sponge of the ingredients, using 3 cupfuls of flour. 
Beat thoroughly, cover, and let rise until light. Then add 
enough flour to knead. Knead, cover, and allow to rise 
until doubled in bulk. Knead again slightly, and roll out 
on a floured board until f of an inch in thickness. Cut 
into rounds with a biscuit cutter ; put a bit of butter or sub- 
stitute near the edge of the biscuit ; fold ; and press the edges 
together. Place in an oiled pan; cover. Let rise until 
double in bulk, and bake in a hot oven from 20 to 30 minutes. 

The crust may be glazed with a mixture of milk and sugar 
a few minutes before removing the biscuits from the oven. 
Use 1 part sugar to 2 parts milk. Diluted egg white also may 
be used for glazing. 

A corn-starch paste is sometimes used for glazing. It is made as fol- 
lows: Mix 2 teaspoonf uls of corn-starch with the same quantity of cold 
water. Add } cupful of boiling water ; stir and cook for 5 minutes. 
Brush this over the top of the rolls, sprinkle with sugar. Return 
the rolls to the oven and continue baking until the crust is browned. 


Use the recipe for Parker House Rolls as a basic rule. In 
preparing the sponge, use 2 cupfub of dry mashed potatoes 


instead of flour. Decrease the liquid to 1 cupful. Increase 
the quantity of salt to 1 tablespoonful. When the sponge is 
light, add sufficient wheat flour to make the dough of the 
proper consistency. Proceed as for plain wheat rolls. 

Rye flour may be used instead of wheat in preparing these rolls. 


Use one half of the recipe for Parker House Rolls. After 
the dough has risen, roll until ^ inch thick, and spread with 
the following : 

J cupful butter or butter .2 tablespoonfuls cinnamon 

and other fat softened 1 cupful brown sugar 

1 cupful currants or raisins 

Roll the dough as for Jelly Roll or for Fruit Rolls (see p. 
391) and cut into slices 1 inch thick. Place in well-oiled 
pans or muffin tins, with a cut surface resting on the pan. 
When very light, bake in a moderate oven about 30 minutes. 
The buns may be basted with molasses or sugar, or with a 
milk and sugar mixture (see Parker House Rolls). Add 1 
teaspoonful of the basting material to each bun 15 minutes 
before removing from the oven. 


1 cupful milk 3 tablespoonfuls fat 

1 cupful water 1 to 3 eggs 

2 tablespoonfuls sugar 2 cakes compressed yeast 
1 teaspoonful salt i cupful lukewarm water 

Bread flour (about 7 cupfuls) 

Heat the milk and water. Turn into a bowl and add the 
sugar, salt, and fat. Let the mixture stand until it is luke- 
warm in temperature. Mix the yeast with the lukewarm 
water and add it to the lukewarm milk mixture. Break the 
egg ; beat the white and yolk separately. Add the egg to 
the other ingredients. 


Through a sifter, add enough flour to knead. Knead and 
roll out on a floured board until about 1 inch in thickness. 
Cut into rounds with a biscuit cutter. Make a depression 
in the center of each biscuit, fill with prunes or raisins prepared 
as directed below. 

Place the biscuits on greased pans, let them rise (in a warm 
place) until doubled in bulk ; bake in a hot oven. 


1 pound dried prunes or \ teaspoonf ul cloves 
\\ cupfuls seeded raisins 2 tablespoonfuls lemon juice 
1 teaspoonful cinnamon ' \ teaspoonf ul salt 


Soak the fruit in enough water to cover overnight or for 
several hours. Cook as directed on p. 76, until the fruit 
is tender and the water is almost evaporated. If prunes are 
used, remove the stones. Add the spices, lemon juice, and 
salt. Also add sugar " to taste." 


Why should a sponge be made when eggs are to be added to the 
yeast mixture? 

What would be the disadvantage in adding them to a dough, after 
the dough had stiffened? 

What must be done to produce biscuits having much crust rather 
than little crust? 

What care should be taken in regulating the temperature of the 
oven when baking Cinnamon Buns, especially if they are to be basted 
during baking? 

How many times are Biscuits with Prune or Raisin Filling allowed 
to rise ? How does yeast bread made with one rising differ from that 
made with several risings ? 

Why is it necessary to cook the fruit used for filling for biscuits 
until the water is almost evaporated ? What would be the effect on 
the biscuits of much moisture in the filling ? 



Food for Girls and Boys 

The Young Girl. — Adolescence is a period of great 
activity and growth. Much physical development char- 
acterizes the years of youth. 

During the time of rapid growth, it is very easy to acquire 
craving not only for sweets, but for condiments and highly 
seasoned and spiced foods and for foods of decided and con- 
trasting flavor. As previously explained on p. 264, such 
foods used excessively are harmful. It is especially necessary 
that a girl growing into womanhood use foods which furnish 
building and energy-giving nutrients in sufficient quantity 
as well as materials to promote growth. 

Going without breakfast may be the cause of headaches, 
poorly prepared lessons, and in some cases irritability or bad 
dispositions. When the morning meal is omitted, an undue 
quantity of food is apt to be eaten at noon. In many schools, 
work is resumed immediately or shortly after luncheon. 
The digestion of a large quantity of hearty food interferes 
with mental effort. 

The Hungry Boy belongs to the period of adolescence. 
It is perfectly natural for the growing boy to be hungry. 
Indeed during the time from twelve to seventeen years, more 
food is consumed by the average youth than by an adult. 
If three meals a day are to satisfy the hungry boy, a nourish- 
ing diet must be eaten. Concentrated, but easily digested 
foods, such as eggs, cereals, meat, starchy and nitrogenous 
vegetables for building and energy as well as foods which 
supply mineral matter such as fruits and succulent vege- 
tables, are needed. 


The use of milk and cocoa rather than tea and coffee should 
be encouraged. It is especially necessary that milk with 
its growth-promoting materials and valuable proteins be in- 
cluded in the diet of a growing youth. If coffee must be 
used, let it be cereal coffee. 

For the boy who would " make the team " and excel in 
athletics the matter of a proper food selection is most impor- 
tant. The athlete must give serious consideration to his diet. 

Food Plans for Girls and Boys. — According to the table 
given on p. 380, the diet of a girl from fourteen to seventeen 
should supply Calories averaging 2400, while that of a boy 
of the same age should supply Calories averaging 3400.* 

The following plans for a day's diet for the girl and boy of 
fourteen to seventeen years are offered as suggestions for 
wholesome food combinations : 

Foods Afproximatb CALORisa 

Breakfast. Fruits, fresh or cooked 75-100 

Cereal with Whole Milk and Sugar . . . 200-250 

Toast and Butter (2 to 3 slices) 300-450 

Cocoa or Whole Milk 120-150 

Luncheon. Cream Soup 150-175 

Meat Substitute 200-300 

Bread and Butter (1 to 2 slices) .... 150-300 

Rice or Tapioca Pudding or Blanc Mange . 150-200 

Cocoa or Whole Milk 120-150 

Dinner. Egg-dish or Meat 200-300 

Starchy Vegetable or Cereal 100-125 

Succulent Vegetable or Salad 50-150 

Bread and Butter (1 to 2 slices) .... 150-300 
Baked Custard or Ice Cream with Choco- 
late Sauce 250-300 

Cereal Coffee (with Sugar and Top Milk) or 

Whole Milk • 125-150 


1 The reason why the energy requirements of a boy exceeds that of 
a girl of the adolescent period is stated on p. 380. 


The School Luncheon. — Girls and boys of high school 
age invariably lunch at school, or a luncheon is brought from 
home and eaten at school. If a pupil buys his luncheon at 
school, hot, wholesome, nourishing foods such as cream-soup 
vegetables, eggs, cereal puddings, cocoa, and milk should be 
purchased. It is unfortunate if pastry and sweets are chosen 
to the exclusion of the foods just mentioned. 

In case the plainer foods are selected, it is a mistake for the 
pupil to narrow his purchase to a very few foods such as meat, 
potatoes, and pastry. Too often pupils get in the habit 
of choosing foods which furnish too little variety in composi- 
tion. Learning to like many different foods is a characteris- 
tic one should strive to develop. When one abolishes food 
prejudices (see p. 61) and " eats everything " that is whole- 
some, the possibility of securing a well-balanced meal to meet 
the needs of the body is increased. 

Luncheon Menus. — The quantity and kind of food that 
should be eaten at luncheon depends largely upon the kind 
and quantity of foods eaten at breakfast and dinner or supper. 
Some eat more breakfast than luncheon while others follow 
the reverse plan. It has been found, however, that a luncheon 
yielding from 750 to 1000 Calories furnishes adequate nutri- 
ment for the average youth, provided of course the foods are 
well balanced in composition. Suggestive luncheon menus 
for school giris and boys follow. (The luncheon which is 
carried from home is discussed in Lesson CXLIX.) 

■ponj. Calobibs Debived Total 


1 serving macaroni and cheese (1 cupful) . 34.0 200.00 

1 slice bread and butter 14.2 150.00 

1 portion gingerbread (2 ounces) .... 14.0 200.00 

1 medium baked apple with whole milk 6.8 128.00 

1 serving cocoa (f cupful) 16.1 118.40 

85.1 796.40 


Pqq- Calorixs Debivkd Total 

FROM Pbotbin Calories 

1 serving vegetable soup (1 cupful) . . . 21.28 148.22 

1 cheese and peanut sandwich 43.47 270.00 

1 large orange 6.20 100.00 

1 portion cake (2 ounces) 14.00 200.00 

1 glass milk (i cupful) 26.60 140.00 

111.55 858.22 

1 serving cream of tomato soup (1 cupful) . 25.07 178.4 

3 soda crackers 9.4 100.0 

1 ham sandwich 51.1 316.4 

1 portion ice cream (i quart) 7.66 199.2 

1 large banana 5.3 100.0 

1 glass milk (J cupful) 26.6 140.0 

125.13 1034.0 


Plan a week's series of school luncheons containing foods which 
may be obtained at home or at school or at any other place where 
you eat your luncheon, Calculate the total Calorific value of the 
menus. Also determine the per cent of Calories derived from 


Planning a Day's Diet — Cooking and Serving 

A Meal 

Plan 1 a day's diet containing the kinds of foods suitable 
for you and other members of your class and furnishing suflS- 
cient Calories to meet the energy-requirement of girls of your 
age. (Follow the suggestions given in Lesson CV and 
CXXXIX.) Determine the per cent of the total Calories 
produced by Calories derived from protein. Compute the 
cost of the meal. 

Cook and serve one of the meals of the day's diet. Follow 
the English or family style of serving, — either with or with- 
out a maid. 

1 See Foot-note, p. 327. 



Review: Meal Cooking 


Bread (or Raised Biscuits) 
Cranberry Jelly (or Fruit Sauce) 

See Lesson XIV, p. 68, for suggestions regarding the preparation 
of the lesson. 


Home Projects^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Bake yeast bread or raised 
biscuits at your home at least once a week. 

Suggested Aims: (1) To improve the quality of the 
bread. Score your products each time you prepare them 
(see p. 410). By careful observation and by consultation 
with your teacher, determine the cause of any undesirable 
quality your breads may have and then strive at the next 
baking to correct your mistakes. 

(2) To compare homemade and baker's bread. De- 
termine the weight and cost of a loaf of homemade and 
baker's bread. Compute the cost per pound of each. Com- 
pare the flavor and satisfying qualities of each. Consult 
other members of your family regarding these two qualities. 
Name the advantages and disadvantages of baking bread at 

1 See Lesson IX, p. 51. 



Cake without Fat — Sponge Cake 

Comparison of Sponge Cake and Popovers. — See the 

recipe for Popovers, p. 333. Compare it with the recipe 

for Sponge Cake I. 


4 egg yolks Grated rind of i lemon 

1 cupful sugar 4 egg whites 

1 teaspoonful lemon juice i teaspoonful salt 

1 cupful flour 

What two ingredients are similar in these recipes ? What 
ingredients does Sponge Cake contain which do not exist in 
Popovers? What ingredients in Popovers are omitted in 
Sponge Cake ? Note the number of eggs in each. What is 
the wetting material in Popovers? In Sponge Cake? By 
what means are Popovers lightened ? Sponge Cake ? How 
do you account for the difference in the number of eggs ? 

Note. — A typical Sponge Cake contains no baking powder or mois- 
ture except that contained in the eggs and flavoring material. To make 
a cheaper cake, the following modification may be made : Instead of 4 
eggs, 2 eggs with I cupful of water and 1 teasi)Oonful of baking powder 
may be used. 

Method of Mixing Sponge Cake. — Beat the yolks of the 

eggs until thick and lemon-colored. Add the sugar and 

continue beating; then add the flavoring and any other 

liquid that the recipe may call for. Beat the mixture well. 



Add the salt to the egg whites and beat until the whites 
are stiff. Sift the flour (and baking powder if used) sev- 
eral times. Add part of the dry ingredients through the 
sifter to the yolk mixture, then add some of the egg whites. 
Repeat until all the dry ingredients and the egg whites 
have been added. Mix by cutting and folding the ingredi- 
ents. Turn at once into an unoiled pan. Bake in a moderate 
oven for 50 or 60 minutes. 

Baking Sponge Cakes. — The baking of a cake, as well as 
the Tnanner of mixing the ingredients and the quality of 
the ingredients themselves, determines the success of the 
cake. A practical test for the temperature of the oven is 
the placing of a bit of flour or white paper in the oven. If 
at the end of 5 minutes the paper or flour is slightly browned, 
the oven is of proper temperature for sponge cakes or cakes 
without fat. The time required to bake a cake should be 
divided into quarters. During the first quarter the cake 
should begin to rise; during the second quarter it should 
continue to rise and begin to brown ; during the third quarter 
it should continue to brown, and the fourth quarter it should 
finish baking. 

If the mixing and the baking have been successful, failure 

may result after removing the cake from the oven. It 

should not be placed in a cold place or in a draft. Invert 

the cake pan on a wire rack and allow the cake to remain 

until cool. Remove the cake from the pan, and store in a 

covered tin box. 


3 egg yolks 2 cupfuls flour 

1} cupfuls sugar i teaspoonful salt 

1 tablespoonful lemon juice 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder 

J cupful water 3 egg whites 

Mix and bake according to the directions given above. 
It is advisable to oil the pan for this cake. 

424 CAKE 


Sponge Cake with Cream Filling is termed Washington 
Pie. Follow the recipe for Cream FiUing given on p. 375 
and put it between the layers of Sponge Cake, or as a fill- 
ing between split sheets of a loaf or thick sheet of Sponge 


What is the purpose of cutting and folding the egg whites and the 
dry ingredients into a sponge cake mixture? 

Why is it necessary to add moisture and baking powder to Sponge ' 
Cake No. II? 

What is the effect of too cool an oven on Sponge Cake? 


Cake Containing Fat — One-egg Cake 

Classes of Cakes. — Cakes are commonly divided into two 
classes : (o) Cakes without fat and (6) Cakes containing 
fat. Sponge Cake (p. 422) is an example of the first class and 
the One-egg Cake given below is an example of the second 
class. The method of mixing cakes containing fat differs 
from the method of mixing cakes without fat. The tem- 
perature of the oven and the length of time required for 
baking also differ for the two classes of cakes. 

Comparison of One-egg Cake ■ and Muffins. — See the 
recipe for Plain Muffins, p. 365. Compare it with the fol- 
lowing recipe. 


2 cupfuls flour 1 egg 

3} teaspoonfuls baking powder 1 cupful milk or water 

} teaspoonful salt 1 teaspoonful flavoring 

I to 1 cupful sugar 2 to 4 tablespoonfuls fat 

J Note to the Teacher. — If a richer cake is desired, follow the 
Plain Cake recipe given on p. 429. 



What ingredient does cake contain that is not present in 
muffins ? What two ingredients exist in greater quantity in 
cake than in muffins ? 

The Ingredients of a Cake Containing Fat. — Materials of 
the best quality should be used for cakes. Pastry flour and 
the finest granulated sugar are necessary ingredients. 

In determining the kind of fat to use in a cake, one should 
consider all of the ingredients in a recipe, and then decide 
which one will give the most pronounced flavor to the com- 
bined materials. If a cake contains so much fat that the 
fat will be one of the predominating flavoring ingredients, 
table butter should be used alone or combined with some 
bland fat. When but little fat is used in Plain Cake, there 
is little difference in the flavor of cake made with butter or 
substitutes. Oleomargarine, tried-out chicken fat, suet, lard, 
or vegetable fat may be used for spice cakes or other highly 
flavored cakes. Cake is one of the foods whose ingredients 
require the greatest accuracy and care in measuring. When 
a cake contains much fat, the latter can usually be more easily 
and accurately weighed than measured. 

Method of Mixing Cake Containing Fat. — Since cakes con- 
tain much more fat and sugar than muffins, a different 
method of mixing the fat with the other ingredients of the 
cake has been used quite generally. The fat and sugar have 
usually been blended by creaming them. 

However, many experiments in the mixing and baking of 
cakes have been made. These show that a cake of good 
quality may be made by following the method of mixing 
fat in a muffin mixture, i,e. melting the fat and adding it to 
other ingredients. The following is the method of mixing 
cake when melted fat is used : 

Beat the eggs, add the sugar, liquid, and flavoring. Melt 
the fat and add it to the other ingredients. Mix the dry 
ingredients, i,e, the flour, baking powder, and salt. Add 

426 CAKE 

these through a sifter to the egg and sugar mixture. Beat 
from 1 to 2 minutes. 

In cake mixing, the yolks and the whites of the eggs are 
often separated. When this is done, the yolks and sugar are 
blended, the moisture, flavoring, melted fat, and dry ingre- 
dients are added, the mixture beaten, and finally the beaten 
whites are folded in. 

In combining cake ingredients, great care must be taken 
to mix all ingredients thoroughly. Cakes, except those con- 
taining very little moisture and much fat, such as Jumbles or 
Pound Cake, can be made satisfactorily by adding melted fat. 
It has been estimated that half as much time is required 
for mixing a cake in which melted fat is used as one in which 
the fat is creamed. It has been found ^ that the amount of 
mixing and the preparation of ingredients in a cake are much 
more important factors than the manner of combining the 
ingredients. Too little beating makes a cake of coarse, 
crumbly mixture. Too much beating makes it compact in 
texture with " tunnels " through it. 

Preparing the Pans for Cakes Containing Fat. — The pans 
for cakes that contain fat should be well oiled. It is well 
to line the pans with paper and to oil the paper thoroughly, 
or to oil the pans well and to sprinkle a little flour over them 
before adding the cake batter. 

Baking Layer and Loaf Cakes. — If a bit of flour or white 
paper is delicately browned after being placed for 2 minutes 
in the oven, the oven is of proper temperature for layer 
cakes containing fat. For a loaf cake the oven should be 
cooler, since a longer time for baking is required. It is 
especially important that a crust does not form over the top 
of a cake before the cake has risen, or before it has been in 
the oven one fourth of the time required (see Baking 
Sponge Cakes, p. 423). To avoid this, the temperature of 

^ Bee Journal Home EJconomics, Vol. X, pp. 542-7, December. 1918. 


the oven should be quite Ibw when a thick loaf cake is 
first placed in it. Some housekeepers find it most satisfac- 
tory to cover the top of a pan containing loaf cake with 
paper until the cake has risen. In general, layer cakes re- 
quire 15 to 20 minutes for baking and loaf cakes from 40 
minutes to 1| hours. Shortly after taking from the oven, 
cake containing fat may be removed from the pan, and placed 
on a wire cake cooler until cold. The cake may be placed 
also on a towel or cloth instead of on a cake cooler. 

The Quality of Cake. — Desirable cake is tender and light, 
but of fine grain. The quantity of eggs, sugar, fat, and mois- 
ture affects these qualities. Too much sugar makes a cake 
of coarse grain and of waxy or tough texture. On the other 
hand, a cake containing too little sugar is not as fine grained 
as one having " just enough." 

A cake in which there is too much fat is crisp or crumbly, — 
i.e. it will not hold its shape. Too little fat may make it 
tough in texture. Generally the more fat a cake contains 
the smaller the quantity of moisture needed. Note that 
the One-egg Cake recipe contains 1 cupful of liquid, but 
when the fat is increased to ^ cupful, the moisture is de- 
creased to f cupful (see Plain Cake recipe, p. 429). 

Many eggs without a proportionate quantity of fat and 
sugar produce a tough cake. The toughness occasioned by 
eggs, may be offset, of course, by the tenderness produced 
by fat. It is a most interesting study to compare cake 
recipes. Some are well proportioned, others could be greatly 
improved by variations in the quantity of ingredients. 

The flavor of a cake is largely affected by the proportion 
of ingredients in a cake. For the sake of economy, however, 
certain ingredients, especially fat and eggs, must be decreased 
even though texture, grain, and flavor are sacrificed. The 
matter of wholesomeness must also be taken into considera- 
tion. Many persons can eat with comfort plain cakes, Le, 

428 CAKE 

those containing little fat and a moderate quantity of sugar, 
while rich cakes distress them. 


Flavor 40 

Lightness 20 

Grain and texture • 15 

Baking (crust and color) 15 

Appearance (shape and icing) 10 

Total iOO" 


How should cake batter be spread in the pan to prevent it from 
rising higher in the center than at the edges? 

What is the purpose of placing the warm cake on a cake cooler or 
on a cloth? Mention some substitute other than a cloth for a wire 
cake cooler. Why not place the warm cake inverted on the cake 

Explain why a hot cake should not be placed in a cool place or in 
a draft. 

Why store a cake in a tightly covered tin box? 

Give two reasons for the cracking of the crust of a cake. 

What is the effect of using too much fat in a cake? Too much 
suj);ar? Too much moisture? 

If the quantity of fat is increased, what ingredient in a cake 
recipe should be decreased? 

If the number of eggs in a cake is reduced, what ingredient should 
be increased? 


Cake Containing Fat — Plain Cake and its Modi- 
fications (A) 

The " Conventioiial " method of mixing cake is as follows : 
Cream the fat; then gradually add the sugar. Cream 
the mixture. Add egg yolks that have been beaten until 
light. Add the flavoring. Then add some of the milk and 


part of the dry ingredients. Repeat until all the milk and 
dry ingredients have been added. Beat the mixture thor- 
oughly. Cut and fold in the whites of the eggs quickly; 
then turn into oiled pans. 


2 cupfuls flour 1 cupful sugar 

2 teaspoonf uls baking powder } cupful liquid 

i teaspoonful salt 1 teaspoonf ul flavoring 

2 eggs } to i cupful fat 

Mix according to the directions above or according to 
Method of Mixing Cake Containing Fat (p. 425). 

Compare this recipe with that for One-egg Cake (p. 424). Note 
that the! eggs and fat are increased, while the baking powder and 
moisture are decreased. Can you account for these variations ? 


Follow the Plain Cake recipe, using 4 egg whites instead 
of 2 eggs and the greater quantity of fat. Vanilla or almond 
flavoring are pleasing in White Cake. If almond extract 
is used, add only ^ teaspoonful. 

White Cake is mixed according to the general directions 
(see p. 425), except, of course, that the egg yolks are omitted ; 
the egg whites are beaten until stiff and folded into the other 

A cheaper but tasty white cake may be made by following the 
recipe for One-egg Cake (see p. 424) and using 2 egg whites instead 
of 1 whole egg. 


Break open a fresh coconut, be sure to save all the milk 
and use it as part of the liquid for a White Cake. Add 
milk to the milk of coconut to make the f cupful of liquid 
in the plain cake recipe. Prepare a White Cake in two 

430 CAKE 

Break the coconut into pieces, pare these and put them 
through a food chopper or grate them. Prepare Boiled Frost- 
ing. When the frosting is ready to spread on the cake, add 
about f of the chopped coconut. Spread the mixture on the 
cake layers and sprinkle the remainder of the coconut over 
the frosting on the top layer of the cake. 

A fresh coconut cake will keep moist for a week. 


1 cupful confectioner's sugar 

1 tablespoonful hot water, milk, or cream 


1 tablespoonful lemon juice 

Stir the hot water into the sugar and add the salt and 
lemon juice. If too stiff, add a little more boiling water. 

3 tablesp>oonfuls of cocoa or 1 ounce of chocolate may be mixed with 
3 tablespoonfuls of water, cooked for a few minutes, and used in place 
of the moisture and lemon juice, i teaspoonful of vanilla should be 
added when these materials are used. When cocoa is used the addi- 
tion of 1 tablespoonful of butter improves the flavor. 

Mocha frosting may be made by mixing the cocoa or chocolate with 
strong coffee instead of water. 


1 egg white 1 cupful confectioner's sugar 

1 tablespoonful lemon juice Salt 

Put the unbeaten egg white into a bowl ; add the lemon 
juice, then the salt and sugar. Mix thoroughly. Spread 
on warm cake. 

The lemon juice may be omitted, and chocolate (or cocoa) and 
vanilla added, as in Water Frosting. 


2 egg yolks 1 tablespoonful lemon juice or vanilla 

Confectioner's sugar Salt 


Add the flavoring and salt to the unbeaten yolks. Add 
enough confectioner's sugar to the mixture to make it thick 
enough to spread. Use on White Cake when it is warm. 


i to 1 cupful sugar J cupful water 

1 teaspoonful vinegar 1 egg white 

1 teaspoonful flavoring Salt 

Mix the sugar, water, and vinegar in a saucepan. Cook 
gently until the sirup (when dropped from a spoon) " spins 
a thread " 3 inches long. Remove from the fire, and grad- 
ually pour the sirup over the egg white to which a pinch 
of salt has been added and which has been beaten stiff. 
Continue to beat the mixture ; when it begins to stiffen, add 
the flavoring, and spread over cooled cake. 

The less quantity of sugar produces a more delicate and less 
dense frosting than the greater quantity. 


1 cupful sugar 12 marshmallows 

i cupful boiling water 2 ounces chocolate 

I teaspoonful salt 3 tablespoonfuls water 

i teaspoonful vanilla 

In a saucepan stir the sugar, boiling water, and salt. 
Then place over a low flame and heat until the sugar is dis- 

Cut the marshmallows in halves, add to the sugar mixture, 
and beat imtil the marshmallows have melted. Cut the 
chocolate in pieces and mix with 3 tablespoonfuls water. 
Stir and cook over a low flame until a thick, smooth paste 
is formed. Add to the sugar mixture. Beat until the 
frosting is of proper consistency to spread, then stir in the 

432 CAKE 


Give the reason for the greater quantity of fat in cake when 
egg yolks are omitted. 

If the conventional method of mixing cake is followed, what can 
be done in cold weather to hasten the creaming of fat? What is the 
result of insufficient creaming? 

Why is the cake mixture beaten thoroughly before the whites of 
eggs are added? 

What is the purpose of cutting and folding in the whites of eggs 
in the cake mixture? 

What kind of fat should be used for white cake? Why? 

Why use hot water rather than cold water for Water Frosting 
(see Experiment 11, p. 70)? 

When egg whites alone are used in cake, give at least three uses 
for the yolks of the eggs. 

Why is Egg Frosting used on warm cake, rather than on cold? 

What is the use of vinegar in Boiled Frosting (see Christmaa 
Candy y p. 526) ? 

