OPINIONS OF THE GERMAN EDITION OF KOTELMANN's
(Previous to the appearance of the translation into English)
' Dr. Kotelmann discusses school hygiene in 137 pages; the treatise is
popular aud very interesting but at the same time rigidly scientific; and he
makes due use of the literature of the subject, as was to be expected from
the edftor of the ' Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheitspflege '. The book is also
to be strongly recommended to those of the medical profession who may
desire to get their bearings quickly in this important chapter of hygiene."
Dr. If. Neumann, private docent of childrens' diseases, University of
Berlin, in Literaturbeilage der Deutschen medizinischen Wochenschrift,
1895. No. 16, August 8, p. 104.
' The editor has secured for this part of the Handbook as for some
others the best talent, and the readers of this journal need not be told
about the merits of the writer. Within a very meagre compass for so com-
prehensive a subject he has succeeded in a truly masterly way in telling the
reader everything essential, and in saving him from the ballast carried by
larger works on school hygiene. The first section gives a sketch of the
history of school hygiene in Germany, and in it the reader will find not a
few things that are heedlessly passed over by larger works. In the next
section, the hygiene of the school room is discussed (including natural and
artificial lighting, ventilation, cleaning, heating, and furniture). I con-
sider the limitation of the work to those points which the teacher can
observe and control as an exceedingly happy one, the more so since only
thus could the treatment be thorough. * * * The excellence of the
work comes into still greater prominence in the second part, which treats of
the hygiene of pupils. The author is here in his special field of labor,
where his work has for so long been crowned with marked success. Here
we find sketched with superior skill one after another the hygiene of the
nervous system, the eye, the ear, the voice, and the rest of the bod}'. In
everything the author proceeds with caution, distinguishing the ideal from
the real, and striving only for the possible and attainable. I would mention
in this connection especially his treatment of mental fatigue, recesses,
afternoon sessions, and vacations. Teachers will find here reliable informa-
tion free from such exaggerations as one so often finds not only on the
part of doctors but also of pedagogues who have dabbled in medicine.
"The discussion of the hygiene of the eye is based upon a long and
varied experience. Perhaps the evil consequences of home work with its
imperfect conditions of illumination and seating might have been more
strongly emphasized, and the teacher urged to make a fight against them
by arranging and controlling the work. Yet even so we cannot be assured
of the right result unless the doctor, especially the family doctor, is brought
into connection with the school. If the matter is to be properly reguluted,
it must seek advice from medical science, and this book is warmly recom-
mended to school men to serve this purpose." Dr. Hermann Schiller, pro-
fessor of pedagogy, and superior privy school counsellor, Giessen, in Zeit-
schrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1895, No. 8, pp. 504-5.
" The eminent founder and editor of the ' Zeitschrift fur Schulgesund-
heitspflege ' (Journal for School Hygiene) has succeeded in giving us in the
brief form of _137 pages a complete and critical treatise, in which every-
thing essential is presented and the less important made accessible by bib-
liographical references. What a vast mass of material has been utilized
can be seen especially in the introductory history of school hygiene. The
use of rare sources of information, remote from the doctor's province,
makes it clear that the writer has enjoyed a literary as well as a medi-
cal training, a fact which his well known book 'Gesundheitspflege im Mit-
telalter' (Hygiene in the Middle Ages) demonstrates beautifully. * * *
We will take the liberty of expressing to the publishers the wish that they
issue an edition separate from the Manual. The medical world will be as
glad to receive it as the pedagogical for which it was primarily intended."
Dr. Schubert, President of the Commission for School Hygiene in Niirn-
berg, Miinchener medizinische Wochenschrift (Munich Medical Weekly,)
" To Dr. Kotelmann of Hamburg was entrusted the writing of the
hygienic section of the Handbook of Pedagogy for Higher Schools, which
is being edited by Dr. Baumeister. A better man could not have been
selected. The author of this interesting treatise is in fact not a novice. As
editor of the ' Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege ' he has been engaged
with matters of school hygiene for many years, and there is no question
concerning the schools, the pupils, and their hygiene that he has not had
occasion to study and to treat in a thorough-going manner in the excellent
journal he is publishing. Dr. Kotelmann has realized admirably that a
publication designed for teachers, to be useful, must be practical and free
from the theoretical discussion that encumbers the ordinary hygienic man-
uals. He has sought to limit his study to those hygienic conditions which
are closely connected with the teacher and can be modified by him; and
one can but admire the skill with which he has executed the difficult task
he has given himself. * * * Such in brief is Dr. Kotelmann's treatise,
which cannot be recommended too highly to all those who are occupied with
school hygiene.' 1 Dr. Combe, Professor at the University of Lausanne,
medical advisor of the schools of Lausanne, in Revue medicale de la
Suisse Pomande, October 20, 1895, No. 10, pp. 549-550.
" * * * On the whole, this work, which is written in a scientific and
conscientious spirit, will be read with profit not only by those for whom it
was designed, namely, the teachers, but by all hygienists especially occupied
with school hygiene." Dr. Mangenot, Medical Inspector of the Schools of
Paris, in Revue d' Hygiene et de Police Sanitaire, 1895. No. 8, August 20,
"This book by Kotelmann is the best outline for the teacher. The
book is written in an admirably concise style, and by aid of numerous
tables a vast number of important facts and principles are presented."
Prof. W. H. H. Burnham, in The Pedagogical Seminary.
LUDWIG KOTELMANN, PH.D., M.D.
Author of a number of books on school hygiene, founder of the Zeitschrift
fur Schulgesundheitspflege, practising ophtalmologist, Hamburg
TRANSLATION FROM A COPY REVISED AND ENLARGED ESPE-
CIALLY FOR THIS EDITION HY THE AUTHOR
JOHX A. BERGSTROM, Tn.D.
Associate Professor of Psychology and Pedagogy
EDWARD CONRADI, M.A.
C. W. BARDEEN, PUBLISHER
Copyright, 1899. by C. W. BARDEEN
Page 26, line 15, for 1724 read 1774.
" 31, " 14, Foriep " Froriep.
" 32, " 19, Ritschel " Rietschel.
" 40, " 4, candle " lamp.
41 41, last line, for as read at.
" 43, line 23, for h read I.
" 47, note for No. 10, etc., read Nos. 11-17.
" 55, note, 2d line, for 3677 read 367.
*' 78, line 23, for momement read moment.
*' 128 " 17 " contract read contact.
" 129 " 6 "
' 135 " 4 " 148 read 152.
- 212 " 21 " HI " VI.
" 254 " 10 ; ' knows read known.
" 256 " 7 " Motai " Motais.
" 310 " 12 " 35 % read 35.
" 342 " 20, 21, not should be inserted after found.
The personality of an author and the extent of his
preparation are of course always important as a ready
means of estimating the value of his work, but more
so in some subjects than in others. School hygiene,
which may be looked upon as a concentration of the
principles of architecture, sanitary engineering, psy-
chology, pedagogy, and preventive medicine upon the
physical conditions of school life, requires more than
a superficial acquaintance with these matters, and is in
fact so broad a field that, as an American expert
has said, it is more than* enough in itself for a
life work. The possibilities of one-sided treatment,
also, are very great. It might be scholarly yet not
practical, adequate in some parts but wanting in
others, or comprehensive and yet without the proper
balance, proportion, and connection. As a subject,
school hygiene must therefore be placed high in the
list of those in which personality, scholarship, and
experience play a prominent part. The eminent quali-
fications of our author, who is now 60 years old and
has given the major part of his life to the work, and
his masterly success in combining comprehensiveness
with clearness and brevity, and scientific accuracy and
moderation with an interesting, forceful, and above
all practical mode of treatment are attested not only
by the book itself but by the opinions of experts in
school hygiene from different countries. (See pages
Dr. Kotelmann was born in 1839 in Demmin, Prus-
sia, where his father was vice-principal of the gym-
nasium. This he attended till his confirmation, when
he was transferred to the royal padagogium at Pusbus.
-After graduating here, he studied theology at the uni-
versities of Erlangen and Berlin and received the de-
gree of Doctor of Philosophy on presenting a thesis
on De Theologia Aristotelea. About this time he
became tutor in the family of one of the nobility and
spent some time in a teachers' seminary to prepare
himself for his duties. In 1866 he was called to be
assistant pastor and rector of the city schools in Gartz
on the island of Riigen; and two years later he was
called to be teacher in the padagogium and pastor of
the castle in Pusbus. Lung trouble compelled him to
give up his position, and he went to Leipsic to habili-
tate as docent in Oriental Languages.
The death of his father cut short this enterprise and
compelled him to seek some profession with speedier
financial returns. He selected that of medicine, in
accordance with a preference of long standing, and
SCHOOL HYGIENE ^ 3
went to Marburg to study. In a year he was made
assistant in the physiological institute and shortly after
passed the state examinations and received the title of
doctor, this time presenting a thesis on The Midwives
of the Ancient Hebrews, a Study from Old Testa-
After attending clinics in his specialty, he settled in
Hamburg in 1876 as an ophthalmologist, in which pro-
fession he has since been engaged.
Of the books and papers he has written the follow-
ing may be mentioned: Die Korperverhaltnisse der
Gelehrtenschiiler des Johanneums in Hamburg (1879) ;
Die Vivisektionsfrage (1880) ; 1st die heutige Jugend
der hoheren Lehranstalten mit Schularbeit iiberburdet
(1881); Zur Gesundheitspflege des Mittelalters (1887) ;
Uber Schulgesundheitspflege (1895), the original of
the present translation,; and Zur Gesundheitspflege in
den hoheren Madchenschulen (1897).
In 1888, Dr. Kotelmann founded the Zeitschrift fur
Schulgesundheitspflege (Journal for School-hygiene),
and remained its editor for ten years, being succeeded
n 1898 by Dr. Fr. Erismann. This has been the only
journal devoted exclusively to school hygiene, and it is
certainly the best.
The translation is made not from the treatise as
published in 1895, but from a copy revised and enlarged
by the author especially for this edition.
The number of illustrations has been nearly doubled ;
and the additions to the text, aside from alterations, con-
sist partly of descriptions of the new illustrations and
partly of a review of the investigations that have been
made since the original was written. The latter ap-
peared first as a part of the great Handbuch der Erzie-
hungs-und Unterrichtslehre fur hohere Schulen (Hand-
book of the Principles of Education and Instruction
for Secondary Schools), edited by Dr. A. Baumeister.
Its publication here will explain the fact that it is ad-
dressed especially to teachers, and the rather frequent
and special reference throughout the book to the
secondary schools, though important facts and compari-
sons with the common schools and the universities are
by no means omitted.
It must not of course be supposed that the dis-
cussion is limited to pupils yf our high school or
academy age. As is well known, pupils enter the
German secondary schools at nine and might gradu-
ate at eighteen, though the average age is nearly
twenty. If these institutions have preparatory schools
or classes for the first three years of school life, all the
regular instruction young men under twenty receive
could very well be obtained solely in connection with
these schools, and this would correspond in amount
perhaps to what a pupil here would secure from our
elementary and secondary schools, with the addition of
two years of college work.
The age for admission to these schools was deter-
mined by the age deemed adequate for beginning the
study of Latin, which is about nine or ten; and the
entrance requirements consist of reading, writing,
knowledge of the parts of speech, the four processes
in numbers up to 1,000, and Bible history, or what is
taught in a common school the first three years. The
preparation might be made in private, in preparatory
schools or classes, or in the common schools.
The difference between the various kinds of second-
ary schools with which the reader will have to deal in
this book is best understood from a study of their his-
tory, and a comparison of the courses and privileges
connected with them. In the following table the fig-
ures opposite the subjects indicate the total number of
periods per week devoted to them by all the grades of
the school according to the programmes of 1892.
Hist, and Geog
Chem. and Min
German and his-
Hist, and Geog.
Chem. and Min.
Hist, and Geog...
Hist, and Geog.
Nat. History. . .
In the United States, several, or even all, these dif-
ferent courses may sometime be found combined in a
single large institution; and the correspondence with
our classical, Latin-scientific, and scientific divisions
is of course evident.
Besides the above subjects, two hours per week in
singing for the first two classes and three hours of gym-
nastics throughout are compulsory. The gymnasium,
real-gymnasium, and the superior real-school have nine
grades or classes, while the real-school or superior
grammar school has only six.
In Prussia and northern Germany generally, these
are designated from the lowest to the highest by the
Latin ordinals as follows : Sexta, Quinta, Quarta, Low-
er Tertia, Upper Tertia, Lower Sekunda, Upper Sekun-
da, Lower Prima, Upper Prima. In southern Ger-
many, as in Wurtemberg and Bavaria, and in Austria
and Hungary, they are numbered in the reverse order,
from I to IX. If the preparatory grades are included,
they will be marked VIII and VII in the first case,
and I and II in the second. Russia, Sweden, Norway,
Denmark, Holland, England, Italy, among others,
number the grades from 1 upward, and France and
Belgium as well as the adjacent German states, Alsace-
Lorraine and Baden, do the reverse.
Graduation from these schools or the completion of
a given number of grades confers certain privileges,
with respect to military service, university studies,
SCHOOL HYGIENE 7
and official careers, and so places these schools and
their pupils in a separate and superior social position,
to which of course the high grade of scholarship of
the teachers and the dignity of the subjects as well as
tradition also contribute. The different kinds of sec-
ondary schools are, however, by no means on an
equality in this respect. The completion of six years
of study in any one of them entitles a young man
to exemption from two of the three years of compul-
sory military service. In the nine grade schools one-
half of the pupils leave as soon as this exemption has
been secured. With respect to other privileges the
gymnasium leads by enabling its graduates at once to
enter upon the special preparation for any profession
or any branch of the public service. The real-gym-
nasium confers the same privileges except that its
graduates cannot, without making up the part of the
gymnasial course which they have not had, prepare
themselves at the universities for theology, law,
medicine, or cameralistics.
The superior real-school confers only about half as
many important privileges as the schools just men-
tioned, though it gives the same as the real gymnasium
except that it does not like the latter enable its gradu-
ates to study modern languages, dentistry, veterinary
surgery, or pharmacy at the universities or other pro-
fessional schools, and excludes from a few careers in
the army and navy unless the applicant passes a special
examination on the missing subjects.
The local applicability of a book on school hygiene
varies with its character. In this respect there is an
evident difference betwen special reports or practical
directions and a scientific treatise like Kotelmann's
which makes use of statistics from many different
countries in establishing and illustrating the principles
of the subject. If there were not an essential similar-
ity in the conditions of mental activity and the aims
and means of education among civilized nations, it
would of course be impossible to write a book that
would be directly applicable everywhere. As it is,
perhaps the most important thing about the local back-
ground for a treatise on the principles of school hygiene
is that this shall have been sufficiently varied and ex-
tensive and shall have been adequately investigated.
Those who have to buy heating apparatus or school
furniture will of course need to know the local con-
ditions and facilities and must therefore supplement
this book by the examination of equipments or cata-
logues from supply companies. This would doubtless
in any case be necessary, unless a very special report
had been made ; and perhaps all we can ask from a
general treatise is that it shall so present its princi-
ples that our judgment may not err in our work.
SCHOOL HYGIENE 9
There is a very important place, moreover, for exten-
sive local investigations in different parts of the subject
by experts, as they serve to demonstrate causes and
conditions with certainty and besides, stimulate pub-
lic interest and give all concerned a more practical and
efficient habit of mind. The history of school hygiene
affords in this respect an interesting parallel to the
history of the same movement in Germany as given in
chapter I. Here as there, we find first of all a recog-
nition of the importance of health and strength and
an advocacy of physical training to secure it, notably
so by Franklin and Jefferson in the latter half of
the eighteenth century. The temporary introduction
in the twenties of German gymnastics by Beck,
Follen, and Lieber, disciples of Jahn; the manual
labor movement and the agitation for the study of
hygiene, mainly in the thirties; the recognition of the
unhygienic conditions and the proper requirements of
school buildings by Alcott, Mann, and Barnard in the
thirties and forties ; the revival in the fifties and sixties
of gymnastics and military drill through the labors of
Dio Lewis and the influence of the civil war, and the
present partial recognition of them in the curriculum;
and, finally, the pioneer work of Barnard, 1838, in
measuring children for school seats, the later efforts to
determine the facts of growth and its conditions by
Bowditch, Porter, Peckham, Boas, Bryan, West, and
others, the study of death rates, stuttering, and seating
by Hartwell, and the examination of the senses by
many investigators, these facts by their character all
indicate a development from the unstudied, partial
recognition of defects and the more or less adequate
agitation for their removal to the rigorous, scientific,
and statistical investigation of causes and remedies.
While there is thus everywhere an essential similar-
ity in the principles and perhaps in the development
of the science, nevertheless, there are minor variations
due to differences in climate, race, and school pro-
grammes. Thus, Germany, which lies approximately
between the 47th and 55th parallels, is as a whole in a
higher latitude than the United States, which is be-
tween the 25th and 49th, if we omit the outlying pos-
sessions; and it has a correspondingly lower tempera-
ture in summer and shorter days in winter.
Its winter temperature, however, is higher than we
should expect from the latitude, being about the same
as that of the middle section of the United States east
and west. This is chiefly to be explained by the
general prevalence there at this season of south-west-
erly winds. On the Atlantic coast of Xorth America,
the corresponding winds are from the north-west, and
in the central parts from the south-west or west; while
in summer in all sections mentioned the winds are
south-westerly or southerly.
SCHOOL HYGIENE 11
According to Young [Seventh Annual Report of the
State Board of Health of Maine, p. 260-3], this differ-
ence in latitude makes a northerly exposure less unde-
sirable and in fact to be preferred along with the north
easterly for his section of the country, while the
southerly is to be positively rejected. However, on
this point authorities differ, and perhaps the most im-
portant thing is to recognize the advantages and disad-
vantages of the different orientations and in the equip-
ment of room to make due allowance for them.
With respect to school programmes, an investigation
in the high schools of some cities in Indiana showed
that the pupils spent about 32 hours per week in
school work, which is not much more than half the
time spent in the corresponding grades of the Swedish
schools studied by Key, and from 15 to 20 hours less
than is recommended by him and other European
authorities as an allowable maximum. The pres-
sure is, however, far from uniform in different sections
of the country; and while there are schools that rival
the European in this repect there are doubtlesss others
in which much more work might be done without
detriment to health. Whether or not climate, hered-
ity, and family training make the recommendations
of the European experts for the maximum amount of
work per week too high for this country, needs further
investigation. The natural standard is of course, that
the pupil shall be able to do his work without injury
to health, that is without becoming nervous and
sleepless, or having his eye-sight, digestion, or other
bodily functions impaired.
In conclusion the translators take pleasure in ac-
knowledging their indebtedness to Dr. Kotelmann for
most kindly and efficient assistance and to Mr. C. W.
Bardeen for a number of additions to the bibliography
and many valuable suggestions.
J. A. BERGSTRO"M.
The tests of vision on page 44 may be made with the pages of this book.
When it is in good light the average normal eye can read the text at a dis-
tance of 45 inches.
In the comparison on pages 62 and 63 between gas and kerosene, it IB
assumed that the twoilluminants are burning from simple broad flame burn-
ers. If different kinds of burners are used, the comparison will not be
the same, as will be seen in the following table from Brockhaus's Kon. Lex.,
14th ed, article Beleuchtung. The table gives the amount and cost of the
illuminant, as well as the heat and waste products for a hundred candle
power light for one hour.
CHAPTER I. THE HISTORY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
IN GERMANY 17
CHAPTER II. ORIENTATION AND NATURAL LIGHT-
Orientation 35 ; natural illumination 38 ; Web-
er's photometer 39; Weber's stereogoniometer
42 ; remedies for insufficient light 45.
CHAPTER III. ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION 53
Electric lights 53 ; gas 58 ; kerosene 62.
CHAPTER IV. VENTILATION AND CLEANING 65
Impurities in the air 65 ; carbonic acid 66 ; dust
69 ; bacteria 70 ; measurement of impurity 73 ;
Pettenkoffer's method 73 ; Smith-Lunge method
76; Wolpert's air-tester 78; Recknagel's venti-
lation guage 85; Castaning's window-ventilation
90; opening of windows 91; cleanliness 94;
CHAPTER V. HEATING 104
Stoves vs. central plants 104; stoves 107; hot-
air furnaces 112; hot water 117; steam 119.
Required temperature 121 ; Bastelmann's contact
CHAPTER VI. SCHOOL FURNITURE 128
Desks 128; " difference " 136; "distance"
141; movable desk tops 147; Vienna desk 150;
movable seats 155; adjustments for standing
158. Blackboards 161 ; easels 164; map-holders
165; crayon and erasers 168.
CHAPTER VII. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 170
The brain 170; experiments upon fatigue of
pupils 173; Mosso ergograph 178; Griesbach's
CHAPTER VIII. SCHOOL PROGRAMMES 189
Order of subjects 189; length of periods 192;
recesses 193 ; lunches 195 ; one session or two 198 ;
vacations 200 ; vacation travel 203 ; dismissal for
heat 207. How young should pupils be admitted
209; home work 210; music lessons 211; im-
proved methods 215 ; examinations 216; cephalic
congestions 216 ; school headaches 217 ; nosebleed
219 ; over-stimulated nerves 220. Outdoor sports
224; manual training 225; sleep 225. Mental
diseases 228; suicide 231; epilepsy 234; St. Vitus
CHAPTER IX. THE EYE 239
Farsightedness 240; normal condition 244;
nearsightedness 246 ; eye-glasses 251 ; text-books
260; penmanship 264; drawing 269; color-blind-
ness 270; diseases of the eye 272.
CHAPTER X. THE EAR 279
Tests of hearing 279 ; dulness often from audi-
tory defects 284; adenoid vegetation 285; vio-
lent noises 290; boxing the ears 292; objects in
the ear 293.
CHAPTER XL THE VOCAL ORGANS... ...295
SCHOOL PYGIENE 15
How early children can sing 295 ; hygiene of
singing 298. Correct articulation 302; stutter-
CHAPTER XII. CURVATURE OF THE SPINE 310
A product of school life 310 ; vertical penman-
ship 315 ; weight of books carried to school 318.
CHAPTER XIII. INFECTIOUS DISEASES 320
Measles 320; scarlet fever 324; diphtheria 328;
whooping-cough 332 ; cerebro-spinal meningitis
334 ; mumps 335 ; small-pox and vaccination 336 ;
chicken-pox 340; tuberculosis 341; typhus fever
344 ; influenza 346 ; masturbation 349.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ENGLISH AND AMERICAN BOOKS
AND PAPERS ON SCHOOL HYGIENE 353
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Weber's photometer 39
2. Weber's stereogoniometer 42
3. Henning's daylight reflector 46
4. Hrabowski's overhead reflector 57
5. Smith-Lunge air-tester 76
6. Becknagel's ventilation gauge 85
7. Becknagle's ventilation -gauge attached 86
8. Castaning's method of window ventilation 91
9. Bastelmann's contact thermometer for electric
temperature signals 125
10. Bastelmann's temperature signal board 126
11. Writing class in forward position 131
12. Lateral curvature of the spine due to a desk
that is too high (Esmarch) 137
16 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
13. School desk of Elsaesser of Schonau at Heidel-
14r-16. Plus zero minus distance 142
17. Pupil with a plus distance seat 143
18. Parrow's school desk 148
19. Kunze's school desk 149
20. Schlimp's school desk 152
21. Schenk's school desk, arranged for standing.. 153
22. Schenk's school desk, arranged for sitting 153
23. Lickroth's standard school desk 155
24. Kottmann's school desk 157
25. The " Columbus " school desk 157
26. Kottmann's desk, arranged for sitting 159
27. The same, arranged for standing 159
28. Blackboard with rolling support 163
29. Easel for black-board 164
30. The same used as a map-holder 165
31. Map-holder by Lickroth closed 166
32. The same, open , 167
33. Recording apparatus for the Mosso ergograph....!78
34. Fatigue curve, obtained with the Mosso ergo-
35. Griesbach's sesthesiometer 186
36. Boy with adenoid vegetation before the oper-
37. The same boy, after the operation 289
38. Pupil writing vertical script 317
THE HISTORY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE IN GERMANY
Special efforts to promote the physical well-being of
the school population of Germany began to be made as
early as the time of the "Reformation. These consisted
at first of an advocacy of physical exercise.
While most of the theologians of the middle ages,
like Berth old of Regensburg (1272) and Geiler of
Kaisersberg (1445-1510), see in the " running, tilting
stone-throwing, wrestling, jumping, etc.", which were
beloved by old and young, nothing but a device of the
Evil One for " capturing souls
with pride", and only a few
like Thomas Haselbach (about
1446) express the opinion
that a man may for the sake
of recreation and physical
development engage in all
sorts of sports, and contests
MARTIN LUTHER, 1483-1546 like throwing balls through a
ring or at ninepins, running races, shooting with the
bow, playing ball, and so forth, Luther makes a very
18 HISTORY OF SCHOOL HYGIEKE
positive plea for the practice of such exercises, especially
by the young.
" The ancients," said he, " understood this matter
very well ; and they required that people should exer-
cise and have something useful and respectable to do
so that they might not fall into intemperance, debauch-
ery, gluttony, drinking, and gambling. I am there-
fore very fond of these two exercises and amusements,
music, and tilting, together with fencing, wrestling, v
and similar games; the first of which drives sorrow
and melancholy from the heart, and the second de-
velops the different parts of the body and keeps it in
health. The real purpose is, moreover, to keep people
from going into drinking, lewdness, gambling, and
dice-playing, as they do now at the courts and in the
cities, where one can hear nothing but : ' Here you are !
Have a drink ! ' Then they gamble for another hundred
guilders or more. This is what happens when these
fine games and knightly sports are neglected." Still
better known is his saying that it was well with the
city on whose streets the children played and sang.
In his treatise entitled, "A few precepts on the way
our young people should be trained,"* Zwingli, l too,
* Quo pacto ingenui adolescentes formandi sint, prae-
1 Huldrici Zuinglii opera. Completa editio prima
curantibus Melchiore Schulero et Jo. Schulthessio, iv,
148-158. Turici, 1841, ex officina Schulthessiana.
LUTHER, ZWIKGLI, CAMERARIUS- 19
recommends running, jumping, stone-throwing, fenc-
ing, and wrestling, to develop the youthful body and
make it skilful. Wrestling is, however, to be indulged
in sparingly, since it often becomes a serious matter.
He believes that swimming is an exercise of small utility,
11 though it may be very pleasant at times to float in
the water and act like a fish." The noteworthy fact
is that he is the spokesman for instruction in manual
training. He wishes that all boys and young men
" felt as they would if they had to acquire the right
of citizenship among the ancient Massilians, who ad-
mitted no one who did not understand a trade." He
also warns young people against a haughty bearing,
and recommends a temperate life. " Hunger is to be
mitigated but not wholly destroyed by eating; "
Galenus reached the age of one hundred and twenty
because he never rose from the table satiated.
Joachim Camerarius (1500-1574), the friend of
Melanchthon, not only advises in his " Maxims for
Boys " that they substitute ball-playing, running and
jumping, boxing and wrestling, for the disreptutable
game of dice; but in his " Dialogus de Gymnasiis "
he points to the gymnastics of the ancients as a model.
In fact, Humanists, like Sadolet, brought the gymnas-
tics as well as other features of classical antiquity again
within the circle of common interest. Camerarius
praises the Greek games particularly in comparison
with the rough [and 'excessive sports of our German
20 HISTORY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
forefathers, who kept up a savage feasting and drink-
ing for days and nights in connection with them;
whereas he would have his pupils, graded in age and
strength, go through their exercises before meals.
While gymnastics for the young was promoted in
this way, we find that a " school garden " designed
for the amusement and recuperation of both teachers
and pupils was established as early as 1588 at the gym-
nasium of Halle on the Saale. The teachers of the
institution formed an association that year and contri-
buted enough of their meagre salaries to found a gar-
den which remained in existence for two and a half
centuries. On the surrounding wall i-s a stone tablet
on which was chiselled the names of ten teachers and
the rector, Caesar, together with a Latin poem com-
posed by him, in which we find among other things :
" The teachers who were associated together at Halle
have here constructed a garden at their common
It is, however, true that at other places the health
of the children was not so well cared for. In the
large city school of Wismar founded in 1541, the
pupils were for instance not allowed to go into the
yard during recess; and they must not leave their
seats without permission. On the other hand, when
* Sumptibus hunc construxerunt communibus hor-
tum, qui juncti Halensi turn docuere schola.
HALLE, THE JESUITS 21
they brought the customary New Year's presents for
the principal and vice-principal, punch, tobacco, and
cards were distributed among them. They spent the
whole night in revelry ; nor did they forget to sing the
Landesvater *, stacking their hats on a sword and tak-
ing them off again as they sang.
The Jesuits have rendered particularly eminent ser-
vice in the field of school hygiene. As is well-known,
they were enterprising teachers, and founded not only
schools for their own order, but also academies in
which any young person might receive lodging, care,
In the outline of their methods known as " Ratio et
imitatio studiorum societatis Jesu ", which was issued
for these institutions in 1599 by the general of the
Jesuits, Claudio Aquaviva, the number of daily recita-
tion periods as well as the amount of work to be
done by the pupils will be found to have been re-
stricted in a very reasonable way. The schools and
boarding houses of the Jesuits were, as a rule, hygi-
enically well arranged; and the physical development
of the boys was furthermore promoted by good board,
daily walks, games, and long vacations.
A detailed description of a school building is first to
*A patriotic students' drinking song, with an accom-
panying ceremony, which is referred to in the phrases
succeeding Landesvater in the text.
22 HISTORY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
be found in the year 1649, when Joseph Furtenbach
the younger l dedicated his " German School-house "
to the mayor and council of the holy imperial city, Ysni,
in Suabia. The school room described is 48 feet long,
48 feet broad, and 10J feet high. The respiratory pro-
ducts of the pupils, which, he says, naturally rise to
the ceiling, were there to be withdrawn by means of
ventilators in the shape of movable windows. The
room was lighted from two sides. It was heated by a
large tile stove, supplied with fuel from a special store
room. Four tables, each 18 feet long, 3J feet broad,
and 2J feet high, were placed perpendicularly against
the walls containing the windows. The surfaces were
coated with black oil paint and divided by red lines
into sixteen sections, each 2|- feet long and If feet
broad. Under the table were shelves for tablets and
books. The benches, which were without backs, were
1J feet wide, and placed 3 feet apart. The school-
room had a platform for the teacher's table and the
blackboard, and a case for the school appliances.
Next to the room was a hall, occasionally used for
It is interesting to note that during holidays the
children were given recreation and instruction in the
1 Karl Hintriiger, Ein deutsches Schulhaus vor 250
Jahren. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege von
L. Kotelmann, 1888, v. 142-151. Hamburg und
Leipzig, Leop. Voss.
, COMEKIUS 23
open air. Fiirtenbach says of this matter : ' ' There
are some ingenious German school masters, who, to
furnish pastime for the older boys during vacation,
take them out into the beautiful fields, to apply the
arithmetic which they have learned in the school-room
and to study there geometry and geography. In fact,
some energetic teachers have even undertaken military
constructions. For this purpose, however, it becomes
necessary to have several different instruments at hand
with which to apply the above named liberal arts ; and
these together with the surveyor's rod, the reel, and
other things belonging thereto must be carried into the
field wherever and whenever they are needed."
Comenius, who for a time was rector of the gymna-
sium at Lissa, was an inno-
vator in the whole field of
pedagogy, and not the least
so in the part devoted to
school hygiene. In the first
place, in his " Great method
of teaching everybody all the
arts ",* he pointed out the
JOHN AMOS COMENIUS, 1592-1671 necessity of sense percep-
tion and the study of nature; and in so doing, made
the work of the pupil easier. He asks: "Do we not
like our ancestors live in the garden of nature ? Why,
*Didactica magna s. omnes omnia docendi artificium.
24 HISTOKY OF SCHOOL HYGIEKE
I say, shall we not instead of dead books open the liv-
ing book of nature ? "
He did not content himself with merely lessening
the burdens of the pupil by improvements in the
methods of teaching, but he advocated physical train-
ing directly. He advised parents to give their chil-
dren a physical culture free from all " semblance of
apishness and asininity", and emphasized strengthen-
ing and training the limbs as an essential part of
school instruction. Thus he constantly reminded his
teachers of the saying, " a sound mind in a sound
body;" while Trotzendorf, as perpetual dictator, had
given his pupils at Goldberg the law: "Don't bathe
in cold water in summer; don't go out on the ice in
the winter; and don't throw snow-balls." Comenius,
also, deserves no little praise for insisting on spacious
class-rooms, and suitable play-grounds adjacent to the
" The sch<jol regulations of the Princedom of Braun-
schweig-Luneburg ", written in 1737 by rector Butt-
sted l of Osterode, contained even at that early date
advice on matters of hygiene. Among the things
mentioned as " unwholesome and injurious " we find:
1 Fr. Koldewey, Braunschweigische Schulordnungen
von den "altesten Zeiten bis zum Jahre 1828. Mit
Einleituiig, Anmerkungen, Glossen und Register.
Berlin, 1886, A. Hofmann & Co.
BUTTSTED, BASEDOW 25
bending the spine in sitting, as this compresses the in-
testines and gives rise to numerous complaints, which
are then ascribed to study; also bringing the face too
near the paper, since this produces dimness of vision,
a defect quite prevalent among the learned; and, lastly,
negligence in cleaning the teeth, which causes them to
The work of Basedow in promoting the physical
training of the young was
especially important. In his
" Practical Philosophy for all
Classes ", he refers to " many
sensible physicians, especially
Locke" as the authority for
his rules for health and
strength; and he demands
JOHN BERNA^, BASEDOW. that W6 aCCUStom boys to fre-
quent exercise of all parts of
the body, and put up with their hilarity and noise.
In his " Book of Methods for Fathers, Mothers, and
Peoples " (1770) he gives parents still more decided
advice: " When the limbs of your children have the
necessary strength and flexibility, accustom them in a
safe way to such movements as may be useful and
which are dangerous only when they are done without
training. Teach boys, for instance, to swim, to walk
over narrow footbridges, to lower themselves by a rope,
to ride horseback, to go up and- down small elevations,
26 HISTORY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
to jump over narrow ditches and low fences, to use
the vaulting pole, to dodge thrown balls, to chase
away a dog, to walk on smooth ice, etc."
We learn, moreover, that his pupils, like Rousseau's
Emile, are urged to take cold baths, long walks, and
other means of invigoration. " We train them in rac-
ing, wrestling, poising, fencing, dancing, in short, in
everything which gives strength to the nerves, agility
to the limbs, keenness to the senses, and firmness,
mobility, and strength to the whole body."
In Basedow's " Book of Methods ", we even find
manual training mentioned; and play, "activity in
lightest, ethereal form," as Jean Paul puts it, is there
approved and recommended. The principle enunciated
in the proclamation made in 1724, entitled: " The
Philanthropinum established at Dessau, a School of
Humanity for Students and young Teachers," sounds
quite modern, though it is something of an exaggera-
tion: " As compared with the physical and moral de-
velopment of man, scientific education is only a side
issue and must therefore be essentially lightened,
partly by the selection of better subjects for study,
and partly by better methods."
Notwithstanding Herder's severe criticism of Base-
dow for his manifold peculiarities and moral defects:
" I would not give him calves to educate, to say
nothing of children ", he nevertheless followed Base-
dow's example by introducing regular gymnastics into
the gymnasium at Weimar. In his fragmentary re-
marks " On Gymnasial Instruction ", he says: " The
children of the lower classes are all attracted by gym-
nastics. Running and jumping is what they like; and
nothing is more unbearable than sitting still. What
can we do in our restricted circumstances to keep them
favorably disposed toward the school ? Xothing but
give the children a flock of birds without wings as
much physical exercise as the class work will permit."
He also introduced drawing for the training of the eye
and the hand.
Goethe was by no means opposed to the gymnastics
introduced by Guts Muths,
Jahn, and others, though
he regretted that politics
had become mixed up with
the matter. ' ' The baby is
thereby thrown out in the
bath, as the saying goes.
I want to see the gymnastic
halls re-established, b e -
JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE
1749-1832 cause our young people
need them; especially so the students, who in their
varied fields of activity lack the physical basis and
therefore the necessary ability as well." The picture
he gives of the young scholars of his time is not very
attractive. " Xearsighted, pale, with hollow cheeks,
28 HISTORY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
young without youth, such, are the majority, as I see
them. They show no signs of sound senses, or of
pleasure in sensuous beauty; the sentiments and de-
lights of youth are irretrievably lost, for if a person is
not young at twenty, how can he be at forty ? "
From such facts we can understand why from now
on physicians begin to be interested in the health of
the school population and to try to place the matter on
a scientific basis. As among the first of these we may
name Johann Peter Frank l (1745-1821). In the second
volume of his work: "A Complete System of Sanitary
Police " (1780) there is a division " On the hygienic
condition of school children and the police supervi-
sion necessary in institutions of learning." Nearly
every feature of modern school hygiene is mentioned.
In the first section, he treats of the injuries result-
ing from burdening the youthful powers of mind and
body too early and too severely. He urges that boys
under eight should not be allowed to enter a Latin
school, and then only if they are especially talented.
Lessons must not begin too early in the morning ; they
should not last over five hours, and should be discon-
tinued in extremely hot weather.
In the second section, he deals with questions relat-
ing to the location of the school building, and the
1 Johann Peter Frank, System einer vollstandigen
medicinischen Polizey. 2 vols. 2d ed. Mannheim,
1780-84, C. F. Schwan.
FRANK, LORINSER 29
size, illumination, heating, and cleaning of class-
rooms. The desks and seats, he thinks, deserve special
consideration. They must correspond to the size of
the pupil, and have comfortable and not too perpen-
dicular backs, if deformities of the spine are to be
avoided. The author also discusses school punish-
ments, home tasks, vacations, and the isolation of such
pupils as suffer fYom itch, small-pox, or other conta-
The last section is devoted to the " re-establishment
and value of gymnastics in public education". Here
he recommends walks, excursions, tramps, and jour-
neys, as well as different exercises and sports such as
playing ball, climbing trees, walking on stilts, racing,
throwing, dancing, fencing, riding, swimming, skating,
and bowling. In order that pupils may be exposed to
the least possible danger, he demands the establish-
ment of public drill-grounds, and the employment of
a special drill master. He also enumerates a long list
of precaution's to be observed in the different exercises
While the work of Frank discusses school hygiene in
general, that of the medical councillor, C. J. Lorinser, l
(1836) confines itself to narrower limits. " It views
from a medical standpoint the mental and physical
1 C. J. Lorinser, Zum Schutz der Gesundheit in den
Schulen. Berlin, 1836, Th. Chr. Fr. Enslin.
30 HISTORY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
training now customary in most German Gymnasia."
In characterizing his contemporaries he says : ' * With
the great transformation in the mode of life the body
has become more tender and frail ; and it is now de-
pendent upon stimuli unknown to our ancestors.
The essential energy of life is lower; and in the same
degree as the senses have become more mobile and the
impulses more impetuous, body and mind have lost in
firmness and resistance."
He says further: " In order to increase this diseased
condition of mind and body, or to produce it where it
is not already present, no better means could have been
provided than those which are at present in use in most
German gymnasia. These are to be found in the mul-
tiplicity of subjects, the great number of school hours,
and the great number of home tasks. The first con-
fuses and dulls the mind; the second retards the
natural development of the body; and the third pre-
vents recuperation from these effects outside of school. "
Among the bodily injuries arising from the above-
named evils he mentions especially defective develop-
ment of the chest and lungs and the weakening of the
eyesight. " Never since there have been schools," he
says, "has nearsightedness been so prevalent among
young people; and the number that wear spectacles in
the upper classes increases from year to year." He
believes that the remedies that have been suggested,
such as walks by the pupils and better illumination,
are inadequate. He adheres rather to the opinion of
J. C. Jahn, as expressed in the New Year-book for
Philosophy and Pedagogy : " It is a question well worth
the consideration of our school men and educational
theorists whether the time has not come for the simpli-
fication of the courses of study and the reduction of
the number of school hours in our gymnasia."
Lori user's little treatise created a great sensation.
Even though it occasionally missed the mark, it was
nevertheless the alarm gun which aroused slumbering
minds to action. While it was partly rejected by the
pedagogues Grotthold, Miitzell, Heinsius, and Kopke, it
received the general approval of the physician Foriep.
He sums up his opinion of the matter by saying that
the consequences of overpressure can be observed
among the pupils; and the cause is to be found in
the haste of pupils, teachers, and parents ; and also in
the increased demands by the present system of ex-
Important aid was rendered by the fact that King
Frederic William III took notice of the work of Lorin-
ser, and in a letter to v. Altenstein, the Cultus-minis-
ter, expressed his sympathy with the movement. After
that, means for removing the evils in question began
to be considered; and on June 6, 1842, appeared the
famous cabinet order by Frederick William IV, " which
32 HISTORY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
formally recognized physical exercise as an essential
part of the education of man," and introduced gym-
nastics as an optional subject into gymnasia, higher
city schools, and teacher's seminaries.
With the exception of the short period of quiescence
caused by the political situation of the time, the in-
terest in physical training has grown rapidly ever since ;
and the field of school hygiene has been steadily ex-
tended and developed by physicians, pedagogues, and
architects. Instead of making general remarks about
schools and school instruction, men now devote them-
selves to exact investigations and the study of special
problems. Thus Lang, Zwez, Varrentrapp, Eeclam,
and Erisman have ascertained the requirements of
sanitary school-buildings with respect to location and
construction. Parow, Fahrner, Hermann, Schildbach,
Kunze, and Buchner introduced the school-desk re-
form; and they have lately been joined by Schenk and
Lorenz. Von Pettenkoffer, Breiting, and Ritschel
have tested the air in school-rooms.
Attention has also been given to the personal hygiene
of the pupils and the so-called school diseases. In
the study of eye defects, the examination of 10,060
school children by Hermann Cohn was epoch-making;
and he has recently been followed by von Arlt, Schmidt
Rimpler, von Hippel, Pfliiger, and Stilling. Von
Reichard, Weil, Bezold, and K^ager have studied the
hearing of children. Bresgen and Kafemann have
pointed out that when breathing through the nose is
obstructed, weakness of memory and attention is pro-
duced. To prevent the curvature of the spine so
often caused by writing, Schubert and W. Meyer have
advocated the introduction of vertical script. And,
lastly, A. and H. Gutzmann have suggested a new
method of curing stuttering, and have attained note-
worthy results in this line.
There is no lack of comprehensive treatises on school
hygiene. Besides the older works of Guillaume,
Falk, Thome, Gauster, Eiemann, and Eembold, we
will mention those of Burgerstein 1 , Baginski, 2 Bur-
gerstein and Netolitzky, 3 and Eulenberg and Bach 4 .
The first work of Burgerstein gives a short survey;
1 Leo Burgerstein, Die Gesundheitspflege in der
Mittelschule. Hygiene des Korpers nebst beilaufigen.
Bemerkungen, 1887, A Holder.
2 Ad. Baginsky, Handbuch der Schul-Hygiene.
Stuttgart, 1883, Enke.
3 Leo Burgerstein und Aug. Xetolitzky, Handbuch
der Schulhygiene. Mit 154 Abildungen im Text.
Jena, 1895, Gustav Fischer.
4 H. Eulenberg und Th. Bach, Schulgesundheitslehre.
Das Schulhaus und das Unterrichtswesen, vom hygien-
ischen Standpunkte fur Arzte, Lehrer, Verwaltungs-
beamte und Architekten bearbeitet. 2d ed. Berlin,
1898, F. F. Heine.
34 HISTORY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
the equally thorough and original Handbook by Baginski
is of special value to physicians; while the work of
Burgerstein and Netolitzky which was compiled jointly
by an educator and a physician, and that of Eulenberg
and Bach may preferably be recommended to teachers.
Burgerstein and Netolitzky's treatise has an interna-
tional character; while that of Eulenberg and Bach
deals chiefly with the conditions in Prussia.
THE LIGHT OF THE SCHOOL-BOOM
Since we have undertaken to treat only of those
facts of school hygiene which the teacher himself can
observe and to some extent control, we refer the
reader to the more complete works of Baginsky,
Burgerstein-JSTetolitzky, and Eulenberg-Bach for a dis-
cussion of buildings and sites. In these the necessary
information can be obtained concerning the location
and extent of the site and the different parts of the
building, especially the foundation, fagade, materials,
stories, corridors, and roof.
The orientation 1 of the schoolroom is, however,
not entirely beyond the control of the teacher. Class-
rooms which have an unfavorable location may be ex-
changed for other rooms, such as the principal's office,
the conference or faculty room, the physical or chemi-
cal laboratory, the museum, the library, etc.
In general, it should be the rule to have the sun
shine freely into the room for several hours of the
day, if possible when school is not in session. Since
sunless rooms are generally damp and cold, people
justly call them unhealthful. " Where the sun does
1 Paul Schubert, Uber Schulfenster und Vorhange.
Miinchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1898, No. 14^
36 THE LIGHT OF THE SCHOOL-ROOM
not go, the doctor goes," says an Italian proverb. We
know that on streets which run east and west, the rate
of mortality is greater on the shady than on the sunny
side. Besides warming and ventilating, sunlight also
disinfects. Pure cultures of most pathogenic bacteria
do not grow in the sunlight but soon perish. Sunny
class-rooms are, therefore, to a certain degree, a hin-
drance to the spread of infectious diseases through the
A southeasterly direction of class-room windows is
to be preferred. This provides for the necessary light
and warmth from the sun, does not expose the win-
dow front to the generally prevailing west winds,
and prevents the early and almost horizontal rays from
falling into the room. In this respect it has this
special advantage over the pure easterly direction that
the sun reaches the room later in the day and leaves it
after a shorter time.
We believe that an easterly exposure is, next to the
southeasterly, the most favorable, because here the sun
shines into the room chiefly before instruction begins
and not during the hottest part of the day. Should
it be found that the'rooms are too warm by 8 o'clock,
the windows must be opened, and the awnings,
Venetian blinds, or curtains let down before that time.
The morning sun furnishes, moreover, an excellent
light for the main hours of the day and has a cheering
effect on the minds of both pupils and teachers.
A southerly exposure of class-rooms is more ques-
tionable, because the rooms become too warm in sum-
mer. To be sure, we hear the argument that in our
climate even at this time of the year the sky is often
cloudy ; that the nearly perpendicular rays of the noon-
day sun do not fall far into the room and are less an-
noying than the horizontal light of the morning and
evening sun, and that the two hottest months are
mostly taken up by the summer vacation. Neverthe-
less, as a matter of fact, the temperature in the south-
erly rooms rises very high in spite of all protective
measures][against the sun, since the southern wall and
the layers of air next to it both become strongly heated.
A southerly exposure may be unfavorable not simply in
summer but also in winter 1 . It would be possible
only with an easily regulated heating apparatus to keep
the temperature of the room constant, with the win-
dows now shaded and cool and now heated by the noon-
The objection raised by Varrentrapp 2 against rooms
located on the west side, namely, that they are heated
more intensely and lighted more uncomfortably than
others, is not valid, since schools with two sessions
1 Chr. Nussbaum Zur Orientierung der Schulzim-
mer. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1888,
No. 3 p. 70-74. Id. Gunstigste Lage der Schulzim-
mer. Gesundheitsingenieur, 1894, No. 16.
2 Varrentrapp, Hygienische Anforderungen'an Schul-
bauten. Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift fur offentliche
Gesundheitspflege, 1869, Vol. I, Part 4, p. 469.
38 THE LIGHT OF THE SCHOOL-BOOM
close at 4, and those with one, at 2 to 3 o'clock, when
the sun is still comparatively high in the heavens.
We would not, however, advocate a westerly direction,
because as stated above, it is the side exposed to the
weather. Wind and rain would often strike the win-
dows, prevent their being opened in summer, and in
large cities blow dust and smoke into the room.
A northerly exposure is admissible for drawing-rooms,
and in fact to be recommended for this purpose, be-
cause north rooms, not being open to the sun, need no
blinds. The light can therefore all be utilized; and
it remains exceedingly uniform. If a northerly draw-
ing-room is well heated and well ventilated, it is not
likely to be injurious to health, notwithstanding the
lack of sunlight, because pupils spend in it only a few
hours per week.
The natural illumination of the school-room is
closely connected with its orientation. For it is evi-
dent that rooms facing the northeast, have more light
in the morning than those facing the southwest, while
at noon the reverse is true ; and that rooms facing the
south, other things being equal, receive more light
than those facing the north.
Sufficient daylight is of the greatest importance to
the eyes, and therefore efforts have been made for a
long time to ascertain in figures the amount of light
in different parts of the school-room.
This was first made possible by the Photometer of
NATURAL ILLUMINATION 39
Leonhard Weber l of Breslau. (Fig. I.) This instru-
FIG. 1. LEONHARD WEBER'S PHOTOMETER
1 Beschrieben im Journal fur Gasbeleuchtung, 1885,
Vol. 28, p. 267 ff. ; Compare Hugo Kriiss, Uber einege
Abanderungen des Weber-schen Photometers. Seper-
atabdruck aus Schillings Journal fur Gasbeleuchtung
und Wasserversorgung, 1898.
40 THE LIGHT OF THE SCHOOL-BOOM
ment, as will be seen in the illustration, consists of,
(1) the pillar Z>, and the case E, which also serves as a
base; (2) the receptacle C, which contains a benzine
candle; (3) the fixed tube A\ and (4) the tube jft,
which is perpendicular to A and turns on an axis coin-
cident with the axis of A. In the case C, is a little
device for regulating the flame, and a small scale at-
tached to a mirror. By looking through a slit oppo-
site, the length of the flame, which is to be 2 cm., can
be read on this scale. Along the full length of tube A
is a millimeter scale. In this tube a ring holding a
plate of glass-porcelain can be moved back and forth
by means of a little button /; and a small index con-
nected with the ring shows on its millimeter scale the
distance between the glass plate and the benzine flame.
The movable tube B can be turned fully 180 out of
the position jt has in the cut, where the ocular h is
down ; and it can be fixed in any position by means of
a set screw. In the middle of B is a reflection prism,
one perpendicular plane of which is turned toward the
middle axis of A, and the other toward the ocular h. By
means of this prism the light that comes from A is
reflected at an angle of 90 toward the eye of the ob-
server. At the end of the tube B, opposite the
ocular, is a square metal box g to which a tube (i) can
be attached to exclude light from the sides. In case
the light to be measured is too strong, one or more
WEBER'S PHOTOMETER 41
glass plates can be introduced into the box g from the
side in order to dimmish the intensity.
The light that goes to the ocular from here fills
the left side of the field of vision. On looking into
the ocular one sees to the right only the light which
comes from A', and to the left, only that which enters
through the box g. If the two lights are equal in
color and intensity the two parts of the field of vision
merge into one with a scarcely noticeable line of divi-
sion. To enable the observer to give the light to be
measured the same color as the benzine-light, the
ocular contains a slide with an aperture and a red and
a green plate of glass, so that the photometer can at
pleasure be set for white, red, or green, light.
A white slate, forming a part of the outfit, is fastened
to a stand and placed in that part of the school-room
where the light is to be measured. The movable
tube B is directed as nearly as possible toward the
centre of the slate; and the glass porcelain plate in
the tube A is then shifted back and forth by means of
the button /, until the left and the right sides
of the field of vision become alike. The intensity of
the light thus measured is computed by means of a
formula given by Weber. The result gives the num-
ber of " normal candles " which one would have to place
at 1 m. distance from the slate in order to illuminate
the same as strongly as it is illuminated by the diffuse
daylight as the time of examination.
THE LIGHT OF THE SCHOOL-KOOM
Hermann Cohn, the first investigator to try to fix
upon a standard of light for the different parts of the
school-room, has, after numerous measurements,
reached the conclusion that the minimum light in-
tensity must equal that of 10 of Weber's meter-candles,
which corresponds to 20-30 ordinary normal meter-
The stereogoniometer l is another instrument pro-
posed by Weber for measuring the quantity of daylight
in school-rooms. In the accompanying illustration
(Fig. 2), G represents the base; P, a movable plate; Z,
FIG. 2. LEONIIARD WEBER'S STEREOGONIOMETER
a lens, which can be shifted on the rod s; B, an arc
1 Beschreibung eines Raumwinkelmessers von Pro-
fessor Dr. L. Weber. Zeitschrift fiir Instrumenten-
kunde, 1884, Part 10, pp. 343-347; Dingler's Poly-
technisches Journal, 1886, Vol. 259, Part 1, p. 122 ff.
WEBER'S STEREOGONIOMETER 43
divided into degrees ; and H, a holder fastened to the
plate P, from which the plumb-line H E is suspended.
After the instrument has been placed on the spot to
be tested and the lens turned toward the window, the
base is made horizontal by the aid of three leveling
screws and the plumb-line H E. For this operation
the plate P has to be moved so that the index m at-
tached to it points to the zero mark on B. The base
is level when the plumb is directly over a given point
By shifting the lens L on the rod s an inverted
image of the window sash, the roofs and steeples, as
well as of that part of the sky visible at the place
under investigation, is produced on a sheet of paper
fastened with brass clasps on the plate P. This paper
is divided by lines into 2 mm squares. If the outline
of the image, which ought to be grouped as uniformly
as possible around the point C, is traced with a lead
pencil and the squares it covers counted, the fractions
of squares being estimated, the number obtained will
give the solid angle w; which represents the extent of
the visible part of the sky in square degrees. The
equation h = w sin a will then be true. Here h repre-
sents the light intensity, 10 the solid angle, a the angle
of incidence shown on the graduated arc B by the in-
dex m, and w sin a the reduced solid angle.
According to Cohn, a reduced solid angle of 50
square degrees is required to give the least permissible
44 THE LIGHT OF THE SCHOOL-ROOM
intensity of 10 meter candles. Gillert criticises this
method, urging on the one hand, that the brightness of
the sky varies with the climate, the country, and the
elevation of the sun, and, on the other hand, that the
amount of light at a desk depends not only on direct
skylight but also on reflected light. The reduced solid
angle measures only the former, while under certain
conditions the latter is predominant. Erismann found,
moreover, that in four school-rooms in Moscow the
average light intensity with an angle of from 10 to 20
square degrees was three or four times as great as the
minimum required by Cohn; and the least intensity
observed with an angle of from 5 to 10 square degrees-
came up to this mark. Even when the sky was wholly
invisible the average light intensity was still as great
as that from 10 meter candles.
Though we may admit that this instrument gives us
in some degree a measure of the illumination, yet, for
purely practical purposes, the preference must be given
to a method recommended by Schmidt- Rimpler, by
which the intensity of the light at a desk is ascertained
by means of test types. Those of Snellen 1 , Cohn 2 ,.
1 Herm. Snellen, Optotypi ad Visum determinandum
secundum formulam V- ^ . Edit. XI, metrico
systemate. Berlin, 1892, Herm. Peters.
2 Herm. Cohn, Tafel Zur Priifung der Sehleistung
und Sehschiirfe der Schulkinder, Soldaten, Seeleute,
und Bahnbeambten. 5 Ed. Breslau, 1897, Priebatsch.
WEBEK'S STEREOGONIOMETER 45
and Albrand 1 are the best. If the smaller types,
which, by the normal eye can be recognized in good
light at a distance of 0.5, 0.6, or 0.8 m respectively,
can not be read at all at the place examined or only
at -f- of the above distance, the light is insufficient.
This will generally be true where no portion of the
sky is visible. These dark places are usually near the
wall opposite the windows or directly adjacent to the
wall spaces between them. Moreover, Huth has shown
in a school in Berlin that at a distance of 6-7 meters
from the windows the light was reduced to a thirtieth
of its original intensity; and in cloudy weather it fell
below that of one meter candle.
