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(Previous to the appearance of the translation into English) 

' Dr. Kotelmann discusses school hygiene in 137 pages; the treatise is 
popular aud very interesting but at the same time rigidly scientific; and he 
makes due use of the literature of the subject, as was to be expected from 
the edftor of the ' Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheitspflege '. The book is also 
to be strongly recommended to those of the medical profession who may 
desire to get their bearings quickly in this important chapter of hygiene." 
Dr. If. Neumann, private docent of childrens' diseases, University of 
Berlin, in Literaturbeilage der Deutschen medizinischen Wochenschrift, 
1895. No. 16, August 8, p. 104. 

' The editor has secured for this part of the Handbook as for some 
others the best talent, and the readers of this journal need not be told 
about the merits of the writer. Within a very meagre compass for so com- 
prehensive a subject he has succeeded in a truly masterly way in telling the 
reader everything essential, and in saving him from the ballast carried by 
larger works on school hygiene. The first section gives a sketch of the 
history of school hygiene in Germany, and in it the reader will find not a 
few things that are heedlessly passed over by larger works. In the next 
section, the hygiene of the school room is discussed (including natural and 
artificial lighting, ventilation, cleaning, heating, and furniture). I con- 
sider the limitation of the work to those points which the teacher can 
observe and control as an exceedingly happy one, the more so since only 
thus could the treatment be thorough. * * * The excellence of the 
work comes into still greater prominence in the second part, which treats of 
the hygiene of pupils. The author is here in his special field of labor, 
where his work has for so long been crowned with marked success. Here 
we find sketched with superior skill one after another the hygiene of the 
nervous system, the eye, the ear, the voice, and the rest of the bod}'. In 
everything the author proceeds with caution, distinguishing the ideal from 
the real, and striving only for the possible and attainable. I would mention 
in this connection especially his treatment of mental fatigue, recesses, 
afternoon sessions, and vacations. Teachers will find here reliable informa- 
tion free from such exaggerations as one so often finds not only on the 
part of doctors but also of pedagogues who have dabbled in medicine. 

"The discussion of the hygiene of the eye is based upon a long and 
varied experience. Perhaps the evil consequences of home work with its 
imperfect conditions of illumination and seating might have been more 
strongly emphasized, and the teacher urged to make a fight against them 
by arranging and controlling the work. Yet even so we cannot be assured 
of the right result unless the doctor, especially the family doctor, is brought 
into connection with the school. If the matter is to be properly reguluted, 
it must seek advice from medical science, and this book is warmly recom- 
mended to school men to serve this purpose." Dr. Hermann Schiller, pro- 
fessor of pedagogy, and superior privy school counsellor, Giessen, in Zeit- 
schrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1895, No. 8, pp. 504-5. 


" The eminent founder and editor of the ' Zeitschrift fur Schulgesund- 
heitspflege ' (Journal for School Hygiene) has succeeded in giving us in the 
brief form of _137 pages a complete and critical treatise, in which every- 
thing essential is presented and the less important made accessible by bib- 
liographical references. What a vast mass of material has been utilized 
can be seen especially in the introductory history of school hygiene. The 
use of rare sources of information, remote from the doctor's province, 
makes it clear that the writer has enjoyed a literary as well as a medi- 
cal training, a fact which his well known book 'Gesundheitspflege im Mit- 
telalter' (Hygiene in the Middle Ages) demonstrates beautifully. * * * 
We will take the liberty of expressing to the publishers the wish that they 
issue an edition separate from the Manual. The medical world will be as 
glad to receive it as the pedagogical for which it was primarily intended." 
Dr. Schubert, President of the Commission for School Hygiene in Niirn- 
berg, Miinchener medizinische Wochenschrift (Munich Medical Weekly,) 

" To Dr. Kotelmann of Hamburg was entrusted the writing of the 
hygienic section of the Handbook of Pedagogy for Higher Schools, which 
is being edited by Dr. Baumeister. A better man could not have been 
selected. The author of this interesting treatise is in fact not a novice. As 
editor of the ' Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege ' he has been engaged 
with matters of school hygiene for many years, and there is no question 
concerning the schools, the pupils, and their hygiene that he has not had 
occasion to study and to treat in a thorough-going manner in the excellent 
journal he is publishing. Dr. Kotelmann has realized admirably that a 
publication designed for teachers, to be useful, must be practical and free 
from the theoretical discussion that encumbers the ordinary hygienic man- 
uals. He has sought to limit his study to those hygienic conditions which 
are closely connected with the teacher and can be modified by him; and 
one can but admire the skill with which he has executed the difficult task 
he has given himself. * * * Such in brief is Dr. Kotelmann's treatise, 
which cannot be recommended too highly to all those who are occupied with 
school hygiene.' 1 Dr. Combe, Professor at the University of Lausanne, 
medical advisor of the schools of Lausanne, in Revue medicale de la 
Suisse Pomande, October 20, 1895, No. 10, pp. 549-550. 

" * * * On the whole, this work, which is written in a scientific and 
conscientious spirit, will be read with profit not only by those for whom it 
was designed, namely, the teachers, but by all hygienists especially occupied 
with school hygiene." Dr. Mangenot, Medical Inspector of the Schools of 
Paris, in Revue d' Hygiene et de Police Sanitaire, 1895. No. 8, August 20, 
pp. 744-746. 

"This book by Kotelmann is the best outline for the teacher. The 
book is written in an admirably concise style, and by aid of numerous 
tables a vast number of important facts and principles are presented." 
Prof. W. H. H. Burnham, in The Pedagogical Seminary. 




Author of a number of books on school hygiene, founder of the Zeitschrift 
fur Schulgesundheitspflege, practising ophtalmologist, Hamburg 



Associate Professor of Psychology and Pedagogy 



Graduate Student 



Copyright, 1899. by C. W. BARDEEN 


Page 26, line 15, for 1724 read 1774. 

" 31, " 14, Foriep " Froriep. 

" 32, " 19, Ritschel " Rietschel. 

" 40, " 4, candle " lamp. 

41 41, last line, for as read at. 

" 43, line 23, for h read I. 

" 47, note for No. 10, etc., read Nos. 11-17. 

" 55, note, 2d line, for 3677 read 367. 

*' 78, line 23, for momement read moment. 

*' 128 " 17 " contract read contact. 

" 129 " 6 " 

' 135 " 4 " 148 read 152. 

- 212 " 21 " HI " VI. 

" 254 " 10 ; ' knows read known. 

" 256 " 7 " Motai " Motais. 

" 310 " 12 " 35 % read 35. 

" 342 " 20, 21, not should be inserted after found. 



The personality of an author and the extent of his 
preparation are of course always important as a ready 
means of estimating the value of his work, but more 
so in some subjects than in others. School hygiene, 
which may be looked upon as a concentration of the 
principles of architecture, sanitary engineering, psy- 
chology, pedagogy, and preventive medicine upon the 
physical conditions of school life, requires more than 
a superficial acquaintance with these matters, and is in 
fact so broad a field that, as an American expert 
has said, it is more than* enough in itself for a 
life work. The possibilities of one-sided treatment, 
also, are very great. It might be scholarly yet not 
practical, adequate in some parts but wanting in 
others, or comprehensive and yet without the proper 
balance, proportion, and connection. As a subject, 
school hygiene must therefore be placed high in the 
list of those in which personality, scholarship, and 
experience play a prominent part. The eminent quali- 
fications of our author, who is now 60 years old and 
has given the major part of his life to the work, and 
his masterly success in combining comprehensiveness 



with clearness and brevity, and scientific accuracy and 
moderation with an interesting, forceful, and above 
all practical mode of treatment are attested not only 
by the book itself but by the opinions of experts in 
school hygiene from different countries. (See pages 
preceding title.) 

Dr. Kotelmann was born in 1839 in Demmin, Prus- 
sia, where his father was vice-principal of the gym- 
nasium. This he attended till his confirmation, when 
he was transferred to the royal padagogium at Pusbus. 
-After graduating here, he studied theology at the uni- 
versities of Erlangen and Berlin and received the de- 
gree of Doctor of Philosophy on presenting a thesis 
on De Theologia Aristotelea. About this time he 
became tutor in the family of one of the nobility and 
spent some time in a teachers' seminary to prepare 
himself for his duties. In 1866 he was called to be 
assistant pastor and rector of the city schools in Gartz 
on the island of Riigen; and two years later he was 
called to be teacher in the padagogium and pastor of 
the castle in Pusbus. Lung trouble compelled him to 
give up his position, and he went to Leipsic to habili- 
tate as docent in Oriental Languages. 

The death of his father cut short this enterprise and 
compelled him to seek some profession with speedier 
financial returns. He selected that of medicine, in 
accordance with a preference of long standing, and 


went to Marburg to study. In a year he was made 
assistant in the physiological institute and shortly after 
passed the state examinations and received the title of 
doctor, this time presenting a thesis on The Midwives 
of the Ancient Hebrews, a Study from Old Testa- 
ment Sources. 

After attending clinics in his specialty, he settled in 
Hamburg in 1876 as an ophthalmologist, in which pro- 
fession he has since been engaged. 

Of the books and papers he has written the follow- 
ing may be mentioned: Die Korperverhaltnisse der 
Gelehrtenschiiler des Johanneums in Hamburg (1879) ; 
Die Vivisektionsfrage (1880) ; 1st die heutige Jugend 
der hoheren Lehranstalten mit Schularbeit iiberburdet 
(1881); Zur Gesundheitspflege des Mittelalters (1887) ; 
Uber Schulgesundheitspflege (1895), the original of 
the present translation,; and Zur Gesundheitspflege in 
den hoheren Madchenschulen (1897). 

In 1888, Dr. Kotelmann founded the Zeitschrift fur 

Schulgesundheitspflege (Journal for School-hygiene), 

and remained its editor for ten years, being succeeded 

n 1898 by Dr. Fr. Erismann. This has been the only 

journal devoted exclusively to school hygiene, and it is 

certainly the best. 


The translation is made not from the treatise as 
published in 1895, but from a copy revised and enlarged 
by the author especially for this edition. 


The number of illustrations has been nearly doubled ; 
and the additions to the text, aside from alterations, con- 
sist partly of descriptions of the new illustrations and 
partly of a review of the investigations that have been 
made since the original was written. The latter ap- 
peared first as a part of the great Handbuch der Erzie- 
hungs-und Unterrichtslehre fur hohere Schulen (Hand- 
book of the Principles of Education and Instruction 
for Secondary Schools), edited by Dr. A. Baumeister. 
Its publication here will explain the fact that it is ad- 
dressed especially to teachers, and the rather frequent 
and special reference throughout the book to the 
secondary schools, though important facts and compari- 
sons with the common schools and the universities are 
by no means omitted. 

It must not of course be supposed that the dis- 
cussion is limited to pupils yf our high school or 
academy age. As is well known, pupils enter the 
German secondary schools at nine and might gradu- 
ate at eighteen, though the average age is nearly 
twenty. If these institutions have preparatory schools 
or classes for the first three years of school life, all the 
regular instruction young men under twenty receive 
could very well be obtained solely in connection with 
these schools, and this would correspond in amount 
perhaps to what a pupil here would secure from our 
elementary and secondary schools, with the addition of 
two years of college work. 


The age for admission to these schools was deter- 
mined by the age deemed adequate for beginning the 
study of Latin, which is about nine or ten; and the 
entrance requirements consist of reading, writing, 
knowledge of the parts of speech, the four processes 
in numbers up to 1,000, and Bible history, or what is 
taught in a common school the first three years. The 
preparation might be made in private, in preparatory 
schools or classes, or in the common schools. 

The difference between the various kinds of second- 
ary schools with which the reader will have to deal in 
this book is best understood from a study of their his- 
tory, and a comparison of the courses and privileges 
connected with them. In the following table the fig- 
ures opposite the subjects indicate the total number of 
periods per week devoted to them by all the grades of 
the school according to the programmes of 1892. 











Real-school, or 
superior grammar 










German and 
hist, stories. 



German and 
hist, stories.. 
Hist, and Geog 
Natural Hist. 
Chem. and Min 





German and his- 
tory stories 

German and 
hist, stories. 


Hist, and Geog. 
Natural Hist.. 
Chem. and Min. 

Hist, and Geog... 
Natural History.. 
Free-hand draw- 

Hist, and Geog. 
Nat. History. . . 
Physics, Chem. 
& Mineralogy 

In the United States, several, or even all, these dif- 


ferent courses may sometime be found combined in a 
single large institution; and the correspondence with 
our classical, Latin-scientific, and scientific divisions 
is of course evident. 

Besides the above subjects, two hours per week in 
singing for the first two classes and three hours of gym- 
nastics throughout are compulsory. The gymnasium, 
real-gymnasium, and the superior real-school have nine 
grades or classes, while the real-school or superior 
grammar school has only six. 

In Prussia and northern Germany generally, these 
are designated from the lowest to the highest by the 
Latin ordinals as follows : Sexta, Quinta, Quarta, Low- 
er Tertia, Upper Tertia, Lower Sekunda, Upper Sekun- 
da, Lower Prima, Upper Prima. In southern Ger- 
many, as in Wurtemberg and Bavaria, and in Austria 
and Hungary, they are numbered in the reverse order, 
from I to IX. If the preparatory grades are included, 
they will be marked VIII and VII in the first case, 
and I and II in the second. Russia, Sweden, Norway, 
Denmark, Holland, England, Italy, among others, 
number the grades from 1 upward, and France and 
Belgium as well as the adjacent German states, Alsace- 
Lorraine and Baden, do the reverse. 

Graduation from these schools or the completion of 
a given number of grades confers certain privileges, 
with respect to military service, university studies, 


and official careers, and so places these schools and 
their pupils in a separate and superior social position, 
to which of course the high grade of scholarship of 
the teachers and the dignity of the subjects as well as 
tradition also contribute. The different kinds of sec- 
ondary schools are, however, by no means on an 
equality in this respect. The completion of six years 
of study in any one of them entitles a young man 
to exemption from two of the three years of compul- 
sory military service. In the nine grade schools one- 
half of the pupils leave as soon as this exemption has 
been secured. With respect to other privileges the 
gymnasium leads by enabling its graduates at once to 
enter upon the special preparation for any profession 
or any branch of the public service. The real-gym- 
nasium confers the same privileges except that its 
graduates cannot, without making up the part of the 
gymnasial course which they have not had, prepare 
themselves at the universities for theology, law, 
medicine, or cameralistics. 

The superior real-school confers only about half as 
many important privileges as the schools just men- 
tioned, though it gives the same as the real gymnasium 
except that it does not like the latter enable its gradu- 
ates to study modern languages, dentistry, veterinary 
surgery, or pharmacy at the universities or other pro- 
fessional schools, and excludes from a few careers in 


the army and navy unless the applicant passes a special 
examination on the missing subjects. 


The local applicability of a book on school hygiene 
varies with its character. In this respect there is an 
evident difference betwen special reports or practical 
directions and a scientific treatise like Kotelmann's 
which makes use of statistics from many different 
countries in establishing and illustrating the principles 
of the subject. If there were not an essential similar- 
ity in the conditions of mental activity and the aims 
and means of education among civilized nations, it 
would of course be impossible to write a book that 
would be directly applicable everywhere. As it is, 
perhaps the most important thing about the local back- 
ground for a treatise on the principles of school hygiene 
is that this shall have been sufficiently varied and ex- 
tensive and shall have been adequately investigated. 

Those who have to buy heating apparatus or school 
furniture will of course need to know the local con- 
ditions and facilities and must therefore supplement 
this book by the examination of equipments or cata- 
logues from supply companies. This would doubtless 
in any case be necessary, unless a very special report 
had been made ; and perhaps all we can ask from a 
general treatise is that it shall so present its princi- 
ples that our judgment may not err in our work. 


There is a very important place, moreover, for exten- 
sive local investigations in different parts of the subject 
by experts, as they serve to demonstrate causes and 
conditions with certainty and besides, stimulate pub- 
lic interest and give all concerned a more practical and 
efficient habit of mind. The history of school hygiene 
affords in this respect an interesting parallel to the 
history of the same movement in Germany as given in 
chapter I. Here as there, we find first of all a recog- 
nition of the importance of health and strength and 
an advocacy of physical training to secure it, notably 
so by Franklin and Jefferson in the latter half of 
the eighteenth century. The temporary introduction 
in the twenties of German gymnastics by Beck, 
Follen, and Lieber, disciples of Jahn; the manual 
labor movement and the agitation for the study of 
hygiene, mainly in the thirties; the recognition of the 
unhygienic conditions and the proper requirements of 
school buildings by Alcott, Mann, and Barnard in the 
thirties and forties ; the revival in the fifties and sixties 
of gymnastics and military drill through the labors of 
Dio Lewis and the influence of the civil war, and the 
present partial recognition of them in the curriculum; 
and, finally, the pioneer work of Barnard, 1838, in 
measuring children for school seats, the later efforts to 
determine the facts of growth and its conditions by 
Bowditch, Porter, Peckham, Boas, Bryan, West, and 


others, the study of death rates, stuttering, and seating 
by Hartwell, and the examination of the senses by 
many investigators, these facts by their character all 
indicate a development from the unstudied, partial 
recognition of defects and the more or less adequate 
agitation for their removal to the rigorous, scientific, 
and statistical investigation of causes and remedies. 

While there is thus everywhere an essential similar- 
ity in the principles and perhaps in the development 
of the science, nevertheless, there are minor variations 
due to differences in climate, race, and school pro- 
grammes. Thus, Germany, which lies approximately 
between the 47th and 55th parallels, is as a whole in a 
higher latitude than the United States, which is be- 
tween the 25th and 49th, if we omit the outlying pos- 
sessions; and it has a correspondingly lower tempera- 
ture in summer and shorter days in winter. 

Its winter temperature, however, is higher than we 
should expect from the latitude, being about the same 
as that of the middle section of the United States east 
and west. This is chiefly to be explained by the 
general prevalence there at this season of south-west- 
erly winds. On the Atlantic coast of Xorth America, 
the corresponding winds are from the north-west, and 
in the central parts from the south-west or west; while 

in summer in all sections mentioned the winds are 
south-westerly or southerly. 


According to Young [Seventh Annual Report of the 
State Board of Health of Maine, p. 260-3], this differ- 
ence in latitude makes a northerly exposure less unde- 
sirable and in fact to be preferred along with the north 
easterly for his section of the country, while the 
southerly is to be positively rejected. However, on 
this point authorities differ, and perhaps the most im- 
portant thing is to recognize the advantages and disad- 
vantages of the different orientations and in the equip- 
ment of room to make due allowance for them. 

With respect to school programmes, an investigation 
in the high schools of some cities in Indiana showed 
that the pupils spent about 32 hours per week in 
school work, which is not much more than half the 
time spent in the corresponding grades of the Swedish 
schools studied by Key, and from 15 to 20 hours less 
than is recommended by him and other European 
authorities as an allowable maximum. The pres- 
sure is, however, far from uniform in different sections 
of the country; and while there are schools that rival 
the European in this repect there are doubtlesss others 
in which much more work might be done without 
detriment to health. Whether or not climate, hered- 
ity, and family training make the recommendations 
of the European experts for the maximum amount of 
work per week too high for this country, needs further 
investigation. The natural standard is of course, that 



the pupil shall be able to do his work without injury 
to health, that is without becoming nervous and 
sleepless, or having his eye-sight, digestion, or other 
bodily functions impaired. 

In conclusion the translators take pleasure in ac- 
knowledging their indebtedness to Dr. Kotelmann for 
most kindly and efficient assistance and to Mr. C. W. 
Bardeen for a number of additions to the bibliography 
and many valuable suggestions. 



The tests of vision on page 44 may be made with the pages of this book. 
When it is in good light the average normal eye can read the text at a dis- 
tance of 45 inches. 

In the comparison on pages 62 and 63 between gas and kerosene, it IB 
assumed that the twoilluminants are burning from simple broad flame burn- 
ers. If different kinds of burners are used, the comparison will not be 
the same, as will be seen in the following table from Brockhaus's Kon. Lex., 
14th ed, article Beleuchtung. The table gives the amount and cost of the 
illuminant, as well as the heat and waste products for a hundred candle 
power light for one hour. 






<70 a 


Small flat 






Large round. 























H. P. 











ING 35 

Orientation 35 ; natural illumination 38 ; Web- 
er's photometer 39; Weber's stereogoniometer 
42 ; remedies for insufficient light 45. 


Electric lights 53 ; gas 58 ; kerosene 62. 


Impurities in the air 65 ; carbonic acid 66 ; dust 
69 ; bacteria 70 ; measurement of impurity 73 ; 
Pettenkoffer's method 73 ; Smith-Lunge method 
76; Wolpert's air-tester 78; Recknagel's venti- 
lation guage 85; Castaning's window-ventilation 
90; opening of windows 91; cleanliness 94; 
closets 100. 


Stoves vs. central plants 104; stoves 107; hot- 
air furnaces 112; hot water 117; steam 119. 
Required temperature 121 ; Bastelmann's contact 
thermometer 125. 


Desks 128; " difference " 136; "distance" 
141; movable desk tops 147; Vienna desk 150; 



movable seats 155; adjustments for standing 
158. Blackboards 161 ; easels 164; map-holders 
165; crayon and erasers 168. 


The brain 170; experiments upon fatigue of 
pupils 173; Mosso ergograph 178; Griesbach's 
fjesthesiometer 185. 


Order of subjects 189; length of periods 192; 
recesses 193 ; lunches 195 ; one session or two 198 ; 
vacations 200 ; vacation travel 203 ; dismissal for 
heat 207. How young should pupils be admitted 
209; home work 210; music lessons 211; im- 
proved methods 215 ; examinations 216; cephalic 
congestions 216 ; school headaches 217 ; nosebleed 
219 ; over-stimulated nerves 220. Outdoor sports 
224; manual training 225; sleep 225. Mental 
diseases 228; suicide 231; epilepsy 234; St. Vitus 
dance 236. 


Farsightedness 240; normal condition 244; 
nearsightedness 246 ; eye-glasses 251 ; text-books 
260; penmanship 264; drawing 269; color-blind- 
ness 270; diseases of the eye 272. 


Tests of hearing 279 ; dulness often from audi- 
tory defects 284; adenoid vegetation 285; vio- 
lent noises 290; boxing the ears 292; objects in 
the ear 293. 




How early children can sing 295 ; hygiene of 
singing 298. Correct articulation 302; stutter- 
ing 305. 


A product of school life 310 ; vertical penman- 
ship 315 ; weight of books carried to school 318. 


Measles 320; scarlet fever 324; diphtheria 328; 
whooping-cough 332 ; cerebro-spinal meningitis 
334 ; mumps 335 ; small-pox and vaccination 336 ; 
chicken-pox 340; tuberculosis 341; typhus fever 
344 ; influenza 346 ; masturbation 349. 


INDEX 383 


1. Weber's photometer 39 

2. Weber's stereogoniometer 42 

3. Henning's daylight reflector 46 

4. Hrabowski's overhead reflector 57 

5. Smith-Lunge air-tester 76 

6. Becknagel's ventilation gauge 85 

7. Becknagle's ventilation -gauge attached 86 

8. Castaning's method of window ventilation 91 

9. Bastelmann's contact thermometer for electric 

temperature signals 125 

10. Bastelmann's temperature signal board 126 

11. Writing class in forward position 131 

12. Lateral curvature of the spine due to a desk 

that is too high (Esmarch) 137 



13. School desk of Elsaesser of Schonau at Heidel- 
berg 141 

14r-16. Plus zero minus distance 142 

17. Pupil with a plus distance seat 143 

18. Parrow's school desk 148 

19. Kunze's school desk 149 

20. Schlimp's school desk 152 

21. Schenk's school desk, arranged for standing.. 153 

22. Schenk's school desk, arranged for sitting 153 

23. Lickroth's standard school desk 155 

24. Kottmann's school desk 157 

25. The " Columbus " school desk 157 

26. Kottmann's desk, arranged for sitting 159 

27. The same, arranged for standing 159 

28. Blackboard with rolling support 163 

29. Easel for black-board 164 

30. The same used as a map-holder 165 

31. Map-holder by Lickroth closed 166 

32. The same, open , 167 

33. Recording apparatus for the Mosso ergograph....!78 

34. Fatigue curve, obtained with the Mosso ergo- 

graph.... 179 

35. Griesbach's sesthesiometer 186 

36. Boy with adenoid vegetation before the oper- 

ation 288 

37. The same boy, after the operation 289 

38. Pupil writing vertical script 317 



Special efforts to promote the physical well-being of 
the school population of Germany began to be made as 
early as the time of the "Reformation. These consisted 
at first of an advocacy of physical exercise. 

While most of the theologians of the middle ages, 
like Berth old of Regensburg (1272) and Geiler of 
Kaisersberg (1445-1510), see in the " running, tilting 
stone-throwing, wrestling, jumping, etc.", which were 
beloved by old and young, nothing but a device of the 

Evil One for " capturing souls 
with pride", and only a few 
like Thomas Haselbach (about 
1446) express the opinion 
that a man may for the sake 
of recreation and physical 
development engage in all 
sorts of sports, and contests 
MARTIN LUTHER, 1483-1546 like throwing balls through a 
ring or at ninepins, running races, shooting with the 
bow, playing ball, and so forth, Luther makes a very 



positive plea for the practice of such exercises, especially 
by the young. 

" The ancients," said he, " understood this matter 
very well ; and they required that people should exer- 
cise and have something useful and respectable to do 
so that they might not fall into intemperance, debauch- 
ery, gluttony, drinking, and gambling. I am there- 
fore very fond of these two exercises and amusements, 
music, and tilting, together with fencing, wrestling, v 
and similar games; the first of which drives sorrow 
and melancholy from the heart, and the second de- 
velops the different parts of the body and keeps it in 
health. The real purpose is, moreover, to keep people 
from going into drinking, lewdness, gambling, and 
dice-playing, as they do now at the courts and in the 
cities, where one can hear nothing but : ' Here you are ! 
Have a drink ! ' Then they gamble for another hundred 
guilders or more. This is what happens when these 
fine games and knightly sports are neglected." Still 
better known is his saying that it was well with the 
city on whose streets the children played and sang. 

In his treatise entitled, "A few precepts on the way 
our young people should be trained,"* Zwingli, l too, 

* Quo pacto ingenui adolescentes formandi sint, prae- 
ceptiones pauculae. 

1 Huldrici Zuinglii opera. Completa editio prima 
curantibus Melchiore Schulero et Jo. Schulthessio, iv, 
148-158. Turici, 1841, ex officina Schulthessiana. 


recommends running, jumping, stone-throwing, fenc- 
ing, and wrestling, to develop the youthful body and 
make it skilful. Wrestling is, however, to be indulged 
in sparingly, since it often becomes a serious matter. 
He believes that swimming is an exercise of small utility, 
11 though it may be very pleasant at times to float in 
the water and act like a fish." The noteworthy fact 
is that he is the spokesman for instruction in manual 
training. He wishes that all boys and young men 
" felt as they would if they had to acquire the right 
of citizenship among the ancient Massilians, who ad- 
mitted no one who did not understand a trade." He 
also warns young people against a haughty bearing, 
and recommends a temperate life. " Hunger is to be 
mitigated but not wholly destroyed by eating; " 
Galenus reached the age of one hundred and twenty 
because he never rose from the table satiated. 

Joachim Camerarius (1500-1574), the friend of 
Melanchthon, not only advises in his " Maxims for 
Boys " that they substitute ball-playing, running and 
jumping, boxing and wrestling, for the disreptutable 
game of dice; but in his " Dialogus de Gymnasiis " 
he points to the gymnastics of the ancients as a model. 
In fact, Humanists, like Sadolet, brought the gymnas- 
tics as well as other features of classical antiquity again 
within the circle of common interest. Camerarius 
praises the Greek games particularly in comparison 
with the rough [and 'excessive sports of our German 


forefathers, who kept up a savage feasting and drink- 
ing for days and nights in connection with them; 
whereas he would have his pupils, graded in age and 
strength, go through their exercises before meals. 

While gymnastics for the young was promoted in 
this way, we find that a " school garden " designed 
for the amusement and recuperation of both teachers 
and pupils was established as early as 1588 at the gym- 
nasium of Halle on the Saale. The teachers of the 
institution formed an association that year and contri- 
buted enough of their meagre salaries to found a gar- 
den which remained in existence for two and a half 
centuries. On the surrounding wall i-s a stone tablet 
on which was chiselled the names of ten teachers and 
the rector, Caesar, together with a Latin poem com- 
posed by him, in which we find among other things : 
" The teachers who were associated together at Halle 
have here constructed a garden at their common 

It is, however, true that at other places the health 
of the children was not so well cared for. In the 
large city school of Wismar founded in 1541, the 
pupils were for instance not allowed to go into the 
yard during recess; and they must not leave their 
seats without permission. On the other hand, when 

* Sumptibus hunc construxerunt communibus hor- 
tum, qui juncti Halensi turn docuere schola. 


they brought the customary New Year's presents for 
the principal and vice-principal, punch, tobacco, and 
cards were distributed among them. They spent the 
whole night in revelry ; nor did they forget to sing the 
Landesvater *, stacking their hats on a sword and tak- 
ing them off again as they sang. 

The Jesuits have rendered particularly eminent ser- 
vice in the field of school hygiene. As is well-known, 
they were enterprising teachers, and founded not only 
schools for their own order, but also academies in 
which any young person might receive lodging, care, 
and instruction. 

In the outline of their methods known as " Ratio et 
imitatio studiorum societatis Jesu ", which was issued 
for these institutions in 1599 by the general of the 
Jesuits, Claudio Aquaviva, the number of daily recita- 
tion periods as well as the amount of work to be 
done by the pupils will be found to have been re- 
stricted in a very reasonable way. The schools and 
boarding houses of the Jesuits were, as a rule, hygi- 
enically well arranged; and the physical development 
of the boys was furthermore promoted by good board, 
daily walks, games, and long vacations. 

A detailed description of a school building is first to 

*A patriotic students' drinking song, with an accom- 
panying ceremony, which is referred to in the phrases 
succeeding Landesvater in the text. 


be found in the year 1649, when Joseph Furtenbach 
the younger l dedicated his " German School-house " 
to the mayor and council of the holy imperial city, Ysni, 
in Suabia. The school room described is 48 feet long, 
48 feet broad, and 10J feet high. The respiratory pro- 
ducts of the pupils, which, he says, naturally rise to 
the ceiling, were there to be withdrawn by means of 
ventilators in the shape of movable windows. The 
room was lighted from two sides. It was heated by a 
large tile stove, supplied with fuel from a special store 
room. Four tables, each 18 feet long, 3J feet broad, 
and 2J feet high, were placed perpendicularly against 
the walls containing the windows. The surfaces were 
coated with black oil paint and divided by red lines 
into sixteen sections, each 2|- feet long and If feet 
broad. Under the table were shelves for tablets and 
books. The benches, which were without backs, were 
1J feet wide, and placed 3 feet apart. The school- 
room had a platform for the teacher's table and the 
blackboard, and a case for the school appliances. 
Next to the room was a hall, occasionally used for 

It is interesting to note that during holidays the 
children were given recreation and instruction in the 

1 Karl Hintriiger, Ein deutsches Schulhaus vor 250 
Jahren. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege von 
L. Kotelmann, 1888, v. 142-151. Hamburg und 
Leipzig, Leop. Voss. 


open air. Fiirtenbach says of this matter : ' ' There 
are some ingenious German school masters, who, to 
furnish pastime for the older boys during vacation, 
take them out into the beautiful fields, to apply the 
arithmetic which they have learned in the school-room 
and to study there geometry and geography. In fact, 
some energetic teachers have even undertaken military 
constructions. For this purpose, however, it becomes 
necessary to have several different instruments at hand 
with which to apply the above named liberal arts ; and 
these together with the surveyor's rod, the reel, and 
other things belonging thereto must be carried into the 
field wherever and whenever they are needed." 

Comenius, who for a time was rector of the gymna- 
sium at Lissa, was an inno- 
vator in the whole field of 
pedagogy, and not the least 
so in the part devoted to 
school hygiene. In the first 
place, in his " Great method 
of teaching everybody all the 
arts ",* he pointed out the 
JOHN AMOS COMENIUS, 1592-1671 necessity of sense percep- 
tion and the study of nature; and in so doing, made 
the work of the pupil easier. He asks: "Do we not 
like our ancestors live in the garden of nature ? Why, 

*Didactica magna s. omnes omnia docendi artificium. 


I say, shall we not instead of dead books open the liv- 
ing book of nature ? " 

He did not content himself with merely lessening 
the burdens of the pupil by improvements in the 
methods of teaching, but he advocated physical train- 
ing directly. He advised parents to give their chil- 
dren a physical culture free from all " semblance of 
apishness and asininity", and emphasized strengthen- 
ing and training the limbs as an essential part of 
school instruction. Thus he constantly reminded his 
teachers of the saying, " a sound mind in a sound 
body;" while Trotzendorf, as perpetual dictator, had 
given his pupils at Goldberg the law: "Don't bathe 
in cold water in summer; don't go out on the ice in 
the winter; and don't throw snow-balls." Comenius, 
also, deserves no little praise for insisting on spacious 
class-rooms, and suitable play-grounds adjacent to the 

" The sch<jol regulations of the Princedom of Braun- 
schweig-Luneburg ", written in 1737 by rector Butt- 
sted l of Osterode, contained even at that early date 
advice on matters of hygiene. Among the things 
mentioned as " unwholesome and injurious " we find: 

1 Fr. Koldewey, Braunschweigische Schulordnungen 
von den "altesten Zeiten bis zum Jahre 1828. Mit 
Einleituiig, Anmerkungen, Glossen und Register. 
Berlin, 1886, A. Hofmann & Co. 


bending the spine in sitting, as this compresses the in- 
testines and gives rise to numerous complaints, which 
are then ascribed to study; also bringing the face too 
near the paper, since this produces dimness of vision, 
a defect quite prevalent among the learned; and, lastly, 
negligence in cleaning the teeth, which causes them to 
decay prematurely. 

The work of Basedow in promoting the physical 
training of the young was 
especially important. In his 
" Practical Philosophy for all 
Classes ", he refers to " many 
sensible physicians, especially 
Locke" as the authority for 
his rules for health and 
strength; and he demands 

JOHN BERNA^, BASEDOW. that W6 aCCUStom boys to fre- 

quent exercise of all parts of 
the body, and put up with their hilarity and noise. 

In his " Book of Methods for Fathers, Mothers, and 
Peoples " (1770) he gives parents still more decided 
advice: " When the limbs of your children have the 
necessary strength and flexibility, accustom them in a 
safe way to such movements as may be useful and 
which are dangerous only when they are done without 
training. Teach boys, for instance, to swim, to walk 
over narrow footbridges, to lower themselves by a rope, 
to ride horseback, to go up and- down small elevations, 


to jump over narrow ditches and low fences, to use 
the vaulting pole, to dodge thrown balls, to chase 
away a dog, to walk on smooth ice, etc." 

We learn, moreover, that his pupils, like Rousseau's 
Emile, are urged to take cold baths, long walks, and 
other means of invigoration. " We train them in rac- 
ing, wrestling, poising, fencing, dancing, in short, in 
everything which gives strength to the nerves, agility 
to the limbs, keenness to the senses, and firmness, 
mobility, and strength to the whole body." 

In Basedow's " Book of Methods ", we even find 
manual training mentioned; and play, "activity in 
lightest, ethereal form," as Jean Paul puts it, is there 
approved and recommended. The principle enunciated 
in the proclamation made in 1724, entitled: " The 
Philanthropinum established at Dessau, a School of 
Humanity for Students and young Teachers," sounds 
quite modern, though it is something of an exaggera- 
tion: " As compared with the physical and moral de- 
velopment of man, scientific education is only a side 
issue and must therefore be essentially lightened, 
partly by the selection of better subjects for study, 
and partly by better methods." 

Notwithstanding Herder's severe criticism of Base- 
dow for his manifold peculiarities and moral defects: 
" I would not give him calves to educate, to say 
nothing of children ", he nevertheless followed Base- 
dow's example by introducing regular gymnastics into 


the gymnasium at Weimar. In his fragmentary re- 
marks " On Gymnasial Instruction ", he says: " The 
children of the lower classes are all attracted by gym- 
nastics. Running and jumping is what they like; and 
nothing is more unbearable than sitting still. What 
can we do in our restricted circumstances to keep them 
favorably disposed toward the school ? Xothing but 
give the children a flock of birds without wings as 
much physical exercise as the class work will permit." 
He also introduced drawing for the training of the eye 
and the hand. 

Goethe was by no means opposed to the gymnastics 

introduced by Guts Muths, 
Jahn, and others, though 
he regretted that politics 
had become mixed up with 
the matter. ' ' The baby is 
thereby thrown out in the 
bath, as the saying goes. 
I want to see the gymnastic 
halls re-established, b e - 


1749-1832 cause our young people 

need them; especially so the students, who in their 
varied fields of activity lack the physical basis and 
therefore the necessary ability as well." The picture 
he gives of the young scholars of his time is not very 
attractive. " Xearsighted, pale, with hollow cheeks, 


young without youth, such, are the majority, as I see 
them. They show no signs of sound senses, or of 
pleasure in sensuous beauty; the sentiments and de- 
lights of youth are irretrievably lost, for if a person is 
not young at twenty, how can he be at forty ? " 

From such facts we can understand why from now 
on physicians begin to be interested in the health of 
the school population and to try to place the matter on 
a scientific basis. As among the first of these we may 
name Johann Peter Frank l (1745-1821). In the second 
volume of his work: "A Complete System of Sanitary 
Police " (1780) there is a division " On the hygienic 
condition of school children and the police supervi- 
sion necessary in institutions of learning." Nearly 
every feature of modern school hygiene is mentioned. 

In the first section, he treats of the injuries result- 
ing from burdening the youthful powers of mind and 
body too early and too severely. He urges that boys 
under eight should not be allowed to enter a Latin 
school, and then only if they are especially talented. 
Lessons must not begin too early in the morning ; they 
should not last over five hours, and should be discon- 
tinued in extremely hot weather. 

In the second section, he deals with questions relat- 
ing to the location of the school building, and the 

1 Johann Peter Frank, System einer vollstandigen 
medicinischen Polizey. 2 vols. 2d ed. Mannheim, 
1780-84, C. F. Schwan. 


size, illumination, heating, and cleaning of class- 
rooms. The desks and seats, he thinks, deserve special 
consideration. They must correspond to the size of 
the pupil, and have comfortable and not too perpen- 
dicular backs, if deformities of the spine are to be 
avoided. The author also discusses school punish- 
ments, home tasks, vacations, and the isolation of such 
pupils as suffer fYom itch, small-pox, or other conta- 
gious diseases. 

The last section is devoted to the " re-establishment 
and value of gymnastics in public education". Here 
he recommends walks, excursions, tramps, and jour- 
neys, as well as different exercises and sports such as 
playing ball, climbing trees, walking on stilts, racing, 
throwing, dancing, fencing, riding, swimming, skating, 
and bowling. In order that pupils may be exposed to 
the least possible danger, he demands the establish- 
ment of public drill-grounds, and the employment of 
a special drill master. He also enumerates a long list 
of precaution's to be observed in the different exercises 
and games. 

While the work of Frank discusses school hygiene in 
general, that of the medical councillor, C. J. Lorinser, l 
(1836) confines itself to narrower limits. " It views 
from a medical standpoint the mental and physical 

1 C. J. Lorinser, Zum Schutz der Gesundheit in den 
Schulen. Berlin, 1836, Th. Chr. Fr. Enslin. 


training now customary in most German Gymnasia." 
In characterizing his contemporaries he says : ' * With 
the great transformation in the mode of life the body 
has become more tender and frail ; and it is now de- 
pendent upon stimuli unknown to our ancestors. 
The essential energy of life is lower; and in the same 
degree as the senses have become more mobile and the 
impulses more impetuous, body and mind have lost in 
firmness and resistance." 

He says further: " In order to increase this diseased 
condition of mind and body, or to produce it where it 
is not already present, no better means could have been 
provided than those which are at present in use in most 
German gymnasia. These are to be found in the mul- 
tiplicity of subjects, the great number of school hours, 
and the great number of home tasks. The first con- 
fuses and dulls the mind; the second retards the 
natural development of the body; and the third pre- 
vents recuperation from these effects outside of school. " 

Among the bodily injuries arising from the above- 
named evils he mentions especially defective develop- 
ment of the chest and lungs and the weakening of the 
eyesight. " Never since there have been schools," he 
says, "has nearsightedness been so prevalent among 
young people; and the number that wear spectacles in 
the upper classes increases from year to year." He 
believes that the remedies that have been suggested, 


such as walks by the pupils and better illumination, 
are inadequate. He adheres rather to the opinion of 
J. C. Jahn, as expressed in the New Year-book for 
Philosophy and Pedagogy : " It is a question well worth 
the consideration of our school men and educational 
theorists whether the time has not come for the simpli- 
fication of the courses of study and the reduction of 
the number of school hours in our gymnasia." 

Lori user's little treatise created a great sensation. 
Even though it occasionally missed the mark, it was 
nevertheless the alarm gun which aroused slumbering 
minds to action. While it was partly rejected by the 
pedagogues Grotthold, Miitzell, Heinsius, and Kopke, it 
received the general approval of the physician Foriep. 
He sums up his opinion of the matter by saying that 
the consequences of overpressure can be observed 
among the pupils; and the cause is to be found in 
the haste of pupils, teachers, and parents ; and also in 
the increased demands by the present system of ex- 

Important aid was rendered by the fact that King 
Frederic William III took notice of the work of Lorin- 
ser, and in a letter to v. Altenstein, the Cultus-minis- 
ter, expressed his sympathy with the movement. After 
that, means for removing the evils in question began 
to be considered; and on June 6, 1842, appeared the 
famous cabinet order by Frederick William IV, " which 


formally recognized physical exercise as an essential 
part of the education of man," and introduced gym- 
nastics as an optional subject into gymnasia, higher 
city schools, and teacher's seminaries. 

With the exception of the short period of quiescence 
caused by the political situation of the time, the in- 
terest in physical training has grown rapidly ever since ; 
and the field of school hygiene has been steadily ex- 
tended and developed by physicians, pedagogues, and 
architects. Instead of making general remarks about 
schools and school instruction, men now devote them- 
selves to exact investigations and the study of special 
problems. Thus Lang, Zwez, Varrentrapp, Eeclam, 
and Erisman have ascertained the requirements of 
sanitary school-buildings with respect to location and 
construction. Parow, Fahrner, Hermann, Schildbach, 
Kunze, and Buchner introduced the school-desk re- 
form; and they have lately been joined by Schenk and 
Lorenz. Von Pettenkoffer, Breiting, and Ritschel 
have tested the air in school-rooms. 

Attention has also been given to the personal hygiene 
of the pupils and the so-called school diseases. In 
the study of eye defects, the examination of 10,060 
school children by Hermann Cohn was epoch-making; 
and he has recently been followed by von Arlt, Schmidt 
Rimpler, von Hippel, Pfliiger, and Stilling. Von 
Reichard, Weil, Bezold, and K^ager have studied the 


hearing of children. Bresgen and Kafemann have 
pointed out that when breathing through the nose is 
obstructed, weakness of memory and attention is pro- 
duced. To prevent the curvature of the spine so 
often caused by writing, Schubert and W. Meyer have 
advocated the introduction of vertical script. And, 
lastly, A. and H. Gutzmann have suggested a new 
method of curing stuttering, and have attained note- 
worthy results in this line. 

There is no lack of comprehensive treatises on school 
hygiene. Besides the older works of Guillaume, 
Falk, Thome, Gauster, Eiemann, and Eembold, we 
will mention those of Burgerstein 1 , Baginski, 2 Bur- 
gerstein and Netolitzky, 3 and Eulenberg and Bach 4 . 
The first work of Burgerstein gives a short survey; 

1 Leo Burgerstein, Die Gesundheitspflege in der 
Mittelschule. Hygiene des Korpers nebst beilaufigen. 
Bemerkungen, 1887, A Holder. 

2 Ad. Baginsky, Handbuch der Schul-Hygiene. 
Stuttgart, 1883, Enke. 

3 Leo Burgerstein und Aug. Xetolitzky, Handbuch 
der Schulhygiene. Mit 154 Abildungen im Text. 
Jena, 1895, Gustav Fischer. 

4 H. Eulenberg und Th. Bach, Schulgesundheitslehre. 
Das Schulhaus und das Unterrichtswesen, vom hygien- 
ischen Standpunkte fur Arzte, Lehrer, Verwaltungs- 
beamte und Architekten bearbeitet. 2d ed. Berlin, 
1898, F. F. Heine. 


the equally thorough and original Handbook by Baginski 
is of special value to physicians; while the work of 
Burgerstein and Netolitzky which was compiled jointly 
by an educator and a physician, and that of Eulenberg 
and Bach may preferably be recommended to teachers. 
Burgerstein and Netolitzky's treatise has an interna- 
tional character; while that of Eulenberg and Bach 
deals chiefly with the conditions in Prussia. 


Since we have undertaken to treat only of those 
facts of school hygiene which the teacher himself can 
observe and to some extent control, we refer the 
reader to the more complete works of Baginsky, 
Burgerstein-JSTetolitzky, and Eulenberg-Bach for a dis- 
cussion of buildings and sites. In these the necessary 
information can be obtained concerning the location 
and extent of the site and the different parts of the 
building, especially the foundation, fagade, materials, 
stories, corridors, and roof. 

The orientation 1 of the schoolroom is, however, 
not entirely beyond the control of the teacher. Class- 
rooms which have an unfavorable location may be ex- 
changed for other rooms, such as the principal's office, 
the conference or faculty room, the physical or chemi- 
cal laboratory, the museum, the library, etc. 

In general, it should be the rule to have the sun 
shine freely into the room for several hours of the 
day, if possible when school is not in session. Since 
sunless rooms are generally damp and cold, people 
justly call them unhealthful. " Where the sun does 

1 Paul Schubert, Uber Schulfenster und Vorhange. 
Miinchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1898, No. 14^ 



not go, the doctor goes," says an Italian proverb. We 
know that on streets which run east and west, the rate 
of mortality is greater on the shady than on the sunny 
side. Besides warming and ventilating, sunlight also 
disinfects. Pure cultures of most pathogenic bacteria 
do not grow in the sunlight but soon perish. Sunny 
class-rooms are, therefore, to a certain degree, a hin- 
drance to the spread of infectious diseases through the 

A southeasterly direction of class-room windows is 
to be preferred. This provides for the necessary light 
and warmth from the sun, does not expose the win- 
dow front to the generally prevailing west winds, 
and prevents the early and almost horizontal rays from 
falling into the room. In this respect it has this 
special advantage over the pure easterly direction that 
the sun reaches the room later in the day and leaves it 
after a shorter time. 

We believe that an easterly exposure is, next to the 
southeasterly, the most favorable, because here the sun 
shines into the room chiefly before instruction begins 
and not during the hottest part of the day. Should 
it be found that the'rooms are too warm by 8 o'clock, 
the windows must be opened, and the awnings, 
Venetian blinds, or curtains let down before that time. 
The morning sun furnishes, moreover, an excellent 
light for the main hours of the day and has a cheering 
effect on the minds of both pupils and teachers. 

A southerly exposure of class-rooms is more ques- 


tionable, because the rooms become too warm in sum- 
mer. To be sure, we hear the argument that in our 
climate even at this time of the year the sky is often 
cloudy ; that the nearly perpendicular rays of the noon- 
day sun do not fall far into the room and are less an- 
noying than the horizontal light of the morning and 
evening sun, and that the two hottest months are 
mostly taken up by the summer vacation. Neverthe- 
less, as a matter of fact, the temperature in the south- 
erly rooms rises very high in spite of all protective 
measures][against the sun, since the southern wall and 
the layers of air next to it both become strongly heated. 
A southerly exposure may be unfavorable not simply in 
summer but also in winter 1 . It would be possible 
only with an easily regulated heating apparatus to keep 
the temperature of the room constant, with the win- 
dows now shaded and cool and now heated by the noon- 
day sun. 

The objection raised by Varrentrapp 2 against rooms 
located on the west side, namely, that they are heated 
more intensely and lighted more uncomfortably than 
others, is not valid, since schools with two sessions 

1 Chr. Nussbaum Zur Orientierung der Schulzim- 
mer. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1888, 
No. 3 p. 70-74. Id. Gunstigste Lage der Schulzim- 
mer. Gesundheitsingenieur, 1894, No. 16. 

2 Varrentrapp, Hygienische Anforderungen'an Schul- 
bauten. Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift fur offentliche 
Gesundheitspflege, 1869, Vol. I, Part 4, p. 469. 


close at 4, and those with one, at 2 to 3 o'clock, when 
the sun is still comparatively high in the heavens. 
We would not, however, advocate a westerly direction, 
because as stated above, it is the side exposed to the 
weather. Wind and rain would often strike the win- 
dows, prevent their being opened in summer, and in 
large cities blow dust and smoke into the room. 

A northerly exposure is admissible for drawing-rooms, 
and in fact to be recommended for this purpose, be- 
cause north rooms, not being open to the sun, need no 
blinds. The light can therefore all be utilized; and 
it remains exceedingly uniform. If a northerly draw- 
ing-room is well heated and well ventilated, it is not 
likely to be injurious to health, notwithstanding the 
lack of sunlight, because pupils spend in it only a few 
hours per week. 

The natural illumination of the school-room is 
closely connected with its orientation. For it is evi- 
dent that rooms facing the northeast, have more light 
in the morning than those facing the southwest, while 
at noon the reverse is true ; and that rooms facing the 
south, other things being equal, receive more light 
than those facing the north. 

Sufficient daylight is of the greatest importance to 
the eyes, and therefore efforts have been made for a 
long time to ascertain in figures the amount of light 
in different parts of the school-room. 

This was first made possible by the Photometer of 


Leonhard Weber l of Breslau. (Fig. I.) This instru- 


1 Beschrieben im Journal fur Gasbeleuchtung, 1885, 
Vol. 28, p. 267 ff. ; Compare Hugo Kriiss, Uber einege 
Abanderungen des Weber-schen Photometers. Seper- 
atabdruck aus Schillings Journal fur Gasbeleuchtung 
und Wasserversorgung, 1898. 


ment, as will be seen in the illustration, consists of, 
(1) the pillar Z>, and the case E, which also serves as a 
base; (2) the receptacle C, which contains a benzine 
candle; (3) the fixed tube A\ and (4) the tube jft, 
which is perpendicular to A and turns on an axis coin- 
cident with the axis of A. In the case C, is a little 
device for regulating the flame, and a small scale at- 
tached to a mirror. By looking through a slit oppo- 
site, the length of the flame, which is to be 2 cm., can 
be read on this scale. Along the full length of tube A 
is a millimeter scale. In this tube a ring holding a 
plate of glass-porcelain can be moved back and forth 
by means of a little button /; and a small index con- 
nected with the ring shows on its millimeter scale the 
distance between the glass plate and the benzine flame. 
The movable tube B can be turned fully 180 out of 
the position jt has in the cut, where the ocular h is 
down ; and it can be fixed in any position by means of 
a set screw. In the middle of B is a reflection prism, 
one perpendicular plane of which is turned toward the 
middle axis of A, and the other toward the ocular h. By 
means of this prism the light that comes from A is 
reflected at an angle of 90 toward the eye of the ob- 
server. At the end of the tube B, opposite the 
ocular, is a square metal box g to which a tube (i) can 
be attached to exclude light from the sides. In case 
the light to be measured is too strong, one or more 


glass plates can be introduced into the box g from the 
side in order to dimmish the intensity. 

The light that goes to the ocular from here fills 
the left side of the field of vision. On looking into 
the ocular one sees to the right only the light which 
comes from A', and to the left, only that which enters 
through the box g. If the two lights are equal in 
color and intensity the two parts of the field of vision 
merge into one with a scarcely noticeable line of divi- 
sion. To enable the observer to give the light to be 
measured the same color as the benzine-light, the 
ocular contains a slide with an aperture and a red and 
a green plate of glass, so that the photometer can at 
pleasure be set for white, red, or green, light. 

A white slate, forming a part of the outfit, is fastened 
to a stand and placed in that part of the school-room 
where the light is to be measured. The movable 
tube B is directed as nearly as possible toward the 
centre of the slate; and the glass porcelain plate in 
the tube A is then shifted back and forth by means of 
the button /, until the left and the right sides 
of the field of vision become alike. The intensity of 
the light thus measured is computed by means of a 
formula given by Weber. The result gives the num- 
ber of " normal candles " which one would have to place 
at 1 m. distance from the slate in order to illuminate 
the same as strongly as it is illuminated by the diffuse 
daylight as the time of examination. 



Hermann Cohn, the first investigator to try to fix 
upon a standard of light for the different parts of the 
school-room, has, after numerous measurements, 
reached the conclusion that the minimum light in- 
tensity must equal that of 10 of Weber's meter-candles, 
which corresponds to 20-30 ordinary normal meter- 

The stereogoniometer l is another instrument pro- 
posed by Weber for measuring the quantity of daylight 
in school-rooms. In the accompanying illustration 
(Fig. 2), G represents the base; P, a movable plate; Z, 


a lens, which can be shifted on the rod s; B, an arc 

1 Beschreibung eines Raumwinkelmessers von Pro- 
fessor Dr. L. Weber. Zeitschrift fiir Instrumenten- 
kunde, 1884, Part 10, pp. 343-347; Dingler's Poly- 
technisches Journal, 1886, Vol. 259, Part 1, p. 122 ff. 


divided into degrees ; and H, a holder fastened to the 
plate P, from which the plumb-line H E is suspended. 
After the instrument has been placed on the spot to 
be tested and the lens turned toward the window, the 
base is made horizontal by the aid of three leveling 
screws and the plumb-line H E. For this operation 
the plate P has to be moved so that the index m at- 
tached to it points to the zero mark on B. The base 
is level when the plumb is directly over a given point 
in it. 

By shifting the lens L on the rod s an inverted 
image of the window sash, the roofs and steeples, as 
well as of that part of the sky visible at the place 
under investigation, is produced on a sheet of paper 
fastened with brass clasps on the plate P. This paper 
is divided by lines into 2 mm squares. If the outline 
of the image, which ought to be grouped as uniformly 
as possible around the point C, is traced with a lead 
pencil and the squares it covers counted, the fractions 
of squares being estimated, the number obtained will 
give the solid angle w; which represents the extent of 
the visible part of the sky in square degrees. The 
equation h = w sin a will then be true. Here h repre- 
sents the light intensity, 10 the solid angle, a the angle 
of incidence shown on the graduated arc B by the in- 
dex m, and w sin a the reduced solid angle. 

According to Cohn, a reduced solid angle of 50 
square degrees is required to give the least permissible 


intensity of 10 meter candles. Gillert criticises this 
method, urging on the one hand, that the brightness of 
the sky varies with the climate, the country, and the 
elevation of the sun, and, on the other hand, that the 
amount of light at a desk depends not only on direct 
skylight but also on reflected light. The reduced solid 
angle measures only the former, while under certain 
conditions the latter is predominant. Erismann found, 
moreover, that in four school-rooms in Moscow the 
average light intensity with an angle of from 10 to 20 
square degrees was three or four times as great as the 
minimum required by Cohn; and the least intensity 
observed with an angle of from 5 to 10 square degrees- 
came up to this mark. Even when the sky was wholly 
invisible the average light intensity was still as great 
as that from 10 meter candles. 

Though we may admit that this instrument gives us 
in some degree a measure of the illumination, yet, for 
purely practical purposes, the preference must be given 
to a method recommended by Schmidt- Rimpler, by 
which the intensity of the light at a desk is ascertained 
by means of test types. Those of Snellen 1 , Cohn 2 ,. 

1 Herm. Snellen, Optotypi ad Visum determinandum 
secundum formulam V- ^ . Edit. XI, metrico 
systemate. Berlin, 1892, Herm. Peters. 

2 Herm. Cohn, Tafel Zur Priifung der Sehleistung 
und Sehschiirfe der Schulkinder, Soldaten, Seeleute, 
und Bahnbeambten. 5 Ed. Breslau, 1897, Priebatsch. 


and Albrand 1 are the best. If the smaller types, 
which, by the normal eye can be recognized in good 
light at a distance of 0.5, 0.6, or 0.8 m respectively, 
can not be read at all at the place examined or only 
at -f- of the above distance, the light is insufficient. 
This will generally be true where no portion of the 
sky is visible. These dark places are usually near the 
wall opposite the windows or directly adjacent to the 
wall spaces between them. Moreover, Huth has shown 
in a school in Berlin that at a distance of 6-7 meters 
from the windows the light was reduced to a thirtieth 
of its original intensity; and in cloudy weather it fell 
below that of one meter candle. 

If the light supply is insufficient in a school-room, 
what can be done to remedy the matter ? Sometimes 
we may leave dark places unused, or else exchange 
them for others that have more light. If this is im- 
possible, we must paint dirty ceilings white, and dark 
walls either light gray or green; but in neither case 
should the color be dazzling. Above all, light must be 
given free passage through the windows. These must 
be cleaned carefully, and kept free from paint; and 
the blinds must be raised as high as possible. 

A still better plan would be to fasten the blinds 
above so that they could not obstruct any part of the 
window. When the upper parts of arched or Gothic 
windows have draperies, as is often the case in upper 
grades, these must be removed, because the "greater 

1 Albrand, Sehproben, Leipzig, 1893, H. Hartung 
u. Sohn. 


part of the light of a school-room comes through the 
upper panes. The removal of vines and especially of 
trees which shade the windows improves the light in a 
school-room very much. If adjacent wings of build- 
ings are in the way of one another's light, it is often 
a very good thing to paint the outsides a light color 
to increase the reflection. 

Light can also he thrown into a dark room by means 
of prisms and reflectors. Forster 1 in Breslau was the 
first to use prisms for this purpose ; but, as far as we 
know, they have not been used elsewhere. The day- 
light reflector by F. W. Hen- 
nig of Berlin, the use of 
which will be explained by 
the accompanying illustra- 
tion (Fig. 3), has proved 
much more satisfactory. It 
is composed of a somewhat 
wavy plate of glass coated 
with silver and attached to 
the window at an angle of 
about 45. The corrugation 
increases the surface of re- 
flection and secures a better 
distribution of the light. 

