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p., >^- '■' 




Department of Mining 
and Metallurgy 






Vol. XV. 

November, 1893, to July, 1894. 




TV a 7 

MAY 19 1908 

cr ^ 


A. J. MOSES, Adj. Prof, of Mineralogy. E. WALLER, Analytical Chemist. 

J. F. KEMP, Prof, of Geology. J.L.QREENLEAP, Adj. Prof. Civil Engineer' 

R. PEELE, Jr., Adj. Prof, of Mining. JOS. STRUTHERS, Tutor in Metallurgy. 

Managing Editor, A. J. MOSES. 



November, 1893, to July, 1894. 


Berry, Wilton G. Sec Martin and Berry. 

Bellom, Maurice, Present Condiiion of the Mechanical Preparation of Ores 

in Saxony, Hartz and Rhenish Prussia (continued from Vol. XIV.) i6, 114 

Black, Alexander L., An Ore Bucket for Inclined Shafts 47 

An Assay Furnace for Burning Wood. , 50 

Chester, Albert H., Acanthite f om Colorado 103 

CusHMAN, A. R. See Wells & Cushman. 

Foster, Wolcott C, Details of Modern Water- Works Construction : 

Part I. Cast- Iron, Bell and Spigot Pipe, Special Castings^ Flexible Joints.. 89 

Part II Cast- Iron Flanged' Pipe and Special Castings ; Valves 230 

FurMAN, H. Van F., Purchasing Silver-^ Gold- and Lead Ores I 

Hamlin, A. D. F., Catallel, Metallel, Synallel. 222 

Hutton, F. R., a Relation of Engineering to Progress and Civilization 1 10 

Iles, Malvern W., Curdling of Milk 105 

Fire Assay for Lead 336 

KrwABARA, M., The Kosaka Mining and Reduction Works, Rice hoo, Japan., 355 

Langmuir, a. C, Index to Literature of Didymium 33 

LuQUER, Lea McI., The Optical Recognition and Economic Importance of the 

Common Minerals Found in Building Stones 285 

Index to Mineralogical Literature 163 

Martin, Edward W„ and Berry, Wilton G., Method for Determining 

Nitrates in Potable Waters by the Use of Sodium Amalgam ii 

Moses. Alfred J., Simplified Method for Obtaining the Axial Cross of any 

Crystal from any Projection of the Isometric Axes. 214 

Index to Mineralogical Literature 163 

Newbrough , W., Engineering Notes on Irrigation Canals 1 89 

Peele, Robert, Jr., /^ Primitive Smelting- Furnace 8 

A Peruvian Salt Mine 219 

RlES, Heinrich, On the Occurrence of Cretaceous Clays at Northport, Z. /.... 354 

Self, Edward D., Project for Utilizing Bassasseachic Falls 345 

Struthers, Joseph, A French Regenerative Gas- Furnace 138 

Abstracts^ Metallurgy 66 


Terhune, Richard H., A Plant for Granulating Slag io8 

Waller, Elwyn, Abstracts^ Analytical Chemistry 52, 150, 275, 375 

Wells, J. S. C, and Cushman, A. R., Schemes for Qualitative Ana lysis.. ..2^4* 3^5 


All Abstracts are printed in Italics; and those relating to metallurgy or to chemical 
analysis appear only under the headings Metallurgy and Analytical Chemistry. 

Abstracts, Analytical Chemistry 52, 150, 275,375 

Metallurgy 66 

Acanthite from Colorado 103 

Air-Blast ClassiBcalion 118 

Albite in Building Stones 326 

Amphibole in Building Stones 315 

Analytical Chemistry Abstracts: 

Agitator for the Precipitation of Phospho-Molybdate 52 

Alkalimetric Solutions^ Standardizing^ 52 

Alkalinity of Liquids Containing Chlorine 150 

Alumina in Slags 65 

Aluminum Apparatus 52 

in Bone Black 54 

Ammonia in Zinc Dust, 52 

by Nessler Reagent ;.. 375 

Ammonium- Magnesium Phosphate. 155 

Arsenic in Copper 378 

in Iron and Steel. 64 

and Antimony Titration 57 

Arsenious Acid Volumetric Solutions 377 

Barium in Rock Analysis , 275 

Volumetric 376 

Barium-Sulphate 60 

in Presence of Silica 281 

Precipitate 154 

Baryta^ Strontia and Lime Separation 53 

Bismuth Separation from Copper 378 

Boric Aciii. 60 

in Wines 280 

titration 52 

Methods for. 379 

Boronatrocalcite analysis 65 

Bromine Vapor in Separation of Metals 151 

Cadmium Estimating 378 

from Copper 152 

Cesium Separation 150 

Carbon in Iron, Methods for 380 

in Iron and Steel. 60, 62 

in Steel. 60, 155, 156 

Carbonic Acid with Soluble Sulphides 380 

Carborundum Analysis 156 


Cerium Reaction^ 57 

from La and Di 279 

Chlorates, Estimating 156 

Chlorin€y Estimating Free 153 

Titration 154 

Chromium Determination 54» '5^ 

in Iron and Steel, 64 

Citrate Soluble Phosphoric Acid, 379 

Cobalt and Nickel Separation 277 

Coppery Foreign Metals in Commercial. 277 

Impurities in 277, 377 

in Iron and Steel, 63 

Titration 55 

Cyanic Acid 58 

Electrolytic Methods 57 

Separations 57, 153 

Ag and Au 377 

FilUr Paper 375 

Filtration 150 

Free Acids in Salts of Heavy Metals 375 

Galena Analysis 152 

GlasSf Action of Acids on , 375 

Graphite in Iron and Steel 63 

in Pig- Iron 281 

Hydrochloric Acid Determination 5 

Indicators in Sulphide Titrations 150 

International Standards for Analysis of Iron and Steel. 157 

Iodine in Presence Br and CI .• 279 

Iron Analysis 62 

Dichromate Titration 151 

in Bone Black 54 

in Copper Sulphate 151 

in Ores 376 

Microchemica I Detection 150 

Reducing for Titration 151 

and Steel International Standards of Analysis 157 

Oxide in Iron and Steel, 63 

Lead Electrolytic SeparcUion 278 

Volumetric 152,278 

and Copper Separations 152 

Electrolytic 153, 278 

and Tin Separation 56 

Lime in Slags 65 

Magnesia in Slags 65 

Manganese Determination 55 

in Iron and Steel. 55, 64 

in Manganese Bronze 150 

Permanganates 55 

Reznew of Methods 275 



Mercury Colorimetric 56 

Metals as Oxides Determining. 275 

Microchemical Analysis Rocks 66 

Mineral Separation 66 

New Element 380 

Nickel^ Commercial^ Analysis of. 376 

Determination ; 151 

Estimation 55 

in Nickel SteeL 276 

Nickel and Cobalt, See Cobalt and Nickel. 

Nitrates 61 

Estimating 156 

in Potable Waters 281 

Nitrites^ Estimating. 156 

Nitrogen in Nitrates 61 

Organic Matter 61 

Oxalic Acid. 281 

Oxygen Available in Manganese Minerals 61 

Pandermite Analysis, 65 

Phosphomolybdate, Agitator for Precipitation 52 

Phosphoric Acid^ Alkalimetric 379 

Determining 59, 155 

Volumetric {54»379 

in Basic Slags 58 

Phosphorus in Coal and Coke. 280 

Colorimetric 59 

in Iron 58, 62, 379 

in Steel, -. 62, 280,378 

Phosphor Tin 377 

Platinum Alloys « 377 

Potassium Determination 53 

by LindO' Gladding Process 53 

lodate. Preparation of. 157 

Portland Cement. 65 

Pyrophosphoric Acid, Volumetric 52 

Pare Earths^ Approximate Determination of Equivalents 279 

Silica Estimation 380 

in Slags 65 

Silicates, Analysis 156 

Silicon in Irons 60 

in Iron and Steel. 62 

Silver, Volumetric 278 

Slag Analyses « 65 

Sodium Peroxide as Reagent 52 

Specific Gravity Liquid. 66 

Standards^ International^ for Analysis of Iron and Steel. 157 

Steel Analysis 62 

Strontium in Rock Analysis 275 

Sulphocyanic Acid Determination 58 



Sulph-ur Evolution Method.,,.,, 66 

i» Sulphides 59 

in. Iran and Steel, 63 

in Manufactured Iron 154 

in Pyrites 154, 378 

in Slags 65 

Tartar Knutic Standard Solutions 151 

Thorium Separation 279 

Tin-Ores^ Analysis 56 

Tin and Lead Separation 56 

Titanium from Iron 376 

in Iron and Steel, 63 

Tungsten in Iron and Steel. 63 

Ulexite Analysis „ 65 

Uranium^ Colorimetric 15 1 

Vanadium, Colorimetric, „ 279 

from Chromium „ -279 

Volatilization of Salts During Evaporation „ 375 

IVater Analysis „ 157 

Zinc- Ores, Examination of, „ 275 

Anoithite in Building Stones.^.. ..^ „ 326 

Apatite in Building Stones 302 

Assay Furnace Burning Wood 50 

Augite in Building Stones 312 

Augustine Process at Osaka, Japan a 364 

Axial Cross, Simplified Method of Constructing 214 

Bassasseachic Falls, Utilization of. 345 

Bell and Spigot Pipe 89 

Bibliography Building Stones „ 334 

Biotite in Building Stones 318 

Bolivian Smelting Furnace 8 

Book Reviews: 

Lc Cuivre. By Paul Weiss 384 

Field-Book for Civil Engineers. By Daniel Carhart 162 

Gas-Lighting and Gas-Fitting. By William P. Gerhard 384 

Helical Gears. By a Foreman Patternmaker 159 

Lecture Notes on Theoretical Chemistry. By Ferdinand G. Wiechmann 76 

Manual of Practical Assaying. By H. Van F. Furman 161. 

'Mechanics of Hoisting Machinery. By Weisbach and Herrman 158 

Mineral Industry Vol. IL, 1894. Edited by Richard P. Rothwell 381 

Miners' Pocket-books, a Review of ; The Coal and Metal Miners' Pocket- 
book, compiled by Colliery Engineer Co. ; Text-Book of Mining For- 
mula*, by Robert W. Dron ; Notes and Formulae for Mining Students, 
by J. H. Merivale ; Miners* Pocket-book, by C. G. W. Lock ; Pocket- 
• book, for Miners and Metallurgists, by F. D. Power; The Miner's 

Handbook, by John Milne 76 

Ore-Deposits of United States. By Jas. F, Kemp 282 

Plane Trigonometry. By S L. Loney 282 

Resistance of Ships and Screw Propulsion. By D. W. Taylor 158 

Vlll — 


Text-Book on Coal-Mining for the Use of Colliery Managers and Others. 

By Herbert W. Hughes 75 

Thermodynamics of Reversible Cycles in Gases and Saturated Vapors. 

By M. I. Pupin .*. 282 

Vol. VII., pt. I. Report (on clays) of the Geological Survey of Ohio. 161 

Building Stones, Recognition and Importance of Minerals In 285 

Building Stones Bibliography 334 

Bulletin of Alumni and College News: 

Department of Mining 83 

Physics. 83 

Mechanics 84 

Metallurgy 85 

Mineralogy 85 

Geology 87 

Biology 87 

Mechanical Engineering 88 

Electrical Engineering 88 

Architecture 185 

Changes in the School of Mines 180 

Trowbridge Fellowship 181 

University Press , 182 

Gifts to the College 182 

Pulitzer Fund 183 

Instructors and Students 184 

Library 184 

Travelling Class in Architecture 186 

Calcite in Building Stones.... 299 

Cast-Iron Flanged Pipe v 230 

Catallel 222 

Chemical Analysis, Standard Methods 143 

Chemical Reactions 244 

Chlorite in Building Stones.. 306 

Choices of Treatment in Ore-Dressing 13S 

Chromite in Building Stones 291 

Chrysolite in Building Stones 310 

Citric Acid Effect on Minerals 334 

Classification by Air-Blast 118 

Clay in Building Stones 333 

Copper and Silver Smelting at Osaka, japan 355 

Cost of Ore-Dressing 134 

Cretaceous Clays at Northport, L. 1 354 

Cross-Section Calculations, Irrigation Canals 195 

Crystal Axes, Projection of 214 

Curdling of Milk 105 

Cutting-in, In Iron Pipe 101 

Cyanite in Building Stones 331 

Diabase 330 

Dichroite in Building Stones 311 

Didymium, Index to Literature ^3 



Diorite 318, 330 

Distributor, the Meintcke 21 

Dolomite in Building Stones 300 

Eddy Valve 235 

Elaeolite in Building Stones 303 

Elbows in Iron Pipe , 95 

Engineering Notes on Irrigating Canals 189 

Engineering Relation to Progress and Civilization no 

Enrichment of Ores 126 

Enstatiie in Building Stones 308 

Epidote in Building Stones 321 

Errata, Wells-Cushman Schemes 385 

Feldspar Porphyry 330 

Feldspars in Building Stones 324 

Fire Assay for Lead 336 

Plre-Damp, Detection and Measurement 145 

Flanged Pipe 230 

Garnet in Building Stones 291 

Gas Furnace, French Regenerative ^ 138 

Gneiss 318, 321, 330 

Gold Ores, Purchasing I 

Granite 315. 318, 320, 328 

Graphite in Building Stones 295 

Hematite in Building Stones 295 

Hexagonal Axial Cross 216 

Hornblende in Building Stones 315 

Hypersthene in Building Stones 308 

Ilmenite in Building Stones 295 

Index to Literature of Didymium 33 

Index to Mineralogical Literature 163 

lolite in Building Stones 311 

Irrigation Canals, Notes on 189 

Isometric Axial *Cross 215 

Kaolin in Building Stones 333 

Kosaka Mining and Reduction Works 355 

Labradorite in Building Stones 326 

Lead, Fire Assay 336 

Lead Ores, Purchasing i 

Limestone 290, 299, 301 

Limonite in Building Stones 291 

Linkenbach Tables 27, 114 

Location Survey Irrigation Canals 199 

Losses in Concentration of Ores 126 

Magnetic Separation of Ores 124 

Magnetite in Building Stones 290 

Mapping Irrigation Canals 204 

Marbles 301 

Marcasite in Building Stones 289 

Mechanical Preparation of Ores in Saxony, Hartz and Rhenish Prussia 16, 114 


Meinicke Distributer 21 

Spitzlutten 17 

Menaccanite in Building Stones 29$ 

Metallel.^ «. 222 

Metallurgy Abstracts: 

Aluminum 73 

Antimony^ Electric Exttactionof 74 

Basic Steel. 69 

Bessemer Process in Sweden 69 

Bituminous Coal as Fuel. ^ 66 

Blast-Furnace, Improved Form of. 68 

Blowing- Engines 67 

Coke as Fuel. 66 

Coking Ovens,'. 67 

Copper Treatment at Lake Superior 70 

Electro- Metallurgy 74 

Foundry Practice 69 

Fuels 66 

Gold Stamp-Mills 73 

Illuminating Gas as Fuel. 67 

Iron Alloys 7° 

and Steel. 70 

Cupolas 69 

Lead and Copper 70 

Microstructure of Steel. 7° 

Mtllwork 69 

Oak Wood as Fuel. 67 

Open-Hearth Steel Process 69 

Pearce Turret Roasting- Furnace 7* 

Petroleum as Fuel 66, 67 

Pig-Iron^ Machine for Breaking 69 

Pyrometers 68 

Russet Process ^0 

Separation of Blende from Pyrites 68 

Siemens- Martin Furnace 69 

Silver in Zinc Ores 72 

Lixiviation 7^, 7' 

Slag Calculation 68 

Specific Heat of Metal. 74 

Steel. 69 

Sulphuric Acid Process Silver 71 

Tuyeres 68 

Valve-Gear for Blowing- Engine 67 

Zinc Ores for Silver 72 

Mica Group in Building Stones 318 

Mica Schist 321 

Microcline in Building Stones 325 

Milk Curdling 105 

Mineralogical Literature Index 163 

XI — 


Minetals, Apparatus for Separation of Minerals of High Specific Gravity 147 

of Building Stones, Recognition and Importance 285 

Production of World in 1892 381 

Miners' Pocket Books 76 

Mining and Reduction Works at Osaka, Japan 355 

Monoclinic Axial Cross 217 

Muscovite in Building Stones 318 

Nephelite in Building Stones 303 

Nitrates by Sodium Amalgam ii 

Norite 330 

Oligoclase in Building Stones 326 

Olivine in Building Stones 310 

Optical Importance and Recognition of Minerals in Building Stones 285 

Ore Bucket for Inclined Shafts 47 

Ore-Dressing in Saxony, Hartz and Rhenish Prussia 16, 114 

Ores Purchasing, Silver, Gold and Lead i 

Orthoclase in Building Stones 324 

Orthorhombic Axial Cross 217 

Peruvian Salt Mine 219 

Phlogopile in Building Stones 318 

Plagioclase in Building Stones 326 

Projection of Crystal Axes 214 

Purchasing Ores 5 

Pyrilc in Building Stones 288 

Pyroxene in Building Stones 312 

Pyrrhotite in Building Stones 289 

Quantitative Analysis Schemes 244 

Quartz in Building Stones 296 

Regenerative Gas Furnace, French 138 

Regulations for Irrigation Canals 212 

Rutile in Building Stones 292 

Salt Mine, Peruvian 219 

Sandstone 289, 298, 301. 321, 330 

Sanidine in Building Stones 325 

Schemes for Qualitative Analysis 244 

Separators, Magnetic ,.... 124 

Air-blast 118 

Serpentine in Building Stones 332 

Silver Ores, Purchasing i 

Slag Granulating, A Plant for 108 

Smelting, Cost of. 2 

Smelting Furnace, Primitive '. 8 

Sodium Amalgam for Nitrates ii 

** Specials " in Iron Pipe 98 

Specific Gravity Apparatus for Minerals I47 

Sphene in Building Stones 322 

Spigot-pipe 230 

Spitzlutlen, the Meinicke 17 

Standard Methods Chemical Analysis 143 



Staurolite in Building Stones 307 

Stein Table 23 

Surveyor Irrigation Canal 189 

Syenite 318, 330 

Synallel 222 

Table, the Stein 23 

the Linkenbach 27, 114 

Tetragonal Axial Cross 216 

Titanite in Building Stones 322 

Tourmaline in Building Stones 304 

Trap and Basalt 3^5 

Triclinic Axial Cross „ 218 

Valves „._ ^. 232 

Viridite in Building Stones 307 

Water, Nitrates by Sodium Amalgam ^ 11 

Water-power of Bassasseachic Falls ^ 345 

Water-works Construction ^ 89, 230 

Weirs on Irrigation Canals 192 

World's Production of Minerals in 1892 33i 

Works for Ore-Dressing, Plan for 137 

Ziervogel Process at Osaka, Japan « 358 

Zircon in Building Stones , 294 

Vol. XV. No. t. NOVEMBER, 1893. 







A. J. MOSSS, Adj. Prof, of Mineralogy. E. WALLER, Prof. Analytical Chemistry. 
J. F. K£MP, Prof, of Geology. J. L. GREENLBAP, Adj. Prof. Civil Engineer'^. 

R. PE&LrK, Jr., Adj. Prof. Mining. JOS. STRUTHERS, Tutor in Metallurgy. 

Managing Editor, A. J. MOSES. 

Business Manager, JOS. STRUTHERS. 


Purchasing Silver-, Gold-, and Lead-Ores. By H.Van F. Furman, E.M., x 

A Primitive Smelting- Furnace* By Robert Pcele, Jr 8 

Method for Determining Nitrates in Potable Waters by the Use of 

Sodiam Amalgam. By Edward W. Martin and Wilton G. Berry ii 

Present Condition of the Mechanical Preparation of Ores in Saxony, 

Hartz and Rhenish Prussia. By M. Maurice Bellom i6 

Index to the Literature of Didymium — 1842- 1893. By A. C. Langmuir, 33 

An Ore-Bucket for Inclined Shafts. By Alexander L. Black 47 

An Assay Kurnace Burning Wood. By Alexander L. Black 50 

Abstracts , 5* 

Book Rcvie-ws 75 

Bulletin of Alumni and College News 83 



at the New York Post Office as Second Class Matter. 


s • w^c^m •iio**^** be made payable to Order of •« The School of Mines Quarterly.'' 
All *♦— «c 


Jenkins' Bros. Valves and 

Jenkins' Standard Packing. 



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Office, 100 and 102 Reade Street, New York. 




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Illas trated Catalo g u e 
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XV. NOVEMBER, 1893. No. i 


By H. van F. FURMAN, E.M. 

At our western metallurgical centres, as Denver, Pueblo and 
Salt Lake City, the margin in the ores has become so slight, owing 
to the fierce competition between rival smelters, the prevailing 
scarcity of desirable fluxing-ores, and the declining price of silver, 
that ores are no longer purchased upon the assay value in silver, 
gold and lead, and a rough guess as to the probable cost of smelt- 
ing, but the price paid for a lot of ore is based upon the assay 
value of the ore and upon its chief constituents, as determined 
by chemical analysis and calculation as to the actual cost of treat- 

In determining the price to be paid for an ore, the following 
points must be taken into consideration : 

First. — The assay value of the ore in silver, gold and lead ; cop- 
also being determined provided much is present. 

Second. — The chemical composition of the ore. SiOg and Fe 
almost invariably determined. Mn, Zn and CaO are frequently 
determined, and S, As, Sb, BaO, MgO and AI2O3 are occasionally 

J^hird. — The silver, gold and lead losses in roasting and smelt- 

Faurth, — The cost of roasting. 

VOL. XV.— I 


Fifth, — The cost of smelting", including the cost of fluxes and 
the cost of coke and charcoal. 

Sixth, — The character of the ore (coarse or fine). 

Seventh, — Desirability of the lot at the time of purchase. 

Eighth, — Market value of the bullion at the time of purchase. 

The assay value in silver, gold and lead is always determined on 
each lot of ore unless any of these elements are known to be ab- 
sent. Fire assay is the method adopted. Copper, if present in 
sufficient quantity, is determined by volumetric cyanide assay or 
by gravimetric battery assay. 

The analysis of the ore for its chief constituents, as silica and 
iron, is quite as important as the assay for silver, etc., as the cost 
of treatment depends largely upon the mineralogical composition 
of the ore. 

The losses in silver, gold and lead in treatment must be known 
in order to make the proper deductions from the gross value. 
These losses will depend largely upon the general character and 
composition of the bulk of the ores treated and the individual 
practice at any particular works. The Colorado practice (Denver, 
Pueblo and Leadville) is to pay for 95 per cent, of the silver con- 
tents, settlement being made on the basis of New York quotation 
for silver on the day of purchase, ^19 per ounce for the gold, and 
so much per unit for the lead which the ore contains. The price 
per unit for the lead is based upon the market price of lead in 
New York upon the day of purchase and the cost of handling 
the bullion, including the freight to New York and refining 

The cost of roasting will depend upon the price of labor and 
fuel, the character of the fuel, and the type of roasting furnace 
adopted. For example, with the new automatic roasting furnace 
which Dr. Richard Pearce has lately patented and put in operation 
at the Boston and Colorado Works at Argo, Colorado, the cost of 
roasting at Argo is considerably less than $\ per ton. With prices 
for labor and fuel such as prevail in Denver, the cost of roasting 
in a long-hearth reverberatory furnace (the usual practice), with a 
capacity of from 10 to 12 tons of ore per furnace per day, is about 
$2 per ton. As the ore is never roasted ** dead,'* the roasted charge 
usually carrying 5 to 6 per cent, of sulphur, allowance will have 
to be made for the treatment of the matte (handling and roasting), 
which will be produced from the roasted ore when it is smelted. 


and the interest on the silver, gold and lead value which the matte 
has. Under the same conditions as above, 1^0.25 to $0.30 will gen- 
erally cover this item, so that the cost of roasting in reverberatory 
furnaces will be about ^2.25 per ton. As too much 6ne ore cannot 
be treated in the blast-furnaces, some of the roasted ore will have to 
be fused or slagged. This involves an additional expense of from 
$0.25 to ;Jo.7S per ton, so that the total average cost of roasting, at 
Denver, in reverberatory furnaces, may be stated to be about ;f 2.50 
to $2.75 per ton. 

The cost of smelting will differ in each locality and according 
to the general practice of each individual works, and will, more- 
over, depend upon the composition of the ore (cost of fluxing), the 
cost of fluxes, the character of the ore (raw smelting, roasting, 
coarse or fine), the cost of fuel, the cost of labor, etc. Being made 
up of so many variables, this question will necessarily have to be 
determined in each individual case by the actual results obtained 
in working and after quite extensive operations. With prices as 
follows: Common labor (lO-hour shifts), Jji./S ; feeders, ore 
wheelers, etc. (12-hour shifts), |!2.5oper day; furnacemen (12-hour 
shifts), II3 per day ; engineers and foremen, ^3.50 to $4 per day ; 
coke ( 10 per cent, ash), $7 per ton ; limestone (50 per cent, excess 
CaO), S1.25 per ton ; iron-ore (70 per cent, excess FeO), $^ per ton; 
and steam fuel (mine slack), $\*^o per ton; and with a large-sized 
modem plant (capacity about 400 tons per day), the cost of smelt- 
ing a neutral ore (composition SiOj = 30 per cent., Fe = 30 per 
cent., Pb = 13 per cent., Zn = 8 per cent., and S = 5 per cent.), 
will be about ^$4.50 per ton. This cost is distributed somewhat 
as follows : 

Labor, ^i 90 

General expenses (office exp. management), etc, . . . o 27 

Fuel for power, o 10 

Interest, depreciation and repairs, o 50 

Coke (15 per cent, charge), ^ , i 36 

Limestone (0.3 ton), ^ . , o 37 

This figure of %^.^o per ton is the basis of the ore calculations 
at some of our large Denver and Pueblo works. Of course, this 
cost is liable to fluctuation from time to time. Having arrived at 
the cost of smelting a neutral ore it becomes necessary to deter- 


4 77^^ QUARTERLY. 

mine what charges or allowances to make for each unit of silica, 
iron, zinc, etc., in excess of the neutral point. Taking the above 
figures as a basis we find that each unit of SiOj in excess of iron 
should be charged for at fifteen cents, and that each unit of iron in 
excess of silica should be given credit to the amount of fifteen cents. 
Each unit of lime should be given credit to the amount of six cents. 
The same credit is given for manganese as for iron, and the same 
credit is given for magnesia and baryta as for lime, provided the 
ores do not carry a high percentage of MgO or BaO. Over 4 to 

5 per cent, of MgO and BaO in the slags is undesirable (see **The 
Calculation of Lead Blast-furnace Charges," School of Mines 
Quarterly, Vol. XIV., No. 2, p. 136). It is customary with the 
Denver smelters to charge fifty cents per unit for all zinc in excess 
of the 8 per cent, limit. A charge of fifty cents per unit for arsenic 
should be made. 

The character or condition of the ore should always be taken 
into consideration. Fine ore is undesirable, as it causes the fur- 
naces to run slow, thus increasing the cost of smelting, and if 
present on the furnace charge to too great an extent it is liable to 
cause trouble with the furnaces. When an ore requires previous 
roasting fineness is an advantage, as if in lump form it will require 

The desirability of the lot at the time of purchase will frequently 
be a considerable figure in the price which will be paid for the lot, 
especially when the lot is sold on the public market to the highest 
bidder. This will depend upon the local conditions prevailing at 
the time of purchase. 

The market value of the bullion produced is of great importance 
in arriving at the value of an ore and its cost of treatment. Upon 
the market value of the bullion will depend, to a large extent, the 
price per unit which will be paid for the lead. The market value 
of the bullion, as far as lead is concerned, will be the value of the 
lead according to New York quotation upon the day of sale less 
freight to New York and refining charges. If the net value of lead 
at the works is ^60 per ton, and the loss in smelting is 8 per cent, 
the net value of each unit of lead will be 1^0.552. 

There is generally a profit to the smelter on all gold purchased 
at $19 per ounce as the smelter receives J>20per ounce for the gold 
in the bullion from the refiners and usually makes no gold loss in 
smelting. Of course there is some loss of gold in smelting, but 


this loss is usually more than made up by the small amounts of 
gold in certain ores where the amount of gold is so small that it is 
not paid for. 

In purchasing ore by bid in the public market, that is, from the 
public sampling works, the custom is to bid so much net for the 
ore at the sampling works. In purchasing ore by contract with 
the mines or ore brokers the price paid is usually based upon a 
sliding scale. For example : Oxidized lead ore, gangue silica, 
oxide of iron, carbonate of lime, baryta, and occasionally zinc. 
Treatment charges based upon $4.50 per ton neutral basis (SiOj = 
Fe) and additional charge of fifteen cents per unit for all SiOj in 
excess of Fe and corresponding allowance of fifteen cents for all 
Fe in excess of SiOj. An allowance of six cents per unit for all 
CaO and BaO. No charge for Zn below 8 per cent. If zinc runs 
above 8 per cent a charge of fifty cents per unit for all Zn in excess 
of the 8 per cent, limit to be made. Lead to be paid for as follows, 
based upon New York quotation of JI4 per 100 pounds : 

Under 5 per cent., 
5 per cent, and under 10 per cent., 
10 per cent, and under 20 per cent., 
20 per cent, and under 30 per cent., 
30 per cent, and under 40 per cent., 
40 per cent, and under 50 per cent., 
50 per cent, and over, » 

. nothing. 
25 cents per unit. 
35 cents per unit. 
40 cents per unit. 
45 cents per unit. 
50 cents per unit. 
55 cents per unit. 

For every five cents per 100 pounds fluctuation of lead in New 
York an allowance of one cent per unit to be made, up or down. 
Gold to be paid for at the rate of ;^I9 per ounce, and 95 per cent. 
of the silver to be paid for at New York quotation on the day of 

The method of calculation is best illustrated by the following 
examples^, using the above figures as a basis, and assuming $4 
per 100 pounds for lead and $0.83 per ounce for silver as the New 
York quotations: 

Example No, 7. — Sulphide Ore — Conce?iirates, 

Composition, — SiO,, lo per cent. 

fe, 37 " 

Zn, 7 ** 

Au, 1.2 ozs. per ton, 

Ag, 10.5 '• " 


Treatment. — Roast ing, . 
Smelting, . 

Less for Fe excess. 

Net cost of treatment, 

Value, — Ag (95 per cent, of 10.5 ounces, at $0.83), 
Au (1.2 ounces at j(20.oo), 

Total gross value. 
Less for treatment, . 

Total net value, 

Per ton. 






In bidding upon the above ore in the public market the smelter 
would deduct from the net value of SI29.33 per ton a certain sum 
for profit, as, for example, ^3.50, the net bid then being ^{25. 83 
per ton. 

If the ore was being purchased by contract, the treatment 
charge upon a neutral basis being jJq.oo per ton, and gold being 
paid for at the rate of Jl 19.00 per ounce, the figures would be as 
follows : 


Less for Fe excess, 


Credit $1.00 per ounce for Au (1.2 ounces), . . . . 
For treatment and profit, 

Example No, 2. — Ore Oxidised — Coarse. 


Composition, — Si O ,, 


• • 

Treatment. — Smelling, 

Excess of SiOji, at 15c. (20 per cent.), 

Less for CaO, at 6c. (6 per cent.) . 
Net cost of treatment, . 

32 per cent. 
12 •' 
6 •* 
2 •* 
50 ozs. per ton. 
0.1 ** ** 

Per ton. 





Value. — Ag (95 per cent, of 50 ounces), at 83c. 
Au (o.i ounce, at $20 00), 
Pb (25 per cent., at $0,552), . 

Total gross value, 
Less for treat ment. 

Total net value, . 





Upon the basis of the above contract schedule the figures 
would be as follows : 

Value. — Ag, .... 

Au (o.i ounce, at $19 00), 
Pb (25 per cent., at 40c.), 

Less treatment. 

Price paid per ton, 

^39 43 




Profit to the smelter = ;J48.09 — ;?44.i9 = $1-^0 per ton. 


Example No, 3. — Ore Sulphide — Lump, 

CompMition,— SiOj, 


Treatment. — Crushing, ..... 

Roasting, ..... 


Excess of SiOj (5 per cent.\ at 15c. 
Excess of Zn (10 per cent.), at 50c. 

Net cost of treatment, . 

Value. — Ag (95 per cent, of 25 ounces), at 83c., . 
Au (0.3 ounces, at $20.00), . . . 
Pb (10 per cent., at $0,552), 

Gross value, . 
Less for treatment, 

Total net value. 

25 per cent. 
20 " 
18 " 



25 ozs. per ton. 
0.3 " •' 

Per ton. 







For such an ore the shipper would receive about ^14.00 per ton. 




In one or two places on the high table-land of Central Bolivia, 
the Indians use a singular little furnace for smelting silver-ore. 
Though it has an extremely small capacity, and is wholly unsuited 
to modern requirements, still, as a survival of the times of the 
Incas, it possesses some interest as a metallurgical curio. 

The furnace is called, in the native Quichua language, " Huaira- 
china," meaning literally ** a place where the wind is utilized." 
The accompanying cut, from a photograph by the writer, gives a 
good idea of the form and size of this furnace. It is built of fire- 
clay, is usually only from 30 to 34 inches high, and has an irregu- 
lar oval cross-section, the inside dimensions being 4 or 5 inches 
by 8 inches. The inside height, from the bottom of the hearth to 
the edge of the open top, is generally not more than 26 inches. 

Near the bottom of the furnace, as shown in the illustration, 
there are two main fire openings with wide lips, placed opposite 
each other on the longer sides of the oval, each 6 inches wide by 
3 inches high. On one of the shorter sides, and a little below the 
level of the large holes, there is a smaller opening. 2^ inches 
diameter, which serves as a tap. Ranged above the fire doors are 
three rows of 2 by 2^ inch air-holes on each side of the furnace, 
and below each of these is moulded a small lip of clay. The first 
row from the bottom comprises four holes, two on each side; in 
the rows above there are three holes on a side, all being placed 
symmetrically and exactly opposite one another. The walls are 
only 2 inches thick, and the top entirely open. 

It is usual to set the furnace on a rock or a built-up base, 15 to 
18 inches above the ground, and in such a position that the air- 
holes on the two sides are in the direction of the prevailing wind. 
No artificial blast is employed ; the average Indian has time enough 
to await a favorable wind. 

The fuel used is a good quality of charcoal, charged in alternate 
layers with the ore in the proportion of about I to i. This is a 
very high fuel consumption, but is sufficiently accounted for in 
three ways : First. By the great altitude of the regions where the 
Huairachina is used — from 13,000 to 14,500 feet above s^-level. 


It is well known that the percentage of fuel increases rapidly with 
the altitude, that is, with the rarefication of the air. Second. A 
heavy charge of fuel is often made necessary by lack of a proper 
quantity of galena to flux easily. Third. The small size of the 
furnace is naturally against economical working; the heat must be 
maintained by what would be considered commercially as a ruin- 
ous consumption of fuel. 
The materials treated are galenas, as well as zinc-blende and 

pyritic combinations, and those containing the high-grade sul- 
phides, such as ruby silver, gray copper, silver sulphide, etc. Ar- 
gentiferous galena is smelted alone without flux, and is itself used 
as a flux for the other base combinations or dry ores, by mixing 
with the latter. The proportions vary greatly, without much re- 
gard to regularity of working, though the galena generally forms 
about 50 per cent, of the ore charge. The main point with the 
Indian is that his flux shall run well in silver (have "ley"), so 
that when he has sufficient galena at hand he loses nothing by a 
generous admixture. High-grade galenas are much prized, and 
are often transported long distances to mix with the more intract- 


able sulphurets. In the absence of galena, " asendrada " is used 
for fluxing ; this is an impure litharge obtained from the native 
cupelling furnaces and always carrying some silver. In preparing 
the ore for the furnace, it is broken to about pea size and well 
mixed with the flux. 

This would appear to be a very crude method of smelting, but, 
upon the whole, the results obtained are fairly good and attest the 
skill of the native operator. An occasional bit of only partially 
smelted ore is, however, sometimes to be seen in the old slag 
dumps, and the slag itself runs rather high in both silver and lead. 
I am informed by Mr. James Pascoe, of Potosi, Bolivia, who has 
made a number of analyses of samples taken from old slag piles, 
that the latter often run as low as 6 to g ounces of silver per ton, 
though he obtained one assay of as high as 30 ounces. It must 
be remembered that the capacity of the furnace is extremely sgiall, 
say from 50 to 150 pounds of ore in twelve hours, depending upon 
the force of the wind and the tractability of the ore, and that, 
therefore, only rich, carefully selected material is worked. 

The Huairachina was in use by the Quichua Indians under the 
Inca rule, when the Spaniards first entered Bolivia. It is certain 
that they existed in considerable numbers at the large mines then 
being worked in the vicinity of Porco, where, indeed, many of 
them are still used. They may be seen set upon the low hills 
about the little town near the old mines, wherever there is an ele- 
vated spot exposed freely to the wind. 

In 1545 the Cerro Rico de Potosi (Rich Mountain of Potosi) 
was discovered, about 30 miles from Porco, and the Huairachina 
was immediately introduced, forming for years the chief means of 
extracting the silver from the ores of these wonderful mines. It 
has been estimated that, between 1545 and 1572, not less than 
^250,000,000 worth of silver was produced at Potosi from these 
furnaces. But, as the rich surface ores were exhausted, the little 
wind furnace had to give place to the amalgamation process. 

The Indians about Porco, who still adhere to its use, make a 
scanty living, either by working stolen ores or by sorting over and 
re-sorting the old waste dumps of the mines which formerly were 
so productive. With infinite pains and labor they collect small 
bits of good mineral which have escaped attention, or which, at- 
tached to large pieces of barren rock, may have been thrown 
upon the dumps as worthless. 





Having had occasion to make many determinations of the 
amounts of nitrates and nitrites in potable waters, we have hereto^ 
fore used the method of Gladstone and Tribe — the zinc-copper 
couple. As this, and many other methods are based upon the 
action of the nascent hydrogen produced, it occurred to us that 
sodium amalgam might be advantageously substituted for the zinc- 
copper couple, since the amount of nascent hydrogen produced 
would be greater, bulk for bulk of the reagent, and moreover only 
salts of metals identical, or essentially identical with those con- 
tained in the Nessler reagent would be added to the water under 
examination, so that the tint for reading could be more satisfactorily 
compared with that obtained in the standard comparison solu- 

In this connection we may perhaps be permitted to insert a few 
references to some of the most important papers on methods for 
determining nitrates, which though unfortunately very incomplete, 
may prove of service. 

I. — Conversion of nitric acid into ammonia. — F. Schulze, 
Chem. Centr., 1861, 657, 833 ; Zts. Anal. Chem., II., 300; Wolf, 
ibid,^ 1862, 379; Harcourt, Jour. Lond. Chem. Soc, XV., 385; 
Siewert, Am. Chem. Pharm., 293 ; Leeds, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc, 
III., 150; Mactear, Chem. News. XLL, 16, 43, 52, 67 ; Williams, 
Jour. Lond. Chem. Soc, XXXIX., 100; Ormandy & Cohen, /^/rf., 
LVIL, 811 ; Ulsch, Fres. Zts. Anal. Chem., XXXI,. 392; De- 
vada, Chem. Ztg., XVI., 1952. To these may be added reduction 
to nitrite, and determining the same, Boyer C. Rend., CX., No. 

II. — Reduction to NO, and reconversion to HNO.3 — Schlosing, 
Ann* Chim. Phys. [3]. XL., 479; Reichardt, Landw. Versuch. St., 
IX., 14, 150; Bochmer, Fres. Zts. Anal. Chem., XXII., 20. 

III. — Reduction to NO, and eudiometric estimation. — Crum, 


Proc, Phil. Soc, Glasgow, 1848, 162; and Am. Chem. Pharm., 
LXIL, 233; Frankland and Armstrong, Jour. Lond. Chem. Soc, 
XX., 67 ; F. Schulze, Fres. Zts. Anal. Chem., 1870,401 ; Kal- 
man, Dingl. Polyt. Journ., CCLXXL, 47 ; Bailhache, C. Rend., 
CVIII., 1 122. 

IV. — lodometric methods. — De Koninck and Nihoul, Zts. An- 
gew Chem., 1890,477 ; McGowan, Proc. Lond Chem. Soc, No. 97. 

V. — Oxidation of indigo solution. — Marx, Fres. Zts. Anal. 
Chem., 1868, 412 ; Trommsdorf, ibid., 171 ; Goppelsroder, ibid., i ; 
van Brummelen, ibid,, 1872. 136; Finkener, Rose's Analyt. 
Chem. [6], II., 830; Fischer, J. pr. Chem., 1873, 57. 

VI. — Special Reagents (colorimetric) : 

Resorcinol, D. Lindo, Chem. News, LVIIL, 176. 

Carbazol, S. C. Hooker, Am. Chem. Jour., XL, 259. 

Phenol Sulphuric, Grandval and Lajoux, vid, Chem. News, LIII, 


Pyrogallicy Rosenfeld, Fres. Zts. Anal. Chem., XXIX., 661. 

Naphthylamin^ Harrow, Jour. Lond. Chem. Soc, LIX., 320. 

Diphenylamin, Miiller, Chem. News, LXL, 100. 

Diphenylamin, Kopp, Berichte, V., 284. 

Naphthoic Hager, Pharm. Centrh., XXVI., 353. 

Paratoluidin Sulphate^ Long, Fres. Zts. Anal. Chem., XXIII., 


Brucin, Kersting, Am. Chem. Pharm., CXXV., 254. 

Cinchonatnine^ Arnaud, vid, Chem. News, L., 103. 

It may not be altogether outside the scope of this list to give 
also reference to Griess* tests for nitrites; meta-diamido benzol, 
Berichte, XL, 621 ; and Naphthylamin, ibid., XH., 426. 

As potable waters contain more or less organic matter, experi- 
ments were made with Croton water, which contains both dissolved 
and suspended organic matter, in the proportions often found in 
most waters. As the primary object was the use of the test upon 
Croton water, that water was especially adapted for our purposes. 

A standard solution was prepared as follows : 

1. Strong Solution, — Dry NaNOj, 0.06 grammes: Distilled 
water, free from NH3, 100 cc ; i cc. = 0.0006 grammes Na 


2. Weak Solution. — Strong solution, 5 cc. ; distilled water free 
from NHj, 995 cc ; 50 cc. = 0.00015 gm. NaNOj; =0.0003 
gm. NH3; = 0.030 mgm. NH3. 


The correctness of this solution was proved by reduction to 
XH3 and colorimetric tests with use of Nessler solution. 

Our first experiments were chiefly directed to determining the 
time necessary for the reduction of nitrate to ammonia. Lots of 
50 c.c. each of Croton water, found by check tests to contain ni- 
trates in quantity to aflford 0.03 mgm. NH3 each, were reduced 
with sodium amalgam and tested, with results as appear from the 



After reduction. Newsier added. 



2 e 



I None, comin. Present. Not filt. Cloudy. Could not read ; not red'd. 

2 " 30 " 

3 ** 60 " 

4 H^CjO^ 20 " 

5 - 30 " 

6 *• 60 *• 

7 None. 30 " 

8 " 60 •• 

Decided. •« 



1 1 



I Cloudy, 
turn'g bl'lc 



** act'n more rapid. 





" Cu gauze ad'd. 

Filtered!. I Clear. o.02oMg Easily read; not quite red'd 

" 2 h'rs Faint. 



" 0.025 «• 
** 0.026 " 
" None. NoNHgimp'tdbyam'lg'm 


The experiments were conducted at the ordinary temperature of 
the laboratory. 

Kxperiment 1 1 was only a blank test to prove whether ammonia 
or anything else giving color with the Nessler reagent was added 
to the water by the action of the sodium amalgam. The other 
tests (since confirmed by many others) tend to show that the re- 
duction to ammonia is incomplete fully two hours or more 
are allowed for the action of the amalgam, and some acid is added ; 
in any case, that the action of the amalgam affords a cloudy solu- 
tion, which requires filtering before a satisfactory test can be made 
with the Nessler reagent. When filtering was used, it was done 
through a filter paper washed until the washings gave no reaction 
whatever with the Nessler. 


Another set of experiments was then made, using Croton or 
standard NaNO, solution (weak) in such amount that each experi- 
ment should show a known amount of NH3. The bulk of solution 
was in all cases 50 c.c. In these the solutions were all filtered 
after reduction, the necessity for that step having been made evi- 
dent by the first series. 