If the light supply is insufficient in a school-room,
what can be done to remedy the matter ? Sometimes
we may leave dark places unused, or else exchange
them for others that have more light. If this is im-
possible, we must paint dirty ceilings white, and dark
walls either light gray or green; but in neither case
should the color be dazzling. Above all, light must be
given free passage through the windows. These must
be cleaned carefully, and kept free from paint; and
the blinds must be raised as high as possible.
A still better plan would be to fasten the blinds
above so that they could not obstruct any part of the
window. When the upper parts of arched or Gothic
windows have draperies, as is often the case in upper
grades, these must be removed, because the "greater
1 Albrand, Sehproben, Leipzig, 1893, H. Hartung
THE LIGHT OF THE SCHOOL-BOOM
part of the light of a school-room comes through the
upper panes. The removal of vines and especially of
trees which shade the windows improves the light in a
school-room very much. If adjacent wings of build-
ings are in the way of one another's light, it is often
a very good thing to paint the outsides a light color
to increase the reflection.
Light can also he thrown into a dark room by means
of prisms and reflectors. Forster 1 in Breslau was the
first to use prisms for this purpose ; but, as far as we
know, they have not been used elsewhere. The day-
light reflector by F. W. Hen-
nig of Berlin, the use of
which will be explained by
the accompanying illustra-
tion (Fig. 3), has proved
much more satisfactory. It
is composed of a somewhat
wavy plate of glass coated
with silver and attached to
the window at an angle of
about 45. The corrugation
increases the surface of re-
flection and secures a better
distribution of the light.
1 Forster, Einige Grundbedingungen fur gute Ta-
gesbeleuchtung in den Schulsalen. Seperatabdruck
aus der Deutschen Vierteljahrsschrift fur offentliche
Gesundheitspflege, 1884, Vol. 16.
FIG. 3. F. W. HENNIG'S DAY-
DAYLIGHT REFLECTOR 47
The layer of silver, which increases the intensity of re-
flection, is given a coating of waterproof varnish to
protect it from the weather.
After putting up such a reflector, Perlia 1 found that
acuteness of vision was nearly doubled. Diamond
type was read 13, and Bourgeois 19 cm. farther away.
In correspondence with this, it was found photometric-
ally that the amount of light was nearly twice as great.
If the necessary light cannot be secured even by the
introduction of reflectors, there is nothing to do but to
enlarge the windows. This has often been done in the
schools of Breslau, In Prussia, according to the Royal
Technical Building Deputation, the window and floor
spaces must have a ratio to each other of 1:5. In
Saxony, Wiirtemberg, and Lower Austria a ratio of
1 : 6 is required when the building stands free ; and one
of 1:4, when the light is obstructed by neighboring
In enlarging the windows, care should be taken to
have the apertures made rectangular, since arched or
Gothic styles lessen the window surface unnecessarily.
The top of the window ought to extend as nearly as
possible to the ceiling ; and the lower part must be 1
to 1.25 m. above the floor, according to the size of the
1 Perlia, Uber einen Tageslicht reflektor fur Schulen.
Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1893, No. 10, p.
521-541 and No. 11, p. 588-610.
48 . THE LIGHT OF THE SCHOOL-ROOM
pupils, so that they may not be troubled by having
light fall into their eyes from below.
Walls containing windows should be bevelled both on
the inner and outer edges, especially at the top outside.
The panes must be as large and the sashes as narrow
as possible. In the Francke Institute at Halle on the
Saale where the windows of ordinary size have twenty-
four panes, Liebrecht 8 found that the amount of sky
visible was diminished one-fourth by the many cross
The illumination may, furthermore, be too strong
as well as too weak. Direct sunlight should not fall
on the eyes or work of the pupils, as it will irritate
the retina. To prevent this, school-windows should
have means of protection either on the outside or on
the inside. Outside awnings have this advantage, that
they can be placed according to the position of the
sun, and so do not unnecessarily diminish the light in
the room. They also protect the children from the
heat of the sun and permit the opening of the win-
dows. They are, on the other hand, expensive ; and do
not last long, since they are exposed to the weather.
This holds true, also, of blinds and shutters suspended
outside from the top of the window frame and held
away a certain distance at the bottom by iron rods.
When they are drawn up they darken the school-room
more than the awnings do.
CURTAINS AND BLINDS 49
Boiler curtains or similar arrangements on the inside
of windows are, therefore, to be preferred. Fine white
shirting, ecru or cre'me colored twilling, and strong
white dowlas are, according to Cohn, l most suitable
for the purpose, since other materials on the market,
which are usually green or deep blue, absorb too much
Common curtains which roll up at the top have
the disadvantage not only of being usually out of
order, but also of letting in light at the sides. If
people, nevertheless, will have them, they must be
put up so as to extend a little over the window frame.
Better than these just mentioned are curtains that can
be drawn up from the bottom by a crank or such as
are fastened in pairs at the middle of the window and
can be drawn one up one down. With the latter, it is
possible to leave the upper parts of the windows,
through which the brightest sky light enters, uncov-
ered, as soon as the sun permits.
To secure the same results, Liebrecht 2 proposed to
use blinds which can be moved sideways, and which
1 Herm. Cohn, Uber Fenstervorhange in Schulen.
Sonderabdruck aus der Deutschen medizinischen
Wochenschrift, 1894, No. 46.
2 K. Liebrecht, die Lichtverhiiltnisse in den Schulen
der Stadt Halle a. S. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheits-
pflege, 1893, No. 10, p. 521-541 and No. 11, p. 588-
50 THE LIGHT OF THE SCHOOL ROOM
are divided into an upper and a lower half, thus mak-
ing it possible to cut off the light from any part of the
Venetian blinds, whose slats can be set horizontally,
diagonally, or perpendicularly, are not suitable for
school-rooms. With the slats inclined 45, only 0.6 to
1.5$ of the daylight passes through them; and they
are, besides too expensive, costing at least 20 marks
($5.00) for each window.
In addition to having the light sufficient and not too
strong, it is important to see that it comes from the
right direction. The windows must, therefore, be in
a wall lengthwise of the room and to the left of the
pupils. If the windows are in front, the light will fall
directly into the pupils eyes and irritate the retina.
Another inconvenience from windows so located is
described by Baginsky from his own experience. He
writes: " In the senior class-room in the gymnasium I
attended, the light came from in front and was com-
bined with a deficient lighting from the left, and I re-
member distinctly how difficult it was to recognize
mathematical figures and formulas on the blackboard. '*
It would be no better to have the windows to the right
of the pupils rather than in front, because in such cases
the shadow of the hand with which the pupil is writ-
ing falls on the paper and darkens it. Still stronger
shadows, caused by the whole upper part of the body,
appear when the windows are located behind the pupils.
Besides, the teacher is here dazzled by the light, which
FKOM ONE SIDE OR TWO 51
lie has to face directly. Consequently the light from
the left is the only proper light, and hence is most
commonly used in higher schools.
There still remains the question, whether light might
not enter the school-room from the two sides. In
France, one often finds windows both to the right and
to the left of the pupils ; and eminent authorities,
like Javal of Paris, favor this plan when the light from
the left is insufficient.
The Medical Expert Commission of Strassburg 1
take the same view. They say that with light coming
in on both sides places between the windows and in
the corners of the room are better lighted. The ob-
jection, that with two rows of windows the shadow of
the writing hand is troublesome, they hold is not valid;
since in the first place, one-half of the pupils get the
greater amount of light from the left side, and, in the
second place, the other half gets enough light from
the left to do away with any considerable shadow which
might be formed by the light coming from the right.
Berlin and Eembold, 2 also, assert that the light from
1 Arztliches Gutachten iiber das hohre Schulwesen
Elsass-Lothringens. Im Auftrage des Kaiserlichen
Statthalters erstattet, von einer medizinischen Sachver-
standigen-kommission. Strassburg i. E., 1882.
2 Berlin und Rembold, Untersuchungen iiber den
Einfluss des Schreibens auf Auge und Korperhaltung
der Schulkinder. 2 ed. Stuttgart, 1883.
52 THE LIGHT OF THE SCHOOL ROOM
two sides, which is so severely proscribed in Germany,
is not at all undesirable. But the facts which they cite
to substantiate their opinion, namely, that those school-
rooms which had the least number of myopic children
received abundant light both from the right and left,
we can not admit as a demonstration, because myopia
is due to many other causes besides deficient lighting.
French hygienists have, themselves, repeatedly called
attention to the fact that forms are recognized with
great difficulty when light comes from two sides, on
account of the absence of shadows. And lastly, with
this arrangement the right and the left eyes are illum-
inated differently, which may give rise to the develop-
ment of defective refracting power.
Lighting from both right and left can, therefore, be
sanctioned only if sufficient light can be had in no
other way. Windows both at the left and rear of the
pupils should still more emphatically be prohibited
except in cases of emergency. If they are, neverthe-
less, in use, the light from behind ought to be checked
by dulled panes,"curtains, or similar devices. All other
combinations of two-sided lighting are to be absolutely
ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION OF SCHOOL-ROOMS
Daylight is undoubtedly the light most suitable for
the eyes ; nevertheless, artificial illumination may some-
times become necessary in school-rooms. This hap-
pens most frequently in schools with two sessions in
winter, when the first and last periods do not always
have sufficient natural light. But even at other seasons
dense mists, fogs, clouds, etc., may darken the room
so that artificial illumination becomes a necessity.
Boarding-schools must have it, at any rate. 1 .
The electric light ranks first among the different kinds
of artificial light. It is white, and resembles daylight
most closely leaving colors almost unchanged ; it does
not contaminate the air; it involves almost no risk of
fire ; and it can be conveniently handled. The flicker-
ing, which is so disagreeable to the eye on account of
the changes in intensity, has in consequence of recent
technical progress wholly disappeared in the incan-
descent, and almost wholly in the arc lamps.
Even the plunge into sudden darkness due to the
1 Uber die Beleuchtung in einem Alumnat. Eulen-
bergs Vierteljahrsschrift, 1879, Vol. XXXI, p. 63.
54 ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION
stopping of the machinery is hardly to be feared any
longer ; and besides a storage battery may be kept ,
constantly in readiness. Such batteries are particularly
serviceable in places like schools where a current is
needed on the instant and for a short time only.
The arc light has, as is well known, great intensity
and must be covered by ground glass globes, alabaster
shades, or something similar. It might otherwise
cause inflammation and swelling of the conjunctiva,
and photophobia, with spasmodic contractions of the
lids and narrowing of the pupils; also, hemeralopia, and
possibly amaurosis. The eyes of the pupils must even
be shielded from the glowing carbon of the incande-
scent lamps, which in Pfliiger's 1 opinion are the best
for school purposes, especially since they are more
durable than is generally supposed.
On the other hand, all shades absorb from J to f
of the light. 2 Besides, the arc and incadescent light, as
ordinarily used, give rise to more or less prominent
shadows, which also diminish the illumination consid-
erably. Erismann 3 found that the shadow of the head
1 E. Pfliiger, Kurzsichtigkeit und Erziehung. Aka-
demische Festrede zur Feier des Stiftungsfestes der
Universitat Bern. Wiesbaden, 1887, J. F. Bergmann.
2 H. Cohn, tiber den Beleuchtungswert der Lam-
pengiocken. Wiesbaden, 1885.
3 Fr. Erismann, Die Schulhygiene auf der Jubilaums-
ausstellung der Gesellschaft fur Beforderung der Ar-
ELECTRIC LIGHT 55
of the writer reduced the light nearly a half, and that
of the hand four-fifths. He accordingly made use of
indirect, dispersed light, similar to ordinary daylight,
as Jasper, Sautter, Lemonnier, and Schlenk 1 had done
Schlenk describes the apparatus as follows : " An arc
lamp of the Gramme system is hung in the middle of
the room so that the focus is 3m. above the floor. Un-
der the lamp is a closed, nickel-plated sheet-iron re-
flector having the form of a truncated cone 33 cm. in
height, the lower circle having a diameter of 15 cm.,
the upper, one of 100 cm. Most of the light from the
arc is caught by this reflector and thrown on the white
ceiling. Many rays also strike the latter directly, and
still more the upper parts of the walls which are like-
wise kept bright. From here they are reflected in all
directions and light up the remotest corners of the
room uniformly ; and what is most important they pre-
beitsamkeit in Moskau. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesund-
heitspflege, 1888, No. 10, p. 3677. Id., Die Kiinstliche
Beleuchtung der Schulzimmer. Op. cit. 1897, No. 10,
p. 529-553. Emanuel Bayr, Uber Beleuchtungsver-
suche in Schulzimmern mit direkter und indirekter
Beleuchtung bei Anweiidung von Gas- und Gasgliihlicht
Elektrischen Gliih- und Bogenlicht Lampen. Op.
cit., 1898, No. 3, p. 129-160.
1 Leo Burgerstein, Zur kiinstlichen Beleuchtung der
Schulzimmer. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege,
1889, No. 1, p. 18.
56 ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION
vent the formation of shadows. The source of light
is in this way wholly concealed from the eyes of the
pupils. How bright and pleasant such a light can be
I have myself been able to observe in a school in Ham-
burg, where the rooms were illuminated not by one
but by several arc lamps with reflectors."
A side reflector based on the same principle as the
above, the patent for which is owned by the general
electric company, is especially recommended by Cohn 1
for rooms used in drawing lessons. Two reflectors
with faces opposite are placed on the wall, so as to make
a certain angle with it. The larger reflector has the
shape and size of a German studio window. The focus
is in the middle of the smaller reflector, which is made
of a variety of transparent materials. Half of the
light falls on the objects to be illuminated after a
single reflection from the large reflector; the other
half falls on the small reflector and is partly trans-
mitted, partly reflected to the larger. To a person in
the room the large reflector looks like a luminous body
several square meters in area with nearly uniform
brightness, having only in the middle a somewhat
brighter spot. The illuminating power of the centre
can be changed by putting in glass slides so that the
1 H. Cohn. Uber kiinstliche Beleuchtung insbeson-
dere fiir Zeichen- und Horsale. Zeitschrift fur Schul-
gesundheitspflege, 1893, No. 6, p. 336.
ELECTRIC LIGHT 57
teacher can make the shadows marked or indistinct as
he wishes. The instrument is made either with one
or with two arc lamps, the latter having the advantage
of producing a more uniform light. The strong points
about the side reflector are that it gives a diffused
light, which is not dazzling, but variable at will, and
more evenly distributed than daylight.
While the latter is a hundred times stronger at the
windows than at a distance of ten meters from them ;
the light from the reflector shows an intensity of 11.6
meter-candles at 2 meters, and one of 1.3 meter-can-
dles at 10 meters, giving only a ninefold diminution.
In connection with this subject we must also give an
account of Hrabowski's overhead reflector (see Fig. 4).
FIG. 4. HRABOWSKI'S OVERHEAD REFLECTOR
He observed that only a small amount of light radi-
ates above an angle of 20 or below an angle of 70
with reference to the horizontal plane, on account of
58 ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION
the interference of the carbons. Most of the light
comes forth between 25 and 45 below this plane.
Accordingly he constructed his reflector as follows : A
wire frame A B E F covered with white material is at-
tached to the large, white, concave top B C D E, which
is firmly fixed to the lamp. An adjustable prismatic
glass ring G H suspended from this top surrounds the
arc, under which is the opal glass shield L. The rays
from above down to 25 (0 F, K, Z, A) strikes
the conical surface A B E F directly and are reflected
down ; those from 25 to 45 pass through the glass
ring and are refracted toward this white mantel (H E,
HP, HS, H T, H F) and then as in the previous case
reflected down; those between 45 and 70 fall on the
opal shield i, some passing through, others going to
the reflector (R U, N V, M W) and then to the floor.
The school-room receives in this way a well distributed
diffused illumination; shadows are insignificant; and
the dazzling arc is completely concealed.
The electric light is doubtless the light of the future ;
but on account of its costliness most schools will have
to be satisfied with a different kind of illumination.
Gas light and kerosene lamps must claim our attention.
The Siemen's regenerative gas-burner has the special
advantage of not contaminating the air; on the con-
trary, it improves the ventilation. If it is to be used,
arrangements for the foul air pipes should be made
when the ceiling and ventilating shafts are constructed.
These burners are exceedingly bright but have the dis-
advantage of producing strong shadows.
The gas arc-light of Butzke of Berlin and the similar
Wenham light also gives an illumination suitable for
schools. Both contain regenerative burners with the
flame downwards. They produce a steady white light
comparable with the electric light, throw no shadows
below, are regulated automatically, and have arrange-
ments for carrying away the gases from the flame. In
a school-room illuminated by 4 Butzke burners, which
was examined by Renk, the average light intensity was
9.8 meter-candles, and the difference between the
darkest and brightest spot was only 4.6 meter-candles.
With respect to the Auer incandescent gas-light, re-
cent opinions differ. The burning gas is not in this the
direct source of light but is used only to keep the so-
called mantle, a network of cotton fibres which have
been soaked in pure toriumoxide, at a constant white
heat. And this with its far greater brilliancy is the
Teal illuminating body. One advantage of the Auer
burner is that only a small amount of gas is consumed
in comparison with the amount of light produced. In
the physico-technical Reichsanstalt at Berlin it was
ascertained that this burner with a gas consumption of
120 liters per hour produced a light of 60 normal can-
dles, while the common Argand burner produced a
60 ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION
light of only 20 normal candles with a gas consumption?
of 200 liters per hour.
Since the glowing network surrounds the flame on.
all sides, no unconsumed gas can escape, no soot is-
formed, and the air of the room remains pure. Finally,
the incandescent burner gives a light of superior
brightness, whiteness, uniformity and steadiness ; and
produces only a small amount of heat, not enough to
cause overheating. For these reasons it has been-
recommended by the Prussian cultus-minister for use
in public institutions, universities, etc. In the K. K.
Theresia academy in Vienna it has been found suitable
both for the class-rooms and for rooms in the boarding
house. Since its introduction, there has been a decrease
in diseases of the respiratory organs, myopia, and cases
of conjunctival catarrh.
The city board of works of Vienna, however, gives-
us a different view of the matter. According to a re-
port by this body a gradual decrease of brightness can
be observed in the Auer light. Its intensity and color,
especially when the light is first introduced, irritate-
the retina; and the frequent explosions of the chim-
neys endanger personal safety.
We can say with greater certainty that the Albocar-
bon gaslight is not fit for school-rooms. It is true the
flame does not flicker on account of the increase of
the specific gravity of the gas through the Naphthaline
Yapors; and it gives a very intense and pleasant light.
On the other hand, it takes a quarter of an hour for
the flame to become bright and it must be regulated
frequently to prevent sooting; this makes it impracti-
cal for school purposes.
Illumination by means of simple broad flame burners,
such as are often found, either with or without opal-
escent glass globes, in halls for physical training, and in
'Corridors, is also to be rejected for school-room use. The
flames flicker so much that, for this reason alone the
light cannot be used for reading and writing; and,
besides, they lack sufficient brightness. Bound burn-
ers properly constructed are much to be preferred; but
they must be supplied both with chimneys and with
globes or shades.
The chimneys answer a threefold purpose. They
prevent the flickering so hurtful to the eye; they
retard the vitiation of the air by the products of
incomplete combustion ; and, finally they afford a con-
siderable protection against the heat of the flame. If
they have a thickness of from 2 to 3 mm. , 40 to 50 per
cent of the heat will be kept from penetrating the
The upward going rays should be reflected down up-
on the pupils desks by globes and shades so as to in-
crease the illumination,. What can be accomplished
In this way, we can learn from Cohn's measurements.
62 ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION
According to these, a place with a light intensity of one-
meter-candle may have this increased to 23, by a shade
of paper; to 30, by one of opalescent glass; to 64 by
one of white japanned metal ; and to 260 by a hemis-
With regard to the use of kerosene lamps, the objec-
tion is usually made that too much care is required to
keep them clean and in order; and that books and
tablets are liable to be soiled by them because petrole-
um vapors condense in the combustion on the cold
Nevertheless, they have many advantages over gas-
light. There is no danger of poisoning connected
with them, whereas gas escaping from leaky pipes con-
tains, as is well known, the dangerous carbonic oxide.
They will not injure the respiratory organs, as impure
illuminating gas will, which forms ammonia and sul-
phuric acid during combustion.
Furthermore, kerosene light does not pollute the
air as much as gas light. For a hundred candle power
light, petroleum gives oS 800 grams of water, and gas
2140; and, what is still more important, petroleum
under the same circumstances gives off 950 liters, and
gas 1300 liters of carbonic acid. Renk 1 found, for
instance, that the air in lecture rooms illuminated with
1 Fr. Renk, Uber die kunstliche Beleuchtung von
Horsiilen. Halle, 1892.
gas, at Halle a. S., contained 2 to 3 parts per thous-
and of carbonic acid, even though there were no people
in the rooms, while breathable air should not contain
more than 1 part per thousand.
Finally, petroleum generally gives off less heat than
gas. It is true both kinds of light have nearly the
same number of heat rays, the former having 94 % and
the latter 92$; but gas flames are, as a rule, larger
and therefore hotter than petroleum flames. Cohn 1
found that the temperature of a school-room was
25.8 C == 78.44 F, after the gas lights had been burn-
ing one hour. Such a temperature will necessarily
prove enervating for pupils and teachers alike. Fur-
thermore, hot flames cause a rapid evaporation of the
moisture in the eye, and in this way bring about a
feeling of dryness in this organ. They also cause the
face to become heated and red; and they produce
headache, all evils which are seldom found where
petroleum light is used.
Whether gas or petroleum lights be chosen, the
illumination must in every case be so great, that at
all places in the room diamond type can be read by a
person with normal vision at a distance of 0.5m.
This is equivalent to a light intensity of at least 10
As this is possible only for seats close under a lamp,
there must be at least one lamp for every 4 pupils.
1 H. Cohn, op. cit., p. 335.
64 AKTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION
The lamps must also be so distributed that all desks
may have as uniform a light as possible ; though this
idea can not be carried out completely, since there will
always be a number of pupils who will sit in the shad-
ows cast by their neighbors. Especially strong illumi-
nation is required for blackboards, charts, etc. ; and
the lights used for this purpose should be provided
with shades, or better still, with reflectors, so that the
eyes of the pupils may be protected.
And, lastly, the lights must be at least 0.5 m. distant
from the heads of the pupils ; otherwise the heat will
cause a congestion of blood in the head, and a disa-
greeable feeling of heat, especially in the forehead, the
upper part of nose, and the eyelids. Eiibner believes
this due not only to the high temperature but to the
drying of the skin and the more uneven distribution
of light and shade than is customary with sunlight.
THE VENTILATION AND CLEANING OF SCHOOL-BOOMS
In the foregoing pages we have repeatedly spoken of
the pollution of the air by products of combustion
from artificial lighting. "We are thus led to consider
one of the most important topics in school hygiene.
Everybody knows that atmospheric air is composed
of oxygen, nitrogen, water, and carbonic acid; and
that the proportion of these components, with the ex-
ception of water, is subject to but very slight changes.
In all tests, where and whenever made, the per cent by
volume has been as follows: Oxygen 20.94, nitrogen
79.02, carbonic acid .03 to .04, with water in varying
Lately the so-called precious gases argon, helium,
and krypton, which were formerly counted with nitro-
gen, have been discovered, and found to be constant
components of the air. Argon makes 1 % of the
atmosphere. It is not, as was first supposed, an ele-
ment, but consists of the real argon, a solid, metargon,
and a volatile gas, neon.
Outdoor air also has traces of ammonia, and nitrous
and nitric acid. But to these normal components,
manifold impurities may be added particularly in large
cities: soot, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, sulphuretted
hydrogen, sulphurous, and sulphuric acid, carburetted
hydrogen, and especially gases caused by putrefaction.
" The air in the school-room ought if possible to
have the same composition as pure outdoor air; but it
varies from this in two ways, partly by the addition
of foreign substances and partly by having the usual
components in an abnormal proportion. The chief
cause of this is excretions from the lungs and skin of
teachers and pupils.
u After pure atmospheric air has been through the
lungs, it is, by volume, composed of 16.03 % oxygen,
79.59$ nitrogen, and 4.38$ carbonic acid; and con-
tains besides much more water than before." If we
compare these figures with those above on the com-
position df outdoor air, we find that the oxygen has
decreased by one-fifth, and that the carbonic acid has
increased at least a hundredfold.
To this must be added the carbonic acid excreted by
the skin, although this is only a hundredth or at most
an eightieth part of that excreted by the lungs. The
more the carbonic acid in a room increases, the less
readily will it be given off from the blood of the per-
sons in it. Respiration becomes more and more
obstructed; and it would eventually cease altogether,
should the proportion of carbonic acid in the air of the
room increase to such an extent that diffusion could
EFFECTS OF IMPURE AIR 67
no longer take place between it and the air of the-
On account of this interference with the respiratory
processes, anaemia and sometimes the first symptoms
even of lung diseases set in after repeated exposures
to air charged with carbonic acid. It is often possible
to see, especially in the case of young and delicate
children, how a fresh, healthy appearance gradually
disappears and gives place to a pale, anaemic color, a
condition traceable chiefly to the impure air of the
The noxiousness of the air is due not only to the
increase of carbonic acid, but far more to certain
organic impurities given off, partly by the lungs and
partly by the skin. According to Brown-Sequard and
d' Arsonval, respired air nearly always contains ammonia
and small quantities of organic matter, which, if not
decayed when exhaled, show a great tendency to dis-
integrate even at a low temperature ; and from experi-
mental evidence they conclude that these volatile
substances are poisonous. For, on condensing vapors
from their own lungs or those of their students, they
secured a fluid, which when filtered and injected under
the skin of a rabbit produces the following phenomena :
dilation of the pupils, marked retardation of respira-
tion, a lowering of the temperature by from 0.5 C to
5 C, paralytic weakness, especially in the hind legs.,
and an increase of the heart beats from 240 to 320 per
minute. They furthermore injected some fresh fluid
taken directly from the trachea of a dog into the
anterior carotid artery of a rabbit. Violent convul-
sions followed, the activity of the heart and lungs
ceased almost entirely, and death resulted in less than
Moreover, toxic products are contained not only in
the exhalation of the lungs but also in the perspiration
of the skin. In the case of the latter we must dis-
tinguish between sweat composed of water, a little
table-salt, and urea, and the so-called "perspiration
insensibilis ", which more properly ought to be called
" invisibilis ", because it can be detected only by the
sense of smell. That the excreted organic substances
which have a tendency to putrify are poisonous is shown
by covering animals with varnish. Animals so covered
die without exception, because they cannot get rid of
the perspiratory products. People properly speak of
these cases as cases of self-poisoning, since every ex-
cretion has a disagreeable, paralyzing, and toxic effect
on its producer.
It is these decomposed organic materials which make
the air of the school-room so offensive. It clings not
only to the walls and furniture, but also to the cloth-
ing of both teacher and pupils, so firmly, indeed, that
it can not always be removed by careful ventilation.
ORGANIC DUST PARTICLES 69
The influence which this foul air has as soon as it is
charged to a certain degree with the excretions from
the lungs and the skin, is described by Schiller-Tietz 1 as
follows: "Children become uncomfortable, fretful,
dull, irritable, and peevish, especially during the last
periods. This is by no means due simply to mental
fatigue; but body and mind are so depressed by the
auto-toxic products in the air that the ability to work
is lessened. Mental activity relaxes as a result of a
bodily weariness, which has all the symptoms of pois-
oning by auto-toxic products." In assembly rooms
crowded with pupils, individuals often faint, while
others suffer from headache, dizziness, and nausea,
effects also traceable to impure air.
In addition to these organic impurities from respira-
tion and perspiration, the air in school-rooms contains
also noxious organic dust particles. These readily
combine with oxygen, and can therefore reduce a
solution of potassium permanganate, thus depriving it
of its red color. Uffelmann 2 has by means of this
property effected a quantitative determination of the
organic matter. He does not believe that air which is
filled with organic matter, especially dust particles, is
1 Schiller-Tietz, Ein offenses Wort zur Frage der Zim-
mer- und Schulluft. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheits-
pflege, 1888, Xo. 3, p. 121-132.
2 Uffelmann im Archiv fiir Hygiene, 1888, Vol. VIII,
Parts 2 and 3.
auy longer sufficiently pure when one million parts of
it require more than 12 parts of oxygen for oxidation.
In such air there are generally many micro-organ-
isms. Hesse 1 found that in every cubic meter of air
in the school-room there were 2,000 bacteria before,
16,500 during, and 35,000 at the end of the school
hours. The figures of Ignatieff 2 correspond pretty
well with these. According to his observations one
cbm. of air in the V gymnasium of Moscow contained
on an average 16,250 microbes. A pupil would, thus,
in a five-hour session inhale 44,655 germs.
It is interesting to note how the number of bacteria
varied during the day. In this gymnasium it was
found that in two liters of air, which was allowed to
flow through a glass tube lined with peptonized meat
gelatine for an hour, there were 38 colonies of bacteria
about 8 A. M. before instruction began; 6, about 12
M. before, and 78, after the long recess; and 8, just
before the pupils left school. We see that the num-
bers are smallest when the dust in the room is undis-
*W. Hesse, Uber quantitative Bestimmung der in
der Luft eirthaltenen Mikroorganismen. Mitteilungen
aus dem Kaiserl. Gesundheitsamte, 1884, Vol. II.
2 Ignatieff, Einige Daten zur Beurteilung der Schul-
luft in bakteriologischer Beziehung. Arbeiten aus
dem hygienischen Laboratorium der Moskauer Univer-
sitat, 1888, II (russisch).
turbed ; and that they increase considerably when it is
stirred up by the movements of the pupils.
The number of micro-organisms is, furthermore,
dependent to a considerable extent upon the character
of the school building. In institutions with artificial
ventilation, Carnelley and Foggie found 18.5, and in
those with only natural ventilation 27.8 germs per
liter of air. Rooms which were clean and new had
85, and those which were old and dirty, 139 germs in
the same quantity of air. But the most striking result
was that the number of bacteria has an unquestionable
relation to the age of the pupils; the younger they
are, the more the microbes. With very small children
there were 167; in class VI, 146; in V, 106; in IV,
76; in III, 69; in II, 68; and in I, 51 germs per liter
of air. This is probably due to the fact that young
children are not as cleanly as older ones.
As to the different sorts of micro-organisms in the
school-room, Erismann 1 found many kinds of moulds
such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavesceiis,
Penicillium glaucum, etc. ; also numerous chromo-
geiiic bacteria, generally Sarcina lutea or aurantiaca;
then white colonies of bacteria ; lastly, such as more or
less quickly liquefy the gelatine.
J Fr. Erismann, Die Schulhygiene auf der Jubilaums-
ausstellung der Gesellschaft fur Beforderung der
Arbeitsamkeit in Moskau. Zeitschrift fur Schulges-
undheitspflege, 1888, Xo. 11, p. 402.
It is true the majority of these fungi do not in a
strict sense cause sickness ; but the greater their num-
ber, the more probable is it that pathogenic bacteria,
such as germs of tuberculosis and diptheria, will be
In connection with this subject one needs only
make a comparison of the mountain and the sea air
with that of the school-room. On the high mountains
of Switzerland Freudenreich often had to examine 2
to 3 cbm. of air before he found a single bacterium.
It is the same with sea-air, which is also remarkably
free from micro-organisms.
But even if the dust in the school-room were free
from disease germs, it would, nevertheless, be injurious
to the mucuous membrane of the bronchial tubes and
the eyes for purely mechanical reasons. In comparison
with the tender, microscopic, epithelial layers of these
membranes, even small dust particles are enormous
bodies which are liable to injure them with their sharp
edges and corners. This is the cause of the many cases
of catarrh of the bronchial tubes, throat, and larynx,
found among those who teach in dusty quarters; and
also of the many cases of conjunctival inflammation of
the eyes found among pupils, as, for example, in the
investigations by Schmidt-Kimpler in the higher insti-
tutions in Hessen-Nassau.
Since the air of school-rooms can be polluted in so
MEASUREMENT OF CARBONIC ACID 73
many ways, we need some means of measuring the de-
gree of impurity. As such, it has been customary to
use the quantity of carbonic acid contained in it. The
organic excretions from the lungs and skin found in
the air can not be used for this purpose, since analy-
tical chemistry has not yet, notwithstanding its great
progress, been able to give them even a qualitative,
much less quantitative determination. Xeither can
the number of germs which may be found be used un-
conditionally as a test of the purity of the air. The
distribution of these germs in the air is too accidental
and irregular, and depends in any given case on too
many circumstances which cannot easily be ascertained.
Carbonic acid is, therefore, the only means of meas-
urement left; and it has many special advantages for
the purpose. In the first place, it distributes itself
with extraordinary uniformity in closed rooms. More-
over, we know that the oxidizable organic substances-
and carbonic acid increase in the same ratio ; and, lastly,
the quantitative determination of carbonic acid pre-
sents no great difficulties.
The method employed is generally that of Petten-
koffer. A four to six liter flask is required, the
capacity of which must be determined exactly by
weighing it first empty and then filled with water,
and calculating its' capacity from the difference of the
two weights. This done, we rinse it carefully with al-
cohol and ether; let it become dry; and then close it
with a tight fitting paraffine stopper, over which we
draw a rubber cap. Glass stoppers cannot be recom-
mended because they do not fit tightly enough ; and
even cork and rubber would let carbon dioxide through.
Thus sealed, the flask is taken into the school-room,
where the air is to be tested, and opened ; air is now
forced into it by means of bellows until its contents
ha\e changed at least five times. Then 100 ccm. of
baryte solution, composed of 6 to 7 g. of baryte in
one liter of water mixed with .5 g. of barium chloride,
is poured into it. The flask is then closed tightly;
and after the fluid has been shaken repeatedly to bring
it in contact with the enclosed air, it is left standing
for half an hour. At the end of this time all the car-
bonic acid is absorbed and has separated as insoluble
barium carbonate. The 100 ccm. baryte solution is
now poured from the large flask into a small one ; and
the barium carbonate is allowed to precipitate ; 25 ccm.
of the clear solution is then mixed with 2 drops of a
solution composed of 0.2 g. phenolphthalin in 10 g.
of absolute alcohol. Titration is begun by letting
oxalic acid, 2.8G36 g. dissolved in one liter of water,
flow into it till the liquid which was colored red by
the phenolphthalin assumes a yellowish color.
In the same way we determine the standard solution,
that is, ascertain the exact quantity of barium
PETTEtfKOFFER'S METHOD 75
hydroxide in the fresh baryte solution that has not
come into contact with the air in the flask. From
the difference in amount of this compound in the two
cases we calculate the quantity of carbonic acid ab-
sorbed ; and also, its ratio per thousand in the air of
the school-room. The following example by Kirchiier
will serve as an illustration.
In one case to produce a precipitation, 23.7 ccm. of
the oxalic acid solution were required for 25 ccm.
of the fresh baryte solution; and 19.1 ccm. were re-
quired for the same quantity when it had been in con-
tact with the carbonic acid of the air, giving a differ-
ence of 4.6, or 18.4 per hundred. The capacity of
the flask was 5,734 ccm., and the volume of air in it
was 5, 634 ccm., as it also contained 100 ccm. of baryte
solution. When a reduction is made for a tempera-
ture of 23 C. and a barometic pressure of 756 mm.,
at which the examination took place, this quantity
becomes 5,168 ccm. One ccm. of a solution com-
posed of 2.8636 g. of oxalic acid in 1 liter of water
corresponds to 1 mg. of C0 2 and 1 mg. of C0 2 cor-
respond to 0.5 ccm. of C0 2 . Hence 18.4X1 mg.=
18.4 mg. or 18.4X0.5=9.2 ccm. of carbonic acid in
5,168 ccm. of air, the contents of the flask. To find
the amount of carbonic acid per thousand ccm. of
air, the following proportion is used: 5,168 : 9.2=
1,000 : x. From this we get x=ffff=1.78 parts per
Though Pettenkoffer's is the only exact method, and
therefore the only one available for scientific investiga-
tions, nevertheless, the far simpler and quicker mini-
metric process of Smith-Lunge 1 is sufficient for purely
practical purposes. The principle of this is to intro-
duce known quantities of the air to be tested into a.
given quantity of baryte solution till it becomes-
cloudy. The more quickly this happens, the less car-
bonic acid there is in the air the more slowly, the more.
The Smith-Lunge method requires a round bottle
3.8 ccm. in diameter, and 9 cm. high, having a capac-
ity of about 53 ccm. (see figure 5).
FIG. 5. THE SMITH-LUNGE AIR TESTER
Two tubes pass through holes in the stopper. One
(be) is straight and extends to the bottom ; the other (de)
1 Georg Lunge, Zur Erage der Ventilation und
Beschreibung des minimetrischen Apparates zur Bes-
timmung der Kohlensaure. Zurich, 1877.
SMITH-LUNGE METHOD 77
-which is bent at right angles and barely passes through
the stopper, has the rubber tube (d f g h i), 20 to
30 cm. long, with the pearshaped bulb k of about 28
ccm. capacity, attached. In this rubber tube there is
at (f) a longitudinal slit 1 cm. long, which acts as a
If the tube (a b) is pressed together with one hand,
and the rubber bulb k with the other, the air in the
latter will escape through the slit (f). The bulb now
expands through its own elasticity and fills with air
drawn through the bottle by means of the tube (ac),
which is now left open. After the test bottle has thus
been filled several times with the air to be examined,
7 ccm. of a solution of 6 g. of barium hydrate in one
liter of water is poured in and the height of the fluid
marked by means of a line. The bottle is now care-
fully closed and shaken several times.
The amount of air which thus comes in contact with
the baryte solution is equal to two fillings of the bulb.
With every compression and expansion the bulb draws
through the bottle 28 ccm. of air, which gives up its
carbonic acid to the barium hydrate. A piece of paper
having a cross marked with a lead pencil is pasted on
the side of the bottle to make it possible to judge
more correctly of the increasing cloudiness. When
the cross becomes invisible, the baryte solution is
sufficiently cloudy. The question now is, how many
times did the bulb have to be compressed ?
4 fillings indicate 22 parts CO" in 10,000 parts of air.
5 " " 17.6 " " " " " " "
6 " " 14.8 " " " " " " "
7 " " 12.6 " " " " " " "
8 " " 11.0 " " " " " " "
9 " " 9.8 " " " " " " (i
10 " " 8.8 " " M " " " "
11 " " 8.0 " " " " " " "
12 " " 7.4 " " " " " " "
13 " " 6.8 " " " " " " "
14 " " 6.3 " " " " " " "
15 " " 5.8 " " " " " " "
16 " " 5.4 " " " " " " "
17 " " 5.1 " " " " " " "
18 " " 4.9 " " " " " " "
Five fillings of the bulb show that there are 1.76
parts of carbonic acid to 1,000 parts of air, providing
we always count the air originally in the bottle as two
of these bulbfuls. The figures thus obtained give, of
course, only approximate values because the determina-
tion of the momement when the cross disappears de-
pends too much upon individual opinion.
The automatic air- tester of A. Wolpert of Niirnberg
is still simpler but also less accurate. A glance at the
scale of the apparatus is sufficient to show one whether
the air in the class-room is "extremely bad", "very
bad ", " bad ", " still permissible ", or " pure ". Ac-
cording to Wolpert, air is to be considered " extremely
bad" when it has more than 4 parts C0 2 per 1,000;,
WOLPEKT'S METHOD 79
and "very bad" with 2 to 4; "bad" with 1 to 2;
"still permissible" with 0.7 to 1; and "pure" with
0.5 to 0.7 parts per 1,000.
The amount of carbonic acid is ascertained by means
of a colored liquid upon which the carbonic acid has a
bleaching effect. This liquid, which consists of a
solution of soda colored red with phenolphthalin, is
poured into a vessel placed on a bracket and is then
protected from the air by a thin layer of mineral oil.
It then drops automatically from a capillary tube at-
tached to a float in the fluid upon a specially prepared
white linen thread about 0.5 m. long, and colors it red,
as it flows down. This red color extends uniformly
down the whole length of the thread when the air is
very pure, i. e. has less than 0.5 parts C0 2 per 1,000.
If the air is impure the carbonic acid has a bleaching
effect in proportion to amount of it present. The
more carbonic acid there is in the air, the more of the
thread will appear white from below upward. In
reading the scale we take the highest point at which
the thread is still white, i. e., the limit between pure
white and faint red; but this point can not always be
Whatever method may be employed, a considerable
amount of carbonic acid will very often be found in
the air of a school-room. This is due to the rapid
metabolism and the consequently great amount of car-
bonic acid thrown off by young people, which is only
little less than that of adults. During one school
hour a boy of sixteen produces 17.4, a boy of ten
10.3, and one pupil on an average, 12 liters of carbonic
acid; while we estimate 15 liters as an average for an
adult in the same time.
These figures, it is true, are not constant, since the
production of carbonic acid depends on varying condi-
tions. Besides the temperature of the air, the time of
day, and the state of nutrition, we must here especially
take into account the frequency and depth of respira-
tion. It has been observed that the amount of car-
bonic acid increased especially during the period for
gymnastics and music. A thirteen year old boy, for
instance, exhales 17.01 liters of carbonic acid per
hour during instruction in singing a result undoubt-
edly due to the quickening and deepening of the
There is still another class of circumstances which
affect the quantity of carbonic acid in school-rooms.
In the first place, it makes a difference whether ventila-
tion takes place by an artificial system or only through
the pores of the walls or the cracks of the windows
and doors. On this subject we have the investigations
which were made by Kietschel 1 in several gymnasia in
1 H. Eietschel, Mitteilung iiber die Ergebnisse der
Untersuchungen der Luft in verschiedenen hohern
Berliner Lerhanstalten. Berlin, 1886. H. Eietschel.
Liiftung und Heizung der Schulen. Berlin, 1886.
SYSTEMS OF VENTILATION 81
Berlin. According to his report, Sexta B of the
Fried erich Wilhelm gymnasium of that city has an air
capacity of 155.6 cbm., or 3 cbm. per pupil. It is
heated by means of a tile stove and is without any
artificial means of ventilation. Doors and windows
remained closed during recesses as well as during the
recitation periods. Consequently a maximum amount
of carbonic acid of 9.7 and an average of 5.55 parts
per thousand were found at various times of the day y
an evidence of extremely impure air, as the amount
of carbonic acid, according to the generally accepted
view of Pettenkoffer, ought not to exceed 1 part per
Sexta B of the Wilhelm gymnasium, with a capacity
of 164 cbm. and 2.83 cbm. per pupil, is heated by hot
water and has Venetian blinds in its doors and win-
dows for ventilation. During recesses all doors are
open. Here the maximum amount of carbonic acid
was only 4.8 parts per thousand and the average 2.55..
If the ventilating apparatus ^failed to work well, an
increase of carbonic acid set in immediately.
Sexta A of the Luise gymnasium has a capacity of
253.58 cbm., or 4.61 cbm. per pupil. It is heated by
hot air and has a ventilating shaft into the garret,
from which the air is removed by an aspirating chim-
ney. With regularity in the manipulation of the sys-
tem, the maximum amount of carbonic acid was 1.9,,
and the average 1.45 parts per 1,000; with irregularity
it rose to 2 and 1.55 parts per 1,000, respectively.
The beneficial effects of ventilating flues on the air
of school-rooms have also been emphasized by Gillert. x
In schools without such flues he found that in only
5.3$ of his tests was the air good or still permissible;
whereas it was of this grade in 67.7$ of the tests,
where the schools were supplied with the flues. The
reverse was true for extremely impure air, the figures
being 36.8 $ and 6.1 $, respectively.
Gillert was also able to show that the amount of car-
bonic acid in a closed and occupied room is in inverse
proportion to the rapidity of the currents of air out-
side. In windy weather, for instance, the amount of
carbonic acid in these schools in Berlin did not even
reach 1 part per 1,000 during two successive recitation
periods. On the other hand, on a quiet day more
than 4 parts of carbonic acid per thousand were found
in three rooms at the end of 4 hours; 5.63 parts in a
room in the third story at the end of 4j- hours; and
1.21 parts in another room in the third story after 5
hours of school work, although six windows had
been open at the bottom all the time. Outside
currents of air will naturally assist in ventilating a
J E. Gillert, Luftpriifungen auf Kohlensiiure, aus-
gefiihrt in Berliner Gemeindeschulen. Zeitschrift fiir
Schulgesundheitspflege, 1893, ^ T o. 4, p. 185-203.
OTHER COKDITIOKS 83
school-room in proportion as it is exposed and easily
accessible to the wind.
Moreover, differences of temperature between at-
mospheric and school-room air have an effect similar
to that of the wind upon the amount of carbonic acid.
According to Pettenkoffer 1 , the amount of fresh air
received by natural ventilation into an occupied room
of about 73 cbm. was, with a difference of tempera-
ture between inner and outer air of 20, 95 cbm. ; with
a difference of 19, 75 cbm.; with a difference of 4,
22 cbm. Hence, all other things being equal, the
natural ventilation of a class-room, and therefore the
diminution of the carbonic acid in it, is greatest dur-
ing the cold and least during the warm weather.
Since this change of air, as has already been said,
takes place partly through the interstices of the build-
ing-materials, the porosity of the latter affects the ac-
cumulation of carbonic acid in the school-room.
Mortar, brick, and sandstone lose their permeability
as soon as they are sufficiently saturated with water,
as Pettenkoffer 2 has shown. The mechanical force
of the air cannot displace it; and .hence the pores of
the wall remain clogged and only regain their per-
meability upon the evaporation of the moisture. This
1 Pettenkoffer, Uber den Luftwechsel in Wohnge-
bauden, p. 91.
2 The same, p. 97.
shows how detrimental wet walls may be with respect
to the purity of the air in school-rooms, to say nothing
of the fact that they promote the formation of mould.
Finally, the duration of the school period affects
the accumulation of carbonic acid in class-rooms.
Boubnoff and Ignatieff found in the I. gymnasium of
Moscow at 8 o'clock in the morning before lessons
began, 1.16 parts; at the end of the first hour, 4.51
parts; at the end of the second, 5.59 parts; and at
the close of the third, 6.12 parts carbonic acid per
thousand. The long recess of 30 minutes, customary
in Eussian gymnasia was then taken, and most of the
pupils left the class-room to exercise in the corridor or
the " recreation hall ". During this whole intermis-
sion, a window was open. The amount of carbonic
acid was consequently reduced to 2.82 parts; but it
rose in the fourth hour to 4.35; and in the fifth to
5.74 parts per thousand.
Entirely similar results were obtained in the V. gym-
nasium and in the Komissaroff technical school. The
striking thing is, not simply the great impurity of the
air even before school work begins, but also the rapid-
ity with which the amount of carbonic acid increases
even in the first hour. During the rest of the day,
the increase is not so rapid probably because the
breathing of the pupils in the room has become more
and more repressed.
What can teachers do to improve the ventilation in
their school-rooms ? In the first place they can learn
RECKNAGEL'S VENTILATION GAUGE
to use properly the ventilating arrangements that have
been supplied. Large ventilating systems ought to
work so as to secure a renewal of the air in a room
three times every hour, in all kinds of weather. No
drafts which in any way annoy the pupils should be
produced either by the introduction of the pure out-
side air, which should have been previously warmed in
the winter, or by the removal of the impure inner air.
FIG. 6. CROSS SECTION OF RECKNAGEL'S VETILATION GAUGE
FIG. 7. RECKNAGEL'S VENTILATION GAUGE, ATTACHED
This can be prevented by not having the velocity of
the air more than 1.5 m. per second.
Whether the air in the school-room is really changed
three times per hour can be ascertained by means of
Recknagel's patented ventilation gauge 1 (see figs. 6
1 Karl Hintrager, Eecknagels Kontrollapparat fur
Ventilationsanlagen in Schulen. Zeitschrift fur Schul-
gesundheitspflege, 1895, No. 1, p. 18-23.
KECKNAGEL'S VENTILATION GAUGE 87
and 7). This consists of a support K S (fig. 6) one
end of which is attached to the inlet grate D E F G
(fig. 7) by a screw, while the other is shaped to hold
two points. Between these the easily movable valve F
(fig. 6, cf. c, a, and b, fig. 7) is placed to receive the
pressure of the incoming air. To give it any required
degree of sensitiveness it has a compensating weight
A G- (fig. 6), which besides increasing the moment of
inertia makes it possible to set the apparatus so that
the valve will be blown out 45 from the perpendicular
when the air is coming in with the right velocity.
The slightest change in the velocity of the air is
sufficient to move the valve from this position, which
is indicated by a fixed pointer. If the valve falls be-
low this pointer, the velocity is too small; if it rises
above, it is too great. This is evidently true only
when the cross section of the ventilating shaft has
such a ratio to the size of the room that with a cur-
rent of 1.5 m. per second the air is changed three
times an hour.
The air introduced should be as pure as possible. It
should not be taken from cellars, passage-ways, small
enclosures, the neighborhood of dung-pits, privies, or
chimneys. In the real-gymnasium of Hamburg where
the latter was the case, smoke and other products of
combustion came into the rooms.
Occasionally the mouth of the fresh air duct is
located near the dumping place for fuel, and a great
deal of coal dust and other stuff is brought into the
school-room. Sometimes we find it placed not above
but below the level of the ground, so that dirt and
sprinkling water flow in. At other times it may be so
situated as to have a grate over which people walk, the
dirt from the shoes falling in.
Even where every precaution has been taken, and
shrubs have been planted around the inlet as a protec-
tion against the dust, it is not always possible to obtain
air entirely free from it. Additional means of purifica-
tion will in that case have to be used, such as allowing
dust to settle in a large room, or removing it by an
air filter or a spray.
Dust may also mix with the air further on in its
passage through the pipes and flues. To prevent this,
these must not only be smooth and tight, and con-
structed so as to be easily cleaned; but both these and
the dust-chambers must be cleaned frequently. The
removal of the foul air in a school-room is usually
effected by means of a flue in a partition wall near the
chimney. This has two openings, one near the floor
and one near the ceiling, both of which may be closed
by means of dampers or doors. The flue goes up
above the roof into the open air, or it ends in the
garret, which in that case is provided with ventilators.
The walls of the garret should be smooth and accessi-
MANAGEMENT OF APPARATUS 89
We to cleaning, and the cleaning should be done re-
With respect to the details of managing the ventilat-
ing apparatus, the upper of the two dampers or doors
mentioned above, namely, the one near the ceiling, is to
l>e kept open when there is no artificial heating, as are
also the ventilators sometimes found in the opposite
wall near the floor.
During the heating period on the other hand the air
Is to be removed by the lower opening in the ventilat-
ing flue. The summer ventilators in the outer wall if
there be any, and the upper opening in the foul air
flue in the partition wall, and the door in the jacket,
where a jacketed stove is used, should now be kept
tightly closed. On beginning to heat the room, all
openings are to be closed except the door in the jacket
of the stove between the air in the school-room and
that in the jacket, which is to be opened. The influx
of fresh air is to be regulated according to the outside
temperature and the outside air currents by the proper
setting of the dampers. That all this may be done
accurately, it is advisable to have the regulations for
the use of the ventilating apparatus posted in every
Where there are no special fresh and foul air flues,
hinged sections of the upper parts of windows may
be used for the purpose of ventilation during school-
hours. The window panes are in this case fixed inter
frames which in outside windows are hinged at the
top, in inside windows at the bottom. These outer
and inner hinged sections are so connected that they
open and close at the same time, and there should be
a convenient device for managing them from below.
The inner one also has side guards of tin to prevent
the cold air from falling directly on the pupils sitting
A glass arrangement resembling a Venetian blind,,
though less effective than the above, is much used in
schools. In this case, one of the upper panes consists-
of horizontal glass strips 10 cm. wide which can be
opened and closed like the wooden blinds. The
influx of air is regulated at will by turning the strips.
Among other things, they have the disadvantage of
letting the air which enters sink directly to the floor
and spread over it in a gradually thickening layer. It
then becomes considerably colder there and the differ-
ence in temperature between the feet and the head is-
Castaning has lately suggested a system of window
glazing which may prove useful for ventilating purposes
in schools. Two panes of glass are put in parallel,
like the panes of a double window and so as to be from
8 to 10 cm. apart. The outer pane (d), as will be
seen in figure 8, does not rest directly upon the lower
SIMPLE APPLIANCES 91
cross piece (a) but leaves an opening about 4 cm. high.
The inner pane (f) which rests upon
the cross piece (a) does not reach the
upper cross piece (b) but leaves a slit
there 4 cm. high. Outside air will
now rush in as indicated by the arrows
and be warmed somewhat by the in-
ner panes, and will then enter the
room through the upper slit. The in-
ner opening should be provided with a
shutter of tin, or better still of glass,
so as to prevent the air from rushing
FIG. 8. C A S T A N -
ING'S SYSTEM OF in during storms and extremely cold
WINDOW-VENTI- . . .
LATIOX. weather. It is also desirable to sup-
port the free edges of the panes with thin iron guards
to make them more secure and keep them from break-
But even if all ventilating arrangements are lacking,
we can do much for the improvement of the air in
school-rooms by opening windows and doors. To be
sure, when the school is in session, the opening of
windows is necessarily restricted. During the winter,
the cold air would rush into the room and often lower
the temperature too suddenly and expose pupils sitting
near to the dangers of catching cold. In summer,
the noise in the street is often so great that, with open
windows, lessons would be much disturbed. Even the
comparatively noiseless pavements of wood or other
materials often found near schools in large cities can
not always prevent this evil entirely. On the other
hand, all class-rooms must be ventilated at the end of
every lesson, both winter and summer, by opening all
doors and windows. The length of this airing should
be governed by the weather; in Dresden the following
rule has been proposed :
DURATION OF VENTILATION
At the end of forenoon
or afternoon session
+10 to -|-5 C
20 50 minutes.
+5 to C
to 5 C
5 to -10 C
10 - 15
below to 10 C
- H "
With a short airing like this the walls, furniture,
and floors of the school-room are but slightly cooled;
and, as soon as the doors and windows are closed, the
temperature of the room begins to rise, owing to the
heat given off by the walls, etc. How great a reduc-
tion in the amount of carbonic acid in a room may be
made in this way is shown by figures from Dankwarth.
In a school-room which he examined the amount of
carbonic acid in the morning at 10 o'clock before ven-
tilation was 1.7 parts per thousand. After doors and
windows had been opened, with four persons remaining
in the room, he found the following amounts:
AIRING THE ROOM 93
At 10 o'clock min. 30 seconds. 0.860 parts carb. acid per 1000.
1 < 0666 ,< M
" " " 1 " 30 " 0.665 " " " " "
" " " 2 " 30 " 0.655 " " " " "
" " " 5 " " 0.552 " " " " "
While the ventilation is going on, the pupils go into
the yard or corridors, and in this way get a little exer-
cise and bring fresh air back with them in their cloth-
ing. The hall windows are accordingly opened during
recitations and closed during recesses when the
rooms are being ventilated. It is especially necessary
to have prolonged ventilation of this sort between
the forenoon and afternoon sessions, though it is gen-
erally omitted entirely in cold weather. Accordingly,
a decree of the Prussian Cultus-Minister rightly re-
quires that the windows of class-rooms shall be open
even at night in warm summer weather; at other times
till dark, and from four in the morning.
Experiments made at the Hygienic Institute of the
University of Budapest testify to the success of this
plan. During the summer the windows were first kept
open during the day and closed at night, and then the
reverse ; and in each case the temperature of the room
was compared with that of the outside air. It was
found that with the windows open during day time
the temperature in the room was almost as high as
that out doors; whereas, when the windows were closed
during the day and open at night, the temperature in
the room was at least 7 C lower than it was out doors,
the difference being especially great when the outside
temperature was very high.