Why should the white of egg be beaten while the hot sirup is 
being poured over it? 


Cake Containing Fat — Plain Cake and its 

Modifications (B) 

chocolate cake 

2 cupfuls flour i teaspoonf ul baking soda 

3 teaspoonf uls baking powder 2 eggs 

} to 1 teaspoonful salt 1^ cupfuls sugar 

2 ounces chocolate or i cupful milk 

§ cupful cocoa 1 teaspoonful vanilla 

J cupful water i cupful fat 

Cook the chocolate or cocoa in the water until a smooth 
paste is formed, stirring constantly while cooking. Cool, 
and add the baking soda. 

Beat the egg yolks and whites separately. Mix as plain 


cake, adding the chocolate mixture after the egg yolks have 
been mixed with the sugar. Use the less quantity of salt if 
butter is used for the fat. 

Bake in layers, placing Chocolate Filling between the layers 
and Boiled Frosting on* the top layer. 

Sour milk may be substituted for the sweet milk. When this is 
done, increase the baking soda to | teaspoonful and decrease the 
baking powder to 2 teaspoonfuls. 

Baking soda is used with chocolate to neutraUze a small quantity 
of acid (tartaric) contained in it. Its use with chocolate will also 
darken the cake. 


i cupful sugar 3 tablespoonfuls water 

i cupful flour } teaspoonful salt 

1 cupful milk 1 egg yolk 

1 ounce chocolate 1 teaspoonful vanilla 

Mix all ingredients except the egg yolk and flavoring in the 
same manner as Chocolate Corn-starch Pudding (see p. 100). 
When sufficiently cooked, add the egg yolk as directed for 
Butterscotch Tapioca (see p. 182). Continue cooking until 
the egg is coagulated. Remove from the fire, cool, add 

3 tablespoonfuls of cocoa may be substituted for the chocolate. 
When this substitution is made, mix the cocoa with the flour and 
sugar and omit the water. 

The egg yolk may be omitted. When this is done add J table- 
spoonful of corn-starch to the flour and sugar mixture. 

Compare the recipes for chocolate and plain cake. How 
do you account for the difference in the quantities of sugar 
(see Chocolate Corn-starch Pvdding, p. 100) ? 

Does the water used for making the chocolate paste change 
in quantity during the cooking ? Explain. What ingredient 
do both chocolate and cocoa contain which aids in thickening 

434 CAKE 

the cake ? From this can you account for the greater quan- 
tity of moisture used in Chocolate Cake ? 

Would it be advisable to use a greater quantity of fat 
(i cupful) for Chocolate Cake ? Why ? 


Follow the recipe for Plain Cake, use the smaller quantity 
of fat, and add 1 cupful of chopped nuts. A convenient way 
of chopping nuts is to put them through the food chopper, 
using the coarse knife. 


Follow the recipe for Plain Cake, but add 1 cupful of 
raisins or currants. Clean the fruit, then dry, and sprinkle 
it with flour. Raisins may be chopped, or cut in two pieces 
(see To Prepare Raisins for Cooking, p. 77). Citron may 
also be added. It should be cut in thin slices or put through 
the food chopper. 

When light brown sugar is used instead of white sugar, 
dates make a pleasing addition. These should be cleaned, 
stoned, cut into pieces, and added as are the raisins or cur- 

Spices give pleasing flavor when dried fruits are used. 1 
teaspoonful each of cinnamon and nutmeg and \ teaspoonful 
of cloves make desirable flavoring. 


Mention the kinds of fat that could be used for spice cakes and 
for Chocolate Cake. Give the reason for the selection made. 

From U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 28, tabulate the 
percentage composition of some common nuts. Of chocolate and 

Explain why the minimum quantity of fat should be used for Nut 

Why are the dried fruits floured? 

Why are nuts not floured ? 


Compare cakes made with the least and the greatest quantity of 
fat. Which is the more tender? Which has the better taste? 

Calculate the cost per pound of Sponge Cake (see p. 422) . Calcu- 
late the cost per pound of cake containing fat (see Plain Cake, 
p. 429). 


Cake Containing Fat — Cookies 

Classes of Cookies. — Cooky mixture may be thin like 
a drop batter and dropped by spoonfuls on to a pan or it may 
be about as stiff as a soft dough and rolled and then cut into 
rounds or other shapes. Hence cookies may be classified as : 

(1) Drop Cookies. 

(2) Cut or Rolled Cookies. 

Texture of Cookies. — Drop cookies may or may not con- 
tain fat. Cut or rolled cookies usually contain fat. Since a 
dough is prepared in making the latter kind of cookies, fat is 
needed to make the mixture sufficiently tender. A dough 
containing little or no fat usually produces a tough cut cooky. 
A skilled cooky maker, however, can secure a soft cut cooky 
containing little fat by making a very soft dough. 

If crisp, cut cookies are desired, the dough should be 
rolled thin. To secure soft cooties roll the dough to at 
least J inch thickness. If cookies containing fat are stored in 
a tightly covered box, they become softer after several days. 

Compare the recipe for Sugar Cookies with that for Plain 
Cake (see p. 429). Account for the difference in the quan- 
tity of milk. Explain why the quantity of milk is decreased 
rather than the quantity of flour increased. 


2 cupfuls flour 1 cupful sugar 

2 teaspoonfuls baking powder i cupful fat 

i teaspoonful salt Milk or water (about | cupful) 

1 egg 1 teaspoonful flavoring or spice 

-. I 

436 CAKE 

Mix as^ for Plain Cake (do not separate the eggs), adding 
just sufficient milk to make the dough stiff enough to be 
rolled out. Put the dough in a cool place to chill. Roll 
out in small portions ; then sprinkle with sugar. Cut and 
bake about 10 minutes or until browned. 


Follow the recipe for Sugar Cookies, using i cupful of thick 
sour milk or cream in the place of sweet milk and adding J 
teaspoonful of baking soda. If sour cream is used, only J 
cupful (instead of J cupful) of fat is needed. Nutmeg — 
I teaspoonful — is a pleasing flavoring material for these 

For Ginger Cookies, vary the recipe for Sour Cream Cookies 
as follows : 

Use I cupful sugar and ^ cupful molasses instead of 1 cup- 
ful of sugar. 

Increase the baking soda to J teaspoonful. 

For flavoring use 1 teaspoonful ginger and 1 teaspoonful 

Since the molasses furnishes some moisture, it is usually 
necessary to add more flour or decrease the sour milk or 


Prepare Sour Cream Cooky dough. Roll the dough into 
a thin sheet and cut it into rounds. Spread half of the rounds 
with a thin layer of Raisin Filling (see below). Then cover 
each round with another piece of dough. Press the edges 
together. Place on an oiled baking sheet and bake in a 
moderate oven. 


} cupful com sirup 1 cupful seeded raisins 

i teaspoonful salt 


Cook these ingredients until the mixture is thick enough 
to use as eake filling. 

One fourth cupful of chopped nuts may be added. One egg may 
also be added to the mixture just before removing from the fire. 


2§ cupfuls flour 1 egg 

3 teaspoonfuls baking powder 1 cupful sugar 

J teaspoonful baking soda f cupful peanut butter 

i teaspoonful salt 1 cupful sour milk 

Mix and bake as Sugar Cookies. It is especially neces- 
sary to make the dough for these cookies very soft. It re- 
quires skilful handling. 


J cupful melted fat J teaspoonful baking soda 

i cupful molasses 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder 

i cupful com sirup 2 cupfuls corn-meal 

1 egg 1 cupful wheat flour 

6 tablespoonfuls sour milk J teaspoonful salt 

Combine the melted fat, molasses, sirup, beaten egg, and 
milk. Sift the dry ingredients and combine with the liquid. 
Drop from a teaspoon on to a greased pan and bake in a 
moderate oven for 15 minutes. This makes 55 to 60 cookies 
about 2 inches in diameter. 

(Adapted from United States Food Administration Bulletin,) 


How does the method of preparing cooky mixtiue differ from that 
of preparing cake mixture ? 

Why should cooky dough be chilled before rolling out? 

What can be done to the cooky cutter to prevent it from sticking? 

Why is less fat required for Sour Cream than for Sour Milk 
Cookies (see Figure 64, p. 284) ? 

438 CAKE 

From the United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 
No. 28, find the per cent of fat in peanut butter. What is the 
per cent of fat in butter (see Figure 63, p. 277) ? If butter were 
substituted for peanut butter in Peanut Butter Cookies, how much 
would be needed to furnish the same quantity of fat? 


Cakes without Eggs 

Omitting Eggs in Cake. — It was previously stated that 
2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder are required to leaven 

1 cupful of flour when no eggs are used. The statement 
was also made that the quantity of baking powder is reduced 
when eggs are used. Hence cakes made with eggs require 
less than the proportionate quantity of leavening given above. 

When eggs are omitted in a cake, it is necessary to use 

2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder (or its equivalent) for each 
cupful of flour. 

The flavor of cakes is usually improved when eggs are used. 
In eggless cakes, it is advisable to use spices or other materials 
of pronounced flavor. 

Since eggs are highly nutritious, their omission in cake 
decreases considerably the food value of the cake. Leavens 
and flavoring materials (except chocolate) used in eggless 
cakes have practically no food value. 


2 cupfuls flour i teaspoonful salt 

i teaspoonful cloves 1 cupful sugar 

IJ teaspoonfuls cinnamon 1 cupful apple sauce (unsweetened) 

1 teaspoonful nutmeg J cupful fat 

1 teaspoonful baking soda 1 cupful raisins, cut in halves 

Mix the sugar and apple sauce; add the fat. Mix the 
dry ingredients. Through a sifter, add them to the apple 


sauce mixture. Flour the raisins and stir them into the 
batter. Turn into a greased loaf -cake pan or into two layer- 
cake pans. Bake in a moderate oven. If the cake is baked 
in layers, put Raisin Filling (see p. 436) between them, but 
omit the raisins in the cake batter. 


2 cupfuls flour i cupful fat 

2 teaspoonfuls baking powder i teaspoonf ul baking soda 

1 teaspoonf ul salt 1 cupful sugar 

i cupful cocoa i cupful sour milk 

i cupful water 1 teaspoonf ul vanilla 

Mix the coQoa and water. Stir and cook until a thick 
smooth paste is formed. Add the fat. If solid fat is used, 
stir until it is melted. Set aside to cool. 

Add the baking soda and mix well. Then add the sugar 
and sour milk. Through a sifter, add the dry ingredients. 
Then add the vanilla. Beat well. Bake in two layers or in 
one sheet. Use frosting or Chocolate Filling made without 
eggs (see p. 433) between the layers and frosting on the top 

If it is desired to save sugar, a thin layer of Chocolate Filling may 
be used between the layers and on the top layer. 


1 cupful brown sugar 1 teaspoonf ul nutmeg 

i cupful molasses 2 teaspoonfuls cinnamon 

1 cupful seeded raisins i teaspoonful cloves 

f cupful water 2 J cupfuls flour 

i cupful fat i teaspoonful baking soda 

i teaspoonful salt 3} teaspoonfuls baking powder 

In a saucepan mix all the ingredients except flour and 
leavening materials. Stir and cook the mixture at boiling 
temperature for 3 minutes. Set aside to cool. 


Through a sifter, add the leavening materials and flour. 
Beat well. Turn into an oiled loaf-cake pan and bake in a 
" slow " oven from 45 to 60 minutes. 

Chopped nuts — J cupful — may be added to this cake. This 
addition, however, increases the cost. For economy the raisins may 
be omitted. 

Note. — Various changes occur when certain of the ingredients 
of this cake are cooked, viz., 
(a) The sugar is dissolved 
(6) The raisins are softened 

(c) The fat is melted 

(d) The spices are improved in flavor. 


What materials in Apple Sauce Cake leaven it? 

What ingredient usually present in cake recipes is omitted in. 
this cake? What takes the place of this ingredient? 

In Chocolate Cake, how much baking soda is required to neutral- 
ize the acid of the sour milk? For what purpose is the additional 
quantity used? 

What is the purpose of cooking the cocoa and water (see 
Cocoa and Chocolate, p. 166) ? 

Determine the difference in the cost of Chocolate Cake with 
and without eggs (see p. 432). 

What ingredient in Spice Cake contains a small quantity of 
acid? Explain why baking soda is an ingredient of this ingredient. 

Why should the cooked mixture of Spice Cake be cool before the 
remaining ingredients are added? 



The Luncheon Box 

The luncheon box most commonly used is of pasteboard or 
tin. Both these materials have advantages and disadvan- 


tages. Bread and cake are prevented from drying out when 
placed in a tightly covered tin box. On the other hand, 
food odors are retained and one pronounced odor may per- 
meate all of the foods. But since dry bread is unpalatable, 
the tin box is. considered more satisfactory. It should be 
kept clean and free from odors, should be emptied of its 
contents every day, washed (scalded often), and allowed to 
remain open all night. The collapsible box is the most con- 

For most lunches, a teaspoon, jelly glass, and in some 
cases a drinking cup are all the " dishes " needed. The 
jelly glass may serve for many purposes. Cup custard may 
be steamed or baked in it, or it makes an admirable mold 
for an individual steam pudding. Small fruits and fruit 
sauces may also be carried in jelly glasses. 

Menu Making for the Luncheon Box. — A luncheon box 
may be made a source of pleasure to the school child or 
everyday worker. To bring this about, the foods must be 
varied on successive, days. It is not necessary that each 
luncheon consist of various foods. Indeed, many kinds of 
food or foods in great quantity are not desirable for a child 
who sits quietly at study much of the day or for a person 
of sedentary occupation. It is both possible and necessary, 
however, — if the luncheon box is not to become monotonous, 
— to have different foods for each day of the week. As in 
any meal, all of the foodstuffs should be represented in the 
food of a luncheon box. 

Foods for the Luncheon Box. — (1) Sandwiches, — Bread 
is the basis of almost all box luncheons. Since sandwiches 
furnish the most convenient way of carrying foods that are 
to be eaten with bread, they invariably form a part of every 
luncheon. Because they are used so frequently they should 
be varied. Different kinds of bread, such as graham, Boston 
brown, and nut bread, may be used. Variety may be had by 


serving bread sometimes in the fonn of muffins or rolls. 
The slices of bread may be cut thin or thick to suit the 
appetite of the eater. It is often desirable to leave the 
crusts on the bread. Butter should be creamed before 
spreading it on the bread. If the sandwiches, are to be cut 
extremely thin, spread the bread before cutting it into slices. 
If sandwiches are prepared some time before they are 
served, they can be kept moist by wrapping in a dry towel, 
covered with a towel wrung out of hot water. 

The fillings for sandwiches oifer many variations. They 
may be divided into two classes, seasoned and sweet. 
Seasoned fillings may include meat, eggs, cheese, vegetables. 
If meat is used, it may be cut in slices, or chopped and mixed 
with a sauce. If sliced meat is used, it is well to tear it 
into pieces. (This applies also to lettuce.) If it is desired 
to lessen the quantity of meat in a diet, the meat should 
be chopped, for it has been found that only half as much 
meat is required when it is chopped and mixed with a dress- 
ing. Either Salad Dressing or White .Sauce may be com- 
bined with meat. A French Dressing made of vegetable oil, 
lemon juice, and seasonings is better, so far as ease of di- 
gestion is concerned, than Cream or " Boiled " Salad Dress- 
ing. If oil is not palatable, learn to like it. Any of the 
seasoned fillings may be mixed with Salad Dressing. Sliced 
tomatoes spread with Mayonnaise or Cream Salad Dressing, 
chopped peanuts mixed with salad dressing, sardines or cold 
chicken with lemon juice and paprika make tasty sandwich 

Sweet fillings for sandwiches include : preserved or dried 
fruits, bananas, nuts. Sandwiches made with a sweet fill- 
ing are most popular among children. Some of them make 
good substitutes for cake, and are much more easily digested. 
The dried fruits such as dates, figs, and prunes, cooked and 
combined with bread and butter, make excellent foods. 


The growing child is apt to become anemic. Since prunes 
contain iron, they should be frequently used in children's 
diet. Cooked prunes — seeded and flavored with lemon 
juice — make palatable sandwiches, especially when brown 
bread is used or a few chopped nuts are added. Breads con- 
taining sugar or molasses are most pleasing when used with 
a sweet filling. Banana sandwiches are much improved by 
the addition of lemon juice or Salad Dressing. Nuts are 
often combined with both sweet and seasoned materials; 
tjieir use gives opportunity for variety. Chopped raisins and 
nuts may be moistened with grape juice and used as sand- 
wich filling. Chopped dates, apples, and nuts mixed with 
salad dressing make a pleasing filling. Crushed maple or 
brown sugar mixed with cream or butter and used with whole 
wheat bread is a favorite sandwich among children. 
. (2) Relishes, — Celery, olives, and radishes serve as 
relishes for the luncheon box. Celery and olives (especially 
those stuffed with pimentos or nuts) are pleasing as a sand- 
wich filling. Most relishes, however, are more suitable for the 
luncheon box of a mature person than for that of a child. 

(3) Desserts. — Cake is a common constituent of the 
luncheon box. Not all cakes, however, are suitable for 
luncheons. For children, only the plainer cakes, i.e. those 
containing little fat, should be used. Plain cake and 
cookies, sponge cake, lady fingers, and gingerbread (if not 
too highly spiced) are also desirable for the school luncheon. 
Cookies or cakes baked in muffin pans are more suitable for 
packing than cut pieces of cake. 

Most fresh fruits can be easily packed in the luncheon 
box. As has been mentioned, grapes, the small fruits such 
as strawberries and raspberries, sliced pineapple, or fruit 
sauces may be carried in jelly glasses. 

Cup custards and simple puddings may be used as des- 
serts. If a child is permitted to have sweets, a little candy 


may be placed in the luncheon box ; it is better for a child to 
have candy at the end of a luncheon than after school (see 
Use of Candy in Diet, p. 523). 

Packing the Luncheon. — Neatness is an essential in an 
inviting luncheon box. All foods should be wrapped sep- 
arately in paraffin paper, and placed neatly in the box. 
Since some foods crush readily, it is not always possible to 
place the foods to be eaten first on top, but it is desirable 
to arrange the foods so that not all of them will have to be 
removed before beginning to eat the luncheon. The paper 
napkin should always be placed on top. It is perhaps 
unnecessary to say that foods should liot come in direct 
contact with newspapers or any printed matter. 


Plan menus for five school luncheons, making them as varied as 
possible. If you carry your luncheon to school, follow these menus 
in preparing your luncheon box. 



Planning and Preparing Box Luncheons 

Plan 1 box luncheons. Make sandwiches and other foods 
for the luncheon box. Fill one or more luncheon boxes 
according to plans. 


Review — Meal Cooking 


Cake (for Cottage Pudding) 

Vanilla Sauce 


1 See Foot-note, p. 327. 


See Lesson XIV, p. 68, for suggestions regarding the preparation 
of the lesson. 


Home Projects^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Bake cake or cookies at 
least once a week. If eggs are high in price, bake cake with- 
out eggs or bake One-egg Cake. 

Suggested Aims : (1) To improve the quality of cake. As 
suggested in a previous Home Project, score your product, 
determine the cause of any undesirable quality, and then 
avoid your error at the next baking (see p. 428). 

(2) To compare homemade and baker's cake. Determine 
the weight and cost of homemade and baker's cake. Com- 
pare like kinds of cake, i,e. plain, chocolate, etc. Com- 
pute the cost per pound of each. If possible compare the 
flavor, grain, and texture of each. What are the advantages 
of homemade over baker's cake ? 

1 See Lesson IX, p. 51. 



Pie with Under Crust 

Pastiy. — Good pastry is : (a) light, (b) flaky or friable, 
and (c) tender. The lightness of pastry is largely dependent 
upon the temperature of the ingredients. All the materials 
should be cold, so that the expansion in baking may be as 
great as possible. In order to keep the ingredients cold and 
the fats solid, a knife (instead of the fingers) should be used 
in mixing. It is well to chill pastry by placing it on the ice 
before rolling out. The lightness of pastry is dependent 
somewhat upon quick and deft manipulations. A little 
baking powder also increases the lightness of pastry. 

Flaky pastry results when the ingredients are mixed so as 
to form layers. To accomplish this, solid fat is used and it is 
not cut fine into the dry ingredients, but is left in pieces. 
Thus, when rolled, there are layers of flour and fat. Pastry 
is sometimes made by cutting part of the fat into the flour 
mixture, then moistening and rolling it out ; adding the re- 
mainder of the fat in small bits, folding and rolling out again. 

Friable pastry usually results when oil is used instead 
of solid fat. The following fats may be used alone or in com- 
bination : butter, oleomargarine, lard, vegetable oil or fat, 
lard substitutes. 

To iriake pastry tender and not tough, the least possible 

moisture should be used. The quantity of fat used also 

determines its tenderness. The more fat used, the less the 

amount of water required. Less moisture is required when 



oil rather than solid fat is used. For this reason, many 
persons can produce more tender pastry by using a cooking 
oil. The fact that the moisture is decreased when oil is used 
may also account for the decreased quantity of oil given in 
the recipe for pastry. Less oil than solid fat will produce 
the same degree of tenderness, provided less water is used. 

Pie with the Under Crust. — Pastry is somewhat difficult of 
digestion ; but a crust that is brittle and easily crumbled is 
more readily digested than one that is moist and pasty. 
Pie crust should crumble as finely as a cracker. To pre- 
vent moist and pasty pie crust, it is advisable to bake 
" one crust " pie. If an under crust only is used, it should 
be baked before adding the filling. The filling should 
be cooked and sweetened before adding it to the crust. 

PLAIN PASTRY (a crusts) 

li cupfuls flour i to i cupful fat or 

1 teaspoonf ul baking powder i to J cupful oil 

\ teaspoonf ul salt Ice water 

Mix the dry ingredients, cut in the fat slightly; then 
add just enough water to hold the ingredients together. 
Chill ; then roll out (one crust at a time). 

Pastry should be baked in a hot oven. It is well, how- 
ever, to place it in a hot oven and then lessen the heat after 
a short time. 

Bake a one crust pie on the outside of a pie pan ; it should 
be pricked with a fork before baking. 

The pastry trimmings should be utilized. They may be made into 
tarts or cheese straws. 


3 tablespoonf uls flour 2 egg yolks 

3 tablespoonfuls oom-starch Juice and rind of 1 lemon 

1 cupful sugar 1 tablespoonf ul butter 

2 cupfuls boiling water } teaspoonf ul salt 


2 egg whites 2 tablespoonf iils powdered sugar 

Mix the sugar, flour, and corn-starch, add the boiling 
water. Stir and cook on the back of the range, or over an 
asbestos mat, for 15 minutes. Add the egg yolks and cook 
at simmering temperature, until the eggs thicken. Add 
the remaining ingredients. Cool and place in a baked crust. 
Cover with a meringue (see p. 180). Bake until the meringue 
is a light brown. 

Note that the lemon is added to the mixture after cooking. Cook- 
ing a starchy material with a small amount of acid, dextrinizes the 
starch. Since dextrin has less thickening power than starch, the 
starch mixture would become thinner if cooked for some time with 










Appearance (color and thickness) 


Filling (flavor and consistency) 





Why should not the fingers be used to mix the fat with the dry 
ingredients in pastry making? 

Why is it easier to roll out pastry, if it has been chilled after 

Why should a lower crust, when used alone, be baked before 
adding the filling? 

What is the purpose of pricking the lower crust with a fork before 

Compare the filling for Lemon Pie with that for Cream Puffs 
(see p. 375) . How do they differ in moisture, method of preparation, 
and length of time in cooking? Give the reason for these differences. 

From U. S. Department of Agriculture,. Bulletin No. 28, tabulate 
the percentage composition of butter (see Figure 63, p. 277), oleo- 


margarine, lard, lard substitute, and vegetable oil. What is the 
price per pound of each? 

Which furnishes more fat, — a pound of butter or a pound of 
lard? If lard, lard substitute, or vegetable oil were substituted for 
butter in a cake or other quick bread, should the same quantity be 
used? Explain. 


Pies with Upper Crust 

Digestion of Pastry. — As previously mentioned (see Frying 
and Digestion, p. 140), when fats are heated to a high tem- 
perature, they decompose. The products of this decom- 
position are less readily digested than is fat before it is de- 
composed. Hence in fried foods, the fat is made somewhat 
indigestible. Thus it is much better to spread uncooked 
fat over hot potatoes than to combine the two foods by 
frying the potatoes. 

Fat is the most slowly digested of all foodstuffs. Hence 
a combination of fat and carbohydrates is more slowly di- 
gested than carbohydrate. For this reason, foods consist- 
ing of fat and flour such as pastry may remain in the diges- 
tive ttact for a long time and cause disturbances. Distress- 
ing effects are less likely to result, however, when a person's 
work is out of doors. Since fatty foods remain in the stomach 
longer than others, they may serve to allay the feeling of 
hunger which is caused by the contracting of an empty 

Pie with the Upper Crust. — In the previous lesson (see 
Pie vyiih Under Crusty p. 447), it was mentioned that 
" pasty " pie crust was not readily digested. For this rea- 
son, fresh fruit pie may be made with an upper crust only. 
Such pie should be baked in a pan of granite, glass, or similar 
material. The fruit is placed in the pie pan, then a half- 


inch strip of pastry is placed over the rim of the pie pan; 
the strip is moistened and the crust placed over the top. 
The strip of pastry and the upper crust are pressed to- 
gether, then the edges of the latter are trimmed. The 
upper crust should be cut in several places for the escape of 


2 cupfuls rhubarb, cut in small pieces 
1 egg 1 cupful sugar 

4 tablespoonfuls flour Salt 

Lemon rind 

Mix the sugar, salt, lemon rind, and flour ; beat the egg. 
Add the rhubarb and flour mixture to the egg. Turn into 
an earthenware dish or a granite pan, and cover with pastry 
as directed above. Bake until the rhubarb is tender and 
the crust is brown. 

Rhubarb contains such a large percentage of moisture 
that it is well to use but one crust. 


Explain why it is that baked {>otatoe8 and butter are more readily 
digested than fried potatoes. 

What is the advantage of using'only a top crust for fresh friiit pie? 

What is the purpose of egg and flour in Rhubarb Pie ? Why is it 
desirable to use these ingredients with rhubarb ? 

Why should the floiu- in Rhubarb Pie be mixed with sugar? 

How much water is there in apples and rhubarb (see U. S. 
Department of Agriculture^ Bulletin No. 28 and Figure 70, p. 298) ? 


Two-Crust Pies 

Two Crusts. — If both upper and lower crusts are used 
in making a pie, the lower crust should be placed inside the 


pan. The filling should be added, the edge of the crust 
moistened, and the upper crust placed over the pie and 
pressed around the edges. Then the edges should be 
trimmed. As was mentioned before, upper crusts should 
always be cut in several places for the escape of steam. 

Sometimes a half-inch strip of pastry is placed around the 
edge of the under crust before placing the upper crust. This 
is thought to aid in preventing the escape of the moisture of 
the filling. 