1 Forster, Einige Grundbedingungen fur gute Ta- 
gesbeleuchtung in den Schulsalen. Seperatabdruck 
aus der Deutschen Vierteljahrsschrift fur offentliche 
Gesundheitspflege, 1884, Vol. 16. 



The layer of silver, which increases the intensity of re- 
flection, is given a coating of waterproof varnish to 
protect it from the weather. 

After putting up such a reflector, Perlia 1 found that 
acuteness of vision was nearly doubled. Diamond 
type was read 13, and Bourgeois 19 cm. farther away. 
In correspondence with this, it was found photometric- 
ally that the amount of light was nearly twice as great. 

If the necessary light cannot be secured even by the 
introduction of reflectors, there is nothing to do but to 
enlarge the windows. This has often been done in the 
schools of Breslau, In Prussia, according to the Royal 
Technical Building Deputation, the window and floor 
spaces must have a ratio to each other of 1:5. In 
Saxony, Wiirtemberg, and Lower Austria a ratio of 
1 : 6 is required when the building stands free ; and one 
of 1:4, when the light is obstructed by neighboring 

In enlarging the windows, care should be taken to 
have the apertures made rectangular, since arched or 
Gothic styles lessen the window surface unnecessarily. 
The top of the window ought to extend as nearly as 
possible to the ceiling ; and the lower part must be 1 
to 1.25 m. above the floor, according to the size of the 

1 Perlia, Uber einen Tageslicht reflektor fur Schulen. 
Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1893, No. 10, p. 
521-541 and No. 11, p. 588-610. 


pupils, so that they may not be troubled by having 
light fall into their eyes from below. 

Walls containing windows should be bevelled both on 
the inner and outer edges, especially at the top outside. 
The panes must be as large and the sashes as narrow 
as possible. In the Francke Institute at Halle on the 
Saale where the windows of ordinary size have twenty- 
four panes, Liebrecht 8 found that the amount of sky 
visible was diminished one-fourth by the many cross 

The illumination may, furthermore, be too strong 
as well as too weak. Direct sunlight should not fall 
on the eyes or work of the pupils, as it will irritate 
the retina. To prevent this, school-windows should 
have means of protection either on the outside or on 
the inside. Outside awnings have this advantage, that 
they can be placed according to the position of the 
sun, and so do not unnecessarily diminish the light in 
the room. They also protect the children from the 
heat of the sun and permit the opening of the win- 
dows. They are, on the other hand, expensive ; and do 
not last long, since they are exposed to the weather. 
This holds true, also, of blinds and shutters suspended 
outside from the top of the window frame and held 
away a certain distance at the bottom by iron rods. 
When they are drawn up they darken the school-room 
more than the awnings do. 


Boiler curtains or similar arrangements on the inside 
of windows are, therefore, to be preferred. Fine white 
shirting, ecru or cre'me colored twilling, and strong 
white dowlas are, according to Cohn, l most suitable 
for the purpose, since other materials on the market, 
which are usually green or deep blue, absorb too much 

Common curtains which roll up at the top have 
the disadvantage not only of being usually out of 
order, but also of letting in light at the sides. If 
people, nevertheless, will have them, they must be 
put up so as to extend a little over the window frame. 
Better than these just mentioned are curtains that can 
be drawn up from the bottom by a crank or such as 
are fastened in pairs at the middle of the window and 
can be drawn one up one down. With the latter, it is 
possible to leave the upper parts of the windows, 
through which the brightest sky light enters, uncov- 
ered, as soon as the sun permits. 

To secure the same results, Liebrecht 2 proposed to 
use blinds which can be moved sideways, and which 

1 Herm. Cohn, Uber Fenstervorhange in Schulen. 
Sonderabdruck aus der Deutschen medizinischen 
Wochenschrift, 1894, No. 46. 

2 K. Liebrecht, die Lichtverhiiltnisse in den Schulen 
der Stadt Halle a. S. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheits- 
pflege, 1893, No. 10, p. 521-541 and No. 11, p. 588- 


are divided into an upper and a lower half, thus mak- 
ing it possible to cut off the light from any part of the 

Venetian blinds, whose slats can be set horizontally, 
diagonally, or perpendicularly, are not suitable for 
school-rooms. With the slats inclined 45, only 0.6 to 
1.5$ of the daylight passes through them; and they 
are, besides too expensive, costing at least 20 marks 
($5.00) for each window. 

In addition to having the light sufficient and not too 
strong, it is important to see that it comes from the 
right direction. The windows must, therefore, be in 
a wall lengthwise of the room and to the left of the 
pupils. If the windows are in front, the light will fall 
directly into the pupils eyes and irritate the retina. 

Another inconvenience from windows so located is 
described by Baginsky from his own experience. He 
writes: " In the senior class-room in the gymnasium I 
attended, the light came from in front and was com- 
bined with a deficient lighting from the left, and I re- 
member distinctly how difficult it was to recognize 
mathematical figures and formulas on the blackboard. '* 

It would be no better to have the windows to the right 
of the pupils rather than in front, because in such cases 
the shadow of the hand with which the pupil is writ- 
ing falls on the paper and darkens it. Still stronger 
shadows, caused by the whole upper part of the body, 
appear when the windows are located behind the pupils. 
Besides, the teacher is here dazzled by the light, which 


lie has to face directly. Consequently the light from 
the left is the only proper light, and hence is most 
commonly used in higher schools. 

There still remains the question, whether light might 
not enter the school-room from the two sides. In 
France, one often finds windows both to the right and 
to the left of the pupils ; and eminent authorities, 
like Javal of Paris, favor this plan when the light from 
the left is insufficient. 

The Medical Expert Commission of Strassburg 1 
take the same view. They say that with light coming 
in on both sides places between the windows and in 
the corners of the room are better lighted. The ob- 
jection, that with two rows of windows the shadow of 
the writing hand is troublesome, they hold is not valid; 
since in the first place, one-half of the pupils get the 
greater amount of light from the left side, and, in the 
second place, the other half gets enough light from 
the left to do away with any considerable shadow which 
might be formed by the light coming from the right. 
Berlin and Eembold, 2 also, assert that the light from 

1 Arztliches Gutachten iiber das hohre Schulwesen 
Elsass-Lothringens. Im Auftrage des Kaiserlichen 
Statthalters erstattet, von einer medizinischen Sachver- 
standigen-kommission. Strassburg i. E., 1882. 

2 Berlin und Rembold, Untersuchungen iiber den 
Einfluss des Schreibens auf Auge und Korperhaltung 
der Schulkinder. 2 ed. Stuttgart, 1883. 


two sides, which is so severely proscribed in Germany, 
is not at all undesirable. But the facts which they cite 
to substantiate their opinion, namely, that those school- 
rooms which had the least number of myopic children 
received abundant light both from the right and left, 
we can not admit as a demonstration, because myopia 
is due to many other causes besides deficient lighting. 
French hygienists have, themselves, repeatedly called 
attention to the fact that forms are recognized with 
great difficulty when light comes from two sides, on 
account of the absence of shadows. And lastly, with 
this arrangement the right and the left eyes are illum- 
inated differently, which may give rise to the develop- 
ment of defective refracting power. 

Lighting from both right and left can, therefore, be 
sanctioned only if sufficient light can be had in no 
other way. Windows both at the left and rear of the 
pupils should still more emphatically be prohibited 
except in cases of emergency. If they are, neverthe- 
less, in use, the light from behind ought to be checked 
by dulled panes,"curtains, or similar devices. All other 
combinations of two-sided lighting are to be absolutely 


Daylight is undoubtedly the light most suitable for 
the eyes ; nevertheless, artificial illumination may some- 
times become necessary in school-rooms. This hap- 
pens most frequently in schools with two sessions in 
winter, when the first and last periods do not always 
have sufficient natural light. But even at other seasons 
dense mists, fogs, clouds, etc., may darken the room 
so that artificial illumination becomes a necessity. 
Boarding-schools must have it, at any rate. 1 . 

The electric light ranks first among the different kinds 
of artificial light. It is white, and resembles daylight 
most closely leaving colors almost unchanged ; it does 
not contaminate the air; it involves almost no risk of 
fire ; and it can be conveniently handled. The flicker- 
ing, which is so disagreeable to the eye on account of 
the changes in intensity, has in consequence of recent 
technical progress wholly disappeared in the incan- 
descent, and almost wholly in the arc lamps. 

Even the plunge into sudden darkness due to the 

1 Uber die Beleuchtung in einem Alumnat. Eulen- 
bergs Vierteljahrsschrift, 1879, Vol. XXXI, p. 63. 



stopping of the machinery is hardly to be feared any 
longer ; and besides a storage battery may be kept , 
constantly in readiness. Such batteries are particularly 
serviceable in places like schools where a current is 
needed on the instant and for a short time only. 

The arc light has, as is well known, great intensity 
and must be covered by ground glass globes, alabaster 
shades, or something similar. It might otherwise 
cause inflammation and swelling of the conjunctiva, 
and photophobia, with spasmodic contractions of the 
lids and narrowing of the pupils; also, hemeralopia, and 
possibly amaurosis. The eyes of the pupils must even 
be shielded from the glowing carbon of the incande- 
scent lamps, which in Pfliiger's 1 opinion are the best 
for school purposes, especially since they are more 
durable than is generally supposed. 

On the other hand, all shades absorb from J to f 
of the light. 2 Besides, the arc and incadescent light, as 
ordinarily used, give rise to more or less prominent 
shadows, which also diminish the illumination consid- 
erably. Erismann 3 found that the shadow of the head 

1 E. Pfliiger, Kurzsichtigkeit und Erziehung. Aka- 
demische Festrede zur Feier des Stiftungsfestes der 
Universitat Bern. Wiesbaden, 1887, J. F. Bergmann. 

2 H. Cohn, tiber den Beleuchtungswert der Lam- 
pengiocken. Wiesbaden, 1885. 

3 Fr. Erismann, Die Schulhygiene auf der Jubilaums- 
ausstellung der Gesellschaft fur Beforderung der Ar- 


of the writer reduced the light nearly a half, and that 
of the hand four-fifths. He accordingly made use of 
indirect, dispersed light, similar to ordinary daylight, 
as Jasper, Sautter, Lemonnier, and Schlenk 1 had done 

Schlenk describes the apparatus as follows : " An arc 
lamp of the Gramme system is hung in the middle of 
the room so that the focus is 3m. above the floor. Un- 
der the lamp is a closed, nickel-plated sheet-iron re- 
flector having the form of a truncated cone 33 cm. in 
height, the lower circle having a diameter of 15 cm., 
the upper, one of 100 cm. Most of the light from the 
arc is caught by this reflector and thrown on the white 
ceiling. Many rays also strike the latter directly, and 
still more the upper parts of the walls which are like- 
wise kept bright. From here they are reflected in all 
directions and light up the remotest corners of the 
room uniformly ; and what is most important they pre- 

beitsamkeit in Moskau. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesund- 
heitspflege, 1888, No. 10, p. 3677. Id., Die Kiinstliche 
Beleuchtung der Schulzimmer. Op. cit. 1897, No. 10, 
p. 529-553. Emanuel Bayr, Uber Beleuchtungsver- 
suche in Schulzimmern mit direkter und indirekter 
Beleuchtung bei Anweiidung von Gas- und Gasgliihlicht 
Elektrischen Gliih- und Bogenlicht Lampen. Op. 
cit., 1898, No. 3, p. 129-160. 

1 Leo Burgerstein, Zur kiinstlichen Beleuchtung der 
Schulzimmer. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 
1889, No. 1, p. 18. 


vent the formation of shadows. The source of light 
is in this way wholly concealed from the eyes of the 
pupils. How bright and pleasant such a light can be 
I have myself been able to observe in a school in Ham- 
burg, where the rooms were illuminated not by one 
but by several arc lamps with reflectors." 

A side reflector based on the same principle as the 
above, the patent for which is owned by the general 
electric company, is especially recommended by Cohn 1 
for rooms used in drawing lessons. Two reflectors 
with faces opposite are placed on the wall, so as to make 
a certain angle with it. The larger reflector has the 
shape and size of a German studio window. The focus 
is in the middle of the smaller reflector, which is made 
of a variety of transparent materials. Half of the 
light falls on the objects to be illuminated after a 
single reflection from the large reflector; the other 
half falls on the small reflector and is partly trans- 
mitted, partly reflected to the larger. To a person in 
the room the large reflector looks like a luminous body 
several square meters in area with nearly uniform 
brightness, having only in the middle a somewhat 
brighter spot. The illuminating power of the centre 
can be changed by putting in glass slides so that the 

1 H. Cohn. Uber kiinstliche Beleuchtung insbeson- 
dere fiir Zeichen- und Horsale. Zeitschrift fur Schul- 
gesundheitspflege, 1893, No. 6, p. 336. 


teacher can make the shadows marked or indistinct as 
he wishes. The instrument is made either with one 
or with two arc lamps, the latter having the advantage 
of producing a more uniform light. The strong points 
about the side reflector are that it gives a diffused 
light, which is not dazzling, but variable at will, and 
more evenly distributed than daylight. 

While the latter is a hundred times stronger at the 
windows than at a distance of ten meters from them ; 
the light from the reflector shows an intensity of 11.6 
meter-candles at 2 meters, and one of 1.3 meter-can- 
dles at 10 meters, giving only a ninefold diminution. 

In connection with this subject we must also give an 
account of Hrabowski's overhead reflector (see Fig. 4). 



He observed that only a small amount of light radi- 
ates above an angle of 20 or below an angle of 70 
with reference to the horizontal plane, on account of 


the interference of the carbons. Most of the light 
comes forth between 25 and 45 below this plane. 
Accordingly he constructed his reflector as follows : A 
wire frame A B E F covered with white material is at- 
tached to the large, white, concave top B C D E, which 
is firmly fixed to the lamp. An adjustable prismatic 
glass ring G H suspended from this top surrounds the 
arc, under which is the opal glass shield L. The rays 
from above down to 25 (0 F, K, Z, A) strikes 
the conical surface A B E F directly and are reflected 
down ; those from 25 to 45 pass through the glass 
ring and are refracted toward this white mantel (H E, 
HP, HS, H T, H F) and then as in the previous case 
reflected down; those between 45 and 70 fall on the 
opal shield i, some passing through, others going to 
the reflector (R U, N V, M W) and then to the floor. 
The school-room receives in this way a well distributed 
diffused illumination; shadows are insignificant; and 
the dazzling arc is completely concealed. 

The electric light is doubtless the light of the future ; 
but on account of its costliness most schools will have 
to be satisfied with a different kind of illumination. 
Gas light and kerosene lamps must claim our attention. 

The Siemen's regenerative gas-burner has the special 
advantage of not contaminating the air; on the con- 
trary, it improves the ventilation. If it is to be used, 
arrangements for the foul air pipes should be made 

GAS 59 

when the ceiling and ventilating shafts are constructed. 
These burners are exceedingly bright but have the dis- 
advantage of producing strong shadows. 

The gas arc-light of Butzke of Berlin and the similar 
Wenham light also gives an illumination suitable for 
schools. Both contain regenerative burners with the 
flame downwards. They produce a steady white light 
comparable with the electric light, throw no shadows 
below, are regulated automatically, and have arrange- 
ments for carrying away the gases from the flame. In 
a school-room illuminated by 4 Butzke burners, which 
was examined by Renk, the average light intensity was 
9.8 meter-candles, and the difference between the 
darkest and brightest spot was only 4.6 meter-candles. 

With respect to the Auer incandescent gas-light, re- 
cent opinions differ. The burning gas is not in this the 
direct source of light but is used only to keep the so- 
called mantle, a network of cotton fibres which have 
been soaked in pure toriumoxide, at a constant white 
heat. And this with its far greater brilliancy is the 
Teal illuminating body. One advantage of the Auer 
burner is that only a small amount of gas is consumed 
in comparison with the amount of light produced. In 
the physico-technical Reichsanstalt at Berlin it was 
ascertained that this burner with a gas consumption of 
120 liters per hour produced a light of 60 normal can- 
dles, while the common Argand burner produced a 


light of only 20 normal candles with a gas consumption? 
of 200 liters per hour. 

Since the glowing network surrounds the flame on. 
all sides, no unconsumed gas can escape, no soot is- 
formed, and the air of the room remains pure. Finally, 
the incandescent burner gives a light of superior 
brightness, whiteness, uniformity and steadiness ; and 
produces only a small amount of heat, not enough to 
cause overheating. For these reasons it has been- 
recommended by the Prussian cultus-minister for use 
in public institutions, universities, etc. In the K. K. 
Theresia academy in Vienna it has been found suitable 
both for the class-rooms and for rooms in the boarding 
house. Since its introduction, there has been a decrease 
in diseases of the respiratory organs, myopia, and cases 
of conjunctival catarrh. 

The city board of works of Vienna, however, gives- 
us a different view of the matter. According to a re- 
port by this body a gradual decrease of brightness can 
be observed in the Auer light. Its intensity and color, 
especially when the light is first introduced, irritate- 
the retina; and the frequent explosions of the chim- 
neys endanger personal safety. 

We can say with greater certainty that the Albocar- 
bon gaslight is not fit for school-rooms. It is true the 
flame does not flicker on account of the increase of 
the specific gravity of the gas through the Naphthaline 

GAS 61 

Yapors; and it gives a very intense and pleasant light. 
On the other hand, it takes a quarter of an hour for 
the flame to become bright and it must be regulated 
frequently to prevent sooting; this makes it impracti- 
cal for school purposes. 

Illumination by means of simple broad flame burners, 
such as are often found, either with or without opal- 
escent glass globes, in halls for physical training, and in 
'Corridors, is also to be rejected for school-room use. The 
flames flicker so much that, for this reason alone the 
light cannot be used for reading and writing; and, 
besides, they lack sufficient brightness. Bound burn- 
ers properly constructed are much to be preferred; but 
they must be supplied both with chimneys and with 
globes or shades. 

The chimneys answer a threefold purpose. They 
prevent the flickering so hurtful to the eye; they 
retard the vitiation of the air by the products of 
incomplete combustion ; and, finally they afford a con- 
siderable protection against the heat of the flame. If 
they have a thickness of from 2 to 3 mm. , 40 to 50 per 
cent of the heat will be kept from penetrating the 

The upward going rays should be reflected down up- 
on the pupils desks by globes and shades so as to in- 
crease the illumination,. What can be accomplished 
In this way, we can learn from Cohn's measurements. 


According to these, a place with a light intensity of one- 
meter-candle may have this increased to 23, by a shade 
of paper; to 30, by one of opalescent glass; to 64 by 
one of white japanned metal ; and to 260 by a hemis- 
pherical reflector. 

With regard to the use of kerosene lamps, the objec- 
tion is usually made that too much care is required to 
keep them clean and in order; and that books and 
tablets are liable to be soiled by them because petrole- 
um vapors condense in the combustion on the cold 

Nevertheless, they have many advantages over gas- 
light. There is no danger of poisoning connected 
with them, whereas gas escaping from leaky pipes con- 
tains, as is well known, the dangerous carbonic oxide. 
They will not injure the respiratory organs, as impure 
illuminating gas will, which forms ammonia and sul- 
phuric acid during combustion. 

Furthermore, kerosene light does not pollute the 
air as much as gas light. For a hundred candle power 
light, petroleum gives oS 800 grams of water, and gas 
2140; and, what is still more important, petroleum 
under the same circumstances gives off 950 liters, and 
gas 1300 liters of carbonic acid. Renk 1 found, for 
instance, that the air in lecture rooms illuminated with 

1 Fr. Renk, Uber die kunstliche Beleuchtung von 
Horsiilen. Halle, 1892. 


gas, at Halle a. S., contained 2 to 3 parts per thous- 
and of carbonic acid, even though there were no people 
in the rooms, while breathable air should not contain 
more than 1 part per thousand. 

Finally, petroleum generally gives off less heat than 
gas. It is true both kinds of light have nearly the 
same number of heat rays, the former having 94 % and 
the latter 92$; but gas flames are, as a rule, larger 
and therefore hotter than petroleum flames. Cohn 1 
found that the temperature of a school-room was 
25.8 C == 78.44 F, after the gas lights had been burn- 
ing one hour. Such a temperature will necessarily 
prove enervating for pupils and teachers alike. Fur- 
thermore, hot flames cause a rapid evaporation of the 
moisture in the eye, and in this way bring about a 
feeling of dryness in this organ. They also cause the 
face to become heated and red; and they produce 
headache, all evils which are seldom found where 
petroleum light is used. 

Whether gas or petroleum lights be chosen, the 
illumination must in every case be so great, that at 
all places in the room diamond type can be read by a 
person with normal vision at a distance of 0.5m. 
This is equivalent to a light intensity of at least 10 
meter candles. 

As this is possible only for seats close under a lamp, 
there must be at least one lamp for every 4 pupils. 

1 H. Cohn, op. cit., p. 335. 


The lamps must also be so distributed that all desks 
may have as uniform a light as possible ; though this 
idea can not be carried out completely, since there will 
always be a number of pupils who will sit in the shad- 
ows cast by their neighbors. Especially strong illumi- 
nation is required for blackboards, charts, etc. ; and 
the lights used for this purpose should be provided 
with shades, or better still, with reflectors, so that the 
eyes of the pupils may be protected. 

And, lastly, the lights must be at least 0.5 m. distant 
from the heads of the pupils ; otherwise the heat will 
cause a congestion of blood in the head, and a disa- 
greeable feeling of heat, especially in the forehead, the 
upper part of nose, and the eyelids. Eiibner believes 
this due not only to the high temperature but to the 
drying of the skin and the more uneven distribution 
of light and shade than is customary with sunlight. 


In the foregoing pages we have repeatedly spoken of 
the pollution of the air by products of combustion 
from artificial lighting. "We are thus led to consider 
one of the most important topics in school hygiene. 

Everybody knows that atmospheric air is composed 
of oxygen, nitrogen, water, and carbonic acid; and 
that the proportion of these components, with the ex- 
ception of water, is subject to but very slight changes. 
In all tests, where and whenever made, the per cent by 
volume has been as follows: Oxygen 20.94, nitrogen 
79.02, carbonic acid .03 to .04, with water in varying 

Lately the so-called precious gases argon, helium, 
and krypton, which were formerly counted with nitro- 
gen, have been discovered, and found to be constant 
components of the air. Argon makes 1 % of the 
atmosphere. It is not, as was first supposed, an ele- 
ment, but consists of the real argon, a solid, metargon, 
and a volatile gas, neon. 

Outdoor air also has traces of ammonia, and nitrous 
and nitric acid. But to these normal components, 
manifold impurities may be added particularly in large 



cities: soot, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, sulphuretted 
hydrogen, sulphurous, and sulphuric acid, carburetted 
hydrogen, and especially gases caused by putrefaction. 

" The air in the school-room ought if possible to 
have the same composition as pure outdoor air; but it 
varies from this in two ways, partly by the addition 
of foreign substances and partly by having the usual 
components in an abnormal proportion. The chief 
cause of this is excretions from the lungs and skin of 
teachers and pupils. 

u After pure atmospheric air has been through the 
lungs, it is, by volume, composed of 16.03 % oxygen, 
79.59$ nitrogen, and 4.38$ carbonic acid; and con- 
tains besides much more water than before." If we 
compare these figures with those above on the com- 
position df outdoor air, we find that the oxygen has 
decreased by one-fifth, and that the carbonic acid has 
increased at least a hundredfold. 

To this must be added the carbonic acid excreted by 
the skin, although this is only a hundredth or at most 
an eightieth part of that excreted by the lungs. The 
more the carbonic acid in a room increases, the less 
readily will it be given off from the blood of the per- 
sons in it. Respiration becomes more and more 
obstructed; and it would eventually cease altogether, 
should the proportion of carbonic acid in the air of the 
room increase to such an extent that diffusion could 


no longer take place between it and the air of the- 

On account of this interference with the respiratory 
processes, anaemia and sometimes the first symptoms 
even of lung diseases set in after repeated exposures 
to air charged with carbonic acid. It is often possible 
to see, especially in the case of young and delicate 
children, how a fresh, healthy appearance gradually 
disappears and gives place to a pale, anaemic color, a 
condition traceable chiefly to the impure air of the 

The noxiousness of the air is due not only to the 
increase of carbonic acid, but far more to certain 
organic impurities given off, partly by the lungs and 
partly by the skin. According to Brown-Sequard and 
d' Arsonval, respired air nearly always contains ammonia 
and small quantities of organic matter, which, if not 
decayed when exhaled, show a great tendency to dis- 
integrate even at a low temperature ; and from experi- 
mental evidence they conclude that these volatile 
substances are poisonous. For, on condensing vapors 
from their own lungs or those of their students, they 
secured a fluid, which when filtered and injected under 
the skin of a rabbit produces the following phenomena : 
dilation of the pupils, marked retardation of respira- 
tion, a lowering of the temperature by from 0.5 C to 
5 C, paralytic weakness, especially in the hind legs., 


and an increase of the heart beats from 240 to 320 per 
minute. They furthermore injected some fresh fluid 
taken directly from the trachea of a dog into the 
anterior carotid artery of a rabbit. Violent convul- 
sions followed, the activity of the heart and lungs 
ceased almost entirely, and death resulted in less than 
a minute. 

Moreover, toxic products are contained not only in 
the exhalation of the lungs but also in the perspiration 
of the skin. In the case of the latter we must dis- 
tinguish between sweat composed of water, a little 
table-salt, and urea, and the so-called "perspiration 
insensibilis ", which more properly ought to be called 
" invisibilis ", because it can be detected only by the 
sense of smell. That the excreted organic substances 
which have a tendency to putrify are poisonous is shown 
by covering animals with varnish. Animals so covered 
die without exception, because they cannot get rid of 
the perspiratory products. People properly speak of 
these cases as cases of self-poisoning, since every ex- 
cretion has a disagreeable, paralyzing, and toxic effect 
on its producer. 

It is these decomposed organic materials which make 
the air of the school-room so offensive. It clings not 
only to the walls and furniture, but also to the cloth- 
ing of both teacher and pupils, so firmly, indeed, that 
it can not always be removed by careful ventilation. 


The influence which this foul air has as soon as it is 
charged to a certain degree with the excretions from 
the lungs and the skin, is described by Schiller-Tietz 1 as 
follows: "Children become uncomfortable, fretful, 
dull, irritable, and peevish, especially during the last 
periods. This is by no means due simply to mental 
fatigue; but body and mind are so depressed by the 
auto-toxic products in the air that the ability to work 
is lessened. Mental activity relaxes as a result of a 
bodily weariness, which has all the symptoms of pois- 
oning by auto-toxic products." In assembly rooms 
crowded with pupils, individuals often faint, while 
others suffer from headache, dizziness, and nausea, 
effects also traceable to impure air. 

In addition to these organic impurities from respira- 
tion and perspiration, the air in school-rooms contains 
also noxious organic dust particles. These readily 
combine with oxygen, and can therefore reduce a 
solution of potassium permanganate, thus depriving it 
of its red color. Uffelmann 2 has by means of this 
property effected a quantitative determination of the 
organic matter. He does not believe that air which is 
filled with organic matter, especially dust particles, is 

1 Schiller-Tietz, Ein offenses Wort zur Frage der Zim- 
mer- und Schulluft. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheits- 
pflege, 1888, Xo. 3, p. 121-132. 

2 Uffelmann im Archiv fiir Hygiene, 1888, Vol. VIII, 
Parts 2 and 3. 


auy longer sufficiently pure when one million parts of 
it require more than 12 parts of oxygen for oxidation. 

In such air there are generally many micro-organ- 
isms. Hesse 1 found that in every cubic meter of air 
in the school-room there were 2,000 bacteria before, 
16,500 during, and 35,000 at the end of the school 
hours. The figures of Ignatieff 2 correspond pretty 
well with these. According to his observations one 
cbm. of air in the V gymnasium of Moscow contained 
on an average 16,250 microbes. A pupil would, thus, 
in a five-hour session inhale 44,655 germs. 

It is interesting to note how the number of bacteria 
varied during the day. In this gymnasium it was 
found that in two liters of air, which was allowed to 
flow through a glass tube lined with peptonized meat 
gelatine for an hour, there were 38 colonies of bacteria 
about 8 A. M. before instruction began; 6, about 12 
M. before, and 78, after the long recess; and 8, just 
before the pupils left school. We see that the num- 
bers are smallest when the dust in the room is undis- 

*W. Hesse, Uber quantitative Bestimmung der in 
der Luft eirthaltenen Mikroorganismen. Mitteilungen 
aus dem Kaiserl. Gesundheitsamte, 1884, Vol. II. 

2 Ignatieff, Einige Daten zur Beurteilung der Schul- 
luft in bakteriologischer Beziehung. Arbeiten aus 
dem hygienischen Laboratorium der Moskauer Univer- 
sitat, 1888, II (russisch). 


turbed ; and that they increase considerably when it is 
stirred up by the movements of the pupils. 

The number of micro-organisms is, furthermore, 
dependent to a considerable extent upon the character 
of the school building. In institutions with artificial 
ventilation, Carnelley and Foggie found 18.5, and in 
those with only natural ventilation 27.8 germs per 
liter of air. Rooms which were clean and new had 
85, and those which were old and dirty, 139 germs in 
the same quantity of air. But the most striking result 
was that the number of bacteria has an unquestionable 
relation to the age of the pupils; the younger they 
are, the more the microbes. With very small children 
there were 167; in class VI, 146; in V, 106; in IV, 
76; in III, 69; in II, 68; and in I, 51 germs per liter 
of air. This is probably due to the fact that young 
children are not as cleanly as older ones. 

As to the different sorts of micro-organisms in the 
school-room, Erismann 1 found many kinds of moulds 
such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavesceiis, 
Penicillium glaucum, etc. ; also numerous chromo- 
geiiic bacteria, generally Sarcina lutea or aurantiaca; 
then white colonies of bacteria ; lastly, such as more or 
less quickly liquefy the gelatine. 

J Fr. Erismann, Die Schulhygiene auf der Jubilaums- 
ausstellung der Gesellschaft fur Beforderung der 
Arbeitsamkeit in Moskau. Zeitschrift fur Schulges- 
undheitspflege, 1888, Xo. 11, p. 402. 


It is true the majority of these fungi do not in a 
strict sense cause sickness ; but the greater their num- 
ber, the more probable is it that pathogenic bacteria, 
such as germs of tuberculosis and diptheria, will be 
among them. 

In connection with this subject one needs only 
make a comparison of the mountain and the sea air 
with that of the school-room. On the high mountains 
of Switzerland Freudenreich often had to examine 2 
to 3 cbm. of air before he found a single bacterium. 
It is the same with sea-air, which is also remarkably 
free from micro-organisms. 

But even if the dust in the school-room were free 
from disease germs, it would, nevertheless, be injurious 
to the mucuous membrane of the bronchial tubes and 
the eyes for purely mechanical reasons. In comparison 
with the tender, microscopic, epithelial layers of these 
membranes, even small dust particles are enormous 
bodies which are liable to injure them with their sharp 
edges and corners. This is the cause of the many cases 
of catarrh of the bronchial tubes, throat, and larynx, 
found among those who teach in dusty quarters; and 
also of the many cases of conjunctival inflammation of 
the eyes found among pupils, as, for example, in the 
investigations by Schmidt-Kimpler in the higher insti- 
tutions in Hessen-Nassau. 

Since the air of school-rooms can be polluted in so 


many ways, we need some means of measuring the de- 
gree of impurity. As such, it has been customary to 
use the quantity of carbonic acid contained in it. The 
organic excretions from the lungs and skin found in 
the air can not be used for this purpose, since analy- 
tical chemistry has not yet, notwithstanding its great 
progress, been able to give them even a qualitative, 
much less quantitative determination. Xeither can 
the number of germs which may be found be used un- 
conditionally as a test of the purity of the air. The 
distribution of these germs in the air is too accidental 
and irregular, and depends in any given case on too 
many circumstances which cannot easily be ascertained. 

Carbonic acid is, therefore, the only means of meas- 
urement left; and it has many special advantages for 
the purpose. In the first place, it distributes itself 
with extraordinary uniformity in closed rooms. More- 
over, we know that the oxidizable organic substances- 
and carbonic acid increase in the same ratio ; and, lastly, 
the quantitative determination of carbonic acid pre- 
sents no great difficulties. 

The method employed is generally that of Petten- 
koffer. A four to six liter flask is required, the 
capacity of which must be determined exactly by 
weighing it first empty and then filled with water, 
and calculating its' capacity from the difference of the 
two weights. This done, we rinse it carefully with al- 


cohol and ether; let it become dry; and then close it 
with a tight fitting paraffine stopper, over which we 
draw a rubber cap. Glass stoppers cannot be recom- 
mended because they do not fit tightly enough ; and 
even cork and rubber would let carbon dioxide through. 

Thus sealed, the flask is taken into the school-room, 
where the air is to be tested, and opened ; air is now 
forced into it by means of bellows until its contents 
ha\e changed at least five times. Then 100 ccm. of 
baryte solution, composed of 6 to 7 g. of baryte in 
one liter of water mixed with .5 g. of barium chloride, 
is poured into it. The flask is then closed tightly; 
and after the fluid has been shaken repeatedly to bring 
it in contact with the enclosed air, it is left standing 
for half an hour. At the end of this time all the car- 
bonic acid is absorbed and has separated as insoluble 
barium carbonate. The 100 ccm. baryte solution is 
now poured from the large flask into a small one ; and 
the barium carbonate is allowed to precipitate ; 25 ccm. 
of the clear solution is then mixed with 2 drops of a 
solution composed of 0.2 g. phenolphthalin in 10 g. 
of absolute alcohol. Titration is begun by letting 
oxalic acid, 2.8G36 g. dissolved in one liter of water, 
flow into it till the liquid which was colored red by 
the phenolphthalin assumes a yellowish color. 

In the same way we determine the standard solution, 
that is, ascertain the exact quantity of barium 


hydroxide in the fresh baryte solution that has not 
come into contact with the air in the flask. From 
the difference in amount of this compound in the two 
cases we calculate the quantity of carbonic acid ab- 
sorbed ; and also, its ratio per thousand in the air of 
the school-room. The following example by Kirchiier 
will serve as an illustration. 

In one case to produce a precipitation, 23.7 ccm. of 
the oxalic acid solution were required for 25 ccm. 
of the fresh baryte solution; and 19.1 ccm. were re- 
quired for the same quantity when it had been in con- 
tact with the carbonic acid of the air, giving a differ- 
ence of 4.6, or 18.4 per hundred. The capacity of 
the flask was 5,734 ccm., and the volume of air in it 
was 5, 634 ccm., as it also contained 100 ccm. of baryte 
solution. When a reduction is made for a tempera- 
ture of 23 C. and a barometic pressure of 756 mm., 
at which the examination took place, this quantity 
becomes 5,168 ccm. One ccm. of a solution com- 
posed of 2.8636 g. of oxalic acid in 1 liter of water 
corresponds to 1 mg. of C0 2 and 1 mg. of C0 2 cor- 
respond to 0.5 ccm. of C0 2 . Hence 18.4X1 mg.= 
18.4 mg. or 18.4X0.5=9.2 ccm. of carbonic acid in 
5,168 ccm. of air, the contents of the flask. To find 
the amount of carbonic acid per thousand ccm. of 
air, the following proportion is used: 5,168 : 9.2= 
1,000 : x. From this we get x=ffff=1.78 parts per 



Though Pettenkoffer's is the only exact method, and 
therefore the only one available for scientific investiga- 
tions, nevertheless, the far simpler and quicker mini- 
metric process of Smith-Lunge 1 is sufficient for purely 
practical purposes. The principle of this is to intro- 
duce known quantities of the air to be tested into a. 
given quantity of baryte solution till it becomes- 
cloudy. The more quickly this happens, the less car- 
bonic acid there is in the air the more slowly, the more. 

The Smith-Lunge method requires a round bottle 
3.8 ccm. in diameter, and 9 cm. high, having a capac- 
ity of about 53 ccm. (see figure 5). 


Two tubes pass through holes in the stopper. One 
(be) is straight and extends to the bottom ; the other (de) 

1 Georg Lunge, Zur Erage der Ventilation und 
Beschreibung des minimetrischen Apparates zur Bes- 
timmung der Kohlensaure. Zurich, 1877. 


-which is bent at right angles and barely passes through 
the stopper, has the rubber tube (d f g h i), 20 to 
30 cm. long, with the pearshaped bulb k of about 28 
ccm. capacity, attached. In this rubber tube there is 
at (f) a longitudinal slit 1 cm. long, which acts as a 

If the tube (a b) is pressed together with one hand, 
and the rubber bulb k with the other, the air in the 
latter will escape through the slit (f). The bulb now 
expands through its own elasticity and fills with air 
drawn through the bottle by means of the tube (ac), 
which is now left open. After the test bottle has thus 
been filled several times with the air to be examined, 
7 ccm. of a solution of 6 g. of barium hydrate in one 
liter of water is poured in and the height of the fluid 
marked by means of a line. The bottle is now care- 
fully closed and shaken several times. 

The amount of air which thus comes in contact with 
the baryte solution is equal to two fillings of the bulb. 
With every compression and expansion the bulb draws 
through the bottle 28 ccm. of air, which gives up its 
carbonic acid to the barium hydrate. A piece of paper 
having a cross marked with a lead pencil is pasted on 
the side of the bottle to make it possible to judge 
more correctly of the increasing cloudiness. When 
the cross becomes invisible, the baryte solution is 


sufficiently cloudy. The question now is, how many 
times did the bulb have to be compressed ? 

4 fillings indicate 22 parts CO" in 10,000 parts of air. 

5 " " 17.6 " " " " " " " 

6 " " 14.8 " " " " " " " 

7 " " 12.6 " " " " " " " 

8 " " 11.0 " " " " " " " 

9 " " 9.8 " " " " " " (i 

10 " " 8.8 " " M " " " " 

11 " " 8.0 " " " " " " " 

12 " " 7.4 " " " " " " " 

13 " " 6.8 " " " " " " " 

14 " " 6.3 " " " " " " " 

15 " " 5.8 " " " " " " " 

16 " " 5.4 " " " " " " " 

17 " " 5.1 " " " " " " " 

18 " " 4.9 " " " " " " " 

Five fillings of the bulb show that there are 1.76 
parts of carbonic acid to 1,000 parts of air, providing 
we always count the air originally in the bottle as two 
of these bulbfuls. The figures thus obtained give, of 
course, only approximate values because the determina- 
tion of the momement when the cross disappears de- 
pends too much upon individual opinion. 

The automatic air- tester of A. Wolpert of Niirnberg 
is still simpler but also less accurate. A glance at the 
scale of the apparatus is sufficient to show one whether 
the air in the class-room is "extremely bad", "very 
bad ", " bad ", " still permissible ", or " pure ". Ac- 
cording to Wolpert, air is to be considered " extremely 
bad" when it has more than 4 parts C0 2 per 1,000;, 


and "very bad" with 2 to 4; "bad" with 1 to 2; 
"still permissible" with 0.7 to 1; and "pure" with 
0.5 to 0.7 parts per 1,000. 

The amount of carbonic acid is ascertained by means 
of a colored liquid upon which the carbonic acid has a 
bleaching effect. This liquid, which consists of a 
solution of soda colored red with phenolphthalin, is 
poured into a vessel placed on a bracket and is then 
protected from the air by a thin layer of mineral oil. 
It then drops automatically from a capillary tube at- 
tached to a float in the fluid upon a specially prepared 
white linen thread about 0.5 m. long, and colors it red, 
as it flows down. This red color extends uniformly 
down the whole length of the thread when the air is 
very pure, i. e. has less than 0.5 parts C0 2 per 1,000. 
If the air is impure the carbonic acid has a bleaching 
effect in proportion to amount of it present. The 
more carbonic acid there is in the air, the more of the 
thread will appear white from below upward. In 
reading the scale we take the highest point at which 
the thread is still white, i. e., the limit between pure 
white and faint red; but this point can not always be 
accurately ascertained. 

Whatever method may be employed, a considerable 
amount of carbonic acid will very often be found in 
the air of a school-room. This is due to the rapid 
metabolism and the consequently great amount of car- 


bonic acid thrown off by young people, which is only 
little less than that of adults. During one school 
hour a boy of sixteen produces 17.4, a boy of ten 
10.3, and one pupil on an average, 12 liters of carbonic 
acid; while we estimate 15 liters as an average for an 
adult in the same time. 

These figures, it is true, are not constant, since the 
production of carbonic acid depends on varying condi- 
tions. Besides the temperature of the air, the time of 
day, and the state of nutrition, we must here especially 
take into account the frequency and depth of respira- 
tion. It has been observed that the amount of car- 
bonic acid increased especially during the period for 
gymnastics and music. A thirteen year old boy, for 
instance, exhales 17.01 liters of carbonic acid per 
hour during instruction in singing a result undoubt- 
edly due to the quickening and deepening of the 

There is still another class of circumstances which 
affect the quantity of carbonic acid in school-rooms. 
In the first place, it makes a difference whether ventila- 
tion takes place by an artificial system or only through 
the pores of the walls or the cracks of the windows 
and doors. On this subject we have the investigations 
which were made by Kietschel 1 in several gymnasia in 

1 H. Eietschel, Mitteilung iiber die Ergebnisse der 
Untersuchungen der Luft in verschiedenen hohern 
Berliner Lerhanstalten. Berlin, 1886. H. Eietschel. 
Liiftung und Heizung der Schulen. Berlin, 1886. 


Berlin. According to his report, Sexta B of the 
Fried erich Wilhelm gymnasium of that city has an air 
capacity of 155.6 cbm., or 3 cbm. per pupil. It is 
heated by means of a tile stove and is without any 
artificial means of ventilation. Doors and windows 
remained closed during recesses as well as during the 
recitation periods. Consequently a maximum amount 
of carbonic acid of 9.7 and an average of 5.55 parts 
per thousand were found at various times of the day y 
an evidence of extremely impure air, as the amount 
of carbonic acid, according to the generally accepted 
view of Pettenkoffer, ought not to exceed 1 part per 

Sexta B of the Wilhelm gymnasium, with a capacity 
of 164 cbm. and 2.83 cbm. per pupil, is heated by hot 
water and has Venetian blinds in its doors and win- 
dows for ventilation. During recesses all doors are 
open. Here the maximum amount of carbonic acid 
was only 4.8 parts per thousand and the average 2.55.. 
If the ventilating apparatus ^failed to work well, an 
increase of carbonic acid set in immediately. 

Sexta A of the Luise gymnasium has a capacity of 
253.58 cbm., or 4.61 cbm. per pupil. It is heated by 
hot air and has a ventilating shaft into the garret, 
from which the air is removed by an aspirating chim- 
ney. With regularity in the manipulation of the sys- 
tem, the maximum amount of carbonic acid was 1.9,, 


and the average 1.45 parts per 1,000; with irregularity 
it rose to 2 and 1.55 parts per 1,000, respectively. 

The beneficial effects of ventilating flues on the air 
of school-rooms have also been emphasized by Gillert. x 
In schools without such flues he found that in only 
5.3$ of his tests was the air good or still permissible; 
whereas it was of this grade in 67.7$ of the tests, 
where the schools were supplied with the flues. The 
reverse was true for extremely impure air, the figures 
being 36.8 $ and 6.1 $, respectively. 

Gillert was also able to show that the amount of car- 
bonic acid in a closed and occupied room is in inverse 
proportion to the rapidity of the currents of air out- 
side. In windy weather, for instance, the amount of 
carbonic acid in these schools in Berlin did not even 
reach 1 part per 1,000 during two successive recitation 
periods. On the other hand, on a quiet day more 
than 4 parts of carbonic acid per thousand were found 
in three rooms at the end of 4 hours; 5.63 parts in a 
room in the third story at the end of 4j- hours; and 
1.21 parts in another room in the third story after 5 
hours of school work, although six windows had 
been open at the bottom all the time. Outside 
currents of air will naturally assist in ventilating a 

J E. Gillert, Luftpriifungen auf Kohlensiiure, aus- 
gefiihrt in Berliner Gemeindeschulen. Zeitschrift fiir 
Schulgesundheitspflege, 1893, ^ T o. 4, p. 185-203. 


school-room in proportion as it is exposed and easily 
accessible to the wind. 

Moreover, differences of temperature between at- 
mospheric and school-room air have an effect similar 
to that of the wind upon the amount of carbonic acid. 
According to Pettenkoffer 1 , the amount of fresh air 
received by natural ventilation into an occupied room 
of about 73 cbm. was, with a difference of tempera- 
ture between inner and outer air of 20, 95 cbm. ; with 
a difference of 19, 75 cbm.; with a difference of 4, 
22 cbm. Hence, all other things being equal, the 
natural ventilation of a class-room, and therefore the 
diminution of the carbonic acid in it, is greatest dur- 
ing the cold and least during the warm weather. 

Since this change of air, as has already been said, 
takes place partly through the interstices of the build- 
ing-materials, the porosity of the latter affects the ac- 
cumulation of carbonic acid in the school-room. 
Mortar, brick, and sandstone lose their permeability 
as soon as they are sufficiently saturated with water, 
as Pettenkoffer 2 has shown. The mechanical force 
of the air cannot displace it; and .hence the pores of 
the wall remain clogged and only regain their per- 
meability upon the evaporation of the moisture. This 

1 Pettenkoffer, Uber den Luftwechsel in Wohnge- 
bauden, p. 91. 

2 The same, p. 97. 


shows how detrimental wet walls may be with respect 
to the purity of the air in school-rooms, to say nothing 
of the fact that they promote the formation of mould. 

Finally, the duration of the school period affects 
the accumulation of carbonic acid in class-rooms. 
Boubnoff and Ignatieff found in the I. gymnasium of 
Moscow at 8 o'clock in the morning before lessons 
began, 1.16 parts; at the end of the first hour, 4.51 
parts; at the end of the second, 5.59 parts; and at 
the close of the third, 6.12 parts carbonic acid per 
thousand. The long recess of 30 minutes, customary 
in Eussian gymnasia was then taken, and most of the 
pupils left the class-room to exercise in the corridor or 
the " recreation hall ". During this whole intermis- 
sion, a window was open. The amount of carbonic 
acid was consequently reduced to 2.82 parts; but it 
rose in the fourth hour to 4.35; and in the fifth to 
5.74 parts per thousand. 

Entirely similar results were obtained in the V. gym- 
nasium and in the Komissaroff technical school. The 
striking thing is, not simply the great impurity of the 
air even before school work begins, but also the rapid- 
ity with which the amount of carbonic acid increases 
even in the first hour. During the rest of the day, 
the increase is not so rapid probably because the 
breathing of the pupils in the room has become more 
and more repressed. 

What can teachers do to improve the ventilation in 
their school-rooms ? In the first place they can learn 



to use properly the ventilating arrangements that have 
been supplied. Large ventilating systems ought to 
work so as to secure a renewal of the air in a room 
three times every hour, in all kinds of weather. No 
drafts which in any way annoy the pupils should be 
produced either by the introduction of the pure out- 
side air, which should have been previously warmed in 
the winter, or by the removal of the impure inner air. 




This can be prevented by not having the velocity of 
the air more than 1.5 m. per second. 

Whether the air in the school-room is really changed 
three times per hour can be ascertained by means of 
Recknagel's patented ventilation gauge 1 (see figs. 6 

1 Karl Hintrager, Eecknagels Kontrollapparat fur 
Ventilationsanlagen in Schulen. Zeitschrift fur Schul- 
gesundheitspflege, 1895, No. 1, p. 18-23. 


and 7). This consists of a support K S (fig. 6) one 
end of which is attached to the inlet grate D E F G 
(fig. 7) by a screw, while the other is shaped to hold 
two points. Between these the easily movable valve F 
(fig. 6, cf. c, a, and b, fig. 7) is placed to receive the 
pressure of the incoming air. To give it any required 
degree of sensitiveness it has a compensating weight 
A G- (fig. 6), which besides increasing the moment of 
inertia makes it possible to set the apparatus so that 
the valve will be blown out 45 from the perpendicular 
when the air is coming in with the right velocity. 

The slightest change in the velocity of the air is 
sufficient to move the valve from this position, which 
is indicated by a fixed pointer. If the valve falls be- 
low this pointer, the velocity is too small; if it rises 
above, it is too great. This is evidently true only 
when the cross section of the ventilating shaft has 
such a ratio to the size of the room that with a cur- 
rent of 1.5 m. per second the air is changed three 
times an hour. 

The air introduced should be as pure as possible. It 
should not be taken from cellars, passage-ways, small 
enclosures, the neighborhood of dung-pits, privies, or 
chimneys. In the real-gymnasium of Hamburg where 
the latter was the case, smoke and other products of 
combustion came into the rooms. 

Occasionally the mouth of the fresh air duct is 


located near the dumping place for fuel, and a great 
deal of coal dust and other stuff is brought into the 
school-room. Sometimes we find it placed not above 
but below the level of the ground, so that dirt and 
sprinkling water flow in. At other times it may be so 
situated as to have a grate over which people walk, the 
dirt from the shoes falling in. 

Even where every precaution has been taken, and 
shrubs have been planted around the inlet as a protec- 
tion against the dust, it is not always possible to obtain 
air entirely free from it. Additional means of purifica- 
tion will in that case have to be used, such as allowing 
dust to settle in a large room, or removing it by an 
air filter or a spray. 

Dust may also mix with the air further on in its 
passage through the pipes and flues. To prevent this, 
these must not only be smooth and tight, and con- 
structed so as to be easily cleaned; but both these and 
the dust-chambers must be cleaned frequently. The 
removal of the foul air in a school-room is usually 
effected by means of a flue in a partition wall near the 
chimney. This has two openings, one near the floor 
and one near the ceiling, both of which may be closed 
by means of dampers or doors. The flue goes up 
above the roof into the open air, or it ends in the 
garret, which in that case is provided with ventilators. 
The walls of the garret should be smooth and accessi- 


We to cleaning, and the cleaning should be done re- 

With respect to the details of managing the ventilat- 
ing apparatus, the upper of the two dampers or doors 
mentioned above, namely, the one near the ceiling, is to 
l>e kept open when there is no artificial heating, as are 
also the ventilators sometimes found in the opposite 
wall near the floor. 

During the heating period on the other hand the air 
Is to be removed by the lower opening in the ventilat- 
ing flue. The summer ventilators in the outer wall if 
there be any, and the upper opening in the foul air 
flue in the partition wall, and the door in the jacket, 
where a jacketed stove is used, should now be kept 
tightly closed. On beginning to heat the room, all 
openings are to be closed except the door in the jacket 
of the stove between the air in the school-room and 
that in the jacket, which is to be opened. The influx 
of fresh air is to be regulated according to the outside 
temperature and the outside air currents by the proper 
setting of the dampers. That all this may be done 
accurately, it is advisable to have the regulations for 
the use of the ventilating apparatus posted in every 

Where there are no special fresh and foul air flues, 
hinged sections of the upper parts of windows may 
be used for the purpose of ventilation during school- 


hours. The window panes are in this case fixed inter 
frames which in outside windows are hinged at the 
top, in inside windows at the bottom. These outer 
and inner hinged sections are so connected that they 
open and close at the same time, and there should be 
a convenient device for managing them from below. 
The inner one also has side guards of tin to prevent 
the cold air from falling directly on the pupils sitting 

A glass arrangement resembling a Venetian blind,, 
though less effective than the above, is much used in 
schools. In this case, one of the upper panes consists- 
of horizontal glass strips 10 cm. wide which can be 
opened and closed like the wooden blinds. The 
influx of air is regulated at will by turning the strips. 
Among other things, they have the disadvantage of 
letting the air which enters sink directly to the floor 
and spread over it in a gradually thickening layer. It 
then becomes considerably colder there and the differ- 
ence in temperature between the feet and the head is- 
decidedly increased. 

Castaning has lately suggested a system of window 
glazing which may prove useful for ventilating purposes 
in schools. Two panes of glass are put in parallel, 
like the panes of a double window and so as to be from 
8 to 10 cm. apart. The outer pane (d), as will be 
seen in figure 8, does not rest directly upon the lower 


cross piece (a) but leaves an opening about 4 cm. high. 
The inner pane (f) which rests upon 
the cross piece (a) does not reach the 
upper cross piece (b) but leaves a slit 
there 4 cm. high. Outside air will 
now rush in as indicated by the arrows 
and be warmed somewhat by the in- 
ner panes, and will then enter the 
room through the upper slit. The in- 
ner opening should be provided with a 
shutter of tin, or better still of glass, 
so as to prevent the air from rushing 

FIG. 8. C A S T A N - 

ING'S SYSTEM OF in during storms and extremely cold 


LATIOX. weather. It is also desirable to sup- 

port the free edges of the panes with thin iron guards 
to make them more secure and keep them from break- 
ing easily. 

But even if all ventilating arrangements are lacking, 
we can do much for the improvement of the air in 
school-rooms by opening windows and doors. To be 
sure, when the school is in session, the opening of 
windows is necessarily restricted. During the winter, 
the cold air would rush into the room and often lower 
the temperature too suddenly and expose pupils sitting 
near to the dangers of catching cold. In summer, 
the noise in the street is often so great that, with open 
windows, lessons would be much disturbed. Even the 



comparatively noiseless pavements of wood or other 
materials often found near schools in large cities can 
not always prevent this evil entirely. On the other 
hand, all class-rooms must be ventilated at the end of 
every lesson, both winter and summer, by opening all 
doors and windows. The length of this airing should 
be governed by the weather; in Dresden the following 
rule has been proposed : 

Outside Temperature 


At Recesses 

At the end of forenoon 
or afternoon session 

+10 to -|-5 C 


10 minutes 

20 50 minutes. 

+5 to C 



20 35 

to 5 C 



15 25 

5 to -10 C 



10 - 15 

below to 10 C 


- H " 

5 10 

With a short airing like this the walls, furniture, 
and floors of the school-room are but slightly cooled; 
and, as soon as the doors and windows are closed, the 
temperature of the room begins to rise, owing to the 
heat given off by the walls, etc. How great a reduc- 
tion in the amount of carbonic acid in a room may be 
made in this way is shown by figures from Dankwarth. 
In a school-room which he examined the amount of 
carbonic acid in the morning at 10 o'clock before ven- 
tilation was 1.7 parts per thousand. After doors and 
windows had been opened, with four persons remaining 
in the room, he found the following amounts: 


At 10 o'clock min. 30 seconds. 0.860 parts carb. acid per 1000. 
1 < 0666 ,< M 

" " " 1 " 30 " 0.665 " " " " " 

" " " 2 " 30 " 0.655 " " " " " 
" " " 5 " " 0.552 " " " " " 

While the ventilation is going on, the pupils go into 
the yard or corridors, and in this way get a little exer- 
cise and bring fresh air back with them in their cloth- 
ing. The hall windows are accordingly opened during 
recitations and closed during recesses when the 
rooms are being ventilated. It is especially necessary 
to have prolonged ventilation of this sort between 
the forenoon and afternoon sessions, though it is gen- 
erally omitted entirely in cold weather. Accordingly, 
a decree of the Prussian Cultus-Minister rightly re- 
quires that the windows of class-rooms shall be open 
even at night in warm summer weather; at other times 
till dark, and from four in the morning. 

Experiments made at the Hygienic Institute of the 
University of Budapest testify to the success of this 
plan. During the summer the windows were first kept 
open during the day and closed at night, and then the 
reverse ; and in each case the temperature of the room 
was compared with that of the outside air. It was 
found that with the windows open during day time 
the temperature in the room was almost as high as 
that out doors; whereas, when the windows were closed 
during the day and open at night, the temperature in 


the room was at least 7 C lower than it was out doors, 
the difference being especially great when the outside 
temperature was very high. 

On the other hand, if cleanliness does not prevail in 
the school-room and the air is constantly being pol- 
luted by filth, no amount of ventilation will prove 
sufficient. Cleanliness should extend in the first place 
to the pupils themselves. Not only ought their bodies 
to be scrupulously clean, but also their clothes and 

In connection with this matter the school shower- 
baths introduced by the city of Gottingen deserve 
more attention from higher institutions of learning 
than they have hitherto received. For one thing they 
promote the cleanliness of the skin ; and for another, 
they lead the pupils to desire clean underclothing. 

The school should provide ample facilities for 
the pupils to wash themselves. There should be 
scrapers and foot-mats, for cleaning their feet; and 
the constant use of them ought to be insisted upon, 
the more so since the amount of dirt brought in daily 
according to measurements by Meyrich 1 is on an aver- 
age 1.4 grams. Overcoats, hats, caps, rubbers, um- 
brellas, all give off unpleasant vapors when they are 

1 Oswald Meyrich, Die Staubpnage in der Schule 
und Vorschlage Zu ihrer Beseitigung. Op. cit., 1894, 
Ko. 8, 9, p. 452-473. 


wet, and ought on that account not to be taken into 
the school-room, but should be left in the hall, or in 
special cloak rooms, which had better be separated from 
the hall by wire netting. 

Pupils with diseases that infect the air demand special 
attention. Those with an ill-smelling discharge from 
the ear must be suspended until completely cured. 
The pestilential odor from perspiring feet sometimes 
defies all treatment; but even in this case we ought 
to insist at least on an attempt at betterment. The 
most effective measure against the odors from ulcer- 
ated, decaying teeth is the introduction of a regular 
care of the teeth ; and the school must do its part to 
secure it. 

Cleanliness must also be maintained with respect to 
the school-room 1 . Since dirt and dust collect mostly 
on the floors, the proper construction and care of these 
is of great importance. Too soft wood or too narrow 
boards must not be used. The first slivers easily 
and is not durable enough; it, moreover, absorbs 
moisture readily and dries very slowly, so that rooms 
with such floors when scrubbed have a smell even the 
next day. It also makes the good oiling which school - 

1 Grundsatze fur die Aufrechterhaltung der Sauber- 
keit an den hohern Schulen im Aufsichtsbezirke des 
Kgl. Provinzialschulkollegiums zu Kassel. Ver- 
fiigung vom 25. November, 1890. 


room floors should receive every year or two impossible.. 
Too narrow and lathlike flooring increases unnecessarily 
the number of cracks into which dust may settle. 
Matched floors of oak or American hard pine are prob- 
ably the best for schools. They must in any case be 
kept in order, and any cracks or seams that may 
arise must be closed up at once. 

