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Full text of "A school history of Tennessee"

I 



HlillMIIIMiliiliiHMII 



NATIONAL HISTO 




uCilOOl .Oil^ti 





Class r ^ 
Book J l^ g^, 
Copyright N^ 

COFffilGHT DEPOSIT. 



A SCHOOL HISTOEY 

OF TENNESSEE 



BY 



GUS. W: pYER 



NATIONAL BOOK COMPANY 

CHATTANOOGA, TENN. 
CHICAGO, ILL. DALLAS, TEXAS 






COPYRIGHT, 1919 

BY 

GUS. W. DYER 



ICI.A571585 



o 






PREFACE 

This book is written from the modern point of 
view with reference to the proper interpretation of 
history. Much of our history is almost exclusively 
political history. It is little more than an account 
of public officials and a description of battles. His- 
tory, as properly construed, is an interpretation of 
the whole life of a people. It is as much the duty 
of a historian to interpret the industrial life, the 
educational life, the social life, and the religious life 
of a people, as it is to interpret their political life. 
Certainly children should not get the idea that wars 
and politics constitute the whole of history. 

Much of the material herein used is original. It 
has been obtained through original investigation 
and research, and has never before been publislied. 

Many facts used w^ere gotten from histories of 
Tennessee by Ramsay, Haywood, and Garrett and 
Goodpasture. These splendid books contain a ver- 
itable storehouse of valuable historical material and 
will hold an important place in the history of the 
state. 



CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

Introduction vi 

I. The Coming of the White Men to Tennessee 1 

II. The Watauga Settlement 7 

III. Tennesseans in the Revohitionary War — King's 

Mountain 19 

IV. The State of Franklin 29 

V. The Cumberland Settlement — Middle Tennessee 36 

VI. John Sevier's Last Indian Campaign 48 

VII. The State of Tennessee, 1796 50 

VIII. The Rise of Andrew Jackson as a Soldier 55 

IX. Governors from Blount to Carroll 67 

X. West Tennessee — Memphis 72 

XL Andrew Jackson — President 74 

XII. The Whig Party in Tennessee 78 

XIII. Governors from Cannon to Jones 83 

XIV. Governors from A. V. Brown to Harris 91 

XV. Tennessee and Secession 102 

XVI. East Tennessee and the Civil War 109 

XVII. Battles in Tennessee 117 

XVIII. The Development of Internal Improvements in Ten- 
nessee before the Civil War 128 

XIX. Banking 139 

XX. Manufacturing and Mining 143 

XXI. Progress in Agriculture 148 

XXII. Education 152 

XXIII. Religion— Moral Reform— Charity 165 

XXIV. Reconstruction in Tennessee 174 

XXV. The Democrats in Control — The Constitutional Con- 
vention 190 

iv 



CONTENTS V 

Chapter Page 

XXVI. Andrew Johnson Reenters Tennessee Politics 198 

XXVII. Governors from Taylor to Patterson 203 

XXVIII. The Four-mile Law — The Independent INIovement — 

Governor Hooper 206 

XXIX. Governors Rye and Roberts 227 

XXX. Tennessee and the Great World War 235 

Appendix 241 



INTRODUCTION 

The State of Tennessee is divided into three 
grand divisions : East Tennessee, Middle Tennes- 
see, and West Tennessee. East Tennessee is phys- 
ically separated from Middle Tennessee by the 
Cumberland Mountains, and Middle Tennessee is 
physically separated from West Tennessee by the 
Tennessee River. East Tennessee is the mountain 
section of the state, Middle Tennessee is hilly and 
rolling, and West Tennessee is comparatively level. 
But to designate East Tennessee as a "mountain 
section," or the East Tennesseans as "mountain- 
eers" is decidedly misleading. East Tennessee is a 
valley, about three hundred miles in length with an 
average width of fifty or sixty miles, lying between 
two high mountain ranges. It is separated from 
Georgia and North Carolina by the Alleghanies, and 
from Virginia and Kentucky by the Cumberland 
ranges. The mountain region of East Tennessee is 
only about one-fifth of the territory of this section, 
and, perhaps, not over one-sixth of the population 
is found in the mountain region. The great major- 
ity — perhaps five-sixths of the East Tennessee peo- 
ple — live in the valleys, and are mountain people 
only in the sense that they live in view of the moun- 
tains. 

Tennessee is abundantly supplied Avith rivers, 
creeks, and springs. Her navigable streams have 



INTRODUCTION yii 

been an important means of transportation from the 
beginning of her history. For the first sixty years 
of Tennessee history the Cumberland, the Tennes- 
see, the Mississippi, and a few smaller rivers were 
practically the only means of transporting goods 
beyond the borders of the local communities. Be- 
fore the days of railroads Middle Tennessee and 
West Tennessee had greatly the advantage of East 
Tennessee in means of transportation, since they 
were better supplied with deep, navigable rivers, and 
had less difficulty in constructing roads over which 
they reached the streams. 

But East Tennessee has the decided advantage 
over the other sections of the state in its possession 
of water power, mineral springs, and mineral re- 
sources in general. The historical Watauga, Hols- 
ton, French Broad, and Tennessee rivers with their 
tributaries furnish water power sufficient for very 
large manufacturing industries. Mineral springs are 
found in abundance and their waters are noted for 
their medicinal qualities. The famous Tate Springs 
are located near the middle of East Tennessee, and 
are kept open the year round for patients. To 
these and numerous other springs in this section 
many people go each year in search of health and 
recreation. This section of the state is rich in min- 
eral resources. Iron, coal, and marble are found 
here in large quantities, and for many years copper 
and zinc mines have been in successful operation. 
The coal and iron and copper mines were in suc- 
cessful operation before the Civil War. The output 



viii INTRODUCTION 

of these ores is at present very large, and has 
increased greatly in recent years. 

The soil of Tennessee is rich and very productive. 
This is true of all three sections of the state. While 
portions of the mountain section of East Tennessee 
are barren and unproductive, the valleys and coves 
and much of the hill land are very fertile and com- 
pare favorably in productivity with the best lands 
of Middle Tennessee and West Tennessee. 

In altitude Tennessee ranges from 6,660 feet 
above sea level in the eastern portion of the state 
to 170.44 feet in the west. This gives to the state 
a great variety of soil and climate, and enables 
Tennesseans to produce every kind of plant grown 
in the United States except tropical fruits. The 
Tennessee climate and soil are especially adapted to 
stock raising and this, in large measure, accounts 
for the very high grade of horses and mules and 
cattle in Middle Tennessee. 



Chapter I 

COMING OF THE WHITE MAN TO TENNESSEE 

The Indians 

Before the white man came to Tennessee this sec- 
tion was occupied by the Indians. It was used by 
them partly as a place of residence and partly as a 
hunting- ground. The Indians would come into this 
section and kill game and then return to their homes 
in other parts of the country. 

While various tribes of Indians at one time or 
another came into Tennessee, the chief tribes that 
occupied this territory were the Cherokees, the 
Chickasaws, the Creeks, the Choctaws, and the Semi- 
noles. The Cherokees were the Indians who gave 
serious trouble to the AVatauga settlers, and against 
whom John Sevier waged war. The settlers on the 
Cumberland Eiver w^ere attacked chiefly by the 
Creeks. The Chickasaws claimed all of West Ten- 
nessee. They lived on peaceful terms with the white 
man and rendered valuable service to the people on 
the Cumberland in their wars with the hostile 
Indians. 

First White Man to Visit Tennessee — DeSoto 

On May the 12tli, 1539, Hernando DeSoto, at the 
head of more than one thousand Spanish soldiers, 

1 



2 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

sailed from Havana, Cuba, and in fifteen days 
landed on the coast of Florida. The purpose of this 
Spanish expedition was to conquer the Indians in 
all of the territory now within the bounds of the 
State of Florida, and as much farther north as pos- 
sible, and to open up this section to Spanish coloni- 
zation. DeSoto began his march north soon after 
landing, but he met with great opposition at the 
hands of the Indians. After fighting many battles 
and losing a large number of his men he reached 
the Mississippi River at a point which is believed to 
be near the present location of Memphis, crossed 
the river, and then turned back south. To DeSoto 
and his soldiers is generally given the honor of hav- 
ing been the first Avhite men to tread on what is now 
Tennessee soil. This was less than fifty years after 
the discovery of America by Columbus. 

LaSalle 

In 1673, Marquette and Joliet, two French mis- 
sionaries, discovered the western boundaries of Ten- 
nessee, and ten years later LaSalle, another French- 
man, built a cabin and a fort on the first Chickasaw 
Bluff. This was, perhaps, the first real work done 
by a white man within the bounds of Tennessee. 
The purpose of LaSalle in building this cabin and 
fort was not to establish a permanent settlement, 
but to establish a trading post with the Indians at 
this point. The Indians never objected to the white 
man coming among them as a trader. It was only 
when he began to make a permanent settlement that 



THE FIRST PERMANENT SETTLERS 3 

lie met serious opposition from the Indians. La- 
Salle's visit was nearly one hundred and fifty years 
after that of DeSoto. 

Chaeleville 

In 1714, M, Charleville, a French trader, came up 
from New Orleans to trade with the Indians along 
the Cumberland River. He built a store near the 
present site of Nashville. But, like LaSalle at Mem- 
phis, his purpose was to establish not a permanent 
home, but a temporary trading post. 

The First Peemanent Settlers 

The first permanent settlement in America was 
made by the English at Jamestown in 1607. This 
was the beginning of the Virginia Colony. Sixty 
years later the first settlement of civilized man in 
North Carolina was made by the English. North 
Carolina at this time included all of the territory 
within the present bounds of Tennessee. At this 
time North Carolina was called Albemarl. In 1671, 
the population of Virginia was forty thousand and 
the population of North Carolina was about four- 
teen hundred. The first settlements in both Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina were made near the At- 
lantic coast on the east. But as the population 
increased the settlements in both colonies were 
pushed farther and farther westward toward the 
territory now comprising Tennessee and Kentucky. 

In 1714, Lieutenant and Captain-General Spots- 
wood of Virginia, with a number of attendants, 



4 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

made a tour of exploration in the western section, 
and crossed the Appalachian Mountains. 

FoET Loudon 

In 1756, Governor Loudon, of Virginia, sent out 
a body of men under the command of Andrew Lewis, 
to build a fort on the Tennessee River about thirty 
miles from the present site of Knoxville, The pur- 
pose of tliis movement was to protect the western 
settlers against the murderous assaults of the Li- 
dians. The fort was called Fort Loudon. This was 
the first structure of any sort erected by the English- 
Americans in Tennessee. Fort Loudon was cap- 
tured and destroyed by the Indians four years after 
its erection, and a large proportion of its two hun- 
dred or more inhabitants slain. 

Hunters 

From the beginning of the eighteenth century, and 
even before, it was not unusual for hunters from 
Virginia and North Carolina to cross the mountains 
to hunt and trade with the Indians in the territory 
now within the borders of Tennessee. In 1748, Dr. 
Thomas Walker, of Virginia, with a number of other 
gentlemen came into the Tennessee territory, cross- 
ing the mountains at a depression which lie called 
"Cumberland Gap." At this time he also gave the 
name "Cumberland" to the mountain and the river, 
which have since borne that name, in honor of the 
Duke of Cumberland, who was at that period prime 
minister of England. "Cumberland" is, perhaps, the 



THE HUNTERS [, 

only Tennessee name that was given in honor of an 
Englishman. The Cumberland River was called by 
the Indians the Warioto, by the French the Chauva- 
non. 

In 1761, a number of hunters chiefly from Vir- 
ginia, formed themselves into a company and came 
into the section now within the bounds of Hawkins 
County, Tennessee, and hunted for eighteen months. 
At this time Daniel Boone came into Tennessee on 
a hunting trip. He came from North Carolina. He 
had doubtless been here before, since on a beech 
tree near Jonesboro, Tennessee, the following in- 
scription was found: "D. Boone Cilled a Bar on 
Teee iisr THE Year 1760." 

From this time on for a number of years many 
groups of men, numbering from three to forty, came 
into the Tennessee territory for the purpose of hunt- 
ing and trading with the Indians. The rapid in- 
crease in the number of explorers in this section at 
this time aroused the suspicions of the Indians, and 
led them to the conclusion that they would be com- 
pelled to resist these encroachments of the white 
men on their territory. As long as the white men 
came in small numbers to hunt and trade and then 
return to their homes across the mountains, they 
were well treated. But when they came in large 
numbers, and some of them gave evidence of making 
this territory their permanent home, the Indians 
realized that they would later claim this territory 
as their own and would attempt to drive the red 
man out. It was this realization that aroused the 



6 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

hostility of the Indians, and their enmity was not 
without cause. At this time there were few perma- 
nent Indian settlements in Tennessee. This terri- 
tory was held by them chiefly as a hunting ground. 
They would come in from beyond the present state 
borders, and hunt and return with their game. They 
did not object to the white man's using this terri- 
tory for a similar purpose. But they did object to 
permanent settlements by the white man, because 
they realized that this would tend to drive out the 
game and in the end would mean their own expul- 
sion. 



Chapter II 

THE WATAUGA SETTLEMENT 

In the year 1761, a number of Virginians, with 
some others, formed themselves into a company and 
came into the western part of Virginia to hunt. 
This company was composed of Wallen, Scaggs, 
Blevins, Cox, and fifteen others. They came into 
what is now called Carter's Valley, in East Tennes- 
see. About the same time Daniel Boone came into 
the same section at the head of another company. 

These hunters were attracted to this section bj^ 
the great abundance of game, which they felt sure 
abounded along the western waters, and they went 
out with the expectation of making large gain 
through this source. At this time there were no 
white settlers in this part of the country, but In- 
dians were here in large numbers. 

These hunters were successful in killing large 
game, and they remained here about eighteen 
months. They came back again and others came 
with them, but, as yet, no permanent settlements had 
been made. 

Impressed by the beautiful and fertile valleys of 
this section, as well as by the unusual opportunities 
afforded for possible hunting, a number of people 
from Virginia and North Carolina decided to settle 
here permanently. 



8 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

The first permanent home was established by 
William Bean, who came a little before 1770, when 
the first settlers began to gather on the banks of 
the Watauga, and here was made the first settlement 
in Tennessee. Others came in and formed two other 
settlements near Watauga. The two additional set- 
tlements were Holston and Carter's Valley. 

In South Carolina, before 1770, no courts of jus- 
tice were held beyond the limits of the capital, and 
in the interior of the province the inhabitants took 
the law into their own hands and punished offenders 
in their own way. This mode of proceeding was 
called regulation and its authors "Regulators." 
Those who opposed them were called "Scovilites," 
after their leader, Scovil, commissioned by the gov- 
ernor of South Carolina to suppress the Regulators. 
Each party was armed and prepared to fight to the 
bitter end. The feelings arising from these tumults 
drove many patriots from South Carolina to the 
settlements on the Holston and the Watauga rivers. 

In North Carolina, at the same time, there was 
great unrest on the part of the masses of the people, 
who claimed that illegal and exorbitant fees were 
exacted by officers of the government, that oppres- 
sive taxes were exacted by the sheriffs and that the 
method of collecting them was tyrannical. In 1765, 
the people were aroused by the report that the 
Stamp Act had been passed by the British Parlia- 
ment. They protested to England that they would 
not be forcibly taxed. The Stamp Act was repealed, 
but this did not quiet them. The extortions of offi- 



THE WATAUGUA SETTLEMENT 9 

cers were continued and the taxes were multiplied. 
The office holders were all foreigners. The people 
held several meetings and assumed the name of 
Regulators, and adopted the policy of resisting all 
illegal taxation. They prevented the sitting of 
courts and otherwise obstructed the execution of 
the laws. Governor Tryon met them on the 16tli 
of May, 1771, on the Alamance. Tryon's men num- 
bered somewhat less tlian 3,000. The patriotic citi- 
zens numbered about 3,000 ; but they were poorly 
armed, and it seems had but little ammunition. The 
government troops, being better armed, better 
drilled, and better equipped in every way, won the 
battle. After this defeat many of these courageous 
citizens came to the Watauga settlement to make 
their home. 

So a considerable number of those who made up 
the first permanent settlement in Tennessee, came 
to the Watauga settlement, not primarily to take 
advantage of the cheaper and better land in this 
section, but to get away from political oppression 
and establish themselves in a new country more 
friendly to liberty and freedom. Such men are a 
valuable addition to any community, and they doubt- 
less made a large contribution to the heroic work 
accomplished by the Watauga settlers in their early 
history. 

In 1772, the Watauga settlement was" steadily 
increasing through immigration from Virginia, 
North Carolina, and South Carolina. It was during 
this year that the pioneers decided that they must 



10 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

have some form of govermnent. At this tnne the 
line between Virginia and North CaroHna had not 
been definitely fixed, and these settlers believed for 
some time that they were in Virginia. But later 
they discovered that they were within the bounds of 
North Carolina. Neither Virginia nor North Caro- 
lina gave them any protection. The cost of estab- 
lishing courts and maintaining an army to protect 
these settlers so far distant from the home govern- 
ment was a burden North Carolina refused to 
assume, even after it was certain that the settlement 
was within the bounds of this colony. Cut off from 
the protection of the home government, there was 
but one thing for them to do and that was to form 
some kind of government of their own, which would 
meet the demands of social order, and this they did. 
In forming this government they took the laws of 
Virginia as their guide. A written constitution or 
compact was drawn and adopted by them. 

The procedure in the formation of this new gov- 
ernment w^as truly democratic, since the consent of 
the whole people was obtained at each step. A 
committee of thirteen was elected as a general legis- 
lative body. From this body five commissioners 
were selected in whose hands the executive and 
judicial powers of the government were placed. 
This committee of five was the real governing body 
of their little "state," and was doubtless the first 
commission form of government in this country. 
John Carter, John Sevier, James Robertson, Charles 
Robertson, and Jack Isbel were the five men selected 



THE WATAUGUA SETTLEMENT H 

to administer the laws and manage the affairs of 
the settlement. Their decisions were final; no 
appeal could be made to any other court. For six 
years this government was in successful operation. 

Four years after the launching of this little gov- 
ernment on the banks of the Watauga, a petition 
was sent up to the legislature of North Carolina, 
signed by the legislative body, the executive coun- 
sel, and ninety-one other settlers, praying that the 
settlement might be annexed to the government of 
North Carolina. The request of the Watauga peo- 
ple was granted, and, in November, 1777, the legis- 
lature converted the "District of A¥ashington," as 
this section was called, into Washington County, and 
made the Watauga government the government of 
the new county. Washington County, at this time, 
included all of what is today the State of Tennessee. 
The government of North Carolina appointed jus- 
tices of the peace and militia officers for this county, 
who in February, 1778, met, took the oath of office, 
and organized the new county and its court. 

After February, 1778, the public affairs pf this 
section were conducted under the jurisdiction of 
the county court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions. 
This court was composed of the justices of the peace 
of the county who were appointed in this first organi- 
zation by the governor of North Carolina. All five 
of the commissioners who directed the Watauga 
government were members of the first court ap- 
pointed by the governor of Nortli Carolina. This 
body selected John Carter as president and John 



12 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Sevier as clerk. These two gentlemen had been 
president and clerk respectively of the Watauga 
government. The appointment of the members of 
this court by the governor of North Carolina was, 
perhaps, nothing more than a form. The new gov- 
ernment, it would seem, was simply the old Watauga 
government with a new name. This court, com- 
posed of justices of the peace, tried all civil and 
criminal cases arising within this territory and was 
the governing body of this section. 

In 1780, the population of the settlement was 
probably less than 5,000. The number of persons 
capable of bearing arms was about 900. Sullivan 
County had been formed from a part of Washington 
County and within its borders lived about one-half 
of the settlers. At this time Colonel John Sevier 
had been appointed to the command of the militia 
of Washington County, and Colonel Isaac Shelby 
had been appointed to a similar position in Sullivan 
County. 

xVt the time tbe Watauga settlers petitioned North 
Carolina to become a part of that colony the Ameri- 
can colonies were at war with England. Up to the 
time of the beginning of serious trouble with Eng- 
land the Watauga settlers had experienced but little 
trouble with the Indians, who were often very near 
their borders. But in order to weaken the Ameri- 
can colonies as much as possible in their resistance 
to the English government, the English used every 
means possible to arouse the hostility of the Indians 
against the western settlers, and in this way drive 



■ THE WATAUGUA SETTLEMENT 13 

tliem out of this country back to tlieir former homes. 
To accomplish this end, the English furnished the 
Indians with guns and ammunition, and made them 
presents of such things as were especially prized 
bj^ them. Under such influence the Indians began 
at once to make murderous assaults on the Watauga 
settlers. 

Up to this time it had not been necessary for the 
settlers to make any considerable preparations for 
defense against any foe, since they were in no 
danger of attack. But now they had to begin every 
possible preparation for defense against the attacks 
of the Indians, which might come at any time. At 
once they began to build forts. The character of 
the forts constructed has been thus described : "A 
fort in these rude military times, consisted of pieces 
of timber, sharpened at the end and firmly lodged 
in the ground; rows of these pickets enclosed the 
desired space which embraced the cabina of the 
inhabitants. One block house or more of superior 
care and strength commanding the sides of the fort, 
with or without a ditch, completed the fortification 
or station, as they are most commonly called. Gen- 
erally the sides of the interior cabins formed the 
sides of the fort." 

In 1775, two Virginians by the names of Boyd 
and Boggett were sent out by their government to 
travel through a jDortion of Tennessee in order that 
they might observe the movements of the Indians 
who at this time were recognized as hostile to the 
colonists. These two men were killed by Cherokees 



14 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

at a point in East Tennessee now within the bor- 
ders of Sevier County. This was the beginning 
of the cruel and long continued war waged by the 
Indians against the men, women, and children of 
this western settlement. The object of the Indians 
in this warfare was either to slay all men, women, 
and children on this western frontier, or to drive 
them out and force them to return to the section 
whence they came. The number of Cherokee war- 
riors from whom they might expect an attack at 
any time was about 2,000. For this small group 
of settlers far removed from any organized govern- 
ment save their own, with no regular soldiers and 
with very limited resources, to protect themselves, 
their wives, and children against this great horde 
of savage warriors would have seemed to a less 
heroic people a hopeless task. But these were 
unusual men, and they stood their ground and re- 
fused to retreat a single inch. With such help as 
they could get from Virginia and North Carolina, 
and this was necessarily small, they resisted the 
Indians at every point, and waged an aggressive and 
successful war against them. 

An Indian chief by the name of Old Abraham, 
noted for his cunning, in the summer of 1776, led 
his warriors along the path at the foot of the moun- 
tain leading into the Watauga country, hoping to 
take the settlers by surprise and murder them before 
they had time to get together for defense. A small 
number of the settlers were, at this time, in the 
garrison at Gillespie Station, which was only a short 



THE W AT AUG U A SETTLEMENT 15 

distance from the Watauga Station. They heard the 
approach of the Indians, and left Gillespie Station 
in great haste that they might ,ioin those in the 
Watauga fort. They succeeded in reaching Wa- 
tauga before the Indians could overtake them. The 
next morning after their arrival, the women from 
the fort went out at daybreak to milk the cows, and 
were fired upon by the Indians. But they succeeded 
in getting back into the fort without injury. There 
were in the Watauga fort at this time one hundred 
and forty inhabitants ; only forty of them were men. 
This small group of men was under the command 
of Captain James Robertson, who later became the 
founder of Nashville, and Lieutenant John Sevier. 
The Indians made a vigorous assault on the fort, 
but on account of the splendid marksmanship and 
great bravery of the little group, the Indians were 
repulsed with considerable loss. No one in the fort 
received a wound. However, the Indians remained 
around the fort for six days. In the meantime one 
of the settlers made his escape from the fort in 
order to get aid from the Holston settlement. In 
response to this appeal one hundred men under the 
command of Colonel William Russell started at once 
for the relief of Watauga. But the Indians had 
retreated before they arrived. 

From this time on for many years the settlers 
were in almost continuous conflict with the Indians, 
and suffered at their hands the most inhuman cruel- 
ties. Many of their number were heartlessly mur- 
dered, and they were compelled to live in constant 



16 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 




John Sevier 



THE WATAUGUA SETTLEMENT 17 

dread of all the liorrors of wliicli the savage Indian 
was capable. The following account of a church 
service in this section at this time will give some 
idea of the dangers to which these people were sub- 
jected: "On Sabbath morning, during most of this 
period, it was the custom of Mr. Cummings (the 
preacher) to dress himself neatly, put on his shot 
pouch, shoulder his rifle, mount his horse, and ride 
off to church, where he met his gallant and intelli- 
gent congregation — each man with his rifle in his 
hand. The minister would then enter the church, 
walk grandly through the crowd, ascend the pulpit, 
deposit his rifle in the corner of it, lay off his shot 
pouch and commence the solemn service of the 
day."* 

During the year 1779, the Watauga settlers re- 
ceived information that the Cherokees were plan- 
ning an attack on their settlement. When this news 
reached Colonel John Sevier, who was at this time 
in command of the troops of Washington County, 
he ordered the militia of his county to assemble at 
once on the Nolichucky River; and within a few 
days two hundred men had gathered at this place. 
They at once started out to meet the Indians. On 
Boyd Creek they came upon an Indian camp with 
fires burning. An advance guard was ordered to 
the front to fire on the Indians and then retreat. 
The Indians followed the retreat as was anticipated 
until they came up to the main body of Colonel 
Sevier's troops. Colonel Sevier had divided his 

* Ramsay, History oj Tennessee, p. 146. 



18 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

regiment into three divisions, he commanding the 
center, Major Wallace the right wing, and Major 
Tipton the left wing. Orders were given that as 
soon as the Indians approached the fort, the right 
wing should wheel to the left and the left wing wheel 
to the right, and in this way practically surround 
the Indians. Major Wallace executed the left wheel 
speedily but the left wing under Major Tipton w^as 
slow in executing the right wheel, and this made 
an opening through which many of the Indians es- 
caped when they met the deadly fire from Sevier's 
center. However, twenty-eight Indians were killed 
and many more were wounded. Not a single man 
of Sevier's troops was wounded. This is only one 
of a large number of battles fought by the Watauga 
settlers against the Indians.* 

The plan of battle used by Sevier on this occasion 
to trap the Indians was used in other engagements 
successfully. 

This plan was adopted and used with great suc- 
cess by Andrew Jackson in later years in his Indian 
wars. 

* Letter of General Campbell — Ramsay, p. 160. 



Chapter III 

TENNESSEANS IN THE REVOLUTIONARY 
WAR 

King's Mountain" 

111 the year 1780, the capital of Georgia had been 
taken by the British, and they had extended their 
posts as far as Augusta. When the Georgians saw 
that they were powerless to resist the strong British 
force, many of them left the state and some of them 
came into the Watauga settlement. The next move 
of the British was to take Charleston, the capital 
of South Carolina, which would virtually give them 
possession of the whole South. The South Caro- 
linians made a brave defense of their capital city, 
but after a long siege they were compelled to aban- 
don Charleston to the enemy and after this it was 
but a short while till the whole state was subdued. 

When the governor of North Carolina learned 
that the British w^ould march against Charleston, 
he called upon the militia of his state to volunteer 
to go to the aid of South Carolina. When this call 
reached the remote Watauga settlement it met with 
a quick response. Colonel John Sevier with a regi- 
ment of two hundred men from Washington County, 
and Colonel Isaac Shelby with a similar number 
from Sullivan County, were soon on the march to 
resist the English in South Carolina. 

19 



20 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Well might tlie Watauga settlers have been ex- 
cused from sending soldiers into an adjoining state. 
To defend themselves, their wives, and children 
against the murderous and treacherous assaults of 
the Indians was enough to occupy all of their time 
and command all of their resources. In addition 
to the Indians, the Watauga people had another 
enemy much nearer them than the English. In the 
war for independence with Great Britain, many of 
the colonists were in sjanpathy with the mother 
country, and a number of them joined the British 
army and took up arms against the Americans. 
These were called "Tories" while the loyal Ameri- 
cans were called "Whigs." These Tories were scat- 
tered throughout the colonies, and a number of them 
were in the Watauga settlement. To what extent 
some of them were acting as spies and giving sub- 
stantial support to the British in a secret way was 
hard to determine. On one occasion some of these 
Tories had planned to murder Colonel Sevier, and 
doubtless would have been successful had he not 
heard of the plot in time to prevent its execution. 

But notwithstanding all the dangers that threat- 
ened them and their families at home, these brave 
men four hundred strong responded to the call of 
the governor and marched into South Carolina to 
wage battle with the powerful British foe. Colonel 
Sevier and Colonel Shelby with their troops joined 
Colonel McDowell near Cherokee Fork in South 
Carolina. It was the purpose of Lord Cornwallis, 
who was in command of the British forces in the 



TENNESSEANS IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR 21 

South, to continue the British conquest through 
North Carolina. In a short while after Sevier and 
Shelby arrived, they, together with Colonel Clark 
of Georgia, at the head of six hundred troops were 
sent out to attack an English fort twenty miles 
away, in command of Colonel Patrick Moore. They 
started out at sunset, and at daybreak next morning 
the fort, held by ninety British soldiers, had sur- 
rendered. Within twenty-four hours, they had 
marched twenty miles, taken the fort, and returned 
to McDowell's camp. After a few other conflicts 
with the British, Sevier and Shelby with their troops 
returned to Watauga. Of course it was not safe for 
them to keep so large a part of their population 
away from their borders long at a time. 

It was doubtless this unexpected bold activity on 
the part of Sevier and Shelby with their troops 
from the Watauga settlement that aroused a bitter 
resentment in the English against them. After the 
surrender of Colonel Moore, Cornwallis decided to 
send a portion of his troops under the command 
of Colonel Ferguson, a brave, intelligent, British 
soldier, to the interior to take possession of the 
principal places, and enlist and drill all the Tories 
possible in order that all opposition to the British, 
even in the remote western section, might be speed- 
ily crushed once for all. Colonel Ferguson's troops 
numbered about fourteen hundred, one hundred of 
whom were trained British soldiers; the rest were 
Tories, who for various reasons had joined the 
mother country against the colonies. 



22 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

When Ferguson reached Gilberttown , early in 
September, remembering the trouble Sevier and 
Shelby had recently given, the British paroled a 
prisoner by the name of Samuel Phillips, who was 
related to Colonel Shelby, and sent by him a very 
threatening message to the Watauga settlers. In 
substance the message was that if they did not stop 
their opposition to the British army, he would 
march his army over the mountain, hang their lead- 
ers, and lay their country waste with fire and 
sword. 

When Colonel Shelby received this message he 
rode forty miles to confer with Colonel Sevier with 
reference to the best course to be pursued. With- 
out orders or authority from any government or 
from any superior officer, Shelby and Sevier de- 
cided to raise all the men they could in Washington 
and Sullivan counties, get as many as possible be- 
yond their borders to join them, and march across 
the mountains and attack Ferguson by surprise. 
Colonel William Campbell of Virginia was per- 
suaded to join them. On the 25tli of September, 
1780, the regiments of Colonels Sevier, Shelby, and 
Campbell met at Sycamore Shoals on the Watauga, 
about three miles below the present town of Eliza- 
bethton. Campbell's regiment numbered 400; Se- 
vier's and Shelby's regiments numbered 240 each. 

When Colonel Sevier with his regiment was ready 
to start, his young second wife exclaimed : "Here," 
pointing to a youth of less than sixteen years of 
age, "here, Mr. Sevier, is another of your boys who 



TENNESSEANS IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR 23 

wants to go with his father and brother Joseph to 
the war, but we have no horse for him, and poor 
fellow, it is too great a distance for him to walk." 
Young James Sevier joined the regiment and was 
in the battle at King's Mountain. 

To bear the expenses of this campaign Colonel 
Sevier tried to borrow the money on his own ac- 
count. But the people were poor, and no money 
was to be had. Finally he and Colonel Shelbj^ 
made an arrangement with the entry taker who had 
some money on hand belonging to the state of 
North Carolina, to let them have about twelve thou- 
sand dollars to defray the expenses of the expedi- 
tion. They pledged themselves to see the money 
refunded or a satisfactory settlement made. 

On the 26th of September, the troops were ready 
for the march. But before they started, the offi- 
cers asked the men to assemble that they might ask 
divine guidance and protection. Reverend Samuel 
Doak, a Presbyterian minister and also a teacher in 
the Watauga settlement, led the prayer, and is 
said to have closed his prayer with the quotation 
from the Bible : "The sword of the Lord and of 
Gideon." At the close of this service they mounted 
their horses and started on the march. 

The second day after they started two of the 
soldiers deserted. After the latter left, it was 
believed that they were Tories, and that they would 
attempt to reach Ferguson ahead of the army, and 
inform him of the plans of the troops. On this 
account, the patriots changed their course and were 



24 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

compelled to travel over a much rougher country. 

On the first of October, six days after they 
started, they were joined by Colonel Cleveland and 
Colonel Winston, of North Carolina, who had under 
their command three or four hundred men. 

It was thought that Ferguson was at Gilberttown 
and they expected to attack him at this point. 
When they reached a point eighteen miles from the 
place, the rains became so heavy that they were 
compelled to stop for a time. While here the offi- 
cers held a council and decided to place Colonel 
Campbell in command since his regiment was the 
largest and had come a greater distance than any 
of the rest. They reached Gilberttown on Wednes- 
day, October the 4th. But Ferguson had gone. 
Having learned his plans they decided to follow 
him with the greatest haste possible. 

At Gilberttown Ferguson had heard of the ap- 
proach of the mountain men, and hence was expect- 
ing an attack. When he came to King's Mountain 
on his march he was so well pleased with the loca- 
tion that he decided to stop there and go in camp. 
This spot on which the famous battle was to be 
fought was in South Carolina, about one and one- 
half miles from the North Carolina line. It is de- 
scribed as about six hundred yards long, and about 
two hundred and fifty yards from one base across to 
the other. Ferguson is said to have stoutly affirmed 
that he would be able at this point to destroy or 
capture any force the Whigs could bring against 
him. "So confident," says Shelby, "was Ferguson 



TENNESSEANS IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR 25 

in the strength of his position that he declared that 
the Almighty conld not drive him from it." 

On the night of the 30th of October, the officers 
decided to select the best men and the best horses 
they had and make a forced marcli on the next day. 
Many of their men were on foot, and many of their 
horses had grown weak on the long march. The 
distance from the Watauga settlement to King's 
Mountain w^as more than two hundred miles. 
Those selected for the rapid chase of Ferguson 
numbered 910. The footmen and those on weak 
horses were commanded to follow as rapidly as 
they could. For the last thirty-six hours of their 
march before they reached King's Mountain, they 
got off their horses but once, and then they rested 
only one hour. To add to the hardships of this 
long, tiresome march, the night before the battle 
was dark, and early in the night a drizzling rain set 
in, which at times became exceedingly hard. It 
was necessary for the men to take their blankets 
and sacks, and in some cases their shirts from their 
bodies, and wrap them around their guns that they 
might keep their arms dry. At twelve o'clock on 
the second day of their forced march, they found 
themselves within a few miles of Ferguson's camp. 
The rain had stopped and the sun was shining. 
They halted and the officers decided on the plan of 
battle. At three o'clock in the afternoon they came 
in sight of the enemy. The regiments of Colonel 
Campbell and Colonel Shelby composed the center, 
Campbell being on the right and Shelby on the left. 



26 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Colonel Sevier and Major Winston led the right 
wing, and Colonels Cleveland and Williams the left 
wing. The plan was to surronnd the mountain and 
attack from four sides at once. They were re- 
pulsed three times by the charges of the English, 
but being rallied by their officers they immediately 
renewed the attack. Within one hour and five min- 
utes after the battle began they had taken the 
mountain, killed two hundred and twenty of the 
British forces, including Colonel Ferguson, wounded 
one hundred and eighty others, and had taken be- 
tween six and seven hundred prisoners. Of their 
forces only twenty-eight were killed and sixty 
wounded. Among the prisoners taken thirty or 
more were North Carolina Tories, and some of 
them had gone out from the Watauga settlement. 
Some of the Tories were executed, but others were 
spared on the ground that they were led to take up 
arms against the Colonists through honest motives. 
In this battle the English forces numbered about 
1,100, and those of the Colonists about 900. 

These mountain men were untrained soldiers; 
they had marched 200 miles over rough roads and 
for a part of the time through the rain; they had 
been in the saddle for practically thirty-six hours 
when the battle began; they were outnumbered and 
they made the attack against a position which was 
regarded by the brave Ferguson as especially 
strong against any possible attack. Surely they 
gained a most remarkable victory and won for them- 
selves a big place in American history. 



TENNESSEANS IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR 27 

Effect of the Battle of King's Mountain 

It is difficult to overestimate the importance of 
this great victory at King's Mountain. Lord Corn- 
wallis had boasted that Georgia and South Carolina 
were subdued, and that North Carolina was but the 
stepping block to the conquest of Virginia. He had 
now passed Charlotte and was advancing to Salis- 
bury. The whole South was in gloom on account of 
the victorious march of the British through Georgia 
and South Carolina, and it seemed that nothing 
could prevent the subjugation of North Carolina 
and Virginia by Cornwallis. But when Cornwallis 
heard the news of Ferguson's defeat, he was com- 
pletely demoralized ; he abandoned his march north- 
ward, and ordered an immediate retreat. He 
marched all night in the utmost confusion, and 
moved his army to the rear about one hundred miles. 

The battle of King's Mountain w^as conceded to 
be the turning point in the American Revolution. 
"No battle during the war," says Lessing, "was 
more obstinately contested than this; it completely 
crushed the spirits of the royalists, and weakened 
beyond recovery the royal power in the Carolinas." 
"The victory at King's Mountain," says Bancroft, 
the historian, "changed the aspects of the war. 
The royalists of North Carolina no longer dared to 
rise. It fired the patriots in the two Carolinas with 
fresh zeal. It encouraged the fragments of the 
defeated and scattered American army to seek each 
other and organize themselves anew." "That mem- 



28 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

orable victory," says Thomas Jefferson, "was the 
joyful enunciation of that turn in the tide of suc- 
cess that terminated the Revohitionary War with 
the seal of our independence." 

This whole nation owes much to East Tennessee 
for the part played by the Watauga settlers in 
gaining independence. The patriots who followed 
Sevier and Shelby were no ordinary men. In patri- 
otism, courage, self-sacrifice, intelligence, and bold 
individual initiative, the Watauga people deserve 
to stand among the first citizens of America of this 
period. 



Chapter IV 

THE STATE OF FRANKLIN 

After the battle of King's Mountain the Watauga 
people hastened back to their homes. They had 
heard before they left that the Indians were pre- 
paring to make an attack on their settlement ; hence 
it was not safe for them to remain longer from 
their families. They now took up the difficult work 
of developing this wild section and opening it up to 
civilization. In this work they struggled against 
all kinds of hardships and dangers, but nothing 
could turn them back or thwart them in their pur- 
pose to make Tennessee a fit place for a man to 
rear his family. 

In 1784, the legislature of North Carolina ceded 
to the United States government all of the territory 
now in the State of Tennessee. Congress was given 
two years in which to accept it. The transfer of 
the Tennessee territory to the United States gov- 
ernment was made without the consent of the Wa- 
tauga people, and without even consulting them. 
As a result they became very indignant. They felt 
that after the sacrifices they had made in the Revo- 
lution, and the services they had rendered to the 
cause of independence they deserved some consid- 
eration and certainly better treatment than they 
had received. They had no adequate military 

29 



30 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

organization to meet the many dangers that threat- 
ened them. They had been cut off from North 
Carolina, and had not been accepted by the United 
States government. While in theory they were to 
continue as citizens of North Carolina until they 
should be accepted by the national government, in 
fact the people regarded themselves as without any 
real government. Hence in the interest of self- 
protection they began at once to organize a gov- 
ernment a^ they had done on the Watauga a few 
years before. 

Nearly every man in their communities belonged 
to a militar}^ company. So the first step in the for- 
mation of the new government was for each mili- 
tary company to elect two representatives. The 
representatives thus elected met in convention and 
called a general convention in which delegates 
should be elected by the people in the different 
counties. This convention assembled in Jonesboro 
in August, 1784, John Sevier was elected presi- 
dent and Landon Carter secretary of the conven- 
tion. It was decided to hold another convention 
later which should be composed of five delegates 
from each county for the purpose of selecting a 
name for the new state and adopting a constitution. 
When the news of this action reached North Caro- 
lina, that state withdrew the act by which they had 
ceded Tennessee to the Federal government, and 
appointed an assistant judge, and an attorney gen- 
eral for the Superior Court of Jonesboro. It was 
believed that this would stop the movement for a 



THE STATE OF FRANKLIN 31 

new state. John Sevier thought at this time that 
no further step should be taken looking toward 
independence. But so intense was the feeling of 
resentment against North Carolina on account of 
her neglect and lack of appreciation of her western 
citizens that it was decided to proceed with the 
formation of the new government. The convention 
which had been provided for met, and John Sevier 
was elected president of this convention also. This 
convention provi.ded for the election of a legislature 
immediately, that the new government might be put 
in operation. The new legislature was elected, and 
when it assembled in the early part of 1785, it 
organized a judiciary system, elected judges, elected 
John Sevier governor, and provided for all other 
offices necessary. The next convention met at 
Greeneville in December, 1785, and adopted Frank- 
lin as the name of the new state, and also adopted 
a new constitution which was a revised edition of 
the constitution of North Carolina. 

North Carolina refused to recognize this new 
state, and began to exercise every possible influence 
on the inhabitants of this section to turn them away 
from the new government and hold them loyal to 
the government of North Carolina. Influenced by 
the inducements offered by the mother state, espe- 
cially the offer to relieve them from paying taxes 
for a period, many of the adherents of the new state 
began to drop off; and soon it was apparent to 
nearly every one that the State of Franklin was 
doomed to failure. Colonel Tipton, who had been a 



32 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

strong supporter of the new state in the beginning, 
changed his allegiance to North Carolina, and be- 
came a bitter political and personal enemy of Gov- 
ernor Sevier. Early in the movement for a new 
state Governor Sevier had advised the people to 
abandon the enterprise and submit to the govern- 
ment of North Carolina; and some time after he 
was elected governor he agreed to a peaceable set- 
tlement, and the abandonment of the new govern- 
ment. But later, perhaps chiefly on account of the 
bitter animosity of Tipton, he refused to yield to 
the demand of North Carolina, even when virtually 
every one else had given up the light. Finally he 
was declared a traitor by the government of North 
Carolina, and his arrest was ordered. He did not 
try to escape, but for some time no officer would 
attempt to arrest him. Later he was arrested by 
Colonel Tipton and some of his followers. Gov- 
ernor Sevier did not resist arrest, yet Tipton w^as 
so enraged on account of the many conflicts he had 
had with Sevier that he threatened to shoot him, 
but he did not do so. However, he handcuffed the 
former governor and sent him away to Morgan- 
town, North Carolina, to stand trial for treason. 
The officers removed the handcuffs before they had 
gone very far. 

When the news spread abroad that Governor 
Sevier had been arrested and sent to North Caro- 
lina for trial, his friends began at once to devise 
some means of rescuing him. A few days later 
James and John Sevier, sons of the governor, to- 



THE STATE OF FRANKLIN 33 

gether with several strong friends, were seen to 
start toward Morgantown leading Governor Se- 
vier's spirited riding horse which was noted as a 
very fast runner. Governor Sevier was not kept in 
jail continuously at Morgantown, but was given 
large liberties by the sheriif. 

Two accounts are given of the rescue of Governor 
Sevier from the officers at Morgantown. One ac- 
count is that his sons and friends came into town on 
court day when a large crowd was present and 
remained there all day without being recognized. 
That night Governor Sevier got on his horse and 
the group rode away at a rapid gait. The other 
account of the rescue is given by Ramsay and is as 
follows: "It was ascertained that the trial was to 
take place at Morgantown and thither this daring- 
band bent their eager steps. Their plan was to 
obtain his release by stratagem, and if that failed, 
the next step was to fire the town, and in the hurry 
and confusion, burst the prison doors by force and 
make their escai)e. * * * The 'Franks' had ap- 
proached as near the town as they deemed it pru- 
dent, where four of them concealed themselves near 
the road, while two of their number, James Cozby 
and Nathaniel Evans, w^ent forward into the town. 
They rode to a convenient distance from the court- 
house, tied their horses to a limb of a tree, near to 
which they hid their rifles, and boldly entered the 
town, their capacious hunting shields concealing the 
side arms they had prepared in case of need. Soon 
they had mingled with the crowd and had passed off 



34 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

for countrymen, attracted there by common curi- 
osity. Evans had taken charge of Governor Sevier's 
celebrated race mare, and led her up in front of the 
courthouse door, the bridle carelessly thrown over 
her head; he was apparently an unconcerned spec- 
tator of passing events. Cozby entered the house 
and there arraigned at the bar sat the object of their 
solicitude. * * * Slowly he turned his head, and 
their eyes met. Sevier knew the rescue was at hand, 
but he w^as restrained from any outward demonstra- 
tion, by a significant shake of Cozby's head; but it 
could not prevent the tear of gratitude, for he knew 
there were daring spirits near that would peril their 
life's blood in his defense. During a pause in the 
trial, Cozby stepped forward in front of the Judge, 
and in that quick and energetic tone, so peculiar to 
him, asked the judge if he w^as done with that man. 
The question, manner and tone caused every person 
to start, to cast their eyes on the speaker, then on 
the judge, all in amazement. In the meantime 
Sevier had caught a glimpse of his favorite mare 
standing at the door; taking advantage of the con- 
fusion, he made one spring to the door; the next 
he was safely in the saddle, and vdtla. the speed of 
thought, was borne from the wondering crowd. * * * 
His comrades w^ere not slow to follow in his wake, 
and although immediate pursuit w^as made, a few 
minutes brought him to the main body, who with one 
wild shout of victory, closed in the rear and bore 
him on in triumph. That night they rested at the 
house of a friend, about twenty miles distant ; from 



THE STATE OF FRANKLIN 35 

whence they made an easy jonrney to their homes, 
content that they had gained a bloodless victory." ^ 
Soon after Governor Sevier's return to Tennessee, 
the legislature of North Carolina passed an act of 
pardon and oblivion for all who had taken part in 
the formation of the new State of Franklin, and this 
ended the conflict. Governor Sevier was now 
elected to the state senate of North Carolina from 
Greene County, and one year after his rescue he 
took his seat as a member of the law^-making body 
of his state. This session of the legislature wdiicli 
met at Fayetteville in November, 1789, passed an- 
other act transferring Tennessee to the United 
States government, and the next year, 1790, Ten- 
nessee became a territory of the United States. 



Chaptek V 

THE CUMBERLAND SETTLEMENT— MIDDLE 
TENNESSEE 

The first structure in Middle Tennessee by a civil- 
ized man was built by M. Cliarleville, a French 
trader, on a mound near the present site of Nash- 
ville. This Frenchman erected his store here in 
1714, for the purpose of carrying on trade with the 
Indians. 

In the year 1779, Casper Mansker, Uriah Stone, 
John Baker, and several other citizens from North 
Carolina came into the Middle Tennessee country to 
hunt and collect furs for trade. They came down 
the Cumberland River to the point where Nashville 
is now located. From this time on for several years 
hunters in considerable numbers came into Middle 
Tennessee to hunt and trade. They carried back 
flattering reports of the rich country along the Cum- 
berland River which aroused great interest in this 
section as a suitable place for permanent settlement. 

In 1779, a group of men from the Watauga set- 
tlement composed of Captain James Robertson, 
George Freeland, William Neely, Edward Swanson, 
James Hauly, Mark Robertson, Zachariah White, 
William Overall, and a negro, came into the Cum- 
berland section and planted a field of corn on a part 
of the present site of Nashville. Captain Robertson 

36 



THE CUMBERLAND SETTLEMENT 37 

had been prominent in the founding of the Watauga 
settlement. He was a member of the governing body 
of five, and was prominent as a military officer in 
the Indian fights in that section. After planting the 
corn, they returned to Watauga to get their families, 
for they had decided to settle permanently at this 
place. But they left three of their number here to 
keep the buffaloes from destroying the corn in their 
absence. This was the beginning of the permanent 
settlement in Middle Tennessee. In this same year 
Mansker, who had been here before as a hunter, con- 
ducted to this section a number of families, who 
came to settle permanently in Middle Tennessee. 
They settled on the Cumberland River not far from 
Nashville. 