On the other hand, if cleanliness does not prevail in
the school-room and the air is constantly being pol-
luted by filth, no amount of ventilation will prove
sufficient. Cleanliness should extend in the first place
to the pupils themselves. Not only ought their bodies
to be scrupulously clean, but also their clothes and
In connection with this matter the school shower-
baths introduced by the city of Gottingen deserve
more attention from higher institutions of learning
than they have hitherto received. For one thing they
promote the cleanliness of the skin ; and for another,
they lead the pupils to desire clean underclothing.
The school should provide ample facilities for
the pupils to wash themselves. There should be
scrapers and foot-mats, for cleaning their feet; and
the constant use of them ought to be insisted upon,
the more so since the amount of dirt brought in daily
according to measurements by Meyrich 1 is on an aver-
age 1.4 grams. Overcoats, hats, caps, rubbers, um-
brellas, all give off unpleasant vapors when they are
1 Oswald Meyrich, Die Staubpnage in der Schule
und Vorschlage Zu ihrer Beseitigung. Op. cit., 1894,
Ko. 8, 9, p. 452-473.
wet, and ought on that account not to be taken into
the school-room, but should be left in the hall, or in
special cloak rooms, which had better be separated from
the hall by wire netting.
Pupils with diseases that infect the air demand special
attention. Those with an ill-smelling discharge from
the ear must be suspended until completely cured.
The pestilential odor from perspiring feet sometimes
defies all treatment; but even in this case we ought
to insist at least on an attempt at betterment. The
most effective measure against the odors from ulcer-
ated, decaying teeth is the introduction of a regular
care of the teeth ; and the school must do its part to
Cleanliness must also be maintained with respect to
the school-room 1 . Since dirt and dust collect mostly
on the floors, the proper construction and care of these
is of great importance. Too soft wood or too narrow
boards must not be used. The first slivers easily
and is not durable enough; it, moreover, absorbs
moisture readily and dries very slowly, so that rooms
with such floors when scrubbed have a smell even the
next day. It also makes the good oiling which school -
1 Grundsatze fur die Aufrechterhaltung der Sauber-
keit an den hohern Schulen im Aufsichtsbezirke des
Kgl. Provinzialschulkollegiums zu Kassel. Ver-
fiigung vom 25. November, 1890.
room floors should receive every year or two impossible..
Too narrow and lathlike flooring increases unnecessarily
the number of cracks into which dust may settle.
Matched floors of oak or American hard pine are prob-
ably the best for schools. They must in any case be
kept in order, and any cracks or seams that may
arise must be closed up at once.
Linoleum has lately been used in many places as a
covering for school-room floors. In fact, it fulfills all
the requirements that have to be made of a good floor.
It is elastic, waterproof, wholly free from cracks or
holes, permanent, and very durable. It has the further
advantage of deadening the noise made by the feet of
the children; and it can be easily and thoroughly
swept and washed.
As far as cleaning is concerned, all class-rooms, draw-
ing-rooms, and music-halls, ought to be swept thor-
oughly at least twice a week. In the case of schools
with two sessions this may best be done on the free
afternoons of Wednesdays and Saturdays. Daily
sweeping would be still better.
To prevent the raising of dust, the floor must be
covered with plenty of wet sawdust, tanning bark, or
turf powder, which should have been moistened with
warm water. With dry sweeping the dust cannot be
thoroughly removed even with open windows; but is
simply carried from one place to another. A short
CLEANING THE ROOMS 97
time after sweeping, the chairs, the benches, the book
shelves under the pupils desks, the teacher's desk, the
cases, and the tiles of the stoves are to be wiped with
a moist cloth, the iron parts of the stove should be
wiped with a dry cloth.
Since entries, corridors, and stairways are particu-
larly exposed to dirt, two sweepings per week will not
be enough for them ; but they must be swept daily with
wet sawdust or the like and be scrubbed every week.
The latter should also be done with class-rooms.
One or two wet sweepings per week is sufficient for
the assembly halls, since they are less used; but they
ought to be washed out several days before every school
festival. If they have been decorated with garlands
and wreaths these should be removed in eight days at
the latest, since withering foliage gives out a peculiar
odor and dry leaves are a good resting place for dust.
Libraries, physical and natural science cabinets, and
chemical laboratories do not need to be cleaned so often ;
brushing them out once or twice a month in the wet
way will be sufficient.
The windows in every room ought always to be kept
clean; and panes covered with moisture or sills wet
from thawing panes should be wiped without delay.
Besides this regular cleaning there ought to be a
thorough general renovation at least four times a year
during vacations. All walls and ceilings are then to
have the dust wiped off, if they have not been freshly
painted or whitewashed. Oiled and parquetry floors
should be cleaned with warm water, soap, and scrub-
bing-rag; and unoiled floors with warm water, sand,
soap, scrubbing broom, or brush. In like manner the
wainscoating and furniture should be washed with
warm water and soap, as should also the windows both
inside and outside. Furthermore, all door knobs,
mountings, lamps, gas fixtures, chandeliers, busts, pic-
tures, charts, and blackboards, as well as all heating
apparatus, stoves, etc., are to be properly wiped and
polished; and, lastly, the dusting or washing of the
curtains or other sorts of blinds must not be neglected,
though it may be necessary only once or twice a year.
Special care is to be exercised in cleaning the books
belonging to the teacher and the school library, the
history collection, and the physical and chemical
apparatus. This should be done under the direction
of the librarian and the corresponding department
teachers. The shelves should first be wiped with a
moist cloth and then rubbed with a dry one.
How detrimental dirty gymnastic halls may be to the
health of the pupils has lately been brought out
clearly by F. A. Schmidt. 1 The increased activity of
1 F. A. Schmidt, Die Staubschadigungen beim
Hallenturnen und ihre Bekampfung. Leipzig, 1890.
CLEANING GYMNASTIC HALLS 99
the lungs and the consequent impossibility of keeping
the mouth closed, cause dust particles to penetrate
even into the smallest branches of the bronchia, where
they either give rise to an inflamation or increase one
They may even act as carriers of pathogenic bacteria
and produce infectious diseases. The entrance of the
germs of consumption into the most delicate alveolar
parts of the lungs is especially promoted by deep
breathing and therefore by gymnastics.
The bringing in of dust into gymnastic halls is ac-
cordingly to be prevented as much as possible. Pupils
should on this account before entering put on clean
gymnasium shoes in special dressing rooms.
To prevent the production of dust in the exercises,
mats should be used as little as possible. Those made
of cocoa fibers ought to be discarded altogether.
Aside from the fact that it is easy to slip on them,
and that they can not be used for high jumping, they
are dust catchers of the first order. On the other
hand, little dust can get into mats with leather covers
on both sides, especially if the seams have been care-
fully made. After having been used they should be
placed so as not to bring the dusty underside of one
into contact with the upper side of another.
Spring boards must be repeatedly oiled or tarred.
But above all gymnasium floors must be washed
thoroughly at least once a week and be swept with
moist sawdust or mopped once a day, i. e., after being
used, special attention being given to the spaces be-
tween and under the apparatus. After such cleansing,
the walls are to be dusted dry, and the apparatus then
wiped off with a moist cloth. It is also a very good plan
to clear the air at the end of every gymnastic lesson by
sprinkling with a hose or sprinkling can, the former
having the preference because it enables us to reach
the upper layers of air.
That the miasma from closets can very greatly
pollute the air is sufficiently well known. These ought
therefore to be located in out-houses and connected
with the main buildings by covered walks.
If they are placed in the school building itself, they
ought to be accessible only from the corridors, and
that by means of an ante-room which is easily venti-
lated. Between the closet and coridor there should be
two self-closing doors.
To make it possible to clean the floors more easily
they should be made waterproof. The bowls must
also be waterproof and had better be made of castiron
or stone-ware. In places with water works, closets
should be provided with the water flushing and car-
riage system, and the discharge pipe should be trapped
if there are no other means of preventing the gases
CLEANING CLOSETS 101
In places without water works the excreta should be
collected in casks that can be closed hermetically and
carried away as often as possible, say once every two
or three days. Casks ought to have overflow pipes
with catch basins underneath. They should moreover
be placed in special, easily accessible chambers with
waterproof floors and plenty of light and air. Great
care should be taken to give the discharge pipe an air-
tight connection with casks.
Where vaults are used for school privies, they should
have a cement wall separate from the walls of the
school-house and should be impervious to water. On
the inside, the cracks should be filled with a coating
of asphalt. To facilitate emptying they should have
concave bottoms and concave corners. They must
also have waterproof and fairly airtight coverings.
Whatever the kind of closet in use in a school, it
is absolutely necessary to keep it constantly clean, and
as odorless as possible. Since experience shows that
the reverse is often true, directors and teachers ought
not to consider it below their dignity to inspect them
repeatedly. Aside from this inspection, the scouring
of the floors and the seats once or twice a week regu-
larly will best promote cleanlines . This should take
place daily in time of epidemics.
It is also a good thing to have the closets as well
lighted as possible so that filth may be more readily
detected. Foul-smelling gases are best removed by a
ventilating flue extending from the cask room or vault
to the foundation wall and then up over the gable of
the roof. If it is built near a chimney or if a flame
is kept burning in it, the current of air generated will
promote the escape of miasma.
For deodorizing or disinfecting the contents of the
closets, turf powder deserves high recommendation,
especially if super-phosphate in the proportion of 1 to
5 is added. The latter at the same time increases the
value of the excreta for fertilizing purposes. Lime
may also be used as a disinfectant when added in
sufficient quantities to render the contents strongly
alkaline. For this purpose 2.5 liters calcium hydrate
powder mixed with four times its volume of water will
suffice for 224 liters of the excrementious matter.
This process has this disadvantage that it is difficult
to get the lime everywhere in close contact with the
Where deodorization and disinfection do not take
place, the vaults should be emptied by means of a
pump as often as possible, at least every two or three
months, provided they are not filled before.
The pungent odor given off by urinals because of
the liberation of ammonia in the decomposition of
urea, should be removed by a permanent flow of
water. Not only must the wet wall be isolated from
CLEANING CLOSETS 103
the building but the floor must be made impervious,
and the discharge pipe be supplied with a trap. If it
is impossible to arrange for the flow of water, the wet
places should be sprinkled regularly with powdered
carbolic acid, which is usually colored red to prevent
THE HEATING OF SCHOOL-ROOMS 1
This is usually closely connected with the ventilation
discussed in the preceding chapter. According as
heating apparatus is designed for warming single rooms
or several rooms at the same time, we may speak of
separate and general heating, respectively. For the
former stoves are used and for the latter large central
To settle the question whether stoves or central heat-
ing plants are to be preferred, economical, technical,
pedagogical, and hygienic items must be considered.
As to economy the original outlay for stoves is less
than that for central plants. For even the cheapest
central plant, namely the hot air system, costs about
65 cts. per cbm. of the room to be heated, whereas the
corresponding cost for stoves rarely exceeds 40 cts.
In making this comparison we must, however, take
this fact into consideration that the stoves heat only
the school-rooms and offices, while central plants also
heat the stairways, corridors, ante-rooms, water-closets,
etc. This diminishes the comparative economic ad-
J E. Haesecke, Die Schulheizung, ihre Mangel und
deren Beseitigung. Berlin, 1893.
STOVES YS. CENTRAL SYSTEM 105
vantage of heating by stoves. The operating expenses
for stoves are also greater than those for central heat-
ing plants. In 20 schools in Vienna it was found that
the annual expense for fuel and janitor per 100 cbm.
of space to be heated was with stoves $7.40, and with
central heating plants only $6.58.
From a technical point of view the disadvantages of
stove-heating become still more apparent. It is well-
known that schools especially those of larger cities
owing to the expensiveness of building sites, are liable
to suffer from lack of room. This evil is counteracted
to a certain extent by using central heating plants,
because these are located in otherwise almost useless
rooms in the basement. On the other hand if stoves
are used, they not only occupy more or less room them-
selves but some floor space is also lost by shortening
the neighboring seats in order not to expose individual
pupils to extreme heat.
Another technical objection to the stove is the in-
convenience experienced in caring for it. It is evi-
dent that to supply a number of places with fuel takes
more trouble than to supply only one, and also that it
is more burdensome to attend to more than one fire
than to attend to one only.
Lastly, danger of fire increases with the increase in
the number of stoves, whereas the concentration of
the heating apparatus into one room where it can be
conveniently watched not only enhances security from
fire, but also makes it easier to get control of any fire
that might break out.
From a pedagogical stand-point it may be said that
the repeated attention required by stoves especially
the old style iron stoves, disturbs the work of the
school. Moreover, when the temperature is either too
high or too low, the janitor has to be notified and this
again interrupts the recitations, while with the more
recent central plants the temperature of the room can
be ascertained outside and can be regulated without
entering the room.
In the discussion of the heating question, however,
the hygienic side is of pre-eminent importance. The
ideal in this respect is to have an absolutely uniform
temperature throughout the room, since it is disa-
greeable to have a rapid decrease of temperature from
the ceiling to the floor. In the latter case the head is
exposed to a high and the feet to a low temperature,
while the old Salernitan rule demands that the head be
kept cool and the feet warm.
With a stove, as we know, it is impossible to heat a
given room uniformly in all its parts. For its effec-
tiveness depends in the first place upon the radiation
of heat ; and the amount of this decreases with extra-
ordinary rapidity as the distance from the stove in-
creases. To secure a uniform temperature even with
a central heating plant presents many difficulties ; but
it can nevertheless be effected more easily than with
Another hygienic advantage which the central has
over the separate heating method is that it brings more
air into the room. A stove will serve far less satisfac-
torily for this purpose, since it can be only of moderate
.size, if the first cost and the running expenses are not
to be too great ; and it will therefore not be able to
bring about the required changes of air in the room.
On the other hand, with a central plant the introduc-
tion of pure and the removal of impure air can be
Tegulated in a mathematically definite way. This en-
-ables us to furnish the amount of air required in any
Accordingly, where the location and construction do
not prevent it, large school-buildings ought to be pro-
vided with central heating plants. In fact they are
found in the public schools of most large cities, as for
instance almost without exception in Berlin, Hamburg,
Munich, and Frankfort a. M. The use of stoves
may, however, be considered allowable in schools with
-only a few rooms, since the hygenic disadvantages are
not so great that stoves must be absolutely forbidden.
Stoves may best be placed near the middle of
the long wall opposite the windows. They have been
made ot clay, Russian tiles, iron, or a mixture of
these materials. Tile stoves are not well adapted for
school purposes because they heat up too slowly, fur-
nish insufficient ventilation, and consume too much
fuel. The same is true, although in a less degree, of
combinational stoves which have an iron base and a-
Nor can the iron cylinder or cannon stove so-called
on account of its shape be recommended for schools.
The brisk fire in these stoves, it is true, draws the air
from the floor of the school-room, and thus aids ven-
tilation; but as an offset, they consume a great deal of
fuel and must be filled repeatedly.
But regulable reservoir stoves, -which have a large
jacket or casing and heat the incoming air only mod-
erately, may be said to be satisfactory. Of these there
are many different kinds. We shall mention only the
Jacobi or Meissner, the Kaiserlautern, and Wolpert and
Meidinger, reservoir stoves, the Kauffer and Keidel
patented stoves, and the somewhat similar Irish and
American base burners or self-feeders.
According to the test made by the hygienic institute
of Berlin, the Kauffer Parlor stove and the large
Keidel patented stoves keep the most permanent fire.
This holds true of the smaller ones of this kind only
when anthracite is used. Within the wide casing of the
Keidel stove, the incoming air from the outside is only
moderately warmed; and a sufficient quantity about
GAS STOVES 109
ten times as much as is furnished by the Meidinger
stove, is introduced into the room without creating
drafts. These stoves have, moreover, a special device
for keeping the parts in the fire from getting too hot ;
and they can be managed very economically, since the
size of the fire pot can be changed by movable pans.
Quite recently stoves heated by gas 1 have been em-
ployed in institutions" of learning as for instance, to
name only a few large cities, in Berlin, Hamburg,
Copenhagen, Munich, Frankfort a. M., Cologne,
Stuttgart, Strassburg in Alsace, Karlsruhe, Freiburg
in Baden, and Barmen. The disadvantages of heating
with illuminating gas, according to Ostender, are,
aside from the heavy running expenses, the vitiation of
the air by overheated heating surfaces and filling the
school-room with gas. Meidinger, however, has proved
that these criticisms are not correct.
But we must concede the greater expense of gas
heating. For one room the expense per hour was, for in-
stance, in Cologne, where gas is 2J cts. per cbm., 4 cts;
in Frankfort, a. M., and in Karlsruhe, where gas
is 3 cts. per cbm., 4.8 cts. Even with the gas at 1 ct.
in Karlsruhe, the expense for each room per hour is
still 1.6 cts. On the other hand, the same amount of
stove heat costs only 1J cts., and hot air heat 1^ cts.
*Gustav Behnke, Die Gasofenheizung fur Schulen.
Darmstadt, 1894. Arnold Bergstrasser.
That gas heating is more expensive than stove or hot
air heating is due, in the first place, to the greater
cost of gas in comparison with coal or coke; and, in
the second place, to the fact that the heat is but im-
perfectly utilized. The amount utilized varies between
29.4 and 88.7$, but in eight out of eleven cases
tested it was more than 60 %.
The expense aside, gas stoves have these advantages
in their favor, namely, that they require no special fire-
man, no room for fuel, no removal of slag and ashes,
and that they can be attended to without the least
difficulty, since they can be turned on or off at any
moment, thus making the regulation of temperature
in the school-room very much easier. In the higher
schools of Hamburg where gas heating is used, it ac-
cordingly gives complete satisfaction.
Whatever sort of a stove the school may have, the
teacher needs to keep a watchful eye on the following
points in overseeing it :
In the first place, gases from the combustion must
not be allowed to escape into the room. Although
many of them produce only a feeling of discomfort,
others, especially carbon monoxide, are very detri-
mental to health. On account of poisoning by carbon
monoxide, which escaped into a school-room from a
defective stove, the pupils showed the following symp-
toms up to the fourteenth day: Pain in the forehead
CARE OF STOVES 111
and in the temples, heaviness in the head, dizziness,
humming of the ears, weakness of memory, dullness,
partly sleeplessness, partly sleepiness, pain in the
breast, weakness of the legs, lessened patellar reflexes,
coated tongues, nausea, diarrhea, and pallor.
It is now believed by many that the red hot walls of
an iron stove permit the escape of carbon monoxide.
This idea was first defended by Morin. He based his
conclusions on the investigations of St. Clair-Deville
and Troost. Many experiments, of which we will only
mention "VVolfflmgel's, have shown, however, that it is
impossible to demonstrate that carbon monoxide escapes
into the room from good metal stoves even when they
are red hot. Moreover, the fire pots of these stoves are
lined with fire brick, so that they are in general not
liable to get so hot.
Though it is an assured fact that the gases from
combustion, especially carbonic oxide, do not pene-
trate the walls of iron stoves, such gases may, never-
theless, under certain conditions escape from any kind
of a stove. This is least to be feared when the fire is
in full blast, because the great difference of tempera-
ture between the inside and the outside of the stove
gives rise to pressure toward the inside. In this case
the gases do not rush out of the pipes, but on the
contrary, air rushes into them. It is only when a stove
has been neglected and allowed to develop cracks
which is often the case with school stoves that gases
can escape, when the fire is well under way.
The escape of gas occurs, however, very readily
when the fire is being started, because the pipes are
not then sufficiently warm to produce the necessary
draft. At such times, especially where there are con-
tractions and curves in the pipes, the gases inside may
develop a greater pressure and consequently escape
into the room.
It is well to call the janitor's attention to the mat-
ter. He must be particularly instructed not to close
the dampers in the stovepipe and chimney too soon.
With the draft completely closed in this way, carbonic
oxide gas, which is a product of incomplete combus-
tion, is formed, and escapes into the room through the
door or other openings in the stove. Since even dam-
pers with holes in them do not afford sufficient protec-
tion against this evil, it it is better to prohibit the use
of dampers altogether in schools.
CENTRAL HEATING PLANTS
These are designated steam, air, or water heating
systems according as the heat conducting agent is
steam, air, or water. Several of these agents may,
however, be used simultaneously when we have steam-
water heaters, steam-air heaters, etc.
Hot Air Furnaces for the most part transmit
heat from the gases in the furnace through a metal
CENTRAL HEATING PLANTS 113
heating surface in contact with the air, which then be-
comes the heating medium and is conveyed in special
pipes to the rooms to be heated. Where this method
is used complaints from the teacher are often heard.
The most general one is that the air is too dry. This
dryness is, however, frequently only apparent. If dust,
for instance has settled on the heating surface of the
furnace or if dust laden air conies in contact with it,
the dust particles are scorched; and burnt products are
produced, which irritate the mucous membranes of
the throat and eyes, causing a disagreeable feeling
of dryness. The temperature of the heating surface
must therefore be kept low; and the settling of dust
on it must be prevented as far as possible. The first
can be done by lining the fire-pot and adjacent parts
with Chamotte stone ; and the latter, by not having
large horizontal heating surfaces, and making those we
have, smooth and not corrugated outside, to facilitate
cleaning. Teachers must see to it that the cleaning
be done with regularity.
The air may, on the other hand, really become too
dry in hot-air heating. Whether this is so or not can
be determined by the relative humidity, that is, the
ratio of the amount of aqueous vapor in a cubic
meter of air to the maximum it might contain at
this temperature. If for instance the relative humid-
ity is small so that the air could -still absorb a great
deal of water before saturation, a considerable amount
of moisture will be taken from the surface of the body ;
and this gives rise to a peculiar feeling of discomfort.
By feeling we can, however, discriminate between
moist and dry air only to a limited extent, as has been
shown by Voit and Forster 1 .
One of them would without the knowledge of the
other produce different degrees of humidity in the air
of a room for the other to describe by his feelings.
Neither could do this, since the temperature of the
room and the general condition of the body played too
great a part. For this reason only limiting values,
wide apart, can be given as to the proper degree of
humidity in a school-room. According to Rubner
there should be :
For 7 C, 4 45* of aqueous vapor.
" 10 C, 10-48*."
" 15 C, 19-54$ "
" 20 C, 30-60* "
" 25 0,33-62* "
With the temperature customary in school-rooms,
the humidity of the air may, therefore, vary from 30
to 60 ic. The physicist of the institution ought to
make hygrometric tests to ascertain whether this meas-
ure is attained, especially when there are complaints
1 E. Yoit, Hygienische Anforderungen an Heizan-
lagen in Schulhiiusern. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesund-
heitspflege, 1893, No. 1, p. 5 if.
HOT AIR FURNACES 115
that the air is too dry. If we assume that 1,000 cbm.
of hot air per hour are necessary for a room of medium
size, 16 liters of water should be evaporated in the
heating chamber during the same time. If there is a.
lack of moisture, we should ascertain whether the
water tank in the heating chamber has an evaporating
surface large enough to fulfill these requirements ; and
if it has, whether it is always sufficiently full of
water; the self -regulating stop cocks may sometimes be
out of order.
Another defect often found in hot-air heating is the
unequal distribution of the heat in the room. In a
school-room warmed by this method, the air near the
ceiling had a temperature of 38 C and near the floor
13 C; the average temperature increase vertically was
3.6 C per meter.
In another room heated by the hot-air system, a
thermometer hanging 0.5 meters from the ceiling
showed at the beginning of the first hour 28 R, an-
other at a man's height from the floor 10 R, and one
on the floor 8 R. While the middle one gradually
rose during the first hour to 12 R, and the lower one
to 9-10 R, the upper one remained unchanged.
This difference of temperature between the different
horizontal layers of air in a school-room is first of all
detrimental to the teacher. The hot air near the ceil-
ing may, for instance, be brought down by currents of.
air, and when it reaches the head of the teacher, he
will stand there with a warm head and cold feet.
" In such cases " says Breckling 1 , " I have often had a
severe headache and felt a benumbing pressure over the
forehead, which made profitable instruction impossible.
The pupils are similarly affected, and manifest it by
yawning, by inattention, and by an inclination to rest
their heads on their hands."
Considerable differences in temperature may be
found not only in a vertical but also in a horizontal
direction in rooms heated with hot air. In the first
one of the two rooms mentioned above the temperature
half way between the floor and ceiling varied from 14
to 21 C; and even at the height of the pupil's seats
it was not uniform.
That this condition of things may injure the pupil's
health needs no proof. According to what has been
said, it would be well for teachers employed in schools
heated by the hot air system to measure the temperature
repeatedly in different parts of the room. It is true,
that such differences when found can be remedied often
only with great difficulty, and sometimes not at all.
They are almost always due to the air being of too
high a temperature as it flows in near the ceiling. If
Sonke Breckling, Die Luftheizung in den Ham-
burger Schulen. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheits-
pflege, 1891, No. 3, p. 159.
HOT WATER SYSTEMS 117
this were reduced the amount of warm air would have
to be increased considerably if the rooms are not to
become too cold. To accomplish this we should have
to increase the cross-section of the pipes in the wall;
this would require a change in the building and often
even a complete reconstruction of the school.
We must note, finally, that the above mentioned
differences of temperature, as a rule, occur only with old
hot air systems, while the more recent give in this
respect very satisfactory results.
Hot Water Systems heat the water which serves in
this case as the distributing medium in conducting
pipes, which are either open or closed to the air.
In the first case, the water is never heated above
the boiling point (100 C) and there is no pressure in
the pipes. This is called the warm water or the low-
With closed pipes, or the so-called hot water sys-
tem, the temperature of the water can be raised as high
as is desired. If the temperature rises to 130 C, which
gives a pressure of 1^ atmosphere, it is called a medium-
pressure hot water system. If it rises, on the other
hand, as is the case in the old Perkins' hot water sys-
tem, to about 200 C, which gives a pressure of 14
atmospheres, it is called the high-pressure hot water
On account of the high pressure, the latter is some-
what dangerous, and, therefore, unsuitable for school
purposes. The medium pressure system is somewhat
better. But it is possible that even with this system
the dust will be scorched, since this may happen with
a temperature of from 100 150 C. Moreover, the
high pressure may prevent the valves which regulate
the heat from working satisfactorily.
On the other hand, a rather uniform distribution of
heat can be obtained by this system ; and where a heat-
ing plant is to be introduced into old school buildings,
it is often the only one possible. The necessary pipes
or flues in the walls would be lacking for hot-air heat-
ing, whereas the small pipes of this medium pressure
system can be introduced anywhere without much
Warm water systems are, however, at all points bet-
ter than hot water systems. The temperature of the
radiating surface is never so high that burnt products
are produced by the dry distillation of scorched dust
particles. Since the pipes are usually placed near the
floor, the latter is especially well warmed; and the un-
pleasantness of cold feet is prevented.
But there are some disadvantages connected with
this method of heating. Even w T hen the circulation
of the water is completely closed, the radiation of
heat does not cease, and so for instance a room may
be still heated when the heat is no longer desired.
Furthermore, these warm water systems are very ex-
STEAM HIGH AtfD LOW PRESSURE 119
pensive, and for this reason alone they are hardly ever
put into schools in recent years.
Steam heating systems are coming more and more
into use. These are also designated respectively as
low or high-pressure systems, according to the press-
ure in the pipes. High pressure steam systems are
probably never installed in schools, because the use of
high-pressure boilers in inhabited buildings is forbid-
den on account of the danger from explosion.
Low-pressure steam systems, such as those of Bechem
and Post, which have a pressure of ^ to J of an at-
mosphere, are, on the other hand, very properly com-
ing more and more into use in schools. Like all other
steam and water systems, they have this advantage
over the hot-air heating that with them ventilation and
heating are separated. One may be in operation with-
out the other, or they may work together in varying
degrees; whereas the closing of the register in a hot-
air system reduces the ventilation to a minimum. An-
other advantage is the low temperature of the heating
surface in the low pressure steam system, the utility
of which has been discussed before. The heat can be
regulated easily and accurately by means of valves, and
can even be almost entirely shut off, since the amount
of steam remaining in the radiator has but small heat-
Finally, the large fire-pot of the low pressure sys-
tern enables us to keep the fire night and day, thus
securing a uniform and thorough heating of the whole
building. The agreeableness of this is especially to
be attributed to the fact that the walls are never so
cold as they would be otherwise. To prevent a waste
of fuel with a continuous fire, the draft in the furnace
and consequently the heating itself should be regulated
automatically by the steam pressure in the boiler.
When, for instance, the radiator on account of a high
temperature in the room gives off less heat, it increases
the pressure in the boiler. This increased pressure
closes the furnace draft and lets in less air to the fire,
which then quiets down a little. If, on the other
hand, the radiation of heat is increased, the steam
pressure decreases and the draft is opened and the
amount of air admitted to the fire is greater.
Lately the indirect low-pressure steam systems have
been recommended more strongly than the direct low-
pressure steam system. The board of public works of
Vienna speaks of them as positively the best heating
systems 1 for schools at the present time. They have,
instead of furnaces, low-pressure steam radiators in
the air chambers, so that the warm air introduced into
the school-room is not heated directly by the fire but
1 Neumann, Antrag und Bericht des Stadtrates von
Wien, betreffend die Heizungs und Liiftungsanlagen in
den stadtischen Schulen. Wien, 1893.
TEMPERATUKE MAINTAINED 121
indirectly by steam. This makes the plant cost 50 to
80 # more ; but the operating expenses are considerably
reduced, because low-pressure steam heaters are more
durable than furnaces, which crack readily.
With respect to the last point, the indirect low-pres-
sure steam systems have a further advantage over the
hot-air systems. With the latter, the air may be pol-
luted by gases escaping from the cracks, while this is
absolutely impossible with the former.
According to reports from Vienna these indirect low-
pressure steam systems have proved eminently satisfac-
tory in the schools of that city; and will therefore in
the future be used exclusively. With a good plan,
proper installation, and careful operation by an experi-
enced fireman, no inconveniences at all can arise from
Whatever the heating system may be, a temperature
of 16-19 C, or 13-15 R, or 61-66F,* should be
maintained in class-rooms and drawing-rooms; while
a temperature of 14-17 C, or 11-13 R, will suffice
for the gymnasium, and one of 10 to 8 C, or 8 to
6.5 R, for closets, stairways, and corridors. Even at
the desks nearest the stove, the thermometer should
not be more than a few degrees above the normal tem-
* The temperature required in schools in the U. S.
is usually about 5 F. higher.
perature, and stoves ought to be supplied with either
permanent or movable screens to prevent them from
becoming so. The former have the advantage that they
can not be put away or knocked down; the latter that
they make the cleaning of the room easier.
If the temperature of the room is below 16 C, or
13 K, the room must be heated, irrespective of the
season of the year. Since the heat takes effect only
after some time, it is best, especially when the children
are young and the weather is very cold, to give them
some gymnastic exercises, or else allow them to run a
few moments on the play-ground till the rooms become
A mistake is often made at the Christmas or Easter
vacation by not beginning to heat the building one or
two days before school opens. If the heating is only
begun the morning of the first day it is impossible to
raise the air in the now thoroughly cooled rooms to the
proper temperature. The heating apparatus is, also,
usually overtaxed at this time because the fireman
tries to do in a few hours what it would take him at
least a day to accomplish. Hot-air furnaces are es-
pecially liable to be ruined in this way, and an over-
heating of the fire-pot and burning out of the grate,
has been observed even in the case of the low-pressure
Not only should the fireman be watched in these par-
TEMPERATURE TO BE CONSTANT 123
ticular matters, but the effort should also be made to
see that he keeps the proper temperature in the rooms
.at all times. To be sure, a perfectly uniform tempera-
ture cannot be obtained; for the children themselves
are living stoves, which after a while heat the air in the
room. In the I. gymnasium of Moscow 1 , which has
been referred to before, the temperature at 8 A. M.,
before instruction began, was 16 C; at the end of the
first hour, 17.7; at the end of the second 18.3; and
at the end of the third, 19.4 C. At 11 o'clock there
Tvas a long recess, during which a window was opened.
The temperature consequently fell to 15.1 C, but rose
:again the next hour to 18.6 C, and in the following
hour even as high as 20.1 C.
Xothwithstanding this, we must aim at a constant
temperature in the school-room and for this purpose
test it repeatedly. A thermometer should accordingly
be hung up in every class-room about 1.2 to 1.6 meters
above the floor, in a place where the temperature may
be said to be about average. A standardized thermo-
meter had better be procured, if the expense does not
have to be avoided. Otherwise a common thermome-
ter will do, as its error may be determined by the
*Fr. Erismann, Die Schulhygiene auf der Jubiliiums-
ausstellung der Gesellschaft fur Beforderung der
Arbeitsamkeit in Moskau. Zeitschrift fur Schulge-
.sundheitspflege, 1888, Xo. 11, p. 101 ff.
physicist of the school by comparison with one that is
. In several schools in France, the temperature is-
noted every hour, and a curve of its variations con-
structed upon plotting paper; This is done now and
then by pupils, since they can at the same time learn
to observe. In Germany, we often find the tempera-
ture at the end of every recitation recorded in the class
book; but a curve gives a more evident picture of the
matter than a table of figures, and is just as easily
In order to maintain normal temperature in school-
rooms, attempts have lately been made to assist the fire-
man by means of instruments which would indicate
the temperature of the rooms by some signal near the
furnace. To this class of instruments belong the dis-
tance thermometer of Bonnesen, and the central ap-
paratus for electric temperature signals by Bastelmann
and others. The former consists of a barometer tube
placed in the furnace room in the cellar; of a tin
cylinder filled with absolutely dry air and placed in
every room; and of a capillary lead tube, which con-
nects the cylinder with the short arm of the barometer.
A change of temperature in the room causes a change
of the pressure of the air in the cylinder, which is
then communicated by the capillary tube to the fur-
nace room, where the temperature of the rooms can be
read on the scale of the barometer.
TEMPERATURE SIGNALS 125
Bastelmann's contact apparatus for electrical tem-
FIG. 9, BASTELMANN'S CONTACT THERMOMETER FOR ELECTRIC
perature signals, on the other hand, has contact ther-
mometers (figure 9) which have platinum wires melted
into them in such a manner that with a temperature
of 16, 17.5, and 19 C the mercury touches the
wires. These thermometers are suspended in the
school-room and are connected with the signal board
in the furnace room by means of wires (figure 10).
When the mercury rises so that it touches the platinum
wires, an electrical circuit is closed by means of pres-
sure on the corresponding contact buttons (a, b, c, d,
e, i, in' figure 10), and this releases an indicator
on the signal board. The indicators in the upper
FIG. 10. BASTLEMANX'S TEMPERATURE SIGNAL BOARD
row are for the minimum temperature of 16 C; those
in the middle row for 17.5; and those in the lower
row for the maximum temperature of 19 C. The
fireman needs only to press the buttons a and d to see
in which rooms the temperature has reached 16 C.
TEMPERATURE SIGNALS 127
In the same way he can learn in what room the tem-
perature has reached 17.5 and 19 C by pressing the
buttons b and e, and c and f, respectively. These in-
struments should be tested not only when they are put
up, but every now and then afterwards by the physicist
of the school.
The inside furnishings of the school-room, the chief
of which are the seats and desks, or subsellia, are no
less important than the heating and ventilation. For
it is clear that an incorrectly constructed school bench
occupied by pupils daily four to six hours for twelve
years must necessarily prove injurious to their physical
development. Moreover, the school work suffers, since
a seat which compels pupils to sit or stand uncomfort-
ably leads to rapid fatigue.
The following principles of the mechanics of sitting 1
are applicable to the matter in hand. The chief re-
quirement to enable a pupil to sit at all, is that the
centre of gravity of the trunk, which is somewhat in
front of the centrum of the ninth or tenth dorsal ver-
tebra, shall be over a supporting surface.
This surface is determined, in the first place, by the
points of contract of the two seat bones of the pelvis
with the seat. The edge of the seat bones is curved
from back to front and looks from the side something
1 Hermann Meyer, Die Mechanik des Sitzens mit
besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Schulbankfrage. Vir-
chows Archiv, 1867, Januarheft, 38, pp. 15-30.
PHYSIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES 129
like an arc of 90. The two accordingly resemble the
rockers on a rocking chair ; and so touch the seat in
two points only.
Now two points are not sufficient to fix the position
of a plane. A third is necessary ; or else a line par-
allel to the line joining the points of contract of the twe
seat bones. This third point may be the place where
the end of the coccyx or rather, since this is out of
the way and besides movable, where the end of the
sacrum comes into contact with its support. If a
plummet be dropped from the centre of gravity of the
trunk upon this triangular supporting surface, it will
strike it in a point back of the connecting line of the
two seat bones. This may, accordingly, be called the
backward sitting position.
Besides this we have the forward sitting position.
In this the body rests on the two seat bones and on the
line of contact of the thighs with the edge of the seat.
If we imagine a perpendicular dropped from the centre
of gravity of the trunk upon the plane thus determined,
it will strike it in front of the connecting line of the
The trunk can not only be moved as a whole on the
hip joints, but since it has inner articulations it can
change shape within itself. It can therefore not only
tilt forward and backward, to the left and to the right,
but it can also bend so as for example to give the spinal
130 SCHOOL DESKS
column a hump. To prevent the trunk from getting
such curvatures and at the same time to keep it from
falling backward or forward in the corresponding sit-
ting positions, a great many muscles have to be ad-
justed. They, however, become fatigued in time and
we find in the case of tired, feeble, or sleeping persons
that not only has the whole body fallen forward but the
spinal column has received a certain curvature.
The muscles employed in sitting upright must, there-
fore be given a chance to recuperate by being relieved
now and then. There is no other way of doing this
than by leaning against the back of the seat in the
backward sitting position; and in the forward position
by resting the arms on the top of the desk or placing
the breast against its rear edge. The latter should
not, however, be permitted, since the pressure on the
chest will interfere with breathing, and endanger the
lungs. The only thing left is to lean against the back
of the chair or place the arm on the desk. That an
upright position is possible in the latter case will be
made evident by figure 11, the reproduction of the
photograph of a writing class.
From what has been said and for other reasons, the
following are the requirements for a good school desk.
The seat should be of such a height that the feet
may be placed evenly on the floor or foot rest, while
the upper and lower legs make right angles with one
another. Its height must, therefore, be somewhat less
than the distance from the sole of the foot to the knee.
According to Zwez,this distance is 30.7 cm. for children
of six to eight; 34.9 cm. for those eight to ten; 38.5
cm. for those ten to twelve; and 40.3 cm. for those
twelve to fourteen. Hence a royal decree of Saxony
demands that for the above named ages the height of
seats without foot-boards should be 28-29, 31-32, 34-
35, 37-38 cm., respectively; and of those with a foot-
board 4-5 cm. high, 33, 36, 39, 42 cm., respectively.
The width of the seat had better be about two-thirds
the length of the upper leg, since a person likes to sit
so as to have one-third of it extending beyond the
seat. The table below is constructed in accordance
with this plan.
The little differences in the requirements are due on
the one hand to the difficulty of ascertaining just how
much of the upper leg should rest on the seat, and
on the other, to the fact that the upper leg varies in
length with different racial and social conditions.
WIDTH OF THE SEAT
*** * s
^ ^ ^
< S ^
Besides having the proper width, the seat should
THE SEAT FOOT RESTS 133
have a slight inclination backward. This is best se-
cured by hollowing it out in the rear. It becomes
especially necessary in case the back rest arches over
backward, since a pupil leaning against it would slide
forward and finally off the edge of the seat if it were
level. Kunze, therefore, demands a difference in
height between the front and rear of the seat of 1 to 1.
7 cm. Lickroth's seats have a still greater slope from
front to rear, namely, of one in eight. These seats
are indeed very comfortable, but it must not be for-
gotten that the inclination of the desk must increase
with that of the seat.
The front edge of the seat must not be angu-
lar but rounded, since it would otherwise exert a pres-
sure on the popliteal veins and arteries back of the
knees, and thus impede the circulation in the lower
leg and foot. The pressure would also affect the in-
ternal and external popliteal nerves and make the leg
"go to sleep".
Foot rests on the seats are on the whole not to be
advised. They limit the free movement of the pupil's
feet and compel him to hold the lower legs almost
always in the same position, which in the end proves
tiresome. The mud on the shoe soles is also easily
rubbed off on them; and finding a resting place un-
derneath can be swept out only with difficulty on
account of the small space. If persons will still insist
134 SCHOOL DESKS
on using them, they should have them made 13-16
cm. wide, so that the whole foot can rest on them.
The height from the floor must not exceed 45 cm.
Foot rests, such as accord with the regulations of
Wiirtemberg, of more than 10 cm. height, or such as
are made by Kunze of 10-25 cm., are not practicable,
since the seat is unnecessarily high, and so inconven-
ient to mount. If the seat is inclined strongly to the
rear, the foot rest should have a similar inclination.
The latter is, indeed, in this case indispensable, be-
cause the knee joint would otherwise make an acute
angle, thus preventing the free circulation of the blood.
The back rests of school seats are of especial im-
portance; and they have accordingly lately been the
focus of interest. They must above all meet the re-
quirement of conforming to the normal curvature of
the spinal column. The latter consists, as is well
known, of 7 cervical, 12 dorsal, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and
4 coccygeal vertebra, of which the last lumbar, the
sacral, and the coccygeal are located in the pelvis.
Outside of the cervical region, which is not considered
here, the spinal column presents the following physio-
logical curvatures: As seen from the front the dorsal
section is strongly concave, the lumbar considerably
convex, and the sacral and coccygeal again concave.
The back-rest must accordingly be hollowed out in the
THE BACK 135
sacral and coccygeal region, arched forward in the
lumbar, and backward again in the lower dorsal, as
may be seen in the Vienna school desk by Schlimp
(figure 18, page 148).
The above requirement presupposes that the back-
rest reaches up to the lower part of the shoulder-blades
and is in other words a sacrum-loin and shoulder-blade
support. A greater length, which would not leave the
shoulder-blades exposed, is undesirable for the reason
that it would interfere with the free use of the shoulders
Xor should a shorter back-rest be permitted. Staffel
has pointed out that the low sacral back-rests advocated
by Fahrner, Hermann, Kunze, Buchner, et. al., some
of which had a height of only 6 to 7 cm., were not
fully able to prevent a bent-over position in sitting.
The lever with which they worked on the pelvis, namely
the distance from the centre of rotation of the seat
bones to the point of application of the back-rest, was
in fact too short to enable them to have any consider-
Staffel 1 accordingly demands that high sacral back-
rests, or to use a better expression, loin-back-rests, be
1 Staffel, Die Mechanik des Sitzens. Centralblatt
fur allgemeine Gesundheitspfiege, 1884, Parts 11-12.
136 SCHOOL DESKS
used instead of the common kind, so that the lumbar
vertebrae, as the name indicates, may also be supported.
The levers referred to above are now lengthened but
not adequately so, till the back-rest supports not only
the sacral and lumbar but also the dorsal regions and
so the whole upper part of the body. The V T ienna
expert school desk commission accordingly requires
that back-rests shall be of the following heights : for
children six to eight 34.25; eight to nine 36.25; nine
to ten 39.0; ten to eleven 39.25; eleven to twelve
40.0; twelve to thirteen 42.5; and fourteen 43.5 cm.
It is best for each seat to have its own back-rest. It
may, however, be necessary for the sake of saving
space to have the back-rest connected with the desk be-
hind. In this case the rear row of seats at least will
have to have their own back-rests, while those on the
fronts of the first row of desks may be omitted.
When we turn from the seat to consider the desk,
the so-called "difference" deserves attention first of
all. By this is meant the vertical distance between the
rear edge of the pupil's desk and the plane of the
seat. It can be ascertained by measuring the distance
from the seat bones to the elbow when the arm hangs
down freely. The arm is, however, raised a little in
writing, so that these figures must be increased by a
few centimeters according to the age of the pupils.
The following table gives the details:
THE " DIFFERENCE
With the proper difference, we have the normal
reading distance between the
eye of the pupil and the top of
the desk, namely 35 cm. On the
other hand, if the desk is too high
with reference to the seat, the
books come too near to the eye,
and myopia may be induced. Be-
sides, the pupil can not in this
e j bowg Qn ^
FIG. 12. Lateral curvature of cage put
the spine due to too high
a desk, Esmarch. without spreading out the upper
arms and raising his shoulders. Since this is uncom-
fortable, he lets his left arm slip from the desk, keep-
Ing only the right one on it in writing. In this way
those lateral spinal curvatures arise of which Esmarch
lias given us so instructive an illustration, figure 12.
138 SCHOOL DESKS
Too low a desk is as bad as one too high. In this
case the pupil has to bend his head down to get the
proper reading distance. But such a position of the
head is impossible for any length of time, since the
supporting neck muscles gradually get fatigued. So-
the head sinks lower and lower, and the spinal column
curves out behind. The eyes and the spinal column
are injured first of all, because short-sightedness and
curvature of the spine develop easily. Indigestion
and functional disturbances of the heart may also
supervene. The anterior wall of the abdomen is
thrown into a transverse fold by bending forward, and
the stomach is correspondingly pushed in and its oper-
ations mechanically obstructed. Moreover, the arch-
ing forward of the thorax brings the ribs nearer to-
gether, the spaces between them become less, and the
whole thoracic cavity is consequently smaller. Finally
a compression of the large blood-vessels of the neck is
produced by bending it too far. All these things
cooperate to cramp the heart and lungs, as is made
evident by palpitation of the heart, obstructed breath-
The inclination of the desk varies with that of the
seat. We are, it is true, accustomed to writing at our
desks on horizontal surfaces, but one that slopes has this
advantage that the upper and lower lines of the paper
on which we write are about equally distant from the
INCLINATION OF TOP 139
eyes, which makes changes of accommodation unneces-
sary in looking from one to the other.
With a seat of moderate slope, it is customary to
give the desk an inclination of one in six, as is done
for instance in Elsaesser's desk. But with greater
seat-slope, there must also be greater inclination of
the desk. The Vienna expert school-desk commission
requires an inclination of 15 ; the Prague medical
board one of at least 17. The latest Lickroth desk
has a seat inclination of -J-, and a desk inclination of
with reference to the seat, making a total of -^, or
more than J. A desk by Stauffer of Vienna, and a model
by Schenk of Berne, possesss a still steeper inclination,
namely, 30. On such a desk the pupil will write
while leaning against the back-rest, without special
request. However, with a steep slope everything on
the desk slides off. This evil can be remedied, to
be sure, by providing a guard at the lower edge ; but
this is objectionable because of the pressure it exerts
on the lower arm.
Since pencils, penholders, etc., roll off with only a
moderate slant, some special arrangement must be
made to keep them back. This can be done by either
cutting a deep grove along the upper edge of the desk,
or by adding a horizontal section to it. In the latter
case, it is estimated that the inclined part will take up
33 and the horizontal part 7 to 8 cm. of the breadth.
That the estimations regarding this matter differ some-
what will be seen from the following table, which
gives the figures for the whole width of the desk :
II II II II II II
0000 OOGCOO 00
o o o o
as r-i co id
g 000<?5'* CD 00
W CD QO O (M -4< CD
It is of great advantage in cleaning a room to be
able to raise the top of the desk perpendicularly or
nearly so, though this would increase the cost of a
THE " DISTANCE
desk 25 to 40 cts. The arrangement is used exten-
sively in English colleges. Figure 13 will illustrate
FlG. 13. SCHOOL DESK BY ELSAESSER OF SCHOXAU AT HEIDELBERG,
THE TOP RAISED AND THE SEAT PUSHED BACK
For keeping the body in the proper position, the
horizontal distance between the rear edge of the desk
and the front edge of the seat, technically called the
" distance", is no less important than the difference
discussed above. It must enable the pupil both to stand
at his desk and to have the desk immediately in front
of him when he sits down to write. In reading and
writing, a perpendicular from the rear edge of the desk
to the seat should cut the latter in a point as near as
possible to the connecting line between the seat bones,
though the desk must not be allowed to press in upon
the chest of the pupil. To have a subsellium equally
142 SCHOOL DESKS
well adapted for standing and sitting, it must be pos-
sible to adjust the seat and desk for a " plus
or better still, a " minus ' distance.
FIG. 14. PLUS DISTANCE
FIG. 15. ZERO DISTANCE FIG. 16. MINUS DISTANCE
Figure 14 gives an illustration of plus distance. If
a perpendicular (d c) be dropped from the rear edge
(d) of the inclined desk top (d e) upon the prolonga-
tion of the seat (a 6), then (b c) will be the plus dis-
tance. Zero distance is illustrated by figure 15. The
perpendicular (d b) from the top of the desk merely
touches the front edge (b) of the seat (a b). If we
have a minus distance, as in figure 16, the perpendicu-
lar (d c) cuts the plane of the seat (a b) in (c), and the
minus distance equals (b c).
The Prague medical board requires a plus distance
of 8 cm. for the ages six to eight, 9 cm. for eight to
eleven, and 10 cm. for eleven to fourteen; whereas
THE "DISTANCE" 143
the Vienna expert school desk commission would have
7 cm. for six to eight, 10-10.75 cm. for eight to eleven,
11 cm. for eleven to twelve, 12 cm. for twelve to thir-
teen, and 13.5 for children of thirteen to fourteen.
The estimates differ still more for the minus distance.
Lickroth and Elsaesser make it 3 cm. and Erismann 5
<3m. for the ages between six and eighteen. The
Vienna expert school-desk commission proposes a
minus distance not much greater, namely, 5 cm. for
the ages six to eight, 5.5 cm. for eight to ten, 6 cm.
for ten to twelve, 7 cm. for twelve to thirteen, and
4.5 cm. for children of fourteen.
The Prague medical board pre-
cribes, on the other hand, a minus
distance of 10 cm. for children from
six to fourteen. The chief thing is
always to have a minus distance
when the pupil is reading or writ-
FIG. 17. PUPIL WITH . TH . ,, , ,.,,
A PLUS DISTANCE m g F r Wlth a Z6r0 aild Stl11 mOI>e
SEAT w ith a plus distance the pupil bends
forward to get near enough to his books, as is shown
in figure 17.
In this way all those injuries to health may arise
which were described above in discussing the effects
of too small a difference.
A book-shelf of suitable width should be placed
under the desk. It will not hold the books if it is
144 SCHOOL DESKS
too narrow, and it will interfere with the knees of the
pupil if it is too broad. Erismann would have its
depth 25 cm. for the ages six to nine, 30 cm. for ten
to thirteen, and 35 for fourteen to eighteen. A slight
slope downward of the shelf toward the front will
keep the books from tumbling into the pupil's lap.
The length of the single desk is estimated at from
53 to 56 cm. for the lower classes, 60 cm. for the in-
termediate, and from 63 to 65 cm. for the upper. The
regulations of Saxony already mentioned require a
length of 56 cm. for all school desks, thus making it
possible to arrange desks for pupils of different sizes
in a row one behind the other, which cannot be done
so successfully if they vary in length. Lickroth also
advises an average length of 56 cm., while he fixes it
at 50 cm. for the ages six to eight, 53 cm. for eight to
ten, 56 cm. for ten to twelve, 60 cm. for twelve to
fourteen, 63 cm. for fourteen to sixteen, and 65 cm.
for sixteen to eighteen. Elsaesser similarly increases
the length of the desk from 50 cm. for pupils of six
to 60 cm. for those of eighteen.
How many pupils a single bench should seat is still
another question. A circular by the Prussian minis-
ter of education prescribes the following: " In all pri-
mary preparatory schools (Vorschulen) and in the two
lower classes of the secondary schools, usually 4 to 6,
and at the most 8 pupils may be brought together at
FOR HOW MANY PUPILS 145
one desk." But when he adds: "All the seats for
one desk are in these cases to be united into a single
bench, which should be provided with a simple, cer-
tain, and durable device for changing the distance be-
tween the seat and the desk," we must object, since
with a continuous seat the pupils can stand up only
together and not singly as school-work demands.
The document just cited then continues more cor-
rectly: "The rest of the classes in the secondary
schools are to be provided with desks for from two to
six pupils, each one of which is to have a separate
movable seat when the desks are arranged for more
than two pupils." We must furthermore keep in
mind that double desks can at any time be converted
into desks for four, six, etc., by merely placing them
end to end.
With respect to the attachment of the seats, they
may be screwed down to the floor, either singly or to
a common sill running along the floor under the seat
supports. The latter method is not advisable, because
pupils are liable to stumble over the sills, and the
cleaning of the class-rooms is interfered with.
It is best to arrange the desks according to height,
the lower in front and the higher behind, since only
in this way can the teacher have a convenient outlook
over the class. The end seats should not be too near
the wall, since the pupils in them would be exposed to
146 SCHOOL DESKS
colds and rheumatism by the excessive loss of heat due
to the cold walls.
It is not practicable to describe in detail or even to
mention all different kinds of school desks, the number
of which is already over one hundred and fifty. We
limit ourselves rather to a systematic classification of
them, giving a closer description only of those which
though old are yet in use, or which deserve to be rec-
ommended for use in higher institutions from the
stand point of modern hygiene.
The first group consists of desks with a permanent
zero or minus distance such as those of Fahrner 1 ,
Buchner, Varrentrapp, Rettig 2 and others. They are
double-seated so that a pupil in rising can step out to
the right or left. They accordingly require a great
deal of room, since there must be a free space between
two adjacent desks. They generally have the zero
distance, since the pupils find it too difficult to get in-
to a seat with minus distance. The objection has,
however, been correctly urged against the zero dis-
tance that it is convenient neither for sitting nor
All double seats with a fixed distance, whether it be
zero or minus, have, moreover, still another disadvant-
1 Fahrner, Das Kind und der Schultisch. 1865.
2 W. Rettig, Neue Schulbank. Leipzig, 1895, Oscar
WITH FIXED DISTANCE 147
age. With spirited teachers and pupils, the latter sit
in these seats as if in position to jump, in order to be
able to rise quickly with an answer ; and they are thus
either very much bent over, or they have one leg out-
side of the seat, which gives rise to a distortion of the
spinal column. The scientific commission for the
medical affairs of Prussia therefore justly expresses
itself as against double desks with fixed distances, since
the demand for a variable distance is one of principal
importance and only to be compared in the whole field
of school hygiene with that for an adequate air space
for each pupil. Where the double desks of Fahrner,
Buchner, or Varrentrapp are, nevertheless, used in a
class-room, the pupils must be made to change places
every week so that the bent over position may not
become habitual but be counteracted by its opposite.
While the desks so far considered have a fixed dis-
tance, those of the second group have a distance that
can be changed either by moving the desk top or the
The desks of Parow, Cohn, and Hermann 1 , among
others, have movable desk tops. In the Parow desk
(figure 18) the whole top is divided lengthwise into two
parts, connected by hinges so that when the pupil
rises, one can be folded over on the other (c d, figure
1 August Hermann, Uber die zweckmassige Einricht-
ung der Schultische. Braunschweig, 1868.
18). When the movable part (c a) is put down we
have the minus distances (e b).
FIG. 18. PABOW'S SCHOOL DESK
The Parow desk and also the similar ones by Cohn
and Hermann favor a correct position of the body not
only in standing but also in sitting and writing; never-
theless, they have the great inconvenience of making it
necessary to remove all books and tablets even if only
a single pupil has to rise, since these articles would
otherwise be thrown into a heap. The turning of the
desk leaf is, besides, likely to make a noise, especially
when the hinges get out of order, as is often the case.
Finally, the projecting brackets (f g) which support the
movable leaf of the desk are likely to injure the pupils,
to say nothing of the pinching of fingers in turning
the leaf over.