Cut 4 or 5 apples into slices, and for each apple use 2 table- 
spoonfuls (or more) of sugar. If the apples are not juicy, 
add from J to 1 tablespoonful of water for each apple. 
Flavor with 1 teaspoonful each of lemon juice and rind, J tea- 
spoonful cinnamon or nutmeg, and | teaspoonful salt. Line 
the inside of a pie pan with pastry, pour in the apple mixture. 
Add bits of butter, and cover with pastry as directed above. 
Bake until the apples are soft and the crust is brown. 

Apple sauce may be used as a filling for a baked crust. Such a 
pie is sometimes covered with meringue or strips of pastry. 


2 cupfuls fruit ^ to 1 cupful sugar 

3 tablespoonf uls flour 

If the fruit is fresh, wash and drain it well. Mix the sugar 
and flour. Line the inside of a pie pan with pastry, add half 
of the sugar and flour mixture. Add the fruit, and then the 
remainder of the sugar and flour. Cover with a top crust 
according to the directions above. 


Explain why it is that pie with only one crust, if properly made, is 
more desirable than that with two crusts (see Pie vfith Under Crusty 
p. 447). 


Why should fresh fruit, for fruit pie with two crusts, be well 
drained after washing? 

Give three ways of preventing the juice from boiUng over, in a 
pie with two crusts. 

Compare pastry that is made with lard, lard substitutes, vege- 
table oils and butter, as to taste, appearance, flakiness or friability, 
and tenderness. 



Infant Feeding 

Perfect Food for Infants. — Nature in her wisdom 
provides ideal food for the infant, — mother's milk. No 
perfect substitute has been found for it. It is most un- 
fortunate when a child is denied this food. 

It has been found * that babies fed with mother's milk 
are much less likely to contract disease and much more apt 
to grow to maturity. A mother's milk is adapted to the 
needs of her child. It agrees with the infant and nour- 
ishes it well. A practical advantage of a healthy mother's 
milk is that it is sterile and of the proper temperature. 

Modified Milk. — In case it is necessary to give the in- 
fant artificial diet, the greatest care should be taken to 
provide clean, easily digested food. Cow's milk is the basis 
of the food generally chosen. The way babies digest cow's 
milk shows the necessity of changing or modifying it to meet 
the needs of an infant. Cow's milk is modified sometimes 
by diluting it to make it digest easier and adding other in- 
gredients to it. In order to increase the fuel value of diluted 
milk, carbohydrate food of some soluble, easily digested kind 
is added. Sometimes gruel or cereal water is used as one of 
the constituents of modified milk. 

» See "Feeding the Family," by Mary Swartz Rose, Ph.D., p. 98. 


Formulas for modified milk vary with the individual 
infant. A physician should be consulted regarding, the 
formula for food for a baby. 

(a) Utensils for measuring and preparing the ingredi- 
ents of modified milk should be kept very clean. Before 
using, all glass and metal utensils used for measuring and 
holding the milk should be covered with cold water, then 
the water should be heated and allowed to boil for twenty 
minutes. Just before using rubber nipples, place them in 
boiling water for a few minutes. After using, they should 
be rinsed in cold water and then carefully washed inside 
and out with soap and water. When not in use, nipples 
should be kept in a clean covered jar or jelly glass. (The jar 
and cover should be sterilized daily.) After using the milk 
bottles (have as many bottles as there are feedings a day), rinse 
them in cold water, and then fill them with water and add 
a pinch of baking soda. Before filling the bottle with milk, 
wash with soap and water — using a bottle brush — and 
then sterilize in boiling water for twenty minutes (as 
directed above). Bacteria cannot pass through cotton, 
hence it is used for stoppering the filled milk bottles. 
It should be clean, however. Paper caps are also used. 

(6) Ingredients, — (1) Milk. — The selection of milk for 
an infant is an important consideration. Clean milk is 
most essential. Milk is considered clean when it comes 
from dairy farms where clean milkers work under sanitary 
conditions, approved by a medical milk commission (see 
Care of Milk, p. 172). Such milk contains few bacteria 
and is called certified milk. This is by far the safest milk 
for infant diet, but it is expensive. It usually costs almost 
twice as much as ordinary milk. Milk is pasteurized com- 
mercially by heating it to 150° F., keeping it at that tem- 
peratiu'e for about thirty minutes, and then quickly cooling 
it. While pasteurizing kills most of the disease-producing 


germs, it does not destroy all the spores (see Micro- 
organisms in the Spore Form, p. 502). The taste of milk 
is not affected by pasteurizing. Milk is sterilized — all 
germ life destroyed — by heating at 212° F. from one to 
one and one half hours. 

Since the value of milk as an infant food depends upon 
its cleanliness, it is difficult to state just how old milk may 
be before it is unsafe for infant feeding. It is safest to use 
only fresh milk. Bacteria in milk may develop so rapidly 
that it is unfit to use a few hours after it has been drawn 
from the cow. Unless milk is certified, it should not be 
used in summer after it is twenty-four hours old, and in 
winter, after it is forty-eight hours old. Bottled milk should 
be used for infants^ According to most plans for modifying 
milk, whole milk is used. 

(2) Sugar. — Several kinds of sugar are used in modified 
milk. These are : 

Milk sugar or lactose. 

Malt sugar combined with dextrin or dextrimaltose. 

Granulated sugar or cane sugar. 

The advice of a physician should be consulted regarding the 
kind of sugar best suited to the needs of the particular 
infant. The first two kinds of sugar can be obtained at a 
drug store. Granulated sugar is too sweet for general use. 

(3) Water or Cereal Water. — If plain water is to be 
used with milk, it should be boiled before adding to the 
other ingredients. 

In some cases, gruel or cereal water is added. Usually 
rolled oats or barley flour is the grain used. To prepare 
either of these use : 

4 tablespoonfuls rolled oats or 
3 tablespoonfuls barley flour 
1 quart cold water. 



Mix and boil gently until the mixture is reduced to a pint. 
Then strain through a fine wire strainer or muslin. 

(c) Method of Mixing. — Measure the sugar. This in- 
gredient is usually measured in ounces, tables poonfuls, or 
teaspoonfuls. (1§ dipperfuls (Figure 87) of milk sugar 
weigh 1 ounce.) In the graduated measure (Figure 87), 
measure the water or cereal water for diluting the milk 
and dissolve the sugar in it. 
Stir the mixture until the sugar 
is completely dissolved. Then 
pour it into the mixing pitcher. 
Measure the milk (and other in- 
gredients if required) and pour 
into pitcher. Mix thoroughly. 
While stirring, turn the proper 
quantity of food into as many 
sterilized bottles as are required 
for a day's feeding. Stopper 
with cotton or cap. If the milk 
used is certified, place in a clean 
refrigerator until used for feed- 
ing. If the milk is not certified, 
it may be pasteurized. 

Pasteurizing Milk at Home. 
— Place the bottles of milk in 
a wire basket. Then place the basket in a kettle. Pour 
water in the kettle so that the water is a little higher outside 
of the bottles than the surface of the milk inside. Heat 
the water and let it boil for 5 minutes. (Do not begin to 
count the time until the water reaches the boiling point.) 
At once cool the milk by allowing a stream of cold water 
to displace the hot water. Do not allow the cold water to 
run directly on the hot bottles. When the milk is cooled, 
place the bottles immediately in a clean refrigerator. 

IOURE87. — Graduated Meas- 
ure AND Dipper fob Meas- 

Modified Milk. 


Preparation of Milk before Feeding. — At feeding time, 
milk should be heated to about 98° F. Place the bottle in 
a pan of warm water. Test the milk for proper temperature. 
Use the method described in Junket " Custard," p. 189, 
for testing the temperature of the milk. Shake the bottle 
before feeding. 

Other Foods Given to Infants. — In addition to modified 
milk, boiled water should be given to infants. A few other 
foods — egg yolk or vegetable juices and orange juice — may 
often be given during the first year. The egg yolk should 
be soft-cooked. This food supplies iron and increases the 
Calorific value of the diet. Orange juice (strained through 
muslin) may be usually given at five or six months of age. 
It is especially necessary to give orange juice to infants 
whose milk is pasteurized or sterilized. Its use prevents 
constipation and scurvy. 

Energy Requirement of an Infant. — The energy require- 
ment of an infant is greater than one would suppose. Growth 
and development are going on at a rapid rate. Like the 
adult, a baby asleep needs energy to carry on the involun- 
tary activities of its body. When awake such muscular 
activities as crying, kicking, and throwing of arms require 
energy. An infant's energy requirement is usually based 
upon its body weight. According to generally accepted 
standards* an infant's average energy requirement is: 

1st to 3d months 50 Calories per pound per day 

4th to 6th months 45 Calories per pomid per day 

7th to 9th months 40 Calories per pound per day 

10th to 12th months 35 Calories per pound per day 

Quantity of Food. — When a baby must be given artificial 
food entirely or as a supplement to natural food, it is safest 
and most satisfactory to follow the advice of a physician. 

1 See "Feeding the FamUy," by Mary Swartz Rose, Ph.D., p. 103. 


It is said, however, that an infant requires an average of 
Ij ounces of milk per day for every pound of body weight. 
After the eighth month, this quantity of milk is usually 
decreased first to 1| and then to Ij ounces for every pound 
of body weight per day. 

The amount of artificial food found satisfactory for the 
infant during the first few months of its life is usually not 
sufiicient to yield as many Calories as given in the table 
on p. 456. But while the baby is adjusting itself to 
artificial feeding, it is especially necessary that the stomach 
be not overtaxed. As the infant develops, the quantity 

of food can be increased and the deficiency made up later. 



Define certified, pasteurized, sterilized, modified, and top milk. 

Give reasons for sterilizing utensils used for measuring and holding 

In preparing modified milk why is milk diluted? Why is sugar 

What is the price per quart of certified milk? 


Modifying Milk 

Modify cow's milk according to a formula secured from 
a physician or baby's dispensary. Pasteurize milk. 


Review — Meal Cooking 


Baked Sweet Potatoes or Scalloped Potatoes 

Apple Dumpling (made with pastry or biscuit dough) 

See Lesson XIV (p. 68), for suggestions regarding the prepara- 
tion of the lesson. 



Home Projects^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — If pies are served in your 
home, bake at least one pie a week. In case pies are not 
used, bake cake in which different quantities of fat are used. 

Suggested Aims: (1) To compare One- and Two-crust 
Pies. Prepare each kind. Determine the difference in 
cost, time of preparation, and quaUty of the crust of each. 
Which kinds of pies do you consider more successful in re- 
gard to quality? Which is cheaper? Which kind meets 
the approval of other members of your home ? 

(2) To compare Cake Containing Little and Much 
Fat. Follow the recipe for One-egg or Plain Cake. Vary 
the quantity of fat from | to | cupful. Make comparisons 
regarding cost, texture, grain, and flavor. Which amount 
do you consider most successful from the standpoint of 
texture, grain, and flavor? 

^ See Lesson IX, p. 51. 




Method of Freezing — Water Ice 

Experiment 79 : Mixtures for Freezing. — Prepare 2 cupfuls of 
cracked ice. Place 1 cupful of the cracked ice in each of two bowls. 
To one bowl of ice add i cupful of rock salt, and mix thoroughly. In- 
sert thermometers into both bowls and note temperature. What 
effect does the salt have upon the temperature of the ice? 

Allow the ice mixture to stand a few minutes, then observe the dif- 
ference in the condition of the ice in the two bowls. Besides lower- 
ing the temperature, what does the salt do to the ice ? 

Freezing with Ice and Salt. — When a solid substance is 
changed to a liquid, heat is absorbed from surrounding 
materials. When solid ice liquefies, heat is absorbed from 
surrounding materials. Salt makes ice liquefy at a lower 
temperature, thus absorbing more heat from its surroundings. 
Since foods must be cooled, i.e. heat drawn from them, in 
order to freeze them, a mixture of ice and salt rather than 
ice is used. in freezing. 

If ice and salt surround a tin can containing substances 
to be frozen, from what is the heat absorbed when the ice 
is changed to liquid form? Explain why it is that a mix- 
ture of ice and salt, rather than ice alone, is used to freeze 
a dessert. 

Conductors of Heat. — In Experiment 2, p. 16, and on 
p. 90, The Principle of Fireless Cookery, it is shown thAt 
some materials are better conductors of heat than others. 



Which is a better conductor of heat, wood or metal? Ex- 
plain why it is that most freezers consist of an inner can 
of metal and an outer bucket of wood. A few freezers have 
an outside metal bucket. Such freezing devices have been 
found more satisfactory when heavy paper is tied around 
the outer metal bucket. 

Cooling by Evaporation. — If a few drops of alcohol, 
ether, or gasoline are poured in the palm of the hand and 
allowed to evaporate, the hand feels cold. During evapora- 
tion, the liquid takes heat from the hand. When any liquid 
evaporates, heat is absorbed from surrounding materials. 
Water may be cooled by placing it in a porous jar and hang- 
ing it in a breeze. 

When there is no ice, this principle of cooling by the rapid 
evaporation of a liquid may be applied to the cooling of 
butter and other foods. Wrap butter in an oiled paper and 
place it in a flower crock or any porous jar. Place the crock 
in a draft ; put a bowl of water beside it. Wrap a wet cloth 
about the crock and place one end of it in the bowl of water. 
The continuous evaporation of the moisture keeps the food 

Preparing and Packing the Freezer. — Scald the can, the 
cover, and the dasher of the freezer ; cool it before the mix- 
ture that is to be frozen is placed in it. Adjust the can 
carefully in the bucket; put in the dasher; pour in the 
mixture, cover ; adjust the crank. Crush the ice for freez- 
ing by placing it in a strong bag and pounding it with a 
wooden mallet. Mix the ice with rock salt in the propor- 
tion given below. Then pour the ice and salt mixture around 
the can of the freezer. The ice and salt mixture should be 
higher around the can than the level of the mixture inside. 

For freezing ice creams and most ices use three parts of 
cracked ice to one of rock salt. If ice of coarse grain is 
desired, use a greater quantity of salt. The less salt in 


proportion to ice used, the finer the grain; the process of 
freezing, however, takes place very slowly when little salt 
is used. 

For mixtures which are frozen by merely packing in ice 
and salt but are not stirred, such as mousse or parfait, use 
two parts of cracked ice to one of rock salt. 

For packing frozen mixtures after freezing, use four parts 
of cracked ice to one of rock salt. 

Freezing. — If a dessert of fine texture is desired, turn the 
crank slowly and steadily until the mixture is rather stiff, 
then turn more rapidly. In making water ices, it is con- 
sidered advisable by some to turn the crank steadily for 5 
minutes, then allow to stand 5 minutes, turn again 5 min- 
utes, and continue until freezing is completed. Do not 
draw off the salt water while freezing the mixture, unless 
the salt water stands so high that there is danger of its 
getting into the can. 

When the mixture is frozen, remove the ice and salt 
around the top of the can; wipe the cover and top; un- 
cover; and remove the dasher. Then stir the frozen mix- 
ture thoroughly ; place thin paper or paraffin paper over the 
can; cover; place a cork in the hole of the cover. Drain 
off all the water which has collected in freezing ; repack the 
freezer with ice and salt mixture in the proportion given 
above ; cover with carpet, blanket, or newspapers ; and 
allow to stand in a cold place several hours. 


4 cupfulfl water 3 lemons 

2} cupfuls sugar 3 bananas 

3 oranges } teaspoonf ul salt 

Make a sirup of the sugar and water, and then cool it. 
Extract the juice from the lemons and oranges; crush the 
peeled and scraped bananas with a wooden potato masher. 


Mix the fruits and salt immediately with the sirup. Freeze 
at once. When frozen, remove the dasher and repack as 
directed above. 

A less expensive but more mildly flavored ice may be prepared 
by using 3 pints of water (instead of 4 cupfuls). When the greater 
quantity of water is used, 3} cupfuls (instead of 2} cupfuls) of sugar 
should be used. 

These recipes for Fruit Ice are modifications of the popular 
recipe termed " Five Threes." 


Explain why it is necessary to scald the can, cover, and dasher 
of an ice cream freezer (see Care of Milk, p. 172). 

What harm sometimes results when an ice cream freezer has been 
carelessly prepared? 

,Why should not the salt water be drawn from the freezer during 
freezing (see Experiment 79, p. 459) ? 

What is the purpose of placing paper over the can when packing 
the frozen mixture ? 

What is the pmpose of covering the packed freezer with carpet, 
blanket, or newspapers (see The Principle of FireUss Cookery, 
p. 90)? 

Why is it well to tie heavy paper aroimd an outside metal bucket 
of a freezer? 

Why should " Fruit Ice " mixture be frozen at once after pre- 
paring the fruit? 

Heat aids chemical action. Can you explain why acid mixtures 
are not acted upon by the metal and consequently discolored when 
frozen in a tin or iron can? 


Frozen Creams 

Frozen desserts consist of : 
1. Cream Mixtures : 

(a) Plain Ice Cream, — Cream, sugar, and flavoring. 
This is sometimes called Philadelphia Ice Cream. 


(6) French Ice Cream, — Custard, cream, and flavoring. 
On the continent, this frozen mixture is called Neapolitan 
Ice Cream. In this country, three kinds of frozen mixtures 
served together make up what is termed Neapolitan Ice 

(c) Mousse. — Whipped cream, folded into various sweet- 
ened and flavored mixtures, placed in a mold, and packed in 
ice and salt, but not beaten. 

2. Water Mixtures : 

(a) Water Ice. — Fruit juice, water, and sugar. 
(6) Sherbet. — Water ice with the addition of dissolved 
gelatine or beaten whites of eggs. 

(c) FrappS. — Water ice of coarse texture. 

(d) Granite. — Water ice to which fruit is added after 

. 3. Frozen Puddings : 
Various sweet mixtures. 

Method of Mixing Frozen Foods. — The sugar of a frozen 
dessert should always be dissolved. To accomplish this a 
sirup should be made of the sugar and water (see Experi- 
ment 11, p. 70). For mixtures that contain no eggs^ but 
in which cream or milk is used, the cream or milk may be 
scalded, and the sugar dissolved in the hot liquid. If eggs 
are used to thicken ice cream, they should be combined 
with the sugar and pream and cooked as for a soft custard 
(see p. 179). 

In sherbets, whites of eggs are often used. They are 
usually beaten stiff, and added uncooked to the mixture. 
If fruit juice is to be used with milk or cream, the latter 
should be chilled before adding the fruit. Fruits that are 
to be frozen with the other ingredients should be crushed 
thoroughly. Small fruits, or large fruits cut in pieces, are 


sometimes added to a dessert after it is frozen, thereby pre- 
venting the fruit from freezing and becoming hard. All 
frozen mixtures should stand several hours before serving, 
in order to ripen. 


1 quart cream J cupful sugar 1 tablespoonful vanilla 

Prepare as directed in Method of Mixing Frozen Foods, 


1 quart cream 1 cupful sugar 2 oimces chocolate 

i cupful boiling water Salt 1 teaspoonful vanilla 

Scald the cream ; add the sugar to it. Prepare the choco- 
late in the usual way, by cooking it in the boiling water 
until a smooth paste is formed (see Chocolate, p. 168). 
Add the chocola^te mixture to the hot cream. Cool, add 
salt and vanilla, and freeze. 


1 quart cream Salt 

1 pint milk 1 cupful sugar 

3 egg yolks 1 tablespoonful vanilla 

Prepare as directed in Method of Mixing Frozen Foods 
(see p. 463). 


2 cupfuls fruit juice, or 1 quart cream- 

3 cupfuls crushed fruit 2 cupfuls sugar 

Prepare and freeze according to the Method of Mixing 
Frozen Foods (see p. 463). 

For Frozen Fruit or Water Ice, use water instead of cream. 
The flavor of most fruits is improved by adding 2 tablespoonfuls 
of lemon juice to the water mixture. 



For Fruit Ice Cream, why is it necessary to chill the cream before 
adding the fruit juice or crushed fruit (see Experiment 61, p. 283) ? 

Why is it necessary to crush the fruit for frozen fruit mixture ? 

How much sugar would be required to sweeten one and one half 
quarts of custard, according to the recipe for Soft Custard (p. 179) ? 
Compare this with the quantity of sugar used for French Ice Cream. 
How do extremely cold beverages affect the sense of taste? From 
this, account for the difference in the quantity of sugar used in 
frozen and in cold desserts. Also compare the quantity of sugar 
and vanilla used in Chocolate Ice Cream and Chocolate Beverage 
(p. 168). Account for the difference. 

Approximately how much ice is required to freeze and pack one 
quart of Ice Cream ? What is the cost of ice per hundred pounds ? 
• How many persons does one quart of ice cream serve ? 


Diet for Young Children 

Selection of Food for Children (2 to 12 years). — Although 
solid food is included in the diet of a child after the first 
year, the baby is by no means ready for the food of adults. 
Childhood differs essentially from maturity in that it is a 
period of growth. In proportion to weight a child is much 
more active than an adult. A child has not the reserve 
power of a grown-up person.. His organs of digestion and 
assimilation are delicate. Because the activities and needs 
of the child differ greatly from those of the adult, diet suit- 
able for the adult is not adapted to the child. A considera- 
tion of foods for young children follows : 

(1) Milk. — Since milk is the food provided for young 
animals, it should be used generously all through childhood. 
The nutritive value of milk is high in proportion to the 


effort required to digest and assimilate it. The average 
child with good digestion should take from one and one 
half pints to one quart daily until the tenth year. In 
this amount is included not only the milk that is used as 
a beverage, but the milk served with cereals and vegetables 
and that used in soups, custards, blanc mange, rice and 
bread puddings, and other easily digested desserts. 

(2) Cereals and Breads. — Well-cooked cereals are among 
the essential foods of childhood. " Ready-to-serve " break- 
fast cereals are undesirable as staples for young children. 
Cereals should be cooked from one to three hours. For very 
young children (under eighteen months) all cereals must be 
strained. For older children, unstrained cereals may he 
used, provided they are thoroughly cooked. Frequent use 
of the whole gmins, as rolled oats and wheat, is recom- 
mended. These cereals contain more protein and ash than 
the finer cereals and hence may be better body-builders, 
but they also. contain much bran. Usually the latter does 
not prove irritating if thoroughly cooked. But if these 
coarse cereals do cause irritation they should either be 
strained or the cereals containing less bran, as cream of 
wheat, farina, and arrowroot, should be used. Cereals 
should be served with milk or cream, but with no sugar 
or sirup or not more than one teaspoonful to a serving. 

Carefully made toast (see p. 103), " zwieback," and stale 
bread may be given to young children. On account of the 
difficulty in digesting fresh breads, they are excluded from 
children's diet. 

(3) Eggs are especially good foods for children, provided 
they are fresh and properly cooked. They should be cooked 
in some way which leaves them soft such as soft-cooking or 
poaching. Only soft-cooked egg yolks should be given to 
children under three years. One whole egg per day may be 
included in the diet of older children. 


(4) Broth and Meat, — There is some difference of opinion 
regarding the use of meat in children's diet. Some authori- 
ties advise beef broth and the more easily digested meats 
for young children. Others say that if a generous amount 
of eggs and milk is included in children's diet, it is well 
not to give them meat before eight years. In the diets 
for children from two to eight years, given on p. 469, 
neither broth nor meat is included. It is possible to 
obtain suflBcient protein from milk and eggs. Doubtless, 
as with adults, most young children would be benefited 
by much less meat than is generally given them or by none 
at all. If meat is given to young children, it should be 
scraped (see Experiment 50, p. 192)* and pan-broiled (see 
Pan-Broiling, p. 199), as it is somewhat difficult to mas- 

(5) Fresh Vegetables should be included in children's 
diet. For very young children select mild vegetables such 
as spinach, asparagus tips, string beans, and peas. Cook 
until very soft and press through a sieve or mash. Later, 
such cooked vegetables as potatoes (baked or mashed), 
beets, carrots, cauliflower, and squash may be added. No 
uncooked vegetables should be given to young children. 

(6) Fruits and Stigar, — Fruits are especially valuable for 
children. Care should be taken, however, in selecting fruits. 
It is said that until a child is five years old only cooked 
fruits and the juice of fresh fruits should be given. For 
very young children the juice of orange or the pulp of cooked 
prunes should be given daily, because they contain valu- 
able nutrients and possess laxative properties. For older 
children the cooked food fruits (see Kinds of Fruits, p. 65) 
such as dates, figs, and raisins (without seeds), and bananas 
(baked) are desirable. Apples, peaches, and apricots, baked 
or made into sauces, are also suggested. 

Fruits should be cooked with little or no sugar. Sweets 


in the form of sweet fruits rather than sugar and candy 
should be given to children under six years. After six 
years, very little candy or sweet chocolate may be given 
at the end of a meal, not between meals. It is a mistake 
to give children candy just because they want it (see The 
Use of Candy in Diet, p. 523.) 

(7) Desserts. — Fruits selected and prepared as given in 
the previous section, very plain cakes — sponge cake and 
those containing little fat — and easily digested desserts 
made of eggs, milk, cereals, etc., are the only desserts suit- 
able for young children. 

(8) Water and Other Beverages, — " Pure " water in gener- 
ous quantities is needed for children. Water and milk are 
the only beverages (if milk can be considered a beverage) 
that should be given to children under six years. After 
that age, cocoa mAde with much milk may be given, but 
not tea, coffee, or any carbonated drinks. 

The Importance of Proper Diet for Children cannot be 
over-emphasized. It is a child's right to be " hardy." 
Good food in proper quantity given at the right time is 
essential for the sure and steady growth of the body. The 
child's future health, usefulness, and happiness depend much 
upon the nourishment he receives. If insufficient food, or 
food lacking in foodstuffs for growth, is given to children, a 
wasting away of brain cells and muscle may take place 
and stunted growth will result. The additional care in 
preparing special menus for children is an effort well worth 
making; its compensation is inestimable. If from baby- 
hood a child is given his own special diet, it is possible to 
satisfy him at the table with food that differs from that of 
the rest of the family. Habits of eating plain food should 
be established in childhood. Mrs. Richards says: "Habit 
rather than instinct guides civilized man in the choice of food." 
Likes or dislikes for food should not be discussed in the pres- 


ence of children. Such discussions may establish distaste 
for a food of decided nutritive value. 

Regularity in feeding children is most important. There 
should be no lunches between meals. It is important also 
that a child be taught to masticate food thoroughly. 

Energy Requirements of Children of Different Ages. — It 
is difficult to write definitely regarding the quantity of 
food that should be given to children. As with adults, 
some children require more than others. The personal 
factor enters largely into this question. In Lesson CXXIV 
the energy requirements of children of different ages are 
given (see Relation of Age to Daily Energy Requirement, 
p. 380). As stated there, these tables indicate the energy 
requirement of children of normal size, development, and 
activity. Note that in the menus given below the Calo- 
ries derived from protein are approximately one seventh 
of the total Calories (see Daily Protein Requirement, 
p. 380). 

The following menus ^ for children from two to twelve 
years were prepared for average children of moderate activity 
in a family of limited income. 


Child e-4 Years Old 

Breakfast : 7 : 30 a.m. Oatmeal Mush 0.8 ounce dry cereal 

Milk 1} cupfuls 

Stale Bread 1 slice 

Orange Juice 4 tablespoonfuls 

Limch: 11 a.m. Milk 1 cupful 

Stale Bread 1 slice 

Butter 1 teaspoonful 

* Prepared by Mary Swartz Rose, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Nu- 
trition, School of Household Arts, Teachers College, Columbia University 
(see Teachers College Bulletin. "The Feeding of Young Children," 
pp. 6-9). 