In December of this year Robertson, with a num- 
ber of others, left the Watauga section to return to 
the Cumberland. They came by land, and decided 
on a very indirect course, coming through Kentucky. 
Another party started from East Tennessee at the 
same time bound for the same place. But the latter 
came by water. They came down the Holston and 
Tennessee rivers and up the Ohio and into the Cum- 
berland. Of course their small boats were propelled 
by hand. This party was led by Colonel John Don- 
elson. In the party was the wife of Captain James 
Robertson, and also Rachel Donelson, who later be- 
came the wife of Andrew Jackson. Colonel Donel- 
son kept a diary of this remarkable and most haz- 
ardous voyage, and some quotations from this diary 
are here given ; 



38 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

"Journal of Voyage intended by God's permission in the 
good boat, Adventure, from Fort Patrick Henry on Hols- 
ton River to the French Salt Springs (Nashville) on the 
Cumberland River, kept by John Donelson." 

"December 22, 1779. Took our departure from the fort 
and fell down the river to the mouth of Rudy Creek, 
where we were stopped by the fall of water, and most 
excessive hard frost ; and after much delay and many diffi- 
culties we arrived at the mouth of Clouds Creek on Sun- 
day evening, the 20th February, 1780, where we lay by 
until Sunday, 27th, when we took our departure with sun- 
dry other vessels bound for the same voyage, and on the 
same day struck the Poor Valley Shoal together with Mr. 
Boyd and Mr. Rounsifer, on which shoal we lay that 
afternoon and succeeding night in much distress." 

"March 2ud. Rain about half the day ; passed the mouth 
of French Broad River, and about 12 o'clock Mr. Henry's 
boat being driven on the point of an island by the force of 
the current and sunk, the whole cargo much damaged and 
the crew's lives much endangered, which occasioned the 
whole fleet to put on shore and go to their assistance." 

"Wednesday, March 8th. One of the company, John 
Cotton, who was moving down in a large canoe, had at- 
tached it to Robert Cartwright's boat into which he and his 
family had gone for safety. The canoe was here over- 
turned, and the little cargo lost. The company pitying his 
distress concluded to halt and assist him in recovering his 
property. They had landed on the northern shore at a 
level spot, and were going up to the place, when the In- 
dians, to our astonishment, appeared immediately over us 
on the opposite cliff and commenced firing down upon us, 
which occasioned a precipitate retreat to the boats. We 



THE CUMBERLAND SP^TTLEMENT 39 

immediately moved off, the Indians lining the bluffs along 
continued their fire from the heights on our boats below, 
without doing any other injury than wounding four 
slightly." 

"Tuesday, March 21st. Set out and on this day labored 
very hard and got but a little way; camped on the south 
bank of the Ohio. Passed the two following days as the 
former suffering much from hunger and fatigue." 

"Tuesday, March 28th. Set out very early this morning. 
Killed some buffalo." 

"Friday, March 31st. We are now without bread and are 
compelled to hunt buffalo to preserve life. Worn out with 
fatigue our progress at present is slow." 

"Monday, April 24th. This day we arrived at our jour- 
ney's end at the Big Salt Lick (Nashville) where we have 
the pleasure of finding Capt. Robertson and his company. 
It is a source of satisfaction to us to be enabled to restore 
to him and others their families and friends who were en- 
trusted to our care, and ■^^'ho sometime since, perhaps, de- 
spaired of ever meeting again. Though our prospects at 
present are dreary, we have found a few log cabins which 
have been built on a cedar bluff above the Lick by Capt. 
Robertson and his company." 

Colonel Donelson and liis company started from 
the Holston on December the 22nd and arrived at 
Nashville on April the 24th. Tims they were on 
their journey tlirongii the dead of winter for more 
tlian four months. Some of those in this company 
were : Mrs. Robertson, the wife of Captain James 
Robertson, Colonel John Donelson, Robert Cart- 
wright, Benjamin Porter, James Cain, Isaac Neely, 



40 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

John Cotton, Mr. Ramsear, Jonathan Jennings, Wil- 
liam Crutchfield, Moses Renfro, Joseph Renfro, 

James Renfro, Solomon Turpin, Johns, 

Francis Armstrong, Isaac Lanier, Daniel Durham, 
John Boyd, John Montgomery, John Cockrill, and 
John Coffey, with their respective families; also 
Mary Henry, a widow, and her family, Mary Pnr- 
nell and her family, John Blackmore, and John Gib- 
son. 

No more perilous trijo was perhaps ever under- 
taken in this country with women and children than 
this. It well reflects the remarkable character of 
the early settlers of Tennessee, and is conclusive 
proof that they represented a superior type of man- 
hood and womanhood. 

But the great hardships endured by the Cumber- 
land settlers in reaching their destination were only 
a mild beginning of the trials tliat awaited them. 
Hardly had they settled in their cabins when the 
Indians began their savage and deadly attacks with 
a view to their complete extermination. Perhaps 
no other settlement anywhere in America ever sur- 
vived hardships so great and so trying as those 
visited upon "the early settlers on the Cumberland. 
Their difficulties were greater and their hardships 
were more intense than those of the Watauga peo- 
ple, because they were separated from civilization 
by a much longer distance, and could hardly hope 
for assistance from without. The Indians under- 
stood their sad predicament, and took full advantage 
of it. 



THE CUMBERLAND SETTLEMENT 41 

During the month of May, 1780, the Cumberland 
settlers met and drew up a form of government. At 
this time there were eight stations here. Nashboro 
(Nashville) was the center of population; Freeland 
Station was just a short distance north of Nashville ; 
Eaton Station was on the east side of the river; 
Gaspers Station was at Goodlettsville ; Ashers Sta- 
tion was near Gallatin; Bledsoe's Station was near 
the Sulphur Spring in the neighborhood of Gallatin. 
Fort Union was about six miles above Nashville. 

Their numbers were so small, and the Indian 
attacks were so furious and so close together that a 
number of the settlers soon became discouraged, and 
had decided to move out and seek a safer locality 
for their families. But Captain Robertson took a 
firm stand against any retreat, and finally per- 
suaded his associates to stand their ground. The 
most severe difficulty that confronted them at this 
time was the scarcity of powder. To meet this dif- 
ficulty Robertson agreed to go back to Virginia and 
North Carolina and secure a fresh supply of pow- 
der. Accompanied by his son and a few others, he 
took the long, perilous journey and returned with 
the powder. 

In 1782, the settlers again became very despond- 
ent. But when the news of the victory of the Ameri- 
cans over the English at Yorktown reached them 
it gave them new hope and inspired them with new 
courage. Some who had left them after the first 
year returned. They now petitioned to the legis- 
lature of North Carolina to grant them in some way 



42 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

the benefits of organized government. In 1783, Cap- 
tain Eobertson was elected a member of the North 
Carolina legislature; and through his efforts the 
settlement was formed into a county and named 
Davidson in honor of General Davidson of North 
Carolina. A court was established, and in 1784 the 
town of Nashville was laid off and named in honor 
of Colonel Nash of North Carolina. Nashville was 
substituted for Nashboro, when the town took the 
place of the station. In 1785, the legislature of 
North Carolina granted a charter to Rev. Thos. 
B. Craighead and others for the establishment of 
Davidson Academy. This institution afterwards 
became the University of Nashville. In the same 
year an act was passed by the legislature forbid- 
ding the distillation of spirituous liquors in David- 
son County. One reason for this was to save corn. 
This was the first prohibition law in Tennessee. 

It was believed generally that when the colonies 
had gained their independence, and the English had 
withdrawn, Indian hostilities would in large meas- 
ure cease, since the bitter hostility of the Indians 
was attributed to British influence. This belief gave 
hope and courage to the Watauga and Cumberland 
settlers, and enabled them to withstand and endure 
Indian outrages even when they were almost beyond 
endurance. But in this expectation they were sorely 
disappointed. Moved by revenge and the hope of 
plunder, and encouraged by the Spanish in the south, 
the Indians continued their attacks with their old 
time vigor and cruelty. 



THE CUMBERLAND SETTLEMENT 43 

For a number of years after the Cumberland 
people established their settlement, they were not 
strong enough to Avage an aggressive war against 
the Indians, and they could get no assistance from 
the outside. North Carolina gave them no assist- 
ance at all. Hence they could not do more than 
defend themselves against the large numbers of In- 
dians who were continually attacking them, and they 
found great difficulty even in defense. But their 
numbers increased after 1782 and by 1790, when 
Tennessee became a territory of the United States, 
they felt that they were strong enough to carry the 
war into the Indian country, and so crush the sav- 
ages that they would cease their murderous attacks 
on the settlement. But novv^ a new difficulty arose. 
They were restrained by the national government 
from any aggressive war against the Indians. 

When the national government was formed, it 
became the policy of President AVasliington and 
those associated with him to do everything possible 
to gain the friendship of the Indians, who had been 
alienated from the Americans by the English during 
the Revolutionary AVar. To gain their friendship, 
the administration made them presents of firearms, 
ammunition, and other things highly prized by the 
Indians and prohibited any aggressive war against 
them. This policy of the national administration 
caused great hardship to the Cumberland and the 
Watauga settlements. The Indians were armed and 
supplied with ammunition by the national govern- 
ment, thus making them far more dangerous and 



44 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



effective in their warfare against the western set- 
tlers, and at the same time these settlers were pro- 
hibited from making any aggressive war against 
them. 

When Tennessee became a territory, William 
Blount of North Carolina was appointed territorial 

governor. He took up 
his residence in Knox- 
ville, which was then 
regarded as the capital. 
John Sevier w^as placed 
in command of the 
troops in East Tennes- 
see, and James Robert- 
son was appointed to 
the command of the 
troops in the Cumber- 
land country. Under 
the Indian policy of the 
national government 
Sevier and Robertson 
had a most difficult task. 
Their greatest difficulty 
was to restrain their people from going into the 
Indian country for the purpose of completely crush- 
ing their treacherous enemies. 

In the Cumberland settlement, James Robertson 
was recognized as the real head of this section in 
every sense, and to him the settlers looked for pro- 
tection and guidance in war and in peace. General 
Robertson felt it his duty to be loyal to the president 




Governor Wiluam Blount 



THE CUMBERLAND SETTLEMENT 45 

and the Federal government, and in every way pos- 
sible to carry out the policy of the administration 
with reference to the Indians. At the same time the 
Indians were attacking and murdering the Cumber- 
land settlers almost continuously. Naturally the 
people became very impatient, and finally some of 
them began to criticize General Robertson severely 
because he would not allow them to follow the In- 
dians and destroy them. 

Finally General Robertson* decided that the set- 
tlers could not stand the Indians' outrages any 
longer without an aggressive fight, and he gave his 
permission for them to move against their foe. He 
decided that if he should be criticized for this policy 
he would resign his office as military leader of this 
section, and let his command be given to another. 
An army of several hundred soldiers was raised, 
and they were joined by a small number of soldiers 
from Kentucky. On the 6tli of September, 1794, 
General Robertson ordered Major Ore to march into 
the Indians' country on the south and destroy the 
lower Cherokee towns. Such a deadly blow was 

* James Robertson was born in Brunswick County, Virginia, but 
with his parents moved to Orange County, North Carolina, while he 
was a boy. He was poor and uneducated, but he made use of such 
opportunities as came to him to train his mind. He was prominent 
in founding the Watauga settlement and in defending it against the 
Indians. He came into Middle Tennessee in 1779 and was the 
founder of the Cumberland settlement. He is justly called the 
Father of Middle Tennessee. Had it not been for his courage and 
fidelity and unimpeachable character the Cumberland settlers would 
have given up the struggle in the new country and gone back to their 
former homes. 



46 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 




General James Robertson 



THE CUMBERLAND SETTLEMENT 47 

dealt tlie Indians in this campaign, that it put an 
end to the serious Indian troubles in the settlement. 
General Robertson was severely criticized by the 
government, and as a result offered his resignation 
as brigadier general. But it was never accepted, 
and within a short while the whole matter was 
dropped. 



Chapter VI 

JOHN SEVIER'S LAST INDIAN CAMPAIGN 

When Tennessee became a territory of the United 
States, John Sevier was appointed brigadier general 
and given the command of the troops of East Ten- 
nessee. Here as in Middle Tennessee Indian out- 
rages were almost unbearable. They became so bad 
that in the year 1793 General Sevier was given 
authority to do what the people had long desired, 
that is, to go into the Indian country and wage a 
bitter war against them. 

In September, 1793, General Sevier at the head of 
an army of about 700, crossed the Little Tennessee 
Eiver, and made a rapid march till he reached an 
Indian village called Estimaula. They burned this 
village and went in camp nearby. He then marched 
south to the Indian town called Etowah. This was 
near the present site of Rome, Georgia. Here he 
met the Indians in a furious battle. The Indians 
were routed, many being killed, and the town was 
destroyed. Sevier lost three men in this battle. 
Besides doing other things General Sevier took and 
destroyed nearly three hundred towns belonging to 
the Indians. 

This blow put a stop to Indian outrages in East 
Tennessee. This was General Sevier's last military 
campaign, and was the only one of his life for which 

48 



JOHN SEVIER'S LAST INDIAN CAMPAIGN 49 

he received any compensation. He was in thirty- 
five battles and was never wounded, notwithstanding 
the fact that he always led his soldiers. He never 
lost a battle. He was careful of the lives of his 
soldiers; in all of his thirty-five engagements with 
the enemy he lost only fifty-six men. The secret of 
his invariable success was the impetuosity and vigor 
of his charge. Himself an accomplished horseman, 
a graceful rider, passionately fond of a spirited 
charger, always well mounted at the head of his 
dragoons, he was at once in the midst of the fight. 
His rapid movement, always unexpected and sudden, 
disconcerted the enemy and at the first onset decided 
the victory. He was the first to introduce the In- 
dian war-whoop in his battles with the savages, 
the Tories, or the British. Less harmful than the 
leaden missile, it was not less effectual, and was 
always the precursor of victory. The prisoners at 
King's Mountain said : "We could stand your fight- 
ing but your accursed hallooing confused us; we 
thought the mountains had regiments instead of 
companies." Sevier's enthusiasm was contagious; 
he imparted it to his men. He was the idol of the 
soldiers, and his orders were obeyed cheerfully and 
executed with precision. In a military service of 
twenty years, not one instance is known of insub- 
ordination on the part of the soldiers, or of disci- 
pline by the commander. 



Chapter VII 

THE STATE OF TENNESSEE— 1796 
JOHN SEVIER 

The population of Tennessee in 1795 was as fol- 
lows : 

Free Slaves Total 

Jefferson County 7,064 776 7,840 

Hawkins County 10,859 2,472 13,331 

Greene County 7,172 466 2,638 

Knox County 9,238 2,335 11,573 

Washington County 9,127 978 10,105 

Sullivan County 7,690 777 8,457 

Sevier County 3,449 129 3,578 

Blount County 2.633 183 2,816 

Davidson County 2,621 992 3,613 

Sumner County 5,294 1,076 6,370 

Tennessee County 1,545 398 1,941 

Total 66,692 10,582 72,262 

When this census was made in 1795, a vote was 
taken to determine whether the people wished to 
form a state government. The result of this vote 
was that 6,504 voted in favor of forming a state gov- 
ernment, and 2,562 voted against it. Middle Ten- 
nessee for some reason was strongly opposed to the 
formation of a state government, Davidson County 
voting more than five to one against it. But Gen- 
eral Sevier and East Tennessee were enthusiastic- 
ally for the new state and it carried by a large 
majority. 

50 



THE STATE OF TENNESSEE, 1796 51 

On November the 28tli, 1795, Governor Blount 
ordered an election to be held in each county on the 
18th and 19th of the following month for the pur- 
pose of electing five delegates from each county to 
a constitutional convention which was to meet in 
Knoxville on January 11, 1796. The convention met 
on the day appointed. Governor Blount w^as elected 
president of the convention, and William Maclin was 
elected secretary. On the first day of the conven- 
tion a motion was made and carried that the con- 
vention on the next day commence its work with 
prayer and a sermon to be delivered by Reverend 
Carrick. This convention adopted the first consti- 
tution of Tennessee, and ordered an election to be 
held on the 6th of February of that year for the 
election of a legislature and a governor. The elec- 
tion was held and John Sevier was elected the first 
governor of Tennessee. The legislature met on the 
28th of March and began its work of completing the 
state government of Tennessee. William Blount* 

* William Blount was born in North Carolina and was living in 
this state at the time he was appointed territorial governor of Ten- 
nessee. He was very popular in Tennessee as territorial governor, 
and was honored by being elected one of the first United States 
senators from the new state. He was expelled from the United States 
senate one year after his election on account of a letter he had 
written which seemed to indicate that he had in some way entered 
into conspiracy against the Spanish in Louisiana and Florida. Next 
to Sevier he was the most popular man in Tennessee, and the people 
did not regard the charge against him as at all serious. When he 
returned to Tennessee he was elected to the state senate from Knox 
Coimty soon after his arrival, and was made speaker of the senate 
when it met. He died soon after this. 



52 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

and William Cocke* were elected to represent Ten- 
nessee in the United States senate. The state at 
this time was entitled to one representative in the 
lower house of Congress, and Andrew Jackson of 
Davidson County was elected to this office. 

John Sevier was elected governor for three suc- 
cessive terms. Under the constitution he was not 
eligible for a fourth successive term. Governor 
Sevier was succeeded by Archibald Roane, who was 
elected governor of Tennessee in 1801 and served 
until 1803. He was a candidate for reelection, but 
Sevier was now eligible again to election, and he 
became a candidate against Roane. Sevier was 
elected for the fourth time by a large majority. 
During Governor Roane's term of office, the election 
for the office of major general of the militia was 
held. In this election only the field officers of the 

* William Cocke was born in Eastern Virginia in 1748. He was of 
English stock. He was a descendant of the fom-th generation of 
Richard Cocke who came to Virginia from Devonshire, England, in 
1632. It is said that when twenty-seven years of age, the Revolution 
being imminent, he was offered by Lord Dunmore, the colonial gov- 
ernor of Virginia, any office in the army below that of commander- 
in-chief, provided he would espouse the cause of the crown against 
the colonists. In the establishment of the State of Franklin he was 
one of the leaders, and was nearly the equal of John Sevier and 
William Blount in prominence and influence. He was one of the 
most active advocates of the establishment of Blount College and 
was a zealous supporter of every movement in the interest of educa- 
tion. Cocke, together with Sevier and William Blount, was a leader 
in the formation of the new state. He served twelve years in the 
United States senate, and was later elected judge of the supreme court 
in Tennessee. Late in life he moved to Mississippi, and died in that 
state. Cocke County was named for Senator Cocke. 



THE STATE OF TENNESSEE, 1796 53 

militia could vote. When the vote was counted it 
was found that John Sevier and Andrew Jackson 
had received the same number of votes. Under the 
law it became necessary for the governor to cast 
the deciding vote in case of a tie. Governor Roane 
voted for Jackson. 

It was at this time that serious charges were made 
against Sevier with reference to certain fraudulent 
land transactions. He was charged with making- 
false entries; and a committee of the legislature 
brought in a report adverse to him. "In the ab- 
sence of more conclusive evidence," says Phelan, 
"his character, his popularity, the love his neighbors 
bore him, his achievements during long years of 
service, are of themselves sufficient to overthrow tlie 
most conscientious skepticism. But joined to this, 
that he was twice elected, even after the investiga- 
tion, to the same high office, that at the end of his last 
gubernatorial term he was elected to the State Sen- 
ate, that in 1811 he was chosen a representative in 
Congress and served as a member of that body until 
his death, and he should be acquitted, even in the 
eyes of those j^rone to accept the most sinister inter- 
pretations of all complex human transactions.'' 
Sevier had very bitter political and personal ene- 
mies. His great popularity with the masses was in 
all probability largely responsible for much of the 
bitter antagonism against him. 

Soon after Sevier defeated Roane for governor, 
he met Andrew Jackson on the streets of Knoxville. 
Jackson was judge at this time, and was holding 



54 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

court in Knoxville. Sevier accused Jackson of hav- 
ing been responsible, in large measure, for the seri- 
ous charges that had been brought against him, and 
denounced Jackson violently. He was the more 
bitter against Jackson because it was through him 
that Jackson got the office of judge. As a result 
he and Jackson came near engaging in a "personal 
difficulty." But they were separated by their 
friends. For some time a duel was discussed be- 
tween them, but linally through the efforts of their 
friends peace was restored. 

After Sevier served a third successive term as 
governor for the second time, he again became inel- 
igible to reelection. After serving one term in the 
state senate he was elected to Congress in 1811, and 
remained a member of Congress until his death in 
1815. In 1815, he w^as appointed by the president 
of the United States to determine the boundary lines 
in a section of Alabama occupied by the Indians. 
While engaged in this work he died, and was buried 
in Alabama. But later his body was moved to 
Knoxville. 

John Sevier w^as born and received his education 
in A^irginia. He belonged to a prominent family. 
He had both English and French blood in his veins. 
His grandfather was a Frenchman, but his grand- 
mother was an English woman. His father lived in 
England before he moved to America. He was 
preeminently the builder of the State of Tennessee. 



Chapter VIII 

THE RISE OF ANDREW JACKSON AS A 
SOLDIER 

Andrew Jackson was twenty years younger than 
John Sevier. This was fortunate for Tennessee. 
Tennessee was not big enough at that time to furnish 
adequate opportunities for the full development of 
two such characters. Sevier had a hold on Ten- 
nessee people that could not be broken by any power 
or influence. While he was in his prime, he was 
conspicuously first citizen of the state, and no living- 
man was strong enough to dislodge him from this 
distinguished position. Jackson came up as the 
infirmities of age compelled Sevier to decline. Se- 
vier's field of activity was the State of Tennessee. 
Jackson's activities were almost from the begin- 
ning in the sphere of national politics. Sevier had 
the capacity for a much broader field of activity ; but 
he did not have an opportunity to use his capacity 
in the larger field. 

Andrew Jackson was born in Union County, North 
Carolina, on March the 15th, 1767. His father had 
come to this country from Ireland just two years 
before he was born. His father was very poor. 
Not being able to buy any land, though land was 
very cheap at this time, he built a cabin on another 
man's land and went to work. But he died a short 

55 



56 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

while before Andrew was born. Mrs. Jackson bad 
two other little boys, Hugh and Robert, After her 
husband died she got a position as housekeeper with 
one of her friends and put the two older boys to 
work on neighboring farms. Mrs. Jackson was a 
very religious woman, and she prayed that Andrew 




UiiiUlNAL HeKMITAGE 

might be a minister of the gospel. The strong, 
religious character of his mother, it would seem, 
made a deep impression on him. He had a pro- 
found appreciation of religion and was a member of 
the church when he died. 

In 1780, when he was thirteen years old, he vol- 
unteered as a soldier in the Revolutionary War. He 
was soon captured by the British; and when in 
prison he took the smallpox. While suffering with 



RISE OF ANDREW JACKSON AS A SOLDIER 57 

this disease, lie was taken home by his mother. He 
was seriously ill, and had a very narrow escape from 
death. Soon after this his mother died. When he 
recovered from the smallpox, he went to work in a 
saddler's shop and followed this business for some 
time. At seventeen he became a country school 
teacher. Of course he had little education, yet it 
required but slight training to become a country 
school teacher at this time. When eighteen years 
old, he went to Salisbury, North Carolina, and began 
the study of law in the office of a noted lawyer of 
that place. He was admitted to the bar at Salis- 
bury a few weeks before he was twenty-one years 
old. He practiced law for a short time in North 
Carolina, and then decided to move to Tennessee. 
He came to Jonesboro, East Tennessee, and was 
admitted to the bar at this place in February, 178S. 
He lived at Jonesboro for a year or more ; and while 
here fought a bloodless duel with Colonel Avery, a 
noted lawyer, who insulted him during a legal con- 
test in which they were engaged on opposite sides. 

He came to Nashville from Jonesboro, and took 
up his duties as district attorney, an office to which 
he had been appointed some time before. In 1796, 
he was chosen the first representative in Congress 
from Tennessee. In 1797, he was appointed to the 
United States senate by Governor Sevier to fill a 
vacancy caused by the expulsion of Senator Blount. 
After serving one year he resigned his position as 
senator. He returned to Tennessee and opened a 
store near the present site of the Hermitage. But 



58 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

soon after this lie was elected judge of the superior 
court. His salary in this position was six hundred 
dollars a year. The salary of the governor at this 
time was seven hundred and fifty dollars a year. In 
1806, a young lawyer of Nashville by the name of 
Charles Dickinson made some insulting remarks 




The Hermitage 

about Mrs. Jackson. This led to a duel between 
Jackson and Dickinson, and Dickinson was killed. 
The duel was fought in Logan County, Kentucky. 
In the duel, Jackson received a serious wound, but 
he was able to ride back to Nashville. 

When the war of 1812 opened, Jackson volun- 
teered his services, and those of twenty-five hundred 
soldiers in Tennessee under his command. He was 



RISE OF ANDREW JACKSON AS A SOLDIER 59 

major general of militia at this time. At the head 
of more than two thousand volunteers on January 
the 7th, 1813, he started down the Cumberland River 
on flat boats, bound for New Orleans to meet the 
British. But when he reached Natchez he was in- 
formed that the British were nowhere to be seen in 
this section. He marched his troops back to Ten- 
nessee and disbanded them. 

On August 20th, 1813, one thousand Creek Indians 
surrounded Fort Minis in Alabama, and within a 
few hours had killed four hundred of the five hun- 
dred and fifty persons in the fort. Not a single 
white woman or white child escaped. This mas- 
sacre so stirred the people of Tennessee that the 
legislature empowered the governor to put a large 
army in the field, and appropriated $300,000 to pay 
the expenses of the expedition against the Creeks. 
The troops met at Fayetteville, Tennessee, on Octo- 
ber 4th, to begin the march to Alabama. General 
Jackson was in command. He had not recovered 
from the serious wounds he had received in a fight 
with the Bentons a short while before ; his arm was 
in a sling, and he had to be assisted in mounting his 
horse. But, supported by an iron will, he assumed 
command and started on the long and perilous trip. 

When Jackson reached Alabama with twenty-five 
hundred men and thirteen hundred horses, he found 
himself one hundred and fifty miles from any proper 
supply of provisions. He w^as really in great danger 
of famine. He sent back for provisions, but for 
some reason they did not come. For ten weeks he 



60 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 




General Andrew Jackson 



RISE OF ANDREW JACKSON AS A SOLDIER 61 

battled with famine. His troops became discour- 
aged, and many of them decided to go back home. 
On one occasion when a considerable number of his 
soldiers started for home, he seized a musket and 
taking his stand in front of them, declared that he 
would shoot the first man who advanced another 
step. By such heroic courage he held his men in 
the field. Finally he allowed some of them to go 
back on condition that they would return when they 
had supplied themselves with the things they needed. 

So great w^ere the difficulties that confronted him 
that he was advised by Governor Blount to give up 
the expedition and return home. But this Jackson 
refused to do. Later he received fresh troops in 
the place of some whose term of enlistment had 
expired. About the middle of March the supplies 
came, and he started for Fort Strother to meet the 
Creeks, who had gathered all their forces fifty-five 
miles south of him. So rough was the countr}^ over 
which they marched that it took eleven days for the 
troops to cover this distance. 

The Indians were fortified in the bend of the river 
called the "Horse Shoe." General Jackson sent Gen- 
eral Coffee, who commanded a part of the troops 
under Jackson, to cross the river with his men, two 
miles distant, and to come up on the rear to prevent 
the Indians from escaping across the river. He 
attacked them in front and Coffee attacked them 
from the rear. The result of the battle was a crush- 
ing defeat for the Indians. Between seven and 
eight hundred Indians were killed. Jackson lost 



62 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

fifty-five killed and one hundred and forty-six 
wounded. 

In recognition of his great services in this cam- 
paign,, in which he defeated the Creeks in several 
strongly contested battles, Jackson was appointed 
major general in the United States army in the 
place of William Henry Harrison, who had re- 
signed ; and was assigned to the southern section. 

The British were now expected to arrive in New 
Orleans in large numbers. So Jackson Avith his 
troops for a second time started for this point. On. 
December 2nd, 1814, he with his staff arrived in New 
Orleans and took charge of the forces in that city. 
General Coffee at the head of three thousand Ten- 
nesseans had been marching for a week from Pensa- 
cola to New Orleans over bad roads and with three 
hundred of his men sick. General Carroll was float- 
ing down the river from Tennessee with two thou- 
sand volunteers; and two thousand soldiers from 
Kentucky were on their way to join Jackson at New 
Orleans. 

On Jackson's arrival at New Orleans, he began at 
once to prepare for the battle which he knew must 
come within a short while. He constructed breast- 
works of mud and dug ditches in front of these. In 
the battle, which took place on the 8th of January, 
1815, the English numbered about 10,000 and Jack- 
son's forces numbered about 5,500. The larger por- 
tion of Jackson's forces was composed of Tennesse- 
ans. The English soldiers in this battle are said 
to have been the best soldiers in Europe at this time. 



RISE OF ANDREW JACKSON AS A SOLDIER 63 

The English attacked Jackson's forces behind their 
breastworks and attempted to drive them out. Gen- 
eral Carroll and General Coffee with the Tennessee 
troops bore the brunt of the English onslaughts. 
The result of the battle was a complete victory for 




Church Where Jackson Worshh'ped 

Jackson. The British loss was more than two thou- 
sand; the American loss was thirteen. 

Jackson's great victory at New Orleans filled the 
American people with gratitude and exultation. It 
is said that the Americans in Europe rejoiced more 
than those at home over the victory. "Now," said 
Henry Clay, '*I can go to England without mortifi- 
cation." "The subaltern," who wrote the history of 
the British expedition against New Orleans, said 
three years before he died : "When I look back upon 



64 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

the means which General Jackson adopted to cover 
New Orleans, and remember the material of which 
his army was composed, I cannot but regard his man- 
agement of that campaign as one of the most mas- 
terly of which history makes mention. His night 
attack on our advance guard was as bold a stroke as 
was ever struck. It really paralyzed all our future 
operations; for though unsuccessful it taught us to 
hold our enemy in respect and in all future move- 
ments to act with an excess of caution. The use 
also which he made of the river was admirable. 
Indeed I am inclined to think that to him the gen- 
erals who came after him were indebted for the 
perception of the great advantages to which the 
command of the rivers may be turned. And do not 
let us forget that he had little else to oppose to 
Wellington's veterans fresh from their triumphs in 
Spain and the South of France except new levies." 
This great victory at New Orleans was preemi- 
nently a Tennessee victory. General Coffee and 
General Carroll as well as Jackson were Tennesseans, 
and the great majority of the soldiers who repulsed 
the British and drove them back in overwhelming 
defeat were Tennessee volunteers. The victory of 
New Orleans made Jackson a national character; 
after this his name was known and honored in every 
American home. From this time on to the close of 
his life his public activities were national rather 
than local, and the problems that engaged his atten- 
tion belonged to the whole country rather than to the 
State of Tennessee. 



RISE OF ANDREW JACKSON AS A SOLDIER 65 

The Seminole War — Jackson and Florida 

Until 1819, Florida belonged to Spain. In it were 
many Seminole Indians. During the year 1817 tliey 
committed many outrages on white citizens of the 
United States residing in Florida and Georgia. On 
December the 1st, 1817, a boat containing forty 
United States soldiers with their wives and children 
was attacked by the Indians near Fort Scott on the 
Appalachicola River, and every one on board was 
killed except tAvo men who escaped and one woman 
taken captive. Soon after this massacre. General 
Jackson, who was now major general in the United 
States army, was ordered to Florida to put an end 
to Indian hostility. 

Some time before Jackson started on this cam- 
paign he had suggested to the president of the 
United States that the president allow him to seize 
Florida and hold it as an indemnity for the various 
injuries Spain had inflicted on this country. In 
reply to his suggestions he heard indirectly that the 
president approved his plan. He then began his 
march four hundred and fifty miles south with his 
Tennessee and Kentucky troops. He destroyed 
many Indian villages, put down all Indian opposi- 
tion, hung two British subjects who had been incit- 
ing the Indians to hostility, forced the Spanish to 
surrender St. Marks and Pensacola to him and then 
returned, leaving Florida in charge of American 
troops. The people throughout the country ap- 
proved of his taking Florida from the Spanish. But 



66 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

at this time the United States government was nego- 
tiating with Spain for the purchase of Florida, and 
it was thought by some that this act of Jackson 
would break off all peaceable negotiations, and make 
the purchase impossible; but it did not. However, 
Florida was turned back to Spain for the time being 
and in 1819 a treaty was signed by which Florida 
was ceded to the United States. 



Chaptek IX 



GOVERNORS FROM BLOUNT TO CARROLL 

At the close of John Sevier's sixth term as gov- 
ernor, Willie Blount* was elected governor of Ten- 
nessee. He was a half 
brother of William 
Blount who had been 
territorial governor and 
one of Tennessee's first 
United States senators. 
It was while Governor 
Blount was chief execu- 
tive of the state that 
Jackson fought and 
destroyed the Creeks. 
Much of the credit of 
this expedition belongs 
to Governor Blount. 
By his own personal 
efforts he raised $370,- 
000 to defray the ex- 
penses of this war. He served three terms in suc- 
cession as c'overnor. 




Governor Wilue Blount 



* Willie (pronounced Wylie) Blount was born in Bertie County, 
North Carolina, in 1767. He was for a time one of the secretaries of 
his brother, Governor WilHam Blount. He was elected judge of the 
superior court when under thirty, but declined to serve. He was 
elected governor in 1809, 1811, and 1813. He was candidate again for 
governor in 1828, but was defeated by Sam Houston. 

67 



68 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

In 1815, Joseph McMiiin was elected governor. 
He came to Tennessee from Pennsylvania. He had 
been a farmer in Pennsylvania and he followed this 
occupation in Tennessee. He settled in Hawkins 
County. He had a good education, but made no dis- 
play. He led a very simple life and worked hard. 
He and his wife often worked side by side in the field. 
He was speaker of the state senate in 1807, and held 
several other offices before he was elected governor. 
He was elected in 1817, and again in 1819. 

General William Carroll and Edward Ward were 
the opposing candidates for governor in 1821. Car- 
roll was born in Pennsylvania, and came to Nash- 
ville in 1810 to open a nail store. This was the 
first store of the kind opened in Tennessee. He was 
very fond of military tactics, and was elected cap- 
tain of a military company in Nashville in 1812. He 
took a conspicuous part in the Creek w^ar, and com- 
manded a brigade at New Orleans. It was against 
his troops that the British made their most desper- 
ate attack. He w^as a brave, resourceful, able com- 
mander and deserved much of the credit for the 
victory at New Orleans. 

Edward Ward, Carroll's opponent, was born in 
Virginia. He w^as a dignified, scholarly man, and 
possessed considerable wealth. Ward was sup- 
ported in this race by General Jackson, but Carroll 
was elected by a large majority. He was reelected 
in 1823, and again in 1825. He was a very capable 
business man and his administration as governor 
was eminently successful. 



GOVERNORS FROM BLOUNT TO CARROLL 69 

Sam Houston was elected governor of Tennessee 
in 1827 by a large majority. Houston was born in 
Rockbridge County, Virginia, March 2nd, 1793. 
When he was four years old, his father died, leaving 
his mother with six sons and two daughters. Soon 
after the death of his father, his mother with her 
children moved to Blount County, Tennessee. Sam 
worked hard, helping to support the family, but was 
fond of study and acquired some education. When 
a boy, he ran away from home and joined an Indian 
tribe nearby. He lived with the Indians some years. 
When eighteen years old he taught a country school. 
In 1813, he joined the United States army, and was 
with Jackson in the Creek war. He showed great 
bravery at the battle of the Horse Shoe, and was 
severely wounded. In 1818, he began the study of 
law, and was admitted to the bar a few months 
later. He was elected district attorney of David- 
son County in 1819; and, in 1821, he was elected 
major general of Tennessee volunteers. In 1823, he 
was elected to Congress, and again in 1825. He 
was elected governor in 1827. A few months before 
opening his compaign for reelection he was mar- 
ried to Miss Eliza Allen of Sumner County. She 
was attractive and cultured, and belonged to a 
prominent family. Three months after his mar- 
riage, he and his wife separated for causes unknown, 
and immediately he sent in his resignation as gov- 
ernor, and left the state. He went to Arkansas and 
joined the tribe of Indians with whom he had lived 
as a boy, and here spent some years living the life 



70 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 




Governor William Carroll 



GOVERNORS FROM BLOUNT TO CARROLL 71 

of an Indian. Later he went to Texas and was made 
commander-in-chief of the Texas troops. He met 
and defeated Santa Ana at the battle of San Jacinto, 
and by this victory gained freedom for Texas. Up 
to this time Texas had belonged to Mexico. He was 
elected the first president of the Republic of Texas ; 
and when Texas w^as annexed to the United States, 
he was elected to the United States senate. He was 
elected governor of Texas in 1859. He died in 1867. 

When Houston resigned his office as governor of 
Tennessee, William Hall became governor by virtue 
of the fact that he was at the time the speaker of the 
state senate. Governor Hall was born in Virginia. 
He had been a brigadier general in the Creek war, 
and had held many honorable offices. 

Governor Carroll was eligible again for the office 
of governor in 1829, and this year he became a candi- 
date and was elected. He was reelected in 1831, and 
again in 1833. He and Governor Sevier are the only 
two men who have ever served for more than three 
terms as governor. 



Chapter X 

WEST TENNESSEE— MEMPHIS 

In 1818, what is now West Tennessee was in pos- 
session of the Indians. During this year Andrew 
Jackson and Isaac Shelby, who had been appointed 
as a commission to treat with the Indians, concluded 
a treaty by which the Chickasaws transferred to the 
United States West Tennessee. They were paid for 
this territory the sum of $300,000. 

After this treaty settlers came in rapidly, and by 
1830 West Tennessee had nearly 100,000 inhabitants. 

But many years before this treaty was made with 
the Indians, two men had received large grants of 
land in and around the present site of Memphis. 
John Rice, an early trader in Tennessee, was im- 
pressed with the location on which the city of Mem- 
phis was afterward built, and in 1783 entered in a 
law office in North Carolina 5,000 acres of land at 
this place. He bequeathed his title to his brother. 
In 1794, John Overton bought this grant for five 
hundred dollars, and transferred one-half of it to 
Andrew Jackson. In 1783, John Ramsay also en- 
tered a tract of 5,000 acres in this same section. 
Overton got a part of this tract also. 

In 1819, John Overton, Andrew Jackson, and 
James Winchester agreed to lay off a town on this 
land. This was the beginning of the city of Mem- 

72 



WEST TENNESSEE— MEMPHIS 73 

phis. Jackson later sold his interest in the enter- 
prise. But John Overton watched over and directed 
the development of the town in its early history, and 
was really the founder and father of Memphis. 
Overton was born in Louisa County, Virginia, 1766. 
He began the practice of law in Kentucky, but moved 
to Nashville in 1789. He and Jackson arrived in 
Nashville about the same time, and they soon became 
warm friends. This friendship was never broken. 
Overton was elected a judge of the supreme court 
in 1811. He served on the bench with great abilit}^ 
He was a successful business man as well as a good 
lawyer. He did much for the development of Ten- 
nessee. 



Chapter XI • 

ANDREW JACKSON— PRESIDENT 

In 1824, General Jackson made the race for presi- 
dent of the United States. His opponents in this 
election were John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, 
AVilliam H. Crawford of Georgia, and Henry Clay 
of Kentucky. 

The candidates received the following electoral 
votes : 

Jackson 99 

Adams 84 

Crawford 41 

Clay 39 

Since no candidate had received a majority of the 
electoral votes cast, there was no election. It then 
became the duty of Congress to decide the contest, 
and select the president from the three candidates 
receiving the highest number of votes. In such a 
contest, the vote was cast by states, each state hav- 
ing one vote. Jackson had carried more states and 
had received more votes than either of the other 
candidates, and it was believed that he would be the 
successful candidate. But Henry Clay, who was 
speaker of the house of representatives at the time, 
threw his influence to Adams and he was elected. 

Jackson was a candidate again in 1828, and Adams 
was again his opponent. When the vote was counted, 

74 



ANDREW JACKSON— PRESIDENT 75 

it was found that Jackson had carried Virginia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, 
Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Illinois, and had received one hundred and 
seventy-eight electoral votes to eighty-three for 
John Quincy Adams. President Jackson was a can- 
didate for reelection in 1832, and was elected over 
Henry Clay by a very large majority. 

Mrs. Jackson died two months before his first 
inauguration. This was a shock from which he 
never recovered. His devotion to his wife's memory 
is well brought out in the following incident : 

The Honorable Nicholas P. Trist, President Jack- 
son's private secretary, relates an affecting incident 
which occurred while the president was on a visit 
to the Rip Raps in Virginia. Mr. Trist had retired 
for the night and so had the president. At the last 
moment the secretary remembered certain letters 
about which he wanted specific instructions. "As 
the letters were to be sent off early the next morn- 
ing," Mr. Trist says, "I returned to his (President 
Jackson's) chamber door, and tapping gently, in 
order not to wake him if he had got to sleep, my 
tap was answered by, 'Come in.' He was undressed 
but not yet in bed, as I supposed he must be by that 
time. He was sitting at the little table with his 
wife's miniature — a very large one, then for the first 
time seen by me — before him, propped up against 
some books; and between him and the picture lay 
an open book which bore the marks of long use. 
This book, as I afterward learned, was her prayer 



76 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 




Jackson's Tomb 



ANDREW JACKSON— PRESIDENT 77 

book. Tlie miniature he always wore next to his 
heart suspended around his neck by a strong, black 
cord. The last thing he did every night, before lying 
down to rest, was to read in that book, with the 
picture under his eyes."* 

* Dyer, Life of Jackson. 



Chapter XII 

THE WHIG PARTY IN TENNESSEE 

With Andrew Jackson's second election to the 
presidency of the United States, Tennessee state 
politics became national politics. From this time on 
down to the Civil War the chief issues in nearly 
every state campaign were national rather than 
state. The principal cause of this change was the 
opposition that developed in Tennessee to some of 
the policies of President Jackson. 

It was at this time that the Whig party came into 
existence in Tennessee. From the time Thomas Jef- 
ferson became president of the United States in 1800 
down to the entrance of Jackson into national poli- 
tics, there was only one political party in the coun- 
try, and this was the Democratic party. The Whig 
party came into existence through opposition to 
President Jackson. 

David Crockett, a noted Tennessean, has some- 
times been called the founder of the Whig party. 
Crockett had fought with Jackson in his Indian 
wars ; but as a member of the Tennessee legislature 
in 1823 voted against Jackson for the United States 
senate. He was elected to Congress while Jackson 
w^as president, and in Congress strongly opposed 
some of Jackson's policies. This led to Crockett's 
defeat. 

78 



THE WHIG PARTY IN TENNESSEE 79 

David Crockett was born in East Tennessee in 
1786. His parents were very poor, and as a boy 
lie bad a bard struggle. He attended scliool less 
tlian six montbs altogether. After be left borne to 
make bis own living be learned tbat bis fatber was 
indebted to a farmer in tlie neigbborbood to a con- 
siderable amount. Witbout tlie knowledge of bis 
fatber, be volunteered to work for tlie farmer for 
six montbs to pay bis fatber's debt. At tlie end of 
tlie six montbs be went borne and surprised bis 
fatber by presenting liim a receipt in full for the 
debt. 

Wben be was married, be could liardly read and 
knew virtually notliing about public affairs. He 
says in bis autobiograpby tbat wlien be was elected 
to tlie Tennessee legislature be did not know tlie 
meaning of "government" or "judiciary." Wben be 
beard some one speak of "judiciary," be determined 
to find out tlie meaning of tlie word after be got to 
tbe legislature. He moved from East Tennessee to 
Giles Count}^ and later moved to Obion County. He 
went to tbe legislature from Giles County, but was 
living in Obion wben be was elected to Congress. 
He was a very skillful hunter, and was noted far 
and near as a "bear liunter." He was first elected 
to Congress in 1829. On account of bis opposition 
to President Jackson be was defeated in 1831; but 
was elected again in 1833. He was again defeated 
in 1835. He attracted national attention in Con- 
gress, and developed into a representative of force. 
After bis second defeat, be shouldered his rifle and 



80 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

started for Texas, which at that time had a small 
population and was struggling to free herself from 
Mexico. He went to Texas for the purpose of help- 
ing the Texans gain their independence. When he 
reached Texas, he found a small body of patriots — 
less than two hundred — fortified in a building called 
the Alamo located within the limits of the present 
city of San Antonio. Crockett with a small number 
who accompanied him joined them. They were sur- 
rounded by several thousand Mexicans under com- 
mand of Santa Ana. The Texans refused to sur- 
render and decided to fight to the last. Every man 
in the Alamo was slain by the Mexicans. Crockett 
is said to have done the work of ten men in defend- 
ing the fort, and was one of the last to be killed. 

The fate of the brave band at the Alamo fired the 
whole of Texas for revenge; and as they went out 
to meet the army of Santa Ana led by the brave 
Sam Houston, another Tennessean, the watchword 
of the soldiers was "Remember the Alamo." 

Texas was largely settled by Tennesseans in the 
beginning, and her early history is really a part of 
Tennessee history. 

The opposition to some of President Jackson's 
policies became pronounced in Tennessee during his 
second term, and was largely due to the fact that he 
selected Martin Van Buren of New York to succeed 
him as president of the United States. Many of the 
Tennesseans of that day wished to see Hugh Law- 
son White, a distinguished Tennessean, succeed Jack- 
son, and they felt that Jackson should give his sup- 



THE WHIG PARTY IN TENNESSEE 



81 



port to White. White was one of the United States 
senators from Tennessee at this time. In 1831, 
Jackson offered him a place in his cabinet, as secre- 
tary of war, but he declined to accept it. He was 
a strong supporter of President Jackson but op- 
posed to his choice of 
Van Buren for presi- 
dent. Jackson tried to 
defeat White for the 
senate in 1835, but 
failed. Through Jack- 
son's influence, Van 
Buren received the 
Democratic nomination 
for president. White 
became a candidate 
against Van Buren in 
1836 and carried Ten- 
nessee against Jack- 
son's candidate by over 
10,000 majority. Van 
Buren was elected, how- 
ever. 

Hugh Lawson White was born in Iredell County, 
North Carolina, on October 30th, 1773. When he 
was eight years old, his father moved to Knox 
County, Tennessee, and became the founder of 
Knoxville. A house in which he passed much of his 
life in Tennessee is thus described : "A front view 
displays two square sections, 'pens' or apartments 
of unequal size, each a story and a half high, built 




Hugh Lawson White 



82 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

of logs coarsely hewn, the interstices of which are 
stuffed with clay, and with an outer covering of 
boards. Between these two rooms stands a heavy 
stone chimney furnishing a fire place in each. A 
rude piazza extends across the whole front, its roof 
some distance below the eaves of the house, and 
supported by six slender, sawed posts. The whole 
stands upon wooden blocks or under-pinnings. One 
small window is visible while a small step ladder in 
one corner of the piazza is the stairway to the half 
story above." 

Young White, while growing up, was "mill boy," 
followed the plow, and cleared the forest. He at- 
tended the county schools of his neighborhood. He 
began the study of ancient languages, under a Pres- 
byterian minister, when he was fifteen years old. 
In 1793, he followed Sevier in an expedition against 
the Indians, and in the battle of Etowah shot and 
killed the Indian, "King Fisher." He studied mathe- 
matics and law in Pennsylvania, and was admitted 
to the bar at Nashville. In 1801, he was elected 
judge of the superior court. He was elected to the 
United States senate in 1825, and reelected twice as 
a member of this body. He resigned his place in the 
United States senate in 1840 because the Tennessee 
legislature directed him to vote for certain measures 
which he did not believe were for the best interest 
of the country. He was a great lawyer, a great 
statesmen, and one of the great men of his time. He 
was well qualified for the highest position in the 
gift of the American people.* 

* Bench and Bar of Tennessee, p. 111. 