With a view to shortening the time required for reduction to 
ammonia, in one case (Experiment 14) the water was slowly passed 
through a column of the sodium amalgam. The results, however, 
indicated that this plan was not altogether satisfactory. By way 
of comparison the Zn-Cu reduction was tried both on natural water 
and on some of the standard solution (Experiments 17 and 18). 
The results in those experiments were higher, but under the cir- 
cumstances we are constrained to regard the sodium amalgam 
method as the more correct, and in the matter of time (and ma- 
nipulation, if one distils after the Zn-Cu treatment) it is much 

From these and similar experiments we draw the following 
conclusions : 

1. Reduction is best effected by means of sodium amalgam in 
a Nessier tube, or one having such proportions that the evolved • 
hydrogen passes through a considerable stratum of the water. 

2. The water tested should be acidified (concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid was found to be most suitable for this purpose). 

3. Not less than two hours' reduction is necessary. 

4. After reduction, the solution must be filtered before Ness- 

5 By the amalgam method lower results may possibly be ob- 
tained than by the Zn-Cu reduction, and Nesslerizing without 
distilling, but the results go to show that more accuracy is 

The method we have adopted is as follows : 

Rinse a 100 c.c. Nessier tube with the water to be tested, and 
then fill to the 100 c.c. mark with the water to be tested. Drop 
in 5 to 10 grammes of freshly prepared sodium amalgam, the 
amount varying with that of the nitrates presumably present. 
Enough should be added to keep up the action at ordinary tem- 
peratures for two hours. 

Cover with a watch glass, and allow the tube to stand in an 
atmosphere free from ammonia vapors, after adding one or two 


y -a' • 

- 3 o 2 c o 
o •© c <J — 

I 5 = 





'uoimio^ 1 



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-niy JO junoiuy 



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6 6 o d o d o 6 d d o o o 0* d 














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Wh *^^ 


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^-« rt 




: Ts 


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w- ««• 



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filter fi 







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"w <^ 



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{/■ M 


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4) V A' 9^ U S^ 

Q Q 

^ «• *« ^ « 

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-pappe ppy 






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w « 

« « « « 

: 3 


















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^ « 

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iQdSy 3upnp«^ 








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3 S 3 : 

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 














rn "^ lOvTJ 


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OS ^ N "^ ^ »0 






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N N 

N N « N 

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N r^ ro ro m f^ C'^ 


drops of concentrated HCl (free from ammonium salt). After two 
hours,* filter through a small filter previously freed from all traces 
of ammonia, and Nesslerize 50 c.c. of the filtrate. Deduct free 
ammonia (found by another operation) and calculate results. 
N. Y. Health Dept., June, 1893. 


(Continued from Vol. XIV., p. 349.) 

VI. — Treatment of the Slimes. 

[a) Method of Treatment. — The slimes — that is to say, material 
less than 0.25 millimeters in size which has been separated in the 
classification of the sands — is submitted to a treatment in two 
operations, the first consisting of a sorting in water currents, and 
the second of a separation by specific gravity. 

A. The apparatus used for the preliminary classification are 
labyrinths, pointed boxes and the Meinicke spitzlutten apparatus. 
Sizing by trommels is used exceptionally in connection with 
pointed boxes at Saint Andreasberg (Hartz), as will be described 

B, Separation by specific gravity is effected upon ordinary fixed 
tables, sweeping tables, belt tables, longitudinal bump tables, Rit- 
tinger tables, revolving tables, round buddies and the Linkenbach 
table. The first two types of tables do not justify further men- 
tion. Belt tables are represented in Saxony by a recent type, the 
Stein table, which will be described later. Longitudinal bump 
tables, which, as we have seen, are used by some engineers for the 
treatment of sands, are not to be recommended for the treatment 
of slimes. In treating such fine material the swing of the table or 
force of the blow must be lessened. This diminishes the capacity 
of the tables, and thus exaggerates the disadvantage already noted 

* The solution should now be only very faintly acid ; if decidtdly acid, add more 
amalgam and continue the reduction. 


in the treatment of sand by this apparatus. Furthermore, the set- 
tling to which the slimes are subjected interferes with a perfect 
separation of the minerals. These disadvantages, which have been 
noted by the chief engineer of the Henry mines {Annaies des Mines, 
Series 6, Vol. XIX., iS/i.p. 358). have not prevented the Lauren- 
burg engineers from continuing the use of these tables. The rea- 
son may be found in the facility with which they may be applied 
to dressing operations such as those of La u renbu rg, , where the 
frequent variations in the composition of the ore to be treated 
have led to the adoption of non-continuous work, A further 
advantage consists in the ease with which they lend themselves 
to the retreatment of material which varies with the nature of 
the products to be treated. The Rittinger table, which enjoyed 
until recently such popularity that it was considered as a necessary 
element of all mechanical preparation, has found in the Linken- 
hach table a formidable competitor. A comparison of these two 
tables Will appear later in connection with the description of the 
Linkenbach table. Revolving tables, the work of which is re- 
garded as satisfactory, are now considered as inferior to fixed tables, 
on account of the oscillations which the rotation of the washing sur- 
face cannot fail to transmit to the material under treatment. 
This defect is sufficiently marked to lead to the adoption of the 
round buddle (which, in general, is regarded as an inferior appa- 
ratus lor the treatment of slimes) on a large scale in the recent 
workshop at Weiss. Also the success of the stationary table of 
Mr. Linkenbach may be similarly explained, for, by substituting 
adjustable jets of water for the brushes of the round buddle, has 
given to this last apparatus the precision which it lacked, without 
losing for the new table the advantages which the fixed surfaces 
present for the delicate washing of the' fine materials. It should 
be added that the convex form for washing tables is now preferred 
to the concave form, which causes higher losses. At the same 
time, in the case of superposed tables a concave form is generally 
adopted for the highest tables, with a view to facilitating the super- 
intendence of the work upon the lower tables. In the superim- 
posed Linkenbach tables they have, however, by discarding this 
form, preferred to sacrifice the facility of access to the lower tables 
to the reduction of the losses in the treatment. 

{^) Apparatus — /°. The Miinkke Spitzlutten Apparatus. — The 
Meinicke spitzlutten apparatus is contained in a cylindrical sheet- 

VOL XV.— 2 



iron vessel with a funnel-shaped bottom. The material to be sepa- 
rateid enters the upper part of the apparatus by the trough, a, and the 
funnel, b, which empties into the pipe, r, contracted at its upper end. 
The channel, ^/, limited by the surfaces of two truncated cones, re- 
ceives, in its turn, the material, and carries it to the annular space. /, 
where it rises to descend again over the upper side of the outer en- 
velope of r, into a second annular space, e^. At the lower part of this 
last the slimes enter the duct, d^^ the form of which is analogous 
to that of r/|, and which conducts it into the space e^^ where it fol- 

FiG. 27. 

Fig. 2S. 

General View and Section at A B. Scale -^^, 

lows the ascending path as in the corresponding space, f,. The 
annular trough, /, which surrounds the apparatus, receives the 
slime and carries it to the trough, /j. 

Envelopes concentric with those which limit the spaces, r, and 
and d^ on one side, e^ and d^, on the other, determine in each of 
these spaces subdivisions. gxJhJ^x and g^, h^, h^\ which terminate, 
the first one in the space /'i and the second one in the space /g. The 
space /'i communicates with the emptying pipe, k^, and the space i^ 
with the corresponding pipe, k^ The water for washing is carried 
into the first of these two spaces, i^ and i^^ by the pipe /,, and the 
second by the pipe 4. The prolongations ///' and //j" put the 
ducts //j and //j, respectively, in communication with the spaces c^ 
and ^2- From thence the heaviest grains (that is to say, the first 


class) descend from the annular space, e^, by g^, A[ and A/ into the 
space i^. whence they are carried off by the pipe ky. The second 
class of slimes proceeding from e^ is collected by itself in the space 
i^ from whence it is taken off by the pipe i,. Lastly, the third 
class — that is to say, the lightest — is received in the annular trough 
f, and is carried off by the current which comes out of the appa- 

Fio. 29. 

Horiionlal Sectioi 

Vertical Section. 


Enlarged Vertical Section. 

ratiis. Grains of a given size always carry with them in their de- 
scent finer grains belonging to the divisions which follow them, 
and it is with a view to eliminate these last that two currents of 
water are introduced, one by the pipe /, and the other by the pipe 
/j. The water encounters the grains of the corresponding class in 
their descent, and carries off the lighter slimes by the ducts /i,' 
(and A,") into the spaces <r, (and r,}, and from thence into the fol- 
lowing channel, where they mix, in their descent, with the grains 



of the next inferior size. The ducts //j, h^ may either surround the 
apparatus, or, on the contrary, be divided into a series of distinct 
conduits, a, a\ tf" . . . . limited by the curved sheets, m. Fig. 
33. Thisdivision may likewise in this case be applied to the 
ducts /// and //j', A/' and h^\ In this way economy of water 
is effected. Otherwise, the water would have to enter the duct 
A/ or //j') with a velocity greater than that with which it flows 
out of the duct ///' (or h<l'^, or inversely; consequently, it only 
remains to choose the dimensions of the sections of the ducts /// 
and///' (or h\l and ///'). In all cases it is necessary that the ducts 
//„ A/ and ///' (or /j^, h^ //g") have the same section at their point 
of juncture. 

The details of this apparatus, which Mr. Meinicke put in ser- 
vice for the first time in the month of August, 1888, in the works 
of Clausthal, are given in the following table in which they are 
designated as follows : 

D = the outside diameter of the cylindrical part. 

//j = the difference in level between the upper side of the funnel, 
b, and the bottom of the trough,/i. 

//g = the difference of level between this same surface and the 
outlet oc of the pipes, Ki or Kg. 

//g = the difference in level between the outlet o and the lower 
extremity /5 of the truncated conical part. 

Values of D, in millimeters 

" " hj, " 

" " hj, " 

" hj, «• 

Slimes treated per minute (in litres). 







200-250 300-400 

• The Meinicke spitzlutten apparatus, by reason of its annular 
form has the following advantages over other apparatus of the 
same kind ; 

1. The subdivision of the slimes between the various compart- 
ments is perfectly symmetrical, the products entering along the 
axis of the apparatus and passing thence from cell to cell to the 

2. The clarification of the slimes, under the influence of the 


pure water distributed by the pipes, /j and Ij, also operates in a 
symmetrical way starting from the axis of the apparatus. 

3. The apparatus, each compartment of which envelopes the 
preceding one, occupies comparatively much less space than the 
old style apparatus constructed on the same principle. 

4- Lastly, the annular form allows of placing inside the appa- 
ratus the mediums of clarification, which in ordinary sorters, are 
relegated to the exterior and are consequently more cumbersome. 
The only works where up to the present time this apparatus is 
found, is that of Clausthal, where it gives very satisfactory results. 
At the same time there is no doubt that these results would have 
been better, if it had been used in conjunction with apparatuses 
better Btted than the Meinicke sand-sorting apparatus, for washing 
the sands treated at Clausthal (see note on page 349, Vol. XIV.). 
If a spitzkasten or sand-sorting apparatus had been used, better 
general results would have been obtained and the advantages of 
the spitzlutten apparatus would have been more clearly shown. 

Meifturke Distributer. — Mr. Meinicke has completed the spitz- 
lutten apparatus by a distributer (schlammaufgabevorrichtung), of 
which the following figures represents two types of slightly different 

The materials to be distributed in the spitzlutten apparatus are 
charged in a cylindrical receiver, a, at the centre of which turns 
the axis, b, which carries a knife, c, and above a perforated pipe, 
d, which furnishes a spray of water. The endless screw, e, and the 
toothed wheel, /, transmit to the axis, b, the movement which the 
axis of the endless screw receives from the pulleys, P. The filet 
which carries the extremity of the axis, b, determines the descend- 
ing movement of the axis, b, as soon as that of the nut, A, is stopped. 
The stoppage of this nut, A, is effected by tightening the nut, /, which 
stops the movement of the pinion, «, and therefore that of the toothed 
wheel, O, which engages with it. This wheel, O, is lowered by the 
nut, //. The portion fileted, g, has a longitudinal groove, k, in 
which an angular wedge is fixed at the interior part of the nave of 
the wheel, /. 

The knife (c) describes a spiral surface and cuts off a thin slice 
of the material, while the water led by the pipe {d) secures disin- 
tegration. The exit of the products is effected by the opening (/) 
made in the vertical axis, the horizontal section of which is given 
on the right, Fig. 39. The knife having arrived at the bottom of 



the receptacle the straps giving motion are raised, which work the 
Fig. 34. 

Fig. 35. 

O M>1M^ 

Fig. 36. 



Three Projections of a M einecke Distributer. 

Fig. 38. 

Fig. 39. 

-.^'m^//' •',/,/*r////t/'A-AV//».//ir//Vtim^-//y)i^^m/f^/^i*'ir/.. 

Vertical Section, Axis and Horizontal Section of Meinecke Distributer of Second Type. 

blocks, Pp then loosen the nut (/) and by turning the crank (»/) 


detertnine the rotation of the \ inion («) and then the knife can 
be raised to its former position. The apparatus is then ready to 
start again. The water necessary for the operation enters by the 
pipe (^) in the annular reservoir (q) which takes place at the rota- 
tion of the axis (^). If this axis is hollow, it can be utilized as a 
pipe for the water. It is easy to make the pipe {d^ work only at 
the f)oint of rotation, and not at the descending movement of the 
axis. The only essential condition in setting up the apparatus, is 
to place it sufficiently high and to furnish it with an elevator, for 
the material which it should distribute to the following pieces of 
apparatus. In the absence of an elevator in the works at Claus- 
thai, the schlamms are shovelled into the Meinicke distributer. 
This inconvenience which could be easily remedied is one of the 
reasons for the Meinicke apparatus not finding favor at Clausthal. 

The parts of the apparatus are summed up in the following 
table, where they are designated as follows : 

D, the exterior diameter of the cylinder, a, 

H, its height. 

A, the difference of level which should exist between the depth 
of the reservoir, a^ and the superior part of the apparatus for feed- 

V, the capacity of the cylinder, a. 

Q, the delivery in litres per hour, told by one turn of the vertical 
axis b. 

Value of B, in meters I I 1.5 2 

" H, " A-fo.15 A-j-0.20 A-| 0.30I 

«« A, " I I 




V, in cubic meters }i i}^ 3 

Q, inlitres 2 4.5 ' 8 

Stein-Table. — The following figures show the Stein-belt table : 
This table consists of a framework formed of two horizontal 
sills of wood, a, and of two uprights, c, also of wood. On the 
inside face of the left upright is bolted an iron bump-plate having 
a groove which serves to guide the pin, e, of the frame of the 
table ; the piece,/, placed against the inside face of the same up- 
right, supports the trough which conveys the slimes, and the 
threaded rod traverses a nut fixed to the upper part of the vertical 



post, c, having on its outside fdce the spiral spring, h. The verti- 
cal post, r, on the right, has, on its inside face, pieces d, /, g. 
Similar to those, bearing the same letters, but on its outside face, 
there is a rest, /, which receives the shaft, k^ the cam-wheel with 
three teeth. /, the movable pulley, w, and the fly-wheel, n, 

II. — A bunfip-frame, placed between the two uprights, r, and 
provided on each side with a guide-pin, lo mm. in diameter. The 
rod on the left has two nuts, one, p, regulates the extent of the 
shock, and the other, q, placed at the extremity of the rod, regu- 
lates the tension of the spiral spring, A. The rod on the right deter- 

FlG. 40. 

Longitudinal Elevation. 

mines the displacement of the table by the introduction of a fork, 
of a lever, r, of a coupling-pin, and of a cam-wheel with three 
teeth already mentioned. 

The fram* has two sheet-iron cylinders, 22 cm. long and 22 
cm. in diameter; their axes are inclined ^0^ to the horizon; the 
distance from axis to axis is 67 cm. The posterior part of the 
axis of the cylinder on the right (Figs. 40 and 41) has a ratchet- 
wheel, t, 183 mm. in diameter with 56 teeth. This wheel, which 
is fixed on the axis of the cylinder with two nuts, is outside of the 
frame. The two pawls, v and w, move between the teeth of this 
wheel ; the first, v^ is fixed to the slime-trough, the other, iv^ to 
the movable frame. 

When the displacement of the frame is equal to f of the space 
separating two consecutive teeth, the cylinder turns backward 


one tooth, and the p:»wl, w, catches in the following tooth and 
maintains this position during the shock. 

The cylinder on the left has a cushion on the anterior part, the 
position of which can be regulated by a screw, and most conveni- 

Fio. 41. 

ently distributes the weight of the belt, notwithstanding its incli- 
nation toward the front. 

The endless belt, x^ passing over the two cylinders, has a width 
of 205 mm, ; it is made of rubber. A little wheel placed against 

Fig. 42. 

the lower side of the belt, gives it the proper tension ; the upper 
part passes over a planed surface, a, fixed to the frame, and having 
underneath two conduits for water, each with three holes for dis- 
tributing the water over the surface, «, and, consequently, under 



the belt, by which adherence to the surface, //, is rendered impos- 
sible, and wear by friction notably diminished. To secure inde- 
pendence of the frame, and to allow it to be moved to the desired 
rnclination. it is suspended by three hooks, m, to the levers, /, 
screwed to the threaded axis, Zy resting on the uprights, c ; the 
inclination of the belt is adjusted by the nut s. 

III. — A conduit, «, placed a short distance from the surface 
of the table, and supported in the right and left by the pieces, /. 
Two hooks, J/, join it to the levers, L, and to the axis z, so 
that it can easily follow the washing belt, whatever be the incli- 

FiG. 43. 

Rear Elevation. 

nation given to the latter. The trough serves to carry the slime 
coming from the pointed box, M, which concentrates it, by dis- 
charging the excess of water through the overflow-pipe, T, which 
flows to the settling-tanks. 

Four orifices furnished with screw gates allow portions of the 
slime to go to separate distributors (N), which spread it out in a 
thin layer. The pointed box (M), for example, receives a slime 
composed three-quarters of water and one-quarter of solids, de- 
livers to the table the solid portion constituting one-quarter of the 
original slime and an equal quantity of water, or another one- 
quarter of the slime while the rest of the water passes away by 
the pipe (T). At the end of the conduit {n) (Fig. 40, on the left), 
there is a reservoir covered with a sieve, and a zinc pipe {q) gives 
tVi^ u/ater for wetting the belt. 


The pipe (Q) serves as an overflow for this reservoir. The com- 
partments (D) joined to the sheet-iron spouts (F) remove the dif- 
ferent sorts of minerals separated on the table. The trough (G) 
resting on the two supports (H) serves not only to sustain the 
spouts (F), but also to receive the water running to the settling- 

This table, therefore, bears the same relation to the Rittinger 
table as the Hartweg table does to the ordinary bump-table. 

The ore is spread out as on the Rittinger table, in diverging 
lines, passing off at the superior angle, where the washed portions 
are received. This table (used in the works at Himmelfahrt) 
moves at the rate of 130 shocks per minute; at the end of 53 
shocks each grain has traversed the whole surface of the belt. It 
treats 43 litres of slime per minute. 

An improvement of this table, introduced at Himmelfahrt, con- 
sists in the substitution for the compartments, D, of movable divi- 
sions — therefore more easily regulated — set into the trenches in 
the ground, which receive the washed products. 

T/u Linkenbach Table, — Figs. 44 to 48, represent three different 
types of these tables. The principle common to all is in the sub- 
stitution of jets of water for the sweeping brooms of the round 
huddle. The Linkenbach table may be simple or superposed. 

The simple table, says Mr. Linkenbach, is composed of a convex 
cone, formed of a covering of cement 8 mm. thick, resting on mas- 
sive piete of masonry, on arches, on a mass of beton or upon an 
iron frame-work, wjth a layer of beton 50 mm. thick. 

Fig. 44 represent respectively a vertical section and a plan of a 
Linkenbach table 8 m. in diameter; {a) is the table made of ma- 
sonry, generally covered with an even layer of cement ; [b) is a 
vertical shaft, rotating the arrangement for the distribution of the 
products. The shaft is moved by the cog-wheel run by the end- 
less screw [d) on the main shaft. 

The discharging apparatus {g), the pipes for the washing (A), 
and the pipes for washing off the finished product (/) are suspended 
from the arms [e]. These, eight in number, are bolted to the hub 
(/), keyed on the vertical shaft (S). The annular gutter {k), rest- 
ing on these arms, partakes of the movement of rotation. The 
fixed pipe (/), provided with a stop-cock, gives the water required 
for washing. 

The fixed pipe {rri) conveys the slime; it follows the canal {ti) ; 



then rises vertically up to the circular trough (u) of the distributor, 
into which it empties. The distributor is composed, independently 
of the channel for the slime, of a compartment for distributing the 
slime, and of another which gives the water for washing. The 

Fig. 44. 

and Plan of Linkenbach Table. Scale {^,. 

pipes {^) lead the water from the gutter {k) to the different noz- 
zles. The fixed side gutter {_q) is composed of three concentric 
compartments of the same size, of which {<]'), nearesl to the table, 
receives the tailings, \q") the middlings, and the last {/j'"\ at the 
exterior of the table, the finished product. 


The removal of the interijiediate and final products from the 
table to the compartments corresponding with the side channels, 
is obtained by means of the apparatus {g) suspended from the 
arm {/) and moved by the rotatory motion. 

The apparatus (g) is composed of a circular apron formed of 
round gutters, which surround the outer edge of the table. This 
apron has plates of zinc fastened to it which overlap each other, 
they serve to remove the intermediate products, before coming to 
the compartment (^") while the plates used in like manner, for the 
finished products should be prolonged as far as the exterior com- 
partment (^"'). The passage of the waste products in the com- 
partment (^'), next to the table, takes place without the aid of the 
apparatus (g), which is not furnished with plates of zinc above the 
corresponding compartment. The canals (r") and (/^") respec- 
tively conduct the products from (^") and (^'") to the settling- tanks, 
one for the middling the other for the finished products ; the canal 
(r') which runs from the compartment (^') directly to the settling- 
tanks for tailings. 

This table is generally operated in the same manner as the 
ordinary round tables. The slime flows over three-eighths of the 
surface of the table ; four-eighths are occupied by the ** interme- 
diates," and one-eighth by the finished products. This division of 
surface may be modified ; it being sufficient to change the relation 
established between the compartment for the slime and that of the 
water for washing in the distributor, and to provide the discharg- 
ing apparatus with plates of zinc of the right size. 

If it is desirable to obtain two sorts of finished products on the 
table, the canal {q) should have an additional compartment, in 
place of one, for receiving the new sort, and the apparatus {g) 
provided with plates of zinc of the proper size, for removing these 
products to the compartment for receiving them. Also for the 
washing and sweeping off of the second finished product, a mova- 
ble pipe for sprinkling the lower layers on the table, and after 
the removal of the second sort a larger pipe introduced for sweep- 
ing away the second sort of intermediate products, which are 
richer. This second class of middle product is generally sent to 
the compartment of the side canal {q) which receives the first 
middle product, and these two are treated together. 

Figs. 46 and 47 give another arrangement of the Linkenbach 
table. This table is 7 mm. in diameter, and yields two kinds of 


finished products, and the trough surrounding the circumference 
of the table at that time contained three concentric compart- 
ments. The surface of the table is made like the preceding, 
but there are essential differences in the arrangements for ro- 
tating the distributor, and for the discharging apparatus for lead- 

Fio. 46. 

Vertical Section and Plan or I,inkenb»eh Table. Scale ■, jj. 

ing the washing-water and for the removal of materials. The 
hollow axis \b) is joined to the pipe which supplies the wash-water 
by the stufRng-box {d). The distributor (c) is suspended from 
this axis and the tube {g) leads directly into it, the slimes coming 
from the spitzkasten. The discharging-gutter (/;) fixed on an 
armature is carried by the rollers (/') placed on a circular track 


{k) ; it is composed of twenty- four equal and distinct segments, 
each being provided with a discharge-pipe (/). The pipes (/) 
vary in length, depending upon the nature of the product which 
they are to conduct to corresponding compartments of the empty- 
ing-trough. The pipes of different length replace the sheets of 
zinc used for the same purpose in the preceding table. 

The arms (;«), four in number, are formed of gas- pipes firmly 
joined at one end with the armature yNhvch carries the discharging- 
trough, and at the other end to the vertical shaft {b) whose interior 
communicates with the pipes {m). The pipes for washing {n) («') 
and those for removing the final products {o) (^') are fixed to these 
arms ; they can be removed at pleasure, like the first. Rotatory 
motion is produced by means of the chain, S, which passes over 
the pulley (q) and over the groove on the outside of the armature 
which carries the discharging-trough ; this chain at its other end 
passes over the pulley (/) fastened on the main shaft. This arrange- 
ment gives the necessary tension to the chain. 

The four arms (w) transmit rotatory motion to the hollow shaft 
id) and to the apparatus for washing. The work on this table is 
the same as on the preceding. 

Except the waste products which go back to the settling-tubs, 
the products obtained are collected in the tanks for the middlings, 
(«) and in the tanks {«') {n") reserved for the final products. 

In large dressing-works, each class of slimes classified according 
to falling ratio should go to a special table. In most works, in 
order. to obtain a regular classification, three kinds of slimes must 
be produced, which render necessary the employment of three 
kinds of tables. Whenever the space permits, simple tables should ' 
be used similar to those described, but if this arrangement is 
impracticable on account of lack of room, two, three, or even 
more tables, may be mounted on the same axis, which, like the 
simple table, wash separately a separate class of slime. Fig. 48 
represents the arrangement of three superposed Linkenbach 
tables ; each give some merchantable galena and blende, as if the 
others did not exist. Similar products furnished by the super- 
posed tables are reunited in the same conduit. 

The upper Jtable has a diameter of 6 m., the intermediate 6.5 m., 
and the lowest 7 m. The surface of each table is formed of a layer 
of cement 80 mm. thick; the upper part is perfectly smooth. 
This layer rests upon an iron armature [k), with eight arms, which, 


for the lowest table, rests all around upon a pier of masonry, and 
for the other tables is supported by eight cast-iron uprights (/). 
The upper table receives the coarsest material, the lowest the 
finest, and the middle table the intermediate size. The tables arc 
fixed; the only moving parts are the hollow axis {b\ the distribu- 
tors (c) ((■') {c"). which are fixed there, so that the washing-pipes 
(d) (a") (<^") and the sweeping-pipes for the products (c) (t') (^"), 

Fig. 4S. 

. Seclion of Three Siiperpi^d Linkenbach Tables. Scale (Jj. 

and the discharging-gutter (/"} of the lowest table take part in this 
movement; on the contrary, the gutters (/) {f) belonging to the 
two other tables are fixed. 

The pipes {g) [jf) (^") carry the three kinds of slimes. The 
work on the table is conducted in the same way and by the aid of 
the same preparation as on the separate tables. The various 
products obtained on each table are emptied into the side canal 
(A) [placed under the lowest table only] by the introduction of 
the gutter (/") carrying the pipes (/), which may vary in length. 

The products from the lowest table go directly back; those 


from the other two tables are first received in the fixed trough 
which surrounds its corresponding table. 

The bottom of the fixed gutter is composed of a series of funnels 
placed side by side, the points being cm. 60 apart, which discharge 
into pipes, by which the products from the highest table flow into 
the fixed gutter of the intermediate table, whence the correspond- 
ing products from the two upper tables flow together into the 
movable trough (/")• ^^^ movement is effected in the same way 
as for the simple table. 

(To be continued ) 


1 842- 1 893. 


The following paper is offered to chemists with the hope that it 
may be of some value to them in their researches on an element 
of great theoretical and scientific interest, particularly as an ex- 
ample of the wonderful results accomplished by the use of the 
spectroscope in modern chemistry. The voluminous literature of 
didymium affords a striking illustration of the pursuit of science 
for its own sake, and with no reward beyond the satisfaction of 
having advanced the cause of truth. 

Original work, at the present time, must always be preceded by 
a long and painstaking search through the literature, which con- 
sumes no inconsiderable amount of time. Anything which can 
lighten the labors of the investigator in this direction is sure to 
be a welcome addition to the literature. 

In 1882 Dr. H. Carrington Bolton originated the idea of 
indexing the literature of each of the chemical elements, and a 
Committee on Indexing Chemical Literature was formed. The 
committee annually reports the progress made during the year, 
the reports being published in the Chem. News and American 

The following elements have been indexed : 

Columbium. — Index to the literature of, 1 801-1887, by Frank W. 
Traphagen, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, No. 
663, Washington, 1888. 

VOL, XV. — 3 


Iridium. — Bibliography of the metal, 1 803-1885, by N. W. Perry, 
in Mineral Resources of the United States, 1883-1884, 
p. 588; School of Mines Quarterly, 1885, p. 114; 
Chem. News, 1885, 51, p. 32. 

Manganese. — Index to the literature of, 1596-1874, by H. C. Bol- 
ton, Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History, New 
York, Vol. II., Nov., 1875. 

Titanium. — Index to the literature of, 1783- 1876, by E. J. Hal- 
lock, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 
Vol. I., Nos. 2 and 3, 1877. 

Uranium. — Index to the literature of, by H. C. Bolton, 1 789-1 885, 
Smithsonian Reports for 1885, Washington, 1885, p. 919 

Vanadium. — Index to the literature of, 1801-1876, by G. Jewett 
Rockwell, Annals of the New York Academy of Sci- 
ences, Vol. I., No. 5, 1877. 

The general plan of the following index corresponds with that 
of the others published. The indexes at the end of every volume 
of each journal were consulted, unless an index covering a series 
of years was available. The French journals proved to be very 
troublesome in this respect, as indexes at the end of the volume 
are often omitted, and the general indexes are seldom detailed 
enough to be of much value. This was especially true of the 
Bull. Soc. Chim. and the Ann. Chim. Phys. 

The abbreviations used are those given by H, Carrington Bolton 
(and others) in Chem, News^ 1887, 56, 272, 



Index to the Literature of Didymium. 



1 842 Mosander . . Discovery . . 



Mosander . 

1843 .L. Bonaparte 


Hermann . . 
Marignac . . 

Researches . 

from cerium. 

Existence of 
Di. doubted. 

from cerium & 




H. Watts . . 

Marignac . . 

•iSep'r'tion fr'm 
cerium and 




Cop pounds. 


Marignac. . 
Gladstone . 

Crystalline f'm 
of sulphate. 
Optical test. 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, 44, 125. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., 56, 503. 
Pharm. Centrbl., 1842, 793. 
J. de Pharm., 1843. 143. 
Berzelius' Jsb,, 1844, 144. 
J. Frank. Inst. [3]. 5, 411. 
Am. J. Sci., 43, 404. 
Phil. Mag. [3], 23, 241. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, 48, 210-223. 
J. prakt. Chem., 30, 276-288. 
Ann.derPhys.,Pogg.,6o, 299-31 1. 
Ann. chim phys., [3], 11, 464. 
Compt. rend., 16, 1008. 
J. prakt. Chem., 29, 268. 
Pharm. Centrbl., 1843, 7^9- 
Berzelius* Jsb., 1845, 115. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., 59, 623. 
Chem. Gaz., 1843, 4^5. 
Chemist, Watt, 4, 293. 
Am. J. Sci., 46, 206. 
J. prakt. Chem., 34, 182. 
iBerzelius* Jsb., 1845, ^^5- 
I Arch. ph. nat., 11, 21. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig;, 71, 356. 
lAnn. chim. phys., [3J, 27, 209. 
J. prakt. Chem., 48, 423. 
I Pharm. Centrbl., 1849, 837. 
'.Chemist, Watt, 1849, 20. 
.Chem. Gaz., 1849, 329. 
Ijsb., 1849, 263, 265. 
'J. Chem. Soc, 2, 140. 
Pharm. Centrbl., 1849, 892. 

Ann. chim. phys., [3], 38, 148-177. 
J. prakt. Chem., 59, 380-406. 
Arch. ph. nat., 24, 278. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, 88, 232. 
J. Chem. Soc, 6, 260-273. 
Chem. Gaz., 1854, 141-148. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], 16, 413. 

Jsb., 1853, 346-343- 
Compt. rend., 42, 288. 
Pharm. Centrbl., 1856, 179. 
J. Chem. Soc, 10, 219. 
J. prakt. Chem., 73, 3S0. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], 25, 100. 
Jsb,, 1857, 568. 



Index to the Literature of Didymiiini — continued. 








Marignac ... Compounds. 
Stapff. . . . . Sep'r'tion fr'm 
Hermann . . . 

Nordenskiold.l Crystalline 

form of oxide. 

Ann. min. [5], 15, 272. 

Jsb., 1859, 138. 

J. prakt. Chem., 79, 257. 
lanthanum. ;Chem. News, 2, 196. 
Researches. Bull, de la Soc, des Naturalistes a 

Moscow, i860, 4, 543. 

J. prakt. Chem., 82, 3S5-395' 

Pharm. Centrbl., i86t, 433-438. 

Arch. ph. nat., 11, 354. 

Chem. News, 4, 72-87. 

Jsb.-, 1861, 195. 




Erdmann , . 
O. N. Rood 




Ann. der Phys., Pogg., 114, 618. 
Oefvers. K. Vet. Acad. Forhandl., 

i860, 439. 
J. prakt. Chem., 85, 432. 
Pharm. Centrbl., 1862, 556. 
Rammelsburg.' Isomorphism Ber. der Akad. der Wissensch. zii 

lof didymium Berlin, 1861, 891. 
with other ,J. prakt. Chem., 85, 79. 
sulphates. Ann. der Phys., Pogg., 115, 580. 
Ztschr. Chem., 5, 376. 
[Pharm. Centrbl., 1862, 25. 
,Chem. News, 5, 139. 
. Absptn spctm. J. prakt. Chem., 85, 394. 
Absorption Am. J. Sci. [2], 34, 129. 
spectrum. Ann. der Phys., Pogg., 117, 350. 
I Chem. News, 6, 140. 

Popp Separation Ann. Chem., Liebig, 131, 359. 

I from cerium. Bull. soc. chim., 3, 385. 
Bunsen .... Absorption |Ann. Chem., Liebig, 131, 255. 

spectrum. Arch. phy. nat., 21, 384. 
I Phil. Mag. [4], 28, 246. 
Jsb., 1864, 108. 
Damour Estimation Compt. rend., 59, 270. 

and Deville. and separation I Instit., 1864, 269. 

I Bull. soc. chim. [2], 2, 339. 
I Chem. News, 10, 230: 

Jsb., 1864, 704. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], 37, 352. 
Ztschr. anal. Chem., 3, 394. 
J. prakt. Chem., 94, 123. 
Bull. soc. chim., 4, 360. 
. Separat'nfromlJ. prakt. Chem., 93, 106. 
the thorium 

Occurrence jChem. News, Z2, 183. 
in churchite. i 

1864 'W.Gibbs. 

from cerium. 

Hermann . 




Index to the Literature of Didymium — continued. 





1 86^ Dela Fontaine 

1865 Winkler 


1866 Bunsen 

1866 Bunsen 



Hermann . 


and Clark. 

Marignac . 

Absorption jArch. phy. nat., 21, 97. 
spectrum. Ann. der Phys., Pogg., 124, 635. 

Ann. Chem., I.iebig, 135, 194. 

J. prakt. Chem., 94, 303. 

IZtschr. Chem., 8, 266. 

|Bull. see. chim., 3, 4x7. 
Separat'nfromJ. prakt. Chem., 95, 410. 
lanthanum. Ztschr. anal. Chem., 4, 417. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1865, 1007. 

Bull. soc. chim., 6, ^o^. 

Chem. News, 15, 178. 
Absorption | Ann. der Phys., Pogg., 128, 100- 108 
spectrum. jPhil. Mag. [4], 32, 177-182. 

Ztschr. Chem., i866, 419. 

Ztschr. anal. Chem,, 5, 109. 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, 137, i. 

J. prakt. Chem., 99, 274. 

Ztschr. Chem., 1866, 72. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1866, 118. 

Ztschr. anal. Chem,, 5, 109. 

Ann. chim. phys. [4], 9, 487. 

Bull. soc. chim. [2], 6, 18. 

Arch. ph. nat., 25, 113. 

Am. J. Sci. [2], 41, 399. 

Jsb., 1866, 799. 
.'Separai'nfrom J. prakt. Chem., 97, 340. 
zircon earths 

Chem. News, 16, 259, 

Ztschr, anal, Chem., 8, 249. 

Ztschr, Chem., 11, 191. 
Separation in I Arch, ph. nat., May, 1867, 

Estimation by 
means of 





from cerium. 

Salts; equiva- 

of spectrum. 

Ztschr. Chem., lo, 725. 

J. prakt. Chem., 107, 74. 

lent of oxide. Bull. soc. chim., 13, 232. 

Ztschr. Chem., 13, 40. 
Ztschr. anal. Chem., 9, 540, 
Jsb., 1869, 259. 
Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Up- 

sal [3], vol. 6. 
Ann. chim. phys. [4], 18, 238, 
.Occurrence in'J. prakt. Chem., 107, 140, 
> mlBeral kingdem. | 

Erk Atom'c w*ght. Jenaische Ztschr, Med. Nat., 6, 

Separation | 299. 

from lantha- Ztschr. Chem. [2], 7, 101-115. 
num and jZtschr, anal. Chem., 10, 476, 509. 
yttrium. J. Chem. Soc, 187 1, 494. 
.Bull. soc. chim., 16, 84. 



Index to the Literature of Didymium — continued. 






W. Gibbs . . . 

Sulphate . . . 

Ber., 1870, 858. 



Occurrence in Ber., 1870, 858. 






Young . . . . 


Occurrence in Am. J. Sci. [3], 4, 356. 
the sun. Jsb., 1872, 147. 


Horner . . . . 1 

Occurrence in Chem. News, 26, 109, 285. 
pyromorphite. J. Chem. Soc, 25, 995. 

Bull. soc. chim., 19, 23. 


Jsb., 1872, 241. 

1872 Church . . . . 

Didymium in 

Chem. News, 26, 1^0. 


British min'ls.j. Chem. Soc, 25, 1075. 

1872 i Rammelsburg. 

Determinat'n J. Chem. Soc, 25, 194. 


in tantalites 



<V columbites. 

1873 Marignac. . . 


Ann. chim. phys. [4], 30, 56. 

graphic forms 

Jsb. rein. Chem., 1873, 57- 

of salts. 

Bull. soc. chim., 20, 84: 
J. Chem. Soc, 27, 25. 

1873 Mendelejeff. . 

Position in 

Ann. Chem., Liebig,Suppl.,8, 190. 

periodic sys- 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, 168, 45-63. 



Ber., 1873, 558- 

J. Chem. Soc, 26, 1004. 

1873 Horner . . . . 

Occurrence in 

Chem. News, 28, 282. 



J. Chem. Soc, 27, 345. 
Bull. soc. chim., 21, 275. 
Jsb. rein Chem., 1874, 77. 

. . de Pharm. [4], 19, 494. 

1873 ;Stolba . . . . 


Jer. der konigl. bohm. Ges der 

Wissensch, Nov., 1873. 


Ztschr. anal. Chem., 13, 59. 

Jsb. rein Chem., 1874, 77. 

Jsb., 1873, 260. 


Carlson . . . . 

Plat'nocy'n'de;Ber., 1873, '468. 

1873 Rammelsburg. 

Isomorphism Ber., 1873, ^7- 

of sulphate 


with cadmium 




1873 T^^alen . . . . 

Spectrum . . . K. Svensk. Vet. Acad. Handl.. 

1873, ", No. 4. 


jBull. soc. chim. [2], 22, 350. | 

Jsb. rein Chem., 1874, 75. 

1874 Frerichs . . . 

Compounds . 

Ber., 1874. 798. 

Separation Ztschr. anal. Chem., 13, 317. 

from ;Bull. soc. chim., 22, 498. 



J. Chem. Soc, 27, 1062. 


Am. Chemist, 5, 264. 



iter attire of Didymiitm — continued. 


om pounds. 


C^2ontinued.) Jsb., 1874, 256. 

Jsb. rein Chem., 1874, 76. 

phic invest 


K. Svensk. Vet. Acad. Handl., 

1874, No. 5. 
Bull. soc. chim., 22, 353. 
Jsb. rein Chem., 1874, 77. 

x87 4 Thomsen. 


and Norton. 



xS7S Phillips. 
^y^ iBunsen . 

• • •! 

1^75 B^h^'g .... Detection of 

traces by spec- 
Atomic w'ght. 
.jAtomic w'ght. 
from cerium 
and lantha- 

Valency se- 

Valency, chlo- 

Specific heat. 

K. Svensk Vet. Acad. Handl., 

2, No. 8. 
Bull. soc. chim [2], 21, 246. 
Chem. News, 30, 21. 
J. Chem. Soc, 28, 34. 
Jsb. rein Chem., 1874, 77. 
Jsb., 1874, 257. 
Separat^n from [Bull. soc. chim. [2], 21, 196. 

Arch. ph. nat., 50, 212. 
Lond. R. Soc. Proc, 22, 241. 
Chem. News, 29, 148. 
Ber., 1874, 140. 
Jsb., 1874, 97- 
Ben, 1874, 31- 
Chem. News, 29, 155. 
J. Chem. Soc, 27, 430. 
Jsb., 1874, 118. 

Ann. der. Phys., Pogg., 156, 466. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1875, ^42- 
J. Chem. Soc, 30, 276. 
Jsb., 1875, 466. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], 12, 53. 
J. prakt. Chem. [2J, 12, 209. 

of solutions. 

Heat of neu- 
tralization of 

Metallic di- 




Ber., 1875, 129. 

Chem. News, 32, 176. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., 155, 633. 

,S75 N^^^^" 


5^6 iHillebrand 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., 155, 378. 
Ztschr. anal. Chem., 15, 93. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], II, 142. 
Ber., 1875, 659- 

Ber., 1876, 1058, 1 145. 

Jsb., 1876, 292. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., 158, 75. 



Index to the Literature of Didymium — continued. 


, Author. 



1 1 
1876 Hillebrand . .Specific heat. 


Phil. Mag. [5], 3, III. 


1 ' 


J. Chem. Soc, 3X, 50. 

Jsb. rein. Chem., 1876, 74. 


Jsb., 1876, 74. 

1876 Raramelst^urg. 

Atomic w'ght. Ber., 1876, 1580. | 


Jsb., 1876, 240. 

1876 Wyroboff. . . 

Ferrocyanide . Ann. chim. phys. [5], 8, 456. | 

Jsb., 1876, 312. 

1876 Nilson . . . .'Platinonitrite. Ber., 1876, 1728. 

1876 Pettersson . .'Molecular vol- 

Ber., 1876, 1566. 



1877 Delafontaine . Occurrence in 

Arch. phy. nat., 59, 176. 

1 N.Csamarsk'ie Jsb., 1877, 251. 

1877 Cleve Compounds. Bull. soc. chim. [2], 29, 492. 

Ber., 1878, 910. 


Jsb. rein. Chem., 1878, 80. 

1878 Stolba Seprat'n from 

Bohm. Ges; d. VVissench., 1878. 

cerium and 

Jsb., 1878, 1059. 

lanthanum. 1 1 

1878 Boisbaudran . Occurrence in |Compt. rend., 86, 1028. • 

rhabdophan. Ztschr. Kryst., 3, 191. 


Jsb., 1878, 1228. 

1878 Frerichs 

Researches. Ann. Chem.,Liebig, 191,331-366 

and Smith. 

Ber., 1878, 804. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1878, 386. 


Chem. News, 37, 250 ; 38, 59. 


J. Chem. Soc, 34, 647. 


Jsb. rein. Chem., 1878, 79. 

1878 Frerichs . . . 


Ber., 1878, 1 15 1. 

J. Chem. Soc, 34, 934. 

Jsb. rein. Chem., 1878, So. 

1878 Delafontaine. 

Didymium in 

Compt. rend., 87, 632. 

N. C. samar- 

Chem. News, 38, 221?. 

skite. ijsb., 1878, 259. 1 

1878 Delafontaine .; Probable com- Compt. rend., 87, 634. | 


pound nature ]Ber., 1879, 3^4. 


of didymium Chem. Centrbl., 1878, 802. 


from cerite. J. Chem. Soc, 36, 119. 

Monit. Sc. Quesneville 20, 1393. 

Jsb. rein Chem., 1878, 79. 


Jsb., 1878, 259. 

1878 Nilson . • . . 

Platnioiodo- Ber., 1878, 885. 


1878 Claes 


Ann. der Phys., Pogg. [2]. 3, 404. 




to t/. 


^teraturc of Didymium — continued. 








Wide occur- ,Gazz. chim. ital., 9, 11 8-1 40. 

rence of jj. Chem. Soc, 36, 696. 
didymium. jChem. News, 38, 164. 

!jsb. rein. Chem., 1878, 80. 
. I Absorption of Arch. ph. nat. [2], 63, 89. 
ultra-violet Compt. rend., 86, 1062. 