Dinner: 1 p.m. 

Supper : 5 : 30 p.m. 

Baked Potato 


Boiled Onion (Mashed) 


Bread and Butter 

1 slice 

Milk to Drink 

1 cupful 

Baked Apple 


Boiled Rice 

1 cupful 


I cupful 

Bread and Butter 

1 slice 

Fuel Value, 1313 Calories; Calories derived from protein, 191.2. 
Substitutes or Additions : 

For Rolled Oats or Rice: Other cereals, such as rolled wheat, 
wheaten grits, farina, hominy, and corn-meal. 

For Orange Juice and Baked Apple : Prune pulp or apple sauce. 

For Onions: Spinach, strained peas, stewed celery, carrots, or 
cauliflower tips. 

An egg may be added every day, and should be included at least 
two or three times a week. 

These changes will alter the cost somewhat. 

Child 4-8 Years Old 

Breakfast : Oatmeal 1 J ounces dry cereal 

Top Milk 4 ounces 

Stewed Prunes 4 or 5 

Toast 1 sUce 

Milk to Drink 6 oimces 

Dinner : Pea Soup 1 cupful 

Croutons 1 slice bread 

Boiled Onions 2 small 

Baked Potato 1 large 

Molasses Cookies 2 

Supper : Cream Toast 2 slices bread 
Rice Pudding with 

Milk and Sugar 1 cupful 

Milk to Drink. 5 ounces 

Fuel Value, 1892 Calories ; Calories derived from protein, 261.6. 
Substitutes or Additions : 

For Rolled Oats : Other cereals, as suggested on previous page. 
For Onions and Peas: Strained dried beans; other vegetables 
carefully cooked ; fresh lettuce. 



For Prunes : Fresh ripe apples, baked bananas, other mild fruits 
well cooked. 

For Rice Pudding: Junkets, custards, blanc manges, bread 
puddings, and other very simple desserts. 

For Cookies : Gingerbread, sponge cake, or very plain cookies. 

Child 8-12 Years Old 

Breakfast : Oatmeal Mush 

Top Milk 

Stewed Prunes 


Milk to Drink 
Limcheon : Pea Soup 

Boiled Onions 

Baked Potato 

Bread and Butter 

Molasses Cookies 
Dinner : Baked Haddock 

Creamed Hashed Potato 


Bread and Butter 

Rice Pudding — Milk 
and Sugar 

\\ ounces dry cereal 
6 ounces 
6 or 7 
2 slices 
6 ounces 

1 cupful 

2 small 

1 large 

2 slices bread 

3 cookies 

small serving (2 ounces) 
J cupful 
J cupful 
2 slices 

1 cupful 

Fuel Value, 2420 Calories ; Calories derived from protein, 345.6. 
Substitutes or Additions : 

For Rolled Oats : Other cereals thoroughly cooked. 
For Haddock : Rare beefsteak, roast beef, or mutton chops ; 
other fish, especially white varieties. 

For Primes : Any mild ripe fruit uncooked or cooked. 
For Onions : String beans, stewed celery, beets, squash. 
Peas or Spinach : Turnips or cauliflower. 

Suggestive Dietary for Child who will not Drink Milk, Age 6 Years 

(1 quart milk concealed in the menu.) 
Breakfast : 

7 A.M. Oatmeal \ cup cereal cooked in 1 cupful 


Creamy Egg on Toast 1 egg yolk with \ slice bread 

and } cupful milk 

Cocoa 1 teaspoonful cocoa and \ cup- 

ful milk 


10 a.m. " Zwieback ' ' and Cream 1 piece * ' zwieback ' ' and 1 table- 
spoonful cream 
1 : 30 P.M. Spinach Soup 4 oimces 

Baked Potato with 1 potato and 2 tablespoonfuls 

Cream cream 

Bread and Butter 1 slice 

Caramel Junket li cupfuls 

5 : 30 P.M. Rice and Prunes 2 tablespoonfuls rice cooked in 

\ cupful milk, and 5 prunes 
"Zwieback" 1 slice 

Total Calories, 1431 ; Calories from protein, 207.6. 


Give at least three reasons why yoimg children should have differ- 
ent food from adults. 

Why are not ready-to-serve cereals suitable staple foods for young 

What are the advantages of using whole grains for children's food? 

Why not serve sugar with breakfast cereals for children ? 

Why is not meat a desirable food for most young children ? 

Why are fresh vegetables and fruits such necessary foods for 


Planning and Preparing Menus for Children 

Plan 1 a day's feeding for a child of five years, meeting 
the total energy and the protein requirements. Prepare 
these foods. 


Review — Meal Cooking 


Creamed Vegetable 

Apricot Dainty 


1 See Foot-note, p. 327. 


See Lesson XIV (p. 68), for suggestions regarding the preparation 
of the lesson. 


Home Projects^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Plan a week's diet for 
a small sister, brother, or other child in whom you are in- 
terested. (Follow suggestions given in Lesson CLXII.) 
Calculate the total Calorific value and Calories derived 
from protein. Does your menu consist of foods which 
furnish the proper Calorific value and Calories derived from 
protein ? 

Supposed Aims: (1) If your menus do not conform to 
the requirements, to change them so as to meet the require- 
ments of the young child. 

(2) If possible, to arrange to have your menus prepared 
and fed to the child, assisting as much as possible in the 
preparation of the food and in the feeding of the child. 

1 See Lesson IX, p. 51. 



The Principles of Preserving Food 

Why Foods Spoil. — Most foods spoil or change readily, — 
fruits decay, milk sours, butter becomes rancid, and meat 
putrefies. Knowledge concerning the spoiling of foods 
makes it possible for the housekeeper to preserve foods from 
one season to another; it gives her the assurance that her 
preserved fruit will " keep." 

The decay of foods is due largely to the existence of minute 
vegetable organisms or microorganisms. These microorgan- 
isms are molds, yeasts, and bacteria. The molds (see Figure 
88) are visible to the naked eye, the yeasts (see Figure 86, 
p. 404) and bacteria (see Figure 89) are microscopic in size. 
These plants exist everywhere, and in everything (except 
those things in which the organisms have been destroyed 
and prevented from reentering), — in the air, in and on foods, 
and all over our bodies. Like all plants, these organisms 
require warmth, moisture, and food for their most rapid 
growth. Oxygen is necessary for the growth of some of these 

Many foods constitute nourishment for these organisms. 

It is because these plants exist in foods and live upon them 

that changes in foods result. The mold on bread and fruit, 

the odor from decaying meat and eggs, the liquefaction of 

decayed eggs, and the gas from fermenting canned fruit are 



caused by microorganisms existing and growing in these 
foods. The following eicperiments show the growth of 
molds on food and other materials : 

Experiment 80 : Effect of Air, Light, and Drying upon the Growth 
of Molds. — Place a piece of bread on a saucer. Allow it to remain 
uncovered, in a light place, at room temperature, for several days. 
Examine. What is the condition (moist or dry) of the bread? 
Have molds grown upon the bread? 

From Household BacterMoov, by Buchanan. 

Figure 88. — Some Species of Molds. 

Experiment 81 : Effect of Moisture and Light upon the Growth o( 
Molds. — Sprinkle a thick piece of bread with water, place it on a 
saucer, and cover with a jelly glass or any glass dish. Leave in a 
light place at room temperature for several days. Examine. Is 
the bread moist or dry? Have molds grown upon the bread? 

From the results of Experiments 80 and 81 what would you say 
has caused the molds to grow? What conclusion can you draw 


from this concerning the growth of molds upon foods in damp and 
dry places and in damp and dry weather? How should bread be 
stored in dry weather? In damp weather? Give the reason for 
storing Dried Bread Crumbs as directed on p. 176. 

Experiment 82: Effect of Moisture and Darkness upon the 
Growth of Molds. — Repeat Experiment 81, except the method of 
covering. Cover with an earthen dish so that the light is excluded. 
Let it remain at room temperature for the same length of time as 
given in Experiment 81 . Have molds grown ? How does the growth 
compare in quantity with that of Experiment 81 ? 

Experiment 83 : Effect of Moisture and Low Temperatures upon 
the Growth of Molds. — Repeat Experiment 81, but place the bread 
on the lower shelf of the refrigerator. After several days, examine. 
Have molds grown? How do they compare in quantity with that 
of Experiment 81 ? What conclusion can you draw from this con- 
cerning the temperature at which food liable to mold should be kept? 

Experiment 84 : Growth of Molds upon Cut Fruit. — Place pieces 
of apple, banana, lemon, or other fruits on separate saucers and cover 
each with a glass dish. Place some lemon or other fruit juice in a 
test tube and allow it to stand. After two days examine. Have 
molds grown on all the fruits ? Do you notice any difference in the 
quantity of the molds on the different fruits ? Have molds grown on 
the fruit juice ? 

Experiment 86 : Growth of Molds upon Whole Fruits. — Place 
whole fruits, such as apples and lemons, on saucers and cover with 
glass. After two days examine. Have molds grown upon the whole 
fruits ? If so, how do the molds compare in quantity to those grow- 
ing on cut fruit? Accoimt for this difference. Apply the results of 
Experiments 84 and 85 to the " keeping " of fresh fruits. 

Experiment 86 : Growth of Molds on Other Foods. — Place a 
piece of cheese and a piece of meat on separate saucers and cover 
each with a glass dish. After two days examine. Have molds 
grown upon these foods? Account for the growth of molds upon 
these foods when no moisture was added to them. Devise a method 
for keeping cheese free from mold. Give the reasons for your 

Experiment 87 : Growth of Mold upon Wood. — Soak a bit of 
wood in water for at least 15 minutes. Cover it with an earthen 
dish and let it stand at room temperature for several days. Examine. 
Have molds grown upon the wood? What has caused the molds to 


grow upon the wood ? From this give directions for the care of the 
wooden part of the dasher of an ice cream freezer. Draw conclu- 
sions concei'ning the care of pastry and bread boards and butter 
paddles after scrubbing. Draw conclusions concerning the scrub- 
bing, drying, and airing of wooden floors. 

Experiment 88 : Growth of Molds upon Cloth. — Sprinkle a bit of 
cloth with water. Cover with an earthen dish. Let stand a few 
dajrs at room temperature. Examine. Have molds (mildew) grown 
upon the cloth? What caused the molds to grow? From this draw 
a conclusion concerning the care of washed clothes, wet dish-cloths, 
towels, and wash-cloths. 

Experiment 89: Contamination of Fresh Food by Means of 
Moldy Food. — Dip a piece of bread in water and place it on a 
saucer. With a knitting needle, place bits of mold at several points 
on the smf ace of the bread. Cover with a glass dish. After several 
days examine. At what points on the bread have the molds started 
to grow? What conclusion can you draw from this concerning the 
placing of moldy food with fresh food? When fruit is falling to 
the groimd, tell how an orchard should be cared for. Explain. 

The following experiments show the growth of bacteria 
on food : 

Experiment 90 : Growth of Bacteria. — Into test tubes put one of 
the following foods : (1) bit of imcooked meat ; (2) small quantity 
of egg ; (3) piece of bread ; (4) crushed peas or beans ; (5) sugar or 
sirup. Add a Uttle water to each tube. Set aside in a warm place. 
After several days, examine. What change in appearance do you 
note ? What has caused the foods to spoil ? 

Experiment 91 : Effect of Boiling on the Growth of Bacteria. — 
Place a little chopped meat in two test tubes. Add lukewarm water 
to each. Boil the contents of one of the tubes for several minutes. 
Set both aside. After 24 hours, examine. What difference is there 
in the condition of the meat in each tube ? Explain this difference. 
From the result of this Experiment draw conclusions regarding the 
boiling of food to prevent spoiling. 

Experiment 92 : Effect of Preservatives on the Growth of Bac- 
teria. — Beat slightly an egg white. Add to it J cupful of water. 
Pour a little of the diluted egg white into four test tubes. To three 
of the test tubes add one of the following: (1) salt; (2) sugar; 
(3) vinegar- Put aU of the tubes in a warm place. After several 


days, examine. What ia the condition of the egg white in each 
tube? Explain. Draw inferences regarding the uee of "safe" 
preSMvatives to prevent fooda from spoiling. 

The Principles of Preserving Food. — Food may be pre- 
served by opposing the growth of microorgaDisms or by 
destroying them. Low temperatures, certain preserva- 
tives, and drying destroy microorganisms or retard their 

Drying is effective in preserving such foods as fruits, 
certain vegetables, fish, and meats. The drying of fruit 


Figure 89. — The Four Types of Bacteria. 
A, cocci; B, bacilli; C. spirilla; D, branched filamentous organism. 

and vegetables may be done in the home. This process of 
food preservation is often advisable when there is an exces- 
sive supply of fruit or vegetables in the orchard or garden. 

Substances known as preservatives are used in food pres- 
ervation. Some of these are harmless, as sugar, salt, vine- 
gar, and spices. Others are harmful, as formaldehyde, boric, 
sahcylic, benzoic, and sulphurous acids, with their related 
compounds. Saltpeter and smoke are also preservatives. 
There is some doubt concerning the harmtessness of these 
latter preserving agents. Foods preserved with harmful 
materials should never be used. Good food materials can 
be preserved without the use of harmful preservatives. 


The destruction of microorganisms by heat is the basic 
principle of preserving much food, especially fruit and 
vegetables. This process is called sterilization. In order to 
preserve fruits it is necessary not only to sterilize them, but 
to place them in sterilized cans and to seal these to exclude 
the air from them. It is necessary, also,, to sterilize all 
utensils which come in contact with the foods in the processes 
of cooking and sealing. 

If canned fruits do not " keep," some microorganisms 
either in the fruit, on the can, or on the utensils used in 
canning, have not been destroyed, or the can has not been 
securely sealed. A perfectly sterilized and securely sealed jar 
of fruit will keep indefinitely. Slight flaws in the can or 
rubbers. which were not detected at the time of sealing may 
cause the spoiling of carefully canned fruit. In the preserva- 
tion of fruit, every effort should be made to secure sound 
fruit, perfect jars, and good rubbers, and to have the fruit 
and utensils perfectly sterilized, and the jars securely sealed. 
Failure to accomplish these ends may result in much loss 
of materials and time. 

Kinds of Spoilage. — As mentioned previously, canned 
foods spoil either from imperfect sterilization or sealing. 
Different organisms growing in preserved foods cause dif- 
ferent kinds of spoilage. A discussion ^ of the various kinds 
of spoilage follows : 

(a) Fermentation or "Swell." — When canned foods 
spoil with a production of gas, fermentation of the food is 
taking place. The visible indications of such spoilage are 
gas bubbles in the jar and a bulging of the lid of a jar or a 
distending of the top and bottom of a can. Because of the 
latter condition, the term " swell " is used in the commercial 

* Adapted from Journal of Home Economics, Vol. X (July, 1918), 
pp. 329-331, "A Consideration of the Canning Problem," by Elizabeth 
F. Genimg. 


canning industry to designate this kind of spoilage. When 
fermentation takes place, the lid of a jar may become loosened 
instead of bulged. 

This type of spoilage is caused by the action either of yeast 
or of a certain kind of bacterium which thrives best with- 
out air. It is .usually due to imperfect sterilization. If 
it is noted that the contents of a jar are fermenting before 
the process has gone too far, the food may be saved by re- 

(6) Flat Sour is a kind of spoilage in which no gas 
is formed, but acid is produced, giving the food a sour 
taste. In some cases of flat sour, a milky deposit appears in 
the bottom of the jar which can be detected if the container 
is glass. In other cases, no change in the appearance of 
the jar and its contents takes place. 

Little is known of the kind of organism producing flat 
sour. Whether or not food thus spoiled is injurious also has 
not been determined. 

Flat sour is probably due to imperfect sterilization. 

(c) Putrefaction. — When putrefaction takes place, food 
decays and disintegrates, or decay takes place with the pro- 
duction of a gas of a disagreeable odor. This type of spoilage 
is readily detected. Food thus affected is unfit for use. 

Putrefaction is usually caused by imperfect sealing. It 
may result, however, from imperfect sterilization. 

{d) Botulism. — A bacillus termed hotvlinus sometimes 
grows on canned foods, especially those rich in protein 
or lacking in acid. This organism produces a violent poison 
in the food. But fortunately, the poison may be destroyed 
by boiling the food for ten minutes. Hence, when there 
is the slightest suspicion that a food is spoiled, it should be 
heated at boiling temperature before using. This should be 
done even though the food is to be served cold. It may 
easily be cooled after boiling. 



Explain why boiled milk keeps sweet for a longer time than im- 
cooked milk. Why do foods need to be sealed to preserve them ? 
Why does cooked meat " keep " longer than imcooked meat? 


Sterilization with Little or No Sugar — Canned 


Jars for Canned Fruit, -r- There are many types of fruit 
jars. Glass jars rather than metal cans should be used for 
home canning. Jars should be constructed so that there is 
no contact of the fruit with metal, hence a jar having a glass 
cover is desirable, A large opening, simple construction, 
ease in ^leaning, and perfect sealing are characteristics of 
good fruit jars. 

Glass jars should be tested before using : Partly fill the jar 
with water, adjust the rubber and cover, seal, invert the jar. 
Examine carefully for leakage. 

Rubber Rings. — Soft, elastic rubbers should be chosen. 
It is poor economy to use old rubbers. Rubber after usage 
becomes hard and inelastic ; it may cau^e imperfect sealing 
and hence decay of the fruit. 

In certain processes of canning, it is necessary to subject 
the jars provided with rubber rings and covers to long periods 
of boiling or to the intense heat of a pressure or steam 
cooker. When such a method is followed it is especially 
necessary that rubber rings of good quality be used. To 
meet this requirement, the United States Department of 
Agriculture advises that rubber rings conform to the follow- 

1. Inside diameter of 2} inches (for the jar of standard size). 

2. Width of ring or flange from J to |) of an inch. 


3. Thickness oi ^of an inch. 

4. Tensile strength sufficient to ** stretch considerably and return 
promptly to place without changing the inside diameter." 

5. Firm enough so that no crease or break shows after it has been 
tightly folded. 

Selection and Preparation of Fruit for Canning. — Select 
solid, and not over-ripe, fruit. It is better to have under- 
ripe than over-ripe fruit. Fresh fruits — if possible picked 
on the same day they are to be used — are desirable for 

Most fruits should be washed before using. Quinces 
should be rubbed with a coarse towel before they are washed. 
Berries and small fruits should be washed before they are 
hulled or stemmed. Most small fruits contain so much water 
that it is not necessary to add water for cooking. Hence 
such fruits should be drained thoroughly after washing. If 
there are any decayed or bruised spots on fruit, the damaged 
portion should be removed completely. 

Peaches and tomatoes may be peeled instead of pared. 
This is done by placing the fruit in a wire basket and then 
immersing the basket in a kettle of boiling water for 3 
minutes. Remove the basket of fruit from the hot water 
and plunge it for a moment in cold water. Drain, then 
peel the fruit. If desired, cut into halves, quarters, or slices. 
After fruit is peeled or pared, it can be kept from discolor- 
ing by covering with cold water. 


Several methods may be used for canning fruit : 

(a) Open Kettle. — This method consists of cooking the 

fruit in water or sirup and pouring it into jars and sealing. 

The entire process of sterilization takes place in the kettle 

before the food is poured into the jars. Hence the name of 

the process, — Open Kettle. 


For this method it is necessary to sterilize the jars and rubbers 
before placing the food in them. This is done as follows : 

Fill and surround jars with cold water. Cover lids and 
rubbers with cold water. Gradually heat the water and 
allow it to boil for 10 or 15 minutes. Allow the jars, covers, 
and rubbers to remain in the boiling water until just ready 
to use them. Do not touch the inside of the jars and covers 
with your fingers. Immerse spoons, cups, knives, skewers, 
or knitting needles used for testing fruits, in boiling water 

Figure 90.— CANmNc Foods. 

before using them in contact with the foods. If corks are 
used for sealing bottles, sterilize them also. 

If small juicy fruits are preserved by the open kettle 
method, no water should be added. Add the sugar to them 
and allow them to stand until some of the juice is drawn 
from them, then cook. 

If tough fruits are canned by this method, first steam, 
then cook in sirup, or first cook them in clear water, add 
the sugar, and finish cooking. 


Fruit may be canned with or without sugar. Usually 
some sugar is used. However, some housekeepers contend 
that the fresh-fruit flavor is retained better by reheating the 
fruit and adding the sugar just before it is served. Differ- 
ent quantities of sugar may be used. If the fruit breaks 
into pieces readily, cook in a thick sirup. The quantity of 
water used with the sugar varies with the juiciness of the 
fruit. For each 'pound of fruit use from ^ to 1 cupful of su^ar 
with from i to 1 cupful of water. 

After cooking the fruit, adjust the rubber on the sterilized 
jar, fill the jar (to overflowing) with the hot fruit and sirup, 
cover at once, and seal. Invert the can and let it stand 
until cool. 

(6) Cold Pack. — This method is followed by placing the 
cooked or slightly cooked food in a jar, covering the food 
with water or sirup, adjusting the rubber ring and cover to 
the jar, and sterilizing both the jar and its contents in boiling 
water or steam. 

Before placing' the food in the jar, it may be blanched, i.e, 
subjected to boiling water or steam. After blanching, the 
food is cold-dipped, i.e, plunged into cold water. After the 
preliminary steps, such as washing, paring, and cutting into 
pieces, foods may be blanchedRnd coMr-dipped as follows'T" 

Place the food in a cheese-cloth bag or in a wire basket and 
immerse it in boiling water. Certain fruits are allowed to 
remain in the water from 1 to 5 minutes (see Table, p. 487). 
(The time is dependent upon the kind of fruit.) Then re- 
move the product from the boiling water, dip it immedi- 
ately in cold water, remove at once, and drain for a few 
minutes. These two processes are used for large firm fruits. 
Berries and all soft fruits are canned without blanching and 

Whether the fruit is blanched and cold-dipped or not, 
place it in jars to ^ inch of the top. If a sirup is desired, it 


may be made by using -J- to 1 cwpfuL of sugar for each quart jar 
with from 2 to 3 cupfvh of v)ater. Adjust a new, wet rubber 
on the jar ; fUl the jar to \ inch of the top with sirup or with 
boiling water. Place the cover on the jar, but do not seal 
it tightly. If a screw top jar is used, screw on the lid by 
grasping it with the thumb and little finger. If the jar has a 
bail top, adjust the top bail only, — not the lower bail. 
Then sterilize the jars and their contents by placing in : 

(1) Kettle or clothes boiler provided with a rack (see 
Figure 91) or some sort of false bottom such as strips of 
wood, straw, paper, or 
wire-netting of one half 
inch mesh. 

(2) Steam cooker (see 
Figure 18, p. 37). 

(3) Pressure cooker 
(see Figure 17, p. 36). 

If the kettle or wash 
boiler is used, rest the 
jars on the rack in the 
container, fill the latter 
with enough hot water 
so that it extends to a depth of one inch above the covers of 
the jars. Then boil the water. Count the time of sterilizing 
when the water begins to boil. Keep the water at boiling tem- 
perature for the length of time given in the Table on p. 487. 

If the steam cooker is used, place the filled jars in the 
cooker and steam for a few minutes longer than when the 
jar is immersed in boiling water (see Table, p. 487). 

If the pressure cooker is used, sterilize according to the 
length of time stated in the Table given on p. 487. 

After sterilizing fruit by any of these methods, remove the 
jars from the container, seal, invert, and set them aside to 
cool in a place free from draft. When cool, wash the out- 

FiGURE 91. — Rack for Holding Jars. 

Note that the rack is shaped to fit a wash 



side of the jars, and label. Store in a cool, dark cupboard. 
Wrapping each jar in paper before storing is advised. 

Bail top jars may be tested for perfect sealing by loosening 
the top bail, and lifting the jar by grasping its lid with the 
fingers. If the jar is securely sealed, the lid will not come oflp, 
because of internal suction. In case the lid comes off, remove 
the rubber, replace it with a new, wet one, adjust the cover 
and again sterilize (for 15 minutes if the jar contains vege- 
tables or for 5 minutes if it contains fruit). 

A Discussion of Methods of Canning. — (a) While the 
open kettle is not as safe a method of canning as the cold 
pack from the standpoint of perfect sterilization, it is de- 
sirable for small watery fruits, especially strawberries, since 
evaporation of some of the water takes place. It is also 
generally used for fruits preserved with much sugar, such as 
preserves, jams, conserves, etc. (see p. 489). Many house- 
keepers find this method desirable for canning tomatoes and 
beets. The skins may be removed from the latter after 
cooking, thereby losing less coloring of the vegetable. 

(b) The cold pack method of canning is very satisfactory 
for most fruits and all vegetables. It is especially desirable 
for whole fruits or for fruits in large pieces. The shap>e of 
the fruit may be preserved better by this method than by 
the open kettle process. It is also a safer method as far as 
complete sterilization is concerned. Many housekeepers 
find it easier than the open kettle method. 

The blanching and cold-dipping of vegetables and fruits 
which may be one of the steps in the cold pack method is 
thought to accomplish several things : 

1. To remove objectionable acids and flavors. 

2. To make the foods more pliable for packing in the jars. 

It was formerly thought that blanching and cold-dipping 
of vegetables destroyed some of the bacteria and aided in 


sterilizing the food. Recent experimentation shows that 
these processes do not aflPect the bacteria and have no value 
as far as the preservation of the food is concerned. 

Time Table for Canning Fruits by One Period of 

Sterilizing ^ 

Time op Stbbilizino in Quabt Jabs in : 

TtUffPI c%w 



(a) Hot Water Bath 

(6) Pressure Cooker 

or Steam Cooker 

5 to 10 Pounds 




Apples .... 




Apricots . . . 

1 to2 



Blackberries 1 


Cherries y . 





Dewberries ^ 

Gooseberries . . 




Pears . . 





To loosen skins 



Plums . . 





3 to 5 



Quinces . 















Fruits (without 

sugar) . ... 



NoTiB. — If fruit is canned in pint jars, decrease the time of steriliz- 
ing by 5 minutes. If 2-quart jars are used, increase the time, of steri- 
lizing by 30 minutes. 

For altitudes higher than 1000 feet above sea level, the pressure 
cooker should be used rather than the hot water bath. 

^Adapted from Bulletin — "Home Canning and Drjdng of Vege- 
tables and Fruits," published by National War Garden Commission, 
Washington, D.C. 


Discussion of the Different Sterilizers Used in the Cold 
Pack Process. — (1) The kettle or wash boiler provided 
with a rack is an inexpensive device. It is satisfactory for 
sterilizing fruits and acid vegetables; it can also be used 
with satisfaction for sterilizing the mild or sweet vegetables 
provided they are sterilized on three successive days. It is 
thought by some that the flavor of foods canned at low 
temperature, t.e. not above 212° F., is superior to that canned 
at a higher temperature. 