Chaptek XIII 

GOVERNORS FROM CANNON TO JONES 

In 1834, Tennessee's second constitutional conven- 
tion met. The old constitution was revised and 
adjusted to the changed conditions. In this con- 
vention a new section of the state took an important 
part. When the first constitution was adopted, 
West Tennessee had not been opened, and hence had 
no representative in the convention. But in 1834, 
although it had been opened to settlers but a short 
while, it had a large population and from that time 
down to the present has been a prominent factor in 
every state movement. 

In 1835, Governor Carroll was a candidate for 
reelection to the ofhce of governor for a seventh 
term. He claimed that the adoption of the new con- 
stitution in 1834 made him eligible for a fourth suc- 
cessive term. His opponent was Newton Cannon. 
Cannon was not on friendly terms with President 
Jackson, and was outspoken in his advocacy of Hugh 
Lawson White for president against Van Buren. 
Cannon was elected by about 7,000 majority. 

Newton Cannon was born in North Carolina. He 
moved to Williamson County, Tennessee, when a 
boy. He was elected to the legislature in 1811. He 
volunteered as a private in the Creek War, but was 
soon elected captain and then colonel of the "Ten- 

83 



84 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



nessee Mounted Rifles." He was a member of Con- 
gress from 1814 to 1823, with the exception of one 
term. He was a candidate against Sam Houston 
for governor in 1827, and was defeated for a third 
term in 1839. 

From 1834 down almost to the Civil War, the 
contests between Whigs and Democrats in Tennes- 
see were very sharp, 
both in the state and 
national elections. 
Party lines were closely 
drawn and partisanship 
was at a high pitch. 
The two parties were 
about equally divided in 
strength, and some- 
times the victory went 
to the one and some- 
times to the other. 
However, for some 
years after the opposi- 
tion to Jackson devel- 
oped, the Whigs were in 
the ascendancy. This 
was a source of much worry to President Jackson 
and the Democrats, and they did everything in their 
power to bring the state back to Jackson. 

In 1839, the Democrats resolved to make a des- 
perate effort to elect a Democratic governor over 
Cannon, who was a pronounced Whig, The Re- 
publican Banner of Nashville and Brownlow's Whig 




Governor Newton Cannon 



GOVERNORS FROM CANNON TO JONES 85 

of East Tennessee were the leading papers of the 
state supporting tlie Whig candidate. To overcome 
the influence of tliese papers as mucli as possible, the 
Democrats brought two young Democratic editors 
into Tennessee from New England. They were 
Jeremiah George Harris, and E. C. Eastman. Har- 
ris became the editor of the Nashville Union, and 
Eastman became the editor of the Knoxville Argus. 

For governor, the Democrats nominated James 
K. Polk of Maury County, who was at that time a 
member of Congress and w^as speaker of that body. 
A joint campaign was arranged, and Polk and Can- 
non began a canvass of the state in a series of de- 
bates. This was the first joint canvass of the state 
between opposing candidates for governor. In joint 
debate Governor Cannon was at a decided disadvan- 
tage. He was not a gifted public speaker; he was 
too heavy and dry to hold a public audience. On 
the other hand Polk was a great stump speaker. 
He is regarded by one historian as the first great 
stump speaker of Tennessee. He presented an able 
discussion of public questions and with this used 
illustration, humor, and ridicule with great skill. 
He was a devoted follower of Andrew Jackson. 
The Democrats had a strong organization this year, 
and Polk was elected by 3,000 majority. The legis- 
lature was also Democratic. 

The Whigs lost the governorship in 1839 largely 
because the Democrats had in Polk a great stump 
speaker and their candidate was without talent in 
this direction. They determined to nominate a can- 



86 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



didate for governor in 1841 who could "get after 
Polk" as they expressed it; and for this task they 
selected James C. Jones* as the Whig nominee for 

governor. 

In personal appear- 
ance Jones was very 
striking. He was six 
feet two inches in height 
and weighed only one 
hundred and twenty-five 
pounds; he had a very 
prominent nose and a 
very large mouth. He 
was called "Lean Jim- 
my Jones." He walked 
like a soldier on parade, 
and had a serious ap- 
pearance. He pos- 
sessed a scattering gen- 
eral knowledge of 
things but was in no sense an educated or mentally 
trained man. He knew he was no match for Polk 
in serious debate, and he made no attempt to answer 
Polk's arguments. Polk had overwhelmed and de- 

* James C. Jones was born in Davidson County in 1809. As a 
child he had been taken out of school on account of his weak con- 
stitution. He was put to work on the farm, and through hard labor 
there his health was restored. He was elected to the legislature in 
1837 and again in 1839. He was elected governor in 1841 and re- 
elected in 1843. In 1850, he moved to Memphis and became presi- 
dent of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. He was elected to 
the United States senate in 1842, and served one terra as a member 
of this body. 




Governor James C. Jones 



GOVERNORS FROM CANNON TO JONES 87 

featecl Cannon by liis wit and Immor and ridicule, 
and now he tried them against Jones when they 
began their joint canvass of the state. But some- 
how they lost their effectiveness. Jones was so 
comical in appearance with his big mouth and pug 
nose and slim, gaunt form that the crowd began to 
laugh as soon as he rose to speak. In addition to 
this he was himself a master in the use of ridicule, 
wit, and anecdote. When he couldn't think of 
anything to say in his debate with Polk, he would 
turn and look at Polk, and this was done in such a 
comical way that he convulsed his audience. He 
defeated Polk in 1841 and again in 1843. 



James K. Polk, President of the United States 

In 1844, the Democrats nominated James K. Polk 
for president of the United States. The nominee of 
the Whig party this year was Henry Clay of Ken- 
tuck}^ The chief issue in this campaign was the 
annexation of Texas to the United States. Polk 
was strongly in favor of annexation and the slogan 
of the Democrats in this campaign was, "Polk, Dal- 
las and Texas." Dallas was the Democratic nomi- 
nee for vice-president. Clay's position on the 
annexation of Texas was indefinite. Polk received 
one hundred and seventy electoral votes and was 
elected. Clay received one hundred and five elec- 
toral votes. However, Polk lost Tennessee. Clay 
carried Tennessee by one hundred and thirteen 
majority. 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 




President James K. Polk 



GOVERNORS FROM CANNON TO JONES 89 

The Mexican War 

War was declared against Mexico during Presi- 
dent Polk's administration. The war began in 1846 
and closed in 1847, when the city of Mexico was 
taken by the American troops. Tennessee took a 
very prominent part in this war. When the call 
was made for 2,800 volunteers from Tennessee, 
30,000 responded. Since that time Tennessee has 
been known as the "Volunteer State." Among those 
from Tennessee who performed distinguished serv- 
ice in this war, were William B. Campbell, Gideon 
J. Pillow, William Trousdale, B. F. Cheatham, W. T. 
Haskell, and William B. Bate. General Bate fought 
through the Mexican War as a private. 

As a result of the war with Mexico, California, 
New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and parts of 
other western states were added to the United 
States. 

James Knox Polk was born in Mecklenburg 
County, North Carolina, November the 2nd, 1795. 
He was the oldest of ten children. His father was a 
plain farmer. He moved to Tennessee and settled 
on Duck River when young Polk was eleven years 
old. When he was eighteen years old, young Polk 
was placed in a country store as clerk by his father, 
who hoped to make of him a merchant. But he 
didn't like his position, and remained in it only a 
few months. He entered the University of North 
Carolina as a student in 1815 and graduated with 
honor in 1818. He began to read law in the office 



90 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

of Felix Grundy in 1819 and was admitted to the bar 
at Columbia, Tennessee, in 1820. He represented 
Maury County in the legislature in 1823. Before 
this he was a clerk of the lower house of the legisla- 
ture. In 1825, he was elected to Congress, where he 
remained till 1839, when he was elected governor. 
He distinguished himself as an able debater in Con- 
gress. In 1834, he was defeated for the speakership 
by John Bell, another distinguished Tenuessean. 
He defeated Bell, however, for the speakership in 
1835, and was elected again to this position in 1837. 
President Polk was a man of great ability, and 
furthermore was a man of conviction and courage. 
On account of his great friendship for Andrew Jack- 
son and close alliance with him throughout his politi- 
cal career he was represented by his political ene- 
mies as a subservient tool in Jackson's hands. This 
was a very great injustice to Polk, who was a man 
of independence of thought and action. But so wide- 
spread was this opinion that he has failed to receive 
the place in history that rightfully belongs to him. 



Chapter XIV 

GOVERNORS FROM A. V. BROWN TO HARRIS 

James C. Jones served two terms as governor, 
and in 1845 declined to become a candidate for a 
third term. He was the first governor of Tennessee 
who had been twice elected governor, who did not 
ask for a third term. Up to this time it was the 
invariable rnle for governors who had served two 
terms to seek the third successive term. 

In 1845, the nominee of the Democrats for gov- 
ernor was Aaron V. Brown* of Giles County. The 
Whigs nominated Ephraim H. Fosterf of Davidson 
County. The issues in this campaign were largely 

* Aaron V. Brovm was born in Brunswick County, Virginia, in 1795. 
He was the son of Rev. Aaron Brown, a Methodist preacher. He 
was a graduate of the University of North Carohna. His father 
moved to Tennessee and settled in Giles County in 1813. Young 
Brown studied law in NasliA-ille, and practiced law in this city for a 
while, but soon moved to Pulaski. He was a law partner of James K. 
Polk. He served in both branches of the legislature. He was 
strongly in favor of limiting capital punishment, and worked to this 
end while in the legislature. He was elected to Congress in 1839, 
and served till 1845, when he was elected governor. He was ap- 
pointed postmaster general of the United States by President Bu- 
chanan, and displayed greqt ability in the management of this office. 

t Ephraim H. Foster was born in Wilson County, Kentucky, in 
1794. His father moved to Tennessee in 1797. Young Foster was 
graduated from the University of Nashville in 1813. He was General 
Jackson's private secretary during the Creek War. In 1835, he left 
Jackson and supported Hugh Lawson White for president. In 1837, 
he was elected to the United States senate. He was one of the 
founders of the Whig party in Tennessee. 

91 



92 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 




Governor Aaron V. Brown 

Brown,* the nominee of 
the Whig party. Neil 
S. Brown was from 
Giles County also, but 
he was in no way related 
to Governor A. V. 
Brown. His majority 
was very small. The 
chief issue in this guber- 
natorial campaign was 
national. NeilS. 
Brown at this time 
criticised very severely 
President Polk's con- 
duct of the Mexican 



national. Brown made 
President Polk's poli- 
cies the chief issue of 
the campaign. Foster 
had not been enthusi- 
astic on the annexation 
of Texas, and on this 
Brown attacked him 
vigorously. Brown 
was elected by a major- 
ity of 1,470. 

Governor Brown w^as 
the Democratic nominee 
for reelection but was 
defeated by Neil S. 




Governor Neil S. Brown 



GOVERNORS FROM A. V. BROWN TO HARRIS 93 

War, and used this criticism effectively against his 
opponent. 

In 1849, William Trousdalef was nominated by 
the Democrats for governor, and was elected over 
Neil S. Brown. In this, as in all the other cam- 
paigns of this period, national issues were para- 
mount. Trousdale was known as the "Old War 
Horse of Sumner." 

In 1851, the Whigs placed in nomination William 
B. Campbell for governor. Governor Trousdale 
was nominated by the Democrats for a second term. 
At this period the Whigs and Democrats were so 
equally divided in strength that the successful candi- 
date as a rule received a small majority. The usual 
majority in a gubernatorial contest was between one 

*Neil S. Brown was bom in Giles County in 1810. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Pulaski in 1834. In 1835, he moved to Texas, 
but came back to Tennessee the next year. He was in the Seminole 
War, and was sergeant major of the First Tennessee Regiment. In 
1837, he was elected to the legislature. In 1843, he was defeated for 
Congress by A. V. Brown. He was elected governor over A. V. 
Brown in 1847. He was defeated for reelection by William Trousdale. 
He was appointed minister to Russia in 1850 and filled that impor- 
tant post for three years. He was a delegate to the Constitutional 
Convention in 1870. 

t William Trousdale was born in North Carolina in 1790. When 
he was six years old, his parents moved to Tennessee. He was in the 
Creek War and swam the Tennessee River on horseback, although he 
himself could not swim. He was in the battle of New Orleans in 
1815. He was a member of the state senate in 1835. He was in the 
Seminole War and received two wounds in the Mexican War. In 
recognition of his great victory in the Mexican War he was appointed 
brigadier general in the United States army. He was elected gov- 
ernor in 1849; he was a candidate for re-election but was defeated. 
He was appointed minister to Brazil in 1852. 



94 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

and two thousand. For 
a number of years 
neither party could re- 
elect its candidate for 
governor. Governor 
Trousdale was defeated 
by Campbell* by the 
usual small majority. 
Campbell refused to be- 
come a candidate for 
reelection. 

Andrew Johnson was 
the nominee of the 
Democratic party for 
governor in 1853, and 
Gustavus A. Henry was 
the nominee of the 
Whigs. Johnson was elected. 

* William B. Campbell was born in Sunftier County in 1807. He 
was a descendant of John Campbell, who moved to Augusta County, 
Virginia, in 1730. He was a nephew of Governor David Campbell of 
Virginia. He attended the law lectures of Henry St. George Tucker 
at Winchester, Virginia, and he began the practice of law at Carthage, 
Tennessee. He was captain of a Tennessee company in the Seminole 
War and distinguished himself for bravery. He was in Congress from 
1837 to 1843. He was in the Mexican War and was colonel of the 
First Tennessee Regiment. His regiment was the first to enter the 
city at the Battle of Monterey and to run up the American flag. In 
this battle his regiment made a desperate charge, which cost him 
one-third of his men. His command was "Boys, follow me." From 
this time the First Tennessee Regiment has been called the "Bloody 
First." He was elected governor in 1851, and refused to become a 
candidate for reelection. He was Tennessee's best Whig governor. 
He approved secession but remained neutral during the Civil War. 
He was elected to Congress just after the war, and served one term. 




Governor William B. Campbell 



GOVERNORS FROM A. V. BROWN TO HARRIS 95 

The Immortal Thieteen 

While Andrew Johnson* was a member of the 
state senate, he became the leader of "The Immortal 
Thirteen." In 1841, Jones defeated Polk for gov- 
ernor, but neither the Whigs nor the Democrats had 
a working majority in the legislature. The Whigs 
had a majority of one in the lower house, and in the 
senate there were twelve Democrats and twelve 
Whigs, and one independent. The independent was 
Samuel Turner. Turner was elected speaker of the 
senate. The Democrats, under Johnson's leader- 
ship, voted for the speaker's brother, H. L. Turner, 
for the United States senate, in order to get the 
speaker's vote. This gave the Democrats in the 
senate a majority of one in the senatorial contest. 
Realizing that the lower house would not support 
Turner in a way that would guarantee his election, 
the twelve Democrats, together with the speaker, 

* Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1808. 
His father was a very poor man and died when Andrew was ten years 
old. On the death of his father he was "bound out" by the court to 
a tailor in Raleigh. It was in this way that he learned the tailor's 
trade. When he was eighteen years old, he and his mother moved 
to Tennessee, and settled in Greeneville. Here he opened a tailor 
shop and worked at his trade. He never attended a school of any 
sort during his whole life. He could barely read when he was mar- 
ried. But his wife had had school advantages and she taught him. 
He studied as he worked in his tailor shop. When quite a young 
man, he was elected alderman of Greeneville. In 1835, he was elected 
to the legislature. On account of opposing the policy of internal 
improvement, he was defeated the next term, but was elected again 
in 1839. In 1841, he was elected to the state senate, and was the 
leader of the Democrats in that body. 



96 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 




Pbesident Andrew Johnson 



GOVERNORS FROM A. V. BROWN TO HARRIS 97 

refused to meet with the lower house, as the consti- 
tution directs shall be done for the purpose of elect- 
ing a United States senator. In this way they 
gained for themselves the name "The Immortal 
Thirteen." They succeeded in preventing a quorum 
by staying away from tliis joint meeting throughout 
the whole session. The result was that for two 
years Tennessee had but one representative in the 
United States senate. 

The act of breaking a quorum or preventing a 
quorum is called a "filibuster." This was tlie first 
successful "filibuster" in the Tennessee legislature. 

In 1843, Andrew Johnson was elected to Congress 
from the First Congressional District as a Demo- 
crat, and he continued to represent this district in 
Congress for ten years. He was elected governor in 
1853, defeating the Whig candidate, Gustavus A. 
Henry,* and was reelected in 1855. He was the first 
Democrat for twenty years to be reelected governor, 
and no Whig governor after James C. Jones was 
ever reelected. In his second race Governor John- 
son defeated M. P. Gentry,! the Whig candidate. 

* Gustavus A. Henry was born in Kentucky in 1804. He moved 
to Clarksville, Tennessee, in 1833. He was a schoolmate of Jefferson 
Davis at Transylvania University and was a well educated man. He 
was the Whig nominee for governor in 1853, but was defeated by 
Andrew Johnson. He represented Tennessee in the senate of the 
Confederate States, and was a very prominent member of that body. 
He was a great speaker, and was known in his day as the "Eagle 
Orator." 

t Meredith P. Gentry, whom Andrew Johnson defeated in his 
second race for governor, was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, in 
1808. When he was four years old, his father moved to Williamson 



98 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

As a member of the legislature, in Congress, and 
as a governor, Andrew Johnson was recognized as 
the friend of the working man. He was always 
quick to champion the cause of the poor, and per- 
haps too quick to criticise adversely those who had 
grown up in comfort and ease. 

Governor Johnson was elected to the United 
States senate in 1857 and was a member of that body 
when the war opened in 1861. He sided with the 
Union and was appointed military governor of Ten- 
nessee in 1862. In 1864, he was elected vice-presi- 
dent of the United States, on the Republican ticket, 
and when President Lincoln was assassinated in 
April, 1865, Johnson became president of the United 
States. As president, he was impeached on account 
of antagonism growing out of his friendship for the 
South, but was not convicted. He was elected 
United States senator from Tennessee in 1875, but 
died soon after entering upon his duties. 

Andrew Johnson was a man of great ability and 
as a debater he had no superior in his day in Ten- 
nessee. When the prejudices of the Civil War die, 
he will receive that recognition in history which he 
deserves, but which down to this day has been denied 
him. 

County, Tennessee. He had poor advantages in education, but he 
had natural abihty and developed it. He was elected to Congress in 
1839, and was a representative in that body for several terms. Such 
was his reputation in Congress that he was pronounced by John 
Quincy Adams as "the greatest natural orator in Congress." He 
sided with the South in the Civil War, and represented Tennessee in 
the Confederate Congress. 



GOVERNORS FROM A. V. BROWN TO HARRIS 99 

The Know-Nothing Paety 

At the time Andrew Johnson made his second race 
for governor of Tennessee, a new political party had 
come into existence, and was a factor in the guber- 
natorial campaign at this time. The new political 
organization was first called the American party. 
It was a secret organization and its chief pur- 
pose was to make it as difficult as possible for 
foreigners to become citizens of the United States, 
and to prevent foreigners from holding any po- 
litical office. When any member of the organi- 
zation was questioned about the purpose of the 
organization he w^ould answer in every case: "I 
know nothing about it." Hence, they were called 
the "Know-Nothing Party." This organization sup- 
ported Gentry in his race against Johnson. How- 
ever, it is not believed that Gentry was a member of 
the organization. Johnson made "Know-Nothing- 
ism" the chief issue of the campaign. 

The Democrats nominated Isliam G. Harris* for 

* I sham G. Harris was born in Franklin County, Tennessee, in 
1818. His father was a farmer. His educational opportunities were 
limited on account of the financial condition of his father. As a 
young man he left home and went to Paris, Tennessee, and was 
hired as a clerk in a store at one hundred dollars a year and his 
board and lodging. He rose rapidly in the mercantile business, and 
was a partner in a store in Mississippi for a while. He returned to 
Tennessee in 1841, and soon took up the practice of law. He was 
elected to the state senate in 1847; and was elected to Congress in 
1849, and again in 1851. He declined the nomination in 1853 and 
went to Memphis to practice law. He was elected governor in 1857 
and again in 1859. He was elected to the United States senate in 
1876, and remained a member of this body until his death, in 1897. 



100 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 




GOVERNOR IsHAM G. HaRRIS 



GOVERNORS FROM A. V. BROWN TO HARRIS 101 

governor in 1857, and the Wliigs placed in nomina- 
tion for this office Robert Hatton.* 

In the presidential election in 1856, Tennessee for 
the first time in twenty-four years — since the second 
election of Andrew Jackson — cast its electoral vote 
for the Democratic nominee for president of the 
United States. Under the administration of An- 
drew Johnson as governor, the Democrats gained 
on the Whigs considerably, and at the close of his 
second term Tennessee was regarded as safely 
Democratic by several thousand majority. 

The campaign between Harris and Hatton was a 
very exciting one. At Fayetteville, while engaged 
in a joint debate, Hatton was struck by Harris, and 
Hatton returned the blow, but they were separated 
by friends. Harris was elected by 11,000 majority. 
He was nominated for a second term as governor, 
and was elected over John Netlierland,t the nominee 
of the Whigs. 

* Robert Hatton was the son of a Methodist preacher. He was 
born in 1827, while his father was serving a charge in Youngstown, 
Ohio. In 1835, his father was sent to Nashville as pastor of a church. 
Young Hatton was graduated from Ciuiiberland University, and 
began the practice of law in Lebanon. He was elected to Congress 
by the Whigs and Know-Nothings in 1859. He joined the Confed- 
erate army at the opening of the war, and served under both Lee and 
Jackson. He was first colonel of the Seventh Tennessee Regiment, 
and was promoted to brigadier general in 1862. He was killed at the 
Battle of Seven Pines leading a charge. 

t John Netherland was born in Powhatan County, Virginia. His 
parents moved to Sullivan County, Tennessee, when he was a small 
boy. He served as a member of the state senate, in 1833, and repre- 
sented Hawkins County in the lower house in 1851. He was consid- 
ered the most successful young lawyer in East Tennessee. 



Chapter XV 

TENNESSEE AND SECESSION 

The institution of slavery prepared the way foi' 
the Civil War, but slavery was not the direct cause 
of this great conflict. 

In 1619, a small number of slaves — less than 
twenty-five — were brought into the South and sold 
to the Virginia colonists. This w^as the beginning 
of slavery in this section. From this time on for a 
number of years, certain traders from the New Eng- 
land states brought slaves from Africa to this coun- 
try, and sold them to the Southern people. Hence 
the chief responsibility for slavery in this country, 
in the first instance, rests with the North rather 
than the South. The slaves were located in the 
South rather than in the North, not because the 
Northern people were more opposed to slavery in 
the early days than were the people of the South, 
but because the Southern climate and Southern agri- 
cultural conditions made slavery more profitable 
here. The New England traders sold the slaves in 
the South because they would bring more money in 
the South than they would in the North. 

As the country developed, the sentiment against 
slavery grew both in the North and in the South. 
This sentiment was much stronger and more pro- 
nounced in the North because freeing the slaves 
would not directly affect the people of the North, 

102 



TENNESSEE AND SECESSION 103 

either in a financial, a political, or a social way, since 
they had no slaves. To the Southern man, whether 
he had any slaves or not, the freeing of the slaves 
was a very serious question. He didn't know what 
the effect would be, and naturally he was very slow 
to give his consent to a change which might bring 
any serious moral, social, political, and industrial 
problem to the community in which he lived. 

In the slave states, in 1860, there were nearly four 
millions of slaves. In the same states the white 
population numbered about eight millions. So the 
free population was about twice that of the slave 
population. But only a small portion of the white 
population owned slaves. In all there were 383,050 
slave owners in the South in 1860. 

So the great majority of the white people of the 
South were in no way connected with slavery before 
the Civil War. The great majority of the voters in 
the South were non-slave holders, and the great 
majority of the Confederate soldiers were non-slave 
holders. 

The struggle between the North and the South 
over the question of slavery had been going on for 
many years before the Civil War. In the Congress 
of the United States, the Northern people were try- 
ing to limit slavery as much as possible in the new 
territory beyond the Mississippi, and the Southern 
people w^ere trying to extend the rights of the slave 
owners in the new field. In 1860, the people became 
much alarmed concerning the outcome of the ques- 
tion. The excitement in the South at this time was 



104 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

very great. In 1859, a man by the name of John 
Brown, whose home was in Kansas, came into Vir- 
ginia for the purpose of organizing the slaves and 
furnishing them with firearms to attack the white 
people. He was arrested and hanged, but this action 
did not quiet the people. They were already excited 
on the question, and this tended to drive them to 
extreme measures of precaution. 

The state of the public mind was shown in the 
nomination made for president of the United States 
in 1860. The people, both North and South, were so 
hopelessly divided that they put four different presi- 
dential tickets in the field. The Republican party, 
which had been organized a few years before, nomi- 
nated Abraham Lincoln of Illinois. John C. Breck- 
inridge, of Kentucky, was nominated by the South- 
ern Democrats. Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, 
was nominated by the Democrats of the North ; and 
John Bell, of Tennessee, was nominated by those 
who selected as their platform "The Constitution, 
the Union, and the enforcement of law." In the 
national convention that nominated John Bell for 
the presidency, his only competitor for the nomina- 
tion was another noted Tennessean, Sam Houston, 
then governor of the State of Texas. Mr. Lincoln 
was elected, receiving the majority of the electoral 
votes. But he did not receive a majority of the 
popular votes. He did not carry a single Southern 
state. Mr. Bell carried Tennessee, Kentucky, and 
Virginia and received three of New Jersey's elec- 
toral votes. 



TENNESSEE AND SECESSION 105 

Lincoln's election by the Nortliern states alone, 
together with John Brown's raid the year before, 
w^as construed by many Southern men to mean that 
the North, through the new administration, was 
going to abolish slavery whatever danger or hard- 
ship it might bring to the South. The freeing of 
the slaves was not in Lincoln's platform, and he 
said after his election that he did not expect to 
abolish slavery, though he was opposed to it. 

But some of the Southern states, feeling that their 
interests were no longer safe in the Federal gov- 
ernment, decided to withdraw from the Union. This 
they claimed they had a right to do under the Con- 
stitution of the United States, since the states, when 
they went into the Union, reserved the right to with- 
draw at any time. The right of secession, or the 
right of a state to withdraw from the Union, was 
claimed in the North as well as in the South before 
the Civil War. The war of 1812 was not popular in 
New England, because at this time the New England 
states w^ere engaged largely in commerce and this 
war interfered with their trade. In 1814, they sent 
delegates to Hartford to discuss the question of 
seceding from the Union on account of the fact that 
the war was injurious to business in their section. 
Ex-President John Quincy Adams, of Massachu- 
setts, was opposed to the annexation of Texas, in 
1843, and gave as his opinion that the annexation of 
Texas would justify the secession of other states 
from the Union. William Lloyd Garrison of Massa- 
chusetts, the great leader in the movement to free 



106 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

the slaves, suggested that Massachusetts lead a 
secession movement. 

Acting on her constitutional right, as Southerners 
construed it, South Carolina, on December 20tli, 
1860, withdrew from the Union. In the following 
month Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and 
Texas followed South Carolina out of the Union. 
The other Southern states, namely, Arkansas, Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Missouri, and Ten- 
nessee, at this time refused to withdraw from the 
Union, although all of them asserted that they had 
the constitutional right to withdraw if they so de- 
sired. They felt that it would be much better for 
all if the slave problem could be solved without 
breaking the Union.* 

Isham G. Harris was governor of Tennessee at the 
time, and he was strongly in favor of secession. He 
called an extra session of the legislature in Decem- 
ber, 1860, just after Lincoln's election, for the pur- 
pose of considering the question of secession. The 
legislature met on January 7th, 1861, and arranged 
for the people of Tennessee to vote on the question 
of calling a convention to consider secession, and for 
electing delegates to this convention. The date of 
the election was fixed for February 9th, and on that 
date the election was held. The result was that 
Tennessee voted overwhelmingly against secession. 
The majority for the Union in this election was 
64,914. Davidson County gave a majority of 2,548 
against secession, and Shelby County, in West Ten- 

* Brooks, History of Georgia. 



TENNESSEE AND SECESSION 107 

nessee, gave a majority of 5,492 against secession. 
In Shelby County only 197 votes were cast for seces- 
sion. Knox County cast more votes against the 
Union than did Shelby. The majority for the Union 
in this election in Middle Tennessee and West Ten- 
nessee was 38,582. So in February, 1861, after sev- 
eral Southern states had withdrawn from the Union, 
the great majority of the people of Tennessee were 
opposed to secession. 

At this time there were some United States sol- 
diers in charge of Fort Sumter in South Carolina. 
After South Carolina had withdrawn from the 
Union, she asked the Federal government to with- 
draw these soldiers from her borders. This the 
government refused to do. The result was that on 
April 12th, 1861, these United States soldiers were 
bombarded by some Confederates. On this day was 
fired the first gun of the Civil War. Three days 
later, on the 15th of April, President Lincoln called 
for 75,000 soldiers to put down all resistance to 
national authority, and to force back into the Union 
all the states that had seceded. Tennessee was 
called upon to furnish a portion of the troops asked 
for by the president. 

AVhen the proclamation of the president was is- 
sued, it caused a great change in sentiment in Ten- 
nessee and other Southern states which up to this 
time had refused to leave the Union. While they 
believed that South Carolina and the other seceding 
states made a mistake in withdrawing from the 
Union, they believed also that the Federal govern- 



108 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

ment, under the constitution, had no right to force 
them to come back. 

Immediately after the president's proclamation, 
another election was called in Tennessee to vote 
again on the question of secession. The election was 
held on June 8th, 1861. This time the vote, for seces- 
sion was 104,913 ; and the vote against secession was 
47,238. In East Tennessee the vote was 34,023 
against secession, and 14,829 for secession. In the 
election held in February of this year, there was not 
much difference in sentiment on the question of 
secession in East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and 
West Tennessee. But in June, Middle Tennessee 
and West Tennessee voted overwhelmingly for 
secession, and East Tennessee voted more than two 
to one for the Union. 



Chapter XVI 

EAST TENNESSEE AND THE CIVIL WAR 

East Tennessee voted against secession by more 
than two to one, and then sent more than 30,000 
soldiers into the Union army to take np arms against 
the Confederacy. The stand taken by East Ten- 
nessee in the Civil War has been very far-reaching 
in its effects; it prodnced serious problems of life 
and government in the state which are as yet largely 
unsolved. The unusual action of East Tennessee in 
this great conflict has been attributed to many 
causes, but perhaps has not been correctly explained 
by any. In part it was due to the peculiar economic 
condition of East Tennessee. There were not a 
great many slaves in this section in 1860. However, 
the economic conditions in East Tennessee and in 
southwest Virginia were very much the same, and 
southwest Virginia was loyal to the Confederacy. 
If Washington County, Tennessee, be compared with 
Washington County, Virginia, just across the Ten- 
nessee line, it will be seen that there was no par- 
ticular difference in slave ownership and in other 
economic conditions in the two counties. This is 
true of southwest Virginia, as a whole, and of East 
Tennessee. Political conditions in East Tennessee 
up to the time of the Civil War were similar to the 
political conditions in Middle Tennessee and West 
Tennessee. There were two political parties in the 

109 



110 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

state then, as there are now, and these parties were 
nearly equally divided in strength. In 1853, the 
Whigs carried only twelve out of twenty-eight coun- 
ties in East Tennessee. The total vote was : Whigs 
19,444, Democrats 19,499. The vote in the whole 
state w^as: Whigs 61,163, Democrats 63,413. In 
1857, the vote in East Tennessee was : Whigs 3,390, 
Democrats 22,121. Most of the counties in East 
Tennessee were Democratic; but the big Whig ma- 
jorities in a few counties kept the vote close between 
Whigs and Democrats in state elections. 

The idea that East Tennessee's attitude was due 
to Scotch-Irish influence can hardly be sustained, 
since virtually all of the towns of this section, with 
the exception of Knoxville, went with the Confed- 
eracy; and in these towns the Scotch-Irish were as 
strong, if not stronger, than anywhere else. While 
many East Tennesseans were opposed to slavery in 
principle, and the first abolitionist paper in this 
country was established in East Tennessee, these 
facts do not account for the attitude of this section 
in the Civil War. Many people in Middle Tennessee 
and West Tennessee also opposed slavery. Some, 
if not all, of the union leaders in East Tennessee 
were slave owners. Thomas A. R. Nelson, Judge 
Temple, and others, owned slaves. 

Some have tried to show that East Tennessee had 
an inferior type of population from the beginning. 
This is totally without foundation. Perhaps no 
purer stock of the Anglo-Saxon is to be found any- 
where in all the world than is found in East Ten- 



EAST TENNESSEE AND THE CIVIL WAR HI 

nessee. Up to the time of the Civil War this section 
was in the forefront of the state's progress, and fur- 
nished its full proportion of the state's great men. 

With reference to the size, muscular development, 
and brain power of the soldiers of Tennessee in the 
Union Army the subjoined table is interesting. Ten- 
nessee sent about 35,000 soldiers to the Union army. 
It is probable that a large majority of those from 
Tennessee and Kentucky measured were from East 
Tennessee. 

Comparative Size of Southern Men* 

Mean Cir- Mean 
cumference Size of 
Number Mean Mean in Chest Head in 

of Men Height Weight Inspir- Inches 
Measured in Inches in Pounds ation Around 

Kentucky and Tennessee. 30,334 68.605 149.85 37.83 22.32 

Ohio and Indiana 220,796 68.169 145.37 37.53 22.11 

New England 152,370 67.834 139.39 36.71 22.02 

New York, New Jersey, 

and Penn.sylvania 273,026 67.529 140.83 37.06 22.10 

Michigan, Illinois, and Mis- 
souri 71,196 67.820 141.78 37.29 22.19 

Free States West of Mis- 
sissippi River 3,811 67.419 37.53 21.97 

Canada 31,698 67.086 141.35 37.14 22.11 

England 3,037 66.741 137.61 36.91 22.16 

Ireland 83,128 66.951 139.18 37.54 

Germany 80,021 66.620 140.36 37.20 22.09 

It will be observed by inspection of the foregoing 
table that the Southern men in the Federal army 

* "Report of the Sanitary Commission" — East Tennessee and the 
Civil War — Temple. 



112 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

were greater in the size of chest and greater in the 
size of their heads than were the Americans of the 
Northern army or the troops in this army who were 
natives of Europe, Certainly tlieir measurements 
do not indicate that the East Tennessean is an 
inferior man either mentally or physically! 

The big majority for the Union in June, 1861, was 
in large measure due to the exciting campaign con- 
ducted in East Tennessee by Andrew Johnson, Wil- 
liam Brownlow, and Thomas A. R, Nelson. The 
feeling was so bitter that Secessionists were not 
allowed to speak in the rural sections, and Union 
men were not allowed to speak in the towns. The 
result was that the rural sections went for the Union 
and the towns went for secession, "The ditfering 
results," says Judge Temple, one of the Union lead- 
ers in this campaign, "are easily accounted for. In 
all East Tennessee the Union leaders took the stump 
in January and kept it until the close of the second 
campaign in June. They took the start, kept the 
start and held secession in check, so that it never 
gained any ascendancy. The same thing might have 
been done in the other divisions of the state, if is 
believed, but not with such marked success, if there 
had been bold leaders there." 

"After the election on the 9th of June, 1861, and 
the state had gone for secession by a large majority, 
the Union men in East Tennessee," says Judge Tem- 
ple, "began to resume their usual and peaceful voca- 
tions. Many of them were willing, if permitted to' 
do so, to remain at home in peace." The great 



EAST TENNESSEE AND THE CIVIL WAR 113 

majority of tliem, it would seem, had no idea of 
taking np arms against the Soiitli. Certainly very 
few of them would have joined the Union army if 
they had been left alone. 

In November, 1861, certain Union men, led by 
William B. Carter of Elizabethton, acting under 
instructions from President Lincoln, planned to 
burn all of the railroad bridges between Bristol and 
Stevenson, Alabama. They succeeded in burning 
five of the bridges. This act greatly inflamed the 
state authorities, and it was decided to hunt down 
all who were connected with the destruction of the 
bridges, and hang them. 

The policy followed by the state government in 
punishing these offenders was thus described by 
Colonel H. C. Young, a Confederate officer on the 
staff of General A¥. H. Carroll, who was sent to 
Knoxville to enlist East Tennesseans in the Con- 
federate army. "The numbers engaged in these out- 
rages (burning bridges) have, I know, been greatly 
overestimated, as facts have developed in the in- 
vestigation that has been made by court-martial now 
in session at this place, which satisfy me beyond 
doubt, that there were not, at the time the bridges 
were burned, five hundred men in all East Tennessee 
who knew anything of it, or who contemplated any 
organized opposition to the government. Scouting 
parties were sent out in every direction who ar- 
rested hundreds suspected of disloyalty and incar- 
cerated them in prison, until almost every jail in the 
eastern portion of the state was filled with poor. 



114 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

ignorant, and for the most part, harmless men who 
had been guilty of no crime, save that of lending a 
too credulous ear to the corrupt demagogues whose 
counsels have led them astray. About four hundred 
of the poor victims of designing leaders have been 
sent to Tuscaloosa, Alabama, as prisoners of war, 
leaving in many instances their families in a help- 
less and destitute condition. The greatest distress 
prevails throughout the entire country in conse- 
quence of the various arrests that have been made, 
together with the fact that the horses and the other 
property of the parties that have been arrested have 
been seized by the soldiers and in many cases appro- 
priated to personal uses or wantonly destroyed. 
Those best acquainted with affairs here are fully 
impressed with the belief that if the proper course 
were pursued all East Tennessee could be united in 
support of the Confederate Government." 

The next move was to deprive all the Union men 
of their arms. Orders were issued to agents to 
search for and seize their arms. 

It is difficult to state who was responsible for the 
outrages perpetrated on these men. The first ar- 
rests, it is said, were instigated by a few malicious, 
troublesome men in and around Knoxville. It was 
believed at the time that the general policy was due 
to the advice of three men in the Confederate Con- 
gress. At any rate the Confederate government 
was held responsible for every outrage, and it was 
against the Confederate government that these peo- 
ple felt revengeful. 



EAST TENNESSEE AND THE CIVIL WAR 115 

Had the East Tennesseans been a weak and an 
inferior people, they wouki have been conquered and 
crushed by such vigorous measures. But being 
strong and brave and independent, they showed 
their resentment by marching over the mountains 
two hundred miles and joining the Union army. It 
was an ill-advised and mistaken policy on the part 
of the Confederate government more than anything 
else that sent 35,000 East Tennesseans into the 
Union army. But under the conditions of war, when 
everybody was excited, provoked, and angered by 
the outrages of certain Union men in burning the 
railroad bridges, the extreme policy of the Confed- 
erate government in this case, while unfortunate, 
was not unnatural, and at the time was thought to 
be justifiable. 

John Bell, the Tennessean who made the race for 
president in 1860 on the Union ticket, was born in 
Nashville in 1797. He was a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Nashville and was admitted to the bar 
soon after graduation. He represented Williamson 
County in the state senate when he was twenty-one 
years old. He defeated Felix Grundy for Congress 
in 1827. In this race he was supported by Andrew 
Jackson. He continued to represent his district in 
Congress for fourteen years. In 1834, he defeated 
James K. Polk for speaker of the house of repre- 
sentatives in Congress. He was appointed secretary 
of war by President Harrison in 1841. He strongly 
supported White for president in 1836 against Van 
Buren. This attitude brought him the intense hos- 



116 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



tility of President Jackson. After this Mr. Bell was 
identified with the Whigs, although he had sup- 
ported nearly all of Jackson's policies. In 1847, he 
was elected to the United States senate. 

John Bell was one of 
the great men of his 
day. His mind was 
large and thoroughly 
balanced, and in addi- 
tion to this he was an 
honest man of blameless 
life. He was strongly 
opposed to secession, 
but after President Lin- 
coln called for troops to 
force the seceding states 
back into the Union, 
he, together with Cave 
Johnson who had been 
attorney general in 
President Polk's cabi- 
net, and others, issued the following statement : 

"Tennessee is called upon by the president to fur- 
nish two regiments, and the state has through her 
executive refused to comply with this call. This 
refusal of our state we fully approve. Should a 
purpose be developed by the government of over- 
ruling and subjugating our brethren of the Seceded 
States, we say unequivocally that it will be the duty 
of the state to resist at all liazards, and at any cost, 
and by force of arms, any such purpose or attempt." 




John Bell 



Chapter XVII 

BATTLES IN TENNESSEE 

Next to Virginia, Tennessee was the great battle 
ground of the Civil War. More than 400 battles and 
skirmishes were fought within her bounds. Tennes- 
see furnished a larger number of soldiers in this 
great conflict in proportion to her population than 
did any other state in the Union. Tennessee sol- 
diers were in many battles beyond the borders of 
the state, and to give an adequate account of Ten- 
nessee's part in the Civil War would require a com- 
plete history of the whole conflict. Here no attempt 
is made to give a history even of the battles in Ten- 
nessee. Only a small number of important engage- 
ments are mentioned. 

Fort Henry 

The first battle of the Civil War fought on Ten- 
nessee soil was the battle of Fort Henry, Fort 
Henry was situated on the Tennessee River, near 
the Kentucky line. About 2,500 Confederates were 
stationed here at the beginning of the war in order 
to protect the navigation of the Tennessee Elver. 
On the 4tli of February, 1862, General Grant with 
about 16,000 men and seven gunboats began an 
attack on the fort. Realizing that they could not 
hold their position against such a large army, the 
Confederate forces withdrew, on the 6th of Febru- 

117 



118 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

ary, leaving a small number of men to hold the 
attention of the enemy while they were withdraw- 
ing. The main body of the troops succeeded in get- 
ting away while the small number left surrendered. 
The troops from Fort Henry marched twelve miles 
to Fort Donelson, which was situated on the Cum- 
berland Eiver not far from Dover, Tennessee. 
Fort Donelson at the time was defended by about 
4,000 men, and was soon strengthened by the arrival 
of the troops under General Buckner, General Pil- 
low, and General Floyd. Altogether the Confed- 
erate forces here numbered about 15,000. 

Fort Donelson 

On the 12th of February, General Grant, with an 
army estimated all the way from 27,300 to 40,000 
men, together with a fleet of gunboats, began the 
siege of Fort Donelson, At first General Floyd was 
in command. In the beginning of the siege the Con- 
federates gained some triumphant victories, but on 
the fourth day came to the conclusion that they 
could not longer successfully resist such overwhelm- 
ing numbers. General Floyd and General Pillow 
withdrew, taking with them some of their troops. 
Their departure left General Buckner in command. 
General N. B. Forrest was a colonel at this time, 
and his regiment formed a part of the troops left 
with General Buckner. After General Floyd and 
General Pillow left. General Buckner announced to 
his officers that he was going to surrender. Colonel 
Forrest protested vigorously against a surrender, 



BATTLES IN TENNESSEE 119 

stating that the army could escape that night. But 
failing to win General Buckner to his idea, Forrest 
withdrew in the darkness with his regiment, and 
escaped without seeming difficulty. The next day 
General Buckner surrendered. 

The failure to hold Fort Henry and Fort Donelson 
meant that the Confederates would be compelled to 
give up Middle Tennessee and West Tennessee. 
For with the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers open 
to the enemy, the Confederates could hardly hope 
to hold any important point in these sections against 
the superior forces on the otlier side. Hence, the 
Confederates withdrew to the south. 

The Battle of Shiloh or Pittsburg Landing 

When the Confederate forces withdrew from Mid- 
dle Tennessee and West Tennessee, they gathered 
around Corinth, Mississippi, which is about twenty- 
five miles south of the Tennessee line. In the mean- 
time the Federal troops gathered around Savannah, 
Tennessee. Pittsburg Landing is a few miles south 
of Savannah, and near Pittsburg Landing is a little 
place called Shiloh. Soon after General A. S. John- 
ston, who was in command of the Confederate 
forces, reached Corinth, he decided to march against 
and attack Grant at Pittsburg Landing before rein- 
forcements, which were then on the way, could reach 
him. On April 6th, 1862, Johnston and Grant met 
at Shiloh. Johnston had, according to his own state- 
ment, an army of 40,000 men. Grant's army, on the 
first day, has been estimated from 32,000 to 41,153. 



120 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

The Confederates gained a decided victory in the 
first day's fight. Grant's forces were driven back 
to the river. But about two o'clock in the afternoon 
of the battle, General Johnston was killed. This 
caused a great shock to the Confederates, and doubt- 
less was the reason why they did not follow up the 
great victory by continuing the attack. General 
Beauregard, who succeeded General Johnston in 
command, waited till next morning to renew the at- 
tack. In the meantime Grant had been reinforced 
by about 28,000 fresh troops. Grant, now, with his 
reinforcements, forced Beauregard back to Corinth, 
The Confederate losses in this battle in killed, 
wounded, and missing, were about 10,000 ; the Fed- 
eral losses were about 13,000. 

The Battle of Murfeeesboro or Stone's River 

In December, 1862, the Confederate forces under 
General Bragg, were gathered at Murf reesboro ; and 
large Federal forces were at the same time concen- 
trated at Nashville in command of General Rose- 
crans. On the 31st of December, General Rosecrans 
met Bragg at Stone's River, just outside of Mur- 
freesboro in a desperate battle which lasted for 
three days. General Bragg estimated his forces at 
the beginning of the battle at 37,712. According to 
General Rosecrans' estimate of the Federal troops 
engaged he had 46,940 men in the field, of whom 
43,400 engaged in battle. General Bragg reported 
his total loss in this battle at 10,266, including killed, 
wounded, and njissing. General Rosecrans reported 



BATTLES IN TENNESSEE 121 

his loss at 13,249. General Bragg's report states 
that he captured 6,273 prisoners, thirty pieces of 
artillery, 6,000 stands of small arms, destroyed 800 
wagons, and took much valuable property. Victory 
was claimed by both sides. 

After the battle of Murfreesboro Bragg retreated 
to Shelbyville. In June, pursued by a large force 
under Eosecrans, Bragg left Middle Tennessee, and 
later gave up Chattanooga and fell back to LaFay- 
ette, Georgia. 

The Battle of Chickamauga 

The Battle of Chickamauga was fought on Sep- 
tember 19tli, 1863; and although it took place in 
Georgia it was part of a Tennessee campaign. In 
this battle the Federal troops numbered 64,392 ; and 
the Confederate forces 47,321. The Federal army 
was beaten and driven back to Chattanooga in great 
disorder; and had it not been for the great defense 
made by the troops under General Thomas, Rose- 
crans' army would have been destroyed. But Eose- 
crans was soon strengthened by large reinforce- 
ments at Chattanooga, and later General Grant 
came in and took command. The Federal forces 
were now too strong to be resisted successfully by 
General Bragg, and the result was that after the 
battles of Missionary Eidge and Lookout Mountain 
he was forced to withdraw to Georgia. General 
Bragg has been criticised adversely for his failure 
to follow up quickly the victory of Chickamauga by 
other fierce attacks. By delaying he allowed the 



122 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Federal troops to increase to such an extent that 
he could not resist them with his comparatively 
small force. 

Although the Confederates withdrew from Middle 
Tennessee at the beginning of the war, they held 
East Tennessee around Knoxville till December, 
1864, when, on account of the overwhelming forces 
sent against him. General Longstreet had to with- 
draw from Knoxville and East Tennessee. 