Linoleum has lately been used in many places as a 
covering for school-room floors. In fact, it fulfills all 
the requirements that have to be made of a good floor. 
It is elastic, waterproof, wholly free from cracks or 
holes, permanent, and very durable. It has the further 
advantage of deadening the noise made by the feet of 
the children; and it can be easily and thoroughly 
swept and washed. 

As far as cleaning is concerned, all class-rooms, draw- 
ing-rooms, and music-halls, ought to be swept thor- 
oughly at least twice a week. In the case of schools 
with two sessions this may best be done on the free 
afternoons of Wednesdays and Saturdays. Daily 
sweeping would be still better. 

To prevent the raising of dust, the floor must be 
covered with plenty of wet sawdust, tanning bark, or 
turf powder, which should have been moistened with 
warm water. With dry sweeping the dust cannot be 
thoroughly removed even with open windows; but is 
simply carried from one place to another. A short 


time after sweeping, the chairs, the benches, the book 
shelves under the pupils desks, the teacher's desk, the 
cases, and the tiles of the stoves are to be wiped with 
a moist cloth, the iron parts of the stove should be 
wiped with a dry cloth. 

Since entries, corridors, and stairways are particu- 
larly exposed to dirt, two sweepings per week will not 
be enough for them ; but they must be swept daily with 
wet sawdust or the like and be scrubbed every week. 
The latter should also be done with class-rooms. 

One or two wet sweepings per week is sufficient for 
the assembly halls, since they are less used; but they 
ought to be washed out several days before every school 
festival. If they have been decorated with garlands 
and wreaths these should be removed in eight days at 
the latest, since withering foliage gives out a peculiar 
odor and dry leaves are a good resting place for dust. 

Libraries, physical and natural science cabinets, and 
chemical laboratories do not need to be cleaned so often ; 
brushing them out once or twice a month in the wet 
way will be sufficient. 

The windows in every room ought always to be kept 
clean; and panes covered with moisture or sills wet 
from thawing panes should be wiped without delay. 

Besides this regular cleaning there ought to be a 
thorough general renovation at least four times a year 
during vacations. All walls and ceilings are then to 


have the dust wiped off, if they have not been freshly 
painted or whitewashed. Oiled and parquetry floors 
should be cleaned with warm water, soap, and scrub- 
bing-rag; and unoiled floors with warm water, sand, 
soap, scrubbing broom, or brush. In like manner the 
wainscoating and furniture should be washed with 
warm water and soap, as should also the windows both 
inside and outside. Furthermore, all door knobs, 
mountings, lamps, gas fixtures, chandeliers, busts, pic- 
tures, charts, and blackboards, as well as all heating 
apparatus, stoves, etc., are to be properly wiped and 
polished; and, lastly, the dusting or washing of the 
curtains or other sorts of blinds must not be neglected, 
though it may be necessary only once or twice a year. 

Special care is to be exercised in cleaning the books 
belonging to the teacher and the school library, the 
history collection, and the physical and chemical 
apparatus. This should be done under the direction 
of the librarian and the corresponding department 
teachers. The shelves should first be wiped with a 
moist cloth and then rubbed with a dry one. 

How detrimental dirty gymnastic halls may be to the 
health of the pupils has lately been brought out 
clearly by F. A. Schmidt. 1 The increased activity of 

1 F. A. Schmidt, Die Staubschadigungen beim 
Hallenturnen und ihre Bekampfung. Leipzig, 1890. 
Edward Strauch. 


the lungs and the consequent impossibility of keeping 
the mouth closed, cause dust particles to penetrate 
even into the smallest branches of the bronchia, where 
they either give rise to an inflamation or increase one 
already existing. 

They may even act as carriers of pathogenic bacteria 
and produce infectious diseases. The entrance of the 
germs of consumption into the most delicate alveolar 
parts of the lungs is especially promoted by deep 
breathing and therefore by gymnastics. 

The bringing in of dust into gymnastic halls is ac- 
cordingly to be prevented as much as possible. Pupils 
should on this account before entering put on clean 
gymnasium shoes in special dressing rooms. 

To prevent the production of dust in the exercises, 
mats should be used as little as possible. Those made 
of cocoa fibers ought to be discarded altogether. 
Aside from the fact that it is easy to slip on them, 
and that they can not be used for high jumping, they 
are dust catchers of the first order. On the other 
hand, little dust can get into mats with leather covers 
on both sides, especially if the seams have been care- 
fully made. After having been used they should be 
placed so as not to bring the dusty underside of one 
into contact with the upper side of another. 

Spring boards must be repeatedly oiled or tarred. 
But above all gymnasium floors must be washed 


thoroughly at least once a week and be swept with 
moist sawdust or mopped once a day, i. e., after being 
used, special attention being given to the spaces be- 
tween and under the apparatus. After such cleansing, 
the walls are to be dusted dry, and the apparatus then 
wiped off with a moist cloth. It is also a very good plan 
to clear the air at the end of every gymnastic lesson by 
sprinkling with a hose or sprinkling can, the former 
having the preference because it enables us to reach 
the upper layers of air. 

That the miasma from closets can very greatly 
pollute the air is sufficiently well known. These ought 
therefore to be located in out-houses and connected 
with the main buildings by covered walks. 

If they are placed in the school building itself, they 
ought to be accessible only from the corridors, and 
that by means of an ante-room which is easily venti- 
lated. Between the closet and coridor there should be 
two self-closing doors. 

To make it possible to clean the floors more easily 
they should be made waterproof. The bowls must 
also be waterproof and had better be made of castiron 
or stone-ware. In places with water works, closets 
should be provided with the water flushing and car- 
riage system, and the discharge pipe should be trapped 
if there are no other means of preventing the gases 
from rising. 


In places without water works the excreta should be 
collected in casks that can be closed hermetically and 
carried away as often as possible, say once every two 
or three days. Casks ought to have overflow pipes 
with catch basins underneath. They should moreover 
be placed in special, easily accessible chambers with 
waterproof floors and plenty of light and air. Great 
care should be taken to give the discharge pipe an air- 
tight connection with casks. 

Where vaults are used for school privies, they should 
have a cement wall separate from the walls of the 
school-house and should be impervious to water. On 
the inside, the cracks should be filled with a coating 
of asphalt. To facilitate emptying they should have 
concave bottoms and concave corners. They must 
also have waterproof and fairly airtight coverings. 

Whatever the kind of closet in use in a school, it 
is absolutely necessary to keep it constantly clean, and 
as odorless as possible. Since experience shows that 
the reverse is often true, directors and teachers ought 
not to consider it below their dignity to inspect them 
repeatedly. Aside from this inspection, the scouring 
of the floors and the seats once or twice a week regu- 
larly will best promote cleanlines . This should take 
place daily in time of epidemics. 

It is also a good thing to have the closets as well 
lighted as possible so that filth may be more readily 


detected. Foul-smelling gases are best removed by a 
ventilating flue extending from the cask room or vault 
to the foundation wall and then up over the gable of 
the roof. If it is built near a chimney or if a flame 
is kept burning in it, the current of air generated will 
promote the escape of miasma. 

For deodorizing or disinfecting the contents of the 
closets, turf powder deserves high recommendation, 
especially if super-phosphate in the proportion of 1 to 
5 is added. The latter at the same time increases the 
value of the excreta for fertilizing purposes. Lime 
may also be used as a disinfectant when added in 
sufficient quantities to render the contents strongly 
alkaline. For this purpose 2.5 liters calcium hydrate 
powder mixed with four times its volume of water will 
suffice for 224 liters of the excrementious matter. 
This process has this disadvantage that it is difficult 
to get the lime everywhere in close contact with the 
refuse materials. 

Where deodorization and disinfection do not take 
place, the vaults should be emptied by means of a 
pump as often as possible, at least every two or three 
months, provided they are not filled before. 

The pungent odor given off by urinals because of 
the liberation of ammonia in the decomposition of 
urea, should be removed by a permanent flow of 
water. Not only must the wet wall be isolated from 


the building but the floor must be made impervious, 
and the discharge pipe be supplied with a trap. If it 
is impossible to arrange for the flow of water, the wet 
places should be sprinkled regularly with powdered 
carbolic acid, which is usually colored red to prevent 


This is usually closely connected with the ventilation 
discussed in the preceding chapter. According as 
heating apparatus is designed for warming single rooms 
or several rooms at the same time, we may speak of 
separate and general heating, respectively. For the 
former stoves are used and for the latter large central 
heating plants. 

To settle the question whether stoves or central heat- 
ing plants are to be preferred, economical, technical, 
pedagogical, and hygienic items must be considered. 
As to economy the original outlay for stoves is less 
than that for central plants. For even the cheapest 
central plant, namely the hot air system, costs about 
65 cts. per cbm. of the room to be heated, whereas the 
corresponding cost for stoves rarely exceeds 40 cts. 

In making this comparison we must, however, take 
this fact into consideration that the stoves heat only 
the school-rooms and offices, while central plants also 
heat the stairways, corridors, ante-rooms, water-closets, 
etc. This diminishes the comparative economic ad- 

J E. Haesecke, Die Schulheizung, ihre Mangel und 
deren Beseitigung. Berlin, 1893. 



vantage of heating by stoves. The operating expenses 
for stoves are also greater than those for central heat- 
ing plants. In 20 schools in Vienna it was found that 
the annual expense for fuel and janitor per 100 cbm. 
of space to be heated was with stoves $7.40, and with 
central heating plants only $6.58. 

From a technical point of view the disadvantages of 
stove-heating become still more apparent. It is well- 
known that schools especially those of larger cities 
owing to the expensiveness of building sites, are liable 
to suffer from lack of room. This evil is counteracted 
to a certain extent by using central heating plants, 
because these are located in otherwise almost useless 
rooms in the basement. On the other hand if stoves 
are used, they not only occupy more or less room them- 
selves but some floor space is also lost by shortening 
the neighboring seats in order not to expose individual 
pupils to extreme heat. 

Another technical objection to the stove is the in- 
convenience experienced in caring for it. It is evi- 
dent that to supply a number of places with fuel takes 
more trouble than to supply only one, and also that it 
is more burdensome to attend to more than one fire 
than to attend to one only. 

Lastly, danger of fire increases with the increase in 
the number of stoves, whereas the concentration of 
the heating apparatus into one room where it can be 


conveniently watched not only enhances security from 
fire, but also makes it easier to get control of any fire 
that might break out. 

From a pedagogical stand-point it may be said that 
the repeated attention required by stoves especially 
the old style iron stoves, disturbs the work of the 
school. Moreover, when the temperature is either too 
high or too low, the janitor has to be notified and this 
again interrupts the recitations, while with the more 
recent central plants the temperature of the room can 
be ascertained outside and can be regulated without 
entering the room. 

In the discussion of the heating question, however, 
the hygienic side is of pre-eminent importance. The 
ideal in this respect is to have an absolutely uniform 
temperature throughout the room, since it is disa- 
greeable to have a rapid decrease of temperature from 
the ceiling to the floor. In the latter case the head is 
exposed to a high and the feet to a low temperature, 
while the old Salernitan rule demands that the head be 
kept cool and the feet warm. 

With a stove, as we know, it is impossible to heat a 
given room uniformly in all its parts. For its effec- 
tiveness depends in the first place upon the radiation 
of heat ; and the amount of this decreases with extra- 
ordinary rapidity as the distance from the stove in- 
creases. To secure a uniform temperature even with 


a central heating plant presents many difficulties ; but 
it can nevertheless be effected more easily than with 

Another hygienic advantage which the central has 
over the separate heating method is that it brings more 
air into the room. A stove will serve far less satisfac- 
torily for this purpose, since it can be only of moderate 
.size, if the first cost and the running expenses are not 
to be too great ; and it will therefore not be able to 
bring about the required changes of air in the room. 
On the other hand, with a central plant the introduc- 
tion of pure and the removal of impure air can be 
Tegulated in a mathematically definite way. This en- 
-ables us to furnish the amount of air required in any 
.given place. 

Accordingly, where the location and construction do 
not prevent it, large school-buildings ought to be pro- 
vided with central heating plants. In fact they are 
found in the public schools of most large cities, as for 
instance almost without exception in Berlin, Hamburg, 
Munich, and Frankfort a. M. The use of stoves 
may, however, be considered allowable in schools with 
-only a few rooms, since the hygenic disadvantages are 
not so great that stoves must be absolutely forbidden. 

Stoves may best be placed near the middle of 
the long wall opposite the windows. They have been 
made ot clay, Russian tiles, iron, or a mixture of 


these materials. Tile stoves are not well adapted for 
school purposes because they heat up too slowly, fur- 
nish insufficient ventilation, and consume too much 
fuel. The same is true, although in a less degree, of 
combinational stoves which have an iron base and a- 
tile top. 

Nor can the iron cylinder or cannon stove so-called 
on account of its shape be recommended for schools. 
The brisk fire in these stoves, it is true, draws the air 
from the floor of the school-room, and thus aids ven- 
tilation; but as an offset, they consume a great deal of 
fuel and must be filled repeatedly. 

But regulable reservoir stoves, -which have a large 
jacket or casing and heat the incoming air only mod- 
erately, may be said to be satisfactory. Of these there 
are many different kinds. We shall mention only the 
Jacobi or Meissner, the Kaiserlautern, and Wolpert and 
Meidinger, reservoir stoves, the Kauffer and Keidel 
patented stoves, and the somewhat similar Irish and 
American base burners or self-feeders. 

According to the test made by the hygienic institute 
of Berlin, the Kauffer Parlor stove and the large 
Keidel patented stoves keep the most permanent fire. 
This holds true of the smaller ones of this kind only 
when anthracite is used. Within the wide casing of the 
Keidel stove, the incoming air from the outside is only 
moderately warmed; and a sufficient quantity about 


ten times as much as is furnished by the Meidinger 
stove, is introduced into the room without creating 
drafts. These stoves have, moreover, a special device 
for keeping the parts in the fire from getting too hot ; 
and they can be managed very economically, since the 
size of the fire pot can be changed by movable pans. 

Quite recently stoves heated by gas 1 have been em- 
ployed in institutions" of learning as for instance, to 
name only a few large cities, in Berlin, Hamburg, 
Copenhagen, Munich, Frankfort a. M., Cologne, 
Stuttgart, Strassburg in Alsace, Karlsruhe, Freiburg 
in Baden, and Barmen. The disadvantages of heating 
with illuminating gas, according to Ostender, are, 
aside from the heavy running expenses, the vitiation of 
the air by overheated heating surfaces and filling the 
school-room with gas. Meidinger, however, has proved 
that these criticisms are not correct. 

But we must concede the greater expense of gas 
heating. For one room the expense per hour was, for in- 
stance, in Cologne, where gas is 2J cts. per cbm., 4 cts; 
in Frankfort, a. M., and in Karlsruhe, where gas 
is 3 cts. per cbm., 4.8 cts. Even with the gas at 1 ct. 
in Karlsruhe, the expense for each room per hour is 
still 1.6 cts. On the other hand, the same amount of 
stove heat costs only 1J cts., and hot air heat 1^ cts. 

*Gustav Behnke, Die Gasofenheizung fur Schulen. 
Darmstadt, 1894. Arnold Bergstrasser. 


That gas heating is more expensive than stove or hot 
air heating is due, in the first place, to the greater 
cost of gas in comparison with coal or coke; and, in 
the second place, to the fact that the heat is but im- 
perfectly utilized. The amount utilized varies between 
29.4 and 88.7$, but in eight out of eleven cases 
tested it was more than 60 %. 

The expense aside, gas stoves have these advantages 
in their favor, namely, that they require no special fire- 
man, no room for fuel, no removal of slag and ashes, 
and that they can be attended to without the least 
difficulty, since they can be turned on or off at any 
moment, thus making the regulation of temperature 
in the school-room very much easier. In the higher 
schools of Hamburg where gas heating is used, it ac- 
cordingly gives complete satisfaction. 

Whatever sort of a stove the school may have, the 
teacher needs to keep a watchful eye on the following 
points in overseeing it : 

In the first place, gases from the combustion must 
not be allowed to escape into the room. Although 
many of them produce only a feeling of discomfort, 
others, especially carbon monoxide, are very detri- 
mental to health. On account of poisoning by carbon 
monoxide, which escaped into a school-room from a 
defective stove, the pupils showed the following symp- 
toms up to the fourteenth day: Pain in the forehead 


and in the temples, heaviness in the head, dizziness, 
humming of the ears, weakness of memory, dullness, 
partly sleeplessness, partly sleepiness, pain in the 
breast, weakness of the legs, lessened patellar reflexes, 
coated tongues, nausea, diarrhea, and pallor. 

It is now believed by many that the red hot walls of 
an iron stove permit the escape of carbon monoxide. 
This idea was first defended by Morin. He based his 
conclusions on the investigations of St. Clair-Deville 
and Troost. Many experiments, of which we will only 
mention "VVolfflmgel's, have shown, however, that it is 
impossible to demonstrate that carbon monoxide escapes 
into the room from good metal stoves even when they 
are red hot. Moreover, the fire pots of these stoves are 
lined with fire brick, so that they are in general not 
liable to get so hot. 

Though it is an assured fact that the gases from 
combustion, especially carbonic oxide, do not pene- 
trate the walls of iron stoves, such gases may, never- 
theless, under certain conditions escape from any kind 
of a stove. This is least to be feared when the fire is 
in full blast, because the great difference of tempera- 
ture between the inside and the outside of the stove 
gives rise to pressure toward the inside. In this case 
the gases do not rush out of the pipes, but on the 
contrary, air rushes into them. It is only when a stove 
has been neglected and allowed to develop cracks 


which is often the case with school stoves that gases 
can escape, when the fire is well under way. 

The escape of gas occurs, however, very readily 
when the fire is being started, because the pipes are 
not then sufficiently warm to produce the necessary 
draft. At such times, especially where there are con- 
tractions and curves in the pipes, the gases inside may 
develop a greater pressure and consequently escape 
into the room. 

It is well to call the janitor's attention to the mat- 
ter. He must be particularly instructed not to close 
the dampers in the stovepipe and chimney too soon. 
With the draft completely closed in this way, carbonic 
oxide gas, which is a product of incomplete combus- 
tion, is formed, and escapes into the room through the 
door or other openings in the stove. Since even dam- 
pers with holes in them do not afford sufficient protec- 
tion against this evil, it it is better to prohibit the use 
of dampers altogether in schools. 


These are designated steam, air, or water heating 
systems according as the heat conducting agent is 
steam, air, or water. Several of these agents may, 
however, be used simultaneously when we have steam- 
water heaters, steam-air heaters, etc. 

Hot Air Furnaces for the most part transmit 
heat from the gases in the furnace through a metal 


heating surface in contact with the air, which then be- 
comes the heating medium and is conveyed in special 
pipes to the rooms to be heated. Where this method 
is used complaints from the teacher are often heard. 

The most general one is that the air is too dry. This 
dryness is, however, frequently only apparent. If dust, 
for instance has settled on the heating surface of the 
furnace or if dust laden air conies in contact with it, 
the dust particles are scorched; and burnt products are 
produced, which irritate the mucous membranes of 
the throat and eyes, causing a disagreeable feeling 
of dryness. The temperature of the heating surface 
must therefore be kept low; and the settling of dust 
on it must be prevented as far as possible. The first 
can be done by lining the fire-pot and adjacent parts 
with Chamotte stone ; and the latter, by not having 
large horizontal heating surfaces, and making those we 
have, smooth and not corrugated outside, to facilitate 
cleaning. Teachers must see to it that the cleaning 
be done with regularity. 

The air may, on the other hand, really become too 
dry in hot-air heating. Whether this is so or not can 
be determined by the relative humidity, that is, the 
ratio of the amount of aqueous vapor in a cubic 
meter of air to the maximum it might contain at 
this temperature. If for instance the relative humid- 
ity is small so that the air could -still absorb a great 


deal of water before saturation, a considerable amount 
of moisture will be taken from the surface of the body ; 
and this gives rise to a peculiar feeling of discomfort. 
By feeling we can, however, discriminate between 
moist and dry air only to a limited extent, as has been 
shown by Voit and Forster 1 . 

One of them would without the knowledge of the 
other produce different degrees of humidity in the air 
of a room for the other to describe by his feelings. 
Neither could do this, since the temperature of the 
room and the general condition of the body played too 
great a part. For this reason only limiting values, 
wide apart, can be given as to the proper degree of 
humidity in a school-room. According to Rubner 
there should be : 

For 7 C, 4 45* of aqueous vapor. 

" 10 C, 10-48*." 

" 15 C, 19-54$ " 

" 20 C, 30-60* " 

" 25 0,33-62* " 

With the temperature customary in school-rooms, 
the humidity of the air may, therefore, vary from 30 
to 60 ic. The physicist of the institution ought to 
make hygrometric tests to ascertain whether this meas- 
ure is attained, especially when there are complaints 

1 E. Yoit, Hygienische Anforderungen an Heizan- 
lagen in Schulhiiusern. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesund- 
heitspflege, 1893, No. 1, p. 5 if. 


that the air is too dry. If we assume that 1,000 cbm. 
of hot air per hour are necessary for a room of medium 
size, 16 liters of water should be evaporated in the 
heating chamber during the same time. If there is a. 
lack of moisture, we should ascertain whether the 
water tank in the heating chamber has an evaporating 
surface large enough to fulfill these requirements ; and 
if it has, whether it is always sufficiently full of 
water; the self -regulating stop cocks may sometimes be 
out of order. 

Another defect often found in hot-air heating is the 
unequal distribution of the heat in the room. In a 
school-room warmed by this method, the air near the 
ceiling had a temperature of 38 C and near the floor 
13 C; the average temperature increase vertically was 
3.6 C per meter. 

In another room heated by the hot-air system, a 
thermometer hanging 0.5 meters from the ceiling 
showed at the beginning of the first hour 28 R, an- 
other at a man's height from the floor 10 R, and one 
on the floor 8 R. While the middle one gradually 
rose during the first hour to 12 R, and the lower one 
to 9-10 R, the upper one remained unchanged. 

This difference of temperature between the different 
horizontal layers of air in a school-room is first of all 
detrimental to the teacher. The hot air near the ceil- 
ing may, for instance, be brought down by currents of. 


air, and when it reaches the head of the teacher, he 
will stand there with a warm head and cold feet. 
" In such cases " says Breckling 1 , " I have often had a 
severe headache and felt a benumbing pressure over the 
forehead, which made profitable instruction impossible. 
The pupils are similarly affected, and manifest it by 
yawning, by inattention, and by an inclination to rest 
their heads on their hands." 

Considerable differences in temperature may be 
found not only in a vertical but also in a horizontal 
direction in rooms heated with hot air. In the first 
one of the two rooms mentioned above the temperature 
half way between the floor and ceiling varied from 14 
to 21 C; and even at the height of the pupil's seats 
it was not uniform. 

That this condition of things may injure the pupil's 
health needs no proof. According to what has been 
said, it would be well for teachers employed in schools 
heated by the hot air system to measure the temperature 
repeatedly in different parts of the room. It is true, 
that such differences when found can be remedied often 
only with great difficulty, and sometimes not at all. 

They are almost always due to the air being of too 
high a temperature as it flows in near the ceiling. If 

Sonke Breckling, Die Luftheizung in den Ham- 
burger Schulen. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheits- 
pflege, 1891, No. 3, p. 159. 


this were reduced the amount of warm air would have 
to be increased considerably if the rooms are not to 
become too cold. To accomplish this we should have 
to increase the cross-section of the pipes in the wall; 
this would require a change in the building and often 
even a complete reconstruction of the school. 

We must note, finally, that the above mentioned 
differences of temperature, as a rule, occur only with old 
hot air systems, while the more recent give in this 
respect very satisfactory results. 

Hot Water Systems heat the water which serves in 
this case as the distributing medium in conducting 
pipes, which are either open or closed to the air. 

In the first case, the water is never heated above 
the boiling point (100 C) and there is no pressure in 
the pipes. This is called the warm water or the low- 
pressure system. 

With closed pipes, or the so-called hot water sys- 
tem, the temperature of the water can be raised as high 
as is desired. If the temperature rises to 130 C, which 
gives a pressure of 1^ atmosphere, it is called a medium- 
pressure hot water system. If it rises, on the other 
hand, as is the case in the old Perkins' hot water sys- 
tem, to about 200 C, which gives a pressure of 14 
atmospheres, it is called the high-pressure hot water 

On account of the high pressure, the latter is some- 
what dangerous, and, therefore, unsuitable for school 


purposes. The medium pressure system is somewhat 
better. But it is possible that even with this system 
the dust will be scorched, since this may happen with 
a temperature of from 100 150 C. Moreover, the 
high pressure may prevent the valves which regulate 
the heat from working satisfactorily. 

On the other hand, a rather uniform distribution of 
heat can be obtained by this system ; and where a heat- 
ing plant is to be introduced into old school buildings, 
it is often the only one possible. The necessary pipes 
or flues in the walls would be lacking for hot-air heat- 
ing, whereas the small pipes of this medium pressure 
system can be introduced anywhere without much 

Warm water systems are, however, at all points bet- 
ter than hot water systems. The temperature of the 
radiating surface is never so high that burnt products 
are produced by the dry distillation of scorched dust 
particles. Since the pipes are usually placed near the 
floor, the latter is especially well warmed; and the un- 
pleasantness of cold feet is prevented. 

But there are some disadvantages connected with 
this method of heating. Even w T hen the circulation 
of the water is completely closed, the radiation of 
heat does not cease, and so for instance a room may 
be still heated when the heat is no longer desired. 
Furthermore, these warm water systems are very ex- 


pensive, and for this reason alone they are hardly ever 
put into schools in recent years. 

Steam heating systems are coming more and more 
into use. These are also designated respectively as 
low or high-pressure systems, according to the press- 
ure in the pipes. High pressure steam systems are 
probably never installed in schools, because the use of 
high-pressure boilers in inhabited buildings is forbid- 
den on account of the danger from explosion. 

Low-pressure steam systems, such as those of Bechem 
and Post, which have a pressure of ^ to J of an at- 
mosphere, are, on the other hand, very properly com- 
ing more and more into use in schools. Like all other 
steam and water systems, they have this advantage 
over the hot-air heating that with them ventilation and 
heating are separated. One may be in operation with- 
out the other, or they may work together in varying 
degrees; whereas the closing of the register in a hot- 
air system reduces the ventilation to a minimum. An- 
other advantage is the low temperature of the heating 
surface in the low pressure steam system, the utility 
of which has been discussed before. The heat can be 
regulated easily and accurately by means of valves, and 
can even be almost entirely shut off, since the amount 
of steam remaining in the radiator has but small heat- 
ing capacity. 

Finally, the large fire-pot of the low pressure sys- 


tern enables us to keep the fire night and day, thus 
securing a uniform and thorough heating of the whole 
building. The agreeableness of this is especially to 
be attributed to the fact that the walls are never so 
cold as they would be otherwise. To prevent a waste 
of fuel with a continuous fire, the draft in the furnace 
and consequently the heating itself should be regulated 
automatically by the steam pressure in the boiler. 
When, for instance, the radiator on account of a high 
temperature in the room gives off less heat, it increases 
the pressure in the boiler. This increased pressure 
closes the furnace draft and lets in less air to the fire, 
which then quiets down a little. If, on the other 
hand, the radiation of heat is increased, the steam 
pressure decreases and the draft is opened and the 
amount of air admitted to the fire is greater. 

Lately the indirect low-pressure steam systems have 
been recommended more strongly than the direct low- 
pressure steam system. The board of public works of 
Vienna speaks of them as positively the best heating 
systems 1 for schools at the present time. They have, 
instead of furnaces, low-pressure steam radiators in 
the air chambers, so that the warm air introduced into 
the school-room is not heated directly by the fire but 

1 Neumann, Antrag und Bericht des Stadtrates von 
Wien, betreffend die Heizungs und Liiftungsanlagen in 
den stadtischen Schulen. Wien, 1893. 


indirectly by steam. This makes the plant cost 50 to 
80 # more ; but the operating expenses are considerably 
reduced, because low-pressure steam heaters are more 
durable than furnaces, which crack readily. 

With respect to the last point, the indirect low-pres- 
sure steam systems have a further advantage over the 
hot-air systems. With the latter, the air may be pol- 
luted by gases escaping from the cracks, while this is 
absolutely impossible with the former. 

According to reports from Vienna these indirect low- 
pressure steam systems have proved eminently satisfac- 
tory in the schools of that city; and will therefore in 
the future be used exclusively. With a good plan, 
proper installation, and careful operation by an experi- 
enced fireman, no inconveniences at all can arise from 

Whatever the heating system may be, a temperature 
of 16-19 C, or 13-15 R, or 61-66F,* should be 
maintained in class-rooms and drawing-rooms; while 
a temperature of 14-17 C, or 11-13 R, will suffice 
for the gymnasium, and one of 10 to 8 C, or 8 to 
6.5 R, for closets, stairways, and corridors. Even at 
the desks nearest the stove, the thermometer should 
not be more than a few degrees above the normal tem- 

* The temperature required in schools in the U. S. 
is usually about 5 F. higher. 


perature, and stoves ought to be supplied with either 
permanent or movable screens to prevent them from 
becoming so. The former have the advantage that they 
can not be put away or knocked down; the latter that 
they make the cleaning of the room easier. 

If the temperature of the room is below 16 C, or 
13 K, the room must be heated, irrespective of the 
season of the year. Since the heat takes effect only 
after some time, it is best, especially when the children 
are young and the weather is very cold, to give them 
some gymnastic exercises, or else allow them to run a 
few moments on the play-ground till the rooms become 

A mistake is often made at the Christmas or Easter 
vacation by not beginning to heat the building one or 
two days before school opens. If the heating is only 
begun the morning of the first day it is impossible to 
raise the air in the now thoroughly cooled rooms to the 
proper temperature. The heating apparatus is, also, 
usually overtaxed at this time because the fireman 
tries to do in a few hours what it would take him at 
least a day to accomplish. Hot-air furnaces are es- 
pecially liable to be ruined in this way, and an over- 
heating of the fire-pot and burning out of the grate, 
has been observed even in the case of the low-pressure 
steam system. 

Not only should the fireman be watched in these par- 


ticular matters, but the effort should also be made to 
see that he keeps the proper temperature in the rooms 
.at all times. To be sure, a perfectly uniform tempera- 
ture cannot be obtained; for the children themselves 
are living stoves, which after a while heat the air in the 
room. In the I. gymnasium of Moscow 1 , which has 
been referred to before, the temperature at 8 A. M., 
before instruction began, was 16 C; at the end of the 
first hour, 17.7; at the end of the second 18.3; and 
at the end of the third, 19.4 C. At 11 o'clock there 
Tvas a long recess, during which a window was opened. 
The temperature consequently fell to 15.1 C, but rose 
:again the next hour to 18.6 C, and in the following 
hour even as high as 20.1 C. 

Xothwithstanding this, we must aim at a constant 
temperature in the school-room and for this purpose 
test it repeatedly. A thermometer should accordingly 
be hung up in every class-room about 1.2 to 1.6 meters 
above the floor, in a place where the temperature may 
be said to be about average. A standardized thermo- 
meter had better be procured, if the expense does not 
have to be avoided. Otherwise a common thermome- 
ter will do, as its error may be determined by the 

*Fr. Erismann, Die Schulhygiene auf der Jubiliiums- 
ausstellung der Gesellschaft fur Beforderung der 
Arbeitsamkeit in Moskau. Zeitschrift fur Schulge- 
.sundheitspflege, 1888, Xo. 11, p. 101 ff. 


physicist of the school by comparison with one that is 

. In several schools in France, the temperature is- 
noted every hour, and a curve of its variations con- 
structed upon plotting paper; This is done now and 
then by pupils, since they can at the same time learn 
to observe. In Germany, we often find the tempera- 
ture at the end of every recitation recorded in the class 
book; but a curve gives a more evident picture of the 
matter than a table of figures, and is just as easily 

In order to maintain normal temperature in school- 
rooms, attempts have lately been made to assist the fire- 
man by means of instruments which would indicate 
the temperature of the rooms by some signal near the 
furnace. To this class of instruments belong the dis- 
tance thermometer of Bonnesen, and the central ap- 
paratus for electric temperature signals by Bastelmann 
and others. The former consists of a barometer tube 
placed in the furnace room in the cellar; of a tin 
cylinder filled with absolutely dry air and placed in 
every room; and of a capillary lead tube, which con- 
nects the cylinder with the short arm of the barometer. 
A change of temperature in the room causes a change 
of the pressure of the air in the cylinder, which is 
then communicated by the capillary tube to the fur- 
nace room, where the temperature of the rooms can be 
read on the scale of the barometer. 


Bastelmann's contact apparatus for electrical tem- 




perature signals, on the other hand, has contact ther- 
mometers (figure 9) which have platinum wires melted 
into them in such a manner that with a temperature 
of 16, 17.5, and 19 C the mercury touches the 
wires. These thermometers are suspended in the 
school-room and are connected with the signal board 
in the furnace room by means of wires (figure 10). 
When the mercury rises so that it touches the platinum 
wires, an electrical circuit is closed by means of pres- 
sure on the corresponding contact buttons (a, b, c, d, 
e, i, in' figure 10), and this releases an indicator 
on the signal board. The indicators in the upper 


row are for the minimum temperature of 16 C; those 
in the middle row for 17.5; and those in the lower 
row for the maximum temperature of 19 C. The 
fireman needs only to press the buttons a and d to see 
in which rooms the temperature has reached 16 C. 


In the same way he can learn in what room the tem- 
perature has reached 17.5 and 19 C by pressing the 
buttons b and e, and c and f, respectively. These in- 
struments should be tested not only when they are put 
up, but every now and then afterwards by the physicist 
of the school. 



The inside furnishings of the school-room, the chief 
of which are the seats and desks, or subsellia, are no 
less important than the heating and ventilation. For 
it is clear that an incorrectly constructed school bench 
occupied by pupils daily four to six hours for twelve 
years must necessarily prove injurious to their physical 
development. Moreover, the school work suffers, since 
a seat which compels pupils to sit or stand uncomfort- 
ably leads to rapid fatigue. 

The following principles of the mechanics of sitting 1 
are applicable to the matter in hand. The chief re- 
quirement to enable a pupil to sit at all, is that the 
centre of gravity of the trunk, which is somewhat in 
front of the centrum of the ninth or tenth dorsal ver- 
tebra, shall be over a supporting surface. 

This surface is determined, in the first place, by the 
points of contract of the two seat bones of the pelvis 
with the seat. The edge of the seat bones is curved 
from back to front and looks from the side something 

1 Hermann Meyer, Die Mechanik des Sitzens mit 
besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Schulbankfrage. Vir- 
chows Archiv, 1867, Januarheft, 38, pp. 15-30. 



like an arc of 90. The two accordingly resemble the 
rockers on a rocking chair ; and so touch the seat in 
two points only. 

Now two points are not sufficient to fix the position 
of a plane. A third is necessary ; or else a line par- 
allel to the line joining the points of contract of the twe 
seat bones. This third point may be the place where 
the end of the coccyx or rather, since this is out of 
the way and besides movable, where the end of the 
sacrum comes into contact with its support. If a 
plummet be dropped from the centre of gravity of the 
trunk upon this triangular supporting surface, it will 
strike it in a point back of the connecting line of the 
two seat bones. This may, accordingly, be called the 
backward sitting position. 

Besides this we have the forward sitting position. 
In this the body rests on the two seat bones and on the 
line of contact of the thighs with the edge of the seat. 
If we imagine a perpendicular dropped from the centre 
of gravity of the trunk upon the plane thus determined, 
it will strike it in front of the connecting line of the 
seat bones. 

The trunk can not only be moved as a whole on the 
hip joints, but since it has inner articulations it can 
change shape within itself. It can therefore not only 
tilt forward and backward, to the left and to the right, 
but it can also bend so as for example to give the spinal 


column a hump. To prevent the trunk from getting 
such curvatures and at the same time to keep it from 
falling backward or forward in the corresponding sit- 
ting positions, a great many muscles have to be ad- 
justed. They, however, become fatigued in time and 
we find in the case of tired, feeble, or sleeping persons 
that not only has the whole body fallen forward but the 
spinal column has received a certain curvature. 

The muscles employed in sitting upright must, there- 
fore be given a chance to recuperate by being relieved 
now and then. There is no other way of doing this 
than by leaning against the back of the seat in the 
backward sitting position; and in the forward position 
by resting the arms on the top of the desk or placing 
the breast against its rear edge. The latter should 
not, however, be permitted, since the pressure on the 
chest will interfere with breathing, and endanger the 
lungs. The only thing left is to lean against the back 
of the chair or place the arm on the desk. That an 
upright position is possible in the latter case will be 
made evident by figure 11, the reproduction of the 
photograph of a writing class. 

From what has been said and for other reasons, the 
following are the requirements for a good school desk. 

The seat should be of such a height that the feet 
may be placed evenly on the floor or foot rest, while 
the upper and lower legs make right angles with one 
another. Its height must, therefore, be somewhat less 
than the distance from the sole of the foot to the knee. 



According to Zwez,this distance is 30.7 cm. for children 
of six to eight; 34.9 cm. for those eight to ten; 38.5 
cm. for those ten to twelve; and 40.3 cm. for those 
twelve to fourteen. Hence a royal decree of Saxony 
demands that for the above named ages the height of 
seats without foot-boards should be 28-29, 31-32, 34- 
35, 37-38 cm., respectively; and of those with a foot- 
board 4-5 cm. high, 33, 36, 39, 42 cm., respectively. 

The width of the seat had better be about two-thirds 
the length of the upper leg, since a person likes to sit 
so as to have one-third of it extending beyond the 
seat. The table below is constructed in accordance 
with this plan. 

The little differences in the requirements are due on 
the one hand to the difficulty of ascertaining just how 
much of the upper leg should rest on the seat, and 
on the other, to the fact that the upper leg varies in 
length with different racial and social conditions. 






*** * s 



> ^ 

O ? 

?S ^ 


^ ^ ^ 




**- *O 




f II 

< S ^ 

k s 










6- 8 





























29 0-31.0 



Besides having the proper width, the seat should 


have a slight inclination backward. This is best se- 
cured by hollowing it out in the rear. It becomes 
especially necessary in case the back rest arches over 
backward, since a pupil leaning against it would slide 
forward and finally off the edge of the seat if it were 
level. Kunze, therefore, demands a difference in 
height between the front and rear of the seat of 1 to 1. 
7 cm. Lickroth's seats have a still greater slope from 
front to rear, namely, of one in eight. These seats 
are indeed very comfortable, but it must not be for- 
gotten that the inclination of the desk must increase 
with that of the seat. 

The front edge of the seat must not be angu- 
lar but rounded, since it would otherwise exert a pres- 
sure on the popliteal veins and arteries back of the 
knees, and thus impede the circulation in the lower 
leg and foot. The pressure would also affect the in- 
ternal and external popliteal nerves and make the leg 
"go to sleep". 

Foot rests on the seats are on the whole not to be 
advised. They limit the free movement of the pupil's 
feet and compel him to hold the lower legs almost 
always in the same position, which in the end proves 
tiresome. The mud on the shoe soles is also easily 
rubbed off on them; and finding a resting place un- 
derneath can be swept out only with difficulty on 
account of the small space. If persons will still insist 


on using them, they should have them made 13-16 
cm. wide, so that the whole foot can rest on them. 
The height from the floor must not exceed 45 cm. 
Foot rests, such as accord with the regulations of 
Wiirtemberg, of more than 10 cm. height, or such as 
are made by Kunze of 10-25 cm., are not practicable, 
since the seat is unnecessarily high, and so inconven- 
ient to mount. If the seat is inclined strongly to the 
rear, the foot rest should have a similar inclination. 
The latter is, indeed, in this case indispensable, be- 
cause the knee joint would otherwise make an acute 
angle, thus preventing the free circulation of the blood. 

The back rests of school seats are of especial im- 
portance; and they have accordingly lately been the 
focus of interest. They must above all meet the re- 
quirement of conforming to the normal curvature of 
the spinal column. The latter consists, as is well 
known, of 7 cervical, 12 dorsal, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 
4 coccygeal vertebra, of which the last lumbar, the 
sacral, and the coccygeal are located in the pelvis. 

Outside of the cervical region, which is not considered 
here, the spinal column presents the following physio- 
logical curvatures: As seen from the front the dorsal 
section is strongly concave, the lumbar considerably 
convex, and the sacral and coccygeal again concave. 
The back-rest must accordingly be hollowed out in the 


sacral and coccygeal region, arched forward in the 
lumbar, and backward again in the lower dorsal, as 
may be seen in the Vienna school desk by Schlimp 
(figure 18, page 148). 

The above requirement presupposes that the back- 
rest reaches up to the lower part of the shoulder-blades 
and is in other words a sacrum-loin and shoulder-blade 
support. A greater length, which would not leave the 
shoulder-blades exposed, is undesirable for the reason 
that it would interfere with the free use of the shoulders 
and arms. 

Xor should a shorter back-rest be permitted. Staffel 
has pointed out that the low sacral back-rests advocated 
by Fahrner, Hermann, Kunze, Buchner, et. al., some 
of which had a height of only 6 to 7 cm., were not 
fully able to prevent a bent-over position in sitting. 
The lever with which they worked on the pelvis, namely 
the distance from the centre of rotation of the seat 
bones to the point of application of the back-rest, was 
in fact too short to enable them to have any consider- 
able effect. 

Staffel 1 accordingly demands that high sacral back- 
rests, or to use a better expression, loin-back-rests, be 

1 Staffel, Die Mechanik des Sitzens. Centralblatt 
fur allgemeine Gesundheitspfiege, 1884, Parts 11-12. 


used instead of the common kind, so that the lumbar 
vertebrae, as the name indicates, may also be supported. 
The levers referred to above are now lengthened but 
not adequately so, till the back-rest supports not only 
the sacral and lumbar but also the dorsal regions and 
so the whole upper part of the body. The V T ienna 
expert school desk commission accordingly requires 
that back-rests shall be of the following heights : for 
children six to eight 34.25; eight to nine 36.25; nine 
to ten 39.0; ten to eleven 39.25; eleven to twelve 
40.0; twelve to thirteen 42.5; and fourteen 43.5 cm. 

It is best for each seat to have its own back-rest. It 
may, however, be necessary for the sake of saving 
space to have the back-rest connected with the desk be- 
hind. In this case the rear row of seats at least will 
have to have their own back-rests, while those on the 
fronts of the first row of desks may be omitted. 

When we turn from the seat to consider the desk, 
the so-called "difference" deserves attention first of 
all. By this is meant the vertical distance between the 
rear edge of the pupil's desk and the plane of the 
seat. It can be ascertained by measuring the distance 
from the seat bones to the elbow when the arm hangs 
down freely. The arm is, however, raised a little in 
writing, so that these figures must be increased by a 
few centimeters according to the age of the pupils. 
The following table gives the details: 
















6- 8 

















































With the proper difference, we have the normal 
reading distance between the 
eye of the pupil and the top of 
the desk, namely 35 cm. On the 
other hand, if the desk is too high 
with reference to the seat, the 
books come too near to the eye, 
and myopia may be induced. Be- 
sides, the pupil can not in this 

e j bowg Qn ^ 

FIG. 12. Lateral curvature of cage put 
the spine due to too high 

a desk, Esmarch. without spreading out the upper 
arms and raising his shoulders. Since this is uncom- 
fortable, he lets his left arm slip from the desk, keep- 
Ing only the right one on it in writing. In this way 
those lateral spinal curvatures arise of which Esmarch 
lias given us so instructive an illustration, figure 12. 


Too low a desk is as bad as one too high. In this 
case the pupil has to bend his head down to get the 
proper reading distance. But such a position of the 
head is impossible for any length of time, since the 
supporting neck muscles gradually get fatigued. So- 
the head sinks lower and lower, and the spinal column 
curves out behind. The eyes and the spinal column 
are injured first of all, because short-sightedness and 
curvature of the spine develop easily. Indigestion 
and functional disturbances of the heart may also 
supervene. The anterior wall of the abdomen is 
thrown into a transverse fold by bending forward, and 
the stomach is correspondingly pushed in and its oper- 
ations mechanically obstructed. Moreover, the arch- 
ing forward of the thorax brings the ribs nearer to- 
gether, the spaces between them become less, and the 
whole thoracic cavity is consequently smaller. Finally 
a compression of the large blood-vessels of the neck is 
produced by bending it too far. All these things 
cooperate to cramp the heart and lungs, as is made 
evident by palpitation of the heart, obstructed breath- 
ing, etc. 

The inclination of the desk varies with that of the 
seat. We are, it is true, accustomed to writing at our 
desks on horizontal surfaces, but one that slopes has this 
advantage that the upper and lower lines of the paper 
on which we write are about equally distant from the 


eyes, which makes changes of accommodation unneces- 
sary in looking from one to the other. 

With a seat of moderate slope, it is customary to 
give the desk an inclination of one in six, as is done 
for instance in Elsaesser's desk. But with greater 
seat-slope, there must also be greater inclination of 
the desk. The Vienna expert school-desk commission 
requires an inclination of 15 ; the Prague medical 
board one of at least 17. The latest Lickroth desk 
has a seat inclination of -J-, and a desk inclination of 
with reference to the seat, making a total of -^, or 
more than J. A desk by Stauffer of Vienna, and a model 
by Schenk of Berne, possesss a still steeper inclination, 
namely, 30. On such a desk the pupil will write 
while leaning against the back-rest, without special 
request. However, with a steep slope everything on 
the desk slides off. This evil can be remedied, to 
be sure, by providing a guard at the lower edge ; but 
this is objectionable because of the pressure it exerts 
on the lower arm. 

Since pencils, penholders, etc., roll off with only a 
moderate slant, some special arrangement must be 
made to keep them back. This can be done by either 
cutting a deep grove along the upper edge of the desk, 
or by adding a horizontal section to it. In the latter 
case, it is estimated that the inclined part will take up 
33 and the horizontal part 7 to 8 cm. of the breadth. 



That the estimations regarding this matter differ some- 
what will be seen from the following table, which 
gives the figures for the whole width of the desk : 

Jv. ^> 
^ <?s 


% 333222 


0000 OOGCOO 00 




o o o o 
as r-i co id 



g 000<?5'* CD 00 
W CD QO O (M -4< CD 

It is of great advantage in cleaning a room to be 
able to raise the top of the desk perpendicularly or 
nearly so, though this would increase the cost of a 



desk 25 to 40 cts. The arrangement is used exten- 
sively in English colleges. Figure 13 will illustrate 
the matter. 


For keeping the body in the proper position, the 
horizontal distance between the rear edge of the desk 
and the front edge of the seat, technically called the 
" distance", is no less important than the difference 
discussed above. It must enable the pupil both to stand 
at his desk and to have the desk immediately in front 
of him when he sits down to write. In reading and 
writing, a perpendicular from the rear edge of the desk 
to the seat should cut the latter in a point as near as 
possible to the connecting line between the seat bones, 
though the desk must not be allowed to press in upon 
the chest of the pupil. To have a subsellium equally 


well adapted for standing and sitting, it must be pos- 
sible to adjust the seat and desk for a " plus 
or better still, a " minus ' distance. 



Figure 14 gives an illustration of plus distance. If 
a perpendicular (d c) be dropped from the rear edge 
(d) of the inclined desk top (d e) upon the prolonga- 
tion of the seat (a 6), then (b c) will be the plus dis- 
tance. Zero distance is illustrated by figure 15. The 
perpendicular (d b) from the top of the desk merely 
touches the front edge (b) of the seat (a b). If we 
have a minus distance, as in figure 16, the perpendicu- 
lar (d c) cuts the plane of the seat (a b) in (c), and the 
minus distance equals (b c). 

The Prague medical board requires a plus distance 
of 8 cm. for the ages six to eight, 9 cm. for eight to 
eleven, and 10 cm. for eleven to fourteen; whereas 


the Vienna expert school desk commission would have 
7 cm. for six to eight, 10-10.75 cm. for eight to eleven, 
11 cm. for eleven to twelve, 12 cm. for twelve to thir- 
teen, and 13.5 for children of thirteen to fourteen. 

The estimates differ still more for the minus distance. 
Lickroth and Elsaesser make it 3 cm. and Erismann 5 
<3m. for the ages between six and eighteen. The 
Vienna expert school-desk commission proposes a 
minus distance not much greater, namely, 5 cm. for 
the ages six to eight, 5.5 cm. for eight to ten, 6 cm. 
for ten to twelve, 7 cm. for twelve to thirteen, and 
4.5 cm. for children of fourteen. 
The Prague medical board pre- 
cribes, on the other hand, a minus 
distance of 10 cm. for children from 
six to fourteen. The chief thing is 
always to have a minus distance 
when the pupil is reading or writ- 

FIG. 17. PUPIL WITH . TH . ,, , ,.,, 

A PLUS DISTANCE m g F r Wlth a Z6r0 aild Stl11 mOI>e 

SEAT w ith a plus distance the pupil bends 

forward to get near enough to his books, as is shown 
in figure 17. 

In this way all those injuries to health may arise 
which were described above in discussing the effects 
of too small a difference. 

A book-shelf of suitable width should be placed 
under the desk. It will not hold the books if it is 


too narrow, and it will interfere with the knees of the 
pupil if it is too broad. Erismann would have its 
depth 25 cm. for the ages six to nine, 30 cm. for ten 
to thirteen, and 35 for fourteen to eighteen. A slight 
slope downward of the shelf toward the front will 
keep the books from tumbling into the pupil's lap. 

The length of the single desk is estimated at from 
53 to 56 cm. for the lower classes, 60 cm. for the in- 
termediate, and from 63 to 65 cm. for the upper. The 
regulations of Saxony already mentioned require a 
length of 56 cm. for all school desks, thus making it 
possible to arrange desks for pupils of different sizes 
in a row one behind the other, which cannot be done 
so successfully if they vary in length. Lickroth also 
advises an average length of 56 cm., while he fixes it 
at 50 cm. for the ages six to eight, 53 cm. for eight to 
ten, 56 cm. for ten to twelve, 60 cm. for twelve to 
fourteen, 63 cm. for fourteen to sixteen, and 65 cm. 
for sixteen to eighteen. Elsaesser similarly increases 
the length of the desk from 50 cm. for pupils of six 
to 60 cm. for those of eighteen. 

How many pupils a single bench should seat is still 
another question. A circular by the Prussian minis- 
ter of education prescribes the following: " In all pri- 
mary preparatory schools (Vorschulen) and in the two 
lower classes of the secondary schools, usually 4 to 6, 
and at the most 8 pupils may be brought together at 


one desk." But when he adds: "All the seats for 
one desk are in these cases to be united into a single 
bench, which should be provided with a simple, cer- 
tain, and durable device for changing the distance be- 
tween the seat and the desk," we must object, since 
with a continuous seat the pupils can stand up only 
together and not singly as school-work demands. 

The document just cited then continues more cor- 
rectly: "The rest of the classes in the secondary 
schools are to be provided with desks for from two to 
six pupils, each one of which is to have a separate 
movable seat when the desks are arranged for more 
than two pupils." We must furthermore keep in 
mind that double desks can at any time be converted 
into desks for four, six, etc., by merely placing them 
end to end. 

With respect to the attachment of the seats, they 
may be screwed down to the floor, either singly or to 
a common sill running along the floor under the seat 
supports. The latter method is not advisable, because 
pupils are liable to stumble over the sills, and the 
cleaning of the class-rooms is interfered with. 

It is best to arrange the desks according to height, 
the lower in front and the higher behind, since only 
in this way can the teacher have a convenient outlook 
over the class. The end seats should not be too near 
the wall, since the pupils in them would be exposed to 


colds and rheumatism by the excessive loss of heat due 
to the cold walls. 

It is not practicable to describe in detail or even to 
mention all different kinds of school desks, the number 
of which is already over one hundred and fifty. We 
limit ourselves rather to a systematic classification of 
them, giving a closer description only of those which 
though old are yet in use, or which deserve to be rec- 
ommended for use in higher institutions from the 
stand point of modern hygiene. 

The first group consists of desks with a permanent 
zero or minus distance such as those of Fahrner 1 , 
Buchner, Varrentrapp, Rettig 2 and others. They are 
double-seated so that a pupil in rising can step out to 
the right or left. They accordingly require a great 
deal of room, since there must be a free space between 
two adjacent desks. They generally have the zero 
distance, since the pupils find it too difficult to get in- 
to a seat with minus distance. The objection has, 
however, been correctly urged against the zero dis- 
tance that it is convenient neither for sitting nor 

All double seats with a fixed distance, whether it be 
zero or minus, have, moreover, still another disadvant- 

1 Fahrner, Das Kind und der Schultisch. 1865. 
2 W. Rettig, Neue Schulbank. Leipzig, 1895, Oscar 


age. With spirited teachers and pupils, the latter sit 
in these seats as if in position to jump, in order to be 
able to rise quickly with an answer ; and they are thus 
either very much bent over, or they have one leg out- 
side of the seat, which gives rise to a distortion of the 
spinal column. The scientific commission for the 
medical affairs of Prussia therefore justly expresses 
itself as against double desks with fixed distances, since 
the demand for a variable distance is one of principal 
importance and only to be compared in the whole field 
of school hygiene with that for an adequate air space 
for each pupil. Where the double desks of Fahrner, 
Buchner, or Varrentrapp are, nevertheless, used in a 
class-room, the pupils must be made to change places 
every week so that the bent over position may not 
become habitual but be counteracted by its opposite. 

While the desks so far considered have a fixed dis- 
tance, those of the second group have a distance that 
can be changed either by moving the desk top or the 
seat board. 

The desks of Parow, Cohn, and Hermann 1 , among 
others, have movable desk tops. In the Parow desk 
(figure 18) the whole top is divided lengthwise into two 
parts, connected by hinges so that when the pupil 
rises, one can be folded over on the other (c d, figure 

1 August Hermann, Uber die zweckmassige Einricht- 
ung der Schultische. Braunschweig, 1868. 



18). When the movable part (c a) is put down we 
have the minus distances (e b). 


The Parow desk and also the similar ones by Cohn 
and Hermann favor a correct position of the body not 
only in standing but also in sitting and writing; never- 
theless, they have the great inconvenience of making it 
necessary to remove all books and tablets even if only 
a single pupil has to rise, since these articles would 
otherwise be thrown into a heap. The turning of the 
desk leaf is, besides, likely to make a noise, especially 
when the hinges get out of order, as is often the case. 
Finally, the projecting brackets (f g) which support the 
movable leaf of the desk are likely to injure the pupils, 
to say nothing of the pinching of fingers in turning 
the leaf over. 

An effort has accordingly been made to improve the 
Parow desk by dividing the top into as many sections 


as there are seats and making each one movable by 
itself. This makes it at best possible for the individual 
pupil to rise without disturbing his neighbors. But 
on the other hand, the many leaves still make a great 
noise, as has been emphatically pointed out by Bend- 
ziula 1 , and the durability of the desk has not been 
increased by adding to the number of hinges. 

In contrast with Parow, Hermann, and Cohn, 
Kunze 2 endeavors to make the change from plus to 
minus distance, not by folding the leaf over, but by 
drawing the top of the desk back. A full view of the 
desk is given in figure 19. 


1 Albert Bendzinla, Zur Schulbankfrage. Berlin, 
1893, L. Oehmigke. Cf. Alexander Bennstein, Die 
Heutige Schulbankfrage. Eine iibersichtliche Zusam- 
menstellung der bisher bekannten Schulbank systeme 
nebst Gedanken iiber die Beurteilung des Wertes 
derselben. 2d ed., Berlin, 1897, Buchhaandlung der 
deutschen Lehrerzeitung. 

2 C. H. Schildbach, Die Schulbankfrage und die 
Kunze'sche Schulbank. 2d. ed. Leipzig, 1872. 


It will be seen that the top of each desk can be 
moved in a frame lying underneath. When the pupil 
wants to write, he pulls the desk top back to a minus 
distance of 3 cm. "When he rises, the desk top is 
pushed forward by the upper legs to a plus distance of 
8-12 cm., without especial attention on his part. Here 
it is held fast by a spring or bolt, which makes it pos- 
sible for the pupil to stand in his place without any 

In contrast with this Convenient plus and minus dis- 
tance we have the disadvantage that the drawing out 
of the desk top causes a disagreeable squeak. In fact, 
it is only when the workmanship on them has been 
especially good, that they move easily in the frames, 
and remain solidly attached to them when pulled out. 
As a rule they soon begin to rattle in the grooves, and 
the writing that has to be done on the unsteady desk 
is just as inconvenient as it is harmful for the eyes. 
In new school-rooms which have not yet become thor- 
oughly dry, it sometimes happens that the desk tops 
swell and consequently remain immovable with a strong 
plus or minus distance. Nevertheless, Kunze's desk 
when well made must be said to be one of the best of 
the older sort. 

The Vienna school desk, which also belongs to the 
second group, is noted for the correctness of its dimen- 
sions. The city council of Vienna appointed a com- 
mittee of experts consisting of physicians, architects, 


and teachers to bring in propositions for a school desk 
reform. This committee set up the following require- 
ments for a prize desk : 

1. It must allow pupils to stand up during recita- 

2. It must have a continuous rest from sacrum to 
shoulder, conforming to the curvatue of the spinal 

3. When the pupils are writing, the seats must have 
a minus distance. 

4. It should make writing and free-hand drawing 
possible for a reclining position, that is, while the 
pupil leans against the back-rest. 

5. The desk slope is to be as great as possible, at 
least 15, but not such as to make the books slide off. 

6. When the pupil is sitting, the feet should rest 
flat on the floor. 

7. The change in distance should if possible be 
made by moving the desk. 

A table of all the measurements as well as a diagram 
of the desk to be constructed was added to this list of 
requirements. The only thing left to be done was to 
seeure a device for moving the desk top ; and this was 
done by submitting the matter to competition. 