An effort has accordingly been made to improve the
Parow desk by dividing the top into as many sections
MOVABLE TOPS 149
as there are seats and making each one movable by
itself. This makes it at best possible for the individual
pupil to rise without disturbing his neighbors. But
on the other hand, the many leaves still make a great
noise, as has been emphatically pointed out by Bend-
ziula 1 , and the durability of the desk has not been
increased by adding to the number of hinges.
In contrast with Parow, Hermann, and Cohn,
Kunze 2 endeavors to make the change from plus to
minus distance, not by folding the leaf over, but by
drawing the top of the desk back. A full view of the
desk is given in figure 19.
FIG. 19. KUNZE'S SCHOOL DESK
1 Albert Bendzinla, Zur Schulbankfrage. Berlin,
1893, L. Oehmigke. Cf. Alexander Bennstein, Die
Heutige Schulbankfrage. Eine iibersichtliche Zusam-
menstellung der bisher bekannten Schulbank systeme
nebst Gedanken iiber die Beurteilung des Wertes
derselben. 2d ed., Berlin, 1897, Buchhaandlung der
2 C. H. Schildbach, Die Schulbankfrage und die
Kunze'sche Schulbank. 2d. ed. Leipzig, 1872.
150 SCHOOL DESKS
It will be seen that the top of each desk can be
moved in a frame lying underneath. When the pupil
wants to write, he pulls the desk top back to a minus
distance of 3 cm. "When he rises, the desk top is
pushed forward by the upper legs to a plus distance of
8-12 cm., without especial attention on his part. Here
it is held fast by a spring or bolt, which makes it pos-
sible for the pupil to stand in his place without any
In contrast with this Convenient plus and minus dis-
tance we have the disadvantage that the drawing out
of the desk top causes a disagreeable squeak. In fact,
it is only when the workmanship on them has been
especially good, that they move easily in the frames,
and remain solidly attached to them when pulled out.
As a rule they soon begin to rattle in the grooves, and
the writing that has to be done on the unsteady desk
is just as inconvenient as it is harmful for the eyes.
In new school-rooms which have not yet become thor-
oughly dry, it sometimes happens that the desk tops
swell and consequently remain immovable with a strong
plus or minus distance. Nevertheless, Kunze's desk
when well made must be said to be one of the best of
the older sort.
The Vienna school desk, which also belongs to the
second group, is noted for the correctness of its dimen-
sions. The city council of Vienna appointed a com-
mittee of experts consisting of physicians, architects,
THE VIENNA SCHOOL DESK 151
and teachers to bring in propositions for a school desk
reform. This committee set up the following require-
ments for a prize desk :
1. It must allow pupils to stand up during recita-
2. It must have a continuous rest from sacrum to
shoulder, conforming to the curvatue of the spinal
3. When the pupils are writing, the seats must have
a minus distance.
4. It should make writing and free-hand drawing
possible for a reclining position, that is, while the
pupil leans against the back-rest.
5. The desk slope is to be as great as possible, at
least 15, but not such as to make the books slide off.
6. When the pupil is sitting, the feet should rest
flat on the floor.
7. The change in distance should if possible be
made by moving the desk.
A table of all the measurements as well as a diagram
of the desk to be constructed was added to this list of
requirements. The only thing left to be done was to
seeure a device for moving the desk top ; and this was
done by submitting the matter to competition.
The prize was awarded to Schlimp's desk, in which
the top is moved backward and forward on parallelo-
gram supports, as is shown by the cross section in
FIG. 20. SCHLIMP'S SCHOOL DESK
The mechanism is, however, very complicated and
the desk is consequently expensive both to manufac-
ture, and to keep in repair. Moreover, children fre-
quently have their clothing or fingers caught, as could
be demonstrated in Vienna where more than 23,000
such desks are in use.
The latest school desk, by Schenk 1 of Bern, illus-
trated in figures 21 and 22, must be characterized as
in the highest degree original. The desk-top, seat,
and foot rest are movable, the first two for each pupil
independently of his neighbor, while the same foot
rest serves for both pupils at the same desk. The
seat can be turned back so as in the first place to
facilitate standing and walking between the desk and
the seat, and to make it possible to clean the room
without moving the seats and so save space.
1 Felix Schenk, Zur Schulbankfrage. Zeitschrift
fiir Schulgesundheitspflege, 1894, N. 10 p. 529 ff.
FIG. 21. SCHENK'S SCHOOL DESK ARRANGED FOR STANDING
FIG. 22. SCHENK'S SCHOOL DESK ARRANGED FOR SITTING
154 SCHOOL DESKS
The foot board may be turned on a longitudinal axis
180, and can thus be placed at two different levels,
the higher serving for the small, the lower for the
average sized pupils, while the larger ones place their
feet on the floor.
The most interesting novelty in the Schenk desk is
that it can be adjusted for a pupil of any size at
once and without trouble. By means of the guiding
rod in the back and the curved support in front, the
desk is made to sink down as it is pulled toward the
pupil, without losing its inclination of 15. The ad-
justment to the individual pupil takes place in this
way. The pupil raises the desk-top a little at the
front and draws it towards himself till his elbows
touch the back-rest, when he lets it down on the box
underneath, where it becomes fixed automatically. To
make the back-rest and seat serve for all sizes, the
former is made so high as to cover the shoulders and
the latter so broad as to reach to the back of the knee
of the smallest pupils. In the same seat adults would
have two-thirds of the back and upper legs supported,
which is well enough at least for them.
The Schenk desk has unfortunately not yet been
sufficiently tested to make it possible for us to speak
with certainty of its practicability. We may, never-
theless, make a favorable prediction for its future.
The school desks now to be described have instead
of movable desk-tops movable seats.
MOVABLE SEATS 155
In the case of long desks with continuous benches 1
ior several pupils this arrangement has the disadvant-
age of not allowing a pupil to stand up in them with-
out having the other pupils at the same desk rise at
the same time. The preference must therefore be
given to movable single seats. In this class we have
the movable seats of Vogdt and Prausek 2 , the rotation
seat of Van den Esch, the lid seat of Vogel, and the
pendular seats of Kaiser, Lickroth, Elsaesser, and
Kottmann. A description will be given of only the
last three, since the others are not suitable for higher
In the case of the normal school desks by Lickroth
of Dresden (figure 23), the single seats consist either
of a continuous board or of several narrow strips
screwed to two triangular frames.
FIG. 23. NORMAL SCHOOL DESK OF LICKROTH, DRESDEN
1 Hippauf, Eine neue Schulbank. Ostrowo, Selbst-
verlag. Cf. Eulenbergs Vierteljahrsschrift, Vol. 28,
p. 390 ff.
2 Vincenz Prausek, Uber Schulbiinke oder Schultische
mit Sessel. 2 ed. Wien, 1888.
156 SCHOOL DESKS
When the pupil stands up, the whole seat swings back
on low centres of rotation from the pressure of the
back of the legs. It makes no noise in striking, since
it falls on a padding of felt. When on the other hand
the pupil seats himself, the weight of his body carries-
the seat into position. Here, too, there is no noise
or pinching of fingers, since the latter cannot come in-
to contact with the striking parts as they are out of
reach below. Nor can the pupils' clothing be caught y
since the rear edge of the seat is several centimeters
below the lower edge of the back-rest.
It is best to have the lateral supports of the desk
and seat made of iron, not wood. Iron frames facilitate
the maintenance of discipline and the oversight of
the cleaning by not obstructing the view; they also-
make the replacing of injured wooden parts easy, and
have shown themselves so durable that the factory
will guarantee them for fifteen years. Cast iron is
better than wrought iron, since it does not bend or
yield to pressure, while wrought iron vibrates some-
what on account of its elasticity.
The school desks by Elsaesser of Schonau at Heidel-
berg and those by Kottmann of Ohringen in Wiirtem-
berg are built on exactly the same principle as those
by Lickroth. We can therefore omit the description
of them, the more so, since figure 13, page 141, and
figure 24 below give a sufficiently clear explanation of
the Elsaesser and Kottmann desks, respectively.
FIG. 24. SCHOOL DESK BY KOTTMANN OF OHRINGEN IN WURTEMBERG
The school desk " Columbus" by Eamminger and
Stetter of Tauberbischofsheim (Baden), deserves a
more minute study, since it does not depend upon any
other existing system but upon a peculiar innovation.
FIG. 25. THE SCHOOL DESK "COLUMBUS". EAMMINGER AND
158 SCHOOL DESKS
The special feature consists in having the individual
seats divided longitudinally into two sections. The
rear part is hinged to the supporting frame of the seat,
and articulates with the front part by means of a
strong hemp belt screwed on with iron bands. The
two parts take a gable-like position when the pupil
rises and become level again when he sits down, with-
out being touched by the hand in either case. In the
first case, we have a positive distance of ten to twelve
cm., in the latter, a negative distance of two or three.
The low price and the fact that the peculiar seat can-
be used with any kind of desk is especially noteworthy.
The manufactures also supply the patented seat by
itself if the other parts are to be constructed by local
cabinet makers. It is true loud complaints against the
system have been heard from the gymnasium at Heidel-
berg; but Wallraff 1 and Bendziula (see page 149) speak
decidedly in its favor, and we have ourselves heard no
adverse criticism on the sample "Columbus" desk
placed in one of the schools in Hamburg, but rather,,
that it was practical and servicable.
It has in late years been repeatedly suggested that
even with the proper kind of desk much sitting is
J Gustav Wallraff, Die Schulbank " Columbus" von
Ramminger & Stetter in Tauberbischofsheim (Baden) ;
Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1894, Xo. 1,,
p. 22 ff.
ADJUSTMENTS FOE STANDING 159
liable to injure the abdominal organs and the circula-
tion. Desks have accordingly been proposed which can
be arranged for standing as well as sitting. These are
hardly necessary for the lower and intermediate classes,
since the pupils here rise when questioned, and tumble
about vigorously on the play ground during recesses.
They are rather to be thought of for the upper classes ;
yet we must remember that long continued standing
not only fatigues both mind and body but may also
interfere with the lungs and heart, since it is rather
natural to lean forward on the desk.
One of the best of these desks is a pattern by Kott-
man. Figures 26 and 27 give an illustration of it.
FIG. 26. KOTTMANN'S DESK FOR FIG. 27. KOTTMANN'S DESK AR-
SITTING AND STANDING, RANGED FOR STANDING
ARRANGED FOR SITTING
The change from the sitting to the standing desk is
made by merely taking hold of the top and turning it
160 SCHOOL DESKS
over; and the solidity of the desk is not in the least af-
fected by this arrangement. The iron supports project-
ing above the desk when it is arranged for sitting are,
however, not so desirable, since pupils are liable to
knock against them.
On the whole, the most suitable desks for higher
grade schools are the more recent patterns by Lickroth,
Elsaesser, Kottmann, and Ramminger and Stetter,
although the older desks of Kunze and Parow are
Whatever the desks selected, there should be three
different sizes in each room. The height of the pupil
for which it is intended should be marked on each
desk. For pupils are to be seated according to height,
and not according to their ability in extempore Latin
recitations or according to any other insignificant cir-
cumstance. The seating, which is to be otherwise
permanent, should be rearranged twice a year for the
upper and lower, and three times a year for the inter-
mediate classes, on account of the more rapid growth
of the latter.
It should be done preferably by the principal, other-
wise by the head teacher. The necessary measure-
ments can be made very quickly as follows: Two
sheets of paper are fastened immediately above one
another on the class-room door so that the lower will
correspond in height with that of the shorter, the up-
per with that of the taller pupils. If an individual
pupil is now made to stand straight with his back
against the door without removing his shoes and a
book is placed horizontally over his head, it only re-
mains to draw a line under the lower edge of the book
and write the pupil's name near it. The distance of
this mark from the lower edge of the paper added to
the distance of the latter from the floor gives the
height of the pupil.
In the assignment of seats, which then takes place,
defects of sight and hearing as well as of speech
should of course be taken into account, but only in
so far as they cannot be cured by medical treatment.
For instance, near-sighted pupils hardly ever find a
front seat absolutely necessary, but may as well enjoy
the comfort of a desk suited to their height, since
with the proper glasses they can read what is written
on the blackboard at greater distances.
Not to omit one of the important pieces of furniture
of a school-room, we must now consider blackboards.
These may be made of wood, slate, glass, or cloth. If
made of wood, this must be hard, free from knots,
smooth, and thoroughly dry. In case slate is used, we
must see that it is black enough. Of glass blackboards,
those which are black throughout are to be preferred
to those made of ordinary ground glass and painted
black on the outside. Cloth blackboards are light and
easily manipulated, and they help to reduce the
amount of chalk dust, which is so injurious; but they
must be stretched very tight to make it possible to
write well and conveniently on them.
To make the white letters stand out in the sharpest
possible contrast with the background, the latter must
be deep black, but with a dull finish, since a shining
board is dazzling. After it has been washed off with
a wet eraser, it should be properly dried, both for the
reason last given above and because otherwise chalk
marks can not be seen on it. Since the paint wears
away gradually, it is well not to wait too long before
putting on another coat.
The slate-color made by H. Reinhold of Hamburg
can be recommended for this purpose, since it is a deep
black and dries so rapidly that all the boards in a
school with many rooms could be painted one day and
be used the next. Red lines, such as those for musi-
cal notes, had better not be painted on the board but
be inlaid with some sort of a cement to prevent them
from being rubbed off.
To make it possible to bring the blackboard into the
best light and into the proper position with respect to
the eyes of the pupil we may use a roller frame or
a movable easel. Blackboards attached to the walls
are not so useful. The roller frame is usually so
arranged that the blackboard can be turned on an
horizontal axis. (See figure 28.)
FIG. 28. BLACKBOARD WITH ROLLER FRAME
This makes it possible not only to give it any inclina-
tion we please, but also to turn it over so that the
other side may be used. Roller frames sometimes have
blackboards mounted in grooves with a counterpoise, so
that they can be pulled up and down. Even with easels
(see figure 29) they can be placed higher and lower if
the two front "supports have a number of holes for
FIG. 29. EASEL FOR BLACKBOARD
EASELS AXD MAP-HOLDERS
FIG. 30. THE SAME USED AS A MAP-HOLDER
If an adjustable holder in the shape of a "~|~" is
placed on top of a roller frame or an easel (see
figure 30), maps and pictures may be hung on it, and
a special map-holder, such as those made by Jungels,
Elsaesser, and Lickroth can be omitted. Figures 31
and 32 show one of the latter both opened and closed.
FIG. 31. MAP-HOLDER BY LICKROTH, CLOSED
FIG. 32. MAP-HOLDER BY LICKROTH, OPEN
A good grade of purified chalk should be used in
writing on the blackboard ; and it had better be kept
in a damp place when not needed. The kind gener-
ally employed is the so-called Champagne chalk, which
can be bought anywhere under the name of school-
chalk. As regards colors, the eye prefers a pale yel-
low to a dazzling white, just as we prefer to write on
yellowish rather than pure white paper.
The red, yellow, and green crayons often used in
science work to make drawings on the board more
definite, should be handled with especial care. These
colors are produced by the aid of litharge, red
lead, chrome yellow, and even arsenic and sulphite of
mercury ; and since the colored chalk marks are often
rubbed off with a dry eraser, there is danger of poison-
ing by dust containing lead chromium, arsenic, and
mercury. Poisonous chalk and even the common
kind had better be used with Soennecken's chalk
holder. This is a round or square nickel plated tube
in which a piece of chalk is caught fast by the push-
ing forward of a ring as in a crayon holder. Not only
can the fingers and clothing be kept clean in this way ;
but the chalk can be used up to the last scrap.
Wet sponges or cloths are usually employed as eras-
ers. The latter are cheaper, easier to clean, and do not
have the offensive odor almost always attached to wet
sponges. If the latter are used nevertheless, they
should be large, and as fine and compact as possible.
Before using a new sponge, it should be freed from
sand, pressed together, and cut in two ; and erasures
should be made only with the cut side of each half.
Since this is more compact and durable than the sur-
face, it does not disintegrate so rapidly and saves from
40 to 50 per cent in wear, to say nothing of the hygienic
THE HYGIENE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
The purpose of the hygiene of the school-room,
which we have been discussing up to this point, is in
the last analysis to serve the personal hygiene of the
pupil ; and to this we now turn our attention, begin-
ning with the hygiene of the nervous system.
The most important part of the latter is the brain,
the acropolis of the human mind. It is the principal
centre in the youthful organism for all the activities
connected with education. The attempt has therefore
been made at all times to find some measure of its
At first the assumption was made that the cubic con-
tents of the skull, or what is nearly the same, the
weight of the brain would serve this purpose. At
any rate, the nations of Europe come first with a skull
capacity of 1,580 com., then the Chinese with 1,510
ccm., and next the New Caledonians, Tasmanians,
Negroes, Australians, and last of all the Nubians with
Too much significance must, however, not be at-
tached to these figures. Men of eminent ability have
not always had heavy but sometimes unusually light
brains. Cuvier, Beethoven, and Byron, it is true, had
massive heads with a capacity of over 1,800 ccm.,
THE BRAIN" 171
and Kant one of 1,740 ccm., but the brains of Dante
and Liebig weighed less than those of many Austra-
lian negroes, and Gambetta's barely reached 1,100
grams. Even in the case of the central nervous sys-
tem, the body plays a part of no less importance than
Nevertheless, with respect to the weight of the
fa rain, it will ever be a significant fact that in compari-
son with the weight of the body and the other organs
its weight is relatively much higher during the entire
period of youth than at other times. According to
Bischoff it weighs 1,147 g. at six, 1,201 g. at seven,
1,286 at twelve, 1,336 g. at fourteen, and 1,414 at the
age of fifteen. Hence the weight of the brain does
not increase in the same proportion as the weight of
the body, but becomes relatively less, attaining, how-
ever, a constant relation to the latter from the eigh-
teenth to the twentieth year.
Since the mental capacity of a pupil can not be
estimated by his cranial measurements, one of the
most prominent psychiatrists, Arndt, has suggested
that it varies with the amount of grey matter in the
cortex of the brain. Gratiolet found that the brain
of a typical Bushwoman had few convolutions, and
that these were very simple and undeveloped. The
brain of a Voltaire and a Beethoven, on the other hand,
could be distinguished from a thousand others by its
innumerable convolutions, and in the case of Gauss,
Wagner found manifold divisions even in the cen-
172 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
tral gyri. Helmholtz's brain was also remarkable-
for the large number of convolutions, separated from
each other by deep penetrating fissures. On the other
hand, Hyrtl assures us that he has found an increase
in the number of convolutions, and a considerable deep-
ening of the fissures even in the last stages of imbe-
The further theory of Arndt, that the character of
the mental processes depends upon the differentiation
of the nervous elements, is rather more probable. If
the axis cylinder in the middle of the nerve is not
sufficiently developed, or separated from its environ-
ment, it will lose its function the sooner, and further-
more transmit stimuli to its neighbors. The rapid
exhaustion, and tendency toward all sorts of sympa-
thetic sensations and movements, such as are observed
in children and individuals with arrested develop-
ment, is a natural consequence. The result would be
the same if the medullary sheaths of the nerves were
not developed, as they are especially found not to be,
in the post mortem examination of those who in life
suffered from different kinds of nervous diseases.
These views of Arndt are, however, merely hypotheses ;
and the words of Fantoni spoken two hundred years
ago about the brain will still be applicable for many a
year: " Obscura textura, obscuriores morbi, functioiies
The physiological experiments upon the working
capacity of children's brains rest upon a much firmer
EFFECT OF STUDY 173
basis. The first of these were made by Sikorsky 1 .
His results were obtained from school children, and
include 1,500 dictation tests with 40,000 letters. The
principal difference observed between the work done
in the morning and that done after four to five hours
of study and recitation was an increase of 33 % in the
average number of mistakes.
The method of Sikorsky was followed by Burgerstein 2 .
He had school children twelve to thirteen years of age
perform examples in addition and multiplication one
after the other, in four periods of ten minutes each,
separated by five minute intermissions, the examples
used in each period being entirely equivalent in
quantity and quality. It was found, in the first place,
that the number of single additions and multiplica-
1 Sikorsky, Sur les effets de la Lassitude provoquee
par les travaux intellectuels chez les enfants de 1' age
scolaire. Annales d' hygiene publique, 1879, Vol. ii,
2 Leo Burgerstein, Die Arbeitskurve einer Schulst-
unde. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1891,
No. 9, p. 543 ff. and No. 10, p. 607 if. Marion E.
Holmes, The Fatigue of a School Hour. The Peda-
gogical Seminary, edited by G. Stanley Hall, 1895,
Oct., Vol. iii, No. 2, p. 213-234. H. Ebbinghaus,
tiber eine neue Methode Zur Priifung geistiger Fahig-
keiten und ihre Anwendung bei Schulkindern. Ham-
burg und Leipzig, 1897, Leop. Voss.
174 THE NEKYOUS SYSTEM
tions increased from the first to the second period by
about 4,000, from the second to the third by 3,000,
and from the third to the fourth again by 4,000. The
absolute increase in the amount of work done was,
therefore, least from the second to the third period.
The number of errors increased correspondingly from
the first to the second period by 441, from the second
to the third by 719, and from the third to the fourth
by 349 ; that is, the deterioration in the quality of the
work was greatest from the second to the third period.
Similar results are obtained by counting the number
of corrections that occured. These increased from the
first to the second period by 207, from the second to
the third by 166, from the third to the fourth by 225.
The increase in the corrections, that is, the timely
recognition of a mistake in the work, was accordingly
least from the second to the third periods.
All this goes to show that in the third quarter of an
hour boys of this age suffer a considerable loss in their
ability to apply themselves seriously to a task upon
which they have already labored at other times. It
seems as if there were a relaxation of mental tension,
and a weakening of the power of concentration, and
as if the pupil wanted to rest to enable him to begin
again with renewed energy in the fourth period.
The work of Laser 1 is connected with that of Bur-
1 Hugo Laser, Uber geistige Ermiidung bein Schul-
unterrichte. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege,
1894, No. 1, p. 2 ff.
EFFECT OF STUDY 175
gerstein. He considers it self-evident that the minds
of children would finally get fatigued with so much
counting inside of one hour. Aside from sight reci-
tations in foreign languages and similar tests, there
is surely nothing so continuously monotonous in all
school work as in Burgerstein's experiment. He ad-
mits, himself, that a school period usually has more
variety than was found in his method. Laser accord-
ingly preferred to study not the fatigue from a solid
hour's work, interrupted only by brief pauses; but
rather that arising from the customary five hours of
instruction in the morning. With this in view, he
had the pupils work examples similar to those of
Burgerstein at the beginning of each of the five hours,
allowing, as he did, ten minutes for the exercise. He
summarizes his results in the following statements :
1. The number of single additions and multiplica-
tions, and so the ability to work, was least in the first
2. The amount of work increases up to the third or
fourth hour, but diminishes in the fourth or fifth
3. The number of errors increases up to the fourth
but is less in the fifth hour.
4. The number of corrections increases up to the
THE NERYOUS SYSTEM
5. The number making no mistakes decreases from
the first to the fifth hour.
Hopfner 1 has obtained results analogous to those of
Burgerstein and Laser. His observations were taken
on a class of 46 boys of the average age of nine. In
order to test their fitness for promotion they were
required to write about two hours from a dictation, the
material for which was nineteen sentences prepared
by the principal of the school. The following table
shows what errors were made as the work progressed.
Number of letters written
by all the pupils
Per cent of
It will be seen that in the beginning the errors
a Ludwig Hopfner, fiber die geistige Ermiidung von
Schulkindern. Inauguraldissertation. Hamburg und
Leipzig, 1893, Leop. Voss.
EFFECT OF STUDY 177
amount to about one per cent, and diminished steadily
to six-tenths of one per cent in the fourth sentence.
The increase of errors which then takes place is par-
ticularly marked from the fifth to the sixth sentence.
This increase continues up to the last sentence, though
the numbers do not make so regular a series as at first.
We find here, in the first place, a confirmation of
Burgerstein's statement that there is a marked in-
crease in the fatigue at the end of the first half hour,
since there is a sudden jump in the per cent of error
for the sixth sentence, which was written after about
half an hour's work. If we omit the first four sen-
tences, the per cent of error increases, moreover,
with the duration of the work, being 0.9$ at first,
and 6.4$ at the end.
Xot less interesting are the pedagogical psychomet-
ric studies which Keller made on a boy fourteen years
of age. He starts with the hypothesis that fatigue is
the result of a chemical process which influences the
composition of the blood. Thus it will not merely
affect the organs by whose activity it was produced
but also, being of a general character, the parts that
have been at rest. Mental fatigue may accordingly
be indicated by the muscular fatigue curve. To secure
the latter, Keller made use of the Mosso Ergograph 1 .
1 A, Mosso, Die Ermiidung. Aus dem Italiemschen
ubersetzt von F. Glinzer. Leipzig, 1892, S. Hirzel.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
This consists of two parts : a device for holding the
forearm, hand, and fingers, with the exception of the
middle finger, and a recording mechanism illustrated
in figure 33, which marks the extent of the contrac-
tions of this finger upon a slowly revolving drum cov-
ered with smoked paper.
FIG. 33. RECORDING APPARATUS FOR THE MOSSO ERGOGAPH
The pillars, M and L, of the recording apparatus
are mounted on a long iron plate E. They are forked
at the top and hold in place two steel rods which serve
as the track for the carriage. This slides on the rods
right and left, bearing the metal style R with a goose
quill point, which writes on the smoked paper of the
drum. The carriage N has two hooks, to one of
which is attached the card P, ending in a leather ring
EFFECT OF STUDY
C ; to the other, the cord 0, which goes over the wheel
V, and ends in the 3 kg. weight S. The leather ring
C is placed on the third joint of the pupil's middle
finger and he is requested to bend his finger to the
utmost and relax it, alternately, as many times as he
can in time with the beats of a metronome. The
weight S is moved up and down, and the carriage 1^
with the style K, right and left, describing as it does
so a figure something like 34 below, whose upper out
line is called the curve of fatigue.
FIG. 34. ERGOGRAPHIC FATIGUE CURVE
If the heights of the separate contractions are meas-
ured and added together into meters, the total amount
of work done in kg. meters can be obtained by multi-
plying this sum by the weight S, in kilograms. In
this manner Keller found that mental work was at
180 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
first stimulating, not fatiguing, since after fifty
minutes of study the amount of work done by the
muscles of the pupil experimented upon was double
what it was at first. The ability to work then begins
to diminish, and a condition of fatigue shows itself
yery clearly in spite of a rest of more than an hour.
It was also ascertained that continuous mental labor,
though of only short duration, produced a greater
degree of fatigue, and that more quickly, than when
the same amount of work was interrupted by short
periods of rest. As was to be expected, it was also
shown that the harder the mental work the more
quickly does fatigue set in. In reading German the
pupil required 0.3515 seconds for recognizing and
naming a word, and 0.184 seconds for a syllable. The
time for the similar processes with Latin was 54^
higher for the word, and 30 % for the syllables. The
curve of fatigue in reading Latin consequently reached
its greatest height much sooner and fell oft more
abruptly. Singing and gymnastics appear, moreover,
to be rather taxing and capable of reducing the work-
ing power of the brain considerably.
Kemsies 1 has, also, made investigations with the
Mosso Ergograph for the same purpose as Keller. He
1 Ferdinand Kemsies, Zur Frage der Uberbiirdung
unserer Schuljugend. Deutsche medizinische Woch-
enschrift, 1896 und Xeue Bahnen, 1897.
EFFECT OF STUDY 181
used the instrument almost daily for four months in
testing at all times of day the condition of a number
of the pupils of the different classes of the fifth real
school and one other school in Berlin. The records
obtained give evidence as to the physical effects of
the preceding lessons. Tests were also made on holi-
days, to establish the difference in the results on these
and the regular school days. Attentive and industri-
ous boys were selected for the experiment, since the
total effect of the school work could be expected to
show itself in them.
From this investigation, it became evident, in the
first place, that a diminution in muscular energy or,
what means the same thing, fatigue of mind and body,
set in after only a brief period of mental labor. It
disappears in one or two hours if a change is made in
the work, especially if the change is from a hard to an
easy subject. Severe fatigue comes on with great reg-
ularity in the periods of mathematics and gymnastics,
while, on the other hand, recuperation seems to take
place during the periods for history, geography, and
nature study. Modern languages occupy, with respect
to fatiguing power, a middle place. Singing and
drawing, moreover, make rather great demands on
those who do well in these branches.
We must now discriminate between temporary de-
pression and depressions of long duration, which dis-
182 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
appear only in the time free from school work, or
which last for days and weeks. The latter take place
whenever the organism has lost its power of resistance,
either from lack of sleep, food, or sufficient exercise in
the open air, or from overwork or sickness. The re-
sponsibility rests here mainly with the home ; but the
school is also implicated in so far as it gives occasion
for excessive effort. Without its cooperation depres-
sions of such long standing would perhaps not occur,
and would, at any rate, be more readily cured. Ac-
cording to experiments made by Kemsies on himself,
the remedies for such depression are above all sufficient
food, plenty of sleep, baths, and out-door rambles.
The experiments of Januschke were made with still
more regard for the practical needs of school life.
His conclusions, in the first place, confirm those of
Burgerstein. In tabulating the results of an inci-
dental mathematical exercise in Class II, a distinct
retrogression in ability was observed after the first
three-fourths of an hour. The twenty-nine pupils
obtained in the four successive quarters of an hour
493, 576, 566, 511 results, respectively. We see that
the work in the first quarter of an hour was the least,
evidently on account of deficient application and con-
centration; that it increased considerably in the second,
began to decrease in the third, and was distinctly less
in the fourth.
EFFECT OF STUDY 183
It was, furthermore, possible to show here again what
different demands are made upon mental energy by
different subjects. The average time which a pupil
of medium ability required to learn forty lines in the
following text-books was for the principles of the
Catholic religion, Class I, 50 minutes, Class II 40
minutes, Class V and VI 36 minutes; for geography 40
minutes, for secular and Biblical history 20 minutes,
for zoology, Class I and V, only ten minutes. The
time for learning a poem was found to be three to four
times as long as that for learning a section in history
with just as many words. To memorize a French voca-
ble required on an average 0.8 minutes. This figure
holds good up to 24 terms. Trained and gifted pupils
took only half this time, while the less gifted and
trained took longer.
The influence of practice or habituation was also very
noticeable in other respects. Twenty-four pupils, for
instance, committed half or less than half of a poem,
while in the same time thirteen committed more than
half or all. This is to be explained by the fact that those
who learned slowly required more time to concentrate
their minds than those who learned rapidly. The time
for memorizing the successive stanzas of a poem
became gradually shorter for the former, while it re-
mained about the same from the first for the latter.
Associated words were naturally more readily re-
184 THE STEKVOUS SYSTEM
tained than those that were disconnected. Of twelve
connected and twelve disconnected words, the pupils
remembered 97 and 59 per cent respectively. In the
case of sentences from the text-books which were
read by the pupils in order to be reproduced, it was
found that those which were short and logically con-
nected were apprehended the best ; and that associated
ideas, like subject and predicate, predicate and object,
attribute and substantive, were always noted and re-
produced in 'their relation. How very important the
inner organization of the material is for both appre-
hension and remembering, and how seriously progress
in knowledge is retarded by any gap in the same, has
of course already been recognized.
To determine the best method of memorizing, series
of twelve unconnected words were presented to the
pupils so that the first series was perceived only by ear,
the second was read silently by sight from the board,
the third was read aloud, and the fourth was written
from hearing. In the first case, they retained 58 $, in
the second 61 $, in the third 64 $, and in the fourth
76 <f>. According to this, committing to memory is
most difficult by hearing alone, easier by sight, still
easier by sight and hearing, and easiest of all by writ-
ing what is heard.
Two test series were used to ascertain whether or
not gymnastics would be a means of recreation from
fatigue. These consisted of fifteen numbers between
EFFECT OF STUDY 185
one and thirty, and were read to be memorized in class
II and ITT, one before and one after the exercise. In
Class III 3 $, in Class II 7 % more was retained after
the exercise. These results contradicted those of
Keller and Kemsies, but are supported by the state-
ment of Schiller that the pupils of the gymnasium at
Giessen show they are mentally refreshed by the gym-
nastics at recess.
Griesbach 1 has employed a new method of measur-
ing mental fatigue in school children. According to
his observations, brain fatigue diminishes the sensibility
of the skin. To determine the amount of this diminu-
tion he employed the method of E. H. Weber, who
placed blunted compass points on the skin and ascer-
tained how near these could be moved toward one an-
other and yet be felt as two distinct points. The
smaller the distance between the points still felt as
two, the greater the discriminative ability. Gries-
bach's aesthesiometer 2 , of which a sketch is given in
figure 35, serves the same purpose as Weber's com-
1 H. Griesbach, Energetik und Hygiene des Xerven
systems in der Schule. Miinchen und Leipsig, 1895,
R. Oldenbourg. Theodore Vannod, La fatigue intel-
lectuelle et son influence snr la sensibilile cutanee.
These inaugurale Geneve, 1896, Rey et Malavallon.
2 H. Griesbach, Ein neues Aesthesiometer. Bonn,
1897, Em. Strauss.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
i il 11
FIG. 35. GKIESBACH'S AESTHESIOMETER
Two metal tubes A and B are attached to a metal
scale C in such a way that A remains stationary, and
B is movable. The tubes are screwed fast to the
plates D and E, which are supplied with the rings F
and G respectively. The plate E has an opening for
the scale C. The thumb and fore-finger of the right
hand are placed in F and G, and the middle finger rests
on the projection H. In each tube is a pointed metal
shaft I and K, pushed outward by a spring. If one
desires to use blunt instead of sharp points it is only
necessary to push the cap L over the shafts. Small
indicators in the slit at N, and at a corresponding
point in the other tube, opposite A, as shown by dots,
show the pressure on the points in gramms.
Griesbach tested with both sharp and blunt points
EFFECT OF STUDY 187
the following localities: the forehead, the zygomatic
arch, the tip of the nose, the red edge of the lower
lip, and the ball of the thumb of the right hand. Those
subjected to the experiments were the pupils of the
superior real-school, the upper classes of the gymnasium
at Miilhausen, i. E. ; and also other persons, such as
teachers and a superior school councillor. Eecords
of the normal sensibility of the skin were obtained on
Sundays and holidays, and those of the influence of
work, after each recitation period. In the case of
the pupils of the superior real-school, some records
were incidentally secured after the oral and written
examination for the one year's military service.
One inference from this study is that the beginning
of instruction in summer at 7 o'clock is not to be rec-
ommended. Pupils of the middle and higher classes
especially showed at this hour depressed sensitiveness.
This corresponds with L. Wagner's 1 observation
that the large figures which he obtained with the
aesthesiometer at the beginning were succeeded by
smaller ones in the course of the forenoon. The cause
of this phenomenon is in all probability insufficient
sleep, and the pupils from a distance who were com-
x Ludwig Wagner, Unterricht und Ermiidung. Er-
mudungs messungen an Schiilern des neuen Gymnasi-
ums in Darmstadt. Berlin, 1898, Reuther und
188 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
pelled to rise early showed the greatest degree of
Different subjects have different powers of inducing
fatigue, the ancient languages, history, and mathe-
matics having the greater and more marked effects,
especially if memory work is insisted upon. Wagner
states that the study of mathematics caused a depres-
sion a third greater than that produced by the study of
religion and drawing.
According to Griesbach the intermissions between
lessons are often too short, since they do not suffice
for the restoration of the sensitiveness of the skin to-
its normal degree. The least sensitiveness was often
found during the afternoon recitations, the two hour
recess from twelve to two not affording enough recrea-
tion. Wagner, also, makes the assertion that after-
noon work is particularly injurious to the brain.
The above psychological experiments give us, in the
first place, a number of principles for the arrangement
of the daily programme. Sikorsky and Laser found
that the quality of the work deteriorated up to the
fifth and fourth hours respectively; hence difficult
subjects which particularly tax the powers of abstrac-
tion should be placed at the beginning. Ancient and
modern languages and mathematics belong in this
Whether it is wise to put these subjects in the very
first period, must, to be sure, be considered somewhat
doubtful on account of the statements of Burgerstein
and Laser, in whose experiments the amount of work
done was least in the first hour, that is, in the first
quarter of an hour. If all the abstract studies can-
not be given a place in the first hours of the day, the
next best time will be that directly after the long recess.
Examinations of every kind, such as those for pro-
motions, are to be treated like the class of subjects
just described. They also should therefore be given
in the first hours of the day, and should not be massed
together on the same day.
190 DAILY PROGRAMME
While foreign languages and mathematics bring the
reasoning faculties especially into play, religion, his-
tory, and the mother tongue apply more to the feel-
ings and the will. Other subjects, again, like geogra-
phy, when this does not consist of a dry recital of
names, appeal to pupils by reason of the interesting
and easily comprehensible material they present. All
these subjects should be given the second place on the
The scientific courses which have numerous experi-
ments and demonstrations and bring observation and
perception prominently into play should be next.
Manual training, and other arts like writing, drawing,
singing, gymnastics, etc., are to be reserved for the
last place. To be sure, teachers of gymnastics demand
that exercises with apparatus should come earlier ; but,
when this happens, pupils are often unable to write the
hour succeeding on account of the previous strain on
the muscles of the arm.
It must not be forgotten that these hygienic princi-
ples cannot always be put into practice. In the first
place, the principal may be hindred in arranging the
programme by the small number of teachers at his
disposal. He must endeavor to make their hours of
labor as nearly consecutive as possible, since intermedi-
ate vacant periods cannot be put to much use. And,
finally, there are some subjects like singing, drawing,,
ARRANGEMENT OF SUBJECTS 191
and gymnastics, for which there is but a single room;
and this cannot be used at the same time by several
If the daily programme is to be so arranged as to
make the different mental activities of the pupils re-
lieve one another, this must also be realized within*
each single hour. Keller has shown that continuous
work in one direction is more depressing than the
same amount of work when interrupted by brief peri-
ods of rest. Change from one kind of mental activity
to another affords the same relief as the latter. Think-
ing for a long time, especially on the same topic, is
But if the teacher also appeals to the feelings and
seeks to mould the will of his pupil she can thereby
avoid producing one-sided cerebral over-pressure.
" A monotonous drill," as Schiller truly observes,
" if continued for a long time, is especially dangerous,
since ideas or groups of ideas soon disappear from the
minds of some of the pupils if they are not stimulated
by the novelty or the importance of the contents.
Certain injury can only be avoided by having the fun-
damental activities, perception thought, and practice
exercised in suitable alternation."
He goes on to explain that the proper employment
of lectures, demonstrations, and conversations, is the
best way to avoid that monotony which is sure to lead
192 DAILY PBOGKAMME
to fatigue. The demonstrational or illustrative method
deserves special emphasis, since its use in the human-
istic studies is not yet what it might be. To be sure,
the class-rooms and corridors were never decorated so
much as now with statues, pictures, and photographs
.of classical antiquity. A Eoman soldier in full armor
or a model of Csesar?s bridge across the Rhine can also
now and then be found. Nevertheless, we can say
that the excellent pictures we have of the life of an-
tiquity should be used much more than they are ; and
that archeological, historical, and geographical collec-
tions for higher schools should be begun even if only
on a modest scale.
But, however, much the labor of learning may be
lightened, pupils will nevertheless in the end experi-
ence a depression in ability to work. This sets in,
according to the experiments of Januschke, Hopfner,
and Burgerstein after about three-fourths of an hour.
The length of a lesson should not very much exceed
this amount; in fact, for the first three years it may
better be less.
What it means to attend to a subject for forty to
fifty minutes, with complete absorption, we can know
from our own experience in listening to an orator
who has held us spell-bound for three-quarters of an
hour. Even a person accustomed to brain work will
feel in such a case somewhat tired. Pupils from six
SHORT PERIODS 193
to nine experience this brain weariness much earlier.
The proposition to instruct the younger children,
including those in primary preparatory schools, in
half hour rather than hour periods should be carefully
observed. Excellent results have been attained with
this plan in Frankfurt a. M. More was done in six
half hour lessons than in four full hour lessons in
number work, and an equivalent amount was done in
religious instruction. This plan can be carried out
only when the preparatory rooms are so far away from
the rest that the pupils will not disturb each other on
account of the lack of correspondence in the recesses.
With regard to recesses, the Elsass-Lothringer ordi-
nance of 1882 required that they should in general be
ten minutes long, except between the second and third
hours in the morning, when fifteen minutes should be
allowed. For Hessen-Darmstadt, a decree of May 25,
1883, lays down the rule that the intermission between
lessons in all classes in the secondary schools shall be
fifteen minutes. The Prussian medical commission
advocates in its recommendation of Dec. 19, 1883,
the same plan for primary preparatory schools and
the lower classes of the secondary schools, while it
considers a shorter time sufficient for the upper
classes. By reason of this advice, the Prussian
ministry of education on Xov. 10, 1884, ordered that
the total time given to intermissions should be not less
194 DAILY PROGRAMME
than 40 nor more than 45 minutes, whether the school
had two sessions with four hours in the morning and
two in the afternoon, or a single session of five hours.
On days when the forenoon work is limited to three
hours, the free time must be shortened correspondingly.
Finally, a ministerial decree gave the Bavarian second-
ary schools, in the spring of 1891, a recess of ten min-
utes after each lesson.
The above figures for the duration of recesses have,
however, under certain circumstances been reduced.
Thus the Prussian cultus-minister has given permission
for the shortening of the intermission between the
two afternoon hours to the time necessary for
changing classes, as a compensation for closing the
schools a quarter of an hour earlier in places where
this is necessary in winter on account of the absence
or inadequacy of the means for artificial lighting.
Although this is regrettable, the example of Baden is
still more so, when it seeks to obviate the difficulties
of arranging the programme for the short days of the
winter months by limiting all recesses.
Kraeplin 1 not only rejects all such expedients, but
J Emil Kraeplin, Uber geistige Arbeit. Jena, 1894,
Gust. Fischer. Gustav Richter, Unterricht und
geistige Ermiidung. Eine schulmiinnische AVurdigung
der Schrift E. Kraeplins "Uber geistige Arbeit."
Halle a. S., 1895, Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses.
demands that recesses, to fulfill their purpose, should
not only be considerably longer than they generally
are, but should follow one another at shorter intervals
and increase in length throughout the school day. But
as long as we do not have purely ideal and continuously,
attentive pupils to deal with, the programme for rest
and work proposed by Hakonson-Hansens deserves the
8.50-9.00 rest, 10 minutes.
9-50-10.00 rest, 10 minutes.
1 0. 00-10. 50 recitations.
10.50-11.10 long recess for lunch, 20 minutes.
12.00-12.10 rest, 10 minutes.
12.10-1.00 rest, 10 minutes.
1.00-1.10 rest, 10 minutes.
The use made of the recess is still more important
than its length. Above all it must not be employed
for studying, since its primary purpose is to give the
mind rest. Pupils are, nevertheless, often seen mem-
orizing or preparing for the next hour at recess. This
usually happens when they have not been sufficiently
industrious at home.
As it is as hard to study on an empty as on a full
stomach, opportunity for eating lunch should also be
196 DAILY PKOGKAMME
given at intermissions. The time for this should not
be too short, since the pupils will otherwise eat too
little, or else not masticate their food sufficiently. In
the latter case, the food particles are too large for
.digestion, and besides are not properly mixed with
saliva in chewing, and catarrh of the stomach may be
The arrangement in some gymnasia and real-gym-
nasia for supplying the pupils in cold weather with
warm milk is strongly to be recommended. This
must not, however, come from consumptive cows,
since it might then communicate tuberculosis. In any
case, there must be a supply of drinking water, hygeni-
The disproportion between the activity of mind and
body in school work can best be adjusted by movement
in the open air, which at the same time has a stimulat-
ing effect upon the brain. For this purpose there must
be carefully arranged and well drained play grounds,
covered with rather coarse gravel. They should be
sprinkled with water in the summer.
In all kinds of bad weather and in very high or very
low temperatures, well ventilated gymnastic halls and
corridors are the best substitutes for play grounds, if
.a part of the latter is not roofed over with glass, as is
often done in France.
Though we agree with Januschke and others that
exercise is a means of recreation from mental labor,
we are, nevertheless, not certain that gymnastics
should be allowed in the intermissions. Since this
ought not to be undertaken without supervision, it
would encroach upon the time of the teacher of gym-
nastics and the head gymnast. For the weak and nerv-
ous, it is, moreover too violent recreation, and is liable
to lead to headache and great agitation in the follow-
ing period. On the other hand, exercises that children
delight in and every kind of game should be allowed ;
yelling even ought not be put down too scrupulously,
since it is admirable gymnastics for the lungs. In
general, pupils will find the more recreation in the
recesses, the more what they do or do not do has the
impress of freedom and spontaneity.
In discussing recesses, the question of divided or
undivided school sessions must also be considered, in-
asmuch as with a divided session there is more inter-
mission in the school work. The question is not to be
settled wholly according to the wishes of the parents,
as these are likely to be very different. When a vote
was taken in Frankfurt a. M. to ascertain the prefer-
ences of the families interested in a number of boys'
schools, 1,603 were for, and 1,268, against the single
session. The matter must be looked at also from some
general, hygienic, pedagogical, and didactic points of
198 DAILY PROGRAMME
From the hygienic side it cannot be denied that in five
or six hours of recitations in the morning even with
adequate intermissions a pupil's mental receptivity will
diminish; and that he is liable to be overworked. But
is this diminution of ability greater in the last hours
of the single session than in the two hours in the after-
noon ? When a meal is eaten between twelve and one
o'clock and recitations begin at two, digestion is not
complete till about the close of school. As a conse-
quence, the pupils are sleepy in the first and anxious to
move about in the second of the two afternoon periods.
If a part of one's energy has to be used for bodily
functions, the stream of thought is obstructed, and
mental processes take a long time in forming. On the
other hand, digestion increases the temperature of the
body and leads to the formation of more blood, there-
by stimulating the organs of motion. The rest given
by the two hours noon recess is, therefore, more than
neutralized, and the last hours of the single session
are to be preferred to the afternoon periods, particu-
larly as Griesbach and Wagner have found that pupils
show evidence of greater fatigue in the afternoon.
Another advantage of the single session is that a
school period from nine to two or three occupies the
only time of day in the 'winter months from Xovember
to February when natural illumination is favorable.
From eight to nine in the morning, or three to four in
the afternoon, artificial illumination must often be
WHETHER ONE SESSION OR TWO 199
used. This is not only less agreeable to the eye, but
is in many schools decidedly inadequate.
The fact that the pupils are saved a walk to and
from school can also be given as an argument in favor
of the single session. On account of the great monot-
ony, these walks not only do not give recreation, but
actually produce fatigue, especially since they have to
be made through the wind and snow in the winter, in
the hottest part of the day in summer, and at all times
through the polluted air of the streets.
The most important reason for the undivided morn-
ing session is, however, the fact that it gives the pupils
time for games, rambles, excursions, bathing, swim-
ming, and boating in the summer; and skating and
sleighing in the winter.
In large cities, where the distances to school are con-
siderable, and where the habits of life and the occupa-
tions of the fathers permit having dinner late in the
day, the undivided session deserves an unqualified
preference, and has come generally into vogue. In
small towns, on the other hand, the division into morn-
ing and afternoon sessions may be allowed, since dinner
is almost always eaten at noon, and the school can be
reached in a short time, and a walk in the open air can
be more easily obtained than in the large city. But
the regulation of the Prussian minister of education
should be observed in every case, namely, that both
200 DAILY PROGRAMME
boys and girls' schools must have their session at the
same time, since brothers and sisters would otherwise
eat dinner separately.
Besides the recreation periods throughout the day, we
have those throughout the year, the vacations. The
length of the latter varies not only with the different
states of Germany but with the provinces of the same
state. For example, according to Kunze's calendar
for secondary schools, they amount to 81 days in Prus-
sia, West Prussia, Pommerania, Saxony, the govern-
ment district Kassel, Frankfurt a. M., and Homberg;
80 days in Brandenburg (including Berlin) and Schles-
wig-Holstein ; 78 days in Hannover; 76 days in West-
phalia, and 75 in Silesia; and 74 in Posen and the
As Sundays are not included in these figures, more
than a quarter of the year is free from school work.
A teacher in a gymnasium in Wiirtemberg estimates
that of the 365 days in the year, 52 Sundays, 68 vacation
days, and 63 other days are taken out from the work
of instruction in the institution. That leaves 215
school days, or approximately seven-twelfths of the
year. Since mental work exhausts the nervous system
more than other kinds of labor, the pupils of the
higher institutions need long vacations; and a school
hygienist can observe such a state of affairs only with
Moreover, observations made by Kussian medical
experts upon 9,500 pupils in 40 different institutions
have shown that the influence of long vacations upon
health is very favorable, since the amount of sickness
in the succeeding year was less than when the vacations
There is still greater dissimilarity in the different
parts of Germany with respect to the time of year
when vacations come than with respect to their dura-
tion. In the Protestant section of Prussia, the long
vacation comes in the middle of the summer semester ;
while it comes at the end of this semester in Austria,
South and West Germany, and in the Catholic gym-
nasia in Prussia. The latter is hygienically the better,
because the pupils have in this case a feeling of per-
fect freedom since the examinations are over; while,
in the other case, the final or promotion examinations
are to be faced a few weeks after their return.
Moreover, it is best to have a period of rest directly
after the examinations. A committee of the British
medical association found that immediately after an
examination the number of nervous pupils rose from
10 to 13.3^; and Ignatieff ascertained in a boarding
school in Moscow that 191 out of 242 pupils lost on an
average 1516 grams in weight during the period of
examinations. A demand has accordingly come from
many places that the school year should in correspon-
dence with the civil year be divided into two semesters,
202 DAILY PROGRAMME
"beginning January and July respectively. The main
vacations at the end would then come about Christmas
and St. John's day (July 1).
An argument for this plan is the fact that the maxi-
mum summer temperature falls in the North of Ger-
many not in August but in July ; and, in fact, at the
beginning of July. Furthermore, the great shorten-
ing of the summer semester, when Easter comes late,
could be avoided ; and the hard winter's work could
be divided evenly between the two half years.
The purpose of the vacations is to give teachers and
taught an opportunity for mental and bodily recupera-
tion, so that they may return to their work refreshed.
The Hungarian minister of education, Count Csaky,
accordingly remonstrated justly against the many re-
views and exercises with which the pupils of the sec-
ondary schools are wont to be overburdened in vaca-
tions. He would have only so much assigned for
learning as will do for the regular lessons. The royal
provincial school board of the province of Branden-
burg takes the same stand. It ruled that there should
fae no special tasks for the shorter vacations. Such
tasks can be given only for the summer vacation, and
must be limited as much as possible. Due allowance
must also be made for those who travel. On the other
hand, pupils of the upper and intermediate classes are
to be encouraged and directed to suitable self -employ-
ment, especially private reading.
VACATION JOURNEYS 203
In these regulations, we find travel already men-
tioned. Since this is particularly refreshing for both
mind and body, on account of the change of impres-
sions and continued stay in the open air, it is gratify-
ing to note that joint vacation trips 1 by pupils are all
the time becoming more frequent. Such trips have
been made, among others, by the royal gymnasium at
Danzig, the Falk real-gymnasium in Berlin, the Mar-
tino-Catharineum gymnasium of Brunswick, the royal
Christianeum in Altona, and the real-gymnasium at
The objective point has usually been the mountains
of middle Germany; but there have also been longer
excursions, as for example to the Carpathian moun-
tains and to Switzerland. We know of one Prima
that under the leadership of its headmaster visited
the classical localities of Italy one year, and those of
Greece the next. Similarly, 100 pupils from the second
German state gymnasium at Briinn with the director
and ten teachers made a vacation trip to the former
Eoman colony of Carnuntum on the Danube. The
school authorities of Trans Caucasus Russia seem to
have been particularly active in this direction, since they
1 Theodore Bach, Wanderungen, Turnfahrten und
Schiilerreisen. 2d Ed. Leipzig, 1884. Ed. Strauch.
0. W. Beyer, Deutsche Ferien wander ungen. Schiil-
erreisen als Auschauungsgange in deutscher Landes-
nnd Volkskunde. Leipzig, 1894, G. Reichardt.
204 DAILY PROGKAMME
carried through a seven weeks excursion to the Elborus
and the Caucasus range, in which fifty pupils of the
Tekaterinodar Gymnasium took part. They climbed
the Vulkan Pass up to the snow limit, and crossed the
To give individual pupils an opportunity to travel r
school-rooms have been fitted up in the Sudetas moun-
tains, the Riesengebirge, Bohemian Switzerland, and
the Jeschken, Iser and Erzgebirge, to serve in vaca-
tions as modest inns for gymnasiats and real-gymnasiats
who find themselves there over night. In 1893, there
were 85 such school inns, which could accommodate
more than 400 guests, and which were used by 5,551
young people during the summer vacation. Three
years later the number of inns rose to 103, with 480
beds and 45 free places; and they entertained 6, '246
people. The student inns of t'he German and Aus-
trian Alpine league, though to be sure they are in-
tended only for gymnasial graduates or university
students, are somewhat similar institutions. Their
number at present is over 1,000; and they are dis-
tributed among 401 different places, of which 157 are
in Tyrol, 82 in Steiermark, 43 in Karnten, 36 in Ba-
varia, 25 in Yorarlberg, 14 in Krain, 10 in Upper
Austria, 6 in Lower Austria, and 1 in Kustenland.
While the charges at these inns are very moderate,,
nevertheless, free vacation colonies for the higher
VACATION JOUKNEYS 205
schools have also heen established. This movement
was begun by the Hungarian Association of secondary
school teachers, by having a number of gymnasiats in
groups of fifteen to twenty take a trip into the country
without cost. The Falk real-gymnasium of Berlin
placed its colonists, mostly from the Secunda and
Tertia, but also some from the Prima and Quarta, in
a village at the foot of the Kynastgebirge. For needy
.gymnasium students in Vienna there is a special vaca-
tion resort in Steg on the Hallstatter See.
Since these colonists make a good deal of games,
gymnastics, excursions, and, at times, of swimming
and boating, and have besides abundant, nourishing
food, the results have been excellent. In Steg, for
example, the colonists gained in weight, on an average,
2.8 kg., in 1888; 3.3 kg., in 1889; and 3.6 kg., in
1890; 3.5 kg., in 1891; and 3.6 kg., in 1892. It was
reported, moreover, at the International Congress for
Vacation Colonies 1 in Zurich that the chest girth
and dynamometric pressure increased in the colonists.
This corresponds with Goepel's 2 statement that the
1 Verhandlungen des internationalen Kongresses fur
Ferienkolonien und verwandte Bestrebungen der
Kinderhygiene in Zurich am 13 and 14 August, 1888.
Hamburg und Leipzig, 1889, Leop. Voss.
2 Goepel tiber die daurenden Erfolge der Ferienkolo-
nien. Braunschweig, 1895, Fr. Vieweg und Sohn.
206 DAILY PROGRAMME
favorable influence of vacation colonies in strengthen-
ing the respiratory processes and healing catarrh of the
lungs is not to be ignored. Finally, Wyss and Stierlin
have been able to show that a cubic millimeter of
blood contained on an average 1,138,400 more corpus-
cles after the stay in the country than before.