The Battles of FrajStklin and Nashville 

During November, 1864, the Confederate army, 
under the command of General Hood, started from 
the south to make an attack on the Federal forces 
then holding Nashville. After driving them before 
him for many miles General Hood made an attack 
on the Federal forces at Franklin, Tennessee, on 
November 30th. The Federal forces were strongly 
fortified at Franklin, and were able to resist Hood's 
attack successfully. The Confederate losses at 
Franklin were very heavy. However, the Federal 
troops withdrew from Franklin on the night after 
the battle and joined the other Federal troops at 
Nashville. On the next day. General Hood moved 
his army to Nashville, and established his lines just 
outside the city limits. Two weeks later under the 
command of General Thomas the Federals made an 
attack on Hood, and were repulsed. But the attack 
on the following day was successful. Hood was 
repulsed by the overwhelming forces against him, 
and driven back south. This battle was really the 



BATTLES IN TENNESSEE 123 

close of the war for most of the Tennessee troops. 
The body of troops, of which Forrest's cavalry 
formed a part, surrendered on May 9th, 1865. 

The Confederate soldiers made a brilliant record 
on the field of battle. For the first two years of the 
war they were able to hold their own and gained 
many victories against an enemy superior in num- 
ber. But after this their resources were greatly 
reduced and they had no source of supply. On the 
other hand, the Federals had an abundance of re- 
sources and as many men as they needed. In 1865, 
the Confederates found themselves outnumbered 
five to one, and without resources to continue the 
fight further. They surrendered with honor, and 
returned to their homes to build up the communities 
which had been laid waste by the ravages of war. 

General Nathan B. Forrest 

One of the most brilliant fighters in the Civil War 
was General Nathan B. Forrest. General Forrest 
was born in Bedford County, Tennessee, in 1821. 
His father was a blacksmith. The family moved to 
Mississippi before young Forrest was grown. His 
father died while Nathan was a boy and being the 
oldest child the responsibilities of the family fell 
upon him in large measure. He had poor school 
advantages, and acquired little education. But he 
made a success in business, and when the war opened 
he was in good financial circumstances. 

Forrest volunteered as a private at the beginning 
of the war. But at once was elected colonel. He 



124 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

knew absolutely nothing about military tactics when 
he took charge of his regiment; hence his tactics 
were extremely original. Nevertheless from the 
very start he proved himself notably successful both 
as a fighter and as a strategist. 

On July 13th, 1862, with about thirteen hundred 
mounted men, Forrest rode into Murfreesboro, Ten- 
nessee, which was at the time defended by seventeen 
or eighteen hundred troops under General Critten- 
den, and after a spirited fight captured the whole 
command, together with hundreds of horses and 
mules and large quantities of supplies. He then 
moved out very quickly, since a large army of Fed- 
eral troops was trying to cut him off. He made his 
escape in safety. 

In April, 1863, General Eosecrans, the Federal 
commander, decided to send a body of troops by a 
secret march through the mountains of Alabama 
into Georgia, that they might destroy the soil road 
between Chattanooga and Atlanta, and thus greatly 
cripple the Confederates. He selected Colonel A. D. 
Streight to perform this task. In a short while 
Colonel Streight, at the head of 2,000 men mounted 
on mules, was on the way. 

Forrest soon learned of Streight's movements, 
and on April 29tli he started from Courtland, Ala- 
bama, at the head of 1,000 mounted men to overtake 
and attack him. He started from Courtland at one 
o'clock in the morning, and after marching thirty- 
three miles came upon Streight that night at Day's 
Gap. But Streight moved out early next morning, 



BATTLES IN TENNESSEE 125 

and aimed to get away from Forrest. Forrest fol- 
lowed him and on April 30tli fought him in a chase 
all day and through a great portion of the night, 
reaching Blountville, seventy-six miles from his start- 
ing point, at ten o'clock on March 1st. His troops 
had been fifty-seven hours on the march, and had 
spent fifty-two of the fifty-seven in the saddle. He 
continued the pursuit to Gadsden and then to Law- 
rence, a distance of seventy-four miles farther, and 
at Law^rence on May 3rd Streight surrendered and 
his whole army was taken captive, with all his mules, 
etc. When Streight surrendered he had about 1,600 
men, and Forrest had less than 600. Forrest had 
marched so fast that a large portion of his troops 
failed to keep up. The greater part of this march 
of 150 miles was through a mountainous region and 
over bad roads. 

In October, 1864, Forrest made an attack on the 
Federal forces at Johnsonville, Tennessee. The 
Federals had gathered large supplies at Johnson- 
ville, where the N. C. & St. L. Kailway now crosses 
the Tennessee Eiver, and Forrest's object in moving 
to this point was to destroy these supplies. In the 
report of his victory at Johnsonville he said: "I 
captured and destroyed four gunboats, fourteen 
transports, twenty barges, twenty-six pieces of artil- 
lery, and $6,600,000 worth of property, and cap- 
tured one hundred and fifty prisoners. My loss was 
two killed and nine wounded." This is probably the 
only battle in history in which cavalry captured 
gunboats. 



126 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

In an address to his soldiers late in 1864 he said : 
"On the 24th day of December, 1863, there were 
3,000 of you unorganized and undisciplined at Jack- 
son, Tennessee, only four hundred of whom were 
armed. You were surrounded by 15,000 of the 
enemy, who were congratulating themselves on your 
certain capture. You started out with your artil- 
lery, wagon trains and a large number of cattle, 
which you succeeded in bringing through, since 
which time you have fought and won the following 
battles: Jack's Creek, Estinanla, Okolona, Union 
City, Paducah, Fort Pillow, Bolivar, Tishomingo 
Creek, Harrisburg, Hurrieon Creek, Memphis, 
Athens, Sulphur Springs, Pulaski, Carter's Creek, 
Columbia, and Johnsonville. To sum up in brief 
your triumphs during the past year, you have fought 
fifty battles, killed and captured 16,000 of the enemy, 
captured 2,000 horses and mules, sixty-seven pieces 
of artillery, four gunboats, fourteen transports, 
twenty barges, three hundred wagons, fifty ambu- 
lances, 10,000 stands of small arms, forty block 
houses, destroyed thirty-six railroad bridges, two 
hundred miles of railroad, six engines, one hundred 
cars, and fifteen millions of dollars' worth of prop- 
erty. In the accomplishment of this great work you 
were occasionally sustained by other troops who 
joined you in the fight, but your regular number 
never exceeded 5,000, two thousand of whom have 
been killed or wounded, while in prisoners you have 
lost only about 200." 



BATTLES IN TENNESSEE 127 

Sam Davis 

Sam Davis, a Confederate soldier, was arrested 
by the Union soldiers near Pulaski, Tennessee, and 
put in prison. They found in his possession certain 
papers which contained information with reference 
to the plans of the Union forces. The Union officer 
demanded of him the name of the man who gave 
him these papers. He refused to give it, and assigned 
as his reason the fact that he had pledged his word 
not to divulge the name of the man who gave him 
the papers. He was offered his liberty, if he would 
furnish them the information they desired. Upon 
his refusal he was told that he would be executed. 
His answer was "If I had a thousand lives, I would 
give them all before I would betray a friend." They 
did not wish to hang him, and begged him to change 
his mind, yet he steadfastly refused, and on Novem- 
ber 27th, 1863, he walked upon the scaffold at Pu- 
laski, Tennessee, and was hanged until dead. He 
was just twenty-one years old when he was executed. 
His home was in Rutherford County, near Smyrna. 
Such a life should be regarded as Tennessee's most 
priceless possession. 



Chapter XVIII 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNAL IMPROVE- 
MENTS IN TENNESSEE BEFORE 
THE CIVIL WAR 

Tennessee was decidedly progressive before 1860 
in lier policy with reference to building railroads 
and turnpikes, and improving navigable rivers. 

The problem of developing Tennessee, and espe- 
cially East Tennessee, w^as recognized as a difficult 
one from the beginning, and the peculiar surround- 
ings of the eastern section of the state made its 
development dependent on legislation to an unusual 
degree. It must be remembered that early Ten- 
nessee history is East Tennessee history, since this 
was the part of the state first settled, and it con- 
tinued to be the dominant leading section for a long 
time. However, there was practically no sectional- 
ism in Tennessee before the Civil War. In legis- 
lation, and in every public policy, each section of 
the state received that recognition which it deserved. 

Legislation may help or hinder the progress of 
any community, but it is not a factor of first impor- 
tance in the development of some sections. Some 
communities are so situated that they will develop 
without any special help or encouragement from 
the government. The jDrogress of other communi- 
ties, especially at certain stages of their develop- 

128 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS 129 

ment, is almost entirely dependent on wise legis- 
lation and governmental activity in general. ' Ten- 
nessee, especially the eastern section, is preemi- 
nently a community of this kind, and it was so 
recognized before the Civil War by the people of 
the state. 

Before the Civil War the people of Tennessee to 
a very notable degree appreciated the real needs of 
their community, and applied wisely the machinery 
of government in attaining their ends. In their 
chief legislative policies, they had the point of view 
of the statesman, and looked to the future rather 
than to the immediate present. Their first object 
was to lay the foundation for a permanent progress, 
and virtually the whole period from the beginning 
of the state down to the Civil War was taken up 
in providing the necessary preliminaries for the real 
progress that was to come later. The Civil War 
arrested this development, and in large measure 
robbed Tennessee of the fruits that would have come 
as a result of the splendid work done before this 
period. But of course they did not foresee, and 
could not have foreseen, the Civil War. 

Almost from the very beginning, the people recog- 
nized two prominent needs as the conditions of real 
progress and they began at an early date to employ 
the machinery of the government in a very efficient 
way in supplying these needs. They realized that 
they could never hope for any effective development 
of their rich material resources without greatly 
improved transportation facilities, such as turn- 



130 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

pikes, railroads, and navigable streams. They also 
appreciated the fact that an efficient system of pop- 
ular education was essential to any adequate and 
satisfactory progress of the state. Other problems 
with which tlie government had to deal were not 
neglected, but internal improvements and popular 
education were the centers of interest, and at all 
times held first place in the estimation of the leaders 
in the early days. 

Internal Improvements 

For some years before Tennessee was made a 
territory, there was great activity on the part of 
the county governments in surveying and opening 
roads. The court records show that these pioneers 
fully appreciated the importance of internal im- 
provements as a means of progress. 

The attitude of the government toward internal 
improvements after Tennessee became a state, is 
well brought out in the various acts of the legis- 
lature, and in the resolutions, reports, etc., bearing 
on this subject. 

That the doctrine of states' rights had its effect 
on their internal improvement policy, there is no 
question. Their position is clearly expressed in a 
report on the question of internal improvements by 
the senate committee for the session of the legis- 
lature of 1831. The chairman of this committee was 
from East Tennessee, and it would seem that he 
drew up the report. The committee reported in 
part as follows : 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS 131 

"The committee have had under consideration the 
bill to them referred providing for the establishment 
of three boards of internal improvements, and for 
placing the funds of the state set apart and appro- 
priated by the eighteenth general assembly for the 
improvement of navigable rivers and other objects 
of improvement in this state, in the hands of said 
board, with directions for making surveys and esti- 
mates for railroads, etc., and beg leave to bring to 
the view of the senate in making their report that 
the great and growing interest felt by all classes 
of the community, that some efficient and practical 
system of internal improvements should be adopted 
by the legislature, urges your committee, in sub- 
mitting their views, to enter more into detail than 
would be deemed necessary on ordinary subjects. 

"The policy of improving the natural and opening 
artificial facilities to intercourse for the promotion 
of commerce and other objects of general welfare 
has at all times very justly been considered by civil- 
ized communities and enlightened statesmen of vital 
importance to free government, and as having a 
direct tendency to develop the latent resources of 
the state * * * . Each state, therefore, under the 
wise and wholesome checks and balances fixed in 
the Constitution of the Union, must look to its own 
resources for the means of effecting all such im- 
provements as are of local or state character." 

It would seem from this report that there was on 
foot at this early date a strong movement to have 
the government begin at once an elaborate system 



132 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

of internal improvements, including a system of 
railroads. Work on the first railroad built in Amer- 
ica was begun in 1828, only three years or less be- 
fore the time of the movement in Tennessee to have 
the state construct a system of roads. While the 
committee reported against the elaborate system 
proposed in the bill, and in favor of a more modest 
prosecution of this important work, it is clear that 
their only objection to the extensive system pro- 
posed was the lack of available funds to carry on 
the work. An appropriation of $150,000 had been 
made only a short while before for cleaning out 
streams. A few years after this, the state did 
launch a system of internal improvements even more 
elaborate, perhaps, than was proposed at this time. 

Two years later (1833) the senate committee on 
internal improvements brought in another report 
which was based on a memorial presented by citi- 
zens of Washington County praying for the estab- 
lishment of a system of internal improvements in 
Tennessee. The committee in its report states that 
the prosperity of the different states of the Union 
was in proportion to the time at which they began 
to improve by turnpikes, canals, and railroads their 
natural means of conveyance. Reference is made in 
this connection to the progress of New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland, South Carolina, Virginia, and 
North Carolina. South Carolina was one of the 
very first states to begin the construction of rail- 
roads. 

In a report from a select committee of the lower 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS 133 

house at the same session of the legislature, we find 
the following: 

"But connected with her mines of coal and iron 
ore, East Tennessee possesses facilities for manu- 
factories enjoyed by few countries * * * . The 
general anxiety which pervades that section of coun- 
try for the commencement of a general system of 
internal improvements, and the wish expressed by 
many to enjoy in that section the facilities of bank- 
ing accommodations, induce the committee to believe 
that public sentiment is becoming alive in that quar- 
ter to their natural advantages. It is therefore 
reasonable to calculate that in addition to the several 
manufacturing establishments now in successful 
operation in that section for the manufacture of 
iron, flour, paper, etc., capitalists will avail them- 
selves in a short time of the facilities offered in that 
region, and will erect otlier and more extensive 
manufactories." 

This report shows that the people of East Ten- 
nessee were fully alive to the needs of their section 
as early as 1833, and were the prime movers in the 
elaborate system of internal improvements later 
adopted. 

In 1847, ten counties of East Tennessee together 
with three counties in Virginia, sent representatives 
to a convention which met in Greeneville for the 
purpose of encouraging internal improvements. 
This convention remained in session three days, and 
appointed committees to wait on the legislatures of 
Tennessee and Virginia, and urge them to make 



134 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

large appropriations for the construction of rail- 
roads, turnpikes, etc. 

In response to the various demands from the peo- 
ple for internal improvements, the legislature, in 
1836, passed an act which provided that the gov- 
ernor should subscribe on the part of the state for 
one-third of the stock, in any joint stock company 
that had been or that might thereafter be incor- 
porated for the construction of railroads or macad- 
amized turnpike roads within the limits of Tennes- 
see. Under this act the sum of $276,666.66 had been 
subscribed by the state to railroad and turnpike 
companies in the year 1837. 

In 1838, this act was amended so that it became 
the duty of the state to subscribe to one-half the 
stock in all railroad and turnpike companies. 

This tremendous interest on the part of the state 
in the construction of railroads is the more signifi- 
cant when it is remembered that the first railroad 
track in this country had been laid only a few years 
before. 

The bill pledging the state to take one-half the 
stock in all railroad and turnpike companies was 
repealed a few years after its passage; but the state 
continued down to the Civil War the policy of 
encouraging transportation companies by state aid. 

The report of the commissioner of roads for Ten- 
nessee in January, 1856, gives a splendid idea of 
railroad construction, up to this time, under the 
direction of the state government. This report 
shows the intelligence and comprehensiveness w^itli 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS 135 

which the people were dealing with the problem of 
internal improvements at this time. They had 
finally reached the point jnst on the eve of the Civil 
War, at which the development of the rich resources 
of the state, especially the mineral resources of East 
Tennessee, became possible. 

Report of the Commissioner of Roads, January 28, 

1856 

"Passing to the eastern portion of our system of 
improvements, I remark that the Knoxville and Ken- 
tucky and the Knoxville and Charleston roads, when 
completed, will establish an important communica- 
tion between Cincinnati and Charleston, and thus 
open up a highway betw^een the Ohio Valley and the 
South Atlantic Seaboard. Cincinnati and Charles- 
ton (the Queen cities of their respective states) upon 
the completion of these projects, will have been for 
the first time locked in a lasting embrace — a consum- 
mation most devotedly to be wished. The line of 
roads from Knoxville designed to connect that place 
with Charleston is made up of four companies, to- 
wit: The Knoxville and Charleston Railroad Co., 
in Tennessee; the Tennessee River Railroad Com- 
pany, in North Carolina; the Blue Ridge Railroad 
Company, in Georgia, and the Blue Ridge Railroad 
Company, in South Carolina. These four com- 
panies together have a capital of nearly $5,000,000. 
The enterprise contemplates the construction of 200 
miles of road from Knoxville to Anderson Court 
House in South Carolina, which if constructed will 



136 ' HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

place Knoxville 120 miles nearer Charleston than 
by the present railway route. About fifty miles of 
the road in South Carolina were graded in Septem- 
ber last, and about 700 hands were engaged on that 
part of the line. 

"The Cincinnati, Cumberland Gap and Charleston 
Railroad is the Tennessee link in a line of roads 
from Cincinnati to Charleston, which is designed 
to enter the state on the north at Cumberland Gap, 
and passing out of it into North Carolina by way 
of French Broad River, at Point Rock. To com- 
plete this line of road, there is yet to be finished 
(besides the Tennessee part) 128 miles from Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, to Cumberland Gap, and on the 
south about 100 miles from Point Rock to Spartan- 
burg, South Carolina. The legislature of North 
Carolina has appropriated, as I believe, $5,000,000 
to extend her central road from Salisbury (the point 
at which it is completed) to Point Rock. The North 
Carolina Central is intended to form a part of the 
main trunk of said lines of roads. The termini of 
the North Carolina Central are Point Rock on the 
French Broad and Beaufort on the Atlantic, with 
a lateral to Spartanburg. This line of roads, if 
completed, will form nearly an air line through 
upper East Tennessee, from Cincinnati to Charles- 
ton. 

"From Memphis to Alexandria, D. C, little is 
needed to perfect the line. The Memphis and 
Charleston Road will be finished early in 1857. The 
Orange and Alexandria is pressing its extension 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS 



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138 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

from Gordonsville to Lynchburg, a distance of about 
seventy-five miles. The Virginia and Tennessee 
road is now nearly finished. The shortened dis- 
tance from Chattanooga, it is hoped will soon be 
placed under contract, and the East Tennessee and 
Virginia Company, struggling under a thousand 
difficulties, unfelt by their more favored neighbors, 
are steadily and certainly pushing their works to 
completion. When these gaps shall have been filled 
up, East Tennessee will be relieved from her posi- 
tion of isolation, and for the first time, will have a 
chance to develop her immense agricultural and 
mineral resources." 

Railroads in the United States Before the Civil War 

No. MUes, 1850 No. Miles, 1860 

Southern States 2,335.98 10,712.66 

New England States... 2,506.48 3,669.39 

The Remaining States. . 3,746.33 16,210.90 

Percentage Increase in Railroad Construction from 
1850 TO 1860 

Southern States 358:0% 

New England States 46.3% 

Remaining States of Union 333.0% 

The South had more railroad mileage in propor- 
tion to free population in 1860 than the rest of the 
country had. 



Chapter XIX 

BANKING 

Banking facilities are essential to the industrial 
development of any community. The need of an 
efficient banking system as a means of developing 
the industrial life of Tennessee was early realized, 
and the government was not slow to lend a helping 
hand to this interest. 

While doubtless private banking was carried on 
in Tennessee before the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, the first bank that can be called a state 
bank was chartered in 1811. This bank was located 
in Knoxville, and was allowed a capital not to exceed 
$400,000. 

In 1817, the Holston Tennessee Bank, located at 
Jonesboro, was allowed to increase its capital stock 
from two hundred thousand dollars to four hundred 
thousand dollars. 

In 1820, the state established a bank at Nashville, 
with a branch in Knoxville. The capital stock of 
this bank was one million dollars. It was provided 
that agents of this bank should be established in 
every county in the state. The president and direc- 
tors were elected by the legislature. 

In 1831, the Bank of Tennessee was established 
at Nashville. The capital stock Avas limited to two 
million dollars. The bank had fifteen directors, ten 
being elected by the stockholders, and five by the 
legislature. 

139 



140 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Report of Banks in Tennessee — 1841 

Capital 
Resources Deposits Stock 
Bank of Tennessee and Branches. .$5,792,956.71 $410,248.68 $3,115,605 

Planters Bank and Branches 4,019,789.14 310,774.65 2,248,300 

Union Bank and Branches 4,053,714.54 216,645.21 2,637,404 

Bank of Memphis 1,357,031.85 588,336 

After a number of experiments in a limited way 
to develop tlie banking interest of the state, Ten- 
nessee, in 1838, began banking on a large scale. At 
this time an act was passed by the legislature with 
the following comprehensive title : "An Act to estab- 
lish a State Bank to Raise a Fund for Internal 
Improvements and to Aid in the Establishment of 
a System of Education." A portion of the act was 
as follows: "A bank shall be and is hereby estab- 
lished in the name and for the benefit of the state 
to be known under the name and style of the 'Bank 
of Tennessee,' and the faith and credit of the state 
are hereby pledged for the support of the said bank 
* * * the capital shall be $5,000,000." The capital 
was made up chiefly of the common school fund, 
and two millions and a half state bonds. These state 
bonds were to be used in the interest of the internal 
improvements, and the bank was to pay to the com- 
mon schools annually one hundred thousand dollars 
or more. The bank had twelve directors who were 
appointed by the governor and confirmed by the 
state senate. This bank continued in business until 
the Civil War. 

In the establishment of this bank, the early Ten- 



BANKING 141 

nessee statesmen combined three great fundamental 
interests of the state : "Public Education," "Internal 
Improvements," and an "Efficient Banking System." 
Surely these were men of vision and of great bold- 
ness ! This was less than twenty years after West 
Tennessee had been opened to settlers, and Ten- 
nessee was still a new state. It was this vision and 
boldness possessed by the early leaders of Tennessee 
that brought Tennessee to the front among the 
states of the Union, almost from the beginning of 
her history. 

Report of the Condition of Banks in Tennessee in 1859 

Bank of Tennessee and Seventeen other Banks: 

Discounted notes $5,599,750.48 

Capital stock 8,131,762.78 

Deposits 3,819,024.55 

Gold and silver 3,194,896.94 

Banking Bef^ore the Civil War — 1860 

Southern Northernand Western States, 
States New York omitted 

Amount of capital invested in 
banking, per capita (free 

population) $15.40 $10.80 

Amount of loans, per capita 

(free population) 25.00 18.70 

Amount of deposits, per capita 

(free population) 7.90 5.50 

Increase in Banking Business, 1850 to 1860 

Southern Northern and Western States 
States New York omitted 

Capital invested in banks 61% 63% 

Loans 61% 58% 

Deposits 100% 90% 



142 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Increase in banking business is better indicated 
by loans and deposits than by capital. New York 
is omitted because, in a banking sense, New York 
belongs to the whole country, the South as well as 
the West, and New England contributes to the bank- 
ing business of New York. 



Chaptek XX 

MANUFACTURING AND MINING 

With no practicable way of getting their products 
to market, Tennessee could do but little in mining 
and manufacturing. But notwithstanding the tre- 
mendous barriers to transportation, Tennessee be- 
gan to build up factories and to open mines at a 
very early date. Not only did it manufacture and 
mine its own ore, but it also sent considerable of 
its products beyond the borders of the state. The 
government was an efficient factor in the develop- 
ment of these industries from the beginning; and 
was ready at all times to give aid and encourage- 
ment and protection to every industry that was 
believed to be for the welfare of the community. 

In 1801, the Tennessee legislature passed a pure 
food law in the interest of manufacturing. The pur- 
pose of the law was to prevent the transportation 
of unmerchantable commodities. The act begins 
thus : "Be it enacted that no pork, hog lard, butter, 
liomp, flour, or kiln-dried meat shall be exported 
from this state until they be inspected under the 
regulations herein mentioned." Inspectors • were 
appointed to inspect and brand all of the commodi- 
ties here mentioned Avhicli were to be shipped out 
of the state. On each barrel of flour the inspector 
was required to brand the quality of the flour, num- 

143 



144 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

ber of pounds, etc., and to mark all that was bad, 
"condemned." If the commodity were not shipped 
within sixty days after inspection, it was to be in- 
spected again. 

It would seem that Tennessee had paper mills 
as early as 1809. In a report of a legislative com- 
mittee in 1833, it was estimated that Tennessee was 
exporting annually iron to the value of $800,000. 
It was stated in this report that the estimate was 
really too small. 

In a memorial on the subject of internal improve- 
ments, in 1847, we have the following : "And there 
are in Greene, Washington, Carter, Johnson, and 
Sullivan Counties, seven furnaces yielding 762 tons 
of pig metal annually ; forty-six bloomeries yielding 
461,519 tons of iron, which at market prices would 
amount to a million dollars annually; and but for 
the miserable uncertainty and expense of freight, 
and the thousand incidental draw-backs, this branch 
of business alone would have rendered those coun- 
ties among the most prosperous and productive in 
the state." 

In 1854, there were fourteen furnaces in East 
Tennessee, owned by ten different firms, which pro- 
duced 40,306 tons of cast iron; in the same year, 
there were 48 forges in this section that produced 
999 tons of bar iron. 

In 1855, there were fourteen copper mines in Ten- 
nessee. Seven of these mines produced in Septem- 
ber, 1855, 1,809,177 pounds of copper. The esti- 
mated value of this copper was $800,000. This cop- 



BANKING 145 

per was sold in Boston, New York, Baltimore, and 
London. 

Tennessee had more than $10,000,000 invested in 
manufactnring and mining in 1860, and employed in 
these establishments 9,622 hands. Among the 
things manufactured were steam engines, machin- 
ery, tobacco, carriages, wagons, carts, leather, flour, 
meal, sawed lumber, woolen goods, cotton goods, 
boots and shoes, men's clothing, wool cording, sad- 
dlery, harness, paper, printing, hats and caps, iron 
bloom, pig iron, bar iron, sheet iron, railroad iron, 
salt, hemp and manila cordage, hemp bagging, etc. 
Tennessee had at this time more than a million dol- 
lars capital invested in the manufactories of pig 
iron, and more than a quarter of a million dollars 
invested in the manufactories of bar, sheet, and rail- 
road iron, and nearly seven hundred thousand dol- 
lars invested in coal mines. 

The intelligent interest of the state in the devel- 
opment of mining and manufacturing is shown by 
the action of the state legislature in employing regu- 
larly a learned state geologist. In 1831, the legis- 
lature passed an act to appoint a geologist, mineralo- 
gist, and assayer. By this act Dr. Gerard Troost, 
Professor of Mineralogy, Geology, and Chemistry 
in the University of Nashville, was appointed to this 
position. He remained in this position for a num- 
ber of years. The act appointing Dr. Troost pro- 
vided that he should proceed to make a geological 
survey of the state of Tennessee with a view as far 
as practicable of developing the mineral resources 



146 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

thereof. Dr. Troost seems to have carried on his 
work with great thoroughness and ability. His re- 
ports were made to the legislature and they take up 
considerable space in the public documents. So dis- 
tinguished was Dr. Troost in his day that a study 
of his life and work has been made recently by 
Dr. L. C. Glenn, Professor of Geology in Vanderbilt 
University. 

Considering the tremendous obstacles Tennessee 
had to contend with, the development of mining and 
manufacturing in this period was very creditable. 
There is every reason to believe that the state with 
its efficient system of railroads nearing completion 
was on the eve of great industrial progress. The 
people had planned wisely and had worked zealously 
and intelligently, and w^ere now for the first time in 
their history in a position to begin the real devel- 
opment of their rich resources. The arm of the 
government was the most powerful factor in this 
great preparatory work. Of course the develop- 
ment of mining and manufacturing was wholly de- 
pendent on the development of the internal improve- 
ment system. The chief purpose of the government 
in its great activity in the interest of internal im- 
provements was to make mining and manufacturing 
on a large scale possible. Without the generous 
support and the intelligent co-operation of the gov- 
ernment, little could have been done in Tennessee 
before 1860 in developing internal improvements. 
That impulse given by the government has exerted 
a great influence ever since. 



BANKING 



1-47 



The amount of capital invested in manufacturing 
per capita free population, in 1860, in Southern and 
Western States : 



Maryland $34.8 

Michigan 30.4 

Ohio 24.4 

Virginia 24.3 

Florida 23.8 

South Carolina 23.0 

Kentucky 21.0 

Wisconsin 20.4 

Louisiana 19.0 

Missouri 18.7 

Georgia 18.3 



Tennessee $17.7 

Alabama 17.0 

Illinois 16.0 

North Carolina 14.6 

Indiana 13.8 

Minnesota 13.8 

Mississippi 13.3 

Iowa 10.7 

Texas 7.7 

Arkansas 4.0 



The general economic conditions of the South and 
West were similar, since both sections devoted most 
of their energies to agriculture. This table shows 
that manufacturing in the South was developing 
very much as it was developing in the West. The 
theory that slavery prevented the development of 
manufacturing in the slave states is not sustained by 
the facts of history. 



Chapter XXI 
PROGRESS IN AGRICULTURE 

Agriculture, of course, was the cliief industry of 
Tennessee before the Civil War; and the state gov- 
ernment from the beginning showed an intelligent 
interest in the development of the agricultural re- 
sources. The early "pure food laws" were passed 
largely in the interest of agriculture. "I observe," 
said Governor Eoane in 1801, in his message to the 
legislature, "with pleasure that our domestic manu- 
factories have considerably increased, and yet a 
large surplus of provisions and raw materials re- 
main for exportation. If houses of inspection shall 
be early established under the proper regulation and 
conducted by persons suitably qualified for the task, 
the credit of those articles in foreign markets will 
be enhanced, a spring w^ill be added to industry, and 
we shall soon become a wealthy people." The arti- 
cles here referred to were doubtless largely the 
products of the farm, as flour, pork, lard, etc. The 
legislature in 1801 responded to the request of Gov- 
ernor Eoane, and passed the law desired in the in- 
terest of the development of Tennessee resources. 

It is interesting to read the opinions of Governor 
Roane in the light of the rigid inspections now re- 
quired by the laws. 

From a report of a select committee of the legis- 
lature, in 1853, we get the following; 

148 



MANUFACTURING AND MINING 149 

Estimated Exports 

Cotton— 150,000 bales, at $40 $6,000,000 

Tobacco— 4,000 hogsheads, at $30 120,000 

Corn and live stock 1,020,000 

Iron 800,000 

Articles not enumerated 200,000 

$8,140,000 

In making this report the committee stated : "The 
committee are well satisfied the estimates are in 
every instance too small." This was before Ten- 
nessee liad a single railroad, and, of course, the 
means of transportation were very poor. 

In 1854, the legislature passed an act to establish 
a state agricultural bureau, with county and district 
societies subordinate thereto. The bureau was or- 
ganized in 1854, and county societies had been char- 
tered in seventeen counties in 1855. "Division 
Fairs," says Governor Johnson in his message to 
the legislature, "will this year (1855-6) be held in 
each division of the state, and the Biennial State 
Fair is now in progress near Nashville." 

In 1856, the act referred to was amended, and the 
sum of $200 was appropriated to each county for 
premiums, on condition that the county would raise 
$300 as capital stock. By this act the sum of $500 
was appropriated for premiums at the State Fair, 
and the sum of $1,000 was appropriated to each 
division of the state for purchasing movable fixtures 
for fairs. The state issued bonds for $30,000 for 
the purpose of buying fair grounds at Nashville. 



150 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

The Agricultural Bureau was to pay the interest 
on these bonds. The sum of $10,000 was appropri- 
ated to each division of the state to buy fair 
grounds. 

The report of fairs and county societies for 1854-5 
is published in the Senate Journal for this year and 
it covers three hundred and forty-eight pages in this 
journal. A number of addresses on subjects per- 
taining to agriculture are printed in the reports of 
this time. 

The very remarkable progress in agriculture in 
Tennessee is indicated by the great increase in the 
cash value of farms from 1850 to 1860. Other things 
being equal the increase in the value of farms for 
any short period is a good test of the development 
of agriculture for that period. In 1850, the cash 
valuation of farms in Tennessee was $97,851,212. 
In 1860, the cash valuation of farms had increased 
to $271,358,985. The cash valuation of farms of 
the six New England states in 1850 was $372,- 
458,543; in 1860, $476,303,837. So the increase in 
the cash valuation of farms was much greater in 
Tennessee from 1850 to 1860 than it was in all six 
of the New England states combined, and the cash 
valuation of farms in Tennessee in 1860 was nearly 
two-thirds of the cash valuation of farms in all the 
six New England states combined. There were but 
five states in the Union that had a greater increase 
in the valuation of farms from 1850 to 1860 than 
Tennessee, and all of them had a larger population 
than Tennessee. 



MANUFACTURING AND MINING 151 

Tlie increase in the cash valuation of farms was 
much greater in the South from 1850 to 1860 than 
in the rest of the country. The percentage increase 
in the different sections was as follows : 

The Southern States 129% 

New England States 27% 

Remaining States of the Union 102% 

Value of farm implements in 1860 in proportion 
to population, counting the slaves in the population 
of the South : 

Southern States, per capita $8.50 

Northern and Western States, per capita 7.40 

The free population of the South in 1860 was 
several millions less than one-half of the population 
of the North and AVest, and yet the Southern states 
had in 1860, 44,038,478 head of live stock valued at 
$512,008,364, while the North and West had 44,495,- 
924 head of live stock valued at $568,750,012. The 
South with its comparatively small population had 
at this time almost as many head of live stock as 
the North and West, and valued at almost as much 
as the live stock of these sections. Every obtain- 
able fact indicates that Tennessee and the whole 
South were making great progress in agriculture 
from 1850 to 1860. 



Chapter XXII 



EDUCATION 



From the beginning the people of Tennessee 
showed great interest in education. In 1785, a con- 
stitution was drafted and presented to the State 
of Franklin (East Tennessee) for adoption. Sec- 
tion thirty-two of this proposed constitution was 
much debated, and it was finally decided not to 
adopt it. But it seems to have had a large follow- 
ing, and from all the facts at hand, it is not at all 
sure that it did not represent the sentiment of a 
majority of the people of this section at this time. 
The section was as follows : "All kinds of useful 
learning shall be encouraged by this commonwealth, 
that is to say, the future legislature shall erect, 
before the year 1787, one university which shall 
be near the center of the state and not in a city or 
town ; and for endowing the same there shall be ap- 
propriated such lands as may be judged necessary, 
one-fourth of all the monies arising from the sur- 
veys of land hereafter to be made, one-half penny 
upon every pound of inspected indigo, that shall be 
carried out of the state by land or water, three 
pence upon every barrel of flour, and one shilling 
on every hogshead of tobacco forwarded. And if 
the fund thence arising shall be found insufficient, 
the legislature shall provide for such addition as 

152 



EDUCATION 153 

shall be necessary." If this section had been 
adopted and carried out, and it certainly had a large 
following, this would have been the first state uni- 
versity established in America, Surely the senti- 
ment for higher education must have been very in- 
tense when people wished to tax the necessities of 
life to support a university. 

At the first session of the legislature of Franklin 
in 1785, an act was passed for the promotion of 
learning in Washington County. Under the pro- 
visions of this act, the foundation of Martin College 
or Martin Academy was laid. This school later 
became Washington College. 

In 1794, two years before Tennessee became a 
state, charters were granted by the legislature to 
Blount College in Knox County; and in 1795, the 
legislature granted a charter to Washington College 
in Washington County. Washington College and 
Greeneville College were only a few miles apart; 
and Blount College was within a day's horseback 
ride of Greeneville. 

Two of these schools, it would seem, were non- 
sectarian. In the charter of Blount College, we 
find the following: "And they (the board of trust) 
shall take effectual care that students of all denomi- 
nations may and shall be admitted to the equal 
advantages of a liberal education and they shall 
receive alike fair, generous, and equal treatment 
during their residence there." A similar provision 
is found in the charter of Washington College. 

All three of these colleges continued in operation 



154 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

clown to the Civil War. Blount College 'was later 
converted into the University of East Tennessee, 
and still later the name was changed to the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee. This is the State University 
today. Washington College and Greeneville Col- 
lege have continued their work since the Civil War. 
That three colleges should have been put in success- 
ful operation in this little community is proof of 
the great interest these pioneers felt in education. 
In 1785, Davidson Academy, located in Nashville, 
was chartered. It was changed to Cumberland Col- 
lege in 1803; the name was changed again, in 1826, 
to University of Nasliville. In 1875, it was com- 
bined with Peabody College and was then called 
University of Nashville and Peabody College. In 
1806, by an act of the legislature, committees were 
appointed to establish academies in every county in 
the state. In the same year, an act was passed by 
the legislature giving authority to establish a female 
academy at Hilman in Overton County. A part of 
the act was as follows : "Be it enacted that an 
academy for the education of females exclusively 
shall be established at Hilman by the name of Fiske 
Female Academy." Moses Fiske and Samuel Wil- 
liams, it is stated, were willing to contribute one 
thousand acres of land to endow this school. This 
was doubtless the first school for females chartered 
in Tennessee. In 1811, an academy for females was 
chartered at Knoxville and in 1813 a charter was 
given for an academy for females at Maryville. 
In 1815, the legislature passed an act requiring 



EDUCATION 155 

tlie counties to lay a tax "to educate and school those 
poor orphans who have no property to support and 
educate them, and wliose fathers were killed or have 
died in the service of their country in the late war." 
The counties were required to make a contract with 
suitable persons and educate such children "as far 
as to attain the art of reading and writing and also 
arithmetic as far as the rule of three." 

In 1823, provision was made by the legislature 
'for raising a fund through the sale of public lands 
for the education of the poor children of the state. 
A part of the act is as follows: "The said Board 
of Commissioners shall appropriate all monies by 
them received to the education of the poor, either 
by establishing poor schools in their different coun- 
ties or by paying the tuition of poor children in 
schools which are or may be established in their 
respective counties, as to them may seem best, and 
in the purchase of books for the use of such chil- 
dren." 

This was before the days of public schools, but 
the people felt that every child should have an 
opportunity to get an education, and the foregoing 
was the temporary provision made. 

In his message to the legislature in 1823, Governor 
Carroll, one of Tennessee's greatest governors, said : 
"The durability of our government will much depend 
upon the information of its citizens, which cannot 
be attained by all unless the means are brought 
within the reach of all. Then talents will be 
brought from obscurity. The son of the poorest 



156 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

man in the community may be qualified by useful- 
ness and ability to fill tlie highest office in the state. 
This subject demands your peculiar attention and 
its importance is its highest recommendation." 

In his message to the legislature in 1835, Gov- 
ernor Cannon stated : "By the active energies and 
patriotic exertions and liberality of the citizens un- 
aided by any public donation, we have seen rise into 
existence and great usefulness in rapid succession 
female academies, put into operation and sustained 
by the citizens of their respective neighborhood, 
dispensing the great blessings of literary attain- 
ments with all their useful as well as ornamental 
branches to thousands of the daughters of Tennes- 
see." In his message to the legislature in 1837, Gov- 
ernor Cannon took up the question of female educa- 
tion again : "And believing that the importance of 
this subject (female education) cannot be too ear- 
nestly pressed upon your consideration, I would 
respectfully recommend that the female institutions 
of learning now in existence in this state or that may 
hereafter be put into existence be made participants 
for their encouragement to an equal degree with the 
academies and other male schools." It would seem 
that the female academies were in a flourishing 
condition at this time. 

In 1847, Governor A. V. Brown said in his message 
to the legislature: "We should never relax our 
exertions on this subject (common schools), until we 
could send gratifying intelligence abroad that not one 
native born son or daughter of Tennessee could be 



EDUCATION 157 

found who could not read the scriptures of divine 
revelation, and likewise the laws and constitution 
of the country." 

Tennessee began to accumulate a common school 
fund for the state in 1826. This fund was made up 
from the entry of lands, from the taxes on banks, 
insurance companies, and from some other sources. 

In 1830, the following act was passed: "An Act 
to Establish a System of Common Schools and to 
Appropriate the School Funds of the State." Under 
the provisions of this act, trustees were to be ap- 
pointed, and an election of school trustees was to be 
held in each district. The school fund was to be 
divided in proportion to the number of children be- 
tween the ages of five and fifteen years, and the 
trustees were to employ teachers. Each county 
could spend as much as twenty dollars each year to 
buy books, papers, etc., for the children whose par- 
ents were too poor to buy them. It was also pro- 
vided that no distinction should be made between 
rich children and poor children; that the schools 
should be open and free to all alike. This was the 
beginning of the state free school system in Ten- 
nessee. 

In 1837, the state school fund reached the amount 
of $869,168.73. In 1838, the school fund was turned 
over to the state bank, and an agreement was made 
with this bank, by which the bank paid into the 
state treasury annually for public schools one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. This, together with other 
funds devoted to school purposes, made up the an- 



158 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

nual appropriation for the public scliool system, 
and was as follows : 

Amount Received into the State Treasury for 
Common Schools and Academies 

Year Common Scliools Academies 

1839 $115,551.46 $18,000 

1840 114,590.46 18,000 

1841 129,452.06 18,000 

1842 119,750.00 18,000 

1843 116,750.00 18,000 

1844 117,523.97 18,000 

1845 117,346.47 18,000 

1846 117,931.77 18,000 

1847 117,283.00 18,000 

1848 114,227.18 18,000 

1849 114,223.42 18,000 

1850 114,718.50 18,000 

1851 114,468.31 18,000 

Under the administration of Andrew Johnson as 
governor, Tennessee took a great step forward in 
public education. In Governor Johnson's message 
to the legislature in 1853, he said: "There is one 
way, if no other, that the children of the state can 
be educated, which is obvious to all, and that is to 
levy and collect a tax from the people of the whole 
state, or to authorize the county courts separately 
to do so in their respective counties in such manner 
as may be deemed by them most acceptable to 
the people." The governor urged the legislature 
strongly to make ample provision for the common 
schools, and deplored the fact that Tennessee was 



EDUCATION 159 

spending so much for a new state capitol and so 
little relatively for common schools. He, then, who 
had never been to school a day in his life, paid the 
following tribute to education, quoting another: 
"Education is a companion which no misfortune can 
suppress — no clime destroy — no enemy alienate — no 
despotism enslave. At home a friend ; abroad an 
introduction ; in solitude a solace ; in society an orna- 
ment. It lessens vice, it guards virtue, it gives at 
once a grace and government to genius. Without 
it what is man? A splendid slave! A reasoning 
savage vacillating between the dignity of an intelli- 
gence derived from God and the degradation of 
brutal passion." 

The legislature of this year levied a poll tax and 
a tax on all tlie property in the state for school 
purposes and made provision for a system of weal 
taxation to supplement this amount. The result of 
this legislation was greatly to increase the school 
fund, and to place the public school system on a per- 
manent and progressive basis. 

The amount appropriated for schools from the 
state fund in 1858 was $220,294.00. The school 
population then was not half as large as it is today. 
Of course the negroes received no part of this fund. 

The author found a book in the court house of 
Grainger County which gave a very exact history' 
of the public schools in that county before the Civil 
War. The amounts this county received from the 
state fund for public schools for a number of years 
before 1860 are here given: 



160 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Year Amount Year Amount 

1843 $1,699.52 1852 $1,830.12 

1844 1,717.41 1853 1,713.26 

1845 1,743.28 1854 1,772.40 

1846 1,722.24 1855 2,886.03 

1847 1,723.06 1856 2,638.30 

1848 1,720.20 1857 2,730.00 

1849 1,770.18 1858 2,790.00 

1850 1,771.56 1859 2,992.00 

1851 1.764.09 

The amount received per capita scholastic population 
from the state school fund was fortj'' cents in 1854, and 
eighty cents in 1859. The effect of the law of 1853 is not 
seen till 1855. Of course, every county in the state re- 
ceived some proportion. 

A common school convention was held at Knox- 
ville on the 19th day of April, 1847. The delegates 
to this convention were from the following coun- 
ties : Greene, Cocke, Hawkins, Claiborne, Jefferson, 
Blount, Knox, Roane, and Marion. This convention 
passed certain resolutions which show that the peo- 
ple of this section were remarkably progressive on 
the question of public education for that day. Some 
of these resolutions are here given: 

I. "Resolved by this convention that it he recommended 
to the legislature at its next session to appoint a superin- 
tendent of public instruction." Up to this time or for sev- 
eral years the state treasurer had been acting as state 
superintendent of schools. 



EDUCATION 161 

II. The second resolution dealt with the duties of the 
superintendent. One of his duties was to visit every 
county in the state at least once a year and lecture on the 
educational interests of the state. 

III. "Resolved, that this convention recommend to the 
next legislature to provide for the appointment of the 
board of education for each county to be composed of three 
gentlemen of known literary acquirement whose duty it 
shall be to examine applicants for the office of teachers in 
our common schools, and that no teacher shall be employed 
by the district trustees without a certificate of recommen- 
dation from said board, and that said board shall have 
power to recall on just grounds such certificate." 

V. "Resolved, that this convention recommend to the 
legislature the publication of a monthly state journal de- 
voted exclusively to the cause of education throughout the 

state." 

VI. In the sixth resolution the legislature was asked to 
provide for a system of local taxation for school purposes, 
by which the school fund could be doubled. 

The public school movement in Tennessee before 
the Civil War compared favorably with that of other 
states North and South. The state public free 
school movement was in the experimental stage in 
all parts of our country during the first half of last 
century. In some states in the North and in the 
South the movement was comparatively successful, 
and in others it made very slow progress. The first 
state in the Union to establish a state public free 
school system was South Carolina. This was in 
1811. "While New England had public schools from 



162 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

a very early day, these public schools, as a rule, were 
not free. Tuition was charged. They were public 
only in the sense that they were controlled by the 
government. Massachusetts did not establish her 
state public school system till 1837; and New York 
did not establish a state public free school system 
till after the Civil War. 

The best public school system in the North in 1860 
was that in Massachusetts under the leadership of 
Horace Mann. The best system in the South was 
that of North Carolina under the leadership of Cal- 
vin Wylie Henderson. North Carolina, as well as 
Massachusetts, made great progress in the period 
from 1840 to 1860. 

Tennessee established a state fund for education 
before such a fund was established by Massachu- 
setts ; and Tennessee's fund was larger than that of 
Massachusetts in 1854 in proportion to population. 
However, Massachusetts was raising considerably 
more than Tennessee by local taxation. But the 
Tennessee legislature made provision for increasing 
the school fund greatly by local taxation in 1854, 
and doubtless this would have been done in a short 
wiiile if the people had been left to work out their 
system by this plan. 

In Massachusetts, a report on the public school 
system for 1851-2 shows that the system was only 
a partial success at this time. The report states 
that 334 schools had more than 70 pupils under one 
teacher and 188 had more than 120 pupils under one 
teacher. 



EDUCATION 163 

In 1855, the report from the superintendent of 
schools for Connecticut states : "A majorit}^ of the 
districts have made little or no progress for many 
years ; the majority of the schoolhouses are utterly 
unfit for school purposes ; a majority of the teachers 
are incompetent." The superintendent stated in 
this report that the rate bill was a great hardship on 
the poorer people, and was a serious handicap to 
the progress of the schools. This rate hill was 
really tuition. The Connecticut public schools were 
not free at this time. 

The state superintendent of Rhode Island stated 
in his report of 1850 the following: "The rate bill 
(tuition) is one great obstacle in the way of a more 
general attendance on the school. The present 
school system is but a feeble commencement and an 
approximation." 

In Vermont, seventy per cent of the public school 
teachers were women in 1850, and these received 
five dollars and sixty-two cents a month with board. 

These facts are given not to disparage the public 
school movement in New England at this time, but 
to show that Tennessee was grappling with this new 
problem with a relative degree of success. 

As was the case with internal improvements, 
the public schools had just reached the point of 
efficiency when the war came; and with the war 
the whole system was destroyed. The public school 
system of Tennessee must be judged by what 
it promised rather than by what it actually 
accomplished. 



164 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



Amount spent annually for each 100 free popula- 
tion for public schools, academies, etc., not including 
colleges :* 



Louisiana $246.06 

Mississippi 198.02 

Massachusetts 165.03 

South Carolina 161.09 

New York 152.02 

Illinois 141.03 

Connecticut 140.08 

Alabama 134.01 

Texas 131.09 

California 129.09 

Rhode Island 122.01 

Florida 121.03 

Tennessee 118.00 

New Jersey 117.00 

Ohio 116.00 

Georgia 113.09 

Oregon 112.05 

* U. S. Census, 1860. 