The prize was awarded to Schlimp's desk, in which 
the top is moved backward and forward on parallelo- 
gram supports, as is shown by the cross section in 
figure 20. 




The mechanism is, however, very complicated and 
the desk is consequently expensive both to manufac- 
ture, and to keep in repair. Moreover, children fre- 
quently have their clothing or fingers caught, as could 
be demonstrated in Vienna where more than 23,000 
such desks are in use. 

The latest school desk, by Schenk 1 of Bern, illus- 
trated in figures 21 and 22, must be characterized as 
in the highest degree original. The desk-top, seat, 
and foot rest are movable, the first two for each pupil 
independently of his neighbor, while the same foot 
rest serves for both pupils at the same desk. The 
seat can be turned back so as in the first place to 
facilitate standing and walking between the desk and 
the seat, and to make it possible to clean the room 
without moving the seats and so save space. 

1 Felix Schenk, Zur Schulbankfrage. Zeitschrift 
fiir Schulgesundheitspflege, 1894, N. 10 p. 529 ff. 






The foot board may be turned on a longitudinal axis 
180, and can thus be placed at two different levels, 
the higher serving for the small, the lower for the 
average sized pupils, while the larger ones place their 
feet on the floor. 

The most interesting novelty in the Schenk desk is 
that it can be adjusted for a pupil of any size at 
once and without trouble. By means of the guiding 
rod in the back and the curved support in front, the 
desk is made to sink down as it is pulled toward the 
pupil, without losing its inclination of 15. The ad- 
justment to the individual pupil takes place in this 
way. The pupil raises the desk-top a little at the 
front and draws it towards himself till his elbows 
touch the back-rest, when he lets it down on the box 
underneath, where it becomes fixed automatically. To 
make the back-rest and seat serve for all sizes, the 
former is made so high as to cover the shoulders and 
the latter so broad as to reach to the back of the knee 
of the smallest pupils. In the same seat adults would 
have two-thirds of the back and upper legs supported, 
which is well enough at least for them. 

The Schenk desk has unfortunately not yet been 
sufficiently tested to make it possible for us to speak 
with certainty of its practicability. We may, never- 
theless, make a favorable prediction for its future. 

The school desks now to be described have instead 
of movable desk-tops movable seats. 


In the case of long desks with continuous benches 1 
ior several pupils this arrangement has the disadvant- 
age of not allowing a pupil to stand up in them with- 
out having the other pupils at the same desk rise at 
the same time. The preference must therefore be 
given to movable single seats. In this class we have 
the movable seats of Vogdt and Prausek 2 , the rotation 
seat of Van den Esch, the lid seat of Vogel, and the 
pendular seats of Kaiser, Lickroth, Elsaesser, and 
Kottmann. A description will be given of only the 
last three, since the others are not suitable for higher 
grade schools. 

In the case of the normal school desks by Lickroth 
of Dresden (figure 23), the single seats consist either 
of a continuous board or of several narrow strips 
screwed to two triangular frames. 


1 Hippauf, Eine neue Schulbank. Ostrowo, Selbst- 
verlag. Cf. Eulenbergs Vierteljahrsschrift, Vol. 28, 
p. 390 ff. 

2 Vincenz Prausek, Uber Schulbiinke oder Schultische 
mit Sessel. 2 ed. Wien, 1888. 


When the pupil stands up, the whole seat swings back 
on low centres of rotation from the pressure of the 
back of the legs. It makes no noise in striking, since 
it falls on a padding of felt. When on the other hand 
the pupil seats himself, the weight of his body carries- 
the seat into position. Here, too, there is no noise 
or pinching of fingers, since the latter cannot come in- 
to contact with the striking parts as they are out of 
reach below. Nor can the pupils' clothing be caught y 
since the rear edge of the seat is several centimeters 
below the lower edge of the back-rest. 

It is best to have the lateral supports of the desk 
and seat made of iron, not wood. Iron frames facilitate 
the maintenance of discipline and the oversight of 
the cleaning by not obstructing the view; they also- 
make the replacing of injured wooden parts easy, and 
have shown themselves so durable that the factory 
will guarantee them for fifteen years. Cast iron is 
better than wrought iron, since it does not bend or 
yield to pressure, while wrought iron vibrates some- 
what on account of its elasticity. 

The school desks by Elsaesser of Schonau at Heidel- 
berg and those by Kottmann of Ohringen in Wiirtem- 
berg are built on exactly the same principle as those 
by Lickroth. We can therefore omit the description 
of them, the more so, since figure 13, page 141, and 
figure 24 below give a sufficiently clear explanation of 
the Elsaesser and Kottmann desks, respectively. 




The school desk " Columbus" by Eamminger and 
Stetter of Tauberbischofsheim (Baden), deserves a 
more minute study, since it does not depend upon any 
other existing system but upon a peculiar innovation. 



The special feature consists in having the individual 
seats divided longitudinally into two sections. The 
rear part is hinged to the supporting frame of the seat, 
and articulates with the front part by means of a 
strong hemp belt screwed on with iron bands. The 
two parts take a gable-like position when the pupil 
rises and become level again when he sits down, with- 
out being touched by the hand in either case. In the 
first case, we have a positive distance of ten to twelve 
cm., in the latter, a negative distance of two or three. 
The low price and the fact that the peculiar seat can- 
be used with any kind of desk is especially noteworthy. 
The manufactures also supply the patented seat by 
itself if the other parts are to be constructed by local 
cabinet makers. It is true loud complaints against the 
system have been heard from the gymnasium at Heidel- 
berg; but Wallraff 1 and Bendziula (see page 149) speak 
decidedly in its favor, and we have ourselves heard no 
adverse criticism on the sample "Columbus" desk 
placed in one of the schools in Hamburg, but rather,, 
that it was practical and servicable. 

It has in late years been repeatedly suggested that 
even with the proper kind of desk much sitting is 

J Gustav Wallraff, Die Schulbank " Columbus" von 
Ramminger & Stetter in Tauberbischofsheim (Baden) ; 
Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1894, Xo. 1,, 
p. 22 ff. 


liable to injure the abdominal organs and the circula- 
tion. Desks have accordingly been proposed which can 
be arranged for standing as well as sitting. These are 
hardly necessary for the lower and intermediate classes, 
since the pupils here rise when questioned, and tumble 
about vigorously on the play ground during recesses. 
They are rather to be thought of for the upper classes ; 
yet we must remember that long continued standing 
not only fatigues both mind and body but may also 
interfere with the lungs and heart, since it is rather 
natural to lean forward on the desk. 

One of the best of these desks is a pattern by Kott- 
man. Figures 26 and 27 give an illustration of it. 



The change from the sitting to the standing desk is 
made by merely taking hold of the top and turning it 


over; and the solidity of the desk is not in the least af- 
fected by this arrangement. The iron supports project- 
ing above the desk when it is arranged for sitting are, 
however, not so desirable, since pupils are liable to 
knock against them. 

On the whole, the most suitable desks for higher 
grade schools are the more recent patterns by Lickroth, 
Elsaesser, Kottmann, and Ramminger and Stetter, 
although the older desks of Kunze and Parow are 

Whatever the desks selected, there should be three 
different sizes in each room. The height of the pupil 
for which it is intended should be marked on each 
desk. For pupils are to be seated according to height, 
and not according to their ability in extempore Latin 
recitations or according to any other insignificant cir- 
cumstance. The seating, which is to be otherwise 
permanent, should be rearranged twice a year for the 
upper and lower, and three times a year for the inter- 
mediate classes, on account of the more rapid growth 
of the latter. 

It should be done preferably by the principal, other- 
wise by the head teacher. The necessary measure- 
ments can be made very quickly as follows: Two 
sheets of paper are fastened immediately above one 
another on the class-room door so that the lower will 
correspond in height with that of the shorter, the up- 


per with that of the taller pupils. If an individual 
pupil is now made to stand straight with his back 
against the door without removing his shoes and a 
book is placed horizontally over his head, it only re- 
mains to draw a line under the lower edge of the book 
and write the pupil's name near it. The distance of 
this mark from the lower edge of the paper added to 
the distance of the latter from the floor gives the 
height of the pupil. 

In the assignment of seats, which then takes place, 
defects of sight and hearing as well as of speech 
should of course be taken into account, but only in 
so far as they cannot be cured by medical treatment. 
For instance, near-sighted pupils hardly ever find a 
front seat absolutely necessary, but may as well enjoy 
the comfort of a desk suited to their height, since 
with the proper glasses they can read what is written 
on the blackboard at greater distances. 


Not to omit one of the important pieces of furniture 
of a school-room, we must now consider blackboards. 
These may be made of wood, slate, glass, or cloth. If 
made of wood, this must be hard, free from knots, 
smooth, and thoroughly dry. In case slate is used, we 
must see that it is black enough. Of glass blackboards, 
those which are black throughout are to be preferred 


to those made of ordinary ground glass and painted 
black on the outside. Cloth blackboards are light and 
easily manipulated, and they help to reduce the 
amount of chalk dust, which is so injurious; but they 
must be stretched very tight to make it possible to 
write well and conveniently on them. 

To make the white letters stand out in the sharpest 
possible contrast with the background, the latter must 
be deep black, but with a dull finish, since a shining 
board is dazzling. After it has been washed off with 
a wet eraser, it should be properly dried, both for the 
reason last given above and because otherwise chalk 
marks can not be seen on it. Since the paint wears 
away gradually, it is well not to wait too long before 
putting on another coat. 

The slate-color made by H. Reinhold of Hamburg 
can be recommended for this purpose, since it is a deep 
black and dries so rapidly that all the boards in a 
school with many rooms could be painted one day and 
be used the next. Red lines, such as those for musi- 
cal notes, had better not be painted on the board but 
be inlaid with some sort of a cement to prevent them 
from being rubbed off. 

To make it possible to bring the blackboard into the 
best light and into the proper position with respect to 
the eyes of the pupil we may use a roller frame or 
a movable easel. Blackboards attached to the walls 



are not so useful. The roller frame is usually so 
arranged that the blackboard can be turned on an 
horizontal axis. (See figure 28.) 


This makes it possible not only to give it any inclina- 



tion we please, but also to turn it over so that the 
other side may be used. Roller frames sometimes have 
blackboards mounted in grooves with a counterpoise, so 
that they can be pulled up and down. Even with easels 
(see figure 29) they can be placed higher and lower if 
the two front "supports have a number of holes for 
wooden pegs. 






If an adjustable holder in the shape of a "~|~" is 
placed on top of a roller frame or an easel (see 
figure 30), maps and pictures may be hung on it, and 
a special map-holder, such as those made by Jungels, 
Elsaesser, and Lickroth can be omitted. Figures 31 
and 32 show one of the latter both opened and closed. 







A good grade of purified chalk should be used in 


writing on the blackboard ; and it had better be kept 
in a damp place when not needed. The kind gener- 
ally employed is the so-called Champagne chalk, which 
can be bought anywhere under the name of school- 
chalk. As regards colors, the eye prefers a pale yel- 
low to a dazzling white, just as we prefer to write on 
yellowish rather than pure white paper. 

The red, yellow, and green crayons often used in 
science work to make drawings on the board more 
definite, should be handled with especial care. These 
colors are produced by the aid of litharge, red 
lead, chrome yellow, and even arsenic and sulphite of 
mercury ; and since the colored chalk marks are often 
rubbed off with a dry eraser, there is danger of poison- 
ing by dust containing lead chromium, arsenic, and 
mercury. Poisonous chalk and even the common 
kind had better be used with Soennecken's chalk 
holder. This is a round or square nickel plated tube 
in which a piece of chalk is caught fast by the push- 
ing forward of a ring as in a crayon holder. Not only 
can the fingers and clothing be kept clean in this way ; 
but the chalk can be used up to the last scrap. 

Wet sponges or cloths are usually employed as eras- 
ers. The latter are cheaper, easier to clean, and do not 
have the offensive odor almost always attached to wet 
sponges. If the latter are used nevertheless, they 
should be large, and as fine and compact as possible. 


Before using a new sponge, it should be freed from 
sand, pressed together, and cut in two ; and erasures 
should be made only with the cut side of each half. 
Since this is more compact and durable than the sur- 
face, it does not disintegrate so rapidly and saves from 
40 to 50 per cent in wear, to say nothing of the hygienic 


The purpose of the hygiene of the school-room, 
which we have been discussing up to this point, is in 
the last analysis to serve the personal hygiene of the 
pupil ; and to this we now turn our attention, begin- 
ning with the hygiene of the nervous system. 

The most important part of the latter is the brain, 
the acropolis of the human mind. It is the principal 
centre in the youthful organism for all the activities 
connected with education. The attempt has therefore 
been made at all times to find some measure of its 

At first the assumption was made that the cubic con- 
tents of the skull, or what is nearly the same, the 
weight of the brain would serve this purpose. At 
any rate, the nations of Europe come first with a skull 
capacity of 1,580 com., then the Chinese with 1,510 
ccm., and next the New Caledonians, Tasmanians, 
Negroes, Australians, and last of all the Nubians with 
1,330 ccm. 

Too much significance must, however, not be at- 
tached to these figures. Men of eminent ability have 
not always had heavy but sometimes unusually light 
brains. Cuvier, Beethoven, and Byron, it is true, had 
massive heads with a capacity of over 1,800 ccm., 



and Kant one of 1,740 ccm., but the brains of Dante 
and Liebig weighed less than those of many Austra- 
lian negroes, and Gambetta's barely reached 1,100 
grams. Even in the case of the central nervous sys- 
tem, the body plays a part of no less importance than 
the soul. 

Nevertheless, with respect to the weight of the 
fa rain, it will ever be a significant fact that in compari- 
son with the weight of the body and the other organs 
its weight is relatively much higher during the entire 
period of youth than at other times. According to 
Bischoff it weighs 1,147 g. at six, 1,201 g. at seven, 
1,286 at twelve, 1,336 g. at fourteen, and 1,414 at the 
age of fifteen. Hence the weight of the brain does 
not increase in the same proportion as the weight of 
the body, but becomes relatively less, attaining, how- 
ever, a constant relation to the latter from the eigh- 
teenth to the twentieth year. 

Since the mental capacity of a pupil can not be 
estimated by his cranial measurements, one of the 
most prominent psychiatrists, Arndt, has suggested 
that it varies with the amount of grey matter in the 
cortex of the brain. Gratiolet found that the brain 
of a typical Bushwoman had few convolutions, and 
that these were very simple and undeveloped. The 
brain of a Voltaire and a Beethoven, on the other hand, 
could be distinguished from a thousand others by its 
innumerable convolutions, and in the case of Gauss, 
Wagner found manifold divisions even in the cen- 


tral gyri. Helmholtz's brain was also remarkable- 
for the large number of convolutions, separated from 
each other by deep penetrating fissures. On the other 
hand, Hyrtl assures us that he has found an increase 
in the number of convolutions, and a considerable deep- 
ening of the fissures even in the last stages of imbe- 

The further theory of Arndt, that the character of 
the mental processes depends upon the differentiation 
of the nervous elements, is rather more probable. If 
the axis cylinder in the middle of the nerve is not 
sufficiently developed, or separated from its environ- 
ment, it will lose its function the sooner, and further- 
more transmit stimuli to its neighbors. The rapid 
exhaustion, and tendency toward all sorts of sympa- 
thetic sensations and movements, such as are observed 
in children and individuals with arrested develop- 
ment, is a natural consequence. The result would be 
the same if the medullary sheaths of the nerves were 
not developed, as they are especially found not to be, 
in the post mortem examination of those who in life 
suffered from different kinds of nervous diseases. 
These views of Arndt are, however, merely hypotheses ; 
and the words of Fantoni spoken two hundred years 
ago about the brain will still be applicable for many a 
year: " Obscura textura, obscuriores morbi, functioiies 

The physiological experiments upon the working 
capacity of children's brains rest upon a much firmer 


basis. The first of these were made by Sikorsky 1 . 
His results were obtained from school children, and 
include 1,500 dictation tests with 40,000 letters. The 
principal difference observed between the work done 
in the morning and that done after four to five hours 
of study and recitation was an increase of 33 % in the 
average number of mistakes. 

The method of Sikorsky was followed by Burgerstein 2 . 
He had school children twelve to thirteen years of age 
perform examples in addition and multiplication one 
after the other, in four periods of ten minutes each, 
separated by five minute intermissions, the examples 
used in each period being entirely equivalent in 
quantity and quality. It was found, in the first place, 
that the number of single additions and multiplica- 

1 Sikorsky, Sur les effets de la Lassitude provoquee 
par les travaux intellectuels chez les enfants de 1' age 
scolaire. Annales d' hygiene publique, 1879, Vol. ii, 
p. 458. 

2 Leo Burgerstein, Die Arbeitskurve einer Schulst- 
unde. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1891, 
No. 9, p. 543 ff. and No. 10, p. 607 if. Marion E. 
Holmes, The Fatigue of a School Hour. The Peda- 
gogical Seminary, edited by G. Stanley Hall, 1895, 
Oct., Vol. iii, No. 2, p. 213-234. H. Ebbinghaus, 
tiber eine neue Methode Zur Priifung geistiger Fahig- 
keiten und ihre Anwendung bei Schulkindern. Ham- 
burg und Leipzig, 1897, Leop. Voss. 


tions increased from the first to the second period by 
about 4,000, from the second to the third by 3,000, 
and from the third to the fourth again by 4,000. The 
absolute increase in the amount of work done was, 
therefore, least from the second to the third period. 
The number of errors increased correspondingly from 
the first to the second period by 441, from the second 
to the third by 719, and from the third to the fourth 
by 349 ; that is, the deterioration in the quality of the 
work was greatest from the second to the third period. 
Similar results are obtained by counting the number 
of corrections that occured. These increased from the 
first to the second period by 207, from the second to 
the third by 166, from the third to the fourth by 225. 
The increase in the corrections, that is, the timely 
recognition of a mistake in the work, was accordingly 
least from the second to the third periods. 

All this goes to show that in the third quarter of an 
hour boys of this age suffer a considerable loss in their 
ability to apply themselves seriously to a task upon 
which they have already labored at other times. It 
seems as if there were a relaxation of mental tension, 
and a weakening of the power of concentration, and 
as if the pupil wanted to rest to enable him to begin 
again with renewed energy in the fourth period. 

The work of Laser 1 is connected with that of Bur- 

1 Hugo Laser, Uber geistige Ermiidung bein Schul- 
unterrichte. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 
1894, No. 1, p. 2 ff. 


gerstein. He considers it self-evident that the minds 
of children would finally get fatigued with so much 
counting inside of one hour. Aside from sight reci- 
tations in foreign languages and similar tests, there 
is surely nothing so continuously monotonous in all 
school work as in Burgerstein's experiment. He ad- 
mits, himself, that a school period usually has more 
variety than was found in his method. Laser accord- 
ingly preferred to study not the fatigue from a solid 
hour's work, interrupted only by brief pauses; but 
rather that arising from the customary five hours of 
instruction in the morning. With this in view, he 
had the pupils work examples similar to those of 
Burgerstein at the beginning of each of the five hours, 
allowing, as he did, ten minutes for the exercise. He 
summarizes his results in the following statements : 

1. The number of single additions and multiplica- 
tions, and so the ability to work, was least in the first 

2. The amount of work increases up to the third or 
fourth hour, but diminishes in the fourth or fifth 

3. The number of errors increases up to the fourth 
but is less in the fifth hour. 

4. The number of corrections increases up to the 
fifth hour. 



5. The number making no mistakes decreases from 
the first to the fifth hour. 

Hopfner 1 has obtained results analogous to those of 
Burgerstein and Laser. His observations were taken 
on a class of 46 boys of the average age of nine. In 
order to test their fitness for promotion they were 
required to write about two hours from a dictation, the 
material for which was nineteen sentences prepared 
by the principal of the school. The following table 
shows what errors were made as the work progressed. 

Number of 

Number of letters written 
by all the pupils 

Total number 
of errors 

Per cent of 


21X46 966 

9 . 







19X46 874 










2 232 




2 044 








3 731 




1 922 




2 688 


26X46 =-1196 


4 704 





It will be seen that in the beginning the errors 

a Ludwig Hopfner, fiber die geistige Ermiidung von 
Schulkindern. Inauguraldissertation. Hamburg und 
Leipzig, 1893, Leop. Voss. 


amount to about one per cent, and diminished steadily 
to six-tenths of one per cent in the fourth sentence. 
The increase of errors which then takes place is par- 
ticularly marked from the fifth to the sixth sentence. 
This increase continues up to the last sentence, though 
the numbers do not make so regular a series as at first. 

We find here, in the first place, a confirmation of 
Burgerstein's statement that there is a marked in- 
crease in the fatigue at the end of the first half hour, 
since there is a sudden jump in the per cent of error 
for the sixth sentence, which was written after about 
half an hour's work. If we omit the first four sen- 
tences, the per cent of error increases, moreover, 
with the duration of the work, being 0.9$ at first, 
and 6.4$ at the end. 

Xot less interesting are the pedagogical psychomet- 
ric studies which Keller made on a boy fourteen years 
of age. He starts with the hypothesis that fatigue is 
the result of a chemical process which influences the 
composition of the blood. Thus it will not merely 
affect the organs by whose activity it was produced 
but also, being of a general character, the parts that 
have been at rest. Mental fatigue may accordingly 
be indicated by the muscular fatigue curve. To secure 
the latter, Keller made use of the Mosso Ergograph 1 . 

1 A, Mosso, Die Ermiidung. Aus dem Italiemschen 
ubersetzt von F. Glinzer. Leipzig, 1892, S. Hirzel. 



This consists of two parts : a device for holding the 
forearm, hand, and fingers, with the exception of the 
middle finger, and a recording mechanism illustrated 
in figure 33, which marks the extent of the contrac- 
tions of this finger upon a slowly revolving drum cov- 
ered with smoked paper. 


The pillars, M and L, of the recording apparatus 
are mounted on a long iron plate E. They are forked 
at the top and hold in place two steel rods which serve 
as the track for the carriage. This slides on the rods 
right and left, bearing the metal style R with a goose 
quill point, which writes on the smoked paper of the 
drum. The carriage N has two hooks, to one of 
which is attached the card P, ending in a leather ring 



C ; to the other, the cord 0, which goes over the wheel 
V, and ends in the 3 kg. weight S. The leather ring 
C is placed on the third joint of the pupil's middle 
finger and he is requested to bend his finger to the 
utmost and relax it, alternately, as many times as he 
can in time with the beats of a metronome. The 
weight S is moved up and down, and the carriage 1^ 
with the style K, right and left, describing as it does 
so a figure something like 34 below, whose upper out 
line is called the curve of fatigue. 


If the heights of the separate contractions are meas- 
ured and added together into meters, the total amount 
of work done in kg. meters can be obtained by multi- 
plying this sum by the weight S, in kilograms. In 
this manner Keller found that mental work was at 


first stimulating, not fatiguing, since after fifty 
minutes of study the amount of work done by the 
muscles of the pupil experimented upon was double 
what it was at first. The ability to work then begins 
to diminish, and a condition of fatigue shows itself 
yery clearly in spite of a rest of more than an hour. 

It was also ascertained that continuous mental labor, 
though of only short duration, produced a greater 
degree of fatigue, and that more quickly, than when 
the same amount of work was interrupted by short 
periods of rest. As was to be expected, it was also 
shown that the harder the mental work the more 
quickly does fatigue set in. In reading German the 
pupil required 0.3515 seconds for recognizing and 
naming a word, and 0.184 seconds for a syllable. The 
time for the similar processes with Latin was 54^ 
higher for the word, and 30 % for the syllables. The 
curve of fatigue in reading Latin consequently reached 
its greatest height much sooner and fell oft more 
abruptly. Singing and gymnastics appear, moreover, 
to be rather taxing and capable of reducing the work- 
ing power of the brain considerably. 

Kemsies 1 has, also, made investigations with the 
Mosso Ergograph for the same purpose as Keller. He 

1 Ferdinand Kemsies, Zur Frage der Uberbiirdung 
unserer Schuljugend. Deutsche medizinische Woch- 
enschrift, 1896 und Xeue Bahnen, 1897. 


used the instrument almost daily for four months in 
testing at all times of day the condition of a number 
of the pupils of the different classes of the fifth real 
school and one other school in Berlin. The records 
obtained give evidence as to the physical effects of 
the preceding lessons. Tests were also made on holi- 
days, to establish the difference in the results on these 
and the regular school days. Attentive and industri- 
ous boys were selected for the experiment, since the 
total effect of the school work could be expected to 
show itself in them. 

From this investigation, it became evident, in the 
first place, that a diminution in muscular energy or, 
what means the same thing, fatigue of mind and body, 
set in after only a brief period of mental labor. It 
disappears in one or two hours if a change is made in 
the work, especially if the change is from a hard to an 
easy subject. Severe fatigue comes on with great reg- 
ularity in the periods of mathematics and gymnastics, 
while, on the other hand, recuperation seems to take 
place during the periods for history, geography, and 
nature study. Modern languages occupy, with respect 
to fatiguing power, a middle place. Singing and 
drawing, moreover, make rather great demands on 
those who do well in these branches. 

We must now discriminate between temporary de- 
pression and depressions of long duration, which dis- 


appear only in the time free from school work, or 
which last for days and weeks. The latter take place 
whenever the organism has lost its power of resistance, 
either from lack of sleep, food, or sufficient exercise in 
the open air, or from overwork or sickness. The re- 
sponsibility rests here mainly with the home ; but the 
school is also implicated in so far as it gives occasion 
for excessive effort. Without its cooperation depres- 
sions of such long standing would perhaps not occur, 
and would, at any rate, be more readily cured. Ac- 
cording to experiments made by Kemsies on himself, 
the remedies for such depression are above all sufficient 
food, plenty of sleep, baths, and out-door rambles. 

The experiments of Januschke were made with still 
more regard for the practical needs of school life. 
His conclusions, in the first place, confirm those of 
Burgerstein. In tabulating the results of an inci- 
dental mathematical exercise in Class II, a distinct 
retrogression in ability was observed after the first 
three-fourths of an hour. The twenty-nine pupils 
obtained in the four successive quarters of an hour 
493, 576, 566, 511 results, respectively. We see that 
the work in the first quarter of an hour was the least, 
evidently on account of deficient application and con- 
centration; that it increased considerably in the second, 
began to decrease in the third, and was distinctly less 
in the fourth. 


It was, furthermore, possible to show here again what 
different demands are made upon mental energy by 
different subjects. The average time which a pupil 
of medium ability required to learn forty lines in the 
following text-books was for the principles of the 
Catholic religion, Class I, 50 minutes, Class II 40 
minutes, Class V and VI 36 minutes; for geography 40 
minutes, for secular and Biblical history 20 minutes, 
for zoology, Class I and V, only ten minutes. The 
time for learning a poem was found to be three to four 
times as long as that for learning a section in history 
with just as many words. To memorize a French voca- 
ble required on an average 0.8 minutes. This figure 
holds good up to 24 terms. Trained and gifted pupils 
took only half this time, while the less gifted and 
trained took longer. 

The influence of practice or habituation was also very 
noticeable in other respects. Twenty-four pupils, for 
instance, committed half or less than half of a poem, 
while in the same time thirteen committed more than 
half or all. This is to be explained by the fact that those 
who learned slowly required more time to concentrate 
their minds than those who learned rapidly. The time 
for memorizing the successive stanzas of a poem 
became gradually shorter for the former, while it re- 
mained about the same from the first for the latter. 

Associated words were naturally more readily re- 


tained than those that were disconnected. Of twelve 
connected and twelve disconnected words, the pupils 
remembered 97 and 59 per cent respectively. In the 
case of sentences from the text-books which were 
read by the pupils in order to be reproduced, it was 
found that those which were short and logically con- 
nected were apprehended the best ; and that associated 
ideas, like subject and predicate, predicate and object, 
attribute and substantive, were always noted and re- 
produced in 'their relation. How very important the 
inner organization of the material is for both appre- 
hension and remembering, and how seriously progress 
in knowledge is retarded by any gap in the same, has 
of course already been recognized. 

To determine the best method of memorizing, series 
of twelve unconnected words were presented to the 
pupils so that the first series was perceived only by ear, 
the second was read silently by sight from the board, 
the third was read aloud, and the fourth was written 
from hearing. In the first case, they retained 58 $, in 
the second 61 $, in the third 64 $, and in the fourth 
76 <f>. According to this, committing to memory is 
most difficult by hearing alone, easier by sight, still 
easier by sight and hearing, and easiest of all by writ- 
ing what is heard. 

Two test series were used to ascertain whether or 
not gymnastics would be a means of recreation from 
fatigue. These consisted of fifteen numbers between 


one and thirty, and were read to be memorized in class 
II and ITT, one before and one after the exercise. In 
Class III 3 $, in Class II 7 % more was retained after 
the exercise. These results contradicted those of 
Keller and Kemsies, but are supported by the state- 
ment of Schiller that the pupils of the gymnasium at 
Giessen show they are mentally refreshed by the gym- 
nastics at recess. 

Griesbach 1 has employed a new method of measur- 
ing mental fatigue in school children. According to 
his observations, brain fatigue diminishes the sensibility 
of the skin. To determine the amount of this diminu- 
tion he employed the method of E. H. Weber, who 
placed blunted compass points on the skin and ascer- 
tained how near these could be moved toward one an- 
other and yet be felt as two distinct points. The 
smaller the distance between the points still felt as 
two, the greater the discriminative ability. Gries- 
bach's aesthesiometer 2 , of which a sketch is given in 
figure 35, serves the same purpose as Weber's com- 

1 H. Griesbach, Energetik und Hygiene des Xerven 
systems in der Schule. Miinchen und Leipsig, 1895, 
R. Oldenbourg. Theodore Vannod, La fatigue intel- 
lectuelle et son influence snr la sensibilile cutanee. 
These inaugurale Geneve, 1896, Rey et Malavallon. 

2 H. Griesbach, Ein neues Aesthesiometer. Bonn, 
1897, Em. Strauss. 




*i % 














i il 11 


Two metal tubes A and B are attached to a metal 
scale C in such a way that A remains stationary, and 
B is movable. The tubes are screwed fast to the 
plates D and E, which are supplied with the rings F 
and G respectively. The plate E has an opening for 
the scale C. The thumb and fore-finger of the right 
hand are placed in F and G, and the middle finger rests 
on the projection H. In each tube is a pointed metal 
shaft I and K, pushed outward by a spring. If one 
desires to use blunt instead of sharp points it is only 
necessary to push the cap L over the shafts. Small 
indicators in the slit at N, and at a corresponding 
point in the other tube, opposite A, as shown by dots, 
show the pressure on the points in gramms. 

Griesbach tested with both sharp and blunt points 


the following localities: the forehead, the zygomatic 
arch, the tip of the nose, the red edge of the lower 
lip, and the ball of the thumb of the right hand. Those 
subjected to the experiments were the pupils of the 
superior real-school, the upper classes of the gymnasium 
at Miilhausen, i. E. ; and also other persons, such as 
teachers and a superior school councillor. Eecords 
of the normal sensibility of the skin were obtained on 
Sundays and holidays, and those of the influence of 
work, after each recitation period. In the case of 
the pupils of the superior real-school, some records 
were incidentally secured after the oral and written 
examination for the one year's military service. 

One inference from this study is that the beginning 
of instruction in summer at 7 o'clock is not to be rec- 
ommended. Pupils of the middle and higher classes 
especially showed at this hour depressed sensitiveness. 

This corresponds with L. Wagner's 1 observation 
that the large figures which he obtained with the 
aesthesiometer at the beginning were succeeded by 
smaller ones in the course of the forenoon. The cause 
of this phenomenon is in all probability insufficient 
sleep, and the pupils from a distance who were com- 

x Ludwig Wagner, Unterricht und Ermiidung. Er- 
mudungs messungen an Schiilern des neuen Gymnasi- 
ums in Darmstadt. Berlin, 1898, Reuther und 


pelled to rise early showed the greatest degree of 

Different subjects have different powers of inducing 
fatigue, the ancient languages, history, and mathe- 
matics having the greater and more marked effects, 
especially if memory work is insisted upon. Wagner 
states that the study of mathematics caused a depres- 
sion a third greater than that produced by the study of 
religion and drawing. 

According to Griesbach the intermissions between 
lessons are often too short, since they do not suffice 
for the restoration of the sensitiveness of the skin to- 
its normal degree. The least sensitiveness was often 
found during the afternoon recitations, the two hour 
recess from twelve to two not affording enough recrea- 
tion. Wagner, also, makes the assertion that after- 
noon work is particularly injurious to the brain. 



The above psychological experiments give us, in the 
first place, a number of principles for the arrangement 
of the daily programme. Sikorsky and Laser found 
that the quality of the work deteriorated up to the 
fifth and fourth hours respectively; hence difficult 
subjects which particularly tax the powers of abstrac- 
tion should be placed at the beginning. Ancient and 
modern languages and mathematics belong in this 

Whether it is wise to put these subjects in the very 
first period, must, to be sure, be considered somewhat 
doubtful on account of the statements of Burgerstein 
and Laser, in whose experiments the amount of work 
done was least in the first hour, that is, in the first 
quarter of an hour. If all the abstract studies can- 
not be given a place in the first hours of the day, the 
next best time will be that directly after the long recess. 

Examinations of every kind, such as those for pro- 
motions, are to be treated like the class of subjects 
just described. They also should therefore be given 
in the first hours of the day, and should not be massed 
together on the same day. 



While foreign languages and mathematics bring the 
reasoning faculties especially into play, religion, his- 
tory, and the mother tongue apply more to the feel- 
ings and the will. Other subjects, again, like geogra- 
phy, when this does not consist of a dry recital of 
names, appeal to pupils by reason of the interesting 
and easily comprehensible material they present. All 
these subjects should be given the second place on the 

The scientific courses which have numerous experi- 
ments and demonstrations and bring observation and 
perception prominently into play should be next. 
Manual training, and other arts like writing, drawing, 
singing, gymnastics, etc., are to be reserved for the 
last place. To be sure, teachers of gymnastics demand 
that exercises with apparatus should come earlier ; but, 
when this happens, pupils are often unable to write the 
hour succeeding on account of the previous strain on 
the muscles of the arm. 

It must not be forgotten that these hygienic princi- 
ples cannot always be put into practice. In the first 
place, the principal may be hindred in arranging the 
programme by the small number of teachers at his 
disposal. He must endeavor to make their hours of 
labor as nearly consecutive as possible, since intermedi- 
ate vacant periods cannot be put to much use. And, 
finally, there are some subjects like singing, drawing,, 


and gymnastics, for which there is but a single room; 
and this cannot be used at the same time by several 

If the daily programme is to be so arranged as to 
make the different mental activities of the pupils re- 
lieve one another, this must also be realized within* 
each single hour. Keller has shown that continuous 
work in one direction is more depressing than the 
same amount of work when interrupted by brief peri- 
ods of rest. Change from one kind of mental activity 
to another affords the same relief as the latter. Think- 
ing for a long time, especially on the same topic, is 
very fatiguing. 

But if the teacher also appeals to the feelings and 
seeks to mould the will of his pupil she can thereby 
avoid producing one-sided cerebral over-pressure. 

" A monotonous drill," as Schiller truly observes, 
" if continued for a long time, is especially dangerous, 
since ideas or groups of ideas soon disappear from the 
minds of some of the pupils if they are not stimulated 
by the novelty or the importance of the contents. 
Certain injury can only be avoided by having the fun- 
damental activities, perception thought, and practice 
exercised in suitable alternation." 

He goes on to explain that the proper employment 
of lectures, demonstrations, and conversations, is the 
best way to avoid that monotony which is sure to lead 


to fatigue. The demonstrational or illustrative method 
deserves special emphasis, since its use in the human- 
istic studies is not yet what it might be. To be sure, 
the class-rooms and corridors were never decorated so 
much as now with statues, pictures, and photographs 
.of classical antiquity. A Eoman soldier in full armor 
or a model of Csesar?s bridge across the Rhine can also 
now and then be found. Nevertheless, we can say 
that the excellent pictures we have of the life of an- 
tiquity should be used much more than they are ; and 
that archeological, historical, and geographical collec- 
tions for higher schools should be begun even if only 
on a modest scale. 

But, however, much the labor of learning may be 
lightened, pupils will nevertheless in the end experi- 
ence a depression in ability to work. This sets in, 
according to the experiments of Januschke, Hopfner, 
and Burgerstein after about three-fourths of an hour. 
The length of a lesson should not very much exceed 
this amount; in fact, for the first three years it may 
better be less. 

What it means to attend to a subject for forty to 
fifty minutes, with complete absorption, we can know 
from our own experience in listening to an orator 
who has held us spell-bound for three-quarters of an 
hour. Even a person accustomed to brain work will 
feel in such a case somewhat tired. Pupils from six 


to nine experience this brain weariness much earlier. 

The proposition to instruct the younger children, 
including those in primary preparatory schools, in 
half hour rather than hour periods should be carefully 
observed. Excellent results have been attained with 
this plan in Frankfurt a. M. More was done in six 
half hour lessons than in four full hour lessons in 
number work, and an equivalent amount was done in 
religious instruction. This plan can be carried out 
only when the preparatory rooms are so far away from 
the rest that the pupils will not disturb each other on 
account of the lack of correspondence in the recesses. 

With regard to recesses, the Elsass-Lothringer ordi- 
nance of 1882 required that they should in general be 
ten minutes long, except between the second and third 
hours in the morning, when fifteen minutes should be 
allowed. For Hessen-Darmstadt, a decree of May 25, 
1883, lays down the rule that the intermission between 
lessons in all classes in the secondary schools shall be 
fifteen minutes. The Prussian medical commission 
advocates in its recommendation of Dec. 19, 1883, 
the same plan for primary preparatory schools and 
the lower classes of the secondary schools, while it 
considers a shorter time sufficient for the upper 
classes. By reason of this advice, the Prussian 
ministry of education on Xov. 10, 1884, ordered that 
the total time given to intermissions should be not less 


than 40 nor more than 45 minutes, whether the school 
had two sessions with four hours in the morning and 
two in the afternoon, or a single session of five hours. 

On days when the forenoon work is limited to three 
hours, the free time must be shortened correspondingly. 
Finally, a ministerial decree gave the Bavarian second- 
ary schools, in the spring of 1891, a recess of ten min- 
utes after each lesson. 

The above figures for the duration of recesses have, 
however, under certain circumstances been reduced. 
Thus the Prussian cultus-minister has given permission 
for the shortening of the intermission between the 
two afternoon hours to the time necessary for 
changing classes, as a compensation for closing the 
schools a quarter of an hour earlier in places where 
this is necessary in winter on account of the absence 
or inadequacy of the means for artificial lighting. 
Although this is regrettable, the example of Baden is 
still more so, when it seeks to obviate the difficulties 
of arranging the programme for the short days of the 
winter months by limiting all recesses. 

Kraeplin 1 not only rejects all such expedients, but 

J Emil Kraeplin, Uber geistige Arbeit. Jena, 1894, 
Gust. Fischer. Gustav Richter, Unterricht und 
geistige Ermiidung. Eine schulmiinnische AVurdigung 
der Schrift E. Kraeplins "Uber geistige Arbeit." 
Halle a. S., 1895, Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses. 


demands that recesses, to fulfill their purpose, should 
not only be considerably longer than they generally 
are, but should follow one another at shorter intervals 
and increase in length throughout the school day. But 
as long as we do not have purely ideal and continuously, 
attentive pupils to deal with, the programme for rest 
and work proposed by Hakonson-Hansens deserves the 
preference : 

8.00-8.50 recitations. 
8.50-9.00 rest, 10 minutes. 
9.00-9.50 recitations. 
9-50-10.00 rest, 10 minutes. 
1 0. 00-10. 50 recitations. 

10.50-11.10 long recess for lunch, 20 minutes. 
11.10-12.00 recitations. 
12.00-12.10 rest, 10 minutes. 
12.10-1.00 rest, 10 minutes. 
1.00-1.10 rest, 10 minutes. 
1.10-2.00 recitations. 

The use made of the recess is still more important 
than its length. Above all it must not be employed 
for studying, since its primary purpose is to give the 
mind rest. Pupils are, nevertheless, often seen mem- 
orizing or preparing for the next hour at recess. This 
usually happens when they have not been sufficiently 
industrious at home. 

As it is as hard to study on an empty as on a full 
stomach, opportunity for eating lunch should also be 


given at intermissions. The time for this should not 
be too short, since the pupils will otherwise eat too 
little, or else not masticate their food sufficiently. In 
the latter case, the food particles are too large for 
.digestion, and besides are not properly mixed with 
saliva in chewing, and catarrh of the stomach may be 

The arrangement in some gymnasia and real-gym- 
nasia for supplying the pupils in cold weather with 
warm milk is strongly to be recommended. This 
must not, however, come from consumptive cows, 
since it might then communicate tuberculosis. In any 
case, there must be a supply of drinking water, hygeni- 
cally unobjectionable. 

The disproportion between the activity of mind and 
body in school work can best be adjusted by movement 
in the open air, which at the same time has a stimulat- 
ing effect upon the brain. For this purpose there must 
be carefully arranged and well drained play grounds, 
covered with rather coarse gravel. They should be 
sprinkled with water in the summer. 

In all kinds of bad weather and in very high or very 
low temperatures, well ventilated gymnastic halls and 
corridors are the best substitutes for play grounds, if 
.a part of the latter is not roofed over with glass, as is 
often done in France. 

Though we agree with Januschke and others that 


exercise is a means of recreation from mental labor, 
we are, nevertheless, not certain that gymnastics 
should be allowed in the intermissions. Since this 
ought not to be undertaken without supervision, it 
would encroach upon the time of the teacher of gym- 
nastics and the head gymnast. For the weak and nerv- 
ous, it is, moreover too violent recreation, and is liable 
to lead to headache and great agitation in the follow- 
ing period. On the other hand, exercises that children 
delight in and every kind of game should be allowed ; 
yelling even ought not be put down too scrupulously, 
since it is admirable gymnastics for the lungs. In 
general, pupils will find the more recreation in the 
recesses, the more what they do or do not do has the 
impress of freedom and spontaneity. 

In discussing recesses, the question of divided or 
undivided school sessions must also be considered, in- 
asmuch as with a divided session there is more inter- 
mission in the school work. The question is not to be 
settled wholly according to the wishes of the parents, 
as these are likely to be very different. When a vote 
was taken in Frankfurt a. M. to ascertain the prefer- 
ences of the families interested in a number of boys' 
schools, 1,603 were for, and 1,268, against the single 
session. The matter must be looked at also from some 
general, hygienic, pedagogical, and didactic points of 


From the hygienic side it cannot be denied that in five 
or six hours of recitations in the morning even with 
adequate intermissions a pupil's mental receptivity will 
diminish; and that he is liable to be overworked. But 
is this diminution of ability greater in the last hours 
of the single session than in the two hours in the after- 
noon ? When a meal is eaten between twelve and one 
o'clock and recitations begin at two, digestion is not 
complete till about the close of school. As a conse- 
quence, the pupils are sleepy in the first and anxious to 
move about in the second of the two afternoon periods. 
If a part of one's energy has to be used for bodily 
functions, the stream of thought is obstructed, and 
mental processes take a long time in forming. On the 
other hand, digestion increases the temperature of the 
body and leads to the formation of more blood, there- 
by stimulating the organs of motion. The rest given 
by the two hours noon recess is, therefore, more than 
neutralized, and the last hours of the single session 
are to be preferred to the afternoon periods, particu- 
larly as Griesbach and Wagner have found that pupils 
show evidence of greater fatigue in the afternoon. 

Another advantage of the single session is that a 
school period from nine to two or three occupies the 
only time of day in the 'winter months from Xovember 
to February when natural illumination is favorable. 
From eight to nine in the morning, or three to four in 
the afternoon, artificial illumination must often be 


used. This is not only less agreeable to the eye, but 
is in many schools decidedly inadequate. 

The fact that the pupils are saved a walk to and 
from school can also be given as an argument in favor 
of the single session. On account of the great monot- 
ony, these walks not only do not give recreation, but 
actually produce fatigue, especially since they have to 
be made through the wind and snow in the winter, in 
the hottest part of the day in summer, and at all times 
through the polluted air of the streets. 

The most important reason for the undivided morn- 
ing session is, however, the fact that it gives the pupils 
time for games, rambles, excursions, bathing, swim- 
ming, and boating in the summer; and skating and 
sleighing in the winter. 

In large cities, where the distances to school are con- 
siderable, and where the habits of life and the occupa- 
tions of the fathers permit having dinner late in the 
day, the undivided session deserves an unqualified 
preference, and has come generally into vogue. In 
small towns, on the other hand, the division into morn- 
ing and afternoon sessions may be allowed, since dinner 
is almost always eaten at noon, and the school can be 
reached in a short time, and a walk in the open air can 
be more easily obtained than in the large city. But 
the regulation of the Prussian minister of education 
should be observed in every case, namely, that both 


boys and girls' schools must have their session at the 
same time, since brothers and sisters would otherwise 
eat dinner separately. 

Besides the recreation periods throughout the day, we 
have those throughout the year, the vacations. The 
length of the latter varies not only with the different 
states of Germany but with the provinces of the same 
state. For example, according to Kunze's calendar 
for secondary schools, they amount to 81 days in Prus- 
sia, West Prussia, Pommerania, Saxony, the govern- 
ment district Kassel, Frankfurt a. M., and Homberg; 
80 days in Brandenburg (including Berlin) and Schles- 
wig-Holstein ; 78 days in Hannover; 76 days in West- 
phalia, and 75 in Silesia; and 74 in Posen and the 
Rhine-province . 

As Sundays are not included in these figures, more 
than a quarter of the year is free from school work. 
A teacher in a gymnasium in Wiirtemberg estimates 
that of the 365 days in the year, 52 Sundays, 68 vacation 
days, and 63 other days are taken out from the work 
of instruction in the institution. That leaves 215 
school days, or approximately seven-twelfths of the 
year. Since mental work exhausts the nervous system 
more than other kinds of labor, the pupils of the 
higher institutions need long vacations; and a school 
hygienist can observe such a state of affairs only with 


Moreover, observations made by Kussian medical 
experts upon 9,500 pupils in 40 different institutions 
have shown that the influence of long vacations upon 
health is very favorable, since the amount of sickness 
in the succeeding year was less than when the vacations 
were shorter. 

There is still greater dissimilarity in the different 
parts of Germany with respect to the time of year 
when vacations come than with respect to their dura- 
tion. In the Protestant section of Prussia, the long 
vacation comes in the middle of the summer semester ; 
while it comes at the end of this semester in Austria, 
South and West Germany, and in the Catholic gym- 
nasia in Prussia. The latter is hygienically the better, 
because the pupils have in this case a feeling of per- 
fect freedom since the examinations are over; while, 
in the other case, the final or promotion examinations 
are to be faced a few weeks after their return. 

Moreover, it is best to have a period of rest directly 
after the examinations. A committee of the British 
medical association found that immediately after an 
examination the number of nervous pupils rose from 
10 to 13.3^; and Ignatieff ascertained in a boarding 
school in Moscow that 191 out of 242 pupils lost on an 
average 1516 grams in weight during the period of 
examinations. A demand has accordingly come from 
many places that the school year should in correspon- 
dence with the civil year be divided into two semesters, 


"beginning January and July respectively. The main 
vacations at the end would then come about Christmas 
and St. John's day (July 1). 

An argument for this plan is the fact that the maxi- 
mum summer temperature falls in the North of Ger- 
many not in August but in July ; and, in fact, at the 
beginning of July. Furthermore, the great shorten- 
ing of the summer semester, when Easter comes late, 
could be avoided ; and the hard winter's work could 
be divided evenly between the two half years. 

The purpose of the vacations is to give teachers and 
taught an opportunity for mental and bodily recupera- 
tion, so that they may return to their work refreshed. 
The Hungarian minister of education, Count Csaky, 
accordingly remonstrated justly against the many re- 
views and exercises with which the pupils of the sec- 
ondary schools are wont to be overburdened in vaca- 
tions. He would have only so much assigned for 
learning as will do for the regular lessons. The royal 
provincial school board of the province of Branden- 
burg takes the same stand. It ruled that there should 
fae no special tasks for the shorter vacations. Such 
tasks can be given only for the summer vacation, and 
must be limited as much as possible. Due allowance 
must also be made for those who travel. On the other 
hand, pupils of the upper and intermediate classes are 
to be encouraged and directed to suitable self -employ- 
ment, especially private reading. 


In these regulations, we find travel already men- 
tioned. Since this is particularly refreshing for both 
mind and body, on account of the change of impres- 
sions and continued stay in the open air, it is gratify- 
ing to note that joint vacation trips 1 by pupils are all 
the time becoming more frequent. Such trips have 
been made, among others, by the royal gymnasium at 
Danzig, the Falk real-gymnasium in Berlin, the Mar- 
tino-Catharineum gymnasium of Brunswick, the royal 
Christianeum in Altona, and the real-gymnasium at 

The objective point has usually been the mountains 
of middle Germany; but there have also been longer 
excursions, as for example to the Carpathian moun- 
tains and to Switzerland. We know of one Prima 
that under the leadership of its headmaster visited 
the classical localities of Italy one year, and those of 
Greece the next. Similarly, 100 pupils from the second 
German state gymnasium at Briinn with the director 
and ten teachers made a vacation trip to the former 
Eoman colony of Carnuntum on the Danube. The 
school authorities of Trans Caucasus Russia seem to 
have been particularly active in this direction, since they 

1 Theodore Bach, Wanderungen, Turnfahrten und 
Schiilerreisen. 2d Ed. Leipzig, 1884. Ed. Strauch. 
0. W. Beyer, Deutsche Ferien wander ungen. Schiil- 
erreisen als Auschauungsgange in deutscher Landes- 
nnd Volkskunde. Leipzig, 1894, G. Reichardt. 


carried through a seven weeks excursion to the Elborus 
and the Caucasus range, in which fifty pupils of the 
Tekaterinodar Gymnasium took part. They climbed 
the Vulkan Pass up to the snow limit, and crossed the 
mountain range. 

To give individual pupils an opportunity to travel r 
school-rooms have been fitted up in the Sudetas moun- 
tains, the Riesengebirge, Bohemian Switzerland, and 
the Jeschken, Iser and Erzgebirge, to serve in vaca- 
tions as modest inns for gymnasiats and real-gymnasiats 
who find themselves there over night. In 1893, there 
were 85 such school inns, which could accommodate 
more than 400 guests, and which were used by 5,551 
young people during the summer vacation. Three 
years later the number of inns rose to 103, with 480 
beds and 45 free places; and they entertained 6, '246 
people. The student inns of t'he German and Aus- 
trian Alpine league, though to be sure they are in- 
tended only for gymnasial graduates or university 
students, are somewhat similar institutions. Their 
number at present is over 1,000; and they are dis- 
tributed among 401 different places, of which 157 are 
in Tyrol, 82 in Steiermark, 43 in Karnten, 36 in Ba- 
varia, 25 in Yorarlberg, 14 in Krain, 10 in Upper 
Austria, 6 in Lower Austria, and 1 in Kustenland. 

While the charges at these inns are very moderate,, 
nevertheless, free vacation colonies for the higher 


schools have also heen established. This movement 
was begun by the Hungarian Association of secondary 
school teachers, by having a number of gymnasiats in 
groups of fifteen to twenty take a trip into the country 
without cost. The Falk real-gymnasium of Berlin 
placed its colonists, mostly from the Secunda and 
Tertia, but also some from the Prima and Quarta, in 
a village at the foot of the Kynastgebirge. For needy 
.gymnasium students in Vienna there is a special vaca- 
tion resort in Steg on the Hallstatter See. 

Since these colonists make a good deal of games, 
gymnastics, excursions, and, at times, of swimming 
and boating, and have besides abundant, nourishing 
food, the results have been excellent. In Steg, for 
example, the colonists gained in weight, on an average, 
2.8 kg., in 1888; 3.3 kg., in 1889; and 3.6 kg., in 
1890; 3.5 kg., in 1891; and 3.6 kg., in 1892. It was 
reported, moreover, at the International Congress for 
Vacation Colonies 1 in Zurich that the chest girth 
and dynamometric pressure increased in the colonists. 
This corresponds with Goepel's 2 statement that the 

1 Verhandlungen des internationalen Kongresses fur 
Ferienkolonien und verwandte Bestrebungen der 
Kinderhygiene in Zurich am 13 and 14 August, 1888. 
Hamburg und Leipzig, 1889, Leop. Voss. 

2 Goepel tiber die daurenden Erfolge der Ferienkolo- 
nien. Braunschweig, 1895, Fr. Vieweg und Sohn. 


favorable influence of vacation colonies in strengthen- 
ing the respiratory processes and healing catarrh of the 
lungs is not to be ignored. Finally, Wyss and Stierlin 
have been able to show that a cubic millimeter of 
blood contained on an average 1,138,400 more corpus- 
cles after the stay in the country than before. 

On the other hand, not every pupil can travel, or 
spend his time in a vacation colony. According to the 
Prussian Cultus-minister, only a fifth of the pupils get 
away from their school localities for any time at all dur- 
ing the vacations. Inquiries at the Dorothea muni- 
cipal gymnasium in Berlin have revealed the fact that 
about one-third of the pupils stay at home altogether, 
another third go away for only a few days, and the 
last third spend the whole time of the vacation in 
travel. The school should therefore give those that 
stay at home every opportunity for recuperation by 
gymnastic games, bathing, swimming, and rambles in 
the woods and fields. The Falk real-gymnasium in 
Berlin has given a praiseworthy example in this 

Even the ancient Greek philosopher Anaxagoras 
would have vacations spent in games. When the prin- 
cipal men of Lampsacus, where he was in exile, asked 
him what they could do to please him, he replied that 
they would do so if they would give the children every 
year the month in which he died, free for games. His 


wish was granted. As late as the third century after 
Christ, i. e., 700 years later, the boys of Lampsacus 
had their vacation games in the month in which 
Anaxagoras died. 

The summer vacations come, as a rule, in the hottest 
part of the year. But, as there are very warm days 
at other times, special vacations must be given at such 

High temperatures are so exceedingly exhausting for 
mind and body that lessons do little good ; and even 
being in the class-rooms and on the way to school may 
injure the health of the pupils. 

Most school authorities have accordingly decided 
that some of the lessons may be omitted when the 
temperature shall have reached a certain point. The 
ministry of Wiirtemberg makes it 20 R = 77 F, 
since it ruled in 1870 that the afternoon session might 
be omitted if the thermometer rose in the shade to 20 
R between nine and ten o'clock. In 1892, the Prussian 
minister of education issued a decree that, when the 
temperature at ten o'clock in the morning rose to 25 
C 77F i n shade, instruction should not be continued 
for more than four consecutive hours, nor children be 
compelled to come to school twice in a day. The rec- 
ommendation of the superior K. K. Sanitary Commis- 
sion of Vienna corresponds exactly with this. On the 
other hand, the government board of the Canton Zug 


requires a temperature of 27 C=80f F, and the 
Superior school board of Hamburg a temperature of 
22 R=81^ F before work can be suspended in the 
higher schools. 

To make it possible to determine the temperature 
exactly an accurate thermometer, provided with a cas- 
ing of wood or tin to shut off radiant heat, should be 
hung up in an easily accessible place on the school 
premises; and the curator of the physical laboratory 
should be entrusted with the taking of occasional 
readings. It is desirable to test it now and then, to 
see that the pupils play no pranks with it by breath- 
ing on it, or otherwise. Moreover, a mere outdoor 
record will not suffice; and the Prussian minister of 
education has expressly reminded the conductors of 
higher schools that this does not relieve them from 
the duty of ascertaining whether it would not be ad- 
visable, even if the thermometer at ten o'clock does 
not register 25 C, to omit a part of the school work 
on account of some unusual conditions of temperature 
such as excessive heat on the previous day, or con- 
tinued sultriness in the class-rooms, or the distances of 
the pupils from school. Thus, local conditions must 
also be taken into account, especially the situation of 
the building, the size and ventilation of the school- 
rooms, the number of pupils instructed simultaneously 
in it, etc. 


Some have suggested, that, when school has to be 
dismissed on account of heat, the pupils should be 
taken out for walks, or be allowed to have games on 
the campus, if this is large enough to permit it. This 
should, however, only be done when they can walk or 
play in the shade, and when the games are not too 

In spite of vacations, the pupils may, nevertheless, 
be overburdened 1 . The home is often to blame for 
this. In the first place, many children are sent to 
school too young. As is well known, the sixth year is 
generally looked upon as the most suitable age for 
school work to begin. Up to the end of this year, 
the brain is still growing vigorously. Its increase in 
weight in the first seven years is 830 g., while in the 
next seven years is only 61 g. 

On the other hand, even pupils who have completed 
the sixth year do not always have the necessary strength 
of body and mind for the demands of the school. 
The Berlin Medical Association has accordingly sug- 
gested that pupils should be examined, and that those 

*L. Kotelmann, 1st die heutige Jugend der hoheren 
Lehranstalten mit Schularbeit iiberbiirdet ? Ham- 
burg, 1881, C. Boysen. Clemens Xohl, Wie Kann die 
Uberbiirdung unserer Jugend auf hoheren Lehranstal- 
ten mit Erfol gentgegengewirkt werden ? Neuwied 
und Leipzig, 1892, L. Heuser. 


be excluded from attending school who are distinctly 
behind the average in general physical development. 
Prominent school men have in general proposed that 
boys who are destined for the classical or real gymna- 
sium or the superior real-school should not be received 
before the end of the seventh year. Older pupils, as a 
rule, do the same amount of work as the younger in a 
shorter time. 

Another mistake sometimes made by parents is to 
place boys in the higher schools when their mental 
ability is not adequate for the work. The gymnasia 
of the smaller cities justly complain that they have to 
carry a ballast of mediocre pupils who care for nothing 
else in their work but to secure thereby the privilege 
of the single year in military service. The multipli- 
cation of real-schools which are without Latin, through 
the reform movement in Pussia, is therefore to be 
looked upon as a great step in advance. In this re- 
spect'Hamburg may be taken as a model, where, be- 
sides two gymnasia, one real-gymnasium, and one 
superior real-school, we find fourteen real-schools 
without Latin, some public, and some private. 