On the other hand, not every pupil can travel, or
spend his time in a vacation colony. According to the
Prussian Cultus-minister, only a fifth of the pupils get
away from their school localities for any time at all dur-
ing the vacations. Inquiries at the Dorothea muni-
cipal gymnasium in Berlin have revealed the fact that
about one-third of the pupils stay at home altogether,
another third go away for only a few days, and the
last third spend the whole time of the vacation in
travel. The school should therefore give those that
stay at home every opportunity for recuperation by
gymnastic games, bathing, swimming, and rambles in
the woods and fields. The Falk real-gymnasium in
Berlin has given a praiseworthy example in this
Even the ancient Greek philosopher Anaxagoras
would have vacations spent in games. When the prin-
cipal men of Lampsacus, where he was in exile, asked
him what they could do to please him, he replied that
they would do so if they would give the children every
year the month in which he died, free for games. His
DISMISSAL IK HOT WEATHER 207
wish was granted. As late as the third century after
Christ, i. e., 700 years later, the boys of Lampsacus
had their vacation games in the month in which
The summer vacations come, as a rule, in the hottest
part of the year. But, as there are very warm days
at other times, special vacations must be given at such
High temperatures are so exceedingly exhausting for
mind and body that lessons do little good ; and even
being in the class-rooms and on the way to school may
injure the health of the pupils.
Most school authorities have accordingly decided
that some of the lessons may be omitted when the
temperature shall have reached a certain point. The
ministry of Wiirtemberg makes it 20 R = 77 F,
since it ruled in 1870 that the afternoon session might
be omitted if the thermometer rose in the shade to 20
R between nine and ten o'clock. In 1892, the Prussian
minister of education issued a decree that, when the
temperature at ten o'clock in the morning rose to 25
C 77F i n shade, instruction should not be continued
for more than four consecutive hours, nor children be
compelled to come to school twice in a day. The rec-
ommendation of the superior K. K. Sanitary Commis-
sion of Vienna corresponds exactly with this. On the
other hand, the government board of the Canton Zug
208 DAILY PROGRAMME
requires a temperature of 27 C=80f F, and the
Superior school board of Hamburg a temperature of
22 R=81^ F before work can be suspended in the
To make it possible to determine the temperature
exactly an accurate thermometer, provided with a cas-
ing of wood or tin to shut off radiant heat, should be
hung up in an easily accessible place on the school
premises; and the curator of the physical laboratory
should be entrusted with the taking of occasional
readings. It is desirable to test it now and then, to
see that the pupils play no pranks with it by breath-
ing on it, or otherwise. Moreover, a mere outdoor
record will not suffice; and the Prussian minister of
education has expressly reminded the conductors of
higher schools that this does not relieve them from
the duty of ascertaining whether it would not be ad-
visable, even if the thermometer at ten o'clock does
not register 25 C, to omit a part of the school work
on account of some unusual conditions of temperature
such as excessive heat on the previous day, or con-
tinued sultriness in the class-rooms, or the distances of
the pupils from school. Thus, local conditions must
also be taken into account, especially the situation of
the building, the size and ventilation of the school-
rooms, the number of pupils instructed simultaneously
in it, etc.
DISMISSAL IN HOT WEATHER 209
Some have suggested, that, when school has to be
dismissed on account of heat, the pupils should be
taken out for walks, or be allowed to have games on
the campus, if this is large enough to permit it. This
should, however, only be done when they can walk or
play in the shade, and when the games are not too
In spite of vacations, the pupils may, nevertheless,
be overburdened 1 . The home is often to blame for
this. In the first place, many children are sent to
school too young. As is well known, the sixth year is
generally looked upon as the most suitable age for
school work to begin. Up to the end of this year,
the brain is still growing vigorously. Its increase in
weight in the first seven years is 830 g., while in the
next seven years is only 61 g.
On the other hand, even pupils who have completed
the sixth year do not always have the necessary strength
of body and mind for the demands of the school.
The Berlin Medical Association has accordingly sug-
gested that pupils should be examined, and that those
*L. Kotelmann, 1st die heutige Jugend der hoheren
Lehranstalten mit Schularbeit iiberbiirdet ? Ham-
burg, 1881, C. Boysen. Clemens Xohl, Wie Kann die
Uberbiirdung unserer Jugend auf hoheren Lehranstal-
ten mit Erfol gentgegengewirkt werden ? Neuwied
und Leipzig, 1892, L. Heuser.
210 DAILY 'PROGRAMME
be excluded from attending school who are distinctly
behind the average in general physical development.
Prominent school men have in general proposed that
boys who are destined for the classical or real gymna-
sium or the superior real-school should not be received
before the end of the seventh year. Older pupils, as a
rule, do the same amount of work as the younger in a
Another mistake sometimes made by parents is to
place boys in the higher schools when their mental
ability is not adequate for the work. The gymnasia
of the smaller cities justly complain that they have to
carry a ballast of mediocre pupils who care for nothing
else in their work but to secure thereby the privilege
of the single year in military service. The multipli-
cation of real-schools which are without Latin, through
the reform movement in Pussia, is therefore to be
looked upon as a great step in advance. In this re-
spect'Hamburg may be taken as a model, where, be-
sides two gymnasia, one real-gymnasium, and one
superior real-school, we find fourteen real-schools
without Latin, some public, and some private.
Furthermore, the home work of pupils is often not
properly arranged ; they have neither quiet nor direc-
tion; and, what is worse, they are so distracted by re-
ceptions, theaters, and concerts that they fail to have
the necessary concentration for the outside school
tasks. Is it a marvel if they sit up late nights at their
work and can not follow the instruction given the next
Finally, the many private lessons with which parents-
load their children may lead to mental over-pressure.
Tutoring, or coaching, is a favorite form of such work ;
but it is not only unnecessary, if the school work is
properly arranged, but may even disturb and counter-
act the latter.
Too many music lessons, often for pupils wholly
without talent, is a no less prominent evil. Nearly all
the feeble, overworked, and distracted pupils in one in-
stitution, where inquiry was made, practised one to two
hours daily on the piano. To be sure, music cannot be
counted as an alien subject, even though Kant objected
to it, as being an "intrusive art"; but instruction in
it should keep within reasonable limits. Especially
should lessons on the piano not be given before the
twelfth year, and then only to strong and talented
Moreover, the school may itself be to blame for
overwork on the part of the young people in its
charge. Of course not every serious demand upon
their mental activity must be looked upon as over-pres-
sure. At a time when the struggle for existence
becomes ever more severe it behooves the pupils of
our higher institutions especially to. keep in mind:
Trj? ffaperr)? ISpcora deol 7rpO7rdpoi6ev e
The Gods give excellence through toil.
212 DAILY PROGRAMME
Nevertheless, the amount of study at home can
easily become too great through excessive enthusiasm
of departmental teachers, defective concentration in
the course of study, the increase of materials in cer-
tain subjects, and often the over-crowding of class-
At the Berlin Reform Conference, the German em-
peror said of the Kassel gymnasium attended by him :
"We were compelled to hand to the director every
morning a card with the number of hours we had to
study to prepare the lessons for the day. I will only
mention the number in the Prima, on this occasion.
Now, gentlemen, according to thoroughly reliable
reports in my case they could be controlled by privy
councillor Hinzpeter 5J, 6J to 7 hours were required
for the home assignments."
A very careful inquiry into the amount of home work
at the superior state real-school at Teschen has also
been made. Here this amounted to two to three hours
daily for the four lower classes, and three to five hours
for the upper classes. Many pupils of class III and
most of VII studied as a rule to midnight or longer.
In the latter class this can be partly explained by the
fact that the pupils at the time of the investigation
were approaching the final written examination and
were consequently reviewing as well as carrying on the
STUDY AT HOME
Such being the conditions, governments and com-
missions appointed by them have endeavored to deter-
mine the amount of work which may be required of
pupils in the different classes, or, in other words, how
many hours of school and home work are permissible.
According to the expert commission for the second-
ary schools of Elsass-Lothringen the maximum per
week should be as follows:
15, 16, 17, 18
In this case both the work in school and at home is
taken into account; while most school administrations
are content to fix a special limit for the home work of
the pupils of the higher institutions. In this connec-
tion the following table giving the number of hours
for the home tasks per week is instructive :
Class (I is lowest)
Wurtemberg. . . .
Grand D. Hessen
In comparing the above figures, we must keep in
mind that the weekly programmes of the gymnasium
and real gymnasium differ somewhat in different states.
214 DATLY PROGRAMME
In Bavaria the total number of hours per week for the
classes I to IX, inclusive of writing, drawing, and
gymnastics, is 236; in Wiirtemberg, on the other
hand, for the corresponding classes II to X, it is 283,
or 47 hours a week more, which explains the relatively
small number of hours devoted in the middle and
higher classes in the latter country to home work.
The Wiirtemberg ministry for church and school affairs
has, moreover, lately ordained that the home tasks,
including the memorizing work, shall not require
more than one hour on full school days and one and
one-half hours on the half days, for the classes from
I to III; and, one and one-half, and two hours, re-
spectively, for class IV. The home work in the other
classes is to occupy 1 \ to 2 hours on full school days ;
and 2J to 3, on the days with a free afternoon. In the
case of classes Y to YII the amount of work is to be
kept near the lower limit of 11 hours per week.
On the other hand, the ministry does not believe
that the course should be made any easier for the
upper classes, VIII to X, since this would interfere
with the aims of the school and with the habituation
to independent activity which is especially important
at this age.
Besides limiting the amount of home study, the
authorities have also adopted other measures to pre-
vent over-pressure. A ministerial enactment for the
higher schools of Prussia requires that an investigation
IMPROVED METHODS 215
shall be made at the first teachers' meeting of each
semester to see if the pupils are over-loaded with
home work in any of the classes. Especially are com-
plaints that may have come in from parents to be care-
fully looked into at this meeting ; and whatever may
be done to adjust matters is to be entered on the
It is also very gratifying from the hygienic stand-
point that the amount of work in some subjects has
been diminished. As is well known, there has been a
reduction in the study of the classics in most German
states in the humanistic as well as in the scientific
institutions; and, as regards instruction in science,
the latest Bavarian regulations prohibit entirely the
use of a text-book, on the ground that the main pur-
pose of this line of work is to train the eye and develop
interest and pleasure in the observation of nature.
The simplification of the subject matter has been
accompanied by an improvement in the methods of in-
struction. The reforms demand that as much effort
be expended in developing interest as in communi-
cating knowledge; that the memory be used less,
and. the judgment more; that written work be
limited, and the spontaneous activity of the pupil
be promoted to develop his own peculiar talents;
that extempore recitations and written transpositions
be not overestimated; that the younger pupils be
given a preparation for the reading to be done in the
216 DAILY PROGRAMME
recitation ; that no lesson be assigned in the morning
for the afternoon ; and that no task of any sort be set
as a punishment.
The fulfilment of these requirements can be counted
on the more, since the pedagogical and didactic train-
ing of teachers is ever growing better through the
University seminaries, and the trial and practice year,
which succeeds the year of theoretical study in them.
Lastly, the lessening of the severity of the final
examinations in accordance with the provisions of the
new school programmes may be mentioned as a pro-
tective measure against over-pressure. The graduates
of the gymnasium have been relieved not only from
writing the Latin composition, but also from using
Latin in the oral examination, which has been limited
to five subjects with increased privileges of substitu-
tion and exemption. The oral examination of the
real-gymnasiasts includes also only five branches, and
pupils are allowed the same exemptions and substitu-
tions as the gymnasiasts. It only remains to be hoped
that the examination for promotion from Lower to
Upper Secunda will either be entirely omitted or else
be greatly simplified, especially since it comes directly
in the period of puberty.
When, nevertheless, overpressure exists, it is likely
to show itself in the pupils by cephalic congestions.
This is to explained by the fact that every organ in
action at once receives an increased blood supply by
SCHOOL HEADACHES 217
the expansion of its arteries. Since, as we know,
more blood flows through a working than a resting
muscle, the same is doubtless true of the brain. We
all know from experience how readily, during mental
labor, the hands and feet get cold, while the head
gets hot. By means of sensitive thermopiles it has
been possible to show that the temperature of the head
increases in proportion to the intensity of mental effort.
Now a strong rush of blood to the head gives rise to
headache ; and the frequent occurrence of this among
the school population has been demonstrated repeat-
edly. As early as 1869, Virchow called attention to
the matter; and this has since been done by Rossbach,
Krafft-Ebing, Keller, Hertel, Axel Key, Hakonson-
Hansen, Bresgen 1 , and others. Some speak of it simply
as school -headaches, or " cephalalgie scolaire ".
Since overwork is more common in the higher than
in the lower schools, this headache occurs more fre-
quently in the former than in the latter. Bystroff found
only 11.6 % of 7,478 elementary pupils suffering from
habitual headache ; while Guillaume found 28.3 % in the
municipal college at Xeufchatel, and Becker, 80.8 % in
the prima of the gymnasium at Darmstadt. I ascer-
tained, myself, that there was quite a regular increase
1 Maximilian Bresgen, Die Ursachen des nervosen
Kopfschmerzes der Schulkinder. Wien, 1894, Urban
218 DAILY PROGRAMME
in the ailment toward the upper classes in the Johan-
neuni gymnasium at Hamburg. If this may be said
to point to the unwholesome influence of excessive
mental strain, so also does the fact that pupils often
come home with a headache, especially when the in-
struction has lasted a long time.
On the other hand, we must not forget that the
headaches of the pupils may be caused by many other
things. Charcot has called attention to the peculiar
" cephalaea adolescentium ", as he names it. Those
suffering from it, have a constant headache, which pre-
vents them from doing any work ; while school head-
ache is recurrent with longer or shorter intervals.
Sufferers from these troubles belong to nervous or
gouty families and are liable to complain of palpitation
of the heart, which is sometimes due to an enlarge-
ment of this organ. As other aetiological factors in
the production of headaches in school, may be men-
tioned diseases of the brain, the nose, the throat, the
ear, the teeth, and especially the functional disorders
of the eye. Sometimes the retina is too sensitive,
sometimes the power of accommodation is insufficient ;
and again, the muscles employed in near vision become
too easily fatigued. Hence, when pupils are affected
with headaches, an examination of their eyes should
not be neglected, since they can often be relieved by
convex or prismatic glasses.
When there is a rush of blood into the head, there
is one also into the mucous membrane of the nose.
That is the reason nosebleed is of such frequent
occurence among pupils. According to Eulenberg,
tall, slim boys, who have grown up rapidly, are most
subject to the trouble. This investigator thinks he
has also noticed that many kinds of school work
predispose to nosebleed.
Only a few statistics on the subject are at hand.
Eight per cent of the pupils at Mulhausen, and 11.3 %
of 3,504 children at Darmstadt were found to be thus
afflicted. Guillaume ascertained that 77 out of 350
boys, or 2*2 #, had the nosebleed.
The following table shows how these cases were dis-
tributed among the different classes :
Per cent with
These results seem to show that nosebleed dimin-
ishes in the upper classes; but the number of older
pupils examined is too small for general conclusions
in accordance with the principle requiring large groups
of cases. In fact, in Darmstadt, Becker obtained a
result directly opposite to that of Guillaume. He
says that nosebleed is most frequent in the upper
220 DAILY PKOGRAMME
classes of the gymnasium, and varies with the length
of attendance at school and the lack of fresh air.
This corresponds with a statement made by Axel
Key 1 on the basis of a very, extensive investigation.
In the full graded higher institutions of Sweden, 5.5 %
of the pupils of the lowest class were suffering from
recurring nosebleed, which increased considerably in
Class II, remained constant in Class III, and showed
some diminution in Class IV, both in the Latin and
scientific divisions. In the Latin division, by itself ,
nosebleed increased up to 7 % in Class V, and then
remained constant till it reached the maximum of
8.1$ in Class VII B. In the scientific division, the
curve remained below that of the Latin division after
the drop in Class IV, but reached its maximum the
same as the former in Class VII B with 6.4$. Since
there is a distinct tendency toward an increase of nose-
bleed in the upper classes, the influence of mental
strain in its production can hardly be denied.
Another consequence of over-pressure, namely nerv-
ousness, is more serious than either headache or nose-
bleed. Whoever will carefully observe the people
about him, will hardly need a special proof that over-
exertion of the nervous system is a pathological symp-
J Axel Keys Schulhygienische Untersuchungen. In
deutscher Bearbeitung herausgegeben von Leo Burger-
stein. Hamburg und Leipzig, 1889, Leop. Voss.
OVER-STIMULATED NERVES 221
torn of our time as well on this side as on the other
side of the Atlantic. According to Erb, poetry has
become coarsely naturalistic, and music excessively
loud ; even painting does not recoil from the ugly and
the horrible. Science becomes an ever more exhaust-
ing occupation, the more it differentiates into special-
ties. To the excitements of a profession, must be
added the haste in living, the hunt for fortune, the
insatiable appetite for pleasure, and the fierce politi-
cal, social, and religious struggles.
These things shock and injure the nervous system;
and consequently not only is our fin de siecle over-
stocked with nervous men and women, but the nervous
diathesis is being transmitted by heredity to our de-
scendants. Pupils from the higher ranks, especially,
often enter school with neuropathic trouble, as has
been clearly shown by Schuschny 1 by his observations
in the superior state real-school at Budapest.
The school may itself be the cause of the over-stimu-
lation of the nervous system. The whole character
of the school work, the ever recurring rivalries, exam-
inations, promotions, and, not the least, the many
kinds of punishments, most of which fall on the same
pupils, are well fitted to generate nervousness or to de-
velop such a disposition if already present. " I have the
iHeinrich Schuschny, Beitrage Zur Xervositiit der
Schuljugend. Jena, 1895, Gust. Fischer.
222 DAILY PROGRAMME
impression," so writes a well-known educator, "that
this reckless hurry, and impatient struggle for the best
possible results often produce a pace which brings
excitement instead of composure, over-stimulation in-
stead of stimulation, in brief, nervousness, instead of
safe and steady progress."
As will be readily understood, these phenomena are
more liable to appear in the secondary schools than in
the elementary schools; and the number of nervous
pupils is also greater in the former than in the latter.
According to Warner, 351, or 6.5$, of 5,344 elemen-
tary pupils in London had neurapathic symptoms;
while according to Xesteroif 1 71, or 32$, of 216 pupils
in a gymnasium in Moscow were similarly affected.
In the latter, nervous trouble increased quite rapidly
and steadily from class to class.
The neurasthenic pupils numbered in the prepara-
tory class 8 0; in class I 15 0; in class II 22 <f>\ in class
III 280; in class IV 44 0; in class V 27 0; in class VI
58 0; in class VII 64 0; in class VIII 69 0.
It was, also, possible to show that, in correspondence
with this, neurasthenia increased with the age of the
pupils, especially from the fifteenth year onward.
Nesteroff found that of the 588 pupils in the board-
1 W. Xesteroff, Die Moderne Schule und die Gesund-
heit. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheitspflege, 1890,
Xo. 6, p. 313 ff.
ing school connected with the above mentioned gym-
nasium the following per cent were nervous.
That the numbers here are not so regular as in the
previous table, may be explained by the fact that only
those are put down as nervous who have sought aid
for their trouble from the doctor of the institution.
With respect to the character of the disorders, it
was impossible to find a single case of a definitely
developed, completed form of nervous diseases. But
careful questioning and examination brought out the
fact that a very large number of them were suffering
from general nervous disturbances in the form of
neurasthenia. There was, in the first place, a ten-
dency toward rapid mental and bodily fatigue. Besides
this, there was increased psychic irritability; the boys
were sensitive; their imagination was excited; and
they frequently complained of sleeplessness.
This irritability in connection with long continued
stimulation also made itself felt in the field of the
general and special senses. In addition, there were
224 DAILY PBOGKAMME
many neuralgias, mostly intercostal and gastric;
disturbances of the sympathetic nervous system, as
was shown by the ready paling and flushing of the
face ; and neuroses of the heart, with palpitation and
pericardial anxiety ; in the case of the pupils of the
upper classes there were also sexual neuroses with fre-
Even if nervous disorders are not so numerous in
the higher schools of Germany, it is, nevertheless, de-
sirable for teachers to watch for the symptoms de-
scribed. If a pupil is found to have neurasthenia, the
prognosis is usually favorable. A lessening of the
mental work with a corresponding increase of physical
activity is of great value. If health leaves by way of
the head it can be saved by the muscles, but there is
no time to lose, says Fonsagrive*.
All sorts of gymnastics and outdoor sports such as
cycling 1 are therefore to be recommended, provided
they are not carried to excess ; the Prussian minister
of education has especially called attention to bowling
for boys in boarding schools.
*" La sante s'en va par le cerveau; elle peut etre
sauvee par les muscles, mais il n'y a pas de temps a
^egemann, Uber den Fahrradbetrieb aoi Konig-
lichen gymnasium zu Xeu-Ruppin. Zeitschrift fur
Turnen und Jugendspiel, 1897.
MANUAL TRAINING 225
Manual training 1 can, also, be designated as a suitable
means for increasing depressed nerve force, refreshing
mind and body after mental exertion, and making
pupils again capable of learning. To be sure, paper,
cartonnage, and paste-board work, notching and other
wood carving, hammering and clinching wire and tin,
and modelling in plastilina and clay, have only a small
hygienic value 2 .
On the other hand, work at the joiner's bench, and
still more work in the garden is of great importance,
not only for physical education in general but specially
for the restoration of an enfeebled nervous system.
Where special work shops exist, as at the gymnasium
and real-gymnasium in Detmold, the Falk real-gym-
nasium in Berlin, and the gymnasia in Gorlitz and
Heidelberg, neurasthenic boys should consequently
seek employment in them.
Abundance of sleep is, however, the great remedy
for such pupils. Every boy in the Sexta, doubtless
^Voldemar Gotze, Schulhandfertigkeit. Ein prak-
tischer Versuch, den Handfertigkeits Unterricht mit
der Schule in Verbindung zu Setzen. Leipzig, 1894,
J. C. Hinrichs.
2 Otto Janke, Die Hygiene der Knabenhandarbeit.
Beitrage Zur gesundheitsgemassen Ausgestaltung des
Handarbeitsunterrichts fiir Knabeii. Hamburg und
Leipzig, 1893, Leop. Voss.
learns, " Sex septemve horas dormisse sat est juvenique
senique," (to sleep six or seven hours is sufficient for
young and old) ; but there are few statements so false as
that. Mature persons in good health may find it
sufficient, but it will not do for children; and when
the youngster wrote instead of " septemve ", " sep-
temque" he came nearer the truth.
To be sure, it is hard to say just how much sleep a
boy of a certain age needs. It depends upon many
circumstances. The feeble and sickly should have
more sleep than strong children ; the body should have
more rest in winter than in summer. More sleep is
needed in cold than in warm climates. In general, we
may say that in the climate of Prussia young pupils
require ten hours sleep, and those more mature eight
to nine; some say that children should sleep even 11
to 12 hours a day the first year in school. Where too
great demands have been made upon the immature
brain, and nervous disturbances have been produced,
these numbers must be considered mimimal.
Nevertheless, even these are not nearly attained in
the higher schools of Denmark and Sweden. The
government investigating commission gives the follow-
ing table for the average length of sleep of Swedish
gymnasiasts and real-gymnasiasts.
DURATION OF SLEEP IN HOURS AND MINUTES
VIB VII A
MUCH SLEEP NECESSAKY 227
Key (see page 220) also found in his investigations
in Stockholm that those pupils who slept less than was
necessary for their age had 5 % more sickness in the
upper, and 8 % more in the lower grades than their
comrades who had sufficient sleep. The number of
hours of sleep in the upper classes of the K. K
Theresia Academy in Vienna is also too small. The
pupils in Class VII are allowed to stay up till 9.30,
those in Class VIII till 11 or 12 o'clock, though they
must be up at six in the morning. Otherwise, the
time allotted to sleep amounts on an average to nine
hours, from 9 P. M. to 6 A. M., except that the
younger boarding students up to Class II in the gym-
nasium have more time. Statistics covering several
years shows that the conditions at the gymnasium at
Giessen differ more than those of the Theresianum
from the Swedish.
The duty to see that pupils, especially those who
are neurasthenic, have sufficient sleep, belongs in the
first place to the family, which has much to answer for
in this respect. But the school may also interfere,
either by having the pupils work too late at night or
by beginning instruction too early in the morning.
In large cities, as is shown by the investigations of
Griesbach and Wagner, it should not commence in
summer till eight, and in winter till nine o'clock;
while in'small towns it may be an hour earlier. In
228 DAILY PROGRAMME
any case, the difference between astronomical and
middle European time must be taken into account.
If nervous pupils are not helped by plenty of sleep,
the question of relieving them entirely from study
must then be considered. As a disease that is pro-
duced, so to spea'k, experimentally, school neurasthenia
is likely to disappear with the removal of the cause.
A rest for several months or a whole semester is not
always necessary ; but, as Friedmann says, a four weeks
summer vacation at the seashore or in the mountains
is often sufficient.
Mental disease 1 is not produced with anything like
the frequency of nervousness, by over-pressure in the
schools. It is very rarely found in children under
fifteen. Of the 40,076 lunatics received into the Prus-
sian asylums between 1886 and 1888, 4.0 % were below
15 years of age; 25.4$ between 15 and 30; 50.7$
between 30 and 50; and 19.6$ from 50 upwards.
Emminghaus found an average of 0.69 insane from
the 6th to the 10th year, and 1.46 from the llth to
the 15th for each 10,000 inhabitants; while Deboutte-
ville ascertained that among the insane admitted to
Saint- Yon from 1827to 1834,0.9 $ were between 5 and
9; 3.5 $ between 10 and 14; and 20$ between 15 and
20 years of age. Finally, Turnham found among
Christian Ufer, Geistesstornngen in der Schule.
Wiesbaden, 1891, J. F. Bergmann.
MENTAL DISEASES 229
21,333 mentally diseased, only 8 who were below 10
years of age; this of course does not include the feeble-
minded, who are much more numerous.
" Far the most common form of mental disease in
children is idiocy, which may be either innate, and due
to arrested development of the brain or acquired,
and the result of some other preceding mental trouble.
Then follow in order of frequency maniacal excite-
ment and mania; while melancholia is relatively rare,
appearing only toward the later years of childhood."
It is true, we may assume that mental diseases in
children are often not recognized as such but are
thought of as ill-bred rudeness, or meanness of dis-
position, since sensational and ideational activity is
still undeveloped and mental life in general has not
yet taken form. This is especially true of so-called
psychopathic immaturity, which, according to J. L.
A. Koch, is an intermediate condition between perfect
sanity and actual insanity. The great importance of
the matter for education has been emphasized by L.
Stnimpell in his book, "Pedagogical Pathology, or
the Science of Children's Faults."
The causes of mental alienation in children are,
besides hereditary taint, especially from the mother,
and alcoholism from the father, injuries to the head
received at birth or later; acute diseases, and an ab-
normal development of the brain, often due to malfor-
230 DAILY PROGRAMME
mation of the skull. Other causes are sunstroke ; and
among germ diseases, in the first degree, typhoid
fever, inflammation of the lungs and rheumatism; in
the second degree, measles, scarlet fever, and diph-
Moreover, the school has itself heen accused of be-
ing a cause of the trouble. As early as 1859 Giimtz
described in a pamphlet " An Insanity of School Chil-
dren which is peculiar to Childhood and a direct Con-
sequence of School work ". Still better known is a
treatise by Hasse, director of the insane asylum at
Brunswick, entitled: " On the overburdening of School
Children with Home Tasks," in which he gives it as
his experience that "the pupils of the upper classes
in the gymnasia, in whom no other cause for insanity is
apparent than the excessive requirements of the
schools, make up relatively too large a per cent of
the number of mentally afflicted."
This conclusion has, however, not been verified by
an inquiry made by the Prussian minister of education
among all the asylums under his direction. On the
contrary, most of the superintendents asserted that
insanity was very rare among school children; and
some even declared that higher education was the
best protection against it. According to the reports
of the ten Bavarian asylums, which 'have about 4,000
inmates, cases of mental disease from over-pressure
in the schools are wholly exceptional.
EFFECT OF SCHOOL ON MENTAL DISEASES 231
On the other hand, Eulenberg has very correctly
pointed out that no examination was made of the pri-
vate asylums, where insane gymnasiasts and real-gym-
nasiasts would be most likely to be found, and Krafft-
Ebing declares from his wide experiences, that if
pedagogy should make a more thorough study of man
in his pathological relations, many a defect and hard-
ship in education would disappear, and many a mis-
taken choice of a profession would be avoided, and so
many a mental life saved.
Th. Meynert 1 admits the influence of over-pressure
in the production of mental diseases among children ;
he examined two real-school pupils and one gymnasiast
from fifteen to twenty years old, among whom no other
causes for insanity could be found than extraordinary
industry and loss of sleep.
Just as this by itself should be a warning to the
teachers to be conservative in their demands upon the
energies of the pupils, so also should the fact that sui-
cide 2 is often due to over-pressure or similar conditions
connected with school life. In the six years from 1883
to 1888, 240 school children, relatively the most of
1 Theodore Meynert, Die durch Uberburdung in den
Mittelschulen bedingten Xerven- und Geistes Krank-
heiten. Wiener medizenische Blatter, 1887, XXXII.
2 GustavSiegert, Das Problem der Kinderselbst-
morde. Leipzig, 1893, R. Voigtlander.
232 DAILY PROGRAMME
whom were attendants at higher institutions of learn-
ing, committed suicide in Prussia. The number per
year is about the same, namely, 50, 33, 33, 38, 41, 45.
In France, on the other hand, there has been a de-
cided increase in suicide, both among adults, and
among school children under sixteen. In the latter
country, from 1875 to 1877, an average of 41 school
children per year committed suicide; in the same
length of time, from 1885 to 1887, there were 200
cases, or an average of 66 per year. In fact, in 1892
there were 87 suicides below 16 years of age, and 475
between 16 and 21 ; while in 1890 there were only 358,
and in 1880, 267 between these latter ages.
If an inquiry into the causes of suicide among
adults is obstructed by considerable difficulties, this is
still more the case with school children, since adequate
accounts of their previous life are not so often obtain-
able. Thus, in the case of 77 suicides among pupils
of the higher institutions of learning, 15 could not
be accounted for. In 22 cases, the school was clearly
not concerned, because 11 were caused by disease, 5 by
disgust with life, 4 by unfortunate love aifairs, 1 by
ill-treatment by parents, and 1 by bodily disease.
On the other hand, the following motives were also
reported: in 15 cases, fear of examinations, failure to
pass, or be promoted; in 5 cases, other causes con-
nected with school attendance ; and in 2, quarrels with
parents or teachers. To these must be added 11
cases of wounded pride, 2 of anger, indignation, and
stubbornness; and 1 of fear of punishment, in all of
which the school may have had a part.
What can teachers do when face to face with such
sad occurrences ? They have, in the first place, the
means with which they always work, namely, the
moral and religious education of the children and a
rational method of instruction, which gives due atten-
tion to individual capacities. To be able to do the
latter, one must continually keep in close touch with
the home life of the pupils.
The following points by the Prussian minister of
education deserve particular attention. The surpris-
ing of pupils by an unexpected failure of promotion is
to be avoided by informing the parents at the proper
time of the probable result. If temporary mental
or bodily indispositions set in, as is often the case in
the period of puberty, pupils should receive especially
careful treatment, sometimes under the advice of a
good doctor. School societies should be watched
constantly, since, as experience shows, they exercise
such an unfavorable influence over their members,
soul and* body, that the latter succumb in cases of
conflict, and free themselves from their real or imagined
difficulties by taking their own lives. Finally, in
many cases of suicide among pupils, there has been a
234 DAILY PROGRAMME
psychic epidemic such as is often observed with in-
sanity. In the gymnasium at Altona, for instance,
several pupils committed suicide one after the other.
Accordingly, when a pupil has taken his own life,
teachers should give their professional care particularly
to the "problematic characters", but say as little as
possible of the unhappy event.
Epilepsy is another neuropathic affliction that may
spread through schools as a psychic epidemic, a
fact to be readily understood from the shocking im-
pression made by the attacks. These generally pre-
sent the following picture: The boy utters a loud
shriek and 'at the same time falls unconscious to the
ground. For a few moments after falling, the muscles
are in convulsive tetanus; breathing ceases, and the
eyes stare wide open. Violent convulsions of the
whole muscular system follow; the trunk is twisted,
the face distorted, the jaws shut tight together, and
breathing is irregular ; the lips and cheeks turn blue
and saliva accumulates in the mouth and is expelled
Fortunately, this disease does not attack pupils very
often. Of the 286,035 boys who attended the public
schools of the kingdom of Saxony in 1880, 42? or
0.14$ were epileptic. Of these, 37 were between 6J and
8 years of age; 83 between 8 and 10; 121 between 10
and 12; and 186 were 12 and over. In 1894, the cor-
responding numbers were 33, 67, 108, 167. Epilepsy
is thus seen to increase with the age of the pupils.
The number of cases in the larger cities is, moreover,
considerably above the general average for the whole
country. From the last two facts we may infer that
epilepsy is more common in th secondary than in the
The question now arises, shall epileptic pupils be
excluded from the public schools ? The Lower Rhine
Association for Public Hygiene has demanded this un-
conditionally; and has presented a petition to that
effect to the Prussian minister of education. The
same view is held by the Baden ministry of the in-
terior, which prohibits epileptic children from attend-
ing public schools. In this case, special institutions
for these pupils are necessary, where they may receive
physical and mental training, and if possible also
medical treatment. Bielefeld in Westphalia and Kork
in Baden may be mentioned as examples.
Much may, however, be said against excluding epi-
leptic pupils entirely from attendance at the public
schools. In the first place, many have these attacks
only on very rare occasions, while others have them
most frequently at night. Furthermore, only a part
of the children suffering with epilepsy are weak-minded,
many of them having normal ability. An inquiry in
the grand-duchy of Saxe-Weimar makes the proportion
of the former to the latter 46 : 89 or about 1:2. It
would be unjustifiable severity to prevent boys with
236 DAILY PROGRAMME
only rare attacks and with good capacities from enjoy -
ing the benefits of higher institutions of learning and
compel them to receive their education among the
feeble-minded. Every case is, therefore, to be decided
by itself; and as long as we have no special school
physicians, it should be done by the official physician
of the community in conjunction with the director of
If a pupil has an attack in a class he should be re-
moved as quickly as possible. He can often be re-
moved before the attack, since about half of the
cases have premonitory symptoms of varying dura-
tion, such as a feeling of vapor rising into the brain
(aura epileptica), headache, dizziness, numbness, heavi-
ness of the limbs, pericardial pressure, and palpitation
of the heart. Since an epileptic can easily injure him-
self in his convulsions he should be placed on some-
thing soft as a protection. To prevent them from
biting their tongues to pieces, as they often do, some-
hard object such as a stick of wood wrapped in a hand-
kerchief should be pushed between the teeth.
If the school can be held responsible for the develop-
ment of epilepsy only in so far as the disease can spread
by psychic contagion, it has in the case of St. Vitus
dance 1 been shown to be, on the other hand, a direct
I 0tto Korner, Kami die Schule fur das hiiufige
Auftreten der Chorea minor wahrend des Schulpflie-
tigen Alters mit verantwortlich gemacht warden ?
Vierteljahrsschrift fiir offentliche Gesundheitspflege,
1889, Vol. XXI, part. 3.
ST. VITUS DAl^CE 237
aetiological factor. The characteristics of chorea St.
Viti are involuntary movements of single muscles or
groups of muscles while consciousness is present. The
muscles of the arm are most frequently attacked, then
those of the face and tongue, the lower limhs being
more rarely involved. The consequence is a certain
awkwardness in grasping and holding things, some-
times thought by parents and teachers to be due to
inattention or naughtiness. The faces made by the
afflicted are also often interpreted incorrectly as bad
habits; and pupils are even punished for them. In
the later progress of the disease they can no longer
write or play the piano ; in fact they may not be able
to raise the spoon to the mouth. When the muscular
disturbance is especially pronounced, speech is ob-
structed, the tongue shoots out spasmodically, and
articulation becomes difficult.
As to the distribution of this cerebro-spinal neurosis,
it is found, as a rule, chiefly among school children.
A general inquiry by the British Medical Association
included 439 cases, 340 of which, or 77.46 $, were
between 6 and 15 years of age or within the compulsory
school period. Sturges 1 mentions among the causes
certain injurious influences connected with school life.
Predisposing factors must, however, also be present,
1 Sturges, Schoolwork and discipline as a factor in
chorea. Lancet, 1885, III.
238 DAILY PROGRAMME
such as a neuropathic diathesis, usually hereditary,,
defective nutrition and blood formation, and conse-
quent debility. Where these exist and no other causes
like sudden fright are discernible, an unfavorable in-
fluence of the school may be inferred. In 223 cases,
Sturges says 23 were due exclusively to harmful school
conditions. These consisted of emotional depression
from too much study, or too difficult lessons ; of anxiety
before examinations, connected with continued sleep-
lessness ; and of school punishments, especially such as
were undeserved. Lack of quiet for performing the
home tasks was also mentioned as one of the causes.
Whatever the facts may be, choreic pupils should
never attend classes, since they only disturb the in-
struction. The healthy boys concentrate their whole
attention upon their afflicted comrade, whose muscu-
lar spasms, often accompanied by loud noises, are not
only thoroughly strange and incomprehensible to them,
but cannot always be explained satisfactorily even by
THE HYGIENE OF THE EYE
The sense organs are very closely connected with the
nervous system, just as they have been in the process
of evolution by partly developing out of it; and a dis-
cussion of the hygiene of the sense organs of school
children, therefore, follows naturally on the preceding
The eye is of course the most important organ of
the senses. Anomalies in its refracting power were
recognized even by the ancient Greeks and Romans.
Aristotle (Hepl axov yevecrecos lib. V, cap. 1) gives a
minute description of near-sightedness, or myopia,
pointing out as its characteristic features, prominence
of the eye-ball, blinking, and a tendency to bring
objects to be looked at as near the eye as possible.
Presbyopia, or the far-sightedness of old age, was also
recognized. Plutarch (2v/A7rocrta%cJi/ lib. I, quaest. 8)
has a special chapter in his Table-talks devoted to the
subject; and Aristotle (ibid) and Galen (Hepl xpeias
TCOV ev av0pa>7rov crco/xart fjiopi&v lib. V, cap. 1), also,
mention it, though they differ as to how the evil comes
240 THE EYE: HYPERMETROPIA
In fact it is not impossible that thus early in history
precious stones were ground so as to be used instead
of glasses, to correct the errors of refraction in the
eye. At least, Pliny (Nat. hist. lib. XXXVII Cap.
16) relates that Nero watched the gladiatorial combats
by the aid of an emerald ; and we are the more entitled
to think of it as an eye-glass, since not only was the
grinding of stones (Plin. Xat. hist. lib. XXXVII,
cap. 16) and their refracting power, when ground
(Plin. ibid. lib. XXXVII, cap. 76) sufficiently well
understood; but precious stones were used throughout
the entire mediaeval period as eye-glasses, especially
the beryl, from which the Germans derive the name
Brillen for spectacles.
However common refraction anomalies may have
been in classical antiquity, it is nevertheless true that
they have not been studied accurately till recent
times, especially in schools. The number of school
children's eyes examined has grown so mightily in
the last decades that no other department of school
hygiene can claim to have had a more thorough inves-
tigation. Xow what have been the results, first of all
with respect to hypermetropia ?
In hypermetropia^ or far-sightedness, the eye does
not have sufficient depth, and parallel rays of light
are brought to a focus, not on the retina, but behind
it. Hypermetropia may be either facultative or abso-
A NATURAL CONDITION 241
lute. In the first case, 'the eye can see distinctly far
and near, as well without as with convex glasses ; in
the latter, such glasses are always necessary, since
neither distant nor near objects could otherwise be
Hypermetropia is the natural condition of children's
eyes. Ely found that 72 $ of new-born children were
far-sighted; and Landolt states that children under
eight are usually in this condition. Horstmann and
Schleich, also, assert that hypermetropia is something
very common in children. Many having this defect
are accordingly to be found in the higher institutions
of learning, especially among the younger boys.
Conrad 1 examined the pupils at the three old gym-
nasia at Konigsberg, and found among 3,036 eyes,
1.441, or 47.47$, hypermetropic. I could myself
classify 273, or 48.23$, among the 566 eyes of the
students at the gymnasium and real-school at Wand-
beck as far-sighted; 9 or 1.59$ having absolute, and
264, or 46.64$, facultative hypermetropia. Finally,
Erismann 2 found 67.8$ far-sighted in the gymnasial
T Max Conrad, Die Refraktion von 3036 Augen von
Schulkindern mit Riicksicht auf den Ubergang der
Hypermetropie in Myopie. Inaugural-dissertation.
Konigsberg i. Pr., 1876, Jul. Jacoby.
2 Erismann, Ein Beitrag Zur Entwickelungs-
geschichte der Myopie, gestutzt auf die Untersuchung
der Augen von 4358 Schiilern. V. Griifes Archiv,
1876, Vol. 77.
THE EYE: HYPEKMETROPIA
preparatory classes, which have boys from eight to ten.
Hypermetropic eyes are greatly in the majority in the
lower grades ; but they diminish gradually toward the
upper. In the Wandsbeck gymnasium, for example,
the hypermetropes numbered :
In Sexta 54.76 %
In Quinta 43.65$
In Quarta 47.91 % (ff).
In Tertia 50.00$
In Sekunda 22.72$
In Prima 12.50$ (J).
The following statistics by v. Hippel 1 from the
gymnasium at Giessen gives corresponding figures :
Sexta 5 312 27.6
Quinta 6 412 16.6
Quarta 7 518 10.7
Untertertia 8 660 7.1
Obertertia 9 590 6.6
Untersekunda 9 562 4.3
Obersekunda 9 396 4.5
Unterprima 9 306 4.6
Oberprima 9 292 2.4
The number of far-sighted pupils decreases with in-
creasing age as well as with advancing classes. Accord-
ing to George Ferdinands, the curve of hypermetropes in
an English school fell from 46 % among those of seven,
to 10 % among those of twelve years of age. In an-
T A. v. Hippel, Uber den Einfluss hygienischer
Massregeln auf die Schulmyopie. Giessen, 1889, J.
DECKEASES WITH AGE 243
other school there were 26 % among those who were
seven, and 6 % among those thirteen years of age ;
while in a third school there were 33.3$ and 1$
among those seven and fourteen years of age respec-
tively. In the gymnasium at Altona, hypermetropia
became more and more rare with increasing age as the
following table will show :
Age No, hypermetropic
9-11 18.93$ (2
21-22 0.00$ ().
An increase in the number of years of attendance at
school has an effect similar to that of advancing age,
since this, also, is accompanied by a decrease in the
number of hypermetropes. In the gymnasium at
Wandsbeck, which is connected with the grammar
school there, the following statistics were obtained:
No. of years of attendance at school No. of hypermetropes
3- 4 58.33$
5- 6 47.67$
7- 8 42.95$
9-10 55.12$ (if).
11-12 42.50$ (ft).
The diminution in the amount of hypermetropia in
the upper classes, and with advancing age, and years
of school attendance, is to be explained partly by the
fact that during the period of growth it changes over
244 THE EYE: EMMETROPIA
Enimetropia represents the normal condition of re-
fraction, which is characterized by the fact that parallel
rays of light are brought to a focus on the retina
exactly when accommodation is wholly relaxed. Em-
metropes can consequently see equally distinctly far
and near, without the use of glasses.
Of the 566 eyes of the above mentioned Wandsbeck
pupils, 179, or 31.62$, were marked emmetropic, of
which 91, or 36.11 $, were in the united lower classes;
43, or 28.28$, in the gymnasial classes, and 45 or
27.77$, in the real-school classes. Xormal vision
was, accordingly, found to be most frequent in the
united classes, being more rare in the gyronasial and
real-classes, which have nearly the same number of
Larger numbers have been obtained by Conrad and
v. Hippel. The former found that 55.01 % were
emmetropic in the three old gymnasia at Konigsberg;
while the latter ascertained that, in the gymnasium
at Giessen, there was an average of 62.4 $ for the period
from 1881 to 1889, one year only being omitted in the
Like hypermetropia, emmetropia dimminishes to-
ward the upper classes. Conrad found among 1,518
gymnasiasts at Konigsberg the following per cent em-
In Sexta 70.77$ (Jff).
In Quinta 61.97 $ (fff).
InQuarta 60.32$ (||f).
ALSO DIMINISHES WITH AGE
InTertia 45.75 < (fff).
In Sekunda .' 36.23
In Prima 30.40^ (J
In the gymnasium at Giessen, the per cent of em-
In Sexta 66.0.
In Unterfcertia 71.0.
In Obertertia 65.0.
In Untersekunda 58.0.
In Obersekunda :.50.8.
In Unterprima 46. 4.
In Oberprima 43.5.
Von Reuss in Vienna and Thilenius in Rostock,
also, found a decrease of normal vision from class to
Increasing age is accompanied by a similar decrease,
as the following table will show:
Age of pupils
The Johannum classical
school at Hamburg
Tke Wandsbeck gymna-
sium and higher
38.93* ( T 4 T V)
48. 27 * (||)
35.26* ( T UV)
26.92* ( T V T )
A similar decrease of emmetropia with the length
of school attendance can be demonstrated with equal
distinctness; the table below gives the per cent em-
THE EYE: MYOPIA
No. of years in
The Johanneum classical
school at Hamburg
and higher gram, school
82.352 ( T V*)
52.10^ ( T %)
29.652 ( T B T V)
30.282 ( T V?)
On the whole, it is rather better for a class or a
school to have more pupils hypermetropic than em-
metropic, since the former change first into emmetropia
then into myopia ; while the latter pass directly into
myopia. Xormal vision thus stands nearer to short-
sightedness, than does far-sightedness.
Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long, and
parallel rays of light are brought to a focus in front
of the retina. Xear objects can be seen distinctly;
but the more distant produce circles of diffusion and
so indistinct and cloudy images.
Short-sightedness is a defect developed by civiliza-
tion, since it is never found among savage tribes. I
have examined a great many Lapps, Calmucks, Pata-
gonians, Nubians, Somali, and Singhalese, but I have
never found a single near-sighted person, either among
the children or the adults. Myopia did not exist in
New Zealand till it appeared among the natives after
the introduction of civilization.
In harmony with this, is the fact first established by
Cohn 1 , that myopia is the more frequent in schools,
1 Hermann Cohn, Untersuchungen der Augen von
10,000 Schulkindern nebst Yorscnlagen Zur Verbes-
serung der den Augen nachteiligen Schuleinrichtungen
Eine Atiologische Studie. Leipzig, 1867.
A PRODUCT OF CIVILIZATION 247
the higher the degree of education of its pupils. Least
short-sightedness is found in the village schools ; more
in the elementary city schools; still more in the city
grammar schools; and most of all in the gymnasia,
real-gymnasia, and superior ^real-schools.
The following table will show how large may be the
per cent of myopia found in the higher institutions;
the figures marked with an asterisk have been revised,
since the observers did not take into account the
lighter degrees of the defect.
Gymnasium at Burgdorf , Bern
Gymnasium and real-school, Wandsbeck
Gymnasium of Lerber, Bern
Gymnasium at Solothurn
Gymnasium at Giessen, 1884
Real-school of the Holy Ghost in Breslau
Gymnasium at Dorpat ,
Real-school at Zwiuger, Breslau
The three old gymnasia in KOnigsberg, Prussia
Royal, imperial superior state gymnasium at Teschen
Gymnasium at Schaffhausen
Gymnasium in Frankfurt on the Main
Gymnasium at Heidelberg
Friedrich's gymnasium in Breslau
Gymnasium of St. Elizabeth, Breslau
Gymnasium at Rostock ,
Real-school at Luzern
German gymnasium at St. Petersburg
Gymnasium at Wiesbaden.
Gymnasium of the Johanueum in Hamburg
Christianeum gymnasium at Altona
Real-school of the Johanneum in Hamburg
Russian and German gymnasiasts, St. Petersburg
Leopoldstadt communal real-school and superior gymna-
sium at Vienna.
Gymnasium at Luzern
Gymnasium at Erlangen
In contrast with hypermetropia and emmetropia,
myopia becomes more and more prevalent, the higher
THE EYE: MYOPIA
the grade. In proof of this point we give the results
that have been obtained by investigations at the gym-
nasia or real-gymnasia at Rostock, Giessen, Wies-
baden 1 , Hamburg, Montabaur, Fulda, Konigsberg
(Prussia), Frankfurt a. M., and Magdeburg. The
following per cents were myopic :
no : ;
Myopia also increases with age, as is shown by these
^ S >o
*S* <1 < >
59. 3- $
1 H. Schmidt-Rimpler, Die Schulkurzsichtigkeit und
ihre Bekampfung. Leipzig, 1890, Wilh. Engelmann.
INCREASES WITH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE
Finally, statistics from Hamburg, Konigsberg, Ros-
tock, and Wandsbeck may be adduced to show that
short-sightedness increases with the number of years
of school attendance.
si ^ ^
\Ve must add, furthermore, that there is an increase
not only in the frequency but also in the degree of
myopia in the upper classes. The following table from
the three old gymnasia at Konigsberg give a clear
picture of the matter:
In Octava, 97 % of the myopic have the very slight
degree of ^ n t rg-th, and only 3 $ have the some-
what greater degree of ^tn to T Vth ; the higher de-
gree of T ^th to >Jth are not represented. In Prima
THE EYE: MYOPIA
on the other hand only 19.5$ of the myopic had the
slight degree of -fa to -g^th; 16.1$ "had the high
degree of y to -g-; and 8.1 $ had the highest degree of
Myopia varies similarly with the age of the Konigs-
While 92.25 $ of the eight year old myopes had the
lightest degree of g- 1 ^ to -fa; this was true of only
28.47$ of those eighteen years of age or over. On
the other hand, there was not a single ease with the
highest degree of myopia, >, among those eight
years of age, while 6.59$ of those eighteen years of
age or over were thus afflicted.
The table giving the variation in the degree of my-
opia with the number of years of attendance at school
is somewhat different:
NUMBER OF YEARS AT SCHOOL
Degree of myopia
9 & over
~ n 3
X j. .................
DISADVANTAGES OF GLASSES
Every degree of myopia is here represented in the
first school year. This can be readily explained by
lhe fact that a few of the older boys have just entered
school after having been exposed to the same detri-
mental influences in the private education they have
had up to this time, as their comrades in the public
schools. The table shows, nevertheless, very clearly
that the lighter degrees of myopia diminish through-
out the years of school attendance, while the inter-
mediate and higher degrees increase considerably.
The statement has often been made by doctors and
still oftener by educators that myopia entails no dis-
comfort or inconvience, but is, on the other hand, a
useful adaptation of the eye for near vision. I cannot
agree with this opinion. Glasses have to be worn at
all times with the higher degrees of myopia, and also
with the lighter whenever the person wants to look
at objects at a distance, which certainly cannot be
said to be pleasant. Furthermore, they often fail to
render service. On dusty roads, they become dirty;
in great changes of temperature, moist; and in rain
.and snow, they partly lose their transparency from
drops of water. In fact, in some cases, as for example
in bathing, they cannot be used at all. In other cases,
they may be forgotten and thus cause great trouble;
a soldier who loses his glasses is disarmed.
Pupils with the greater degrees of myopia are, more-
252 THE EYE: MYOPIA
over, limited in the choice of a profession. They can not
become sailors, or foresters, or farmers; and they are-
also excluded from serving their fatherland in arms.
The German army regulations of September 28 r
1875, count myopia as one of the defects which per-
manently disable a man for service, when the far point
of the better eye is 0.15 m. or less distant even if
the retinal sensitiveness is normal; this is myopia of
seven diopters, or ^ to J, according to the old method
of numbering. Diminution in the acuteness of vision
to one-fourth of the normal or less in the better eye,,
as is often the case with a high degree of myopia, is-
another reason for exclusion from military service^
Similarly, those with intermediate degrees of myopia,,
whose acuteness of vision is at the same time but \
to J of the normal, are considered fit for service only
conditionally, and are assigned to the reserves.
The requirements of the navy are still more severe,
In Austria the legal maximum is ^, or 1.25 diopters
of myopia. The German cabinet order of March 10 r
1874, considers an acuteness of vision of \ or less in-
sufficient, and an acuteness of from \ to f as adequate
for the imperial navy only when it can be made nor-
mal by the use of glasses.
It is true, the eyesight of the myopic can generally
be greatly improved by the use of suitable glasses;
nevertheless, the higher the degree of myopia, the
DANGER TO VISIOK 253
Tnore rarely do they attain to normal acuteness. Thus
In the classical schools at Hamburg the per cent of
pupils who wore glasses and yet had normal acuteness
of vision as follows:
For g-L 2-V , 64. 93 % For \ , 26. 66 %
For J __i_, 59.13$ For \ \, 13.33$
For T V T V, 36.66$ For and>, 0.00 %
The figures immediately below show what per cents
liad lost a third of their keenness of sight with the same
-degrees of myopia:
For si) ife 18.830 For , 53.33$
For A TT 27 - 95 $ For T * 40 - 00 #
For T V T V, 60.00 For | and >, 50.00 %
The per cent who possessed less than two-thirds of
their power of sight in spite of having accurately
fitted glasses was :
For ^V inr> 16.230 Fori 1, 20.00$
For ^ T V, 12.90$ For| , 46.06$
For T V T V, 3.33$ For i and >, 50.00$
The most serious thing is, however, that the myopic,
especially those in advanced stages, are continually
exposed to danger. Even in the case of the inter-
mediate degrees, the inner rectus muscle is liable to
lose its power and so occasion a good deal of trouble.
The person afflicted can use his eyes for near objects
only for a short time before he has a feeling of pres-
sure and tension; his tears begin to flow; and if his
254 THE EYE: MYOPIA
case is a bad one, distressing light flashes make their
appearance. Binocular observation of near objects is,
therefore, often wholly abandoned; and the sufferer
uses generally without being aware of the fact only
his better eye for reading and writing.
The danger is naturally more pronounced, the
greater the degree of myopia. The vitreous humor is
easily liquefied and made turbid; and the consequence
may be not only the production of those troublesome
shadows, knows as " mouches vol antes ", but also in
severe cases of a special kind of cataract, called in
opthalmology, the posterior polar cataract. Although
this by itself is a source of much trouble to the eye,
there is nevertheless a still greater danger, since, as
often happens in high degrees of myopia, inflamma-
tion of the choroid, hemorrhage in the retina, or the
loosening of the retina, and even green cataract may
set in. Sight is then either reduced to constant mini-
mum or is lost completely for all time, even with the
best of medical treatment.
Such grave consequences naturally demand that the
causes of myopia be investigated to the utmost, in
order that by avoiding them the development and
progress of this disease may as far as possible be pre-
Among the causal factors, heredity takes a promi-
nent place. As early as 1874, Dor was able to show
that direct inheritance played a part in 25 out of 42,
or in 59 #, of the cases of myopia in the city real
school in Bern. In Rostock, Thilenius found that out
of eleven families in which both parents were myopic,
the sons were similarly afflicted in eight, and em-
metropic in only three, short-sightedness being thus
inherited in 72.72^, or about three-fourths, of the
cases. The influence of heredity was not so marked,
when only one of the parents had myopia. Out of 68
near-sighted fathers, 37 had myopic, 27 emmetropic,
and 4 hypermetropic sons, the per cent of hereditary
cases being here 54.41 %. This per cent becomes
greater, however, when the mother is the parent that
is myopic. In 37 such cases, the sons were myopic in
28, and emmetropic in only 9 ; the hereditary influence
of myopia from the mother's side is thus represented
Pfliiger 1 , also, makes heredity a powerful predispos-
ing cause of myopia. According to him, families in
which the parents or ancestors have had the disease
have 15 % more myopic children than those in which
it has not occurred before. This is in harmony with
von Hippel's (see page 242) statistics from the gym-
nasium at Giessen, which show that 49.5 % of the myo-
1 Pfliiger, Professor J. Stillings Untersuchungen
iiber die Entstehung der Kurzsichtigkeit, kritisch
beleuchtet. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege,
1889, Xo. 5, p. 135 ff.