New Hampshire $105.00 

Pennsylvania 104.04 

Delaware 104.93 

Kentucky 101.03 

North Carolina 99.02 

Missouri 98.05 

Iowa 96.06 

Virginia 94.03 

Vermont 93.04 

Wisconsin 90.06 

Maine 86.05 

Maryland 72.09 

Indiana 59.02 

Minnesota 58.09 

Arkansas 58.02 

Kansas 37.09 



Chapter XXIII 

RELIGION— MORAL REFORM— CHARITY 

Teiinesseans have been a religious people since 
tlie beginning of Tennessee history. When the pio- 
neers from the Watauga Settlement gathered in 
1780 to start on their long and perilous march to 
King's Mountain, their officers called them to prayer 
before beginning the march. The prayer was led 
by Reverend Samuel Doak, one of the earliest pio- 
neer preachers. When the convention met in 1796 
to convert Tennessee into a state, on the first day 
of the convention it was moved and carried that the 
next day's meeting should begin with prayer, and 
a sermon by Reverend Mr. Carrick. 

The Presbyterian was the first denomination to 
be established in Tennessee. The Presbyterian 
preacher came first as both preacher and teacher, 
but it was not long before the Methodist circuit rider 
found his way into the Watauga country. In 1783, 
the first Methodist preacher came to the Holston 
Circuit. This circuit embraced territory in both 
Tennessee and Virginia. In 1787, Reverend Benja- 
min Ogden was sent to the Nashville Circuit. In 
1818, Tennessee had thirty traveling Methodist 
preachers ! 

On account of a difference of opinion with refer- 
ence to church doctrine, there was a split in the 

165 



166 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Presbyterian Church in Tennessee at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century. The result of this split 
was the formation of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church in 1810. 

The Methodists and those Presbyterians who later 
joined the Cumberlands held revivals in the early 
days which probably stirred the people with re- 
ligious fervor, and contributed much to the growth 
of these two denominations in Tennessee. 

The hardships of the "Circuit Eider" in the early 
days of Tennessee have been thus described: "It is 
not a figure of speech to say that his path was beset 
with death, and that for months at a time the pen- 
ances of a Trappist monastery were but as luxuries 
compared to the daily trials of hunger and thirst 
and sleeplessness which fell to his lot. He would 
ride for days at a time, through any inclemency of 
weather, through any degree of heat or cold, to keep 
an appointment to preach the word to those who 
hungered for the Lord. The last rain perhaps had 
swept a bridge away. A tribe of hostile Indians 
were prowling through the forests which he would 
have to penetrate. A heavy fall of snow had ob- 
scured the trail that led through the intricacies of 
a swamp. It was doubtful if he could procure food 
for man or beast for days, and it was vain to try 
to carry a sufficient supply. It was impossible to 
procure a guide across 'The Forks' of some range 
of hills thickly covered with ravines and with dan- 
gerous defiles. Starvation and all the forms of bat- 
tle lay thickly around and before him. The stoutest 



RELIGION— MORAL REFORM— CHARITY 167 

heart might have quailed, the most unflinching son 
of duty might have Ava\'ered; all of these gave him 
not a moment's pause. Herein was manifested the 
grandeur of the Circuit Rider's character." 

After the Presbyterians and Methodists came the 
Baptists and other denominations. The early 
preachers were powerful factors in moulding and 
shaping Tennessee's character, and no other class 
of men has contributed more to Tennessee life and 
Tennessee citizenship than they. 

The high moral ideals of the citizenship at a very 
early date began to express themselves in legisla- 
tion. 

In 1801, the legislature passed an act "to prevent 
the evil practice of dueling," as it was expressed. 
Under this act the penalty for attempting to fight 
a duel was a fine of fifty dollars and a term of sixty 
days in jail. Any person who carried a challenge 
was also fined fifty dollars and put in jail for thirty 
days. If a person accepted a challenge he was fined 
fifty dollars and was deprived of the rights of citi- 
zenship for one year. If a duel were fought and one 
party killed, the act provided that the other party 
should suffer the death penalty "without benefit of 
clergy." 

In 1809, it was enacted by the legislature that no 
man should ever hold office in Tennessee or be al- 
lowed to give testimony in court who after this time 
should challenge anyone to fight a duel. In 1829, 
a law was passed which provided that "if any per- 
son within the state shall fight a duel, or shall delib- 



168 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

erately and maliciously challenge anyone to fight a 
duel, such person shall be sentenced to imprisonment 
and hard labor in the penitentiary for not less than 
three nor more than ten years." 

Gambling was prohibited as early as 1799. 

In 1827, the following was passed by the legisla- 
ture: "An act to more etfectively suppress the 
'Odious Bill of Gambling.' Be it enacted that if any 
person shall be guilty of dealing at a game com- 
monly called polo, or exhibiting the game called 
'thimble,' or exhibiting with cards the 'grand moctier 
trick' for money or other valuable thing, any such 
person or persons so offending shall be prosecuted 
by indictment or presentment, and on conviction 
shall be punished by fine not less than $20.00, and 
imprisonment for a term not less than one month, 
nor more than one year, shall stand in the pillory 
two hours, and shall be rendered infamous as guilty 
of grand larceny." 

Hunting, fishing, playing games, and working on 
the Sabbath day were prohibited by a law passed 
in 1803. 

Intemperance 

The fight against intemperance began very early 
in Tennessee. 

In 1823, the legislature passed the following act, 
which seems to have limited the sale of liquor to 
hotels: "No county court in this state shall here- 
after grant a license to any person whatever to keep 
a public inn or house of entertainment unless the 



RELIGION— MORAL REFORM— CHARITY 169 

person applying for such license shall first prove 
in open court by the testimony of creditable wit- 
nesses that the person applying has a good moral 
character, and that he, she, or they are provided 
with bedding, stableage and house room for the 
accommodation of travelers and lodgers, and in no 
case shall such license be granted if the court should 
be of the opinion that the retailing of spirituous 
liquors is the principal object in obtaining such 
license." 

It is probable that Governor Carroll was express- 
ing a sentiment that was strong at the time when 
he gave utterance to the following expressions in 
his message to the legislature in 1831 : "It is a 
source of melancholy regret that three-fourths of 
the unhappy inmates of prisons acknowledge that 
the too frequent use of ardent spirits was the lead- 
ing source of the commission of crimes for which 
they were convicted. Nor is it less the subject of 
regret that nine-tenths of the pauperism arise from 
intemperance. Is there no remedy for this alarm- 
ing evil which cuts off so many citizens in early life, 
and brings so much sorrow and misery on innocent 
families? I answer then that there is. Pass a law 
prohibiting the county courts from granting to any- 
one a license to retail spirituous liquors unless he 
be a man of known character, for honesty, whose 
business is that of an innkeeper with suitable ac- 
commodations for travelers, and punish with sever- 
ity those who violate the law. Little hesitancy 
should be felt in adopting this course, especially as 



no HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

it is well known that drunkenness, tlieft, robbery, 
gambling, and murder generally liave their origin 
in the grog shops of our towns and villages. When 
we see the wise and virtuous everywhere uniting 
their influence for the suppression of intemperance 
and its destructive effect upon the peace and morals 
of society, it is surely our duty to aid in counteract- 
ing the influence." 

It would seem from this message that the law 
passed some years before was not sufficiently rigid. 
Governor Carroll at this time was serving his fiftli 
term as governor, and was reelected for a sixth 
term. He is looked upon as one of Tennessee's 
great governors. 

In response to the growing sentiment against the 
saloon or grog shop, the legislature in 1838 passed 
an act which prohibited the sale of liquors in less 
quantities than one quart anywhere in the state, and 
prohibited the sale of larger quantities than a quart 
if the liquor was to be drunk at the place where it 
w^as sold. In substance this law prohibited drinking 
saloons anywhere in the state, and prohibited the 
sale of liquor in any form in quantities less than 
one quart. 

This was the first state-wide prohibition law. 
However, its provisions were limited to the small 
retail business, and to drinking places. This law 
remained on the statute books for eight years. 

In 1 84C), a law was passed allowing tippling houses 
to reopen, but they were placed under very stringent 
restrictions. By this act the retailer of liquors was 



RELIGION— MORAL REFORM— CHARITY 171 

required to take an oath that he would not sell liquor 
to slaves without permission of the owner or over- 
seer; also that he would not allow gambling on his 
premises ; that he would give information to the 
grand jury if people gambled on his premises. 
Every agent employed by the retailer was required 
to take the same oath that the proprietor was re- 
quired to take. A violation of this oath was to be 
prosecuted as perjury. 

The Treatment of Criminals 

In the early days of Tennessee, there were few 
prisoners and no penitentiary. However, Governor 
Carroll Avho was first elected governor in 1821, be- 
gan the agitation for a penitentiary; and in 1829 
an act was passed by the legislature, while Carroll 
was governor, establishing a penitentiary. The 
penitentiary was built and opened in 1831. There 
were only thirty-six convicts sent to prison from 
the whole state in 1831; and in 1832 there were 
sixty-one convicts in the penitentiary; in 1845 there 
were 189 convicts in the penitentiary; and in 1855 
the number was 210. 

The intelligence with which Governor Carroll 
grasped the subject of prison reform is very remark- 
able. For this was before the "day" of prison re- 
form in this country. The ideas expressed by him 
in his message to the legislature in 1826 are thor- 
oughly modern, and, as yet, have not been adopted 
in some of our prisons. In this message, he said: 
"Experience has proved that the prisoners must be 



172 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

classed; that no communication must be permitted 
between the old and hardened villain and the young 
and pliant otTender; that the confinement of each 
individual in a separate cell at night prevents the 
opportunity of forming dangerous combinations, and 
leads to reflections on the improprieties of an ill- 
spent life, which in numerous instances has pro- 
duced reformation of the most sincere and perma- 
nent character." 

Under the provisions of the act as passed in 1829, 
each convict was to be kept in a separate cell; the 
convicts were not allowed to talk; they were to be 
punished for misbehavior by solitary confinement, 
or put upon a diet of bread and water ; each convict 
was furnished with a Bible ; each prisoner was given 
the sum of ten dollars on his dismissal from prison. 

Governor A. V. Brown in his message to the legis- 
lature in 1845 said : "One of the subjects of settled 
policy in this state, I consider to be the almost entire 
abolition of the punishment of death. In all cases 
authorized by law and justified by their circum- 
stances, I shall, with the greatest pleasure, commute 
the punishment from death to imprisonment for life 
in the penitentiary." 

The Insane 

An asylum for the insane was established by the 
legislature in 1832. But it was not open to patients 
till 1840. It was first built about one mile from 
Nashville, but was later moved out on the Murfrees- 
boro Pike, several miles from that city. The state 



RELIGION— MORAL REFORM— CHARITY 173 

now lias two other asylums for the insane, one at 
Bolivar in West Tennessee and the other at Knox- 
ville. 

The Deaf and Dumb 

The Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb at Knoxville, 
it seems, was established in 1845. A report was 
made to the legislature in 1847. At this time, there 
were twenty-five pupils in this institution, which 
was begun by private donations. The site of the 
building, which was valued at $2,000, was donated 
by Colonel Calvin Morgan, The institution received 
liberal donations from the legislature. 



Chapter XXIV 

RECONSTRUCTION IN TENNESSEE 

Tennessee, unlike some other Southern states, 
never had a "carpet bag" government. From the 
beginning of the state down to the present time, in 
war and in peace, Tennessee has always been ruled 
by Tennesseans. 

Tennessee was the last Southern state to secede 
from the Union, and was the first to fall into the 
hands of the enemy after the w^ar began. When 
Fort Henry, on the Tennessee Eiver, and Fort Don- 
elson on the Cumberland River, fell at the beginning 
of the war, the way was opened for the Federal 
forces to take possession of the state. Of course 
the Confederate forces could have offered powerful 
resistance at this time, but they did not consider it 
the best policy. 

Soon after the fall of Fort Donelson, Governor 
Harris moved the state government to Memphis. 
But on March 20th, 1862, the legislature in Memphis 
adjourned sine die, and followed Governor Harris 
into Mississippi. In 1863, Robert L. Caruthers was 
elected governor of Tennessee to succeed Isham G. 
Harris, but he was never inaugurated. 

On March 2nd, 1862, President Lincoln appointed 
Andrew Johnson, military governor of Tennessee, 
and he at once came to Nashville and began the 
w^ork of establishing a military government. He 

174 



RECONSTRUCTION IN TENNESSEE 175 

remained in this position until liis inauguration as 
vice-president of the United States on March 4th, 
1865. 

On November 4th, 1864, the Union Committee of 
East Tennessee issued a call for a state convention 
to meet in Nashville to prepare for a constitutional 
convention which should come later. The conven- 
tion met on tlie 9tli of January, 1865. The basis of 
representation decided upon for this convention was 
that each county should have one vote, and one addi- 
tional vote for every 150 votes cast against secession 
when the state voted to secede from the Union. 
This gave East Tennessee absolute control of the 
convention, since East Tennessee cast 33,000 votes 
against secession while Middle Tennessee and West 
Tennessee cast only 14,000 votes for the Union. 

While this convention was called for the purpose 
of making preparation for a constitutional conven- 
tion which was to come later, after they assembled, 
the delegates decided to convert the meeting into a 
constitutional convention and to give up the idea 
of holding a second meeting. This convention 
adopted an amendment to the constitution, abolish- 
ing slavery, and adopted other amendments which 
repealed most of the acts passed by the Harris 
legislature in 1861. The convention also provided 
for the election of a governor and a legislature. 
The date fixed for the first election, at which the 
people were to vote on the adoption of the amend- 
ments to the constitution, was February 22nd, 1865. 
Following this election, another was held on March 



176 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



4th for the purpose of electing a governor and a 
legislature. 

Since practically only Union men were allowed to 
vote in these elections, the amendments to the con- 
stitution were adopted by a vote of 26,865 to 67; 
and William G. Brownlow was elected governor, 

together with the entire 
legislative ticket which 
had been agreed upon 
by the convention, by a 
vote of 23,352 to 35. 
Candidates for the leg- 
islature were all put on 
one ticket, and all were 
voted for throughout 
the state. 

Only one county in 
West Tennessee sent in 
any returns in this elec- 
tion, and many counties 
in Middle Tennessee 
and East Tennessee 
failed to hold any elec- 
tion. This failure to hold election in a number of 
counties was doubtless due, in large measure, to 
lack of sympathy with the movement and also to 
the feeling that the full Brownlow ticket would be 
elected beyond question whatever might be done. 

Andrew Johnson was inaugurated vice-president 
of the United States on March 4th, 1865 ; and Wil- 
liam G. Brownlow was inaugurated governor of Ten- 




GovERNOR William G. Brownlow 



RECONSTRUCTION IN TENNESSEE 177 

nessee on April 8tli, of the same year. So, for one 
month, Tennessee did not have a governor. 

When the legislature met, it at once passed three 
very extreme laws, which in substance were as fol- 
lows: 

1. All who had been in the Confederate army or who 
had been in sympathy with the Confederacy were prohib- 
ited from voting for a period of fifteen years. 

2. The sheriif of each county in the state was authorized 
to summon twenty-five Union men to assist him in pa- 
trolling the county, and to summon as many as he pleased 
to capture or crush all opposing elements. 

3. All who should be guilty of uttering seditious words 
or making seditious speeches, spreading false news or writ- 
ing or dispensing scurrilous libels against the state or fed- 
eral governments were to be punished by fine and imprison- 
ment at the discretion of the court. 

This legislature also passed a resolution offering 
a reward of five thousand dollars for the arrest of 
Governor Isham G. Harris, who was then beyond 
the bounds of the state. It was claimed, and doubt- 
less believed at this time, that Governor Harris had 
taken with him a large amount of funds belonging 
to the state. It was on this theory that the large 
reward was offered. Of course the charge against 
Governor Harris was discredited by all when the 
passions of war waned. 

The first election held under the Brownlow fran- 
chise law, was the August election in 1865. Gov- 
ernor Browmlow asserted that considerable fraud 
had been practiced in this election; and at the next 
meeting of the legislature a still more stringent 



178 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

election law was passed. This law gave the gov- 
ernor the power to remove election commissioners 
and appoint commissioners of registration in each 
county. The law really put the whole election ma- 
chinery of the state under the control of the gov- 
ernor. 

During the month of May, 1866, a serious riot 
occurred in Memphis between the white people and 
the negroes ; it lasted two days, and many people 
were killed or injured. As a result of this riot, and 
soon after it occurred, the legislature passed the 
"Metropolitan Police Bill," which provided that the 
police regulations of Memphis should be under the 
control of three commissioners appointed by the 
governor. This law was later applied to Nashville 
and to Chattanooga. This law has been much criti- 
cized, but it was thoroughly sound in principle, and 
it seems that it accomplished much good at the time. 
The principles of this law are recognized as sound 
today, and are incorporated in the laws of some of 
our progressive states at the present time. 

From the beginning of their rule the Union men 
in Tennessee were divided into two factions, namely : 
the Conservatives and the Radicals. From the first 
William G. Brownlow was the leader of the Radi- 
cals, and the extreme legislation of his administra- 
tion was perhaps largely due to his uncompromising 
and extreme attitude toward all non-Union men. 
But within the ranks of the Union men, a strong 
Conservative sentiment began to develop at an early 
date, and it grew stronger as the months passed. 



RECONSTRUCTION IN TENNESSEE 179 

The Conservatives stood for a recognition of the 
rights of those who had been in sympathy with the 
Confederacy and believed in opening the w^ay 
through which they might take their places as citi- 
zens of Tennessee again. So strong was tlie opposi- 
tion in the legislature to Brownlow's franchise bill, 
which it was said disfranchised some Union men, 
as well as all non-Union men, that twenty-one mem- 
bers of the legislature resigned in order to break 
the quorum. But an election w^as ordered, their 
places were filled, and the bill was passed. 

Governor Brownlow was a candidate for reelec- 
tion in 1867. So strong was the opposition to him 
within his own ranks, that the Conservatives nomi- 
nated Emerson Ethridge for governor. Ethridge 
had been a prominent Whig and was a Union man 
during the war. He was clerk of the United States 
house of representatives from 1861 to 1863. The 
contest betw^een Brownlow and Ethridge was a very 
bitter one. But when it was seen that Brownlow 
was going to carry out his franchise rigidly, Eth- 
ridge withdrew from the race, and Brownlow was 
elected by a large majority. In enforcing his fran- 
chise law, Brownlow gave orders to the head of the 
state mobilities known as the "State Guards," to send 
troops to the localities that he regarded as "rebel- 
lious" that he might enforce the election law. It 
was this action more than anything else, perhaps, 
that caused Ethridge to withdraw from the guber- 
natorial race. Brownlow's strength proved also his 
weakness. 



180 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

The Union Leagues and the Ku Klux Klan 

At the close of the Civil War, certain Union white 
men, who, for one reason or another, desired to use 
the negro vote, organized the negroes into "Union 
Leagues" for the purpose of teaching them how to 
vote and for what candidate to vote. These Union 
Leagues were organized in Tennessee and in other 
Southern states. In some instances, these leagues 
took the form of military companies, and the negroes 
were supplied with guns and uniforms. The organ- 
izing and drilling of negroes in military companies 
at such a time, of course tended to excite and alarm 
the white people, and to arouse them to anger both 
against the negroes and the white people who were 
directing them. However, the Union Leagues did 
not originate in the Brownlow administration and 
this administration was not responsible for them. 
The reports as to the purpose and plans of these 
Union Leagues were doubtless greatly exaggerated. 
But, at best, they were a serious menace to the peace 
and order of the communities in which they were 
found. 

When the Union Leagues came to be regarded as 
a menace, the "Ku Klux Klan" was utilized as a 
means of breaking them up and defeating the pur- 
poses for which they were organized. The Ku Klux 
Klan had its origin at Pulaski, Tennessee, and in 
the beginning of its history had no serious purpose 
in view. It was organized for their own amusement 
by a number of young men soon after coming home 



RECONSTRUCTION IN TENNESSEE 181 

from the Civil War. They selected as their meeting 
place an old deserted house, which the negroes be- 
lieved to be haunted. They wore long, white robes, 
and high pointed caps which gave them the appear- 
ance of being very tall. They wore masks over 
their faces. They always moved on horseback, with 
their horses disguised and, when seen by outsiders, 
they were always so completely disguised that it was 
impossible for any one to recognize them. 

The following incident is related as having taken 
place early in the history of the organization which 
gives an idea of the methods used by them in deal- 
ing with the negroes : 

"An old negro living near Pulaski was accused of 
petty offenses. The Klan visited his house at night, 
and summoning him to the door, one of the dis- 
guised visitors requested a drink of water. A gourd 
was presented him, which the visitor declined, stat- 
ing that he was very thirsty and desired the bucket. 
When this was handed to him, he drained it to the 
bottom, appearing to drink, but really pouring the 
water into a false mouth hidden under his mask, 
and connected with a large bag concealed about his 
person. After emptying several buckets, he re- 
marked that it was his first good drink since he was 
killed at Murfreesboro. After other similar feats, 
the Grand Cyclops whistled, and one of the visitors 
desired to shake hands before leaving. The old 
negro extended his hand and grasped, in return, a 
skeleton hand. Thoroughly alarmed, he drew back 
in terror. The Grand Cyclops then recounted to 



182 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Mm a list of his offenses, and warned Mm as to Ms 
conduct, promising to visit Mm again on liis return 
from the cemetery at Franklin." 

The possibilities of this organization as a means 
of breaking up the Union Leagues and otherwise 
controlling the negroes, soon dawned on those con- 
nected with it, as well as upon others who had heard 
of its character. The result was that the organiza- 
tion spread rapidly in Tennessee and throughout 
the South. 

Such an organization at such a time and under 
such conditions, of course, greatly abused its pow- 
ers. Many innocent negroes were, doubtless, made 
to suffer, and guilty ones were punished for what 
they had been directed to do by white men whom 
they supposed to be their friends. But the men who 
composed the Ku Klux Klan organization justified 
their work on the ground that it was necessary, 
under the conditions that confronted them, since it 
was the only means by which they could protect 
themselves and their homes. 

The Ku Klux Klan was looked upon with great 
disfavor by Union officials in all the Southern states, 
and they fought it bitterly. Governor Brownlow 
was very active in his efforts to suppress it. But 
all efforts to suppress the organization or to mate- 
rially interfere with its work, failed. It continued 
its operations until it had accomplished what it 
started out to do, early in its history, namely, the 
defeat of the purposes of the Union League. Subse- 
quent efforts to revive it were unsuccessful. 



RECONSTRUCTION IN TENNESSEE 183 

The State Debt 

At tlie beginning of the Civil War, the state debt 
of Tennessee was $20,363,406. This debt had ac- 
cumulated largely through state aid to public im- 
provements. It was the policy of Tennessee before 
the Civil War to encourage, in every way possible, 
the building- of railroads and turnpikes throughout 
the state; and following out this policy, the state 
bought stock in a number of new roads, and issued 
state bonds to paj^ for the stock. In this way, 
chiefly, the state debt was formed. But a part of 
the debt was due to bonds issued to pay for the 
building- of the capitol. 

Now, when the Brownlow administration came 
into power at the close of the war, acting chiefly 
under laws passed in 1852 and 1854:, it continued the 
policy of state aid to railroads and turnpikes, and 
in following- this policy, it undoubtedly went to great 
extremes. During the Brownlow administration, 
the state debt was increased by about $21,000,000. 

Bonds to the amount of about $1-1:,000,000 were 
issued to aid railroads and turnpikes, and the re- 
mainder of the indebtedness w^as due to bonds issued 
to pay the interest on the state indebtedness, which 
had accumulated and had not been paid during tlie 
Civil War, and to pay for past due coupons. 

The act of 1852 was the law under wdiich the large 
part of the debt under the Brownlow administration 
was incurred. In substance this law was that when 
any railroad had raised funds sufficient to grade the 



184 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

roadbed and build the bridges, then it could receive 
from the state bonds to the amount of $8,000 per 
mile for the purpose of laying the track and com- 
pleting the road. This amount was not a gift to 
the railroad ; it was a loan made by the state to the 
road; and to secure the state for the loan the rail- 
road was required to give the state first mortgage 
on the road. 

A debt contracted in this way is very different in 
principle from a debt which is the result of bonds 
issued to construct a public building or for other 
similar purposes. The theory of the debt con- 
tracted through aid to railroads and turnpikes was 
that the railroads and turnpikes would pay back the 
loans and cancel the debts. Debts incurred for the 
erection of public buildings, schools, etc., must be 
paid through taxation. 

It was charged that the Brownlow administration 
issued more bonds to railroads than they were en- 
titled to under the law. 

When these state bonds were issued in such large 
quantities, they found poor sale on the market, and 
were sold at a very low rate. Some of the railroads 
bought up many of these bonds at this low rate, 
paying as low as forty-five cents on the dollar in 
some instances, and were allowed by acts of the 
legislature in 1869 and 1870 to count these bonds as 
worth one hundred cents on the dollar in paying off 
their indebtedness to the state with them. In this 
way, the railroads paid off a large amount of their 
indebtedness which had been contracted before the 



RECONSTRUCTION IN TENNESSEE 185 

Civil War. It was in this way that the state debt 
was reduced from more than forty millions of dol- 
lars to about twenty millions of dollars. 

In justice to the Browailow administration, note 
that the act of 1870, under which the railroads were 
given the largest liberty to pay off their just debts 
to the state with these cheap bonds, was passed by 
Democrats after they came in power in 1870. It 
was this act that, it was charged, was passed 
through the corrupt influence of the railroads ; and 
it was on the ground of this alleged corrupt influence 
of the railroads, that many people wished to repu- 
diate a part of the state debt. 

The Public School System 

In March, the Brownlow administration passed 
an act reestablishing the state public school system 
on a very progressive basis. The state school fund 
provided by this law was as follows : 

The income from the state school fund. 

A tax of two mills per dollar on all taxable property in 
the state. 

Twenty-five cents poll tax. 

The railroad tax, which was as follows: 

"Every railroad company shall collect and pay into the 
treasury of the state quarterly one-fourth of one cent per 
mile upon each and every paying passenger transported by 
said companies on their respective roads." With a rate of 
three cents per mile, this tax meant that one-twelfth of 
the entire amount collected by the railroads for passenger 
service should go into the school fund. 



186 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Provision was made in the law for local taxation 
to supplement the state school fund. 

This law provided for the election of the state 
superintendent of schools by the people, and gave 
to the state superintendent the power to appoint 
county superintendents. It provided for a board of 
education in each civil district and prohibited any 
one from teaching in a public school without a teach- 
er's certificate. The act provided for the purchase 
of books for poor children. 

Governor Brownlow was elected to the United 
States senate in February, 1869. On his election to 
the senate, Governor Brownlow sent in his resigna- 
tion as governor. The Hon. D. W. C. Senter was 
speaker of the state senate at this time, and hence 
became governor for the unexpired term of Gov- 
ernor Brownlow. 

Governor Senter was born in McMinn County in 
1834. He represented Grainger County in the legis- 
lature from 1857 to 1861. He opposed secession, 
and was held as a prisoner by the Confederates for 
a while during the Civil War, but was later paroled. 
He was elected to the state senate in 1865, and 
reelected in 1867. He was elected speaker at this 
session of the legislature. 

As chief executive, Governor Senter at once 
adopted a very liberal policy towards those who had 
taken sides with the Confederacy during the Avar. 
He became the leader of the conservative Union 
men, many of whom had strongly opposed Governor 
Brownlow' s extreme measures. 



RECONSTRUCTION IN TENNESSEE 187 

He sought the nomination of the Republican party 
for governor in 1869. So liberal had been his policy 
that the Radical Union men were anxious to defeat 
him. The result was that the Republican conven- 
tion failed to agree and there was a split. The 
Conservative Union men nominated Senter and the 
Radicals nominated Colonel W. B. Stokes. The 
election was held in August, 1869, and the vote was 
as follows: Senter, 120,333; Stokes, 55,036. This 
was the largest majority ever received by any candi- 
date for governor in Tennessee. 

In this election, Governor Senter used the large 
power put into the hands of the governor by the 
Brownlow administration with reference to the con- 
trol of elections in a way that was not anticipated 
by those who gave the governor this power. Gov- 
ernor Senter, as leader of the Conservatives, ex- 
tended the right of suffrage to practically all citizens 
of Tennessee in this election regardless of their 
attitude on the issues of tlie Civil War. The result 
was that a Democratic legislature was elected, and 
the state was turned over to the control of the 
Democrats. 

While it was an East Tennessee Union man at 
the head of the Radical Republicans who disfran- 
chised the ex-Confederates, it was also an East Ten- 
nessee Union man at the head of the Conservative 
Republicans who restored the right of suffrage to 
the ex-Confederates and turned over the state to 
their control. 

The extreme measures of the Radical wins: of the 



188 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Brownlow administration must be interpreted in the 
light of the times, and in the light of the conditions 
under which tliis administration came into power. 
The Brownlow administration came into power be- 
fore the Civil War closed, hence passion rather than 
reason was in control. East Tennesseans felt that 
many of their citizens had been grossly mistreated 
by certain Confederate officials, and in this feeling 
they were right. Governor Brownlow himself had 
been put in prison by order of Confederate officials. 
Now that they had gotten in power, a majority 
of them, under the leadership of Brownlow, had 
adopted a vindictive policy and had gone to ex- 
tremes in their treatment of those who had cast their 
lot with the Confederacy. But from the beginning, 
Brownlow met strong opposition within his own 
ranks by such a policy, and as the passion engen- 
dered by the war died down, the opposition grew 
stronger. 

The Brownlow policy of retaliation was unwise 
but was perfectly natural in the circumstances. In 
time of war, people, as a rule, resort to extreme 
measures in dealing with their enemies, and the 
nearer the enemies are to each other, the more ex- 
treme the hostility and the passion. Just as it was 
natural but unwise for the Confederates to be ex- 
treme in their treatment of the East Tennesseans 
at the beginning of the war, it was likewise natural 
but equally unwise for the East Tennesseans to 
adopt a similar course at the close of the war. It 
would be very unjust to either side to conclude that 



RECONSTRUCTION IN TENNESSEE 189 

wliat they did in the heat of passion, engendered 
by war, at all represents their sentiments in times 
of peace, and at times when the conditions under 
which they lived were normal. 

William G. Brownlow was a Virginian by birth. 
He was born in Wythe County, Virginia, in 1805. 
He was left an orphan when twelve years old. 
When eighteen years old he became an apprentice 
to a carpenter at Abingdon, Virginia, but later be- 
came a minister in the Methodist Church and was 
a regular itinerant preacher for some time. When 
twenty-three years old, he moved to Tennessee, and 
at Jonesboro in 1839 started a newspaper called the 
Whig. Later he moved his paper to Knoxville. 
His paper had a very large circulation and was an 
important factor in the Whig party. He was an 
author of several books, and was a speaker of wide 
reputation. He and Andrew Johnson and Thomas 
A. R. Nelson were the three leaders in the fight for 
the Union in East Tennessee. He was elected gov- 
ernor in 1865, and reelected to this office in 1867. 
In 1869, he was elected to the United States senate, 
and remained a member of that body till 1875. He 
died in 1877. 



Chapter XXV 

THE DEMOCRATS IN CONTROL— THE CONSTI- 
TUTIONAL CONVENTION 

In the legislature elected with Governor Senter 
in 1869, the Democrats had a majority in both 
houses. The legislature met in October of this year. 
An act was passed authorizing the call of a con- 
stitutional convention. The people voted for a con- 
vention by a large majority and the convention met 
on the lOtli of January, 1870. John C. Brown was 
elected president of the convention. A number of 
acts passed by the Brownlow administration were 
annulled, and among them was the act establishing 
a state educational system. The whole educational 
system was turned back to the counties by this act 
and the office of state superintendent of schools was 
abolished. 

The convention adopted such amendments to the 
state constitution with reference to slavery and the 
rights of the negro as would make it conform to 
the constitution of the United States. The other 
important changes in the constitution were those 
which had reference to that which the convention 
considered abuses of power under the Brownlow 
administration. They were as follows : 

1. Brownlow had disfranchised the great majority 
of Tennesseans because they had taken up arms 
against the United States government; this conven- 

190 



THE DEMOCRATS IN CONTROL 191 

tion so amended the constitution tliat disfranchise- 
ment on such grounds is prohibited. 

2. Brownlow used the militia to enforce the law 
throughout the state whenever he considered it ad- 
visable; this convention practically took from the 
governor all power to call out the militia to suppress 
lawlessness. 

3. The Brownlow administration had issued bonds 
for public improvements in large amounts ; this con- 
vention so amended the constitution that the state 
cannot now lend its credit nor take stock in any 
railroad, turnpike, bank, or other similar enterprise. 
This was a complete reversal of what had been the 
policy of the state from the very beginning. 

The State Debt 

For fifteen years after the Democrats came in 
control in 1870, the settlement of the state debt was 
not only the chief issue but almost the only issue of 
importance in state politics. 

Governors, 1870-1885 

In 1870, John C. Brown, the Democratic nominee, 
defeated W. H. Wisener, the nominee of the Re- 
publican Party, by a majority of nearly forty thou- 
sand. Governor Brown Avas reelected in 1872 over 
the Republican nominee, Alfred A. Freeman. In 
1874, James D. Porter was the Democratic nominee 
for governor, and defeated Horace Maynard who 
had been nominated by the Republicans. Governor 
Porter was reelected in 187G. Albert S. Marks de- 



192 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



feated the Republican nominee, Emerson Etliridge, 
in 1878. On account of a division in the Democratic 
Party over the question of the settlement of the 
state debt, Governor Marks declined to be a candi- 
date for reelection. 

The state Democratic convention met at Nashville 
in June, 1880, for the purpose of nominating a candi- 
date for governor, but 
the delegates found 
themselves so hope- 
lessly divided on the 
state debt question that 
they could not agree on 
a candidate. The result 
was that there was a 
split in the Democratic 
Party, and two Demo- 
crats were nominated 
for governor. One fac- 
tion of the party which 
was called the "State 
Credit" faction nomi- 
nated John V. Wright. 
Governor John C. Brown rpj^^ ^^^ier faction known 

as the "Law Tax" faction nominated Judge S. F. 
Wilson. The Republicans nominated at this time 
Alvin Hawkins. With the Democrats thus divided 
Hawkins was elected. Governor Hawkins was a 
candidate for reelection, but was defeated by the 
nominee of the Democratic Party, General W. B. 
Bate. General Bate was reelected in 1884 over 




THE DEMOCRATS IN CONTROL 



193 



Frank T. Reid of Nashville, the nominee of the Re- 
publican Party. 

Soon after Governor Brown's election in 1870, the 
state debt question came to the front as a leading- 
issue. Governor Brown urged the legislature to 
fund the debt and levy a sufficient tax to pay the 
interest on the bonds. In his second administration 
the legislature passed 
an act which provided 
that the state should 
pay one hundred cents 
on the dollar of her in- 
debtedness. The state 
at once began the pay- 
ment of the interest and 
this action tended to put 
the credit of the state 
on a higher plane. 

The first legislature 
under Governor Por- 
ter's administration re- 
pealed the act passed 
two years before, fund- 
ing the state debt. The 
people now became 

much divided on the state debt question. The dif- 
ference of opinion arose over the question of the 
amount of the debt that should be paid, and the 
manner of paying it. Some contended that the 
whole debt should be paid together with all the 
interest due, except the interest during the Civil 




Governor Alvin Hawkins 



19J: HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

War. others held that the state should pay sixty 
cents on the dollar; a third faction held that the 
state should settle with the bond holders on a basis 
of fifty cents on the dollar; and a fourth faction 
contended that the state should pay one hundred 
cents on the dollar on that part of the debt about 
which there was no question and fifty cents on the 
dollar on the part of the debt which some believed 
was in part fraudulent, or was incurred without 
adequate authority. 

Governor Brown advocated paying the whole debt, 
dollar for dollar. But the people would not agree 
to this settlement ; and hence the funding act passed 
under his administration was repealed. Governor 
Porter appointed a commission of five to go to New 
York and confer with those who held the Tennessee 
bonds to determine what kind of a settlement would 
be satisfactory to them, and at the same time meet 
the demands of public sentiment in Tennessee. 
After conferring with the bond holders this commis- 
sion recommended that the debt be settled on a basis 
of sixty cents on the dollar and six per cent interest. 
Governor Porter now called an extra session of the 
legislature in December, 1877, to take up the con- 
sideration of the report from the commission. But 
the legislature could reach no agreement, and hence 
no settlement was made. Governor Porter urged 
the next legislature to settle the debt on the basis 
recommended by the connnission, but nothing was 
done. 

In the Democratic platform of 1878 on which Gov- 



THE DEMOCRATS IN CONTROL 195 

eriior Marks was elected, a declaration was made 
against the repudiation of the just indebtedness 
of the state. The Republican platform declared 
against "repudiation of any kind or by any means," 
and in favor of settling the debt on terms agreeable 
to the bond holders. The legislature during Gov- 
ernor Marks' administration passed an act settling 
the state debt on the basis of fifty cents on the dollar 
with four per cent interest. Some of the bond hold- 
ers were willing to accept this settlement but when 
the proposition was submitted to the people, it was 
defeated by a large majority. The Democrats had 
promised in their x^latform to submit whatever set- 
tlement they made to the joeople for acceptance or 
rejection. 

The legislature during Governor Hawkins' admin- 
istration passed an act settling the state debt on 
the basis of one hundred cents on the dollar with 
three per cent interest. But this law was declared 
unconstitutional by the supreme court. Governor 
Hawkins then called an extra session of tl\e legis- 
lature to take up the subject again. After three 
extra sessions called for this one purpose, the legis- 
lature passed an act "to settle and fund the state 
debt into bonds at sixty cents on the dollar with 
graded interest at* three per cent for two years, four 
per cent for the next two years, five per cent for 
the next two years, and six per cent thereafter." 
This settlement was not satisfactory to a large num- 
ber of the bond holders, and the people refused to 
endorse it. 



196 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

The next Democratic platform, the one on which 
General Bate was elected, declared that the state 
debt should be paid in full, and the remainder set- 
tled on a fifty per cent basis with interest at three 
per cent. Some of the Democrats would not agree 
to this, and after General Bate was nominated, they 
met and nominated Joseph H. Fussell for governor. 
This faction advocated the settlement of the debt 
on the plan advocated by the Republicans. But 
General Bate was elected and when he came into 
office, he strongly urged the legislature to settle the 
debt according to the declaration in the Democratic 
platform. After an exciting struggle the legislature 
reached an agreement and passed an act which 
finally brought a permanent settlement of this vexed 
question. 

This law provided that that part of the debt about 
which there was no question of legality or regularity 
should be paid in full with the rate of interest 
agreed on when the debt was incurred, except the 
interest, during the Civil War. This portion of the 
debt amounted to $2,118,000. The act provided that 
the remainder of the debt amounting to $18,905,000 
should be settled at fifty cents on the dollar with 
three per cent interest. About one-half of this part 
was contracted before the Civil War, and the other 
half after the war. 

Public School System 

The legislature of 1870 abolished the public school 
system • established by Brownlow's administration, 



THE DEMOCRATS IN CONTROL 197 

and for three years the state was without any sys- 
tem of public schools except such systems as the 
counties provided for themselves. But on recom^ 
mendation of Governor Brown, in 1873, the legisla- 
ture passed an act reestablishing the state public 
school system. This act met with much opposition, 
and during the following administration an act was 
passed abolishing county superintendents of schools, 
but it was vetoed by Governor Porter. The state 
board of education was established while Governor 
Porter was chief executive, and it was during his 
administration that the Peabody School for teachers 
began ita work in Tennessee. 

During Governor Brown's administration, the 
Bureau of Agriculture and the Bureau of Immigra- 
tion were established. It was at this time that the 
office of state geologist and the office of superin- 
tendent of prisons were created. As a result of the 
prevalence of yellow fever in Tennessee during the 
year 1878, the State Board of Health was created. 
This board has continued its work down to the 
present day. 

During Governor Bate's first term of office the 
State Railroad Commission was established, and the 
following were appointed members of the commis- 
sion: Colonel John H. Savage, J. A. Turley, and 
General George W. Gordon. But at the next meet- 
ing of the legislature this law was repealed. 



Chapter XX^^I 

ANDREW JOHNSON REENTERS TENNESSEE 
POLITICS 

United States Senator After the Civil War 

According to the census of 1870, the population 
of Tennessee had so increased that the state was 
entitled to an additional congressman. This was 
not known till after the legislature of 1871 had ad- 
journed, hence no district was arranged for this 
additional congressman before the election in the 
fall of 1872. So it became necessary for the addi- 
tional congressman to be elected by the voters of 
the whole state. The office was called "Congress- 
man at Large." Andrew Johnson announced him- 
self a candidate for this office. The Democrats 
nominated General B. F. Cheatham, and the Repub- 
licans nominated Horace Maynard. The Demo- 
cratic vote was divided between Johnson and Cheat- 
ham, and Maynard was elected. 

Ex-President Johnson had been a candidate for 
United States senator in 1870, but was defeated by 
Henry Cooper. He became a candidate for the 
United States senate again in 1875, and was elected 
over his opponent, ex-Governor John C. Brown. 

David T. Patterson and Joseph S. Fowler were 
elected to the United States senate in 1865 by the 
Brownlow legislature. Patterson was a son-in-law 

198 



JOHNSON RE-ENTERS TENNESSEE POLITICS 199 

of Andrew Jolinson. Governor Brownlow was 
elected to succeed Patterson in 1869; and Henry 
Cooper was elected to succeed Fowler in 1871. An- 
drew Johnson was elected in 1875, but died soon 
after taking his seat. David M. Key was appointed 
by Governor Porter in Senator Johnson's place, and 
served until the next meeting of the legislature, 
which convened in 1877. At the meeting of the leg- 
islature, James E. Bailey was elected to fill out 
the unexpired term of Andrew Johnson. Senator 
Bailey was a candidate for reelection in 1881, but 
was defeated by Howell E. Jackson. At the expira- 
tion of Senator Cooper's term in 1877, Isham G. 
Harris was elected and remained in the senate until 
his death in 1897. In April, 1886, Senator Jackson 
resigned his seat in the United States senate in or- 
der to accept an appointment as judge of the United 
States circuit court. In 1893, he was appointed 
judge of the Supreme Court of the United States. 
W. C. Whitthorne was appointed by Governor Bate 
to fill out the unexpired term of Senator Jackson. 
In 1887, Governor Bate was elected to the United 
States senate, and remained a member of that body 
until his death, which occurred in 1905. He was 
succeeded by James B. Frazier who served till 1911. 
The legislature of 1911 elected Luke Lea to succeed 
Senator Frazier. 

On the death of Senator Harris in 1897, Governor 
Taylor appointed Thomas B, Turley in his place. 
Senator Turley was elected by the next legislature 
to fill out the unexpired term of Senator Harris. 



200 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

At the expiration of Senator Turley's term Edward 
Ward Carmack was elected to the United States 
senate for a full term. He was a candidate for 
reelection but was opposed by ex-Governor Robert 
L. Taylor. A Democratic primary was held to 
nominate the candidate, and both candidates can- 
vassed the state. Carmack challenged Taylor to a 
joint debate, but Taylor declined. Carmack had 
made a brilliant reputation in the United States 
senate, but Taylor's personal popularity and a feel- 
ing on the part of many Democrats that the party 
was under special obligation to Taylor for services 
rendered at critical periods, gave him the nomina- 
tion. Senator Taylor died in 1912. Newell San- 
ders was appointed by Governor Hooper to serve 
in his place till the next meeting of the legislature. 
When the legislature met in 1913, W. R. Webb was 
elected to fill out the unexpired term of Senator 
Taylor, and Judge John K. Shields was elected for 
the full term to succeed Senator Webb. 

General William B. Bate w^as born in Sumner 
County, Tennessee, in 1826. He ^vas in the Mexican 
War and served as a private. He studied law at 
the Lebanon, Tennessee, Law School, and was grad- 
uated from that institution in 1852. However, he 
had been a member of the legislature three years 
before. He was elected attorney general of the 
Nashville district in 1854. He entered the Confed- 
erate army as a private, but was rapidly promoted, 
and at the close of the war was major general. He 
was in many battles, among them Bull Run, Sliiloh, 



JOHNSON RE-ENTERS TENNESSEE POLITICS 201 

Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge. He was 
severely wounded three times. He came back to 
Nashville after the close of the war and began the 
practice of law. He was elected governor in 1882, 
and was reelected in 1884. He w^as elected to the 
United States senate in 1887, and continued to be a 
member of this body until his death in 1905. Gen- 
eral Bate was a brave, patriotic soldier, and an 
honest, faithful, capable public servant. 



202 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 




Governor Robert L. Taylor 



Chapter XXVII 

GOVERNORS FROM TAYLOR TO PATTERSON 

In 1886, the Democratic nominee for governor was 
Robert L. Taylor, and the Republican nominee was 
his brother, Alfred A. Taylor. They canvassed the 
state in joint debate, traveling together from one 
appointment to another. Enormons crowds gath- 
ered wherever they spoke. Robert L. Taylor was 
elected. Governor Taylor was reelected in 1888. 

The Democratic state convention in 1890, after a 
long contest, nominated John P. Buchanan for gov- 
ernor. Mr. Buchanan was at that time the presi- 
dent of the Farmers' Alliance of the state. He was 
elected by a large majority. Governor Buchanan 
was a candidate for reelection, but was so bitterly 
opposed by a large number of Democrats on account 
of his attitude towards certain labor troubles which 
occurred during his administration and for other 
reasons, that he did not allow his name to go before 
the Democratic convention. He made the race for 
governor as an independent Democrat. The Demo- 
crats nominated Judge Peter Turney; the Republi- 
cans nominated G. W. Winstead, and the Prohibi- 
tionists nominated Judge E. H. East. Judge Tur- 
ney was elected. Governor Turney was nominated 
by the Democrats for reelection. The Republican 
nominee was H. Clay Evans. The People's Party 
nominated A. S, Mims. The vote of the state ac- 

203 



204 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



cording to the election returns, was as follows : 
Evans, 105,104; Turney, 104,356; Mims, 23,088. 
Evans was elected on the face of the returns, but 
Turney contested the election, and the legislature 
declared that Turney was elected. 

In 1896, Robert L. 
Taylor was nominated 
for a third term as gov- 
ernor. The Republi- 
cans nominated George 
N. Tillman. Taylor 
was the successful can- 
didate. 

Benton McMillin was 
the Democratic nominee 
for governor in 1898, 
and was elected over his 
Republican opponent. 
Governor McMillin 
was reelected in 1900, 
defeating the nominee 
of the Republican 
party. 
James B. Frazier was nominated and elected gov- 
ernor by the Democrats in 1902. His Republican 
opponent was Judge Tyler Campbell. Frazier was 
reelected over Jesse Littleton the nominee of the 
Republican party in 1904. In a few days after Gov- 
ernor Frazier's second inauguration. United States 
Senator W. B. Bate died. Governor Frazier was 
immediately elected to the senate to fill the vacancy. 




Governor Benton McMillin 



GOVERNORS FROM TAYLOR TO PATTERSON 205 

On his election to tlie senate, Governor Frazier sent 
in his resignation as governor. By virtue of his 
office as speaker of the state senate, John Isaac Cox 
then became governor. Governor Cox was a candi- 
date for the Democratic nomination for governor in 
1906, but was defeated by M. R. Patterson. The 
Republican nominee this year was H. Clay Evans. 
Patterson was elected and was opposed for a second 
nomination for governor by ex-United States Sena- 
tor Carmack. They canvassed the state in joint 
debate. Patterson received the nomination and was 
opposed in the November election by George N. 
Tillman, the nominee of the Republican Party. Pat- 
terson was elected for a second term. 