Furthermore, the home work of pupils is often not 
properly arranged ; they have neither quiet nor direc- 
tion; and, what is worse, they are so distracted by re- 
ceptions, theaters, and concerts that they fail to have 
the necessary concentration for the outside school 
tasks. Is it a marvel if they sit up late nights at their 


work and can not follow the instruction given the next 

Finally, the many private lessons with which parents- 
load their children may lead to mental over-pressure. 
Tutoring, or coaching, is a favorite form of such work ; 
but it is not only unnecessary, if the school work is 
properly arranged, but may even disturb and counter- 
act the latter. 

Too many music lessons, often for pupils wholly 
without talent, is a no less prominent evil. Nearly all 
the feeble, overworked, and distracted pupils in one in- 
stitution, where inquiry was made, practised one to two 
hours daily on the piano. To be sure, music cannot be 
counted as an alien subject, even though Kant objected 
to it, as being an "intrusive art"; but instruction in 
it should keep within reasonable limits. Especially 
should lessons on the piano not be given before the 
twelfth year, and then only to strong and talented 

Moreover, the school may itself be to blame for 
overwork on the part of the young people in its 
charge. Of course not every serious demand upon 
their mental activity must be looked upon as over-pres- 
sure. At a time when the struggle for existence 
becomes ever more severe it behooves the pupils of 
our higher institutions especially to. keep in mind: 
Trj? ffaperr)? ISpcora deol 7rpO7rdpoi6ev e 

The Gods give excellence through toil. 


Nevertheless, the amount of study at home can 
easily become too great through excessive enthusiasm 
of departmental teachers, defective concentration in 
the course of study, the increase of materials in cer- 
tain subjects, and often the over-crowding of class- 

At the Berlin Reform Conference, the German em- 
peror said of the Kassel gymnasium attended by him : 
"We were compelled to hand to the director every 
morning a card with the number of hours we had to 
study to prepare the lessons for the day. I will only 
mention the number in the Prima, on this occasion. 
Now, gentlemen, according to thoroughly reliable 
reports in my case they could be controlled by privy 
councillor Hinzpeter 5J, 6J to 7 hours were required 
for the home assignments." 

A very careful inquiry into the amount of home work 
at the superior state real-school at Teschen has also 
been made. Here this amounted to two to three hours 
daily for the four lower classes, and three to five hours 
for the upper classes. Many pupils of class III and 
most of VII studied as a rule to midnight or longer. 
In the latter class this can be partly explained by the 
fact that the pupils at the time of the investigation 
were approaching the final written examination and 
were consequently reviewing as well as carrying on the 
regular work. 



Such being the conditions, governments and com- 
missions appointed by them have endeavored to deter- 
mine the amount of work which may be required of 
pupils in the different classes, or, in other words, how 
many hours of school and home work are permissible. 

According to the expert commission for the second- 
ary schools of Elsass-Lothringen the maximum per 
week should be as follows: 










7, 8 
10, 11 
12 13,14 
15, 16, 17, 18 

VI, V 

II, I 











In this case both the work in school and at home is 
taken into account; while most school administrations 
are content to fix a special limit for the home work of 
the pupils of the higher institutions. In this connec- 
tion the following table giving the number of hours 
for the home tasks per week is instructive : 

Class (I is lowest) 





















Wurtemberg. . . . 
Grand D. Hessen 















In comparing the above figures, we must keep in 
mind that the weekly programmes of the gymnasium 
and real gymnasium differ somewhat in different states. 


In Bavaria the total number of hours per week for the 
classes I to IX, inclusive of writing, drawing, and 
gymnastics, is 236; in Wiirtemberg, on the other 
hand, for the corresponding classes II to X, it is 283, 
or 47 hours a week more, which explains the relatively 
small number of hours devoted in the middle and 
higher classes in the latter country to home work. 
The Wiirtemberg ministry for church and school affairs 
has, moreover, lately ordained that the home tasks, 
including the memorizing work, shall not require 
more than one hour on full school days and one and 
one-half hours on the half days, for the classes from 
I to III; and, one and one-half, and two hours, re- 
spectively, for class IV. The home work in the other 
classes is to occupy 1 \ to 2 hours on full school days ; 
and 2J to 3, on the days with a free afternoon. In the 
case of classes Y to YII the amount of work is to be 
kept near the lower limit of 11 hours per week. 

On the other hand, the ministry does not believe 
that the course should be made any easier for the 
upper classes, VIII to X, since this would interfere 
with the aims of the school and with the habituation 
to independent activity which is especially important 
at this age. 

Besides limiting the amount of home study, the 
authorities have also adopted other measures to pre- 
vent over-pressure. A ministerial enactment for the 
higher schools of Prussia requires that an investigation 


shall be made at the first teachers' meeting of each 
semester to see if the pupils are over-loaded with 
home work in any of the classes. Especially are com- 
plaints that may have come in from parents to be care- 
fully looked into at this meeting ; and whatever may 
be done to adjust matters is to be entered on the 

It is also very gratifying from the hygienic stand- 
point that the amount of work in some subjects has 
been diminished. As is well known, there has been a 
reduction in the study of the classics in most German 
states in the humanistic as well as in the scientific 
institutions; and, as regards instruction in science, 
the latest Bavarian regulations prohibit entirely the 
use of a text-book, on the ground that the main pur- 
pose of this line of work is to train the eye and develop 
interest and pleasure in the observation of nature. 

The simplification of the subject matter has been 
accompanied by an improvement in the methods of in- 
struction. The reforms demand that as much effort 
be expended in developing interest as in communi- 
cating knowledge; that the memory be used less, 
and. the judgment more; that written work be 
limited, and the spontaneous activity of the pupil 
be promoted to develop his own peculiar talents; 
that extempore recitations and written transpositions 
be not overestimated; that the younger pupils be 
given a preparation for the reading to be done in the 


recitation ; that no lesson be assigned in the morning 
for the afternoon ; and that no task of any sort be set 
as a punishment. 

The fulfilment of these requirements can be counted 
on the more, since the pedagogical and didactic train- 
ing of teachers is ever growing better through the 
University seminaries, and the trial and practice year, 
which succeeds the year of theoretical study in them. 

Lastly, the lessening of the severity of the final 
examinations in accordance with the provisions of the 
new school programmes may be mentioned as a pro- 
tective measure against over-pressure. The graduates 
of the gymnasium have been relieved not only from 
writing the Latin composition, but also from using 
Latin in the oral examination, which has been limited 
to five subjects with increased privileges of substitu- 
tion and exemption. The oral examination of the 
real-gymnasiasts includes also only five branches, and 
pupils are allowed the same exemptions and substitu- 
tions as the gymnasiasts. It only remains to be hoped 
that the examination for promotion from Lower to 
Upper Secunda will either be entirely omitted or else 
be greatly simplified, especially since it comes directly 
in the period of puberty. 

When, nevertheless, overpressure exists, it is likely 
to show itself in the pupils by cephalic congestions. 
This is to explained by the fact that every organ in 
action at once receives an increased blood supply by 


the expansion of its arteries. Since, as we know, 
more blood flows through a working than a resting 
muscle, the same is doubtless true of the brain. We 
all know from experience how readily, during mental 
labor, the hands and feet get cold, while the head 
gets hot. By means of sensitive thermopiles it has 
been possible to show that the temperature of the head 
increases in proportion to the intensity of mental effort. 
Now a strong rush of blood to the head gives rise to 
headache ; and the frequent occurrence of this among 
the school population has been demonstrated repeat- 
edly. As early as 1869, Virchow called attention to 
the matter; and this has since been done by Rossbach, 
Krafft-Ebing, Keller, Hertel, Axel Key, Hakonson- 
Hansen, Bresgen 1 , and others. Some speak of it simply 
as school -headaches, or " cephalalgie scolaire ". 

Since overwork is more common in the higher than 
in the lower schools, this headache occurs more fre- 
quently in the former than in the latter. Bystroff found 
only 11.6 % of 7,478 elementary pupils suffering from 
habitual headache ; while Guillaume found 28.3 % in the 
municipal college at Xeufchatel, and Becker, 80.8 % in 
the prima of the gymnasium at Darmstadt. I ascer- 
tained, myself, that there was quite a regular increase 

1 Maximilian Bresgen, Die Ursachen des nervosen 
Kopfschmerzes der Schulkinder. Wien, 1894, Urban 
und Schwarzenberg. 


in the ailment toward the upper classes in the Johan- 
neuni gymnasium at Hamburg. If this may be said 
to point to the unwholesome influence of excessive 
mental strain, so also does the fact that pupils often 
come home with a headache, especially when the in- 
struction has lasted a long time. 

On the other hand, we must not forget that the 
headaches of the pupils may be caused by many other 
things. Charcot has called attention to the peculiar 
" cephalaea adolescentium ", as he names it. Those 
suffering from it, have a constant headache, which pre- 
vents them from doing any work ; while school head- 
ache is recurrent with longer or shorter intervals. 
Sufferers from these troubles belong to nervous or 
gouty families and are liable to complain of palpitation 
of the heart, which is sometimes due to an enlarge- 
ment of this organ. As other aetiological factors in 
the production of headaches in school, may be men- 
tioned diseases of the brain, the nose, the throat, the 
ear, the teeth, and especially the functional disorders 
of the eye. Sometimes the retina is too sensitive, 
sometimes the power of accommodation is insufficient ; 
and again, the muscles employed in near vision become 
too easily fatigued. Hence, when pupils are affected 
with headaches, an examination of their eyes should 
not be neglected, since they can often be relieved by 
convex or prismatic glasses. 

When there is a rush of blood into the head, there 



is one also into the mucous membrane of the nose. 
That is the reason nosebleed is of such frequent 
occurence among pupils. According to Eulenberg, 
tall, slim boys, who have grown up rapidly, are most 
subject to the trouble. This investigator thinks he 
has also noticed that many kinds of school work 
predispose to nosebleed. 

Only a few statistics on the subject are at hand. 
Eight per cent of the pupils at Mulhausen, and 11.3 % 
of 3,504 children at Darmstadt were found to be thus 
afflicted. Guillaume ascertained that 77 out of 350 
boys, or 2*2 #, had the nosebleed. 

The following table shows how these cases were dis- 
tributed among the different classes : 




Number of 

Number with 

Per cent with 





























These results seem to show that nosebleed dimin- 
ishes in the upper classes; but the number of older 
pupils examined is too small for general conclusions 
in accordance with the principle requiring large groups 
of cases. In fact, in Darmstadt, Becker obtained a 
result directly opposite to that of Guillaume. He 
says that nosebleed is most frequent in the upper 


classes of the gymnasium, and varies with the length 
of attendance at school and the lack of fresh air. 

This corresponds with a statement made by Axel 
Key 1 on the basis of a very, extensive investigation. 
In the full graded higher institutions of Sweden, 5.5 % 
of the pupils of the lowest class were suffering from 
recurring nosebleed, which increased considerably in 

Class II, remained constant in Class III, and showed 

some diminution in Class IV, both in the Latin and 

scientific divisions. In the Latin division, by itself , 
nosebleed increased up to 7 % in Class V, and then 
remained constant till it reached the maximum of 
8.1$ in Class VII B. In the scientific division, the 
curve remained below that of the Latin division after 
the drop in Class IV, but reached its maximum the 
same as the former in Class VII B with 6.4$. Since 
there is a distinct tendency toward an increase of nose- 
bleed in the upper classes, the influence of mental 
strain in its production can hardly be denied. 

Another consequence of over-pressure, namely nerv- 
ousness, is more serious than either headache or nose- 
bleed. Whoever will carefully observe the people 
about him, will hardly need a special proof that over- 
exertion of the nervous system is a pathological symp- 

J Axel Keys Schulhygienische Untersuchungen. In 
deutscher Bearbeitung herausgegeben von Leo Burger- 
stein. Hamburg und Leipzig, 1889, Leop. Voss. 


torn of our time as well on this side as on the other 
side of the Atlantic. According to Erb, poetry has 
become coarsely naturalistic, and music excessively 
loud ; even painting does not recoil from the ugly and 
the horrible. Science becomes an ever more exhaust- 
ing occupation, the more it differentiates into special- 
ties. To the excitements of a profession, must be 
added the haste in living, the hunt for fortune, the 
insatiable appetite for pleasure, and the fierce politi- 
cal, social, and religious struggles. 

These things shock and injure the nervous system; 
and consequently not only is our fin de siecle over- 
stocked with nervous men and women, but the nervous 
diathesis is being transmitted by heredity to our de- 
scendants. Pupils from the higher ranks, especially, 
often enter school with neuropathic trouble, as has 
been clearly shown by Schuschny 1 by his observations 
in the superior state real-school at Budapest. 

The school may itself be the cause of the over-stimu- 
lation of the nervous system. The whole character 
of the school work, the ever recurring rivalries, exam- 
inations, promotions, and, not the least, the many 
kinds of punishments, most of which fall on the same 
pupils, are well fitted to generate nervousness or to de- 
velop such a disposition if already present. " I have the 

iHeinrich Schuschny, Beitrage Zur Xervositiit der 
Schuljugend. Jena, 1895, Gust. Fischer. 


impression," so writes a well-known educator, "that 
this reckless hurry, and impatient struggle for the best 
possible results often produce a pace which brings 
excitement instead of composure, over-stimulation in- 
stead of stimulation, in brief, nervousness, instead of 
safe and steady progress." 

As will be readily understood, these phenomena are 
more liable to appear in the secondary schools than in 
the elementary schools; and the number of nervous 
pupils is also greater in the former than in the latter. 
According to Warner, 351, or 6.5$, of 5,344 elemen- 
tary pupils in London had neurapathic symptoms; 
while according to Xesteroif 1 71, or 32$, of 216 pupils 
in a gymnasium in Moscow were similarly affected. 
In the latter, nervous trouble increased quite rapidly 
and steadily from class to class. 

The neurasthenic pupils numbered in the prepara- 
tory class 8 0; in class I 15 0; in class II 22 <f>\ in class 
III 280; in class IV 44 0; in class V 27 0; in class VI 
58 0; in class VII 64 0; in class VIII 69 0. 

It was, also, possible to show that, in correspondence 
with this, neurasthenia increased with the age of the 
pupils, especially from the fifteenth year onward. 
Nesteroff found that of the 588 pupils in the board- 

1 W. Xesteroff, Die Moderne Schule und die Gesund- 
heit. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheitspflege, 1890, 
Xo. 6, p. 313 ff. 



ing school connected with the above mentioned gym- 
nasium the following per cent were nervous. 



o> -s 


S? S 

"e s 









I i 



















































4*. 85 

That the numbers here are not so regular as in the 
previous table, may be explained by the fact that only 
those are put down as nervous who have sought aid 
for their trouble from the doctor of the institution. 

With respect to the character of the disorders, it 
was impossible to find a single case of a definitely 
developed, completed form of nervous diseases. But 
careful questioning and examination brought out the 
fact that a very large number of them were suffering 
from general nervous disturbances in the form of 
neurasthenia. There was, in the first place, a ten- 
dency toward rapid mental and bodily fatigue. Besides 
this, there was increased psychic irritability; the boys 
were sensitive; their imagination was excited; and 
they frequently complained of sleeplessness. 

This irritability in connection with long continued 
stimulation also made itself felt in the field of the 
general and special senses. In addition, there were 


many neuralgias, mostly intercostal and gastric; 
disturbances of the sympathetic nervous system, as 
was shown by the ready paling and flushing of the 
face ; and neuroses of the heart, with palpitation and 
pericardial anxiety ; in the case of the pupils of the 
upper classes there were also sexual neuroses with fre- 
quent pollutions. 

Even if nervous disorders are not so numerous in 
the higher schools of Germany, it is, nevertheless, de- 
sirable for teachers to watch for the symptoms de- 
scribed. If a pupil is found to have neurasthenia, the 
prognosis is usually favorable. A lessening of the 
mental work with a corresponding increase of physical 
activity is of great value. If health leaves by way of 
the head it can be saved by the muscles, but there is 
no time to lose, says Fonsagrive*. 

All sorts of gymnastics and outdoor sports such as 
cycling 1 are therefore to be recommended, provided 
they are not carried to excess ; the Prussian minister 
of education has especially called attention to bowling 
for boys in boarding schools. 

*" La sante s'en va par le cerveau; elle peut etre 
sauvee par les muscles, mais il n'y a pas de temps a 

^egemann, Uber den Fahrradbetrieb aoi Konig- 
lichen gymnasium zu Xeu-Ruppin. Zeitschrift fur 
Turnen und Jugendspiel, 1897. 


Manual training 1 can, also, be designated as a suitable 
means for increasing depressed nerve force, refreshing 
mind and body after mental exertion, and making 
pupils again capable of learning. To be sure, paper, 
cartonnage, and paste-board work, notching and other 
wood carving, hammering and clinching wire and tin, 
and modelling in plastilina and clay, have only a small 
hygienic value 2 . 

On the other hand, work at the joiner's bench, and 
still more work in the garden is of great importance, 
not only for physical education in general but specially 
for the restoration of an enfeebled nervous system. 
Where special work shops exist, as at the gymnasium 
and real-gymnasium in Detmold, the Falk real-gym- 
nasium in Berlin, and the gymnasia in Gorlitz and 
Heidelberg, neurasthenic boys should consequently 
seek employment in them. 

Abundance of sleep is, however, the great remedy 
for such pupils. Every boy in the Sexta, doubtless 

^Voldemar Gotze, Schulhandfertigkeit. Ein prak- 
tischer Versuch, den Handfertigkeits Unterricht mit 
der Schule in Verbindung zu Setzen. Leipzig, 1894, 
J. C. Hinrichs. 

2 Otto Janke, Die Hygiene der Knabenhandarbeit. 
Beitrage Zur gesundheitsgemassen Ausgestaltung des 
Handarbeitsunterrichts fiir Knabeii. Hamburg und 
Leipzig, 1893, Leop. Voss. 



learns, " Sex septemve horas dormisse sat est juvenique 
senique," (to sleep six or seven hours is sufficient for 
young and old) ; but there are few statements so false as 
that. Mature persons in good health may find it 
sufficient, but it will not do for children; and when 
the youngster wrote instead of " septemve ", " sep- 
temque" he came nearer the truth. 

To be sure, it is hard to say just how much sleep a 
boy of a certain age needs. It depends upon many 
circumstances. The feeble and sickly should have 
more sleep than strong children ; the body should have 
more rest in winter than in summer. More sleep is 
needed in cold than in warm climates. In general, we 
may say that in the climate of Prussia young pupils 
require ten hours sleep, and those more mature eight 
to nine; some say that children should sleep even 11 
to 12 hours a day the first year in school. Where too 
great demands have been made upon the immature 
brain, and nervous disturbances have been produced, 
these numbers must be considered mimimal. 

Nevertheless, even these are not nearly attained in 
the higher schools of Denmark and Sweden. The 
government investigating commission gives the follow- 
ing table for the average length of sleep of Swedish 
gymnasiasts and real-gymnasiasts. 


United grades 

Latin division 

Science division 





















7,18, 7,12 



7,36 7,18 


Key (see page 220) also found in his investigations 
in Stockholm that those pupils who slept less than was 
necessary for their age had 5 % more sickness in the 
upper, and 8 % more in the lower grades than their 
comrades who had sufficient sleep. The number of 
hours of sleep in the upper classes of the K. K 
Theresia Academy in Vienna is also too small. The 
pupils in Class VII are allowed to stay up till 9.30, 
those in Class VIII till 11 or 12 o'clock, though they 
must be up at six in the morning. Otherwise, the 
time allotted to sleep amounts on an average to nine 
hours, from 9 P. M. to 6 A. M., except that the 
younger boarding students up to Class II in the gym- 
nasium have more time. Statistics covering several 
years shows that the conditions at the gymnasium at 
Giessen differ more than those of the Theresianum 
from the Swedish. 

The duty to see that pupils, especially those who 
are neurasthenic, have sufficient sleep, belongs in the 
first place to the family, which has much to answer for 
in this respect. But the school may also interfere, 
either by having the pupils work too late at night or 
by beginning instruction too early in the morning. 
In large cities, as is shown by the investigations of 
Griesbach and Wagner, it should not commence in 
summer till eight, and in winter till nine o'clock; 
while in'small towns it may be an hour earlier. In 


any case, the difference between astronomical and 
middle European time must be taken into account. 

If nervous pupils are not helped by plenty of sleep, 
the question of relieving them entirely from study 
must then be considered. As a disease that is pro- 
duced, so to spea'k, experimentally, school neurasthenia 
is likely to disappear with the removal of the cause. 
A rest for several months or a whole semester is not 
always necessary ; but, as Friedmann says, a four weeks 
summer vacation at the seashore or in the mountains 
is often sufficient. 

Mental disease 1 is not produced with anything like 
the frequency of nervousness, by over-pressure in the 
schools. It is very rarely found in children under 
fifteen. Of the 40,076 lunatics received into the Prus- 
sian asylums between 1886 and 1888, 4.0 % were below 
15 years of age; 25.4$ between 15 and 30; 50.7$ 
between 30 and 50; and 19.6$ from 50 upwards. 
Emminghaus found an average of 0.69 insane from 
the 6th to the 10th year, and 1.46 from the llth to 
the 15th for each 10,000 inhabitants; while Deboutte- 
ville ascertained that among the insane admitted to 
Saint- Yon from 1827to 1834,0.9 $ were between 5 and 
9; 3.5 $ between 10 and 14; and 20$ between 15 and 
20 years of age. Finally, Turnham found among 

Christian Ufer, Geistesstornngen in der Schule. 
Wiesbaden, 1891, J. F. Bergmann. 


21,333 mentally diseased, only 8 who were below 10 
years of age; this of course does not include the feeble- 
minded, who are much more numerous. 

" Far the most common form of mental disease in 
children is idiocy, which may be either innate, and due 
to arrested development of the brain or acquired, 
and the result of some other preceding mental trouble. 
Then follow in order of frequency maniacal excite- 
ment and mania; while melancholia is relatively rare, 
appearing only toward the later years of childhood." 

It is true, we may assume that mental diseases in 
children are often not recognized as such but are 
thought of as ill-bred rudeness, or meanness of dis- 
position, since sensational and ideational activity is 
still undeveloped and mental life in general has not 
yet taken form. This is especially true of so-called 
psychopathic immaturity, which, according to J. L. 
A. Koch, is an intermediate condition between perfect 
sanity and actual insanity. The great importance of 
the matter for education has been emphasized by L. 
Stnimpell in his book, "Pedagogical Pathology, or 
the Science of Children's Faults." 

The causes of mental alienation in children are, 
besides hereditary taint, especially from the mother, 
and alcoholism from the father, injuries to the head 
received at birth or later; acute diseases, and an ab- 
normal development of the brain, often due to malfor- 


mation of the skull. Other causes are sunstroke ; and 
among germ diseases, in the first degree, typhoid 
fever, inflammation of the lungs and rheumatism; in 
the second degree, measles, scarlet fever, and diph- 

Moreover, the school has itself heen accused of be- 
ing a cause of the trouble. As early as 1859 Giimtz 
described in a pamphlet " An Insanity of School Chil- 
dren which is peculiar to Childhood and a direct Con- 
sequence of School work ". Still better known is a 
treatise by Hasse, director of the insane asylum at 
Brunswick, entitled: " On the overburdening of School 
Children with Home Tasks," in which he gives it as 
his experience that "the pupils of the upper classes 
in the gymnasia, in whom no other cause for insanity is 
apparent than the excessive requirements of the 
schools, make up relatively too large a per cent of 
the number of mentally afflicted." 

This conclusion has, however, not been verified by 
an inquiry made by the Prussian minister of education 
among all the asylums under his direction. On the 
contrary, most of the superintendents asserted that 
insanity was very rare among school children; and 
some even declared that higher education was the 
best protection against it. According to the reports 
of the ten Bavarian asylums, which 'have about 4,000 
inmates, cases of mental disease from over-pressure 
in the schools are wholly exceptional. 


On the other hand, Eulenberg has very correctly 
pointed out that no examination was made of the pri- 
vate asylums, where insane gymnasiasts and real-gym- 
nasiasts would be most likely to be found, and Krafft- 
Ebing declares from his wide experiences, that if 
pedagogy should make a more thorough study of man 
in his pathological relations, many a defect and hard- 
ship in education would disappear, and many a mis- 
taken choice of a profession would be avoided, and so 
many a mental life saved. 

Th. Meynert 1 admits the influence of over-pressure 
in the production of mental diseases among children ; 
he examined two real-school pupils and one gymnasiast 
from fifteen to twenty years old, among whom no other 
causes for insanity could be found than extraordinary 
industry and loss of sleep. 

Just as this by itself should be a warning to the 
teachers to be conservative in their demands upon the 
energies of the pupils, so also should the fact that sui- 
cide 2 is often due to over-pressure or similar conditions 
connected with school life. In the six years from 1883 
to 1888, 240 school children, relatively the most of 

1 Theodore Meynert, Die durch Uberburdung in den 
Mittelschulen bedingten Xerven- und Geistes Krank- 
heiten. Wiener medizenische Blatter, 1887, XXXII. 

2 GustavSiegert, Das Problem der Kinderselbst- 
morde. Leipzig, 1893, R. Voigtlander. 


whom were attendants at higher institutions of learn- 
ing, committed suicide in Prussia. The number per 
year is about the same, namely, 50, 33, 33, 38, 41, 45. 

In France, on the other hand, there has been a de- 
cided increase in suicide, both among adults, and 
among school children under sixteen. In the latter 
country, from 1875 to 1877, an average of 41 school 
children per year committed suicide; in the same 
length of time, from 1885 to 1887, there were 200 
cases, or an average of 66 per year. In fact, in 1892 
there were 87 suicides below 16 years of age, and 475 
between 16 and 21 ; while in 1890 there were only 358, 
and in 1880, 267 between these latter ages. 

If an inquiry into the causes of suicide among 
adults is obstructed by considerable difficulties, this is 
still more the case with school children, since adequate 
accounts of their previous life are not so often obtain- 
able. Thus, in the case of 77 suicides among pupils 
of the higher institutions of learning, 15 could not 
be accounted for. In 22 cases, the school was clearly 
not concerned, because 11 were caused by disease, 5 by 
disgust with life, 4 by unfortunate love aifairs, 1 by 
ill-treatment by parents, and 1 by bodily disease. 

On the other hand, the following motives were also 
reported: in 15 cases, fear of examinations, failure to 
pass, or be promoted; in 5 cases, other causes con- 
nected with school attendance ; and in 2, quarrels with 


parents or teachers. To these must be added 11 
cases of wounded pride, 2 of anger, indignation, and 
stubbornness; and 1 of fear of punishment, in all of 
which the school may have had a part. 

What can teachers do when face to face with such 
sad occurrences ? They have, in the first place, the 
means with which they always work, namely, the 
moral and religious education of the children and a 
rational method of instruction, which gives due atten- 
tion to individual capacities. To be able to do the 
latter, one must continually keep in close touch with 
the home life of the pupils. 

The following points by the Prussian minister of 
education deserve particular attention. The surpris- 
ing of pupils by an unexpected failure of promotion is 
to be avoided by informing the parents at the proper 
time of the probable result. If temporary mental 
or bodily indispositions set in, as is often the case in 
the period of puberty, pupils should receive especially 
careful treatment, sometimes under the advice of a 
good doctor. School societies should be watched 
constantly, since, as experience shows, they exercise 
such an unfavorable influence over their members, 
soul and* body, that the latter succumb in cases of 
conflict, and free themselves from their real or imagined 
difficulties by taking their own lives. Finally, in 
many cases of suicide among pupils, there has been a 


psychic epidemic such as is often observed with in- 
sanity. In the gymnasium at Altona, for instance, 
several pupils committed suicide one after the other. 
Accordingly, when a pupil has taken his own life, 
teachers should give their professional care particularly 
to the "problematic characters", but say as little as 
possible of the unhappy event. 

Epilepsy is another neuropathic affliction that may 
spread through schools as a psychic epidemic, a 
fact to be readily understood from the shocking im- 
pression made by the attacks. These generally pre- 
sent the following picture: The boy utters a loud 
shriek and 'at the same time falls unconscious to the 
ground. For a few moments after falling, the muscles 
are in convulsive tetanus; breathing ceases, and the 
eyes stare wide open. Violent convulsions of the 
whole muscular system follow; the trunk is twisted, 
the face distorted, the jaws shut tight together, and 
breathing is irregular ; the lips and cheeks turn blue 
and saliva accumulates in the mouth and is expelled 
as froth. 

Fortunately, this disease does not attack pupils very 
often. Of the 286,035 boys who attended the public 
schools of the kingdom of Saxony in 1880, 42? or 
0.14$ were epileptic. Of these, 37 were between 6J and 
8 years of age; 83 between 8 and 10; 121 between 10 
and 12; and 186 were 12 and over. In 1894, the cor- 


responding numbers were 33, 67, 108, 167. Epilepsy 
is thus seen to increase with the age of the pupils. 
The number of cases in the larger cities is, moreover, 
considerably above the general average for the whole 
country. From the last two facts we may infer that 
epilepsy is more common in th secondary than in the 
elementary schools. 

The question now arises, shall epileptic pupils be 
excluded from the public schools ? The Lower Rhine 
Association for Public Hygiene has demanded this un- 
conditionally; and has presented a petition to that 
effect to the Prussian minister of education. The 
same view is held by the Baden ministry of the in- 
terior, which prohibits epileptic children from attend- 
ing public schools. In this case, special institutions 
for these pupils are necessary, where they may receive 
physical and mental training, and if possible also 
medical treatment. Bielefeld in Westphalia and Kork 
in Baden may be mentioned as examples. 

Much may, however, be said against excluding epi- 
leptic pupils entirely from attendance at the public 
schools. In the first place, many have these attacks 
only on very rare occasions, while others have them 
most frequently at night. Furthermore, only a part 
of the children suffering with epilepsy are weak-minded, 
many of them having normal ability. An inquiry in 
the grand-duchy of Saxe-Weimar makes the proportion 
of the former to the latter 46 : 89 or about 1:2. It 
would be unjustifiable severity to prevent boys with 


only rare attacks and with good capacities from enjoy - 
ing the benefits of higher institutions of learning and 
compel them to receive their education among the 
feeble-minded. Every case is, therefore, to be decided 
by itself; and as long as we have no special school 
physicians, it should be done by the official physician 
of the community in conjunction with the director of 
the school. 

If a pupil has an attack in a class he should be re- 
moved as quickly as possible. He can often be re- 
moved before the attack, since about half of the 
cases have premonitory symptoms of varying dura- 
tion, such as a feeling of vapor rising into the brain 
(aura epileptica), headache, dizziness, numbness, heavi- 
ness of the limbs, pericardial pressure, and palpitation 
of the heart. Since an epileptic can easily injure him- 
self in his convulsions he should be placed on some- 
thing soft as a protection. To prevent them from 
biting their tongues to pieces, as they often do, some- 
hard object such as a stick of wood wrapped in a hand- 
kerchief should be pushed between the teeth. 

If the school can be held responsible for the develop- 
ment of epilepsy only in so far as the disease can spread 
by psychic contagion, it has in the case of St. Vitus 
dance 1 been shown to be, on the other hand, a direct 

I 0tto Korner, Kami die Schule fur das hiiufige 
Auftreten der Chorea minor wahrend des Schulpflie- 
tigen Alters mit verantwortlich gemacht warden ? 
Vierteljahrsschrift fiir offentliche Gesundheitspflege, 
1889, Vol. XXI, part. 3. 


aetiological factor. The characteristics of chorea St. 
Viti are involuntary movements of single muscles or 
groups of muscles while consciousness is present. The 
muscles of the arm are most frequently attacked, then 
those of the face and tongue, the lower limhs being 
more rarely involved. The consequence is a certain 
awkwardness in grasping and holding things, some- 
times thought by parents and teachers to be due to 
inattention or naughtiness. The faces made by the 
afflicted are also often interpreted incorrectly as bad 
habits; and pupils are even punished for them. In 
the later progress of the disease they can no longer 
write or play the piano ; in fact they may not be able 
to raise the spoon to the mouth. When the muscular 
disturbance is especially pronounced, speech is ob- 
structed, the tongue shoots out spasmodically, and 
articulation becomes difficult. 

As to the distribution of this cerebro-spinal neurosis, 
it is found, as a rule, chiefly among school children. 
A general inquiry by the British Medical Association 
included 439 cases, 340 of which, or 77.46 $, were 
between 6 and 15 years of age or within the compulsory 
school period. Sturges 1 mentions among the causes 
certain injurious influences connected with school life. 
Predisposing factors must, however, also be present, 

1 Sturges, Schoolwork and discipline as a factor in 
chorea. Lancet, 1885, III. 


such as a neuropathic diathesis, usually hereditary,, 
defective nutrition and blood formation, and conse- 
quent debility. Where these exist and no other causes 
like sudden fright are discernible, an unfavorable in- 
fluence of the school may be inferred. In 223 cases, 
Sturges says 23 were due exclusively to harmful school 
conditions. These consisted of emotional depression 
from too much study, or too difficult lessons ; of anxiety 
before examinations, connected with continued sleep- 
lessness ; and of school punishments, especially such as 
were undeserved. Lack of quiet for performing the 
home tasks was also mentioned as one of the causes. 
Whatever the facts may be, choreic pupils should 
never attend classes, since they only disturb the in- 
struction. The healthy boys concentrate their whole 
attention upon their afflicted comrade, whose muscu- 
lar spasms, often accompanied by loud noises, are not 
only thoroughly strange and incomprehensible to them, 
but cannot always be explained satisfactorily even by 
the teacher. 



The sense organs are very closely connected with the 
nervous system, just as they have been in the process 
of evolution by partly developing out of it; and a dis- 
cussion of the hygiene of the sense organs of school 
children, therefore, follows naturally on the preceding 

The eye is of course the most important organ of 
the senses. Anomalies in its refracting power were 
recognized even by the ancient Greeks and Romans. 
Aristotle (Hepl axov yevecrecos lib. V, cap. 1) gives a 
minute description of near-sightedness, or myopia, 
pointing out as its characteristic features, prominence 
of the eye-ball, blinking, and a tendency to bring 
objects to be looked at as near the eye as possible. 
Presbyopia, or the far-sightedness of old age, was also 
recognized. Plutarch (2v/A7rocrta%cJi/ lib. I, quaest. 8) 
has a special chapter in his Table-talks devoted to the 
subject; and Aristotle (ibid) and Galen (Hepl xpeias 
TCOV ev av0pa>7rov crco/xart fjiopi&v lib. V, cap. 1), also, 
mention it, though they differ as to how the evil comes 

to develop. 



In fact it is not impossible that thus early in history 
precious stones were ground so as to be used instead 
of glasses, to correct the errors of refraction in the 
eye. At least, Pliny (Nat. hist. lib. XXXVII Cap. 
16) relates that Nero watched the gladiatorial combats 
by the aid of an emerald ; and we are the more entitled 
to think of it as an eye-glass, since not only was the 
grinding of stones (Plin. Xat. hist. lib. XXXVII, 
cap. 16) and their refracting power, when ground 
(Plin. ibid. lib. XXXVII, cap. 76) sufficiently well 
understood; but precious stones were used throughout 
the entire mediaeval period as eye-glasses, especially 
the beryl, from which the Germans derive the name 
Brillen for spectacles. 

However common refraction anomalies may have 
been in classical antiquity, it is nevertheless true that 
they have not been studied accurately till recent 
times, especially in schools. The number of school 
children's eyes examined has grown so mightily in 
the last decades that no other department of school 
hygiene can claim to have had a more thorough inves- 
tigation. Xow what have been the results, first of all 
with respect to hypermetropia ? 

In hypermetropia^ or far-sightedness, the eye does 
not have sufficient depth, and parallel rays of light 
are brought to a focus, not on the retina, but behind 
it. Hypermetropia may be either facultative or abso- 


lute. In the first case, 'the eye can see distinctly far 
and near, as well without as with convex glasses ; in 
the latter, such glasses are always necessary, since 
neither distant nor near objects could otherwise be 
adequately distinguished. 

Hypermetropia is the natural condition of children's 
eyes. Ely found that 72 $ of new-born children were 
far-sighted; and Landolt states that children under 
eight are usually in this condition. Horstmann and 
Schleich, also, assert that hypermetropia is something 
very common in children. Many having this defect 
are accordingly to be found in the higher institutions 
of learning, especially among the younger boys. 

Conrad 1 examined the pupils at the three old gym- 
nasia at Konigsberg, and found among 3,036 eyes, 
1.441, or 47.47$, hypermetropic. I could myself 
classify 273, or 48.23$, among the 566 eyes of the 
students at the gymnasium and real-school at Wand- 
beck as far-sighted; 9 or 1.59$ having absolute, and 
264, or 46.64$, facultative hypermetropia. Finally, 
Erismann 2 found 67.8$ far-sighted in the gymnasial 

T Max Conrad, Die Refraktion von 3036 Augen von 
Schulkindern mit Riicksicht auf den Ubergang der 
Hypermetropie in Myopie. Inaugural-dissertation. 
Konigsberg i. Pr., 1876, Jul. Jacoby. 

2 Erismann, Ein Beitrag Zur Entwickelungs- 
geschichte der Myopie, gestutzt auf die Untersuchung 
der Augen von 4358 Schiilern. V. Griifes Archiv, 
1876, Vol. 77. 



preparatory classes, which have boys from eight to ten. 
Hypermetropic eyes are greatly in the majority in the 

lower grades ; but they diminish gradually toward the 

upper. In the Wandsbeck gymnasium, for example, 

the hypermetropes numbered : 

In Sexta 54.76 % 

In Quinta 43.65$ 

In Quarta 47.91 % (ff). 

In Tertia 50.00$ 

In Sekunda 22.72$ 

In Prima 12.50$ (J). 

The following statistics by v. Hippel 1 from the 

gymnasium at Giessen gives corresponding figures : 

<""' cfursts 

Sexta 5 312 27.6 

Quinta 6 412 16.6 

Quarta 7 518 10.7 

Untertertia 8 660 7.1 

Obertertia 9 590 6.6 

Untersekunda 9 562 4.3 

Obersekunda 9 396 4.5 

Unterprima 9 306 4.6 

Oberprima 9 292 2.4 

The number of far-sighted pupils decreases with in- 
creasing age as well as with advancing classes. Accord- 
ing to George Ferdinands, the curve of hypermetropes in 
an English school fell from 46 % among those of seven, 
to 10 % among those of twelve years of age. In an- 

T A. v. Hippel, Uber den Einfluss hygienischer 
Massregeln auf die Schulmyopie. Giessen, 1889, J. 


other school there were 26 % among those who were 
seven, and 6 % among those thirteen years of age ; 
while in a third school there were 33.3$ and 1$ 
among those seven and fourteen years of age respec- 
tively. In the gymnasium at Altona, hypermetropia 
became more and more rare with increasing age as the 
following table will show : 

Age No, hypermetropic 

9-11 18.93$ (2 

12-14 7.14$ 

15-17 6.88$ 

18-20 4.05$ 

21-22 0.00$ (). 

An increase in the number of years of attendance at 
school has an effect similar to that of advancing age, 
since this, also, is accompanied by a decrease in the 
number of hypermetropes. In the gymnasium at 
Wandsbeck, which is connected with the grammar 
school there, the following statistics were obtained: 

No. of years of attendance at school No. of hypermetropes 

3- 4 58.33$ 

5- 6 47.67$ 

7- 8 42.95$ 

9-10 55.12$ (if). 

11-12 42.50$ (ft). 

The diminution in the amount of hypermetropia in 
the upper classes, and with advancing age, and years 
of school attendance, is to be explained partly by the 
fact that during the period of growth it changes over 
into emmetropia. 


Enimetropia represents the normal condition of re- 
fraction, which is characterized by the fact that parallel 
rays of light are brought to a focus on the retina 
exactly when accommodation is wholly relaxed. Em- 
metropes can consequently see equally distinctly far 
and near, without the use of glasses. 

Of the 566 eyes of the above mentioned Wandsbeck 
pupils, 179, or 31.62$, were marked emmetropic, of 
which 91, or 36.11 $, were in the united lower classes; 
43, or 28.28$, in the gymnasial classes, and 45 or 
27.77$, in the real-school classes. Xormal vision 
was, accordingly, found to be most frequent in the 
united classes, being more rare in the gyronasial and 
real-classes, which have nearly the same number of 

Larger numbers have been obtained by Conrad and 
v. Hippel. The former found that 55.01 % were 
emmetropic in the three old gymnasia at Konigsberg; 
while the latter ascertained that, in the gymnasium 
at Giessen, there was an average of 62.4 $ for the period 
from 1881 to 1889, one year only being omitted in the 

Like hypermetropia, emmetropia dimminishes to- 
ward the upper classes. Conrad found among 1,518 
gymnasiasts at Konigsberg the following per cent em- 
metropic : 

In Sexta 70.77$ (Jff). 

In Quinta 61.97 $ (fff). 

InQuarta 60.32$ (||f). 



InTertia 45.75 < (fff). 

In Sekunda .' 36.23 

In Prima 30.40^ (J 

In the gymnasium at Giessen, the per cent of em- 
metropia was: 

In Sexta 66.0. 

InQuinta 72.2. 

InQuarta 73.7. 

In Unterfcertia 71.0. 

In Obertertia 65.0. 

In Untersekunda 58.0. 

In Obersekunda :.50.8. 

In Unterprima 46. 4. 

In Oberprima 43.5. 

Von Reuss in Vienna and Thilenius in Rostock, 
also, found a decrease of normal vision from class to 

Increasing age is accompanied by a similar decrease, 
as the following table will show: 

Age of pupils 
in years 

The Johannum classical 
school at Hamburg 

Tke Wandsbeck gymna- 
sium and higher 
grammar school 


8846 (If) 
80.00* (foj) 
55.72* (i!) 
51.50* (Vft) 

38.93* ( T 4 T V) 

48. 27 * (||) 
35.26* ( T UV) 
27.77* (%) 
26.92* ( T V T ) 
23.83* (*$) 

A similar decrease of emmetropia with the length 
of school attendance can be demonstrated with equal 
distinctness; the table below gives the per cent em- 
metropic : 



No. of years in 

The Johanneum classical 
school at Hamburg 

Wandsbeck gymnasium 
and higher gram, school 



82.352 ( T V*) 
70.98 (iff) 
52.10^ ( T %) 
42.102 Wf) 
45.552 (ft) 
36.362 (if) 

35.832 (#W 
29.652 ( T B T V) 
30.282 ( T V?) 
25.642 (ff) 
25.002 (i) 

On the whole, it is rather better for a class or a 
school to have more pupils hypermetropic than em- 
metropic, since the former change first into emmetropia 
then into myopia ; while the latter pass directly into 
myopia. Xormal vision thus stands nearer to short- 
sightedness, than does far-sightedness. 

Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long, and 
parallel rays of light are brought to a focus in front 
of the retina. Xear objects can be seen distinctly; 
but the more distant produce circles of diffusion and 
so indistinct and cloudy images. 

Short-sightedness is a defect developed by civiliza- 
tion, since it is never found among savage tribes. I 
have examined a great many Lapps, Calmucks, Pata- 
gonians, Nubians, Somali, and Singhalese, but I have 
never found a single near-sighted person, either among 
the children or the adults. Myopia did not exist in 
New Zealand till it appeared among the natives after 
the introduction of civilization. 

In harmony with this, is the fact first established by 
Cohn 1 , that myopia is the more frequent in schools, 

1 Hermann Cohn, Untersuchungen der Augen von 
10,000 Schulkindern nebst Yorscnlagen Zur Verbes- 
serung der den Augen nachteiligen Schuleinrichtungen 
Eine Atiologische Studie. Leipzig, 1867. 


the higher the degree of education of its pupils. Least 
short-sightedness is found in the village schools ; more 
in the elementary city schools; still more in the city 
grammar schools; and most of all in the gymnasia, 
real-gymnasia, and superior ^real-schools. 

The following table will show how large may be the 
per cent of myopia found in the higher institutions; 
the figures marked with an asterisk have been revised, 
since the observers did not take into account the 
lighter degrees of the defect. 






Gymnasium at Burgdorf , Bern 

Gymnasium and real-school, Wandsbeck 

Gymnasium of Lerber, Bern 

Gymnasium at Solothurn 

Gymnasium at Giessen, 1884 

Real-school of the Holy Ghost in Breslau 

Gymnasium at Dorpat , 

Real-school at Zwiuger, Breslau 

The three old gymnasia in KOnigsberg, Prussia 

Royal, imperial superior state gymnasium at Teschen 

Gymnasium at Schaffhausen 

Gymnasium in Frankfurt on the Main 

Gymnasium at Heidelberg 

Friedrich's gymnasium in Breslau 

Gymnasium of St. Elizabeth, Breslau 

Gymnasium at Rostock , 

Real-school at Luzern 

German gymnasium at St. Petersburg 

Gymnasium at Wiesbaden. 

Gymnasium of the Johanueum in Hamburg 

Christianeum gymnasium at Altona 

Real-school of the Johanneum in Hamburg 

Russian and German gymnasiasts, St. Petersburg 

Leopoldstadt communal real-school and superior gymna- 

sium at Vienna. 

Gymnasium at Luzern 

Gymnasium at Erlangen 

























In contrast with hypermetropia and emmetropia, 
myopia becomes more and more prevalent, the higher 



the grade. In proof of this point we give the results 
that have been obtained by investigations at the gym- 
nasia or real-gymnasia at Rostock, Giessen, Wies- 
baden 1 , Hamburg, Montabaur, Fulda, Konigsberg 
(Prussia), Frankfurt a. M., and Magdeburg. The 
following per cents were myopic : 







Obersekunda. . 
Unterprima. .. 

'M v 
-10 ;; 

23 ;> 
25 ;< 


no : ; 
5S ;, 

58 ',1 




20 r* 

51 S 
34 * 






12 JJ 
: ;, 
5;! f; 

23 )t 

2T ;; 
47 j? 




Myopia also increases with age, as is shown by these 
figures : 




S a 

i't I 

^ S >o 

?S ^ 

s 1 



s If 

*S* <1 < > 

1 1 


j ta 

< is 

1 ^ 

S ^TJ 



tl ^> 



1- 8 


























49.90 $ 

57.70 $ 





59.' 20$ 

59. 3- $ 



- $ 

- $ 



1 H. Schmidt-Rimpler, Die Schulkurzsichtigkeit und 
ihre Bekampfung. Leipzig, 1890, Wilh. Engelmann. 



Finally, statistics from Hamburg, Konigsberg, Ros- 
tock, and Wandsbeck may be adduced to show that 
short-sightedness increases with the number of years 
of school attendance. 






si ^ ^ 






&i "i 


I" . 


1- 2 





3- 4 





5 '6 



35.52 * 


7- 8 


52 00* 


42.95 * 

9 10 











66 66* 




\Ve must add, furthermore, that there is an increase 
not only in the frequency but also in the degree of 
myopia in the upper classes. The following table from 
the three old gymnasia at Konigsberg give a clear 
picture of the matter: 

Degree of 

























In Octava, 97 % of the myopic have the very slight 
degree of ^ n t rg-th, and only 3 $ have the some- 
what greater degree of ^tn to T Vth ; the higher de- 
gree of T ^th to >Jth are not represented. In Prima 



on the other hand only 19.5$ of the myopic had the 
slight degree of -fa to -g^th; 16.1$ "had the high 
degree of y to -g-; and 8.1 $ had the highest degree of 


Myopia varies similarly with the age of the Konigs- 
berg gymnasiasts: 
































31.03" 30.77" 











8.05" 9.62" 







' ; 




1.15" 4.81" 





























While 92.25 $ of the eight year old myopes had the 
lightest degree of g- 1 ^ to -fa; this was true of only 
28.47$ of those eighteen years of age or over. On 
the other hand, there was not a single ease with the 
highest degree of myopia, >, among those eight 
years of age, while 6.59$ of those eighteen years of 
age or over were thus afflicted. 

The table giving the variation in the degree of my- 
opia with the number of years of attendance at school 
is somewhat different: 


Degree of myopia 





9 & over 

i _i 





9.66 ' 


%-Z". .":: 

~ n 3 

X j. ................. 


> * 


Every degree of myopia is here represented in the 
first school year. This can be readily explained by 
lhe fact that a few of the older boys have just entered 
school after having been exposed to the same detri- 
mental influences in the private education they have 
had up to this time, as their comrades in the public 
schools. The table shows, nevertheless, very clearly 
that the lighter degrees of myopia diminish through- 
out the years of school attendance, while the inter- 
mediate and higher degrees increase considerably. 

The statement has often been made by doctors and 
still oftener by educators that myopia entails no dis- 
comfort or inconvience, but is, on the other hand, a 
useful adaptation of the eye for near vision. I cannot 
agree with this opinion. Glasses have to be worn at 
all times with the higher degrees of myopia, and also 
with the lighter whenever the person wants to look 
at objects at a distance, which certainly cannot be 
said to be pleasant. Furthermore, they often fail to 
render service. On dusty roads, they become dirty; 
in great changes of temperature, moist; and in rain 
.and snow, they partly lose their transparency from 
drops of water. In fact, in some cases, as for example 
in bathing, they cannot be used at all. In other cases, 
they may be forgotten and thus cause great trouble; 
a soldier who loses his glasses is disarmed. 

Pupils with the greater degrees of myopia are, more- 


over, limited in the choice of a profession. They can not 
become sailors, or foresters, or farmers; and they are- 
also excluded from serving their fatherland in arms. 

The German army regulations of September 28 r 
1875, count myopia as one of the defects which per- 
manently disable a man for service, when the far point 
of the better eye is 0.15 m. or less distant even if 
the retinal sensitiveness is normal; this is myopia of 
seven diopters, or ^ to J, according to the old method 
of numbering. Diminution in the acuteness of vision 
to one-fourth of the normal or less in the better eye,, 
as is often the case with a high degree of myopia, is- 
another reason for exclusion from military service^ 
Similarly, those with intermediate degrees of myopia,, 
whose acuteness of vision is at the same time but \ 
to J of the normal, are considered fit for service only 
conditionally, and are assigned to the reserves. 

The requirements of the navy are still more severe, 
In Austria the legal maximum is ^, or 1.25 diopters 
of myopia. The German cabinet order of March 10 r 
1874, considers an acuteness of vision of \ or less in- 
sufficient, and an acuteness of from \ to f as adequate 
for the imperial navy only when it can be made nor- 
mal by the use of glasses. 

It is true, the eyesight of the myopic can generally 
be greatly improved by the use of suitable glasses; 
nevertheless, the higher the degree of myopia, the 


Tnore rarely do they attain to normal acuteness. Thus 
In the classical schools at Hamburg the per cent of 
pupils who wore glasses and yet had normal acuteness 
of vision as follows: 

For g-L 2-V , 64. 93 % For \ , 26. 66 % 

For J __i_, 59.13$ For \ \, 13.33$ 

For T V T V, 36.66$ For and>, 0.00 % 

The figures immediately below show what per cents 
liad lost a third of their keenness of sight with the same 
-degrees of myopia: 

For si) ife 18.830 For , 53.33$ 

For A TT 27 - 95 $ For T * 40 - 00 # 

For T V T V, 60.00 For | and >, 50.00 % 

The per cent who possessed less than two-thirds of 
their power of sight in spite of having accurately 
fitted glasses was : 

For ^V inr> 16.230 Fori 1, 20.00$ 

For ^ T V, 12.90$ For| , 46.06$ 

For T V T V, 3.33$ For i and >, 50.00$ 

The most serious thing is, however, that the myopic, 
especially those in advanced stages, are continually 
exposed to danger. Even in the case of the inter- 
mediate degrees, the inner rectus muscle is liable to 
lose its power and so occasion a good deal of trouble. 
The person afflicted can use his eyes for near objects 
only for a short time before he has a feeling of pres- 
sure and tension; his tears begin to flow; and if his 


case is a bad one, distressing light flashes make their 
appearance. Binocular observation of near objects is, 
therefore, often wholly abandoned; and the sufferer 
uses generally without being aware of the fact only 
his better eye for reading and writing. 

The danger is naturally more pronounced, the 
greater the degree of myopia. The vitreous humor is 
easily liquefied and made turbid; and the consequence 
may be not only the production of those troublesome 
shadows, knows as " mouches vol antes ", but also in 
severe cases of a special kind of cataract, called in 
opthalmology, the posterior polar cataract. Although 
this by itself is a source of much trouble to the eye, 
there is nevertheless a still greater danger, since, as 
often happens in high degrees of myopia, inflamma- 
tion of the choroid, hemorrhage in the retina, or the 
loosening of the retina, and even green cataract may 
set in. Sight is then either reduced to constant mini- 
mum or is lost completely for all time, even with the 
best of medical treatment. 

Such grave consequences naturally demand that the 
causes of myopia be investigated to the utmost, in 
order that by avoiding them the development and 
progress of this disease may as far as possible be pre- 

Among the causal factors, heredity takes a promi- 
nent place. As early as 1874, Dor was able to show 


that direct inheritance played a part in 25 out of 42, 
or in 59 #, of the cases of myopia in the city real 
school in Bern. In Rostock, Thilenius found that out 
of eleven families in which both parents were myopic, 
the sons were similarly afflicted in eight, and em- 
metropic in only three, short-sightedness being thus 
inherited in 72.72^, or about three-fourths, of the 
cases. The influence of heredity was not so marked, 
when only one of the parents had myopia. Out of 68 
near-sighted fathers, 37 had myopic, 27 emmetropic, 
and 4 hypermetropic sons, the per cent of hereditary 
cases being here 54.41 %. This per cent becomes 
greater, however, when the mother is the parent that 
is myopic. In 37 such cases, the sons were myopic in 
28, and emmetropic in only 9 ; the hereditary influence 
of myopia from the mother's side is thus represented 
by 75.67$. 

Pfliiger 1 , also, makes heredity a powerful predispos- 
ing cause of myopia. According to him, families in 
which the parents or ancestors have had the disease 
have 15 % more myopic children than those in which 
it has not occurred before. This is in harmony with 
von Hippel's (see page 242) statistics from the gym- 
nasium at Giessen, which show that 49.5 % of the myo- 

1 Pfliiger, Professor J. Stillings Untersuchungen 
iiber die Entstehung der Kurzsichtigkeit, kritisch 
beleuchtet. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 
1889, Xo. 5, p. 135 ff. 


pic pupils had myopic parents. Kirchner 1 obtained 
nearly the same figures from the Friedrich and Leibniz 
gymnasium at Berlin. The number of myopic pupils 
whose parents were both emmetropic was here 22$; 
those whose father alone was myopic, 34$; and those 
whose parents were both myopic, 52 $. 

In this field, the investigations of Motai have a 
special value, since he examined not only the pupils, 
330 in number, but also all the members of the fam- 
ilies to which they belonged; and did not, like his pre- 
decessors, content himself with hearsay evidence. He, 
also, considers the influence of heredity in the produc- 
tion of myopia as demonstrated. According to his 
statistics, it is present in 216 out of the 330 families, 
that is, in 65 % of the cases. 

He says, further, that daughters very often inherit 
myopia from their fathers (70 $) ; and boys, still oftener 
from the mother (86 $). This I can myself 2 confirm. 
In the classical schools in Hamburg, both parents 
were myopic in 24 cases ; and in 20 ot these, that is, 

X M. Kirchner, Untersuchungen iiber die Entstehung 
der Kurzsichtigkeit. Zeitschrift fur Hygiene, 1889, 
Vol. VII, 3, p. 397 if. 

2 L. Kotelmann, Die Augen der Gymnasiasten und 
Real-schiiler mit besonderer Riicksicht auf die neuesten 
Untersuchungen. Neue Jahrbiicher fur Philologie 
und Padagogik, 1877, II. Div., parts 6 and 7, p. 295 ff. 
and p. 329 ff. 


in 83.33$, myopia was transmitted to the sons. If 
the father alone was myopic, as happened 112 times, 
the sons inherited the defect in 50.89^ of the cases. 
Near-sightedness on the part of the mothers has, how- 
ever, a greater influence upon the eyesight of the sons. 
In 43 cases in which the mother alone had the defect 
the sons were myopic 25 times, the influence of hered- 
ity being represented by 58.13 <f>. 

We must not understand by hereditary transmission 
that myopia passes over to the children directly, since 
the new born are rarely short-sighted. It is rather a 
disposition toward myopia that is inherited. This 
may be due either to an insufficient thickness of the 
sclerotic, which would favor the anterior-posterior 
elongation of the eye-ball, or, as is assumed by Stil- 
ling 1 , to a too great width of the forehead, which gives 
a flattened shape to the eye-socket. In the latter case, 
the cartilagenous trochlea through which the tendon 
of the superior oblique muscle passes, has a low posi- 
tion; and the pressure exerted by the muscle on the 
eye-ball in convergent or downward movements of the 
eye is greater than it would be if the trochlea were up 
high. By this means the eye is gradually changed 
from a spherical to a spheroidal form. Stilling accord- 

J J. Stilling, Untersuchungen iiber die Entstehung 
der Kurzsichtigkeit. Wiesbaden, 1887, J. F. Berg 


ingly believes that myopia is essentially a race problem. 

In fact, it cannot be denied that the question of 
race is important in the development of myopia. It 
is much more prevalent among Hebrew than Christian 
children. Nicati of Marseilles reported in 1879 that 
he found 15 % of the Hebrews and only 8 % of the 
Christians myopic. Sidney Stephenson made an in- 
vestigation in the Central Foundation School in Lon- 
don, and found 10.63$ of all Hebrew children thus 
afflicted, which was nearly 5.5 times the number 
among the Christian. Hebrew boys are particularly 
liable to have this defect, the number being fully six 
times that among the Christian boys. Kirchner, from 
his investigations in the Friedrich and Leibniz gym- 
nasium at Berlin, emphasizes the same fact, and Fizia 
was surprised at the great number of myopes found 
among the Hebrew children in the royal imperial su- 
perior state gymnasium at Teschen. 