J. L. Smith 




Cossa . . 





spectrum. . 

Compt. rend., 88, 323, 1167. 
►Monit. Sc. Quesneville, 21, 450. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1879, 258, 483. 
ij. Chem. Soc, 36, 696, 861. 
Chem. News, 39, 286. 
Jsb., 1879, ^65- 
Ber., 1879, ^4^> 2080. 
Chloro-stan- Bull. soc. chim. [2], 31, 197. 
natedidymi'm J. Chem. Soc, 36, 602. 
a simple body. Jsb., 1879, 286. 
Metallic di- Chem. News, 40, 35. 
Occurrence in Compt. rend., 87, 377. 
scheelite, etc Ber., 1879, 3^2. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1879, 128. 
Jsb. Min., 1879, ^'5- 
Ztschr. Kryst., 3, 447. 
Chem. News, 40, 90. 
,Jsb., 1879, 1179- 
Detection in Ztscher. Kryst., 3, 325. 
minerals. Jsb. rein. Chem.,. 1879, ^^• 

Soret \ Absorption ' 

spectrum. Compt. rend., 88, 422. 




Ber., 1879, 1019, 2078. 

of salts. Chem. Centrbl., 1819, 308. 


Kopp . 

E. F. Smith 

R. Acad. Lincei., 3, 26. 
Ztschr. Kryst., 3, 631. 
Jsb. rein. Chem., 1879, ^^• 
Chem. News, 40, 90. 
Ber., 1879, 909- 

1880 Marignac. 

Atomic weight 
Isomorphism, j 
Separation of Chem. Centrbl., 1879, 595 

cerium and 

didymium. I 

Electrolytic Ber., 1880, 754. 

estimation. | 
Occurrence in Arch. ph. nat. [3], 3, 413. 


Compt. rend., 90, 899. 

Ann. chim. phys. [5], 20, 535. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1880, 356. 



Index to the Literature of Didymium — continued. 






Marignac . . . 

Occurrence in 

Jsb. rein. Chem., 1880, 73. 



Jsb., 1880, 295. 

Occurrence in 

Ber., 1880, 1430, 1439. 

. 1S80 

Nilson . . . . 

euxenite and Compt. rend., 91, 57. 
separation. Jsb., 1880, 300. 


Nilson and 

Moiecurrheat Ber., 1880, 14.S9. 


and volume. 

Compt. rend., 91, 232. 


Jsb., 1880, 237. 


Peroni and 

Occurrence in 

Gazz. chim. ital., 10, ^90. 


urine. Jsb., 1880, 11 14. | 



Occurrence in 

Gazz. Chim. ital., 10, 465. , 


Ber., 1880, 2414. 

Jsb., 1880, 293. 




Gazz. chim. ital., 10, 467. 
Ber., 1881, 107. 
J. Chem. Soc, 40, 225. 
Jsb., 1880, 293. 




Compt. rend., 91, 378. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1880, 662. 
Jsb., 1880, 210. 

Jsb. rein. Chem., 1880, 74. 



Ultra violet !Arch. ph. nat. [3], 4, 261. 


Jsb., 1880, 214. 



Clarke . . . . 

Atom'c weight 

Am. Chem. J., 3, 263. 
Phil. Mag. [5], 12, loi. 

'Jsb., 1 881, 7. 


Brauner. . . . 

Valency Pen- Chem. Ztg., 1881, 791. 


toxide. ; 


Crookes . . . 

Phosphores- Lond. R. Soc. Proc, 32, 206. 
cence of Ann. chim. phys. [5], 23, 555. 
oxide. Compt. rend., 92, 1281. 
Chem. News, 43, 237. 
Jsb., 1881, 131. 


Brauner. . . . 

Researches. Sitzb. Akad., Wien [2], 84, 1165. 

86, 168. 
Monatsh. Chem., 3, 1-60,486-503. 
Compt. rend., 94, 1718. 


Ann. der Phys., Pogg., Beibl., 6, 

Ber., 1882, 109, 115, 2231. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1882, 616. 

Monit. Sc, Quesneville [3], 12, 

595. 794. 

J. Chem. Soc, 41, 68. 

Chem. News, 46, 16. 

Jsb., 1882; 283, 285. 


'terature of Didytnium — continued. 





1883 Brauner . . 

A.tom'c weight 


from cerium. 




from gallium. 




Welsbach . . 

Arche . . . 
Stolba . . . 
Becquerel . . 

1883 J- L. Smith. 

Atom'c weight 

Am. Chem. J., 4, 76. 

Chem. News, 45, 40. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1882, 151. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1882, 826. 

Jsb., 1882, 1286. 

Compt. rend., 94, 1439. 

Jsb., 1882, 1296. 

Compt. rend.. 94, 1528. 

Monit. Sc, Quesneville, 34, 689. 

Chem. Centrbl., i?82, 451. 

Ber., 1882, 1750. 

Chem. Ztg., 1882, 658. 

J. Chem. Soc, 44, 18. 

Chem. News, 45, 273. 

Compt. rend., 95, 33. 

Monit. Sc, Quesneville, 1882, 798. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1882, 616. 

J. Chem. Soc, 42, 1165. 

,Chem. News, 46, 43. 
Atom'c weight Bull, soc chim. [2], 39, 289. 

'Ber., 1883, 1 21 2. 

I J. Chem. Soc, 44, 852. 

Chem. News, 47, 203. 

Jsb., 1883, 37. 

Compt. rend., 97, 94. 

Ber., 1883, 2494. 

J. Chem. Soc, 43, 362. 

jChem. News, 48, 39, 74. 

Ijsb., 1883, 361. 
Separation fm Monatsh. Chem , 4, 630-642. 
other gado- 
linite earths. 
Preparation |Monatsh. Chem., 4, 913-925. 
from cerite. J. Chem. Soc, 46, 557. 
Estimation as Chem. Centrbl., 1883, 313. 

oxalate. I 
Absorption Compt. rend., 96, 1217. 
and emission Jsb., 1883, 243. 

Preparation J. Chem. Soc, 43, 278-289, 
from cerite. Monit. Sc. Quesneville [3], 12, 

595-625 ; 13, 160. 

Ber., 1883, i860. 

Jsb., 1883, 354. 
Occurrence in Am. Chem. J., 5, 80, 

samarskite. Chem. News, 48. 13, 29. 
Estimation by J. Chem. Soc, 46, in. 




Ber., 1883, 1886. 
Jsb., 1883, 1562. 



Index to the Literature of Didymium — continued. 






Debray . . . . 


Compt. rend., 96, 828. 

from cerium. 

Chem. News, 47, 199. [893. 


Thalen . . . . 


Ann. der Phys,, Pogg., Beibl., 7, 

Oefvers. konigl.Vet. Forhandl., v. 7. 

Ber., 1883, 2760. 


Haushofer , . 


Ber. bair. akad. Wissensch., 13, 



Jsb., 1884, 155 ^f- 


Robinson. . . 

Separation Lond. R. Soc. Proc, 37, 150. 
from cerium Chem. News, 50, 251. 

and 'Jsb., 1884, 50. 
lanthanum. | 


Welsbach . . . 

Separation Sitzb. Akad., Wien. [2], 90, 337. 
from cerium, 'Monatsh. Chem., 5, 508-522. 

lanthanum IJsb., 1884, 3^5. 
and yttrium. 



Molybdate. Compt. rend., 98, 990. 
Valency. J. prakt. Chem. [2], 29, 383. 
Ber., 1884, 249. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1884, 452. 
I'J. Chem. Soc, 46, 821. 
Jsb., 1884, 395- 



Diffusion of Gazz. chim. ital., 13, 280. 
didymium. J. Chem. Soc, 46, 262. 


Clarke . . . . 

Atom'c weight Chem. News, 50, 21. 

Chem. Ztg., 1884 1038. 


Hogbom . . . 


Bull. soc. chim. [2], 42, 3. 
Arch. phy. nat. [3 J, 10, 5, 193. 


Marignac . . . 




Ztschr. anal. Chem., 23, 140. 
Chem. News, 50, 69. 


J. L. Smith . . 

Estimat'n sep- 

Chem. News, 51, 289, 304. 

aration from 

Ber., 1885, 515. 

other earths. 

Jsb., 1885, 1932. 


Linnemann. . 

Abs'pt'n lines Monatsh. Chem., 6, 533. | 

of didy'm in 

some zircons. 



Welsbach . . . 

Decomposit'n Monatsh. Chem., 6, 477-491. 
into constitu- Chem. Centrbl., 1885, 774. 

ents. Ber., 1885, ^^S- 
Researches. Chem. Ztg., 1885, 997. 
J. Chem. Soc, 48, 11 13. 
Chem. News, 52, 49. 
Jsb., 1885, 478. 


Cleve 1 

Oxides. Bull, soc chim. [2], 43, 56. 





Chem. News, 52, 271. 




Bull, soc chim. [2], 43, 3£;9-366. 



Index to the Literature of Didymium — continued. 





1885 Cleve 

1885 Lomi^ell 
1885 Piccini . 

1886 .Strohecker 

18S6 Crookes . 

1886 Demarcay 



1886 Morton . 

1886 Humpidge 
1886 Hartley. . 
1886 Cossa . . . 

I form of 


Tungstate and 
' molybdate. 

1886 tPlaats 

1887 Bailey . . 
1887 Becquerel 




. Researches. Chem. News, 52, 227, 255, 264, 

I 278, 291. 

Ber., 1885. 52, 318. 

J. Chem. Soc, 48, 1039. 

(Chern. Centrbl., 1886, 69. 
. Fluorescence. Ann. der Phys., Pogg. [2], 24,288. 
J Jsb., 1885. 333. 

. Position in ,Atti d. Ace. d. Lincei, 1885, 82. 
' periodic Ber., 1885, 255. 
! system. Jsb., 1885, 359. 
. Occurrence in J. prakt. Chem. [2], 33, 133. 

clays of Chem. News, 53, 136. 
I Hainstadt. Jsb., 1886, 407. 
Absorption Lond. Roy. Soc. Proc, 40, 502. 

Chem. News, 54, 27. 

Ber., i>86, 652. 

Jsb., 1886, 308. 

Compt. rend., 102, 155 1. 

Ber., 19, 650. 

J. Chem. Soc, 50, 837. 

Chem. News, 54, 36. 

Jsb., 1886,311. [1885, 189-199. 

Oefers. konigl. Vet. Forhandl., 

Ztschr. Kryst., 12, 517. 

Ber., 1886, 388. 

Jsb., 1886, 402. 

Chem. News, 53, 154. 

Chem. News, 53, 1 79. 

Atti d. Ace. d. Lincei, 1886, 320. 

Gazz. chim. ital., 16, 284. 

Compt. rend., 102, 1315. 

Ber., 1886, 482, 536. 

J. Chem. Soc, 50, 981. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1887, 1371. 

Ztscher. Kryst., 13, 299. 
Atom'c weight! Ann. chim. phys. |6], 7, 501. 

IZtschr. anal. Chem., 26, 276. 
. Atom'c weight J. Chem. Soc, 51, 682. 

Jsb., 1887, 53. 

Compt. rend., 104, 168, 777,1691. 

Ber., 1887, 246, 457. 

Chem. News, 55, 148; 56, 23. 

J. Chem. Soc, 52, 537, 873. 

Jsb., 1887, 352. 

Compt. rend., 105, 276. 

Ber., 1887, 533. 

J. Chem. Soc, 52, 1008. 





Index to the Literature of Didymium — continued. 















Demarcay . . Absorption Chem. News, 56, 114, 

^ spectrum. Jsb., 1887. 353. 
Kruss and Didymium Ber., 1S87, 2134. 

Nilson . composed of Chem. News, 56, 166. 
nine elements. Jsb., 1887, 474. 

Bailey ' Absorption Ber., 1887, 2769. 

i spectrum. Jsb., 1887, 474, 
Kruss and Occurrence in Ber., 1887, 1679. 

Nilson .! fergusonite. Jsb., 1887, 574. 
Willgerodt . .'Application as J. prakt. Cliem. [2], 35, 395. 

a chloridizing Jsb., 1887, ^i^* 
C. M. Thomp- Absorption Chem. News, 55, 277. 
son. spectrum of 

Ouvard .... Phosphate . . Compt. rend., 107, 39. . 

Bull. soc. chim. [3], 51, 42. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1888, 1078. 
J. Chem. Soc, 54, 1037. 
Kiesewette Spectrum. Ber., 1888, 2310, 2320. 

I and Kruss 

Application. Eng. Mining J., 46, i. 
Absorption Chem. News, 60, 27. 
spectrum of J. Chem. Soc, 55, 259. 
components. ; 

Bettendorff . . SepV'tion fr'm Ann. Chem., Liebig, 256, 163. 

lanthanum. 1 

Preparation Ann. Chem., Liebig, 263, 164. 
' from orthite. j 

Kruss Separation Ann. Chem., Liebig, 265, 1-27. 

' from erbium. Ber., 1891, 700. 
I J. Chem. Soc, 60, 1425. 

. Molecular re- J. Chem. Soc, 59, 595. 
fraction of 

Ztschr. anal. Chem., 30, 144. 



1 89 1 Gladstone 

Behrens. . 

C. M. Thomp- 
; son. 

.| Microscopic 



and emission 



from different 


Schottlander . Separation 

from lantha- 
nium and ce- 
rium ;spectr'm 

Monatsh. Chem., 12, 362-367. 

Chem. News, 64, 167. 
Chem. Centrbl., 189 1, 792. 
Ber., 1891, 945. 

Ber., 1892, 378-394, 569-599. 
Chem. News, 65, 205, 219, 233, 

243» 254. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1892, 661. 


Index to the Literature of Didymium — concluded. 


Date. Author. 


Remarks. References. 

1893 Kruss 

Electrolysis of Ztschr. anorg. Chem., 3, 60. 

solutions. iChem. Centrbl., 1893, 3^2. 

iChem. News, 67, 65. 

Ber., 1893, 249. 

1893 Kruss . . . . . 

Equivalent. Ztschr. anorg. Chem., 3, 58. 


Chem. News, 67, 32, 40. 


Ber., i«93, 249. 

1893 Kruss and 

Behavior i Ztschr. anorg. Chem., 3, 92. 


toward Chem. News, 67, 75, 87, 100. 

potassium Chem. Centrbl., 1893, 4^^. 


chromate. Ber., 1893, 250. 

1893 Kruss 

Behavior Ztschr. anorg. Chem, 3, 108. 

toward Chem. Centrbl., 1893, 462. 

aniline. Ber., 1893, 251. 

1893 Nordenskiold. 

Unknown na- J. prakt. Chem., 47, 20. 


ture of 

Chem. Centrbl., 1893, 339. 


1893 Eakins . . . . 

Didymium Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 64. | 

in Texas 

Chem. News, 67, 79. 





The buckets ordinarily used for hoisting gre and rock through 
inclined shafts using skids for a bucket- way are not at all suited to 
the work. There are many styles of buckets in use, but nearly all 
agree in having the body of the bucket curved in the vertical plane 
as well as the horizontal, that is, an " element " of the surface of the 
bucket is a curved line. 

When such a bucket is in contact with the skids, only a very 
small part of the bucket touches them. Under similar conditions 
the wearing part varies its position very little. So the hoisting of 
the loaded bucket wears it away in only a narrow zone.. A simi- 
lar zone is worn away by the lowering of the empty bucket. This 
brings practically all of the wear on two small zones, which soon 
wear through, rendering the bucket useless, although nearly all of 
it is in good condition. 




The accompanying sketch shows a bucket designed to avoid this 
trouble. As will be noticed, the form is cylindrical, with the ends 
turned in somewhat to avoid cutting away the skids with the edge 
of the bucket. When either hoisting or lowering, it bears on the 
skids throughout a large part of its length, thus distributing the 

Oefoii cX ejt 
for ba'iL 



S-«*^l- A 

so riveT*. 

f^ Oil riwcU 4' A countcr&unk on oul9id« 

Ore-Bucket to be used on Skids. Scale j\. 

wear over quite a large area. The ends of the cylindrical part of 
the bucket wear somewhat more than the middle, but on the 
whole the wear is evenly distributed over the cylindrical portion. 
[The greater wear on the ends is due to vertical curves in the 
shaft and to the inclined pull of the rope]. Buckets of this form 
have proven far more satisfactory than the old styles after quite a 
long test. 


As to the details, the thickness of the plate forming the body is 
J<^-inch instead of y\-inch, which is more usual. This increased 
thickness almost doubles the life of the bucket without increasing 
much its weight. The greater stiffness of the heavier plate is suf- 
citnt to preserve the shape of the bucket without the stiffening- 
strap generally used about the mouth. Omitting this strap not 
only lessens the weight but is otherwise advantageous, for if the 
strap is on the outside, it cuts the skids; if on the inside, it pre- 
vents the clean discharge of the contents of the bucket. 

A single sheet of metal should be used for the body. The joint 
should come midway between the eyes for the bail, as in this 
position it is least apt to cause the bucket to lose its roundness. 
To secure greater smoothness on the sliding-surface of the bucket 
the joint should be a " butt-joint " with the joining-plate on the 

The bottom of the bucket should be made of 3.^ -inch metal, as 
it must stand the blow of the falling material in filling. It should 
be dished to such an extent that the bucket can rest squarely on 
the ground without the dumping-ring touching. The dumping- 
ring is best fastened as shown (by a bolt passing through a large 
washer and nut with the end headed). This allows the ring to 
turn as a swivel, which is a great convenience in dumping. For 
greater ease in attaching the dumping-hook it is well to put a large 
h'nk in the ring as shown. 

The rivets should all be countersunk on the outside to avoid 
projections, which loosen the rivets and cut the skids unneces- 

The bail should have the ends bent out as shown. The wear 
of the bail comes on the outside just above the eye. If the end is 
bent in. the wear weakens the part of the bail which supports the 
load. If bent out, the wear does not affect the strength of the 

The material of which the bucket is made should, of course, be 
the best. A mild steel wears better than iron, is stronger, and 
does not much increase the cost, so is to be preferred. 

The life of the bucket can be increased by protecting it with 
straps on the outside. But these straps tnuch increase the wear 
of the skids, so their use is not recommended. 

VOL. XV.— 4 




Recently, in one of the mining-camps of Colorado, I met with 

a novehy in assay work, a notice of which may prove of interest 

and use to some of the readers of the Quarterly. The novelty 

. consisted in the use of wood as a fuel for assaying. As is usual 

in Colorado, all of the work is done in a muffle. 

The furnace is shown in the accompanying diagrams. It acts as 
a reverberatory and has only a very narrow space between the 
muffle and walls. The grate is of the style generally used in 
stoves — in fact, was made for that purpose. The area of the grate 
is quite small in comparison with the size of the furnace, but the 
space for fuel is quite large. 

The heat produced is entirely satisfactory, there being no diffi- 
culty in keeping silver in a molten condition in the muffle. 

The wood is cut to the usual stove size, and is carried on the 
grate to a depth of 5 or 6 inches. 

The design shown is for a muffle 9 by 15 inches. As it was 
arranged for using the standard forms of brick and tile, some of 
the details are peculiar. 

The great objection to this form of furnace is that the firing 
must be done frequently on account of the rapidity with which the 
wood burns out. But in many places where other fuels are diffi- 
cult to obtain or very expensive, this form of furnace may prove 
advantageous. Any wood suitable for steaming purposes will 
prove satisfactory in this furnace. 



Lor«^<'uclinal ^actiofi. 

Cro ^S'SettiQn 

front Eltoettian. 









Scale y'y. 


Analytical Chemistry, by E. Waller, Ph.D. 

Aluminum Apparatus. Bornemann. {Berichte, xxv., 3637). For 
apparatus which is not subjected to a heat above 400-500 C. especially 
when brought in contact with H^S, Al miy be advantageously used. 
For water-baths it is better than copper. Heating to a dark red heat is 
fatal, rendering the metal granular and brittle. 

Agitator for Precipitation of Phosphomo ybdate y etc, Textor (y". Anal, 
App. Chefn.y vii., 279), describes a device connected with a Richard's 
pump, for agitating by passing a current of air through the solution. 

Sodium Peroxide as a Reagent. Clark {J, Lond, Chem. Soc, Ixiii., 
1079). Reference is made to Hempel's recommendation of this reagent 
{I'id. Quarterly xiv., 360.) The reaction on heating with coal, coke or 
even with such a substance as filter paper is so violently explosive that 
it cannot be used with them. If mixed with pyrites and only gently 
heated, dilution with soda is unneccessary. The reagent is especially 
good for decomposing chrome iron, or attacking ferrochrome. A 
water solution (which will not keep long) is serviceable for separation 
of Mn from Zn, Ni and Co in ammonia solution. In the case of the 
two last, resolution and reprecipitation are necessary. 

Ammonia in Zinc Dust. Robin eau and Roll in (Mo nit. Sci.^ vii., 138), 
find that zinc dust always contains ammonia, which cannot be removed 
by boiling with water. Complete removal is only attained by washing 
with boiling i per cent. H^SO^. 

Standardizing Alkalimetric Solutions. Neitzel (Fres. Zts.Anal. Chem., 
xxxii. 422), revives the proposition of Hartley — the use of metallic so- 
dium. The metal must be weighed under petroleum, and then oxidized 
by the use of strong alcohol. 

Volumetric Determination of Pyrophosphoric Acid, Favrel (Bull Soc. 
Chem. [3] ix„ 446). Na^H^PjO^ is neutral to cochineal, whereas with 
Porrier blue C4B neutrality is only shown by Na^P.^0,. On these 
facts a method for determination is based. 

(/^., p. 448) Favrel records that cochineal is indifferent to HjAsO,, 
and the base combined therewith may be accurately estimated by an 
alkaline solution, using cochineal as indicator. 

Boric Acid Titration, Thomson (J.S, C. /., xii., 432). On adding 
phenolphthalein to a solution of H^jBOj, and titrating with fifth normal 
NaOH, the end-reaction was indistinct, and valueless. Addition of 
glycerine developed the acidity of the acid, and when the solution con- 
tained 30 per cent, of glycerine the end-reaction was sharp when enough 


NaOH to form NaBO^ had been added. A further addition of glycer- 
ine caused no increase in acidity beyond this point. The method re- 
commended for determining HaBO, in borax etc., is essentially this : 
Dissolve in water, add methyl-orange, (on which H^BOg has no effect) 
and then render just acid with standard H^SO^. Boil out CO, etc., and 
just neutralize (to methyl-orange) with normal or fifth normal NaOH. 
Then all H3BO3 is present in the free state. Then add glycerine (:rO that 
at the end the solution shall contain at least 30 per cent.) and phenol- 
phthalein, titrate with normal or fractional normal NaOH. 

ICC. Normal NaOH s= 0.0620 gm. H3BO3 

= 0.0505 ** Na,B,0^ 
= 0.0955 ** Na^B.O,. loH^O. 

If, as is sometimes the case, the borax etc., contains ammonium salts, 
boil with Na^COj before acidifying with H^SO^, etc. 

Potassium Determination. Villiers and Borg (^BulL Soc. Chem. [3] 
ix. 602). After obtaining K^PtCl,, well washed with a mixture of alco- 
hol and ether, dissolve through the filter with boiling water, acidify 
with HCl, insert strips of metallic Mg, boil until all Pt is reduced, and 
Mg dissolved, and filter and weigh Pt. Precipitation of K,PtClg, in 
presence of sulphate always gives low results. If bromides are present, 
the precipitate contains some Br in place of CI. Errors due to this fact 
are avoided by weighing the metallic Pt of the precipitate. 

Potassium by Lindo- Gladding Process, Holleman {Chem. Zeit.y 
xvi. 1920), finds the process trustworthy when properly conducted in 
opposition toBreyer and Schweitzer who condemn it. Those chemists 
reiterate their condemnation {Chem. Zeit.^ xvii., loi) making the point 
that the results by it are not concordant and are higher than the Stass- 
fort method. 

Separation of Baryta. Strontia and Lime. Fresenius {Zts, muii. Chem. 
xxxii.. 312). For qualitative purposes, dissolve the precipitated carbo- 
nates in dilute HNO3, evaporate to dryness and heat (the temperature 
may reach 180° C. without disadvantage) until no acid odor is percept- 
able and moisture is expelled. Cool, pulverize, and extract with 5 to 
10 c.c. of a mixture of eqpal volumes of absolute alcohol and ether, 
finally washing on the filter with this solvent. Ca(N03)j, and (perhaps) 
traces of Sr(N03\ are dissolved. A copious and immediate precipitate 
in the solution on adding a drop of H^SO^ indicates Ca. A faint cloud 
may be due to traces of Sr, or of Ca. Add 4 c.c. H^Oi evaporate off the 
alcohol and ether, then add a few drops of ammonia and about i gm. 
(NHJj SO^, boil, filter, acidify with a drop of HC^HjO,, and then add 
a littiC (NHJjCjO^. A precipitate indicates Ca. The nitfrates insolu- 
ble in the other-alcohol, are dissolved in about 100 c.c. of water, fil- 
tered if necessary, acidified with HC^HjO^, heated to boiling and K^Cr- 
0^ gradually added until an excess is present. BaCrO^ is precipitated. 
Allow to stand some hours. Test a little of the clear supernatant fluid 
or filtrate with ammonia and (NHJ^COg a decided precipitate indicates 
Sr. If the precipitate is none or but slight, add a few drops of HNO^, 


concentrate to lo or 20 c.c. and test with- (NHJjCO, as. before. A 
small precipitate may be due to traces of Ca. Filter off, dissolve in a 
little HCl, evaporate to dryness, and dissolve the residual neutral chlo- 
rides in I to 2 c.c. of a mixture of 3 parts Hj,0 and i part alcohol, add 
a few drops of KjCrO^ and heat to incipient boiling. Under these 
conditions SrCrO^. will precipitate. 

For quantitative separations the following points must be noted: i. 
For the exact separation of BaO from SrO and CaO, only two methods 
are suitable, namely, separation of BaO aschromate or silico-fluoride. 

2. The separation of SrO from CaO, succeeds satisfactorily only by 
treating the nitrates with ether-alcohol. This treatment is also adapted 
for the separation of BaO from CaO. 

3. A solution which contains H^SiF,, besides CaO and SrO, is 
poorly adapted for the determination of both alkaline earths, since 
these can only be precipitated out as sulphates, a form in which they 
cannot be directly separated. 

Plans of procedure are sketched as follows : a. Separate Ca by the 
action of ether-alcohol on the nitrates, and then separate Ba as BaCrO^. 
(Essentially the plan given for qualitative work). 

b. First separate Ba as chromate, then convert Srand Ca into nitrates 
and separate by ether-alcohol. Test analyses show that Sr tends to run 
a little high, the others low. 

Iron and Aluminum in Bone Black. Wiechmann {Science ^ xxi., 300), 
has investigated the ammonium acetate method, that of Glaser, and a 
combination of Glaser and Stutzer's methods. The combination 
method was found to be the most satisfactory. This consists essentially 
in carrying out the Glaser method to the point of obtaining the precipi- 
tate of iron and alumina phosphates {jnd. Quarterly, xi., p. 273. Then 
instead of igniting and weighing, treat the precipitate with molybdate 
solution, at 65° for 12 hours or more, filter off the *' yellow precipitate ** 
wash with NH^NO,, and in the filtrate, precipitate Fe^O, and Al^Oj 
with ammonia, warming gently for two or three hours. Filter, redis- 
solve the precipitate in HCl, and precipitate by ammonia for weighing. 
The errors incident to calculating Fe,Oj and A1,0, on the assumption 
that the precipitate in the Glaser process consists of FePO^ + AlPO^, 
are pointed out. 

Aluminum in Ferro-aluminum. H.V. Juptner {Oest. Zis, Berg, u. 
Huti,, xli., no), describes his method, which is practically the old one 
— precipitating and weighing Fe^O,, Al^Oj and P^Oj together, and in 
aliquot parts determining Fe. and PjO^ estimating Al by difference. 

Neuhausen's method consists in dissolving 5 gms. in dilute H^SO^, 
evaporating to dryness, taking up with dilute HjSO^ diluting to 300 c.c. 
reducing with iron wire, neutralizing with Na^CO, and pouring into 
a mixed boiling solution of KOH and KCy. After filtenng, the solution 
containing the Al is heated for an hour with addition of NH^NO,, and 
the Al/OH)g filtered off. This precipitate must be tested for KOH 
and for Fe. 

Chromium Determination. Jannasch and Mai {Berichte^\\w\y^ 1786). 
One gm. K^Cr^O^ was reduced by use of HCl and alcohol, and after 


evaporatinpr off the alcohol, dihited to 300 c.c, boiledyand 2 gms. pure 
hydroxy] am in chloride added, thereupon to the solution removed from 
the heat a moderate excess of ammonia. The Cr.,(OH), was completely 
precipitated, free from alkali, SiO^, etc., and in the clear filtrate K was 
determinable by evaporation to KCl. 

Manganese in Iron, Schneider, (Oester. Zts. B, u. Hiiifwesen^ 
xxxiv., 308) dissolves in HNO3 (Sp.Gr, 1.2) converts to H^Mn^O^ by 
addition of Bi,0^, and titrates with H.^O^. 

Manganese Deiermi nation. Carnot {Compt, Rend, cxvi., 1375). Ig- 
nition of Mn oxides when absolutely pure yields Mn^O, but the presence 
of even minute amounts of other substances alters the result. Evapora- 
tion of an Mn solution in HNO3 does not afford all of the Mn as MnO^ 
unless it is repeated two or three times. The KCIO., precipitation in 
strong HNO3 requires repetition also in order to obtain pure MnO,. 
The most ready method for obtaining a higher Mn oxide of constant 
composition, consists in adding H.^O.^ to the Mn solution, then ammo- 
ria in excess and boiling. The precipitate is Mn^O„. By determining 
the ''available oxygen" in this precipitate (see below) the Mn may be 
determined. Resolution, and reprecipitation of the Mn^O,, is necessary 
if Cu, Zn, Ni or Co are present. Co requires ?iwt precipitations, the 
others but three. MnC^, if precipitated by Br in ammonia solution, re- 
qjires prolonged washing. 

Manganese Permanganates. Gorgen {Bull. Soc. Chem. [3] ix., 490), 
contests the assertion of Guyard that three permanganates may be ob- 
tained, viz., Mn^Op 5 MnO (= Mn^O,.^), Mn^jO, 4 MnO (= MngO,,) 
and Mn^O,, 3 MnO ( = Mn^Oj^, = 5 MnO^). The experiments re- 
corded indicate that those oxides are not permanganates. 

Nickel Estimation, Syssoyeff ( J/<?« Sci. [4] vi., 865). To the dilute 
solution, KCy is added in sufficieni quantity to form the soluble double 
cyanide. NaOH is then added, and CI passed in to obtain NijO, or the 
corresponding hydrate. The precipitate,^ collected on an asbestos filter, 
is treated with H,0, in a modified Lunge gas volumeter and the evolved 
oxygen measured, the reaction being 

Nip, + H,0, = 2 Ni -f H.p + O,. 

Copper Titration. BorntrsigeT (Zts. A ngew. Chem., 1893, 517) de- 
scribes his mode of applying Pelouze's method. (Titration in ammonia 
solution with Na.^S.) To avoid any separation of oxysulphide, the titra- 
tion should be performed in the cold, with vigorous agitation. For the 
end-reaction the use of alkaline Pb solution is better than the nitro- 
prusside test ; but the author prefers to either, the filtration of a few 
drops of the solution into solution of ferrocyanide, strongly acidified 
with acetic acid. When all Cu is precipitated, the reddish Cu.,FeCy5 
does not appear. For standardizing, use Cu solution, containing the 
equivalent of 10 gms. of metal per litre. The Na^S solution should 
equal this, c.c. for c.c. It should be made by dis^^olving 40 gms. of 
commercial Na,S in one litre. The solution should be kept in small 


well-filled bottles, and standardized whenever it is used. The strength 
was found to be reduced about one half by keeping for i8 months. In 
presence of Zn, CuS will form first, so that the titration can be con- 
ducted in a solution of brass, etc. The application in the cases of some 
other commercial products is described. 

Colorimetric for Mercury. Vignon {^BulL Soc. Chim, [3] ix., 504) 
finds that a colorimetric method may be used for small amuunts, de- 
pending upon the intensity of color imparted by addition of excess of 
HjS water. 

Separation of Lead and Tin. Jannasch and Remmler (^Berichte^ 
xxvi., 1422). The metals were precipitated together as sulphides, which, 
after washing and drying, were heated in a current of Br. SnBr^ was 
readily volatized off, by repeated evaporation with HNO, converted to 
oxide, and then ignited and weighed. Converting the metals into sul- 
phides by fusion with S was successful as a mode of shortening the man- 
ipulation in many cases. Some difficulty was experienced in completely 
sulphurizing metallic tin if in coarse pieces. The addition of 10 to 15 
per cent, of iodine with the S, gave excellent results in sulphurizing 
either tin or antimony. 

Separating Lead and Silver, Jannasch {Berickte, xxvi., 1496.) Dis- 
solve about 0.5 grm. of the mixed salts in 50 c.c. of water; add 2 c.c. 
strong HNO„ and then precipitate PbO, by adding 15 to 20 c.c. of 2 
per cent. H^O^ solution with 15 c.c. cone, ammonia, afterward adding 
5 c.c. of a cold saturated solution of (NHJ^COj. Stir 10 minutes, filter, 
washing at first with ammoniacal water, finally with clear water. The 
operations must be conducted in the cold. Convert the PbO, to sul- 
phate and weigh. In the ammoniacal filtrate the silver can be deter- 
mined by evaporating off the excess of ammonia, acidifying with HNO,, 
and then precipitating with HCl. 

Bi can be separated from Ag in a similar manner. Ag may also be 
separated from Pb by precipitating both as chromates, adding ammonia 
and digesting a short time on *the water-bath. Ag^CrO^ is completely 
dissolved, leaving PbCrO^. Filter, and wash first with dilute ammonia, 
finally with water only. 

Analysis of Tin- Ores. Moore {Chem. News, Ixvii., 267) reports an 
investigation of some of the methods recommended. Boiling the ore 
with aqua regia removes no Sn. Fusion with Na^S^Oj, affords complete 
decomj)osition if the fusion is kept up for fully one hour, but not in less 
time. The precipitate of SnS^ is, however, troublesome to handle. Hal- 
leti's fluoride method proved unsatisfactory. KCy methods were not 
tried. The zinc-reduction method (Wells, Quarterly, xii., 295) was 
not satisfactory as described, the precipitated metal enclosing particles 
of ore. An improvement is recommended, as follows: charge a porce- 
lain crucible with a layer of Zn powder free from Pb at the bottom ; on 
this 0.5 gm. of the ore, mixed with 5 or 6 gms. Zn pvowder ; then a thin 
layer of Zn powder, and on top of this a solid well-burned piece of 
charcoal. Put on the cover and place in a hot muffli until almost all 
Zn fume ceases; cool without removing the lid, take out the charcoal, 


and dissolve Zn and Sn in HCl in an atmosphere of CO,. Add to the 
hot solution a known amount of Fe,Clj solution, cool, filter rapidly, and 
titrate excess of FejCl, with Cu.^Cl, solution, using KCyS as indicator 
(Winkler's process reversed). The process is unaffected by the presence 
of much ZnCl,. In solutions containing the tin as SnCl^, this process 
may also l)e applied after reducing by Pb. Concentrate the solution to 
small bulk, add one fourth its bulk of strong HCl, then 5 or 6 gms. test 
lead, and heat gently for 2 hours on a water-bath, or boil 15 minutes. 
Pour in excess of FeCI^ solution, and titrate with Cu,Cl, as before. 

Titration of Arsenic and Antimony. Gyory i^Fres. Zts. Anal. Chem,, 
xxxii., 415) notes that the end-reaction with I solution (in presence of 
NaHCO,) especially in the case of Sb (the As or Sb being of course 
triad) is slow. He proposes using a solution acidified with HCl, and 
containing KBr, adding a little methyl orange, and then titrating with 
standard KBrOj. The end-reaction is when the solution becomes col- 


Cerium Reaction. Plugge {^Arch. d^ Pharm.^ ccxxix., 558) reverses 
Sonnenschein's test for strychnia, and uses strychnia sulphate as a test 
for cerium. The solution suspected of containing Ce receives the ad- 
dition of dilute NaOH sufficient to give perceptible alkalinity. It is 
then evaporated to dryness, and a few drops added of cone. H.^SO^ in 
which one-thousandth part of strychnine has been dissolved, o.oi mgm. 
CeO gives a perceptible blue violet color, which is weak and soon dis- 
appears, o.i mgm. gave a strong reaction, first blue, then permanently 
red. The oxalate will not give this reaction until after heating, to de- 
stroy the oxalic radical. 

£iectrolytic Methods. Oettel {Chem. Ztg.^ xvii., 173) asserts that in 
the account of electrolytic methods a very important factor is usually 
omitted, viz. : the number of amperes psr unit of area of the electrode. 
The shape and disposition of the cathode have of course some influence, 
and should be noted. A statement of the strength of the current, in 
c.c. of gas given off, is less satisfactory than statement in amperes. 
Voltage is regarded as of less importance. 

Electrolytic S parations. Smith and Moyer (/. Anal. App. Chem., 
vii., 252). In HNOj solution Hg and Pb were separated perfectly when 
much HNO5 was present, imperfectly, when the free acid was less. 

When Bi was present with both the above metals in HNO3 solu- 
tion, no matter what the other conditions, Bi was deposited both on the 
cathode with the Hg and on the anode with the PbO,. Separations of 
Ag from Pb, Cu from Cd and from various metals of the (NHJ^S group, 
were easily accomplished in HNO, solution. Also Bi from Cd, or from 
metals of the (NH J,S group when only one was present. When two 
or more were present, a complete separation was difficult in HNO,. 

Electrolytic Separations, Sch mucker {J. Am. Chem. Soc, xv., 195). 
In ammoniacal tartrate solution containing tin as stannate, a perfect 
separation of Cu could be effected. Cu was also satisfactorily separated 
from a solution containing As, Sb, and Sn under the same conditions — 


highest oxidation and presence of ammoniacal tartrate. Cd and Bi 
were separated from those elements under the same conditions provided 
the current was weak and sufficient time was allowed. Hg was also 
completely separable under the same conditions as Cu. 

Deiernnning Sulphocyanic . Cyanic and Hydrochloric Acids, Jumeau 
(^Butl, Soc, Cnim. [3], ix., 346). HCNS may be determined by titra- 
tion with standard permanganate in acid solution, which affords H^SO^ 
and HCy. 

HjSO^ if present may be determined by evaporating the solution first 
with HCl to decompose HCyS, and then precipitating with BaCl^. 
When HCNS together with either HCy or HCl is to be determined, the 
two acids may be determined together by titration with AgNOj and 
then in another portion HCNS by permanganate. If all three are 
present, precipitate by AgNOj, and weigh the combined silver salts. 
Dissolve in ammonia, and determine HCNS by permanganate, check- 
ing by precipitating the H.^SO^ formed by use of BaClj. In a weighed 
portion of the mixed silver salts determine N by Kjeldahl method, de- 
duct that due to HCNS, and reckon the rest to HCN. Get HCl by dif- 

Phosphorus in Irons, Carnot {Bull, Soc. Chim. [3], ix., 340. Take 
0.5 to 5 gms. according to the content in P. Add 40 c.c. HNO, and 
heat, when effervescence ceases, add 10 c.c. cone. H^SO^, evaporate 
gently, dry, heat to 120-125° C. for two hours, take up with 50 c.r. 
boiling water, filler and wash. The Si02 in the residue may be washed 
with HCl, dried and ignited if it is desired to determine it. To the so- 
lution containing ihe phosphorus add i gm. CrO, and heat for about 
thirty minutes. Then add 4 gms. (NHJ,^SO^ and then 50 c c. molyb- 
date solution, and heat to 100® for about an hour. Wash by decanta- 
tion with lukewarm water containing one-twentieth its volume of 
molybdate solution. Dissolve the precipitate in 30 c.c. ammonia di- 
luted with an equal volume of water. Wash with 50 c.c. boiling water. 
Cool the solution, neutralize with HNO,. When the precipitate begins 
to be permanent, add 3 c.c. HNO3. Keep at 40° C. for two hours, 
filter through a weighed filter, wash with 1 per cent. H NO,, solution, 
dry at too° C. and weigh phospho-molybdate (containing 1.628 per 
cent. P.) Arsenic acid requires a temperature of 60° C. or over to 
precipitate as the molybdate. The composition of the precipitate as 
found by the author, and as given by others may be seen from the fol- 
lowing table : 


H. Debray 
Finkenep [i'^7^ 

W. Gibbs 

P.,03 20 MoO, 3(NHJ, 0.3H,0 (P^ = 1.918). 

1877], PA 22 MoO, 3(NHJ, 0.i2H,0 (P,= 1.684). 

" "' P.p, 24 MoO, 8(NHJ, O.H.,0 (P,= 1.656). 

P,03 24 M0O3 5(NH J, O. i6H,0 (P, = 1.597). 

[1893], PA 24 MoO, 3(NH,), 0.3H,0 (P, = 1.628). 

Phosphorus in Soils, Carnot (^Bull. Soc. Chim, [3], ix., 343). The 
nature of the organic matter likely to be present, and the possible pres- 
ence of CaSO^, render some modifications necessary, as compared with 
the method given for P in irons. Ten gms. of the dried and sifted 


earth is first roasted at a moderate heat. HNO3 ^^ ^'"^^^ added cautiously 
until effervescence ceases, then 10 c.c. more of HNO3 is added, and after 
digestin^T for two hours on a water-bath, the solution is filtered. It is 
then concentrated to 50 c.c. Five c.c. cone. HNO, is added, and about 
0.5 CrOj and it is digested on a water-bath, a return condenser being 
attached. Then add 5 gms. NH^NO, and 50 c.c. molybdate solution, 
and continue as described for P in irons (second precipitation and 
weighing the molybdate precipitate). 

Phosphoric Acid in Basic Slags, Foerster {Chcm. Zcif., xvi., 1596), 
states that no method is trustworthy. The best results are obtainable 
by boiling with dilute suljjhuric acid, and precipitating by molybdate. 

Determining Phosphoric Acid, Villiers and Borg {Compf. Pend.y 
cxvi., 9S9). The reagent consists of 150 gms. (NH^)^ MoO^ dissolved 
in one litre of water, aifding subsequently one litre of HNO, (gr. 1.2). 
100 c.c. should be used for every o.i gm. P^Oj present. Run the reagent 
in without mixing, and do not stir until two hours have elapsed. Pre- 
cipitation will be complete on standing at 15° C. for four hours, unless 
retarded by the presence of salts; in that case four hours at 40 C. gives 
complete precipitation. Longer gives MoO, as a contaminant to the 
precipitate. VVash with water containing 5 per cent, of the molybdate 
solution by volume. One gm. of the precipitate (dried at not over 100°) 
contains 0.03728 P^Oj. In presence of Fe or Al the precipitate always 
contains their oxides. In that case, dissolve in ammonia, add tartaric 
acid and precipitate with magnesium mixture. 

Colorimetric Determination of Phosphorus. Osmond {Bull. Soc. 
Chim., xlvii., 745) uses a solution containing 12 gms. cryst. SnCl, and 
80 c.c. cone. HCl per litre. The phospho-molybdate precipitate after 
separation and washing on an asbestos filter, is dissolved by passing 
through the filter 100 c.c. ot the SnCl, solution (to the grm. of manu- 
factured iron taken for analysis.) The reddish-yellow coloration is com- 
pared, as regards intensity with standard solutions containing known 
amounts of -phospho-molybdate. 

Determining Sulphide Sulphur, Marchlewski {Fres. Zts. Anal. Chem., 
xxxii., 403). Continuation of Examination of Methods {vide Quarterly, 
xiv., 163). Groger-Treadweirs method consists in heating pyrites, etc., 
with metallic iron to obtain monosulphide, then treating with HCl, and 
passing the evolved H^S into iodine solution, and titrating back the ex- 
cess of I. The method is unsuitable for the examination of pyrites, 
since a part of the sulphates (frequently present) are also estimated by 
this process. The S in PbSO^ was only partly obtamed by application 
of this process. 

Sauer's Method. — Combustion in a stream of O, passing the gases into 
a KOH solution of Br, heating and precipitating by BaClj, is rather 
elaborate and tedious. 

Fohr's Method. — Passing the evolved H^S into arnmoniacal zinc solu- 
tion, adding Fe^vSOJ,, and titrating with permanganate, gave irregular 

Klobukow's method, presumed to be applicable for the determina- 
tion of S in the higher sulphides, and also in sulphites, hyposulphites. 



etc., proved unsatisfactory. It consists in mixing the substance with 
zinc dust, adding acid, and heating, when the S is presumably all con- 
verted to HjS, which is caught and determined iodometrically. 