Chapter XXVIII 

THE FOUR MILE LAW— THE INDEPENDENT 
MOVEMENT— GOVERNOR HOOPER 

In 1887, the legislature passed the "Four Mile 
Law." This prohibited the sale of intoxicating 
liquors within four miles of an incorporated insti- 
tution of learning, unless such sale should take place 
in an incorporated town. This was the first law 
passed by the Tennessee legislature after the Civil 
War to restrict the sale of liquors in the state. The 
prime movers in having this law passed were those 
in charge of the University of the South at Sewanee. 
Their purpose was to have the sale of liquors pro- 
hibited within four miles of Sewanee. 

In 1887, an amendment to the constitution, prohib- 
iting the sale of liquors in the state, was voted on 
by the people of Tennessee. The result was as fol- 
lows : 

For Prohibition 117,504 

Against Prohibition 145,197 

It is thus seen that even at this early date in the 
national movement there was a strong sentiment for 
prohibition in Tennessee. 

The legislature of 1899 passed an act which al- 
lowed all incorporated towns in the state with a 
population of two thousand or less, to surrender 
their charters, and receive new charters which pro- 

206 



THE FOUR MILE LAW 



207 



liibited tlie sale of liquors within their borders. In 
1903, this law was amended so that it was made to 
apply to towns of 5,000 population or less; and in 
1907, the law was extended to all the cities and towns 
of the state. This act is known as the Pendleton 
Law, taking its name from Senator I. L. Pendleton, 
who introduced the 
measure in the senate 
and led the fight for its 
passage. Acting under 
this law, all the towns 
in the state, Avith the 
exception of four which 
had not surrendered 
their charters under 
previous laws, gave up 
their charters and re- 
incorporated as "dry" 
towns. The four places 
in which the sale of 
liquors continued were 
Memphis, Nashville, 
Chattanooga, and La- 
follette. 

Governor Patterson opposed very vigorously the 
Pendleton Act, but he was not able to prevent its 
passage. 

Governor Patterson was a candidate for reelec- 
tion in 1908. A state Democratic primary was ar- 
ranged for nominating a candidate for governor. 
Governor Patterson and ex-Senator Carmack were 




Governor M. R. Patterson 



208 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



candidates before this primary for the Democratic 
nomination for governor. The leading issue in the 
primary campaign was the question of state-wide 
prohibition, Senator Carmack standing for state- 
wide prohibition and Governor Patterson against it. 
Governor Patterson received the nomination. 

Soon after this pri- 
mary, Senator Carmack 
became the editor of the 
Nashville Tennessean. 
He with many others as- 
serted that the people 
had a right to take any 
position they desired 
on the liquor question, 
when they came to- 
gether in their state 
convention to adopt a 
platform for the Demo- 
cratic Party; that the 
primary did not settle 
anything except the 
question of the nominee 
of the Democratic Party 
When the state convention assem- 
bled to adopt a platform, the state committee acting 
in the interest of Governor Patterson, unseated one 
hundred and fifty-one delegates sent to the conven- 
tion by the people, and appointed others in their 
places. This was done to prevent the convention 
from adopting state-wide prohibition as a plank in 




Senator E. W. Carmack 



for governor 



THE FOUR MILE LAW 209 

its platform. The Patterson followers declared that 
when Governor Patterson was nominated in the pri- 
mary, that action committed the Democratic Party 
against state-wide prohibition because Governor 
Patterson was against state-wide prohibition. 

Senator Carmack, as editor of the Tennessean, 
said that this committee had no right to unseat the 
people's delegates and substitute its own appointees 
in their places, and he refused to be bound by the 
platform of such a convention which he asserted did 
not represent the views of the majority of the peo- 
ple. He supported the nominee of the party, but 
repudiated the platform, and urged the people to 
elect a legislature that would pass a state-wide pro- 
hibition law. 

When the returns came in after the November 
election, it seemed that in both the senate and the 
lower house a majority who were in accord with 
Senator Carmack's views had been elected. Within 
one week after this election, Senator Carmack was 
killed on the streets of Nashville by Duncan B. 
Cooper and his son, Robin Cooper. Colonel Duncan 
B. Cooper had been a strong supporter of Governor 
Patterson, and perhaps his chief adviser in the 
campaign. 

In a few days after this election, a messenger came 
from Colonel Cooper to Senator Carmack, stating 
that Colonel Cooper had said that if his (Cooper's) 
name occurred again in Senator Carmack's paper, 
he would kill Carmack. The Tennessean on the 
next morning, contained Colonel Cooper's name in 



210 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

a short editorial written by Senator Carmack, On 
the afternoon of tlie same day, November 9, 1908, 
Senator Carmack was killed. 

The legislature met in the following January and 
passed the state-wide prohibition law. This law 
was fought in every possible way by Governor Pat- 
terson, but it was passed by a large majority in both 
houses over the governor's veto. 

Duncan B. Cooper and his son were denied bail, 
and were kept in jail until their trial. They were 
convicted by the jury and were given a sentence of 
twenty years in the penitentiary. The case was ap- 
pealed to the supreme court. The supreme court 
affirmed the sentence of Duncan B. Cooper, but 
granted a new trial to Robin Cooper. Governor 
Patterson granted a full pardon to Duncan B. 
Cooper, within a few minutes after the supreme 
court had affirmed the sentence of the lower court. 

A new judge and a new attorney-general had now 
come into office in Davidson County, the judge by 
appointment of Governor Patterson, and the attor- 
ney-general by election. These officials had the case 
against Robin Cooper dismissed without allowing 
it to come to trial a second time. 

The Independent Movement 

The independent movement in Tennessee politics 
had its beginning in 1908, when Senator Carmack 
as editor of the Nashville Tennessean led the fight 
against the liquor plank in the Democratic platform. 

In 1910, three of the five judges of the supreme 



THE INDEPENDENT MOVEMENT 



211 



court and two of the judges of the court of civil 
appeals, all of whom were candidates for reelection 
at the time, refused to enter the primary ordered b}^ 
the regular Democratic state committee. This com- 
mittee was alleged to be under the complete domina- 
tion of M. R. Patterson, who was governor at the 
time, and Governor Patterson had made an attempt, 
as these judges con- 
strued it, to intimidate 
the supreme court with 
reference to a favorable 
decision from them in 
the Cooper case. As a 
result of this bold move 
by these candidates for 
the judiciary, a great 
mass meeting was called 
to meet in Nashville. 
This meeting was per- 
haps the largest politi- 
cal convention ever held 
in the state. This con- 
vention organized the 
Independent Demo- 
cratic Party in Tennes- 
see, and placed in nomination the five judges who 
had refused to enter the Patterson primary together 
with five other candidates for the judiciary, making 
a complete ticket. 

With the Democratic Party thus hopelessly split, 
some Republicans thought that it was the opportune 




Senator Newell Sanders 



212 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



time for the Republican Party to elect a full state 
judiciary. But led by Newell Sanders, the Republi- 
can Party refused to nominate a single candidate for 
the judiciary, and gave their full endorsement and 
support to the candidates of the Independent Demo- 
cratic Party. The independent judiciary was elected 
by a majority of more than forty thousand. 

The defeat of the Reg- 
ular Democratic organi- 
zation was so sweeping 
that Governor Patter- 
son who had been nomi- 
nated for a third time, 
withdrew from the race, 
the regular Democratic 
committee resigned, and 
a state convention was 
called to reorganize the 
party on a basis that 
would be satisfactory to 
Independent Demo- 
crats. This convention 
met and elected a new 
state committee with 
the former chairman of 
the Independent Democratic Committee as the new 
chairman, and nominated Senator Robert L. Tay- 
lor for governor. This convention said nothing at 
all on the liquor question in its platform. But 
the rank and file of the Independent Democrats 
refused to be harmonized. They met in state con- 




GovERNOR Ben. W. Hooper 



THE INDEPENDENT MOVEMENT 213 

vention and endorsed the candidacy of Ben. W. 
Hooper, the Republican nominee. The platform on 
which Governor Hooper made his race, took an un- 
compromising position against the manufacture and 
sale of intoxicating liquors, and for rigid law en- 
forcement. Hooper defeated Taylor by more than 
twelve thousand majority. 

After Governor Hooper's election, Senator Luke 
Lea, who had been elected to the United States 
senate by a fusion of Democrats and Republicans, 
started and led a second movement for harmony in 
the Democratic Party. He finally succeeded in get- 
ting a majority of the members of the State Execu- 
tive Committee of the Independent Democratic 
Party to agree to a harmony plan, and the an- 
nouncement was sent forth that the Democratic 
Party was reunited again. But the rank and file 
of the Independent Democrats met and reorganized 
the party, and again endorsed Governor Hooper, 
who had been nominated for a second term as gov- 
ernor. The nominee of the Regular Democrats 
for governor at this time was Benton McMillin who 
had spent twenty years in Congress and had been 
governor of Tennessee for two terms. 

Governor Hooper made his race for a second time 
on a platform declaring strongly for state-wide pro- 
hibition and rigid law enforcement. The platform 
on which ex-Governor McMillin made his race de- 
clared against state-wide prohibition and said noth- 
ing concerning the nullification of the prohibition 
laws in the large cities of Tennessee at that time. 



214 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



Governor Hooper entered the campaign for re- 
election with a combination of circumstances and 
conditions against him which seemed to many im- 
possible to overcome. The Republican Party was 
about equally divided between Taft and Roosevelt, 
and Hooper was a supporter of Taft. The Roose- 
velt followers nomi- 
nated a candidate for 
governor, and Mr. 
Roosevelt came into the 
state and waged a bitter 
campaign against the 
reelection of Governor 
Hooper. Besides, this 
was recognized every- 
where as "Democratic 
year," and there was a 
powerful sentiment 
favorable to Democratic 
harmony. The Inde- 
pendent Democrats had 
been the original sup- 
porters of Wilson, and 
were his most ardent 
supporters. But the Independent Democrats gave 
their strong support to Hooper, and he received a 
majority of the votes of the state over both of his 
opponents and was elected by a plurality of over 
8,000. The result of this election demonstrates the 
fact that no man could be elected governor of Ten- 
nessee on any sort of anti-temperance platform. 




Senator J. K. Shields 



THE INDEPENDENT MOVEMENT 215 

Early in 1912, Senator Robert L. Taylor died. 
Governor Hooper appointed Newell Sanders of 
Chattanooga to fill his unexpired term, until the next 
meeting of the legislature. The legislature in Janu- 
ary, 1913, elected W. R. Webb of Bellbuckle to fill 
the remainder of Senator Taylor's term. This leg- 
islature elected Chief Justice John K. Shields to 
succeed Senator James B. Frazier in the United 
States senate. 

Edward Ward Carmack was born in Sumner 
County, Tennessee, in 1858. His father died when 
he was a small boy, and his mother was left without 
means. As a boy, Senator Carmack worked as an 
employee on the farm and at a brick yard, and thus 
helped in the support of the family. Later he at- 
tended the Webb School, at Bellbuckle. After leav- 
ing the Webb School, he began the study of law, and 
was later admitted to the bar. But he soon gave 
up the practice of law to enter the newspaper field. 
First he was editor of the Nashville American, and 
later editor of the Memphis Commercial Appeal. 
In 1896, he resigned his place as editor of the Com- 
mercial Appeal, and became a candidate for Con- 
gress. He was elected to Congress, and held his 
position in the lower house until he was elected to 
the United States senate. 

On his return from the United States senate. Sen- 
ator Carmack was offered a very large salary by a 
newspaper outside the state, but this offer he de- 
clined, as he declined other large salaries offered 
him at the time. After his race for governor, he 



216 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

accepted the position of editor of the Nashville 
Tennessean. This position gave him an oppor- 
tunity to continue his fight for the destruction of 
the liquor traffic in Tennessee. He had been in this 
position only a few months when he was killed. 

Senator Carmack was declared by one of his col- 
leagues to be the most brilliant man in the United 
States senate. After Senator Carmack's death, 
Senator W. E. Webb, who had been his teacher, in 
a public address said : 

"Carmack was no meteor, he was a great and 
steady light. I saw it dawning in his boyhood; I 
saw its radiance as it reached the confines of his 
own country; I saw its glow reach the limits of a 
congressional district ; I saw it shine from the moun- 
tains on the east to the great river on the west; I 
saw its steady glow in noonday splendor as it at- 
tracted the eyes of the nation, a light that shineth 
more and more unto the perfect day." 

Robert Love Taylor was born at Happy Valley, 
Carter County, Tennessee, in 1850. He attended 
school at Pennington Seminary, New Jersey, and 
at Buffalo Institute, Tennessee. He studied law and 
was admitted to the bar. In 1878, he was nomi- 
nated by the Democrats of the first congressional 
district for congress, and was elected over his Re- 
publican competitor. Major A. H. Pettibone, al- 
though this district was largely Republican. He 
was appointed pension agent for East Tennessee in 
1885. In 1886, he w^as elected governor and was 
reelected in 1888. After finishing his second term 



THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM 217 

as governor, lie went on the lecture platform, and 
made a great success as a lecturer. He was elected 
governor for a third term in 1896 and was elected 
to the United States senate in 1907. He died while 
a member of the senate in 1912. 

When in his prime. Senator Taylor was the most 
popular man in Tennessee. No other man could 
draw such crowds, and no other man had the genius 
to hold and entertain an audience which he pos- 
sessed. He was one of the most attractive orators 
in America, and was in great demand everywhere as 
a speaker. 

Confederate Pensions 

The Confederate Pension Law was strongly 
recommended by Governor Buchanan and was 
passed during his administration in 1891. By this 
act the sum of $60,000 per annum was appropriated 
for Confederate pensions. The amount was in- 
creased to $100,000 in 1899. The amount has been 
increased from time to time. The legislature of 
1911 made an appropriation of $730,000 for pensions 
and the legislature of 1913 increased the amount to 
$800,000. The Confederate Soldiers' Home was 
established by an act of the legislature passed in 
1889. 

The Public School System 

The present public school system was established 
in 1873. By an act of the legislature of that year, 
six per cent interest on $2,512,500 was fixed as the 



218 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

annual appropriation for public schools from tlie 
state funds. This was supplemented by a tax of one 
mill on all taxable property and a poll tax of one 
dollar levied by the state. Counties were given the 
power to supplement the amount received from the 
state fund by local taxation. This law provided for 
a state superintendent of public instruction and for 
county superintendents of schools. The amount 
appropriated for public schools has been increased 
from time to time. The legislature of 1913 passed 
an act appropriating one-third of all the state taxes 
to the public schools. 

In 1909, tlie state established four state normal 
schools for training teachers. Three of these are 
for white teachers and one for colored teachers. 
The normal schools for white teachers are located in 
Memphis, Murfreesboro, and Johnson City, respec- 
tively, and the normal school for colored teachers is 
located in Nashville. The function of these normal 
schools is to train teachers for the elementary 
schools. All of them have had large enrollments 
from the beginning, and they promise much for the 
future in the educational work of the state. In 1915, 
the legislature established the Polytechnic Institute 
at Cookeville. This school has had a large attend- 
ance from its first opening. 

Progress in the development of the public school 
system has been very rapid within the past ten 
years. Additional local appropriations as well as 
much larger appropriations from the state fund 
have been the means of great improvement in the 



THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM 219 

rural schools. County high schools as well as town 
high schools are being established throughout the 
state, and the general interest in education is in- 
creasing everywhere. 

The Tennessee Industrial School, located near 
Nashville, was established by Colonel E. W. Cole. 
It was turned over to the state by Colonel Cole in 
1888, and since that time has been maintained by 
the state. It has now nearly one thousand students. 
The w^ork of this school has been successful to a 
marked degree. 

The University of Tennessee at Knoxville stands 
at the head of the public school system of the state. 
The university has received liberal appropriations 
from the state in recent years, and its influence and 
usefulness have been greatly increased. The agri- 
cultural department of the university has been a 
powerful factor in the development of scientific agri- 
culture in Tennessee, not only through its students, 
but also through its very efficient university exten- 
sion work throughout the state. The work of the 
professors of this institution in the farmers' insti- 
tutes of the state has contributed much to more in- 
telligent farming and stock raising. 

For a number of years the State University has 
been conducting a summer school for teachers. The 
attendance at this summer school has been very 
large, and its work has been far-reaching in its effect 
on the public school system. 



220 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

Other Schools 

The Peabocly Normal School was established in 
Nashville in 1875, and was supported chiefly by the 
Peabody Educational Board of New York. How- 
ever, the state made liberal appropriations to this 
institution, and in a sense it was a state institution. 
In 1910, it was decided to merge this school into the 
George Peabody College for Teachers, which has 
been established in close proximity to Vanderbilt 
University. This school has been largely endowed 
by the Peabody Board of Education, by the State 
of Tennessee, by the City of Nashville, and by other 
friends of the institution. The first session of this 
great institution opened in June, 1914. 

Vanderbilt University was established in Nash- 
ville in 1873. This institution now has seven de- 
partments, and a student body of more than one 
thousand. The endowment of Vanderbilt is about 
$2,500,000. 

The University of the South was opened at Se- 
wanee in 1868. This school is owned and controlled 
by the Episcopal Church, and has been a prominent 
factor in the educational work of the state. 

Tennessee has a large number of denominational 
colleges and private schools which are taking a large 
part in the educational work of the state. No other 
state in the Union, perhaps, has a better system of 
private preparatory schools than Tennessee. 

Men who have filled the position of state superin- 
tendent of public instruction since the Civil War : 



OTHER SCHOOLS 221 

John Eaton 1867-1869 

A. J. Tipton 1869 

John M. Fleming 1873-1875 

Leonidas Trousdale 1875-1881 

W. S. Doak (died in office) 1881-1882 

G. S. AV. Crawford 1882-1883 

Thomas H. Paine 1883-1887 

Frank M. Smith 1887-1891 

W. R. Garrett 1891-1893 

Frank M. Smith 1893-1895 

S. G. Gilbreath 1895-1897 

Price Thomas 1897-1899 

Morgan C. Fitzpatrick 1899-1903 

S. A. Mynders 1903-1907 

R. L. Jones 1907-1911 

J. W. Brister 1911-1913 

S. H. Thompson 1913-1915 

S. W. Sherrill 1915-1919 

Albert S. Williams, Jr 1919- 

The Convict System 

For some years after the Civil War Tennessee 
followed the policy of leasing the convicts to private 
corporations. Many of the convicts were thus 
leased to coal mining companies to be used in mining- 
coal. This policy of the state aroused opposition 
from the free laborers working in the coal mines. 
They did not believe that the state should allow the 
convicts to come in competition with free labor in 
this way. 

In 1891, a coal mining company at Briceville had 
some trouble with its employes, and as a result, 



222 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

leased a number of convicts, and put them to work 
in place of free labor. The miners in an organized 
body went to the mines and forced the authorities 
to take the convicts out. The state militia was 
called into service by Governor Buchanan. In Oc- 
tober of that year a body of miners forced the 
guards at Briceville, Obion Springs, and Coal Creek, 
to release the convicts under their charge. After 
the convicts were released, the miners burnt the 
temporary prisons in which they were confined. 
Miners then made attack on the guards at other 
mines, forcing them to remove the convicts. In 
August, 1892, the state troops marched to Coal 
Creek, and after a sharp conflict with the miners, in 
which several on both sides were killed, the insur- 
rection was crushed. Several of the miners were 
tried and sent to the penitentiary. 

After this trouble with the miners, the state abol- 
ished the lease system. In 1894, the state purchased 
a large tract of coal land at Brushy Mountain, and 
erected at this place a branch prison. The state 
now works a large proportion of the convicts in 
these state mines. 

The convicts in the main prison at Nashville were 
removed in 1898 to the new prison in West Nash- 
ville, which was completed during that year. The 
state owns several thousand acres of farm land 
adjoining the main prison, and many of the con- 
victs are worked on the state farm. 

The legislature of 1909 passed an act which pro- 
vided for the establishment of a reformatory for 



MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT 223 

boys under eighteen years of age. This reform- 
atory was located on a farm purchased by the state 
about seven miles from Nashville. The reform- 
atory has two departments, one for white boys and 
one for negroes. 

The institution is filled to its capacity, having 
about four hundred inmates. The boys in the re- 
formatory are required to give a portion of their 
time to work on the farm, and a portion to study in 
the schools that are maintained in the institution. 

Several reforms were introduced by Governor 
Hooper with reference to the treatment of prison- 
ers. Night schools were established for the con- 
victs, a library of five thousand volumes was estab- 
lished at the main prison, and the stripes were re- 
moved from the convicts. Convicts are required to 
put on stripes when they enter the prison, but if 
they conduct tliemselves properly, the stripes are 
taken off in a short time. 

A limited parole system was put in operation by 
Governor Hooper, during his first term of office, 
under an old law passed many years ago. This 
law was very incomplete, and the legislature of 1913 
passed a more adequate parole law. 

Material Development 

No other state in the Union, with the exception 
of Virginia, was so much injured by the Civil War 
as was Tennessee. Tennessee served as a battle 
ground and as a camping ground of both armies, 
throughout the four years of the war. This occu- 



224 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

pancy resulted in tremendous destruction of prop- 
erty. 

In 1860, Tennessee was well in the forefront of 
American progress. With the near completion of 
her great railway system built at an enormous cost 
to the state, she was just entering a new era of 
progress when her development was arrested. The 
war destroyed almost everything that had been ac- 
complished as a basis of a larger material civiliza- 
tion, except the railroads, and it greatly crippled 
them. But great as was the loss of wealth to Ten- 
nessee, on account of the war, this was not the chief 
loss to the state. The economic strength of any 
community depends more on its working force than 
on its accumulated wealth. With a strong working 
force, destroyed wealtli can be readily replaced. 
But with the working force greatly weakened a 
community is seriously crippled. The greatest loss 
to Tennessee, even from a material point of view, 
occasi»oned by the Civil War, was the loss of a large 
proportion of her strongest and most capable men. 

At the close of the war it was necessary to begin 
anew the work of laying the foundation for modern 
material progress, and this had to be done without 
money, without credit, and with a depleted and 
greatly crippled working force. 

When the many difficulties that confronted the 
Tennesseans on their return from the war are con- 
sidered, the material progress of the state within the 
last half century has been most remarkable. 

In 1860, Tennessee had only two cities with a pop- 



MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT 225 

Illation of more than eight thousand, and the com- 
bined population of tliese two cities was only about 
twenty-five thousand. Today Tennessee has one- 
half million people living in cities. With the rapid 
growth of cities, mining and manufacturing and 
great industrial enterprises in general have devel- 
oped and are developing at a very rapid rate. 

In 1911, 22,027 hands were employed in the mining 
industries of the state, and received as wages $9,- 
170,150. The following products came from Ten- 
nessee mines during the year 1911 : barytes, bauxite, 
brick, tile, cement, clay, coal, coke, copper, gas, gas- 
coke, tar, ammonia, gold, iron ore, pig iron, lime, 
limestone, marble, mineral paints, mineral waters, 
phosphate rock, pottery, quartz, sand, gravel, sand- 
stone, silver, sulphuric acid, zinc. Tennessee has 
the largest sulphuric acid plant in the world. This 
plant is located at Copper Hill in Polk County. 
The value of the sulphuric acid produced at this 
plant in 1911 was $1,621,414. 

The rapid growth of cities in Tennessee since the 
Civil War has in a sense retarded agricultural devel- 
opment. The increase in the city population has 
come largely from the farms, and this has greatly 
diminished the supply of labor in the country. The 
Northern states and the Western states have had 
a continuous stream of immigration to meet the 
growing demands of the farming industry, and 
hence the rural sections of the states have not suf- 
fered so much for want of labor. The South has 
had but few immigrants for a century, and hence 



226 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

nearly all the development of the Sontli has come 
from native population. 

But notwithstanding the many difficulties, agri- 
culture has developed rapidly in Tennessee and has 
never been in a more prosperous condition than it 
is today. The agricultural department of the state 
is very active, and the farmers of Tennessee are now 
giving serious attention and study to the most mod- 
ern scientific jDrinciples of agriculture. 



Chaptek XXIX 

GOVERNORS RYE AND ROBERTS 

In 1914, Governor Hooper was nominated for a 
third time as governor. The regular Democrats, in 
convention in the same year, nominated Tom C. Rye 




GuvEENOR Tom C. Rye 

to oppose Governor Hooper, The regular Demo- 
crats in this convention adopted a strong prohibi- 
tion and law-enforcement platform, taking the same 
position on the liquor question as that held by 
the Independent Democrats and the Republicans. 

227 



228 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



Many Independent Democrats took the position that 
the liquor question, which had separated the party, 
had been settled and gave their support to Mr. Rye. 
Other Independent Democrats doubting the sincer- 
ity of the Regular Democrats on the liquor question, 
supported Governor Hooper for the third term. 
Rye was elected by a majority of over 20,000. 

As chief executive, 
Governor Rye allied 
himself with the prohi- 
bition law-enforcement 
people, and used his 
influence to drive the 
illegal liquor traffic 
from the state. During 
his first administration, 
the Ouster Law was 
passed. Under this 
law, officials who fail to 
do their duty may be 
taken out of office very 
quickly by circuit 
judges or criminal 
judges or by judges of 
the chancery court. 
Governor Rye's strong stand for prohibition and 
law-enforcement, welded the breach between Inde- 
pendent and Regular Democrats, and reunited the 
Democratic Party in Tennessee. 

Governor Rye was reelected in 1916 over John 
W. Overall, the Republican nominee, by over 27,000 




Senator K. D. McKellar 



GOVERNORS RYE AND ROBERTS 229 

majority. In the Democratic senatorial primary of 
tlie same year, K. D. McKellar won the nomination 
over Senator Luke Lea and ex-Governor Patterson, 
and defeated ex-Governor Hooper for the United 
States senate by a majority of over 24,000. 

In 1918, a Democratic primary was held to nomi- 
nate candidates for governor and United States 
senator. Judge A, II. Roberts was nominated for 
governor and Senator John K. Shields was again 
nominated for United States senator over Governor 
Tom C. Rye. The Republicans in this year nomi- 
nated Judge H. B. Lindsey, of Knoxville, for gov- 
ernor and Colonel H. Clay Evans, of Chattanooga, 
for United States senator. Judge Roberts and Sen- 
ator Shields were elected by majorities of 'over 
28,000. 

In his campaign for the office of governor, Judge 
Roberts made tax reform and economy in conduct- 
ing the business of the state his chief issues. When 
he came into office, he found the financial condition 
of the state in a bad way and growing worse day by 
day. This unfortunate condition of affairs had been 
brought about chiefly by a failure on the part of 
the legislatures in the past to provide sufficient 
revenue to meet the growing expenses of the state. 
The result was that the state had been forced to 
go deeper in debt each year in order to get money 
to pay expenses. For a decade before Governor 
Roberts' administration, the expenses of the state 
each year had been greater than the income from 
taxes and other sources. For the years 1915, 1916, 



230 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 




Governor A. H. Roberts 



GOVERNORS RYE AND ROBERTS 231 

1917, 1918, the deficit amounted to nearly $2,000,000. 
This means that the state had been adding to its 
debt $500,000 a year for four years, in order to meet 
current expenses. The following extract from Gov- 
ernor Roberts' message to the legislature indicates 
his strong grasp of the situation and promises a new 
and better day for capable, efficient government in 
Tennessee : 

"It is conceived that it is the first and paramount 
duty of this Legislature to place the state upon a 
firm financial basis. This cannot be done until the 
disbursements are brought within the revenues. 
For many years the annual deficit in the treasury, of 
constantly increasing proportions, has appeared 
with painful regularity. No good business man 
would allow any private enterprise to fall into such 
a condition if it could possibly be prevented. 

"Heretofore the practice has been to make heavy 
appropriations of public funds without providing a 
method of securing the revenue to meet them. Let 
me urge upon you with much earnestness that this 
process should be reversed at the present session. 
We must determine what amount of money is needed 
to carry on an efficient state government, economic- 
ally administered in every department according to 
strict business methods. Having ascertained the 
amount actually needed, we must then provide the 
means of raising this revenue and appropriate only 
such funds as are in sight. In other words, the state 
must live within its income. In my judgment it is 
essential to a proper understanding of our state 



232 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

finances that every dollar collected for the state or 
for any arm or institution of the state, supported 
by appropriations from the public treasury, either 
by an official or agent of the state or of such institu- 
tion or department, be paid into the treasury of the 
state and a record made of such payment; and, on 
the other hand, that every dollar disbursed by the 
state or by any one acting for it in the handling of 
its funds or of funds in which it is interested, di- 
rectly or indirectly, be paid out on warrant of the 
comptroller, supported by proper vouchers there- 
for. It is not a sufficient argument against the plan 
just proposed to urge that an unnecessary burden 
would be imposed upon the office force in the treas- 
ury department and in the comptroller's office; 
neither can it be successfully urged that any mere 
inconvenience to those who handle the funds would 
outweigh the advantages which would flow to the 
public from having a full accounting of all public 
funds with the information easily accessible to the 
people and to their representatives. When any offi- 
cial or subordinate is permitted to make collections 
and disbursements and only convey into the treasury 
any balance left in his hands he is constantly in- 
vited and tempted to commit frauds of one kind and 
another. The records of the State Treasurer and 
of every financial transaction affecting it should be 
as perfect and complete as are those of any well- 
regulated banking institution. 

"An investigation of the various departments of 
the state government discloses the fact that in many 



GOVERNORS RYE AND ROBERTS 233 

instances there is an overlapping of effort and ex- 
pense that is wholly unjustifiable. In some in- 
stances persons on the payroll of the state are not 
working half time. I believe that every employee 
of the state, whatever his station may be, should 
be given as much work as he would be expected to 
do if he were employed by a good business man in 
some i3rivate enterprise. Only so many officers and 
assistants should be employed as are actually neces- 
sary to carry on the state government when all are 
working full time and giving their best energies to 
the service of the state alone. It is my purpose to 
ask the Legislature to begin the use of the pruning 
knife and the simplification and unification of effort 
in the Governor's office. Bills will be submitted to 
the Legislature requiring the private secretary to 
the Governor, who now receives $2,500.00 per an- 
num, in addition to the duties now required of him, 
to discharge such duties as are now performed by 
three other officials who are on the payroll of the 
state, which three officials together receive $5,700.00. 
A portion of this work would ultimately fall upon 
the Governor, but he, too, should work, as well as 
other officials. I may say that where the constitu- 
tion and law casts upon me as your Chief Executive 
responsible duties, I shall not at any time shirk 
their performance or attempt to shift them upon 
other shoulders. This is only one small item, but it 
illustrates the point I am attempting to make. 

"This process of reducing expenses by elimination 
and consolidation will be carried through every de- 



234 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

partment of the state government and will be worked 
out honestly and fearlessly, with sole reference to 
the public welfare. It is confidently hoped that no 
member of this Legislature will permit himself to 
be swerved a hair's breadth from his duty because 
perchance some intimate friend may be affected by 
this wholesome reduction of expenditures. How- 
ever, in reducing expenses, we must never for one 
moment permit ourselves to impair the efficiency of 
any essential function of state government." 



Chapter XXX 

TENNESSEE AND THE GREAT WORLD WAR 

When war was declared against Germany by the 
United States government, every member of con- 
gress from Tennessee supported the measure with 
enthusiasm. They at once lined up behind the presi- 
dent and gave him their hearty support in carrying 
through all the measures necessary to put a great 
American army across the seas at the earliest mo- 
ment possible. There was practically no pro-Ger- 
man sentiment in Tennessee, after it was made clear 
that the United States would enter the war. 

Tennessee responded to the call to arms with that 
enthusiasm which has characterized Tennessee from 
the very beginning of our history. In the past, no 
other state in the Union has played a more conspicu- 
ous part, or performed more valiant service in the 
wars this nation has waged, than has Tennessee. 
Tennesseans of the present generation showed that 
they were worthy descendants of a great ancestry. 

When the news came over the wires from Wash- 
ington that war had been declared, thousands of 
Tennesseans did not wait for their call through the 
selected draft, but volunteered at once and began 
training for battle. Others, equally patriotic, had 
to wait for the specific call through the selected 
draft. But when the call came, they were ready, 
gave up all, and started for the camps, burning witli 

235 



236 HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 

enthusiasm and patriotism. The chief thing that 
worried them was that they could not cross the sea 
at once. 

The men, women, and children, who were denied 
the great privilege of going to France, showed by 




Ex-Senator Luke Lea 
Colonel 144th Field Artillery 

their loyal service to the government at home that 
they had the same sort of patriotism as that pos- 
sessed by the soldiers who went to the front. Those 
who remained at home were ready at all times to 
perform any service or to make any sacrifice re- 
quested by the government. Men and women, all 
over the state, laid aside their ordinary duties and 



TENNESSEE AND THE GREAT WORLD WAR 237 

gave their time and money liberally in support of the 
army at the front. Tennessee over-subscribed her 
allotment in every Liberty Loan call by large sums 
and contributed millions more than she was asked 
to contribute to the Red Cross, to the Young Men's 
Christian Association, and to other organizations. 

At the beginning of the war, the most difficult, as 
well as the most dangerous task that confronted our 
government, w^as the transportation of troops across 
the sea. At this time Germany was sinking num- 
bers of boats every day, through her deadly sub- 
marines. Up to this time, the Allies had not been 
able to cope with this serious menace in a way that 
even promised success in the future. Perhaps the 
chief reason why Germany forced us into the war, 
was that she did not believe that it was possible 
for America to transport a large number of troops 
to France in time to help the Allies win the war. 
It was difficult for her to believe that our govern- 
ment would risk the lives of great numbers on a sea 
swarming w^itli submarines. The man chosen by our 
government to direct the transportation of Ameri- 
can troops to France was Rear Admiral Gleaves, a 
native Tennessean. So great was his genius in di- 
recting the large fleets of transports, that nearly 
2,000,000 American soldiers w^ere placed on French 
soil during the first year of the war, with a loss of 
only about 300 lives. This marvelous feat will 
doubtless go down in history as one of the greatest 
achievements in warfare the world has ever known. 

When the American army was called upon to 



238 



HISTORY OF TENNESSEE 



take its place side by side with the British and the 
French armies on the firing line, Tennessee troops 
were among the first to be sent to the front. So 
brilHant and courageous was the great fight they 
made, and so important were the victories they won, 
that they received the praise of the British and the 




Rear Admiral Albert Gleaves 

French commanders, as well as the congratulations 
of the officers under whom they served. Through 
their heroic deeds Tennessee is known and honored 
throughout the civilized world today. 

To a Tennessean is credited the honor of perform- 
ing what has been pronounced the "most remarkable 
individual feat of the War." Sergeant Alvin C. 



TENNESSEE AND THE GREAT WORLD WAR 239 




Sergeant Alvin C. Vukk, of the 32Sth Infaxtky, S2d Division (A A), 
AND His Mother's Picture 



240 HISTORY OF TENNESEE 

York, of Pall Mall, Tennessee, in the Argonne drive 
in October, 1918, at the head of a detachment of 
seven men, killed twenty Germans, took 132 pris- 
oners, including a major and three lieutenants, and 
put thirty-six enemy machine guns out of operation. 

For this remarkable feat Sergeant York has been 
awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor and the 
Croix de Guerre with Palm. 

The spirit of this brave man is manifest in his 
own words: "I feel much stronger spiritually, — 
no man could pass through what I have without 
feeling that Avay. It was the hand of God that 
guided us and brought about the victory. * * * I 
don't approve of taking life but when I considered 
it necessary for the peace of the world and for 
humanity, I determined to fight." York belongs to 
that honest type of man who is self-confident and 
fearless in time of danger, yet tender in his devotion 
to his mother and steadfast in his religious convic- 
tions. 

To those who lost their lives in defense of the 
inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit 
of happiness, we bow our heads in deep reverence, 
with inexpressible gratitude in our hearts for the 
great service they performed for Christian civiliza- 
tion. They fought a good fight, they kept the faith, 
they showed themselves worthy of the sacred trust 
that the civilization of the past had committed to 
their hands. Their memories we shall always hold 
among our most priceless possessions. 



APPENDIX 

CONSTITUTION OF TENNESSEE, 1870 

This constitution was framed by a convention which assembled at 
Nashville, January 10, 1870, and adjourned Februaiy 23, 1870; was 
adopted by a vote of the people of 98,128 for to 33,872 against, on the 
twenty-sixth day of March, 1870. 

Preamble and Declaration 

Whereas, The people of the territory of the United States south of 
the River Ohio, having the right of admission into the General Gov- 
ernment as a member State thereof, consistent with the Constitution 
of the United States, and the act of cession of the State of North 
Carolina, recognizing the ordinance for the government of the terri- 
tory of the United States north-west of the Ohio River, by their dele- 
gates and representatives in convention assembled, did, on the sixth 
day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred 
and ninety-six, ordain and establish a Constitution or form of govern- 
ment, and mutually agreed with each other to form themselves into a 
free and independent State, by the name of the State of Tennessee; 
and. 

Whereas, The General Assembly of the said State of Tennessee 
(pursuant to the third section of the tenth article of the Constitution), 
by an act passed on the twenty-seventh day of November, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, entitled "An 
act to provide for the calling of a convention," passed in obedience to 
the declared will of the voters of this State, as expressed at the general 
election of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-three, did authorize and provide for the election, by the 
people, of delegates and representatives, to meet at Nashville, in 
Davidson County, on the third Monday in May, in the year of our 
Lord, one thousand eight hundred and thirtj^-four, for the purpose of 
revising and amending or changing the Constitution ; and said conven- 
tion did accordingly meet and form a Constitution, which was sub- 
mitted to the people, and was ratified by them, on the first Friday in 
March, in the j'ear of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty- 
five; and. 

Whereas, The General Assembly of said State of Tennessee, under 
and in virtue of the first section of the first article of the Declaration 
of Rights, contained in and forming a part of the existing Constitution 
of the State, by an act passed on the fifteenth day of November, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, did 
provide for the calling of a convention by the people of the State, to 
meet at Nashville on the second Monday in January, in the year of 
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy, and for the election 
of delegates for the purpose of amending or revising the present Con- 
stitution, or forming and making a new Constitution ; and, 

241 



242 APPENDIX 

Whereas, The people of the State, in the mode provided by said act, 
have called said convention and elected delegates to represent them 
therein; now, therefore. 

We, the delegates and representatives of the people of the State of 
Tennessee, duly elected, and in convention assembled, in pursuance of 
said act of Assembly, have ordained and established the following Con- 
stitution and form of government for this State, which we recommend 
to the people of Tennessee for their ratification ; that is to say : 

ARTICLE I 

Decl.\ration of Rights 

Section 1. That all power is inherent in the people, and all free gov- 
ernments are founded on their authority and instituted for their peace, 
safety, and happiness ; for the advancement of those ends they have, 
at all times, an inalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform, or 
abolish the government in such manner as they may think proper. 

Sec. 2. That government being instituted for common benefit, the 
doctrine of non-resistance against arbitrary power and oppression is 
absurd, slavish, and destructive of the good and happiness of mankind. 

Sec. 3. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to wor- 
ship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience; 
that no man can of right be compelled to attend, erect, or support any 
place of worship, or to maintain any minister against his consent; that 
no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with 
the rights of conscience; and that no preference shall ever be given 
bj' law to any religious establishment or mode of worship. 

Sec. 4. That no political or religious test, other than an oath to 
support the Constitution of the United States and of this State, shall 
e\cr be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under 
this State. 

Sec. 5. That elections shall be free and equal; and the right of 
suffrage, as hereinafter declared, shall never be denied to any person 
entitled thereto, except upon conviction by a jury of some infamous 
crime, previously ascertained and declared by law, and judgment 
thereon by a court of competent jurisdiction. 

Sec. 6. That the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate, and 
no religious or political test shall ever be required as a qualification 
for jurors. 

Sec. 7. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers, and possessions from unreasonable searches and seizures; and 
that general warrants, whereby an officer may be commanded to search 
suspected places, without evidence of the fact committed, or to seize 
any person or persons not named, whose offenses are not particularly 
described and supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty, and 
ought not to be granted. 

Sec. 8. That no man shall be taken or imprisoned or disseized of 
his freehold, liberties, or pri\-ileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any 



APPENDIX 243 

manner destroyed or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by 
the judgment of his peers or the law of the land. 

Sec. 9. That in all criminal prosecutions the accused hath the 
right to be heard by himself and his counsel ; to demand the nature 
and cause of the accusation against him, and to have a copy thereof; 
to meet the witnesses face to face; to have compulsorj' process for 
obtaining witnesses in his favor ; and in prosecutions by indictment or 
presentment, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county 
in which the crime shall ha\e been committed, and shall not be com- 
pelled to give evidence against himself. 

Sec. 10. That no person shall, for the same offense, be twice put in 
jeopardy of life or limb. 

Sec. 11. That laws made for the punishment of acts committed 
previous to the existence of such laws, and by them only declared 
criminal, are contrary to the principles of a free government; where- 
fore no c.r post facto law shall be made. 

Sec. 12. That no conviction shall work corruption of blood or for- 
feiture of estate. The estate of such persons as shall destroy their own 
lives shall descend or vest as in case of natural death. If any person 
be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture in consequence 
thereof. 

Sec. 13. That no person arrested and confined in jail shall be 
treated with vmnecessary rigor. 

Sec. 14. That no person shall be put to answer any criminal charge 
but by presentment, indictment, or impeachment. 

Sec. 15. That all prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, 
unless for capital offenses, when the proof is evident or the presump- 
tion great; and the privileges of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be 
suspended imless when, in case of rebellion or invasion, the General 
Assembly shall declare the public safety requires it. 

Sec. 16. That excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted. 

Sec. 17. That all courts shall be open, and every man, for an 
injury done him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation, shall have 
remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered with- 
out sale, denial, or delay. Suits may be brought against the State in 
such manner and iu such courts as the Legislature may by law direct. 

Sec. 18. The Legislature shall pass no law authorizing imprison- 
ment for debt in civil cases. 

Sec. 19. That the printing presses shall be free to eveiy person to 
examine the proceedings of the Legislature, or of any branch or officer 
of the Government; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the 
right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is 
one of the invaluable rights of man, and every citizen may freely 
speak, write, and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse 
of that liberty. But in prosecutions for the publication of papers 
investigating the official conduct of officers or men in public capacity, 
the truth thereof may be given in evitlence; and in all indictments for 
libel the jury shall have a right to determine the law and the facts, 
under the direction of the court, as in other criminal cases. 



244 APPENDIX 

Sec. 20. That no retrospective law, or law impairing the obliga- 
tions of contracts, shall be made. 

Sec. 21. That no man's particular services shall be demanded, or 
property taken or applied to public use, without the consent of his 
representatives, or without just compensation being made therefor. 

Sec. 22. That perpetuities and nionoplies are contrary to the genius 
of a free State, and shall not be allowed. 

Sec. 23. That the citizens have a right, in a peacable manner, to 
assemble together for their common good, to instruct their representa- 
tives, and apply to those invested with the powers of government for 
redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by address or remon- 
strance. 

Sec. 24. That the sure and certain defense of a free people is a 
well-regulated militia; and, as standing armies in time of peace are 
dangerous to freedom, they ought to be avoided as far as the circum- 
stances and safety of the community will admit; and that in all cases 
the military shall be kept in strict subordination to the civil authority. 

Sec. 25. That no citizen of this State, except such as are employed 
in the army of the United States or militia in actual service, shall be 
subjected to punishment under the martial or military law. That 
martial law, in the sense of the unrestricted power of military officers 
or others to dispose of the persons, liberties, or property of the citizen, 
is inconsistent with the principles of free government, and is not con- 
fided to any department of the government of this State. 

Sec. 26. That the citizens of this State have a right to keep and to 
bear arms for their common defense; but the Legislature shall have 
power, by law, to regulate the wearing of arms with a view to prevent 
crime. 

Sec. 27. That no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in 
any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in 
a manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 28. That no citizen of this State shall be compelled to bear 
arms, provided he will pay an equivalent, to be ascertained by law. 

Sec. 29. That an equal participation in the free navigation of the 
Mississippi is one of the inherent rights of the citizens of this State; 
it cannot, therefore, be conceded to any prince, potentate, power, per- 
son or persons whatever. 

Sec. 30. That no hereditary emoluments, privileges, or honors, 
shall be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 31. That the limits and boundaries of this State being ascer- 
tained, it is declared they are as hereafter mentioned — that is to say: 
Beginning on the extreme height of the Stone Mountain, at the place 
where the line of Virginia intersects it, in latitude thirty-six degrees 
and thirty minutes north ; running thence along the extreme height of 
the said mountain to the place where the Watauga River breaks 
through it ; thence a direct course to the top of the Yellow Mountain, 
where Bright's road crosses the same; thence along the ridge of said 
mountain, between the waters of Doe River and the waters of Rock 
Creek, to the place where the road crosses the Iron Mountain; from 
thence along the extreme height of said mountain to the place where 



APPENDIX 245 

Nolichiicky River runs through the same; thence to the top of the 
Bald Mountain; thence along the extreme height of said mountain to 
the Painted Rock, on French Broad River; thence along the highest 
ridge of said mountam to the place where it is called the Great Iron 
or Smokj' Mountain; thence along the extreme height of said moun- 
tain to the place where it is called the Unicoi or Unaka Mountain, 
between the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota; thence along the 
main ridge of the said moimtain to the southern boundary of this 
State, as described in the act of cession of North Carolina to the 
United States of America ; and that all the territory, lands, and waters 
lying west of the saitl line, as before mentioned, and contained within 
the chartered limits of the State of North Carolina, are within the 
boundaries and limits of this State, over which the people have the 
right of exercising sovereignty, and the right of s^l, so far as is con- 
sistent with the Constitution of the United States, recognizing the 
Articles of Confederation, the Bill of Rights, and Constitution of 
North Carolina, the cession act of the said State, and the ordinance of 
Congress for the government of the territory north-west of the Ohio ; 
Provided, Nothing herein contained shall extend to affect the claim or 
claims of individuals to any part of the soil which is recognized to 
them by the aforesaid cession act; And provided also, That the limits 
and jurisdiction of this State shall extend to any other land and terri- 
tory now acquired, or that may hereafter be acquired, by compact or 
agreement with other States or otherwise, although such land and ter- 
ritory are not included within the boundaries hereinbefore designated. 

Sec. 32. That the erection of safe and comfortable prisons, and 
inspection of prisons, and the humane treatment of prisoners shall be 
provided for. 

Sec. 33. That slavery and involuntary servitude, except as a pun- 
ishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
are forever prohibited in this State. 

Sec. 34. The General Assembly shall make no law recognizing the 
right of property in man. 

ARTICLE II 

Distribution of Powers 

Section 1. The powers of the Government shall be divided into 
three distinct departments: the legislative, executive, and judicial. 

Sec. 2. No person or persons belonging to one of these depart- 
ments shall exercise any of the powers properly belonging to either of 
the others, except in the cases herein directed or permitted. 

The Legislative Department 

Sec. 3. The legislative authority of this State shall be vested in a 
General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, both dependent on the people, who shall hold their offices 
for two years from the day of the general election. 

Sec. 4. An enumeration of the qualified voters and an apportion- 
ment of the Representatives in the General Assembly shall be made 



246 APPENDIX 

in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one, and within 
every subsequent term of ten years. 

Sec. 5. The number of Representatives shall, at the several periods 
of making the enumeration, be apportioned among the several counties 
or districts, according to tlie number of qualified voters in each, and 
fdiall not exceed seventy-five until the population of the State shall 
be one million and a half, and shall never exceed ninety-nine; Pro- 
vided, That any county having two-thirds of the ratio shall be entitled 
to one member. 

Sec. 6. The number of Senators shall, at the several periods of 
making the enumeration, be apportioned among the several counties 
or districts, according to the number of qualified electors in each, and 
shall not exceed one-third the number of Rcpresentati\'es. In appor- 
tioning the Sonatoi's among the different counties the fraction that 
may be lost by any county or counties in apportionment of members 
to the House of Representatives shall be made up to such county or 
counties in the Senate as near as may be practicable. When a district 
is composed of two or more counties they shall be adjoining, and no 
counties shall be divided in forming a district. 

Sec. 7. The first election for Senators and Representatives shall be 
held on the second Tuesday in November, one thousand eight hundred 
and seventy ; and forever thereafter elections for members of the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall be held once in two years, on the first Tuesday 
after the first Monday in November. Said elections shall terminate 
the same day. 