According to the latter, German boys come next to 
the Hebrew with respect to the frequency of myopia. 
Among 174 Germans, 88 Polish, and 46 Czech *gym- 
nasiasts, the per cents of myopic were respectively 
37.9,29.5, and 28.2. "These figures indicate that 
the Germans are more inclined toward myopia than 
the Slavs." Similar results are obtained by compar- 
ing German pupils'.'at higher institutions of learning 
with English and French. Both in the French ly- 


cees, and in the English colleges it has been shown 
that myopia occurs less frequently than in the German 
gymnasia and real-gymnasia. To be sure, the fact to 
which Wiese calls attention, that so few English pupils 
wear spectacles, cannot be taken as a demonstration of 
this, since there is a far greater dislike for wearing 
them in England than in Germany. 

Finally, the proportion of university students who 
are near-sighted is much greater in Germany than in 
other countries. Out of 311 students in the Univer- 
sity of California, 4.81$ were found to be myopic; 
this is doubtless to be explained by the small amount 
of preparatory work done. In Utrecht 27.07$; in 
Leyden 28.22$; in Gronigen 31.82$ of the university 
students were myopic. In Denmark the number rises 
to 32. 3 $, and in the Eastern part of North America 
to 35.47$; but it reaches its maximum in Germany 
with 40 to 50 $. 

As myopia very often originates from racial or 
hereditary predispositions, one might suppose that the 
school could refrain from combating the disease on 
the ground that it would be powerless against it 
This would be, however, a false inference. The fact 
that pupils enter school with inherited or racial ten- 
dencies and thus easily become myopic and so parents 
of myopic offspring, is just the reason why they 
should receive greater care. Those who are not thus. 


burdened should also be protected against myopia as 
much as possible. 

Aside from sufficient natural and artificial illumina- 
tion, and seats and desks adjusted to the size of the 
pupils, the first question to be considered in connec- 
tion with this subject is that of the preparation of 
hygienic school books. The paper used in them 
should be of a uniform yellowish white, since pure 
white is apt to prove dazzling. For the same reason 
the paper must not be very glossy. It should, further- 
more, contain as little wood pulp as possible and have 
an adequate thickness of not less than 0.075 mm., so 
as by both of these means to keep the print from 
showing through. Wood pulp can be detected by the 
microscope or by the application of a drop of sul- 
phuric acid analine, which produces a brownish yellow 
spot on such paper. 

The print must be definite, deep black, and so large 
as to be readable without difficulty. This will be the 
case when all the peculiarities of a letter can be dis- 
tinctly recognized at a meter's distance. It will re- 
quire a minimum breadth of .25 mm. for each stroke, 
and of at least 1 mm. for small n, which gives .25 
mm. for each of the down strokes and .50 mm. for the 
space between them. 

According to Cohn 1 the height of small n is not to 

1 Hermann Cohn, Lehrbuch der Hygiene des Auges. 
Wien und Leipzig, 1892, Urban and Schwarzenberg. 


be less than 1.50 mm. It is best, however, to make it 
5 mm. for beginners in reading, and then gradually 
reduce the height to 2 mm. by the end of the course 
preparatory to the gymnasium. In the lower classes 
of the latter 1.75 mm., in the upper 1.75 to 1.50 mm. 
is sufficient. 

The shape of the letters as well as their size is of 
importance for the prevention of myopia. The funda- 
mental principle is to make them as simple as possible, 
since every flourish makes recognition of them more 
difficult. In this respect the Latin is to be preferred 
to the German type 1 . The letters of the former are 
composed of a few distinct elements, and make a more 
forcible and definite impression; while the German 
characters are often worked out at the expense of 
clearness into a number of useless and entangling 
parts. As a proof of this let us compare the two lines 


On maps, coins, and monuments, where clearness is 
especially desirable, it is, therefore, customary to use 
the Roman alphabet almost exclusively. All the 
nations around us, the French, Belgians, Dutch, 
English, Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians print their 

x Leo Burgerstein, Die Weltletter. Vortag, Wien, 
1889, Karl Konegen. 


books in it ; and more than 250 millions of people use 
nothing else. If this were the case with us also, our 
children would be saved much time and trouble by not 
having to learn the German type. Nevertheless, the 
substitution of Roman type will doubtless long remain 
only a pious wish, in spite of the efforts of numerous 

The space between two successive letters or words, 
the so-called "approach", is also important for the 
hygiene of the eye. This should be .75mm. between 
two letters of the same word ; and at least 2 mm. be- 
tween adjacent words. The interlineage, or distance 
between lines, must not be less than 2.5 to 3 mm. 

The lines should be about 100 mm. long; Alsatian 
expert advice does not permit a length of more than 
80 to 90 mm. for school books. Long lines are un- 
doubtedly harder to read than short ones; and news- 
papers have, therefore, for a long time been printed in 
narrow columns. This is due to the fact that the eye 
has to move a considerable distance in passing from 
one long line to another, which in the end proves 
fatiguing. Besides this, the ends of such lines are 
much farther away from the eye than the center, so 
that considerable changes in accommodation have to 
be made. 

The last requirement for good print is that there 
shall be a sufficiently wide margin at the sides, since 


one is otherwise liable to get the lines mixed.* 
How far our school books are from coming up to these 
standards is well known. We will pass over the minia- 
ture editions still occasionally used in our schools, 
justly characterized as "eye-powders" in which the 
Greek and Roman classics are wont to appear. There 
are enough other books that injure the eyes. We need 
only to call to mind the dictionaries in pearl type, the 
tables of logarithms with their minute figures, and 
maps upon which there is a confusion of names and 

School boards should not permit the introduction of 
books or other similar materials without having their 
hygienic qualities pronounced satisfactory by compe- 
tent persons. But it is possible for even such a book 
to injure the eyes. In the course of time the ink is 
rubbed off, the letters become more or less grey, and 
lose their sharp contours. Long usage has a still more 
detrimental effect, if as is often the case the books 
are handled carelessly and with dirty hands, since the 

. It will be observed that this page more 
than corresponds with Dr. Kotelmann's requirements. 
The height of the small m is If mm., the space be- 
tween the letters of the word is nearly 1 mm., the 
space between two successive words on the average 
fully 2 mm., the space between the lines is 3.6 mm., 
and the lines are 87 mm. long. 


print is not then in clear enough contrast with the 

But even if the book is hygienically unobjectionable, 
the pupils should not read continuously more than 
three-fourths of an hour to an hour. There should 
then be an intermission, during which the eyes had 
better look into the distance to relax the muscles of 
accommodation and relieve the pressure from the 
external rectus existing in near vision. This should 
also be the time for cleaning spectacles, since moisture 
and small particles of dust are likely to settle on them 
on account of the great hygroscopic qualities of glass. 

In general, it is better to limit reading in the schools 
as much as possible and make the instruction oral. 
The reading craze some boys have should be checked, 
and those with a high degree of myopia should be 
allowed only a limited use of the school library. There 
is special danger at the time of convalscence from 
children's diseases, since the patients are only too glad 
to give themselves up to light reading; or they may 
take up their school books to make up for lost time. 
The foundation for myopia is often laid at such times, 
since the eye has for a while less power of resistance. 

Writing as well as reading requires careful manage- 
ment, if myopia is not to replace hypermetropia or em- 
metropia or be itself aggravated if it already exists. 


The slate and pencil 1 should be banished even in the 
first class of the preparatory school, and instead pen, ink, 
and paper should be used from the start. The distinct- 
ness and so the ease of recognizing what is written de- 
pends largely upon the difference in brightness between 
the back-ground and the letters. This difference is great 
when black ink and white paper is used ; small, if the 
materials are slate and pencil. When a slate is rubbed 
off with a wet rag or sponge, the surface becomes 
shiny at first, so that what is written does not stand 
out with sufficient prominence. When it is dry it 
usually has a gray coat, thus making it difficult to dis- 
tinguish the pencil marks, which are also grey. 

Comparative tests have been made which show that 
writing on a slate with a slate-pencil can be read only 
at a much less distance than writing on paper with 
ink, the writing being in each case of the same size. 
In the first case, the eyes have to be brought very near 
the object; and this is generally assumed to be the 
chief cause for the development of myopia. In addi- 
tion boys who can write tolerably well with pencil on 
the slate may not be able to write with pen on paper. 
"They therefore really have to learn to write twice; 

x Max Gruber, August Eitter v. Reuss, und Leopold 
Konigstein, Drei Gutachten u'ber die Nachteile von 
Schiefertafel und Griff el. Zeitschrift fur Schulge- 
sundheitspflege, 1894, ^"os. 8 and 9, p. 449 ff. 


and are compelled to tax their eyes double what they 
would if they had begun with pen and paper at the 

To prevent myopia from developing in using pen and 
paper, the following rules must be observed : 

1. The ink should not be light but deep black, and 
should have this color even before it dries. A bluish 
or violet color, such as is often found in the aniline 
inks, cannot be allowed. 

2. Writing paper must have the qualities required 
above for printing paper. 

3. Tablets should not be more than 20 cm. long or 
15 cm. broad. Tablets or copy books for vertical 
script have considerably shorter lines, which is of ad- 
vantage to the eye. 

4. Writing systems with many guiding lines should be 
avoided. The use of double lines for the small letters 
and two other lines for the limits of the upper and 
lower parts of the long letters is doubtless necessary for 
beginners. Not more than four or five oblique lines 
should be used on the horizontal line to give the in- 
clination of the down strokes, as more would be a 
nuisance. The change to simple double lines, not 
more than three to five mm. apart should be made as 
soon as possible ; and from these to the single line. 

5. To use line-sheets instead of lines is unhygienic, 
since they do not show through the paper clearly 


enough. Red and blue lines are also indistinct and so 
injurious; black guiding lines mark the limits of let- 
ters best of all. Paper ruled into squares, which is 
often used in work in addition, should be wholly done 
away with, since it is particularly fatiguing to the eye. 
It would be better if the eye and hand were not assisted 
at all by any kind of lines. 

With regard to the kind of script, the present double 
standard in Germany deserves no commendation 1 . It 
would be amply sufficient if our children learned the Lat- 
in script alone, without the so-called German script, 
which according to Jacob Grimm could with as much 
propriety be called the Bohemian script. The German 
written characters as well as the corresponding type is 
not so readable as the Latin. Besides this, it takes longer 
to write it, since it has a great many separate move- 
ments and additions. According to Soennecken, the 
'German written alphabet has 107 separate movements, 
while the Latin has 68 ; seven movements are needed for 
Mt for example and only three for in. Similarly, the 
German printed alphabet has on the whole 36$ more 
parts than the Latin. 

Since the eye should not be less than 30 cm. away 
from the line in writing, vertical penmanship deserves 

*Leo Burgerstein, Die Weltletter. Yortrag, Wien, 
1889, Karl Konegen. 



to be preferred to the ordinary slanting script. Seggel 1 
has measured the distance of the root of the nose from 
the writing paper in the case of 6,000 children, and 
has obtained the following results : 


Vertical script 

Slanting script 

Difference in favor 
of vertical script 


28.6 " 
30.1 " 
30.1 " 

24.4 " 
27.9 " 
27.1 " 

5.4 cm. 
4.2 " 

2.2 " 
3.0 " 

As will be seen from the table, the younger children 
get nearer to the paper than the older. This may be 
explained by the fact that they are not yet familiar 
with the letters and so try to secure as large a retinal 
image of them as they can. But it is especially for 
these that close near-vision is so dangerous, since their 
eyes have as yet only a slight power of resistance. 

Another matter that is by no means unimportant in 
the development of myopia is the handwriting of the 
children. It should not be too small; the common 
German /w should have a height of at least 2.5 mm. 
" Docti male pingunt" (the learned are poor artists) 
ought not to be true of our gymnasiasts and real- 
gymnasiasts. Illegible writing injures not only their 

1 Seggel, Bericht der vom Arztlichen Bezirksverein 
Miinchen Zur Priifung des Einflusses der Steil- und 
Schragschrift (Schiefschrift) gewiihlten Kommission, 
Miinchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1892, No. 28 
and 1893, No. 13 ff. 


own eyes but those of the teachers who have to read 
it in making corrections. Nevertheless, if a good hand 
has been acquired in the lower grades it is usually 
lost in the upper, by writing too much and too hastily. 
In extempore exercises and work of a similar sort, dic- 
tation should not be too rapid. Careless short-hand 
work must also be avoided. 

Drawing lessons may likewise increase or give rise to 
myopia. Care should be exercised in shading with 
fine lines. The so-called stigmographic method of 
Stuhlmann 1 has justly been vigorously attacked. In 
this the pupils draw even in the first year at school on 
paper marked off into squares seven to eight milli- 
meters on a side. The dim blue lines and the small 
size of the squares compel the pupils to bring their 
eyes close to the paper. This is still more the case 
when they begin to use the stigmographic outlines in 
the third year. These consist of points, one centi- 
meter apart, arranged in vertical and horizontal rows. 
The pupil has to find the direction for his pencil in 
this confusion by mechanically counting the dots. We 
must not fail, however, to mention a mitigating cir- 

1 A Stuhlmann, Der Zeichenunterricht in der Volks- 
und Mittelschule. I. Teil: Begrundung und Meth- 
ode. Das Liniennetz-, Punktnetz-, und Stickmuster- 
netzzeichnen. Urteile von Augenarzten. Abdruck 
aus der Zeitschrift des Vereins deutscher Zeichenlehrer. 
Berlin, 1881. 


cumstance, which many opponents of the method fail 
to notice, namely, that the drawing itself is not in- 
tended by Stuhlmann to last more than 10 to 15 
minutes, the rest of the lesson consisting of oral ex- 
planations during which the eyes can rest. Noth with- 
standing this, we must concur with the decree of the 
royal cultus-ministry of Bavaria, which on July, 1883, 
prohibited the use of the stigmographic method in 

Drawing is otherwise an excellent and healthful 
training for the eyes, especially when it is not begun 
till the age of ten, which is the age usually required 
by teachers of drawing. Especially sketching from 
nature can have only a favorable influence upon the 
eye. Pupils should, therefore, be excused from draw- 
ing only when their eye-sight is very imperfect, as for 
example when they have spots on the cornea, partial 
opacity of the lens, or some similar defect. 

Colors are also sometimes used with the drawing ex- 
ercises. An accurate discrimination of them is indis- 
pensable in science courses. Chemical reactions and 
zoological, botanical, and minerological objects, are 
discriminated by means of them. Color-blind pupils 
are, therefore, at a great disadvantage; the more so, 
since their defect excludes them from many occupa- 
tions, such as painting, the naval service, and the 
external railroad service. In the latter, red and green 


lanterns or flags are used ; and in the navy, in addition, 
blue and yellow signals. 

Young people often do not detect their color-blind- 
ness till they have entered upon a career for which 
they are unfitted by it. I have myself known gradu- 
ates of our secondary schools to enter an academy of 
art and spend the first year in sketching from anti- 
quities and models-, only then to find on taking up 
painting that their progress was stopped by this hither- 
to unsuspected defect. Such cases are not so very 
rare, since color-blindness is a rather frequent trouble. 
In schools of Antwerp, 3.78 % of the boys and .72 % of 
the girls were color-blind. The greater number among 
the boys is due to the fact that colors play a less im- 
portant part in their life than in that of the girls. 

Teachers should accordingly endeavor to ascertain in 
time which of their pupils are color-blind. The defect 
may be either total or partial. In the first case, there 
is an absence of all color sensations; and in the second, 
of either of the color pairs, red-green or yellow-blue. 
Sometimes it is only a matter of weakness of the 
color sense which prevents the perception of certain 
differences in shade. 

As a color-blindness test for large numbers of pupils, 
Holmgren's method is the best. A skein of worsted 
of a certain color is placed before the pupil with the 
request that he select from a number of different 


colored skeins that which is like it. The first sample 
given is bright green. Whoever picks out the corres- 
ponding skein quickly, without noticable hesitation 
and comparison is not color-blind. 

If anyone seems uncertain, or picks out the wrong 
colors, he is given a rose-colored skein ; but this time 
he is asked not only to pick out those of the same color, 
but also those which differ from it only in shade. 
Whoever passes in this test successfully but failed in 
the other, has merely a weak color sense. 

The really color-blind person, on the other hand, 
makes characteristic mistakes; the red-blind putting 
blue besides the rose color, the green-blind, green and 
grey, and the violet-blind, red. The latter usually 
place blue with green in the first trial. 

To let a person name the color of different objects 
is not an adequate test. For, on the one hand, many 
of the color-blind learn the right names for the prin- 
cipal colors by distinguishing them through their differ- 
ences in brightness; and, on the other hand, many 
pupils do not have the proper expressions for the 
different colors, though possessed of normal color 

In addition to the functional disturbances so far dis- 
cussed, there are two external diseases of the eye, 
which deserve the attention of teachers. One of these 


is the granular inflammation of the conjuctiva 1 . 
It is characterized by a rosary like series of granules, 
which look like frog spawn, and appear on the inside 
of the lids, especially where the conjunctiva passes 
from the lids to the eye-ball. This membrane conse- 
quently begins to look uneven and rough ; and this has 
led physicians to call the disease trachoma. It is 
popularly known as the Egyptian inflammation of the 
eyes, because in the expedition to Egypt by Napoleon 
I, nearly his whole army was attacked by the contag- 
ion, which is there endemic. 

If the inflammation is acute the conjunctiva becomes 
red and swollen and secretes more mucus. The latter 
is the -bearer of the infectious material, which is 
doubtless a micro-organism, though there is at present 
no consensus of opinion as to its nature. The cornea 
is often affected sympathetically and becomes over- 
grown with vessels or ulcers. If the disease lasts for 
months or years, or in other words becomes chronic, 
the conjunctiva will be scarred and shrunken; and 
the tarsal cartilages will be bent inwards so as to 
bring the eye-lashes against the eyes, which keeps the 
latter in a constant state of irritation. This is all 
very injurious to the eye-sight; and trachoma still 
holds the second place among the causes of blindness. 

1 Perlia, Leitfaden der Hygiene des Auges. Hamburg 
u. Leipzig, 1893, Leopold Voss. 


It is most common in the eastern sections of Ger- 
many especially in the common schools. In the vil- 
lage schools in Livland 17.6$, and in the elemen- 
tary schools at Samter in the province of Posen 20 $ 
were afflicted with the disease ; and in Wehlau in East 
Prussia, all the common schools had to be closed on 
account of it. 

On the other hand, in the circle of Heiligenstadt in 
the government district of Erfurt, Schmidt-Kimpler 
found only 5 % in the village schools, and only 2.4 % in 
the city schools suffering from trachoma. In fact, in 
the gymnasium at Heiligenstadt, there was only one 
among the 203 pupils troubled with granulated lids. 
He found the conditions similar in the gymnasia, 
real-gymnasia, and progymnasia of the province of 
Hessen-Xassau, since there was only one case among 
the 1,662 pupils. 

These figures make it clear that trachoma is not so 
frequent among the boys from the upper and more 
cultured classes. The spreading of the disease is in 
these cases prevented by greater cleanliness and care 
and more favorable conditions at home. 

For this reason not every boy suffering with trachoma 
should be unconditionally excluded from the gym- 
nasia and real-gymnasia. The Austrian royal-imperial 
government of Kiistenlande, where trachoma is in- 
digenous, excludes only severe cases : that is, cases with 


many granulations and much mucous discharge, and 
likely to be a means of communicating the disease to 
other pupils. Those with lighter attacks are permitted 
to take part in the school work, yet not without the 
necessary precautions. They must not use 'the com- 
mon wash basins or towels, nor touch the persons, 
books, or other effects belonging to their comrades. 
For it is quite customary for the patients to rub their 
eyes and in that way get the infectious secretion on 
their hands. The healthy pupils must for their part 
avoid coming in contact with the property or persons 
of such pupils as have the disease. If a number of 
pupils in a boarding-school should fall victims to 
trachoma, it is better not to send them home but to 
have them treated at the institution, so as to prevent 
the spreading of the disease in still wider circles. 

Follicular inflammation 1 of the conjunctiva is not 
so dangerous. In this case, also, there are protuber- 
ances in this membrane, which are hemispherical or 
oval in shape, but which have a transparent, cyst-like 
appearance, and a light pinkish color, while the gran- 
ulations are yellow and opaque, and usually larger and 
more numerous. There is never any extreme swelling 
of the conjunctiva, so that it always keeps its smooth 
appearance ; it is, therefore, only slightly hyperaemic, 
and the discharge of mucus is not very great. The 

1 Perlia, Leitf aden der Hygiene de,s Auges. Hamburg 
u. Leipzig, 1893, Leopold Voss. 


follicles are often very stubborn and give rise to all 
sorts of discomforts, such as burning and itching of 
the eye-lids and a feeling as if there were dust or sand 
in the eyes. The trouble becomes worse towards 
night. The eyes become abnormally sensitive toward 
artificial illumination, and the eye-lids feel tired and 
heavy. On awakening in the morning they are found 
to be cemented together with dried mucus, and open- 
ing them is painful. In some cases, especially those 
that are chronic, the patient knows nothing of his 
trouble, and the little protuberances in the conjunctiva 
are discovered only by accident. 

In the last decade the disease has proved to be re- 
markably infectious, since severe and wide-spread 
epidemics have often sprung up around single pupils 
who introduced it into the schools. These epidemics 
have usually travelled from east to west. It is sup- 
posed that the extreme dryness of the atmosphere in 
eastern and central Europe favors their development 
there, especially when the ground in winter is not 
covered with snow but is ready to give off dust. In 
1885, epidemics originating in the schools of East 
Prussia spread thence to Silesia and Saxony, and were 
finally observed in Bremen and the region about Dort- 
mund. Krug 1 gives a description of such an epidemic 

1 W. Krug, Eine Epidemic von follikularer Binde- 
Iiautentziindung in den Schulen Dresdens. Zeitschrif t 
fur Schulgesundheitspnege, 1891, Xo. 2, p. 81 ff. 


in Dresden. At first only 12 children in a class in the 
preparatory school were attacked ; but the disease then 
went from school to school till 4,000 pupils were suffer- 
ing from it. 

Moreover, the follicular inflammation, in contrast 
with the granular, occurs not less but rather more 
frequently in the higher than in the lower schools. 
Among 919 pupils in the village schools of the district 
of Heiligenstadt, Schmidt-Rimpler found 56, or 6.09 % 
and among the 1,151 pupils of the city elementary 
schools 72, or 6.25$, afflicted with the trouble. In 
the Heiligenstadt gymnasium, on the other hand, 25 
out of 203, or 12.3$, had the disease; and among a 
large number of gymnasiasts and real-gymnasiasts 
of Hessen-^assau, it reached the high figure of 27 $, 
in which case pupils with just a few isolated follicles 
must have been counted. 

If an epidemic of this follicular catarrh breaks out 
in a school, the teachers must double their precautions 
to keep the air pure and free from dust and moisture. 
Those affected should be excluded from school till a 
ph} r sician certifies that they are entirely cured, or at 
least beyond the stage when the disease can be com- 
municated, since the number of pupils involved is 
large and the spreading of the infection consequently 
rapid. Regular examinations of the eyes of the pupils 
have proved to be an important prophylactic measure, 


since by this means new cases can be discovered and 
removed at once. Besides this, contaminated class- 
rooms or sitting-rooms, and bed-rooms should be dis- 
infected by rubbing the walls with bread and scouring 
the floors and washing the furniture with carbolic acid 



After the eye, the ear is the most important sense ; 
and we shall therefore next. devote our attention to 
the hygiene of this organ in schools. Since v. Reich- 
ard first tested the hearing of school children in Riga, 
in 1878, many similar investigations have been made 
in Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, France, England, 
Sweden, Russia, and the United States. 

Among these, the work of Fr. Bezold 1 in Munich 
deserves special consideration, not only because he has 
made a thorough study of statistical material obtained 
from 1,918 school children; but also because he devel- 
oped the method of making the tests so that it will 
serve as a model for a long time to come. 

To ascertain the acuteness of hearing he uses whis- 
pering, preferably the whispering of numbers. As 
compared with the older method with the watch, which 
is still much in use, this new one is a great deal more 
reliable, especially in the case of the younger pupils, 
since they show by repeating the whispered numbers 

'Friedrich Bezold, Schuluntersuchungen iiber das 
Kindliche Gehororgan. Miinchen, 1885. 


280 THE EAR 

whether they have heard and understood them cor- 
rectly. Of course only one ear at a time is tested, the 
other being closed by holding some cloth against it. 
Since those who are hard of hearing try to read the 
numbers from the lips, the examiner turns his face 
away from them in whispering. Two place numbers 
are always selected; and the difficult figures 7, 6, and 
5, which are often confused, receive special considera- 

It is only when the difficult combinations these make 
are also correctly reproduced that the distance of 
the pupil from the examiner is taken to be the limit of 
hearing. According to many experiments, a distance 
of 20 m. for those with normal hearing to which class 
children especially belong is rather too low than too 
high a limit in a quiet neighborhood. If the tests are 
made in the day time in large cities, where noise can- 
not be excluded, a distance of 16 m. may be considered 

The number of pupils who fall below this standard 
is really quite considerable. Von Eeichard, who was 
physician of the gymnasium at Riga, found that 
23.2$ out of 1,055 pupils had defective hearing. 
Wiel made still more extended investigations in Stutt- 
gart, testing as many as 5,905 pupils in the elementary 
and secondary schools. The numbers found hard of 
hearing varied in this case from 10 to 30 $, according 


to the social conditions of the pupils; it was greatest 
in an elementary school attended only by the poor, of 
whom 353 out of 1,105, or nearly one-third, were 
deficient to a marked degree; 

In Washington, Samuel Sexton tested 570 pupils in 
different institutions and found 13 % considerably de- 
fective in hearing. In Bordeaux 17 $ were found de- 
fective by Moure ; in Minden 20.9$ by Ohleman 1 ; 
in Paris 22 to 25 % by Gelle 2 ; and in Glasgow 27.66 % 
by Thomas Barr. Similarly, Bezold ascertained that 
25.8$ out of 1,918 pupils in the elementary and sec- 
ondary schools in Munich could hear a whisper only at 
one-third the normal distance; and 11.3$ of these 
could understand the whisper only at from 4 to 
meters instead of at 25 to 20. In St. Petersburg 
Shermunski examined 2,221 children in 50 different 
city schools, and found 388, or 17.42 $, with diminished 
power of hearing. 

The number with defective hearing seems to be 
smaller in the higher than in the lower schools ; but 
the percentage obtained by H. Schuschny in the superior 
state-real-school in district V. in Budapest are excep- 

^hlemann, Beitrag Zu Schuluntersuchungen des 
Gehororgans. Archiv fur Ohrenheilkunde, 1895, Vol. 
39, part 1, ff. 1. 

2 Gelle, Conditions de 1' Audition dans 1'ecole. An- 
nales d'hygiene publique, 1883. 

282 THE EAR 

tionally favorable. His figures show that only 6.2$ 
were hard of hearing; and they were distributed 
among the different classes as follows: Class I, 7.7$; 
11,6.7$; 111,6.6$; IV, 3.9$; V, 6.5$; VI, 9.3$; 
and VII 8. 8$. But when, according to a report by 
the Prussian minister of education, the teachers in the 
higher institutions within his jurisdiction find only 
2.18$ defective, this number must certainly be ques- 
tioned, since it is in disagreement with the results of 
every other investigation. 

Since the tests were in this case made without the 
aid of a physician, only the most severe cases were 
reported; while slight and intermediate degrees were 
passed over. 

It might naturally be supposed that a deficiency in 
hearing so small as to be ascertainable only by means 
of a watch or a whisper 1 , that is, by a delicate test, 
could be of no special disadvantage to pupils, on the 
ground that they can follow the recitations in spite of 
it. But this would be an erroneous notion. Of all 
the requirements made of the ear, one of the most 
difficult is the understanding of language. The cause 
of this is the great number of consonants that are 
crowded together; since these have the nature of 

J C. Keller, Der Geh'orssinn in Seinen Beziehungen 
Zur Schule. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 
1888, No. 4, p. 105 ff. 


noises, they are not so readily apprehended as the 
Towels, which are more like musical tones. The fact 
that pupils with normal hearing can easily follow the 
teacher, ;s only apparently in contradiction with this 
.statement. For, as the eye in reading does not see 
the individual letters as such, but, as a consequence 
of long practice, takes in the words as a whole, so the 
ear catches the spoken word as an entirety, needing 
often only a few characteristic sounds for the purpose. 
For this reason a pupil with defective hearing can for 
some time correctly understand lectures, dictations, 
and similar exercises ; but his attention will gradually 
weaken under the severe strain, and by failing to hear 
one or more words he may lose the sense altogether. 
A pupil with normal hearing can in such a case usually 
catch the connection from what follows; while the 
pupil with defective hearing finds it much more diffi- 
cult to do so. His embarrassment is especially great 
when new words are involved, as is often the case in 
loreign languages, history, geography, and natural 
science, because he finds it impossible to fill out the 
part of the word which he does not hear. 

In school work, those hard of hearing are usually 
behind pupils of normal hearing, even if their defect 
is slight. Out of twenty pupils between the ages of 
ten and eighteen who were reported to Gelle (see page 
281) as the poorest in the school, only four had good 

284 THE EAR 

hearing, while sixteen were defective in either one or 
both ears. Similar results were obtained by Sher- 
munski 1 . Among boys who could understand a whis- 
per at from 24 to 12 meters the ratio of good to poor 
students was 4.19:1; among those whose hearing was 
one-half to one-third of the normal, the ratio was 
2.6 : 1; and among those whose hearing was less than 
one-third, it was 1.7 : 1. 

A comparison of the hearing power of bright and 
dull pupils was made not only at Paris and St. Peters- 
burg but also at Glasgow. Barr asked the teachers to 
pick out seventy of each kind. The result of the ex- 
amination was as follows: of those with both ears 
defective, four were bright, ten were dull; and of 
those with one ear defective, ten were bright and fif- 
teen dull. Here also there were relatively more dull 
pupils among those hard of hearing. 

Finally, as an additional proof of the dependence of 
the mental development of school children upon their 
ability to hear, we may mention the investigation made 
by W. Permewan in a school in Liverpool. The teach- 
ers classified 62 of the 203 pupils as dull, 52 as medium, 
and' 89 as bright. The average distance at which the 
ticking of a .watch could be heard was 31 J- inches for 

^hermunski, Untersuchungen des Gehors der Kin- 
der schulpflichtigen Alters in den Petersburger Stadt- 
schulen. Wratsh, 1888, Xos. 38 and 39. 


the 62 dull pupils; 47J for the 52 medium; and 51 
for the 89 bright pupils. This makes the hearing 
power of the dull one-half, that of the medium three- 
fourths, and that of the bright five-sixths that of the 
normal, which was sixty inches. 

In view of these facts, it is evidently the duty of 
teachers to pay particular attention to the hearing of 
pupils who through slow progress, inattention, or ab- 
sent-mindedness give occasion for frequent censure. 
This is the more necessary because slight defects of 
hearing, often even grave defects, are frequently un- 
recognized, not only by the afflicted person's friends, 
but by the person himself. When he talks to his par- 
ents or comrades, he hears well enough, since he is so 
near; why should he suspect that his hearing is inade- 
quate in school ? The teacher himself often fails to 
understand the matter ; for the acuteness of hearing 
of such pupils is in not a few cases subject to great 
variations. If the teacher has satisfied himself one 
day that a pupil's hearing is good, it will be difficult 
for him to believe the contrary a few days later ; he 
will rather be inclined to blame the pupil for shirking 
his tasks. 

Auditory defects in which the ability to hear fluctu- 
ates are usually due to the so-called adenoid vegeta- 
tions 1 , a disease of the upper part of the pharynx. In 

^aximillian Bresgen, Uber die Bedeutung behinder- 
ter Nasenatmung, insbesondere bei Schulkindern. 

286 THE EAR 

the roof of the pharynx, there is a glandular forma- 
tion, which resembles the tonsils somewhat, and has 
therefore been called the third, or pharyngeal tonsil. 
Like the other tonsils this gland is capable of becom- 
ing much enlarged, and it is customary to find a simul- 
taneous swelling in the surrounding adenoid tissue. 
This is loosely built and remarkably vascular ; and it 
can therefore change in size according to the amount 
of blood poured into it. If the enlargement is con- 
siderable, it closes the Eustachian tubes, which connect 
the cavities of the ear drums witk^the pharynx. 
These tubes are ordinarily opened in -swallowing or 
blowing the nose, so as to admit air to fKese cavities. If 
this is prevented by the closure above mentioned, the 
pressure on the tympanic membrane may be so great 
from the difference in the tension of the air in the exter- 
nalauditory meatus and the middle ear as to produce 
deafness. This will explain why the afflicted pupils may 
at one time hear well and at another badly, as it will 

Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1889, No. 10 y 
p. 507 ff. Viktor Lange, Uber den Einfluss behinder- 
ter Nasenatmung auf die korperliche und geistige 
Entwickelung der Kinder. Ibid., 1893, No. 6, 
p. 313 if. The same, Uber eine hiiufig vorkommende 
Ursache der langsamen und mangelhaften geistigen 
Entwickelung der Kinder. Vortrag. Berliner klinische 
Wochenschrift, 1893, No. 6. 


be according to the amount of enlargement of the 
adenoid tissue. 

Such boys should receive special consideration for 
other reasons than that they have defective hearing. 
From the stoppage of the posterior nares by these 
swellings they suffer constantly with pressure in the 
head, just the same as if the nose was stopped by a 
bad case of catarrh. The consequence is that they 
are unable to direct their attention or give their 
thoughts to a subject for any length of time, a 
condition which Guye has named aprosexia nasalis 
(a TTpocre^eiv, sc. vovv). 

If the extuberances are cut away, there is always an 
improvement and often a complete mental change. 
Study is no longer a hardship for pupils thus operated 
upon. Their memories improve and they begin to 
take pleasure in their lessons. Xot only should such 
favorable results encourage us to watch for these cases ; 
but so also should the fact that they can usually be 
readily recognized even by persons without special 
training. Those suffering from adenoid growths talk, 
as we say, through the nose; and, since the nose is 
closed, breathe through the mouth, which they conse- 
quently nearly always keep open. This gives them a 
peculiar, stupid expression ; and in grave cases one 
would think he was in the presence of an idiot. 



Figures 36 and 37 give aji illustration of a boy with 
adenoid vegetations respectively before and after the 
operation of removal. 


Other diseases of the throat besides those described 
may affect hearing sympathetically, if they can spread 
through the Eustachian tubes into the middle ear. 
Pathogenic bacteria find an especially favorable soil in 
the diseased mucous membrane of the pharynx, and 
they can then travel by the ways mentioned into the 
tympanic cavities. In acute infectious diseases like 
scarlet fever, measles, diphtheria, influenza, typhus, 



and small pox, no other sense organ is so frequently 
attacked as the ear. The purulent inflammation of 
the pharynx spreads to the middle ear, where it can 


easily eat through the tympanic membrane or destroy 
the auditory ossicles and so produce deafness, which 
will be complete if the labyrinth should also be affected. 
The school can no more be held responsible for such 
cases, unless we refer to the propagation of infectious 
diseases by it, than for auditory defects due to general 
constitutional troubles like scrofula, rickets, tuber- 
culosis, or anaemia. 

290 THE EAR 

On the other hand, there are also some unfavorable 
influences in school that may prove injurious to hear- 
ing. We should in the first place mention dust and 
overheated air, which irritate mucous membranes either 
mechanically or thermically, and, as we know, often 
produce catarrh of the pharynx and so of the ear. 
Cold drafts are also injurious, especially in damp or 
windy weather, since they can then produce an inflam- 
mation of the tympanum. The ventilation of class- 
rooms during recesses should accordingly be done with 
care. To be sure, many pupils do not have their hear- 
ing affected even by strong drafts ; but in others, again, 
the ears become sensitive and have a feeling of pres- 
sure, fullness, and pain as the premonitory symptoms 
of inflammation. Pupils with aural diseases should 
therefore have their ears protected when they are out 
on the play-ground in damp, cold weather; such pro- 
tection is, however, not necessary in fine weather or 
inside the building. 

Violent noises also endanger the sense of hearing. 
They sometimes produce a loud buzzing in the ears ; 
and may even occasion temporary or permanent loss of 
function, probably because they give motion to the 
fluid in the labyrinth, whereby the end-organs of the 
auditory nerve are torn from their usual fastenings 
and become irritated or paralyzed. 

Such concussions are liable to occur, for example, 


in lessons in chemistry, when oxyhydrogen gas or a- 
mixture of coal-gas and air is allowed to explode, 
Small boys sometimes yell or whistle too loudly in each 
other's ears. Something similar happens often in sing- 
ing, or in concert recitations of sentences, numbers, 
vocables, etc., in the lower classes. Furthermore, 
many of our teachers, especially those who are most 
enthusiastic in their calling, have acquired the habit 
of talking unnecessarily loud, which also diminishes 
the hearing ability of the pupils. 

"The national custom of the English, whether in 
public, in church, or in parliament, of speaking in gent- 
ler but more distinct tones, and with greater slowness, 
where special emphasis is required, is very worthy of 
imitation and of equal advantage to both the throat 
and ear." By training, that is, by giving careful and 
methodical attention to weak sense impressions, the 
pupil can improve his hearing as well as his eye-sight. 

To put these precepts into practice it is, of course, 
necessary to have the class-rooms situated as far as 
possible from the noises of the street; to have no 
arched ceilings with strong resonance; and to have 
the singing exercises conducted in special rooms, so 
that the sound may not disturb the recitations. Those 
especially who have one of the ears defective should 
be careful not to neglect it but turn it often toward 
the teacher and use it as much as possible in listening. 

292 THE EAR 

Teachers cannot be cautioned enough against boxing 
the ears. In this mode of punishment, the tympanic 
membrane is easily ruptured by the sudden compres- 
sion of the air; and though it usually heals without 
any after-effects, more or less time is required for the 
purpose. In many cases, on the other hand, ringing 
in the ears and deafness are the result, especially in 
those cases in which the drum-head has not been rup- 
tured. In the latter event the full force is transmitted 
from the tympanic membrane to the stapes and from 
this to the labyrinth, where paralysis may be produced 
by the concussion. 

Even death has been known to follow a box on the 
ear. In one case of such punishment, a little blood 
flowed from the ear immediately after the blows were 
given, on account of the splitting of the tympanic 
membrane ; and slight dizziness set in. In thirty-six 
hours there was a discharge of bloody matter; later 
of pure matter, accompanied by great dizziness, quick- 
ened pulse, and lower temperature. In a few days 
there was found that besides the rupture of the ear 
drum and the purulent inflamation of the tympanic 
cavity, an effusion of blood had taken place in the 
outside membranes and the lateral ventricles of the 

Not only blows on the ear but blows on the temples 
and pulling of the ear are to be avoided, since this, 


too, may produce rupture of the tympanic membrane 
and bleeding in the middle .ear and the labyrinth. 

Finally, with younger pupils in particular, foreign 
bodies introduced into the ear play a not unimportant 
part among the things which are harmful. Children 
sometimes scratch their ears with small objects, as for 
example with a lead pencil or pen-holder, and a piece 
breaks off and is lodged inside. In an examination 
made in a school, Nager twice found objects in the 
outer auditory meatus of which the possessors were 
themselves ignorant. One boy had the movable metal 
ring of a pen-holder wedged fast in his ear, fortunately 
a few millimeters away from the tympanic membrane 
so it could be removed without damaging it. Another 
had two large wads in each ear, evidently put in at 
different times, after the extraction of which his limit 
of hearing rose from between one and two to seventeen 

Foreign bodies are as a rule not easy to remove, if 
unskilled persons have tried to get them out before- 
hand. For this reason, teachers had better not make 
the attempt at all. Through ignorant and awkward 
manipulation the objects may be driven still further 
into the ear, so as to perforate the drum-head and 
even penetrate into the tympanum, where they pro- 
duce inflammation and its consequences. Unprofes- 
sional attempts at extraction accordingly make the 

294 THE EAR 

work of removal by the specialist more difficult and in 
fact may even make an extensive operation necessary, 
such as the cutting away of the bones or the partial 
severing of the arteries. Death has even resulted from 
unskilled work. 

Water in the outer auditory passage is also to be 
looked upon as a foreign body. In most cases it gives no 
special trouble, because it rarely reaches the tympanic 
membrane on account of the curvature of the passage. 
Many times, however, the external meatus and the 
mucous membrane of the tympanum become inflamed, 
especially where the passage is straight, for both 
pressure and low temperature act as irritants. Teach- 
ers in taking pupils bathing must see that they hold 
their heads high enough in wading and swimming so 
that the water may not get into the ears, mouths, or 
noses ; for it can easily flow from the nose and pharnyx 
through the Eustachian tubes into the tympanum. If 
one does not wish to dispense with ducking and div- 
ing, the ears should have stoppers soaked in oil. But 
since this process is rather inconvenient, we prefer to rec- 
ommend closing the ear passages with the fore-fingers. 

Good hearing is of distinct advantage to pupils in 
speaking and singing, as is made evident by the disa- 
greeable voices usually possessed by deaf mutes; and 
we will therefore next consider the vocal organs. 



Experiments upon the compass of the voices of chil- 
dren just entering upon school work have been made 
by Ed. Engel, who examined 624 boys six years of age. 
His conclusions differ somewhat from views so far 
entertained. He found that a fourth of the number 
of pupils could sing the low tones, f . g, a. The inten- 
sity of these tones was not very great ; yet they were 
produced without effort and were capable of further 
development. The compass was four tones for 13.3 % 
of the boys; five for 9.13$; six for 17.91$; seven 
for 17.32$; and eight for 6.25$. A few had a 
still greater range, one boy producing ten and a 
half tones, from f to b' ; six boys eleven tones from 
g to c". 

While Engel dealt only with boys six years old, E. 
Paulsen examined 2,685 cases from six to fifteen years 
of age. According to him, the singing compass in the 
sixth year is from b to f ". The increase in height of 
pitch is gradual, amounting to four whole tones, the 

X E. Paulsen, Die Singstimme der Kinder. Pfliigers 
Archiv, 1896, Vol. 61, p. 407 ff. 




highest point, c '", being reached in the twelfth year. 
In depth boy's voices move down about four and a half 
tones, the lowest limit, d, being attained in the thir- 
teenth year. Their compass is consequently, when 
the voices are fully developed, nearly three octaves, 
from d to c'".* 

Engel gave attention also to the discriminative ability 
for tones ; but he fails to tell us what he considers the 
normal limits to be. Among the 624 boys, 17.3$ 
were found to have poor or inadequate sensibility for 

Experiments of a more systematic nature have been 
carried on by J. A. Gilbert 1 who made use of a specially 
constructed instrument for ascertaining children's dis- 
criminative ability for tones. This was least in the 

* The following table from Helmholtz's Sensations of 
Tone, p. 17, gives the notation and pitch of the gen- 
eral system of musical notes. 


















J J. Allen Gilbert, Experiments upon the musical 
sensitiveness of school children. Studies from the 
Yale psychological laboratory, edited by Edward "VV. 
Scripture, 1893, Oct. 1st, pages 80-87. 


sixth year; though, even at that time, half-tones 
could be easily distinguished. It then improves rap- 
idly up to the ninth year. At the end of the tenth, 
it sinks a little. Then comes a more gradual increase 
of ability up to the fourteenth year, when there is an- 
other retardation. At fifteen the last period of 
development sets in, reaching its maximum at nine- 
teen. The depression in the tenth and fourteenth 
years are connected by Gilbert with two epochs in 
general development, namely, the second period of 
dentition and puberty. 

Since pupils six years of age have, according to 
these investigations, a register of from six to seven 
tones, and possess besides sufficient acuteness of hear- 
ing, instruction in singing can begin with the seventh 
year. Garbini maintains that children of about this 
age, in fact as young as four or five, have a 'great 
enough compass for singing; and that they can not 
only repeat a tune accurately, but give it its musical 

The expert deputation for medical affairs in Prussia 
also advise that instruction in singing begin with the 
seventh year; but they require very properly that the 
voices of children of this age should not be over- 
strained, and believe that lessons of an hour's duration 
are too long for children of six. In accordance with 
these views, a circular letter of the Prussian cultus- 


minister of April 23, 1883, prescribes two half-hour 
periods of singing per week for the preparatory classes 
of higher institutions of learning, " as a suitable and 
delightful exercise for pupils of that age ". Garbini 
says that two-part chorus exercises even are permis- 
sible for children in these years of school work. If 
the chorus is made up of boys six or seven years of 
age, the exercises should have a range of about six 
tones at first, and of eight tones after eight months 
training. Younger and older boys should not be al- 
lowed to sing together, except when the song is adapted 
to the younger. 

In Sexta and Quinta, instruction in singing has always 
been obligatory in Prussia. Participation in the work 
by the pupils of the upper classes has on the other 
hand been optional for those who ' ' through talent or 
special inclination desire to continue it. " This option 
was, however, justly revoked in 1882, so that now 
pupils are excused from singing only when a physician 
certifies to its necessity, or the teacher finds an abso- 
lute lack of musical ability. 

From a hygienic point of view, the new regulation 
deserves the preference, because singing is excellent ex- 
ercise not only for the throat and larynx but also for 
the lungs, to say nothing of its cheering effect upon 
emotions. With respect to the influence upon the 
lungs, Wassiljeff has shown that regular singing 


practice extends them and increases their vital capacity. 
This fact is supported by a statement from Barth, that 
professional singers can exhale on an average 5,000 
ccm. of air, while the corresponding number for 
ordinary people is only 3,222 ccm. As to details, the 
following hygienic rules are to be observed in the sing- 
ing lessons. 

1. Care should be taken to have the air especially 
pure and free from dust. As the production of tones 
requires increased expirations, it naturally gives rise 
to deeper inspirations. Dust and other impurities can 
then enter the bronchial tubes. 

2. The temperature in the room had better be below 
than above 14 R = 17.5 = 63.5 F. (In the 
United States the temperature is usually 5 F. higher. 
See page 121.) 

3. Singing makes a person warm. If the pupils are 
to leave the place at the end of the hour, time should 
under certain circumstances be allowed before its close 
for cooling off. 

4. The pupils should stand while they sing ; if they 
sit, the organs of the chest and abdomen are likely 
to be compressed, while the free movement of the 
lungs and diaphragm is especially necessary in singing. 
But we must not forget that long continued standing 
is exhausting. The entire weight of the body rests 
upon the joint cartilages; the ligaments are stretched, 


and the muscles which keep the legs straight and in 
equilibrium are in constant contraction. % 

Singing like any other physical exercise is fatiguing;, 
and in fact quite strongly so according to the investi- 
gations of Kemsies. As far as the lungs are con- 
cerned, it is true this fatigue is not so much to be 
feared, since in case of over exertion the larynx loses 
its power first. Nevertheless, singing should not be 
continued too long uninterruptedly, but should be 
broken by adequate intermissions during which the 
pupils should be seated. 

5. For the same reason, singing in subdued tones 
should be practised, both because it is less taxing and 
because too loud singing may injure the vocal cords. 
The teacher must especially see to it that the pupils 
do/not sing'the Jiigh notes louder than the low notes, 
as they usually do. 

6. The chin should not be lowered in singing the low,, 
nor raised in singing the high notes. 

In the first case, singing is made more difficult by 
the closing of the entrance to the larynx by the arch- 
ing of the base of the tongue. The chin is also low- 
ered in bending too far over the music sheet, which 
should accordingly be held at a proper height. 

7. The teacher must not fail to have breathing 
exercises in the song period, such as having the pupils 
hold a tone, now soft, now loud, or crescendo or 
diminuendo, while he counts the seconds. 


8. The most important thing, however, is never to 
allow a pupil to sing at a pitch unsuited to his voice, 
that is, too high in the case of soprano, or too low in 
the case of alto ; by such a procedure the muscles of 
the larynx would be over-strained. 

9. In a two-part chorus, the boys should be placed 
so that the second part may be sung by those who can 
give the lower notes with the greatest ease. Since low 
tones produce less effect than high tones, to prevent 
the former from being drowned out by the latter, 
fewer pupils should be assigned to the first than to the 
second parts, say, in the ratio of one to two, if the 
boys are of the same age ; or one to four if they are of 
different ages, the difference being due to the fact 
that the voices of older boys are more powerful than 
those of the younger. 

10. When the voice changes at puberty, it takes on 
a new pitch. Soprano is usually transformed into 
tenor, and alto into base. There should be no singing 
while this transformation is incomplete. Pupils who 
participate in the singing lessons should receive special 
care from their fourteenth to their seventeenth years. 
If they do not receive it, the voice is often permanently 
injured. It is especially liable to break. During the 
period of puberty the larynx changes rapidly both in 
form and size. The relation between the cartilages, 
vocal cords, and muscles is then suddenly altered, so 


that the latter do not have the proper feeling for the- 
new conditions of tension, and the voice consequently 
fails or cracks. If the voice is not given the neces- 
sary rest at this time, these high cracked tones become 
fixed and remain even after growth is complete. The 
lost muscle sensations are not fully recovered ; and the 
muscles of the larynx, adapted to its former small 
size, are over-strained, so that the vocal cords only 
produce a sort of crowing tone. 

The hygiene of the voice in speaking, that is, in 
the cultivation of distinct and musical articulation, is 
no less important than the hygiene of the voice in 
singing. For this reason, pupils should not begin to 
read too early. Boys just entering school cannot pro- 
duce more than half the sounds correctly ; and to try 
to make them read at once is unnatural. 

In the reading lessons, the effort should first of all 
be made to train the pupils into correct habits of ex- 
pression, the more so since the little mistakes in lan- 
guage can never be so easily corrected as at the begin- 
ning. In these exercises, the vowels should be 
pronounced sharply and clearly, but naturally and 
with chest tones; and the teacher should see that the 
pupil holds the mouth in the proper position. The 
tone should be as agreeable as possible, neither too 
soft, nor too piercing. It is therefore best to have the 
vowels practised in different pitches, intensities, and 


lengths. The articulation of the consonants must be 
clear and distinct but not affected 1 . 

The more difficult combinations require special drill. 
The teacher must also see that the breath is used 
properly in speaking; breathing should not be very 
rapid but slow and deep. 

It is only when correct articulation has been 
developed in this way, that reading lessons should be- 
gin. In these, the phonic method is now doubtless 
generally in use instead of the a, b, c, spelling method 
formerly employed; and it is to be preferred since it 
is based upon the physiology of the letter sounds. 
But on the other hand, paradoxical as it may seem, it 
has the great disadvantage of making the children 
learn to read too quickly Aside from the discrepancy 
which thus arises between mental development and 
the mechanical ability to read, the normal speech of 
the children is greatly injured thereby. For it is not 
a question of how soon a boy can learn to read, but 
whether he can read with clear pronunciaton and cor- 
rect emphasis. 

In this respect much still remains to be desired, even 
in the upper grades of our higher institutions of learn- 
ing. One of our most experienced medical speech 

1 Adriano Garbini, Evoluzione della voce nella 
infanzis. Con 10 tab. Verona, 1892, G. Franchini. 


experts, Dr. H. Gutzmann 1 , assures us that " The way 
gymnasiasts read their mother tongue often beggars all 

In Greek and Latin accurate vocalization, accent, 
and quantity are anxiously insisted upon; and in 
modern languages, correct pronunciation is most care- 
fully striven for by the aid of phonetics. But in the 
mother tongue all this seems to be left to accident or 
to some happy talent. 

The poor reading of our gymnasiasts and real-gym- 
nasiasts is partly due to speaking too rapidly in school, 
since reading and speaking mutually influence one 
another. This mistake is especially prevalent in the 
lower and interme'diate grades. "Answer quickly!" 
is there the watchword. In reciting vocabularies, the 
pupil must not stop to think; and in mental arithme- 
tic he must give the result as soon as he can. Thus, 
it naturally happens that he often mis-speaks and 
drops out letters or syllables. We can readily under- 
stand that this may easily give rise to errors in lan- 
guage, or increase such as are already present. More- 
over, oratorical training is itself damaged by too quick 
replies. The pupil doubtless finds time to consider 
what he wants to say but not how he is to say it. The 
form of the answer is, therefore, often imperfect. 

1 H. Gutzmann, Die Hygiene der Sprache und die 
Schule. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1892, 
No. 5, p. 201 E. 


Besides being trained to speak too hurridly, pupils 
are in many schools taught to speak too loudly. The 
teacher thinks that their pronunciation thereby gains 
in distinctness. Just the contrary is true, since the 
over-loud vowels drown out the consonants, which are 
particularly important for the understanding of spoken 

Shouting, also, seriously damages the voice. By it 
the vocal cords are stretched too far and finally lose 
their elasticity. In forcing the air violently through 
the larynx, the voice is not only made louder but is 
also raised in pitch and consequently sounds quite un- 
pleasant. There is special danger in speaking too 
loudly at the time of the change of voice. The larynx 
may then be permanently damaged in its function. 
" What will all this care on the part of the teachers of 
singing amount to," asks Dr. Gutzmann, "if the 
pupils whose voices are changing are led to shout in 
the class-room ? I know a large number of people 
whose voices were ruined in*school." 

Finally the school may also give occasion for the 
production of another disorder of speech, namely 
stammering or stuttering 1 . The etiology of this 
trouble is usually to be sought elsewhere than in the 

1 H. Gutzmann, Das Stottern. Eine Monographic 
fiir Arzte, Pedagogen und Behorden. Frankfurt a. 
M., 1898, J. Rosenheim. 


school. Hereditary brain trouble, violent mental 
shocks come first among the causes; then scrofula, 
rickets and diseases of the upper part of the pharynx. 
Moreover, a great many have become stutterers simply 
by imitation, the number being 38.7$ of the whole, 
according to the investigations of Gutzmann in Ber- 
lin. The disease is contracted in this way usually be- 
fore the school age, as children who stutter generally 
begin to do so from three to six. 

But that it may also be contracted in school is shown 
by the fact that in the elementary schools in Berlin 
0.5 % were found to stutter in the lowest classes; while 
1.5$ were so afflicted at the end of the course. 
Similarly, out of 210 stutterers in the common schools 
in Bremen, 16 $ had acquired the defect during the 
school period, as was ascertained by Winckler. A 
single stutterer may thus be a source of danger to 
many of his companions. 

As to the frequency of the trouble among school 
children, the numerous official and private investiga- 
tions give corresponding figures. Among the school 
children in Potsdam there were 1.2$ stutterers in 
1885; among 155,000 school children in Berlin, 1 $ in 
1887; among 15,717 in Nuremberg, 118 or 0.75$ in 
1888, besides 93, or .59 $, stammerers. The. conditions 
in Denmark and the United States are not very differ- 
ent. In Copenhagen, Westergaard found 426, or 2.45 $, 


out of 17,347 children in the common schools afflicted 
with disorders of speech; and in Boston, Hartwell 
found 500, or .78^, out of 63,474 school children 
stutterers in 1893, and 498, or .75 #, out of 65,686 in 

It is worth noticing that more boys than girls are 
stutterers, the ratio being about 3:1. On the other 
hand, there seems to be no special difference in the 
number in the different kinds of boys schools. In 
the higher city schools of Breslau, 26 stutterers were 
found in 18934; while in the much more numerous 
people's schools there were 347 stutterers and 66 stam- 
merers. In 1896, Potsdam had 42 stutterers in the 
common schools, 9 in the remaining higher boys 
schools, 7 in the Victoria gymnasium, 3 in the real- 
gymnasium, and 9 in the superior real school. 

Xow it is particularly for the pupils of the higher 
institutions that stuttering is so great a disadvantage. 
It not only retards their progress in school but gives 
them much trouble later. The stutterer is from the 
start excluded from nearly every study, every profes- 
sion, every public position, and he finds all occupa- 
tions requiring much oral communication rendered 
more difficult. The evil makes itself felt now more 
than ever, as Schubert very truly says, "since the 
changes in business intercourse through steam and 
electricity, the easier communication by travel, the 


use of the telephone, and still more, the intenser 
expression of public life in the state, community, and 
associations, give the spoken word an ever widening 

In addition to this, the feelings of stuttering pupils 
are often depressed. In speaking, sympathetic move- 
ments of the mimic muscles occur and so facial distor- 
tions; consequently the ridiculing instinct of his 
companions awakens; teasing begins; and the result 
is the depression, or even the souring of the disposi- 
tion of the already heavily burdened pupil. 

We must, therefore, consider it highly gratifying 
that the treatment of stuttering has made so much 
progress during the last decade. Eminent service has 
been rendered in this field in Berlin by a teacher of 
the deaf and dumb, Albert Gutzmann and his son, 
Dr. Hermann Gutzmann 1 , to whom reference has often 
been made. 

It is a particularly fortunate circumstance, that with 
them theory and practice could come into such profit- 
able co-operation. They have not only conducted 
many courses of treatment for stuttering pupils, but 
have also trained a number of teachers in their methods ; 
and these have then become active in their different 

1 Albert Gutzmann und Hermann Gutzmann, Med- 
izinisch-pitdagogische Monatsschrift fur die gesamte 
Sprachheilkunde mit Einschluss der Hygiene der 
Lautsprache. Berlin, 1891 ff.,"H. Kornfeld. ^ 


localities. Eight to ten pupils are usually brought 
together in a course, the character of the instruction 
preventing a large number. The course lasts for 
three or four months and requires six hours a week. 
With regard to results, out of 180 stutterers in Eber- 
feld 110, or 61.1 $, were cured; 62, or 34.4 fa improved 
while 8, or 4.4$, were not greatly benefited. 

H. Gutzmann has himself had the following suc- 
cess: cured, 84 to 87$; improved 10$; not cured 3 
to 6 $. Those not cured are by no means always those 
who are the worst stutterers but usually those who 
have deficient ability, hereditary taints, cramps of the 
diaphragm and similar troubles. 

Occasionally, that is in 5 $ of the cases, there is a 
relapse after the cure. To prevent this, a weekly 
period for review has been found very useful. When 
this cannot be obtained, those who have relapsed are 
usually put through a second or third course of treat- 
ment. It is very important not only that those who 
have been cured should guard themselves; but also 
that their parents and teachers should aid them in 
their efforts. For this purpose the city supervisors of 
Cologne recommend that children be held to steadi- 
ness and self-control in speaking and be made to re- 
peat correctly whatever was spoken incorrectly; and 
as long as they do not have confidence in themselves, 
that they should be relieved from oral work. 