256 THE EYE: MYOPIA
pic pupils had myopic parents. Kirchner 1 obtained
nearly the same figures from the Friedrich and Leibniz
gymnasium at Berlin. The number of myopic pupils
whose parents were both emmetropic was here 22$;
those whose father alone was myopic, 34$; and those
whose parents were both myopic, 52 $.
In this field, the investigations of Motai have a
special value, since he examined not only the pupils,
330 in number, but also all the members of the fam-
ilies to which they belonged; and did not, like his pre-
decessors, content himself with hearsay evidence. He,
also, considers the influence of heredity in the produc-
tion of myopia as demonstrated. According to his
statistics, it is present in 216 out of the 330 families,
that is, in 65 % of the cases.
He says, further, that daughters very often inherit
myopia from their fathers (70 $) ; and boys, still oftener
from the mother (86 $). This I can myself 2 confirm.
In the classical schools in Hamburg, both parents
were myopic in 24 cases ; and in 20 ot these, that is,
X M. Kirchner, Untersuchungen iiber die Entstehung
der Kurzsichtigkeit. Zeitschrift fur Hygiene, 1889,
Vol. VII, 3, p. 397 if.
2 L. Kotelmann, Die Augen der Gymnasiasten und
Real-schiiler mit besonderer Riicksicht auf die neuesten
Untersuchungen. Neue Jahrbiicher fur Philologie
und Padagogik, 1877, II. Div., parts 6 and 7, p. 295 ff.
and p. 329 ff.
in 83.33$, myopia was transmitted to the sons. If
the father alone was myopic, as happened 112 times,
the sons inherited the defect in 50.89^ of the cases.
Near-sightedness on the part of the mothers has, how-
ever, a greater influence upon the eyesight of the sons.
In 43 cases in which the mother alone had the defect
the sons were myopic 25 times, the influence of hered-
ity being represented by 58.13 <f>.
We must not understand by hereditary transmission
that myopia passes over to the children directly, since
the new born are rarely short-sighted. It is rather a
disposition toward myopia that is inherited. This
may be due either to an insufficient thickness of the
sclerotic, which would favor the anterior-posterior
elongation of the eye-ball, or, as is assumed by Stil-
ling 1 , to a too great width of the forehead, which gives
a flattened shape to the eye-socket. In the latter case,
the cartilagenous trochlea through which the tendon
of the superior oblique muscle passes, has a low posi-
tion; and the pressure exerted by the muscle on the
eye-ball in convergent or downward movements of the
eye is greater than it would be if the trochlea were up
high. By this means the eye is gradually changed
from a spherical to a spheroidal form. Stilling accord-
J J. Stilling, Untersuchungen iiber die Entstehung
der Kurzsichtigkeit. Wiesbaden, 1887, J. F. Berg
258 THE EYE: MYOPIA
ingly believes that myopia is essentially a race problem.
In fact, it cannot be denied that the question of
race is important in the development of myopia. It
is much more prevalent among Hebrew than Christian
children. Nicati of Marseilles reported in 1879 that
he found 15 % of the Hebrews and only 8 % of the
Christians myopic. Sidney Stephenson made an in-
vestigation in the Central Foundation School in Lon-
don, and found 10.63$ of all Hebrew children thus
afflicted, which was nearly 5.5 times the number
among the Christian. Hebrew boys are particularly
liable to have this defect, the number being fully six
times that among the Christian boys. Kirchner, from
his investigations in the Friedrich and Leibniz gym-
nasium at Berlin, emphasizes the same fact, and Fizia
was surprised at the great number of myopes found
among the Hebrew children in the royal imperial su-
perior state gymnasium at Teschen.
According to the latter, German boys come next to
the Hebrew with respect to the frequency of myopia.
Among 174 Germans, 88 Polish, and 46 Czech *gym-
nasiasts, the per cents of myopic were respectively
37.9,29.5, and 28.2. "These figures indicate that
the Germans are more inclined toward myopia than
the Slavs." Similar results are obtained by compar-
ing German pupils'.'at higher institutions of learning
with English and French. Both in the French ly-
A RACIAL DEFECT 259
cees, and in the English colleges it has been shown
that myopia occurs less frequently than in the German
gymnasia and real-gymnasia. To be sure, the fact to
which Wiese calls attention, that so few English pupils
wear spectacles, cannot be taken as a demonstration of
this, since there is a far greater dislike for wearing
them in England than in Germany.
Finally, the proportion of university students who
are near-sighted is much greater in Germany than in
other countries. Out of 311 students in the Univer-
sity of California, 4.81$ were found to be myopic;
this is doubtless to be explained by the small amount
of preparatory work done. In Utrecht 27.07$; in
Leyden 28.22$; in Gronigen 31.82$ of the university
students were myopic. In Denmark the number rises
to 32. 3 $, and in the Eastern part of North America
to 35.47$; but it reaches its maximum in Germany
with 40 to 50 $.
As myopia very often originates from racial or
hereditary predispositions, one might suppose that the
school could refrain from combating the disease on
the ground that it would be powerless against it
This would be, however, a false inference. The fact
that pupils enter school with inherited or racial ten-
dencies and thus easily become myopic and so parents
of myopic offspring, is just the reason why they
should receive greater care. Those who are not thus.
260 THE EYE: MYOPIA
burdened should also be protected against myopia as
much as possible.
Aside from sufficient natural and artificial illumina-
tion, and seats and desks adjusted to the size of the
pupils, the first question to be considered in connec-
tion with this subject is that of the preparation of
hygienic school books. The paper used in them
should be of a uniform yellowish white, since pure
white is apt to prove dazzling. For the same reason
the paper must not be very glossy. It should, further-
more, contain as little wood pulp as possible and have
an adequate thickness of not less than 0.075 mm., so
as by both of these means to keep the print from
showing through. Wood pulp can be detected by the
microscope or by the application of a drop of sul-
phuric acid analine, which produces a brownish yellow
spot on such paper.
The print must be definite, deep black, and so large
as to be readable without difficulty. This will be the
case when all the peculiarities of a letter can be dis-
tinctly recognized at a meter's distance. It will re-
quire a minimum breadth of .25 mm. for each stroke,
and of at least 1 mm. for small n, which gives .25
mm. for each of the down strokes and .50 mm. for the
space between them.
According to Cohn 1 the height of small n is not to
1 Hermann Cohn, Lehrbuch der Hygiene des Auges.
Wien und Leipzig, 1892, Urban and Schwarzenberg.
TEXT BOOKS 261
be less than 1.50 mm. It is best, however, to make it
5 mm. for beginners in reading, and then gradually
reduce the height to 2 mm. by the end of the course
preparatory to the gymnasium. In the lower classes
of the latter 1.75 mm., in the upper 1.75 to 1.50 mm.
The shape of the letters as well as their size is of
importance for the prevention of myopia. The funda-
mental principle is to make them as simple as possible,
since every flourish makes recognition of them more
difficult. In this respect the Latin is to be preferred
to the German type 1 . The letters of the former are
composed of a few distinct elements, and make a more
forcible and definite impression; while the German
characters are often worked out at the expense of
clearness into a number of useless and entangling
parts. As a proof of this let us compare the two lines
On maps, coins, and monuments, where clearness is
especially desirable, it is, therefore, customary to use
the Roman alphabet almost exclusively. All the
nations around us, the French, Belgians, Dutch,
English, Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians print their
x Leo Burgerstein, Die Weltletter. Vortag, Wien,
1889, Karl Konegen.
262 THE EYE: MYOPIA
books in it ; and more than 250 millions of people use
nothing else. If this were the case with us also, our
children would be saved much time and trouble by not
having to learn the German type. Nevertheless, the
substitution of Roman type will doubtless long remain
only a pious wish, in spite of the efforts of numerous
The space between two successive letters or words,
the so-called "approach", is also important for the
hygiene of the eye. This should be .75mm. between
two letters of the same word ; and at least 2 mm. be-
tween adjacent words. The interlineage, or distance
between lines, must not be less than 2.5 to 3 mm.
The lines should be about 100 mm. long; Alsatian
expert advice does not permit a length of more than
80 to 90 mm. for school books. Long lines are un-
doubtedly harder to read than short ones; and news-
papers have, therefore, for a long time been printed in
narrow columns. This is due to the fact that the eye
has to move a considerable distance in passing from
one long line to another, which in the end proves
fatiguing. Besides this, the ends of such lines are
much farther away from the eye than the center, so
that considerable changes in accommodation have to
The last requirement for good print is that there
shall be a sufficiently wide margin at the sides, since
TEXT BOOKS 263
one is otherwise liable to get the lines mixed.*
How far our school books are from coming up to these
standards is well known. We will pass over the minia-
ture editions still occasionally used in our schools,
justly characterized as "eye-powders" in which the
Greek and Roman classics are wont to appear. There
are enough other books that injure the eyes. We need
only to call to mind the dictionaries in pearl type, the
tables of logarithms with their minute figures, and
maps upon which there is a confusion of names and
School boards should not permit the introduction of
books or other similar materials without having their
hygienic qualities pronounced satisfactory by compe-
tent persons. But it is possible for even such a book
to injure the eyes. In the course of time the ink is
rubbed off, the letters become more or less grey, and
lose their sharp contours. Long usage has a still more
detrimental effect, if as is often the case the books
are handled carelessly and with dirty hands, since the
. It will be observed that this page more
than corresponds with Dr. Kotelmann's requirements.
The height of the small m is If mm., the space be-
tween the letters of the word is nearly 1 mm., the
space between two successive words on the average
fully 2 mm., the space between the lines is 3.6 mm.,
and the lines are 87 mm. long.
2U4 THE EYE: MYOPIA
print is not then in clear enough contrast with the
But even if the book is hygienically unobjectionable,
the pupils should not read continuously more than
three-fourths of an hour to an hour. There should
then be an intermission, during which the eyes had
better look into the distance to relax the muscles of
accommodation and relieve the pressure from the
external rectus existing in near vision. This should
also be the time for cleaning spectacles, since moisture
and small particles of dust are likely to settle on them
on account of the great hygroscopic qualities of glass.
In general, it is better to limit reading in the schools
as much as possible and make the instruction oral.
The reading craze some boys have should be checked,
and those with a high degree of myopia should be
allowed only a limited use of the school library. There
is special danger at the time of convalscence from
children's diseases, since the patients are only too glad
to give themselves up to light reading; or they may
take up their school books to make up for lost time.
The foundation for myopia is often laid at such times,
since the eye has for a while less power of resistance.
Writing as well as reading requires careful manage-
ment, if myopia is not to replace hypermetropia or em-
metropia or be itself aggravated if it already exists.
The slate and pencil 1 should be banished even in the
first class of the preparatory school, and instead pen, ink,
and paper should be used from the start. The distinct-
ness and so the ease of recognizing what is written de-
pends largely upon the difference in brightness between
the back-ground and the letters. This difference is great
when black ink and white paper is used ; small, if the
materials are slate and pencil. When a slate is rubbed
off with a wet rag or sponge, the surface becomes
shiny at first, so that what is written does not stand
out with sufficient prominence. When it is dry it
usually has a gray coat, thus making it difficult to dis-
tinguish the pencil marks, which are also grey.
Comparative tests have been made which show that
writing on a slate with a slate-pencil can be read only
at a much less distance than writing on paper with
ink, the writing being in each case of the same size.
In the first case, the eyes have to be brought very near
the object; and this is generally assumed to be the
chief cause for the development of myopia. In addi-
tion boys who can write tolerably well with pencil on
the slate may not be able to write with pen on paper.
"They therefore really have to learn to write twice;
x Max Gruber, August Eitter v. Reuss, und Leopold
Konigstein, Drei Gutachten u'ber die Nachteile von
Schiefertafel und Griff el. Zeitschrift fur Schulge-
sundheitspflege, 1894, ^"os. 8 and 9, p. 449 ff.
266 THE EYE: MYOPIA
and are compelled to tax their eyes double what they
would if they had begun with pen and paper at the
To prevent myopia from developing in using pen and
paper, the following rules must be observed :
1. The ink should not be light but deep black, and
should have this color even before it dries. A bluish
or violet color, such as is often found in the aniline
inks, cannot be allowed.
2. Writing paper must have the qualities required
above for printing paper.
3. Tablets should not be more than 20 cm. long or
15 cm. broad. Tablets or copy books for vertical
script have considerably shorter lines, which is of ad-
vantage to the eye.
4. Writing systems with many guiding lines should be
avoided. The use of double lines for the small letters
and two other lines for the limits of the upper and
lower parts of the long letters is doubtless necessary for
beginners. Not more than four or five oblique lines
should be used on the horizontal line to give the in-
clination of the down strokes, as more would be a
nuisance. The change to simple double lines, not
more than three to five mm. apart should be made as
soon as possible ; and from these to the single line.
5. To use line-sheets instead of lines is unhygienic,
since they do not show through the paper clearly
enough. Red and blue lines are also indistinct and so
injurious; black guiding lines mark the limits of let-
ters best of all. Paper ruled into squares, which is
often used in work in addition, should be wholly done
away with, since it is particularly fatiguing to the eye.
It would be better if the eye and hand were not assisted
at all by any kind of lines.
With regard to the kind of script, the present double
standard in Germany deserves no commendation 1 . It
would be amply sufficient if our children learned the Lat-
in script alone, without the so-called German script,
which according to Jacob Grimm could with as much
propriety be called the Bohemian script. The German
written characters as well as the corresponding type is
not so readable as the Latin. Besides this, it takes longer
to write it, since it has a great many separate move-
ments and additions. According to Soennecken, the
'German written alphabet has 107 separate movements,
while the Latin has 68 ; seven movements are needed for
Mt for example and only three for in. Similarly, the
German printed alphabet has on the whole 36$ more
parts than the Latin.
Since the eye should not be less than 30 cm. away
from the line in writing, vertical penmanship deserves
*Leo Burgerstein, Die Weltletter. Yortrag, Wien,
1889, Karl Konegen.
THE EYE: MYOPIA
to be preferred to the ordinary slanting script. Seggel 1
has measured the distance of the root of the nose from
the writing paper in the case of 6,000 children, and
has obtained the following results :
Difference in favor
of vertical script
As will be seen from the table, the younger children
get nearer to the paper than the older. This may be
explained by the fact that they are not yet familiar
with the letters and so try to secure as large a retinal
image of them as they can. But it is especially for
these that close near-vision is so dangerous, since their
eyes have as yet only a slight power of resistance.
Another matter that is by no means unimportant in
the development of myopia is the handwriting of the
children. It should not be too small; the common
German /w should have a height of at least 2.5 mm.
" Docti male pingunt" (the learned are poor artists)
ought not to be true of our gymnasiasts and real-
gymnasiasts. Illegible writing injures not only their
1 Seggel, Bericht der vom Arztlichen Bezirksverein
Miinchen Zur Priifung des Einflusses der Steil- und
Schragschrift (Schiefschrift) gewiihlten Kommission,
Miinchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1892, No. 28
and 1893, No. 13 ff.
own eyes but those of the teachers who have to read
it in making corrections. Nevertheless, if a good hand
has been acquired in the lower grades it is usually
lost in the upper, by writing too much and too hastily.
In extempore exercises and work of a similar sort, dic-
tation should not be too rapid. Careless short-hand
work must also be avoided.
Drawing lessons may likewise increase or give rise to
myopia. Care should be exercised in shading with
fine lines. The so-called stigmographic method of
Stuhlmann 1 has justly been vigorously attacked. In
this the pupils draw even in the first year at school on
paper marked off into squares seven to eight milli-
meters on a side. The dim blue lines and the small
size of the squares compel the pupils to bring their
eyes close to the paper. This is still more the case
when they begin to use the stigmographic outlines in
the third year. These consist of points, one centi-
meter apart, arranged in vertical and horizontal rows.
The pupil has to find the direction for his pencil in
this confusion by mechanically counting the dots. We
must not fail, however, to mention a mitigating cir-
1 A Stuhlmann, Der Zeichenunterricht in der Volks-
und Mittelschule. I. Teil: Begrundung und Meth-
ode. Das Liniennetz-, Punktnetz-, und Stickmuster-
netzzeichnen. Urteile von Augenarzten. Abdruck
aus der Zeitschrift des Vereins deutscher Zeichenlehrer.
270 THE EYE: MYOPIA
cumstance, which many opponents of the method fail
to notice, namely, that the drawing itself is not in-
tended by Stuhlmann to last more than 10 to 15
minutes, the rest of the lesson consisting of oral ex-
planations during which the eyes can rest. Noth with-
standing this, we must concur with the decree of the
royal cultus-ministry of Bavaria, which on July, 1883,
prohibited the use of the stigmographic method in
Drawing is otherwise an excellent and healthful
training for the eyes, especially when it is not begun
till the age of ten, which is the age usually required
by teachers of drawing. Especially sketching from
nature can have only a favorable influence upon the
eye. Pupils should, therefore, be excused from draw-
ing only when their eye-sight is very imperfect, as for
example when they have spots on the cornea, partial
opacity of the lens, or some similar defect.
Colors are also sometimes used with the drawing ex-
ercises. An accurate discrimination of them is indis-
pensable in science courses. Chemical reactions and
zoological, botanical, and minerological objects, are
discriminated by means of them. Color-blind pupils
are, therefore, at a great disadvantage; the more so,
since their defect excludes them from many occupa-
tions, such as painting, the naval service, and the
external railroad service. In the latter, red and green
lanterns or flags are used ; and in the navy, in addition,
blue and yellow signals.
Young people often do not detect their color-blind-
ness till they have entered upon a career for which
they are unfitted by it. I have myself known gradu-
ates of our secondary schools to enter an academy of
art and spend the first year in sketching from anti-
quities and models-, only then to find on taking up
painting that their progress was stopped by this hither-
to unsuspected defect. Such cases are not so very
rare, since color-blindness is a rather frequent trouble.
In schools of Antwerp, 3.78 % of the boys and .72 % of
the girls were color-blind. The greater number among
the boys is due to the fact that colors play a less im-
portant part in their life than in that of the girls.
Teachers should accordingly endeavor to ascertain in
time which of their pupils are color-blind. The defect
may be either total or partial. In the first case, there
is an absence of all color sensations; and in the second,
of either of the color pairs, red-green or yellow-blue.
Sometimes it is only a matter of weakness of the
color sense which prevents the perception of certain
differences in shade.
As a color-blindness test for large numbers of pupils,
Holmgren's method is the best. A skein of worsted
of a certain color is placed before the pupil with the
request that he select from a number of different
272 THE EYE: COLOR-BLINDNESS
colored skeins that which is like it. The first sample
given is bright green. Whoever picks out the corres-
ponding skein quickly, without noticable hesitation
and comparison is not color-blind.
If anyone seems uncertain, or picks out the wrong
colors, he is given a rose-colored skein ; but this time
he is asked not only to pick out those of the same color,
but also those which differ from it only in shade.
Whoever passes in this test successfully but failed in
the other, has merely a weak color sense.
The really color-blind person, on the other hand,
makes characteristic mistakes; the red-blind putting
blue besides the rose color, the green-blind, green and
grey, and the violet-blind, red. The latter usually
place blue with green in the first trial.
To let a person name the color of different objects
is not an adequate test. For, on the one hand, many
of the color-blind learn the right names for the prin-
cipal colors by distinguishing them through their differ-
ences in brightness; and, on the other hand, many
pupils do not have the proper expressions for the
different colors, though possessed of normal color
In addition to the functional disturbances so far dis-
cussed, there are two external diseases of the eye,
which deserve the attention of teachers. One of these
DISEASES OF THE EYE 273
is the granular inflammation of the conjuctiva 1 .
It is characterized by a rosary like series of granules,
which look like frog spawn, and appear on the inside
of the lids, especially where the conjunctiva passes
from the lids to the eye-ball. This membrane conse-
quently begins to look uneven and rough ; and this has
led physicians to call the disease trachoma. It is
popularly known as the Egyptian inflammation of the
eyes, because in the expedition to Egypt by Napoleon
I, nearly his whole army was attacked by the contag-
ion, which is there endemic.
If the inflammation is acute the conjunctiva becomes
red and swollen and secretes more mucus. The latter
is the -bearer of the infectious material, which is
doubtless a micro-organism, though there is at present
no consensus of opinion as to its nature. The cornea
is often affected sympathetically and becomes over-
grown with vessels or ulcers. If the disease lasts for
months or years, or in other words becomes chronic,
the conjunctiva will be scarred and shrunken; and
the tarsal cartilages will be bent inwards so as to
bring the eye-lashes against the eyes, which keeps the
latter in a constant state of irritation. This is all
very injurious to the eye-sight; and trachoma still
holds the second place among the causes of blindness.
1 Perlia, Leitfaden der Hygiene des Auges. Hamburg
u. Leipzig, 1893, Leopold Voss.
274 DISEASES OF THE EYE
It is most common in the eastern sections of Ger-
many especially in the common schools. In the vil-
lage schools in Livland 17.6$, and in the elemen-
tary schools at Samter in the province of Posen 20 $
were afflicted with the disease ; and in Wehlau in East
Prussia, all the common schools had to be closed on
account of it.
On the other hand, in the circle of Heiligenstadt in
the government district of Erfurt, Schmidt-Kimpler
found only 5 % in the village schools, and only 2.4 % in
the city schools suffering from trachoma. In fact, in
the gymnasium at Heiligenstadt, there was only one
among the 203 pupils troubled with granulated lids.
He found the conditions similar in the gymnasia,
real-gymnasia, and progymnasia of the province of
Hessen-Xassau, since there was only one case among
the 1,662 pupils.
These figures make it clear that trachoma is not so
frequent among the boys from the upper and more
cultured classes. The spreading of the disease is in
these cases prevented by greater cleanliness and care
and more favorable conditions at home.
For this reason not every boy suffering with trachoma
should be unconditionally excluded from the gym-
nasia and real-gymnasia. The Austrian royal-imperial
government of Kiistenlande, where trachoma is in-
digenous, excludes only severe cases : that is, cases with
many granulations and much mucous discharge, and
likely to be a means of communicating the disease to
other pupils. Those with lighter attacks are permitted
to take part in the school work, yet not without the
necessary precautions. They must not use 'the com-
mon wash basins or towels, nor touch the persons,
books, or other effects belonging to their comrades.
For it is quite customary for the patients to rub their
eyes and in that way get the infectious secretion on
their hands. The healthy pupils must for their part
avoid coming in contact with the property or persons
of such pupils as have the disease. If a number of
pupils in a boarding-school should fall victims to
trachoma, it is better not to send them home but to
have them treated at the institution, so as to prevent
the spreading of the disease in still wider circles.
Follicular inflammation 1 of the conjunctiva is not
so dangerous. In this case, also, there are protuber-
ances in this membrane, which are hemispherical or
oval in shape, but which have a transparent, cyst-like
appearance, and a light pinkish color, while the gran-
ulations are yellow and opaque, and usually larger and
more numerous. There is never any extreme swelling
of the conjunctiva, so that it always keeps its smooth
appearance ; it is, therefore, only slightly hyperaemic,
and the discharge of mucus is not very great. The
1 Perlia, Leitf aden der Hygiene de,s Auges. Hamburg
u. Leipzig, 1893, Leopold Voss.
276 DISEASES OF THE EYE
follicles are often very stubborn and give rise to all
sorts of discomforts, such as burning and itching of
the eye-lids and a feeling as if there were dust or sand
in the eyes. The trouble becomes worse towards
night. The eyes become abnormally sensitive toward
artificial illumination, and the eye-lids feel tired and
heavy. On awakening in the morning they are found
to be cemented together with dried mucus, and open-
ing them is painful. In some cases, especially those
that are chronic, the patient knows nothing of his
trouble, and the little protuberances in the conjunctiva
are discovered only by accident.
In the last decade the disease has proved to be re-
markably infectious, since severe and wide-spread
epidemics have often sprung up around single pupils
who introduced it into the schools. These epidemics
have usually travelled from east to west. It is sup-
posed that the extreme dryness of the atmosphere in
eastern and central Europe favors their development
there, especially when the ground in winter is not
covered with snow but is ready to give off dust. In
1885, epidemics originating in the schools of East
Prussia spread thence to Silesia and Saxony, and were
finally observed in Bremen and the region about Dort-
mund. Krug 1 gives a description of such an epidemic
1 W. Krug, Eine Epidemic von follikularer Binde-
Iiautentziindung in den Schulen Dresdens. Zeitschrif t
fur Schulgesundheitspnege, 1891, Xo. 2, p. 81 ff.
FOLLICULAB INFLAMMATION 277
in Dresden. At first only 12 children in a class in the
preparatory school were attacked ; but the disease then
went from school to school till 4,000 pupils were suffer-
ing from it.
Moreover, the follicular inflammation, in contrast
with the granular, occurs not less but rather more
frequently in the higher than in the lower schools.
Among 919 pupils in the village schools of the district
of Heiligenstadt, Schmidt-Rimpler found 56, or 6.09 %
and among the 1,151 pupils of the city elementary
schools 72, or 6.25$, afflicted with the trouble. In
the Heiligenstadt gymnasium, on the other hand, 25
out of 203, or 12.3$, had the disease; and among a
large number of gymnasiasts and real-gymnasiasts
of Hessen-^assau, it reached the high figure of 27 $,
in which case pupils with just a few isolated follicles
must have been counted.
If an epidemic of this follicular catarrh breaks out
in a school, the teachers must double their precautions
to keep the air pure and free from dust and moisture.
Those affected should be excluded from school till a
ph} r sician certifies that they are entirely cured, or at
least beyond the stage when the disease can be com-
municated, since the number of pupils involved is
large and the spreading of the infection consequently
rapid. Regular examinations of the eyes of the pupils
have proved to be an important prophylactic measure,
278 DISEASES OF THE EYE
since by this means new cases can be discovered and
removed at once. Besides this, contaminated class-
rooms or sitting-rooms, and bed-rooms should be dis-
infected by rubbing the walls with bread and scouring
the floors and washing the furniture with carbolic acid
HYGIENE OF THE EAR
After the eye, the ear is the most important sense ;
and we shall therefore next. devote our attention to
the hygiene of this organ in schools. Since v. Reich-
ard first tested the hearing of school children in Riga,
in 1878, many similar investigations have been made
in Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, France, England,
Sweden, Russia, and the United States.
Among these, the work of Fr. Bezold 1 in Munich
deserves special consideration, not only because he has
made a thorough study of statistical material obtained
from 1,918 school children; but also because he devel-
oped the method of making the tests so that it will
serve as a model for a long time to come.
To ascertain the acuteness of hearing he uses whis-
pering, preferably the whispering of numbers. As
compared with the older method with the watch, which
is still much in use, this new one is a great deal more
reliable, especially in the case of the younger pupils,
since they show by repeating the whispered numbers
'Friedrich Bezold, Schuluntersuchungen iiber das
Kindliche Gehororgan. Miinchen, 1885.
280 THE EAR
whether they have heard and understood them cor-
rectly. Of course only one ear at a time is tested, the
other being closed by holding some cloth against it.
Since those who are hard of hearing try to read the
numbers from the lips, the examiner turns his face
away from them in whispering. Two place numbers
are always selected; and the difficult figures 7, 6, and
5, which are often confused, receive special considera-
It is only when the difficult combinations these make
are also correctly reproduced that the distance of
the pupil from the examiner is taken to be the limit of
hearing. According to many experiments, a distance
of 20 m. for those with normal hearing to which class
children especially belong is rather too low than too
high a limit in a quiet neighborhood. If the tests are
made in the day time in large cities, where noise can-
not be excluded, a distance of 16 m. may be considered
The number of pupils who fall below this standard
is really quite considerable. Von Eeichard, who was
physician of the gymnasium at Riga, found that
23.2$ out of 1,055 pupils had defective hearing.
Wiel made still more extended investigations in Stutt-
gart, testing as many as 5,905 pupils in the elementary
and secondary schools. The numbers found hard of
hearing varied in this case from 10 to 30 $, according
TESTS OF HEARING 281
to the social conditions of the pupils; it was greatest
in an elementary school attended only by the poor, of
whom 353 out of 1,105, or nearly one-third, were
deficient to a marked degree;
In Washington, Samuel Sexton tested 570 pupils in
different institutions and found 13 % considerably de-
fective in hearing. In Bordeaux 17 $ were found de-
fective by Moure ; in Minden 20.9$ by Ohleman 1 ;
in Paris 22 to 25 % by Gelle 2 ; and in Glasgow 27.66 %
by Thomas Barr. Similarly, Bezold ascertained that
25.8$ out of 1,918 pupils in the elementary and sec-
ondary schools in Munich could hear a whisper only at
one-third the normal distance; and 11.3$ of these
could understand the whisper only at from 4 to
meters instead of at 25 to 20. In St. Petersburg
Shermunski examined 2,221 children in 50 different
city schools, and found 388, or 17.42 $, with diminished
power of hearing.
The number with defective hearing seems to be
smaller in the higher than in the lower schools ; but
the percentage obtained by H. Schuschny in the superior
state-real-school in district V. in Budapest are excep-
^hlemann, Beitrag Zu Schuluntersuchungen des
Gehororgans. Archiv fur Ohrenheilkunde, 1895, Vol.
39, part 1, ff. 1.
2 Gelle, Conditions de 1' Audition dans 1'ecole. An-
nales d'hygiene publique, 1883.
282 THE EAR
tionally favorable. His figures show that only 6.2$
were hard of hearing; and they were distributed
among the different classes as follows: Class I, 7.7$;
11,6.7$; 111,6.6$; IV, 3.9$; V, 6.5$; VI, 9.3$;
and VII 8. 8$. But when, according to a report by
the Prussian minister of education, the teachers in the
higher institutions within his jurisdiction find only
2.18$ defective, this number must certainly be ques-
tioned, since it is in disagreement with the results of
every other investigation.
Since the tests were in this case made without the
aid of a physician, only the most severe cases were
reported; while slight and intermediate degrees were
It might naturally be supposed that a deficiency in
hearing so small as to be ascertainable only by means
of a watch or a whisper 1 , that is, by a delicate test,
could be of no special disadvantage to pupils, on the
ground that they can follow the recitations in spite of
it. But this would be an erroneous notion. Of all
the requirements made of the ear, one of the most
difficult is the understanding of language. The cause
of this is the great number of consonants that are
crowded together; since these have the nature of
J C. Keller, Der Geh'orssinn in Seinen Beziehungen
Zur Schule. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege,
1888, No. 4, p. 105 ff.
DISADVANTAGE OF AUDITORY DEFECTS 283
noises, they are not so readily apprehended as the
Towels, which are more like musical tones. The fact
that pupils with normal hearing can easily follow the
teacher, ;s only apparently in contradiction with this
.statement. For, as the eye in reading does not see
the individual letters as such, but, as a consequence
of long practice, takes in the words as a whole, so the
ear catches the spoken word as an entirety, needing
often only a few characteristic sounds for the purpose.
For this reason a pupil with defective hearing can for
some time correctly understand lectures, dictations,
and similar exercises ; but his attention will gradually
weaken under the severe strain, and by failing to hear
one or more words he may lose the sense altogether.
A pupil with normal hearing can in such a case usually
catch the connection from what follows; while the
pupil with defective hearing finds it much more diffi-
cult to do so. His embarrassment is especially great
when new words are involved, as is often the case in
loreign languages, history, geography, and natural
science, because he finds it impossible to fill out the
part of the word which he does not hear.
In school work, those hard of hearing are usually
behind pupils of normal hearing, even if their defect
is slight. Out of twenty pupils between the ages of
ten and eighteen who were reported to Gelle (see page
281) as the poorest in the school, only four had good
284 THE EAR
hearing, while sixteen were defective in either one or
both ears. Similar results were obtained by Sher-
munski 1 . Among boys who could understand a whis-
per at from 24 to 12 meters the ratio of good to poor
students was 4.19:1; among those whose hearing was
one-half to one-third of the normal, the ratio was
2.6 : 1; and among those whose hearing was less than
one-third, it was 1.7 : 1.
A comparison of the hearing power of bright and
dull pupils was made not only at Paris and St. Peters-
burg but also at Glasgow. Barr asked the teachers to
pick out seventy of each kind. The result of the ex-
amination was as follows: of those with both ears
defective, four were bright, ten were dull; and of
those with one ear defective, ten were bright and fif-
teen dull. Here also there were relatively more dull
pupils among those hard of hearing.
Finally, as an additional proof of the dependence of
the mental development of school children upon their
ability to hear, we may mention the investigation made
by W. Permewan in a school in Liverpool. The teach-
ers classified 62 of the 203 pupils as dull, 52 as medium,
and' 89 as bright. The average distance at which the
ticking of a .watch could be heard was 31 J- inches for
^hermunski, Untersuchungen des Gehors der Kin-
der schulpflichtigen Alters in den Petersburger Stadt-
schulen. Wratsh, 1888, Xos. 38 and 39.
DULNESS OFTEN FKOM AUDITORY DEFECTS 285
the 62 dull pupils; 47J for the 52 medium; and 51
for the 89 bright pupils. This makes the hearing
power of the dull one-half, that of the medium three-
fourths, and that of the bright five-sixths that of the
normal, which was sixty inches.
In view of these facts, it is evidently the duty of
teachers to pay particular attention to the hearing of
pupils who through slow progress, inattention, or ab-
sent-mindedness give occasion for frequent censure.
This is the more necessary because slight defects of
hearing, often even grave defects, are frequently un-
recognized, not only by the afflicted person's friends,
but by the person himself. When he talks to his par-
ents or comrades, he hears well enough, since he is so
near; why should he suspect that his hearing is inade-
quate in school ? The teacher himself often fails to
understand the matter ; for the acuteness of hearing
of such pupils is in not a few cases subject to great
variations. If the teacher has satisfied himself one
day that a pupil's hearing is good, it will be difficult
for him to believe the contrary a few days later ; he
will rather be inclined to blame the pupil for shirking
Auditory defects in which the ability to hear fluctu-
ates are usually due to the so-called adenoid vegeta-
tions 1 , a disease of the upper part of the pharynx. In
^aximillian Bresgen, Uber die Bedeutung behinder-
ter Nasenatmung, insbesondere bei Schulkindern.
286 THE EAR
the roof of the pharynx, there is a glandular forma-
tion, which resembles the tonsils somewhat, and has
therefore been called the third, or pharyngeal tonsil.
Like the other tonsils this gland is capable of becom-
ing much enlarged, and it is customary to find a simul-
taneous swelling in the surrounding adenoid tissue.
This is loosely built and remarkably vascular ; and it
can therefore change in size according to the amount
of blood poured into it. If the enlargement is con-
siderable, it closes the Eustachian tubes, which connect
the cavities of the ear drums witk^the pharynx.
These tubes are ordinarily opened in -swallowing or
blowing the nose, so as to admit air to fKese cavities. If
this is prevented by the closure above mentioned, the
pressure on the tympanic membrane may be so great
from the difference in the tension of the air in the exter-
nalauditory meatus and the middle ear as to produce
deafness. This will explain why the afflicted pupils may
at one time hear well and at another badly, as it will
Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1889, No. 10 y
p. 507 ff. Viktor Lange, Uber den Einfluss behinder-
ter Nasenatmung auf die korperliche und geistige
Entwickelung der Kinder. Ibid., 1893, No. 6,
p. 313 if. The same, Uber eine hiiufig vorkommende
Ursache der langsamen und mangelhaften geistigen
Entwickelung der Kinder. Vortrag. Berliner klinische
Wochenschrift, 1893, No. 6.
ADENOID VEGETATIONS 287
be according to the amount of enlargement of the
Such boys should receive special consideration for
other reasons than that they have defective hearing.
From the stoppage of the posterior nares by these
swellings they suffer constantly with pressure in the
head, just the same as if the nose was stopped by a
bad case of catarrh. The consequence is that they
are unable to direct their attention or give their
thoughts to a subject for any length of time, a
condition which Guye has named aprosexia nasalis
(a TTpocre^eiv, sc. vovv).
If the extuberances are cut away, there is always an
improvement and often a complete mental change.
Study is no longer a hardship for pupils thus operated
upon. Their memories improve and they begin to
take pleasure in their lessons. Xot only should such
favorable results encourage us to watch for these cases ;
but so also should the fact that they can usually be
readily recognized even by persons without special
training. Those suffering from adenoid growths talk,
as we say, through the nose; and, since the nose is
closed, breathe through the mouth, which they conse-
quently nearly always keep open. This gives them a
peculiar, stupid expression ; and in grave cases one
would think he was in the presence of an idiot.
Figures 36 and 37 give aji illustration of a boy with
adenoid vegetations respectively before and after the
operation of removal.
FIG. 36. BOY WITH ADENOID VEGETATIONS, BEFORE THE
Other diseases of the throat besides those described
may affect hearing sympathetically, if they can spread
through the Eustachian tubes into the middle ear.
Pathogenic bacteria find an especially favorable soil in
the diseased mucous membrane of the pharynx, and
they can then travel by the ways mentioned into the
tympanic cavities. In acute infectious diseases like
scarlet fever, measles, diphtheria, influenza, typhus,
and small pox, no other sense organ is so frequently
attacked as the ear. The purulent inflammation of
the pharynx spreads to the middle ear, where it can
FIG. 37. THE SAME AFTER THE OPERATION
easily eat through the tympanic membrane or destroy
the auditory ossicles and so produce deafness, which
will be complete if the labyrinth should also be affected.
The school can no more be held responsible for such
cases, unless we refer to the propagation of infectious
diseases by it, than for auditory defects due to general
constitutional troubles like scrofula, rickets, tuber-
culosis, or anaemia.
290 THE EAR
On the other hand, there are also some unfavorable
influences in school that may prove injurious to hear-
ing. We should in the first place mention dust and
overheated air, which irritate mucous membranes either
mechanically or thermically, and, as we know, often
produce catarrh of the pharynx and so of the ear.
Cold drafts are also injurious, especially in damp or
windy weather, since they can then produce an inflam-
mation of the tympanum. The ventilation of class-
rooms during recesses should accordingly be done with
care. To be sure, many pupils do not have their hear-
ing affected even by strong drafts ; but in others, again,
the ears become sensitive and have a feeling of pres-
sure, fullness, and pain as the premonitory symptoms
of inflammation. Pupils with aural diseases should
therefore have their ears protected when they are out
on the play-ground in damp, cold weather; such pro-
tection is, however, not necessary in fine weather or
inside the building.
Violent noises also endanger the sense of hearing.
They sometimes produce a loud buzzing in the ears ;
and may even occasion temporary or permanent loss of
function, probably because they give motion to the
fluid in the labyrinth, whereby the end-organs of the
auditory nerve are torn from their usual fastenings
and become irritated or paralyzed.
Such concussions are liable to occur, for example,
VIOLENT NOISES AVOIDED 291
in lessons in chemistry, when oxyhydrogen gas or a-
mixture of coal-gas and air is allowed to explode,
Small boys sometimes yell or whistle too loudly in each
other's ears. Something similar happens often in sing-
ing, or in concert recitations of sentences, numbers,
vocables, etc., in the lower classes. Furthermore,
many of our teachers, especially those who are most
enthusiastic in their calling, have acquired the habit
of talking unnecessarily loud, which also diminishes
the hearing ability of the pupils.
"The national custom of the English, whether in
public, in church, or in parliament, of speaking in gent-
ler but more distinct tones, and with greater slowness,
where special emphasis is required, is very worthy of
imitation and of equal advantage to both the throat
and ear." By training, that is, by giving careful and
methodical attention to weak sense impressions, the
pupil can improve his hearing as well as his eye-sight.
To put these precepts into practice it is, of course,
necessary to have the class-rooms situated as far as
possible from the noises of the street; to have no
arched ceilings with strong resonance; and to have
the singing exercises conducted in special rooms, so
that the sound may not disturb the recitations. Those
especially who have one of the ears defective should
be careful not to neglect it but turn it often toward
the teacher and use it as much as possible in listening.
292 THE EAR
Teachers cannot be cautioned enough against boxing
the ears. In this mode of punishment, the tympanic
membrane is easily ruptured by the sudden compres-
sion of the air; and though it usually heals without
any after-effects, more or less time is required for the
purpose. In many cases, on the other hand, ringing
in the ears and deafness are the result, especially in
those cases in which the drum-head has not been rup-
tured. In the latter event the full force is transmitted
from the tympanic membrane to the stapes and from
this to the labyrinth, where paralysis may be produced
by the concussion.
Even death has been known to follow a box on the
ear. In one case of such punishment, a little blood
flowed from the ear immediately after the blows were
given, on account of the splitting of the tympanic
membrane ; and slight dizziness set in. In thirty-six
hours there was a discharge of bloody matter; later
of pure matter, accompanied by great dizziness, quick-
ened pulse, and lower temperature. In a few days
there was found that besides the rupture of the ear
drum and the purulent inflamation of the tympanic
cavity, an effusion of blood had taken place in the
outside membranes and the lateral ventricles of the
Not only blows on the ear but blows on the temples
and pulling of the ear are to be avoided, since this,
OBJECTS IX THE EAR 293
too, may produce rupture of the tympanic membrane
and bleeding in the middle .ear and the labyrinth.
Finally, with younger pupils in particular, foreign
bodies introduced into the ear play a not unimportant
part among the things which are harmful. Children
sometimes scratch their ears with small objects, as for
example with a lead pencil or pen-holder, and a piece
breaks off and is lodged inside. In an examination
made in a school, Nager twice found objects in the
outer auditory meatus of which the possessors were
themselves ignorant. One boy had the movable metal
ring of a pen-holder wedged fast in his ear, fortunately
a few millimeters away from the tympanic membrane
so it could be removed without damaging it. Another
had two large wads in each ear, evidently put in at
different times, after the extraction of which his limit
of hearing rose from between one and two to seventeen
Foreign bodies are as a rule not easy to remove, if
unskilled persons have tried to get them out before-
hand. For this reason, teachers had better not make
the attempt at all. Through ignorant and awkward
manipulation the objects may be driven still further
into the ear, so as to perforate the drum-head and
even penetrate into the tympanum, where they pro-
duce inflammation and its consequences. Unprofes-
sional attempts at extraction accordingly make the
294 THE EAR
work of removal by the specialist more difficult and in
fact may even make an extensive operation necessary,
such as the cutting away of the bones or the partial
severing of the arteries. Death has even resulted from
Water in the outer auditory passage is also to be
looked upon as a foreign body. In most cases it gives no
special trouble, because it rarely reaches the tympanic
membrane on account of the curvature of the passage.
Many times, however, the external meatus and the
mucous membrane of the tympanum become inflamed,
especially where the passage is straight, for both
pressure and low temperature act as irritants. Teach-
ers in taking pupils bathing must see that they hold
their heads high enough in wading and swimming so
that the water may not get into the ears, mouths, or
noses ; for it can easily flow from the nose and pharnyx
through the Eustachian tubes into the tympanum. If
one does not wish to dispense with ducking and div-
ing, the ears should have stoppers soaked in oil. But
since this process is rather inconvenient, we prefer to rec-
ommend closing the ear passages with the fore-fingers.
Good hearing is of distinct advantage to pupils in
speaking and singing, as is made evident by the disa-
greeable voices usually possessed by deaf mutes; and
we will therefore next consider the vocal organs.
THE HYGIENE OF THE VOCAL ORGANS
Experiments upon the compass of the voices of chil-
dren just entering upon school work have been made
by Ed. Engel, who examined 624 boys six years of age.
His conclusions differ somewhat from views so far
entertained. He found that a fourth of the number
of pupils could sing the low tones, f . g, a. The inten-
sity of these tones was not very great ; yet they were
produced without effort and were capable of further
development. The compass was four tones for 13.3 %
of the boys; five for 9.13$; six for 17.91$; seven
for 17.32$; and eight for 6.25$. A few had a
still greater range, one boy producing ten and a
half tones, from f to b' ; six boys eleven tones from
g to c".
While Engel dealt only with boys six years old, E.
Paulsen examined 2,685 cases from six to fifteen years
of age. According to him, the singing compass in the
sixth year is from b to f ". The increase in height of
pitch is gradual, amounting to four whole tones, the
X E. Paulsen, Die Singstimme der Kinder. Pfliigers
Archiv, 1896, Vol. 61, p. 407 ff.
THE YOCAL ORGANS
highest point, c '", being reached in the twelfth year.
In depth boy's voices move down about four and a half
tones, the lowest limit, d, being attained in the thir-
teenth year. Their compass is consequently, when
the voices are fully developed, nearly three octaves,
from d to c'".*
Engel gave attention also to the discriminative ability
for tones ; but he fails to tell us what he considers the
normal limits to be. Among the 624 boys, 17.3$
were found to have poor or inadequate sensibility for
Experiments of a more systematic nature have been
carried on by J. A. Gilbert 1 who made use of a specially
constructed instrument for ascertaining children's dis-
criminative ability for tones. This was least in the
* The following table from Helmholtz's Sensations of
Tone, p. 17, gives the notation and pitch of the gen-
eral system of musical notes.
J J. Allen Gilbert, Experiments upon the musical
sensitiveness of school children. Studies from the
Yale psychological laboratory, edited by Edward "VV.
Scripture, 1893, Oct. 1st, pages 80-87.
CAPACITY FOE SINGING 297
sixth year; though, even at that time, half-tones
could be easily distinguished. It then improves rap-
idly up to the ninth year. At the end of the tenth,
it sinks a little. Then comes a more gradual increase
of ability up to the fourteenth year, when there is an-
other retardation. At fifteen the last period of
development sets in, reaching its maximum at nine-
teen. The depression in the tenth and fourteenth
years are connected by Gilbert with two epochs in
general development, namely, the second period of
dentition and puberty.
Since pupils six years of age have, according to
these investigations, a register of from six to seven
tones, and possess besides sufficient acuteness of hear-
ing, instruction in singing can begin with the seventh
year. Garbini maintains that children of about this
age, in fact as young as four or five, have a 'great
enough compass for singing; and that they can not
only repeat a tune accurately, but give it its musical
The expert deputation for medical affairs in Prussia
also advise that instruction in singing begin with the
seventh year; but they require very properly that the
voices of children of this age should not be over-
strained, and believe that lessons of an hour's duration
are too long for children of six. In accordance with
these views, a circular letter of the Prussian cultus-
298 THE YOCA.L ORGANS
minister of April 23, 1883, prescribes two half-hour
periods of singing per week for the preparatory classes
of higher institutions of learning, " as a suitable and
delightful exercise for pupils of that age ". Garbini
says that two-part chorus exercises even are permis-
sible for children in these years of school work. If
the chorus is made up of boys six or seven years of
age, the exercises should have a range of about six
tones at first, and of eight tones after eight months
training. Younger and older boys should not be al-
lowed to sing together, except when the song is adapted
to the younger.
In Sexta and Quinta, instruction in singing has always
been obligatory in Prussia. Participation in the work
by the pupils of the upper classes has on the other
hand been optional for those who ' ' through talent or
special inclination desire to continue it. " This option
was, however, justly revoked in 1882, so that now
pupils are excused from singing only when a physician
certifies to its necessity, or the teacher finds an abso-
lute lack of musical ability.
From a hygienic point of view, the new regulation
deserves the preference, because singing is excellent ex-
ercise not only for the throat and larynx but also for
the lungs, to say nothing of its cheering effect upon
emotions. With respect to the influence upon the
lungs, Wassiljeff has shown that regular singing
HYGIENE OF SINGING 299
practice extends them and increases their vital capacity.
This fact is supported by a statement from Barth, that
professional singers can exhale on an average 5,000
ccm. of air, while the corresponding number for
ordinary people is only 3,222 ccm. As to details, the
following hygienic rules are to be observed in the sing-
1. Care should be taken to have the air especially
pure and free from dust. As the production of tones
requires increased expirations, it naturally gives rise
to deeper inspirations. Dust and other impurities can
then enter the bronchial tubes.
2. The temperature in the room had better be below
than above 14 R = 17.5 = 63.5 F. (In the
United States the temperature is usually 5 F. higher.
See page 121.)
3. Singing makes a person warm. If the pupils are
to leave the place at the end of the hour, time should
under certain circumstances be allowed before its close
for cooling off.
4. The pupils should stand while they sing ; if they
sit, the organs of the chest and abdomen are likely
to be compressed, while the free movement of the
lungs and diaphragm is especially necessary in singing.
But we must not forget that long continued standing
is exhausting. The entire weight of the body rests
upon the joint cartilages; the ligaments are stretched,
300 THE YOCAL OKGANS
and the muscles which keep the legs straight and in
equilibrium are in constant contraction. %
Singing like any other physical exercise is fatiguing;,
and in fact quite strongly so according to the investi-
gations of Kemsies. As far as the lungs are con-
cerned, it is true this fatigue is not so much to be
feared, since in case of over exertion the larynx loses
its power first. Nevertheless, singing should not be
continued too long uninterruptedly, but should be
broken by adequate intermissions during which the
pupils should be seated.
5. For the same reason, singing in subdued tones
should be practised, both because it is less taxing and
because too loud singing may injure the vocal cords.
The teacher must especially see to it that the pupils
do/not sing'the Jiigh notes louder than the low notes,
as they usually do.
6. The chin should not be lowered in singing the low,,
nor raised in singing the high notes.
In the first case, singing is made more difficult by
the closing of the entrance to the larynx by the arch-
ing of the base of the tongue. The chin is also low-
ered in bending too far over the music sheet, which
should accordingly be held at a proper height.
7. The teacher must not fail to have breathing
exercises in the song period, such as having the pupils
hold a tone, now soft, now loud, or crescendo or
diminuendo, while he counts the seconds.
HYGIENE OF SINGING 301
8. The most important thing, however, is never to
allow a pupil to sing at a pitch unsuited to his voice,
that is, too high in the case of soprano, or too low in
the case of alto ; by such a procedure the muscles of
the larynx would be over-strained.
9. In a two-part chorus, the boys should be placed
so that the second part may be sung by those who can
give the lower notes with the greatest ease. Since low
tones produce less effect than high tones, to prevent
the former from being drowned out by the latter,
fewer pupils should be assigned to the first than to the
second parts, say, in the ratio of one to two, if the
boys are of the same age ; or one to four if they are of
different ages, the difference being due to the fact
that the voices of older boys are more powerful than
those of the younger.
10. When the voice changes at puberty, it takes on
a new pitch. Soprano is usually transformed into
tenor, and alto into base. There should be no singing
while this transformation is incomplete. Pupils who
participate in the singing lessons should receive special
care from their fourteenth to their seventeenth years.
If they do not receive it, the voice is often permanently
injured. It is especially liable to break. During the
period of puberty the larynx changes rapidly both in
form and size. The relation between the cartilages,
vocal cords, and muscles is then suddenly altered, so
302 THE YOCAL OKGANS
that the latter do not have the proper feeling for the-
new conditions of tension, and the voice consequently
fails or cracks. If the voice is not given the neces-
sary rest at this time, these high cracked tones become
fixed and remain even after growth is complete. The
lost muscle sensations are not fully recovered ; and the
muscles of the larynx, adapted to its former small
size, are over-strained, so that the vocal cords only
produce a sort of crowing tone.
The hygiene of the voice in speaking, that is, in
the cultivation of distinct and musical articulation, is
no less important than the hygiene of the voice in
singing. For this reason, pupils should not begin to
read too early. Boys just entering school cannot pro-
duce more than half the sounds correctly ; and to try
to make them read at once is unnatural.
In the reading lessons, the effort should first of all
be made to train the pupils into correct habits of ex-
pression, the more so since the little mistakes in lan-
guage can never be so easily corrected as at the begin-
ning. In these exercises, the vowels should be
pronounced sharply and clearly, but naturally and
with chest tones; and the teacher should see that the
pupil holds the mouth in the proper position. The
tone should be as agreeable as possible, neither too
soft, nor too piercing. It is therefore best to have the
vowels practised in different pitches, intensities, and
CORRECT ARTICULATION 303
lengths. The articulation of the consonants must be
clear and distinct but not affected 1 .
The more difficult combinations require special drill.
The teacher must also see that the breath is used
properly in speaking; breathing should not be very
rapid but slow and deep.
It is only when correct articulation has been
developed in this way, that reading lessons should be-
gin. In these, the phonic method is now doubtless
generally in use instead of the a, b, c, spelling method
formerly employed; and it is to be preferred since it
is based upon the physiology of the letter sounds.
But on the other hand, paradoxical as it may seem, it
has the great disadvantage of making the children
learn to read too quickly Aside from the discrepancy
which thus arises between mental development and
the mechanical ability to read, the normal speech of
the children is greatly injured thereby. For it is not
a question of how soon a boy can learn to read, but
whether he can read with clear pronunciaton and cor-
In this respect much still remains to be desired, even
in the upper grades of our higher institutions of learn-
ing. One of our most experienced medical speech
1 Adriano Garbini, Evoluzione della voce nella
infanzis. Con 10 tab. Verona, 1892, G. Franchini.
304 THE YOCAL ORGANS
experts, Dr. H. Gutzmann 1 , assures us that " The way
gymnasiasts read their mother tongue often beggars all
In Greek and Latin accurate vocalization, accent,
and quantity are anxiously insisted upon; and in
modern languages, correct pronunciation is most care-
fully striven for by the aid of phonetics. But in the
mother tongue all this seems to be left to accident or
to some happy talent.
The poor reading of our gymnasiasts and real-gym-
nasiasts is partly due to speaking too rapidly in school,
since reading and speaking mutually influence one
another. This mistake is especially prevalent in the
lower and interme'diate grades. "Answer quickly!"
is there the watchword. In reciting vocabularies, the
pupil must not stop to think; and in mental arithme-
tic he must give the result as soon as he can. Thus,
it naturally happens that he often mis-speaks and
drops out letters or syllables. We can readily under-
stand that this may easily give rise to errors in lan-
guage, or increase such as are already present. More-
over, oratorical training is itself damaged by too quick
replies. The pupil doubtless finds time to consider
what he wants to say but not how he is to say it. The
form of the answer is, therefore, often imperfect.
1 H. Gutzmann, Die Hygiene der Sprache und die
Schule. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1892,
No. 5, p. 201 E.
AVOID SHOUTING 305
Besides being trained to speak too hurridly, pupils
are in many schools taught to speak too loudly. The
teacher thinks that their pronunciation thereby gains
in distinctness. Just the contrary is true, since the
over-loud vowels drown out the consonants, which are
particularly important for the understanding of spoken
Shouting, also, seriously damages the voice. By it
the vocal cords are stretched too far and finally lose
their elasticity. In forcing the air violently through
the larynx, the voice is not only made louder but is
also raised in pitch and consequently sounds quite un-
pleasant. There is special danger in speaking too
loudly at the time of the change of voice. The larynx
may then be permanently damaged in its function.
" What will all this care on the part of the teachers of
singing amount to," asks Dr. Gutzmann, "if the
pupils whose voices are changing are led to shout in
the class-room ? I know a large number of people
whose voices were ruined in*school."
Finally the school may also give occasion for the
production of another disorder of speech, namely
stammering or stuttering 1 . The etiology of this
trouble is usually to be sought elsewhere than in the
1 H. Gutzmann, Das Stottern. Eine Monographic
fiir Arzte, Pedagogen und Behorden. Frankfurt a.
M., 1898, J. Rosenheim.
306 THE YOCAL ORGANS
school. Hereditary brain trouble, violent mental
shocks come first among the causes; then scrofula,
rickets and diseases of the upper part of the pharynx.
Moreover, a great many have become stutterers simply
by imitation, the number being 38.7$ of the whole,
according to the investigations of Gutzmann in Ber-
lin. The disease is contracted in this way usually be-
fore the school age, as children who stutter generally
begin to do so from three to six.