(2) The steam cooker is a convenient and satisfactory 
equipment to use for canning fruits and some vegetables. 
It is more expensive, however, than the kettle having a rack, 
but less fuel is required when using it. 

(3) The pressure cooker is the most satisfactory from the 
standpoint of sterilization. It is especially satisfactory for 
vegetables and meat, since a much higher temperature than 
that of boiling water is maintained during the sterilizing 
period. The higher temperature also makes it possible to 
sterilize foods in a shorter time. However, it is thought by 
some that the flavor of foods canned above 212° F. is inferior 
to that canned at a lower temperature. Moreover, the 
pressure cooker is a more expensive device than either of the 
other two. 


Why should sterilized jars, covers, and rubbers remain in boiling 
water until just ready for use ? 

Why not touch the inside of jars and covers with the fingers? 

Why should berries and small fruits be washed before hulling or 

Why should decayed or bruised spots on fruits be removed com- 
pletely before canning the fruit ? 

Why is it that the cold pack method of canning is safer from 
the standpoint of sterilizing than the open kettle method ? 

Why should the jar containing fruit that is to be sterilized by the 


cold pack method be filled to i inch of the top with sirup rather than 
to overflowing? 

Why should the covers of jars not be sealed tightly before placing 
in the kettle or steamer used for sterilizing? 

Why is it unnecessary and imdesirable to dislodge air bubbles in 
jars containing food sterilized by the cold pack process? 

When food is sterilized by immersing the jars in boiling water, 
why should the water extend above the covers of the jars to a depth 
of one inch? 


Sterilization with Much Sugar — Preserves, Jams, 

AND Conserves 

Experiment 98 : The Use of Sugar as a Preservative. — Place 2 
thin slices of fresh fruit in a sauce dish. Sprinkle one of the sUces 
generously with sugar. Set the sauce dish aside for at least 24 hours. 
Examine. What change has taken place in the fruit without sugar? 
What has caused the change? Compare the sugared fruit with 
that without sugar. What conclusion can be drawn concerning 
the use of sugar in preserving fruit? 


Sugar was mentioned as one of the. preservatives used 
in the preservation of food (see The Principles of Pre- 
serving Food, p. 478). Sugar in large quantity is unfavor- 
able to germ life and hence is a most effective preservative. 
Preserves are made by cooking fruit in a. thick sirup as 
in the Method of Canning (a) Open Kettle, p. 482. A 
large quantity of sugar is desirable as far as preservation 
is concerned; but for flavor less sugar is usually to be pre- 
ferred. Only a few fruits are better when preserved with 
considerable sugar. Fruits best adapted for preserving 
are strawberries, sour cherries, sour plums, quinces, currants, 
and raspberries. For preserves, use f to 1 pound of sugar 
for 1 pound of fruit. The less quantity of sugar should be 


used for peaches, plums, quinces, currants, and raspberries ; 
the greater quantity, for strawberries and cherries. Use 
the quantity of water given in Method of Canning (a) Open 
Kettle, p. 482. Cook and seal as canned fruit. 


Jam is made as follows : Clean the fruit. If large fruits 
are used, pare or peel them and cut into small pieces. If 
small fruits, — berries or grai>es, — are used, mash them. 
Cook the fruit in as little water as possible. When the 
fruit is soft, measure it and add the sugar, — use f to 1 
part of sugar to 1 part of cooked fruit. Cook until thick, 
stirring to prevent burning. Test the thickness by drop- 
ping from a spoon. If it falls in heavy drops, the jam is 
sufficiently cooked. Pour into sterilized jelly glasses. Cover 
the glasses with clean cloth or pai>er and set aside to cool 
and stiffen. Melt paraffin. Pour it (hot) over the cold 
jam. AUcw the paraffin to harden and then cover the 
glasses with the lids. Wipe the outside of the glasses, label, 
and store. 

Fruit that is too soft or too ripe for canning or preserving 
may be used for making jam. 


Marmalades are made much as jams. However, usually 
only the pulp. and juices of fruits are used. The fruit is 
first cooked, and the skins and seeds removed before adding 
the sugar. In Orange Marmalade, the rind is used. 


Conserves consist of a combination of two or more fruits. 
Nuts and other materials are sometimes added. Conserves 
may be prepared as preserves, i.e. cooking the ingredients 
with sugar, until thick ; or as jam, i.e. cooking the ingredients 


until tender, then adding the sugar and cooking until thick. 
It is thought by some that the latter method produces a 
finer flavor ; it makes a product less tough and less sticky. 
In the special recipes for conserves given in this text, the 
latter method is followed. 


1 dozen oranges 1 grapefruit 

6 lemons Sugar 

. Weigh the fruit, slice it. To each pound of fruit add 1 
quart of cold water. Let the mixture stand for 24 hours. 
Then cook slowly for 2 hours. Weigh the cooked fruit. 
Add an equal weight of sugar. Cook for 1 hour or until it 
stiffens. Pour into sterilized jelly glasses, seal, and cover 
as directed for Jams (see p. 490). 


1 dozen oranges 3 pounds sugar 

2 quarts rhubarb Rind of 6 oranges 

Wash the fruit. Slice the oranges and cut the rhubarb 
into pieces. (Do not peel the rhubarb.) Cook the oranges 
and rhubarb for 30 minutes. Add the sugar and cook 
slowly for 2 hours or until thick (see Jams, p. 490). Pour 
into sterilized glasses. When cool, seal and cover as directed 
for Jams. 


1 pound carrots 3 cupfuls sugar 

2 lemons } teaspoonful salt 

Wash, scrape, and chop the carrots. Extract the juice 
from the lemons. Put the carrots and lemon rinds through 
a food chopper, cover them with water, and cook until 
tender. Add the lemon juice, salt, and sugar to the cooked 


mixture. Cook until it is thickened. Turn into sterilized 
jelly glasses. Let stand until cool. Then cover with melted 


Use equal quantities of strawberries and shredded pine- 
apple. Cook the shredded pineapple in the least possible 
quantity of water. When tender, add the strawberries and 
cook until they are soft. Measure the fruit and add three 
fourths as much sugar as fruit and a small quantity of salt. 
Cook until thick (see Jains, p. 490). Pour into sterilized 
glasses. Seal and cover as directed for Jams. 


1 quart cranberries i pound California walnuts, chopped 
li cupfuls water 1 orange, — juice and grated rind 

i pound raisins 1§ pounds sugar 

I teaspoonful salt 

Wash the fruit. Cook the cranberries in the water until 
the berries burst. Strain. Add the remaining ingredients 
and cook 25 minutes or until the mixture is thick (see 
Jams, p. 490). Pour into sterilized glasses. When cool, 
seal and cover as directed for Jams. 


i peck grapes 1 cupful chopped nuts 

2 oranges, — juice and rind Sugar 

2 lemons, — juice and rind i teaspoonful salt 

Wash the fruit. Remove the grapes from the stems; 
remove the skins from the pulp. Cook the pulp until soft ; 
strain, to remove the seeds. Place the strained pulp and 
skins in a preserving kettle. Extract the juice from the 
oranges and lemons, then put the rinds through a food- 
chopper. Add the lemon and orange juice and rind to the 


grape mixture and cook for 1 hour. Measure the mixture. 
Then add an equal quantity of sugar and the nuts and salt. 
Continue cooking until thick (see Jams, p. 490). Pour 
into sterilized glasses. When cool, seal and cover as directed 
for Jams. 


1 pound dried apricots 1 large can shredded pineapple 
1} quarts water Sugar 

2 pineapples or \ teaspoonful salt 

Wash the dried apricots and soak them in the water. In 
the water in which they were soaked, cook the apricots 
until tender. Press through a colander. If fresh pineapples 
are used, shred them and cook, in as little water as possible, 
until tender. Combine the cooked fruits and measure. 
Add \ as much sugar and the salt. Cook until thick (see 
Jamsy p. 490). Pour into sterilized glasses. When cool, 
seal and cover as directed for Jams. 


1 pound (li dozen) plums \ cupful chopped nuts 

1 cupful seeded raisins 2 oranges 

1 cupful water li cupfuls sugar 

i teaspoonful salt 

Wash the plums, stone, and cut into pieces. Extract the 
juice from the oranges. Put the rind through a food chopper. 
Mix the plums, raisins, orange rind, and water. Simmer 
until the fruits and peel are tender. Add the orange juice, 
sugar, nuts, and salt, and continue cooking until the mixture 
has the consistency of marmalade. Pour into sterilized 
glasses. When cool, seal and cover as directed for Jams. 


How do Preserves differ from Canned Fruit? 
How does Jam differ from Preserves ? 


How does Jam differ from Fruit Sauce (see p. 66) ? Why does 
Jam " keep " better than Fruit Sauce? 

Give method of sealing Canned Fruit and method of seaUng Jam. 
Explain why different methods are used. 


Sterilization with Much Sugar — Jellies 

Experiment 94 : Pectin in Fruit Juice. — Put a few grapes, 
slices of apple, or cranberries in a small saucepan, and add enough 
water to cover and cook until the fruit is tender and soft enough to 
mash. Strain the cooked fruit through cheese-cloth. 

Put 1 teaspoonful of the extracted fruit juice in a saucer, add an 
equal quantity of alcohol.^ Mix by gently rotating the saucer. Let 
the mixture stand for 5 minutes. Then examine. What change 
has taken place in the fruit juice ? 

The formation of a soUd mass in the mixture of fruit juice and 
alcohol which has stood for 5 minutes indicates that the fruit juice 
contains pectin, — a vegetable gelatine. 

Experiment 95 : Pectin in the Inner Portion of Orange or Lemon 
Peel. — Cut away the yellow portion from orange or lemon rind. 
Cut or chop the white portion of the rind in small pieces. Cover 
with water and soak several hours or overnight. Then cook 
slowly for i hour. Strain and set aside to cool. To 1 teaspoonful 
of this Uquid add an equal quantity of alcohol, and proceed as in 
Experiment 94. . Does the lemon or orange rind contain pectin? 

The Principle of Jelly Making. — When the juices of 
certain fruits are extracted and cooked with sugar, the 
mixture stiffens when cool. This property of stiffening is 
due to the presence in fruit of two materials, — a certain 
carbohydrate, called pectin, and an acid. Pectin is like 
starch in that it stiffens when cold ; but like sugar, in that 
it is soluble. Not all fruits contain pectin. 

1 Either grain (ethyl), wood (methyl), or denatured alcohol may be 
used. Both wood and denatured alcohol are poisonous. If they are used 
for testing, they should be handled and stored away with caution. 


Jelly is most easily prepared from fruits which are rich 
in pectin and contain some acid. Unless pectin is contained 
in the fruit, the addition of sugar to fruit juice will not cause 
the juice to jelly. But jelly may be made from a fruit lack- 
ing in pectin, if it is combined with a fruit rich in pectin. 

Certain fruits contain pectin, but are lacking in acid, 
hence are not good for jelly making. These fruits can be 
used for jelly, however, if acid is added. 

Selection of Fruit for Jelly Making. — For jelly making, 
choose fruits which contain considerable pectin and some 
acid. The fruits should be fresh and not over-ripe. Some 
" green " fruits make fine jelly. Currant, crabapple, grape, 
apple, and plum are good jelly-making fruits. 

If it is desirable to use a fruit containing little pectin, as 
strawberries, add a fruit rich in pectin, as currants. If 
about 10 per cent of the fruit which contain much pectin 
is added to the other fruit, the flavor of the foundation 
fruit is not much altered. 

If it is desired to use a fruit containing pectin but de- 
ficient in acid, as sweet apple and quince, add tartaric or 
citric acid. Since the acidity of fruits varies, no definite 
quantity of acid can be stated. It has been suggested ^ that 
enough acid should be added to make the fruit juice about 
as acid to taste as good tart apples. At least one teaspoon- 
ful of acid is required for one quart of fruit juice. Dissolve 
the acid in the fruit juice, then taste the mixture. If neces- 
sary, add more acid to produce the acidity indicated above. 
Jelly may be prepared from strawberries, peaches, and pears 
by the addition of these acids, but the flavor is somewhat 

The suggestion has been made also ^ that the inner white 

1 See University of Illinois Bulletin, "Principles of Jelly Making," 
p. 249. 

2 Idem, p. 25. 


portion of lemon or orange i>eel be used as a source of pectin 
with fruit deficient in pectin. Remove the yellow portion 
of the rind, put the white portion through a food chopper, 
and soak in water for several hours or overnight. Then 
cook slowly for several hours. Strain out the solid portion. 
Add the liquid to the fruit juice deficient in pectin and use 
for jelly making. The rind of lemons and oranges may be 
dried for use in jelly making. When desired for use, soak 
and cook as directed above. 


Wash and pick over the fruit ; remove the stems, but use 
the skin and seeds and thus retain as much of the fruit as 
possible. The skin of fruit usually adds color to jelly. If 
large fruit is used, cut it in pieces. Cook the fruit slowly in 
water. Use very little water for juicy fruits, such as cur- 
rants and raspberries, — 1 cupfid of water to 4 or 6 quarts of 
fruit. Crush the fruits during cooking. 

To cook large fruits requires water. A general proportion 
is half as much water, by measure, as prepared fruit. A little 
less water may be used for peaches and plums and a little 
more for winter apples. A fair estimate is 3 quarts of 
strained juice from 8 quarts of fruit and 4 quarts of water. 
If the quantity of juice is greater than this, it should be 
boiled down to 3 quarts before adding the sugar. 

When the fruit is cooked until it is very soft, it is ready 
for straining. For straining, make a bag of double cheese- 
cloth or flannel. Wring the jelly bag out of hot water and 
suspend it from a strong support. Pour the cooked fruit 
into the bag and let the juice drip into a bowl. If trans- 
parent jelly is desired, do not press the juice through the 
bag ; let the juice drip for several hours or overnight. 

Measure the clear fruit juice and heat it. The time of 
cooking depends upon the per cent of pectin and the acidity 


of the juice ; the more pectin and acid, the less the time of 
cooking. The time varies from 8 to 30 minutes. Skim the 
juice when necessary. While the juice is cooking, measure 
three fourths as much sugar ^ as fruit juice and heat the sugar. 
For currants and green or under-ripe grapes, use equal 
quantities of sugar and fruit juice. Add the hot sugar to 
the boiling sirup and cook. The following are tests for suf- 
ficient cooking of jelly, 

(a) Coats the spoon. 

(6) Falls from the spoon in heavy drops.^ 

(c) Stiffens when dropped on a cold dish and allowed to 

The first two tests are more satisfactory than the last, 
since the cooking process may be carried too far while the 
" test-jelly " is cooling. 

Seal as Jam or shred paraffin and place it in the bottom 
of sterilized jelly glasses. Pour the hot jelly into the glasses 
and set aside to stiffen. Then cover and store. It is well 
to store jelly in a cool, dry, and dark place. The color of 
fruit sometimes fades when kept in a light place. 

Long cooking of i>ectin changes it into substances which 
do not have the property of jellying, hence, make jelly in 
as short a time as possible. The purpose of heating the 

1 The quantity of sugar used in jelly making depends upon the quan- 
tity of pectin in fruit juice, — the more pectin, the more sugar. A most 
satisfactory method of determining the quantity of pectin and conse- 
quently the quantity of sugar to use with fruit juice is suggested by the 
Bulletin of the National War Garden Commission. The test follows : 
To a tablespoonful of fruit juice which has been boiled and cooled, add 
1 tablespoonful of alcohol (see foot-note, p. 494). Mix by gently rotat- 
ing and then let stand. If a solid mass forms, use equal parts of fruit 
juice and sugar. If 2 or 3 masses form, use | <o f oa rtvuch sugar as juice. 
If several small solid particles form, use \ as much sugar cls juice. If 
no solid particles form, the fruit juice should be enriched by the addition 
of some pectin-rich fruit juice. 

* Two drops forming side by side along the edge of the spoon has been 
found to be a reliable test. 


sugar is to hasten the process of jelly making. The addi- 
tion of cold sugar would cool the mixture and thus prolong 
the process. 

The addition of too much sugar is often the cause of un- 
successful jelly making. Crystallization of the sugar from 
the jelly may result from an excess of sugar. 

The fruit pidp left in the jelly bag should be utilized. Mar- 
malade may be made from it, or more jelly can be prepared 
from it. To accomplish the latter, add water to the fruit 
pulp (enough to cover), mix, and heat slowly until the boil- 
ing point is reached. Strain and prepare jelly from the 
juice. However, more cooking of the juice before the sugar 
is added is required for the second extraction, since the 
juice contains so much water. The juice extracted for a 
third time from most fruits will contain enough pectin for 
jelly making. It has been found that more desirable jelly 
can be obtained by this method than by pressing the juice 
from the bag and thus obtaining what is termed " second 
quality " jelly. 

Fruit Juices without Sugar. — Extract the juice from 
fruit as directed in General Method of Jelly Making, Do 
not add sugar to the juice. Can it as directed in (a) or (6). 

(a) Reheat until the boiling temperature is reached, then 
pour into sterilized jars. Fill to overflowing and seal. 

(6) Place the juice in sterilized jars. Partially seal and 
place in a water bath having the water reach the neck of 
the jar. Let it cook at a simmering temperature from 20 
to 30 minutes. Remove from the water bath, and seal 


In the winter time or when desired for use, this fruit juice 
may be made into jelly as directed in General Method of Jelly 
Making, or it may be sweetened, diluted if necessary, and 
used as a beverage. This method of preserving fruit juice 
is especially desirable when there is a scarcity of sugar. 


AC Tru.TS^Kti"" 




370 ;.,D- 

) Fruit Products. 

Note the difiereuce in the quantity of carbohydrates in Canned 
Fruit and Fruit Jelly (see Figure 92). What kind of carbohydrate 
is present in greatest quantity in these foods? 


To what is the difference in flavor of Canned Fruit and Fruit 
Jelly largely due ? 

What is the chief difference in the processes of jam making and 
jelly making? 

What is the result if too much sugar is used in jelly making? 

What is the result if jelly is cooked too long? 

Note the difference in the methods of sealing jams and jellies. 


Sterilization with Vinegar and Spices — Relishes 

Spices and vinegar are preservatives of foods. Not all 
spices, however, have equal preservative power. It has been 
found that cinnamon and cloves aid in food preservation, 
but that pepper and ginger have very little, if any, preserva- 
tive power. In the lesson on Flavoring Materials: Food 
Adjuncts, it was mentioned that spices and condiments 
should be used sparingly in the diet, hence spiced fruits and 
pickles should have only occasional use. There is no doubt 
that lemon juice or other tart fruit juices are better sources 
of acid-satisfying materials than vinegar. 

spiced pears 

i peck pears Rind of i lemon 

3 poimds sugar Whole allspice 

I pint vinegar Stick cinnamon 

J ounce ginger root Whole cloves 

Cut the pears in halves, remove the seeds, and pare. Into 
each piece of pear stick two or three cloves. Make a sirup 
of the vinegar and sugar. Divide the cinnamon, allspice, 
and ginger into two parts, tie in cheese-cloth bags, and add 
to the sirup. When the sirup begins to simmer, add the 
pears and lemon rind ; bring to the boiling point, remove 


from the fire, and turn into a stone jar. Cover and stand in 
a cool place overnight. Next day bring the mixture to the 
boiling point, again place in the stone jar and stand over- 
night. The following day heat as before. Do this for five 
consecutive days. The last day, remove the fruit from the 
sirup, heat the sirup and evaporate it until there is just 
enough to cover the fruit. Add the fruit to the hot sirup, 
heat to the boiling point, then put in stone or glass jars or 

The pears may be finished in one day as follows : Cook 
the fruit until tender, then remove it, evaporate the sirup, 
add the fruit, reheat again, and finish as above. Fruit pre- 
pared by the first method has a finer flavor. 


12 ripe tomatoes 2 tablespoonfuls ginger 

2 large onions 1 tablespoonful cinnamon 

2 green peppers 1 tablespoonful mustard 

2 tablespoonfuls salt 1 nutmeg grated 

4 tablespoonfuls brown sugar 1 pint vinegar 

Peel the tomatoes and onions. Chop the onions and 
peppers fine. Cook all the ingredients together for 3 hours, 
or until soft and broken. Stir frequently. Bottle and seal 
while hot. The mixture may be strained before bottling. 


20 large ripe tomatoes 1 large red pepper 

6 large onions 4 tablespoonfuls salt 

4 large stalks celery 2 cupfuls vinegar 

i cupful sugar 

Chop the vegetables, add the salt and vinegar, and cook for 
2 hours. Then add the sugar. Allow it to reach the boiling 
point again. Turn into sterilized bottles or jars, and seal. 



2 dozen small cucumbers } cupful salt 

2 dozen small onions } cupful mustard seed 

} cupful vegetable oil 1 teaspoonful celery seed 

2 cupf uls brown sugar 1 pint vinegar 

Wash the cucumbers. Cut them (without paring) into 
thin slices. Wash and cut the onions into thin slices. Drain 
the water from these vegetables. 

Mix the remaining ingredients. Pour the mixture over 
the onions and cucumbers. Mix well, cover, and set aside 
for a few hours. Then pour into sterilized jars. Fill the 
jar to overflowing with liquid. (If necessary, more vinegar 
may be used for this purpose.) Seal. 

To Seal Bottles. — Melt together, over hot water, equal 
parts of shoemaker's wax and resin. When liquefied, dip 
the tops of corked bottles into it. 

Corks in bottles may be dipped also in hot paraffin. Dip 
several times. 


What is the objection to excessive use of spiced foods? 

Name some spiced foods. 

Name some substitutes for pickles. Why is an excessive or con- 
tinuous use of pickles objectionable in diet? 

Carefully explain why it is that cucumbers and onions may be 
preserved without cooking. 


Canned Vegetables 

Microbrganisms in the Spore Form. — Many micro- 
organisms are destroyed by heating them for a few minutes 
to boiling temperature. However, some microorganisms 


have a peculiar power of retaining life under most adverse 
conditions. When subjected to extreme heat or cold, in- 
tense drying, or when there is lack of food, certain micro- 
organisms assume a spore form, i,e, they cease growing and 
reproducing, and are able to undergo conditions which 
would readily kill microorganisms in the active form. Some 
microorganisms in the spore form are able to resist the 
temperature of boiling water for an hour or longer. Then 
as soon as the adverse conditions mentioned above are re- 
moved, the microorganisms assume active form and begin 
to grow and reproduce. In the growing state, their destruc- 
tion is not so difficult. 

Some of the microorganisms in certain foods, especially 
vegetables and fruits grown in a dry season, are capable of 
spore formation. When microorganisms in spore form do 
exist in foods that are to be canned, or the microorganisms 
change into spore form during the canning process, the 
microorganisms may not be destroyed by the time the 
ordinary process of canning is completed. If such is the 
case, when the canned foods are cooled and the conditions 
are favorable for growth, the microorganisms assume active 
form, begin to grow, and cause the decomposition of food. 
Twenty-four hours is sufficient time for the microorganisms 
to change from the spore to the active form. Hence the 
canned foods must be heated again, if they are to be pre- 
served. For foods difficult to sterilize (for the reason given 
above) sterilization should be carried on for three successive 
days. This is called intermittent sterilization. 

Destruction of microorganisms in the spore form can be 
accomplished in a short time by subjecting them to very 
intense heat. In canning factories this is done by sterilizing 
at a temperature higher than that of boiling water. In the 
home this may be accomplished by sterilizing in the pressure 
cooker. Sterilizing intermittently, i,e. on three successive 


days, in a hot water bath also destroys microorganisms in the 
spore form. 

Single Period and Intermittent Sterilization. — The acid of 
tomatoes and fruits aids in the destruction of microorganisms. 
Hence intermittent sterilization is unnecessary for these. 
Sterilizing tomatoes and fruits in a hot water bath for one 
period has proved very satisfactory and certain. 

There is some question, however, regarding the safety of 
canning all vegetables by one period of sterilization. In the 
United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 839, 
which is sent to the northern states, the one-period, cold 
pack method is advocated. But in Bulletin No. 853, sent 
to the southern states, the intermittent method of canning is 
advised. In the Victory Edition (1919) of the bulletin re- 
garding the canning of vegetables and fruits, published by 
the National War Garden Commission, Washington, D.C., 
the single period of sterilization is recommended. In this 
bulletin the statement is made that investigation has shown 
that unsuccessful attempts in canning by the single period 
method, were due to lack of care in following directions, and 
could not be blamed on the method. If the one period of 
sterilization is followed, care should be taken to follow direc- 
tions carefully and to sterilize the vegetables for a sufficient 
length of time. 

Methods of canning and time tables for both processes of 
sterilization follow. The time table for the intermittent 
method includes such vegetables as com, peas, greens, and 
mature string beans. These have been found among the 
most difficult vegetables to sterilize successfully. 

Selection and Preparation of Vegetables for Canning. — 
Young vegetables, especially those that have grown quickly, 
are most desirable for canning. If possible, vegetables, 
especially com, should be canned immediately after picking. 

Vegetables for canning should be thoroughly washed. 


pared, scraped, or cut into pieces in the same manner as 
when they are cooked and served immediately. K the 
vegetables vary in size, it is well to sort them and fill jars 
with those of uniform size. If there is much difference in 
ripeness, sort the mature and young vegetables. 

Method of Canning Vegetables. — The method of can- 
ning vegetables for a single period does not differ greatly 
from the method of canning fruits. The chief difference is 
that jars containing fruit are filled with sirup, while those 
holding vegetables are filled with water and salt is added. 
Blanch and cold-dip vegetables as directed on p. 484, 
for the length of time given on pp. 506 and 507. Greens 
and vegetables of delicate flavor are blanched most success- 
fully by steaming either in a colander placed over boiling 
water or in a steamer (see p. 108). (Steaming greens pre- 
vents the escape of volatile oils and other materials.) Pack 
the vegetables firmly in jars to within -J- inch of the top. 
It is well, however, not to pack greens too solidly in jars. 
Since lima beans, com, and peas swell during sterilization, 
they should be packed only to about 1 inch of the top of 
the jar. To each jar add salt, — 1 teaspoonful to each 
quart jar. Fill each jar to -J- inch of the top with boiling 
water. Put a new rubber on the jar, partly seal the cover, 
and proceed as directed for fruit on p. 484 (see Table, 
p. 506, for the length of time for sterilizing). 

When vegetables are sterilized intermittently, jars with 
glass tops and spring clamps are recommended. In steriliz- 
ing vegetables for three successive periods, the same method 
of sterilizing and sealing is followed as for the single period. 
At the beginning of the second and third periods, raise the 
clamps of the jars to allow for expansion, then fasten the 
clamps at the dose of sterilization period (see Table, p. 
507, for the length of time of sterilizing on each of the three 
successive days). 





Time of Blanching 

TnfB OF Stebilieino in Quart Jabs in 


(a) Hot Water Bath 

(6) Preasure Cooker, 

or Steam Cooker 

5 to 10 Pounds 




Asparagus^ . 

10 to 15 



Beets . . . 




Com 3 . . . 

5 to 10 



Greens . . 

15 (by steaming) 



Okra . . . 

5 to 10 



Peas . . . 

5 to 10 



Peppers* . . 

5 to 10 



String Beans 

5 to 10 



Tomatoes ^ . 