In discussing in conclusion the hygiene of the other 
parts of the body, we shall first of all deal with 
scoliosis, or the curvature of the spine. It some- 
times develops early in life, usually as a result of 
a pathological softening of the bones, such as occurs 
in the so-called English disease, or rickets. Since the 
latter is due to inadequate nourishment, and this is 
not found so frequently among the higher as among 
the lower classes, it is probable that it will be an ex- 
ception if a case of scoliosis in a gymnasium or real- 
gymnasium can be traced back to rickets. Even 
among the 35 % cases of lateral curvature of the spine 
found by Krug 1 in the common schools in Dresden, 
only thirteen were developed from rickets in early 

Many facts point rather to the conclusion that most 
scolioses are due to certain conditions of school life. 
In the first place, most cases fall within the compulsory 

X W. Krug, Uber Ruckgratsverkrummerungen der 
Schulkinder. Jahrbuch fur Kinderheilkunde, Xeue 
Eolge, 37. 



school age. According to Eulenberg, among 300 
scoliotic pupils there were at the age of: 
2 years, 2 cases, or .66 %. 

2 to 3 years, 3 cases, or 1.00 %. 

3 to 4 years, 8 cases, or 2.66 $. 

4 to 5 years, 5 cases, or 1.66 %. 

5 to 6 years, 8 cases, or 2.66 %. 

. 6 to 7 years, 71 cases, or 23.66 $. 

7 to 10 years, 159 cases, or 53.00$. 

10 to 14 years, 38 cases, or 12.66 %. 

14 to 20 years, 7 cases, or 2.33 <f>. 

20 to 30 years, 3 cases, or 1.00 %. 

Here, not less than 89.3 % of the cases are of school 
age. This corresponds with the statement by Parow 
that 27 out of 45 of his patients suffering with lateral 
curvature of the spine were between 8 and 14 years of 
age. Schildbach says directly from his own wide ex- 
perience: "By far the greater number of scolioses 
originate during the school period." Klopsch reaches 
the same conclusion, namely, that the majority of 
malformations are produced between the tenth and 
fourteenth years of life. Guillaume found among 731 
pupils in Neufchatel, 218 with incipient scolioses. In 
Nuremberg, 15 % of the school population were afflicted 
with spinal curvature ; and in Munich, about 7 % of 
2,128 school children. In Dresden 344, or 24$, of 
1,418 pupils in the common schools between the ages 



of eight and seventeen, were found by Krug to have 

Nor is the trouble so rare in the secondary schools. 
In the superior state real-school at Temesvar there 
were, to be sure, only eight cases among 246 pupils; 
and two of these were produced by rickets and one by 
an unfortunate fall before attendance at school ; conse- 
quently only five cases, or 2.2 $, were developed during 
the school period. But on the other hand, an exam- 
ination of 216 pupils in a boys gymnasium in Moscow 
shows that 6.48$ were scoliotic; and 12.3$ of the 
pupils in the superior state real school of district V. 
of Budapest had more or less marked lateral curvatures. 

It must be admitted that the more frequent occur- 
rence of the latter during the school period does not 
prove definitely that there is a causal connection 
between it and the school. Such a connection can be 
more properly inferred because of the increase of 
scoliosis during school attendance. To demonstrate 
that this is the case, we adduce the following table 
from Krug: 


Number of boys 

Number cases of 

Per cent 





10-1 Of 











' 275 









This shows that the disease increases regularly 


throughout the grades, except from the twelfth to 
the thirteenth years, when its progress seems to have 
been arrested. Conclusive evidence that the school 
co-operates in the production of scoliosis is furnished 
by the fact that these permanent curvatures corres- 
pond exactly to the malpositions assumed in writing, 
especially the C shaped bending of the entire body to- 
ward the left. This was brought to light especially by 
the investigations of Mayer in Fiirth. His results, 
were confirmed by those of Schenk 1 in Bern. The 
latter examined with very sensitive instruments the 
spinal column of every pupil brought before him, both 
when in the writing position and when at rest. Out 
of 200 pupils, 160 sat in writing "so as to bend the 
upper part of the body over the pelvis toward the left." 
All these 160 had, even when they were not writing, a 
more or less marked curvature in the same direction. 
Krug, also, states that the curvatures convex toward 
the left, and so those corresponding' to the position in 
writing, are by far the most frequent. Of the 344 
spinal curvatures found among the school children in 
Dresden, 72 were bent toward the right and 231 to- 
ward the left, 39 were double curvatures, 34 of which 
were bent toward the right above and toward the left 
below; two had to be classed as triple curvatures. 
As a rule spinal curvature receives little attention 

Schenk, Zur Atiologie der Skoliose. Berlin, 1885. 


from parents and teachers. This is partly due to the 
fact that the individual afflicted does not himself 
recognize his defect at the start, since the troubles 
developed by it, such as shortness of breath, digestive 
and respiratory disorders, intercostal neuralgias, etc., 
do not appear till in the later stages. Even many 
physicians treat the slightest degrees of scoliosis with 
indifference and assure their patients that the spine 
will revert to its original form of its own accord. It 
is, however, very desirable that there should be a 
general recognition of the extraordinary importance 
of just these initial symptoms of scoliosis. 

In the later stages of curvature, therapeutics not only 
has to combat the greatest difficulties, but often finds 
that its results remain quite imperfect. " Kowhere," 
as Lorenz justly remarks, " does the old saying: prin- 
cipiis obsta [prevent the beginnings] deserve to be 
taken more to heart than in the orthopedy of scoliosis." 

To enable us to detect the disease as soon as possible, 
it has been suggested that the spine of every pupil 
should be examined at least once a quarter. Every 
deformity could then be discovered in time so as to 
receive the proper treatment. Such a plan would, 
however, exceed the obligations of the school; its duty 
is only to see that all those things are avoided which 
might either produce or develop scoliosis. 

The great part played in the matter by improper 


seats and desks and insufficient light need not be 
restated here. 

We must, however, in this place give emphasis to 
the great disadvantages of slanting as compared with 
vertical script 1 , as these disadvantages are mostly to 
be found in the field of orthopedy. The slant of the 
script depends upon the position of the writing tablet. 
Two such positions are recognized, the right, and the 
median, according as the copy book or tablet is placed 
to the right or immediately in front of the middle of 
the body. There are also two sub-positions for each 
of these two principal ones, since the bottom of the 
tablet may either be placed parallel with the rear edge 
of the desk, or I e made to make more or less of an 
angle with it, in the first case giving what we call the 
straight, in the second the oblique position of the tab- 
let. There are accordingly, in all, four possible posi- 
tions, the straight or oblique position at the right 
and the straight or oblique position at the centre. 
Since the down strokes are always made from the point 

X P. Schubert, Uber Heftlage und Schriftrichtung. 
Hamburg und Leipzig, 1890, Leop. Voss. E. Ritz- 
mann, W. Schulthess, H. Wipf, Untersuchungen iiber 
den Einfluss der Heftlage und Schriftrichtung auf die 
Korperhaltung der Schiller. Bericht, erstattet von 
einer Specialkommission an die Stadtschulpflege Zurich. 
Emanuel Bayr, Steile Lateinschrift. 2 ed. Wien, 
1891, Pichlers Witwe und Sohn. 


of the pen toward the middle of the breast, it follows 
that slanting script will be written when the tablet is in 
either position at the right or in the oblique position at 
the centre; while vertical script will be written when 
the paper is in the straight position at the centre.- 

All hygienists agree in rejecting both positions at 
the right, for with them the body is bent over toward 
the right and this throws the left arm out of its proper 
place, raises the left shoulder, and causes the back- 
bone to curve toward the left. The oblique central 
position may also aid in producing scoliosis. This is 
due to the fact that the eyes are inclined to follow 
the lines in writing so as to make the so-called base 
line which unites the middle points of the two eyes 
parallel with the lines on the paper. Since the lines in 
the oblique central position are inclined upward from 
left to right, the left eye must be lower than the right, 
that is to say, the head must be bent toward the left. 

This bending toward the left produces after a time 
a curve or twist in the spinal column itself, first of 
all because the centre of gravity of the head has been 
displaced toward the left. The left arm will slip from 
the desk, the right will be pushed forward, the left 
shoulder will be lowered, the right raised, and the lower 
part of the spine bent toward the right while the upper 
part bends to the left. If the tablet is, on the other 
hand, in the straight central position, both eyes will be 
held at the same height, since the base line will in that 



case be parallel to the writing lines. The head is not 
bent over toward the left, but is kept vertical ; the left 
shoulder is not lowered but the whole body keeps its 
upright position; in brief, we have as George Sand 
said: "The paper straight, the writing straight, and 
the body straight," 



Whenever the positions of the body in writing ver- 
tical and slanting script have been compared the results 
have favored the former. Twice as many incorrect 
postures were found among those who wrote the 
slanting script as among those who wrote the vertical 
in Nuremberg; two and a half times as many in Mun- 
ich ; and four times as many in Fiirth and Wurzburg, 
That some of those who write vertical script were also 
found in faulty postures in Fiirth there were 14.8^ 
as compared with 85.2 % who sat correctly is due to 
the restlessness of children, who are not willing to 
keep the same position for any length of time. 

Writing exercises should not last very long, but be- 
interrupted now and then by short rests. In the 
lower classes many teachers let the pupils stand and 
go through some simple gymnastics ; and this is gen- 
erally the best way of counteracting and preventing 
the spinal curvatures that have been produced during 
the recitation from becoming permanent. It is im- 
portant for the teacher to insist upon the pupils keep- 
ing a correct position, to forbid the distorting cross- 
ing of the legs, and to recommend that the book 
satchel be strapped on the back rather than carried in 
the hand, as this will favor keeping the vertebral col- 
umn straight. 

If hand satchels are, nevertheless, in use, they 
should be carried now on the right and now on the 


left so the load may not give rise to a one-sided cur- 
vature. How great this load may sometimes be, is 
shown by an investigation made on six successive days 
in the Quarta of a gymnasium in Berlin. The aver- 
age weight of a book satchel was 4,715 g. ; and on one 
day it was 5,200 g., which is nearly a fifth of the 
weight of the body of a pupil eleven to twelve years 
of age. 

Lastly, it is advisable to send boys with especially 
bad postures to the school or family physician for 
examination. In this way, something may be done 
by simple advice; and preparation may be made for 
further treatment. A change of place, a certain way 
of holding the arm, a sloping seat, a somewhat higher 
heel, and especially the release from some hours of 
school work is often of advantage. 


In the production of scoliosis the school is to some 
extent a direct cause; but in the case of infectious 1 
diseases it is only a means for further propagation. 

Measles. That the school serves this purpose, has 
been shown most conclusively to be the case in measles. 
In an investigation by J. Korosi, it was found that, 
in the three-fourths of the year schools were in ses- 
sion, there was an average of 4,000 to 4,400 cases per 
month. On the other hand, in August during the 
vacation there were only 780 ; and in September, the 
first month of school, when the effects of the vaca- 
tion were still felt, there were only 639 cases. As the 
schools continued in session, the number increased, 
reaching the figure 1,635 in October. But even count- 
ing this month, the vacation quarter had only 3,054 
cases; while the first, second, and third school quar- 
ters have 11,865, 13,258, and 13,147 cases, respectively. 

1 Joseph Rychna, Uber Schiilerepidemien. Beobach- 
tungsresultate nebst Yorschlagen Zur Verhiitung und 
Verhinderung der Weiterverbreitung derselben. Prag, 
1887, H. Dominicus. 



A further proof of the causal connection between 
school attendance and measles may be found in the- 
fact that when the vacations were changed because 
of the cholera there was a corresponding change in the 
numerical frequency of the measles. Since the 
spreading of this disease is thus decidedly favored 
by the school, it behooves teachers to be somewhat 
familiar with its symptoms so they may be able to 
dismiss suspected cases at once. Aside from general 
langor, headache, coated tongue, and fever, measles 
are particularly characterized by their attacking the 
skin, the mucous membranes of the air passages, 
and the conjunctiva. Even in the prodromic stages 
before the rash appears, sneezing, nas#l catarrh, dry 
croup-like coughing, reddening and swelling of the 
eye-lids, increased lachrymal flow, and photophobia 
are constant symptoms. Then comes the real erup- 
tion in the form of small well denned red spots about 
the size of a lentil or bean. The skin between the 
spots retains its normal color. These spots appear 
first on the soft palate, then on the forehead, neck r 
breast, and back ; and finally, also on the extremities. 
The rash generally remains in full bloom only twenty- 
four hours, when it begins to disappear in the same 
order in which it came, changing in two to four days 
to a yellowish color. Bran-like scales then begin to 
come off, especially in the region of the temples and 
the nose, the process lasting for about 24 days. 


If there are no other complications, measles are 
generally not dangerous. Nevertheless, the mortality 
in Basel was 3 % for children from five to ten, 7 % for 
those from ten to fifteen ; and in Konigsberg 11.1$ for 
those from five to fifteen, and 2.3 % for those over fifteen. 
In the government district of Stettin, 1,090, or 3$, 
of the 37,000 cases of measles resulted in death. The 
mortality varied from year to year from 1.2 % to 7.1 $; 
and in the case of an epidemic in a locality it rose 
there to 4$. 

Pupils taken down with the disease, or seeming 
liable to be so, should be removed from school at 
once. The pupils of the preparatory schools should be 
watched with special care during these measle epidemics. 
Older pupils need less attention since most of them 
have already had the disease. 

For example in the classical school of the Hamburg 
Johanneum, 85.11$ of the boys from nine to eleven 
had had the measles, as had 87.4$ of those from 
twelve to fourteen, 88.65$ of those from fifteen to 
seventeen, and 93.33 $ of those from eighteen to nine- 
ten 1 . It is very rare for the same individual to take 
the measles a second time. Of the 515 pupils of the 

1 lt. Kotelmann, Die Korperverhaltnisse der Gelehr- 
tenschiiler des Johanneums in Hamburg. Ein statis- 
tischer Beitrag Zur Schulhygiene. Berlin, '1879, Kgl. Bureau. 


classical school mentioned, only eleven had the disease 
a second time ; while 440 had only had one attack. 

The dismissal of the entire school-room becomes 
necessary only when the ranks of the healthy have 
been reduced considerably or when the epidemic is 
particularly virulent. Pupils who have had the 
measles should not be re-admitted until at least three 
weeks after the eruption appears. Before going out 
for the first time they should take a soap bath and 
put on fresh underwear. If the epidemic is malig- 
nant, the brothers and sisters of the afflicted pupils 
should also be refused admission to school 1 during 
the time of the sickness and the convalescence. For 
the disease may be communicated by scales from the 
skin or by the mucous secretions which have become 
attached to the clothing of healthy individuals and so 
been transmitted. Measles usually spread consider- 
ably in spite of all preventative measures. This is 
partly due to the fact that they are contagious even 
in the period of incubation; that is, from the time of 
the infection to the appearance of the first symptoms. 

German measles orroteln are often confounded with 

*Fr. Dornbliith, Sollen die Geschwister von Masern- 
kranken, welche die Krankheit friiber schon iiberstan- 
den haben, von Schulbesuche Ausgeschossen werden ? 
Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 1893, No. 3, 
p. 139 if. 


true measles ; in fact, they were once thought to be a 
mild form of the latter. Recent observations make it 
certain that we have here an independent disease. 
German measles always come as epidemics and usually 
attack children; in Hamburg 40 of the 515 pupils of 
the classical school had passed through the disease. 
The period of incubation lasts from five to twenty-two 
days. There is no prodromal stage, as the eruption 
appears at once. This consists of red spots varying 
in size from a small grain to a lentil, and it generally 
produces a troublesome itching. It appears first on 
the face and forehead, then on the rest of the body, 
forming map-like figures on the skin as the spots 
become contiguous. The eruption disappears in a day 
or two, usually without any after-effects, as it is only 
in exceptional cases that we find persistent anaemia 
resulting. The general health is little affected by 
German measles; and fever, languor, headache, sneez- 
ing, and blood-shot eyes are present to such a slight 
extent as usually to escape notice. There is nothing 
more to be done than to dismiss the victims of the 
disease from school for a couple of weeks, as an ex- 
tensive epidemic might otherwise result. 

Scarlet fever has a much more serious charac- 
ter, though the mortality from it varies considerably. 
In Aidone, a city of 8,000 inhabitants in the Italian 
province of Caltanisetta, 250 persons, mostly chil- 


dren, died during an epidemic lasting nine months. 
The hospital at Amsterdam received 75 boys under 
eleven sick with scarlet fever; and 23, or 30.6 $, died 
from the disease. In an educational institution in 
the province of Hannover the mortality was 14.8 $. 

Children are usually attacked before the age of ten. 
In a gymnasium in Northern Germany, 32.62 % of the 
children from nine to eleven; 38.92$ of those from 
twelve to fourteen; 28. 37$ of those from fifteen to 
seventeen; and 31.67$ of those from eighteen to 
twenty had had the scarlet fever. Only four out of 
172 cases had the disease twice. 

Statements as to the period of incubation vary; in 
the above-mentioned Hannover boarding-school, it 
varied from five to twelve days and was usually six to 
eight days; while H. Neumann regards the limits as 
from a few hours to twelve days. At first, the patient 
complains of depression, headache, loss of appetite, 
nausea, vomiting, pains in the tonsils, and difficulty in 
swallowing; while the usual symptoms of measles, 
namely, sneezing, coughing, and lachrymal catarrh, are 
absent. The palate reddens; the tonsils and sub- 
maxillary glands swell; nose-bleed also often sets in; 
and, in a high fever with 120 to 140 pulse beats per 
minute and a temperature of 40 to 41 C=105.8 
F, the red confluent exanthema of the fever develops 


first on the face, neck, and breast, then over the re- 
mainder of the body. 

This differs from the eruption in measles in this re- 
spect that when the spot is pressed by the finger the 
color returns from the circumference to the centre. 
The tongue also has a peculiar red-raspberry color. 

The eruption usually lasts four days and then fades 
away simultaneously with a rapid disappearance of 
the fever and the difficulty in swallowing. After 
about eight days, the skin begins to peel, not so much 
in small scales as in large shreds, especially on the 
hands and feet. The peeling off is usually completed 
in a few weeks, so that scarlet fever may be said to 
last from twenty-five to thirty-two days. However, 
irregularities and complications often appear and last 
a long time, the most dangerous being diphtheria and 
inflammation of the kidneys. 

The disease is produced by a micro-organism, which 
cannot as yet be definitely described ; it clings 
tenaciously to the cast-off skin, the discharge from the 
nose and excreta, and may be transmitted both by 
these, and by clothes, books, and other objects. The 
latter means of infection did not play a part in the 
Hannoverian boarding school, already referred to; but 
of the 27 cases, .16 were infected directly, and 11 in- 
directly by healthy intermediary persons. What rav- 
ages a single case may produce in a school, we can 


learn from a Parisian example. It can be shown with- 
out a doubt that a boy readmitted to school before 
complete recovery was the direct cause of 150 other 
cases, eighteen of which proved fatal. 

In times of scarlet fever epidemics, pupils who com- 
plain of sore throat or act suspiciously in other ways, 
should be sent home at once. If a case really breaks 
out, it must be isolated and excluded from school for 
at least six weeks. Xor should brothers or sisters be 
admitted to school unless it is certain that they will 
not come into direct or indirect contact with the 

The latter should be allowed to re-enter school only 
after he has taken several soap baths and no longer 
shows any traces on the palms of his hands or sobs of 
his feet of any further excoriation. In addition, the 
clothing which he had during his sickness and con- 
valescence, especially his handkerchiefs, must be dis- 
infected. The best thing for the purpose is steam. 
The shoes should be washed inside and outside with 
carbolic acid solution. 

If the patient attended school when the disease 
broke out or even during the period of its incubation 
when infection might also take place, the class-room 
should be disinfected. If the walls are oiled or 
papered they should be rubbed off with bread, which 
is then to be burned ; the paper should otherwise be 


torn off and the walls re-papered ; if the walls and 
ceilings are tinted or white-washed, they should receive 
a new coat ; and the floors, doors, wood and iron fur- 
niture should be washed with a five per cent carbolic acid 
solution or a two per cent Lyso-solution; curtains and 
similar materials should be steamed. It is also a good 
thing to ventilate the school-room twenty-four hours 
before using it again. 

Diphtheria 1 is a still more dangerous disease for 
-children. Though it may be any time from one day 
to several weeks, it is usually from two to five days 
after the infection, that general depression, headache, 
and a tendency to vomit, as well as fever, thirst, and 
excessive bodily heat set in. The tonsils become in- 
flamed and coated with a whitish material, which sticks 
to the mucous membrane so as not to be removable by 
scraping or gargling. The patient consequently com- 
plains of more or less painful sensations in his throat, 
especially in swallowing and on pressure. The sub- 
maxillary glands are always swollen and sore. In mild 
cases, the cheesy coat peels off in four or five days, and 
the spots heal without scars ; but, even then, symptoms 
of paralysis of the oesophagus, the vocal chords, and the 
muscles of accommodation, may be felt for several 
weeks. In severe cases, which at one time were by far 

1 Bruhl und Jahr, Diphtheric und Krupp in Preussen 
in den Jahren 1875-1882. Berlin, 1889. 


the more common, though the number has been con- 
siderably diminished of late by the use of Behring's 
serum, the whole pharynx becomes simply coated with 
the coherent material ; the patient can no longer swal- 
low except with the greatest pain; and, as the diph- 
theria encroaches upon the larynx and the upper part 
of the bronchial tubes, we have the symptoms of 
membraneous croup, the husky, hoarse voice, the 
noisy breathing, the barking cough, and the suffocation 
in which the face turns blue and the patient suffers 
great restlessness and distress. His hours are then 
usually numbered and he will die in a short time from 
lack of oxygen and from the accumulation of carbon 
dioxide in the blood. 

The septic form of diphtheria is equally dangerous. 
It is characterized by a gangrenous decay of the 
mucous membranes of the nose and pharynx, by very 
bad smelling and ill-colored discharges from the nose 
and mouth, by increased salivation, by vomiting, and 
by great lassitude and apathy. Disorders of the heart 
and kidneys are often added to these customary symp- 
toms and the course of the disease then becomes dis- 
tressingly slow. 

The Klebs-Loffler bacillus is usually regarded as the 
cause of the disease. It is this that grows so luxuri- 
ously in the diseased membrane and is transferred to 
others by the excretions which flow from the mouth or 


nose, or are coughed up or blown out so as to get on 
the skin, clothing, or surroundings of the patient. In- 
fection can take place by direct contract with these 
excretions; or it may occur by healthy individuals 
breathing air containing dust from such pathogenic 
material as has become attached to the patient, the 
floors, the walls, furniture, clothing, books, etc., and 
then been dried and disseminated through the air. 

As the bacillus is extraordinarily long-lived, infec- 
tion is possible after several weeks or even months. It 
often takes place in school, for here those with mild 
cases who are still able to be up, and those who are 
just convalescent and have the infectious material yet 
with them, mix daily with the pupils for five or six 
hours. There are many cases where it is possible to 
show that there was a causal relation between taking 
the disease and mutual proximity on the school benches. 
In one case, infection was produced by an interchange 
in the drawing lesson of pencils between the healthy 
and sick, the point having been placed in the mouth. 

A chart published by the board of health of Boston 
in 1892, which shows graphically the great reduction 
in the number of cases during the summer vacations 
and the large increase on the opening of school, give 
a significant picture of the propagation of diphtheria 
by the school. In London, also, there was a marked 
descent in the curve representing the number of cases 


reported for the years 1893 to 1895 corresponding 
with the duration of the summer vacation. In 1,618 
of the 2,168 cases received in the London hospitals it 
was impossible to discover the source of the infec- 
tion. In 124 cases, it was, however, directly or indi- 
rectly traceable to the schools; and in 55 cases, the 
school was suspected of being the cause. 

From what has been said, it follows that the teach- 
ers' at the time of the prevalence of diphtheria or 
croup must give careful attention to the following 

The health of the pupil is to be watched; and, as 
soon as any one complains of pain and distress in the 
throat, he must be dismissed immediately. If it is 
found that he really has a case of diphtheria, his 
brothers and sisters should also be excluded from 

Convalescents should in no case be re-admitted in 
less than forty days from the breaking out of the 
disease; and the admission of those who have been 
cured should take place only on the presentation of 
certificates from physicians stating that the cure is 
complete ; which means, among other things, that the 
bacilli have completely disappeared from the nose and 

There must also have been a thorough disinfection 
of the body and clothing. What was said about the 


disinfection of class-rooms in scarlet fever, will also 
apply here. If several cases should occur in a week 
among the pupils who are associated together, or if 
the epidemic is particularly malignant, school must be 
partially and in the worst cases wholly closed. 

Of course pupils must not associate during this time, 
as they would, for example, in having private lessons 
together, or in taking part in the preparatory instruc- 
tion for confirmation. 

Whooping-cough. While about 18$ of the nine 
year-old pupils of our higher institutions, and 30 % of 
those between eighteen and twenty have had diphtheria, 
the number of those who have suffered from whoop- 
ing-cough remains about the same throughout the 
course, varying from 40 to 50 $. 

From this we infer that whooping-cough rarely oc- 
curs during the school-age. In fact, children from 
four to six are usually attacked. Hagenbach states 
that in Germany there are 250,000 cases annually, 
which, with a mortality of 7.6$, as Biermer gives it, 
results in 19,000 deaths per year. 

Whooping-cough begins very often with catarrhal 
symptoms coughing, cold in the head, fever which, 
however, present nothing peculiar to enable one to 
pick out the disease with certainty even if it is known 
to be epidemic in the place. In other cases, it begins 
at once with peculiar convulsive fits of coughing ac- 


companied by choking and vomiting; these occur in 
ordinary cases ten or twelve times, and in violent 
cases, as many as fifty times a day, the attacks at 
night being most frequent. 

The more consistent the phlegm is, the longer will 
the coughing spell last, as the spasmodic contractions 
of the glottis will not cease before all of it is 
expelled. It is these that produce the whistling in- 
spirations characteristic of whooping-cough. After 
lasting from three to twelve weeks, the disease usually 
begins to abate. It may last longer, especially if the 
catarrh spreads and inflammation of the bronchia or 
the lungs sets in. 

That this disease is extremely contagious, especially 
in the convulsive stage, is beyond question. It is 
caused by a micro-organism, whose nature is not yet 
fully understood. As soon as a case appears in a 
school-room, it should be isolated at once. The same 
thing must be done when there is reason to fear that 
an ordinary cough is only the forerunner of approach- 
ing whooping-cough. 

The exclusion from school should last for twenty to 
thirty days after the last characteristic coughing fit. 
Thirty days are prescribed by the French lycees. 

Whether the brothers and sisters of the patient 
should also be kept away from school, is a disputed 
question. While the British Medical Journal, which 


is one of the most prominent of its kind, favors exclu- 
sion, the medical association of Vienna opposes it, on 
the ground that it is not certain that the disease can 
be transmitted by intermediaries. In any case, we 
must not forget that by such exclusion healthy pupils 
are often compelled to lose an entire year's work, 
which is deterimental not only to their progress but 
often also to their morals. 

Cerebro-spinal meningitis is a much rarer but 
also much more dangerous disease than whooping- 
cough. This is an acute inflammation of the soft 
membranes of the brain and spinal cord. It is usually 
epidemic, only exceptionally sporadic, and mostly at- 
tacks children under fifteen. It generally begins with 
a chill, violent frontal headache, and vomiting; a few 
cases have a brief prodromal stage consisting of men- 
tal depress on, dizziness, hyperaesthesia, insomnia, and 
restlessness. On the second or third day, the neck 
stiffens, the head is drawn backward convulsively, and 
frightful pains shoot over the spine and into the 
limbs. The mind of the patient is clear at first, but 
he gradually loses consciousness and begins to breathe 
irregularly; he is troubled with convulsions and de- 
lirium; and after a rapid exhaustion of his energies, 
death results. Should he recover, it will be a very 
long time before he will be well, and he is liable to be 
burdened with mental derangement, weakness of 
memory, paralysis, or deafness. 


Cerebro-spinal menigitis is to be classed among the 
infectious diseases, the probable cause being the 
Frankel-Weichselbaum bacillus. In case of an epi- 
demic, a teacher must watch for changes in the moods 
or characters of his pupils, as well as for the other 
symptoms of the disease; and as soon as a pupil 
shows any of the signs, he should be sent to his parents 
or guardians. These must keep him out of school 
till a doctor certifies that there is no further danger 
of infection. All other children in the patient's 
household should also be prevented from coming to 
school. The disinfection of the patient and the room 
should be the same as that already recommended for 
scarlet fever. 

Mumps is an epidemic inflammation of the parotid 
glands, usually confined to school children, which offers 
a contrast with cerebro-spinal menigitis in that it is 
not attended with any danger. The swellings develop 
in connection with a moderate fever and soon become 
painful, especially when touched ; in severe cases they 
spread into the surrounding tissue, even covering the 
face and neck on the side afflicted and preventing the 
opening of the mouth to any * considerable extent. 
These symptoms, and the fact that the head is bent 
over toward the swollen side makes it easy to recog- 
nize the disease. In two to four days, the swelling 
begins to subside ; and, in from one to two weeks, the 


trouble is at an end, unless the testicles become in- 
flamed, as sometimes happens in the case of older boys. 

Though the mumps are not very serious, they are 
rather contagious, probably on account of some mi- 
crobe in the saliva. In an epidemic in Lausanne in 
1888, 78 out of 3,137 school children were attacked. 

Infection usually takes place in the time before the 
swelling of the parotid glands, that is, at the end of 
the period of incubation, which lasts from eight to 
twenty-five days. It can, however, occur later, since 
the possibility of infection does not disappear until 
two weeks after the end of the fever. 

Since there is so little danger from the mumps, the 
school need do nothing more than isolate the patients. 
It is unnecesasry to close school, unless the disease 
becomes so prevalent that the school closes of itself. 

According to the supreme sanitary board of Aus- 
tria, pupils may be re-admitted eight days after com- 
plete recovery, which is four or five weeks after the 
first symptoms. 

Sinall-pox hardly needs to be described here, since 
the disease is so severe from the start that teachers do 
not have occasion to deal with it. Indeed cases are 
now exceedingly rare in Germany. For, if we con- 
sider Hamburg, Bremen, Konigsberg, and Danzig, 
which are connected by an extensive ocean traffic with 
foreign countries, as cities belonging to the border of 


the German empire, two-thirds of all the deaths from 
small-pox may be said to be due to importations of 
the germ on the frontier, as only one-third of the 
deaths occur in the interior. 

For example, in 1886 one death from small-pox is 
reported from Berlin; none from Breslau, Dresden,. 
Cologne, and Frankfurt a. M. ; two from Munich; and 
three from Leipzig. To what a small extent the 
disease is developed in Germany, may be seen from 
the fact that among the eighty-six communities with 
deaths from small-pox in 1886, 54 had only one case 
each, 19 had but two, and only 4 had five or more. 

The rare occurrence and slight extension of small- 
pox in Germany is undoubtedly due to the fact that 
the vaccination and re-vaccination of children is 
carried out so rigorously. This can be proved by a 
comparison of the mortality from small-pox in Ger- 
many with that from the same disease in other coun- 
tries where vaccination is not compulsory. In 1886 in 
the cities of Hungary the mortality from the disease 
was 486 times as great as in the cities of Germany ; in 
the cities of Austria 65 times, in those of Switzerland 
44 times, and in those of Belgium 39 times as great. 
Even in England it was 1.5 times greater than in Ger- 
many, because while vaccination is compulsory, re- 
vaccination is not. 

There are facts enough from other sources to show 


the beneficent influence of vaccination. In the dis- 
trict of Mologa, Russia, only sixteen, or 1.3$, of 1,- 
055 vaccinated children under fourteen took the 
disease; while 35 or 46.6$ of seventy-five children 
whose vaccination was doubtful, and 244, or 58.6$, 
of 434 who had not been vaccinated, fell victims. 
The liability of being attacked by the small-pox was, 
therefore, forty-five times greater for the unvaccin- 
ated. Similarly, in a great small-pox epidemic in Shef- 
field, only one-half per cent ($) of the vaccinated 
children under ten took the disease; while 10.1$ of 
the unvaccinated came down with it. The mortality 
among the vaccinated was 1.09 $, among the unvac- 
cinated 44$. A regular decrease in mortality is a 
noticeable feature whenever a country introduces com- 
pulsory vaccination. 

The latter is often opposed on the ground that dis- 
eases are frequently contracted from the operation. 
This assumption is chiefly due to the fact that every 
sickness contracted after vaccination is without dis- 
crimination attributed to its influence. Voigt has 
shown by careful statistics that in about 100,000 cases 
of vaccination only 69 received supposed injuries. All 
the patients recovered in a short time; and it is cer- 
tain that something independent of vaccination was 
the cause of the trouble. He comes to the conclusion 
that the " howl of distress and murder from the anti- 


vaccinationists is simply obdurate prejudice against 
the truth." 

In view of these facts, there is every reason why the 
school should insist strongly upon the vaccination or 
re-vaccination of its pupils. According to the Ger- 
man vaccination law of April 8, 1874, the principals 
of schools must see that a certificate of vaccination is 
presented by pupils just entering. Similarly, in Aus- 
tria, an order from the cultus minister of the 9th of 
June, 1891, requires teachers to inform themselves 
about the vaccination of the children and assist the 
physician in attending to. the matter 1 . The law in 
Germany further requires that school children shall be 
re-vaccinated within the calendar year in which they 
complete their twelfth year ; and if the attempt fails, 
it must be repeated at the latest during the following 

There need be no hesitation in allowing pupils who 
have just been re- vaccinated from attending school. 
They must, however, keep their bodies scrupulously 
clean. The sores should be free from dirt and should 
not be abraded or scratched. The shirt-sleeves must 
be loose, so they will not irritate the spots by rubbing. 
It is a good thing to excuse those who have been re- 
vaccinated from bathing and gymnastics for two weeks. 

1 Leo Burgerstein und August Xetolitzky, Handbuch 
der Schulhygiene. Jena, 1895, Gust. Fischer, p. 337. 


If the inoculation is successful, small vesicles appear 
after the fourth day ; these usually increase in size up 
to the ninth day, developing into the vaccine pustule 
with its surrounding inflamed red zone. These con- 
tain at first a clear liquid which on the eighth day 
begins to grow turbid. From the tenth to the twelfth 
day they dry up into a scab, which in three or four 
weeks falls off by itself. No bandage is needed, unless 
the red swelling becomes extensive or the pustule 
breaks, when a bandage coated with vasaline had bet- 
ter be placed about the arm. 

Since vaccination does not afford sure protection 
for so long a time as twelve years, it is always possible 
to have a pupil fall victim to the disease. In such a 
case there should be the most careful isolation and the 
most thorough disinfection of everything that either 
comes into contact with him or even near him ; and he 
should not be re-admitted to school till five weeks 
from the beginning of the disease. 

Chicken-pox is a disease definitely distinguishable 
from small-pox; it has characteristics of its own, but 
it also is infectious, and capable of attacking large 
'numbers of pupils. In the Hamburg classical school, 
something like a fourth of the pupils came down with 
it. The period of incubation is generally from 11 to 
17 days. There is usually no prodromal stage and 
the eruption of little red spots, principally on the 


body, face, and scalp, takes place suddenly with 
little or no fever. These spots have vesicles in the 
centre about the size of a lentil, filled with a trans- 
parent fluid. In contrast with the true small-pox, 
they do not have a hollow in the middle. They dry 
up in twenty-four hours, become scabs, and fall off in 
a few days without leaving any scars. Chicken-pox is 
usually so mild that there is no need of medical treat- 
ment or the rigorous enforcement of the rules for the 
exclusion of the patients or their brothers and sisters. 
The probable length of the period of infection is twenty 
days from the first symptoms. 

Tuberculosis^ which is much more to be dreaded 
than the above disease, appears both in an acute and 
in a chronic form, the symptoms varying with the 
organs attacked. In adults the lungs are mostly 
affected, but in children it is more frequently the 
lymphatic glands and the brain. 

The disease is more common with adults than with 
children. In Prussia out of 10,000 inhabitants, 10 
died of consumption before the age of ten ; 20 from ten 
to twenty ; 33 from twenty to thirty ; 41 from thirty to 
forty; 48 from forty to fifty; 62 from fifty to sixty; 93 
from sixty to seventy; 71 from seventy to eighty. 

Among children tuberculosis is more frequent in the 
common schools than in the higher institutions, evi- 
dently because the home surroundings are less hygienic 


in the former case. Langerhans found among 2,084 
village school children of the circle of Isenhagen in 
Hannover one case of advanced tuberculosis of the 
lungs and larynx,- one case of tubercolosis of the lungs 
and spinal column, five cases of tuberculosis of the 
bones or joints, and one where this disease was sus- 
pected ; but in a large number of gymnasia and real- 
gymnasia I have not found a single case. Grusdeff's 
report is in harmony with these facts. He examined 
262 pupils between the ages of nine and eighteen in 
the ecclesiastical institute at Kostroma. Though 30$ 
had some form of pulmonary disease and 28 % of these 
expectorated and 22 % had consumptive parents or rela- 
tives, he was not able to find a single case of tuber- 
culosis among them. 

In higher institutions of learning, the question 
whether teachers are consumptive is therefore more 
important than the question whether the pupils are 
so, especially if we consider the lower grades. The 
cause of tuberculosis is a fungus, not the tuber- 
cular bacillus of Koch, which is found in the breath 
of the patients, but in the expectorations. If these 
get on the clothing or the floors, they will dry and 
be rubbed or crushed into powder so as to be in a 
condition to enter the lungs of the healthy as dust. 
The infectious material is sometimes transmitted by 
flies which deposit it on food. Younger children do 


not know very well how to cough so as to clear the 
throat and lungs, and often swallow the spittle ; con- 
sequently they are not so liable to communicate the 
disease to the healthy members of the school as older 
pupils or consumptive teachers would be. Robert 
Koch is, therefore, right in demanding that the latter 
classes of persons stay out of the school-room, both 
for their own good and for the good of the rest of the 
school. Pupils of this class had better be taken to a 
school sanitarium for consumptives, such as are to be 
found at Davos and. Meran, where classical and scien- 
tific courses are among other things maintained. 

It is true, the effort has been made to avoid exclud- 
ing these persons from school by recommending the 
use of a Dettweiler spit-bottle or a spittoon filled with 
water, for expectoration in school. There is a great 
deal of trouble connected with the use of spittoons. 
In summer the water will evaporate ; and the contents 
will then readily dry and become converted into in- 
fectious dust. In winter they are liable to freeze and 
burst. But the chief danger is that they will be run 
into, so that the liquid will spill and do just the dam- 
age we want to avoid. As is pointed out by the scien- 
tific deputation for medical affairs in Prussia, freezing 
and evaporation may be prevented by adding calcium 
chloride or salt to the water; and spilling, either by 
fastening the vessels down or adapting their shape. 


Many have also proposed filling the spittoons with five 
per cent carbolic acid solution instead of water, since 
danger from drying or spilling would then be removed 
by the disinfection of the contents. But even in this 
case there would still be the daily cleaning of the 
spittoons, which according to Hakonson-Hansen's 1 es- 
timate would require four hours in a large school, a 
length of time the janitor does not have to spare. 
And, finally, even if consumptive pupils have been 
assigned to seats at the end of the benches they never- 
theless disturb the school at all times by getting up to 
cough and expectorate. ~We, accordingly, find it im- 
possible to adopt the above suggestions, much as they 
may have been recommended by those in authority, 

Typhus fevers are more common than tuberculosis 
among school children. In the higher schools, one in 
twelve has suffered from an attack. 

There are three varieties: the typhus or spotted 
iever, the typhoid or enteric fever, and typhoid relapse. 
In the first, the fever comes on rapidly, with a tem- 
perature of 40 to 41 C.=104-105.8 F, and a fast 
pulse, which is often double quick. In addition, 
there is great muscular weakness, profound sensory 
coma, enlargement of the spleen, catarrh of the 

1 M. K. Hakonson-Hansen, Zur Bekampfung der 
Tuberkulose in den Schulen. Zeitschrift fur Schulge- 
sundheitspflege, 1891, Xo. 5, p. 292, ff. 


respiratory passages, and an extensive eruption of 
spots, which may cause the disease to be confounded 
with the measles. In the latter, the fever is less, the 
pulse not so rapid, and mental ability is normal. 

Typhoid fever can be distinguished from typhus 
fever by the more gradual development of the fever 
symptoms, the scarcity of spots on the skin, the thin 
pale stools, and the bloating, aching, and peculiar 
rumbling of the bowels. 

The characteristic thing about typhoid relapse is 
that from the fifth to the eighth day after it has started 
with chills, great depression, tormenting pains in the 
head and limbs, and high fever, there comes a sudden 
fall in the temperature and pulse with apparently a 
return to perfect health. However, this does not last 
long and a relapse occurs in another five to eight days. 
These alternations may take place two or three times. 
During attacks, mobile, cork-screw-shaped bacilli, the 
so-called " recurrenssperillae ", are always found in 
the blood. 

Typhus diseases are all very contagious. In the 
district of Kasan, typhus fever spread so rapidly in 
an epidemic that twenty-two out of eighty-six coun- 
try schools had to be closed in a short time. Sim- 
ilarly, in a French boarding school with 184 boarders 
and 8 day pupils, 80 pupils and 21 servants fell sick 
with typhoid fever. An investigation revealed the fact 


that only those were attacked who drank the water 
supplied by the institution. The well from which it 
was procured had been contaminated by refuse materi- 
als; and typhus bacilli could be found in it. Milk as 
well as water may be a means of infection, if it has 
come into contact with some person suffering with the 
disease. Transmission by clothing and washing has- 
been a particularly noticeable fact. 

Typhus patients should therefore be isolated most 
rigorously and not be re-admitted to school under forty 
days from the beginning of the sickness. Before ad- 
mission they and their effects must have been submitted 
to a thorough disinfection. In the case of typhoid 
fever it is also necessary to disinfect the excretions of 
the patient. For this purpose it is customary, to 
throw in enough lime into the infected vaults to make 
the contents strongly alkaline, and to wash out the 
closet drains with a five per cent solution of calcium 

The influenza^ or grippe, has become in late years 
the most prevalent of infectious diseases. Its period of 
incubation is from one to four, but usually from three 
to four days. According to Combe 1 it often occurs 
among school children in a very mild form, a slight 

1 Combe, Die Influenza in den Primarschulen von 
Lausanne. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, 
1890, No. 98, p. 505 ff. 


headache, a scarcely preceptible weakness, little or no 
fever, light chills, and a sick period of from five to 
eight days only. Malling-Hansen 1 found that his 
pupils gained less rapidly in weight than usual, but 
were otherwise perfectly well during an epidemic of 
the influenza. In the more serious cases, especially 
with older pupils, the symptoms are chills, a high 
fever, and violent pains in the spine. These are accom- 
panied by eruptions, which are partly confined to the 
lips and ears, and partly found over the rest of the 
body like scarlet fever ex-anthema. The most prom- 
inent symptoms are those connected with the nervous 
system, such as severe headache, dizziness, and neu- 
ralgia, and also persistent weakness, which prevents all 
physical and mental work. 

The nervous type of influenza is found in nearly 
half the cases, while the bronchitic occurs in about 
one-sixth. In the latter as well as in the former we 
find chills, fever, and headache; but in a much less 
intense form. A dry obstinate cough, something like 
whooping-cough, and like this productive of nausea, 
is usually the most striking symptom. The most 
common complications are inflammation of the edges 
of the eye-lids, the conjunctiva, and the cornea. The 

X R. Malling-Hansen, Die Influenza und die Gewichts- 
zunahme der Kinder. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesund- 
heitspflege, 1890, Xo. 2, p. 65 fl 3 . 


gastro-intestinal type, which is found in about a third 
of the cases, is like the other two characterized by 
chills, fever, headache, and general weakness; but there 
is in addition diarrhea, with violent griping and fre- 
quent vomiting. 

That influenza is contagious, is an almost universally 
accepted fact ; and a bacillus which Pf eif er has found 
in the mucous discharges from the windpipe and 
bronchial tubes is supposed to produce it. This will 
explain the extraordinary propagation of the grippe in 
places where many people are gathered together as in 
schools. In Vienna 30 per cent of the school children 
fell victims to the disease; 25 to 50 % in St. Petersburg; 
54 % in Lausanne ; and 73 % in London. It was especially 
prevalent in boarding schools ; in Detmold 17 out of 39 ; 
in Schneeberg in the Erzgebirge 71 out of 120; and in 
Waldenburg in Silesia 100 out of 130 boarding pupils 
were attacked. In the boarding department of the 
monastery at Einsiedeln, 140 out of 170 gymnasiasts 
succumbed to the epidemic; and in Burave, a boys' 
boarding school at castle Prangins in Switzerland, 
only a single pupil escaped. It has accordingly been 
found necessary to close the schools in many places. 

In order to suppress influenza it is advisable to re- 
port every case; and to isolate the pupils who have it, 
and re-admit them only when they have fully recov- 
ered. The school committee of the district of Vienna 


has laid down the rule that when the influenza is epi- 
demic, the general hygienic conditions of the school 
must receive more attention ; school directors must be 
especially careful to have the rooms kept at a uniform 
temperature during recesses ; and to have them thor- 
oughly cleaned every day with moist rags. 

Masturbation. We will close our discussion of in- 
fectious diseases by giving some account of masturba- 
tion or onanism 1 , an error which may often be said to 
be due to a mental contagion. Nothing certain is 
known of the extent of the practice among the young. 
It is well to refrain as much from extreme pessimism 
as from careless optimism. At any rate, nearly all 
agree that masturbation is most common at the time 
of the development of the sex impulse, which, of 
course, occurs during the school period. 

H. Schiller writes from the standpoint of wide ob- 
servation of the facts: "There is much evidence to 
show that self-pollution is very extensively practised 
in the schools. It occurs from Sexta to Prima, not 
very often in the lowest and highest grades but most 
frequently in Secunda and Tertia. There is probably 
no institution entirely free from the evil, though its pre- 
valence in some schools is remarkably great. The 

1 Hermann Cohn. Was Kann die Schule gegen die 
Masturbation der Kinder thun ? Berlin, 1894, Rich- 
ard Schoelz. 


traditions and the quality of the students are the most 
important factors in the case. Those institutions are 
especially dangerous as propagators of the evil whose 
intermediate classes are entered by numerous pupils 
who come in from the country and are several years 
above the average age. The bad habit, which is well 
known and indigenous in the rural districts, is either 
brought in or learned by them from older pupils and 
then disseminated among the rest. 

Among the causes we have already mentioned bad 
example. The occasion for masturbation is also given 
by neuropathic predisposition ; by sitting for hours at 
home or in school, especially with the legs crossed; by 
climbing poles and ropes without taking the proper 
hold; by long retention of the urine; and by the 
presence of eczema or vermin, which produces itching 
and so leads to rubbing and scratching the region 
about the genitals. Obscene books, pictures, and ex- 
hibitions are very pernicious, since they arouse the 
already unstable imagination of the young. The 
most common cause of onanism is the unintentional 
handling of the genitals so as to produce the orgasm 
when under strong sexual excitement especially 
while lying in bed. 

The consequences of the vice are partially mental 
and partially physical. Among the former, we have 
lassitude, weakness, shy demeanor, distaste for study, 


enfeeblement of memory, absent-mindedness, dimin- 
ished reasoning power, which may even develop into 
hypochondria. Among the physical results may be 
mentioned, dizziness, headache, ringing in the ears, 
palpitation of the heart, disorders of sight, and espec- 
ially a functional disarrangement of the sexual organs 
which manifests itself in excessive emissions by night 
and even by day. 

Teachers, physicians, and parents must unite in 
waging war against this terrible enemy. Censure and 
admonitions are generally of little value, as they in- 
crease the great emotional depression already existing. 
The onanist is fully conscious of his evil doing, and 
would usually be glad to be free from it; but he lacks 
the energy necessary for overcoming the powerful im- 
pulse. This energy can best be secured through the 
building up of the system generally; and, for this pur- 
pose, plenty of exercise in the open air, gymnastics of 
all sorts, and bathing in cold water will be found to be 
of assistance. The food should be simple, free from 
condiments, and not too nitrogenous; alcohol should 
especially be avoided, since it contributes strongly to 
sexual excitement. Smoking is also injurious, as it 
has been demonstrated that it retards physical develop- 
ment. Aside from these measures for invigoration, 
the pupil must be watched continually and kept away 
from all exciting causes. Whether the introduction 


of a special school Bible and expurgated editions of 
the classics would be of any service in the matter, is 
doubtful ; as a rule they would be used for the discov- 
ery of the objectionable passages, which would then be 
read in some complete edition. Lectures on the sub- 
ject before the entire class are not advisable. They 
would only result in calling the attention of the inno- 
cent to the subject, and the onanists would hardly 
learn anything they did not already know. The entire 
life of the school must rather be such that the pupil 
cannot easily stray from the path of virtue and moral- 
ity, as this is the best means of keeping mind, soul, 
and body in a healthy condition. 


As will be seen by the headings, this bibliography 
is divided into sections corresponding with the chap- 
ters of Dr. Kotelmann's book. It is designed to be a 
guide to some of the most important literature in Eng- 
lish bearing upon the subjects under discussion. A 
few notes have been added on the character and con- 
tents of the articles or books when this was not suffi- 
ciently indicated by the titles or when their importance 
or special features seemed to make it desirable. 

Books marked with a star may be purchased of the 
publisher of this volume. 

ABEL, W. Jenkinson. School hygiene, including 

simple directions respecting ventilation, eye-sight, 

infectious diseases, and first aid in injuries, for 

schools and families. Pp. 53. London, 1890. 

A brief manual of directions. 
ALCOTT, Wm. A. *Essay on the construction of 

school-houses. Boston, 1832. Prize essay for the 

American Institute of Instruction. 

" Its principles were dominant for a number of years, 
being adopted by Horace Mann, G. B. Emerson, et. al." 



AMERICAN Institute of Instruction. *Lectures, 
discussions, etc. Vol. I. Boston, 1831. Contains 
a lecture on " Physical education " by Dr. John C. 
WARREN, and one " On the construction and fur- 
nishing of school-rooms" by W. J. ADAMS. 
BAGINSKY. Handbuch der Schulhygiene. Pp. 6 19. 
Berlin, 1883. 

The bibliographies contain some American and Eng- 
lish titles that would now be of historical interest. 
BARNARD, Henry. * School architecture. This is 
the most important book historically. It was written 
as a lecture in 1838, and first published in the Conn. 
Common school journal, 1842. In *1848, it appeared 
as a separate book of 368 pages; a *2d edition of 
383 pages was published in 1849, reprinted as a *3d 
edition ; a * 4th edition of 429 pages in 1850; a * 5th 
edition of 464 pages in 1854, reprinted as a *6th 
edition. (See Barnard's Journal, Vol. IX, p. 487.) 
" Dr. Barnard was the first in any country to set up 
definite standards for school seats and desks on the 
basis of accurate measurements of children. These 
measurements were made as early as 1838." (Burger- 
stein and Netolitzky, Handbuch der Schulhygiene, 
p. 55.) 

American journal of education, 1855-1881. 

Among the most important articles for the present 
subject are : The condition of school buildings in the 
United States, 1838-1850, *Vol. IX, p. 491; physical 
training of teachers and pupils, by Catherine E. 
Beecher, in 1855, *Vol. II, p. 39; and the examples of 
school buildings in the United States. (*The analytical 


index of Barnard's Journal of education, issued by the 

bureau of education, Washington, D. C., 1892, pp. 

107-8, gives the pages and volumes.) 

Keport on school architecture and plans for 

graded schools, 1870. Bureau of education, Wash- 

BELL, A. N. *The physiological conditions and 
sanitary requirements of school-houses and school- 
life. [Prize essay, medical society, State of N". Y.] 
New York, 1887. 

BICKNELL, A. J. * School-house and church archi- 
tecture. Containing 23 plates, showing 26 plans 
and elevations of district, village, and city school- 
houses. New York. 

BOYKIN, Jas. C. Physical training. * Report of com- 
missioner of education, 1891-92. Pp. 494-524 give 
a convenient history of the movement in the United 

BUDGETT, J. B. The hygiene of schools, or educa- 
tion mentally and physically considered. London, 

BURNHAM, W. H. Outlines of school hygiene. Pp. 
9-71. Pedagogical seminary Vol. II, No. 1. Wor- 
cester, Mass., 1892. Excellent. 

BURROWES, Thos. H. * Pennsylvania school archi- 
tecture, a manual of directions and plans for grading, 
locating, constructing, heating, ventilating, and fur- 
nishing common school-houses. Harrisburg. 

CARPENTER, Alfred. The principles and practice 
of school hygiene. With illustrations. London, 


1887. Jos. Hughes. Begins with school architecture, 
drainage, sewerage, etc. 

CHAD WICK, Edwin. *The sanitary construction of 
schools. Social science association. New York, 

CLARK, Hannah B. Sanitary legislation affecting 
schools in the United States. ^Report of commis- 
sioner of education, 1893-4. Pp. 1301-49. 

COUNCIL on education, England. *Committee of 
plans of buildings (21 folio sheets). London. 

DRAPER, A. S. (editor). Designs for school-houses. 
Being the accepted plans in the competition con- 
ducted by the department of public instruction of 
the State of New York, etc. Albany, 1888. 

Designs for school-houses accepted by the depart- 
ment of public instruction of the State of New 
York. Albany, 1889. 

DUKES, Clement. * School dormitories. London 
health exposition, 1884. , 

DWYER, Chas. P. *The economy of church, par- 
sonage, and school architecture. Buffalo, 1856. 

EVELETH, S. F. School-house architecture. De- 
signs for school-houses, with perspectives, elevations, 
plans, sections, details, and specifications, all drawn 
to working scale, with methods of heating and ven- 
tilation. New York. 

FARQUHARSON, Robert. * School hygiene and dis- 
eases incidental to school life. Pp. 369. London, 
Contents: School buildings, school diet, school 


work, school play, the duties of the school doctor, 

school diseases. 

Discussion of school play and diet of special interest. 

FREEZE, J. R. Report on school-houses and the 
means of promoting popular education. In Vol. V. 
* Reports of the Paris exposition of 1867. Washing- 
ton, 1868. 

GARDNER, E. C. Town and country school buildings. 
New York., 1888. 

H ARRIS, W. T. Preliminary report on school hygiene. 
Educational review, pp. 1-8, June, 1899. 

HARTWELL, Edward H. Report of the director of 
physical training. School document 22, 1891. 

A contribution to the history of physical training. 
The report for 1895, school document No. 4, Bos- 
ton, contains a history of the school desk reform. 

HODGINS, J. George. *The school-house, its archi- 
tecture, external and internal arrangements; with 
elevations and plans for public and high school build- 
ings. Together with illustrated papers on the im- 
portance of school hygiene and ventilation, etc. 
Toronto, 1876. 

Hints and suggestions on school architecture and 

hygiene, with plans and illustrations. Toronto, 1886. 

JOHONNOT, James. * Country school-houses, con- 
taining elevations, plans, and specifications, with 
estimates, directions to builders, suggestions as to 
school grounds, furniture, apparatus, etc., and a 
treatise on school-house architecture. New York, 


JOHONNOT, James. * School-houses. Architectural 
designs by S. E. Hewes. New York, 1871. 

KENDALL, H. C., Jr. * Designs for schools and 
school-houses, parochial and national. London, 1874. 

LINCOLN", D. F. * School and industrial hygiene. 
No. 12 of the American health primers. Phil., 1880. 

The sanitary conditions of school houses and 

school life. In the Lamb prize essays of the Ameri- 
can public health association. Pp. 63-98. Concord, 
N. H. 1886. 

MANN, Horace. * Eeport of the secretary of the board 
of education on the subject of school-houses, sup- 
plementary to his first annual report. Boston, 1838. 

School-houses in Europe. In * 7th annual report. 

Boston, 1845. 

MASSACHUSETTS emergency and hygiene associa- 
tion. *Six lectures on school hygiene. Boston, 1885. 
Contents: School hygiene, heating and ventilation, 

use and care of the eyes especially during school years, 

epidemics and disinfection, drainage, the relation of 

our public schools to disorders of the nervous system. 

* Hygiene of public schools in Massachusetts. 

Boston, 1879. 

MUEGATRO YD, J. * The arrangement and construc- 
tion of large middle-class schools grammar and high 
schools. London health exposition, 1884. 

NEWSHOLME, Arthur. * School hygiene : or the laws 
of health in relation to school life. Pp. 150. D. 
C. Heath & Co., Boston, 1895. Makes use of Ameri- 
can sources of information, but discussions are very 


PAGET, Charles E.. * Healthy schools. Interna- 
tional health exhibition handbooks. London, 1884. 

PHIPPS, Abner. Plans for villages and rural districts 
in Massachusetts with remarks on the condition of 
school-houses in 1872. 

From report to legislature in 1873 by Abner J. Phipps. 
Barnard's Journal, Vol. XXVII, p. 352-362. 

PHILBEICK, John D. * City school systems in the 
United States. Bureau of Education. Circular 
No. 1, 1885. Pp. 147-182. Washington. 

REINHART, A. * Neglect of bodily development of 
American youth. Syracuse. 

RICHARDSON, B. W. * Learning and health. 

ROBSON, E. School architecture. Practical informa- 
tion on the planning, designing, building, and fur- 
nishing of school-houses. London. 

STOORS, M. * Health of our schools. Conn, school 
document, Dec.,.1892. 

WHITFORD, W. C. Circular on plans and specifica- 
tions of school-houses. Madison, Wis., 1882. Re- 
printed from the report of the State superintendent 
of public instruction. 

WILSON, W. Carus. * Helps to the building of 
churches, parsonage houses and schools ; containing 
plans, elevations, specifications, etc. London, 1842. 

WRIGHT, D. F. School hygiene. In report of State 
superintendent of public instruction, Tenn., 1884. 

YOUNG, A. G. Seventh annual report of the State 
board of health of Maine. Pp. 83-385. Augusta, 
Me., 1892. 


A good comprehensive treatise on school hygiene. 