Barium Sulphate, Browning {Am,/. Sci., xlv., 399). Experiments 
are quoted which go to show that the presence of 10 to 15 per cent, of 
strong HNO.„ by volume in a solution, does not materially diminish the 
amount of BaSO^ precipitated. Aqua regia had still less solvent power. 
In presence of salts which exert, ordinarily, a solvent action, citrates, 
metaphosphates, etc., the addition of 10 per cent, of HNO3 renders the 
precipitation complete, but the precipitate needs subsequent purifica- 

Evolution Method for Sulphur, Crobaugh {/, Anal, App, Chem,^ vii., 
280). Experiments with ammoniacal solution of CdClj indicated that 
the ammonia itself tends to hold the H^S, though somewhat unevenly. 
Passing the gas through two inches of ammoniacal CdCl, solution, con- 
taining about 0.04 to 0.06 gramme CdClj, would suffice for all the sul- 
phur in 5 grammes of Bessemer iron. 

Silicon in Irons, Ford (y. Anal App, Chem,^y\\,y 277) does not find 
that, allowing the H^SO^ solution (Drown*s method) to stand for some 
time causes error, as mentioned by Dudley (Quarterly, xiv., 261). His 
method of management is to dissolve in dilute H^SO^ (i : 5), after com- 
yjlete solution, to add HNOj, until effervescence ceases, and then to evap- 
orate. Before dissolving in hot water a few drops of HCl are added. 

Boric Acid, {Compt. Rend,^ Abs. in Chem, News, Ixvii., 309.) A 
modification of Gooch's method is recommended. Free the Bo^O, by 
heating with HNO3 in a sealed tube, transfer to a flask, distil off with 
methylic alcohol, condensing in Bohemian glass. Absorb the vapors in 
ammonia. After distillation, unite the distillate in the Bohemian glass 
vessel with the ammonia solution, pour upon a lot of previously-weighed 
CaO, let stand 15 minutes, evaporate at 70°, heat up gradually, calcine 
and weigh. For 0.5 gramme B^O^ use 8 to 10 grammesCaO. The CaO 
must be very carefully prepared for the purpose. 

Carbon in Iron and SUel. Petterson and Smett (Jernkontorets Ann, 
pery. Am, Chem, Soc, xv., 213), describe an apparatus in which the 
oxidation is effected by fusing KHSO^ (35 grammes for 0.5 grammes of 
iron). Tl^ resulting gases are passed through QxO^ crystals to remove 
SO.^, and then into Ba(OH).^ which absorbs the CO.^. A current of air 
(free from CO,) is passed through the apparatus during and after the 

Carbon in Steel. Lorenz {Zts, angew Chem,, 1893, 313, 395, 411) 
proposes, as the most accurate, weighing 2 to 6 grammes of drillings in a 
porcelain boat, covering this with a layer of PbCrO^, and then submit- 
ting to combustion, at white heat, in a current of air. The method by 
volatilization of Fe in a current of CI, if pressed too far, causes a loss 
of C; if not far enough, some carbides are retained which afterward 
escap;i oxidation. The method by solution of the Fe in CuSO^ gave 


lower results than with the douhle chloride (2NH^Cl,CuCl2). With the 
latter, several days are necessary for complete decomposition. The 
amount of carbon obtainable slowly increases up to a maximum, and 
then diminishes. The error introduced by use of the ammonium com- 
pound, as pointed out by the American Committee, seems to be ignored 

Nitrogen in Nitrates, Schmitt {Chem. Zeit., xvii., 173). Dissolve 10 
gms. of the sample and dilute to 500 c.c. Place in a flask (round 
bottom) of about 750 c.c. capacity, 10 gms. of an equal mixture of iron 
and zinc powder, add 10 c.c. glacial acetic acid and then run in slowly 
25 c.c. of the solution of the sample (=0.5 gm ). After ten minutes 
when no more gas is evolved, add 200 c.c. of water, and 30 c.c. NaOH 
solution (gr. 1.25) and distil ammonia as usual. 

Defer9nination of Nitrates, Gruener (^Am. ^our, Sa., xlvi., July, 
1893). The nitrate, not to exceed in amount 0.05 gm., KNO,, is in- 
troduced into a retort, together with ten times its weight of KI and 17 
to 20 c.c. of phosphoric acid (gr. 1.43). All water used should be 
recently boiled. CO.^ is passed through. The neck of the retort passes 
into a receiver containing: a known amount of tenth normal As^O,. 
alkaline with excess of NaHCO,, and diluted. A safety trap is attached 
containing water. The solution in the retort is boiled until it is clear 
that no more iodine remains, when the receiver, after proper washing, 
and the addition of the water in the trap, is titrated with iodine to 
determine the amount of As.,0., left. The reaction with the nitrate is : 


2HNO, + 6HI = 4H,0 + 2NO + 3I, 

Experiments on the decomposition of nitrates with SbCl, were successful 
when special conditions were maintained. 

Azwiable Oxygen in Manganese Mineral. Car not {Compt. Rend.y 
cxvii., I 295). In presence of an acid H.^02 reacts with all of the higher 
Mn oxides, affording twice as much oxygen as is "available'* in the 
samples eg.: 

MnO, + H^O,^ MnO + H,0 + O, 
MujO, + H,0,= 3MnO + H,0 + O,, etc. 

By treaMng the oxides (mineral or other) with acetic acid or with very 
dilute HjSO^ or HNO3 ^^ ^ suitably arranged apparatus, the evolved 
oxygen may be measured. If carbonates are present, a preliminary 
treatment with acid is required. Heat need not be applied. 

Determining Organic Matter. ITeidenhain (^Am, Chem, Soc, xv., 
71 ), proposes a slight modification of Hehner's method— boiling with 
concentrated H^SO^ and K^CrjO,, and subsequently determining the 
residual CrO, by standard FeSO^ solution. The proportions used are 
25 c.c. of the solution of the substance, 30 c.c, fifth normal K^Cr^O^, 
and ^^ c.c. cone. H,SO^. The operation is conducted in a large flask, 
in the neck of which is hung a U tube, through which water circulates, 


to act as a reversed condenser. The method is not universally applicable. 
The degree of dilution specified, reduces the independent reaction 
between H^SO^ and K^Cr^O^ to a minimum. 

Analysis of Iron and Steel. Parry and Morgan have published a series 
of papers on this subject, which are reproduced in Chem. Ntws^yo\. 
Ixvii., as follows: Silicon, p. 149 ; phosphorus^ p. 161 ; carbon, p. 175 ; 
graphite, sulphur, p. 247; copper^ twtgsten, iron oxide, titanium^ p. 259; 
ffianganese, arsenic, p. 295 ; chromium^ aluminium, calcium^ magnesium^ 
etc., p. 307. The methods are rather older and more conservative than 
those in use in our metallurgical laboratories at present, some of the sug- 
gestions may be noted as illustrating; the practice in English metallurgical 

Silicon. — The necessity for sampling carefully, especially in the case of 
gray iron is noted. Use 4 gms. and 50 c.c. aqua regia [i part HNO, 
(gr. 1.42) with 3 parts pure HCl], evaporate to dryness and heat over 
a Bunsen until black. Cool, take up with 60 c.c. HCl, evaporate to a 
crust, dissolve in dilute HCl, dilute with 5 volumes of water, and filter. 
Wash, first with 10 per cent. HCl, then with water. If graphite is 
present, burn off the filter paper at the lowest temperature possible, 
weigh SiO^and graphite together, and then burn off graphite and weigh 
SiO,. The residue even though white, may be impure. Fuse with 
KHSO^, pulverize, dissolve in cold water and filter off pure SiOj. As 
an alternate method one can dissolve 4 gms. in 60 c.c. H^SO^ (i '.3) 
evaporate to fumes, dilute and boil to dissolve FeSO^, filter and wash. 

Phosphorus. — The molybdate solution is made up thus : Dissolve 60 
gms. (NHJ^MoO^ crystals in water, dilute to i litre, then add 50 c.c, 
ammonia (gr. 0.88) and slight excess (?) NH^NOg. Let stand two days 
and then decant clear. For ordinary work take 4 gms. of the sample, 
according to conditions i to 10 gms. may be desirable. Use 60 c.c, 
aqua regia. Evaporate as in the case of silicon, evaporating the second 
time to complete dryness. Redissolve in HCl, then evaporate repeat- 
edly with HNO3 (g^- 1-42) to remove HCl. Finally add enough HNO3 
to make the solution flow freely, then 50 c.c. of the molybdate solu- 
tion. The solution must then be brought to a point where it is but 
slightly acid ; experiments are quoted to show that the precipitate is 
somewhat soluble in dilute HNO3. Filter, wash six times with 10 per 
cent, (by volume) HNO3 on a weighed filter, calculate from weight of 
precipitate containing 1.66 per cent. P. 

Total Carbon. — Take 5 gms., treat with 120 c.c. of a solution con- 
taining 280 gms. 2 NH^Cl, CuCl.^ per liter ; warm and stir, but do not 
allow the solution to boil. Decant the clear liquid through asbestos in 
a piece of combustion tubing, drawn out (Elliott). Digest the mixture 
of copper sponge and carbon with more of the solution to which HCl 
is added. Finally transfer the carbon to the filter, and wash thor- 
oughly. Convert to CO, for weighing, by (Ullgren, Elliot) method-wet 
combustion with H^SO^ and CrO„ passing the evolved gases through 
AgjSOj. The colorimetric method for combined carbon in steel is de- 
scribed: 0.2 gms. of the steel and of the standard are taken for each 
determination. Artificial comparison solutions are asserted to be use- 
less. When the action ceases, immerse for 15 minutes in boiling water, 
then cool, and compare in calibrated tubes. 


Graphite, — 5 gras. of sample, 60 c.c. dilute HCl, and when solution 
is nearly complete, add 20 c.c. strong HCl and digest further ; then 
dilute largely, filter on weighed filter, wash with water, KOH solution, 
then alcohol, then ether, dry and weigh. Ignite off graphite, and weigh 
residual SiO„ etc. 

Sulphur. — The uncertainties of evolution methods are noted. Of 
evolution methods, the passage of the gas through 220 c.c. CuSO^ solu- 
tion containing 60 gms of the crystals per litre, is recommended. For 
precipitation, the filtrate from silica {vid. Silicon) is evaporated with 
HCl, to remove nitrates, and excess of HCl and precipitated by BaCl2t 
allowed to stand 12 hours and filtered. No special directions as to tem- 
perature of the solutions are given. 

Copper. — 10 gms. digested with 100 c.c. aqua regia, and evaporated 
to dryness ; redissolve in a little HCl, and evaporate to dryness a second 
time. Filter, make up to 250 c.c. ; reduce Fe by excess of Na^SO,, 
boil out SO,, precipitate with H^S, let settle, dissolve in HNO, and pre- 
cipitate with NaOH ; weigh CuO. 

Or, dissolve 10 gms. in 100 c.c. HjjSO^ (i : 3), boil, add 6 c.c. of 
strong solution of Na^SjO,, boil (with stirring) for about 30 minutes ; 
filter, dissolve precipitate in aqua regia, evaporate with 10 c.c. strong 
H,SO^ to fumes. Dilute, boil, add excess of ammonia, let stand ; filter, 
and Irom the filtrate precipitate Cu by Na.^S„03; ignite and weigh CuO. 

For minute quantities, dissolve 20 to 50 gms. of the sample in aqua 
regia, evaporate nearly to dryness, digest with ammonia, and use color- 
comparison test. ' 

Tungsten, — Conduct the operation as described for silicon, avoiding, 
however, the use of so high temperatures in effecting solution or in dry- 
ing, since that renders WO, imperfectly soluble in the subsequent treat- 
ment with ammonia. Filter off SiO.^ and WO,, wash, and then dissolve 
out VVOg with ammonia into a weighed platinum dish, evaporate to dry- 
ness, heat to decompose the salt ; finally ignite and weigh WO,. 

If on Oxide. — Digest lo gms. at a gentle heat (200 to 212° F.) with 
stirring, in 500 c.c. of a mixture containing one part H,SO^ and 6 parts 
saturated solution of K^Cr^O,. When all of the metal has been dis- 
solved, let stand to settle, wash three or four times by decantation ; then 
digest with KOH solution to remove SiO.^ ; dilute with water, transfer 
the precipitate to a filter ; wash first with dilute KOH, then with water, 
dry, ignite, and weigh. FCjO^ is the form in which the oxide exists in 
the iron. 

Titanium. — Riley *s method : treat 6 gms. with 100 c.c. aqua regia, evap- 
orate to dryness, heat strongly, moisten with HCl and dry again ; add 
HCl and dissolve by aid of heat. Dilute and filter ; set filtrate aside 
until the TiO, in the insoluble portion is brought into solution by fusion 
with KHSO^, pulverization, and extraction with cold water. Filter off 
insoluble SiO^, and unite the solutions. Reduce iron by Na^SO,, boil 
out SO5, nearly neutralize with ammonia, add NH^C^HgOj. Boil, filter 
rapidly, wash and dry. Fuse with 6 parts KHSO^, dissolve in cold wa- 
ter ; nearly neutralize, add a little Na^SO,, dilute, boil some hours, let 
settle, filter, wash first with very dilute H^SO^, then with water ; dry, , 
ignite and weigh the (somewhat hygroscopic) TiO.^. In pig-irons, take 
20 gms. of the sample, digest with 150 c.c. dilute HCl. When the iron 
is near'y dissolved, add 100 c.c. of strong HCl, and boil for some time. 


Dilute, filter off SiO.^, TiO^ and graphite. Wash with dilute acid, then 
with KOH to remove sihca, then with dilute acid to remove the alkali. 
Dry, and fuse with KHSO^, treating as before. 

Manganese, — Dissolve 2 gms. in 50 c.c. of aqua regia by the aid of 
heat. Transfer to a capacious flask, dilute to 1500 c.c, heat to boiling, 
neutralize with strong ammonia until a faint permanent turbidity is pro- 
duced, then add 250 c.c. of hot NH^C^HgO.^ solution, boil, let stand to 
settle, filter and wash with water containing a little of the acetate. If 
the filtrate is turbid, boil up again for five minutes, when it will filter 
clear. Concentrate to 400 c.c. Cool, add Br until the solution is 
strongly colored, then render strongly animoniacal, and boil to precipi- 
tate MnOj. Wash and ignite strongly to MnjO^. Weigh. Test the 
precipitate for iron, which, if present, must be estimated (as Fe^Og and 
deducted). The estimation may be colorimetric with NH^CyS, or by 
dissolving and repeating the basic acetate separation. Cu or Ni are also 
possible contaminants of the precipitate. 

The chlorate method is mentioned as an alternative method (essen- 
tially Ford's, using the ammoniacal basic acetate separation). 4 gms. 
are dissolved in 60 c c. HNO, (gr. 1.2), then 30 c.c. HNO^ (gr. 1.42) is 
added, and after bringing to a boil, 6 gms. KCIO,. Boil 15 minutes, 
cool, dilute, let settle, decant the clear liquid through a filter, dissolve 
in HCl, dilute with 200 c.c. of water, separate remaining iron as basic 
acetate, and precipitate out Mn by Br, as before. 

In spiegels and ferromanganese the Mn can be estimated by difference 
(?) ; determining the iron volumetrically, and allowing also 6 per cent, 
in spiegels, and 7 to 7^ per cent, in ferromanganese, for C, Si, etc., call 
the remainder Mn. 

Arsenic is separated as sulphide together with copper (^. z/.). Digest 
the sulphides with KHS solution, filter, precipitate as sulphides from 
the solution by HCl, dissolve in aqua regia, add a little magnesia mix- 
lure and much ammonia, let stand 24 hours, collect on a weighed (?) 
filter, dry and convert to yi^^k^fi^ by ignition. The magnesia mixture 
is to be made by mixing a solution of Zt^ gms. each of MgSO^ and BaClj 
and 5 c.c. cone. HCl in sufficient water, adding eventually a slight ex- 
cess of MgSO^. Filter, add 165 gms. NH^Cl and 260 c.c. ammonia; 
dilute to one litre, let settle and decant. 

Chromium. — No good methods exist. One given consists in dissolv- 
ing, separating Si0.^as usual, precipitating by ammonia, fusing the mixed 
oxides with alkaline carbonate and nitrate, leaching out with water, re- 
ducirg the chromate with HCl and alcohol, and precipitating with am- 
monia. Another consists in dissolving i to 2 gms. in HCl in a platinum 
dish, evaporating, fusing directly with alkaline nitrate and carbonate, 
and treating as before. For steels Galbraith's volumetric method is 
recommended, dissolving in H.^SO^, oxidizing up with K^M^Og, then 
reducing chromate by use of a known amount of FeSO^ solution, and 
titrating the excess. The use of colorimetric comparison tests of Cr^Oj 
solutions is mentioned. 

The methods for Al, Ca, Mg, Ni and Co do not merit special men- 
tion, being essentially the older and more elaborate methods of several 
years back, and, like most of the others, unsuited to the demands ot 
our metallurgical laboratories. 


S/ag antifysrs. Textor (y. Afta/. App, Chem,, vii., 257), describes the 
methods used in the laboratory of the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company. 
The determinations are made daily, and only approximate results are . 
3imed at. 

For Si O.^ and A 1^0^^ 0.5 gm. is taken, stirred up with hot water, then 
decomposed by addition of HCl, stirring until decomposed. The mix- 
ture is then evaporated ; when low, a few drops of HNO, are added and ' 
the evaporation continued to dryness, when it is heated strongly to 
separate SiO^, taken up with HCl, etc. The filtrate is precipitated 
by ammonia added gradually; and the precipitate is weighed and reck- 
oned as AL^Oj. 

For CaO and MgO^ another portion of 1.325 gms. is decomposed in 
the same manner as above, and without filtering or evaporating to dry- 
ness, ammonia is gradually added to precipitate Al^Oj,, SiO,, etc. The 
mixture is made up to a definite volume and two separate portions taken 
—the one for CaO, the other for MgO. In both portions CaO is pre- 
cipitated out by oxalate. The filtrate intended for MgO is allowed to 
cool while the other CaC^O^ is dissolved in hot dilute H2SO4 and titrated 
with permanganate. The MgO solution is precipitated by ammonia and 
I'hosphate, agitated cold ten miriutes and then filtered. The filter is 
dried, the paper separated from the precipitate and incinerated first, 
then the precipitate added, and the whole ignited and weighed. 

For S another portion of 0.5 gm. is stirred into 150 c.c. of water, 
>tarch added, and it is then decomposed by HCl, adding measured 
amounts of a standardized solution of iodine, the iodine solution being 
eventually added until the starch shows the end reactions. • Many of 
the details given are necessarily omitted. 

Portland Cement. R, and W. Fresenius {Fres. Zfs. Anal. Chem.^ xxxii., 
433). The chemical characters of a good Portland cem^int are given as 
to Hows : 

1. Specific gravity before ignition, at least 3. 

2. Specific gravity after ignition, at least 3.12. 

3. Loss on ignition, at most 3.4 per cent. 

4. Alkalinity of aqueous solution from 0.5 gm. of cement, not over 
7.2 c.c. of tenth normal acid. 

5. Potassium permanganate destroyed by i gm. of cement, not over 
2.N mgs. 

6. MgO, not over 3 per cent. 

Analysis of Boro-natro calcite andofPandermit, Gilbert {Zts. Angew. 
Chem., 1893, 53O. For H,^0, ignite 5 gms. in a covered porcelain cru- 
uble to constant weight for S, and boil up 10 gms. with 50 c.c. HCl 
and 100 c.c. H,0. Filter and weigh residue. Dilute the filtrate to 500 
c.c. Evaporate 100 c.c. with 5 c.c. Dilute K^SO^ (i : 2) in a weighed 
platinum capsule, addjng about 20 c.c. of 40 per cent. HF, heating 
finally to fusion. Ignite and weigh the mixture of CaSO«, MgSO^, Na.^- 
SOj, Fe^O, and Al^O.,. Dissolve in dilute HCl, and determine Ca, Mg, 
FcjOg and Al^O,. as in a limestone analysis. In another 100 c.c. deter- 
mine SO3 and reckon Na.,SO^ from the weight obtained as well as from 
the weight of the combined sulphates, etc. 

VOL. XV. — 5 


Eur Chlorine, dissolve 2 gms. in dilute HNO3 and apply the Volhard 
method. For CO, the ordinary method by loss. 

P^Oj is ordinarily absent or present in exceedingly small amounts. 
The B2O3 is reckoned by difference. 

A more direct m>ethod of determining ^.f)^ is given. Rub up 2 gms. 
of the mineral with 50 c.c. (NHJ.^COj, (Fre^enius^s reagent), let stand 
two hours, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness in platinum, ignite off 
NH^ salts, dissolve the residue of borate with about 5 c.c. of normal acid 
and 20 c.c. of water, add methyl-orange, and titrate back with fifth 
normal soda. Reckon the soda as Na^O, 2 B,Os the lime as 2 CaO, 
3 B2O3 in Boronatro calcite. 

The formula of Pandermite is asserted to be 4 CaO, 5 B^Oj, 7 HjO, 
and not what is usually given (2 CaO, 3 B^O,, 3 H^O). 

Direct methods for determining BjO, as given by Rosenbladt, Gooch 
and Moissan are condemned as complicated and troublesome. 

Micro-chemical Analysis of Rocks. Frey {Abs, in Chem, News, Ixviii., 
277), cements fragments to a slide with Canada balsam, and then touches 
with a drop of HF, allows the solution to evaporate, and examines with 
a microscope. Na gives crystals of the hexagonal system, K tesseral 
rubes, Ca spindle-shaped tissues, etc. The silicofluorides of Fe, Mn and 
Mg thus produced resemble one another rather closely, but on touching 
with a drop of CI water, Fe crystals turn yellow, Mn red, while those 
of Mg remain colorless. 

Separation of Minerals, Retgers {/ahrb.f Min., 1893, i, Mem. 90), 
proposes the use of fusing thallium silver nitrate. TlAg (N0g)2. 'J'he 
salt fuses at 75° C, and in this condition has a specific gravity of 5. It 
can therefore be fused on a dish over a water-bath, and in it minerals 
having a specific gravity greater than 5, as magnetite, etc., will sink. 

Metallurgy, by Joseph Struthers. 

Fuels. — Washed coal for coking. — Amer, Manuf, August 4 and 18, 

Fuels. — Manufacture of coke. By Fulion. — Colliery Engineer, 
August, 1893. 

Fuel. — The consumption of fuel in the Taylor gas-producer plants at 
the Aspen and Marsac mills compared. By C. A. Steiefeldt. — Advance 
sheets, Trans. Amer, Inst, Min, Engs., August, 1893. 

Fuels. — Petroleum and other fuels. By W. H. Wakeman. Paper read 
before the Elm City Stationary Engineers* Association of New Haven. 
A general discussion of fuels giving type fuel with average composition 
and calorific value. The samples taken for comparison are as follows : 

Durham Coke. — Composition, about 94 per cent, carbon ; contains 
13.640 heat-units; requires 11 pounds of air for complete combustion, 
the rise in temperature being 4877^ F. ; maximum amount of water 
evaporated is 14.12 pounds for each pound of coke. 

Bituminous Coal. — Good grade. Composition, over 81 per cent. 


carbon ; contains 14.143 heat-units; requires 11 pounds of air for com- 
plete combustion ; the rise in temperature is 4830° F. ; maximuni amount 
of water evaporated is nearly 15 to i (stated to be an exceptional case). 
Illuminating' Gas, — Composition, about 61 per cent, carbon; con- 
tains 20.800 heat-units; requires nearly 16 pounds of air for complete 
combustion per pound ; the rise in temperature is 4567*^ F. Each pound 
of gas will evaporate more than 21 pounds of water. 

Oak Wood Kiln-dried, — Composition, about 50 per cent, carbon ; 
contains 7713 heat-units per pound ; requires 6 pounds of air for com- 
plete combustion, giving a rise of temperature of 4287° F. Each pound 
will evaporate 8 pounds of water ; wet and green sawdust containing 55 
per cent, of moisture and 45 per cent, of wood develops 2916 heat- 
units, giving a rise of temperature of 2245^ F., and will evaporate 4 
pounds of water per pound of wood in the fuel, but for each pound of 
luel as it stands the amount is very much less. 

Crude Petroleum. — Composition, about 85 per cent, carbon ; develops 
20.360 heat-units; requires 15 pounds of air for complete combustion, 
giving a rise in temperature of 4900** F., and each pound of oil will 
evaporate 21 5 pounds of water. 

Ii must be remembered that in each of the above cases the theoretical 
evaporation is given, and from this a deduction must be made for heat 
lost by radiation, etc., and the actual quantity of air passed through the 
fuel will be much greater. These figures, however, will answer for the 
purpose of comparison. Good authorities claim that in actual use one 
pound of petroleum will evaporate from 25 to 50 per cent, more 
water than anthracite and from 60 to 100 per cent, more than bitumin- 
ous coal. 

Special points in favor of the use of crude petroleum are less bulk for 
storage, less labor in handling, and no ash. — Amer. Manuf,^ October 13, 

Fuel. — Coking ovens (editorial review of Consul Mason's report 
on improvements that save the waste products, and cheapen the cost of 
coke making nearly 40 per cent.). Average German coal furnishes about 
76 per cent, of coke, i J^ per cent, ammonia, and 2j4 to 4 per cent, of 
tar, the remainder being gas and water. As the sulphate of ammonia 
is worth about 2^ cents per pound and tar }4 cent, while the gas takes 
the place of coal for heating the retorts, it is found that a battery of 60 
ovens besides saving on the average 8000 tons of coal a year as fuel over 
the old process, produces 800 tons of sulphate of ammonia worth about 
$42,000, and 3000 tons of tar worth about ^28,000, all of which would « 
be wasted by the old process. — Amer, ^r^^/y<?r/, September 16, 1893. 

Blast. — Automatic Valve Gear for Blowing Engine. By James C. 
Brooks. Illustrated and descriptive. A paper presented at the World's 
Engineering Congress before the American Institute of Mining Engi- 
neers. — Iron Age, September 7, 1893. 

Bi-AST. — The Philadelphia Corliss Blowing Engine. Illustrated and 
descriptive. — Iron Age, June 22, 1893. 

Blast. — Blowing Engines. By Julian Kennedy. Illustrated and 


descriptive. — Advance sheets, Trans, Amer. Inst. Min, Engs., August, 
1893 ; Iron Age, August 27, 1893. 

Blast. — The Buffalo Steel Pressure Blower. Illustrated and descrip- 
tive. — Iron Age, May 11, 1893. 

Tuyeres. — The Evolution of the Tuyere Stock. By Fred. W. Gordon . 
Illustrated and descriptive. — Iron Age, June 8, 1893. 

Pyrometer. — Le Chatelier's pyrometer. By R. K. Gratinny. Notes 
regarding use. — Eng. and Min, /our., September 23, 1893. 

Ores. — The separation of blende from pyrites ; a new metallurgical 
industry. By William P. Blake. — Advance sheets, Trans. Amer. Inst. 
Min. Engrs.^ August, 1893; Eng. and Min. Jour., August 19, 1893. 

Blast-Furnace. — The calculation of limestone charges for iron 
blast-furnaces. By S. P. Bjerregaard.-:-/ri?« Age, October 5, 1893. 

Blast-Furnace. — Combustion at the tuyere level theory. By W. 
von Volten. From Stahl und Etsen. — Iron Age^ October 5, 1893. 

Blast-Furnace.— Improved internal form of blast-furnace. Messrs. 
Hawson and Harndon advocate the use of higher bosh, claiming in- 
creased production and lower fuel consumption. Colliery Guardian, 
August 25, 1893. 

Slag. — General solution of the type slag problem. By J. L. Saint- 
Dizier. Our purpose is to form a slag of the formula, SiO.^ (CaO, FeO). 
Having given the ore, let us call ; 

A =8 the percentage of SiO^ in the ore. 

1 going into the slag. 

B » 

" FeO 


E = 

" CaO 


" MgO 

H = 

'' BaO 


" AlA 

L = 

** ZnO 

We know that MgO, BaO, Al^ and ZnO may replace CaO in the 
slags. As MgO z= 1.4 CaO ; Bad = .366 CaO ; A1,0, = 1.647 CaO ; 
and ZnO = .691 CaO; then the equivalent of CaO will be (letting C = 
this equivalent) : 

C= E + 1.4 D + .366 H + 1.647 K + .691 L. (i) 

The fluxes have the following compositions : 

Iron Ore : a = percentage of SiO^ ; b = percentage of FeO. 

Limestone : c = percentage of SiO, ; d = i)ercentage of CaO. 

If the limestone contains MgO, Al^Oj, etc., its equivalent in CaO 
may be calculated as in equation (i). 

Let X be the number of tons of iron ore required by 100 tons of ore. 

Let y be the number of tons of limestone required by 100 tons of ore. 


Then : A_ (A + — + ^ ) = 2 (. + - — ) (2) 
60 100 100 72 7200 

And : .3J (a + .^-^- + -1^- ) = 2 C'^^- + 'f y) (3) 

60 100 100 56 5000 

.p, , 14a (looB — 120A) + (i2oa — loob) (14A — 15C) 

I4bc+ i5d (1.2a — b) 

looB — 120A — i.2cy 

1.2a — b 
■—State School of Mines Scientific Quarterly , June, 1893. 

And : x = 

1.2a — b 

Pig- Iron. — Machine for breaking pig-iron, and loading it into cars. 
Illustrated and descriptive. — Iron Age, July 6, 1893. 

Iron. — German economy in iron manufacture. By Frank H. Mason. 
— U. S, Consular Reports^ August, 1893. 

Foundry Practice. — The centre-blast tuyere cupola. By Thomas 
D. West. Illustrated. — Iron Age, October 26, 1893. 

Iron Cupolas. — Their construction and management. By W. J. 
Keep. — Iron Age, June 8, 1893. 

Iron Puddling at Lowmoor. By E. W. Richards. — Iron Age, July 
J5» 1S93. 

Mill- Work. — Rod rolling-mills and their development in America. 
By Fred. H. Daniels. — Iron Age, August 10 and 17, 1893. 

Hammer. — The 125-ton hammer of the Bethlehem Iron Company. 
Abstract o{ article in ** Engineering.'* — Eng. and Min, Jour,, October 

7, ^^9Z' 

Steel. — The Open-Hearth process. By H. H. Campbell. Descrip- 
tive and illustrated. — Advance sheets, Trans, Amer, Inst. Alin, Engs., 
\ August, 1893; Iron Age, August 24 and 31, 1893. 

Steel. — Details of the Siemens-Martin furnace, a chemical and calori- 
raetric study of gas generation and its application to the Siemens fur- 
nace. By Frederick Toldt, — Berg, unci Huttenmannisches Jahrbuch of 
X, K. ^ergakademien zu Leoben und Pribram, vol. xli., parts 3 and 4. 

Steel. — The Bessemer process as conducted in Sweden. By Prof. 

Richard Akerman. Illustrated and descriptive. — Advance sheets, Trans, 
Amer. Iftst. Min, Engrs,, August 1893 \ ^^^n Age, September 28th, Oc- 
tober 5 th and 12th; Eng, and Min, Jour, ^ July 29, 1893. 

Steel. — Basic steel manufactured at Witkowurtz, Moravia. By Paul 
Kupelwieser. Abstract of paper read before the Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute. Err^' and Min, Jour.^ October 14, 1893. 


Steel. — The regulation of the temperature in the converter. Com- 
munication to editor. By John E. Fry ; also by H. H. Campbell. — Iron 
Age^ August 31 and September 7, 1893. 

Steel. — The microstructure of steel. By Albert Sauveur. Illustrated 
and descriptive. — E, and M. J,y August 12, 1893. 

Steel and Iron. — Segregation and its consequences in ingots of steel 
and iron. By Alexander Purcel. — Advance sheets, Trans^ Amer. Inst, 
Min, Engrs.^ August, 1893 ; Iron Agd, August 10, 1893 y Eng. and Min, 
Jour.y September 2, 1893. 

Iron and Steel. — The desulphurization of iron. — Londttn, Eng,, 
June 2d, and Engineer^ June 2d, and Eng, News, July 6, 1893. 

Iron and Steel. — Iron and steel at the Columbian Exposition. De- 
scriptive. — Iron Age, May i, 1893. 

Iron and Steel. — Proposed combination of the blast-furnace and 
the Bessemer converter. By John Hollvvay. — Iron Age, October 12, 

Iron Alloys. — With special reference to manganese steel (an Engi- 
neering Congress paper). I. Iron ; reviewing the Beta-iron theory and 
the effect of carbon ; allotrophy. II. Carbon; carbon and iron; car- 
bon in cast-iron; investigations. — Industries and /r^^, September i, 

Copper. — The Treatment of Lake Superior Copper Ores. By F. F. 
Sharpies. Method adopted at the Atlantic Mill, — The Technic^ 1893. 

Lead and Copper. — Improved Slag-pots. By H. A. Keller. Illus- 
trated and descriptive. Advance sheets, Trans, Am, Inst, Min, Eng.y 
August, 1893. 

Silver Lixiviation. — The Russell Process, by L. D. Godshall, gives 
the following notes as embodying the essential features of the Russell 
process : 

First, — Fine crushing is necessary in many cases. 

Second — Stamps are the most reliable, and at the same time most 
economical, for fine crushing, while rolls are generally preferable to pul- 

Third. — The furnace best adapted to chloridizing silver ores depends, 
at all times, upon the character of the ore. The Stetefeldt furnace is 
probably the most economical furnace for ores high in silica, free from 
lime and magnesia, and low in sulphur. For ores containing 3 to 8 
per cent, of sulphur, the Brtickner, Pearce, or Howell-White furnace, is 
to be recommended. For ores containing over 8 per cent, of sulphur, 
unless accompanied by a very large excess of lime, the reverberatory fur- 
nace, or a combination of two furnaces, the first of which should be de- 
voted exclusively to an oxidizing roast, will be found to be most eco- 


Fourth. — The loss by volatilization is principally a function of time 
and amount of oxygen in contact with each particle of ore while in the 
act of chloridizing. 

Fifth. — The leaching of the ore depends to a great extent on the 
roasting of the same. A poorly roasted ore will only give good results 
by tbe Russell process by the expenditure of a large consumption of 
chennicals and time. Different strengths of solutions and different 
methods of application will also in some cases improve the percentage 
of extraction, but with good roasting and a sufficient amount of solu- 
tion, the extraction will be good, no matter how the solutions are ap- 

Sixth. — The precipitation of the silver by means of sodium sulphide 
presents no difficulty, and is much to be preferred to calcium sulphide. 

Seventh. — The economical refining of the sulphides at the mill is a 
problem which is not yet satisfactorily solved ; and, 

Fighth. — That the Russell solution is capable of dissolving certain 
comiX)unds of silver which cannot be dissolved by sodium hyposulphite 
alone, and is capable of extracting from 90 to 95 per cent, of the silver 
in ordinary dry ores, when the silver is not present in the metallic state, 
but that a high extraciion of the silver will not necessarily make the 
process a commercial success in all cases. 

The greatest objection to the Russell process is the cost of treating 
the ore — a very expensive plant is always required. The loss in roast- 
ing is also a serious matter,, as is the case in all chloridizing-roasting 
processes. Notwithstanding these objections, there is no question but 
that there are numerous localities in the West where the introduction of 
this process would prove a profitable investment. This statement being 
based on a cost of treatment of Jio per ton, for a mill of 100 tons daily 
capacity, and $12 per ton for a mill of 50 tons daily capacity, with a 
minimum extraction of 90 per cent, of the silver in comparison with 
current smelting rates on dry ores, with added freight charges. — State 
School of Mines Scientific Quarterly^ June, 1893. 

Silver Lixiviation. — The sulphuric acid process of refining lixivia- 
tion sulphides" By F. P. Dewey. The pr^.ctice as used at the Marsac 
refinery at Park City, Utah, consists in boiling the sulphides from the 
Russell process in strong sulphuric acid in an iron pot ; removing the 
charge when cool to a lead-lined tank; adding water; filtering; pre- 
cipitating the silver on copper ; removing, sweetening, and melting the 
cement silver; recovering the sulphate of copper by crystallization and 
treating the pot residues for the recovery of gold. The charge is about 
600 pounds of sulphides, carrying about 28 per cent, copper and 2^7^ per 
cent, silver. This is put in an ordinary parting pot, with about two and 
a half times its weight of strong sulphuric acid and the pot heated. If 
the temperature is kept low, there is an evolution of yellow fumes, and 
the reaction may be summed up, 

3Cu'} ''^ + 4H,S0, = Jgj, I SO. + 4H.O + 4S 

(the actual reaction is somewhat complicated). As the heat is raised, 
the fumes grow lighter colored, and the reaction may be taken as 


C^' } S + 3H.SO. = Jf« } SO, + 3SO, + 3HP. 

Boiling is continued until the residue in the pot is light colored. By 
the boiling the sulphate of silver is readily dissolved by the excess used, 
while the sulphate of copper is, for the most part, insoluble in th^ 

The treatment of the residue is carried out in a lead-lined tank 4' X 8' 
X 2', heated by blown in steam. The sulphate of copper is dissolved. 

The insoluble residue is allowed to settle, and the sulphates of copper 
and silver are drawn off through a filter to the precipitating tank, 
7' X 9' X 3'. also lead-lined. The residue is brought on the filter and 
washed. The silver is precipitated on copper and the copper sulphate is 
crystallized. The cement silver is washed, dried, pressed, melted with a 
little borax and nitre in graphite crucibles, yielding a high-grade bullion 
over 997^^ fine. 

The residue contained in the first filter, consisting of sulphide of silver 
free from copper, sulphate of lead, a little sulphur, and small amounts of 
other insolubles, is boiled again to separate the silver, leaving the gold 
in a small amount of final residue, consisting mainly of sulphate of 
lead. This final residue is melted with nitre and borax to recover the 

Details of the pots, arrangement of works, and acid transportation are 
included in the article. — State School of ^ Mines Sciennfic Quarterly^ 
Golden, Colo., June, 1893. 

Silver-Ore Roasting Furnace. — The Pearce Turret Furnace. The 
furnace consists of an ordinary reverberatory hearth, built in a circular 
or turret-shaped form. In the circle formed by the brick work is placed 
the iron work, consisting of a central vertical column with 4 pipe-arms 
horizontally radiating from same, and projecting through slot over re- 
verberatory hearth ; to provide for this slot, through which the pipe- 
arms project and along which the arms travel, the inner side of the 
arch is hung from ** I '* beams. 

The ore is mechanically fed, and is moved along the hearth by the 
rotating pipe-arms, holding rubble blades, and is discharged automati- 
cally, falling by gravitv into a pocket. Air is forced through the hollow 
pipe arms and discharged against the rubble blades, thus cooling the 
iron work and furnishing heated air for the roasting. Two or more fire- 
places may be used. The space under the hearth is utilized as a dust- 

One man per shift is sufficient to run this furnace. Its first cost is 
much less than the Briickner and other mechanical roasting furnaces of 
same capacity. Repairs are limited to the removal of rubble blades 
and can be rapidly made. A 36-foot furnace has a capacity, on pyritic 
ores, of 20 tons daily ; on ores requiring to be chloridized it has roasted 
9 tons daily to an average of .22 of i per cent., with the special advantage 
that salt could be added at any stage of the process desired, thereby 
saving values otherwise lost by volatilization. — State School of Mines 
Scientific Quarterly y June, 1893, 

Silver. — Treatment of complex zinc-ores, by F. L. Bartlett : Gives 


the method of extraction pursued by the American Zinc-Lead Com- 
pany at Cafion City, Colorado. The process may be summarized as 
follo"ws : 

I. — Blowing up mixture of zinc-ores, crushed to pea- and dust-size, 
with 75 per cent, of fine coal. Average contents : Zn, 30 per cent. ; Pb, 
8 per cent. ; FeS and SiO, to balance ; Ag, 10 to 20 ounces ; Au, -^^ 
ounce ; Cu, i to 2 per cent. 

Treatment by blowing up on a perforated grate by heavy air-blast, 
eliminating a large proportion of the lead, zinc and sulphur. The pro- 
cess is stopped before the sulphur contents are too much reduced, thus 
retaining the silver. A cinder or scoria is formed, which retains nearly 
all the gold, silver and copper. Time of blowing, 4 hours. Results : 
Fume (ji) and cinder {b): 

II. — Treatment of Cinder. — Cinder (^) contains ZnS, 12 to 15 per 
cent. ; Pb, i per cent. ; Ag, 10 to 20 ounces ; Cu i to 8 per cent. ; bal- 
ance, FeO. FeO,SiO,. FeS., etc. 

This is mixed with 5 per cent, of lime, and any copper-ore added 
which may contain Ag, Pb, Zn, Fe, S and SiO^. If too siliceous, iron 
fluxing ore is added. This is smelted in a blast-furnace with a small 
per cent, of coke. Result : Fume (a), slag (<r), matte (//). 

III. — Fume Treatment. — The fume, which is collected in woollen 
filter bags, is submitted to the roasting and grinding process, and is sold 
as pigment. 

The impurities drawn off contain a mixture of As, Sb, Hg, Fe, SO.^, 
Cd, and many rarer elements. The pigment contains 4 to 5 ounces of 
silver per ton. 

IV. — Slag fr) is thrown away. This contains .75 ounce Ag ; 2 to 7 
per cent, of Zn ; and no lead or gold. 

V. — Matte (//) is either refined on spot or sold for refining ; contains 
75 to 200 ounces of Ag. ; -5^ to J^ ounce gold ; 30 to 40 per cent. Cu, 
and 2 to 4 per cent. Zn. 

The process requires experience in working, especially if pigment is 
to be made, as the slightest color will injure its sale. The matting fur- 
naces require quite a different treatment from those used in copper- and 
lead-smelling. The great excess of zinc and sulphur, together with silica 
in excess, makes a difficult charge to run, which, if attempted in the 
ordinary blast-furnace in the usual way, would almost instantly freeze 
the furnace. 

Success in working this scheme depends largely on experience and 
practice. — State School of Mines Scientific Quarterly, Golden, Colorado, 
June, i«93. 

Gold. — The limitations of the gold stamp mill. By T. A. Rickard. 
Descriptive. — Advance sheets of the Trans, Amer^ Inst. Min, Engs.^ 
August, 1893. 

Aluminum. — By R. L. Pacard. — From Bulletin^ of the U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey, April, 1893 ; Journ, Amer, Chem, Soc, April and May, 1893. 

Al. — The metallurgy of aluminium. By John W. Langley, Ph.D. 
The electrical expenditures are frorii 5000 to 7000 amperes, which go 
through all the pots in series with a drop of potential of 7 volts for each 


pot. The actual E. M. F. of decomposition of alumina is about 2.3 
volts, the difference between this and the 7 volts necessary being due to 
the internal resistance of the bath and the carbon linings. The produc- 
tion of I pound of aluminum takes 18 horse-power hours measured at 
the steam engine ; about 1500 pounds are produced daily. — The Technic^ 

Antimony. — The extraction of antimony by electrical methods. 
Abstract of C. A. Hering*s review of the different processes, published 
in Di'gler's Polytechniches journal, 268. — London Electrical Review^ 
August 25, 1893. 

Metals. — Specific heats of metals. By Jos. W. Richards. Discus- 
sions under the head of i. Definitions, 2. Methods, 3. Historic treat- 
ment ; The investigator ; Work done by each. 4. Discussion of the 
results; Tables; Diagrams and formulae. 5. Theoretical treatment, 
discussion from the chemical and mechanical standpoints. — y^ourn. 
Frank, lusty July and August, 1893. 

General Summary of American improvements and inventions in 
ore-crushing and concentration and in the metallurgy of copper, lead, 
gold, silver, nickel, aluminium, zinc, mercury, antimony, and tin. By 
Jas. Djuglas. — Advance sheets of Trans. Amer, Inst. Min. Engs.^ 
August, 1893. 

Electro-Metallurgy. — By F. Osmond (abstract of paper read before 
the Engineering Congress). The microscopic study of metals shows 
crystallization to some extent in all the metals. Crystalline forces on 
the one hand and tensions and compressions on the other, determined 
by inequalities of temperature in the mass during heating or cooling 
give rise in every metal to the formation of geometric elements of struc- 
ture. — Industries and Iron, August 18, 1893. 


A Text-Book on CoAL-MrNiNO, for the Use of CoLLrERY Managers and 
Others. By Herbert W. Hughes. Large 8vo. 436 pp. 490 cuIn Index and 
Bibliography. London and Philadelphia. 1893. 