1}, or until skins 

are loosened 



Note. — If vegetables are canned in pint jars, decrease the time 
of sterilizing by 5 minutes. If 2-quart jars are used, increase the 
time of sterilizing by 30 minutes. 

For altitude higher than 1000 feet above sea level, the pressure 
cooker should be used rather than the hot water bath. 

The time given in the Table is for fresh, soimd, and firm vege- 
tables. If vegetables have been gathered over 24 hours, increase 
the time of sterilization by adding i of the given time. 

1 Adapted from Bulletin, " Home Canning and Drying of Vegetables 
and Fruits," Victory Edition, Published by National War Garden Com- 

* Tie asparagus in bundles for blanching. Blanch tough ends 5 to 10 
minutes and then the entire bundle 5 minutes longer. 

* Blanch corn on the cob, then cold-dip and cut from the cob. 

* Remove the seeds. 

* Pack whole in jars, then fill the jars with tomato pulp. The latter 
is made by cooking large or broken tomatoes until tender, then straining. 
Tomatoes may also be cut into pieces and placed closely in jars. When 
this is done, no water or other liquid should be added. Tomatoes cut in 
pieces require 20 minutes of sterilizing in a hot water bath. 





TniB OF Blanching 


(a) First Day 

(6) Second and Third 

Asparagus^ . 
Com^ . . 
Greens . . 
Peas . . . 
String Beans 

10 to 15 
5 to 10 
5 to 10 





* 60 



Use of Canned Vegetables. — Open the can and if it is 
tin empty its contents at once. If the vegetable is sur- 
rounded by liquid, use the water in cooking the vegetable, 
as it contains valuable materials. There are some who 
contend, however, that the flavor of certain vegetables such 
as peas and string beans are improved if the vegetable water 
is drained from them and they are cooked in fresh water. 
If this is done, the vegetable water should not be wasted. 
It should be used in making soup or sauce. If possible, 
let the vegetable stand exposed to the air for an hour or 

If the vegetable is to be served plain, turn into a sauce- 
pan. Cook in its own liquor at boiling temperature, for at 
least 10 minutes. (Cooking at boiling temperature for this 
length of time is advised to remove any possible danger of 
botulism, see p. 480.) When cooked, the liquid should be 
almost entirely evaporated. Add butter, salt, and, if de- 
sired, a very little sugar, and serve hot. 

A White Sauce may also be used with a vegetable that has 
been heated as above. 

^ See foot-notes 2 and 3, p. 506. 



Explain why vegetables (except tomatoes) are more difficult to 
can successfully than fruits. 

What foodstuffs does the water in which vegetables are canned 
contain? From this explain why the water should not be drained 
from vegetables when removing them from the cans. 

What is the purpose of cooking canned vegetables at boiling tem- 
perature ? 


Dried Vegetables 

Advantages of Dryiag Foods. — While preserving foods 
by drying does not take the place of canning foods and storing 
them in jars or cans, it has certain advantages, viz. : 

1. Little storage space is required for dried foods. 

2. Dried foods can be stored in containers that cannot be 
used for canning. 

When foods are dried, they may be reduced in bulk as 
much as 90 per cent ; for example, 10 pounds of fresh food may 
be reduced to 1 pound of dried food. By this reduction no 
food value is lost, and the flavor is not greatly changed. 

Dried foods may be stored in paper bags and boxes which 
are much less expensive containers than glass jars or tin 
cans. Hence if space is limited and glass or tin containers 
are difficult to secure or are expensive, drying may prove a 
very satisfactory method of preserving food. 

Methods of Drying and Driers. — Food may be dried by : 

1. Sun. 

2. Steam (placing food on a specially constructed tray 
(see Figure 93) which is heated with steam). 

3. Stove or oven drying (placing food above a stove or 
in the oven). 


4. Fan drying (placing an electric fan near the food). 

A combination of these methods, especially the two latter, 
is often used in drying foods. 

Plates or dishes may serve as driers when the drying is 
done in the oven. Trays for drying may be constructed at 
home or they may be purchased. Most of them consist of a 
wood or metal frame over which wire netting is tacked. 
Single trays or a series of trays one placed above the other 
may serve as driers. When drying is accomplished by heat 
from a stove, the drier is hung over a stove or it rests on the 
top of the stove. In the latter case, it is necessary that the 
frame of the tray be constructed so that the bottom tray 
does not rest directly on the stove. In case the drying is 
done over a kerosene stove, the bottom of the tray must be 
of tin or galvanized iron to protect the food from kerosene 
fumes. The lowest tray must be placed at least 4 inches 
above the metal bottom. 

Selection and Preparation of Vegetables for Drsring. — To 
secure the best results, select mature but fresh vegetables. 
They should be in good condition, free from blemish. 

Certain foods, such as berries, cherries, peas, lima and 
shell beans, are dried whole. Most vegetables should be 
cut into slices from i to J inch in thickness. The slicing 
may be done with a paring or kitchen knife, or it may be 
done by means of a slaw-cutter or a rotary chopper. Foods 
are sometimes cut into pieces for drying by means of the 
food chopper. It is necessary that all knives and cutting 
devices be clean. There should be no discoloration of the 
vegetable from the cutting utensil. It has been found ad- 
visable to blanch most vegetables before drying. The 
method of blanching given on p. 484 can be used in drying 
vegetables as well as canning them. Foods are not cold- 
dipped, however, after blanching when they are to be dried. 
Fruits are usually not blanched before drying. 


Method of Drying Foods. — Place the prepared food on 
drying traya. Unless the drying is done in the oven, cover 
the food with cheese-cloth. If possible, tack the cloth to the 
frame so that no dust or insects can come in contact with . 
the food. Stir or turn foods once or twice a day while they 
are drying. This b especially necessary when foods are 
dried in the sun. 

// the food is to be dried tn the sun, place the tray containing 

the food in the sun, where there is a breeze. If it rains, take 

the trays indoors. Also 

bring the trays indoors 

just before sunset. 

If food is to be dried 

by means of steam,, a 

special device is needed 

(see Figure 93). The 

device consists of a 

large pan for holding 

water and a hollow 

tray. The under surface of the tray has an opening about 

the size of the diameter of the pan. To this opening is 

fastened a collar which fits snugly into the pan. The pan 

filled with water is placed over a burner. When the water 

boils, the steam rises and fills the hollow tray and escapes 

by means of the small pipe in the upper surface of the tray. 

The food is placed on the upper surface and is dried by 

steam heat. 

If the food is to be dried in the oven, place the food on suit- 
able trays. Oven drying is much more satisfactorily done 
if the oven is provided with a thermometer. The tempera- 
ture for drying foods is much less than that of boiling water, — 
it varies from 115° to 175° F. It is often necessary to keep 
the oven door open so that the temperature does not become 
too high. 


If food is dried over a stove in a series of trays one placed 
above the other, the position of the trays should be changed 
. so that the food may be uniformly dried. 

If food is dried by means of an electric fan, the fan should 
be so placed that the current of air is directed along the trays 
i lengthwise. The drying will be most rapid nearest the fan ; 

hence it is necessary to change the position of the tray or 
of the food every few hours. Foods may be dried in less than 
24 hours by means of an electric fan. A few foods such as 
sliced string beans may be dried in a few hours. Before 
drying by means of a fan, food should be blanched. It is also 
necessary to heat food dried in this way in an oven at 180° F. 
for 10 or 15 minutes before storing. 

Testing for Sufficient Dr3ring and Conditioning. — The 
time for drying varies with the method of drying and the 
kind of food. A definite time of drying cannot be stated. 
There are some tests which may be applied in determining 
when a food is sufficiently dried. The following is quoted 
from the Bulletin of the National War Garden Commission, 
Victory Edition, p. 22: 

" When first taken from the drier, vegetables should be 
rather brittle and fruits rather leathery and pliable. One 
method of determining whether fruit is dry enough is to 
squeeze a handful; if the fruit separates when the hand is 
opened, it is dry enough. Another way is to press a single 
piece ; if no moisture comes to the surface the piece is suf- 
ficiently dry. Berries are dry enough if they stick to the 
hand but do not crush when squeezed." 

When the food is judged to be sufficiently dried, it should 
be placed in boxes or bowls and covered with clean cloths. 
The dried foods should be stirred or poured from one con- 
tainer to another once a day for 10 days or two weeks. It 
at the end of this time the food is found to be moist, it must 
be subjected to the drying process for a short time. After 



the second drying, it should be treated as directed above. 
If the food is observed for several days and found to be dry, 
it may be stored away. This process of testing and making 
them sufficiently dry after removing from the drier is termed 


Select such sweet corn for drying as you would for im- 
mediate table use.- Blanch the corn (on the cob) for 8 to 12 
minutes in boiling water. Drain thoroughly. Then cut the 
corn from the cob as directed on p. 25. Dry by subject- 
ing to a temperature of 130° F. gradually increased to 140° 
F. Stir the com often. It is sufficiently dried when it is 
hard and semi-transparent. 

(Adapted from Bulletin of the National War Garden Com- 
mission, Victory Edition.) 


The following table shows blanching time for vegetables and the 
temperatures to be used in drying by artificial heat. 


Beets . . . . . 
Cabbage . . . . 
Carrots . . . . 
Cauliflower . . . 



Garden peas . . . 
Green string beans 
Lima beans . . 


Onions . . . . 








120 to 145 

3 to 4 

115 to 135 


120 to 145 

4 to 6 

120 to 130 

2 to 3 


120 to 140 

3 to 5 

115 to 140 


130 to 145 




115 to 135 


iFrom Bulletin of the National War Garden Commisaion, Victory 








Pumpkin and winter squash 


Summer squash .... 

Sweet com 

Sweet potatoes 



Wax beans 





Cherries ....... 











120 to 145 

2 to 3 

125 to 150 

130 to 175 

3to 6 

135 to 160 



3 to 6 

135 to 160 

8 to 12 

130 to 140 

6 to 8 

145 to 165 


120 to 140 

Ito 2 

135 to 165 



130 to 175 

130 to 165 

130 to 155 

120 to 150 

130 to 165 

130 to 175 

130 to 165 


Under what conditions do you think it would be advisable to 
dry foods rather than can them ? 

Name the advantages of dried over canned foods and the ad- 
vantages of canned over dried. 

From what you have learned regarding the cooking of dried 
fruits and dried peas and beans, how would you cook home-dried 

Give a reason for each step of the process'. 

Why is it necessary to stir foods occasionally while drying? 

Why is oven drying of foods much more satisfactory when the 
oven is provided with a thermometer? 

Explain why it is necessary to condition dried foods before 



The Sick-room Tray 

Selection of Foods for the Sick. — Methods of preparation 
of food for the sick difiFer somewhat from methods of prepa- 
ration of food for those in health. The chief difiFerence is in 
the selection of the foods to be prepared. In severe illness 
the physician prescribes definitely the diet of the patient. 
In the absence of a trained nurse, it is the home-keeper's 
work to follow the physician's directions and to prepare 
such foods as can readily be digested. 

Often the home-keeper not only prepares, but selects the 
foods for the indisposed members of the household. In any 
case of feeding the sick, the following suggestions should be 
kept in mind : ' 

(a) Choose easily digested foods and prepare them in such 
a way that they will be easily digested. Liquid or easily 
liquefied foods are digested with the least efiFort, hence the 
use of milk, broths, soups, and gruels in sick-room diet. 
Such semisolid foods as eggs (uncooked or soft cooked), 
cereals, softened toast, etc., are also easily digested. Avoid 
foods that are digested with difiiculty, as pastry, fried foods, 
" rich " sauces, pork, veal, lobster, and baked beans. 

(6) Give special attention to the selection of foods that 
appeal to the appetite. When foods are served, even though 
they are selected according to the physician's directions, 
likes and dislikes of the patient should be observed. If 
food suitable for the patient is distasteful to him, substitu- 
tions should be made or distasteful foods should be dis- 
guised. Eggs, for example, are most valuable foods for the 
sick. If disliked by the patient they may be slipped into 
such foods as cocoa or gruels. Appeal to the appetite can 


be made by changing the methods of preparing foods. 
The selection and preparation of food for the sick call 
for ingenuity and resourcefulness on the part of the home- 

(c) Prepare less food for the sick than for those in health. 
Sometimes a lessened quantity of easily digested food is all 
that is needed to effect recovery from an indisposed condi- 
tion. Some energy is needed to carry on the involuntary 
activities of the body, such as the beating of the heart, and 
the movements of the lungs (see Table of Energy Require-- 
merits, p. 378). For the very sick patient, food served in 
small quantities, but served often, is necessary. 

Selection of Foods for the Convalescent. — In recovery 
from severe illness, there is often the problem of building 
up an emaciated body. Knowledge of the proper quantity 
and the kind of food aids greatly in solving this problem. 

The basic principles of the selection of food to increase 
weight were discussed previously (see Daily Carbohydrate 
and Fai Requirement, p. 381). The use of concentrated 
foods, i.e. those whose fuel value is high, such as eggs, cream 
or top milk, and butter, is usually advisable. These foods 
can be added to foods of less fuel value such as vegetables. 
A generous use of whole milk is also effective in gaining 
weight. This can be used to advantage not only at meal 
times but between meals and at bed time. Milk is one of 
the few foods which can be used effectively between meals. 
Because it is bland in flavor, it does not " spoil the ap- 
petite " for the following meal. Bread and other grain 
foods and starch-rich vegetables are useful foods for gaining 

Many of the suggestions for the selection of foods for the 
sick apply to the selection of foods for the convalescent. 

Preparation of Special Foods for the Sick and for the 
Convalescent. — (1) MUk, — Milk is one of the most im- 


portant foods for an invalid because it is a liquid containing 
valuable nutrients. It is used in a partially predigested 
condition in Junket " Custard " (see p. 189), peptonized 
milky and malted milk. Buttermilk, kumiss, and' matzoon 
are often agreeable and beneficial to the sick; by some, 
they are more easily digested than whole milk. Frozen 
desserts made of milk or cream are popular foods for the 

(2) Eggs, — Since eggs are both high in nutrients and 
easily digested, they serve as a most important article of 
diet for the sick. The variety of ways in which eggs can 
be cooked and served also adds to their value as a sick-room 
food. Eggs combined with milk (egg-nog, custards), with 
cereals (rice pudding, gruels), and with toast make suitable 
foods for the sick and convalescent. The principles used in 
the preparation of custards (see Lesson LI, p. 177) should 
be applied in combining eggs with hot liquids. 

(3) Gruels, — The principle of preparing breakfast cereals 
may be applied to the preparation of gruels. In the making 
of gruels less cereal and more liquid are used, i.e. mix 1 
tablespoonful of cereal with 1 cupful of liquid. The fin- 
ished product is strained. A gruel may be prepared by 
diluting a cooked cereal and straining. Gruels should be of 
the consistency of cream soups. Corn-meal, oatmeal, barley, 
rice, flour — especially graham, whole wheat, and gluten — 
arrowroot, and crushed crackers — especially graham and 
oatmeal — are suitable cereals for gruels. Water or a com- 
bination of water and milk is used for the liquid. When 
both water and milk are used, the method of cooking Rice 
Pudding given on p. 88 should be followed. 

The seasoning and flavoring of gruels are most important. 
Distaste for gruels is often due to improper seasoning. 
" High " seasoning is not desirable for the sick or convales- 
cent. Usually a patient does not care for highly seasoned 


food. But some seasoning is necessary to make a tasty 
gruel. Gruels may be flavored with whole spices, meat ex- 
tract, fruits, such as raisins, cranberries, etc., and lemon 
peel. The flavor of whole spices and fruits is extracted by 
cooking them with the gruel. If nutmeg is used, it is grated 
over the surface of the cooked food. The identity of this 
spice can thus be recognized. Sugar is used sparingly for 
the sick. 

(4) Broth and Meat, — Although there is little nourish- 
ment contained in meat broths (see Protein in Meat, p. 202), 
beef tea is often used as food for the sick, especially when 
liquid diet is necessary. It is appetizing and tasty. 

To make beef tea, soak chopped meat in water for at 
least one hour. (Use 1 pint of water to 1 pound of lean 
beef.) Then cook the mixture slightly, over hot water (until 
it becomes reddish brown in color), and stir constantly. 
Strain through a coarse strainer, season, and serve at once. 

Sometimes the juice of beef without any dilution with 
water is served to the sick. The meat is cut into pieces and 
heated slightly ; then by means of a lemon " squeezer " or a 
meat press the juice is extracted. 

Meats such as chicken (white meat preferably), lamb, 
broiled or roasted beef, can be used for convalescents. 
Scraped meat, i.e. meat from which the tough tissue is re- 
moved (see Experiment 50, p. 192), can often be given to an 
invalid when solid meats are denied. The scraped meat 
contains more nutriment than beef juice (see Protein in 
Meat, p. 202). It should be made into balls and pan-broiled 
(see Pan-hroiling, p. 199). 

Preparing the Tray. — Attractive serving of foods may 
make a stronger appeal to the appetite than choice selection 
or skilful preparation of foods. It should be remembered 
that the foods are to be carried from the kitchen to the sick 
room. For this reason, it is well to place foods, especially 


liquids, in deep dishes suitable for transit. All hot foods 
should be placed in covered dishes, that they may be hot 
when the bedside is reached. 

For serving sick-room foods, the daintiest china available 
should be used. The tray should be spread with a clean 
napkin or doily. In the case of a contagious disease, a 
paper napkin or doily may be used. It should be destroyed 
at once after using. 

A bedside stand which supports the tray without any efiFort 
of the patient is a comfort. 

For contagious diseases, bum any remaining bits of food 
arid sterilize the dishes, — cover with cold water, heat, and 


Keeping in mind that the requisite for food for the sick is ease of 
digestion, make a list of liquid, semisolid, and solid foods suitable for 
the sick room. 

Explain why it is that liquid foods are invariably prescribed for 
the sick. 

Give a variety of ways of cooking and serving eggs for the sick. 

Keeping in mind the suggestions given in the chapter on Menu- 
making (see p. 318) and in the present chapter, write several menus 
for an indisposed or convalescent patient. 


Preparing Trays for the Sick and Convalescent 

Plan 1 menus for the sick and for the convalescent. Pre- 
pare the foods and arrange them on trays. 

1 See Foat-note, p. 327. 



Review — Meal Cooking 


Cream of Potato Soup 


Baked Custard 

See Lesson XIV (p. 68) for suggestions regarding the preparation 
of the lesson. 


Home Projects^ 

Suggestions for Home Work. — Can fruit or vegetables, 
or make marmalades, jellies, etc. If possible, select the 
fruits or vegetables at market. 

Suggested Aims: (1) To compare home-canned and fac- 
tory-canned products. Determine the difference in cost per 
pint or quart. Compare the difference in flavor and ap- 

(2) To compare the yield of fruit made into jam or con- 
serve and jelly. Note the weight of the fruit, sugar, and 
other ingredients before preserving. How many glasses of 
jam or conserve does each five pounds of material yield? 
State the advantages of preparing jelly from fruit and of 
preparing jam or conserve. 

^ See Lesson IX, p. 51. 




Thanksgiving Sauce 
cranberry sauce 

1 quart (1 pound) cranberries 2 cupfuls sugar 

2 cupfuls water Salt 

Pick over and wash the cranberries. Cook them in water 
until they are soft and the skins are broken. Remove from 
the fire; strain if desired, add the sugar and salt, and stir 
until dissolved. Set aside to cool. 


1 quart (1 pound) cranberries 2 cupfuls sugar 

1 cupful water Salt 

Prepare and cook the cranberries in water, as for Cran- 
berry Sauce. Press through a strainer, add the sugar and 
salt, and mix well. Cook until a drop of the mixture does 
not spread when dropped from a spoon to a plate. Pour 
into molds which have been rinsed in cold water. Set aside 
to cool and stiffen. 


Give a practical method of washing cranberries. 

When should sugar be added to cooked fruit (see When to Add the 
Sugar, p. 65) ? Explain why the adding of the sugar in Cranberry 
Jelly is an exception to the rule. 




Thanksgiving Desserts 
plum pudding 

2 cupfuls soft bread crumbs ^ cupful suet 

i teaspoonful baking soda i cupful molasses 

2 teaspoonfuls baking powder 1 egg 

i teaspoonful cloves f cupful milk 

i teaspoonful cinnamon i cupful currants 

J teaspoonful salt J cupful raisins 

To prevent suet from sticking while being chopp>ed, 
sprinlde it with a little flour. Use a meat grinder, or a 
chopping bowl and knife, to chop the suet. Beat the eggs 
lightly and add the milk to them. The currants and raisins 
should be cleaned as directed on p. 77, and sprinkled with 
flour. Mix the ingredients in the order given. Steam in an 
oiled pudding mold for at least 2 hours. Serve with Hard 
Sauce, I (see p. 31) or II, Yellow Sauce, or Vanilla Sauce 
(see p. 186). 


2 cupfuls flour 1 teaspoonful salt 

1 pound seeded raisins 1 teaspoonful baking soda 

1 cupful potatoes 1 tablespoonful cold water 

1 cupful carrots 1 cupful suet 

1 cupful sugar 2 oranges — juice and grated rind 

1 lemon — juice and grated rind 

Mix the flour and raisins. Put the potatoes, carrots, and 
suet through a food chopper. Mix the baking soda and 
water. Combine these three mixtures. Then add the re- 
maining ingredients. Turn into a greased mold and steam 
three hours. Serve hot with Lemon Sauce (see p. 114) or 
with Hard or Yellow Sauce. 



f cupful brown sugar 2 tablespoonfuls cream or milk 

J cupful butter 1 teaspoonful vanilla (yr 

1 teaspoonful lemon juice and J teaspoonful vanilla 

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and mix 
thoroughly. Add the cream or milk gradually. Add the 
flavoring. Chill ; serve over hot puddings. 


2 eggs 1 tablespoonful milk or cream 

i cupful powdered sugar } teaspoonful vanilla 


Separate the eggs ; beat the whites until they are stifiF and 
dry. Add the yolks and continue beating until the mi^c- 
ture is very light. Then add the powdered sugar and beat 
again. Continue beating and add the milk or cream gradu- 
ally; finally add the vanilla and salt. Serve at once over 
hot puddings. 


1 quart (1 pound) cranberries 4 cupfuls water 
2} cupfuls sugar Juice 1 large lemon 


Cook the cranberries and water slowly, until soft. Force 
through a sieve, and add the sugar, lemon juice, and salt. 
When cool, freeze (see Preparing and Packing the Freezer and 
Freezing, pp. 460 and 461). 

Serve with roast chicken or turkey, or as a dessert. 


What are the leavening materials used in Plum Pudding? Ex- 
plain their action. 

Why are raisins and currants sprinkled with flour before adding 
to the pudding? 


How should pudding molds be prepared for pour batters (see 
General Suggestions for Steamed Quick-bread Mixtures j p. 347) ? If it is 
desired to use left-over steamed pudding, how should it be reheated? 

What is the price per pound of suet? How much by weight is 
required to make one half cupful ? 

See Figure 63, p. 277, and tabulate the percentage composition 
of beef suet and butter. Which contains the more fat ? 

How many persons does the Plum Pudding recipe serve? 

How many persons does the Cranberry Frapp6 recipe serve ? 


Christivias Sweets 

The Use of Candy in Diet. — Candy is an energy-giving 
food, but, unfortunately perhaps, it is not (at all times) a 
most desirable energy-giving food. Sugar exists in candy 
in concentrated form. As stated on p. 71, such sugar is 
irritating to the organs of digestion. Sugar is contained in 
large quantity in some fruits, especially in dried fruits, figs, 
dates, prunes, etc. These fruits are a much better source of 
sweets for children than is candy, because they do not con- 
tain as much sugar, and have, in addition, valuable food 
materials in the form of ash. (See Figures 92, p. 499, and 
94. Note the large quantity of carbohydrates and ash in 
raisins. Also note the large quantity of carbohydrates — 
which are in the form of sugar — in stick candy.) 

Candy should never be used to excess or at the wrong 
time. A little eaten at the end of a meal is not harmful 
to the normal person. At that time the sugar is diluted be- 
cause it is mixed with other foods. When diluted it does 
not irritate the digestive tract to the extent that it would if 
eaten between meals with no other foods. It is well to drink 
a generous quantity of water when eating candy or other 
sweets. Since molasses, honey, and maple sirup are not so 




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concentrated as is sugar (see Figure 94), tbey are desirable 
sweets for children, — provided they are used moderately, 
at the right time, and are mixed with other foods. 



Chop equal parts of figs, dates, or raisins, and nuts together. 
Knead on a board dredged with confectioner's sugar, until 
well blended. Roll to ^ inch thickness, cut into cubes or 
rounds, and dip each piece in confectioner's sugar. Store 
in tin boxes. 


Cover 'prunes with cold water, and let them soak for 30 
minutes. Then heat and cook at boiling temperature for 
15 minutes. Now drain off the water and place prunes in 
the top part of a double boiler and cook over boiling water 
for 45 minutes. Or put the prunes in a tightly covered pan 
and place in the fireless cooker for several hours. Cool and 
remove the stones and fill the open space with a nut or a 
mixtiu'e of chopped dates or raisins, figs, and nuts. Press 
the prunes into symmetrical shape, then roll them in fine 
granulated sugar. (The Parisian Sweet mixture may be 
used for stuffing prunes.) Prunes may also be stuffed with 
marshmallows. One half of a marshmallow should be in- 
serted in each cooked and seeded prune. 

Dates stuffed with chopped nuts, peanut butter, or candied 
ginger are tasty sweets. They may be rolled in granulated 
sugar after stuffing. 


1 egg 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder 

1 cupful sugar \ teaspoonful salt 

1 teaspoonful vanilla } cupful dates, seeded and cut into pieces 

1 cupful flour 1 cupful nuts, chopped 

Mix as Date Pudding (see p. 79). Turn into an oblong 
or square pan about 9 by 9 inches. Bake in a moderate 
oven for about 30 minutes. When sufficiently baked, re- 
move from the pan and place on a cake cooler for a few 
minutes. Then cut the cake into halves, and cut each half 


into narrow strips about 1 inch wide and 4J inches long. 
Roll each strip in powdered sugar. Store in a tightly covered 
tin box. These cakes have a finer flavor after they have 
been stored for a few days. 

Raisins may be substituted for dates. 


1 cupful molasses i teaspoonful baking soda 

1 cupful com sirup or sugar } teaspoonful salt 

Mix the molasses and sirup or sugar and cook them to the 
crack stage (see p. 528). Then add the soda and salt and 
pour the mixture over popped corn, — about 6 quarts. Stir 
the corn while pouring the sirup. Let the sweetened corn 
stand a few minutes. Then dip the hands into cold water, 
shake off the water, and with the two hands press some corn 
into a ball. Repeat until all the corn is shaped into balls. 


Explain why Parisian Sweets and Stuffed Fruits are a more 
desirable sweet food than candy. 

When is the best time to eat candy? Explain your answer. 

Why are mints served at the close, rather than at the beginning of 
a meal? 

Why is it advisable to drink a generous quantity of water when 
eating candy or sweets? 

Compare the recipes for Date Pudding (p. 79) and Date Bars. 
Account for the greater quantity of flour, sugar, and milk in Date 

Why is it necessary to dip the hands in cold water before shaping 
Pop-corn Balls? 