Sec. 8. The first session of the General Assembly shall commence 
on the first Monday in October, 1871, at which time the term of service 
of the members shall commence, and exj^ire on the first Tuesday of 
November, 1872, at which session the Governor elected on the second - 
Tuesday in November, 1870, shall be inaugurated; and forever there- 
after the General Assembly shall meet on the first Monday in January 
next ensuing the election, at which session thereof the Governor shall 
be inaugurated. 

Sec. 9. No person shall be a Representative unless he shall be a 
citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty-one years, and shall 
have been a citizen of this State for three j'ears and a resident in the 
county he represents one year immediately preceding the election. 

Sec. 10. No person shall be a Senator unless he shall be a citizen 
of the United States, of the age of thirty years, and shall have resided 
three years in this State and one year in the county or district imme- 
diately preceding the election. No Senator or Representative shall, 
during the time for which he was elected, be eligible to any office or 
place of trust, the appointment to which is vested in the Executive or 
General Assembly-, except to the oflice of trustee of a literary institu- 
tion. 

Sec. 11. The Senate and House of Representatives, when assem~ 
bled, shall each choose a Speaker and its other officers; be judges of 
the qualifications and election of its members, and sit upon its own 
adjournments from day to day. Not less than two-thirds of all the 
members to which each House shall be entitled shall constitute a 



APPENDIX 247 

quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day 
to day, and may be authorized by law to compel the attendance of 
absent members. 

Sec. 12. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, 
punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the "concurrence 
of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same 
offense ; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the 
Legislature of a free State. 

Sec. 13. Senators and Representatives shall, in all cases except 
treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest din*- 
ing the session of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning 
from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either House they 
shall not be questioned in any other place. 

Sec. 14. Each House may punish by imprisonment, during its ses- 
sion, any person not a member, who shall be guilty of disrespect to 
the House by any disorderly or contemptuous behavior in its presence. 

Sec. 15. When vacancies happen in either House the Governor for 
the time being shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

Sec. 16. Neither House shall, during its session, adjourn without 
the consent of the other for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 17. Bills may originate in either House, but may be amended, 
altered, or rejected bj' the other. No bill shall become a law which 
embraces more than one subject, that subject to be expressed in the 
title. AH acts which repeal, revi^-e, or amend former laws, shall recite 
in their caption, or otherwise, the title or substance of the law re- 
pealed, revived, or amended. 

Sec. 18. Every bill shall be read once on three different days, and 
be passed each time in the House where it originated before transmis- 
sion to the other. No bill shall become a law until it shall have been 
read and passed, on three different days, in each House, and shall have 
received on its final passage, in each House, the assent of a majority 
of all the members to which that House shall be entitled under the 
Constitution; and shall have been signed by the respective Speakers 
in open session — the fact of such signing to be noted on the journal; 
and shall have received the approval of the Governor, or shall have 
been otherwise passed imder the provisions of this Constitution. 

Sec. 19. After a bill has been rejected, no bill containing the same 
substance shall be passed into a law during the same session. 

Sec. 20. The style of the laws of the State shall be: "Be it enacted 
by the General Assembly of the Stale of Tennessee." No law of a 
general nature shall take effect until forty days after its passage, unless 
the same or the caption thereof shall state that the public welfare 
requires that it should take effect sooner. 

Sec. 21. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and 
publish it, except such parts as the welfare of the State may require to 
be kept secret ; the ayes and noes shall be taken in each House upon 
the final passage of everj^ bill of a general character, and bills making 
appropriations of public moneys ; and the ayes and noes of the mem- 



248 APPENDIX 

bers on any question shall, at the request of five of them, be entered 
on the journal. 

Sec. 22. The doors of each House and of committees of the whole 
shall be kept open, unless when the business shall be such as ought to 
be kept secret. 

Sec. 23. The sum of four dollars per day, and four dollars for 
every twenty-five miles traveling to and from the seat of government, 
shall be allowed to each member of the General Assembly elected after 
the ratification of this Constitution, as a compensation for their serv- 
ices. But no member shall be paid for more than seventy-five days 
of a regular session, or for more than twenty daj's of an extra or called 
session; or for any day when absent from his seat in his Legislature, 
unless physically unable to attend. The Senators, when sitting as a 
court of impeachment, shall each receive four dollars per day of actual 
attendance. 

Sec. 24. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in conse- 
quence of appropriations made by law; and an accurate statement of 
the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be attached to 
and published with the laws at the close of each stated session of the 
General Assembly. 

Sec. 25. No person who heretofore hath been, or may hereafter be, 
a collector or holder of public moneys, shall have a seat in either 
House of the General Assembly, or hold any other office under the 
State government, until such person shall have accounted for and paid 
into the treasury all sums for which he may be accountable or liable. 

Sec. 26. No Judge of any court of law or equity, Secretary of State, 
Attorney-general, Register, Clerk of any court of record, or person 
holding any office under the authority of the United States, shall have 
a seat in the General Asesmbly, nor shall any person in this State hold 
more than one lucrative office at the same time; Provided, that no 
appointment in the militia, or to the office of Justice of the Peace, 
shall be considered a lucrative office, or operative as a disqualification 
to a seat in either House of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 27. Any member of either House of the General Assembly 
shall have liberty to dissent from and protest against any act or re- 
solve which he may think injurious to the public or to any individual, 
and to have the reason for his dissent entered on the journals. 

Sec. 28. All property, real, personal, or mixed, shall be taxed, but 
the Legislature may except such as may be held by the State, by coun- 
ties, cities, or towns, and used exclusively for public or corporation 
purposes, and such as may be held and used for purposes piu'ely 
religious, charitable, scientific, literary, or educational, and shall except 
one thousand dollars' worth of personal property in the hands of each 
tax-payer, and the direct product of the soil in the hands of the pro- 
ducer and his immediate vendee. All property shall be taxed accord- 
ing to its value, that value to be ascertained in such manner as the 
Legislature shall direct, so that taxes shall be equal and uniform 
throughout the State. No one species of property from which a tax 
may be collected shall be taxed higher than any other species of prop- 
erty of the same value. But the Legislature shall have power to tax 



APPENDIX 249 

merchants, peddlers, and privileges in such manner as they may from 
time to time direct. The portion of a merchant's capital used in the 
purchase of merchandise sold by him to non-residents and sent beyond 
the State, shall not be taxed at a rate higher than the ad valorem tax 
on property. The legislature shall have the power to levy a tax upon 
incomes derived from stocks and bonds that are not taxed ad valorem. 
All male citizens of this State over the age of twenty-one years, except 
such persons as may be exempted by law on account of age or other 
infirmity, shall be liable to a poll-tax of not less than fifty cents nor 
more than one dollar per annum. Nor shall any county or corporation 
levy a poll-tax exceeding the amount levied by the State. 

Sec. 29. The General Assembly shall have power to authorize the 
several counties and incorporated towns in this State to impose taxes 
for county and corporation purposes respectively, in such manner as 
shall be prescribed by law; and all property shall be taxed according 
to its value, upon the principles established m regard to State taxation. 
But the credit of no county, city, or town shall be given or loaned to 
or in aid of any person, company, association, or corporation, except 
upon an election to be first held by the qualified voters of such 
county, city, or town, and the assent of three-fourths of the votes cast 
at said election. Nor shall any county, city, or town become a stock- 
holder with others in any company, association, or corporation, except 
upon a like election, and the assent of a like majority. But the 
counties of Grainger, Hawkins, Hancock, Union, Campbell, Scott, 
Morgan, Grundy, Sumner, Smith, Fentress, Van Buren, and the new 
county herein authorized to be established out of fractions of Sumner, 
Macon, and Smith Counties; White, Putnam, Overton, Jackson, Cum- 
berland, Anderson, Henderson, Wayne, Cocke, Coffee, Macon, Mar- 
shall, and Roane shall be exempted out of the provisions of this 
section, so far that the assent of a majority of the qualified voters of 
either of said counties voting on the question shall be sufficient, when 
the credit of such county is given or loaned to any person, association, 
or corporation; Provided, That the exception of the counties above 
named sliall not be in force beyond the year one thousand eight hun- 
dred and eighty, and after that period they shall be subject to the 
three-fourths majority applicable to the other counties of the State. 

Sec. 30. No article manufactured of the produce of this State shall 
be taxed otherwise than to pay inspection fees. 

Sec. 31. The credit of this State shall not be hereafter loaned or 
given to or in aid of any person, association, company, corporation, or 
municipality; nor shall the State become the owner, in whole or in 
part, of any bank, or a stockholder with others in any association, com- 
pany, corporation, or municipality. 

Sec. 32. No convention or General Assembly of this State shall act 
upon any amendment of the Constitution of the United States pro- 
posed by Congress to the several States, unless such convention or 
General Assembly shall have been elected after such amendment is 
submitted. 

Sec. 33. No bonds of the State shall be issued to anj^ railroad com- 
pany which at the time of its application for the same shall be in 



250 APPENDIX 

default in paying the interest upon the State bonds previously loaned 
to it, or that shall hereafter and before such application, sell or abso- 
lutely dispose of any State bonds loaned to it for less than par. 

ARTICLE III 

Executive Department 

Section 1. The supreme executive power of this State shall be 
vested in a Governor. 

Sec. 2. The Governor shall be chosen bj^ the electors of the mem- 
bers of the General Assembly at the time and places where they shall 
respectively vote for the members therof. The returns of every elec- 
tion for Governor shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of 
government by the returning officers, directed to the Speaker of the 
Senate, who shall open and publish them in the presence of a majority 
of the members of each House of the General Assembly. The person 
having the highest number of votes shall be Governor; but if two or 
more shall be equal and highest in votes, one of them shall be chosen 
Governor by joint vote of both Houses of the General Assembly. 
Contested elections for Governor shall be determined by both houses 
of the General Assembly, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. He shall be at least thirty years of age, shall be a citizen of 
the United States, and shall have been a citizen of this State seven 
years ne.xt before his election. 

Sec. 4. The Governor shall hold his office for two years, and until 
his successor shall be elected and qualified. He shall not be eligible 
more than six years in any term of eight. 

Sec. 5. He shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of 
the State, and of the militia, except when they shall be called into the 
service of the United States; but the militia shall not be called into 
service except in case of rebellion or invasion, and then only when the 
General Assembly shall declare by law that the public safety requires it. 

Sec. 6. He shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, after 
conviction, except in cases of impeachment. 

Sec. 7. He shall, at stated times, receive a compensation for his 
services, which shall not be increased or diminished during the period 
for which he shall have been elected. 

Sec. 8. He may require information, in writing, from the officers 
in the executive department upon any subject relating to the duties 
of their respective offices. 

Sec. 9. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General 
Assembly by proclamation, in which he shall state specifically the pur- 
poses for which they are to convene ; but they shall enter on no legisla- 
tive business except that for which they were specifically called 
together. 

Sec. 10. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. 

Sec. 11. He shall, from time to time, give to the General Assembly 
information of the state of the government, and recommend for their 
consideration such measures as he shall judge expedient. 



APPENDIX 251 

Sec. 12. In case of the removal of the Governor from office, or of 
his death or resignation, the powers and duties of the office shall de- 
volve on the Speaker of the Senate; and in case of the death, removal 
from office, or resignation of the Speaker of the Senate, the powers and 
duties of the office shall devolve on the Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives. 

Sec. 13. No member of Congress, or person holding any office 
under the United States, or this State, shall execute the office of 
Governor. 

Sec. 14. When any officer, the right of whose appointment is by 
this Constitution vested in the General Assembly, shall, during the 
recess, die, or the office, by the expiration of the term, or by other 
means, become vacant, the Governor shall have the power to fill such 
vacancy by granting a temporary commission, which shall expire at the 
end of the next session of the Legislature. 

Sec. 15. There shall be a seal of this State, which shall be kept 
by the Governor and used by him officially, and shall be called the 
Great Seal of the State of Tennessee. 

Sec. 16. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by 
the authority of the State of Tennessee, be sealed with the State seal, 
and signed by the Governor. 

Sec. 17. A Secretary of State shall be appointed by joint vote of 
the General Assembly, and commissioned during the term of four 
years. He shall keep a fair register of all the official acts and pro- 
ceedings of the Governor, and shall, when required, lay the same, and 
all papers, minutes, and vouchers relative thereto, before the General 
Assembly; and shall perform such other duties as shall be enjoined by 
law. 

Sec. 18. Every bill which may pass both Houses of the General 
Assembly shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor 
for his signature. If he approve, he shall sign it, and the same shall 
become a law; but if he refuse to sign it, he shall return it, with his 
objections thereto in writing, to the House in which it originated, and 
said House shall cause said objections to be entered at large upon its 
journals, and proceed to reconsider the bill. If, after such reconsider- 
ation, a majority of all the members elected to that House shall agree 
to pass the bill notwithstanding the objections of the Executi^'e, it 
shall' be sent, with said objections, to the other House, by which it 
shall be likewise reconsidered. If approved by a majority of the whole 
number elected to that House, it shall become a law. The votes of 
both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of 
all the members voting for or against the bill shall be entered upon the 
journals of their respective Houses. If the Governor shall fail to 
return any bill with his objections, within five days (Sunday excepted) 
after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall become a law 
without his signature, unless the General Assembly, by its adjourn- 
ment, prevents its return, in which case it shall not become a law. 
Every joint resolution or order, except on questions of adjournment, 
shall likewise be presented to the Governor for his signature, and 
before it shall take effect shall receive his signature, and on being 



252 APPENDIX 

disapproved by him, shall in like manner be returned with his 
objections; and the same, before it shall take effect, shall be repassed 
by a majority of all the members elected to both Houses, in the man- 
ner and according to the rules prescribed in case of a bill. 

ARTICLE IV 

Elections 

Section 1. Every male person of the age of twenty-one years, 
being a citizen of the United States, and a resident of this State for 
twelve months, and of the county wherein he may offer his vote for 
SIX months next preceding the day of election, shall be entitled to vote 
for members of the General Assembly and other civil officers for the 
county or district in which he resides ; and there shall be no qualifica- 
tion attached to the right of suffrage except that each voter shall give 
the judges of election where he offers to vote satisfactory evidence 
that he has paid the poll-taxes assessed against him for such preceding 
period as the Legislature shall prescribe, and at such time as may be 
prescribed by law, without which his vote cannot be received. And all 
male citizens of the State shall be subject to the payment of poll-taxes 
and the performance of military duty within such ages as may be 
prescribed by law. The General Assembly shall have power to enact 
laws requiring voters to vote in the election precincts in which they 
may reside, and laws to secure the freedom of elections and the purity 
of the ballot-box. 

Sec. 2. Laws may be passed exclucUng from the right of suffrage 
persons who may be convicted of infamous crimes. 

Sec. 3. Electors shall, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach 
of the peace, be privileged from arrest or summons during their attend- 
ance at elections, and in going to and returning from them. 

Sec. 4. In all elections to be made by the General Assembly the 
members thereof shall vote viva voce, and their votes shall be entered 
on the journal. All other elections shall be by ballot. 

ARTICLE V 

Impe.^chment 

Section L The House of Representatives shall have the sole power 
of impeachment. 

Sec. 2. All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When sit- 
ting for that purpose the Senators shall be upon oath or affirmation, 
and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, or, if he be on trial, the 
senior Associate Judge, shall preside over them. No person shall be 
convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators sworn 
to tr3' the officer impeached. 

Sec. 3. The House of Representatives shall elect from their own 
body three members whose duty it shall be to prosecute impeach- 
ments. No impeachment shall be tried until the Legislature shall have 
adjourned sine die, when the Senate shall proceed to try such impeach- 
ment. 



APPENDIX 253 

Sec. 4. The Governor, Judges of the Supreme Court, Judges of the 
inferior courts. Chancellors, Attornej's for the State, Treasurer, Comp- 
troller, and Secretary of State shall be liable to impeachment when- 
ever they maj', in the opinion of the House of Representatives, com- 
mit any crime in their official capacity which may require disqualifica- 
tion; but judgment shall only extend to removal from office and 
disqualification to fill any office thereafter. The party shall, never- 
theless, be liable to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment ac- 
cording to law. The Legislature now has, and shall continue to have, 
power to relieve from the penalties imposed any person disqualifi-ed 
from holding office by the judgment of a court of impeachment. 

Sec. 5. Justices of the Peace, and other civil officers not herein- 
before mentioned, for crimes or misdemeanors in office, shall be liable 
to indictment in such courts as the Legislature may direct; and, upon 
conviction, shall be removed from office by said court as if found 
guilty on impeachment, and shall be subject to such other punishment 
as may be prescribed by law. 

ARTICLE VI 

Judicial Dep.artment 

Section L The judicial power of this State shall be vested in one 
Supreme Court and in such circuit, chancery, and other inferior courts 
as the Legislature shall from time to time ordain and establish in the 
Judges thereof and in Justices of the Peace. The Legislature may also 
vest such jurisdiction in corporation courts as may be deemed neces- 
sary. Courts to be holden by Justices of the Peace may also be 
established. 

Sec. 2. The Supreme Court shall consist of five Judges, of whom 
not more than two shall reside in any one of the grand divisions of the 
State. The Judges .shall designate one of their own number who shall 
preside as Chief Justice. The concurrence of three of the Judges shall, 
in every case, be necessary to a decision. The jurisdiction of this 
court shall be appellate only, under such restrictions and regulations 
as may from time to time be prescribed by law; but it may possess 
such other jurisdiction as is now confeiTed by law on the present 
Supreme Court. Said court shall be held at Ivnoxville, Nashville, and 
Jackson. 

Sec. 3. The Judges of the Supreme Court shall be elected by the 
qualified voters of the State. The Legislature shall have power to 
prescribe such rules as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of 
Section 2 of this Article. E^ery Judge of the Supreme Court shall be 
thirty-five years of age, and shall, before the election, have been a 
resident of the State for five years. His term of service shall be eight 
years. 

Sec. 4. The Judges of the Circuit and Chancery Courts, and of 
other inferior courts, shall be elected by the qualified voters of the 
district or circuit to which they are to be assigned. Every Judge of 
such courts shall be thirty years of age, and shall, before his election, 



254 APPENDIX 

have been a resident of the State five years, and of the circuit or dis- 
trict one year. His term of service shall be eight years. 

Sec. 5. An Attorney-general and Reporter for the State shall be 
appointed by the Judges of the Supreme Court, and shall hold his 
office for a term of eight years. An Attorney for the State for any 
circuit or district for which a Judge having criminal jurisdiction shall 
be provided by law shall be elected by the qualified voters of such 
circuit or district, and shall hold his office for a term of eight years, 
and shall have been a resident of the State five years, and of the circuit 
or district one year. In all cases where the Attorney for any district 
fails or refuses to attend and prosecute according to law, the court 
shall have power to appoint an Attorney pro tempore. 

Sec. 6. Judges and Attorneys for the State may be removed from 
office by a concurrent vote of both Houses of the General Assembly, 
each House voting separately ; but two-thirds of the members to which 
each House may be entitled must concin- in such vote. The vote shall 
be determined by ayes and noes, and the names of the members 
voting for or against the Judge or Attorney for the State, together 
with the cause or causes of removal, shall be entered on the journal of 
each House respectively. The Judge or Attorney for the State against 
whom the Legislature may be about to proceed, shall receive notice 
thereof, accompanied with a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, 
at least ten days before the day on which either House of the General 
Assembly shall act thereupon. 

Sec. 7. The Judges of the supreme or inferior courts shall, at 
stated times, receive a compensation for their services, to be ascer- 
tained by law, which shall not be increased or diminished during the 
time for which they are elected. They shall not be allowed any fees 
or perquisites of office, nor hold any office of trust or profit under this 
State or the United States. 

Sec. 8. The jurisdiction of the circuit, chancery, and other inferior 
courts shall be as now established by law until changed by the Legis- 
lature. 

Sec. 9. Judges shall not charge juries with respect to matters of 
fact, but may state the testimony and declare the law. 

Sec. 10. Judges or justices of the inferior courts of law and equity 
shall have power in all civil cases to issue writs of certiorari to remove 
any cause, or the transcript of the record thereof, from any inferior 
jurisdiction into such court of law, on sufficient cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation. 

Sec. 11. No Judge of the supreme or inferior courts shall preside 
on the trial of any cause in the event of which he may be interested, 
or where either of the parties shall be connected with him by affinity 
or consanguinity, within such degrees as may be prescribed by law, or 
in which he may have been of counsel, or in which he may have pre- 
sided in any inferior court, except by consent of all the parties. In 
case all or any of the Judges of the Supreme Coiat shall thus be dis- 
qualified from presiding on the trial of any cause or causes, the court, 
or the Judges thereof, shall certify the same to the Governor of the 
State, and he shall forthwith specially commission the requisite num- 



APPENDIX 255 

ber of men of law knowledge for the trial and determination thereof. 
The Legislature may, by general laws, make provision that special 
Judges may be appointed to hold any court the Judge of which shall 
be unable or fail to attend or sit, or to hear any cause in which the 
Judge may be incompetent. 

Sec. 12. All writs and other process shall run in the name of the 
State of Tennessee, and bear test and be signed by the respective 
Clerks. Indictment shall conclude: "Against the peace and dignity of 
the State." 

Sec. 13. Judges of the Supreme Court shall appoint their Clerks, 
who shall hold their offices for six years. Chancellors shall appoint 
their Clerk and Masters, who shall hold their offices for six years. 
Clerks of the inferior courts, holden in the respective counties or dis- 
tricts, shall be elected by the qualified voters thereof, for the term of 
four years. Any Clerk may be removed from office for malfeasance, 
incompetencj', or neglect of duty, in such manner as may be prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 14. No fine shall be laid on any citizen of this State that shall 
exceed fifty dollars, unless it shall be assessed by a jury of his peers, 
who shall assess the fine at the time they find the fact, if they think 
the fine should be more than fifty dollars. 

Sec. 15. The different counties of this State shall be laid off, as the 
General Assembly may direct, into districts of convenient size, so that 
the whole nmnber in each county shall not be more than twenty-five, 
or four for e^'er.y one himdred square miles. There shall be two Jus- 
tices of the Peace and one Constable elected in each district by the 
qualified voters therein, except districts including county towns, which 
shall elect three Justices and two Constables. The jurisdiction of said 
officers shall be co-extensive with the county. Justices of the Peace 
shall be elected for the term of six and Constables for the term of two 
years. Upon the removal of either of said officers from the district 
in which he was elected his office shall become vacant from the time 
of such removal. Justices of the Peace shall be commissioned by the 
Governor. The Legislature shall have power to provide for the 
appointment of an additional number of Justices of the Peace in incor- 
porated towns. 

ARTICLE VII 

State and County Officers 

Section 1. There shall be elected in each county, by the qualified 
voters therein, one Sheriff, one Trustee, one Register — the Sheriff and 
Trustee for two years and the Register for four years; but no person 
shall be eligible to the office of Sheriff more than six years in any term 
of eight years. There shall be elected for each county, by the Justices 
of the Peace, one Coroner, and one Ranger, who shall hold their 
offices for two years. Said officers shall be removed for malfeasance 
or neglect of duty, in such manner as may be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 2. Should a vacancy occur subsequent to an election in the 
office of Sheriff, Trustee, or Register, it shall be filled by the Justices; 



256 APPENDIX 

if in that of the Clerk to be elected by the people, it shall be filled by 
the courts; and the person so appointed shall continue in office until 
his successor shall be elected and qualified; and such office shall be 
filled by the qualified voters at the first election for any of the county 
officers. 

Sec. 3. There shall be a Treasurer or Treasurers and a Comptroller 
of the Treasury, appointed for the State by the joint vote of both 
Houses of the General Assembly, who shall hold their offices for two 
years. 

Sec. 4. The election of all officers and the filling of all vacancies 
not otherwise directed or provided by this Constitution shall be made 
in such manner as the Legislature shall direct. 

Sec. 5. Elections for judicial and other civil officers shall be held 
on the- first Thursday in August, one thousand eight hundred and sev- 
enty, and forever thereafter on the first Thursday in August next pre- 
ceding the expiration of their respective terms of service. The term 
of each officer so elected shall be computed from the first day of Sep- 
tember next succeeding his election. The term of office of the Gov- 
ernor and other executive officers shall be computed from the fifteenth 
of January next after the election of the Governor. No appointment 
or election to fill a vacancy shall be made for a period extending be- 
yond the unexpired term. Every officer shall hold his office until his 
successor is elected or appointed and qualified. No special election 
shall be held to fill a vacancy in the office of Judge or District Attor- 
ney but at the time herein fixed for the biennial term of civil officers ; 
and such vacancy shall be filled at the next biennial election recurring 
more than thirty days after the vacancy occurs. 

ARTICLE VIII 

MlUTIA 

Section 1. All militia officers shall be elected by persons subject 
to military duty within the bounds of their several companies, bat- 
talions, regiments, brigades, and divisions, under such rules and regula- 
tions as the Legislature may, from time to time, direct and establish. 

Sec. 2. The Governor shall appoint the Adjutant-general and his 
other staff officers; the Majors-general, Brigadiers-general, and com- 
manding officers of regiments, shall respectively appoint their staff 
officers. 

Sec. 3. The Legislature shall pass laws exempting citizens belong- 
ing to any sect or denomination of religion, the tenets of which are 
known to be opposed to the beanng of arms, from attending private 
and general musters. 

ARTICLE IX 

Disqualifications 

Section 1. Whereas, ministers of the gospel are, by their profes- 
sion, dedicated to God and the care of souls, and ought not to be 
diverted from the great duties of their functions: therefore, no min- 



APPENDIX 257 

ister of the gospel, or priest of any denomination whatever, shall be 
eligible to a seat in either House of the Legislature. 

Sec. 2. No person who denies the being of God, or a future state 
of rewards and punishments, shall hold any office in the civil depart- 
ment of this State. 

Sec. 3. Any person who shall, after the adoption of this Constitu- 
tion, fight a duel, or knowingly be the bearer of a challenge to fight a 
duel, or send or accept a challenge for that purpose, or be an aider or 
abettor in fighting a duel, shall be deprived of the right to hold any 
office of honor or profit in this State, and shall be punished otherwise, 
in such manner as the Legislature may prescribe. 

ARTICLE X 

Oaths — Bribery of Electors— New Counties 

Section 1. Every person who shall be chosen or appointed to any 
office of trust or profit under this Constitution, or any law made in 
pursuance thereof, shall, before entering upon the duties thereof, take 
an oath to support the Constitution of this State and of the United 
States, and an oath of office. 

Sec. 2. Each member of the Senate and House of Representatives 
shall, before they proceed to business, take an oath or affirmation to 
support the Constitution of this State and of the United States, and 

also the following oath: "I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that, 

as a member of this General Assembly, I will, in all appointments, 
vote without favor, affection, partiality, or prejudice; and that I will 
not propose or assent to any bill, vote, or resolution which shall ap- 
pear to me injurious to the people, or consent to any act or thing 
whatever that shall have a tendency to lessen or abridge their rights 
and privileges as declared by the Constitution of this State." 

Sec. 3. Any elector who shall receive any gift or reward for his 
vote, in meat, drink, money, or otherwise, shall suffer such punish- 
ment as the laws shall direct; and any person who shall, directly or 
indirectly, give, promise, or bestow any such reward to be elected, shall 
thereby be rendered incapable for six years to serve in the office for 
which he was elected, and be subject to such further punishment as 
the Legislature shall direct. 

Sec. 4. New counties may be established by the Legislature, to 
consist of not less than two hundred and seventy-five square miles, and 
which shall contain a population of seven hundred qualified voters. 
No line of such county shall approach the court-house of any old 
county from which it may be taken nearer than eleven miles, nor shall 
such old county be reduced to less than five hundred square miles ; but 
the following exceptions are made to the foregoing provisions, viz.: 
New counties may be established by the present or any succeeding 
Legislature out of the following tcrritoiy, to wit: Out of that portion 
of Obion County which lies west of the low-water mark of Reelfoot 
Lake ; out of fractions of Sumner, Macon, and Smith Counties, but no 



258 APPENDIX 

line of such new county shall approach the court-house of Sumner and 
Smith Counties nearer than ten miles, nor include any part of Macon 
County lying within nine and a half miles of the court-house of said 
county, nor shall more than twenty square miles of Macon County, 
nor any part of Sumner County lying due west of the western boundary 
of Macon Count.y, be taken in the formation of said new county; out 
of fractions of Grainger and Jefferson Counties, but no line of such 
new county shall include any part of Grainger County north of the 
Holston River, nor shall any line thereof approach the court-house 
of Jefferson County nearer than eleven miles (such new county may 
include any other territory which is not excluded by any general 
provision of this Constitution) ; out of fractions of Jackson and Over- 
ton Counties, but no line of such new county shall approach the 
court-house of Jackson or Overton Coimties nearer than ten miles, 
nor shall such county contain less than four hundred qualified voters, 
nor shall the area of either of the old counties be reduced below four 
hundred and fifty square miles; out of fractions of Roane, Monroe, 
and Blount Counties, around the town of Loudon, but no line of such 
new county shall ever approach the towns of Maryville, Kingston, 
or Madisonville nearer than eleven miles, except that on the south 
side of the Tennessee River said lines may approach as near as ten 
miles to the court-house of Roane County. The counties of Lewis, 
Cheatham, and Sequatchie, as now established by legislative enact- 
ments, are hereby declared to be constitutional counties. No part of 
Bledsoe County shall be taken to form a new county, or a part 
thereof, or be attached to any adjoining county. That portion of 
Marion County included within the following boundaries: Begin- 
ning on the Grundy and Marion County line at the Nick-a-jack Trace, 
and running about six hundred yards west of Ben. Posey's to where 
the Tennessee Coal Railroad crosses the line; running thence south- 
east through the Pocket, near William Summers', crossing the Battle 
Creek Gulf at the corner of Thomas Wooten's field; thence running 
across the Little Gizzard Gulf to Raven Point; thence in a direct 
line to the bridge crossing the Big Fiery Gizzard; thence in a direct 
line to the mouth of Holy Water Creek; thence up said creek to the 
Grundy County line, and thence with said line to the beginning, is 
hereby detached from Marion County and attached to the County 
of Grundy. No part of a county shall be taken off to form a new 
county, or a part thereof, without the consent of two-thirds of the 
qualified voters in such part taken off; and where an old county is 
reduced for the purpose of forming a new one, the seat of justice in 
said coimty shall not be removed without the concurrence of two- 
thirds of both branches of the Legislature; nor shall the seat of justice 
of any county be removed without the concurrence of two-thirds of 
the qualified voters of the county. But the foregoing provision re- 
quiring a two-thirds majority of the voters of a county to remove its 
county seat, shall not apply to the counties of. Obion and Cocke. The 
fractions taken from old counties to form new counties, or taken from 
one county and added to another, shall continue liable for their pro 
rata of all debts contracted by their respective counties prior to the 



APPENDIX 259 

separation, and be entitled to their proportion of any stocks or credits 
belonging to such old counties. 

Sec. 5. The citizens who may be included in any new county shall 
vote with the county or counties from which they have been stricken 
off for members of Congress, for Governor, and for members of the 
General Assemblj^ until the next apportionment of members of the 
General Assembly after the establishment of such new county. 

ARTICLE XI 

Miscellaneous Provisions 

Section 1. All laws and ordinances now in force and use in this 
State, not inconsistent with this Constitution, shall contmue in force 
and use until they shall expire, or be altered or repealed by the Legis- 
lature. But ordinances contained in any former Constitution or 
schedule thereto are hereby abrogated. 

Sec. 2. Nothing contained in this Constitution shall impair the 
validity of any debts or contracts, or affect any rights of property, or 
any suits, actions, rights of action, or other proceedaigs in courts of 
justice. 

Sec. 3. Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may 
be proposed in the Senate or House of Representatives; and if the 
same shall be agreed to by a majority of all the members elected to 
each of the two Houses, such proposed amendment or amendments 
shall be entered on their journals, with the yeas and nays thereon, 
and referred to the General Assembly then next to be chosen, and 
shall be published six months previous to the time of making such 
choice ; and if, in the General Assembly then next chosen as aforesaitl, 
such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by two- 
thirds of all the members elected to each House, then it shall be the 
duty of the General Assembly to submit such proposed amendment 
or amendments to the people in such manner and at such times as the 
General Assembly shall prescribe. And if the people shall approve 
and ratify such amendment or amendments by a majority of all the 
citizens of the State voting for Representatives voting in their favor, 
such amendment or amendments shall become a part of this Consti- 
tution. When any amendment or amendments to the Constitution 
shall be proposed in pursuance of the foregoing provisions, the same 
shall, at each of the said sessions, be read three times on three several 
days in each House. The Legislature shall not propose amendments 
to the Constitution oftener than once in six years. The Legislature 
shall have the right, at any time, by law, to submit to the people the 
question of calling a convention to alter, reform, or abolish this Con- 
stitution; and when, upon such submission, a majority of all the votes 
cast shall be in favor of said proposition, then delegates shall be 
chosen, and the convention shall assemble in such mode and manner 
as shall be prescribed. 

Sec. 4. The Legislature shall have no power to grant divorces, but 
may authorize the courts of justice to grant them for such causes as 



260 APPENDIX 

may be specified by law; but such laws shall be general and uniform 
in their operation throughout the State. 

Sec. 5. The Legislature shall have no power to authorize lotteries 
for any purpose, and shall pass laws to prohibit the sale of lottery 
tickets in this State. 

Sec. 6. The Legislature shall have no power to change the names 
of persons, or to pass acts adopting or legitimatizing persons, but shall, 
by general laws, confer this power on the courts. 

Sec. 7. The Legislature shall fix the rate of interest, and the rate 
so established shall be equal and uniform throughout the State; but 
the Legislature may provide for a convenient rate of interest, not to 
exceed ten per cent, per annum. 

Sec. 8. The Legishxture shall have no power to suspend any gen- 
eral law for the benefit of any particular individuals, nor to pass any 
law for the benefit of individuals inconsistent with the general laws 
of the land ; nor to pass any law granting to any individual or indi- 
viduals rights, privileges, immunities, or exemptions other than such 
as may be by the same law extended to any member of the com- 
munity who may be able to bring himself within the provisions of such 
law. No corporation shall be created, or its powers increased or di- 
minished by special laws, but the General Assembly shall provide by 
general laws for the organization of all corporations hereafter created, 
which laws may at any time be altered or repealed ; and no such alter- 
ation or repeal shall interfere with or divest rights w^hich have become 
vested. 

Sec. 9. The Legislature shall have the right to vest such powers in 
the courts of justice, with regard to private and local affairs, as may 
be expedient. 

Sec. 10. A well-regulated system of internal improvement is calcu- 
lated to develop the resources of the State and promote the happiness 
and prosperitj' of her citizens ; therefore it ought to be encouraged by 
the General Assembl3^ 

Sec. 11. A homestead in the possession of each head of a family, 
and the improvements thereon to the value, in all, of one thousand 
dollars shall be exempt from sale under legal process during the life of 
such head of a family, to inure to the benefit of the widow, and shall 
be exempt during the minority of their children occupying the same. 
Nor shall said property be alienated without the joint consent of the 
husband and wife when that relation exists. This exemption shall not 
operate against public taxes, nor debts contracted for the purchase- 
money of such homestead or improvements thereon. 

Sec. 12. Knowledge, learning, and virtue being essential to the 
preservation of republican institutions, and the diffusion of the oppor- 
tunities and advantages of education throughout the different portions 
of the State being highly conducive to the promotion of this end, it 
shall be the duty of the General Assembly in all future periods of this 
Government, to cherish literature and science. And the fund called 
the common school fund, and all the lands and proceeds thereof, divi- 
dends, stocks, and other property of every description whatever, here- 



APPENDIX 261 

tofore by law appropriated by the General Assembly of this State for 
the use of common schools, and all such as shall hereafter be appro- 
priated, shall remain a perpetual fund, the principal of which shall 
never be diminished by legislative appropriation; and the interest 
thereof shall be inviolably appropriated to the support and encourage- 
ment of common schools throughout the State, and for the equal bene- 
fit of all the people thereof; and no law shall be made authorizing said 
fund, or anj' part thereof, to be diverted to any other use than the 
support and encouragement of common schools. The State taxes 
derived hereafter from polls shall be appropriated to educational pur- 
poses, in such manner as the General Assembly shall, from time to 
time, direct by law. No school established or aided under this section 
shall allow white and negro children to be received as scholars together 
in the same school. The abo\e provisions shall not prevent the Legis- 
lature from carrying into effect any laws that have been passed in 
favor of the colleges, universities, or academies, or from authorizing 
heirs or distributees to recei\'e and enjoy escheated property under 
such laws as may be passed from time to time. 

Sec. 13. The General Assembly shall have power to enact laws for 
the protection and preservation of game and fish within the State, and 
such laws may be enacted for and applied and enforced in particular 
counties or geographical districts designated by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 14. The interman'iage of white persons with negroes, mulat- 
toes, 0" persons of mixed blood, descended from a negro to the third 
generation, inclusive, or their living together as man and wife, in this 
State, is prohibited. The Legislature shall enforce this section by 
appropriate legislation. 

Sec. 15. No person shall, in tim.e of peace, be required to perform 
any service to the public on any day set apart by his religion as a day 
of rest. 

Sec. 16. The declaration of rights, hereto prefixed, is declared to 
be a part of the Constitution of this State, and shall never be violated 
on any pretense whatever. And to guard against transgression of the 
high powers we have delegated, we declare that everything in the bill 
of rights contained is excepted out of the general powers of the Gov- 
ernment, and shall forever remain in^'iolate. 

Sec. 17. No countj' office created by the Legislature shall be filled 
otherwise than by the people or the County Court. 

Schedule 

Section 1. That no inconvenience may arise from a change of the 
Constitution, it is declared that the Governor of the State, the mem- 
bers of the General Assembly, and all officers elected at or after the 
general election of March, 1870, shall hold their offices for the terms 
prescribed in this Constitution. 

Officers appointed by the courts shall be filled by appointment, to 
be made and to take effect during the first term of the court held by 
Judges elected under this Constitution. 



262 APPENDIX 

All other officers shall vacate their places thirty days after the day 
fixed for the election of their successors under this Constitution. 

The Secretaiy of State, Comptroller, and Treasurer shall hold their 
offices until the first session of the present General Assembly occurring 
after the ratification of this Constitution, and until their successors are 
elected and qualified. 

The ofiicers then elected shall hold their offices until the fifteenth 
day of January, 1873. 

Sec. 2. At the first election of Judges under this Constitution there 
shall be elected six Judges of the Supreme Court, two from each grand 
division of the State, v>ho shall hold their offices for the term herein 
prescribed. 

In the event any vacancy shall occur in the office of either of said 
Judges at any time after the first day of January, 1873, it shall remain 
imfillcd, and the court shall from that time be constituted of five 
Judges. 

While the court shall consist of six Judges they may sit in two sec- 
tions, and may hear and determine causes in each at the same time, 
but not in different grand divisions at the same time. When so sitting 
the concurrence of two Judc^es shall be necessary to a decision. 

The Attorney-general and Reporter for the State shall be appointed 
after the election and qualification of the Judges of the Supreme Court 
herein provided for. 

Sec. 3. Every Judge and every officer of the executive department 
of this State, and every Sheiiff holding over under this Constitution, 
shall, within twenty days after the ratification of this Constitution 
is proclaimed, take an oath to support the same; and the failure of 
any officer to take such oath shall vacate his office. 

Sec. 4. The time which has elapsed since the sixth day of May, 
1861, until the first day of January, 1867, shall not be computed in any 
cases affected by the statutes of limitations, nor shall any writ of error 
be affected by such lapse of time. 

Done in convention at Nashville, the twenty-third day of February, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy, and 
of the independence of the United States the ninety-fourth. In testi- 
mony whereof we have hereunto set our names. 

John C. Brown, President. 
John Allen, T. M. Burkett, 

Jesse Arledge, John W. Burton, 

Humphrey Bate, Wm. Byrne, 

Jno. Baxter, Alex. W. Campbell, 

A. Blizzard, Wm. Blount Carter, 

Nathan Brandon, Z. R. Chowning, 

James Britton, James A. Coffin, 

R. P. Brooks, Warren Cummings, 

Neil S. Brown, Robert P. Cypert, 

James S. Brown, T. D. Davenport, 



APPENDIX 



263 



N. V. Deaderick, 
G. G. Dibrell, 
N. F. Doherty, 
J. E. Dromgoole, 
James Fentress, 

A. T. Fielder, 
P. G. Fulkerson, 
John A. Gardner, 
John E. Garner, 
S. P. Gaut, 
Charles A. Gibbs, 

B. Gordon, 

J. B. Heiskell, 

R. Henderson, 

H. L. W. Hill, 

Sp'l Hill, 

Sam S. House, 

Jno. F. House, 

T. B. Ivie, 

Thomas M. Jones, 

David N. Kennedj', 

D. M. Key, 

Sam J. Kirkpatrick, 

Attest: T. E. S. 
Thos. W. Jones, Assistant Secretary. 
W. S. Kyle, Second Assistant Secretary. 



A. A. Kyle, 
Jos. A. Mabry, 
A. G. McDougal, 
Malcom McNabb, 
Matt. Martin, 
John H. Meeks, 
Thos. C. Morris, 
J. Netherland, 
A. O. P. Nicholson, 
Geo. C. Porter, 
Jas. D. Porter, Jr., 
Geo. E. Seay, 
Samuel G. Shepard, 
E. H. Shelton, 
Wm. H. Stephens, 
John M. Taylor, 
J. C. Thompson, 
N. Vance Thompson, 
James J. Turner, 
Geo. W. Walker, 
Richard Warner, Jr., 
N. H. Williamson, 
W. M. Wright. 
RusswuRM, Secretary. 



Ordinance 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the Convention, That it shall be the 
duty of the several officers of the State authorized by law to hold 
elections for members of the General Assembly and other officers, to 
open and hold an election at the place of holding said elections in their 
respective counties, on the fourth Saturday in March, 1870, for the 
purpose of receiving- the votes of such qualified voters as may desire 
to vote for the ratification or rejection of the Constitution recom- 
mended by the Convention, and the qualifications of voters in said 
election be the same as that required in the election of delegates to 
this Convention. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of said returning officers in each county 
in this State to enroll the name of each voter on the poll-books pre- 
pared for said election, and shall deposit each ballot in the ballot- 
boxes respectively. Each voter who wishes to ratify the new Consti- 
tution shall have written or printed on his ticket the words "New 
Constitution," or words of like import; and each voter who wishes to 
vote against the ratification of the new Constitution shall have written 
or printed on his ticket the words "Old Constitution," or words of lilce 
import. 



264 



APPENDIX 



Sec. 3. The election shall be held and the judges and clerks shall 
be appointed as in the case of the election of the members of the 
General Assembl}'; and the returning officers, in the presence of the 
judges or inspectors, shall count the votes given for the "New Consti- 
tution," and of those given for the "Old Constitution," of which they 
shall keep a correct estimate in said poll-books. They shall deposit 
the original poll-books of said election with the Clerks of the County 
Courts in the respective counties; and shall, within five days after the 
election, make out accurate statements of the number of votes in their 
respective counties for or against the "New Constitution," and imme- 
diately forward by mail one copy of said certificates to the Governor 
and one to the Speaker of the Senate. So soon as the poll-books are 
deposited with the County Court Clerks, they shall certify to the 
President of the Convention an accurate statement of the number of 
votes cast for or against the "New Constitution," as appears on said 
poll-books ; and if any of said returning officers shall fail to make the 
returns herein provided for within the time required, the Governor 
shall be authorized to send special messengers for the result of the 
vote in those counties whose officers have so failed to make returns. 

Sec. 4. Upon the receipt of said returns it shall be the duty of the 
Governor, Speaker of the Senate, and the President of this Conven- 
tion, or any two of them, to compare the votes cast in said election; 
and if it shall appear that a majority of all the votes cast for and 
against the new Constitution were for "New Constitution," it shall be 
the duty of the Governor, Speaker of the Senate, and President of 
this Convention, or any two of them, to append to this Constitution 
a certificate of the votes, from which time the Constitution shall be 
established as the Constitution of Tennessee, and the Governor shall 
make proclamation of the result. 

Sec. 5. The Governor of the State is required to issue his procla- 
mation as to the election on the fourth Saturday in March, 1870, 
hereto provided for. j^^^, ^ g^^^^^^ President. 

Attest: T. E. S. Russwurm, Secretary. 



GOVERNORS OF TENNESEE FROM 1790 



1. William Blount, Territorial 

Governor, 1790-96. 

2. John Sevier, 1796-1801. 

3. Archibald Roane, 1801-03. 

4. John Sevier, 1803-09. 

5. Willie Blount, 1809-15. 

6. Jo.seph McMinn, 1815-21. 
a7. William Carroll, 1821-27. 

8. Samuel Houston, 1827 to April, 
1829, when he resigned, and 
William Hall, Speaker of the 



Senate, became Governor, 
serving to October, 1829. 
9. William Carroll, 1829-35. 
KlO. Newton Cannon, 1835-39. 

11. James K. Polk, 1839-41. 

12. James C. Jones, 1841-45. 

13. Aaron V. Brown, 1845-47. 

14. Neil S. Brown, 1847-49. 

15. William Trousdale, 1849-51. 
/16. William B. Campbell, 1851-53. 

17. Andrew Johnson, 1853-57. 



APPENDIX 



265 



18. Isham G. Harris, 1857-63. 

Robert L. Caruthers wa.s 
elected Governor in 1863, but 
on account of Tennessee be- 
ing in possession of Federal 
troops, was unable to qualify. 
President Lincoln appointed 
Andrew Johnson Military 
Governor of Tennessee, who 
served from 1862 to 1865. 

19. William C. Brownlow, 1865-69. 

20. D. W. C. Senter, 1869-71. 

21. John C. Brown, 1871-75. 

22. James D. Porter, 1875-79. 



8. 
19. 
3 0. 
31. 

33. 
34. 

35. 
36. 



Albert S. Marks, 1879-81. 
Alvin Hawkins, 1881-83. 
William B. Bate, 1883-87. 
Robert L. Taylor, 1887-91. 
John P. Buchanan, 1891-93. 
Peter Turney, 1893-97. 
Robert L. Taylor, 1897-99. 
Benton McMillin, 1899-1903. 
James B. Frazier, 1903-05. 
John I. Cox, 1905-07. 
Malcolm R. Pattenson, 1907-11. 
Ben W. Hooper, 1911-15. 
Tom C. Rye, 1915-1919. 
A. H. Roberts, 1919- . 



SECRETARIES OF STATE FROM 1792 



Daniel Smith, Territorial Secre- 
tary, 1792-96. 

William Maclin, 1796-1807. 

Robert Houston, 1807-11. 

W. G. Blount, 1811-15. 

William Alexander, 1815-18 (died). 

Daniel Graham, appointed August, 
1818, served till 1830 (resigned). 

T. H. Fletcher, appointed Septem- 
ber, 1830, served till 1832. 

Samuel G. Smith, 1832-35. 

Luke Lea. 1835-39. 

John S. Young, 1839-47. 

W. B. A. Ramsey, 1847-55. 

F. N. W. Burton, 1855-59. 



J. E. R. Ray, 1859-65. 

E. H. East, appointed in 1862 by 
Andrew Johnson, Military Gov- 
ernor, served to 1865. 

A. J. Fletcher, 1865-70. 

T. H. Butler, 1870-73. 

Charles N. Gibbs, 1873-81. 

David A. Nunn, 1881-85. 

John Allison, Jr., 1885-89. 

Charles A. Miller, 1889-93. 

W. S. Morgan, 1893-1901. 

John W. Morton, 1901-09. 

Hallam W. Goodloe, 1909-13. 

R. R. Sneed, 1913-17. 

Ike B. Stevens. 1917- . 



COMPTROLLERS— OFFICE CREATED IN 1835 



Daniel Graham, 1836-43. 

Felix K. Zollicoffer, 1843-49. 

B. N. Sheppard, 1849-51. 

Arthur R. Crozier, 1851-55. 

James C. Luttrell, 1855-57. 

James T. Dunlap, 1857-62. 