But that it may also be contracted in school is shown
by the fact that in the elementary schools in Berlin
0.5 % were found to stutter in the lowest classes; while
1.5$ were so afflicted at the end of the course.
Similarly, out of 210 stutterers in the common schools
in Bremen, 16 $ had acquired the defect during the
school period, as was ascertained by Winckler. A
single stutterer may thus be a source of danger to
many of his companions.
As to the frequency of the trouble among school
children, the numerous official and private investiga-
tions give corresponding figures. Among the school
children in Potsdam there were 1.2$ stutterers in
1885; among 155,000 school children in Berlin, 1 $ in
1887; among 15,717 in Nuremberg, 118 or 0.75$ in
1888, besides 93, or .59 $, stammerers. The. conditions
in Denmark and the United States are not very differ-
ent. In Copenhagen, Westergaard found 426, or 2.45 $,
out of 17,347 children in the common schools afflicted
with disorders of speech; and in Boston, Hartwell
found 500, or .78^, out of 63,474 school children
stutterers in 1893, and 498, or .75 #, out of 65,686 in
It is worth noticing that more boys than girls are
stutterers, the ratio being about 3:1. On the other
hand, there seems to be no special difference in the
number in the different kinds of boys schools. In
the higher city schools of Breslau, 26 stutterers were
found in 18934; while in the much more numerous
people's schools there were 347 stutterers and 66 stam-
merers. In 1896, Potsdam had 42 stutterers in the
common schools, 9 in the remaining higher boys
schools, 7 in the Victoria gymnasium, 3 in the real-
gymnasium, and 9 in the superior real school.
Xow it is particularly for the pupils of the higher
institutions that stuttering is so great a disadvantage.
It not only retards their progress in school but gives
them much trouble later. The stutterer is from the
start excluded from nearly every study, every profes-
sion, every public position, and he finds all occupa-
tions requiring much oral communication rendered
more difficult. The evil makes itself felt now more
than ever, as Schubert very truly says, "since the
changes in business intercourse through steam and
electricity, the easier communication by travel, the
308 THE VOCAL OKGANS
use of the telephone, and still more, the intenser
expression of public life in the state, community, and
associations, give the spoken word an ever widening
In addition to this, the feelings of stuttering pupils
are often depressed. In speaking, sympathetic move-
ments of the mimic muscles occur and so facial distor-
tions; consequently the ridiculing instinct of his
companions awakens; teasing begins; and the result
is the depression, or even the souring of the disposi-
tion of the already heavily burdened pupil.
We must, therefore, consider it highly gratifying
that the treatment of stuttering has made so much
progress during the last decade. Eminent service has
been rendered in this field in Berlin by a teacher of
the deaf and dumb, Albert Gutzmann and his son,
Dr. Hermann Gutzmann 1 , to whom reference has often
It is a particularly fortunate circumstance, that with
them theory and practice could come into such profit-
able co-operation. They have not only conducted
many courses of treatment for stuttering pupils, but
have also trained a number of teachers in their methods ;
and these have then become active in their different
1 Albert Gutzmann und Hermann Gutzmann, Med-
izinisch-pitdagogische Monatsschrift fur die gesamte
Sprachheilkunde mit Einschluss der Hygiene der
Lautsprache. Berlin, 1891 ff.,"H. Kornfeld. ^
localities. Eight to ten pupils are usually brought
together in a course, the character of the instruction
preventing a large number. The course lasts for
three or four months and requires six hours a week.
With regard to results, out of 180 stutterers in Eber-
feld 110, or 61.1 $, were cured; 62, or 34.4 fa improved
while 8, or 4.4$, were not greatly benefited.
H. Gutzmann has himself had the following suc-
cess: cured, 84 to 87$; improved 10$; not cured 3
to 6 $. Those not cured are by no means always those
who are the worst stutterers but usually those who
have deficient ability, hereditary taints, cramps of the
diaphragm and similar troubles.
Occasionally, that is in 5 $ of the cases, there is a
relapse after the cure. To prevent this, a weekly
period for review has been found very useful. When
this cannot be obtained, those who have relapsed are
usually put through a second or third course of treat-
ment. It is very important not only that those who
have been cured should guard themselves; but also
that their parents and teachers should aid them in
their efforts. For this purpose the city supervisors of
Cologne recommend that children be held to steadi-
ness and self-control in speaking and be made to re-
peat correctly whatever was spoken incorrectly; and
as long as they do not have confidence in themselves,
that they should be relieved from oral work.
CURVATURE OF THE SPINE
In discussing in conclusion the hygiene of the other
parts of the body, we shall first of all deal with
scoliosis, or the curvature of the spine. It some-
times develops early in life, usually as a result of
a pathological softening of the bones, such as occurs
in the so-called English disease, or rickets. Since the
latter is due to inadequate nourishment, and this is
not found so frequently among the higher as among
the lower classes, it is probable that it will be an ex-
ception if a case of scoliosis in a gymnasium or real-
gymnasium can be traced back to rickets. Even
among the 35 % cases of lateral curvature of the spine
found by Krug 1 in the common schools in Dresden,
only thirteen were developed from rickets in early
Many facts point rather to the conclusion that most
scolioses are due to certain conditions of school life.
In the first place, most cases fall within the compulsory
X W. Krug, Uber Ruckgratsverkrummerungen der
Schulkinder. Jahrbuch fur Kinderheilkunde, Xeue
A RESULT OF SCHOOL HABITS 311
school age. According to Eulenberg, among 300
scoliotic pupils there were at the age of:
2 years, 2 cases, or .66 %.
2 to 3 years, 3 cases, or 1.00 %.
3 to 4 years, 8 cases, or 2.66 $.
4 to 5 years, 5 cases, or 1.66 %.
5 to 6 years, 8 cases, or 2.66 %.
. 6 to 7 years, 71 cases, or 23.66 $.
7 to 10 years, 159 cases, or 53.00$.
10 to 14 years, 38 cases, or 12.66 %.
14 to 20 years, 7 cases, or 2.33 <f>.
20 to 30 years, 3 cases, or 1.00 %.
Here, not less than 89.3 % of the cases are of school
age. This corresponds with the statement by Parow
that 27 out of 45 of his patients suffering with lateral
curvature of the spine were between 8 and 14 years of
age. Schildbach says directly from his own wide ex-
perience: "By far the greater number of scolioses
originate during the school period." Klopsch reaches
the same conclusion, namely, that the majority of
malformations are produced between the tenth and
fourteenth years of life. Guillaume found among 731
pupils in Neufchatel, 218 with incipient scolioses. In
Nuremberg, 15 % of the school population were afflicted
with spinal curvature ; and in Munich, about 7 % of
2,128 school children. In Dresden 344, or 24$, of
1,418 pupils in the common schools between the ages
CUKVATUEE OF THE SPIKE
of eight and seventeen, were found by Krug to have
Nor is the trouble so rare in the secondary schools.
In the superior state real-school at Temesvar there
were, to be sure, only eight cases among 246 pupils;
and two of these were produced by rickets and one by
an unfortunate fall before attendance at school ; conse-
quently only five cases, or 2.2 $, were developed during
the school period. But on the other hand, an exam-
ination of 216 pupils in a boys gymnasium in Moscow
shows that 6.48$ were scoliotic; and 12.3$ of the
pupils in the superior state real school of district V.
of Budapest had more or less marked lateral curvatures.
It must be admitted that the more frequent occur-
rence of the latter during the school period does not
prove definitely that there is a causal connection
between it and the school. Such a connection can be
more properly inferred because of the increase of
scoliosis during school attendance. To demonstrate
that this is the case, we adduce the following table
Number of boys
Number cases of
This shows that the disease increases regularly
throughout the grades, except from the twelfth to
the thirteenth years, when its progress seems to have
been arrested. Conclusive evidence that the school
co-operates in the production of scoliosis is furnished
by the fact that these permanent curvatures corres-
pond exactly to the malpositions assumed in writing,
especially the C shaped bending of the entire body to-
ward the left. This was brought to light especially by
the investigations of Mayer in Fiirth. His results,
were confirmed by those of Schenk 1 in Bern. The
latter examined with very sensitive instruments the
spinal column of every pupil brought before him, both
when in the writing position and when at rest. Out
of 200 pupils, 160 sat in writing "so as to bend the
upper part of the body over the pelvis toward the left."
All these 160 had, even when they were not writing, a
more or less marked curvature in the same direction.
Krug, also, states that the curvatures convex toward
the left, and so those corresponding' to the position in
writing, are by far the most frequent. Of the 344
spinal curvatures found among the school children in
Dresden, 72 were bent toward the right and 231 to-
ward the left, 39 were double curvatures, 34 of which
were bent toward the right above and toward the left
below; two had to be classed as triple curvatures.
As a rule spinal curvature receives little attention
Schenk, Zur Atiologie der Skoliose. Berlin, 1885.
314 CURVATUEE OF THE SPINE
from parents and teachers. This is partly due to the
fact that the individual afflicted does not himself
recognize his defect at the start, since the troubles
developed by it, such as shortness of breath, digestive
and respiratory disorders, intercostal neuralgias, etc.,
do not appear till in the later stages. Even many
physicians treat the slightest degrees of scoliosis with
indifference and assure their patients that the spine
will revert to its original form of its own accord. It
is, however, very desirable that there should be a
general recognition of the extraordinary importance
of just these initial symptoms of scoliosis.
In the later stages of curvature, therapeutics not only
has to combat the greatest difficulties, but often finds
that its results remain quite imperfect. " Kowhere,"
as Lorenz justly remarks, " does the old saying: prin-
cipiis obsta [prevent the beginnings] deserve to be
taken more to heart than in the orthopedy of scoliosis."
To enable us to detect the disease as soon as possible,
it has been suggested that the spine of every pupil
should be examined at least once a quarter. Every
deformity could then be discovered in time so as to
receive the proper treatment. Such a plan would,
however, exceed the obligations of the school; its duty
is only to see that all those things are avoided which
might either produce or develop scoliosis.
The great part played in the matter by improper
VERTICAL PENMANSHIP 315
seats and desks and insufficient light need not be
We must, however, in this place give emphasis to
the great disadvantages of slanting as compared with
vertical script 1 , as these disadvantages are mostly to
be found in the field of orthopedy. The slant of the
script depends upon the position of the writing tablet.
Two such positions are recognized, the right, and the
median, according as the copy book or tablet is placed
to the right or immediately in front of the middle of
the body. There are also two sub-positions for each
of these two principal ones, since the bottom of the
tablet may either be placed parallel with the rear edge
of the desk, or I e made to make more or less of an
angle with it, in the first case giving what we call the
straight, in the second the oblique position of the tab-
let. There are accordingly, in all, four possible posi-
tions, the straight or oblique position at the right
and the straight or oblique position at the centre.
Since the down strokes are always made from the point
X P. Schubert, Uber Heftlage und Schriftrichtung.
Hamburg und Leipzig, 1890, Leop. Voss. E. Ritz-
mann, W. Schulthess, H. Wipf, Untersuchungen iiber
den Einfluss der Heftlage und Schriftrichtung auf die
Korperhaltung der Schiller. Bericht, erstattet von
einer Specialkommission an die Stadtschulpflege Zurich.
Emanuel Bayr, Steile Lateinschrift. 2 ed. Wien,
1891, Pichlers Witwe und Sohn.
316 CURVATURE OF THE SPINE
of the pen toward the middle of the breast, it follows
that slanting script will be written when the tablet is in
either position at the right or in the oblique position at
the centre; while vertical script will be written when
the paper is in the straight position at the centre.-
All hygienists agree in rejecting both positions at
the right, for with them the body is bent over toward
the right and this throws the left arm out of its proper
place, raises the left shoulder, and causes the back-
bone to curve toward the left. The oblique central
position may also aid in producing scoliosis. This is
due to the fact that the eyes are inclined to follow
the lines in writing so as to make the so-called base
line which unites the middle points of the two eyes
parallel with the lines on the paper. Since the lines in
the oblique central position are inclined upward from
left to right, the left eye must be lower than the right,
that is to say, the head must be bent toward the left.
This bending toward the left produces after a time
a curve or twist in the spinal column itself, first of
all because the centre of gravity of the head has been
displaced toward the left. The left arm will slip from
the desk, the right will be pushed forward, the left
shoulder will be lowered, the right raised, and the lower
part of the spine bent toward the right while the upper
part bends to the left. If the tablet is, on the other
hand, in the straight central position, both eyes will be
held at the same height, since the base line will in that
case be parallel to the writing lines. The head is not
bent over toward the left, but is kept vertical ; the left
shoulder is not lowered but the whole body keeps its
upright position; in brief, we have as George Sand
said: "The paper straight, the writing straight, and
the body straight,"
FIG. 38. PUPIL WRITING VERTICAL SCRIPT
318 CURVATURE OF THE SPINE
Whenever the positions of the body in writing ver-
tical and slanting script have been compared the results
have favored the former. Twice as many incorrect
postures were found among those who wrote the
slanting script as among those who wrote the vertical
in Nuremberg; two and a half times as many in Mun-
ich ; and four times as many in Fiirth and Wurzburg,
That some of those who write vertical script were also
found in faulty postures in Fiirth there were 14.8^
as compared with 85.2 % who sat correctly is due to
the restlessness of children, who are not willing to
keep the same position for any length of time.
Writing exercises should not last very long, but be-
interrupted now and then by short rests. In the
lower classes many teachers let the pupils stand and
go through some simple gymnastics ; and this is gen-
erally the best way of counteracting and preventing
the spinal curvatures that have been produced during
the recitation from becoming permanent. It is im-
portant for the teacher to insist upon the pupils keep-
ing a correct position, to forbid the distorting cross-
ing of the legs, and to recommend that the book
satchel be strapped on the back rather than carried in
the hand, as this will favor keeping the vertebral col-
If hand satchels are, nevertheless, in use, they
should be carried now on the right and now on the
WEIGHT OF SCHOOL SATCHELS 319
left so the load may not give rise to a one-sided cur-
vature. How great this load may sometimes be, is
shown by an investigation made on six successive days
in the Quarta of a gymnasium in Berlin. The aver-
age weight of a book satchel was 4,715 g. ; and on one
day it was 5,200 g., which is nearly a fifth of the
weight of the body of a pupil eleven to twelve years
Lastly, it is advisable to send boys with especially
bad postures to the school or family physician for
examination. In this way, something may be done
by simple advice; and preparation may be made for
further treatment. A change of place, a certain way
of holding the arm, a sloping seat, a somewhat higher
heel, and especially the release from some hours of
school work is often of advantage.
In the production of scoliosis the school is to some
extent a direct cause; but in the case of infectious 1
diseases it is only a means for further propagation.
Measles. That the school serves this purpose, has
been shown most conclusively to be the case in measles.
In an investigation by J. Korosi, it was found that,
in the three-fourths of the year schools were in ses-
sion, there was an average of 4,000 to 4,400 cases per
month. On the other hand, in August during the
vacation there were only 780 ; and in September, the
first month of school, when the effects of the vaca-
tion were still felt, there were only 639 cases. As the
schools continued in session, the number increased,
reaching the figure 1,635 in October. But even count-
ing this month, the vacation quarter had only 3,054
cases; while the first, second, and third school quar-
ters have 11,865, 13,258, and 13,147 cases, respectively.
1 Joseph Rychna, Uber Schiilerepidemien. Beobach-
tungsresultate nebst Yorschlagen Zur Verhiitung und
Verhinderung der Weiterverbreitung derselben. Prag,
1887, H. Dominicus.
A further proof of the causal connection between
school attendance and measles may be found in the-
fact that when the vacations were changed because
of the cholera there was a corresponding change in the
numerical frequency of the measles. Since the
spreading of this disease is thus decidedly favored
by the school, it behooves teachers to be somewhat
familiar with its symptoms so they may be able to
dismiss suspected cases at once. Aside from general
langor, headache, coated tongue, and fever, measles
are particularly characterized by their attacking the
skin, the mucous membranes of the air passages,
and the conjunctiva. Even in the prodromic stages
before the rash appears, sneezing, nas#l catarrh, dry
croup-like coughing, reddening and swelling of the
eye-lids, increased lachrymal flow, and photophobia
are constant symptoms. Then comes the real erup-
tion in the form of small well denned red spots about
the size of a lentil or bean. The skin between the
spots retains its normal color. These spots appear
first on the soft palate, then on the forehead, neck r
breast, and back ; and finally, also on the extremities.
The rash generally remains in full bloom only twenty-
four hours, when it begins to disappear in the same
order in which it came, changing in two to four days
to a yellowish color. Bran-like scales then begin to
come off, especially in the region of the temples and
the nose, the process lasting for about 24 days.
322 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
If there are no other complications, measles are
generally not dangerous. Nevertheless, the mortality
in Basel was 3 % for children from five to ten, 7 % for
those from ten to fifteen ; and in Konigsberg 11.1$ for
those from five to fifteen, and 2.3 % for those over fifteen.
In the government district of Stettin, 1,090, or 3$,
of the 37,000 cases of measles resulted in death. The
mortality varied from year to year from 1.2 % to 7.1 $;
and in the case of an epidemic in a locality it rose
there to 4$.
Pupils taken down with the disease, or seeming
liable to be so, should be removed from school at
once. The pupils of the preparatory schools should be
watched with special care during these measle epidemics.
Older pupils need less attention since most of them
have already had the disease.
For example in the classical school of the Hamburg
Johanneum, 85.11$ of the boys from nine to eleven
had had the measles, as had 87.4$ of those from
twelve to fourteen, 88.65$ of those from fifteen to
seventeen, and 93.33 $ of those from eighteen to nine-
ten 1 . It is very rare for the same individual to take
the measles a second time. Of the 515 pupils of the
1 lt. Kotelmann, Die Korperverhaltnisse der Gelehr-
tenschiiler des Johanneums in Hamburg. Ein statis-
tischer Beitrag Zur Schulhygiene. Berlin, '1879, Kgl.
classical school mentioned, only eleven had the disease
a second time ; while 440 had only had one attack.
The dismissal of the entire school-room becomes
necessary only when the ranks of the healthy have
been reduced considerably or when the epidemic is
particularly virulent. Pupils who have had the
measles should not be re-admitted until at least three
weeks after the eruption appears. Before going out
for the first time they should take a soap bath and
put on fresh underwear. If the epidemic is malig-
nant, the brothers and sisters of the afflicted pupils
should also be refused admission to school 1 during
the time of the sickness and the convalescence. For
the disease may be communicated by scales from the
skin or by the mucous secretions which have become
attached to the clothing of healthy individuals and so
been transmitted. Measles usually spread consider-
ably in spite of all preventative measures. This is
partly due to the fact that they are contagious even
in the period of incubation; that is, from the time of
the infection to the appearance of the first symptoms.
German measles orroteln are often confounded with
*Fr. Dornbliith, Sollen die Geschwister von Masern-
kranken, welche die Krankheit friiber schon iiberstan-
den haben, von Schulbesuche Ausgeschossen werden ?
Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1893, No. 3,
p. 139 if.
324 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
true measles ; in fact, they were once thought to be a
mild form of the latter. Recent observations make it
certain that we have here an independent disease.
German measles always come as epidemics and usually
attack children; in Hamburg 40 of the 515 pupils of
the classical school had passed through the disease.
The period of incubation lasts from five to twenty-two
days. There is no prodromal stage, as the eruption
appears at once. This consists of red spots varying
in size from a small grain to a lentil, and it generally
produces a troublesome itching. It appears first on
the face and forehead, then on the rest of the body,
forming map-like figures on the skin as the spots
become contiguous. The eruption disappears in a day
or two, usually without any after-effects, as it is only
in exceptional cases that we find persistent anaemia
resulting. The general health is little affected by
German measles; and fever, languor, headache, sneez-
ing, and blood-shot eyes are present to such a slight
extent as usually to escape notice. There is nothing
more to be done than to dismiss the victims of the
disease from school for a couple of weeks, as an ex-
tensive epidemic might otherwise result.
Scarlet fever has a much more serious charac-
ter, though the mortality from it varies considerably.
In Aidone, a city of 8,000 inhabitants in the Italian
province of Caltanisetta, 250 persons, mostly chil-
SCAKLET FEVER 325
dren, died during an epidemic lasting nine months.
The hospital at Amsterdam received 75 boys under
eleven sick with scarlet fever; and 23, or 30.6 $, died
from the disease. In an educational institution in
the province of Hannover the mortality was 14.8 $.
Children are usually attacked before the age of ten.
In a gymnasium in Northern Germany, 32.62 % of the
children from nine to eleven; 38.92$ of those from
twelve to fourteen; 28. 37$ of those from fifteen to
seventeen; and 31.67$ of those from eighteen to
twenty had had the scarlet fever. Only four out of
172 cases had the disease twice.
Statements as to the period of incubation vary; in
the above-mentioned Hannover boarding-school, it
varied from five to twelve days and was usually six to
eight days; while H. Neumann regards the limits as
from a few hours to twelve days. At first, the patient
complains of depression, headache, loss of appetite,
nausea, vomiting, pains in the tonsils, and difficulty in
swallowing; while the usual symptoms of measles,
namely, sneezing, coughing, and lachrymal catarrh, are
absent. The palate reddens; the tonsils and sub-
maxillary glands swell; nose-bleed also often sets in;
and, in a high fever with 120 to 140 pulse beats per
minute and a temperature of 40 to 41 C=105.8
F, the red confluent exanthema of the fever develops
326 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
first on the face, neck, and breast, then over the re-
mainder of the body.
This differs from the eruption in measles in this re-
spect that when the spot is pressed by the finger the
color returns from the circumference to the centre.
The tongue also has a peculiar red-raspberry color.
The eruption usually lasts four days and then fades
away simultaneously with a rapid disappearance of
the fever and the difficulty in swallowing. After
about eight days, the skin begins to peel, not so much
in small scales as in large shreds, especially on the
hands and feet. The peeling off is usually completed
in a few weeks, so that scarlet fever may be said to
last from twenty-five to thirty-two days. However,
irregularities and complications often appear and last
a long time, the most dangerous being diphtheria and
inflammation of the kidneys.
The disease is produced by a micro-organism, which
cannot as yet be definitely described ; it clings
tenaciously to the cast-off skin, the discharge from the
nose and excreta, and may be transmitted both by
these, and by clothes, books, and other objects. The
latter means of infection did not play a part in the
Hannoverian boarding school, already referred to; but
of the 27 cases, .16 were infected directly, and 11 in-
directly by healthy intermediary persons. What rav-
ages a single case may produce in a school, we can
SCARLET FEVER 327
learn from a Parisian example. It can be shown with-
out a doubt that a boy readmitted to school before
complete recovery was the direct cause of 150 other
cases, eighteen of which proved fatal.
In times of scarlet fever epidemics, pupils who com-
plain of sore throat or act suspiciously in other ways,
should be sent home at once. If a case really breaks
out, it must be isolated and excluded from school for
at least six weeks. Xor should brothers or sisters be
admitted to school unless it is certain that they will
not come into direct or indirect contact with the
The latter should be allowed to re-enter school only
after he has taken several soap baths and no longer
shows any traces on the palms of his hands or sobs of
his feet of any further excoriation. In addition, the
clothing which he had during his sickness and con-
valescence, especially his handkerchiefs, must be dis-
infected. The best thing for the purpose is steam.
The shoes should be washed inside and outside with
carbolic acid solution.
If the patient attended school when the disease
broke out or even during the period of its incubation
when infection might also take place, the class-room
should be disinfected. If the walls are oiled or
papered they should be rubbed off with bread, which
is then to be burned ; the paper should otherwise be
328 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
torn off and the walls re-papered ; if the walls and
ceilings are tinted or white-washed, they should receive
a new coat ; and the floors, doors, wood and iron fur-
niture should be washed with a five per cent carbolic acid
solution or a two per cent Lyso-solution; curtains and
similar materials should be steamed. It is also a good
thing to ventilate the school-room twenty-four hours
before using it again.
Diphtheria 1 is a still more dangerous disease for
-children. Though it may be any time from one day
to several weeks, it is usually from two to five days
after the infection, that general depression, headache,
and a tendency to vomit, as well as fever, thirst, and
excessive bodily heat set in. The tonsils become in-
flamed and coated with a whitish material, which sticks
to the mucous membrane so as not to be removable by
scraping or gargling. The patient consequently com-
plains of more or less painful sensations in his throat,
especially in swallowing and on pressure. The sub-
maxillary glands are always swollen and sore. In mild
cases, the cheesy coat peels off in four or five days, and
the spots heal without scars ; but, even then, symptoms
of paralysis of the oesophagus, the vocal chords, and the
muscles of accommodation, may be felt for several
weeks. In severe cases, which at one time were by far
1 Bruhl und Jahr, Diphtheric und Krupp in Preussen
in den Jahren 1875-1882. Berlin, 1889.
the more common, though the number has been con-
siderably diminished of late by the use of Behring's
serum, the whole pharynx becomes simply coated with
the coherent material ; the patient can no longer swal-
low except with the greatest pain; and, as the diph-
theria encroaches upon the larynx and the upper part
of the bronchial tubes, we have the symptoms of
membraneous croup, the husky, hoarse voice, the
noisy breathing, the barking cough, and the suffocation
in which the face turns blue and the patient suffers
great restlessness and distress. His hours are then
usually numbered and he will die in a short time from
lack of oxygen and from the accumulation of carbon
dioxide in the blood.
The septic form of diphtheria is equally dangerous.
It is characterized by a gangrenous decay of the
mucous membranes of the nose and pharynx, by very
bad smelling and ill-colored discharges from the nose
and mouth, by increased salivation, by vomiting, and
by great lassitude and apathy. Disorders of the heart
and kidneys are often added to these customary symp-
toms and the course of the disease then becomes dis-
The Klebs-Loffler bacillus is usually regarded as the
cause of the disease. It is this that grows so luxuri-
ously in the diseased membrane and is transferred to
others by the excretions which flow from the mouth or
330 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
nose, or are coughed up or blown out so as to get on
the skin, clothing, or surroundings of the patient. In-
fection can take place by direct contract with these
excretions; or it may occur by healthy individuals
breathing air containing dust from such pathogenic
material as has become attached to the patient, the
floors, the walls, furniture, clothing, books, etc., and
then been dried and disseminated through the air.
As the bacillus is extraordinarily long-lived, infec-
tion is possible after several weeks or even months. It
often takes place in school, for here those with mild
cases who are still able to be up, and those who are
just convalescent and have the infectious material yet
with them, mix daily with the pupils for five or six
hours. There are many cases where it is possible to
show that there was a causal relation between taking
the disease and mutual proximity on the school benches.
In one case, infection was produced by an interchange
in the drawing lesson of pencils between the healthy
and sick, the point having been placed in the mouth.
A chart published by the board of health of Boston
in 1892, which shows graphically the great reduction
in the number of cases during the summer vacations
and the large increase on the opening of school, give
a significant picture of the propagation of diphtheria
by the school. In London, also, there was a marked
descent in the curve representing the number of cases
reported for the years 1893 to 1895 corresponding
with the duration of the summer vacation. In 1,618
of the 2,168 cases received in the London hospitals it
was impossible to discover the source of the infec-
tion. In 124 cases, it was, however, directly or indi-
rectly traceable to the schools; and in 55 cases, the
school was suspected of being the cause.
From what has been said, it follows that the teach-
ers' at the time of the prevalence of diphtheria or
croup must give careful attention to the following
The health of the pupil is to be watched; and, as
soon as any one complains of pain and distress in the
throat, he must be dismissed immediately. If it is
found that he really has a case of diphtheria, his
brothers and sisters should also be excluded from
Convalescents should in no case be re-admitted in
less than forty days from the breaking out of the
disease; and the admission of those who have been
cured should take place only on the presentation of
certificates from physicians stating that the cure is
complete ; which means, among other things, that the
bacilli have completely disappeared from the nose and
There must also have been a thorough disinfection
of the body and clothing. What was said about the
332 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
disinfection of class-rooms in scarlet fever, will also
apply here. If several cases should occur in a week
among the pupils who are associated together, or if
the epidemic is particularly malignant, school must be
partially and in the worst cases wholly closed.
Of course pupils must not associate during this time,
as they would, for example, in having private lessons
together, or in taking part in the preparatory instruc-
tion for confirmation.
Whooping-cough. While about 18$ of the nine
year-old pupils of our higher institutions, and 30 % of
those between eighteen and twenty have had diphtheria,
the number of those who have suffered from whoop-
ing-cough remains about the same throughout the
course, varying from 40 to 50 $.
From this we infer that whooping-cough rarely oc-
curs during the school-age. In fact, children from
four to six are usually attacked. Hagenbach states
that in Germany there are 250,000 cases annually,
which, with a mortality of 7.6$, as Biermer gives it,
results in 19,000 deaths per year.
Whooping-cough begins very often with catarrhal
symptoms coughing, cold in the head, fever which,
however, present nothing peculiar to enable one to
pick out the disease with certainty even if it is known
to be epidemic in the place. In other cases, it begins
at once with peculiar convulsive fits of coughing ac-
companied by choking and vomiting; these occur in
ordinary cases ten or twelve times, and in violent
cases, as many as fifty times a day, the attacks at
night being most frequent.
The more consistent the phlegm is, the longer will
the coughing spell last, as the spasmodic contractions
of the glottis will not cease before all of it is
expelled. It is these that produce the whistling in-
spirations characteristic of whooping-cough. After
lasting from three to twelve weeks, the disease usually
begins to abate. It may last longer, especially if the
catarrh spreads and inflammation of the bronchia or
the lungs sets in.
That this disease is extremely contagious, especially
in the convulsive stage, is beyond question. It is
caused by a micro-organism, whose nature is not yet
fully understood. As soon as a case appears in a
school-room, it should be isolated at once. The same
thing must be done when there is reason to fear that
an ordinary cough is only the forerunner of approach-
The exclusion from school should last for twenty to
thirty days after the last characteristic coughing fit.
Thirty days are prescribed by the French lycees.
Whether the brothers and sisters of the patient
should also be kept away from school, is a disputed
question. While the British Medical Journal, which
334 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
is one of the most prominent of its kind, favors exclu-
sion, the medical association of Vienna opposes it, on
the ground that it is not certain that the disease can
be transmitted by intermediaries. In any case, we
must not forget that by such exclusion healthy pupils
are often compelled to lose an entire year's work,
which is deterimental not only to their progress but
often also to their morals.
Cerebro-spinal meningitis is a much rarer but
also much more dangerous disease than whooping-
cough. This is an acute inflammation of the soft
membranes of the brain and spinal cord. It is usually
epidemic, only exceptionally sporadic, and mostly at-
tacks children under fifteen. It generally begins with
a chill, violent frontal headache, and vomiting; a few
cases have a brief prodromal stage consisting of men-
tal depress on, dizziness, hyperaesthesia, insomnia, and
restlessness. On the second or third day, the neck
stiffens, the head is drawn backward convulsively, and
frightful pains shoot over the spine and into the
limbs. The mind of the patient is clear at first, but
he gradually loses consciousness and begins to breathe
irregularly; he is troubled with convulsions and de-
lirium; and after a rapid exhaustion of his energies,
death results. Should he recover, it will be a very
long time before he will be well, and he is liable to be
burdened with mental derangement, weakness of
memory, paralysis, or deafness.
CEREBRO-SPINAL MENINGITIS 335
Cerebro-spinal menigitis is to be classed among the
infectious diseases, the probable cause being the
Frankel-Weichselbaum bacillus. In case of an epi-
demic, a teacher must watch for changes in the moods
or characters of his pupils, as well as for the other
symptoms of the disease; and as soon as a pupil
shows any of the signs, he should be sent to his parents
or guardians. These must keep him out of school
till a doctor certifies that there is no further danger
of infection. All other children in the patient's
household should also be prevented from coming to
school. The disinfection of the patient and the room
should be the same as that already recommended for
Mumps is an epidemic inflammation of the parotid
glands, usually confined to school children, which offers
a contrast with cerebro-spinal menigitis in that it is
not attended with any danger. The swellings develop
in connection with a moderate fever and soon become
painful, especially when touched ; in severe cases they
spread into the surrounding tissue, even covering the
face and neck on the side afflicted and preventing the
opening of the mouth to any * considerable extent.
These symptoms, and the fact that the head is bent
over toward the swollen side makes it easy to recog-
nize the disease. In two to four days, the swelling
begins to subside ; and, in from one to two weeks, the
336 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
trouble is at an end, unless the testicles become in-
flamed, as sometimes happens in the case of older boys.
Though the mumps are not very serious, they are
rather contagious, probably on account of some mi-
crobe in the saliva. In an epidemic in Lausanne in
1888, 78 out of 3,137 school children were attacked.
Infection usually takes place in the time before the
swelling of the parotid glands, that is, at the end of
the period of incubation, which lasts from eight to
twenty-five days. It can, however, occur later, since
the possibility of infection does not disappear until
two weeks after the end of the fever.
Since there is so little danger from the mumps, the
school need do nothing more than isolate the patients.
It is unnecesasry to close school, unless the disease
becomes so prevalent that the school closes of itself.
According to the supreme sanitary board of Aus-
tria, pupils may be re-admitted eight days after com-
plete recovery, which is four or five weeks after the
Sinall-pox hardly needs to be described here, since
the disease is so severe from the start that teachers do
not have occasion to deal with it. Indeed cases are
now exceedingly rare in Germany. For, if we con-
sider Hamburg, Bremen, Konigsberg, and Danzig,
which are connected by an extensive ocean traffic with
foreign countries, as cities belonging to the border of
the German empire, two-thirds of all the deaths from
small-pox may be said to be due to importations of
the germ on the frontier, as only one-third of the
deaths occur in the interior.
For example, in 1886 one death from small-pox is
reported from Berlin; none from Breslau, Dresden,.
Cologne, and Frankfurt a. M. ; two from Munich; and
three from Leipzig. To what a small extent the
disease is developed in Germany, may be seen from
the fact that among the eighty-six communities with
deaths from small-pox in 1886, 54 had only one case
each, 19 had but two, and only 4 had five or more.
The rare occurrence and slight extension of small-
pox in Germany is undoubtedly due to the fact that
the vaccination and re-vaccination of children is
carried out so rigorously. This can be proved by a
comparison of the mortality from small-pox in Ger-
many with that from the same disease in other coun-
tries where vaccination is not compulsory. In 1886 in
the cities of Hungary the mortality from the disease
was 486 times as great as in the cities of Germany ; in
the cities of Austria 65 times, in those of Switzerland
44 times, and in those of Belgium 39 times as great.
Even in England it was 1.5 times greater than in Ger-
many, because while vaccination is compulsory, re-
vaccination is not.
There are facts enough from other sources to show
338 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
the beneficent influence of vaccination. In the dis-
trict of Mologa, Russia, only sixteen, or 1.3$, of 1,-
055 vaccinated children under fourteen took the
disease; while 35 or 46.6$ of seventy-five children
whose vaccination was doubtful, and 244, or 58.6$,
of 434 who had not been vaccinated, fell victims.
The liability of being attacked by the small-pox was,
therefore, forty-five times greater for the unvaccin-
ated. Similarly, in a great small-pox epidemic in Shef-
field, only one-half per cent ($) of the vaccinated
children under ten took the disease; while 10.1$ of
the unvaccinated came down with it. The mortality
among the vaccinated was 1.09 $, among the unvac-
cinated 44$. A regular decrease in mortality is a
noticeable feature whenever a country introduces com-
The latter is often opposed on the ground that dis-
eases are frequently contracted from the operation.
This assumption is chiefly due to the fact that every
sickness contracted after vaccination is without dis-
crimination attributed to its influence. Voigt has
shown by careful statistics that in about 100,000 cases
of vaccination only 69 received supposed injuries. All
the patients recovered in a short time; and it is cer-
tain that something independent of vaccination was
the cause of the trouble. He comes to the conclusion
that the " howl of distress and murder from the anti-
vaccinationists is simply obdurate prejudice against
In view of these facts, there is every reason why the
school should insist strongly upon the vaccination or
re-vaccination of its pupils. According to the Ger-
man vaccination law of April 8, 1874, the principals
of schools must see that a certificate of vaccination is
presented by pupils just entering. Similarly, in Aus-
tria, an order from the cultus minister of the 9th of
June, 1891, requires teachers to inform themselves
about the vaccination of the children and assist the
physician in attending to. the matter 1 . The law in
Germany further requires that school children shall be
re-vaccinated within the calendar year in which they
complete their twelfth year ; and if the attempt fails,
it must be repeated at the latest during the following
There need be no hesitation in allowing pupils who
have just been re- vaccinated from attending school.
They must, however, keep their bodies scrupulously
clean. The sores should be free from dirt and should
not be abraded or scratched. The shirt-sleeves must
be loose, so they will not irritate the spots by rubbing.
It is a good thing to excuse those who have been re-
vaccinated from bathing and gymnastics for two weeks.
1 Leo Burgerstein und August Xetolitzky, Handbuch
der Schulhygiene. Jena, 1895, Gust. Fischer, p. 337.
340 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
If the inoculation is successful, small vesicles appear
after the fourth day ; these usually increase in size up
to the ninth day, developing into the vaccine pustule
with its surrounding inflamed red zone. These con-
tain at first a clear liquid which on the eighth day
begins to grow turbid. From the tenth to the twelfth
day they dry up into a scab, which in three or four
weeks falls off by itself. No bandage is needed, unless
the red swelling becomes extensive or the pustule
breaks, when a bandage coated with vasaline had bet-
ter be placed about the arm.
Since vaccination does not afford sure protection
for so long a time as twelve years, it is always possible
to have a pupil fall victim to the disease. In such a
case there should be the most careful isolation and the
most thorough disinfection of everything that either
comes into contact with him or even near him ; and he
should not be re-admitted to school till five weeks
from the beginning of the disease.
Chicken-pox is a disease definitely distinguishable
from small-pox; it has characteristics of its own, but
it also is infectious, and capable of attacking large
'numbers of pupils. In the Hamburg classical school,
something like a fourth of the pupils came down with
it. The period of incubation is generally from 11 to
17 days. There is usually no prodromal stage and
the eruption of little red spots, principally on the
body, face, and scalp, takes place suddenly with
little or no fever. These spots have vesicles in the
centre about the size of a lentil, filled with a trans-
parent fluid. In contrast with the true small-pox,
they do not have a hollow in the middle. They dry
up in twenty-four hours, become scabs, and fall off in
a few days without leaving any scars. Chicken-pox is
usually so mild that there is no need of medical treat-
ment or the rigorous enforcement of the rules for the
exclusion of the patients or their brothers and sisters.
The probable length of the period of infection is twenty
days from the first symptoms.
Tuberculosis^ which is much more to be dreaded
than the above disease, appears both in an acute and
in a chronic form, the symptoms varying with the
organs attacked. In adults the lungs are mostly
affected, but in children it is more frequently the
lymphatic glands and the brain.
The disease is more common with adults than with
children. In Prussia out of 10,000 inhabitants, 10
died of consumption before the age of ten ; 20 from ten
to twenty ; 33 from twenty to thirty ; 41 from thirty to
forty; 48 from forty to fifty; 62 from fifty to sixty; 93
from sixty to seventy; 71 from seventy to eighty.
Among children tuberculosis is more frequent in the
common schools than in the higher institutions, evi-
dently because the home surroundings are less hygienic
342 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
in the former case. Langerhans found among 2,084
village school children of the circle of Isenhagen in
Hannover one case of advanced tuberculosis of the
lungs and larynx,- one case of tubercolosis of the lungs
and spinal column, five cases of tuberculosis of the
bones or joints, and one where this disease was sus-
pected ; but in a large number of gymnasia and real-
gymnasia I have not found a single case. Grusdeff's
report is in harmony with these facts. He examined
262 pupils between the ages of nine and eighteen in
the ecclesiastical institute at Kostroma. Though 30$
had some form of pulmonary disease and 28 % of these
expectorated and 22 % had consumptive parents or rela-
tives, he was not able to find a single case of tuber-
culosis among them.
In higher institutions of learning, the question
whether teachers are consumptive is therefore more
important than the question whether the pupils are
so, especially if we consider the lower grades. The
cause of tuberculosis is a fungus, not the tuber-
cular bacillus of Koch, which is found in the breath
of the patients, but in the expectorations. If these
get on the clothing or the floors, they will dry and
be rubbed or crushed into powder so as to be in a
condition to enter the lungs of the healthy as dust.
The infectious material is sometimes transmitted by
flies which deposit it on food. Younger children do
not know very well how to cough so as to clear the
throat and lungs, and often swallow the spittle ; con-
sequently they are not so liable to communicate the
disease to the healthy members of the school as older
pupils or consumptive teachers would be. Robert
Koch is, therefore, right in demanding that the latter
classes of persons stay out of the school-room, both
for their own good and for the good of the rest of the
school. Pupils of this class had better be taken to a
school sanitarium for consumptives, such as are to be
found at Davos and. Meran, where classical and scien-
tific courses are among other things maintained.
It is true, the effort has been made to avoid exclud-
ing these persons from school by recommending the
use of a Dettweiler spit-bottle or a spittoon filled with
water, for expectoration in school. There is a great
deal of trouble connected with the use of spittoons.
In summer the water will evaporate ; and the contents
will then readily dry and become converted into in-
fectious dust. In winter they are liable to freeze and
burst. But the chief danger is that they will be run
into, so that the liquid will spill and do just the dam-
age we want to avoid. As is pointed out by the scien-
tific deputation for medical affairs in Prussia, freezing
and evaporation may be prevented by adding calcium
chloride or salt to the water; and spilling, either by
fastening the vessels down or adapting their shape.
344 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Many have also proposed filling the spittoons with five
per cent carbolic acid solution instead of water, since
danger from drying or spilling would then be removed
by the disinfection of the contents. But even in this
case there would still be the daily cleaning of the
spittoons, which according to Hakonson-Hansen's 1 es-
timate would require four hours in a large school, a
length of time the janitor does not have to spare.
And, finally, even if consumptive pupils have been
assigned to seats at the end of the benches they never-
theless disturb the school at all times by getting up to
cough and expectorate. ~We, accordingly, find it im-
possible to adopt the above suggestions, much as they
may have been recommended by those in authority,
Typhus fevers are more common than tuberculosis
among school children. In the higher schools, one in
twelve has suffered from an attack.
There are three varieties: the typhus or spotted
iever, the typhoid or enteric fever, and typhoid relapse.
In the first, the fever comes on rapidly, with a tem-
perature of 40 to 41 C.=104-105.8 F, and a fast
pulse, which is often double quick. In addition,
there is great muscular weakness, profound sensory
coma, enlargement of the spleen, catarrh of the
1 M. K. Hakonson-Hansen, Zur Bekampfung der
Tuberkulose in den Schulen. Zeitschrift fur Schulge-
sundheitspflege, 1891, Xo. 5, p. 292, ff.
TYPHUS FEVERS 345
respiratory passages, and an extensive eruption of
spots, which may cause the disease to be confounded
with the measles. In the latter, the fever is less, the
pulse not so rapid, and mental ability is normal.
Typhoid fever can be distinguished from typhus
fever by the more gradual development of the fever
symptoms, the scarcity of spots on the skin, the thin
pale stools, and the bloating, aching, and peculiar
rumbling of the bowels.
The characteristic thing about typhoid relapse is
that from the fifth to the eighth day after it has started
with chills, great depression, tormenting pains in the
head and limbs, and high fever, there comes a sudden
fall in the temperature and pulse with apparently a
return to perfect health. However, this does not last
long and a relapse occurs in another five to eight days.
These alternations may take place two or three times.
During attacks, mobile, cork-screw-shaped bacilli, the
so-called " recurrenssperillae ", are always found in
Typhus diseases are all very contagious. In the
district of Kasan, typhus fever spread so rapidly in
an epidemic that twenty-two out of eighty-six coun-
try schools had to be closed in a short time. Sim-
ilarly, in a French boarding school with 184 boarders
and 8 day pupils, 80 pupils and 21 servants fell sick
with typhoid fever. An investigation revealed the fact
346 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
that only those were attacked who drank the water
supplied by the institution. The well from which it
was procured had been contaminated by refuse materi-
als; and typhus bacilli could be found in it. Milk as
well as water may be a means of infection, if it has
come into contact with some person suffering with the
disease. Transmission by clothing and washing has-
been a particularly noticeable fact.
Typhus patients should therefore be isolated most
rigorously and not be re-admitted to school under forty
days from the beginning of the sickness. Before ad-
mission they and their effects must have been submitted
to a thorough disinfection. In the case of typhoid
fever it is also necessary to disinfect the excretions of
the patient. For this purpose it is customary, to
throw in enough lime into the infected vaults to make
the contents strongly alkaline, and to wash out the
closet drains with a five per cent solution of calcium
The influenza^ or grippe, has become in late years
the most prevalent of infectious diseases. Its period of
incubation is from one to four, but usually from three
to four days. According to Combe 1 it often occurs
among school children in a very mild form, a slight
1 Combe, Die Influenza in den Primarschulen von
Lausanne. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege,
1890, No. 98, p. 505 ff.
THE INFLUENZA 347
headache, a scarcely preceptible weakness, little or no
fever, light chills, and a sick period of from five to
eight days only. Malling-Hansen 1 found that his
pupils gained less rapidly in weight than usual, but
were otherwise perfectly well during an epidemic of
the influenza. In the more serious cases, especially
with older pupils, the symptoms are chills, a high
fever, and violent pains in the spine. These are accom-
panied by eruptions, which are partly confined to the
lips and ears, and partly found over the rest of the
body like scarlet fever ex-anthema. The most prom-
inent symptoms are those connected with the nervous
system, such as severe headache, dizziness, and neu-
ralgia, and also persistent weakness, which prevents all
physical and mental work.
The nervous type of influenza is found in nearly
half the cases, while the bronchitic occurs in about
one-sixth. In the latter as well as in the former we
find chills, fever, and headache; but in a much less
intense form. A dry obstinate cough, something like
whooping-cough, and like this productive of nausea,
is usually the most striking symptom. The most
common complications are inflammation of the edges
of the eye-lids, the conjunctiva, and the cornea. The
X R. Malling-Hansen, Die Influenza und die Gewichts-
zunahme der Kinder. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesund-
heitspflege, 1890, Xo. 2, p. 65 fl 3 .
348 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
gastro-intestinal type, which is found in about a third
of the cases, is like the other two characterized by
chills, fever, headache, and general weakness; but there
is in addition diarrhea, with violent griping and fre-
That influenza is contagious, is an almost universally
accepted fact ; and a bacillus which Pf eif er has found
in the mucous discharges from the windpipe and
bronchial tubes is supposed to produce it. This will
explain the extraordinary propagation of the grippe in
places where many people are gathered together as in
schools. In Vienna 30 per cent of the school children
fell victims to the disease; 25 to 50 % in St. Petersburg;
54 % in Lausanne ; and 73 % in London. It was especially
prevalent in boarding schools ; in Detmold 17 out of 39 ;
in Schneeberg in the Erzgebirge 71 out of 120; and in
Waldenburg in Silesia 100 out of 130 boarding pupils
were attacked. In the boarding department of the
monastery at Einsiedeln, 140 out of 170 gymnasiasts
succumbed to the epidemic; and in Burave, a boys'
boarding school at castle Prangins in Switzerland,
only a single pupil escaped. It has accordingly been
found necessary to close the schools in many places.
In order to suppress influenza it is advisable to re-
port every case; and to isolate the pupils who have it,
and re-admit them only when they have fully recov-
ered. The school committee of the district of Vienna
has laid down the rule that when the influenza is epi-
demic, the general hygienic conditions of the school
must receive more attention ; school directors must be
especially careful to have the rooms kept at a uniform
temperature during recesses ; and to have them thor-
oughly cleaned every day with moist rags.
Masturbation. We will close our discussion of in-
fectious diseases by giving some account of masturba-
tion or onanism 1 , an error which may often be said to
be due to a mental contagion. Nothing certain is
known of the extent of the practice among the young.
It is well to refrain as much from extreme pessimism
as from careless optimism. At any rate, nearly all
agree that masturbation is most common at the time
of the development of the sex impulse, which, of
course, occurs during the school period.
H. Schiller writes from the standpoint of wide ob-
servation of the facts: "There is much evidence to
show that self-pollution is very extensively practised
in the schools. It occurs from Sexta to Prima, not
very often in the lowest and highest grades but most
frequently in Secunda and Tertia. There is probably
no institution entirely free from the evil, though its pre-
valence in some schools is remarkably great. The
1 Hermann Cohn. Was Kann die Schule gegen die
Masturbation der Kinder thun ? Berlin, 1894, Rich-
350 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
traditions and the quality of the students are the most
important factors in the case. Those institutions are
especially dangerous as propagators of the evil whose
intermediate classes are entered by numerous pupils
who come in from the country and are several years
above the average age. The bad habit, which is well
known and indigenous in the rural districts, is either
brought in or learned by them from older pupils and
then disseminated among the rest.
Among the causes we have already mentioned bad
example. The occasion for masturbation is also given
by neuropathic predisposition ; by sitting for hours at
home or in school, especially with the legs crossed; by
climbing poles and ropes without taking the proper
hold; by long retention of the urine; and by the
presence of eczema or vermin, which produces itching
and so leads to rubbing and scratching the region
about the genitals. Obscene books, pictures, and ex-
hibitions are very pernicious, since they arouse the
already unstable imagination of the young. The
most common cause of onanism is the unintentional
handling of the genitals so as to produce the orgasm
when under strong sexual excitement especially
while lying in bed.
The consequences of the vice are partially mental
and partially physical. Among the former, we have
lassitude, weakness, shy demeanor, distaste for study,
enfeeblement of memory, absent-mindedness, dimin-
ished reasoning power, which may even develop into
hypochondria. Among the physical results may be
mentioned, dizziness, headache, ringing in the ears,
palpitation of the heart, disorders of sight, and espec-
ially a functional disarrangement of the sexual organs
which manifests itself in excessive emissions by night
and even by day.
Teachers, physicians, and parents must unite in
waging war against this terrible enemy. Censure and
admonitions are generally of little value, as they in-
crease the great emotional depression already existing.
The onanist is fully conscious of his evil doing, and
would usually be glad to be free from it; but he lacks
the energy necessary for overcoming the powerful im-
pulse. This energy can best be secured through the
building up of the system generally; and, for this pur-
pose, plenty of exercise in the open air, gymnastics of
all sorts, and bathing in cold water will be found to be
of assistance. The food should be simple, free from
condiments, and not too nitrogenous; alcohol should
especially be avoided, since it contributes strongly to
sexual excitement. Smoking is also injurious, as it
has been demonstrated that it retards physical develop-
ment. Aside from these measures for invigoration,
the pupil must be watched continually and kept away
from all exciting causes. Whether the introduction
352 INFECTIOUS DISEASES
of a special school Bible and expurgated editions of
the classics would be of any service in the matter, is
doubtful ; as a rule they would be used for the discov-
ery of the objectionable passages, which would then be
read in some complete edition. Lectures on the sub-
ject before the entire class are not advisable. They
would only result in calling the attention of the inno-
cent to the subject, and the onanists would hardly
learn anything they did not already know. The entire
life of the school must rather be such that the pupil
cannot easily stray from the path of virtue and moral-
ity, as this is the best means of keeping mind, soul,
and body in a healthy condition.
A BIBLIOGEAPHY OF ENGLISH AND AMERI-
CAN BOOKS AND PAPERS ON SCHOOL
As will be seen by the headings, this bibliography
is divided into sections corresponding with the chap-
ters of Dr. Kotelmann's book. It is designed to be a
guide to some of the most important literature in Eng-
lish bearing upon the subjects under discussion. A
few notes have been added on the character and con-
tents of the articles or books when this was not suffi-
ciently indicated by the titles or when their importance
or special features seemed to make it desirable.
Books marked with a star may be purchased of the
publisher of this volume.
CHAPTER I. HISTORY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE, GENERAL
TREATISES, SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE.
ABEL, W. Jenkinson. School hygiene, including
simple directions respecting ventilation, eye-sight,
infectious diseases, and first aid in injuries, for
schools and families. Pp. 53. London, 1890.
A brief manual of directions.
ALCOTT, Wm. A. *Essay on the construction of
school-houses. Boston, 1832. Prize essay for the
American Institute of Instruction.
" Its principles were dominant for a number of years,
being adopted by Horace Mann, G. B. Emerson, et. al."
354 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
AMERICAN Institute of Instruction. *Lectures,
discussions, etc. Vol. I. Boston, 1831. Contains
a lecture on " Physical education " by Dr. John C.
WARREN, and one " On the construction and fur-
nishing of school-rooms" by W. J. ADAMS.
BAGINSKY. Handbuch der Schulhygiene. Pp. 6 19.
The bibliographies contain some American and Eng-
lish titles that would now be of historical interest.
BARNARD, Henry. * School architecture. This is
the most important book historically. It was written
as a lecture in 1838, and first published in the Conn.
Common school journal, 1842. In *1848, it appeared
as a separate book of 368 pages; a *2d edition of
383 pages was published in 1849, reprinted as a *3d
edition ; a * 4th edition of 429 pages in 1850; a * 5th
edition of 464 pages in 1854, reprinted as a *6th
edition. (See Barnard's Journal, Vol. IX, p. 487.)
" Dr. Barnard was the first in any country to set up
definite standards for school seats and desks on the
basis of accurate measurements of children. These
measurements were made as early as 1838." (Burger-
stein and Netolitzky, Handbuch der Schulhygiene,
American journal of education, 1855-1881.
Among the most important articles for the present
subject are : The condition of school buildings in the
United States, 1838-1850, *Vol. IX, p. 491; physical
training of teachers and pupils, by Catherine E.
Beecher, in 1855, *Vol. II, p. 39; and the examples of
school buildings in the United States. (*The analytical
GENERAL TREATISES, ARCHITECTURE 355
index of Barnard's Journal of education, issued by the
bureau of education, Washington, D. C., 1892, pp.
107-8, gives the pages and volumes.)
Keport on school architecture and plans for
graded schools, 1870. Bureau of education, Wash-
BELL, A. N. *The physiological conditions and
sanitary requirements of school-houses and school-
life. [Prize essay, medical society, State of N". Y.]
New York, 1887.
BICKNELL, A. J. * School-house and church archi-
tecture. Containing 23 plates, showing 26 plans
and elevations of district, village, and city school-
houses. New York.
BOYKIN, Jas. C. Physical training. * Report of com-
missioner of education, 1891-92. Pp. 494-524 give
a convenient history of the movement in the United
BUDGETT, J. B. The hygiene of schools, or educa-
tion mentally and physically considered. London,
BURNHAM, W. H. Outlines of school hygiene. Pp.
9-71. Pedagogical seminary Vol. II, No. 1. Wor-
cester, Mass., 1892. Excellent.
BURROWES, Thos. H. * Pennsylvania school archi-
tecture, a manual of directions and plans for grading,
locating, constructing, heating, ventilating, and fur-
nishing common school-houses. Harrisburg.
CARPENTER, Alfred. The principles and practice
of school hygiene. With illustrations. London,
356 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
1887. Jos. Hughes. Begins with school architecture,
drainage, sewerage, etc.
CHAD WICK, Edwin. *The sanitary construction of
schools. Social science association. New York,
CLARK, Hannah B. Sanitary legislation affecting
schools in the United States. ^Report of commis-
sioner of education, 1893-4. Pp. 1301-49.
COUNCIL on education, England. *Committee of
plans of buildings (21 folio sheets). London.
DRAPER, A. S. (editor). Designs for school-houses.
Being the accepted plans in the competition con-
ducted by the department of public instruction of
the State of New York, etc. Albany, 1888.