Since the formation of the North of England Institute of Mining En- 
gineers, forty years or more ago, seven or eight similar institutions have 
been organized in other counties of England, Scotland, and Wales, and 
there has been accumulating a most voluminous and valuable literature 
relating to mining, in the transactions of these societies. This mass of 
material has been exploited from time to time, chiefly with the scissors 
and paste-pot, and sundry ponderous volumes on mining have been pro- 
duced. These volumes, however, have been edited with but little judg- 
ment, and for this reason have small value, in spite of their bulk and 

Mr. Hughes has made much better use of this material, and has, with 
great labor, given us in a compact volume a most valuable epitome of 
this mass of literature. Mr. Hughes has drawn, also, from the journals 
and transactions of this country, and from those of some of the coun- 
tries of Europe, and very largely from his own experience. 

As a graduate of the Royal School of Mines, a past-president of the 
British Association of Mining Students, a practical colliery manager, 
and the author of numerous papers on coal-mining, Mr. Hughes is sin- 
gularly well fitted for the work he has accomplished, 

Mr. Hughes's work contains chapters on Geology, Coal, Search for 
Coal, Breaking Ground, Sinking, Preliminary Operations, Methods of 
Working, Hauling, Winding, Pumping, Ventilating, Lighting, Works 
at Surface, and the Preparation of Coal for Market. 

The first two chapters are quite short ; the others average about thirty- 
five pages each, and the space is very well apportioned among the dif- 
ferent subjects. 

Ekich chapter ends with a bibliography giving a list of the more im- 
p>ortant papers on the subject which have appeared in the transactions of 
each of the mining societies, or in the leading mining journals, with 
occasional references to special treatises. This has been done already 
for German mining literature by Professor Kohler, in his Bergbaukunde^ 
and less completely by Professor Haton, for French transactions and 
journals, in his Exploitation des Mines, The very valuable mass of ma- 
terials in the transactions of the English societies is now for the first 
time made available. 

This bibliography adds much to the value of the book, especially as 
many important subjects have been treated in outline only, in order to 
keep the book within moderate limits. The author has occasionally 
erred on the side of over-condensation and conciseness. This, how- 
ever, is a most refreshing innovation in mining treatises, and one with 
which we are not disposed to find fault. 

The book is illustrated by numerous small cuts in the text, specially 
drawn for the book. Many of these cuts are rather crude in drawing, 
and all of them have suffered in reproduction, so that the general effect 
o( the book is somewhat marred, especially when compared with such 
treatises as Haton and Kohler. The cuts, however, are clear and ad- 
mirably illustrate the text. 


The book, as a whole, is the most valuable treatise on mining that has 

appeared in recent years. Over two-thirds of the book treats of subjects 

of interest to those engaged in metal-mining, so that the work will prove 

a welcome addition to the library of all mining engineers. 

H. S. M. 

Lecture Notes on Theoretical Chemistry. By Ferdinand G. Wiechmann, 
Ph D. First Edition. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 1893. 8vo., 225 pp. 
Cloth binding. Typography and paper of good quality 

The author discusses the subjects in the following order : 

Chapter I. — Introduction and definition. 

11. — Specific gravity. Methods of determining the specific gravity 
of solids, liquids and gases, with calculated examples under each head. 

III. — Chemical nomenclature and notation, giving the various earlier 
systems, and concluding with a summary of the rules for the spelling 
and pronounciation of chemical terms as adopted by the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science in 1891. 

IV. — Atoms, atomic mass and valence, Ihe various methods of deter- 
mination are presented by calculated problems affording good illustra- 
tions of the different methods. 

V. — Chemical formulae. 

VI. — Structure of molecules, discusses molecular volume, refraction, 
and the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarized light and stereo- 

VII. — Chemical equations and calculations. 

VIII. — Volume and weight relation of gases, with methods of analysis. 

IX. — The periodic law, giving the tables of Newland, MendeleefT, 
and Lothar Meyer. 

X. — Solutions. 

XI. — Energy — chemical affinity. 

XII. — Thermal relations — thermo-chemistry. Giving the determina- 
tions of specific heat, calorific power and intensity, and the laws of 
thermo- chemistry. 

XIII. — Photo-chemistry, discusses chemical union and decomposi- 
tion, physical changes, mode of action, and the measurement of the 
chemical activity of light. 

XIV. — Electro-chemistry, describes electrolysis, the Ion theory, 
electrical units and quantitative relations. 

For a general view of the subject of theoretical chemistry this work 
is to be commended. It is ably supplemented by a bibliography suffi- 
ciently comprehensive to meet most requirements. While no attempt 
has been made to give credit for individual articles referred to in the 
journal literature, the periodicals themselves are named. And in the 
bibliogra|)hy those books which have been consulted in the preparation 
of the work are specially marked with asterisks. One excellent point in 
the arrangement is the use, for illustration, of problems completely 
calculated, leaving nothing to be assumed. J. S. 

Miners' Pocket Books, i. The Coal and Metal Miners' Pocket- Book. — Principles, 
Rules, Formulit, and Tables. Compiled and prepared for the use of Mine Ofii- 
cials, Mining Engineers, and Students |3reparin;T themselves for Certificates as 
Mine Inspectors or Mine Foremen Revised and Enlarged. 565 pp. Illus- 
trated. Scranton, Pa.: The Colliery Engineer Co. 1893. Price, flexible covers, 
$2 75; cloih, %i. 

2. Notes and formula for Mining Students — By John Herman Merivale, M.A., Col- 


liery Manager, Professor of Mining in Durham College of Science, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, etc. Second Edition. Revised. 157 pp. London: Crosby Lock- 
wood & Son. 1888. Price, 2s. 6d. 

3. A Tirxt'Sook of Mining Formula, — By Robert W. Dron, M E., Certificated Colliery 

Manager. 62 pp. Glasgow: J. W. Morgan & Co. 1890. Price, is. Qd. 

4. Afintr^ Pocket Book. — A Reference- Book for Miners, Mine Surveyors, Geologists, 

Mineralogists, Millmen, Assayers, Metallurgists, and Metal Merchants ail over 
the world. By C. G. Warnfurd Lock, Member Council Instn. of Mining and 
Metallurgy; author of Practical Gold Mining^ etc. 472 pp. London and New 
York : E. & F. N. Spon. 1892. 

5. A Pocket-Book for Miners and Metallurgists. — Comprising Rules, Formulae, 

Tables, and Notes for use in field and office work. By Frederick Dan vers 
Power, F.G S., M.E , etc. 334 pp. London: Crosby Lockwood & Son. 1892. 
Leather covers, 9s. 

6. The Miners' /Ittndbook. — A handy book of reference on the subjects of Mineral 

Deposits, Mining Operations, Ore- Dressing, etc. For the use of Students and 
others interested in mining matters. By John Milne, F.R.S., Professor of Mining 
in the Imperial University of Japan. 313 pp. London: Crosby Lockwood & 
Son. 1893. 

The recent appearance of a new and enlarged edition of The Coal 
and Metal Miners' Pocket-Book, which heads the above list of hand- 
books, has suggested grouping with it the other five for the purpose of 

Other branches of engineering have been for a long time abundantly 
supplied with such publications, but, up to a very recent date, with the 
exception of the two books first named, no handy works on mining and 
metallurgy have been published. That there is a demand for this class 
of literature is shown by the series of miners' pocket-books, which have 
app)eared in rapid succession, and to which we would now call atten- 

Most of them have been written with special reference to some par- 
ticular portion of the broad field of mining. In one case, that of Dron's 
book, the ground covered is exceedingly limited, viz., certain formulae 
relating to ventilation, pumping and haulage, strength of materials, 
engines and boilers, and surveying, together with a small amount of de- 
scriptive matter. This unpretentious little book follows Merivale in a 
way, but the latter is very much fuller, both in the number of topics 
treated and in the descriptive matter pertaining to them. Merivale de- 
votes considerable space relatively to boilers and transmission of power, 
as well as to distinctively mining subjects, such as hoisting, drainage, 
haulage, and ventilation, which are very briefly touched upon by Dron, 
and closes with a useful series of examples of the applications of the for- 
mulae set forth in the body of the book. In the matter of mathematical 
tables, Merivale contents himself with the insertion of one only — a table 
of hyperbolic or Napierian logarithms. Dron contains no material of 
this class. 

Lock's and Power's pocket-books both appeared last year, and are 
much wider in scope than Merivale's. In Power, the first hundred and 
forty-six pages are given to elementary mathematics, properties and 
strength of materials, motors, hydraulics, etc., such as are usually found 
in the various engineering handbooks, though more restricted in treat- 
ment than similar matter as presented by Trautwine, Haswell, Moles- 
worth, and others. Following these subjects are about a hundred and 
fifteen pages on chemistry, assaying, mineralogy, geology, and ore-dress- 
ing — material intimately connected with mining itself, but which finds 
no place in Dron and Merivale. Lock, on the other hand, has omitted 


entirely the preliminary mathematics and tables, and devotes but little 
space to ])roperties of materials, weights and measures, mechanics, and 
allied subjects. The first hundred pages are on motive power and trans- 
mission of power ; then there are twenty-three pages on prospecting and 
drilling and blasting; thirty-five pages on pumping, ventilation, haulage, 
and hoisting; fifteen pages on systems of mining; eighteen pages on 
placer mining, gold and silver milling, with machinery specifications — all 
of which are barely noticed in Power. But Power has given ninety-five 
pages to chemistry, assaying, and mineralogy, and twenty pages to crush- 
ing and ore-dressing, as against fifty-five and ten pages, respectively, in 
Lock. Again, Lock devotes twelve pages to mine surveying, with a 
traverse table of forty-four pages, carried to six places of decimals. 
This subject Power omits entirely. 

In Power we find a variety of useful tables, such as roots and powers, 
logarithms, natural functions, circular arcs and chords, slopes, and those 
under weights and measures, hydraulics, etc. Some are not so useful, 
and might have been omitted, as being somewhat disproportionate in 
length for so small a book. For example, there are three, occupying 
thirty-one pages, and intended to lighten the labors of those who must 
deal with j[^^ s. and d. : a *' Wages Table,*' on the basis of forty-eight 
hours per week; a '* Table for calculating the value of silver when the 
price per ounce varies between 3s. and 5s.'*; and a ''Gold Digger's 
Ready Reckoner," up to values of 500 ounces, and reckoned at ^^3 19s. 
and 3d. per ounce. 

Another of these, page 34, is a curiosity in its way, — a "Table showing 
the underlie and perpendicular in feet and inches for every degree of the 
quadrant, in six feet = one fathom." The latter, however, is a short 

Of the two books (Lock and Power) Lock is undoubtedly the more 
useful, but to both the same objection may be raised, viz., that they are 
examples of the rather hap-hazard compilations of which there are such 
large numbers in other branches of engineering. 

Turning now to Milne, the last of the series to appear, if we except the 
new edi'ion of the Coal and Meial Miners' Pocket- Book^ we find that the 
author has proceeded on different lines. Milne's is a book that can be 
taken up and read consecutively from beginning to end. It is essentially 
a book on mining, although many important subjects are altogether 
omitted. There are three parts : Mineral Deposits^ with classification and 
descriptions ; Mining Operations^ under which head are placed Boring, 
Breaking Ground, Systems of Working, Mine Development, and Mining 
Machinery ; and Ore Dressings including Crushing, Sizing, Sorting, and 
Concentration. This is all. It resembles a condensed text-book on 
these subjects, and the matter is not only well arranged, but excellent 
in quality. Naturally, in his limited field, Milne has been able to give 
much more space than the others to the subjects of which he does treat. 
Used in connection with some other book, for example, one containing 
chapters on surveying, with the necessary tables, assaying and mineral- 
ogy, Milne will be found very satisfactory. 

fi.ially, we have an enlarged edition of the Coal and Metal Miners^ 
Pocket-Book, The first chapiers contain a rSsumi of mathematical prin- 
ciples and rules, together with tables of weights and measures, etc. A 
concise description of the ordinary methods of land surveying is followed 
by the special methods employed underground, including the connect- 


ing of outside and inside work through shafts and slopes, the establish- 
ment of survey stations, systems of keeping notes, the location of errors, 
etc. The magnetic survey with the dipping-needle is briefly treated, 
and twelve pages are devoted to stadia measurements with tables. 
Neither of the subjects last mentioned is found in any other of the books 
in hand. But the special value of the book lies in one hundred pages 
on the s^Titems of working coal and metal mines, with chapters on pros- 
pecting. This material is presented in considerable detail — though 
dealing mainly with coal minmg — and is illustrated by a large number of 
good cuts. The illustrations form an excellent feature, and in introduc- 
ing them the publishers have scored a distinct advance upon the other 
miners' pocket-books. A chapter on the ** Location and Determination 
of Faults" is also worthy of note. The article on ** Colliery Machinery,*' 
by C. M. Percy, consists in part of material from the large work by the 
same author, on The Mechanical Engineering of Collieries, and has 
value as coming from a practical engineer and recognized authority. 
The details, however, relate specially to English methods, and though 
there iis no doubt that practice in England and in this country shows 
some tendency to converge towards the same standanls, yet it is to be 
regretted that our own practice has not been dealt with more particularly. 
This might have been done in an additional chapter without greatly 
enlarging the book. About two hundred pages are given to tables of 
natural functions, logarithms of numbers, logarithmic sines and tan- 
gents, a traverse table, etc. Besides the tables the book contains three 
hundred and thirty-five pages, of which two hundred and twenty-eight 
f>ages are devoted to subjects bearing directly upon mining. Some 
important topics, such as geology, mineralogy, metallurgy, and ore- 
dressing, have been omitted ; in fact, though there is some good material 
on metal mining, the book seems to have been prepared mainly with 
reference to coal mining. 

But, it would be unfair to condemn books of this kind for what they 
do not contain ; they should rather be judged upon the ground of what 
they i/o contain. No one pocket-book can cover the whole field of 
mining and its kindred subjects any more than one man can apply him- 
self successfully to all branches of mining and metallurgy. Each will 
have its specialties, and he wh: wishes to possess a vade mecum for his 
own particular branch has, since the publication of these recent books, 
good material from which to make a choice. 

We have tried 16 point out their weak and strong points, and find 
them generally more or less deficient — though necessarily so,, for the 
reasons just given — in the fundamental mathematics, mechanics, strength 
of materials, and engineering construction. They have their place, 
however, and this we think, for a mining engineer, is in connection with 
some such pocket-book as Trautwine, or others of tried excellence. 

\ comparative table of contents of the six Miners' Handbooks is 
appended. In the first column are the topics treated, the others con- 
taining the number of pages given to each. It is, of course, impracti- 
cable, without entering into the minutiae of an index, to tabulate in 
every case the precir>e amount of material presented under the various 
heads, and some of the less important matters may have been overlooked, 
but these parallel columns may be of some use in ascertaining the scope 
of the books under consideration. 




Arithmetic and Algebra 




Tables: Roots and Powers 

Logarithms of Numbers. 

Natural Functions 

Logarithmic " 

Circular " 


Slopes, etc 

Weights and Measures 



Money Tables : Waojes, Interest 
Values of gold and silver in £^ s. 
and d 

Properties of Materials 

Land Surveying 

Mine- <« 

Traverse Table 

Magnetic Survey 

Stadia Measurements and Tables. 

Heat, Sound and Pneumatics 

Magnetism and Electricity 




Motive Power 

Power Transmission 

Geology: Coal 

British Rocks 


M ineral Deposits 

Classification of Deposit': 

Coil A ' I I 1^^ - 

Metal Lock. Power.' *V*^"' 



Pages. Pages. Pages. Pages. 
lO ... ; 3 



I Pagts. 


I6 ' 

6 places. 


7 places. 

6 places. 



(of Coal) 



3 ! Hyp'r- 
5 places, bolic. 

. ' / 2 • • • 

3 places. 


15 I 13 

90 ! 44 
2 places. 6 place". 
'^ dcg. 2 mio. 
2 ; ... 


in Coal 

A% ... 

8 ! 51 

5 I •• 
14 ' 10 

\% I 39 















2 n 

15 Stutis- 

Gcneral tical. 


ing coal. 


Sc Itch 





Coal ft 
Milne. Metal 

Classification of Coals 

Lodes and Veins 23 

Beds and Layers 7 

Irregular Deposits 4 

Location of Faults 4 

Prospecting ^ 

Boring 12^ 

Breaking Ground I 6 


Air- Compressors 


Systems of Working : Coal Mining... 

Metal Mining.. 



Haulage I • i 

Hoisting 17 

Pages, . Pages. 
! 4 

Lock. Power. 

Pages. Pages. 







Pumping loy^ 

Ventilation 42 

Mine-Gases I 10 

Illumination of Mines 3 


Coal-Cutting S% 

Electricity in Coal-Mining 


Coal- Washing 

Crushing and Ore- Dressing 57 

Metallurgical Processes 8 


Mill Machinery 12 


Hydraulic Mining j 1%, 

River Mining 


Copper Smelting 

Roasting Pyrites 






4K , 


5 ; 




















, Under 
I Crush'gl 











VOL. XV.— 6 




Alloys, etc 

Assaying and Chemistry 

Valuing Metals and Ores 

Mechanical Drawing 

Geological Maps 



Treatment of Injured Persons 

Outline of Course of Mining Study... 


Bibliography of Mining 



Total No. of pages in Book 

Number of Illustrations 







Piigts, • Pages. 



I »93 

Pages.  Pages. 













42 ,Chem.of; Gases & 






R. p., Jr. 


Department of Mining. 

The Summer School of Practical Mining was held this year in New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania with a week at the World's Fair. In New Jer- 
sey two weeks were spent at the Mount Hope mines of the Lackawanna 
Iron and Steel Company. This was followed by a week of geological 
field work under Professor Kemp in the vicinity of Franklin. Then 
two weeks were spent in the new mines of Coxe Brothers & Co., at 
Oneida, Pa. Finally a week was devoted to the study of the mining 
exhibits at Chicago. 

The Summer School this year was under the charge of Adjunct Pro- 
fessor Peele, assisted by Edward B. Durham, E. M., '92 and Edward L. 
Dufourcq, E.M., '92. 

Mr. £. B. Durham, E.M., '92, lately assistant mining engineer for 
Witherbee, Sherman & Co., and the Port Henry Iron Ore Company, 
at Mineville, New York, has been appointed assistant in mining for the 
academic year 1893-94. 

An interesting lecture on the Shaw Gas Testing Machine, for the de- 
termination of minute percentages of fire-damp, was delivered to the 
students of the Summer School at Chicago, by Mr. Jos. R. Wilson. In 
the audience were a number of distinguished mining men, including Dr. 
Le Neve Foster, the recently appointed Professor of Mining in the Royal 
School of Mines, London. 

Through the liberality of a friend of the School a Shaw Gas Tester 
has been purchased for the use of the Mining Department, and will be 
used to illustrate the lectures on fire-damp and other mineigases. 

The directors of the St. Joseph Lead Company, at Bonne Terre, Mis- 
souri, have presented a beautiful model of their lead dressing works to 
the Mining Department. This model was a prominent feature in the 
Missouri State exhibit in the Mines Building at Chicago. 

The exhibit of the Cleveland Iron Company consisting of large sec- 
tional models of two of their mines near Ishpeming, specimens of ore, 
mine timbers and photographs, has been purchased for the department. 
These exhibits, the model of the St. Joseph Dressing Works and the 
Shaw Gas Tester are valued at nearly $6000, and will prove very valuable 
additions to the Mining Museum. 

Department of Physics. 

In the Department of Physics considerable progress has been made in 
the various courses given ; besides this, a tutor and an assistant have 
been added to the corps of instructors, which now numbers nine. The in- 
struction of 170 students, working in sets, from 9.30 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. in 
the laboratory, and the delivery of several distinct courses of lectures to 
250 students, and the reading of their examination papers, fully occu- 
pies the time of even so large a staff. The laboratory work being fully 
systematized, each student is furnished with a list of the experiments to 
be performed by him. There are nine such special lists. 
The course in Electrical Engineering occupies eight hours per week in 


the laboratory throughout the year ; the other courses require from two to^ 
six hours per week during the entire year. This arrangement brings the 
geologists into the laboratory, and gives the chemists two terms' work 
instead of one. The laboratory instruction to electrical engineers has 
been increased from 6 to 8 hours per week, and the course of lectures on 
mechanical and electrical units has been extended for them through the 
second term of second year. These lectures on units formerly given also 
to students in other courses in the first term of third year, are now 
given in the first term of second year for all courses except architecture. 
The laboratory work of these students is also transferred from the third 
to the second year. 

Some forty new experiments have been added to the list, and others 
are ready as soon as apparatus and space are available. 

As it now stands, the list includes, under "length," all the usual 
measurements and tests with dividing engines, comparators, cathetome- 
ters, calipers, spherometer, optical lever, goniometer, sextant, planimeter 
level-tester, etc. 

The experiments on " mass," include all the methods of weghingand 
corrections therefor ; also specific gravity, vapor-density and molecular 
weights, and calibrations. 

As practice in " time measurements," students determine time of 
oscillation by various methods, length of seconds pendulum, etc. 

Work on resultant of forces, elasticity, inertia, capillarity, viscosity, 
and hygrometry serves to illustrate mechanical and molecular forces. 

Several measurements, including those on the velocity of sound, serve 
to illustrate the laws and apparatus of acoustics. 

In heat, the subject of thermometry is fully developed, as also specific 
and latent heat, boiling and melting points, expansion and radiation. 

A large list of experiments in optics, includes work on focal-lengths 
of lenses and^mirrors, construction and power of microscopes, telescopes, 
etc., the spectrometer, refraction, dispersion, wave-length, spectrum an- 
alysis, absorption spectra, polarized light, saccharimetry, total reflection, 
photometry and colorimetry. The course in electricity and magnetism 
offers determinations of magnetic moments and fields, distribution of 
magnetism, lines of force, etc. Resistance measurements are made by 
all the various methods, and with a great variety of apparatus. The 
practice of fall of potential and its applications are very fully illustrated 
and demonstrated. Specific resistance, insulation, electro-motive force, 
quantity, capacity, current, etc., are determined by methods designed to 
show the use and principle of the different forms of bridges, galvanom- 
eters, electrometers, rheostats, and commercial motors in general. 

Personal instruction is furnished to several post-graduate students, 
who are at present engaged in original research. 

Department of Mechanics. 

The Department of Mechanics as at present organized is represented 
in the faculties of the School of Arts, the School of Mines and the 
School of Pure Science. The officers of the Department are, R. S. 
Woodward. C.E., Ph.D., Professor of Mechanics; M. I. Pupin, Ph.D., 
Adjunct Professor of Mechanics, and Joseph Pfister, M.A., Instructor in 
Mechanics. The subjects specially assigned to the Department are pure 
mechanics, the principles of hydromechanics and thermodynamics. 


In the School of Arts, instruction in elementary mechanics is given 
by Professor Woodward and Mr. Pfister. Loney's Elements of Statics 
and Dynamics is used as a text, and this is supplemented by lectures and 
demonstrations with apparatus. In the School of Mines, instruction in 
anal3rtical mechanics is given by Professor Woodward. Parts I., III. 
and V. of Rankine's Applied Mechanics^ are used as a text. This work 
is supplemented by lectures, <lemonstrations and solutions of typical 
problems. Instruction in thermodynamics is given by Professor Pupin 
by means of lectures. Professor Pupin gives instruction also in theo- 
retical electrical engineering, in the third and fourth years of the course 
in Electrical Engineering, by means of lectures and recitations. 

In. the School of Pure Science, a course of lectures on the Theory of 
the Potential Function, by Professor Woodward, and a course on the 
Mechanical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, by Professor Pupin, 
were begun with the present college year. In addition to these courses, 
which will be given annually by the Department, courses in higher Dy- 
namics, advanced Hydromechanics, Geodynamics, advanced Thermo- 
dynamics and its applications to electricity and chemistry, and the Elec- 
tromagnetic Theory of Light, will be offered for next year. 

Department of Metallurgy. 

A lathe for making sections of slags and steel is nearing completion. 
It is to be used for making the sections necessary for the continuance of 
the investigations on these subjects, which the department has now 
ander way. The collections of lecture diagrams, lantern slides, negatives 
and blue prints are being extended so as to include the latest data of 
modern metallurgical methods, and special sets of blue prints are in 
preparation for student use. 

Dr. Low and Mr. C. Vanderbilt have presented Mahler's bomb calor- 
iraetric apparatus, allowing work at a pressure of 175 atmospheres, and 
a digester, allowing work at a pressure of 75 atmospheres. 

A regenerative gas-furnace for high temperature work, and an oil-tank 
furnace for working at the temperature of boiling oil have also been 

Mr. E. L. Kurtz, '93, has sent the department two fine specimens of 
salamanders, taken from the hearth of a blast-furnace after going out of 
blast. These salamanders of crystallized iron weigh nearly 40 pounds 
each. A good specimen of nitro-cyanide of titanium was also obtained. 


The Faculty decided, at their last meeting in the spring, that lithol- 
ogy should hereafter be taught to all students in the courses of mining, 
chemistry, geology, and metallurgy, and, to make the necessary time, the 
work in mineralogy was transferred from the second year to the second 
term of the first year and first term of the second year by giving the De- 
partment of Mineralogy extra hours in the first year. The time thus 
secured in the second term in the second year was assigned to the 
subject of lithology under the Departments of Mineralogy and Geology. 

The work in lithology under the Mineralogical Department will be in 
charge of Mr. Luquer, tutor in mineralogy, and will consist in : A short 
introductory review of the principles of optics relating to reflection, 
refraction, and polarization of light. A description of common appar- 


atus used, such as the lithological microscope, the polariscope, the ap- 
paratus for measuring axial angles, dispersion, indices of refraction, etc. 
A description of the common optical character of the rock-forming min- 
erals, with methods of recognizing and distinguishing said minerals. 

Mr. Luquer is now arranging in a new and convenient form the data for 
recognizing optically the different minerals occurring in building-stones 
and also the economic effect of the minerals on the stones. In connec- 
tion with this a series of comparative tests on building-stones, between 
the artificial sulphate-of-soda freezing and actual freezing, are being 
made ; and a complete bibliography of the literature on building-stones 
is also in course of preparation. 

The collections of the mineralogical museum are being supplemented 
by two more special collections. The museum now contains, in addi- 
tion to the main collection, the following collections especially designed 
for facilitating instruction : Collection of pseudomorphs ; collection 
illustrating physical characters ; collection illustrating association of 
minerals ; collection of minerals of building-stones for civil engineer 
and arch students. Two student collections of different grades. 
To these there have been added collection of minerals of New York City 
and collection of natural crystals. The former has for its nucleus the 
specimens donated by Dr. J. J. Friedrich, and supplemented by speci- 
mens selected from the general collection. 

The crystal collection is designed not so much as an exhibit of 
beautiful crystals, but as an aid to comprehension of the science. The 
plan followed in it is as follows : Crystals of isometric minerals are ar- 
ranged, as there is only one series of forms, by forms and not by min- 
erals. In all other systems, as each mineral has its own series of forms, 
involving distinct axis-ratios, the arrangement under each system is by 
minerals, and each mineral is preceded by a wooden model of the ac- 
cepted unit-form, and this followed by as many forms as are obtainable. 

Mr. Ries, University Fellow in Mineralogy, has taken for his work, 
investigation of the pyroxene group, with especial reference to these 
pyroxenes occurring in New York State. This includes : An examina- 
tion of the optical properties and chemical composion ; the mode of 
occurrence of the pyroxenes, their relations to associated minerals as 
well as their order and manner of formation ; also crystallographic mea- 
surements to determine the association of forms occurring in the New 
York specimens. 

The department has purchased a No. 2 Fuess reflection goniometer 
with all accessories for crystallographic work. 

A Bert rand refractometer has also been secured. This instrument is 
of very small size (can be carried in the pocket), and gives, with very 
close approximation, the indices of refraction of liquids and solids — 
needing, with solids, simply a polished surface. 

During the past summer Mr. Luquer's work in cutting sections of 
building-stone was so facilitated by running the section grinders with 
an electric motor, that this fall three electric motors have been secured, 
so that all the grinding and cutting machines may be run by electricity. 

This department acknowledges the following donations : 

From E. Cumenge, specimens of gold in fluorite, boleite, cumengeite, 

From Dr. J. J. Friederich, a collection of New York City minerals. 

From M. Fran^illon, specimens of garnierite. 


Geological Department. 

Mr. C. A. HoUick, who has been for two years assistant in Geology, 
was promoted to be tutor last spring. The vacant assistantship was filled 
by the appointment of Mr. Gilbert Van Ingen, who has studied at Cor- 
nell and Yale, and done much collecting for the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey. Mr. Van Ingen will be employed in arranging and sorting the 
collections of fossils in the museum^ which have been in great confusion. 
The way is being prepared for systematic and complete instruction in 
palaeontology in the future. Professor Kemp spent June and September 
in field-work in the Adirondacks, being accompanied in the former by 
Matthew and Pomeroy, '93, White, '94, and Riederer, '96. Professor 
C. H. Smyth, Jr., ^%%y now of Hamilton College, also joined the party 
for a time. In September, Ries, '92, was with Professor Kemp. Efforts 
were directed toward mapping the geology of the Adirondacks, and 
will be continued next summer. Professor Kemp spent a week with 
the summer class in mining, exploring the geology of Franklin Furnace, 
N. J., and vicinity ; some twenty students formed the party. Mr. Hol- 
lick was engaged throughout July in further work upon the Cretaceous 
exposures and the eastward extension of the Yellow Gravel formation 
on the north shore of Long Island, and on Martha's Vineyard. Some 
interesting discoveries of fossil plants and moUusks resulted. W. D. 
Matthew, '93, is Fellow in Geology, and is working on the igneous 
rocks near his home, St. Johns, N. B. 

BroLOGicAL Department. 

During the past summer, twelve members and students of the de- 
partment worked in the Marine Biological laboratory at Wood's Holl, 
Mass. The College subscribes for one of the investigator's rooms at 
this laboratory. Mr. Willey worked upon the development of Molgula 
in connection with his researches upon the ancestors of the vertebrates. 
Dr. Dean continued his studies upon the embryonic development of the 
sturgeon, from material procured by artificial incubation at the sturgeon 
fisheries on the Delaware. This is the first time sturgeon culture has 
proved completely successful, and Dr. Dean's success will doubtless lead 
to the establishment of a sturgeon hatchery. Mr. Strong worked upon 
the cranial nerves of the fishes and amphibians. Professor Wilson con- 
tinued his studies upon the development of Nereis, He also made a 
reconnaissance of the Pacific coast, in order to advise the University of 
California regarding the location of a Marine Station. Professor Os- 
bom delivered the vice-presidential address before the Section of Z06I 
ogy of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and 
later, joined the palaeotological expedition of the American Museum of 
Natural History in Southern Wyoming. 

The department opens the year with about the same number of un- 
dergraduate students as last year, but with a greatly increased graduate 
roll. The large undergraduate laboratory in the medical school has 
accordingly been turned into a graduate rooin. Besides the work of 
different members of the department in the Biological Section of the 
New York Academy of Sciences, a special Morphological Club has been 
formed for reports upon special researches, and upon recent important 
articles in the biological journals. 


All of the university course of lectures are being given this year, and 
th6 department is, for the first time, in full running order. 

Department of Mechanical Engineering: 

The changes made in this department by virtue of the redistribution 
of the engineering subjects among the officers of instruction have been 
considerable. The subjects of motors using water, air, steam and other 
vapors ; heat, and its applications to the steam-engine, and the construc- 
tion and management of boilers and engines, make a compact and hom- 
ogeneous series of three courses of lectures for the head of the depart- 
ment to the graduating class ; and he retains his course in properties of 
materials for the third class for all engineering students. To provide 
for the work in the locomotive engine and on the transmission of power 
in machinery and millwork, displaced by these new assignments, Mr. 
Ira H. Woolson has been assigned to this department, and is lecturing 
to the graduating class in both courses, in addition 'o a responsible 
charge of the work in construction-drawing for the electrical engineers 
of the higher classes. He also runs the testing laboratory and the in- 
struction therein, and the detail of cement-testing forcivil engineers. 

Arrangements have also been made to have the engineering students of 
the third class do some testing of materials in the laboratory as part of the 
obligatory afternoon work of that year. It will involve tests in tensile, 
compressive and transverse resistance, and will be done mainly upon the 
reconstructed Fairbanks machine, which has been redesigned in iron and 
steel by the head of the department for this purpose. Mr. Luther E. 
Gregory of '93 has entered the department as assistant in this mechanical 
department. Considerable additions to the outfit in dynamometers have 
been made during the summer, and students are beginning to take theses 
involving laboratory investigations as facilities are provided. 

The work in first and second year drawing has been assigned to the 
department of mechanical engineering, where it most naturally seems to 
attach itself, and Mr. Mayer is in resix)nsible charge of it. The increase 
in the number of students and the hours of their service in the drawing- 
academy during all day made it necessary to apply for an additional 
assistant in this department, both for efficiency and as a relief to over- 
work. Mr. F. A. Provot, C. E. of '93, has been appointed assistant in 
drawing to fill this position. Mr. Gregory conducts the laboratory work 
with the indicators. 

Electrical Engineering Department : 

Mr. George F. Leon, who received his scientific education at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and who has had six years' prac- 
tical experience in electric railway, lighting, etc., with the Thomson- 
Houston Company, has been appointed instructor in electrical engineer- 
ing. Mr. Leon will take special charge of the laboratory work in the 
actual testing and use of dynamos, motors, and other electrical machin- 
ery. The total number of students now pursuing the course in elec- 
trical engineering is about one hundred, including about twelve post- 
graduate students. The regular four-year under-graduate course, as well 
as the post-graduate work, is now well organized. 

Vol. XV. No. 2. JANUARY, 1894. 







A.J. MOSBS, Adj. Prof, of Mineralogy. E. WALLER, Analytical Chemist. 

J. P. KEMP, Prof, of Geology. J. L. GREENLEAP, Adj. Prof. Civil Engineer'^. 

R. FERINE, Jr., Adj. Prof, Mining. JOS. STRUTHERS, Tutor in Metallurgy. 

Managing Editor, A. J. MOSES. 


Details of Modern Water Works Construction. By Wolcott C. Foster, 89 

Acantliite from Colorado. By Albert H. Chester 103 

Curdling of Milk. By Malvern W. lies 105 

A Plant for Granulating Slag. By Richard H. Terhune, E.M 108 

A Relation of Engineering to Progress and Civilization. By F. R. 

Hutton, C.E., Ph.D no 

Present Condition of the Mechanical Preparation of Ores in Saxony, 

Hartz and Rhenish Prussia. By M. Maurice Bellom Z15 

A Prencb Regenerative Gas Furnace. By Joseph Struthers 138 

Professional Notes 143 

Abstracts ^47 

Book Reviews 158 

Index to Mineralogical Literature. By A.J. Moses and L. McI. Luquer, 163 
Bulletin of Alumni and College News 180 



Registered at the New York Post Office as Second Class Matter. 

All Remittances should be made payable to Order of '*The School of Mines Quarterly." 

^af KeariTcy.;& loot . Com 


Office, 100 and 102 Reade Street, New York. 




We make 



of plant 


1350 DOZEN 


a day. 


our first 

nitutr^Md CaUloga 
mtilti OIL TMeipt of 


States de 

MnU poiUg*. 

aling in Hardware 

Leading houses throughout the United 

or Machinists 

Supplies cany 

our Files 



Jenkins' Bros. Valves and 

Jenkins' Standard Packing. 




XV. JANUARY, 1894. 



Pakt I. — Cast-Iron Bell and Spigot Pipe; Special 
iNGS ; Flejcible Joints. 

At the present day cast-iron pipe is undoubtedly the be 
most economical form of pipe for use in general water work: 
struction. Special cases and surroundings will, however, 
times require other kinds of pipe. For water works pu 
the pipe should always be coated. The coating usually emj 
is one of the tar or asphalt mixtures. There are two ki 
cast-iron pipe in use; Bell and spigot pipe. Fig. 1, and 
pipe. Of the latter we will treat later on. 

In speaking of the size of pipe of any kind the clear 
diameter is always mentioned; thus four inch-pipe meat 
having a clear diameter inside of four inches. 

Bell and Spigot Pipe. 
This pipe is so named on account of the shape of tht 
The enlarged end is called the bell or hub and the bead< 
the spigot. For each diameter of pipe the manufacturer 
out different thicknesses and consequently weights depi 
upon the service required and the pressure. In table.s are 
the weights per foot and per length :or different sizes, as 
by one of the prominent companies dealing in cast-iron pip 

" Copyriglil, 1894, by Wolcott C. Foster. 



Table I. 

Weights of Cast' Iron Pipe^ zuith Allowance added for Bowl 

and Spigot Ends, 

(Weights in Columns, per lineal foot.) 


























9 ' >3 

II ' 17 


^■5 21 



21.5 32.5 
27 ' 40.5 
32 48 


36; 47 


78 118 

90 i 13s 
94 I 141 

Thickness of Iron Shell in Inch us. 

^% x>i 



135 «37 I 172 

177 ! 198 

176 201 ' 224 




335 ; 384 433 

305 ! 336 

364 398 

449 ; 493 


495 540 
533 583 










Standard Weights of this Foundry. 







of Shell. 


per foot. 


per length. 



























































Table II. 
iToposed American Association Standard for Cast- Iron Water Pipe. 

Inches diameier. 












E . 

.2 S 




V s 

■0 — 

a ii 








! B 





; c 



, B 



I A 



I A 

' B 
I C 



V o e 

< c 





7 000 
















25 856 , 


32.142 1 

1. 07 1 


1. 214 




Q. • ^ 

- a 
















Weight pkr Length, 
(12 ft. 4 in.) ^ 
Including Bell. 

Average. I Max. 
































2.3 "5 




5,43 « 


























Table II. gives the weight of pipe for different services, as pro- 



posed at the meeting of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, at Chicago, May 20, 1890. 

Fig. I. 

Bell and Spigot Pipe. 

The quoted weights of pipes of the same diameter and for 
similar services vary with each foundry, but usually approximate 
the weights of Table I., very closely. 

Some makers quote the weight per foot without making an 
allowance for the extra weight of the bell and spigot, hence in 
drawing specifications and in purchasing pipe special attention 
should be paid to this matter. It is usually better to specify the 
weight per length rather than per foot and thus avoid controversy 
and a possible claim of misunderstanding. A variation of 5 per 
cent, for 3 -inch to 24-inch and 3 per cent, for 24-inch to 48-inch 
pipe above or below the contract weight is generally allowed. 
Each length is considered by itself; those lengths falling below 
the minimum are rejected while for those heavier than the maxi- 
mum the excess is deducted and not paid for. The number of 
lengths below the average weight should be about equal to the 
number in excess so that the total shipment will not vary more 
than I per cent, or 2 percent, at the most from the average weight 
of the specifications. Pipe up to 48 inches diameter is usually 
submitted to a hydraulic test of 300 pounds per square inch 
before shipment. Some few foundries make pipe up to 144 
inches diameter. 

The weight is marked with white lead inside the bell, and con- 
secutive numbers either painted or cast upon the outside of the 
pipe near the bell. In addition to these marks the initials of the 
water company or town and the year are frequently cast upon 
the outside, together with the initials of the maker. This is 
especially the case with large orders. When a large amount of 
pipe is purchased it is well to have a competent inspector at the 
foundry. This will usually save considerable expense and trouble. 
With small orders, however, this precaution is not so material. 
Very satisfactory results in this respect and at a minimum ex- 










i : ro : i : : ! i sg 









00 :::::::: : 



2ttiX«f-9<Iid o] 





M y h M* 




t** ::::*••• : 


N :::::::: : 




ir» ..:::::: : 







^ :::::::: : 


»5 :::::::: : 














• MM 







pense can usually be obtained by placing the foundry inspection in 
the hands of some reliable inspection association but care must be 
used to obtain, not the cheapest inspection, but ** inspection that 

After the pipe has arrived at its destination, an inspector should 
look it over as it is being unloaded from the cars, watching care- 
fully for breakages and cracks in both spigot-and bell-ends, at 
which points injury or defects most usually occur. It sometimes 
happens that the ends are cracked by the shifting of the pipes in 
the cars and their striking against each other. At the same time 
the number and weight of each length should be noted, together 
with the other data called for in the following heading for the in- 
spector's note-book : 

The iron should be soft, easily bored and cut, and the castings 
should be smooth and free from all defects, such as sponj^iness, 
lumps, swells, blisters, sand-holes, blow-holes, and the like, and 
should be of even thickness throughout. There is as yet no uni- 
versal standard practice in relation to cast-iron pipe, but the above 
remarks are based on considerable experience. A set of pipe 
specifications which are fair to both contractor and purchaser, 
and which will secure good results, will be given later. 

Straight pipe from 4 inches in diameter up is cast to lay 12 feet 
to the length, though as turned out by some makers it will be 
found to lay somewhat more. Anything other than straight bell 
and spigot pipe is called a ** special " or special casting. Specials 
include bends or curves, tees, crosses, Y's, plugs, sleeves, 
reducer*?, caps, etc. There are two prominent classes of bell and 
spigot specials, namely, ordinary specials, such as those shown in 
Figs. 2 to 1 1, and "Globe" specials, shown in Figs. 12 and 13. 
Globe specials are claimed to be lighter, more compact, and to 
give greater waterway than ordinary specials nnd are being used 
very extensively. Either class are made with bells all around, 
with spigots all around, or with bells on some ends and spigots 
on others. In making out a bill for ordering special castings, the 
safest way to designate tees, crosses, Y's, reducers, etc., is to draw 
a skeleton diagram and indicate on which ends the bells are 
wanted by a short curve, placing the diameter opposite each end, 
as shown in Fig. 14. Curves can be made of any radius desired, 
but the foundries usually have patterns made up of moderate 
radius, the length of the radius varying with the diameter of the 


pipe. They are spoken of as elbows (90^) or one-quarter bends 
(Fig, 2a), one-eighth or 45° bends (Fig. 2b), and one-sixteenth 

Fig. 2a, 

U L J 

Short Elbow. 

Elbows or 90° Bend. 

Curved Pipe, 

or 223^° bends (Fig. 2^), according to the angle they subtend. 
Globe elbows are made of any angle. Ordinary curves can, of 
course, be made to subtend any angle; but patterns have to be 

Fig. 2b. 

I r— -i»--"! 

One-eighth, or 45° Bend. 

altered or new ones made unless the foundry happens to have 
made a similar bend before and has the pattern on hand. Where 



long radius curves or specials cast on the arc of a circle are used, 
odd angles can be made by cutting off a portion of the spigot- 
end. Long radius bends have, theoretically, a slight advantage 

Fig. 2f. 

W F-j ^ 

One-sixteenth, or 22^ Bend. 

over the kind illustrated, as the change in the direction of the 
current of water is more gradual ; but the benefits actually de- 
rived in use seldom pay for their increased cost. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 5. 




Tees are three-way special castings, two of the branches being 
in a straight line and the third one at right angles, Fig. 3. 

Y's are three-way special castings in which the branches are 
inclined to each other at angles other than right angles, Fig. 4. 
Unless otherwise specified, Y's are sent with two of the branches 


in a straight line and the third branch leading ofT at an angle of 

Crosses are four-way special castings, Fig. 5, 

Reducers are straight special castings, each end of which is of 
different diameter, Fig. 6. 

Sleeves are special castings for joining together two spigots or 
plain ends of pipe. Fig. Ta. 

Halved or split sleeves are sleei/es made in two parts to be 
placed over the jwpe and bolted together, Fig. yb. 

rialved or Split Sleeve 

Plugs are special castings used to stop up open ends of the pipe 
or special castings. Fig. 8. 

FiO. S. 

D a 


Caps are special castings used to place over open spigot-ends, 
Fig. 9. 

S-bends or ofTsets are used to connect two lines of pipe which 
run in the same direction but which will not abut on being 
brought together, Fig, 10. 


Cap. Offset. \\m FlanEC, 

Hat flanges are used to connect a new line of pipe with an old 
line already laid where provision by the insertion of a tee or 
other special has not been made, and where it is not desirable or 
economical to insert one. Fig. 1 1. 

There are other forms of special castings, but the above embrace 
those most commonly in use. 

Where a special, such as a tee, is to be inserted in an old line 
of pipe, there are two ways of doing it open to the choice of the 


engineer. The first or old-fashioned method is to cut out a piece 
of pipe, say three or four feet longer than the special to be in- 

Odd Shaped or Combination Globe Special. 

serted, and then cut offa piece of pipe somewhat shorter than the 
length of pipe cut out less the laid length of the special. A sleeve 



Method of Uetining Specials. 

is slipped over one of the etids of the length of pipe, the short 
piece connected with the special, and the two slipped into place; 



the sleeve is then pushed over the two spigot-ends, so as to give 
an equal length on each side of the joint, and the joints made up. 
Fig. 15. Or a special having a spigot-end may be used instead 
of using the short piece of pipe and the joint made up with a 
sleeve, Fig. 16 ; or the two opposite ends of the special may have 
spigots and two sleeves used, Fig. 17. 