Joseph S. Foster, appointed by An- 
drew Johnson, Military Gov- 
ernor, 1862-65. 

J. R. Dillin, elected 1865, failed to 
qualify, being a member of the 
Legislature that elected him, and 
ineligible. 

S. W. Hatchett, 1865-66. 



G. W. Blackburn, 1866-70. 
B. R. Pennebaker, 1870-73. 
W. W. Hobb, January, 1873, to 

May, 1873. 
John C. Burch, May, 1873-75. 
James L. Gaines, 1875-81. 
James N. Nolen, 1881-83. 
P. P. Pickard, 1883-89. 
J. W. Allen, 1889-93. 
James A. Harris, 1893-99. 
Theodore King, 1899-1904. 
Frank Dibrell, 1904-13. 
George P. Woolen, 1913-15. 
J. B. Thomason, 1915- . 



266 



APPENDIX 



TREASURERS FROM 1796 

The act of April 13, 1796, and territorial act of September, 1794, 
Chapter 9, provided for two District Treasurers, viz.: District of 
Miro, and District of Washington and Hamilton. Act of November 1, 
1827, created the offices of Treasurer of Western District, at Jackson, 
Tennessee; Treasurer of Washington and Hamilton, or East Tennes- 
see, at Knoxville; and Treasurer of Miro, at Nashville. The Consti- 
tution of 1834 pro-\^ided for one Treasurer for the state, to be elected 
by the legislature for two years. 



Daniel Smith, Territorial Secre- 
tary, acted as Treasurer from 
1792 to 1794. 

Landon Carter, Territorial Treas- 
urer of Washington and Hamil- 
ton, 1794-1800. 

Howell Tatum, Territorial Treas- 
urer of Miro, 1794-96. 

William Black, Miro, 1796-97. 

Robert Searcy, Miro, 1797-1803. 

John Maclin, Washington and 
Hamilton. 1800-03. 

Thomas McCorry, Washington and 
Hamilton, 18 03-13. 

Thomas Crutcher, Miro, 1803-13. 

Thomas McCorry, East Tennessee 
(Washington and Hamilton), 
1813-15. 

Thomas Crutcher, Miro, 1813-36. 

Matthew Nelson, East Tennessee, 
1815-27. 

Miller Francis, East Tennessee, 
1827-36. 



James Caruthers, Western District, 

1827-36. 
Miller Francis, State, 1836-43. 
Matthew Nelson, State, 1843-45. 
Robert B. Turner, 1845-47. 
Anthony Dibrell, 1847-55. 
G. C. Torbett, 1855-57. 
W. Z. McGregor, 1857-65. 
R. L. Stanford, 1865-66. 
John R. Henry, 1866-68. 
W. H. Stillweil, 1868-69. 
J. E. Rust, 1869-71. 
William Morrow, 1871-77. 
M. T. Polk, 1877-83. 
Atha Thomas, 1883-85. 
J. W. Thomas, 1885-86 (died). 
Atha Thomas, 1886-89. 
M. F. House, 1889-93. 
E. B. Craig, 18 93-1901. 
R. E. Folk, 1901-11. 
G. T. Taylor, 1911-13. 
W. P. Hickerson, 1913-15. 
Porter Dunlap, 1915-19. 
Hill McAlister, 1919- . 



SUPERINTENDENTS OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 

This office was created in 1835, abolished in 1843, re-created in 1865, 
provided for in the constitution of 1870, and again created in 1873. 



Robert H. McEwen, 1836-40. 
Robert P. Currin, 1840-41. 
Scott Terry, 1841-43. 
L. R. Stanford, 1865-67. 
John Eaton, Jr., 1867-69. 
A. J. Tipton, 1869-71. 
John M. Fleming, 1873-75. 
Leon Trousdale, 1875-81. 
W. S. Doak, 1881-82. 
G. S. W. Crawford, 1882-83. 
Thomas H. Paine, 1883-87. 
Frank M. Smith, 1887-91. 



W. R. Garrett, 1891-93. 

Frank M. Smith, 1893-95. 

S. G. Gilbreath, 1895-97. 

Price Thomas, 1897-99. 

Morgan C. Fitzpatrick, 1899-1901. 

Seymour A. Mynders, 1903-07. 

R. L. Jones, 1907-11. 

J. W. Brister, 1911-13. 

S. IT. Thompson, 1913-15. 

S. W. Sherrill, 1915-19. 

Albert S. Williams, 1919- . 



APPENDIX 267 

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 

The State Board of Education was organized by Governor Porter 
under authority of an act of the General Assembly, passed March 23, 

1875. The Governor and the State Superintendent are ex officio mem- 
bers, the Governor being President and the Superintendent Secretary 
of the Board. There are six other members appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, each to serve for a period of six years. 

1876. James D. Porter, President ; Leon Trousdale, State Superin- 
tendent ; E. H. Ewing ; J. J. Reese ; J. W. Hoyte ; R. W. Mitchel ; J. B. 
Lindsley, Secretary. 

1877 and 1878. James D. Porter, President; Leon Trousdale, State 
Superintendent ; E. H. Ewing ; H. Presnell ; J. W. Hoyte ; R. W. 
Mitchel ; J. B. Lindsley, Secretary. 

1879 and 1880. Albert S. Marks, President; other members as above. 

1881. Alvin Hawkins, President; W. S. Doak, State Superintendent; 
E. H. Ewing ; Leon Trousdale ; J. W. Hoyte ; W. P. Jones ; J. B. Linds- 
ley, Secretary. 

1882. Alvin Hawkins, President ; G. S. W. Crawford, State Superin- 
tendent ; E. S. Joynes ; Leon Trousdale ; J. W. Hoyte ; W. P. Jones ; 
J. B. Lindsley, Secretary. 

1883 and 1884. W. B. Bate, President; Thomas H. Paine, State Super- 
intendent ; Fi'ank Goodman ; Leon Trousdale ; J. W. Hoyte ; W. P. 
Jones ; J. B. Lindsley, Secretary. 

188.5 and 1886. W. B. Bate, President; Thomas H. Paine, State Super- 
intendent ; Frank Goodman ; Leon Trousdale ; Frank M. Smith ; W. P. 
Jones ; J. B. Lindsley, Secretary. 

1887 to 1890. Robert L. Taylor, President; Frank M. Smith, State 
Superintendent ; Thomas H. Paine ; C. S. Douglass ; John W. Bach- 
man ; W. P. Jones ; Frank Goodman, Secretary. 

1891 to 189 2. John P. Buchanan, President ; W. R. Garrett, State Super- 
intendent ; Thomas H. Paine ; C. S. Douglass ; Frank M. Smith ; W. P. 
Jones ; Frank Goodman, Secretary. 

1893 and 1894. Peter Turney, President; Frank M. Smith, State Super- 
intendent ; Thomas H. Paine ; C. S. Douglass ; H. D. Huffaker ; W. P. 
Jones ; Frank Goodman, Secretary. 

1895 and 1896. Peter Turney, President; S. G. Gilbreath, State Super- 
intendent ; Thomas H. Paine ; C. S. Douglass ; H. D. Huffaker ; A. D. 
Wharton ; Frank Goodman, Secretary. 

1897 and 1898. Robert L. Taylor, President; Price Thomas, State 
Superintendent ; other members as above. 

1899-1903. Benton McMillin. President; Morgan C. Fitzpatrick, State 
Superintendent and Secretary ; Thomas H. Paine ; C. S. Douglass ; 
H. D. Huffaker ; A. D. Wharton ; Frank Goodman ; A. J. Cavert ; P. L. 
Harned ; J. L. Brooks. 

1903-05. J. B. Fraziei-, President ; Seymour A. Mynders, State Super- 
intendent and Secretary ; C. S. Douglass ; H. D. Huffaker ; P. L. Har- 
ned : J. L. Brooks ; Wharton S. Jones ; Dr. J. H. Kirkland. 

1905-07. John I. Cox, President ; other members as above. 

1907-09. M. R. Patterson, President; R. L. Jones. State Superintendent 
and Secretary ; P. L. Harned ; J. L, Brooks ; Wharton S. Jones ; Dr. 
J. H. Kirkland ; A. L. Todd, 



268 APPENDIX 

1909-11. M. R. Patterson, President; R. L. Jones, State Superintendent 

and Secretarj*; J. M. Barker : W. N. Billingsley ; J. L. Broolis ; R. E. L. 

Bynum ; T. B. Loggins ; A. L. Todd. 
1911-13. Ben W. Hooper, President: J. W. Brister, State Superintendent 

and Secretary ; J. L. Broolis ; R. E. L. Bynum ; M. H. Gaml)le ; C. C. 

Hanson ; J. F. Hunter ; H. A. Luck ; O. L. McMahan ; S. H. Thompson ; 

A. L. Todd. 
1913-14. Governor Ben W. Hooper, President; Superintendent S. H. 

Thompson, Secretary ; A. L. Todd ; M. H. Gamble ; R. L. Bynum ; C. C. 

Hanson ; H. A. Luck ; O. L. McMahan. 
1915-16. P. L. Harned, Chairman; S. "W. Sherrill, Secretary; L. A. 

Ligon ; H. A. Luck ; C. C. Hanson ; J. H. Bayer ; C. B. Ijams ; W. L. 

Gentry ; M. H. Gamble ; O. L. McMahan. 
1917-18. P. L. Harned, Chairman; S. W. Sherrill, Secretary; L. A. 

Ligon ; J. F. Fowlkes ; C. C. Hanson ; W. D. Cooper ; C. B. Ijams ; W. L. 

Gentry ; M. H. Gamble ; J. S. Zeigler. 
1919. P. L. Harned, Chairman ; Albert S. Williams, Secretary ; L. A. 

Ligon ; J. F. Fowlkes ; C. C. Hanson ; W. D. Cooper ; C. B. Ijams ; 

W. L. Gentry ; M. H. Gamble ; J. S. Zeigler. 



COMMISSIONERS OF AGRICULTURE 

The Bureau of Agriculture, Statistics, and Mines was established 
in 1854, the Governor being c.r officio President. E. G. Eastman was 
elected Secretary and served to the war. By act of March 4, 1875, the 
office of Commissioner was created, and the department was estab- 
lished on its present basis. 
J. B. Killebrew, 1875-81. Thomas H. Paine, 1899-1903. 



A. W. Hawkins, 1881-83. 

A. J. McWhirter, 1883-87. 

B. M. Hord, 1887-91. 
D. G. Godwin, 1891-93. 
T. F. P. Allison, 1893-97. 
John T. Esserry, 1897-99. 



W. W. Ogilvie, 1903-07. 
John Thompson, 1907-11. 
Thomas F. Peck, 1911-15. 
J. K. Bry.son, 1915-19. 
Pr. F. M. McCree, 1919- 



ATTORNEYS-GENERAL 

The office of Attorney-General and Reporter for the State was 
created in 1831. 



George T. Yerger, 1831-39. 
Return J. Meigs, 1839 to Novem- 
ber, 183 9. 
West H. Humphreys, 1839-51. 
W. G. Swan, 1851-54. 
John L. T. Sneed, 1854-59. 
John W. Head, 1859 to the war. 



Thomas H. Coldwell, 1865-70. 
Joseph B. Heiskell, 1870-78. 
Benjamin J. Lea, 1878-86. 
George W. Pickle, 1886-1902. 
Charles T. Gates, Jr., 1902-13. 
Fxank M. Thompson, 1913- . 



JUDGES OF TENNESSEE FROM 1792 

1792. William Blount, Governor, David Campbell, and Joseph 
Anderson composed the Territorial Court to 1796. 

1796. Act of April 9, 1796, established a Superior Court of Law 
and Equity, and provided for three judges for the state. 



APPENDIX 



269 



John McNairy, Archibald Roane, 
and Willie Blount were commis- 
sioned, on April 11, 1796, Judges 
of the Superior Court of Law 
and Equity for the state. 

Howell Tatum (vice McNairy, re- 
signed), 1797-98. 

W. C. C. Claiborne (vice Willie 
Blount, declined), 1796-97. 

David Campbell, 1797-1807. 



Andrew Jackson, appointed Sep- 
tember, 1798, and elected De- 
cember, 1798, served to 1804. 

Samuel Powell, 1807-09. 

John Overton (vice Jackson), 1804- 
09. 

Parry W. Humphreys, 1807-09. 

Hugh Lawson White (in place of 
A. Roane), 1801-07. 

Thomas Emmerson (vice White), 
1807-09. 



JUDGES OF THE SUPREME COURT OF ERRORS AND 
APPEALS 

By the act of November 16, 1809, a Supreme Court of Errors and 
Appeals was created, Circuit Courts established, and five judicial cir- 
cuits erected; judges elected by the legislature to serve during good 
behavior. The following served as indicated : — 

William L. Brown, added to the 
court in 1822, resigned July, 1824. 

John Catron, 1824-35 (Chief Jus- 
tice from 1831). 

Hugh L. White was elected in 1824, 
but declined. 

Thomas L. Williams was appointed 
vice White, but declined, and the 
legislature declined to lill the 
vacancy. 

Henry Crabb, appointed, vice Hay- 
wood, in 1827 (died same year). 

Nathan Green, 1831. 



Hugh L. White, 1809-15. 
George W. Campbell, 1809-11. 
John Overton, 1811-16. 
W. W. Cooke, 1815-16 (died). 
Archibald Roane, added to the 

court October 21, 1815, served to 

1818. 
Robert Whyte (vice Overton), 

1816-35. 
John Haywood, 1816-26. 
Thomas Emmerson, 1819-22. 
Jacob Peck, 1822-35. 



SUPREME COURT UNDER CONSTITUTION OF 1834 



Nathan Green, 1835-53 (resigned). 

William B. Reese, 1835-47. 

WMlliam B. Turley, 1835-50 (re- 
signed). 

Robert J. McKinney, 1847-63 
(served till war discontinued 
courts). 

Robert L. Caruthers, 1853-61. 

W. F. Cooper, appointed in 1861 
(served till war discontinued 
courts). 

A. W. O. Totten (vice Turley), 
1850-55. 

William R. Harris, 1855-58 (died). 



Archibald Wright. 1858-63 (served 

till war discontinued courts). 
Russell Houston, from January 25, 

1865, to August 24, 1865. 
Samuel Miliigan, from January 25, 

1865, to January, 1867. 
Henry G. Smith, from January 25, 

1865, to January, 1867. 
James O. Shackelford, from August 

24, 1865. to 1867 (resigned). 
Andrew McClain, 1867-70. 
Alvin Hawkins, from June, 1867, 

to 1870. 
George Andrews, from June, 1867, 

to 1870. 



270 



APPENDIX 



SUPREME COURT UNDER CONSTITUTION OF 1870 



T. A. R. Nelson, from 1870 to De- 
cember 5, 1871 (resigned). 

A. O. P. Nicholson, Chief Justice, 
from 1S70 to March 23, 1876 
(died). 

J. W. Deaderick (Chief Justice, 
1878-84), 1870-84 (died). 

Robert J. McFarland (vice Nel- 
son), from 1872 to 1884 (died). 

Peter Turney (Chief Justice, 
1886), 1870-93. 

Thomas J. FYeeman, 1870-86. 

John L. T. Sneed, 1870-78. 

William F. Cooper, 1878-86. 

H. H. Lurton, 1886-93. 



John S. Wilkes, 1894-1908 (died). 
B. D. Bell (vice Wilkes), 1908-10. 
W. C. Fowlkes, 1886-90 (died). 
B. J. Lea, 1890-94 (died). 
D. L. Snodgrass, Chief Justice, 

1886-1902. 
W. C. Caldwell, 1886-1902. 
W. C. McAIister, 1894-1910. 
W. D. Beard, Chief Justice, 189 4- 

1910 (died). 
John K. Shields, Chief Justice, 

1902-13. 
D. L. Lansden, Chief Justice, 

1918- . 



PRESENT SUPREME COURT 

ELECTED FOR EIGHT YEARS 



D. L. Lansden, Chief Justice. 
Grafton Greene. 
C. P. McKinney. 



Frank P. Hall. 
N. L. Bachman 



LIBRARIANS 

The office of State Librarian was created in 1854. Prior to that 
time the Secretary of State had been ex officio Librarian. See Chap- 
ter XXV. 



Return J. Meigs, 1854-61. 
John E. Hatcher, 1861-65. 
A. Gattinger, 1865-69. 
William H. Wharton, 1869-71. 
Mrs. Paralee Haskell, 1871-79. 
Mrs. S. P. Hatton, 1879-87. 
Mrs. Sue P. Lowe, 1887-91. 



Mrs. Linnie Williams, 1891-95. 
Mr.s. Irene Ingram, 1895-97. 
.Miss Pauline L. Jones, 1897-99. 
Miss Jennie E. Lauderdale, 1899- 

1901. 
Miss Lulu B. Epperson, 1901-03. 
Miss Mary Skefflngton, 1903-19. 



DEPARTMENT OF ARCHIVES, LIBRARY, AND HISTORY 

Established in 1919 
John Trotwood Moore, Director 



LEGAL HOLIDAYS IN TENNESSEE 
(See Acts of 1889, Chapter LXIII) 



January 1, New Year's Day. 
February 22, Washington's Birth- 
day. 
Good Friday. 
April 26, Memorial Day. 



May 30, Decoration Day. 

July 4, Independence Day. 

Thanksgiving. 

December 25, Christmas Day. 

All General Election Days. 



APPENDIX 271 

STATE AUDITOR 

Office created bj^ act of January 27, 1913. 
George M. Clark, 1913-15. Hays Flowers, 1915-18. 

S. D. Anderson, 1918- . 



INSURANCE COMMISSIONER 

Office created by act of January 27, 1913. Prior to that time the 
duties had been performed by the State Treasurer. 
L. K. Arrington 



SUPERINTENDENT OF BANKS 

Office created by act of March 20, 1913. Prior to that time there 
had been no specific provision for official supervision of state banks. 
S. S. McConnell 



COMMISSIONER OF FOODS AND DRUGS 

Harry L. Eskew 



ADJUTANT-GENERAL 

Baxter Sweeney 



RAILROAD COMMISSION AND BOARD OF EQUALIZATION 

B. A. Enloe H. H. Hannah Geo. N. Welch 



STATE GEOLOGIST 

Wilbur Nelson 



STATE GAME WARDEN 
W. D. Howser 



STATE FACTORY INSPECTOR 

Louis L. Allen 



STATE MINING INSPECTOR 
R. A. Shiflett 



INDEX 



Academies, 154 

Adams, John Quincy, presidency, 
74 ; secession, 105 

Adventure, voyage of the, 38 ; 
members of company on, 39-40 

Agricultural Bureau, 149, 150, 197 

Agriculture, progress in, 148-151, 
226; statistics of, 149, 150; bu- 
reau of, established, 149 ; great 
progress of, 1850-1860, 150, 151 

Alamance, battle of, 9 

Alamo, the, 80 

Albemarl, 3 

Allen, Miss Eliza, 69 

American Party, 99 

Anglo-Saxon, influence of, 111 

Annexation of Texas, 87, 105 

Ashers Station, 41 

Bailey, James E., 199 

Baker, John, 36 

Bancroft, King's Mountain, 27 

Banking, 139-142 ; statistics of 
banks, 140 : comparison of sec- 
tions in, 141 

Banks of Memphis, 140 

Bank of Tennessee, 139, 140, 141; 
establishment of, 140 ; statistics 
of, 141 

Baptists, 167 

Bate, William B., 89 ; elected gov- 
ernor, 192 ; state debt, 196 ; 
United States senator, 199 ; 
sketch of, 200 

Battles in Tennessee, 117-129; 
Fort Henry, 117 ; Fort Donelson, 
118; Shiloh, 119; Stone's River, 
120 ; Chickamauga, 121 ; Frank- 
lin, 122; Nashville, 122; Mis- 
sionary Ridge and Lookout 
Mountain, 121 

Bean, William, 8 

Beauregard, General, 120 

Bell, John, 90 ; candidate for presi- 
dency of United States, 104 ; 
sketch of, 115; statement on se- 
cession, 116 

Bentons, the, 59 

Biennial State Fair, see State Fair 

Bledsoe's Station, 41 

Blount College, 153 ; charter of, 
153 

Blount, William, 44 ; state govern- 
ment, 51 ; sketch of, 51 (note) 

Blount, Willie, Creek War, 61, 67 ; 
governor, sketch of, 67 

Blue Ridge Railroad Co., 135 

Board of Health, see State Board 
of Health 



Boggett, 13 

Bonds, see State Bonds 

Boone, D., 5, 7 

Boyd, 13 

Boyd, Mr., 38 

Bragg, General, at battle of Stone's 
River, 120 ; at Chickamauga, 121 

Breckinridge, John C, 104 

Briceville, labor troubles at, 221 

Brown, Aaron V., 91 ; sketch of, 
91 (note) ; message of, punish- 
ment of death, 172 ; schools, 156 

Brown, John, raid of, 104 

Brown, John C, 190, 191; state 
debt, 193 

Brown, Neil S., 92; sketch of, 93 
(note) 

Brownlow's Whig, 84 

Brownlow, William G., 112 ; elected 
governor, 176 ; franchise law of, 
177 ; opposed to Ku Klux Klan, 
18 2; state debt, 183; reestab- 
lishment of public school system, 
185 ; elected United States sena- 
tor, 186, 199 ; passions in admin- 
istration of, 188 ; sketch of, 189 

Brushy Mountain, 222 

Buchanan, John P., elected gov- 
ernor, 203 ; labor troubles, 203, 
222 ; favors Confederate pension 
law, 217 

Buckner, Gen. S. B., 118 

Buffalo, 39 

Burning bridges, 113 

Bureau of Agriculture, see Agri- 
cultural Bureau 

Bureau of Immigration, see Immi- 
gration Bureau 

Campbell, General, 18 (note) 
Campbell, Judge Tvler, 204 
Campbell, Col. William, 24, 25 
Campbell, William B., 89, elected 

governor, 93, 94 and note 
Cannon, Newton, sketch of, 83 ; 

message on education, 156 
Carmack, Edward W., elected 
United States senator, 200 ; vs. 
Taylor, 200 ; vs. Patterson, 205 ; 
strongly favors prohibition, 208 ; 
killing of, 209 ; sketch of, 215 ; 
Webb's tribute to, 216 
Carrick, Reverend, 51, 165 
Carroll, Gen. W. H., 113 
Carroll, William, at battle of New 
Orleans, 63, 64 ; elected gov- 
ernor. 68 ; sketch of, 68 ; re- 
elected governor, 71 ; candidate 
seventh time, 71, 83 ; message on 



273 



274 



INDEX 



education, 155 ; message on in- 
temperance, 169 ; views on peni- 
tentiary and prisoners, 171, 172 

Carter, John, 10, 11 

Carter, Landon, 30 

Carter's Valley, 7, 8 

Carter, William B., 113 

Cartwright, Robert. 38 

Caruthers, Robert L., 174 

Charleston, 19 

Charleville, M., 3 

Chauvanon, 5 

Cheatham, B. F., 89, 198 

Cherokees, 1 ; fights with, 14, 15, 
16, 17 

Chickamauga, battle of, 121 

Chickasaws, 1 ; West Tennessee, 72 

Choctaws, 1 

Cincinnati, Cumberland Gap & 
Charleston Railroad, 136 

Circuit Rider, 165 ; hardships of, 
166-167 

Clay, Henry, 63 ; candidate for 
president, 74 ; vs. Polk, 87 

Cleveland, Col., 24, 26 

Cloud's Creek, 38 

Coal Creek, labor troubles at, 222 

Cocke, William, United States 
senator, 52 ; sketch of, 52 (note) . 

Coffee, John, 61 ; at battle of New^ 
Orleans, 63, 64 

Cole, Col. E. W., 219 

Coming of White Man to Tennes- 
see, 1-6 

Commissioner of roads, report of, 
134, 135 

Common schools, see Public schools 

Comparative size of Southern men, 
111 

Confederate pensions, 217 

Confederate Soldiers' Home, 217 

Congressman at Large, 198 

Connecticut superintendent of 
schools, report of, 162 

Conservatives, 178 

Constitutional Convention, first, 
51 ; second, 83 ; of 1864, 175 ; of 
1870, and changes made by, 190 

Constitution, amended, 190 

Convict system, lease system abol- 
ished, 221 ; reforms in, 223 

Cooper, Duncan B., killing of Car- 
mack, 209 ; trial and pardon of, 
210 

Cooper, Henry, 198, 199 

Cooper, Robin, Itilling of Carmack, 
209 ; trial of, 210 

Copper, 144 

Corinth, 119 

Cornwallis, Lord, 20, 27 

Cotton, John, 38 

Cox, John L, 205 

Cozby, James, 33, 34 

Craighead, Rev. Thos. B., 42 

Crawford, William H., 74 

Creeks, 1 



Creek War, 59-62 

Criminals, treatment of, 171 

Crittenden, General, at Murfrees- 
boro, 124 

Crockett, David, sketch of, 78, 79 

Cumberland College, 154 

Cumberland, Duke of, 4 

Cumberland Gap, 4 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 
establishment of, 166 

Cumberland River, 5 

Cumberland Settlement, 36-47 ; 
hardships of, 40; form of gov- 
ernment of, 41 ; lack of powder 
of, 41 

Cummings, preacher, 17 



Dallas, 87 

Davidson Academy, 154 

Davidson County, 42 ; state gov- 
ernment, 50 

Davis, Sam, capture and execution 
of, 127 

Deaf and Dumb, school for, 173 

Debt, see State debt 

Democratic Party, 78 ; vs. Whig 
Party, 8 4, 93 ; in ascendancy, 
190-197; split in, 192, 209, 211; 
reunited, 192, 193 

Description of early Tennessee 
house, 81-82 

DeSoto, Hernando, 1-2 

Development before Civil War, 
128-138 

District of Washington, 11 

Doak, Rev. Samuel, Watauga, 165 

Donelson, John, journey to Nash- 
ville, 37-40 

Donelson, Rachel, 37 

Douglas, Stephen A., 104 

Dueling, laws of, 167 

East, Judge E. H.. 203 

Eastman, E. C, 8 5 

East Tennessee and the Civil War, 
108, 109-116 

East Tennessee, settlement of, 7- 
18; character of people of, 11- 
18 ; state government, 10-11, 50 ; 
on secession, lOS, 109-116; Civil 
War, 110 ; internal improvement 
of before Civil War, 128 ; manu- 
facturing, 133 ; roads, railroads, 
133 

Eaton Station, 41 

Education, 152-164 ; in State of 
Franklin, 152 ; in Washington 
County, 153 ; in counties, 153 ; 
legislative help in, 154, 155 ; as- 
sisted by land sales, 155 ; fa- 
vored by Governors Carroll and 
Cannon, 155, 156 ; common 
schools established, helped by 
Governor Johnson, 158 

English arouse Indians, 13 



INDEX 



275 



Estimaula, 48 

Ethridge, Emerson, 179, 192 

Etowah, 48 

Evans, H. Clay, 203, 204, 205, 229 

Evans, Nathaniel, 33 

Fairs, 150 

P^armers' Alliance, 203 

Farmers' Institutes, 219 

Fayetteville, Creek War, 59 

Female Academies, 154, 156 

Ferguson, Colonel, 24, 25, 26 

Filibuster, 97 

Finances, see State debt 

First Permanent Settlers in Amer- 
ica, 3 

Fiske Female Academy, 15 4 

Fiske, Moses, 154 

Florida, Seminole War, 65-66 

Floyd, General, 118 

Forrest, General N. B., at Fort 
Donelson, 118 ; surrender of, 
123 ; sketch of, 123 ; at Mur- 
freesboro, 12 4; capture of Col- 
onel Streight's command, 124 ; 
at Johnsonville, 125 ; address of 
to soldiers, 126 ; list of battles 
of, 126 

Fort, description of a, 13 

Fort Donelson, battle of, 118 

Fort Henry, battle of, 117 

Fort Loudon, 4 

Fort Mims, 59 

Fort Patrick Henry, 38 

Fort Scott, 65 

Fort Strother, 61 

Fort Sumter, 107 

Fort Union, 41 

Foster, Ephraim H., sketch of, 91 
(note) 

Four Mile Law, 206, 207 

Fowler, Joseph S., 198 

Franchise law. disfranchisement 
prohibited, 187, 190-191 

Franklin, battle of, 122 

Franklin, State of, 29-35 ; relation 
of North Carolina, 29 ; forma- 
tion of, 30 ; government of, 31 ; 
pardon of citizens of, 35 : con- 
stitution of, education in, 152 

Frazier, James B., elected gov- 
ernor, 204 : elected United States 
senator, 199. 204 

Freeland, George, 36 

['"■reeland Station, 41 

Freeman, Alfred A., 191 

Free population, 103 

French Salt Springs, 38, 39 

Gambling, 168 

Garrison, William Lloyd, 105 

Gaspers Station. 41 

Gentry, Meredith P., sketch of, 97 

Geologist, state, see State geologist 



George Peabody College for Teach- 
ers, 154 ; beginning of work of, 
197 ; statement, 220 

Gilberttown, 24 

Gillespie Station, 14 

Gleaves. Rear Admiral Albert, 237 

Glenn, Dr. L. C, 146 

Gordon, General George W., 19 7 

Governors, Blount to Carroll, 67- 
71 ; Cannon to Jones, 83-90 ; A. 
V. Brown to Harris, 91-101 ; 
1870 to 1885, 191 ; Taylor to 
Patterson, 203-205 ; Rye and 
Roberts, 227-234 

Grainger County, school funds of, 
159, 160 

Grand Cyclops, 181 

Grand Moctier trick, 168 

Grant, General U. S.. at Fort Hen- 
ry, 117 ; at Fort Donelson, 118 ; 
at Shiloh, 119 ; at Chattanooga, 
121 

Greeneville College, 153 

Grundy, Felix, 90 

Plall, William, becomes governor, 
71 

Harris, Isham G., elected governor, 
101; sketch of, 99 (note); vs. 
Hatton, 101 ; favors secession, 
106 ; moves government to Mem- 
phis, 174 ; reward for arrest of, 
177 ; elected United States sena- 
tor, 199 

Harris, Jeremiah George, 85 

Harrison, William Heni-y, 62, 115 

Haskell, W. T., 89 

Hatton. Robert, vs. Harris, 101 ; 
sketch of, 101 (note) 

Hauly, James, 36 

Hawkins, Alvin, elected governor, 
192 ; state debt, 195 

Health board, see State Board of 
Health 

Henry, Gustavus A., 9 4 ; sketch of, 
97 (note) 

Hermitage, the, 56. 58 

Holston Circuit, 165 

Holston Settlement, 8 

Holston Tennessee Bank, 139 

Hood, General, battles of Franklin 
and Nashville, 122 

Hooper, Ben W.. elected governor, 
213; vs. McMillin, 213; intro- 
duces reforms, 223 ; vs. Rye. 22 7 

Horse Shoe Bend, battle of, 61 

House, early Tennessee, descrip- 
tion of, 81-82 

Houston, Sam., sketch of, 69 ; can- 
didate for nomination as presi- 
dent of United States. 104 

Hunters and traders, early, 4-6, 7, 
36, 37 



276 



INDEX 



Immigration Bureau, 197 

"Immortal Thirteen. Tlie," 95 

Independent Democratic Party, or- 
ganized, 210 

Independent Movement, led by 
Carmack, 208, 210; convention 
of, 211 

Indians, in Tennessee, 1,6; aroused 
by English, 13 ; fights vi^ith, 14, 
15, 16, 17, 18 ; Donelson's trip, 
38, 39 ; Cumberland Settlement, 
40 ; Washington's policv, 41, 43 ; 
Robertson, 41 ; battle of Eto- 
wah, 48 

Insane, the, 172, 173 

Intemperance, see Prohibition 

Internal Improvements before 
Civil War, 128, 138, 144; af- 
fected by states' rights doctrine, 
130 ; report of committee con- 
cerning, 131, 133 ; affected by 
constitutional amendments, 134 

Introduction, vi 

Iron manufacturing, 144 

Isbel, Jaclt, 10 

Jackson, Andrew, IS ; member of 
congress, 52 ; quarrel of witli 
Sevier, 53 ; rise of as a soldier, 
55-66 ; compared with Sevier, 
55 ; early life of, 55-57 ; as Revo- 
lutionary soldier, 56 ; life of in 
North Carolina and Tennessee, 
57 ; United States senator, 5 7 ; 
duel of with Dickinson, 58 ; in 
War of 1812, 58 ; in Creek War, 
59-62; fight with Bentons, 59; 
in battle of New Orleans, 62-64 ; 
as a national character, 64 ; in 
Seminole War, 65-66 ; Memphis, 
72 ; as President of United 
States, 74-77 ; vote for in 1824, 
74 ; love for wife, 75 ; opposition 
to policies of, 78, 80 

Jackson, Mrs., mother of Andrew 
Jackson, 56 

Jackson, Mrs., wife of Andrew 
Jackson, death of, 75 

Jackson, Howell E., 199 

Jamestown, 3 

Jefferson, Thomas, King's Moun- 
tain, 28 

Johnson, Andrew, elected gov- 
ernor, 94 ; sketch of, 95 (note) ; 
leader of "The Immortal Thir- 
teen," 95 ; elected member of 
congress, 97 ; elected United 
State senator, 98 ; military gov- 
ernor, 98, 174 ; elected vice- 
president, 98, 176 ; impeached, 
98; message on education, 158; 
reenters state politics, 198-201 

Johnson, Cave, 116 

Johnsonville, battle of, 125 

Johnston, General A. S., at battle 
of Shiloh, 119 



Joliet, 2 
Jonesboro, 30 

Jones, James C, vs. Polk, 86; 
sketch of, 86 (note), 91 

Key, David M., 199 

King Fisher, 82 

King's Mountain, 19, 20 ; battle of, 

25-26 ; effect of battle of, 27 
Know-Nothing Party, 99 
Knoxville, 4 
Knoxville and Charleston Road, 

135 
Knoxville and Kentucky Road, 135 
Knoxville Argus, The, 85 
Ku Klux Klan, 180 

Labor troubles, 203, 222 

La Salle, 2-3 

Law Tax faction, 192 

Lea, Luke, elected senator, 199 ; 
heads niovement for harmony, 
213 

Lease system. 221 

Lebanon Law School, 200 

Lessing, King's Mountain, 27 

Lewis, Andrew, 4 

Lincoln, Abraham, 104 ; calls for 
volunteers, 107 

Lindsey, Judge H. B., 229 

Littleton, Jesse, 204 

Longstreet, General, in East Ten- 
nessee, 122 

Lookout Mountain, battle of, 121 

Loudon, Governor, 4 

Maclin, William, 51 
Mann, Horace. 162 
Mansker, Casper, 36, 37 
Manufacturing and Mining. 143- 

151 ; early development of, 143 ; 

iron, 144 ; copper, 144 
Manufacturing, encouragement of, 

133; early development of, 133; 

iron, 144; copper, 144; list of 

manufactures, 145 ; comparative 

statistics, 147 
Marks, Albert S., elected governor, 

191 ; state debt, 19 5 
Marquette, 2 
Massachusetts, school system of, 

162 
Material Development, statistics 

of industries, 223-226 
Maynard, Horace, 191, 198 
McDowell, Colonel, 20 
McKellar, K. D., elected United 

States senator, 229 
McjMillin, Benton, elected governor, 

204 ; vs. Hooper, 213 
McMinn, Joseph, elected governor, 

68 ; sketch of, 68 
Memphis, 1 ; founding of, 72, 73 ; 

seat of state government, 174 ; 

riot in, 178 



INDEX 



277 



Memphis and Charleston Railroad, 

136 
Methodists, circuit riders of, 165 
Metropolitan Police Bill, ITS 
Mexican War, the, Tennessee's 

part in, 89 ; result of, 89 
Middle Tennessee, 36-47 ; first 
structure in, 36 ; state govern- 
ment, 50 ; on secession, 108 
Militia, status of, 191 
Mims, A. S., 203 
Miners, convict labor, 221, 222 
Mining products, list of, 144, 145 
Missionary Ridge, battle of, 121 
Mobilities, see State Mobilities 
Moral ideals, 167 
Morgan, Colonel Calvin, 173 
Murfreesboro, battle of, see Stone's 
River, battle of 

Nash, Colonel, 42 

Nashville, site of, 39 ; laid off, 42 ; 
battle of, 122 

Nashville Circuit, 165 

Nashville Union, The, 85 

Neely, William, 36 

Nelson,' Thomas A. R., 110, 112 

Netherland, John, sketch of, 101 
(note) 

Naw England, secession, 102 

New Orleans, battle of, 62-64 ; ef- 
fect of victory of, 63 

Nolichucky, 17 

Normal School, see State normal 
schools 

North Carolina, East Tennessee, 
8 : State of Franklin, 29 ; Middle 
Tennessee, 36-47 

North Carolina Central, 136 



Obion Springs, labor troubles at, 

222 
Old Abraham, 14 
Ore, Major, 45 
Ouster Law, 228 
Overall, John W., 228 
Overall, William, 36 
Overton, John, INIemphis, 72 ; 

sketch of, 73 

Paper mills, 144 

Parole Law, 223 

Patriotism of Tennessee, 235-239 

Patterson, David T., 198 

Patterson, M. R., elected governor, 
205 ; vs. Carmack, 205, 208 ; op- 
posed to prohibition, 207 ; judges, 
210, 211 ; withdraws from race 
for governor, 212 

Peabody College, see George Pea- 
body College for Teachei-s 

Peabody Educational Board, 220 

Pendleton, I. L., 207 

Pendleton Law, 207 



Penitentiary, see State peniten- 
tiary 

Pensacola, 65 

Pensions, see Confederate pensions 

Pettibone, Major A. H., 216 

Phelan, statement regarding Se- 
vier, 53 

Pillow, General Gideon J., 89, 118 

Pittsburg Landing, see Shiloh 

Planters Bank, 140 

Pleas and Quarter Sessions, 11 

Polk, James K., vs. Cannon, 85 ; 
vs. Jones, 86 ; president of 
United States, 87; sketch of, 89 

Polo, 168 

Polytechnic Institute, see Tennes- 
see Polytechnic Institute 

Population in 1780, 12; in 1796, 
50; in 1870, 198; growth of 
cities, 224, 225 

Porter, James D., elected governor, 
191; state debt, 193, 194; edu- 
cation, 197 

Preface, iii 

Presbyterians, 165, 167 

Prison superintendent, see Super- 
intendent of prisons 

Products of Tennessee, list of, 144, 
145 

Progress in Agriculture, see Agri- 
culture 

Prohibition, first law of, 42, 168 ; 
law of 1823, 168; law of 1838, 
170 ; law of 1846. 170 ; Four Mile 
Law, 206 ; amendment voted on, 
206 ; Pendleton Law, 207 ; state- 
wide law passed, 210 ; a political 
issue, 207-212 

Public schools, established, 157 ; 
funds for, 157, 158 ; convention 
for in 1847. 160; comparison of 
in North and South, 161 ; statis- 
tics of in 1860, 164 ; system of 
reestablished, 185 ; fund for, how 
raised, 185 ; local taxation for, 
186; law for repealed, 196; law 
for reestablished, present system 
of established 1873, 197,' 217 ; 
normal schools, 218 

Public school system, see Public 
schools 

Pure food law, 143, 148 

Radicals, 178 

Railroads, 132 ; helped by state, 
134; statistics of in 1859, 137; 
of United States by sections, 
138 ; use of state bonds by, 183, 
191 ; taxed for school fund, 185 
Railroad Commission, state, see 

State Railroad Commission 
Ramsay, 17 (note), 18 (note) 
Ramsay, John, Memphis, 72 
Reconstruction in Tennessee, 174- 
189 ; convention, 175 ; laws, 177 • 
franchise law of, 177, 178 



278 



INDEX 



Reformatory, see State Reforma- 
tory 

Regnlar Democratic Party, 212, 
227 

Regulators, 8, 9 

Reld, Frank T., 193 

Religion, Moral Reform, Charity, 
165-173 ; in early days, 165 

Report of Commissioner of Roads, 
134, 135 

Report of Committee on Internal 
Improvements, 130, 133 

Republican Banner, 84 

Republican Party, 104, 212, 214 

Revolutionary War, Tennesseans 
in, 19-28 

Rhode Island superintendent of 
schools, report of, 163 

Rice, John, Memphis, 7 2 

Road building, lielped by state, 134 

Roads, 132 ; report of commis- 
sioner of, 134, 135 

Roane, Archibald, elected governor, 
52 ; message of regarding state 
products, 148 

Roberts, A. H., elected governor, 
229 ; tax reform, 229 ; message 
of to legislature, 231-234 

Robertson, Charles, 10 

Robertson, James, Watauga Set- 
tlement, 10, 15 ; Cumberland Set- 
tlement, 36-47 ; member North 
Carolina legislature, 42 ; leader 
of Middle Tennessee, 44 ; action 
regarding Indians, 45 ; sketch 
of, 45 (note) ; portrait of, 46 

Robertson, Mark, 36 

Rosecrans, General, at battle of 
Stone's River, 120 ; at Chicka- 
mauga, 121 : expedition of Col- 
onel Streight, 124 

Rounsifer, Mr., 38 

Rudy Creek, 38 

Russell, Colonel William, 15 

Rye, Tom, vs. Hooper, 227 



Sabbath, desecration of, 168 

Sanders, Newell, .judiciary, 212; 
appointed United States senator, 
200, 215 

San Jacinto, 71 

Santa Ana, General, 71 

Savage, Colonel John H., 197 

Savannah, 119 

School fund, see State school fund 

Scotch-Irish, influence of, 110 

Scovilites, 8 

Secession, see Tennessee and Se- 
cession 

Seminoles. 1, 65 

Seminole War, 65-66 

Senter, D. S. C. became governor, 
186 ; sketch of, 186 : conservative 
leader. 186; power of in elec- 
tions, 187 



Settlers in Tennessee, first perma- 
nent, 7-8 

Sevier, James, 10, 32 

Sevier, John, 1, 10, 12, 15, 16, 17, 
18, 19, 20, 26, 30, 44, 50 ; State of 
Franklin, 30, 31 ; arrest and es- 
cape of, 32-35 ; senator of North 
Carolina, 3 5 ; last Indian cam- 
paign of, 48-49 ; as a com- 
mander, 49 ; first governor of 
Tennessee, 52 ; other terms as 
governor, 5 2 ; charges against, 
53 ; quariel of with Jackson, 53, 
5 4 ; sketch of, 54 

Shelby, Colonel Isaac, 12, 19, 20, 
24, 25 ; Chickasaw Indians, 72 

Shields, John K., elected senator, 
200, 215, 229 

Shiloh, battle of, 119 

Slave population, 103 

Slavery, beginning of, 102 ; divides 
North and South, 103 ; sentiment 
against in both sections, 103 ; 
state constitution, 190 

Slaves, number of, 103 

Soldiers of Tennessee, development 
of. 111 

Spotswood, 3 

St. Marks, 65. 

Stamp Act, 8 

State bank, act establishing, 139 

State board of education, estab- 
lished, 197, 217 

State board of health, creation of, 
197 

State bonds, low price of, 184 

State credit faction, 192 

State debt, how incurred, 183, 184 ; 
how increased, 184 ; main issue 
in state politics, 191 ; funding of, 
193 ; repeal of funding act, 193 ; 
in administrations after war, 
193, 194 ; how finally decided, 
196 

State educational system, 190 

State Fair, 149 

State geologist, 145, 19 7 

State guards, 179 

State internal improvements, see 
Internal improvements 

State mobilities, 179 

State normal schools, 218 

State of Franklin, relation to 
North Carolina, 29 ; formation 
of government of, 30 ; pardon of 
citizens of, 35 

State penitentiary, established, 171 

State railroad commission, 197 ; 
creation of, 197 

State reformatory, 222, 223 

States' rights, effect of on internal 
improvements, 130 

State school fund, started, 185 ; 
.statistics of, 185 

State superintendent of public in- 
struction, 218 ; list of, 221 



INDEX 



279 



state University, see University of 

Tennessee 
State-wide prohibition, first law 

of, 16S ; political issue, 207-212 ; 

law for passed, 207 
Stokes, Colonel W. B., 187 
Stone, Uriah, 36 
Stone's River, battle of, 120 
Streight, Colonel A. D., expedition 

of into Georgia, 124 
Subaltern, the, story of battle of 

New Orleans, 63 
Sullivan County, 12 
Superintendent of prisons, 197 
Swanson, Edward, 36 

Taxation, early, 8, 9 ; for schools, 
218 

Tax reform, 229 

Taylor, Alfred A., vs. Robert L. 
Taylor, 203 

Taylor, Robert L., elected senator, 
200 ; elected governor, 203, 204 ; 
nominated for governor by Reg- 
ulars, 212 ; sketch of, 216 

Temple, Judge, on secession, 110, 
112 

Tennessee and Secession, 102-108 ; 
right of secession, 102, 105 ; New 
England, 102 ; secession of South 
Carolina, and other states, 106; 
Tennessee on secession, 106 ; 
Judge Temple's opinions, 110, 
112 

Tennessee and the Great World 
War, 235-241 

Tennessee Industrial School, 219 

Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, 
218 

Tennessee River Railroad Co., 135 

Tennessee, State, population of in 
1796, 50 ; first constitution of, 
51 ; internal improvements of be- 
fore Civil War, 128-138 ; popula- 
tion of in 1870, 198 ; injured by 
Civil War, 2 23; statistics of 
population and industry of, 225 ; 
list of products of, 225 ; in Great 
World War, 235-241 

Tennessee Territory, 35, 43, 44 

Texas annexation, 87, 105 

Thimble, 168 

Thomas, General, at battle of 
Chickamauga, 121 ; at battle of 
Nashville, 122 

Tillman, George N., 204, 205 

Tipton, Colonel, 18 ; State of 
Franklin and Sevier, 31, 32 

Title page, i 

Tories, 2 0, 26 

Ti'ist, Nicholas P., 75 

Troops, in labor troubles, 222 

Troost, Dr. Gerard, 145, 146 

Trousdale, William, 89, elected 
governor, 93 ; sketch of, 93 
(note) 



Tryon, Governor, 9 

Turley, J. A., 197 

Turley, Thomas B., 199 

Turner, H. L., 9 5 

Turner, Samuel, 95 

Turney, Judge Peter, 203 

Union Bank, 140 

Union Committee of East Tennes- 
see,. 175 

Union Leagues, 180 

University of East Tennessee, 154 

University of Nashville, 4 2, 145 

University of Tennessee, 154 ; 
statement, 219 

University of the South, Four Mile 
Law, 206 ; statement, 220 

Van Buren, Martin, 80 
Vanderbilt University, statement, 

220 
Veimont, school facts of, 163 
"Volunteer State," 89 

Walker, Dr. Thomas, 4 

Wallace. Major, 18 

Ward, Edward, sketch of, 68 

Warioto, 5 

Washington, President, policy of 

regarding Indians, 41, 43 
Washington College, 153 ; charter 

of, 153 
Washington County, formation of, 

11 
Watauga Settlement, 7-18, 165 ; 

constitution of, 10 ; government 

of, 10-11 ; character of peoi)le 

of, 11-18, 28 ; religious feeling 

of, 16 5 
Webb, W. R., elected United States 

senator, 200, 215 ; tribute of to 

Carmack, 216 
West Tennessee, 1 ; development 

of, 72-73 ; on secession, 108 
Whig, The, see Brownlow's Whig 
Whigs, 20 
Whig Party in Tennessee, 78-82; 

vs. Democratic Party, 78, 84, 95 
White, Hugh Lawson, opposed by 

Andrew Jackson, SO; sketch of, 

81 
White, Zachariah, 36 
White man to Tennessee, coming 

of, 1-6 
Whitthorne, W. C, 199 
Williams, Colonel, 26 
Williams, Samuel, 154 
Wilson, Judge S. F., 192 
Wilson, Woodrow, 214 
Winchester, James, Memphis, 72 
Winstend, G. W., 203 
Winston, Colonel, 24, 26 
Wisener, W. H., 191 
Wright, John V., 192 

York, Sergeant Alvin, 239 
Young. Colonel H. C, report on 
burning bridges, 113 




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