Designs for school-houses accepted by the depart-
ment of public instruction of the State of New
York. Albany, 1889.
DUKES, Clement. * School dormitories. London
health exposition, 1884. ,
DWYER, Chas. P. *The economy of church, par-
sonage, and school architecture. Buffalo, 1856.
EVELETH, S. F. School-house architecture. De-
signs for school-houses, with perspectives, elevations,
plans, sections, details, and specifications, all drawn
to working scale, with methods of heating and ven-
tilation. New York.
FARQUHARSON, Robert. * School hygiene and dis-
eases incidental to school life. Pp. 369. London,
Contents: School buildings, school diet, school
GENERAL TREATISES, ARCHITECTURE 357
work, school play, the duties of the school doctor,
Discussion of school play and diet of special interest.
FREEZE, J. R. Report on school-houses and the
means of promoting popular education. In Vol. V.
* Reports of the Paris exposition of 1867. Washing-
GARDNER, E. C. Town and country school buildings.
New York., 1888.
H ARRIS, W. T. Preliminary report on school hygiene.
Educational review, pp. 1-8, June, 1899.
HARTWELL, Edward H. Report of the director of
physical training. School document 22, 1891.
A contribution to the history of physical training.
The report for 1895, school document No. 4, Bos-
ton, contains a history of the school desk reform.
HODGINS, J. George. *The school-house, its archi-
tecture, external and internal arrangements; with
elevations and plans for public and high school build-
ings. Together with illustrated papers on the im-
portance of school hygiene and ventilation, etc.
Hints and suggestions on school architecture and
hygiene, with plans and illustrations. Toronto, 1886.
JOHONNOT, James. * Country school-houses, con-
taining elevations, plans, and specifications, with
estimates, directions to builders, suggestions as to
school grounds, furniture, apparatus, etc., and a
treatise on school-house architecture. New York,
358 BIBLIOGEAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
JOHONNOT, James. * School-houses. Architectural
designs by S. E. Hewes. New York, 1871.
KENDALL, H. C., Jr. * Designs for schools and
school-houses, parochial and national. London, 1874.
LINCOLN", D. F. * School and industrial hygiene.
No. 12 of the American health primers. Phil., 1880.
The sanitary conditions of school houses and
school life. In the Lamb prize essays of the Ameri-
can public health association. Pp. 63-98. Concord,
N. H. 1886.
MANN, Horace. * Eeport of the secretary of the board
of education on the subject of school-houses, sup-
plementary to his first annual report. Boston, 1838.
School-houses in Europe. In * 7th annual report.
MASSACHUSETTS emergency and hygiene associa-
tion. *Six lectures on school hygiene. Boston, 1885.
Contents: School hygiene, heating and ventilation,
use and care of the eyes especially during school years,
epidemics and disinfection, drainage, the relation of
our public schools to disorders of the nervous system.
* Hygiene of public schools in Massachusetts.
MUEGATRO YD, J. * The arrangement and construc-
tion of large middle-class schools grammar and high
schools. London health exposition, 1884.
NEWSHOLME, Arthur. * School hygiene : or the laws
of health in relation to school life. Pp. 150. D.
C. Heath & Co., Boston, 1895. Makes use of Ameri-
can sources of information, but discussions are very
GENERAL TREATISES, ARCHITECTURE 359
PAGET, Charles E.. * Healthy schools. Interna-
tional health exhibition handbooks. London, 1884.
PHIPPS, Abner. Plans for villages and rural districts
in Massachusetts with remarks on the condition of
school-houses in 1872.
From report to legislature in 1873 by Abner J. Phipps.
Barnard's Journal, Vol. XXVII, p. 352-362.
PHILBEICK, John D. * City school systems in the
United States. Bureau of Education. Circular
No. 1, 1885. Pp. 147-182. Washington.
REINHART, A. * Neglect of bodily development of
American youth. Syracuse.
RICHARDSON, B. W. * Learning and health.
ROBSON, E. School architecture. Practical informa-
tion on the planning, designing, building, and fur-
nishing of school-houses. London.
STOORS, M. * Health of our schools. Conn, school
WHITFORD, W. C. Circular on plans and specifica-
tions of school-houses. Madison, Wis., 1882. Re-
printed from the report of the State superintendent
of public instruction.
WILSON, W. Carus. * Helps to the building of
churches, parsonage houses and schools ; containing
plans, elevations, specifications, etc. London, 1842.
WRIGHT, D. F. School hygiene. In report of State
superintendent of public instruction, Tenn., 1884.
YOUNG, A. G. Seventh annual report of the State
board of health of Maine. Pp. 83-385. Augusta,
360 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
A good comprehensive treatise on school hygiene.
CHAPTER II. THE ORIENTATION or THE SCHOOL-
BUILDING AND NATURAL LIGHTING, pp. 35-52.
BURNHAM. (See above page 355). Pp. 19-21, and
COHN, Hermann. Hygiene of the eye. Pp. 131-145.
Simpkin, Marshall & Co., London, 1886.
JAVAL, M. * Daylight in the school-room. New
MARBLE, A. P. * Sanitary conditions for school-
houses. Lighting, pp. 50-56. Circular of informa-
tion No. 3, 1891. Bureau of ed., Washington, D. C.
YOUNG. (See above, page 359) pp. 260-279, also
He advocates strongly a northerly direction for
CHAPTER III. ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION OF SCHOOL-
ROOMS, pp. 53-64.
BURNHAM. (See above, page 355), pp. 35-6.
COHN, Herman. (See above on this page) , pp. 160-71.
Technical journals like the Electric world and
engineer, The American gas light journal, N. Y., and
The progressive age, N. Y,, etc., may be consulted
for a description of different facilities and inventions
in this field.
CHAPTER IV. VENTILATION AND CLEANING, pp.
BILLINGS, John S. Ventilation and heating. New
VENTILATION AND CLEANING 361
Important, especially so Chapter XVIII on school
* Information necessary to determine the merits
of the heating and ventilation of a school building.
N". E. A. 1882.
The principles of ventilation and heating and
their proper application. London, 1884.
- MITCHELL and BERGY. The composition
of expired air and its effects upon animal life.
Smithsonian contributions to knowledge, Vol. 29.
Abstract in the annual report for 1895.
Gives results differing from those referred to by Dr.
BRIGGS, Robert. *Report on the plans for warming
and ventilating the Bridgeport school-house. Phila.,
Hygienic construction of the Bridgeport high
school building. Third annual report of the Con-
necticut State board of health. Hartford, Conn.,
1881. Reprinted by Marble (see above, page 360).
BURNHAM, W. H. (See above, page 355) pp. 22-33.
CHAPIN. Crowded schools as promoters of disease.
Pp. 296-300, Forum, May, 1894.
HOLBROOK, M. L. Bad breath in the school-room.
School Bulletin, *Vol. II, p. 60, Dec. 1875.
JACOB. Ventilation and Warming. Pp. 14, 124.
" A very convenient outline." Burnham.
MARBLE, A. P. (See above, page 360).
" Specially valuable in regard to heating and ventila-
tion. ' ' Burnham.
362 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
MEDICAL society of London and national health
society. * Conferences on school hygiene and school
MARTIN, A. C. *The ventilation of school-houses.
MORIN, Arthur. * Warming and ventilating occupied
buildings. Washington, 1882.
MORRISON, Gilbert B. *The ventilation and warm-
ing of school buildings. D. Appleton & Co., New
PACKARD. School-room air ; with directions for ex-
amining it to determine the degree of its vitiation
and the amount of ventilation required. * Special re-
port of the bureau of education. Part II, pp. 349-
92. Washington, D. C., 1886.
PENNIMAN. The criminal crowding of public schools.
Forum, May, 1895, pp. 289-95.
PRUDDEN. The story of bacteria. Pp. 143. New
Dust and its dangers. Pp. 111. New York,
SMART, Charles. The chemical examination of air
as applied to questions of ventilation. *N. E. A.,
THORNE, R. T. Inlets for infection. Popular sci-
ence monthly, Vol. XXIV, p. 73-79.
WAGNER and HERBERT. Bad air and bad health.
Pp. 98. Edinburg, 1894.
WHITE. Ventilation. Proceedings of the tenth an-
nual convention of the International association of
HEATING, SCHOOL FURNITURE 363
factory inspectors of North America. Toronto,
WOODBEIDGE, S. H. Plans for heating and venti-
lating school-houses. Pp. 315-386. Seventh annual
report of the State board of health of Maine.
* A method of warming and ventilating small
YOUNG. (See above, page 359) pp. 283-314. Also
pp. 148-151 on school baths.
CHAPTER V. HEATING.
BALDWIN. Steam heating data. Pp. 365. New
"A standard authority upon the subject." W. H.
CARPENTER, A. Heating and ventilating buildings.
New York, 1896.
* ' A standard handbook giving scientific principles
and data." W. H. Burnham. See also Billings,
Briggs, Burnham, Marble, Morrison, Woodbridge, and
Young. Op. cit.
CHAPTER VI. SCHOOL FURNITURE, pp. 144-169.
BARNARD, Henry. (See above, page 354).
BOBRICK. Hygienic requirements of school furni-
ture. Pp. 51. New York, 1892.
BROWN, Buckminster. * Influence of the prevailing
methods of education on young persons of both
sexes. American social science association, 1879.
BURNHAM, W. H. (See above, page 355), pp. 39-49.
364 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
HAETWELL, Edward Mussey. Eeport of the direc-
tor of physical training. School document No. 4,
1895. Boston, Mass.
The most important treatise on the subject in English.
SCUDDEE, C. F. Investigation into one- of the
etiological factors in the production of lateral curva-
ture of the spine. Eeasons why the seating of school
children should receive very careful supervision.
School document No. 9, 189*2. Boston, Mass.
SHAW. The latest improved hygienic desk. School
journal, May 1, 1897.
SMITH, Noble. * Postures in school; their influence
upon physical development. London, health exhibi-
CHAPTERS VII, VIII. THE HYGIENE OF THE NERV-
OUS SYSTEM, pp. 170-238.
BAEDEEN, C. W. The sentimental schoolmaster.
School Bulletin, *Vol. XII, p. 128, July, 1886.
Points out disastrous effects upon girls often ob-
BAENES, Earl. Intellectual habits of Cornell stu-
dents. Cornell mag., Nov., 1890.
BEAED, G. M. American nervousness. Its causes
and consequences. Pp. 352. New York, 1881.
A practical treatise on nervous exhaustion. Its
causes and consequences. Pp. 198. New York,
Dr. Beard's work is of special importance.
BEEGSTEOM, J. A. An experimental study of some
of the conditions of mental activity. American
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 365
journal of psychology, Jan., 1894. Vol. VI., pp.
Mental activity as affected by daily rhythm, baro-
metric changes, exercise, fatigue, and associational
BRIGHAM, Amariah. * Mental exertion in relation
to health. Edited with a chapter on the cause and
care of indigestion in literary men, by Arthur Lamed.
BROWN, J. Cnchton. Education and the nervous
system. London, 1884.
BURNHAM, W. H. (See above, page 355), pp. 9-18,
BUXTON, Sydney. * Overpressure in the primary
schools. London, Sonnenschein & Co.
CARTER, R. B. * Overwork in schools. London,
health exposition, 1884.
CLARKE, Dr. E. H. * The building of a brain. Pp.
153. Boston, 1874.
* Sex in education: or a fair chance for girls. Pp.
181. Boston, 1886.
" These two books are still classics." Burnham.
CLOUSTON. The growth and development of the
child in body and mind. Edinburgh, 1884.
- The neuroses of development. Pp. 138. Olive
& Boyd, Edinburgh, 1891 Important.
CLOUSTON. Developmental insanities and psychoses.
The delirium and night terrors of children. The
insanities of puberty and adolescence. Tuke's dic-
tionary of psychological medicine, Vol. IV, pp. 357-
366 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
COMFOKT, Anna M. and G. E. * Woman's education
and woman's health; chiefly in reply to " Sex in
education". Syracuse, 1874.
CORNING, J. Leonard. Brain exhaustion, with some
preliminary considerations on cerebral dynamics.
Pp. 324. New York, 1884.
Brain rest, being a disquisition on the curative
properties of prolonged sleep. New York, 1885.
COWLES, Edward. Neurasthenia. Shattuck lecture.
The relation of fatigue to insanity: its symptoms
and causation. Has many references.
The mental symptoms of fatigue. Pp. 25. New
DONALDSON, H. H. The growth of the brain.
Pp. 374. Scribner's, New York, 1895.
On the structure and development of the nervous
system, in the American text-book of physiology.
The best treatises on the subject.
DOWN, J. Langdon. On some mental affections of
childhood and youth. Pp. 307. London, 1887.
DRESSLAR, F. B. Fatigue. Pedagogical seminary,
Vol. II, No. 1, pp. 102-106.
DRURY, F. M., and FOLSOM, C. F. Effects of the
study for examinations on the nervous and mental
conditions of female students. Psychological re-
view, pp. 55-62, 1898.
DUKES, Clement. Health at school considered in its
mental, moral, and physical aspects. Pp. 498,
XXIV, London, 1894.
THE 2s T EKVOUS SYSTEM 367
DUKES, Clement. Work and overwork. Pp. 69.
The essentials of school diet, or the diet suitable
for the growth and development of youth. Lon-
* School dietaries. London health exposition,
FARIES, Randolph. Practical training for athletics,
health, and pleasure. The Outing publishing co.,
New York, 1899.
FAYRER, Jos. *Home lessons after school hours.
London health exposition, 1884.
FERNALD, W. E. The history of the treatment of
the feeble-minded. Boston, 1893.
FITZ. Play as a factor in development. American
physical education review, Dec., 1897.
FLEURY, de. A cure for indolence. Fortnightly
review, pp. 762-80, May, 1898.
FOSTER. Weariness. Nineteenth cent., pp. 337-52,
GALTON, Francis. Remarks on replies from teach-
'ers to questions respecting mental fatigue. Journal
of the anthropological institute, April, 1888.
It will be found also nearly complete in * Report of
com. of ed., 1895-6 beginning p. 1181. Important.
GREENWOOD, Richard. * Over-pressure in ele-
mentary schools. London health exposition, 1884.
HANCOCK, John A. A preliminary study of motor
ability. Pedagogical seminary, Vol. Ill, No. 1, pp.
368 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
HAKTWELL, Edward Mussey. Keport of the direc-
tor of physical training. School document Xo. 8,
1894. Death rate of school children in Boston, pp.
HARRIS,W. T. * Report of the committee of fifteen.
Ed. rev. March, 1895. Also in separate form by
Am. book co., X. Y., Gin., Chi.
An especially valuable discussion of the causes of
arrested development in different subjects. The
- Reports of the com. of education, Washington,
D. C. Mental fatigue in school. * Report for 1894-
5, pp. 449-460 gives a summary of opinions of
* Report for 1895-6, pp. 1174-1198 gives a summary
of opinions of English and American writers.
HERTEL, Axel. * Overpressure in the high schools
of Denmark. London, 1885. Report of the impor-
tant investigations which lead to the more extensive
studies in Denmark and Sweden. See Pedagogical
seminary, Vol. I, p: 245.
HIGGINS, P. J. * Study physiologically considered.
Popular science monthly, Vol. XXIV, p. 639-645.
HOI)GE, C. F. A microscopical study of changes
due to functional activity in nerve cells. Journal
of morphology, Vol. VII, No. 2, pp. 95-168. Bos-
Experiments on the physiology of alcohol made
under the auspices of the committee of fifty. Pop.
sci. mo., Vol. 50. Pp. 766-812,
HOOSE, James H. Report of committee on hygiene
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 369
in education. Recess or no recess in schools. * Pro-
ceedings of the N. E. A. 1885.
IRELAND. The mental afflictions of children. Idiocy,
imbecility, and insanity. Pp. 442. London, 1898.
JAMES, William. Talks to teachers. Henry Holt &
Co. New York, 1899.
The best and most interesting discussion of the hy-
gienic aspects of normal psychology.
- Principles of psychology. Vol. I, pp. 80-127 ;
and Vol II, pp. 372-382. Henry Holt & Co. New
JOHNSON, N. C. Habits of work and methods of
study of high school pupils in some cities in Indiana .
The School review, May, 1899. Chicago.
JOHNSON G. E. Contributions to the psychology
and pedagogy of feeble-minded children. Peda-
gogical seminary, Vol. Ill, pp. 246-301. 1895.
Education by plays and games. Pedagogical sem-
inary, Vol. II, pp. 95-133.
KEILER, Alex. *What may be the dangers of ed'l
overwork for both sexes, with special reference to
the higher class of girls' schools, and the effects of
competitive examinations. Social science association,
KROHN, W. 0. Nervous diseases of school children.
Child study monthly ,*Vol. I, pp. 345-368,April, 1896.
LINCOLN, D. F. The nervous system as affected
by school life. In " *The health of schools ". Bos-
LINDLEY, E. H. A preliminary study of some of
370 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
the motor phenomena of mental effort. Am. jour-
nal of psychology, July, 1896, pp. 491-517.
See also Pedagogical seminary, July, 1897, pp.
LOMBAKD, W. P. Some of the influences which
affect the power of voluntary muscular contractions.
Journal of physiology, Vol. XIII, pp. 1-58.
The variations in the normal knee-jerk and their
relations to the activity of the central nervous sys-
tem. American journal of psychology, Vol. I, pp.
LUKENS, H. T. The school fatigue question in
Germany. Educational review, Vol. XV, pp. 246-
Mental fatigue. American physical review, pub-
lished by the A. A. A. P. E., Vol. IV., Nos. 1 and
2. Cambridge, 1899.
MANACEINE, de. Sleep: its physiology, pathology,
hygiene, and psychology. Pp. 341. New York,
MARBLE, A. P. The growth of children as related
to health and ability to study. (See above", page
360) pp. 57-61.
MAUDSLEY, H. *Sex in mind and in education.
"A masterly treatment of a delicate subject."
New England Journal of Ed'n.
MERCIER, Charles. The nervous system and the
mind. Pp. 347. Macmillan. London, 1888.
MEYER, Adolph. On the observation of mental ab-
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 371
normalities in school children. * Chilil study month-
ly, pp. 1-12, May, 1895.
MILLS, Chas. K. Over-work and sanitation in the
public schools of Phil., with remarks on the influ-
ences of overwork in the production of nervous
diseases and insanity. Phil., 1886.
MITCHELL, Weir. Wear and tear, or hints for the
overworked. Pp. 76. Phil., 1887.
MOORE, John M. Studies of fatigue. Yale studies,
Vol. II, pp. 68-96. New Haven.
O'SHEA, M. V. Practical phases of mental fatigue.
Pop. sci. mo. Pp. 511-524. August, 1899.
PATRIDGE, G. E. Second breath. Pedagogical sem-
inary. Pp. 372-81, April, 1897.
PORTER, W. T. The physical basis of precocity and
dulness. Pp. 20. Academy of science of St.
Louis, Mo., 1893.
RICHARDSOX, B. W. * Learning and health, Syra-
ROYCE. Mental defect and disorder from the teach-
er's point of view. Ed. Review. Oct., Nov., Dec.,
1893. Xew York.
REEA 7 E, J. C. The brain and nervous system in their
relations to teaching and learning. Dayton, 1878.
SACHS. A treatise on the nervous diseases of chil-
dren for physicians and students. Pp. 66. London,
SHAW, E. R. Fatigue. * Proceedings of the X. E.
A., pp. 550-554, 1898.
SHUTTLEWORTH, Geo. E. Mentally deficient chil-
372 BIBLIOGEAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
dren; their treatment and training. Pp. 140. H.
K. Lewis, London, 1895.
A good introduction; contains a bibliography, pp.
SIDGWICK. Health statistics of women students of
Cambridge and Oxford, and their sisters. Pp. 99.
STRACHAN, John. * What is play ? Its bearing on
education and training. A physical inquiry. Edin-
WARMER, Fr. The study of children and their
school training. Pp. XIX and 264. New York,
"A convenient resume of the author's views."
- * Some points of the physical aspects of primary
ed'n. Social science ass'n, 1879.
- *The brain of the child. The same, 1884.
YOUNG. (See above, page 359) pp. 151-192.
CHAPTERS IX, X. THE HYGIENE OF THE EYE AND
EAR, ppi 239-.
AGNEW, C. S. Defects of eye-sight. In "*The
health of schools." Boston, 1876.
ALLPORT, Frank. The eye and its care. Phila-
Defective eye-sight in American children. Re-
view of reviews, June, 1897.
Tests for defective vision in school children.
Educational review, New York, 1897.
Report of eye examinations in the Minneapolis
THE EYE* AND EAR 373
public schools. Journal of American medical asso-
ciation, pp. 207-211, 1898.
AMERICAN society of social science. *Is the human
eye gradually changing its form and becoming near-
sighted under the influence of modern education ?
New York, 1877.
BURNHAM, W. H. (See above, page 355), pp. 49-60.
BRYAN, W. L. Suggestions on the study of chil-
dren. Inland educator, Terre Haute, Aug. and
CALHOUN, A. M. * Effects of student life upon eye-
sight. Pp. 29. Bureau of education, Washing-
CARTER, R. B. Report on the vision of children
attending elementary schools in London. Pp. 16.
CATTELL. Tests of the senses and faculties. Edu-
cational review, pp. 257-65, March, 1895. New
CHRISMAN, Oscar. The hearing of children. Ped-
agogical seminary, Vol. II, pp. 391-441. 1892. Wor-
Contains a good resume of investigations up to its
date, and a bibliography.
COHN, H. The hygiene of the eye. Pp. 236 and VII.
* Eyes and schoolbooks. Popular science monthly.
DENNETT, Wm. S * Report of examinations of
the eyes of the pupils of the schools of Hyde Park,
374 - BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CHOOI HYGIENE
JACKSON, J. The theory and practice of handwrit-
ing. Pp. 160. London, 1893.
JAMES, John S. * Suggestions to teachers regarding
visual defects of school children. School education,
JEFFRIES, B. Joy. Color-blindness, its dangers and
detection. Boston, 1883.
Report of the examination of 27,927 school chil-
dren for color-blindness. Boston, 1880.
LUCKEY. Comparative observations on the indirect
color range of children, adults, and adults trained
in color. American journal of psychology, Jan.,
McLEAN, Ward. Effects of study on the eye-sight.
Popular science monthly, Nov., 1877.
NORTHRUP, B. G. * Near-sightedness in schools,
its causes, prevalence, and prevention. New Haven,
ROYAL society of London, 1892.
Report of the committee on color vision, pp. 281-396.
RANDALL. The hygienic and scientific value of
examinations of the eyes and ears of school children,
pp. 8. Chicago, 1895.
RISLEY. Weak eyes in the public schools of Phila-
delphia. Philadelphia, 1881.
Defective vision in school children. Educational
review, pp. 348-54. April, 1892. New York.
ROOSA. Defective eye-sight and the principles of its
relief by glasses. Macmillan Co., 1899.
VOICE A2S T D SPEECH 375
SHAW. Vertical script and proper desks as related
Proceedings for the advancement of physical educa-
tion. April, 1895.
SNELL. Eye-sight and school life. Pp. VIII and
70. Bristol, 1895.
SOUTHARD. The modern eye, with an analysis of
1,300 errors of refraction. Pp.32. San Francisco,
WORRELL. Deafness among school children.
Transactions of the Indiana state medical society.
Pp. 25-33. Indianapolis, 1883.
YORKE-AT-LEE, Sam'l. * Defective eye-sight.
Popular science monthly.
YOUXG. (See above, page 359.) Pp. 98-119.
CHAPTER XL THE HYGIENE OF VOICE AND SPEECH.
BEHXKE, E. and BROWN, L. The child's voice;
its treatment with regard to after development. A.
N. Marquis & Co., Chicago, 1885.
BRYAN, W. L. and HARTER, Noble. Studies in
the physiology and psychology of the telegraphic
language. Psychological review, Jan., 1897, pp.
27-53. New York.
Studies on the telegraphic language. The ac-
quisition of a hierarchy of habits. Ibid., July,
1899. Pp. 345-375.
An important investigation into the causes of the
long periods of apparently slight progress after the
first rapid success in learning languages and other
376 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
CHATER, Thos. Scientific voice, artistic singing, and
effective speaking. London, 1890.
HARTWELL, E. M. Stuttering. Report of the
director of physical training. School Doc., No. 8,
1894, pp. 69-97. An important statistical study.
HOWARD, F. E. The child's voice in singing. Pp.
196. Werner Co., Chicago.
LUKENS, H. T. Preliminary report on the learning
Pedagogical seminary, Vol III, No. 3. June, 1896.
MACKENZIE. The hygiene of the vocal organs.
Pp. 223. London, 1886.
MONROE, Lewis B. *Manual of physical and vocal
training, for the use of schools and for private in-
struction. Illustrated by Hammett Billings. Phil.,
MULFORD. The throat of the child. Educational
review. Pp. 261-72, March, 1897. New York.
MYER, E. J. The voice from a practical standpoint.
New York, 1886.
PATTON, A. A. Responsibility of vocal teachers as
voice builders. New York, 1886.
CHAPTERS XII, XIII. SCOLIOSIS, INFECTIOUS DIS-
EASES, AND SEXUAL IRREGULARITIES.
BANGOR, Me. Rules of the schoolboard respecting
contagious diseases. Reprinted in * School Bulle-
tin, Vol. XIII, p. 20, Oct. 1886.
B4RDEEN, C. R. * Infection and Immunity. Syra-
INFECTIOUS DISEASES, IRREGULARITIES 377
BARNES, Earl. * Studies in education, pp. 301-8,
gives a bibliography by Prof. Earl Barnes of books
and pamphlets intended to give sex information.
Leland Stanford, Jr., univ., Palo Alto, Cal.
BUCK, A. H. (editor). Reference handbook of med-
ical sciences. Eight volumes. New York, 1885-87.
BURNHAM, W. H. The study of adolescence.
Pedagogical seminary, Vol. I, No. 2, pp. 174 to 196.
EATON, Gen. John (editor). Typhoid fever in
. schools. * Report of commissioner of education,
1875, p. clxiii.
FITZ. A study of measurements of curvature of the
spine. American orthopedic association. Pp. 3,
KROHN, W. 0. Habitual postures of school chil-
dren. *'Child study monthly, Oct., 1895.
LANCASTER, G. E. The psychology and pedagogy
of adolesence. Pedagogical seminary, Vol. 1, No.
1, pp. 61-128.
LUEHR. Causes and prevention of lateral curvature
of the spine, and near-sightedness. Mind and body,
MOSHER. Habitual postures of school children.
Educational review, March, 1897. Pp. 261-72.
MULLER, Geo. Spinal curvature and awkward devel-
opment. Their causes and prevention in children.
Pp. 88. London, 1894.
REILLY, Charles. Contagious diseases in schools.
School Bulletin, *Vol. XIII, p. 93 (April, 1887.)
378 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
SILJESTROM, P. A. *A momentous educational
question [vaccination ]. London, 1883.
SMITH, Southwood. * Epidemics considered with re-
lation to their common nature, and to climate and
civilization. Edinboro, 1856.
TISSOT, S. A. * An essay on diseases incident to lit-
erary and sedentary persons. With proper rules for
preventing their fatal consequences, and instructions
for their cure. 2d ed. With preface and notes by
I. Kirkpatrick, M. D. London, 1769.
VIRCHOW. *0n school room diseases. Washington
bureau of education, August, 1870.
YOUNG. (See above, page 359). Pp. 119-125, and
Articles for this section may be found in large num-
bers in encyclopedias, medical handbooks, current
medical and educational journals, reports of boards of
Investigations into the rate of growth of boys and girls
and the conditions which influence it.
AMERICAN statistical association. ^Papers on anthro-
pometry. Boston, 1894. Contains an important col-
lection of articles by Hartwell, Boas, Porter, Hitch-
cock, Enebuski, and Bowditch, with a bibliography
of anthropometry in the United States. May be
had from Mr. Davis R. Dewey, Mass. Inst. of Tech.,
for 50 cts.
BOAS, Franz. Anthropological investigations in
ANTHROPOMETRIC INVESTIGATIONS 379
schools. Pedagogical seminary, pp. 225-8, June,
1891. Science, June, 26, 1891, p. 351-2.
The growth of children. Science, Vol. XIX,
pp. 256, 281-2; Vol. 20 pp. 351-2.
The limitations of the comparative method of
anthropology. Science, N. S. Vol. IV, pp. 901-8.
The growth of Toronto children. * Report of
commissioner of education for 1896-7, pp. 1541-99.
BOLTON, T. L. The growth of memory in school
children. American journal of psychology. April,
1892, Vol. IV, pp. 362-380.
BOWDITCH, H. P. The growth of children. Eighth
annual report of the State board of health of Mass.,
1877. Pp. 275-323. Reprinted in papers on
anthropometry. An important pioneer investigation.
The growth of children. Tenth annual report
State board of health of Mass., 1879. Pp. 33-62.
The growth of children studied by Galton's
method of percentile grades. Twenty-second annual
report of the State board of health of Mass., 1890.
BRYAN, W. L. On the development of voluntary
motor ability. American journal of psychology.
Nov., 1892, pp. 125-204.
BURK, Frederick. Growth of children in height and
weight. American journal of psychology. April,
1898, Vol. IX. No. 3.
A comparative study of investigations so far made,
with a descriptive bibliography.
GALTON, Francis. On the principles and methods
380 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
of assigning marks for bodily efficiency. Nature,
Oct. 31, 1889. Pp. 649-53.
Useful anthropometry. Proceedings of the
American association for advancement of physical
education. Vol. VI, pp. 51-7, 1891.
GREENWOOD, J. M. Heights and weights of chil-
dren. American public health association report,
1891. See also Kansas City report, 1890-1, pp.
GROSZMANN, M. P. E. * A working manual of child
Gives in detail the method employed in the Schools
of ethical culture, New York city. Syracuse, 1897.
HARRIS, Wm. T. * Report on pedagogical and psy-
chological observation. Syracuse.
PECKHAM, Geo. W. The growth of children. Sixth
annual report of the State board of health of
Wisconsin, 1881. Vol. VI, pp. 28-73. Pedagogi-
cal seminary, Vol. I, p. 298.
PEREZ, B. *The first three years of childhood.
With an introduction by Prof. Sully. Syracuse.
This is -of such general interest that it is included by
the American library association in the list of books to
be contained in every library.
PORTER, W. T. The physical basis of precocity and
dulness. (See above, page 371.)
On the application to individual school children
of the means derived from anthropological measure-
ments by the generalizing method. Quarterly publ-
ANTHROPOMETRIC INVESTIGATIONS 381
lications of the American statistical association, Vol.
3, pp. 576-87. Boston, 1893.
The growth of St. Louis children. Transactions
of the academy of science of St. Louis, Mo. April
The use of anthropometrical measurements in
schools. Educational review, Feb., 1896. New
*TIEDEMANN'S record of infant life. An English
version of the French translation and commentary
of B. Perez, by F. Louis Soldan. Syracuse.
WEST, Gerald M. Worcester school children. The
growth of the body, head, and face. Science, Jan.
BIBLIOGRAPHIES OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
BURNHAM, Wm. H. 'Bibliography of school hygiene.
* Proceedings of the National educational association,
1898. Pp. 505-523.
An excellent descriptive bibliography to which the
writer is indebted for a number of titles. Especially
see pp. 520-3 for list of journals and reports.
.BILLINGS, John S. (editor). Index medicus. Monthly
record of the current medical literature of the world.
Edited by Dr. John S. Billings and Dr. Robert
Fletcher, Washington, D. C. Begins 1879.
MAcDOXALD, Arthur. Abnormal man, being essays
on education and crime and related subjects, with
a digest of literature and a bibliography.
The latter contains a great many titles of importance
to school hygiene.
383 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL HYGIENE
WARREN, Howard C., (et. ah, editors). The Psycho-
logical index. Macmillan & Co. New York. An
annual bibliography of the literature of psychology
and related subjects.
This and the Index medicus may be consulted for
WILSON, L. N. * Bibliography of child study. Ped-
agogical seminary, April, 1898. May be obtained in
separate form from J. H. Orpha, Worcester, Mass.
Price 50 cts. A valuable descriptive bibliography.
adenoid vegetations 285
adjustable desks 154
age of enteri ng school 209
air, composition of 65
in the school-room 32
i n eye-diseases 277
airing the room 92
albocarbon gaslight 60
Altenstein . 31
American hard pine 96
aprosexia nasalis 287
Aquaviva, Claudius 21
arched ceilings 291
archaeological collections 192
Argand burner 59
Arlt, von 32
army regulations 252
Arndt 171, 172
Arsonval, d' 67
artificial illumination 198
articulation 291 , 302
aspirating chimney 81
assignment of desks 161
association of ideas 183
Auer's gas-light 59
automatic regulated fire 120
awning for windows 48
Bach, Theodore 33,35, 203
bacilli 329, 335, 348
back rests 134
backward inclination of seats 133
bacteria 70, 72, 288
Baginsky, Adolf 33, 35, 50
Barr, Thomas " 281, 284
base burner stoves 108
Basedow, John Bernard, portrait. 25
Bastelmann's contact thermome-
bathing 199, 206
Bayr, Emanuel 55
Becker 217, 219
Beethoven 170, 171
Behnke, Gustav 109
Uendziula, Albert . ..149
Berthold of Regensburg 17
bevelled windows 48
Beyer, O. W 203
Bezold, Friederich 32, 279, 281
blackboard crayon 167
kept clean 98
blinds 45, 48
blows on the temples 292
boating 199, 209
book-shelf for school-desk 143
box ing the ears 292
brain, growth of 209
the acropolis of the mind.. .170
breathing exercises 300
Breckling, SOnke 116
Bresgen, Maximilian 33, 217, 285
brick walls detrimental 84
bronchial tubes 72
Bruhl and Jahr 328
Buchner 32, 135
Burgerstein, Leo 33, 35,
55, 173, 189, 192, 261, 267, 339
Buttsted of Osterode 24
Butzke's arc light 59
calcium hydrate 102
California, university of 259
Camerarius, Joachim 19
cannon stoves 108
carbon monoxide 110
carbonic acid 65, 66
care of furnaces 122
cast iron 156
Castaning's window ventilation. 91
cataract of the eye 254
catarrh of the bronchial tubes. . . 72
of the eye 277
central heating plants 112
cephalic congestions 216
cerebro-spinal meningitis 334
Chamotte stone 113
chandeliers kept clean 98
chemistry explosions 291
children's faults, science of 229
3himne3 r s for pas 61
3hin in singing 300
shorea St. Viti 237
ehoroid, inflammation of 254
class-rooms should be quiet 291
classics, study of reduced 215
cleanliness of the pupils 94
cocoa fibre mats 99
Cohn, Hermann 32, 42, 43, 44,
... .49, 54, 56, 61, 148, 246, 260, 349
cold draft 290
colored crayon 168
Columbus school desk 157
Comenius, John Amos 23
compass of voice 295
conjunctiva, inflammation of 273
Conrad, Max 241, 244
contamination of the air 66
continuous desks 155
seat for pupils 145
croup, membraneous 329
curvature of the spine 33, 310-319
daily programme 189
daylight important 38
decaying teeth 95
decoration of school-rooms 192
defective hearing, disadvantages. 283
deodorizing closets 102
desk frames of iron, not wood 156
width of 132
desks 128, 250. 315
Dettweiler spit-bottle 343
dictation not too rapid 269
differences in school desks .136
different sizes of desks 160
diphtheria 72, 288, 328-332
direct sunlight 48
diseases of the eye 272
disinfecting closets 102
distance between seat and desk.. 141
Dornbluth, Fr 323
double desks 145
dry ness of air 113
dulness often from defective ears.285
duration of ventilation 92
dust 99, 277, 290
ear, discharges from 95
hygiene of 279-294
easels for blackboards 164
for map-holders 165
easterly exposure 36
Ebbinghaus, H 173
effect of study on the brain 173
Egyptian eye inflammation 273
electric light 53
Elsaesser 143, 156
school desk 141, 160
Engel, Ed 295
enlarging windows 47
epileptic pupils excluded 235
Erismann, Fr 32,
44, 54, 71, 123, 143, 241
Eulenberg, H 33, 35, 219, 231
Eustachian tubes 286, 288
examinations 189, 216
before vacation 201
examinations of pupils' ears 279
of pupils' eyes 277
excretions from lungs.and skin.. 69
excursions 199, 205
experiments and demonstration. 190
eye defects > 32
glasses 251, 252,264
hygiene of the 239-278
Fahrner 32, 135, 146
fatigue begins early 192
comes soon 181
feet, perspiring 95
Ferdinands, George 242
made waterproof 100
follicular inflammation 275
FOrster 46, 114
Frank, Johann Peter 28
Frankel-Weichselbaum bacillus. 335
Frederick William III 13
William IV 31
front light 5o
Furtenbach, Joseph 22
Galenus 120 years old 19
games 18, 19, 197, 199,205
Garbini, Adriano 297, 298, 303
fixtures kept clean 98
Gauster... .. 33
Geiler of Kaisersberg 17
Gelle 281, 283
geographical collections 192
German measles 323
Germans myopic 258
Gilbert, J. Allen 296
Gillert, E 44, 82
globes for gas 61
G nauss 171
Goethe, portrait 27
Gothic windows 45, 47
Gotze, Woldemar 225
granulated 'eye-lids .\ 273
Greek vs. German games 19
Griesbach, H 185, 188, 198, 227
Grimm, Jacob 267
Gruber, Max 265
guide-lines for writing 266
Guillaume 33, 217, 219, 311
G ii m t z 230
Guts Muths 27
Gutzmann, Albert 308
Herbert 33, 304, 305, 306, 309
gymnastic games 206
halls 99, 196
gymnastics 29, 205
at recess 197
fatiguing . 184
Hzesecke, E 104
Hakonson-Hansen, M. K . 195, 217, 344
Hall, G. Stanley 173
Halle gymnasium 20
handwriting large at first 268
Haselbach, Thomas 17
Hebrews myopic 258
height of desk 136
Helmholtz 172, 296
Hennig's daylight reflector 46
heredity in myopia -.. .254
Hermann, August.... 32, 135, 147, 148
Hesse, W 70
higher schools not for all 210
Hintrager, Karl 22
Hippel, A. von 32,242,244,255
historical collections 192
history of school hygiene 17
Holmes, Marion E 173
Holmgren's test 271
home tasks 230
HOpf ner r Ludwig 176, 192
hot air furnaces 112
air heating 81
water systems 81, 117
how many at a desk 144
Hrabowski's overhead reflector.. 57
humidity of the air 113
hygiene of the eye 239
idiocy in children 229
illumination, artificial 53, 260
too strong 48
Ignatieff 70, 84, 201
illegible writing 268
inclination of desk 138
infectious diseases. 95, 99, 276, 320-352
ink for books 260
for writing 266
inflammation of the ear 290
of the eye 273
influenza 288, 346-349
intermission at noon 198
iron cylinder stoves 108
Jahn. J. C 27, 31
Janke, Otto 225
Januschke 182, 192, 196
Kauffer parlor stove 108
Keidel patented stoves 108
Keller, C....177, 179, 185, 191, 217, 182
Kemsies, Ferdinand. 180, 182, 185, 300
Key, Axel 217, 220, 227
Kirchuer, M 256, 258
Klebs-LQfler bacillus 329
Koch, J. L. A 229
Koldewey, Fr 24
KSnigstein, Leopold 265
KOrner , Otto 236
Korosi, J 320
Kotelmann, L 209, 256. 322
Kottmann's desk 156, 159, 160
desk arranged for standing. 159
Kraeplin, Emil 194
Krug, W 276, 310, 312, 313
Kruss, Hugo 39
Kunze 32,133, 134, 135, 149
lamps kept clean 98
Lange, Viktor 286
lar ynx at puberty 301
Laser, Hugo 174, 189
layers of air 115
length of lines in books 262
of school desk 144
desk 155, 160
Liebrecht, K 48,49
light from the left 51
from two sides 51
lighting of school-room... 35, 53, 260
lime as a disinfectant 102
line-sheets for writing 266
liters of water evaporated 115
Locke, John 25
Lorenz 32, 314
Lorinser, C. J 29
low-pressure steam systems 119
Lunge, Georg 76
Luther, Martin, portrait 17
Malliug-Hansen, R 347
management of ventilators ..... 89
maniacal excitement 229
manual training 225
margins of books 262
measles 288, 320-324
mechanics of sitting 128
Meidinger stoves 108, 109
Melanchthon, Philip 19
membraneous croup 329
memory work fatiguing 188
mental alienation .229
Meyer, Hermann 128
Meynert, Theodore 231
Meyrich, Oswald 94
micro-organisms .71, 72
microbes in the school-room 71
minus distance 142
Mosso, A 177
mouches volantes 254
mountain air 72
mucous membranes 329
music lessons 211
myopia 30, 246-270
Nager 32, 293
natural curvature of the spine. . .137
navy regulations 252
near-sighted pupils 161
near-sightedness 30, 246-270
nervous system 170
Nesteroff , 222
Netolitzky, Aug 33, 35, 339
Neumann, H 120, 325
neurasthenia 224, 228
neurasthenic pupils 222
neuroses of the heart 224
no text-book of science 215
Nohl. Clemens 209
noises, violent 290
northerly exposure 38
nose-bleed , 219
Nussbaum, Chr 37
one or two sessions a day 197
opening windows and doors 91
organic dust particles 69
organization of material 184
over-heated air 290
pressure 31,109, 191,211
stimulation of the nerves.. 221
overhead reflector 57
paper for text-books 260
for writing 266
Parow 32. 31 1
school-desk 148, 160
pathogenic bacteria 72, 99, 288
Paulsen, E 295
pedagogical pathology 229
penmanship 264, 315
pericardial anxiety 224
permeability of building stones . . 83
Permewan, W 284
personal hygiene 3
hygiene of the pupils 170
perspiration insensibilis 68
perspiring feet 95
Pettenkoff er , von 32, 83
Pettenkoffer's method 73
Pfliiger, E 32, 54, 255
pharyngeal tonsil 286
phonic method in reading 303
physical education 32
physiological experiments on the
pitch in singing 301
plus distance 142
postures, bad 319
potassium permanganate 69
Prague medical board 139, 142
Prausek, Vincenz 155
print of text-books 260
prisms for reflecting daylight 46
psychic epidemic 234
puberty, change of voice 301
pulling the hair 292
purpose of vacation 202
quick answers 304
racial problems of the eye 258
rambles 199, 206
Ramminger and Stetter school
desk 157, 160
reading, the voice in 302
to be limited 264
real-schools without Latin 210
Reichard, von 32, 279, 280
remedies for insufficient daylight. 45
removal of foul air. 88
Renk, Fr 59,62
requirements for a good school
reservoir stoves. 108
retina, hemorrhage in 254
Rettig, W 146
Reuss, August R. von 245, 265
Richter, Gustav 194
Jean Paul 26
Rietschel, H 32, 33, 80
Ritzmann, E 315
roller curtains 49
roller frame blackboards 162
Roman type 261
Rousseau's Emile 26
Rychna, Joseph 320
St. Clair-Deville Ill
St. Vitus dance 236
Salernitan rule 106
Sand, George 317
sanitary school management 32
scarlet fever 288, 324-328
Schenk, Felix 32, 132, 313
school desk 153
Schildbach, C. H 32, 149, 311
Schiller, H 185, 191,349
Schlimp's desk 135,151
Schmidt. F. A 32,98
Rimpler, H 44, 72, 248, 274
desks 32, 128,260,315
for standing 179
requirements for 130
diseases . . 32
rooms in the mountains. . . .204
societies harmful 233
Schulthess, W 315
Schubert, Paul... ...33,315
Schuschny, Heinrich 221, 281
script 267, 315
back of 134
too near the wall 145
second-hand text-books . . .263
Sexton, Samuel 281
sexual neuroses 224
shades for electric light 54
for gas 61
Shermunski 281 , 284
shouting injurious 305
side reflectors 56
Siegert, Gustav 231
Siemen's gas burner 58
singing 291, 295-302,305
a hygiene exercise 298
rules for 299-302
Sikorsky 173, 189
single desks 155
size of brain 170
sketch from nature 270
slates banished 265
sleep, abundance of 225
loss of 231
small-pox 289, 336-340
Smith-Lunge air-tester 76
Snellen, Hermann 44
southeasterly exposure 36
southerly exposure 36
spaces between letters 262
speaking too rapidly 304
spectacles 251, 252, 264
spinal curvature 310-319
sponges for blackboords 168
spontaneity at recess 197
standing in singing. 299
Stephenson, Sidney 258
stigmographic drawing 269
Stilling, J 32,255,257
care of lia
vs. central system 104
where placed 107
Strassburg Medical commission. 51
Strumpell, L 22
study in vacation 202
Stuhlmann, A 269, 27a
Sturges 23 7
stuttering 33, 305
subjects of school study
180, 181, 183, 189
sun should shine into room 35
sunlight disinfects 36
sunless rooms unhealthful 35
swimming 199. 205, 206
teeth, care of 95
temporary depression 181
temperature determined 20&
for singing exercises 299
in the school-room 121
test types 44
tests of ears 279
of eyes 241
time of vacations... ...201
trochlea of the eye 257
true methods of instruction 216
turf closets 102
type, German 261
size of 260
typhoid fever 344
typhus fever 288, 344-346
Ufer, Christian 228
undivided session in cities 199
uniform temperature 106, 123
unruled paper 267
uri nals 102
use made of recess 195
in hot weather 207
vacation journeys 203
Vanned, Theodore 185
Varrentrapp 32, 37
Venetian blinds 50, 81, 90
ventilating flues 82, 88
of class-rooms 92, 290
vernacular, reading in 304
vertical script 33, 315
Vienna school-desk 139, 143, 150
vitreous humor 254
vocal organs 295-309
voice should be low 291, 300, 305
Volt, E 114
vowels in reading 302
Wagner, Ludwig. 171, 177, 188, 198,227
walks to and from school 199
Wallraff, Gustav .....158
warm milk 196
water systems 118
water closets 100
in the ear 294
Weber, Leonard 39
Welsbach light.... 59
western exposure 38
width of top of desk 140
window blinds 45, 48
windows enlarged 47
for ventilation 91
kept clean 97
opened at recess 84
shape of 45
Wipf, H..... 315
Wismar city school 20
Wolpert's air-tester 78
class forward position 131
wrought iron 156
zero distance 142, 146
THE SCHOOL BULLETIN PUBLICATIONS.
Blackboards and Blackboard Slating.
1. Hornstone Slating. No feature of the school-room is of more vital
importance to the health of scholars and teachers than the Blackboard. If
it be gray and greasy the amount of chalk used fills the air with dust which
produces catarrhal and bronchial difficulties, and yet makes so faint a mark
that the children's eyes are permanently injured.
The Hornstone slating contains no oil or grease, and will not become
faded or greasy with use. By its use the eyesight of children is saved, and
most of the evil effects of chalk dust are escaped ; for a beautifully clear and
distinct mark is produced with the minimum of crayon wear and dust. The
reason is that the surface finishes down as smooth as slate, while possessing
none of the disadvantages.
The application of two coats is recommended for old or imperfect boards,
but for new boards and old boards with good foundations, we recommend
two additional coats, with a final rubbing down with pumicestone. This
gives a blackboard never yet equalled. Principal H. F. Miner of Skaneate-
les, N. Y., writes after seven years' use : "The three essentials of a good
blackboard : smoothness, dead blackness, and durability, are admirably
combined in this material. When properly applied to a suitable foundation
no board that I ever saw equals the Hornstone."
The price is $8.00 a gallon, covering from 144 to 180 square feet with
Jour coats. We shall be glad to send detailed circulars and give complete
information to anyone in need of material.
2. Wooden Blackboards. For small schools, where it would not pay to
prepare a special surface, and where the old wall is unfit to be coated, we
can furnish wooden boards, made of inch whitewood thoroughly kiln-dried,
and with glued joints, slated with Hornstone, four coats, one side, and
packed ready for shipping, at the following prices :
3ft. x6ft $5.50 3 ft. x 10 ft $ 9.50
3 " "8" 7.50 3 " " 12 ".... 12.00
These are the regular sizes, and we will quote prices on special sizes
when requested to do.
3. Tarboard Blackboards. Where only a small board is desired port-
able boards are often most convenient. We make them of the best tarboard,
slated with Hornstone on both sides, with wooden frame and rings for hang-
ing, at the remarkably low price of $2.00 for a board 25x34 inches, or $3.00 for
a board 34x50 inches. These are the cheapest blackboards ever offered.
We also furnish these tarboard strips without frames, so that they can
be tacked along on the wall, thus making a continuous board with an excel-
lent Hornstone surface. In this form the sheet, 25x34 can be furnished,
slated on one side, for $1.00, and the sheet 34x50 for $1.50.
Slated Cloth on Paper. Another style of portable boards is slated cloth
orjmper mounted on rotters with hooks and rings for hanging up.
2x3 feet, Cloth, $1.50. Paper, $1.00 3 x 6 feet, Cloth, $4.00. Paper, $2.70
3x4" " 2.70. " 1.80 4x6" " 5.40. " 3.60
Slated cloth is furnished in rolls 4 feet wide at $2.00 a linear yard ; slated
paper at 50 cts. a square yard.
C. W. BARDEEN, Publisher, Syracuse, N. Y.
-THE SCHOOL BULLETIN PUBLICATIONS.
We manufacture these ourselves of corapo-board covered with Horn-
stone slating. The corapo-board is a composition consisting of a wooden
core made from narrow slats placed indiscriminately as to grain, the sur-
face of which is covered with a cement of great strength, and a heavy
close-pressed water-proof paper. The whole, after the parts are properly
put together, is subjected to very heavy pressure and intense heat, making
a straight, smooth sheet of very great strength. We cover it with Horn-
etone slating, the best surface yet devised for blackboards.
The compo-board is made for us in sheets 4 feet by 18 feet, and we can
make at short notice a board of any desired size within those dimensions.
For schools this makes it possible to cover the exact space between win-
dows, doors, etc., with a single sheet of blackboard, without seams of any
kind. It cun be put up by any one with a few screws, and when secured by
moulding makes a handsome and absolutely perfect and permanent board.
Our charge for such boards slated on one side and ready to put up, is $1.00
per square yard, if cut in pieces 4 feet wide or so as not to waste in cutting.
Prices of moulding, chalk-troughs, etc., are given on application, as they
depend on the size and shape of the surface to be covered.
These advantages may be named:
It can be cut to any size with a common hand-saw.
It can be put upon a broken plastered wall, on a board partition, or on
a bare studding, and yet do perfect service.
Its surface being of considerable thickness and practically as hard as
stone, it is very durable.
Its body will never wear out or be injured by use.
Its surface is smootn without shine, and has a soft, velvety feeling as.
the crayon moves over it.
It is better than real stone slate :
BECAUSE it will not break in handling.
BECAUSE it will not break on the wall, as real stone slate will if
placed on the wall without cement.
BECAUSE it does not require experienced mechanics to put it in place,
as real slate does when set in cement.
BECAUSE the freight is only a fraction of what it would be on real
BECAUSE it has a jet black surface not gray or green like real slate.
BECAUSE it can be furnished in sizes up to 4 feet by 18 feet without
seam or indentation, whereas slate can be obtained only in sizes which
necessitate several seams or breaks in an ordinary-sized blackboard.
C. W. BARDEEN, Publisher, Syracuse, N. Y.
THE SCHOOL BULLETIN PUBLICATIONS.
1. Blackboards for the Wall. We manufacture these ourselves of compo^
"board covered with Hornstone slating, four coats, making a light board to
handle, as well as a perfect surface. The compo-board is made for us in
sheets 4 feet by 18 feet, and we can make at short notice a board of any
desired size within those dimensions. For schools this makes it possible to
cover the exact space between windows, doors, etc., with a single sheet of
blackboard, without seams of any kind. It can be put up by any one with
a few screws, and when secured by moulding makes a handsome and abso-
lutely perfect and permanent board. Our charge for such boards slated on
one side and ready to put up, is $1.00 per square yard. Prices of moulding,
chalk-troughs, etc., are given on application, as they depend on the size
and shape of the surface to be covered.
2. Portable Blackboards. We keep in stock the sizes above shown at
prices named on each, and can make at short notice any other size called
for. All these boards are of compo-board, covered with Hornstone slat-
ing, with frames of oak moulding. We believe them to be the very best
blackboards manufactured. They are light, and cannot warp or crack,
while the surface is perfect.
C. W. BAKDEEN, Publisher, Syracuse, N. Y.
THE SCHOOL BULLETIN SUPPLIES-
Dustless Blackboard Erasers.
1. The Me Cully Perforated Erase 15 cts. each by mail ; 75 cts, a dozen
When you have got a good blackboard be sure and get good Erasers.
The Carpet Eraser, once almost universally used, has been rejected ; the
hard twine glazes and wears off the slated surface. Tacks carelessly driven
and points projecting into the erasive material, have ruined or defaced
many blackboards. Such tacks are not found until they have done some
damage. Besides Carpet Erasers, or any others with flat surface, merely
brush the crayon down to the crayon-ledge, and thence to the floor, whence
it is constantly rising and permeating the air of the school -room. For this
reason a Dustless Eraser should always be used, and the best we have
found to be the Me Cully Perforated Eraser ; Of this the marked peculiarity
is that it provides spaces into which the crayon dust falls and where it
remains until shaken out, outside the school-room. It deposits the chalk
through the holes in the grooves, leaving the surface of the eraser always
clean, and thus enabling it to take up every particle of dust. It is the neat-
est and prettiest eraser made. Its clean rectangular edges are especially
adapted to map and other pictorial black-board work, where the erasing is
to be done deftly and exactly. Principal Clapp, of Fulton, N. Y., says : "I
have used the McCully Eraser n my school for nearly two years, and un-
heskatingly recommend it as the best eraser on the market."
The Favorite Eraser. 15 cts. each by mail ;
75 cts. a dozen by express.
This has long been what its name implies, a
favorite. It is light, and catches the dust in
the grooves of the felt. The felt is made of
assorted colors, and the eraser is handsome as well as useful.
Special prices for large quantities will be given upon either of these
erasers on application
C. W. BARDEEtf, Manufacturer, Syracuse, N. Y.
TEE SCHOOL BULLETIN PUBLICATIONS.
The Bulletin Pencil-Holder.
Points of Superiority.
(1) It is of wood, 7x10 inches, resting on
legs two inches high, and holds 60 pencils.
Hence it takes less room than any other.
(2) It has a handle underneath in the cen-
tre, so that it can be carried firmly in one
(3) The pencils cannot fall out, even when
(4) Every hole is numbered, so that each
pupil keeps his own pencil.
(5) It has no springs to wear out, and is
Beware of the Spread of Contagious Diseases.
The alarming prevalence of diphtheria in the schools of Syracuse re-
cently led to investigation both by the Board of Education and by the Board
of Health. As a result it was determined that the principal source of
danger was the lead-pencils, of which the present system of gathering and
distribution did not ensure that every child should get his own. Accord-
ingly on Dec. 12, 1893, an order was given us for 268 Bulletin Pencil-Holders,
for use in ever room in the city schools where lead-pencils are distributed.
Send one dollar for a sample, and you will put it into every room in
your school. It is equally available for the distribution of pens, in penman-
ship work. In many schools the pens are gathered and distributed, but at
great inconvenience. This Holder makes the gathering and distribution
easy and free from error.
C. W. BARDEEN, Proprietor, Syracuse, N. Y.
THE SCHOOL BULLETIN PUBLICATIONS.-
The Bulletin Ink- Well Filler.
No more spilled ink. To see it is to buy it. Price fi.25.