Fig. 15. 



Method of Inserting Tee, 

KiG. 16. 

Method of Inserting Tee. 

Fig. 17. 



Method of Inserting Tee. 

The second method is by using what is called a " cutting -in " 
or " Dunham '* special. This is a recently invented contrivance, 
and has been on the market but a short time, Fig. 18. The pecu- 
liarity about it is the shape of one of the bells. A piece is cut 
out of the pipe of the proper length ; the special is held at an 
angle, and the special bell slipped over one of the ends of the 
pipe until the opposite bell passes the other free end of the pipe. 
The special is then dropped into line with the pipe, and pulled 
back until the pipe abuts against the bottom of the ordinary bell. 
The joints are then made up. 


Specials are not subjected to the hydraulic test by which pipe is 
examined, but should be carefully inspected. Special pains should 
be taken in inspecting at the junction of the bell with the body, 
and at the places where the supply of metal enters the mould. 
There small hemispherical lumps often appear. These spots are 
likely to have blow-holes running clear through the castings. 

Fig. 1 8. 

•*Cutling-in" or "Dunham" Special. 

Boring out these holes in either straight pipe or specials, and fill- 
ing them up with a rivet, as is frequently done, should not be 
allowed, nor should the foundries be allowed to calk up the holes 
by hammering over the surrounding metal. 

In all pipe and specials care should be taken to see that the 
pipe " chambers " — that is, that the spigot end will enter the hub 
or bell end to its full depth. There is no universal standard of 
shape or dimensions for either bell or spigot. The variety of bell 

Fig. 19. 


designs seems to be without end. (Fig. 19 shows a few.) Bells 
less than 3^ inches deep should never be used even on the 
smaller sizes of pipe. With shallow bells it is difficult to get 
either a good or a tight joint, and the joints are easily sprung. 
Neither can curves of long radius be made by " pinching " joints 
if the bells are shallow. The matter of being able to lay straight 
pipe around curves is frequently a very useful factor, saving the 
extra cost of specials. Eight-inch pipe, with good bells, can eas- 


ily be laid on a io° curve by " taking it out of the joiits " without 
cutting. Where the lead room is large, or where the pieces or 
short curves of much greater degree can be laid with straight 
pipe. An excessive amount of lead room is of no benefit, and 
contributes to a waste of lead, which is costly, A moderate 
amount of lead room, say about three-eighihs of an inch between 
the outside of the pipe and the inside of the bell answers every 
purpose. The inside of the b^ll should have a groove of moder- 
ate dimension around it, near the outer end. Where different 
weights of pipe of the same diameter are to be joined together, 
and the pipe will not chamber, a sleeve can be used. If it is de- 
sired to have the bells face one way, then the bell end of the 
proper length should be cut off, just back of the bell, so that the 
sleeve may fit over the pipe. 

In cases of emergency sleeves may be made from pieces of 
pipe ot the next highest diameter, but, as a rule, such sleeves 
should only be resorted to when it is not possible to wait for or 
obtain regular sleeves. 

Fkwble Joints. 

In designing work it is, of course, more economical in both 
time and money to use, wherever possible, standard or stock 
pattern specials. When patterns have to be altered, or new ones 
made, the castings are not cnly more costly, but considerable delay 
is apt to result. At times, however, by using an odd special, one 
casting can be made to take the place of several, and then it is 
frequently economy to require such a casting. 

Flexible joints (Fig. 20) are used in laying pipe underwater. 
They are built upon the ball-and-socket principle, and there are 
several different designs upon the market. 

In closing, it may be well to state that ordinary straight pipe is 
sold by the ton of 2240 pounds (sometimes the ton of 2000 pounds 



is quoted); ordinary special castings by the pound; globe and 
other patented specials by the piece. The price of pipe varies 
from $20 to $35 per ton delivered f. o. b., cars or boat at destina- 
tion, depending on the diameter of the pipes, state of business, 
size of order, and place of delivery. In the immediate vicinity of 
New York the smaller sizes cost from $27 to $29, and the larger 
$2^ to §27 per ton. Ordinary stock-pattern specials, two to three 
cents per pound, usually about two and a half cents. Specials 
for which patterns have to be made, two and a half to five cents a 


By albert H. CHESTER. 

An examination of some crystals of silver sulphide from the 
Enterprise Mine, at Rico, Colorado, seems to justify the opinion 
that they belong to the rare species acanthite, heretofore found 
only in a few localities in Saxony, and about the existence of 
which as an independent species there has recently been some 

These crystals were found attached to only two specimens 
among a large lot kindly sent to the author by Mr. D. Kirby, 
superintendent of the mine. 

It is iron- black in color, with a brilliant metallic lustre. Owing 
to the small amount of material at hand, its .specific gravity was 
not taken. The mineral is sectile, but so than argentite. It 
cuts easily and will flatten under the hammer, but breaks quij:e 
readily when bent suddenly. Chemically it is pure silver sul- 
phide, containing 12.58 per cent, of sulphur and showing traces 
only of iron and copper. A complete analysis has not been 
made, owing to lack of material ; but no doubt is entertained 
that it is silver sulphide, AggS, having the theoretical compo- 
sition of sulphur, 12.9 per cent, and silver, 87.1 per cent. 

The more perfect crystals are about 6 mm. in lengih and 0.5 
mm. in thickness, and occasionally show distinct terminations of 
the basal pinacoid. They are generally very deeply striated 
lengthwise, and there are no distinct prismatic planes on which 


measurements can be taken. The basal plane is apparently at 
right angles to the long axis of the crystal. Many of the crys- 
tals run out to acute terminations, but whether as domes or 
pyramids cannot be definitely stated. The whole appearance, 
however, is decidedly orthorhombic, resembling on a small 
scale certain aggregations of goethite or manganite, where the 
crystals are often grouped in bundles laid parallel to the long 
axis of the prism. Sometimes the groups are in tabular aggrega- 
tions, but always showing deep striations and presenting the ap- 
pearance of small, corrugated plates. 

Associated with the acanthite, and occurring in such quantities 
as to form one of the most valuable minerals in the mine, are 
small masses of silver sulphide,, called locally " nuggets." These 
masses are usually rounded, as if they had been fused, and are 
superficially coated with chalcopyrite, which takes a purplish tar- 
nish on exposure to the air. Often this silver sulphide is found 
filling cavities between quartz crystals, and consequently taking 
angular shapes easily mistaken for crystals. Occasionally this 
silver sulphide constitutes the matrix of the quartz crystals, serv- 
ing to hold together a specimen that would otherwise fall apart ; 
but in all cases it is coated as above mentioned, and some of the 
specimens are of singular beauty in consequence. When this 
coating is removed the mass is found to consist of pure silver sul- 
phide, slightly harder and a little less sectile than argentite, of 
which abundant specimens are found in the mine, both in crystals 
that are distinctly isometric, and in masses, some of which weigh 
several ounces. None of the crystals, however, have the coating 
of copper pyrites. From these physical differences it is suggested 
that the ** nuggets " may be massive acanthite rather than argen- 

Associated with the acanthite and argentite are stephanite, poly- 
basite, tetrahedrite, and pyrargyrite, with sphalerite, chalcopyrite, 
and pyrite, all set in bright pink rhodochrosite. 

Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J., 
December 22, 1893. 




In 1877 the writer made some very curious and interesting 
observations upon the curdling of milk. These results were 
embodied in an article written for the ^o^ton Journal of Chem- 
istry, Vol. XII., No. 6. 

This article appears under the caption ** Why milk sours during 
thunder-storms;" and in consideration of the fact that mere chance 
has caused me to still further add to the literature on this subject 
by some laboratory tests, I therefore deem it expedient to bring 
before the readers of the Quarterly the results obtained in 1877. 

The article in question says : 

'* There have been various surmises in regard to this subject ; 
none, so far as I have been able to learn, have been substantiated 
by experiments. 

" In order to learn whether milk did really sour during heavy 
rain and thunder-storms, I made several observations which proved 
to me that this opinion, so commonly held by the dairymen, was 
not erroneous. My experiments to arrive at the cause of the 
phenomena thus observed may be stated as follows : 

" I took skimmed morning's milk, filled an eudiometer tube 
(3CX3 ex.), and introduced 100 c.c. pure oxygen gas; then by 
the use of an ordinary' battery and a small Ruhmkorfif coil, sparks 
of electricity were made to pass through the oxygen fjr five min- 
utes. The current was then broken, and the tube shaken up and 
allowed to stand for five minutes. The milk does not appear 
quite as opaque, and shows a noticeable acid reaction. On con- 
tinuing the current for five minutes longer, making ten minutes 
in all, the milk curdles very perceptibly, and shows a decided 
acid reaction. The contents of the tube on standing for twenty 
minutes had reached the consistency of ordinary sour milk or 
* bonny-clabber.' 

*• From the above experiments it will be seen that oxygen was 
converted into ozone, which we think may be stated as the cause 
for the rapid souring of milk during thunder-storms. 

VOL. XV. — 8 


** The increased acidity is due to the formation of lactic acid, 
and most probably some acetic acid, by means of the ozone. 
One or both of these acids causes the casein to be precipitated." 

By carefully reading the above extract it will be observed that 
I was very careful not to venture an opinion or to generalize fur- 
ther than I thought was entirely safe from the highly interesting 

Nothing further was done in regard to this subject by the writer 
for sixteen years, until by chance the acquaintance of an old prac- 
tical cheese manufacturer was formed. By insisting upon a very 
careful statement of all details pertinent to the cheese industry, 
the use of rennet was brought to my attention, and the thought of 
the ozone experiment I made at the Johns Hopkins University 
came back clearly to mind. 

The first problem I mentally propounded to myself was this : 
If ozone will cause a precipitation of casein, why will not per- 
oxide of hydrogen do likewise ? 

Upon my return to my home in Denver, I found by actual 
laboratory test that peroxide of hydrogen does actually cause 
the casein to separate not only easily but with perfect complete- 
ness. The reaction is somewhat facilitated by gentle application 
of heat, but this is not absolutely necessary. Other oxidizing 
agents were then tried upon perfectly pure, sweet milk, and I 
found that bromine-water causes the same curding of milk; also 
many other oxidizing agents will do likewise. I tried also per- 
manganate of potash and bichromate of potash solutions, and they 
also acted as curding agents ; particularly by gentle warming is 
the reaction facilitated. 

W)iile it is well known that many of the mineral acids pre- 
cipitate casein from milk, and that the cheese manufacturer uses 
a portion of a calf's stomach called rennet, or lately a prepared 
solution of rennet ; yet we also now learn that many other agents 
will act in a similar way as ozone, peroxide of hydrogen, bromine 
water, permanganate of potash, and bichromate of potash. 
While the above last named agents are all powerful oxidizing 
agents, yet it cannot be safely concluded that the mysterious 
chemical action of rennet, is also oxidizing in its action, still it 
fortifies us with a fact which will possibly aid towards the clear- 
ing up of a thing which has always puzzled the wisest philoso- 
phers. I suggest and propose to use peroxide of hydrogen as a 


substitute for rennet in the manufacture of cheese in the future. 
It will be readily seen that nothing of a harmful or injurious 
nature will be introduced into the cheese, but as an actual fact no 
chemical or particle of matter will enter the cheese, used as a 
precipitant of the casein, as the peroxide of hydrogen will simply 
lose one atom of oxygen and be converted into water. In Blox- 
am's Chemistry (2d edit.) page 600 and 601 we find the following : 

'* When an acid is added to milk, the casein is separated in the 
form of curd, in consequence of the neutralization of the soda 
which retains it dissolved in fresh milk." Also that, " Coagu- 
lated caseine may be dissolved by acetic or oxalic acid, but the 
addition of sulphuric or hydrochloric acid reprecipitates it, these 
acids apparently forming insoluble compounds with casein. It 
is also stated by the same authority that : *' This action of rennet 
upon milk has not yet received any satisfactory explanation. '* 

In Dr. Justus Von Liebig's Familiar Letters on Chemistry as 
edited by Dr. John Blyth, I have found an interesting treatment 
on the casein of milk. It is there stated (page 225): 

" The skin of animals, the mucous membrane of the stomach 
and intestines, and the urinary bladder, have many properties in 
common with gluten and yeast. In their fresh state these sub- 
stances exercise not the slightest influence upon starch or milk 
sugar, but when placed in water for a few hours, or even when 
simply exposed to the atmosphere, they quickly pass into a state 
of decomposition, which renders them capable of converting with 
great rapidity starch into sugar and milk sugar into lactic acid.*' 

This property of the mucous membrane of the stomach of the 
calf has been made use of, from time immemorial, in the prepara- 
tion of cheese, in order to make milk coagulate, or, in other 
words, to effect a separation of the cheese from the other consti- 
tuents of milk. 

The solubility of cheese in milk is in consequence of the pres- 
ence of alkaline phosphates and of free alkalies. In fresh milk 
these substances may be easily detected by the property it pos- 
sesses of restoring the blue color to reddened litmus-paper. 

The addition of any acid, by neutralizing the alkali, causes 
the cheese to separate in its naturally insoluble state. The acid 
indispensable for the coagulation of milk is not added to the milk 
in the preparation of cheese, but it is formed in the milk at the 
expense of the milk-sugar present. A small quantity of water is 


left in contact with a small piece of a calf's stomach for a few 
hours or for a night ; the water takes up a quantity of the decom- 
posed mucous membrane so minute as to be scarcely ponderable : 
this, called rennet, is mixed with milk ; its state of transformation 
is communicated (and this is here the most important circum- 
stance) not to the cheese, but to the milk-sugar, the elements of 
which transpose themselves into lactic acid, which neutralizes the 
alkali, and thus causes the separation of the cheese. By means 
of litmus-paper the process maybe followed and observed through 
all its stages ; the alkaline reaction of the milk ceases as soon as 
the coagulation begins. If cheese be not immediately separated 
from the whey, the formation of lactic acid continues, the fluid 
turns acid, and the cheese itself passes into a state of decompo- 

In conclusion, I will state that I will not be able to pursue 
this subject further, but hope others interested in scientific pur- 
suits or the practical manufacture of cheese will be induced to 
make further tests as a resultant of a few experiments I have 
made, and under remarkably peculiar circumstances. 

I need hardly add to the readers of the Quarterly that my 
duties as a smelter of lead, silver and gold ores is not even re- 
motely connected with a cheese factory. However, the cheese 
man can use peroxide of hydrogen instead of rennet, if he so de- 
sires, with my kind wishes. 
The Globe Smelting and Refining Company, Denver, Colorado, 
November 1 3, 1893. 



The granulation of slag offers many advantages, among which are 
the economic disposal of the material, reduced heat about the fur- 
nace room and yard, and the production of thinner " shells " where 
the system of tapping the pot for their recovery is adopted. Ac- 
cordingly, in the spring of 1892, I designed and built, at the 
Hanauer Smelting Works, the following plant for the above 
purpose : 

Ten feet from the front of the blast-furnace room, and parallel 


with it, is placed an underground trough, 2 feet wide and 6 inches 
high, inside dimensions ; it is provided with an auxiliary bottom 
of cast-iron plates, i inch thick, it having been found that wood 
was cut away too rapidly ; this trough has a pitch of J^ inch to 
the foot; its dimensions and pitch were the subject of much ex- 
perimenting, in order to secure the highest efficiency of a limited 
quantity of water in its double duty of granulating the slag and 
and carrying it to an elevator pit, 133 feet distant from the re- 
motest blast-furnace; opposite each furnace is a rectangular open- 
ing, leading from the trough to the face of the dump, and covered 
with a suitably flanged cast plate; it is here where the tapping of 
the slag pot is performed; the maximum depth from the surface 
of these plates to bottom of trough is 36 inches ; if greater it was 
found the operation would not be successful, as the momentum of 
the ij^-inch stream of slag caused it to solidify on the bottom 

The smallest quantity of matte present produces a succession 
of sharp explosions, not dangerous, but warning the furnaceman 
that the settling vessel needs to be exchanged for a fresh one ; 
where the usual plan of tapping the waste slag into another pot or 
on the dump is pursued, the waste of matte is unavoidable. 
Water for the operation is supplied by gravitation from the power 
head-race, 1 3 feet above the tapping floor. 

The granulated slag is carried away with sufficient rapidity to 
admit of four furnaces tapping their slag into the trough simulta- 
neously ; it is delivered to an elevator pit, water-tight and 8 feet 
in depth — all that could be obtained conveniently, being level with 
the canyon stream, Big Cottonwood, into which the waste water of 
the works is discharged. 

This depth of pit was necessary to prevent any considerable 
overflow of small particles of slag into the stream — contrary to 
law; an ample settling tank is also provided ; from this pit the slag 
is lifted 40 feet for easy delivery by gravitation into tram cars, or 
railway cars, or a storage bin of 100 tons capacity, sufficient for 
twelve hours' run nights, when there is no organization to handle 
it; the elevator belt is eight-ply 8-inch rubber, and its life, under 
constant use, is one year; the most durable bucket is found to be 
of malleable cast-iron; for motive power a 15-inch Leffel mining 
wheel is employed, and having its gates so shortened, under the 
length of the standard wheel of this size, that but 3- horse-power 


is developed when they are wide open ; this was an expedient to 
attain the desired speed of 550 revolutions per minute; the speed 
of elevator is 250 fe:t per minute. 

Wherever the angular and abrasive slag impinges or flows, pro- 
tection by iron plates is necessary. 

Regarding the uses to which the material may be put, none 
have yet been found ; it is very brittle (lead furnace slag), abso- 
lutely without cohesion, and will all pass through a J^-inch mesh 
sieve; the local railways have tried it extensively for ballast ; it 
will prolong the life of a wooden tie, and will not blow like sand, 
but it does not kill weeds which it was hoped it would do, and it 
does not pack ; experiments are now under consideration to pro- 
duce a coarser material suitable for ballast and one that is less fri- 
able, but it is believed this condition will not be attained except by 
sacrificing in some degree the great economy of handling, for 
which the plant was installed. 

The granulation of slag offers unusual facilities for sampling and 
weighing the daily product of this material ; in fact, it is the oftiy 
system by which the loss in this channel of lead and silver can be 
arrived at with anything like satisfaction; this knowledge is here 
gained with all the accuracy that obtains in sampling concentra- 
tions ; every metallurgist knows what an inhomogeneous a thing 
a pot of cold slag is, varying from a comparatively rich outer 

shell to a barren and crystalline interior. 
Salt Lake City, December 5, 1893. 



By F. R. HUTTON, C.E., Ph.D. 

An element which doubtless added much to the enjoyment of 
every visitor to the Columbian Exposition was the faultless critical 
faculty with which the governing authorities made their selections. 
In no other respect was this more manifest than in the choice of 
him who was to select suggestive and appropriate mottoes to be 
worked into the decoration of the buildings. 

It would, perhaps, be an unnecessary inviting of controversy to 


say that engineers in particular, visiting the Fair, were impressed 
with the selected mottoes for the Transportation Building, and this 
the more by choosing such mottoes from writers who lived suf- 
ficiently in advance of this century of progress to have their intui- 
tive perceptions of great truths amount to a prophetic forecast. 

One of the many definitions of genius is that it is a power to see 
and record truths which every one knew, but was not able to an- 
nounce, but in the case of Lord Bacon and the quotation credited 
to him, the achievement rises further and higher than this when 
account is taken of the conditions prevailing when it was uttered. 

The quotation which the writer seeks thus to commend, and 
whose import is not appreciated by the great mass pf the general 
public is in these words: ** There are three things which make a 
nation great and prosperous ; a fertile soil, busy workshops and 
easy conveyance for men and goods from place to place." If it be 
true that the relations of engineering to the greatness of a nation 
are not generally realized to-day, the light of this solitary seer 
in the past gleams out upon the student so much the more bril- 

Bacon was a philosopher of the Elizabethan period of England, 
his active service running forward into the beginning of the first 
James, of the House of Stuart. At the end of the sixteenth and 
the beginning of the seventeenth centuries, Leeds, Manchester, 
Birmingham and the other industrial centres of England were but 
modest towns, distinctly provincial, and without noteworthy influ- 
ence upon the national life. The profession of arms was the road 
to honor and preferment; the Crusades were not so long in the 
past ; the Reformation was but a hundred years in the perspective. 
The puddling of wrought iron was many years below the horizon ; 
the Marquis of Worcester and Papin belong in the latter part of 
the seventeenth century. The whole industrial system, so far as 
it existed at all, was based on the principle of individual labor by 
master workmen, whose shop was in his own house, and whose 
apprentices were members of his household. Beside those me- 
chanic arts attaching themselves to the needs of the warrior and 
the husbandman, the weaver was by far the most important, and 
special emphasis had been given to this craft by the escape into 
England of so many of the industrious and conscientious Hugue- 
nots expelled from France by the revocation by Louis XIV. of the 
Edict of Nantes. When Bacon therefore speaks of busy workshops, 


to him they mean the individual establishment of the craftsman, and 
not the busy hive where the labor of many hands was concentrated 
under one management in what we of to-day call a factory or a 

But this only adds to the wonder that in his outlook upon the 
conditions which make a land great and prosperous, the philoso- 
pher should have generalized from small to great, so that his clear 
vision should have been able to appreciate and his analytical mind 
to formulate the relation which engineering in its modern sense 
bears to national progress, and is likely to bear even more and 
more as the forces of Nature are made by the engineer more and 
more the servitors of man. 

In the rise and progress of a nation, whether it originate in a 
virgin land by colonization or by conquest, it will be a matter of 
the most immediate and vital consequence that the soil of the new 
land be a fertile one. The husbandman will be the first laborer in 
demand, because the infant colony or the struggling settlement, 
with its women and children, must be fed. The craft of the hunter, 
also, in a new country, and the fisherman, will be of great moment 
in conjunction with the farmer. It is apparent, however, that if 
growth and development stop here, the community will be a small 
one, with limited demands, and probably limited achievement of 
any sort. It will remain a hamlet merely, and is not likely to 
grow to a centre of intellectual or other activity. 

The reason for this is not far to seek. In the nature of the 
case, a purely agricultural country to be successful must not be 
too densely populated to the unit of area, since for economical 
husbandry, as in manufactures, the secret is a large output, with 
a comparatively small outlay for labor. This means, therefore, 
large farms, with a comparatively small number of persons living 
on them, whereby the farmsteads become remote from each other. 
There will be a central settlement where the blacksmith and the 
house-builder and the tailor and the store-keeper will have their 
abodes, but the idea of the city is impossible under these con- 

By the natural increase, however, and a probable influx by emi- 
gration, an increasing number of men forms a part of the little 
community, and they must be bread-winners. The farm does not 
want them, and labor must be found for them in some other de- 
partment of industry. The large farm, moreover, with a fertile 


land, produces more than those living on it will consume, and if 
the prices of their commodities are not unduly to fall, a demand 
must be created in their neighborhood or transportation must be 
furnished. This concurrence of a supply and a demand in a settle- 
ment of this sort is the beginning of manufactures, and the busy 
workshop springs up — first, in the segregrated units of the earlier 
day, and later, by the aggregation of many workers in one great 
establishment. The necessity for the support and the supply of 
the needs of this workshop or factory population, which will now 
become very dense per unit of area for the best conditions, will 
attract the exchangers of commodities; stores must be provided, 
which again call for a class of laborer who will live densely over 
the area which he serves, and the result of these two forces will be 
the city. It is a platitude of the inspection of recent census re- 
ports that the development of the modern state shows an enor- 
mous increase in the sizes of the cities. We have here in the fore- 
going considerations, apart from any questions of sentiment, the 
reasons which in a prosperous nation point to this very result. 

It is also an interesting question which, although aside from the 
direct matter under consideration, is at once suggested at this 
stage, and that is, that the consolidation of industrial interests, 
which is a feature of the industrial life of to-day, is Jtist as unmis- 
takable a mark of progress for the country at large, in the direc- 
tion of the cheapening of manufacture, as the consolidation of the 
segregated workers into the aggregate of a factory has resulted in 
a noteworthy cheapening of product for the community at large, 
while the compensation of the laborer is even greater in propor- 
tion than under the old conditions. The period of transition from 
the one system to the other is the period of hardship. It is also 
suggested here to the thoughtful that that national policy which 
encourages the development of manufactures within the nation 
and builds up the busy workshops of the philosopher is the one 
which developes the cities, which, with all their dangers, are yet 
the centres of intellectual and spiritual force in the nations of the 

The thinker must supply for himself the function which the 
engineer has exerted in the development of the factory and the 
city, which is its consequence. The busy workshop of to-day is 
but a creation of the busy brain of him who applies the force of 
heat'or gravity to the turning of the hundreds of whirling wheels, 


and who has transmitted and converted the motion thus made 
available for the myriad purposes which his brain has evolved. 

But the philosopher saw further than this ; he saw that a j:;reat 
and prosperous nation could not be a nation brought up without 
homes, or whose homes were not comfortable and happy and 
sunny. Knowing well his countrymen and the deep-rooted in- 
stincts of the Anglo-Saxon race, he knew he would not be per- 
manently contented when his home life also was conducted in an 
aggregation of families under one roof. He may not have fore- 
seen the tenement house, but he knew what it meant for the 
worker to come refreshed each morning to his toil, from the inde- 
pendence and the dignity which surround him who is at the head 
of his own private house. He foresaw also that the history of the 
husbandman would repeat itself for the manufacturer, and that he 
would produce more product than could be economically disposed 
of in the city of its origin. He said, therefore, that a third ele- 
ment was necessary to secure the greatness of his prosperous 
people. They might be prosperous with the other two, but they 
would not be great. That third element for this greatness and 
prosperity is '* easy transportation of men and goods from place 
to place." 

For men, this easy transportation means suburban homes, out- 
side of the restricted area of the cities; it rheans for another'class 
the culture and intellectual stimulus which comes from travel and 
new scenes. For things, it means a whole country for a market, 
perhaps the world ; it means a lowering of barriers for commercial 
intercourse ; it means a reduced cost of articles manufactured to 
the community as a whole, so that if wages are not lowered at the 
same time there is a larger balance which passes to the commu- 
nity for those elements which go to uplift it and to move it upon a 
higher plane. The artist, the historian, the literary man, are all 
the products of this latter phase of a nation's rise. 

As before, it were idle to point out the relation of the engineer 
to this feature of development. The civil engineer lays out roads, 
canals, and the railroad. The mechanical engineer applies his 
motive power by water and rail, and men and goods are conveyed 
with increasing celerity and certainty between their objective 
points. If the flying machine is to make communication as free 
as air, it is by the engineer that its. work will be done. , 

It is unfortunate for the engineer that his work, fundamental to 


so much which makes the comfort and civilization of the day,, 
should be concealed and disregarded simply becau-«e it underlies. 
Without the engineer, life in cities would be impossible where 
there was no gas, no water supply, no sewage, no food supply ex- 
cept by wage ns, no motive power but human muscles. There 
would be a patrician class served by a class of slaves, and that 
great, powerful, conscientious, reliable middle class, which makes 
a nation great and prosperous, would be unknown. 

Even in the Columbian Exposition, which has bten considered 
the flower and example of what this century has done in the way 
of artistic culture and industrial progress, beneath the architectural 
beauty and genius of conception there lies concealed and em- 
bedded many weary months of a burning of midnight oil, and of 
the expert skill of the engineering toiler in the preparation of the 
ground and the erection of the structures. Those who delighted 
in the luminous fountains by night and the marvellous effect of 
illuminations and the ghost-like flitting of the launches on the 
lagoons gave, probably, hardly a thought to the pulsing pumping 
engine, and to the whirring dynamo, over whose production the 
engineer had presided, and over whose regular march a faithful, 
conscientious, but unseen toiler, was watching with a ceaseless 
attention, and he also an engineer. 

These things make a nation great and prosperous, a fertile land, 
a reverent, painstaking, capable body of professional engineers. 


(Continued from p. 33.) 

Since the year 1886, when Mr. Linkenbach gave this descrip- 
tion, the tables have been perfected in many respects, which should 
be mentioned. 

All appear to have abandoned the superposed tables, except the 
works at Ems. These have the great inconvenience of rendering 
access to the two lower tables impossible. It is enough to pass 


through these Works to see that it is impossible to determine the 
character of the work being done on these two parts of the appa- 
ratus. The inconvenience resulting from the oscillations off the 
superposed turning tables are not encountered with the fixed Lin- 
kenbach tables ; but the shadow cast by each on the one below is 
very unfavorable for the proper conduct of the washing. 

Besides, in the earlier tables, which are described, the apparatus 
for discharging by pipes of varying length was rotated by means 
of a chain. This mode of transmission has been entirely aban- 
doned in favor of gear-wheels, as shown in Figs. 45 and 46 which 
have the advantage of facilitating access to the apparatus. More- 
over, the use of plates of zinc of variable size has been abandoned, 
because it is more difficult to regulate them than the pipes of dif- 
ferent lengths. 

Finally, the type of hollow shaft, see Figs. 47 and 48 have been 
substituted for the annular gutter (k) which, in the table shown in 
Figs. 45 and 46, has the inconvenience of overloading the vertical 
shaft at its upper part.* 

The revolving tables rarely exceed 5 m. in diameter, but the 
fixed Linkenbach table may be of greater dimensions. By modify- 
ing its size, this apparatus, therefore, can treat various grades of 
slimes. At Ems three tables, of 6, 7 and 8 m. diameter, are em- 
ployed for the three grades of slimes, the third grade, which con- 
tains the smallest particles, being washed on the largest table. 

The inclination of the washing surface, which should be great- 
est for the coarsest grade, is, at Ems, \ for the 6 m. table, ^^ for 
the 6.5 m. table and y.j for the 8 m. table. The tables make three 
revolutions per minute; each table treats 120 liters per minute, 
consuming 150 liters of wash-water, two-thirds of which is used 
for the washing proper and one-third for carrying off the washed 
products. The power required is jV H. P. per table when the 
tables are single, and -^^ H. P. for a set of three superposed tables. 
The slime should contain not over 10 per cent., by weight, of 

The capacity, as expressed in the weight of slimes treated on 
the Linkenbach tables at Ems, is as follows : 

* The Huinboldt machine-shops (near Cologne) have adopted these last arrange- 
ments for the table which ihcy construct and which are used for the mechanical prepa- 
ration of pliosj)hates from Saint Symphorien, near Mons (Belgium). 



Largest (ist grade), on 6 m. table, 
Intermediate (2d grade , on 7 m. table. 
Smallest (3d grade) *• 8 •* 

720 kilos per hour. 
660 " 
600 ** 



Two men tend eight tables, assisted by a laborer, who shovels 
out the products deposited in the tubs — in all, three men, or three- 
eighths of a day's work per table. 

The following table shows : * 

Rittinger. /ou "^fu" Linkcnbach, 
.Pribram.) t«^^"-'5 . (Em,., 

Shocks per minute 

Revolutions per minute 



Medium .! 



Amplitude of shock 

(Cam displacement.) 

Liters of slime treated per minute. 

Proportionate weight of solids in slime 

Liters of water used per minute. 




Large..... 20 mm. 
Medium .1 13 mm. 
Small I 13 mm. 


Medium . 

Large , 

Medium. 1. 
Small I, 



40 mm. 
25 mm. 
15 mm. 


6 to 7 


20 pr. cl. 9 pr. ct. 
I 15 " I 9 
12 « 9 



Medium . 
Small. ... 

Horse-power required 

Workmen (working days) pr. machine. 


.50 to .75 

Production per hour. 


Large 225 kgs. 

Medium . 






144 kgs. 
90 " 
50 " 




720 kgs. 
660 " 
600 " 

1. The figures for the Rittinger tables, as given by Mr. Henry 
for the Przibram works {Annales des Mines, Seventh Series, Vol. 
II., 1S72, p. 292). 

2. The actual figures for Rittinger tables of the same size (2.4 
meters long and 2.4 meters wide), as shown in the Rhenish dress- 

3. Figures obtained at Ems with Linkenbach tables. 

 Attention is directed to the excessive values of the figures for the Rittinger table, 
and it is said that these machines can treat from 3 to 6 tons of slime in 10 hours, 
whereas, in fact, I ton should be considered a maximum. — M.B. 


The comparison is in favor of the Linkenbach table, as regards 
the requirements for power and labor, even conceding the Rittin- 
ger a greater capacity than one ton in ten hours (/>., lOO kilo- 
grams per hour), which German engineers at the present day dis- 
pute. It is true that the enrichment of the pulp is comparatively 
slight at Ems. For reasons that will appear later, the galena is con- 
centrated only to 38 per cent, of lead and 30 grams of silver per 
100 kilograms of galena. But it is easy to cite the example of an 
ore treated on a Linkenbach table, where the concentration is 
carried much further. At the works of the Neuhof mine, near Beu- 
then, Upper Silesia. The ore consists of galena and calamine in 
an argillaceous gangue ; the crude ore contains 4 to 5 per cent, of 
galena, carrying 56 to 6o grams of silver per 100 kilograms of the 
granulated mineral, and 50 to 80 grams per 100 kilograms of sands 
or slimes. The clean fragments of the calamine carry as high as 
45 per cent, of zinc. A Linkenbach table treating 280 kilos per 
hour yields galena carrying 60 per cent, of lead, carrying 60 
grams of silver per 100 kilograms of mineral, and a calamine car- 
rying 10 per cent, of zinc and from 0.5 to 2.0 per cent, of lead. 
This enrichment to 60 per cent, of lead, which agrees with results 
obtained at Przibram and cited by Mr. Henry, is sufficient to refute 
any charge of inadequate concentration. 

It may be well to add that the Rittinger table requires more 
skillful control and attention than the Linkenbach table, and that 
the waste products of the former are rarely lean enough to be 
discarded without retreatment. 

Classification by Air Blast. 

In the apparatus used at Himmelsfurst, Saxony, the mineral is 
spread on an endless belt. A, Figs. 49, 50, 51, travelling in the 
direction of the arrows, and the current of air is directed upon it. 
The rubber belt passes over the table, E, and over two rollers, C 
and D, its tension being regulated by the two small rollers, R and 
R*. The blast is conveyed through a pipe, M, and distributed 
over the surface of the belt by means of nozzles, T, T^ T", T"\ 
T*^. The ore from the hopper, V^ is spread over the belt. A, by 
feed-wheel, U, which is run by the pulleys, X and X*. A guide, 
'" "'~"ed near the hopper, V, above the belt, and several leather 
'so set above the belt, promote a uniform distribution of 
rial. The boxes, S, S^ S", S"^ and S'^ receive the dif- 



ferent products of the separation. The orifice, O, of each blast- 
nozzle. Figs. 51, 52. 53, is easily regulated by the screws, H and 
K, each screw controlling the position of one of the sleeves, P and 
Q- The screw, which is set by a hand-wheel, is of sufficient length 
to adjust the position of the sleeve, Q. through an arc of 10 mm.. 

Fig. 49 (Scale 5^0 ) 

as shown. The maximum angular displacement that can be given 
to the sleeve P is, likewise, 10 mm. The blast is furnished by the 
fan, W, which makes 1275 revolutions per minute. The fan is 
run by a small steam-engine, which also drives the shaft, B, from 
w^hich power is transmitted to the pulleys, Y and Y'. 

Fig. 50. (Scale ^5.) 

The principal dimensions, etc., of the apparatus are as follows: 

Length of belt. A, exposed to the blast, . 
Width '• »• 

Velocity " per second, 

Length of pipes, 

Distance between centres of nozzles. 

I910 mm. 
480 •' 
no •• 
250 •' 




The box J receives the products which have not been blown 

III., IV. (Scale j'j.) 

from the belt into the boxes, S, S', S", S'", and S'". In the case 
of a lean ore the products will be about as follows : 

1. Product received in S harren (rejected). 

2. "  S' •■ 

3. " •' S" intermediale (rctrealtd). 

4. " .< jjill .1 

5. ■' ■• SI' 

6. " ■' J finished product .for ihe smeller), 

FiG. 52. 

Section 1., 11. (Scale ^„.) 

In applying this method of dry separation on a large scale, it is 

preferable to increase the number of machines rather than the ca- 

F.0.S3. (Scile^.) 

pacity of each machine. Since the blast acts only on the upper 
^lyer of the material on the belt, it is obvious that the transfer of 



the material from one belt to another in series, occasions a certain 
amount of mixing that may bring to the surface particles, which 
had they remained upon the first machine, would have escaped the 
action of the blast. Thus in place of a table with twenty nozzles, 
it is preferable to use four tables of five nozzles each. 

Expcrbnents. — In order to show the results obtainable by this 
method of classification, the engineers at Himmelsfurst have made 
numerous experiments, from which I shall select six that appear 
to be of the most interest. 

The first three experiments are on three different grades of an 
argentiferous galena ore, containing blende ; the last three are 
likewise on three grades of material obtained in the treatment of 
another ore of similar kind. The first of these ores was stamped; 
the second was ground. In the first case the material to be classi- 
fied by blast is composed of sand and slime; in the second case it 
consists of every grade of sand, using this term as previously de- 
fined, to include products which are not finer than 0.25 mm. 

The results of the two series of experiments are shown in the 
following table : 

Stamped Ore, 


Kil..s. I Pcrct. 

Percentage; Composition. 



iJ»t Experi- 
Grade, 1.5 
to 2 mm. 

Raw product 22.5 100 0.065 ^3-5 ' 6.0 

1° and 2° product from 

1° and 2° boxes. 
Marketable galena. 

^ Losses 













I Raw product 12.2 

1° and 2° product from 

1° and 2^ boxes. 

2d Expcri- 

ment. . i^^arketable galena. 
Grade, i to j ,, '^ .. 

1.5 mm. I Intermediates 
1^ Losses 




1 00. CO 0.085 27.5 7.8 4. 




0.073 4.5 

O.It)2 71.5 
0.280 ' 41.5 

o. 115 ; 9.5 






3d Experi- 

to 0.5 mm. 

f Raw product 24.6 

1° and 2° product from 

1° and 2° boxes 4.6 

Gr^r'o.^ < Marketable galenn 7.. 

Intermed iates 7.6 



0.145 Zl'^ 8.0 5.0 


18.70 0.045 1 0.2 

28.86 o. 160 70.0 

15.45 0.235 51.5 

30.89 0.132 4.5 





VOL XV. —9 



Ore Ground in Mills, 



Pe. ci. 

Percentage Composition. 

1st Experi- 
Grade from -j 
1.5 to 2.5 

Kaw product 

(1°) and (2°) products 
from 1st and 2d boxes' 

(3°) galena : 

(4°) mineral J ' 

(5°) products furnished 
by the intermediates 
in I si and 2d boxes... 

(6°) mineral II 

(7°) mineral III t 

(8°) intermediates | 


500.0 loo.o 






2d Ex peri 

I. to 1.5 

' Raw product 

(I®) and (2°) products 
from I St and 2d boxes 

(3°) galena 

(4°) mineral I 

Grade from] ^5°) products furnished 

' by the mtermediates in 

the Island 2d boxes... 

(6^) mineral II 

(7°) mineral III 

(8°) interme<liates 










5.04 0.035 

6.88 ; 0.312 
22.64 \ 0.125 










7.5 16.2 









loo.o 0.122 8.^ 8.8 


0.036 1.5 
0.492 50. 5 
0.182 ' 13.5 

15.93 0.052 1.5 
19.89 0.072 3.5 
13. 18 0.046 i.o 

8.47 0.027 1.5 
0.60 I 


20. I 




3d Experi- 

0.3 to 1.0 

Raw product 

(1°) and (2°) products 
from 1st and 2d boxes 

(3°) galena 

(4°> mineral I 

iirLiii. . oj products furnished 

Grade from ^ ^-^i lu  » i- » • 

' by the intermediates in 

1st and 2d boxes 

(6°) mineral II 

(7°) mineral III 

(8°) intermediates 


989.0 lOO.o 0.1 15 10.2 12.8 






14.09 0.031 0.2 
io.49 0.555 I 53.2 
13.0 0.212 ' 15.5 








20. 1 

II. 6 

















II. o 



In the first experiment of series No. I, the enrichment of the 
galena was perfectly attained ; a mixture of the two grades of 
galena giving a product containing over 60 per cent, of lead. The 
second experiment also showed excellent results, attributable to 
the texture of the ore which is particularly favorable for the sepa- 
ration of the galena. The third experiment was equally satisfac- 
tory; the two galena products which together aggregated 44.3 
per cent, of the crude pulp, carried over 60 per cent, of lead. The 


t'wo remaining products of this experiment were also finished 

In the second series of tests the first experiment gave less than 
7 per cent, of galena which carried less than 33 per cent, of lead; 
moreover, though the lead in the waste products ran below 0.2 
per cent, the quantity of silver was over 0.02 per cent. Wet treat- 
ment in this case would not have given more favorable results, 
since with such high silver contents in the pulp the losses would 
have been serious. A comparison between the value of the crude 
pulp and that of the concentrate by either wet or dry treatment 
shows that it would have been more advantageous to send the 
crude material directly to the smelter without any previous treat- 
ment. The second and third experiments, although more favor- 
able in results, lead to the same conclusion. 

Bearing in mind that in the first series of experiments the pulp 
contained a higher percentage of galena than in the second series, 
and also that this dry method of treatment is less suited to slimes 
than to sands, the Saxon engineers have drawn the following 

1. Classification by blast should be applied preferably to ores 
rich in galena. 

2. Dry stamping, which produces too much dust, should be used 
only for granular ore such as that treated in the first three ex- 

3. The Saxon roller-mills which give only 20 per cent, of their 
product coarser than 0.2 mm. as against 60 per cent, for stamps, 
may be employed for crushing the material that is to be separated 
by the blast. 

4. Slimes should be washed or should be delivered direct to 
the smelter. During the course of the foregoing experiments, the 
slime-pulp was sifted through a sieve of about 800 meshes per 
square centimeter. 

5. The products most easily classified by blast are those which 
range between 0.5 and 1.5 mm. ; if the particles are too large they 
are not easily moved by the blast. Though close calculations have 
not been made, it is admitted in Saxony that the cost of the dry 
separation is higher than that of wet stamping followed by jigging 
but lower than the cost of crushing the ore in a rock-breaker and 

Ore crushed by rolls and containing at least 5 per cent, of lead 
will be advantageously treated by blast. 


The second series of the experiments shows a concordance be- 
tween the economic results of this method of separating and those 
obtained by washing on tables. As compared with the wet treat- 
ment the dry method permits a more constant control of the pro- 
ducts and reduces the sources of loss. 

VII. Magnetic Treatment. 

Magnetic treatment is applicable to products whose densities 
are too closely allied to permit the use of ordinary dressing 

Zinc blende associated with spathic iron is such a product, and 
is treated by magnetic separation at the Friedrichssegen works. 

Magnetic separators may be classified according as they have 
permanent or electro-magnets. Separators of the former class are 
the less costly but their capacity is small — the Vavin separator, 
for example, never treating more than 200 kilograms per hour, 
whereas the electro-magnetic apparatus at Friedrichssegen treats 
500 kilograms in the same time. The interruptions of the cur- 
rent at pleasure, and consequently of the attraction of the soft iron, 
in the case of the electro magnet, dispenses with the use of brushes, 
which in separators of the Vavin type, are necessary for removing 
the attracted particles of iron. The brushes wear away rapidly 
and by retaining iron particles between their bristles they become 
a source of expense and loss of mineral. 

In electro-magnetic separators we may distinguish between 
those, like the Sella machine, in which the current is interrupted 
at intervals, allowing the particles of iron attracted by the magnet 
to fall off and those in which the current is continuous and the 
separation of the attracted particles is effected by carrying them 
out of the magnetic field. The last method, which is evidently 
the simplest, since it can be operated by merely displacing the 
separating surfaces with respect to the electro-magnets has been 
adopted in the machine at Friedrichssegen. 

The latter. Figs. 54 and 55, is composed of a brass drum. A, 
moving around a fixed horizontal shaft, H, which carries four 
.set3 of fixed electro-magnets,. B.. A sheet iron oscillating distrib- 
uter, D, feeds the material from a hopper to the drum. The dis- 
tributer is inclined, and suspended by four links, and is oscillated 
by a cam, as shown. 