Christmas Candy 

Sugar and Glucose. — Granulated sugar and glucose differ 
in taste and composition. Granulated sugar is crystalline 


in structure, while commercial glucose exists in the form of 
a heavy sirup, i.e. is non-crystalline in form. 

In many candies, a creamy consistency is desired. This 
is not possible, if all the sugar of the candy exists in 
coarse crystalline form. Hence in the making of candy 
from granulated sugar, it is desirable to add glucose or 
sirup to granulated sugar or to change some of the crystal- 
lized sugar to a sugar which crystallizes with difficulty, i.e. 
invert sugar. This can be accomplished by boiling granulated 
sugar with acid. 

Recent experimentation * with sugars, however, shows 
that the quantity of acid required varies with the degree 
of hardness or the alkalinity of the water, — the more 
alkaline the water, the greater the quantity of acid needed. 
This experimental work also shows that unless soft water 
is used in boiling sugar to which acid is added, more constant 
and satisfactory results may be secured by adding glucose 
rather than acid to sugar. 

Cooking Sirups. — Sugar and water are boiled to different 
degrees of temperature for making different kinds of candy. 
The thicker the sirup, the higher the temperature. Tests 
for sirups of different consistencies are : 

(a) Thread, — when dropped from a spoon, the sirup 
forms a thread about two inches long (230° F.).^ 

(6) Soft ball, — when dropped into cold water, the sirup 
forms a soft ball if rolled between the fingers (236° F.). 

(c) Hard ball, — when dropped into cold water, the sirup 
forms a firm ball (252° F.). 

1 See Journal of Home Economics, February, 1919 (Vol. XI), p. 65, 
" Factors Influencing the Amount of Invert Sugar in Fondant," by Daniels 
and Cook. 

2 These temperatures apply to sirups made from cane sugar. The ad- 
dition of glucose to cane sugar lowers the temperatures of the sirups at 
the various stages. See Note to the Teacher, p. 353, regarding the use 
of the Fahrenheit scale of temperature. 


(d) Crack, — when dropped into cold water, the sirup be- 
comes brittle (270° F.). 

(e) Hard crack, — when dropped into cold water, the 
sirup becomes very hard and brittle (293° F.). 

(/) Caramel, — when sugar (without addition of water) 
liquefies when hot and becomes very hard and brittle when 
cold (310° F.). 


2 cupf uls sugar 2 ounces chocolate 

i cupful water or milk 2 tablespoonfuls butter 

J cupful com sirup 1 teaspoonful vanilla 

i teaspoonful salt 

Mix the sugar with the liquid. Add the chocolate and 
sirup. Boil gently to a " soft ball " stage. Just before re- 
moving from the fire, add the butter. Cool, then beat the 
mixture until it thickens. Add the vanilla and salt and pour 
into a buttered pan. Cut into squares ; when cool the fudge 
is ready for serving. 

The butter may be omitted. 


2 cupf uls light brown sugar 2 tablespoonfuls butter or substitute 

J cupful milk J pound nuts 

J teaspoonful cream of tartar J teaspoonful salt 

Mix the sugar with the milk. Add the cream of tartar, 
and boil gently to a " soft ball " stage. Just before remov- 
ing from the fire, add the butter and salt. Cool and beat 
until the mixture thickens. Add nuts that have been cut 
into pieces ; pour into a buttered pan ; cut into squares. 
When cool, the Panocha is ready for serving. 

Sour milk or cream may be substituted for sweet milk and cream 
of tartar. When sour cream is used, omit the butter or substitute. 




J cupful water Juice of 1 lemon or 

3 cupfuls light brown sugar J cupful vinegar 
2 to 4 tablespoonfuls butter 

Mix the sugar and liquids thoroughly. Boil gently to the 
crack " stage. Add the butter. Pour into buttered pans. 

When almost cool, cut into squares with a chopping knife. 

Break into pieces when cold. 

The butter may be omitted. If this is done, add J teaspoonful 
of salt. 


1 cupful sirup 1 tablespoonful water 

2 cupfuls sugar 1 tablespoonful vinegar 

1 tablespoonful butter 1 tablespoonful ground cinnamon or 
i teaspoonful salt 2 drops of oil of cinnamon 

Put all the ingredients except oil of cinnamon into a sauce- 
pan and boil to the crack stage (see p. 528). If oil of cin- 
namon is used for flavoring, add it to the mixture after cook- 
ing. Pour into a greased pan. When cool enough to handle, 
take a small portion and shape it into a ball. If the candy 
becomes too stiff to shape, it may be placed in an oven until 
it is soft enough to handle. 

Oil of cinnamon produces a more pleasing flavor than ground 
cinnamon. However, the former is expensive. If it is added, the 
use of a medicine dropper prevents its waste. 


What ingredient does com sirup contain that would make it 
effective in preparing creamy candy (see p. 72) ? 

Explain the use of com sirup, cream of tartar, sour milk, and 
vinegar in these candies. In Fudge, why is the butter added just 
before removing the candy from the fire (see Frying and Digestion y 
p. 140) ? 


Why are not the nuts cooked in the Panocha mixture? 

Why is butter or substitute omitted in Panocha if sour cream is 
substituted for sweet milk ? 

If a thermometer is used for testing sirups, what precaution 
should be taken against breaking? 

From U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate 
the percentage composition of granulated (see Figure 94), powdered^ 
brown, and maple sugars. What is the price per pound of each? 

How many cupfuls in a pound of brown sugar? 

Considering the percentage of carbohydrates, and the price per 
pound of granulated and brown sugar, which is the cheaper? 

Tabulate the percentage composition of honey, of molasses, and 
of maple sirup. 

How much fudge, by weight, does 1 pound of sugar make ? 

What is the cost per pound of homemade fudge? 



In using this text, the teacher may follow the order of 
presenting a lesson which she considers most satisfactory. 
She may prefer to preface processes of cooking with a dis- 
cussion of foods and reasons for the steps involved in the 
processes, or she may consider it advisable to have the pupils 
do the cooking and discuss foods and methods later. In 
case both the so-called "theory" and practical work are 
undertaken in the same lesson, the time required to cook 
the food often determines the order of the lesson. In either 
case, this text may be used to advantage. 

Although recipes in definitely stated form appear in the 
book, the teacher need not refer to them in class, or place them 
upon the board previous to the lesson. She may prefer to 
lead the pupils to develop a recipe. The latter method is 
valuable in training pupils to know the proper quantity of 
food materials to combine for practical recipe making, and 
to know how to svbstitute one food material for another. 

The relation of one recipe to another is shown in this text 
and should be constantly emphasized. The pupils should 
be made to understand that there are a few basic recipes 
from which many may be developed. 

Much attention should be given to the cost of foods. At 
frequent intervals, pupils should be required to compute 
the cost of particular dishes or of entire meals. The buying 
of foods by the pupils is most valuable. In table service 
lessons, it is advisable to have the pupils not only plan and 
cook food^ but, when possible, buy them. 

In teaching table service lessons, the greatest care should 



be taken to adapt the lessons to the standard of living of the 
pupils. In communities where the equipment for serving 
foods is most meagre, a special effort should be made to make 
the best use of such dishes and furnishings as are found in 
the homes of the pupils. Serving meals in a more pleasing 
way with more adequate (but not elaborate) equipment 
should also be taught. Methods of serving without a maid 
meet best the needs of most pupils of the public schools. 

The cooking of foods by each pupil in family quantity 
rather than in individual amount is valuable. To do this 
some practical way of disposing of the cooked products must 
be arranged. The lunch rooms of the school may serve as 
the means of disposal. In case the pupils of a school cook 
for the lunch room, the greatest care needs to be exercised 
by the teacher to place the responsibility of preparing a 
salable product upon the pupil. Too much assistance on 
the part of the teacher in directing the pupils' work and in 
deciding when a food is sufficiently, cooked or baked, may 
interfere in developing initiative in pupils, — one of the 
aims to be accomplished in education. The plan of having 
each pupil prepare a food for the first time in individual 
quantity and then later in family quantity for the lunch 
room has proved satisfactory in some cases; 

This text furnishes material for a yearns work, if five lessons 
per week (at least ninety minutes in length) are given; or 
for two years' work, if the curriculum provides for but two 
or three lessons per week. If it is necessary to arrange a 
shorter course, certain lessons may be omitted or assigned 
for home work, or lessons may be combined. 

If the teacher wishes to correlate food study with some other 
subject such as general science, or physiology, chemistry, 
or physics, the time may be extended, or the order of work 
may be changed to fit the particular requirements. Because 
many of the lessons of the first eight divisions treat of the 


uses of the foods in the body, they are especially good for 
correlation with physiology. The remaining lessons, many 
of which emphasize food composition, may be correlated to 
advantage with chemistry. 

If for any reason an entire semester's work is to be devoted 
to table service, including the planning, buying, cooking, 
and serving of foods and determining the cost and computing 
the calorific value of the foods, the material found in Related 
Work — the lessons placed at the end of each division — will 
be found adequate for such a course. 


Bevier and Van Meter : Selection and Preparation of Food. 

Brechner : Household Physics. 

Brownlee and Others : Chemistry of Common Things. 

BiLchanan : Household Bacteriology. 

Child Health Organization of America : Pamphlets. 

Cooley and Others : Teaching Home Economics. 

Conn : Bacteria, Yeasts, and Molds in the Home. 

Department of Household Science, University of Illinois : Principles of 

Jelly-Making (Bulletin). 
Farmer : Food and Cookery for the Sick and the Convalescent. 
Farmer : The Boston Cooking School Cook Book. 
HUl : Cooking for Two. 
HiU : The Up-To-Date Waitress. 
Holt : The Care and Feeding of Children. 
Holt and Sedgwick : The Human Mechanism. 
HoU and Shaw : Save the Babies, Pamphlet. 
Kansas AgricuUural College: Table Etiquette and Table Service 

Lincoln and Barrows : Home Science Cook Book. 
Lusk : Elements of the Scietice of Nutrition. 
Liisk : Fundamental Basis of Nutrition. 
McCollum : The American Home Diet. 
Mitchell : Fireless Cook Book. 
Pattee : Practical Dietetics. 
Richards, Ellen H. : The Cost of Food. 
Rose : Feeding the Family. 
Rose : Laboratory Handbook for Dietetics. 
Sherman : Chemistry of Food and Nutrition, Second Edition. 
Sherman : Food Products. 
Styles : Human Physiology. 
Taber : The Business of the Household. 
U. S. Department of Agricvlture : Bulletins. 
Van Rensselaer and Others : A Manual of Home-Making. 
VtdtS : Household Chemistry. 
VvlU and VanderhiU : Food Industries. 



References are to pages. The heavy face numerals indicate the principal 


Albumin ..... 153, 203 

Almonds 320,396 

Apple, composition of . . . 298 

dumplings 391 

pie 451 

sauce, 296 (see Fruit Sauces, 

tapioca 113 

Apples 64, 396 

baked 5,267 

butterscotch 38 

scalloped 31 

Apricot conserve 493 

dainty 181 

Apricots 76, 396 

Ash 67, 258 

in menu making • • . 318-323 
requirement, daily . . . 382 
use of, in the body 57, 319, 320 

Asparagus 396,467 

Avoirdupois system of meas- 
urement (see Note to 
the Teacher, 353). 

Bacon 299, 396 

composition of 277 

scalloped potatoes with . . 300 
Bacteria .... 172,474,477 
Baking powder, composition 

of 339 

difference in types of . . 340 
leavening with . . . 338, 342 
quantity of, in quick bread 

340, 350 
Baking soda, leavening with, 

334, 336, 342, 345 
and baking powder, leaven- 
ing with .... 342 

and cream of tartar, leaven- 
ing with . . . • . 343 
quantity of, in quick bread 335, 

337, 349, 350 

Banana 65, 396 

composition of .... 298 

salad 257 

scalloped 32 

Barley 214, 370 

Baste • 5, 201 

Batter, pour .... 329, 333 

drop 363, 366 

Bean roast 239 

Beans 320, 322 (see Legumes, 234). 

Boston baked 235 

composition of 313 

kidney, curry of ... . 266 

Lima, dried 322 

Beef . . 192-221,295,322,396 
chopped . . . 202, 204, 205 
cross rib cut . . 210, 212, 218 
cuts of ... . 210, 211, 212 

dried 295,396 

EngUsh cut of . . 210, 212, 218 
explanation of cuts of . . 211 

juice of 517 

"leftovers" 220 

loaf 205, 396 

stock ...... 209, 213 

tea 517 

tender cuts of 195 

method of cooking 195—207 

tough cuts of 208 

method of cooking 207 to 219 

Beefsteak, rolled .... 215 

composition of .... 295 

Beets 60, 105, 396 

pickled 60 



References are to pages. 

Beverages . . . 40,266,325,468 
Biscuits, baking powder, '* cut" 

390, 391, 396 

drop 387, 388 

or rolls 413 

with prune or raisin filling 415 
Blanc mange .... 100, 396 
Body-building foods, 57, 152, 258, 

Body-regulating foods, 40, 57, 245, 

Bone, in making soup . . . 208 
Boston cut of beef . 210, 212, 218 

Bottled, to seal 502 

Botulism ....... 480 

Braising meat ..... 220 

Bran 363 

Brazil nuts 396 

Bread . . . 314, 396, 406, 409 
and cereals for children . 466 
composition of .... 314 

Boston brown 348 

brown, plain 347 

crumbs, dried 176 

soft, 17 (see also Crumbs 
for Scalloped Dishes y 

graham 412 

making, general suggestions 

for 405 

oatmeal-potato .... 413 
other than wheat . . . . 410 

peanut 372 

potato 412 

properly toasted (see Toast, 

prune ....... 372 

score card for 410 

quick, general suggestions 

for steamed mixtures 347 

quick loaf 371 

tests for sufficient baking 

of 336 

whole wheat 372 

Breakfast 326 

cooking and serving 129, 

150, 243 

setting table for . . . . 120 

Brisket, cut of beef . . 210, 212 

BroiHng 199 

pan ...:.... 199 
and saut^ing, difference 
between .... 200 
Broth and meat for children . 467 
for the sick and convales- 
cent 517 

Brussels sprouts (see Fresh 

Vegetables^ 58). 
Buckwheat flour . . . 370, 397 
Buffet and serving table . . 124 

Buns, cinnamon 415 

Burner, gas 27-31 

gasoline 34, 35 

kerosene 33, 34 

Butter 136, 170 

balls 348 

composition of 277 

fuel content of 356 

Butter milk 397 

composition of .... 284 

Cabbage .... 246,247,397 

creamed 251, 252 

Cake and muffins, compari- 
son of plain . . . 424 
Cake, apple sauce .... 438 
baking, layer and loaf . . 426 
chocolate .... 432, 439 

classes of 424 

coconut 429 

containing fruit 434 

ingredients of 425 

method of mixing 426. 428 

nut 434 

one-egg 424 

plain 429 

preparing the pans for . . 426 

quality of 427 

score card for 428 

spice 439 

sponge 422, 423 

baking of 423 

method of mixing . . . 422 

white 429 

without eggs 438 

without fat 422 

Calcium . 164, 246, 320, 321, 322 

Calf s foot jelly 397 

Calorie . . i . . . 353, 354 
table of one hundred . . 396 


References are to pages. 

Candy, Christmas . . 523, 526 

composition of 524 

Butterscotch 629 

cinnamon balls .... 529 

coconut 73 

fudge 528 

panocha 528 

peanut 73 

puffed cereal 73 

use of, in diet . . . .' . 523 

Canned foods versus Fresh . 259 

Canned fruit, jars for . . . 481 

Canned vegetables .... 502 

use of 507 

Canning fruit, methods of 

cold pack 484 

discussion of 486 

open kettle 482 

single period and intermit- 
tent .504 

timetable 487 

Canning vegetables, method 

of 505 

time tables .... 506, 507 

Caramel, solubility of . . . 74 

sauce 89 

sirup 179 

temperature 528 

Caramelized sugar .... 73 

Carbohydrate, a foodstuff 81 

and fat, daily requirements 381 

comparison of fat and . . 131 

in roots and tubers (see Root 

Plants, 104). 

Carbon dioxide 28 

in leavening 335, 337, 343, 346 

monoxide 28 

Carrots . . . 105, 247, 397, 467 

buttered 63 

Casein ' . . 164 

Casserole . . . . 66, 111, 294 

Catsup, tomato ' 501 

Cauliflower . . . 320,397,467 
Celery, 397 (see Fresh Vege- 
tables, 58). 

composition of .... 275 

creamed . . . . ... . 249 

dried leaves 249 

soup, 397 (see Cream Soups, 

Cellulose . . .58, 80, 323, 363 
effect of hot water on . . 81 
Centigrade Scale of temper- 
ature (see Note to the 
Teacher, 353). 
Cereal, griddle cakes (see 
Bread Griddle Cakes, 

water 454 

Cereals . 79, 82, 84, 88, 90, 97, 99 
and the fireless cooker . . 00 

breakfast 82 

comparing wheat with . . 369 

for children 466 

for frying 97 

general rules for cooking . 83 
powdered for thickening . 99 
** ready to eat or serve " 

82, 466 

substituting for wheat . . 367 

Cheese 188, 190, 246, 320, 321, 397 

care of 191 

composition of 311 

cottage .... 189, 311, 312 
food value and use of . . 190 

macaroni and 191 

noodles and (see Macaroni 

and Cheese, 191). 
preparation for market . .188 

pudding 184 

rice and (see Macaroni and 
Cheese, 191). 

sauce 87 

scalloped eggs with . . . 312 

straws 285 

Chemical change ^ . . . 335 

Chestnuts 312 

Chicken . . . .301, 305, 397 
Chicken and fowl, selection 

of 301 

croquettes 305 

stewed 304 

Chili con carni . . . . . 266 
Chlorine .... 246, 320, 322 
Chocolate . 166, 168, 321, 376, 397 
Chops, lamb . . . 292, 293, 295 

pork 295, 297 

veal 287 

Christmas candy 526 

sweets 523 



References are to pages. 

Chuck rib roast . 200, 210, 212 

steak 204, 212 

Cinnamon 265 

Cinnamon buns 415 

Club steak . . 194, 197, 210, 211 

Cloves 265 

Coal range, care of, cleaning 
(see Fire Building in 
a Coal Range, 24). 
examination of ... . 22 
Cocoa . . . 166, 168, 321, 397 
in frosting (see Water Frost" 
ing, 430 ; Egg Frost- 
ing, 430). 
Coconut candy (see Peanut 

Candy, 73). 
Coconut sweetmeats ... 55 
Cod, composition of . . . 307 
Cod, salt (see Fish Balls, 138) . 397 

Coffee 48 

after dinner 50 

black 50 

boiled 49 

filtered 49 

percolator 50 

Coffee bag 49 

Coffee pot, care of the ... 49 

drip 49 

Combustion 19, 20 

products of 24 

Composition of foods . 275, 277, 

284, 295, 298, 307, 311, 

313, 314, 499, 524 

Condiments 264 

Connective tissue . . 193, 208 

Conserves 490 

apricot 493 

cranberry 492 

grape 492 

plum 493 

strawberry and pineapple . 492 
Convalescents, foods for . . 515 

Cookies 397, 436 

classes of 435 

commeal 437 

ginger 436 

sour milk or cream . . . 436 

sugar 435 

texture of 435 

with raisin filling .... 436 

Cooling by evaporation . . 460 

Com 26, 397 

bread, spider 335 

composition of .... 313 

custard 184 

dried 512 

green 25 

popping 116 

scalloped 26 

sirup 72 

Commeal . . 367, 368, 369, 397 

griddle cakes 344 

mush 96 

mush for ** frying "... 96 

Cornstarch, in soft custard 179 

pudding, chocolate . . . 100 

Cost of food 240 

calculation of 241 

Crackers 398 

Crackers and cheese, 

toasted 45 

crisp 238 

Cranberries 398 

Cranberry, conserve . , . 492 

frapp6 522 

" jelly " 520 

sauce 520 

Cream 171, 398 

composition of .... 284 

pineapple Bavarian . . . 225 

whipped 169 

whipped, sauce .... 388 

Cream filling 375 

mixtures, frozen .... 462 

of potato soup 183 

of rice pudding .... 88 
of tartar and baking soda 

345, 350 

of tomatoes 283 

puffs 374, 375 

salad dressing 256 

toast 104 

Creamed cabbage . . 251, 252 

celery 249 

onions (see Onions, 252) 

vegetables 109 

Croquettes ....... 140 

chicken 305 

rice (see Rice Cutlets, 142). 

potato 141 



References, are to pages. 

Cross rib, cut of beef 210, 212, 218 

Croutons 175 

Crumbs (see Bread Crumbs, 
17, 110, 176). 
removing from table . . 124 
Crusts, to soften the . . . 406 
Cucumbers . . . . .58, 398 
Currants, to prepare for cook- 
ing 77 

Curry powder 266 

Custard, corn 184 

junket 189 

sauce 182 

to decrease egg in ... 179 
Custards .... 177, 180,181 

baked 178 

soft .179 

steamed 178 

Cutlets, veal .... 287, 288 

Cuts, of beef .... 195, 210 

explanation of . . . . 211 

tender 195 

tough 208 

lamb or mutton . . 291, 292 

pork . . • 296,297 

veal 286, 287 

Date bars 525 

Dates . . 76, 84, 398, 467, 523 

stuffed 525 

Delmonico steak . . 194, 210, 211 

Desserts .... 78, 324, 468 

and food value .... 78 

for luncheon box .... 443 

frozen 459 

Dextrin 101, 102 

for thickening 206 

Dextrose 71 

Diet, for young children . . 465 
practical method of calcula- 
tion 393 

proper, importance of, for 

children .... 468 
use of candy in .... 523 

Digestion 40 

frying and 140 

of cheese 190 

of eggs 154 

of fat 139 

milk, action of rennin . . 188 

pastry 449 

poultry 302 

protein 157 

solution and 40 

starch 102 

sugar 71 

Dining room courtesy . . . 145 

Dining room service . 118 
basic principles .... 118 
established rules for . . . 123 
styles of 122 

Dinner, menus for ... . 327 
planning, cooking, and serv- 
ing of a . . 359, 385, 401 

Dish, drainer 10 

drying 11 

rack 11, 12 

towels, care of 12 

Dishwashing 6 to 12 

and eflBiciency 6 

and scouring 9 

arranging dishes .... 9 
preparing dishes .... 7 

rinsing 11 

utensils £or 8 

Dough, soft 387 

stiff 403. 405 

Doughnuts 398 

Draft 20 

course of .... 22, 23, 29 

direct ....... 22 

indirect 23 

Dressing, cream salad . . . 256 

French 254 

mayonnaise 276 

salad 274 

Driers 508 

Drying foods, advantages of . 508 

methods of ... . 508, 510 

selection of vegetables . . 509 

table for . . . 512, 513 

testing for 511 

Dumplings, apple .... 391 

Eggs 162, 246, 322, 373, 398, 466, 516 
Eggs, albumin in .... 153 
and starchy materials, milk 

thickened with 182, 184. 

care and use of .... 155 



References are to pages. 

Eggs, composition of ... 311 
digestibility- and palat abil- 
ity of 154 

dried 373 

for children 466 

preparation of for quick 

breads 374 

for the sick 516 

goldenrod 158 

hard-cooked 156 

iron in 323 

milk thickened with . 177, 180, 


omitting in cake .... 438 

poached 157 

scalloped with cheese . . 312 

scrambled 160 

soft-cooked 156 

structure of 155 

stuffed 256 

tests for freshness . . . 156 

to beat 159 

tx) break and separate the 

white and yolk . . 159 

to cut and fold beateifwhites 159 

yolks 320, 321, 

456, 466 

Electricity 19 

Electric stoves 35 

Emulsion of oil 274 

Energy 70 

givers 257 

giving foods . 70, 131, 1^2, 318 

how measured 352 

requirement, daily . . . 377 

daily ash 382 

daily carbohydrate and 

fat 381 

daily protein .... 380 

of an infant 456 

of children . . . . . 469 
tables of . . . 378, 379, 380 
EngUsh cut of beef . 210, 212, 218 
English dining room sery- 

ice 122 

Experiments : 

Action of baking soda on 

molasses 336 

Action of baking soda on 

sour milk 334 

Action of oil and water . 139 
Action of saliva upon starch 103 
Bread fried in " cool " fat . 132 
Change of starch into dex- 
trin 101 

Chemical change .... 334 
Coagulation of egg white . 153 
Comparison of cooked and 

boiled eggs .... 154 
Comparison of eggs beaten 
with Dover egg beater 
and with wire spoon . 160 
Comparison of the conduct- 
ing power of metal and 
earthenware . . . . 169 
Comparison of the time of 
action of different types 
of baking powders . . 339 
Comparison of thick and 

thin quick breads . . 329 
Comparison of starch and 

dextrin for thickening . 206 
Conditions for growth of the 

yelast plant .... 403 
Contamination of fresh food 
by means of moldy 

food 477 

Difference in the nutritive 
value of boiled rice and 
rice cooked over boil- 
ing water 86 

Dissolving power of water 40 
Division of muscle . . . 192 
Effect of acid on milk 188, 283 
Effect of air, light, and dry- 
ing upon the growth of 

molds 475 

Effect of beati ng a whole egg 1 60 
Effect of beating egg yolk 

and white separately . 160 
Effect of boiling fish rapidly 227 
Effect of boiling water on 

meat 207 

Effect of boiling on the 

growth of bacteria . . 477 
Effect of cold water on a 
mixture of cream of 
tartar and baking soda 338 
Effect of cold water on gela- 
tine 222 



References are to pages. 

Experiments, effect of cold 

water on meat . . . 207 
Effect of cold water on 

starch 80 

Effect of dry heat on (a) con- 
nective tissue, (b) mus- 
cle fiber 192 

Effect of heat on starch . 80 
Effect of hot water on a 
mixture of cream of 
tartar and baking soda 338 
Effect of hot water on bak- 
ing powder .... 338 
Effect of hot water on gela- 
tine . . 222 

Effect of moisture and dark- 
ness upon the growth 

of molds 476 

Effect of moisture and heat 
on (a) connective tis- 
sue, (b) muscle fiber , 193 
Effect of moisture and light 

on the growth of molds 475 
Effect of moisture and low 
temperature on the 
growth of molds . . 476 
Effect of preservatives on 
the growth of bac- 
teria 477 

Effect of rennet on milk . 188 
Effect of salt on meat . . 208 
Effect of soaking fish in 

water 226 

Effect of soaking starchy 

vegetables in water . 110 
Emulsion of fat . . . . 139 
Growth of bacteria . . . 477 
Growth of molds upon cloth 477 
Growth of molds upon cut 

fruit 476 

Growth of molds upon other 

foods ...... 476 

Growth of molds upon whole 

fruits 476 

Growth of molds upon wood 476 

Lack of draft 20 

Leavening with steam and 

air 329 

Measurement equivalents . 141 
Mixtures for freezing . . 459 

Neutralization of acid by 

means of soda . . . 283 
Pectin in fruit juice . . . 494 
Pectin in inner portion of 

orange and lemon peel 494 
Preparation of flour for 

quick breads .... 330 
Presence of draft .... 20 
Presence of gases in water . 41 
Protein in flour .... 407 
Protein in oyster liquor . 306 
Quantity of baking soda to 

use with molasses . . 337 
Quantity of baking soda to 

use with sour milk . . 335 
Regulation and purpose of 

gas mixer .... 27 
Retention of heat . . . 91 
Saponification of fat • . . 135 

Scalding milk 166 

Separation of cellulose and 

starch 80 

Separation of curd and 

whey 188 

Separation of milk into the 

foodstuffs 165 

Separation of starch grains 

with cold water ... 99 
Separation of starch grains 

with fat 99 

Separation of starch grains 

with sugar .... 99 
Simmering and boiling 

water .41 

Solubility of albumin . . 153 
Solubility of caramel . . 74 
Solubility of dextrin . . . 102 
Solubility of granulated 

sugar in cold water . 70 
Solubility of granulated 

sugar in hot water . . 70 
Solubility of powdered 

sugar 71 

Starch grains and boiling 

water 99 

Starch in crackers . . . 103 

Starch test 79 

Stiffening of cooked starch 80 
Structure of starch ... 80 
Tannin in tea 43 



References are to pages. 