BURNHAM. (See above page 355). Pp. 19-21, and 

COHN, Hermann. Hygiene of the eye. Pp. 131-145. 
Simpkin, Marshall & Co., London, 1886. 

JAVAL, M. * Daylight in the school-room. New 

MARBLE, A. P. * Sanitary conditions for school- 
houses. Lighting, pp. 50-56. Circular of informa- 
tion No. 3, 1891. Bureau of ed., Washington, D. C. 

YOUNG. (See above, page 359) pp. 260-279, also 
He advocates strongly a northerly direction for 

school-room windows. 

ROOMS, pp. 53-64. 

BURNHAM. (See above, page 355), pp. 35-6. 
COHN, Herman. (See above on this page) , pp. 160-71. 
Technical journals like the Electric world and 
engineer, The American gas light journal, N. Y., and 
The progressive age, N. Y,, etc., may be consulted 
for a description of different facilities and inventions 
in this field. 


BILLINGS, John S. Ventilation and heating. New 
York, 1893. 


Important, especially so Chapter XVIII on school 
* Information necessary to determine the merits 

of the heating and ventilation of a school building. 

N". E. A. 1882. 
The principles of ventilation and heating and 

their proper application. London, 1884. 
- MITCHELL and BERGY. The composition 

of expired air and its effects upon animal life. 

Smithsonian contributions to knowledge, Vol. 29. 

Abstract in the annual report for 1895. 

Gives results differing from those referred to by Dr. 
BRIGGS, Robert. *Report on the plans for warming 

and ventilating the Bridgeport school-house. Phila., 

Hygienic construction of the Bridgeport high 

school building. Third annual report of the Con- 
necticut State board of health. Hartford, Conn., 

1881. Reprinted by Marble (see above, page 360). 
BURNHAM, W. H. (See above, page 355) pp. 22-33. 
CHAPIN. Crowded schools as promoters of disease. 

Pp. 296-300, Forum, May, 1894. 
HOLBROOK, M. L. Bad breath in the school-room. 

School Bulletin, *Vol. II, p. 60, Dec. 1875. 
JACOB. Ventilation and Warming. Pp. 14, 124. 

London, 1894. 

" A very convenient outline." Burnham. 
MARBLE, A. P. (See above, page 360). 

" Specially valuable in regard to heating and ventila- 
tion. ' ' Burnham. 


MEDICAL society of London and national health 
society. * Conferences on school hygiene and school 
construction, 1884. 

MARTIN, A. C. *The ventilation of school-houses. 
Boston, 1871. 

MORIN, Arthur. * Warming and ventilating occupied 
buildings. Washington, 1882. 

MORRISON, Gilbert B. *The ventilation and warm- 
ing of school buildings. D. Appleton & Co., New 
York, 1887. 

PACKARD. School-room air ; with directions for ex- 
amining it to determine the degree of its vitiation 
and the amount of ventilation required. * Special re- 
port of the bureau of education. Part II, pp. 349- 
92. Washington, D. C., 1886. 

PENNIMAN. The criminal crowding of public schools. 
Forum, May, 1895, pp. 289-95. 

PRUDDEN. The story of bacteria. Pp. 143. New 

York, 1889. 
Dust and its dangers. Pp. 111. New York, 


SMART, Charles. The chemical examination of air 
as applied to questions of ventilation. *N. E. A., 

THORNE, R. T. Inlets for infection. Popular sci- 
ence monthly, Vol. XXIV, p. 73-79. 

WAGNER and HERBERT. Bad air and bad health. 
Pp. 98. Edinburg, 1894. 

WHITE. Ventilation. Proceedings of the tenth an- 
nual convention of the International association of 


factory inspectors of North America. Toronto, 
Canada, 1896. 

WOODBEIDGE, S. H. Plans for heating and venti- 
lating school-houses. Pp. 315-386. Seventh annual 
report of the State board of health of Maine. 
Augusta, Me. 

* A method of warming and ventilating small 

school-houses. Illustrated. 

YOUNG. (See above, page 359) pp. 283-314. Also 
pp. 148-151 on school baths. 


BALDWIN. Steam heating data. Pp. 365. New 

York, 1897. 

"A standard authority upon the subject." W. H. 
CARPENTER, A. Heating and ventilating buildings. 

New York, 1896. 

* ' A standard handbook giving scientific principles 
and data." W. H. Burnham. See also Billings, 
Briggs, Burnham, Marble, Morrison, Woodbridge, and 
Young. Op. cit. 


BARNARD, Henry. (See above, page 354). 

BOBRICK. Hygienic requirements of school furni- 
ture. Pp. 51. New York, 1892. 

BROWN, Buckminster. * Influence of the prevailing 
methods of education on young persons of both 
sexes. American social science association, 1879. 

BURNHAM, W. H. (See above, page 355), pp. 39-49. 


HAETWELL, Edward Mussey. Eeport of the direc- 
tor of physical training. School document No. 4, 
1895. Boston, Mass. 
The most important treatise on the subject in English. 

SCUDDEE, C. F. Investigation into one- of the 
etiological factors in the production of lateral curva- 
ture of the spine. Eeasons why the seating of school 
children should receive very careful supervision. 
School document No. 9, 189*2. Boston, Mass. 

SHAW. The latest improved hygienic desk. School 
journal, May 1, 1897. 

SMITH, Noble. * Postures in school; their influence 
upon physical development. London, health exhibi- 
tion, 1884. 

OUS SYSTEM, pp. 170-238. 

BAEDEEN, C. W. The sentimental schoolmaster. 

School Bulletin, *Vol. XII, p. 128, July, 1886. 

Points out disastrous effects upon girls often ob- 

BAENES, Earl. Intellectual habits of Cornell stu- 
dents. Cornell mag., Nov., 1890. 
BEAED, G. M. American nervousness. Its causes 

and consequences. Pp. 352. New York, 1881. 
A practical treatise on nervous exhaustion. Its 

causes and consequences. Pp. 198. New York, 


Dr. Beard's work is of special importance. 
BEEGSTEOM, J. A. An experimental study of some 

of the conditions of mental activity. American 


journal of psychology, Jan., 1894. Vol. VI., pp. 


Mental activity as affected by daily rhythm, baro- 
metric changes, exercise, fatigue, and associational 
BRIGHAM, Amariah. * Mental exertion in relation 

to health. Edited with a chapter on the cause and 

care of indigestion in literary men, by Arthur Lamed. 

London, 1864. 
BROWN, J. Cnchton. Education and the nervous 

system. London, 1884. 
BURNHAM, W. H. (See above, page 355), pp. 9-18, 

and 60-65. 
BUXTON, Sydney. * Overpressure in the primary 

schools. London, Sonnenschein & Co. 
CARTER, R. B. * Overwork in schools. London, 

health exposition, 1884. 
CLARKE, Dr. E. H. * The building of a brain. Pp. 

153. Boston, 1874. 
* Sex in education: or a fair chance for girls. Pp. 

181. Boston, 1886. 

" These two books are still classics." Burnham. 
CLOUSTON. The growth and development of the 

child in body and mind. Edinburgh, 1884. 
- The neuroses of development. Pp. 138. Olive 

& Boyd, Edinburgh, 1891 Important. 
CLOUSTON. Developmental insanities and psychoses. 

The delirium and night terrors of children. The 

insanities of puberty and adolescence. Tuke's dic- 
tionary of psychological medicine, Vol. IV, pp. 357- 



COMFOKT, Anna M. and G. E. * Woman's education 

and woman's health; chiefly in reply to " Sex in 

education". Syracuse, 1874. 
CORNING, J. Leonard. Brain exhaustion, with some 

preliminary considerations on cerebral dynamics. 

Pp. 324. New York, 1884. 
Brain rest, being a disquisition on the curative 

properties of prolonged sleep. New York, 1885. 
COWLES, Edward. Neurasthenia. Shattuck lecture. 

Boston, 1891. 

The relation of fatigue to insanity: its symptoms 
and causation. Has many references. 
The mental symptoms of fatigue. Pp. 25. New 

York, 1893. 
DONALDSON, H. H. The growth of the brain. 

Pp. 374. Scribner's, New York, 1895. 
On the structure and development of the nervous 

system, in the American text-book of physiology. 

Philadelphia, 1896. 

The best treatises on the subject. 
DOWN, J. Langdon. On some mental affections of 

childhood and youth. Pp. 307. London, 1887. 
DRESSLAR, F. B. Fatigue. Pedagogical seminary, 

Vol. II, No. 1, pp. 102-106. 
DRURY, F. M., and FOLSOM, C. F. Effects of the 

study for examinations on the nervous and mental 

conditions of female students. Psychological re- 
view, pp. 55-62, 1898. 
DUKES, Clement. Health at school considered in its 

mental, moral, and physical aspects. Pp. 498, 

XXIV, London, 1894. 


DUKES, Clement. Work and overwork. Pp. 69. 
London, 1893. 

The essentials of school diet, or the diet suitable 

for the growth and development of youth. Lon- 
don, 1891 

* School dietaries. London health exposition, 


FARIES, Randolph. Practical training for athletics, 

health, and pleasure. The Outing publishing co., 

New York, 1899. 
FAYRER, Jos. *Home lessons after school hours. 

London health exposition, 1884. 
FERNALD, W. E. The history of the treatment of 

the feeble-minded. Boston, 1893. 
FITZ. Play as a factor in development. American 

physical education review, Dec., 1897. 
FLEURY, de. A cure for indolence. Fortnightly 

review, pp. 762-80, May, 1898. 
FOSTER. Weariness. Nineteenth cent., pp. 337-52, 

Sept., 1893. 

GALTON, Francis. Remarks on replies from teach- 
'ers to questions respecting mental fatigue. Journal 
of the anthropological institute, April, 1888. 
It will be found also nearly complete in * Report of 

com. of ed., 1895-6 beginning p. 1181. Important. 

GREENWOOD, Richard. * Over-pressure in ele- 
mentary schools. London health exposition, 1884. 

HANCOCK, John A. A preliminary study of motor 
ability. Pedagogical seminary, Vol. Ill, No. 1, pp. 
9-29, 1894. 


HAKTWELL, Edward Mussey. Keport of the direc- 
tor of physical training. School document Xo. 8, 
1894. Death rate of school children in Boston, pp. 

HARRIS,W. T. * Report of the committee of fifteen. 
Ed. rev. March, 1895. Also in separate form by 
Am. book co., X. Y., Gin., Chi. 
An especially valuable discussion of the causes of 

arrested development in different subjects. The 

school programme. 

- Reports of the com. of education, Washington, 
D. C. Mental fatigue in school. * Report for 1894- 
5, pp. 449-460 gives a summary of opinions of 
foreign experts. 
* Report for 1895-6, pp. 1174-1198 gives a summary 

of opinions of English and American writers. 

HERTEL, Axel. * Overpressure in the high schools 
of Denmark. London, 1885. Report of the impor- 
tant investigations which lead to the more extensive 
studies in Denmark and Sweden. See Pedagogical 
seminary, Vol. I, p: 245. 

HIGGINS, P. J. * Study physiologically considered. 
Popular science monthly, Vol. XXIV, p. 639-645. 

HOI)GE, C. F. A microscopical study of changes 
due to functional activity in nerve cells. Journal 
of morphology, Vol. VII, No. 2, pp. 95-168. Bos- 
ton, 1892. 

Experiments on the physiology of alcohol made 

under the auspices of the committee of fifty. Pop. 
sci. mo., Vol. 50. Pp. 766-812, 

HOOSE, James H. Report of committee on hygiene 


in education. Recess or no recess in schools. * Pro- 
ceedings of the N. E. A. 1885. 

IRELAND. The mental afflictions of children. Idiocy, 
imbecility, and insanity. Pp. 442. London, 1898. 

JAMES, William. Talks to teachers. Henry Holt & 
Co. New York, 1899. 

The best and most interesting discussion of the hy- 
gienic aspects of normal psychology. 

- Principles of psychology. Vol. I, pp. 80-127 ; 
and Vol II, pp. 372-382. Henry Holt & Co. New 

JOHNSON, N. C. Habits of work and methods of 
study of high school pupils in some cities in Indiana . 
The School review, May, 1899. Chicago. 

JOHNSON G. E. Contributions to the psychology 
and pedagogy of feeble-minded children. Peda- 
gogical seminary, Vol. Ill, pp. 246-301. 1895. 

Education by plays and games. Pedagogical sem- 
inary, Vol. II, pp. 95-133. 

KEILER, Alex. *What may be the dangers of ed'l 
overwork for both sexes, with special reference to 
the higher class of girls' schools, and the effects of 
competitive examinations. Social science association, 

KROHN, W. 0. Nervous diseases of school children. 
Child study monthly ,*Vol. I, pp. 345-368,April, 1896. 

LINCOLN, D. F. The nervous system as affected 
by school life. In " *The health of schools ". Bos- 
ton, 1876. 
LINDLEY, E. H. A preliminary study of some of 


the motor phenomena of mental effort. Am. jour- 
nal of psychology, July, 1896, pp. 491-517. 
See also Pedagogical seminary, July, 1897, pp. 


LOMBAKD, W. P. Some of the influences which 
affect the power of voluntary muscular contractions. 
Journal of physiology, Vol. XIII, pp. 1-58. 

The variations in the normal knee-jerk and their 

relations to the activity of the central nervous sys- 
tem. American journal of psychology, Vol. I, pp. 

LUKENS, H. T. The school fatigue question in 
Germany. Educational review, Vol. XV, pp. 246- 

Mental fatigue. American physical review, pub- 
lished by the A. A. A. P. E., Vol. IV., Nos. 1 and 
2. Cambridge, 1899. 

MANACEINE, de. Sleep: its physiology, pathology, 
hygiene, and psychology. Pp. 341. New York, 

MARBLE, A. P. The growth of children as related 
to health and ability to study. (See above", page 
360) pp. 57-61. 

MAUDSLEY, H. *Sex in mind and in education. 

Syracuse, 1884. 

"A masterly treatment of a delicate subject." 
New England Journal of Ed'n. 

MERCIER, Charles. The nervous system and the 

mind. Pp. 347. Macmillan. London, 1888. 
MEYER, Adolph. On the observation of mental ab- 


normalities in school children. * Chilil study month- 
ly, pp. 1-12, May, 1895. 

MILLS, Chas. K. Over-work and sanitation in the 
public schools of Phil., with remarks on the influ- 
ences of overwork in the production of nervous 
diseases and insanity. Phil., 1886. 

MITCHELL, Weir. Wear and tear, or hints for the 
overworked. Pp. 76. Phil., 1887. 

MOORE, John M. Studies of fatigue. Yale studies, 
Vol. II, pp. 68-96. New Haven. 

O'SHEA, M. V. Practical phases of mental fatigue. 
Pop. sci. mo. Pp. 511-524. August, 1899. 

PATRIDGE, G. E. Second breath. Pedagogical sem- 
inary. Pp. 372-81, April, 1897. 

PORTER, W. T. The physical basis of precocity and 
dulness. Pp. 20. Academy of science of St. 
Louis, Mo., 1893. 

RICHARDSOX, B. W. * Learning and health, Syra- 
cuse, 1883. 

ROYCE. Mental defect and disorder from the teach- 
er's point of view. Ed. Review. Oct., Nov., Dec., 
1893. Xew York. 

REEA 7 E, J. C. The brain and nervous system in their 
relations to teaching and learning. Dayton, 1878. 

SACHS. A treatise on the nervous diseases of chil- 
dren for physicians and students. Pp. 66. London, 

SHAW, E. R. Fatigue. * Proceedings of the X. E. 
A., pp. 550-554, 1898. 

SHUTTLEWORTH, Geo. E. Mentally deficient chil- 


dren; their treatment and training. Pp. 140. H. 

K. Lewis, London, 1895. 

A good introduction; contains a bibliography, pp. 
SIDGWICK. Health statistics of women students of 

Cambridge and Oxford, and their sisters. Pp. 99. 

Cambridge, 1890. 
STRACHAN, John. * What is play ? Its bearing on 

education and training. A physical inquiry. Edin- 
burgh, 1877. 
WARMER, Fr. The study of children and their 

school training. Pp. XIX and 264. New York, 


"A convenient resume of the author's views." 

- * Some points of the physical aspects of primary 
ed'n. Social science ass'n, 1879. 

- *The brain of the child. The same, 1884. 
YOUNG. (See above, page 359) pp. 151-192. 

EAR, ppi 239-. 

AGNEW, C. S. Defects of eye-sight. In "*The 
health of schools." Boston, 1876. 

ALLPORT, Frank. The eye and its care. Phila- 
delphia, 1894. 

Defective eye-sight in American children. Re- 
view of reviews, June, 1897. 

Tests for defective vision in school children. 

Educational review, New York, 1897. 

Report of eye examinations in the Minneapolis 


public schools. Journal of American medical asso- 
ciation, pp. 207-211, 1898. 

AMERICAN society of social science. *Is the human 
eye gradually changing its form and becoming near- 
sighted under the influence of modern education ? 
New York, 1877. 

BURNHAM, W. H. (See above, page 355), pp. 49-60. 

BRYAN, W. L. Suggestions on the study of chil- 
dren. Inland educator, Terre Haute, Aug. and 
Sept., 1895. 

CALHOUN, A. M. * Effects of student life upon eye- 
sight. Pp. 29. Bureau of education, Washing- 
ton, 1881. 

CARTER, R. B. Report on the vision of children 
attending elementary schools in London. Pp. 16. 
London, 1896. 

CATTELL. Tests of the senses and faculties. Edu- 
cational review, pp. 257-65, March, 1895. New 

CHRISMAN, Oscar. The hearing of children. Ped- 
agogical seminary, Vol. II, pp. 391-441. 1892. Wor- 
Contains a good resume of investigations up to its 

date, and a bibliography. 

COHN, H. The hygiene of the eye. Pp. 236 and VII. 
London, 1886. 

* Eyes and schoolbooks. Popular science monthly. 

XIX., 54. 

DENNETT, Wm. S * Report of examinations of 
the eyes of the pupils of the schools of Hyde Park, 
Mass., 1880. 


JACKSON, J. The theory and practice of handwrit- 
ing. Pp. 160. London, 1893. 

JAMES, John S. * Suggestions to teachers regarding 
visual defects of school children. School education, 
Oct., 1892. 

JEFFRIES, B. Joy. Color-blindness, its dangers and 
detection. Boston, 1883. 

Report of the examination of 27,927 school chil- 
dren for color-blindness. Boston, 1880. 

LUCKEY. Comparative observations on the indirect 
color range of children, adults, and adults trained 
in color. American journal of psychology, Jan., 

McLEAN, Ward. Effects of study on the eye-sight. 
Popular science monthly, Nov., 1877. 

NORTHRUP, B. G. * Near-sightedness in schools, 
its causes, prevalence, and prevention. New Haven, 


ROYAL society of London, 1892. 

Report of the committee on color vision, pp. 281-396. 

RANDALL. The hygienic and scientific value of 
examinations of the eyes and ears of school children, 
pp. 8. Chicago, 1895. 

RISLEY. Weak eyes in the public schools of Phila- 
delphia. Philadelphia, 1881. 

Defective vision in school children. Educational 

review, pp. 348-54. April, 1892. New York. 

ROOSA. Defective eye-sight and the principles of its 
relief by glasses. Macmillan Co., 1899. 


SHAW. Vertical script and proper desks as related 

to education. 

Proceedings for the advancement of physical educa- 
tion. April, 1895. 
SNELL. Eye-sight and school life. Pp. VIII and 

70. Bristol, 1895. 
SOUTHARD. The modern eye, with an analysis of 

1,300 errors of refraction. Pp.32. San Francisco, 

WORRELL. Deafness among school children. 

Transactions of the Indiana state medical society. 

Pp. 25-33. Indianapolis, 1883. 
YORKE-AT-LEE, Sam'l. * Defective eye-sight. 

Popular science monthly. 

YOUXG. (See above, page 359.) Pp. 98-119. 

BEHXKE, E. and BROWN, L. The child's voice; 
its treatment with regard to after development. A. 
N. Marquis & Co., Chicago, 1885. 

BRYAN, W. L. and HARTER, Noble. Studies in 
the physiology and psychology of the telegraphic 
language. Psychological review, Jan., 1897, pp. 
27-53. New York. 

Studies on the telegraphic language. The ac- 
quisition of a hierarchy of habits. Ibid., July, 
1899. Pp. 345-375. 
An important investigation into the causes of the 

long periods of apparently slight progress after the 

first rapid success in learning languages and other 



CHATER, Thos. Scientific voice, artistic singing, and 

effective speaking. London, 1890. 
HARTWELL, E. M. Stuttering. Report of the 

director of physical training. School Doc., No. 8, 

1894, pp. 69-97. An important statistical study. 

HOWARD, F. E. The child's voice in singing. Pp. 

196. Werner Co., Chicago. 

LUKENS, H. T. Preliminary report on the learning 

of language. 

Pedagogical seminary, Vol III, No. 3. June, 1896. 
MACKENZIE. The hygiene of the vocal organs. 

Pp. 223. London, 1886. 

MONROE, Lewis B. *Manual of physical and vocal 
training, for the use of schools and for private in- 
struction. Illustrated by Hammett Billings. Phil., 

MULFORD. The throat of the child. Educational 
review. Pp. 261-72, March, 1897. New York. 

MYER, E. J. The voice from a practical standpoint. 
New York, 1886. 

PATTON, A. A. Responsibility of vocal teachers as 
voice builders. New York, 1886. 


BANGOR, Me. Rules of the schoolboard respecting 
contagious diseases. Reprinted in * School Bulle- 
tin, Vol. XIII, p. 20, Oct. 1886. 

B4RDEEN, C. R. * Infection and Immunity. Syra- 


BARNES, Earl. * Studies in education, pp. 301-8, 
gives a bibliography by Prof. Earl Barnes of books 
and pamphlets intended to give sex information. 
Leland Stanford, Jr., univ., Palo Alto, Cal. 

BUCK, A. H. (editor). Reference handbook of med- 
ical sciences. Eight volumes. New York, 1885-87. 

BURNHAM, W. H. The study of adolescence. 
Pedagogical seminary, Vol. I, No. 2, pp. 174 to 196. 
June, 1891. 

EATON, Gen. John (editor). Typhoid fever in 
. schools. * Report of commissioner of education, 
1875, p. clxiii. 

FITZ. A study of measurements of curvature of the 
spine. American orthopedic association. Pp. 3, 

1897. ; 

KROHN, W. 0. Habitual postures of school chil- 
dren. *'Child study monthly, Oct., 1895. 

LANCASTER, G. E. The psychology and pedagogy 
of adolesence. Pedagogical seminary, Vol. 1, No. 
1, pp. 61-128. 

LUEHR. Causes and prevention of lateral curvature 
of the spine, and near-sightedness. Mind and body, 
Sept., 1894. 

MOSHER. Habitual postures of school children. 
Educational review, March, 1897. Pp. 261-72. 
New York. 

MULLER, Geo. Spinal curvature and awkward devel- 
opment. Their causes and prevention in children. 
Pp. 88. London, 1894. 

REILLY, Charles. Contagious diseases in schools. 
School Bulletin, *Vol. XIII, p. 93 (April, 1887.) 


SILJESTROM, P. A. *A momentous educational 

question [vaccination ]. London, 1883. 
SMITH, Southwood. * Epidemics considered with re- 
lation to their common nature, and to climate and 
civilization. Edinboro, 1856. 

TISSOT, S. A. * An essay on diseases incident to lit- 
erary and sedentary persons. With proper rules for 
preventing their fatal consequences, and instructions 
for their cure. 2d ed. With preface and notes by 
I. Kirkpatrick, M. D. London, 1769. 
VIRCHOW. *0n school room diseases. Washington 

bureau of education, August, 1870. 
YOUNG. (See above, page 359). Pp. 119-125, and 

Articles for this section may be found in large num- 
bers in encyclopedias, medical handbooks, current 
medical and educational journals, reports of boards of 
health, etc. 


Investigations into the rate of growth of boys and girls 
and the conditions which influence it. 

AMERICAN statistical association. ^Papers on anthro- 
pometry. Boston, 1894. Contains an important col- 
lection of articles by Hartwell, Boas, Porter, Hitch- 
cock, Enebuski, and Bowditch, with a bibliography 
of anthropometry in the United States. May be 
had from Mr. Davis R. Dewey, Mass. Inst. of Tech., 
for 50 cts. 

BOAS, Franz. Anthropological investigations in 


schools. Pedagogical seminary, pp. 225-8, June, 

1891. Science, June, 26, 1891, p. 351-2. 

The growth of children. Science, Vol. XIX, 

pp. 256, 281-2; Vol. 20 pp. 351-2. 
The limitations of the comparative method of 

anthropology. Science, N. S. Vol. IV, pp. 901-8. 
The growth of Toronto children. * Report of 

commissioner of education for 1896-7, pp. 1541-99. 

BOLTON, T. L. The growth of memory in school 
children. American journal of psychology. April, 

1892, Vol. IV, pp. 362-380. 

BOWDITCH, H. P. The growth of children. Eighth 
annual report of the State board of health of Mass., 
1877. Pp. 275-323. Reprinted in papers on 
anthropometry. An important pioneer investigation. 

The growth of children. Tenth annual report 

State board of health of Mass., 1879. Pp. 33-62. 
The growth of children studied by Galton's 

method of percentile grades. Twenty-second annual 
report of the State board of health of Mass., 1890. 
Pp. 479-522. 

BRYAN, W. L. On the development of voluntary 
motor ability. American journal of psychology. 
Nov., 1892, pp. 125-204. 

BURK, Frederick. Growth of children in height and 
weight. American journal of psychology. April, 
1898, Vol. IX. No. 3. 
A comparative study of investigations so far made, 

with a descriptive bibliography. 

GALTON, Francis. On the principles and methods 


of assigning marks for bodily efficiency. Nature, 
Oct. 31, 1889. Pp. 649-53. 

Useful anthropometry. Proceedings of the 

American association for advancement of physical 
education. Vol. VI, pp. 51-7, 1891. 

GREENWOOD, J. M. Heights and weights of chil- 
dren. American public health association report, 
1891. See also Kansas City report, 1890-1, pp. 

GROSZMANN, M. P. E. * A working manual of child 

study. Syracuse. 

Gives in detail the method employed in the Schools 
of ethical culture, New York city. Syracuse, 1897. 

HARRIS, Wm. T. * Report on pedagogical and psy- 
chological observation. Syracuse. 

PECKHAM, Geo. W. The growth of children. Sixth 
annual report of the State board of health of 
Wisconsin, 1881. Vol. VI, pp. 28-73. Pedagogi- 
cal seminary, Vol. I, p. 298. 

PEREZ, B. *The first three years of childhood. 
With an introduction by Prof. Sully. Syracuse. 
This is -of such general interest that it is included by 

the American library association in the list of books to 

be contained in every library. 

PORTER, W. T. The physical basis of precocity and 
dulness. (See above, page 371.) 

On the application to individual school children 

of the means derived from anthropological measure- 
ments by the generalizing method. Quarterly publ- 


lications of the American statistical association, Vol. 

3, pp. 576-87. Boston, 1893. 
The growth of St. Louis children. Transactions 

of the academy of science of St. Louis, Mo. April 

14, 1894. 
The use of anthropometrical measurements in 

schools. Educational review, Feb., 1896. New 


*TIEDEMANN'S record of infant life. An English 
version of the French translation and commentary 
of B. Perez, by F. Louis Soldan. Syracuse. 

WEST, Gerald M. Worcester school children. The 
growth of the body, head, and face. Science, Jan. 
6, 1893. 

BURNHAM, Wm. H. 'Bibliography of school hygiene. 

* Proceedings of the National educational association, 

1898. Pp. 505-523. 

An excellent descriptive bibliography to which the 
writer is indebted for a number of titles. Especially 
see pp. 520-3 for list of journals and reports. 
.BILLINGS, John S. (editor). Index medicus. Monthly 

record of the current medical literature of the world. 

Edited by Dr. John S. Billings and Dr. Robert 

Fletcher, Washington, D. C. Begins 1879. 
MAcDOXALD, Arthur. Abnormal man, being essays 

on education and crime and related subjects, with 

a digest of literature and a bibliography. 

The latter contains a great many titles of importance 
to school hygiene. 


WARREN, Howard C., (et. ah, editors). The Psycho- 
logical index. Macmillan & Co. New York. An 
annual bibliography of the literature of psychology 
and related subjects. 
This and the Index medicus may be consulted for 

current literature. 

WILSON, L. N. * Bibliography of child study. Ped- 
agogical seminary, April, 1898. May be obtained in 
separate form from J. H. Orpha, Worcester, Mass. 
Price 50 cts. A valuable descriptive bibliography. 



adenoid vegetations 285 

adjustable desks 154 

age of enteri ng school 209 

air, composition of 65 

in the school-room 32 

i n eye-diseases 277 

over-heated 290 

air-tester 76 

airing the room 92 

albocarbon gaslight 60 

Albrand 45 

Altenstein . 31 

American hard pine 96 

Anaxagoras 206 

anaemia 67 

aprosexia nasalis 287 

Aquaviva, Claudius 21 

arched ceilings 291 

windows 45 

archaeological collections 192 

Argand burner 59 

argon 65 

Aristotle 239 

Arlt, von 32 

army regulations 252 

Arndt 171, 172 

Arsonval, d' 67 

artificial illumination 198 

articulation 291 , 302 

aspirating chimney 81 

assignment of desks 161 

association of ideas 183 

Auer's gas-light 59 

automatic regulated fire 120 

regulators 124 

awning for windows 48 

Bach, Theodore 33,35, 203 


bacilli 329, 335, 348 

back rests 134 

backward inclination of seats 133 

bacteria 70, 72, 288 

Baginsky, Adolf 33, 35, 50 

Barr, Thomas " 281, 284 

base burner stoves 108 

Basedow, John Bernard, portrait. 25 
Bastelmann's contact thermome- 
ter 125 

bathing 199, 206 

Bayr, Emanuel 55 

Becker 217, 219 

Beethoven 170, 171 

Hegenmann 224 

Behnke, Gustav 109 

Uendziula, Albert . ..149 

Berthold of Regensburg 17 

bevelled windows 48 

Beyer, O. W 203 

Bezold, Friederich 32, 279, 281 

Biermer 332 

blackboard crayon 167 

erasers 168 

blackboards 16j 

kept clean 98 

blinds 45, 48 

blows on the temples 292 

boating 199, 209 

book-shelf for school-desk 143 

Boubnoff 84 

bowling 224 

box ing the ears 292 

brain, growth of 209 

the acropolis of the mind.. .170 

breathing exercises 300 

Breckling, SOnke 116 

Breiting. 32 





Bresgen, Maximilian 33, 217, 285 

brick walls detrimental 84 

bronchial tubes 72 

Brown-Sequard 67 

Bruhl and Jahr 328 

Buchner 32, 135 

Burgerstein, Leo 33, 35, 

55, 173, 189, 192, 261, 267, 339 

Buttsted of Osterode 24 

Butzke's arc light 59 

Byron 170 

Bystroff 217 

calcium hydrate 102 

California, university of 259 

Camerarius, Joachim 19 

cannon stoves 108 

carbon monoxide 110 

carbonic acid 65, 66 

measured 73 

oxide Ill 

gas 112 

care of furnaces 122 

stoves 110 

Carnelly 71 

cast iron 156 

Castaning 90 

Castaning's window ventilation. 91 

cataract of the eye 254 

catarrh of the bronchial tubes. . . 72 

of the eye 277 

central heating plants 112 

cephalic congestions 216 

cerebro-spinal meningitis 334 

neuroses 237 

Chamotte stone 113 

chandeliers kept clean 98 

Charcot 218 

chemistry explosions 291 

chicken-pox 340 

children's faults, science of 229 

3himne3 r s for pas 61 

3hin in singing 300 

shorea St. Viti 237 

ehoroid, inflammation of 254 


class-rooms should be quiet 291 

classics, study of reduced 215 

cleanliness of the pupils 94 

coaching 211 

cocoa fibre mats 99 

Cohn, Hermann 32, 42, 43, 44, 

... .49, 54, 56, 61, 148, 246, 260, 349 

cold draft 290 

color 270 

color-blindness 270 

colored crayon 168 

Columbus school desk 157 

Combe 346 

Comenius, John Amos 23 

compass of voice 295 

conjunctiva, inflammation of 273 

Conrad, Max 241, 244 

consonants 282 

consumption 99 

contamination of the air 66 

continuous desks 155 

seat for pupils 145 

copy-books 266 

corridors 196 

crayon-holder 168 

croup, membraneous 329 

curtains 49 

curvature of the spine 33, 310-319 

Cuvier 170 

cycling 224 

daily programme 189 

Dankwarth 92 

Dante, 171 

daylight important 38 

reflector 46 

decaying teeth 95 

decoration of school-rooms 192 

defective hearing, disadvantages. 283 

deodorizing closets 102 

desk frames of iron, not wood 156 

width of 132 

desks 128, 250. 315 

Dettweiler spit-bottle 343 

dictation not too rapid 269 




differences in school desks .136 

different sizes of desks 160 

diphtheria 72, 288, 328-332 

direct sunlight 48 

diseases of the eye 272 

disinfecting closets 102 

distance between seat and desk.. 141 

Dor 254 

Dornbluth, Fr 323 

double desks 145 

drafts 290 

drawing 269 

drawing-rooms 38 

dry ness of air 113 

dulness often from defective ears.285 

duration of ventilation 92 

dust 99, 277, 290 

ear, discharges from 95 

hygiene of 279-294 

easels for blackboards 164 

for map-holders 165 

easterly exposure 36 

Ebbinghaus, H 173 

effect of study on the brain 173 

Egyptian eye inflammation 273 

electric light 53 

Elsaesser 143, 156 

school desk 141, 160 

Ely 241 

emmetropia 244-246 

Emminghaus 228 

Engel, Ed 295 

enlarging windows 47 

epidemics 101 

epilepsy 234 

epileptic pupils excluded 235 

Erb 221 

Erismann, Fr 32, 

44, 54, 71, 123, 143, 241 

Esrnarch. 137 

Eulenberg, H 33, 35, 219, 231 

Eustachian tubes 286, 288 

examinations 189, 216 

before vacation 201 

examinations of pupils' ears 279 

of pupils' eyes 277 

excretions from lungs.and skin.. 69 

excursions 199, 205 

experiments and demonstration. 190 
eye defects > 32 

glasses 251, 252,264 

hygiene of the 239-278 

Fahrner 32, 135, 146 

Falk 33 

Fantoni 172 

far-sightedness 240 

fatigue begins early 192 

comes soon 181 

feet, perspiring 95 

Ferdinands, George 242 

Fizia 258 

floors 95 

made waterproof 100 

Foggie 71 

follicular inflammation 275 

Fonsagrive 224 

foot-board 154 

foot-mats 94 

foot-rests 133 

FOrster 46, 114 

Frank, Johann Peter 28 

Frankel-Weichselbaum bacillus. 335 

Frederick William III 13 

William IV 31 

Friedmann 228 

Froriep 31 

front light 5o 

Furtenbach, Joseph 22 

Galen 239 

Galenus 120 years old 19 

Gambetta 171 

games 18, 19, 197, 199,205 

Garbini, Adriano 297, 298, 303 

gas 58 

fixtures kept clean 98 

stoves 109 

Gauster... .. 33 




Geiler of Kaisersberg 17 

Gelle 281, 283 

geographical collections 192 

German measles 323 

script.: 267 

type 261 

Germans myopic 258 

Gilbert, J. Allen 296 

Giessen 185 

Gillert, E 44, 82 

globes for gas 61 

G nauss 171 

Goepel 205 

Goethe, portrait 27 

Gothic windows 45, 47 

Gotthold 31 

Gotze, Woldemar 225 

granulated 'eye-lids .\ 273 

Gratiolet 171 

Greek vs. German games 19 

Griesbach, H 185, 188, 198, 227 

grippe 346-349 

Grimm, Jacob 267 

Gruber, Max 265 

Grusdeff 342 

aesthesiometer 186 

guide-lines for writing 266 

Guillaume 33, 217, 219, 311 

G ii m t z 230 

Guts Muths 27 

Gutzmann, Albert 308 

Herbert 33, 304, 305, 306, 309 

Guye 287 

gymnastic games 206 

halls 99, 196 

gymnastics 29, 205 

at recess 197 

fatiguing . 184 

habituation 183 

Hzesecke, E 104 

Hagenbach 332 

Hakonson-Hansen, M. K . 195, 217, 344 

Hall, G. Stanley 173 

Halle gymnasium 20 


handwriting large at first 268 

Haselbach, Thomas 17 

Basse 230 

hats 94 

Hebrews myopic 258 

height of desk 136 

Heiusius 31 

helium 65 

Helmholtz 172, 296 

Hennig's daylight reflector 46 

Herder 26 

heredity in myopia -.. .254 

Hermann, August.... 32, 135, 147, 148 

Hertel 217 

Hesse, W 70 

higher schools not for all 210 

Hintrager, Karl 22 

Hippauf 155 

Hippel, A. von 32,242,244,255 

historical collections 192 

history of school hygiene 17 

Holmes, Marion E 173 

Holmgren's test 271 

home tasks 230 

work 210 

HOpf ner r Ludwig 176, 192 

Horstmann 241 

hot air furnaces 112 

air heating 81 

water systems 81, 117 

how many at a desk 144 

Hrabowski's overhead reflector.. 57 

humidity of the air 113 

Huth 45 

hygiene of the eye 239 

hypermetropia 240-243 

Hyrtl 172 

idiocy in children 229 

illumination, artificial 53, 260 

natural 35,260 

needed 63 

too strong 48 

Ignatieff 70, 84, 201 

illegible writing 268 




inclination of desk 138 

infectious diseases. 95, 99, 276, 320-352 

ink for books 260 

for writing 266 

inflammation of the ear 290 

of the eye 273 

influenza 288, 346-349 

intermission at noon 198 

iron cylinder stoves 108 

frames 156 

Jahn. J. C 27, 31 

Janke, Otto 225 

Januschke 182, 192, 196 

Jasper 55 

Javal 51 

Jesuits 21 

Kafemann 33 

Kant 171 

Kauffer parlor stove 108 

Keidel patented stoves 108 

Keller, C....177, 179, 185, 191, 217, 182 
Kemsies, Ferdinand. 180, 182, 185, 300 

kerosene 62 

Key, Axel 217, 220, 227 

Kirchuer, M 256, 258 

Klebs-LQfler bacillus 329 

Klopsch 311 

Koch, J. L. A 229 

Robert 342 

Koldewey, Fr 24 

KSnigstein, Leopold 265 

K6pke 31 

KOrner , Otto 236 

Korosi, J 320 

Kotelmann, L 209, 256. 322 

Kottmann's desk 156, 159, 160 

desk arranged for standing. 159 

Kraeplin, Emil 194 

Krafft-Ebing 217 

Krug, W 276, 310, 312, 313 

Kruss, Hugo 39 

krypton 65 

Kunze 32,133, 134, 135, 149 

Kunze desk... 


lamps kept clean 98 

Landolt 241 

Lang 32 

Lange, Viktor 286 

Langerhans 342 

lar ynx at puberty 301 

Laser, Hugo 174, 189 

layers of air 115 

Lemonnier 55 

length of lines in books 262 

of school desk 144 

Lickroth 143 

desk 155, 160 

map-holder 166 

Liebig 171 

Liebrecht, K 48,49 

light from the left 51 

from two sides 51 

lighting of school-room... 35, 53, 260 

lime as a disinfectant 102 

line-sheets for writing 266 

linoleum 96 

liters of water evaporated 115 

Locke, John 25 

loin-back-rests 135 

Lorenz 32, 314 

Lorinser, C. J 29 

low-pressure steam systems 119 

lunacy 228 

lunches 195 

Lunge, Georg 76 

Luther, Martin, portrait 17 

Malliug-Hansen, R 347 

management of ventilators ..... 89 

maniacal excitement 229 

manual training 225 

map-holders 165 

margins of books 262 

masturbation 349 

Mayer 313 

measles 288, 320-324 

mechanics of sitting 128 




Meidinger stoves 108, 109 

Melanchthon, Philip 19 

melancholia 229 

membraneous croup 329 

memorizing 184 

memory work fatiguing 188 

mental alienation .229 

disease 228 

Meyer, Hermann 128 

W.... 33 

Meynert, Theodore 231 

Meyrich, Oswald 94 

micro-organisms .71, 72 

microbes in the school-room 71 

minus distance 142 

Morin Ill 

Mosso, A 177 

icrgograph 177 

Motais 256 

mouches volantes 254 

mountain air 72 

Moure 281 

mucous membranes 329 

mumps 335 

music lessons 211 

Mutzell 31 

myopia 30, 246-270 

Nager 32, 293 

natural curvature of the spine. . .137 

illumination 38,197 

navy regulations 252 

near-sighted pupils 161 

near-sightedness 30, 246-270 

nervous system 170 

nervousness 220 

Nesteroff , 222 

Netolitzky, Aug 33, 35, 339 

Neumann, H 120, 325 

neuralgia 224 

neurasthenia 224, 228 

neurasthenic pupils 222 

neuroses of the heart 224 

Nicati 258 

no text-book of science 215 


Nohl. Clemens 209 

noises, violent 290 

northerly exposure 38 

nose-bleed , 219 

Nussbaum, Chr 37 

Ohlemann 281 

onanism 349 

one or two sessions a day 197 

opening windows and doors 91 

organic dust particles 69 

excretions 73 

impurities 67 

organization of material 184 

orientation 35 

Ostender 109 

over-heated air 290 

pressure 31,109, 191,211 

stimulation of the nerves.. 221 

overcoats 94 

overhead reflector 57 

overshoes 94 

paper for text-books 260 

for writing 266 

Parow 32. 31 1 

school-desk 148, 160 

pathogenic bacteria 72, 99, 288 

Paulsen, E 295 

pedagogical pathology 229 

penmanship 264, 315 

pericardial anxiety 224 

Perlia 47,273,275 

permeability of building stones . . 83 

Permewan, W 284 

personal hygiene 3 

hygiene of the pupils 170 

perspiration insensibilis 68 

perspiring feet 95 

petroleum 62 

Pettenkoff er , von 32, 83 

Pettenkoffer's method 73 

Pfeifer 348 

Pfliiger, E 32, 54, 255 

pharyngeal tonsil 286 




phonic method in reading 303 

photometer 39 

physical education 32 

physiological experiments on the 

'brain 172 

pitch in singing 301 

playgrounds... 196 

Pliny ,.240 

plus distance 142 

Plutarch 239 

postures, bad 319 

potassium permanganate 69 

Prague medical board 139, 142 

Prausek, Vincenz 155 

print of text-books 260 

prisms for reflecting daylight 46 

promotion 233 

psychic epidemic 234 

puberty, change of voice 301 

pulling the hair 292 

purpose of vacation 202 

quick answers 304 

racial problems of the eye 258 

rambles 199, 206 

Ramminger and Stetter school 

desk 157, 160 

reading, the voice in 302 

to be limited 264 

real-schools without Latin 210 

recesses 193 

Recknagel 86 

Reclam 32 

Reichard, von 32, 279, 280 

Rembold 33 

remedies for insufficient daylight. 45 

removal of foul air. 88 

Renk, Fr 59,62 

requirements for a good school 

desk 130 

reservoir stoves. 108 

retina, hemorrhage in 254 

Rettig, W 146 

Reuss, August R. von 245, 265 


Richter, Gustav 194 

Jean Paul 26 

rickets 310 

Rietschel, H 32, 33, 80 

Rimpler 32 

Ritzmann, E 315 

roller curtains 49 

roller frame blackboards 162 

Roman type 261 

Rossbach 217 

Rousseau's Emile 26 

Rubner 64 

Rychna, Joseph 320 

Sadolet 19 

St. Clair-Deville Ill 

St. Vitus dance 236 

Saint-Yon 228 

Salernitan rule 106 

Sand, George 317 

sanitary school management 32 

satchels 318 

scarlet fever 288, 324-328 

Schenk, Felix 32, 132, 313 

school desk 153 

Schildbach, C. H 32, 149, 311 

Schiller, H 185, 191,349 

Tietz 69 

Schleich 241 

Schlenck 55 

Schlimp's desk 135,151 

Schmidt. F. A 32,98 

Rimpler, H 44, 72, 248, 274 

school-books 260 

desks 32, 128,260,315 

for standing 179 

requirements for 130 

diseases . . 32 

garden 20 

headaches 216 

rooms in the mountains. . . .204 

societies harmful 233 

study 188 

Schulthess, W 315 

Schubert, Paul... ...33,315 




Schuschny, Heinrich 221, 281 

sclerotic 257 

scoliosis 310-319 

scrapers 94 

script 267, 315 

sea-air 72 

seats 128,260 

back of 134 

too near the wall 145 

second-hand text-books . . .263 

Seggel 268 

Sexton, Samuel 281 

sexual neuroses 224 

shades for electric light 54 

for gas 61 

Shermunski 281 , 284 

short-hand 269 

shouting injurious 305 

shutters 48 

side reflectors 56 

Siegert, Gustav 231 

Siemen's gas burner 58 

singing 291, 295-302,305 

a hygiene exercise 298 

rules for 299-302 

Sikorsky 173, 189 

single desks 155 

size of brain 170 

skating 199 

sketch from nature 270 

slates banished 265 

sleep, abundance of 225 

insufficient 187 

loss of 231 

sleighing 199 

small-pox 289, 336-340 

Smith-Lunge air-tester 76 

Snellen, Hermann 44 

Soennecken 261 

southeasterly exposure 36 

southerly exposure 36 

spaces between letters 262 

speaking too rapidly 304 

spectacles 251, 252, 264 

spinal curvature 310-319 


sponges for blackboords 168 

spontaneity at recess 197 

Staffel 135 

standing in singing. 299 

steam 119 

stenography 269 

Stephenson, Sidney 258 

stereogoniometer 42 

Stierlin 206 

stigmographic drawing 269 

Stilling, J 32,255,257 

stoves 107 

care of lia 

vs. central system 104 

where placed 107 

Strassburg Medical commission. 51 

Strumpell, L 22 

study in vacation 202 

Stuhlmann, A 269, 27a 

Sturges 23 7 

stuttering 33, 305 

subjects of school study 

180, 181, 183, 189 

suicide 231 

sun should shine into room 35 

sunlight disinfects 36 

sunless rooms unhealthful 35 

sweat 68 

sweeping 96 

swimming 199. 205, 206 

tablets 266 

teeth, care of 95 

temporary depression 181 

temperature determined 20& 

for singing exercises 299 

in the school-room 121 

recorded 124 

test types 44 

tests of ears 279 

of eyes 241 

text-books 260 

Thilenius 245 

Thome 33 

time of vacations... ...201 




tonsils 286 

trachoma 273 

trochlea of the eye 257 

Troost Ill 

Trotzendorf 24 

true methods of instruction 216 

tuberculosis 72,99,341-344 

turf closets 102 

Turnham 228 

tutoring 211 

type, German 261 

reading 47 

size of 260 

typhoid fever 344 

typhus fever 288, 344-346 

Ufer, Christian 228 

Uffelmann 69 

umbrellas 94 

undivided session in cities 199 

uniform temperature 106, 123 

unruled paper 267 

uri nals 102 

use made of recess 195 

vacations 200 

in hot weather 207 

vacation journeys 203 

vaccination 337-340 

Vanned, Theodore 185 

Varrentrapp 32, 37 

Venetian blinds 50, 81, 90 

ventilating flues 82, 88 

windows 89 

ventilation 65 

guage 85 

of class-rooms 92, 290 

vernacular, reading in 304 

vertical script 33, 315 

Vienna school-desk 139, 143, 150 

vitreous humor 254 

vocal organs 295-309 

voice should be low 291, 300, 305 

Voigt 338 

Volt, E 114 


Voltaire 171 

vowels in reading 302 

Wagner, Ludwig. 171, 177, 188, 198,227 

walks to and from school 199 

Wallraff, Gustav .....158 

warm milk 196 

water systems 118 

Warner 222 

Wassiljeff 298 

water closets 100 

in the ear 294 

Weber, Leonard 39 

photometer 39 

stereogoniometer 42 

Weil 32 

Welsbach light.... 59 

western exposure 38 

whooping-cough 332-334 

width of top of desk 140 

Wiese 259 

window blinds 45, 48 

shutters 48 

windows enlarged 47 

for ventilation 91 

Gothic 47 

kept clean 97 

opened at recess 84 

shape of 45 

Wipf, H..... 315 

Wismar city school 20 

Wolffhugel Ill 

Wolpert's air-tester 78 

work-shops 225 

writing 264 

class forward position 131 

wrought iron 156 

Wyss 206 

yelling 291 

zero distance 142, 146 

Zwez 32,132 

Zwingli Ig 


Blackboards and Blackboard Slating. 

1. Hornstone Slating. No feature of the school-room is of more vital 
importance to the health of scholars and teachers than the Blackboard. If 
it be gray and greasy the amount of chalk used fills the air with dust which 
produces catarrhal and bronchial difficulties, and yet makes so faint a mark 
that the children's eyes are permanently injured. 

The Hornstone slating contains no oil or grease, and will not become 
faded or greasy with use. By its use the eyesight of children is saved, and 
most of the evil effects of chalk dust are escaped ; for a beautifully clear and 
distinct mark is produced with the minimum of crayon wear and dust. The 
reason is that the surface finishes down as smooth as slate, while possessing 
none of the disadvantages. 

The application of two coats is recommended for old or imperfect boards, 
but for new boards and old boards with good foundations, we recommend 
two additional coats, with a final rubbing down with pumicestone. This 
gives a blackboard never yet equalled. Principal H. F. Miner of Skaneate- 
les, N. Y., writes after seven years' use : "The three essentials of a good 
blackboard : smoothness, dead blackness, and durability, are admirably 
combined in this material. When properly applied to a suitable foundation 
no board that I ever saw equals the Hornstone." 

The price is $8.00 a gallon, covering from 144 to 180 square feet with 
Jour coats. We shall be glad to send detailed circulars and give complete 
information to anyone in need of material. 

2. Wooden Blackboards. For small schools, where it would not pay to 
prepare a special surface, and where the old wall is unfit to be coated, we 
can furnish wooden boards, made of inch whitewood thoroughly kiln-dried, 
and with glued joints, slated with Hornstone, four coats, one side, and 
packed ready for shipping, at the following prices : 

3ft. x6ft $5.50 3 ft. x 10 ft $ 9.50 

3 " "8" 7.50 3 " " 12 ".... 12.00 

These are the regular sizes, and we will quote prices on special sizes 
when requested to do. 

3. Tarboard Blackboards. Where only a small board is desired port- 
able boards are often most convenient. We make them of the best tarboard, 
slated with Hornstone on both sides, with wooden frame and rings for hang- 
ing, at the remarkably low price of $2.00 for a board 25x34 inches, or $3.00 for 
a board 34x50 inches. These are the cheapest blackboards ever offered. 
We also furnish these tarboard strips without frames, so that they can 
be tacked along on the wall, thus making a continuous board with an excel- 
lent Hornstone surface. In this form the sheet, 25x34 can be furnished, 
slated on one side, for $1.00, and the sheet 34x50 for $1.50. 

Slated Cloth on Paper. Another style of portable boards is slated cloth 
orjmper mounted on rotters with hooks and rings for hanging up. 
2x3 feet, Cloth, $1.50. Paper, $1.00 3 x 6 feet, Cloth, $4.00. Paper, $2.70 
3x4" " 2.70. " 1.80 4x6" " 5.40. " 3.60 

Slated cloth is furnished in rolls 4 feet wide at $2.00 a linear yard ; slated 
paper at 50 cts. a square yard. 

C. W. BARDEEN, Publisher, Syracuse, N. Y. 


Compo-Board Blackboards. 

We manufacture these ourselves of corapo-board covered with Horn- 
stone slating. The corapo-board is a composition consisting of a wooden 
core made from narrow slats placed indiscriminately as to grain, the sur- 
face of which is covered with a cement of great strength, and a heavy 
close-pressed water-proof paper. The whole, after the parts are properly 
put together, is subjected to very heavy pressure and intense heat, making 
a straight, smooth sheet of very great strength. We cover it with Horn- 
etone slating, the best surface yet devised for blackboards. 

The compo-board is made for us in sheets 4 feet by 18 feet, and we can 
make at short notice a board of any desired size within those dimensions. 
For schools this makes it possible to cover the exact space between win- 
dows, doors, etc., with a single sheet of blackboard, without seams of any 
kind. It cun be put up by any one with a few screws, and when secured by 
moulding makes a handsome and absolutely perfect and permanent board. 
Our charge for such boards slated on one side and ready to put up, is $1.00 
per square yard, if cut in pieces 4 feet wide or so as not to waste in cutting. 
Prices of moulding, chalk-troughs, etc., are given on application, as they 
depend on the size and shape of the surface to be covered. 

These advantages may be named: 

It can be cut to any size with a common hand-saw. 

It can be put upon a broken plastered wall, on a board partition, or on 
a bare studding, and yet do perfect service. 

Its surface being of considerable thickness and practically as hard as 
stone, it is very durable. 

Its body will never wear out or be injured by use. 

Its surface is smootn without shine, and has a soft, velvety feeling as. 
the crayon moves over it. 

It is better than real stone slate : 

BECAUSE it will not break in handling. 

BECAUSE it will not break on the wall, as real stone slate will if 
placed on the wall without cement. 

BECAUSE it does not require experienced mechanics to put it in place, 
as real slate does when set in cement. 

BECAUSE the freight is only a fraction of what it would be on real 

BECAUSE it has a jet black surface not gray or green like real slate. 

BECAUSE it can be furnished in sizes up to 4 feet by 18 feet without 
seam or indentation, whereas slate can be obtained only in sizes which 
necessitate several seams or breaks in an ordinary-sized blackboard. 

C. W. BARDEEN, Publisher, Syracuse, N. Y. 


Wooden Blackboards, 

1. Blackboards for the Wall. We manufacture these ourselves of compo^ 
"board covered with Hornstone slating, four coats, making a light board to 
handle, as well as a perfect surface. The compo-board is made for us in 
sheets 4 feet by 18 feet, and we can make at short notice a board of any 
desired size within those dimensions. For schools this makes it possible to 
cover the exact space between windows, doors, etc., with a single sheet of 
blackboard, without seams of any kind. It can be put up by any one with 
a few screws, and when secured by moulding makes a handsome and abso- 
lutely perfect and permanent board. Our charge for such boards slated on 
one side and ready to put up, is $1.00 per square yard. Prices of moulding, 
chalk-troughs, etc., are given on application, as they depend on the size 
and shape of the surface to be covered. 

2. Portable Blackboards. We keep in stock the sizes above shown at 
prices named on each, and can make at short notice any other size called 
for. All these boards are of compo-board, covered with Hornstone slat- 
ing, with frames of oak moulding. We believe them to be the very best 
blackboards manufactured. They are light, and cannot warp or crack, 
while the surface is perfect. 

C. W. BAKDEEN, Publisher, Syracuse, N. Y. 


Dustless Blackboard Erasers. 

1. The Me Cully Perforated Erase 15 cts. each by mail ; 75 cts, a dozen 
by express. 

When you have got a good blackboard be sure and get good Erasers. 
The Carpet Eraser, once almost universally used, has been rejected ; the 
hard twine glazes and wears off the slated surface. Tacks carelessly driven 
and points projecting into the erasive material, have ruined or defaced 
many blackboards. Such tacks are not found until they have done some 
damage. Besides Carpet Erasers, or any others with flat surface, merely 
brush the crayon down to the crayon-ledge, and thence to the floor, whence 
it is constantly rising and permeating the air of the school -room. For this 
reason a Dustless Eraser should always be used, and the best we have 
found to be the Me Cully Perforated Eraser ; Of this the marked peculiarity 
is that it provides spaces into which the crayon dust falls and where it 
remains until shaken out, outside the school-room. It deposits the chalk 
through the holes in the grooves, leaving the surface of the eraser always 
clean, and thus enabling it to take up every particle of dust. It is the neat- 
est and prettiest eraser made. Its clean rectangular edges are especially 
adapted to map and other pictorial black-board work, where the erasing is 
to be done deftly and exactly. Principal Clapp, of Fulton, N. Y., says : "I 
have used the McCully Eraser n my school for nearly two years, and un- 
heskatingly recommend it as the best eraser on the market." 

The Favorite Eraser. 15 cts. each by mail ; 
75 cts. a dozen by express. 

This has long been what its name implies, a 
favorite. It is light, and catches the dust in 
the grooves of the felt. The felt is made of 
assorted colors, and the eraser is handsome as well as useful. 

Special prices for large quantities will be given upon either of these 
erasers on application 

C. W. BARDEEtf, Manufacturer, Syracuse, N. Y. 


The Bulletin Pencil-Holder. 

Points of Superiority. 

(1) It is of wood, 7x10 inches, resting on 
legs two inches high, and holds 60 pencils. 
Hence it takes less room than any other. 

(2) It has a handle underneath in the cen- 
tre, so that it can be carried firmly in one 

(3) The pencils cannot fall out, even when 
held upside-down. 

(4) Every hole is numbered, so that each 
pupil keeps his own pencil. 

(5) It has no springs to wear out, and is 

Beware of the Spread of Contagious Diseases. 

The alarming prevalence of diphtheria in the schools of Syracuse re- 
cently led to investigation both by the Board of Education and by the Board 
of Health. As a result it was determined that the principal source of 
danger was the lead-pencils, of which the present system of gathering and 
distribution did not ensure that every child should get his own. Accord- 
ingly on Dec. 12, 1893, an order was given us for 268 Bulletin Pencil-Holders, 
for use in ever room in the city schools where lead-pencils are distributed. 

Send one dollar for a sample, and you will put it into every room in 
your school. It is equally available for the distribution of pens, in penman- 
ship work. In many schools the pens are gathered and distributed, but at 
great inconvenience. This Holder makes the gathering and distribution 
easy and free from error. 

C. W. BARDEEN, Proprietor, Syracuse, N. Y. 


The Bulletin Ink- Well Filler. 

No more spilled ink. To see it is to buy it. Price fi.25.