The ore on reaching the drum is submitted to the attraction of 
the electro-magnets. A series of projections (S), parallel to the 



axis of the drum tend to retain the materials, and thus promote 
the attraction of the particles of iron ; the non-attracted zinc parti-^ 
cles fall into the box below (Z). The iron particles are quickly 
carried beyond the magnetic field by the rotation of the drum in 
the direction shown by the arrow, and they then fall into the box 
(F). The current from a dynamo enters through one end of the 

Fig. 54. {Scale ^j.) 

Fw. 55. (Scale j^^.) 

hollow shaft (H), passes into the coils and then returns to the 
dynamo by way of the other end of the same shaft. The motion 
of the pulley, P, is communicated to the drum and-transmitted by 
it to the pulley, R, which is belted to the cam shaft (Q) of the dis- 
tributer. The apparatus can ireat particles of various sizes de- 
pending on the distance, which is regulated by the screw (V), be- 
tween the drum and the lower end of the distributer. 

A Siemens dynamo, using one horse- power, is sufficient to 
run four separators, each treating 500 kilograms per hour of a 
mixture of blende and oxide of iron like that of Friedrichssegen, 



the composition of which will be given with the description of the 
works. The rotation of the drum consumes only one-sixth of a 
horse- power. The dynamo furnishes a current of yj amperes and 
makes looo revolutions per minute; the brass drum makes 45 
revolutions and the cam-shaft 400 revolutions per minute. One 
workman can manage four machines. 

This apparatus has the following advantages : (i) The electro- 
magnets being fixed and enclosed in the brass drum, which pre- 
serves them from dust, very seldom need repairs. (2) The 
capacity, compared with other types of electro- magnetic machines 
is high, the test made at Przibram with a machine having an inter- 
rupted current gave, as a maximum, an hourly production of only 
1 50 kilograms. 

Results of the Mechanical Preparation. 


To enrich the crude ore is the great object of mechanical prep- 
aration ; the losses which always accompany all operations of this 
kind naturally tend to set practical limitations to the degree to 
which concentration may be profitably carried. It is expedient, 
therefore, to determine in each case the point at which the result- 
ing losses in the treatment are greater than the enhanced value 
given to the products by the concentration. Owing to the nature 
of the ore and the distribution of the rich minerals, which are not 
always the same in the vein-rock as in the enctosing wall-rock, it 
may be found desirable to keep down the degree of concentration. 
At Ems, for example, a close study of the composition of the vein- 
rock and the barren rock resulted, several years ago, in limiting 
the enrichment of the galena to 36 per cent, of lead instead of the 
former practice of carrying it to 60 per cent. 

Though the vein- rock (at Ems, as will be described later) carries 
more galena than the wall- rock, the galena of the latter is the 
richer in silver. Similarly, the relation between the lead- and 
silver-contents of the sands and slimes at Mechernich has exerted 
a controlling influence on the scheme of treatment there, as will 
be shown. 

Calculation of the Total Losses. 

German engineers use one of the two following methods: 

I. For ores of uniform regular mineralization, the facility with 


which they can be sampled furnishes an easy method for calcu- 
lating their average percentage composition, from which the weight 
of metal contained in the crude ore may be calculated, and from 
the number thus obtained the corresponding weight of metal in the 
finished product is deducted in order to find the weight of metal 
which has been removed with the waste during the treatment of 
the given weight of the crude ore. 

2. For ores of irregular mineralization, however, it is necessary 
to compute the metal contents in waste products from each sepa- 
rate operation. 

Knowing the weight of the several waste products, the weight 
P of the metal they contain can be calculated. Moreover, know- 
ing the composition and weight of each of the final products, it is 
easy to compute for such of them as do not furnish the metals in 
question, the weights, p, of that metal contained as waste in said 
products. The aggregate of these weights, 2*/, added to /'gives 
the total loss (Z = /^+ 1 p) of this metal in question for the quan- 
tities of the products considered, and these are derived from a 
certain known weight of crude ore determined by direct weigh- 

If it be desired to compare the loss of a given metal with the 
weight of this metal in the crude ore, the composition of the latter, 
as furnished by direct analysis, cannot serve as a basis for compu- 
tation on account of want of homogeneity of ore. In place of this 
method, therefore, which answers only for ores of uniform and reg- 
ular mineralization, another should be substituted, the principle of 
which is as follows : A direct analysis gives the percentage of the 
particular metal contained in the final product which furnishes it. 
Knowing the weight of this product obtained from a certain quantity 
of the crude ore, the weight of the metal in question contained in 
the final product can be deduced from it. Adding to it the weight 
(Z) of the losses, the total weight of the metal contained in the 
known weight of crude ore is obtained, and this, by simple propor- 
tion, gives the percentage of metal in the crude ore. 

When once this percentage is ascertained, whether by the 
method used for irregular mineralization or by direct analysis, the 
relation {R) between the loss computed for a weight of crude ore 
equal to lOO and the percentage of metal in the same ore can be 

The losses vary between wide limits. I subjoin the figures for 


the works at Himmelfahrt, Churprinz and Ems, the schemes of 
treatment being reserved for later description : 

1^. Himmelfahrt Works. 


The ore treated at Himmelfahrt contains per lOO kilograms of 
the crude material, 2.75 kilograms of lead, 0.275 kilograms of zinc, 
23 grams of silver, 500 grams of arsenic, 10 grams of copper and 
5 kilograms of sulphur. 

By concentration, the galena is raised to 85 per cent, of lead and 
300 grams of silver to 100 kilograms of galena ; the blende is en- 
riched to about 40 per cent, of zinc, and 30 grams of silver to lOO 
kilograms of blende, and the pyrites to about 40 per cent, of sulphur 
with 50 grams of silver to 100 kilograms of product. The losses, 
relatively to the contents of the crude ore (that is to say, the value 
for each metal of the quantity (^) above defined) amounts to 21 
per cent, for the silver, 38 per cent, for the lead, and 60 per cent, 
for sulphur. That the losses are so high is due to the unequal 
friability of the different minerals, crushed by stamping, and to 
the carrying off of a part of the galena in the slimes. Although 
the pyrites and the blende are argentiferous, they become so inti- 
mately mixed in the course of the mechanical preparation that they 
cannot be profitably separated or converted into marketable pro- 
ducts. They therefore go to the waste-dump, and as they some- 
times exceed in amount 20 per cent, of the stamped ore, the loss 
is very great. 

2°. Churprinz Works. 

The ore contains 3 kilograms of lead and 9.5 grams of silver in 
100 kilograms of crude ore. It is concentrated to about 70 per 
cent, of lead and 50 grams of silver to 100 kilograms of galena. 
The losses amount to 22.8 per cent, of the silver and 14.9 per cent, 
of the lead contained in the ore. 

3°. Ems Works. 

Each 100 kilograms of crude ore contains 4 kilograms of lead, 
2.5 kilograms of zinc and 5.4 grams of silver. The galena is con- 
centrated to 36 per cent, of lead and 30 grams of silver to 100 
kilograms of galena. The blende is worked up to 44.5 per cent, 
of zinc and is not argentiferous. The losses amount to 8 per cent, 
of silver, 6 per cent, of the lead and 34 per cent, of the zinc ob- 
tained in the crude ore. 


Calculation of the Losses for each Operation, 

The Saxon engineers have recently made a series of experiments 
which may serve as a type for the method of determining the losses 
for each operation. The experiments were made for the pifrpose 
of comparing the results of stamping and washing on the end- 
percussion tables with the results of crushing by rolls and jigging. 

The ore to be tested, of which the following table gives the 
composition, was first crushed in rolls to 8 mm., and then sized 
on screens to ascertain whether it would be advantageous to use 
rolls and jigs before stamping. 48 cubic meters of the ore, weigh- 
ing 87,100 kilograms, were thus tested. The products are given 
in the first column of the following table, those numbered i, 2, 6, 

^\j ^2**^3» ^2> ^8 ^^^ fi"^^ products. Nos. 3, 7 and b^ are mineral 
bearing but unsalable, and their further mechanical preparation 
would not be profitable, owing to low grade and price of the metal. 
No. 4 is an intermediate product, which is to be stamped wet. 
Nos. 5, r„ Tg, r, are rejected as barren. 

The cost of mechanical treatment in this case amounts to : 


229 96 for salaries. 

Ill .40 for power and labor. 

I 47, cost of stamping 490 kilos nl jigfjed ore. 

15.20, cost of washing 1 1.390 kilos of slimes. 

28.80, delivery of the crude ore at the mills. 

22.30, delivery of the market product. 


Making 8.25 marks (^1.96) per cubic meter of crude ore. 

The following table gives the figures for tire test : 

These results have been compared with others obtained with 
stamping and percussion tables in the same works. In treating 
an ore containing 0.015 per cent, of silver, i per cent, of lead, 12 
p>er cent, of sulphur and 8 per cent, of zinc, which yielded 19.7 
per cent, of salable concentrates, carrying 0.009 P^^ cent, of silver, 
0.44 per cent, of lead and 4.91 per cent, of sulphur, the pro- 
ducts obtained consisted of: 

a. 3^7 per cent, of galena, in which the silver varies from 0.105 
to 0.175 per cent, and the lead from 30 to 54 per cent. 

^. 3.4 per cent, of the jigged "lead-ore," in which the silver 

* One mark equals 23.8 cents. 






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varies from 0.09 to o. 1 15 per cent., and the lead from 22 to 29 per 

r. 92.9 per cent. " dry " ore, or material in which the silver varied 
from 0,03 to 0.55 per cent., the sulphur from 25 to 30 per cent., 
and the zinc from 7 to 14 per cent. 

The yield, according to the foregoing figures, amounts to 59.3 
per cent, of the silver, 44.3 per cent, of the lead and 40.9 per cent. 
of the sulphur. The total cost of treating 2368 cubic meters, or 
4.309,760 kilograms, of the crude ore amounted to : 

6,804.13 for labor in stamping, washing on tables and sorting the ore. 

520.96 for labor in elevating the ore to the stamp-supply bins. 
• 909.92 for materials. 

13032 for hlacksmithing. 
1,129.52 for labor in charging and removing the sands and slimes. 

465.70 for repairs. 

481 29 for tests. 

727.80 for consumption of water. 
1,627.60 for delivery of the crude ore. 
4,778.54 for delivery of the final products. 

 7,573.54 total. 

Making 7.42 marks ($1.76) per cubic meter of crude ore. 

The above figures show that the losses amount to 40.7 per cent. 
of the silver, 55.7 per cent, of the lead and 59.1 per cent, of the 
sulphur in the ore. These large losses are to be attributed to the 
character of the ore. Thus the loss of silver is largely due to the 
presence of a mixture of blende and iron pyrites, which sometimes 
amounts to 25 per cent, of the crude ore, and which has to be 
discarded, as it cannot be converted into a merchantable product. 

The two components of this mixture carry enough silver to 
create a loss up to 30 per cent. The sulphur in the mixture is 
also lost. As for the small yield of lead, it is easily accounted for 
by the presence of i to 3 per cent, in the "dry'* ore, which consti- 
tutes 92.9 per cent, of the final products. This **dry" ore, com- 
posed of blende and iron pyrites, cannot be concentrated for lead 
without considerable expense. So that the treatment is confined 
to the concentration of the silver to a point sufficiently high to 
allow it to be placed on the market. The loss of lead, which is 
carried off by the water from the stamped products, is very low ; 
it is in the form of the finest pulp produced by the breaking or 

132 Tllh QUARTERLY. 

springing off of minute particles of galena from the large grains 
under the blow of the stamp. The losses on the washing-tables 
are somewhat large, on account of the re-treatments which are 
made necessary by the intimate association and complexity of the 
mixture to be treated. 

The following table gives comparative results for the two 
processes : 

Examining the figures of this table, we find : 

1°. That the quantity of ore passed by stamps in a day amounts 
to 76 per cent, of the quantity crushed by the rolls in the same 
time. Twelve stamps were used in the test. This number would 
therefore have to be increased to fifteen to make the crushing ca- 
pacity of the stamps equal to that of the rolls. It should be noted, 
however, that the rolls crush only to 8 mm., while the stamps crush 
to about 3 mm. 

2°. The marketable products from the stamps are worth about 
four times as much as those obtained from the rolls. Five times 
as much galena is produced, and only one-sixth as much lead-ore 
concentrate, but eighteen times as much dry ore. The rolls yield 
a large proportion of intermediate and unsalable products. The 
apparent discrepancy between these results is explained by the 
composition of the dry ore, which consists of a mixture of blende 
and pyrites containing 0.02 to 0.025 per cent, of silver, i per cent, 
of lead, 8 per cent, of zinc and 26 per cent, of sulphur — a product 
in which the lead cannot be profitably concentrated. 

3°. The treatment by stamps furnishes about three times as 
much silver and five times as much sulphur as the treatment by 

4^. The stamps yield a little less lead concentrate, owing to the 
better comminution by stamping, which gives a greater proportion 
of pure galena and a smaller quantity of ** lead-ore" concentrate 
(galena, with pyrites and blende), but which also produces the 
dry ore that still contains traces of galena. Thus, on the one 
hand a higher concentration of galena is obtained, and, on the 
other hand, some galena finds its way into the dry ore which goes 
to the smelter. 

In summarizing, we may say that crushing by rolls did not com- 
pletely disintegrate the crude ore. The more friable constituents 
of the ore — namely, the gneiss, carbonates, galena, and occasion- 
ally the blende — were crushed first, whereas the quartz and the 



Stamping & RoU.crush'g 
wushing on ^^^ ' 

percussion 1 :;„„:„„ 
; tables. I J'8g'ng. 

Q*-. r » . I / kilograms, 

uaDtitv of ore treated < .^ ^ 
\ cub. meters. 

Days of work 

Quanlily of ore treated per day kilograms 

("Salable concentrate 

I Non-salable •• 

Froduction \ Re-treatments 

I Total 

(^ Hence, losses and barren ore. 

f Salable concentrate 

I Non-salable •• 

Production j Re-treatments 

of silver. | Total 

I Barren rock from jigging 

[^ Total silver in the crude ore. 








383 58' 

of lead. 

' Salable concentrate « . 

Non-salable •• «• 

Re-treatments •• 

Total «• 

Compared with crude ct. 

Galena «• 

Lead-ore «• 

Dry ore •• 

r, » Non-salable products «• 

Perce ntage«i , . 1: . 

, **^ Intermediates 

ot products . i» 1 

^i*._r_. 1 ' Barren rock ♦« 

Hence, products carried by 
the water to the percus- 
sion table •' 

Losses from jigging, and on 
1^ stationary tables •• 








19.7 ' 

0.7 { 
0.6 ' 



( silver \ 

< lead [-per ct. 

( sulphur) 



Production of different metals, 100 parts ore -j lead 


Gross receipts per cubic meter of ore treated francs 

Gross receipts jier 100 kilograms treated •♦ 

Cost of the drei-^ing proper, per cubic meter of ore | 

treated .' •• 

Total cost of the dressing, including the delivery of the \ 

crude ore and of the Hnished products «• 

Net receipts per cubic meter •• 

Net losses •* •* •• 














I ,ob8.oo 



3 53 












mixture of pyrites and blende in which some galena was dissem- 
inated, reached the jigs below the stamps intact. 

134 7//A QUARTERLY. 

The jigs therefore yielded an intermediate product, which should 
be submitted to more complete disintegration, and a sulphur ore 
in which the small content of lead could not be economically con- 

To crush the ore with rolls to 3 mm. two pairs of rolls would 
have to be used, one for fine, the other for coarse crushing, and 
the cost would thereby be much increased, since the crushing of 
quartzoze rock with finishing rolls is, :is is well l:nown, more costly 
than stamping. 

The insufficient disintegration due to the use of rolls has also 
had this other result, that certain products, especially those marked 
No. 7 and b^, in the table on page 130, were not rich enough 
for immediate shipment to market, but required another treat- 
ment—a higher concentration of the galena and the resulting 
enrichment of the silver would undoubtedly have increased the 
gross receipts ; but it should not be forgotten that the treatment 
of small quantities of materials does not always enable us to real- 
ize for each operation the most economical results. Thus it appears 
that the use of stamps in S.ixony does not proceed from the mere 
desire to adhere to old apparatus, but that it is the result of close 
investigation and careful experiments. 

Cost of Dressing. 
The cost of dressing one metric ton of crude ore is as follows : 

1°. At the Himmelfahrt Works. 

Breaking by hand, sorting and cobbing, 
Washing, followed by fine cobbing and jigging, 
Crushing with rolls and jigging. 
Wet stamping and washing on tables, 
Transportation, tests, assays, etc., 





Total (per ton of crude ore), 12.05 

2°. At the Ems Works. 


Breaking by hand and preliminary sorting, .... 0.34 

Fine sorting, 1.05 

Treatment of the fines, 2.01 

Treatment of the blende and galena, 0.88 

Total (per ton of crude ore), 4.28 


The processes applied in each of these works differ too much 
(as will be shown later) for a comparison of costs. 

It can be readily seen that in the works at Ems there are no 
expenses for tests, and that the continuous plan used in these 
M^orks greatly diminishes the manual labor. The latter, in any 
event, must be higher in the Saxon works than at Ems, on ac- 
count of the complexity and greater richness of the Saxon ore 
and the higher degree to which it is concentrated — all of which 
conditions call for more skillful labor there than at Ems. 

Choice of Treatment. 

Though the diversity of the ores makes it obviously impracti- 
cable to subject them all to one scheme of treatment, it would be 
interesting to assume a general type of treatment, and to observe 
the part assumed in carrying out that type by the recent machines 
that have been described. 

No such type is to be found in any of the dressing works. 
The Schmitt-Manderbach classifier, for example, is employed only 
in Saxony ; Meinicke's sandsortir apparat is not used in the Rhine 
district; the spitzlutten apparatus of Meinicke is restricted to the 
Hartz, while the Linkenbach tables and the Schranz rock-breaker 
and roller-mill are met with only in Rhenish Prussiq. 

I shall endeavor to describe in brief such a typical treatment. 

By passing the ore over a grating, the hexagonal openings of 
which measure 60 mm. on a side, two classes (lump and fine) will 
be produced, and these will be treated separately. 

1°. The lump-ore will be submitted successively to spalling and 
careful picking, and the products will be crushed to 8 mm. in a 
Schranz rock-breaker. The crushed material will pass to a drum- 
screen having 8 mm. holes; the rejections will go to rolls, and 
thence back to the same screen. 

The grains which pass through the screen will be sized in a 
Schmitt-Manderbach apparatus. Those larger than 3 or even 4 
mm. will be treated in a continuous three-sieve jig, which will 
yield two final products and one intermediate product, which will 
be crushed in a Schranz mill to less than 3 mm. Sizing to i mm. 
will be done in the Schmitt-Manderbach apparatus ; below that 
limit a Meinicke sand-classifier is to be used. 

The various classes of grains smaller than 3 or 4 mm. will be 
treated separately on filtering jigs. The products carried by the 


water beyond the sand-classifier will be conveyed to the spitzlut- 
ten apparatus, which will yield, say, three classes, each to be 
treated on a Linkenbach table. 

2°. The fines will be put through a rotary washer and then 
through a Schmitt-Manderbach sizing- apparatus ; the rejections 
larger than 30 mm. will be hand-picked on a revolving table ; the 
sizes below 30 mm. will go to a Schranz rock-breaker, and thence 
through the same series of operations above indicated. 

This scheme of treatment is merely an illustration of the pres- 
ent ideas of German engineers in connection with the use of new 

The discussion of the particular treatment to be adopted in each 
case is reserved for the second part of this memoir, in which the 
various modifications of the general type will be discussed. 

Choice and Relative Disposition of the Apparatus. 

The advantages or inconveniences of the various apparatus 
pointed out in our descriptions may aid in the selection of the 
particular apparatu$ best suited for any given case. 

The machines should be so placed as to allow an easy transfer 
of the products from one apparatus to the next. Where this 
transfer is automatic, the machines are arranged in successive 
levels, but where the products have to be handled between succes- 
sive operations, the machines are placed approximately on the 
same level, with sufficient room around each one to allow the 
accumulation of the intermediate products pending further treat- 

The works of Silberau, at Ems (referred to later), afford a re- 
markable example of a plant of the first kind. The works of 
Laurenburg (to be described further on) exemplify the second type. 

It may seem surprising that the tendency to substitute mechan- 
ical for manual transfer of the products has not resulted in the 
complete abandonment of the . so-called non continuous plants. 
Nevertheless, on close investigation, the maintenance of the older 
type in works recently reconstructed, like those of Laurenburg, 
appears logical when the continually changing character and com- 
position of the ore are considered. 

The plant at Steinenbriick furnishes another example where, in 
remodelling the works, the non-continuous type has been pre- 
served. But even in plants of this type there is a manifest ten- 


dency to set in close juxtaposition the machines which necessarily 
work together, such as the crushers and their accompanying sizing- 
screen. Whatever their claims, however, the number of non-con- 
tinuous plants has been notably diminishing for some years, and 
their existence can only be justified by exceptional circumstances 
such as those which prevail at Steinenbriick and Laurenburg. 

No improvements in the feed or distributing devices have been 
made except the Meinicke slime-feed, which has already been de- 

In the removal of the jig-products the tendency to economize 
in manual labor is apparent. 

Thus, in the works at Weiss the product from the last compart- 
ment of the jigs falls directly into cars, the side-walls of which are 
made of perforated sheet-iron, so as to allow the water to drain off. 
When the car is full two men push it away and replace it by an 
empty one. This method does away with the labor of shovelling 
the products from the tubs that are usually placed below the jigs, 
yet the method is only applicable when water is cheap and abun- 
dant and does not have to be saved. 

General Plan of the Works. 

The general arrangement of a dressing-plant depends primarily 
on the site, and this is quite as true of a plant designed for con- 
tinuous as for non-continuous working. 

Among the works to be presently described I have selected 
four that correspond to widely different conditions of site. 

1°. Works at Friedrichssegen, in a very narrow and steep 

2^. Works at Weiss, on evenly sloping ground. 

3^. Works at Lautenthal, on a steep hillside and ridge. 

4°. Works at Ems, on broad, level ground. 

In the first case the buildings are long and narrow, following 
one another lengthwise in series. 

The second case calls for a plant arranged in terraces, the length 
of each building being placed approximately on a contour or line 
of level of the slope. 

In the third case the only systematic arrangement is one which 

provides for the automatic descent of the successive products, 

while the fourth case offers the most varied opportunities for 

the arrangement in plan of the different parts of the works, and 
VOL. XV. — 10 


leads to elaborate ore-dressing establishments, of which the plant 
at Ems is a conspicuous example. 

The movement of the products within the works likewise de- 
pends upon the site. On level ground it is necessary to resort to 
mechanical devices for elevating and transferring the material, 
whereas a sloping site permits the use of gravity for these pur- 
poses. Gravity, however, sometimes creates difficulties, notably, 
for example, at the Friedrichssegen works, where the steep slope 
of the valley makes it necessary to transfer to an intermediate 
level the products passing from one building to the next. 



This furnace has been recently used in the laboratory of the 
Department of Metallurgy of the School of Mines, and thinking 
that the results obtained might be of interest to the readers of the 
Quarterly, I have prepared a brief description of the furnace and 
the method of operating it. 

As is shown in the illustrations, the furnace consists of a body 
part of refractory brick (C). forming a solid ring 2y2 inches in 
thickness and 4j^ inches in height, with an outside diameter of 
13^ inches. This brick is supported upon a similar brick (D), 
12^ inches in height and of greater thickness at the base; through 
the upper part of this brick are eight channels for conducting the 
gas from the burners to the interior of the furnace. 

These bricks (C), and (D), are bound together by a sheet-copper 
covering which is strengthened and held in position by heavy 
copper bands thus forming a solid furnace body. Through the 
lower part of the copper covering holes are cut corresponding to 
the eight gas channels in the brick (D), which permit the intro- 
duction into the channels of the curved pipes at the end of the 
burners. The entire brickwork is supported on a sheet-iron stand 
(K), having three legs. Several arms are riveted to this stand to 
hold the gas supply pipe (A), of I ^ inches outside diameter, which 
surrounds the furnace. This supply pipe has a branch at one 
side which serves for connection with the laboratory gas supply by 


of a rubber hose. From the top of this circular supply 
pipe eight ^-inch Bunscn burners are permanently fixed, having 
equal distances between them. Each burner has a stop-cock and 
sliding valve to regulate the quantity and quality of the flame. On 
the top of each burner is a curved brass pipe (B), fitted bya sliding 
socket and having the upper extremity protected by an iron bush- 
ing. These pipes connect the burners with the channels in the 
brick already mentioned. 

The cover is of solid brick, 2 inches thick, suitably encased in 
a copper ring, with handles affixed to admit of easy removal. 

Through the centre of this cover is a circular opening, I % inches 
in diameter, which can be closed by a small fire-brick. 

The inner shield (F) is of brick, % inch thick and 6^ inches 
in height; it serves to direct the mixture of gas and air in the 
state of combustion. The flow of the gases is upward through 
the space between the shield and the outer brickwork and then 
downward inside of the shield to ihe pipe leading to the chimney. 

This shield is directly supported on a heavier piece of brickwork, 
(E), of special shape, having the shelf (I), for the support of the 

The lower part of this brick fits tightly into the sheet-iron pipe 
(G), 4 inches in diameter, which conveys the products of combustion 


to the chimney. The strength of the draft is regulated by a damper 
not shown in the illustrations. 

The air for the combustion of the gas enters the sheet-iron pipe 
(H), through a damper placed at the extremity of the pipe some six 
feet away from the body of the furnace. This pipe (H), has a di- 
ameter of 6 inches, and surrounds the inner chimney pipe (G). 
When the furnace is in operation the inner pipe becomes highly 
heated by the gases of combustion and serves to heat the cold air 
entering the outer pipe. 

In putting the furnace together the lower body (D), is placed on 
the support (K.) The hollow cone-shaped brick (E), is then placed 
in position, the lower part fitting tightly into the sheet-iron chimney 
pipe (G). 

The bustle pipe for gas (A), is then placed on the supports and 
the curved pipes (B), connect the burners with the ports of the fur- 
nace ; when all are connected the pipes and burners are perfectly 
solid with the body of the furnace. The shield (F), is then set 
firmly in the grooved upper surface of the brickwork (E) ; lastly, 
the cover is placed on the top. Each piece of brickwork is tongue- 
and-grooved so as to afford as tight a joint as possible. The total 
height of furnace from floor to top of cover is 40 inches. 

To start the furnace all the burner stop-cpcks are closed and the 
bustle pipe for gas (Aj, is connected by a rubber hose to the gas 
supply which should be of strong pressure. 

One burner is then turned on and the gas lighted from the in- 
terior of the furnace; the cover being placed in position, a draft 
results, and when this draft is of sufficient strength so that there 
is no longer an outward pressure of gas in the furnace, the burner 
next to the first one is then turned on, and in like manner all the 
burners around the furnace are lighted. To avoid too rapid heat- 
ing, and consequent fractuies of bricks from too sudden expansion, 
it is well to start with alternate burners only, opening the stop- 
cocks little by little. When a uniform temperature is obtained it 
can be safely increased by opening all the burners. 

To insure complete combustion it is necessary that the draft 
should be of sufficient strength to carry all the gases of combustion 
up the chimney ; if not, back pressure in the furnace will result 
and unburned gas will be forced out from the furnace through the 
small cracks between the brickwork. The admission of air must 
be of exactly the proper quantity for perfect combustion of the gas. 


When the interior brickwork of the furnace has become heated to 
a high temperature the gas for combustion in passing through the 
channels becomes heated by direct contact with the white-hot 
brick. The air necessary for combustion is partly heated in its 
passage outside of the sheet-iron chimney pipes and its temperature 
is further raised by direct contact with the heated brickwork in the 
lower body of the furnace. The preheated gas and air unite on 
the outside of the shield (F), and the combustion takes place on 
the outside and inside of the shield, depending on the adjustment 
of the strength of the chimney draft and the supply of gas and air. 
It is necessary that this adjustment should be accurately made 
to insure good working of the furnace. 

M. Lequereux, of Paris, in a private communication, claims ex- 
ceptionally good results. He has easily melted palladium, which 
has a melting point of 1500° C, and has obtained a temperature 
at which platinum becomes pasty. 

In the experiments carried on at the School of Mines several 
objectionable features presented themselves in the furnace manage- 
ment. As previously mentioned, there must be an exact estab- 
Hshment of gas and air supply, with chimney draft, and since no 
chimney draft is constant it is impossible to eveh approximate ideal 
results. The crude damper at the end of the air supply pipe admits 
of coarse measurement only, and thus the exact air supply cannot 
be obtained. When the adjustment is once regulated for a certain 
temperature, the removal of the small plug in the cover so as to 
ascertain the condition of the furnace interior destroys the set 
relations of gas, air and draft, and when removed it necessitates 
readjustment. Should anything happen to the crucible placed on 
the support (I), the entire cover must be removed, as the hole in the 
cover is too small to work through. 

In order to obtain a high temperature the furnace interior must 
become thoroughly heated, the bricks showing a red to white heat. 
In order to obtain this temperature and not fracture the brickwork 
by too sudden an expansion, it is necessary to raise the temperature 
very gradually. Good results were obtained only after from three 
to four hours steady heating. The temperature then showed 1550® 
C., as measured by the thermo-electric pyrometer of M. le Chate- 
lier. Above this temperature it was impossible to go, owing to 
insufficient pressure of gas. 
On account of the thickness of the brickwork it is impossible 


to prevent fractures. The first trial of the furnace was carried on 
with great care, a very small supply of gas was used and the tem- 
perature was gradually raised for four hours, at the end of which 
time the furnace showed a temperature of only 700® C. Precautions 
were taken so that the furnace should cool down very gradually. 
In spite of which, several small cracks appeared in the brickwork 
of the cover and body. 

A number of experiments were made as to length of time of 
preheating, various adjustments of gas and air supply and chang- 
ing drafts. The evidence obtained justifies the above statements. 
— Metallurgical Labor atory^SchooL of Mines,^ Columbia College ^Janu- 
ary^ 1894. 


Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis. 

In the September number of the Journal of the American Chemical 
Society (xv., 501) Messrs. C. B. Dudley and Pease contribute an article 
on this subject, of which the following is an abstract : 

Chemists often disagree in their results. What is the truth in any 
given case? The best possible analytical skill is necessary, as well as 
expeditious methods. These ideas led to the formation of the Com- 
mittee on International Standards for analysis, the plan being to have 
a standard material, samples of which could be furnished to any one in 
doubt as to his methods, manipulation, etc. 

Does this completely meet the difficulty ? Is a given analytical pro- 
cess true for all varieties of manufactured irons? It leaves out of ac- 
count possible differences of condition of the element sought in differ- 
ent samples. This point might be met by multiplying standards, but 
this complicates matters. Possibly, in some cases, a compensation of 
errors might give correct results with the standard sample, and not 
with some other sample. The plan of the committee to have a series 
of standards can only partially meet the necessities of the case. 
The causes of discrepancies are at least four : 

1. Lack of uniformity of sample. 

2. Impurities or defects in chemicals or apparatus. 

3. The chemist. 

4. The method. 

The first and second are obvious, and need no comment. Under 3 
it may be said : The analyst may lack a natural aptitude. He may not 
take enough pains. He may be deficient in general knowledge of chem- 
istry. He may not have the necessary experience. He may fail to ap- 
preciate the method used and the reactions involved. Under 4 it may 
be said that the descriptions given may be indefinite or that different 
methods laid down may not be quantitative to the same degree of ac- 

The practical point is, How can discrepancies be prevented ? 

In the case of disagreement in results between two chemists, say 
those representing the buyer and the seller in a certain transaction, the 
causes for discrepancy may be met thus : 

1. Exchange of samples. 

2. Exchange or test of chemicals. 

3. Have the chemists work in presence of each other. 

4. Since application to standard samples may be defective, it would 
be preferable to establish a standard method. 

The arguments against, and comments upon such a procedure are : 
Suppose no method can be found which is generally regarded as sat- 
isfactory? The reply is : Accept the best one known temporarily. 
Such establishing of a standard method would be a bar to progress, 


because setting hard and fast limitations. The answer is made that 
there still exists a stimulus for criticizing the methods prescribed with a 
view to improving the same. 

What is the sphere of a standard method ? 

Analyses are made for different purposes They may be: 

1. For guidance in the management of a plant. Here speed is most 

2. For commercial transactions. This requires speed 2iXiA accuracy. 

3. For investigation. Here accuracy is chiefly important. 

The requirements in the second (commercial transactions) seems to be 
the most desirable for a standard method. 

P'inally, what features are indispensable for a standard method? 

1. It must be sufficiently accurate. No method is absolutely 2siQMX2Xt. 
By a standard method three or four results, in the hands of as many good 
and experienced chemists should agree, thus : 

Per cent. 

For C, wilhin 0,01 

** P, * 0.005 

*« S. ** 0.005 

** Si ** o.oi 

" Mn, ** O.OI 

" Cu, ** 0.005 

2. It should be sufficiently rapid. If the sample is received in the 
morning, results should be obtained the same day. 

' 3. It must be simple, />., the manipulations should be such as to allow 
an analyst to do more than two or three analyses in a working day. 

4. The conditions should be well studied out. 

5. Different chemists should be able to obtain concordant results. 

A circular has been issued regarding the International Congress of 
Applied Chemistry, to be held at Brussels, on August 4, 1894, which is 
promoted by the Belgian Association of Chemists, and is under the pat- 
ronage of the Belgian government. 
The body of the circular contains the following (C.N. Ixviii., 302) : 
" The science and practice of chemical analysis plays such an im- 
portant part in the commercial side of industrial and agricultural chem- 
istry, both in the control of manufactures themselves and in the solu- 
tion of hygienic problems, etc., that it becomes more and more im- 
portant that there should be greater agreement and accord between the 
various methods of analysis now in vogue among analytical chemists. 
That there should be so much disagreement between the results obtained 
from different laboratories is greatly to be regretted, but these disagree- 
ments (when they occur) are more often caused by the employment of 
different methods than by any want of skill or care on the part of the 
operators. To remedy this state of things the Organizing Committee of 
the Congress considers that it is indispensable that there should be a 
unification of methods of analysis, not only in each country but uni- 
versally, and that the standard processes to be adopted should be de- 
cided by international agreement. It is in the endeavor to solve the 
inevitable difficulties of such a scheme that the proposed Congress has 
been convened." 


The Congress will be divided into four sections : 

A. Sugar Imfusirifs. — Ten heads — Water in sugar, Molasses, Color, 

B. Agricultural Chemistry. — Nine heads — Nitrogen, Saltpetre, Milk, 

C. Food Products and Public Health, — 5 heads, — Butter, Liquors, 
Potable Waters, etc. 

D. Chemical Biology^ — 7 heads. — Brewing, Vinegar, Distilling, etc. 

That the adoption of uniform methods of analysis is a necessity of 
the present condition of chemical industries, is fully shown by the 
above. In addition might be mentioned the International Committee 
on Standards for the Iron and Steel industry, and the work of the Asso- 
ciation of Official Agricultural Chemists. Many suggestions in the same 
direction have been made in our learned societies, bnt as a rule they 
have been looked upon somewhat askance, as tending to commit those 
bodies to something like this : ** Perfection has been attained (in this or 
that) and no further progress is possible." This may be an extreme 
statement, but that is what many fear. Of course such a position is un- 
tenable, but if the subject is taken up in a spirit of co-operation, an 
agreement to accept the best known methods, and to strive earnestly 
together to improve upon that, much energy now wasted, will be utilized 
to the advantage of both theoretical and practical workers in the field of 

The limits set by Dr. Dudley for accuracy to be required, seem to be 
at present unattainable, though it is desirable that they should be aimed 
at. Witness a comparison with the maximum differences of results 
among the members of the American, English and Swedish commission 
on International Standards. 

Proposed Limits. Differences. 

Dudley d. Pease. International Standard. 

C, o.oi 0.048 

Si O.OI 0.017 

S, 0.005 0.009 

P, ........ 0.005 0.024 

Mn, O.OI 0.032 

Detection and Measurement of F ire-Damp. 

M. Chesneau read a paper before the International Engineering Con- 
gress (published in the Transactions of Am, Inst, Min. Eng.) on this 
subject, which contains many points of interest. He deals with laboratory 
methods. Uuder this are described : 

1. Determination by combustion. Coquillon's apparatus — the same 
modified by Poussigue, and Le Chatelier's apparatus. 

2. Determination by limits of combustibility. At teniperatures be- 
tween 10^ and 20° C, air mixed with 8 per cent, of illuminating gas or 
with 6 per cent, of methane, becomes explosive. To determine the 
proportion of fire-damp then, it is sufficient to add either illuminating 
gas or methane until the mixture becomes explosive. By two or three 
trials, it may be decided how much fire-damp the air originally con- 
tained. This is the principle of Shaw's indicator which is described as 
is also a simplified form devised by Le Chatelier. 


Next are considered portable indicators for underground use. Under 
this come : 

1. Indicators based on the physical properties of fire-damp. Diffu- 
sion, sound vibrations, etc. (Ansell, Forbes). 

2. Thermo electric effect-heating of a pjatium wire through which an 
electric current is passing, by the presence of fire-damp in the surround- 
ing atmosphere (Liveing, Murday). 

3. Elongation of a lamp flame (Chesneau), 

4. Flame aureoles. Lamps devised by Mue.^eler, Pieler, Wolfe, 
Clowes, Legrand, Dinoire, Marsand and Chesneau. 

The flames of hydrogen or of alcohol give more decided indication 
than that of oil, and in most of these lamps some substance, as hydro- 
gen, alcohol, or naphtha, lighter than^oil, is used for the tests. All re- 
ceive some description, but the lamp devised by the author (the Ches- 
neau lamp) is more particularly described. The strength of the alcohol 
used is an important point which has frequently been overlooked in the 
use of lamps of this class. The use of a little CuCl, in the alcohol 
burned, has been adopted, because rendering the aureoles more clear. 
It necessitates, however, the changing of the wick before each tour of 


The separation of heavy minerals by reason of their different specific 
gravities has always been attended with more or less difficuliy. 

To separate minerals whose specific gravity is above 3.65, which is 
the limit for heavy liquid, fused zinc, tin, or silver, salts have been used. 
This is more or less unsatisfartpry and inaccurate. 

FIC. £ 

The following apparatus is intended to eflecta sorting by means of an 
upward current of water. It should perhaps be called an apparatus of 
"concentration" rather than "separation." The parts are 1 The 
pressure regulator (Fig, i), consisting of a Wolff flask of two litres 
capacity, and which when in use is placed two metres above the work 
table ; f is 3 mm. diameter and connects with the separator by means of 



a rubber tube ; /? is 3 mm. diameter and connects with the water faucet. 
The overflow, b^ is 10 mm. diameter. 

Fig. 2 is the separator. It consists of an outer tube, I a h, and the 
draw tube, b. The liquid comes in at <7, flows downward, and enters 
the inner tube aty! It then flows upward in the space ^as far as /, and 
escapes by the tube, h. The opening at / should be very small and can 
be regulated by the rubber cord. <r. 

Around the tube is a spiral of ^ mm. platinum wire, whose coils have 
a diameter of 5 mm. Its object is to divert the course of any counter- 
currents which may arise, and direct them upwards. 

Two cocks are placed between the regulator and separator. «, Fig. 3, 
is an ordinary cock^ and ^, Fig. 3, a *' precision cock." Figs. 3 and 4 
explain its construction. 





/ \ 


In Fig. 3 the diameter of b and cocks is 4 mm. Fig. 2, a, diameter 
4 mm.,/ 10 mm. ; g^ 7 mm.; b, 3 mm. ; height of/, 140 mm. ; ^, 330 
mm. ; ^,520 mm, to /, 280 mm. 

The following precautions must be borne in mind to insure approxi- 
mately accurate separation : 

The grains should be of same size, and similar form. This is a weak 
point of the process. 

The material should be constantly in the path of the current. 

The current should be of uniform velocity, and as weak as practica- 
ble. Practice has shown that the density of the liquid employed has 
little or no effect. 

Manipulation. — Open the stop cock, a (Fig. 3), and close tube h 
(Fig. 2), with pinchcock. Allow water to enter tube until it reaches the 
level /. Shut ofl"the water. Introduce the mineral at /. Two grammes 
is the usual charge. Open tube, //, so that level of water falls to /. Turn 



on water slowly to start the mass which has settled to the bottom of the 
tube, slowly in motion. The current is regulated to bring the mass to /. 
The light and heavy materials gradually separate. 

The light sand is removed by lowering the tube, d, gradually until its 
top is level with the same. , 

If the heavier portion of a mixture is to be separated alone a jigging 
movement of the current, will tend tD wash both the lighter and 
tnedium weight grains into the tube, b. 

With a fine adjustment of the current and a repetition of the process 
on the heavier portion, a nearly perfect separation may be obtained. 

Results. — To test the process, the heavy residue from a decomposed 
TOUscoviie granite was passed once through the apparatus, withdrawn in 
two portions, and the different minerals completely separated under the 
lens and weighed. The sand was prepared by passing through a Thoulet 
solution, partially cleaned of iron minerals with magnet, and screened 
between bolting cloth, Nos. i and 4. 

The residue contained chiefly titaniferous iron, manganite and xeno- 
time with a few grains of staurolite, tournialine and niuscovite, the total 
quantity being 1.77 grammes. The following table gives percentages 
of the three principal minerals in the lighter (I.) and heavier (II.) 
portions ; and those of the total amount of the mineral in each two 


€> 1 

Perct. toTy. 

P.r ct. to Tt. 

Pan 1. 

Part II. 


Per cent. 

Total in I. 

Total in II. 

Per cent. 

Per cent. 

Xenotime ; 


(Sp. gr., 4.45 -^)..- 






Menaccanite : 


(-''P gr., 4-75 -^^••• 



12. 1 



Monazite : 


(Sp. gr„5-f-) 

49. CO 



; 34.4 


In another test 3 grammes of the same residue were screened between 
Nos. 4 and 5 bolting cloth and withdrawn in three portions; light (I.), 
medium (II.) and heavy (III.) as follows: 







1 in I. 


in II. 

in HI. 

Per ct. 

Per ct. 

Per ct. 

Per ct. 
II. 8 

Per ct. 

Per ci. 

Per ct. 






Menaccan ite 

'9.5 1 

56.9 ' 




II. 9 






These results are considered good, as they were made in an im- 


provised experimental apparatus. The sand used was a difficult one to 
sort, as the grains were of very variable size and shape. 

Abstracted from a "paper **On the separation of minerals of high 
specific gravity/' by E. W. Dafert, and O. A. Derby, Proc. Rock. Acad, 
Sa\, Vol. II. H. RiES. 

Analytical Chemistry, by E. Waller, Ph.D. 

Filtration, Land is {Jour. Anu Chem. Soc,y xv., 480), notes that by 
using a ground glass funntl^ the filter paper may be made to stick so 
tightly to the glass, that no danger of loss occurs in washing the upper 
edge of the filter. 

Indicators in Sulphide Titrations . Williams (CiV., Ixviii., 236). Nitro- 
prusside indicates 0.0000982 gramme of Na^S in i c.c. of water, while 
lead acetate in NaOH indicates 0.0000245 gramme of Na^S in i c.c. 

Alkalinity of Liquids Containing Chlorine, Ullmann {Chem, Zeit.^ 
xvii., 1208) finds that succinic acid decomposes hypochlorites (and car- 
bonates) but not chlorides. If, therefore, a known amount (excess) of 
succinic acid is added, and the solution boiled, it may be titrated back 
with standard alkali, using phenolphthalein as indicator. A determina- 
tion of available chlorine (and consequently of HCIO) gives a basis for 
calculation of the alkalinity. (The result in case chlorate is present is 
not stated. — Abs.). 

Separation of Caesium, Wells (^Am,J. Sci , xlvi., 186). Cs^PbCl^ is 
practically insoluble in a PbCl, solution in HCl saturated with CI, the 
corresponding Rb salt being more soluble. The formation of this com- 
pound affords a means of separating Cs completely from other alkali 
metals, and partially from Rb. 

Chromium Determination, Spuller and Kalman {Chem. Ztg^, xvii., 
141 2). Fusion with caustic soda and Na,0, is not well adapted for 
decomposition of hardened chrome steel, but it is applicable to ferro- 
chrome, and to chromite. Ferro-silicon and ferro-tungsten may also be 
decomposed by this method. 

Microchemical Detection of Iron, Lemberg {Z. Dent, Geol, Gesell ^ 
xliv., 823}. Addition of (NHJ^S to a granule of soluble substance on a 
microscope slide — black — FeS. The formation of a black sulphide is, 
however, not distinctive for Fe, On removing the excess of (NH^),S, 
and adding a drop of concentrated aqueous solution of potassium ferri- 
cyanide the black FeS is convened to Turnbull blue in about 8 minutes. 