Experiments, temperature at 

which eggs coagulate . 153 
Temperature at which fats 
and oils decompose or 

"bum" 131 

Temperature of fat for fry- 
ing 132 

Use of the wooden spoon . 16 
Use of sugar as a preserva- 
tive 489 

Extracts, flavoring .... 265 
Extractives .... 194, 208 

Fahrenheit scale of tem- 
perature (see Note to 
the Teacher, 353). 

Farina 98, 398 

Fat ... . 131, 319, 350, 389 
Fat and carbohydrates . . . 131 
Fat, as a frying medium 

131, 135, 139 

breaking up of 139 

cleaning utensils that have 

contained 135 

combinations 137 

composition of 277 

digestion of 139 

emulsion of . . . . 139, 274 
for deep-fat frying . . . 132 
general rules for frying . . 133 
in making soup .... 208 

mixing 387 

saving 143 

temperature of, for fry- 
ing 132 

to clarify 134 

to try put 134 

Fats, food 135 

Fermentation or " Swell" . 479 

Fig, dried . 75, 298, 320, 322, 398 

composition of .... 298 

Filling, chocolate . . 376, 433 

cream 375 

prune or raisin 416 

raisin 436 

Finger bowls, use of ... 125 

Fire building in a coal range . 24 

Fireless cooker 37, 90, 91, 92, 93 

suggestions for using 83, 94 235, 


Fireless cookery, the prin- 
ciples of 90 

Fish, baked 230 

balls 138 

casserole of 228 

classes of 227 

compared with beef . . . 227 
composition of .... 307 

fat of 227 

freshness of 229 

fried or saut6ed .... 233 
planked (broiled) .... 232 

white 400 

Flank steak . . . 210, 211, 219 
Flank stew .... 210, 211 

Flat sour 480 

Floating island 180 

Flour 330, 408, 398 

bread 408 

differences in 363 

fuel content of .... 354 

pastry 330, 408 

themiUingof 363 

value of coarse .... 364 

wheat 408 

wheat, substituting other 

cereals for .... 367 
wheat substitutes . . . 367 

combinations 274 

cost .calculation .... 242 

cost of 240 

for children, selection of . 465 
for girls and boys . . 417, 418 
for infants .... 462, 456 
for the convalescent, selec- 
tion of 615 

for the sick, selection of . 514 
how assimilated . . . . 351 
one-himdred-Calorie poi> 

tionsof 397 

preservation .... 474r-513 
principles of preserving 474, 478 

requirement 377 

selecting 268-261 

spending for ... . 268-272 

why it spoils 474 

Food adjuncts 264 

Foods, body-building and 

regulating .... 57 



References are to pages. 

Foods, body-regulating . . 40 
energy-giving and body- 
building 152 

energy-giving or fuel . 70, 131 
fuel value of . . . 351, 393 

Foodstuffs, ash 57 

carbohydrate .... 70, 81 
classification of .... 257 

« defined (see Water, a jood- 

stuff) 46 

fat 131 

protein 152 

uses of, in the body . 40, 57, 70, 

131, 152, 245 

vitamines 245 

water 46 

Fowl and chicken, selection of 301 
cutting, trussing .... 304 

Frapp^ cranberry .... 522 

Freezer, preparing and pack- 
ing . . 460 

Freezing- 461 

with ice and salt .... 459 

Frosting, boiled 431 

chocolate (see water Frosting) 
chocolate-marshmallow . 431 

egg 430 

gold . • 430 

mocha (see water Frosting) 
water 430 

Frozen deserts 459 

cream mixtures .... 462 
method of mixing . . . 463 

mousse 463 

puddings 463 

water mixtures .... 463 

Fruit 64, 75, 481 

a necessity 64 

canned, composition of . . 499 
composition of . . . 298, 499 

dried 75, 78 

general rules for cooking . 76 
juices without sugar . . . 498 

kinds of 65 

method of canning . . • 482 

sauces 66 

short cake 390 

stewed 66 

suggestions for cooking . . 65 
when to add sugar to cooked 65 

Fruits and sugar, for children 467 

Frying 131-141 

Frying, general rules for 133 

Fudge 528 

Fuel 19, 70 

Fuel foods .... 70, 131, 152 

Fuel value, defined .... 352 

how measured . . 352 ,354, 393 

Fuels and combustion ... 19 

Gas, burner 27, 28 

adjusting 28 

examination of ... . 27 

Ughtingof ..... 28 

carbon dioxide 28, 335, 337, 343, 


carbon monoxide .... 28 

conserving 29 

mixer 27 

range, care of ... . 30, 31 

draft of 29 

examination of ... 27 

ovens, lighting of . . . 28 

with fireless cooker . . 94 

Gelatine .... 222-226, 398 

value of 223 

Giblets 303 

Ginger 265 

Gingerbread 337 

Glucose 71 

Gluten 408 

Granite, water mixture . . 463 

Grape conserve 492 

Grape juice, composition of . 499 

Grapes 398 

composition of .... 499 

Greasing pan or dish ... 18 

Griddle cakes, bread . . . 342 

cornmeal 344 

plain 341 

sour milk 344 

suggestions for preparing . 340 
Growth-promoting . . 245, 323 

Gruels 516 

Haddock 227, 398 

Halibut 227, 398 

Ham 296,297,398 

broiled 299 

composition of .... 295 



References are to pages. 

Hash, baked 214 

Heat, 19 (seeEnergy; Fuel, 70) . 

conductors of 459 

how measured 352 

unit 353 

Heel, cut of beef . . 210, 211 
Height and weight tables 

383, 384 

Herbs 17, 265 

Herring 227, 398 

composition of .... 307 

Home projects 61, 69, 130, 150, 244, 

262, 273, 328, 362, 386, 402, 

421, 445, 458, 473, 519 

Home work (see Home proj' 

Hominy ........ 398 

Honey 73 

composition of .... 524 
Horseshoe, cut of beef 210, 211 

Ice cream, chocolate . . . 464 

French 463,464 

fruit 464 

plain 462,464 

Infant feeding 452 

Infants, food for . . . 452, 456 
Iron 321,322 

Jams 490 

Jelly, composition of . . . 499 

cranberry 520 

fruit 223,499 

lemon 223 

whipped 224 

Jelly making, general method 

of 496 

selection of fruit for . . . 495 

the principle of .... 494 

Junket, *" custard " ... 189 

Kerosene stoves . . 
Kindling temperature 


Lamb 291, 398 

chops . . 291,292,293,295 

cuts of 291, 292 

in the casserole .... 294 
stuffed shoulder of . . . 292 

Lard 137, 398 

composition of 277 



Leayening, with baking pow- 
der 338 

baking soda and sour 

milk 334 

baking soda, sour milk, 

and baking powder 342 

baking soda, sour milk, 

and cream of tartar . 345 
baking soda, sour milk, 

and molasses . . . 336 

steam and air 329 

Left-oyers .... 214, 2S0, 325 

Legumes 234 

composition of .... 313 

cooking dried 234 

Legumin 234 

Lemon jelly 223 

rind, grating 31 

Lemons 398 

Lentils 234, 236, 322 

Lettuce 246, 254, 398 

Lima beans, dried .... 322 

Lime, in milk 164 

Linen, table 119 

Liyer *. . . 398 

Loin of meat 210, 211, 287, 292, 297 

Luncheon 327 

cooking and serving 26i; 272, 


menus 419 

school 419 

table laid for 119 

Luncheon, box ..'... 440 

food for 441 

menu-making for ... 441 

packing 444 

planning and preparing . 444* 

Macaroni and cheese . 191, 398 
Macaroni, composition of . . 314 

Macaroons 398 

Mackerel .... 227, 307, 399 

Magnesium 320 

Marinating 279 

Marjoram, 265 ; (slIbo Bee Stuffed 

Tomatoes, 17). 
Marketing versus Telephoning 258 



Beferences are to pages. 

Marmalade 399 

carrot *. 491 

orange 491 

Marmalades 490 

Marrow 208 

Mayonnaise dressing . . . 276 

to remedy curdled . . . 278 

quick 278 

Meal cooking (reviews) 68, 130, 

150, 244, 262, 272, 328. 362, 

386, 401, 421, 444, 457, 472, 

Meal, cooking and serving . 420 
preparation of, before an- 
nouncing 126 


for children 469 

Measurement, approximate . 16 

equivalents 14 

of the fuel value of foods . 351 
applied to daily food re- 
quirement .... 393 
Measuring, accurately ... 15 

cup 15 

spoon 15 

utensils for 15 

Meat 192 

braising 220 

broiling 199 

care of 194 

composition of .... 295 

cottage pie 221 

cuts of . 211, 212, 287, 292, 297 

extenders 315 

for children 467 

for the sick and convales- 
cent 517 

left-over (see Exarnination 
ofMeai heft from Soup- 
making ^ 214). 
method of cooking tender 

cuts .... 192, 202, 205 
method of cooking tough 

cuts. . 207,213,215,217 

pan-broiling 199 

pot-roasting . . . 218, 220 

protein in 202 

roasting 201 

scalloped 221 

searing 195 

stewing 216, 220 

structure of 193 

substitutes 310 

Menu-making 318 

factors to be considered in 323 
for the luncheon box . . 441 

plans 326 

Menus for children .... 469 

Meringue 180, 448 

Microorganisms 474 

in the spore form . . . 502 
Milk . . 163, 246, 325, 465, 515 
action of rennin in digest- 
ing 188 

an invaluable food . . . 163 

care of 172 

certified 453 

clean, 453 (see also Care of 

Milk, 172). 
combined with acid . . . 283 
comparison of, and cream . 171 
comp o sition of .... 284 

for children 465 

for infants 453 

for the sick and convales- 
cent 515 

modifying^ .... 452, 457 
preparation before feeding . 456 
pasteurized .... 453, 466 

sterilized 454 

sugar 454 

Mineral matter, 57 (see Ash), 

Molasses 72, 399 

composition of .... 524 
leavening with . . 336, 346 
quantity of baking soda to 

use with . . . 337, 349 
Molds, 474, 475 (see also 
Dried Bread Crumbs, 

Mousse 463 

Muffins, corn 370 

graham 366 

oatmeal 370 

plain 366, 398 

and cake, comparison of 424 
typical drop batter . . 365 

rice 370 

whole wheat 366 

Muscle fibers 193 



References are to pagee. 

Muscle globulin 203 

Muscles of young animals . 286 

Mush, cornmeal 96 

commeal for fiying ... 96 

fried or baked 97 

Muskmelons 399 

Mustard 265 

Mutton 290, 399 

cuts of 291, 292 

in the casserole .... 294 
with barley 316 

Napkin 149 

Nayel, cut of beef . . 210, 212 

Neatness in school and home 13 

Neck, cut of beef . . 210, 212 

Noodles and cheese . . . 191 
Nourishment, weight as index 

to 383 

Nut margarin 137 

Nutmeg 265 

Nutriment and flavor, sav- 
ing the 247 

Nutriment versus flavor . . 251 

Nuts 311* 

Oatmeal 369, 399 

composition of .... 314 

Oats, rolled 84 


com 137 

cottonseed 137 

emulsion of 274 

in salad dressing . . 254, 276 

olive 137 

peanut 137 

Oils, vegetable 137 

composition of .... 277 

Oleomargarine 136 

Olives 279, 399, 443 

Omelet, baked 162 

foamy 160 

modifications of . '. . . 162 

to fold an 161 

white sauce ..... 162 

One-dish meals 315 

One-hundred-Calorie Portions 

of Foods . . . 356, 359, 

360, 393, 395 
table of 396-400 

Onions 246, 399 

composition of . ! . . 275 

(cooked in much water). . 252 

Orange 399 

Orange marmalade . . 399, 491 
Organisms, vegetable, 474 
(Bee Care of Milk, 172). 
Oven thermome.ters and tem- 
peratures . . . 330, 332 

Oxygen 20 

Oysters 306 

cleaning 309 

composition of .... 307 

fried 134 

mock Ill 

scalloped 309 

stew 309 

Package goods, bulk versus . 259 
Paper, filter, method of fold- 
ing 102 

for buttering pans ... 18 

for cleaning dishes ... 7 

for fuel 19, 24 

Paprika 265 

Pan-broiling 199 

and saut^ing, difference be- 
tween 200 

Pans, clover-leaf 36 

dish 6, 7 

Parker House rolls .... 414 
Parsnips (see Root Vegeta- 
bles, 105 ; Mock Oysters, 

111) 399 

composition of .... 275 

Pastry 446 

digestion of 449 

plain . 447 

Peaches 399 

Peanut, bread . . . . . 372 

candy 73 

oU 137 

roast 312 

Peanuts .... 234,321,399 

salted 236 

Pears, spiced 500 

Peas. . . . 234.321,322,399 

for children 467 

split, soup 237 

Pea soup 238 



References are to pages. 

Pepper 265 

Peppers, stuffed 37 

Phosphorus .... 320, 321 

Pickles, oil 502 

Pie, apple 399, 451 

cottage meat 221 

custard 399 

fruit, with two crusts . . 451 

lemon 399, 447 

mince 399 

rhubarb 450 

score card for 448 

squash 399 

tamale 316 

two-crust 450 

Washington 424 

with under crust .... 447 

with upper crust .... 449 

Pineapple .... 399, 492,493 

Planked fish 232 

Plate, cut of beef . . 210, 212 

Popcorn 116 

balls 526 

buttered 117 

Popovers 333 

Pork 296, 399 

chops with sweet potatoes . 297 

cuts of 296, 297 

with turnips 299 

Porterhouse steak . 195, 197, 210, 

211, 396 

Pot roast 218 

Pot roasting . . . 211, 212, 220 

Potassium 320 

Potato, composition of . . . 275 

croquettes 141 

puff 289 

soup 174, 183 

Potatoes .... 105, 286, 399 

baked 117 

boiled 108 

for children 467 

scalloped (see Creamed and 
Scalloped Vegetables, 
scalloped, with bacon . . 300 

stuffed 117 

sweet Ill, 400 

southern style . . . . Ill 
Poultry 301 

digestion of 302 

dressing and cleaning of . 302 

Prejudices, food 61 

Preservatives of foods . . 474-513 

Preserves 489 

Pressure cooker .... 36, 488 
Prime rib roast . . . 198, 212 

Protein 152, 319 

a body-builder and repairer 152 
complete and incomplete . 153 

digestion of 157 

in meat 202 

in milk 164 

in seeds 234 

requirement, daily . . . 380 
Prunes, dried . . 75, 76, 78, 400 

stuffed 525 

Pudding, bread 185 

cheese 184 

chocolate bread . . . . 186 
chocolate cornstarch . . 100 

cream of rice 173 

date 79 

fruit 388 

plum 521 

prune 78 

rice . . . . . . .88, 173 

snow 225 

vegetable plimi .... 521 
Puddings, frozen .... 463 
Putrefaction 480 

Quick breads (see Bread). 

Raisms .... 75, 76, 322, 400 
composition of .... 499 
to prepare for cooking . . 77 

Range, coal 22-24 

gas 27-31 

Recipes, formulating . . . 349 
calculation of fuel values of 361 
Refreshments for tea ... 55 
Refrigerator, insulated walls 

of 90 

Regulating foods .... 322 

Relishes 443,500 

Rennet 188 

Rennin 188 

Rhubarb ....;. 65, 400 
pie 450 



References are to pages. 

Rhubarb, sauce 67 

tapioca 113 

Rib ends, cut of beef . 210, 212 
Rib roasts . . 212, 287, 292, 297 
Rice .... 82, 214, 369, 400 
Rice and tomatoes .... 97 

Rice, boiled 86 

cooked over water ... 85 

cutlets 142 

dainty 172 

griddle cakes 342 

in soup 214 

muffins 370 

polished 84 

pudding 88, 173 

steamed 85 

to clean 85 

unpolished . . . 84, 142 

Roast, beef . 197, 198, 199, 200, 


peanut 312 

pot 218 

stuffed beef 205 

Roasting (baking) .... 201 
Rolling pin, use of ... . 390 

RoUs, fruit 391 

or biscuit ...... 413 

Parker House 414 

pK)tato yeast 414 

salad 282 

Roots, plant 104 

Round steak . 203, 210, 211, 396 

Rubber rings 481 

Rump . . . 210, 211, 215, 396 
Russian style of dining room 

service 122 

Rye 370 

Salad, banana 257 

carrot and cabbage . . . 255 
dressing .... 254, 256, 274 

garnishing 280 

perfection 281 

preparation of 253 

salmon ....... 282 

seasonable vegetable . . . 279 

stuffed egg 256 

tunny (tuna) fish .... 282 

Salmon 227, 400 

loaf 228,400 

salad 282 

timbale 228 

Salt 57, 264, 350 

Sandwiches 441 

fillings for 442 

Sauce, brown 207 

caramel 89 

celery 601 

cheese 87 

chocolate 186 

cranberry 520 

custard 182 

for chicken 305 

for cutlets (veal) .... 288 

for fish 231 

hard 31, 522 

lemon 114 

mint 293 

mixed fruit 77 

of meat cooked in water, 

thickening of ... 216 
proportion of ingredients 

for 114 

rhubarb 67 

tomato 112 

vanilla 186 

whipped cream .... 388 

white 104, 109, U4 

Worcestershire .... 288 

yellow 522 

Sauces, fruit 66 

comparison with stewed 

fruit 67 

proportions of ingredients 

for 1X4 

Saut^ing 140, 200 
Scales, kitchen . . . . 15, 16 

Scalloped apples 31 

bananas 32 

com 26 

dishes, crumbs for . . . 110 

eggs with cheese . . . . 312 

meat 221 

oysters 309 

potatoes with bacon . . . 300 

spinach with cheese . . . 248 

tomatoes 17 

tomatoes with onions . . 60 

vegetables 109 



References are to pagea. 

Score card, for bread . . . 410 

cake 428 

pie 448 

Sealing bottles 502 

Seating and serving guests . 125 

Serving at the table . . . 127 

established rules for . . . 123 

styles of 122 

table and buffet . . . . 124 

tea . 56 

tray, use of 124 

with a maid 123 

without a maid . . . . 126 

Shad 227, 400 

Shank, cut of beef . 210, 211, 212 

Sherbet 463 

Shin, cut of beef . . . 210, 212 

Short cake, fruit 390 

Shortening 389 

Shoulder of meats . 210, 212, 286, 
287, 291, 292, 296, 297 

Shredded wheat 400 

Sick, foods for the .... 514 

preparation of special foods 

for the- ...... 515 

trays for . . . 514,517,518 
Sink, arranged for dish-wash- 
ing 6,7 

care of 12 

Sirloin 196, 197, 211 

Sirup 98 

Sirups 71 

cooking 527 

com 72 

maple 73 

Skewer for testing foods . . 6 
Skurt steak .... 212, 219 

Slaw, cold 255 

Soap 9, 143 

making 143 

Soda (see Ash, 57). 
baking, as leavening 

agent . 334, 336, 342, 345 
quantity to use with 

molasses 337 

quantity to use with sour 

mUk 335 

washing, in dishwashing . 8 

to clean utensils ... 135 

Sodium .... 246, 320, 322 

Solution 40 

Solvent 40 

water, greatest known . . 41 

Sorghum 72 

Soup, bean 237 

com . 176 

cream of potato . . . . 183 

cream of tomato .... 283 

food value of . . . . . 175 

general proportions . . . 174 

green pea 238 

making ....... 208 

peanut butter 239 

potato 174 

split pea 237 

sticks 176 

stock ........ 209 

thick 173 

vegetable 213 

Sour milk 

leavening with 334, 336, 342, 345 
quantity of baking soda to 

use with . . . 335, 349 
Spices (see Condiments, 264). 
Spices and vinegar as pre- 
servatives .... 500 

Spmach 246, 247, 248 

for children 467 

scalloped with cheese . . 248 

Spoilage, kinds of ... . 479 

Sponge 408 

Spoon, use of wooden . •. . 16 

Squash, baked winter ... 21 

for children 467 

summer, saut6ed .... 21 

Starch 79 

a carbohydrate .... 81 

cooked at high temperature 115 

cooked, stiffening of . . . 80 

digestion of . . * . . 102 

effect of cold water on . . 80 

effect of heat on ... . 80 

grains of 81 

how to cook successfully . 99 

in plants 104 

separation of grains ... 99 

structure of 81 

test for 79 

with egg to thicken milk 




Reiferences are to pages. 

Steak, beef, composition of 
chopped . 

club . . 
flank . . 
rolled beef 
skirt . . 
Swiss . . 

... 204 
204, 210, 212 
194, 210, 211 
194, 210, 211 
210, 211, 219 
196, 210, 211 
... 215 
203, 210, 211 
196, 197, 210, 211 
210, 211, 219 
... 217 

Steam and air, leavening with 329 

cooker 37, 488 

under pressure . . . . 115 

Steamed brown breads . . 345 

custard 178 

rice 85 

vegetables, 107 (see Nu- 
triment versus Flavor, 

Sterilization 479 

single period and intermit- 
tent 504 

with little or no sugar . . 481 

with much sugar . . 489, 494 

with vinegar and spices . 500 

Sterilized milk . . . 166, 454 

Sterilizing, dish towels and 

cloths 12 

fruit jars and rubbers . . 483 

Stew, beef 216 

Creole 317 

oyster 309 

Stewing meat 220 

Stock, beef 209, 213 

vegetable 59 

Strawberry and pineapple 

conserve 492 

Strawberry, composition of . 298 

String beans for children . . 467 

Stuffed, eggs 256 

fish (see Baked Fish, 230). 

fowl (see Dressing and 

Cleaning Poultry, 302). 

fruits 525 

shoulder of lamb or veal . 292 

tomatoes 17 

Stuffing for fish 231 

potato 206 

Succotash 400 

Suet 137 

composition of .... 277 

Sugar 70, 400 

and fruit for children . . 467 

and glucose 526 

as food (see The Digestion 
of Sugar, 71, and Use 
of Candy in Diet, 

brown 72 

caramelized 73 

composition of 524 

confectioners 72 

digestion of 71 

fuel content of 356 

granulated ...... 72 

granulated, solubility ... 70 

invert 527 

maple 73 

powdered 72 

pK)wdered, solubility of . . 71 

with fruits 65 

Sugars and sirups .... 71 

double 71 

single 71 

Sulphur 322 

Supper, cooking and serving 

261, 272, 327 

Sweetbreads 287 

Sweets, Parisian 525 

Table, dining 119 

accessories 122 

china and glassware for . 120 

cover 120 

linen . 119 

setting the 119 

silver for 121 

Table manners, suggestions 

concerning . . . 145-150 

value of good 145 

Table of one-hundred-Cal- 

orie portions .... 396 

Tail, cut of beef 212 

Tannin 43 

Tapioca 112 

apple 113, 400 

butterscotch 182 

rhubarb . 113 



References are to pages. 

Tea, green and black 
afternoon . . . 
and its selection . 



. . 43 

. . 54 

. . 42 

. . 517 

. . 45 

making 44 

Teapots 44, 45 

Temperatures, oven . . 330, 332 

Test for dextrin 102 

for sufficient baking of 

quick breads . . . . 336 

freshness of eggs . . . 156 

freshness of fish . . . 229 

starch 79 

Testing foods, utensils for 6 
Thyme 265 (also see Stuffed 
Tomatoes, 17). 

Toast 103 

composition of .... 314 

cream 104 

French 98 

moist . 104 

Tomatoes (see Fresh Vegeta- 
bles, 5S,4cOO). 

and rice 97 

broiled 61 

scalloped 17 

scalloped with onions . . 60 

stuffed 17 

Tray, a wheel 127 

preparing the sickroom . . 617 

the sickroom 514 

use of the serving ... 124 

Turkey 400 

Turnips 105, 400 

mashed 63 

with fresh pork .... 299 

Utensils, for steaming 
Utensils, washing 
for saving fuel . . 

37, 108 
. 7-11 
. 36 

Vanilla 265 

Veal 287, 400 

cutlets 288 

cuts of 286, 287 

steaks (see Cutlets, 288). 
with egg-dressing .... 289 
Vegetable cream soups • . 175 
salads, seasonable . . . 279 

Vegetable soup 213 

stock 59 

Vegetables, baked .... 107 

canned 502-507 

cleaning of 105 

comparison of, methods of 

cooking 105 

composition of .... 275 
cooked in water .... 59 

creamed 109 

dried 508 

fresh 57, 58, 61 

fresh for children .... 467 

leafy 246, 247 

method of canning . . . 505 

paring 63 

root 104-113 

saving the nutriment and 

flavor 247 

scalloped 109 

selection for canning . . 504 

steaming 107 

suggestions for cooking . 59, 107 
time for cooking in water . 62 
time tables for canning 506, 507 

use of fresh 58 

white sauce for . . . . 109 

Vinegar 265 

homemade 267 

Vinegar and spices .... 500 

Viscogen 170 

Vitamines . . 136, 165, 246, 250 

Wafers and cheese .... 45 

Waffles 351 

Walnuts 400 

Washing soda, in dishwash- 
ing 8 

to clean utensils . . . . 135 

agrating of 42 

and other beverages for 

children 468 

as a beverage .... 46, 468 

as a foodstuff 46 

boiling of 42 

dissolving power of . . . 40 

foreign materials in . . . 41 

presence of gases in . . . 41 

simmering of 42 



References are to pages. 

Water, use of, in cleaning and • 

preparing food ... 47 
use of, in the body ... 40 

Watercress 58 

Wheat 82, 400 

compared with other grain 369 

cream of 84, 98 

bread 406, 409 

flour ... 363, 369, 370, 408 

rolled 84 

whole 363 

why popular 368 

Wheatena 84, 98 

White sauce . . . 104, 109, 114 
for vegetables 109 

Yeast 403 

breads 403-416 

cakes, compressed . '. . 404 

dry 408 

growing plants .... 404 

properties of 404 

water-soluble B in . . . 247 

Yolk, egg 320. 321 

for infants 456 


Zwiebach '* . 

400, 466 



Hade in Italy 




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