Manganese in Manganese Bronze. Jones {four. Am. Chem, Soc.^ xv., 
414). Dissolve 5 to 10 grammes in HNO3 (Gr. 1.2). Place in a cylinder, 
dilute to 300 c.c, and pass H,S until the supernatant liquid is colorless. 
Decant off through a dry filter 180 c.c. or some aliquot part, boil this 
down to 10 c»c., add 25 c.c. HNOg, boil down, precipitate Mn by KCIO,, 
and conduct the rest of the operation as in the Ford- Williams process 
for Mn in manufactured irons. 


Deieciing Iron in Copper Sulphate, Griggi (JSoll. Chim. Farm,, xxxii., 
549). Introduce a solution of the commercial sample into a test-tube, 
pour on top of this an ether solution of salicylic acid (1 in 10). If Fe 
is present the violet color appears at the junction of the two fluids. 

Reducing Iron for Titration, Storch ( Ber, d, (Esterr, Ges.y etc., xv., 
9") advises the use of metallic Cu, previously washed with alcohol and 
ether and then with water. On warming the reduction occurs readily. 
At the end-reaction the-color changes from greenish-blue to violet. 

Dichromate Titration of Iron, Mahon (^Am. Chem, Jour.^ xv., 578) 
notes the following facts : When iron ores are brought into solution by 
fusion with alkaline carbonates in a platinum crucible, and subsequent 
solution in HCl, some Pt may be attacked by the flux and thus brought 
into the solution. In that case, when the titration of the iron is reached, 
the SnClj first reduces the Fe, and afterward the PtCl^ to PtCl, giving 
first a colorless solution, and afterward a colored one. On titrating, 
some error is thus introduced. If the amount of SnCl, added is so 
regulated that the addition is stopped when a colorless solution is first 
obtained, the diflftculty may be avoided. 

Nickel Determinations, Sleeper (C N.y Ixix., 15) gives very minute 
directions regarding the method which he pursues, which consists in 
obtaining an HCl solution of the material containing 8 to 10 per cent, 
of free acid, precipitating with H^S, boiling out the H^S, precipitating 
Ni and Fe by NaOH, in excess, dissolving this in H,SO^, and from this 
solution precipitating Fej(OH), by excess of ammonia poured rapidly 
into the ^£7/// solution. This operation may have to be repeated two or 
three times, when the solution is concentrated to convenient bulk and 
electrolyzed, ammonia being added from time to time. 

Colorimetric for Uranium, Bruttini (Gazetta, xxiii., 251). The depth 
of tint obtained by addition of K^FeCy^to HNO, solution of the uranium 
forms the basis of this method. A description of the method of separa- 
ting from interfering elements is given. 

Standard Solutions of Tartar Emetic, Gruener (^Am. Jour. Sci., xlvi., 
206). Solutions containing 36 grammes of tartar emetic per litre, will 
keep well for 5 or 6 months if containing 20 to 30 grammes tartaric 
acid or i c.c. of HCl per litre. No oxidation of the Sb was noted in 
any case, though with some of the solutions tried, a fungous growth 
formed in the solutions. 

Separation of Metals in the form of sulphides by heating in a stream 
of bromine vapor. Etz {Berichte,, xxiv., 76, and xxv., 124). On heating 
the dried sulphides in a current of air loaded with Br., BiBr, may be 
readily volatilized by applying a gentle heat leaving CdBr, or PbBr, 
behind. SnBr^ can also be separated in the same manner. The sul- 
phides if prepared by precipitation must be quickly and thoroughly 
dried. Protracted exposure to air causes partial failure. With Wood's 
alloy and others, it is best to convert to sulphides by heating the chip- 
pings of the alloy mixed with pulverized sulphur in a porcelain boat 
surrounded by an atmosphere of CO, until the conversion to sulphide is 


effected, when the most of the excess of S may be volatilized off, and 
then passing Br vapors. The presence of a little excess of S does no 

Separating Cadmium from Copper, Browning {Am,/.Sci.^ xlvi., 280). 
The metals being in the form of sulphates, KI in slight excess is added, 
and. the solution is then evaporated to dryness to expel free I. On taking 
up with water, CuJ, remains insoluble, and may be filtered off through 
asbestos, dried at 120 to 150° C. and weighed. . In the filiraie Cd may 
be precipitated by Na,COj„ ignited to CdO and weighed. In presence of 
KI, H,S gives precipitates of Cd that cannot conveniently be filtered. 

Volumetric for Lead, Laune ( C, iV., Ixviii., 211). The author has en- 
deavored to render the bichromate titration m?re satisfactory. He finds 
it well to have in the solution the equivalent of 0.2 to 0.5 ;^ramme NaCl 
per 100 c.c. The bichromate solution used was of the strength i c.c. 
0.002 gramme Pb. Large quantities of salts in the solution are inad- 
missible. Any acidity must be neutralized, and NaCjHjO^ must be added. 
To get a sharp end- reaction, it is advised to add nearly enough bichro- 
mate, and then heat to boiling. The precipitate then settles readily, and 
a drop or two of the clear solution may be taken out for th*^ ** spot test ** 
with AgNO, solution. (Red precipitate when excess of chromate.) 

Analyses of Galena, Lindemann and Motteu {Bull, Soe, Chim.^ 
ix., 812), 0.5 to I gramme of the ore is triturated in an agate mortar with 
solution of chloride of lime, added in small quantities at a time, until 
about 80 c.c. have been addtd. Then diluted HCl is gradually added, 
and after complete oxidation of the ore by this means, the material is 
transferred to a beaker, solution of chloride of lime added in quantity 
sufficient to precipitate all the lead as PbO,. After washing by decan- 
tation, 25 c.c. of a 50 per cent, solution of KI is added, then 30 c.c. of 
20 per cent. HCl, and the I set free is titrated with standard Na^S^O,, 
the solution being made up to 150 to 200 c.c. In case of the presence 
of Fe or Cu, the solution obtained by action of the chloride of lime, is 
evaporated to expel CI etc., the Pb precipitated by H,S, and the PbS 
treated as above. CuS, if mingled with the PbS is removed by KCy, 
before converting the lead to PbO,. 

Separating Lead and Copper, Jannasch and Lesinsky {Berich/e,, 
xxvi., 2331). The solution of the metals in HNO,, in a bulk of about 
60 c.c. is mixed in the cold with 60 c.c. of (at least 2 per cent.) H^O^ 
solution, and excess of ammonia. After adding 50 c.c. of saturated 
solution of (NHjjCOj the PbOj (hydrated) is filtered off and washed, 
first with ammoniacal H.^0, solution, afterward with ammonia only. 
There is some tendency tor the Cu to remain in the precipitate. The 
PbO, is converted first to nitrate then to PbO in which form it is 

The Cu in the filtrate is separated by H.^S, ignited, and finally weighed 
as CuO, fumes of (NH^^COg being brought in contact with it in such 
a way as to remove all sulphate. 

A large excess of H/)., gives with Pb silts white nacreous leaflets com- 
pletely insoluble in water and ammonia. It may be separated in a 
similar manner from Z\\ and from Ni. 


Qualitative Analysis by Electrolysis. Kohn (C iV., Ixviii., 188). 
The paper may be summarized as follows : 


SK, . . 

Hg.. . . 
Pb., . . 
Cu., . . 


. HNOj, 10 to 20 per 

. KCy or KjC^O^ 


( urrent 
per min. 

1 5 to 2 C.C 

4 to 5 C.C. 

2 to 3 C.C. 

z part in, 

\)^ million. 


3 million. 
\)^ million. 

■— ' — * 9 «  

Cd, . . 

0.2 C.C.. 

The tests are much more delicate than with H,S. In testing urine or 
other organic liquids twice as much time must be allowed as when the 
solutions contain only mineral salts alone. For lead in organic solu- 
tions, the addition of (NH^'^jCjO^ is necessary. 

Electrolytic Separations , Vortmann (^Monatsh, f. Chem.. xiv., 536). 
The apparatus is figured and described. Alkaline solutions are used. 
Zn is readily precipitated from NaOH and Rochelle salt solution on a 
silvered copper dish. Strength of current per 10 cm* 0.3 to 0.6 ampere, 
Fe separates well as an adherent coating to Pt or Ag in an alkaline 
tartrate solution containing free alkali. The coat contains only minute 
antounts of C after long action. 

Co requires the presence of KI. The NaOH must be so strong that 
the solution is blue in the cold. The anode is always coaled with an 
adherent slime which contains traces of Co. 

Ni is precipitated under conditions similar to Fe with a moderately 
strong current. 

To separate Zn in presence of Ni, add Rochelle salt and conr. NaOH 
and then electrolyze. Fe in presence of Ni in a similar manner, but 
not quite so satisfactorily. Co may be separated from Ni. 

To separate Fe and Zn add tartrate, render alkaline and electrolyze 
in Pb. which affords the Fe, (with traces of Zn) then transfer to a 
silvered dish and preripitate Zn. For complete separation redissolve 
the Fe and repeat. Or else use an alkaline solution containing KCy 
from which Zn is precipitated and Fe remains as K^FeCy^. To sepa- 
rate Co and Ni from Fe, oxidize with Br water, add (NH).^SO^ and 
ammonia and electrolyze. The Fe/OH), may remain suspended in 
the solution. 

To separate Cu in presence cf much Fe, oxidize with HNOj, and con- 
duct the operation as in the separation of Ni and Co. 

Electrolytic Separation of Lead from Copper. Nissenson (Z/j. Angew. 
Chem,^ 1893, 646). The separation can be completely effected if pro- 
per conditions as to strength of current, and amount of acid are estab- 
lished ; I gramme of the ore is dissolved in 30 c.c. HNO3 (^^- ^-4) ^'" 
luted to 180 C.C. and then electrolyzed, beginning with a current of 0.5 
ampere, and after an hour increasing to 1.5 to 2 amperes. The separa- 
tion is complete in 6 to 7 hours. 

Estimating Free Chlorine. Fried heim {Zis. Anorg, Chem., iv., 145). 
If the CI absorbed in Na^CO, and to this solution KI is added, and the 
titration performed with standard Na^SjO^,, the results are always low. 



The reason assigned is that some sulphate is formed in the alkaline sohi- 
tion by interaction of [ and Na^SjOj. If however the Na^CO, sohition 
in which the CI has been absorbed, is mixed with a KI solution con- 
taining excess of H^SO^, the titration results are correct. 

Chlorine Titration, Fairley {Analyst^ xviii., 222). The presence of 
even small amounts of alkaline silicates appeared to interfere seriously 
with the accuracy of the titration for chlorides (standard AgNO, with 
KjCrO^ indicator). 

Sulphur in Py rites, Ferguson ( Oil^ Paint and Drug Reporter^ Nov. 
1893, p. 10), describes the Br method as used in the laboratory of the 
Nichols' Chemical Co. Br solution. Treat 75 grammes KBr with 50 
c.c. HjO. When nearly dissolved, add 50 c.c. Br. Stir until nearly 
dissolved, transfer to 500 c.c, stoppered flask, add a little water, shake 
gently, finally All to 500 c.c. and shake until dissolved. 

Analysis. Add 20 c.c. Br solution to 1 gramme of pulverized sample 
in a covered litre beaker, mix well and let stand cold ten minutes, then 
add 10 c.c. HNO,, mix and let stand ten minutes more cold. Place on 
a .steam bath, and when the solution becomes quiet, rinse off the cover, 
and evaporate to dryness; add 10 c.c. HCl, and cover until violent 
action ceases, then remove cover, and evaporate to dryness again. Take 
up with 20 c.c. HCl in 100 c.c. hot water, stand 10 minutes ; filter and 
wash thoroughly three times. Test the residue for sulphides. If they 
are present the operation must be repeated on a fresh lot of material. 

Heat filtrate on a steam bath, and add 35 c.c. BaCl, solution (1 : 10), 
from a burette drop by drop, stirring briskly, let stand one hour on the 
steam bath filter, wash etc. and weigh BaSO^, add 0.2 per cent, for 
solvent effect of hot acid Fe^Cl, solution. Duplicates on 22 analyses 
show an average difference of 0.15 per cent. ; analysis of 27 samples by 
Br method compared with results by fusion method (mixed alkaline 
nitrates and carbonates) showed the average results to be the same for 
both. The Br method is more expeditious than the fusion method, and 
requires less personal attention. 

Sulphur in Manufactured Irons, etc. Hooper (C -.V., Iviii., 191). 
The element is evolved as H,S (by boiling 5 grammes with HCl) and 
the gas passed into 10 c.c. Na()H solution (Sp. Gr. 1.20). When 
solution has been effected, the NaOH solution is rinsed into a larger 
breaker, and standard solution of Pb (NO3), run in, until no more 
brown coloration occurs. The standard lead solution contains 3.2265 
grammes Pb dissolved in HNO, and diluted to one litre, i c.c. o 0005 
gramme S. 

Barium Sulphate Precipitate. Phinney {Am. J. Sci. xlv., 468). 
Contamination by alkaline chlorides can only be removed by fusing 
with NajjCO,, and reprecipitating (Fresenius) or dissolving in strong 
H,SO^ and evaporating (Mar). The use of aGooch filter with asbestos 
bed is preferable to avoid reduction to BaS on ignition. 

Volumetric for Phosphoric Acid. Holleman (^Rec. Trav. Chem., xii., 
i\ 50 c.c. of the solution, containing not over 0.2 gramme PjO^, 


receives the addition of 10 c.c. normal NaC^HjO, solution, then a 
slight excess of tenth normal AgNO,, and it is then nearly neutralized 
with tenth normal soda. After dihiting and filtering off AgjPO^, the 
excess of Ag remaining in solution is determined by Volhard's method. 

JDetermining Phosphoric Acid. Pemberton {J, Am, Chem. Soc.^ xv., 
382). claims priority in the method by acidimetric titration of the 
yellow precipitate (^Jour. Frank, ///i-/., cxiii., 193., C. yV., xlvi., 7). 
Some references to the literature of this method are given : Thilo 
{Chem. Z/^., xi.. 193) ; Hundeshagen {Zts, AnaL Chem.^ xxviii., 171); 
Manby {J, AnaL and App, Chem.y y'x., 82); Handy (7^, vi., 204); 
Rothberg and Auchinvole (7^., vi., 243). The solutions used are: 
(NH*)^ MoO^, 90 grammes of crystals in one litre, no nitric acid; 
NH4NO, saturated solution ; Standard KOH, 100 c.c. = 32.65 c.c. 
normal acid ; i c.c. = o.ooi gramme P^Oj ; Standard acid, of corres- 
ponding strength. (These may be made by diluting 326.5 c.c. of 
normal acid or alkali, each, to one litre.); Indicator i gramme phen- 
olphthalein dissolved in 100 c.c. of 60 per cent, alcohol (use 0.5 c.c. 
for each test). The standard alkali must contain no carbonate. 

Method, Dissolve i gramme of phosphate rock, or 2 to 3 grammes of 
fertilizer in HNO,, and without evaporating or filtering, dilute to 
250 c.c. Draw off 25 c.c, neutralize it with ammonia, and then add 
5 c.c. HNO, (Gr. 1.4). Then add 10 c.c. of the NH^NO, solution, 
and dilute to 50 or 75 c.c, bring to a full boil and after removing from 
the heat, add 5 c.c of the (NH^), MoO^ solution. Follow by a second 
or third 5 c. c of the reagent, as may be found necessary. Let settle, 
and wash with water by decantation and on the filter. (G?/// water is 
not specified, but would probably be advisable. — Abs.) Transfer the 
precipitate and paper bodily to the beaker. Run in measured excess 
of standard alkali, add 0.5 c.c. phenolphthalein solution, and titrate 
back with the standard acid. 

Ammoniutn-Magnesium Phosphate, Neubauer (Z/f. Anorg, Ch., iv., 
251), asserts that errors may result ; when no excess of Mg salt is present ; 
in that case the precipitate contains two little Mg and some P^O^ is lost 
on igniting. When decided excess of ammonia is present ; in this 
case, more MgO than suffices to form MgNH^PO^ comes down with the 
precipitate, giving too high results. Obtaining exactly correct conditions 
in all cases is manifestly impossible. The method recommended is the 
use of solutions containing 2^ per cent, of ammonia. The magne- 
sium mixture (55 grammes MgCl,, 70 grammes NH^Cl in i litre of 
2j4 per cent, ammonia) is added slowly (at the rate of about 10 c.c. 
in a minute) the dilute phosphate solution being continually stirred 
during the addition, with a final vigorous stir after a small excess has 
been added. After standing cold at least three hours, it is filtered and 
washed (with 2^ per cent ammonia) and after transferring to a weighed 
crucible dried, and gradually heated to ignition, never allowing the 
temperature to pass a moderate red heat so long as any carbon re- 
mains. A correction for loss must always be applied, for which a 
table is given. 

Carbon in Steely etc. Proposed Standard Method. Dudley and 


Pease {/our. Am. Chem, Soc, xv., 526), Treat 3 grammes of the 
sample with 200 c. c. of an acid solution of CiiCl,, 2KCI, at a tempera- 
ture not above 100°. Agitate during solution. When Cu is all 
dissolved, decartt through an asbestos filter in a platinum boat. Rinse 
into the filter with dilute HCl (Gr. i.i) and wash with this acid until 
the washings are colorless, then wash with water. Dry at not over 
212° F., and subject to combustion in a porcelain tube in a current of 
oxygen. This gas is first passed through a ** preheating '* furnace — a 
porcelain tube about 20 inches long filled with granulated CuO, and set 
in a combustion furnace; next through a purifying bulb. (Geissler 
charged with KOH solution), then into the combustion tube containing 
the carbon. Next to the boat in the tube comes a roll of silver foil, 
then 4j^ inches of Cu gauze then granulated CuO, then more Cu gauze, 
and an asbestos plug. Beyond the combustion tube is a bubble tube 
containing acid FeSO, solution), next a bubble tube containing saturated 
AgjSO^ solution, next a CaCl^ drying tube, and next the absorption 
bulbs (Geissler form preferred) charged with KOH solution with pro- 
long containing granular CaCI,. The two last are weighed before and 
after the operation. Bevond these is a CaCI, bottle and an aspirator. 

Special directions are given for preparation of the reagents, stirring 
apparatus, regulating the combustion, etc. 

Carbon in SieeL Drown, in a letter to the committee on Interna- 
tional Standards, report some experiments on dissolving steels in copper 
salts. CuCU acidified with 20 per cent. HCl dissolves the iron with 
reasonable promptness. 40 per cent, of HCl is apt to cause loss. The 
addition of alkaline chloride however, facilitates the solution. Good 
results were obtained by using to 3 grammes of steel, a solution con- 
taining 12 grammes Cu (as CuCI,) 15 c. c. HCl (Gr. 1.2) and 60 c. c. 
NaCl solution (320 grammes per litre). 

Analysis of Carborundum. Mulhaiiser {^Zts.f. Angew. Chem,^ '^93 
P- 637). — Grind up repeatedly in an agate motar, and elutriate. The 
material remaining in suspension in water after five minutes, is taken 
for analysis. For C mix with PbCrO, alone^ and subject to combustion. 
For Si, mix with KNaCO, and fuse. 

Analysis of Silicates. Gluika (y. Russ, Chem. Sac, xxiv., 456), 
prefers Deville's method, especially for feldspars. — Mixing with an equal 
weight of pure (specially prepared) CaCO, and heating up — finally 
bringing it to fusion, which is maintained for 10 to 15 minutes. After 
cooling the melt may be dissolved in HCl or HNOj, and the analysis 
conducted as usual, for SiO,, Al,Oj alkalies, etc. 

Estimating Chlorates^ Nitrates and Nitrites, Roberts (^Am. Jour, Sci., 
xlvi., Sept.). Boiling a solution of nitrate (acidified with HCl) with 
MnClj affords CI which when passed into Kl solution may be estimated. 
The NO evolved may also be measured over NaOH solution. FeCI, 
with measurement of the NO may also be used. Solution of chlorate 
also gives a proportional evolution of CI which may be passed into KI 
and estimated by titration with standard thio-sulphate. In a mixture 
of nitrate and chlorate, both may be determined in one operation with 


MnCl, by measuring the NO evolved. Then on titrating the I set free, 
and allowing for the amount attributable to the nitrate, the remainder 
is due to the chlorate present. If a mixture of nitrate and nitrite i^ 
tested, a calculation from the I set free and the NO obtained, will afford 
a means for calculating the proportion of each present. A special form 
of apparatus is recommended, in which all the air present must be 
driven out by CO^, before beginning the operation, a precaution espe- 
cially, necessary when nitrite is present. The results are fair in case 
nitrite is present. 

WaUr Analysis, — Use of Na,0,. Rideal and Bult (C N.^ Ixviii., 
190). Used as a substitute for alkaline permanganate the Na,0, in no 
case oxidized the nitrogenous organic matter to the same extent, though 
it gave constant results with the same water. The suggestion is made, 
that by the use of this reagent a differentiation between different classes 
of nitrogenous organic matter may be effected. 

Preparation of Potassium lodate. Gorget (Z/j. Angew, Chem,^ 1894, 
13). Dissolve 40 grammes pure KgMn^Og in a litre of hot water, add 20 
grammes KI dissolved in a little water, heat over a boiling waterbath 
for 20 to 30 minutes, and then add alcohol drop, by drop, until the 
liquid is decolorized. Filter, and wash the precipitate with hot water. 
Then acidify with acetic acid, evaporate to 50 c.c, cool and allow to 
crystallize, and then wash the crystals repeatedly with strong alcohol 
and dry. The yield is 90 to 95 per cent, of the theoretical amount in- 
dicated by KI + K,Mn,Og + H,0 = KIO3 + 2KOII -f- 2MnO,. 

If acetic acid is not used, much loss may be experienced in attempt- 
ing to wash adhering alkali from the crystals. 

International Standards for t/u Analysis of Iron and Steel. Report 
of the Committee. The results were : 

Mean (American). 

^^^ No... No^ No. 3. No. 4. 

C, 1.44 0.807 <>-452 0.18 

Si, 0270 0202 0152 0015 

S, 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.038 

P, 0.016 o.oio 0.015 0.088 

Mn, 0.254 0.124 0.140 0.098 

Afean (English). 

C 1.414 0.816 0.476 0.151 

Si, 0.263 0.191 0.141 0.008 

S (not over), . . . 0.006 0007 0.008 0.039 

P, 0018 0.014 0.021 0.078 

Md, 0.259 0.141 0.145 0.130 

Mean (Sioedish), 

C, 1.45 0.84 0.50 0.17 


S, . 
Mn, . 

0.257 0.185 ^-^S 0.015 

0.008 0.004 0.006 0.048 

0.022 0.015 0.021 0.102 

0.282 o 145 017 o 13 


Rksistance of Shpi»s and Screw Propulsion. By D. W. Taylor, Naval Con- 
structor, United States Navy. 8vo. Pp. ix. aixl 234. Macmillan & Co , New 
York and London, 1893. 

For more than a hundred years the principles of hydromechanics have 
been a subject of elaborate investigation by the ablest mathematicians. 
Some af the nwst profound memoirs in mathematical literature were de- 
voted to these principles, and a large body of scientific doctrine has 
been permanently acquired. Nevertheless, it must be said that com- 
paratively little progress has been made toward a satisfactory theoretical 
solution of such apparently simple problems as tlie resistance encoun- 
tered by ships in water or projectiles in air. In the meantime, however, 
experimental science has made great progress in the collection of facts 
relating to such problems and in the perfection of appliances subject to 
hydrodynamic conditions. Various methods and devices have been 
perfected to facilitate the study and discussion of the special cases into 
which a general problem divides itself; and a skilled experimentalist 
will undertake to determine the characteristic properties of a water 
motor, a steam engine or a steamship working under any clearly defined 
circumstances. Not the least useful feature of Constructor Taylor's 
book arises from the fact that it calls attention repeatedly to this dis- 
parity between the data afforded by a modern steamship, for example, 
and the means supplied by theoretical mechanics for the interpretation 
of such data. 

The work is intended primarily for that small class of readers called 
naval architects. The preface states that "in his professional work the 
writer has often felt the need of a short treatise upon the resistance and 
propulsion of ships.'' .... ** The writer has endeavored throughout to 
discuss ships as they are, not floating bodies in general ; to set forth 
methods and deduce results as simple as the nature of the subject will 
allow, and sufficiently accurate for everyday use/* Though thus de- 
signed for specialists, the work contains much of interest to all students 
of hydromechanical questions. The six chapters of the book are de- 
voted to Resistance, The Propeller, Mutual Reactions between Propeller 
and Ship, Analysis of Trials and Average Results, The Power of Ships, 
and Propeller Design respectively. Supplementary to these are Tables 
I. -XX., giving various numerical data pertaining to the subjects treated. 
The style of the author is that of the practical man rather than that of 
the investigator, and the results he reaches cannot be considered ahead 
of the limes. But his intention was evidently to write for practical 
men, and to such the work will no doubt prove very useful. R. S. VV. 

The Mkchank-^ of Hoisting Machinery. Weisbach & Herrmann. Translated 
by Karl P. Dahlstrom, M E. 1893. Macmillan & Co. 8vo. 329 pp. $3.50. 

This treatise forms a contribution to a series which has been com- 
pleted by Messrs. Coxe, DuRois and Klein, and which has covered the 
immense undertaking of Dr. Weisbach upon theoretical mechanics, hy- 
draulic and steam engines, and the machinery of transmission. It con- 
cerns itself with that department of industry so important and funda- 
mental in all shop administration, the lilting and moving of masses. 

The first four chapters are devoted to a discussion of the levers 


and jacks, tackle and blocks, windlasses, winches and lifts, elevators, 
hydraulic and pneumatic. The types selected for the illustrations and 
discussions are characteristic and admirable, and the illustrations, like 
so much of the German work of this class, are most enjoyably clear 
and satisfactory. The method of treatment is to evaluate in every 
case the theoretical effort and the hurtful resistance to be expected in 
every combination and from these two to work out the efficiency. 

The chapter on elevators with its discussion of an accumulator and 
its relation to hydraulic transmissions is most interesting and satis- 
factory, and, so far as is known, is the only one which has appeared. 

The fifth chapters covers hoisting machinery for mines with their 
detail of brake and compensating devices and safety attachments for 

The chapter on cranes and sheers is particularly satisfactory as bring- 
ing together material which has not heretofore been accessible in any 
one place. The travelling crane does not receive the discussion which 
its importance in this country would demand, but the author very prop- 
erly refers to the difficulty of finding formulae which would be generally 

The final chapters on dredges, excavators and pile-drivers are specially 
interesting as presenting forms of apparatus with which American en- 
gineers are not so familiar, and which can at once be applied to other 
standard forms. 

For students and others seeking general conceptions concerning ap- 
paratus of this sort, and for those seeking a superficial familiarity with 
their construction and operation, the book will serve a most admiral)le 
purpose and will be a valuable addition to the student's library. The 
difficulty with it is that he who seeks to obtain definite and exhaustive 
study of the forms which he would be likely to meet will be disappointed 
in that the things which he wanted most to be told are the very things 
concerning which the theoretical discussion is silent. This is, however, 
so frequent a limitation of the text-books written by those comy)eten| 
to prepare them from a theoretical standpoint that it is perhaps unfair to 
feel disappointment for that which could not have been helped in the 
nature of the case. F. R. H. 

Helical Gears: A Practical Treatise by a Foreman Patternmaker. Mac- 
millan & Co, 1894. i2mo. 127pp. $2.00. 

The author of this treatise in the '* Specialist Series ** has made him- 
self known to readers in contributions to the technical journals, but 
veils his identity under the simple initials J. H. 

By the term *' Helical Gears" he means those in which the elements 
of the teeth which in plain spur gears are parallel to the axis have been 
inclined so as to becoitie either elements of the hyperboloid or ])arallel 
to the elements of a helix. It is a principle familiar to students of trans- 
missive machinery that in tooth gear the friction of two teeth upon each 
other increases in any pitch as the attempt is made to increase the arc 
of contact of any two teeth. Where heavy powers are to be transmitted 
from one tooth to another, the necessity is laid upon the designer to 
make the teeth strong by supplying them with the necessary metal, and 
this compels a large circular pitch. With the large circular pitch the 
difficulty from insufficient contact and from friction of conta( t increase 
as the numbers of teeth are diminished on a given length of the cir- 


cumference. It is further a difficulty with massive teeth that by reason 
of their corisiderable projection beyond the pitch line the obliquity of 
action becomes troublesome and excessive. 

So far as known the first solution to mitigate these difficulties was pre- 
sented by Dr. Hooke as far back as 1674, who proposed that the face of 
the wheel should be made up of a series of gears, the teeth of each being 
set a little in advance of that of its neighhor, so that in looking across 
the wheel the teeth appeared in steps. It will be seen by this suggestion 
the strength o^ a massive pitch was retained, but the smoothness of 
working and diminished obliquity of a great number of small teeth were 
secured at the same time. The difficulty of forming these step teeth 
and of machining them have practically thrown them out of use, but 
the principle is retained in those forms of teeth in which the series of 
steps becomes infinite in number and the broken lines become elements 
of helices. 

It is almost universal in order to eliminate the thrust lengthwise of 
the axis which follows from the use of a series of helices, right-handed 
or left-handed, on either wheel, to use on each wheel two segments of 
right- and left-handed wheels which meet in a point at the centre of the 
.face ; this gives the form of tooth which resembles a V, and is sometimes 
known as V- teeth or ** herring-bone *' back. These V-teeth in older 
designs and less carefully made, often have the elements perfectly straight, 
but a moment's thought will show that this is a mongrel form and cannot 
be expected to secure either the smoothness or the reduced friction 
which will result when true mathematical surfaces are used. 

The first pages of the treatise are very properly devoted to the discus- 
sion of the fundamental peculiarities of the laying out of teeth, both 
upon a cylinder and upon a cone, the development upon a conical sur- 
face being a feature of design which has not received very much atten- 
tion and development in this country ouiside of a few specialists. The 
remainder of the book is mainly taken with the actual construction of 
the blocks which are to be used in a special gear moulding machine, 
intended to be used for the shaping of teeth without the use of a 
full-made pattern. The machine is specially well adapted for the 
helical work as compared with the method of working from a pattern, 
since the withdrawal of the teeth block from the sand can be done with 
the machiue in a radial direction, whereas the withdrawal of a full pat- 
tern is a very difficult and vexatious operation, and is very likely to seri- 
ously injure the moulded forms of the teeth. A chapter, however, is given 
to the construction of patterns where for any reason their use seems to be 
compelled. The moulding process, with the machine and with the pat- 
tern, and instructions for the design of tooth profiles, either by the exact 
or the approximate method, completes the practical part of the book. 

It is directed more towards the foreman patternmaker than to the en- 
gineer, but the latter will find in it much matter which, so far as known 
to the reviewer, has never been presented in as satisfactory form in any 
other treatise. The criticism is j>erhaps to be made that the treatise as- 
sumes a certain amount of knowledge on the part of the reader, of gear 
moulding machines and of the significance of the special conditions laid 
down for the design of gears, but, of course, this is to be explained by 
the fact that the treatise announces itself as for specialists, to whom such 
information is well known or at hand. Students, of course, will find this 
limitation an obstacle in their path. F. R. H. 


A Manual OF Practical Assaying. By H. Van F. Furman, E.M. John Wiley & 

Sons, New York. 1893. ^^'O* 39^ pp. $3.00. 


The book is divided into four parts. Part I. discusses sampling ores 
and metallurgical products, giving in detail the latest methods of hand 
and mechanical sampling, preliminary examination both by the blow- 
pipe and by wet methods ; operations and apparatus, including furnaces ; 
reagents giving the fluxes, reducing agents, etc., used in fire assays; also 
the ordinary reagents used in the quantitative analysis. The chapters on 
sampling and preliminary testing are excellent. 

Part II. gives the rapid methods for the determination of silica, sul- 
phur, phosphorus, carbon, carbonic acid, water, gold and silver, mercury, 
lead, arsenic, antimony, tin, copper, bismuth, cadmium, iron, aluminium, 
chromium, titanium, manganese, zinc, nickel and cobalt, calcium, mag- 
nesium, barium, sodium and potassium. This division of the work con- 
sists of more than one hundred and fifty pages, and gives most of the 
methods usually described in books on quantitative analysis. The space 
given to fire assays of lead, antimony and tin is, however, very limited. 

Part III. is devoted to special commercial analyse? and assays, includ- 
ing base, gold and silver bullion, coal, water, white lead, phosphates and 
slags. This is the best portion of the work and contains many practical 
tests not often described in books, such as the chlorinaiion assay of 
gold ores. 

Part IV. consists of examples of chemical and metallurgical calcula- 
tions and tables of weights, specific gravity, etc. 

Their author considers an assay as any rapid method of determination, 
therefore his book is more nearly comparable to Beringer's assaying than 
to works treating only of fire assays. 

The methods given are in accord with the latest improvements, and 
are succinctly and clearly stated, giving sufficient detail for their practical 

The book is well arranged and will prove a most useful manual for 
both assayers and chemists. E. H. M. 

Retort of the Geological Survey of Ohio Vol. VII., Pt. I , p. 1-290. 

The appearance of this report which is devoted largely to the clays 
and clay working industries of Ohio, will be a source of much gratifica- 
tion to many. 

After an explanation of the geological structure of Ohio, there fol- 
lows a description of the clays and shales of the State by Prof. Orton, in 
which the extent, thickness and qualities of these formations are set 

Prof. Orton states that the clays of Ohio are of much greater value 
than her coals. 

The chapter on the clay-working industries of Ohio, by Mr. Edward 
Orton Jr., deserves much praise. It is only within the last few years 
that the various states have recognized the value of their clay resources, 
and in consequence are making them the subject of special investigations. 

New Jersey was the pioneer in such work, and her clay report of 1878 
is of permanent value. Ohio followed her example, and the report of 
1884 contained an exhaustive article on her clay industries by Mr. 
Orton. These industries have not only grown greatly in the last ten 


years, but new branches have sprung up, so that another report was 
deemed necessary. After a discussion of the properties of clay Mr. 
Orton takes up the manufiicture of pottery, paving material, pipe and 
hollow goods, refractory materials and building material^. Under each 
heading are discussed the various methods employed, their advantages 
and disadvantages, and the forms of machinery used. Numerous analy- 
ses add to the value of these discussions. 

A number of measurements were made of the temperatures in kilns 
during the different stages of burning ; the readings were taken with a 
lunette pyrometer. 

Numerous tests were made of bricks from many factories, not alone to 
determine their individual merits, but to test the relative strength and 
wearing qualities of bricks made by different methods. 

The methods of mining the chy are not discussed, and it is to be 
regretted that there is not more information concerning the cost of pro- 

The whole report is written in a clear, concise way, and shows not 
only the result of much labor, but also a thorough knowledge of the 

It will serve as a standard work on those branches of the clay working 
industry of which it treats. 

The fourth and last chapter of the report, on the coal-fields of Ohio, 
is by Prof. Orton. The extent, thickness and horizon of the various 
seams are carefully discussed. H. R. 

A Field- Book for Civil Engineers, By Daniel Carhart. C. E. Ginn & Co, 

The author uses the above general title probably because he makes 
reference to surveys for highways, but the book is principally intended 
for railway engineers. Its chief value, however, lies in the service it can 
be to instructors. 

Ordinarily the teacher of railway surveying will find that one book 
will be best for the practical details of running a survey, another will 
have the best tables, still another will treat curves in a superior manner, 
while most of them are loaded down with a mass of crude mathematics 
of use to no one. 

Professor Carhart has given the best average work on the market for 
purposes of instruction, and this fact does not invalidate it for practice 

There are criticisms to be made, as for example, a rather useless 
series of formulae for slope stake work, which is after all, head work ; 
also the book fails — as indeed do nearly all — to place before the student 
the problem that feces him when he is in the field with a certain alti- 
tude to reach and a wide range of country to select his grade upon. 

But possibly no one can thoroughly appreciate such problems until he 
meets them face to face in the field and it may be the part of wisdom to 
leave them to field discussion, and not to attempt them in the class 

The tables at the end are a good selection from the various ones 
scattered through other books. 

J. L. G. 



By a. J. MOSES and L. McI. LUQUER, 

Principal Abbreviations Used. 

Amer. Jour. Sci, — The American Journal of Science (New Haven). 

BulL Soc, Min. — Bulletin de la Societe Fran<;raise de Mineralogie (Paris). 

Min. Ma^. — The Mineralogical Magazine (London). 

Minn. Mitth. — Tscherraak's Mineralogische und Petrographische Mit- 

Neues Jahrb. Min. — Neues Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, Geologic und 
Palaeontologie (Stuttgart). 

Zeit.f. Kryst. — Zeitschrift fiir Krystallographie und Mineralogie (Leip- 

Gior. di Min. — Giornale di Mineralogie, Cristallografia e Petrografia 

CompL Rend. — Comptes Rendus des Seances de 1 Acad^mie des Sciences. 

I.— Mineral Species. 

Aguilarite, Etc. 

Contributions to Mineralogy, No. 54, F. A. Genth. With rrys- 
tallographic notes; by S. L. Penfield, in Amer. Jour. Sci., 3d, xlivr., 
381-388, November, 1892. 

Analyses of aguilarite, metacinnabarite, lollingite, quartz, fluo- 
rite, zircon, lepidolite, fiichsite, rutile and danalite, with crystal 
notes on last two. 

Alabandite, Etc. 

Alabandite from Tombstone and Wavellite from Florida. — A. J. 
Moses and L. McI. Luqiier, School of Mines Quarterly, xiii., 
236-239, April, 1892. 

Albite, Etc. 

Albit, Analcim, Natrolith, Prehnit und Kalkspath, Vervvitterungs- 
producte eines Diabases von Friedensdorf bei Marburg. — R. Braun 
in I^eues Jahrb. Min.^ r892, II., 1-24. 


Fund von Allanit (Cerin) bei Gyttorp, Bergdist, Nora, Schweden. 
— G. Nordenstrom, in Geoi. Foren. Fork., 1890, vol. xii., 540 ; abs. 
in Zeit.f. Kryst.^ vol. xx., p. 386, 1892. 


Ueber die Chemische Constitution der Hornblende ; H. Haefrke, 
Inaug. Disert., Gottingen. — Abs. Neues Jahrb. Min.^ 1892, II., 404- 
406, Ref. 


Suir Analcime del Monte Somma. — P. Franco in Gior. di Min., 
iii., 232-237, 1892; Optical Study, with colored plate. 



Aiialcite as Rock Constituent. — W. Lindgren in Proc, Calif, 
Acad. Soc.j 1890 (2), vol. iii., 39 ; abs. in Zeit, /. Kryst., vol. xx., 
p. 498, 1892. 


Ueber Chiastolith. — F. Becke in Min. Mitth.^ xiii., 256-257, 1895. 

Anglesite, Etc. 

Anglesite associated with Boleite. — F. A.Genth in Atner./our, Sct\y 
3d, xlv., 32, January, 1893. 


Kiinstlich hergestelle Krystalle von Anhydrit. — K. Haushofer, in 
SiiZ'Ber. d, MatJu-Phys, Akad. d, Wiss., 1889, vol. xix., 12 ; abi. in 
Zeit,f. KrysL, vol. xx., p. 304 1892. 


Ueber eine Merkwiirdige Eigenschaft des Anorthit. — E. v. Fede- 
row, Neuesjahrb. Min.^ ^892, ii., 68-69. That the optic axis which 
makes an angle of 6^° with the vertical axis is an optic twining 
axis. — Also in Minn, Mitth.^yXx.^ 443, 1892, and Zeitf, KrysL^ xx., 
362, 1892. 

Apatite, Etc. 

Minerals from the Apatite-bearing veins at Noerestad, Norway. — 
R. H. Solly, in Mineralogical Magazine^ x., 1-7, July, 1892. Apatite, 
rutile, zircon, wernerile, amphibole, pyroxene, titaniie crystals de- 

Influence of Swamp Waters in the Formation of Phosphate 
Nodules of S. C. — C. L. Reese, in Amer, /our, Sci,, 3d, xliii., 402- 
406, May, 189^2. 


Suir Aftalosa del Vesuvio. — Pasquale Franco, in Gior, di Min,^ 
iv., 151-156. 

The accepted hexagonal form was observed on artificial crystals 
not on natural. Thin tabular crystals herein described are biaxial, 
orthorhombic, and in angles closely agree with the arcanite of Haid- 


Mineralogische Mittheilungen, xiii. — C. Klein, in Neues Jahrb, 
Min,, 1892, ii., 165-231. 

The system of apophyllite and the influence of heat and pressure 
on its optical properties. 

Arsenopvrite, Etc. 

Beitrage zur Mineralogie Bohmens. — Friederich Katzer, in Min, 
Mitth,^ xii., 416-428, 1892. 

Arsenopyrite, sphalerite, siderite, wollastonite, andalusite, tour- 
maline, iolite, gypsum, etc. 


Aurichalcite and decomposed Chalcopyrite from Torreon, Chi- 
huahua, Mexico. — H. F. Collins, \xs. Mi neralogical Magazine^ x., 15- 
19, July, 1892. 



Awaruite. — G. J. Ulrich, in Quart, Journ, GeoL Soc, 1890. 
vol. 46, 619; abs. in Zeit, /. Krjsi, vol. xx., p. 517, 1892. 


Axinit im Harze und die chem. zusammensetzung des Axinits 
iibcrhaupt. — O. Luedecke, in Zei/schr^ f, Aaturtuiss^ HalU^ 1889, 
vol. 62 ; abs. in Zeit. f. Kryst.^ vol. xx., p. 310, 1892. 


Bast it aus der Fruska-Gora. — M. Kispaiic in Jahrb, d, k, Ungar. 
GeoL AnsL^ 1889, vol. viii., p. 197; abs. in Zeit, /. Ktyst., vol. 
XX., p. 301, 1892. 


Etched Beryls from Mount Antero, Colorado. — R. C. Hills in 
I^roc, Col. Scient, Soc,^ iii. pt. ii., 1889, p. 191-192. 


Beyrichit von der Grube Lammerichskaule bei Altenkirchen im 
Siegen*schen. — H. Laspeyres, Zeit, f, Kryst,^ xx., 535-550, 1892. 


Ueber die Abhiingigkeit der Specifischen Warme des Boracits 
von der Temperatur. — K. Y^xotVitx^ Neues Jahrb. AJin,^ 1892, II., 
p. 91-107. 


Braunit von Langbanshyttan. — G. Flink, in Bihang t. Sv. Vet- 
Akad. Hand,, 1890, vol. xvi., II., 4, 1-23. — Abs, in Zeit, f, Kryst,^ 
vol. XX., p. 368, 1892. • 

Brazilite, Etc. 

I — Ueber Brazilit, ein neues Tantal-Minerde von der Eisenraine 
Jacupiranga, Sud Sao Paulo. II. — Ueber brasilianische Leucitges- 
teine, 111. — Nochmals die Leucit " Pseudokrystall " Frage. — E. 
Hussak in Neues Jahrb. Min.^ 1892, II„ 141-160. 


Ueber Brookit als Contactmineral. — R. Beck in Neues Jahrb, 
Min,, 1892, I., 159. 

Ueber den Brookit von Beura. — G. Streuver, Rivista di Min, e, 
Crist, ^ 1890, 6, 56; abs. Zeit, f, Kryst,^ xx., 624, 1892. 


Relation entre la vitesse d*attaque du spath par les acides et 
r^lasticit^ optique estim^e suivant la direction normale au plan 
d'aitaque. — G. Cesaro, Ann, d Chim, et de Phys. 6, xvii, 37-52, 

Sur la vitesse d'attaque du Marbe et der Spath d'Islande par 
quelque acides. — An, de la Soc, GeoL de Belgique, xv., 219, 1887- 
%2>\ abs. Neues Jahrb. Min,^ Ref. 1892, I., 221-222. 

Sur la vitesse de Reaction du Sp^th d'Islande avec quelques 
acides. — W, Spring, Bull, de V Acad Roy, de Be/gigue^i,, xiv., p. 13, 
and 725-736. 


Sur la Vitesse de dissolution du Spath d*Islande dans I'acide 
chlorhydrique. — W. Spring, Bull, de la Soc, Chim, de Paris ^ 3d, 
III., 177-184, 1890; abs. in Neues Jahrb, Min.^ Ref. 1892, 221. 

Gleitflachen am Doppelspath. — A. Kenngott in Neues Jahrh, 
MiN.j 1892, I., 219-221. 

Krystallfornnen des Calcite von Rhisnes. — G. Cesaro, in Ann. 
Soc. GeoL d. Belg,y 1889, vol. xvi., 165 ; abs. in Zeit. f. Kryst.^ vol. 
XX., p. 283. 

Bemerkungen iiber die Islandischen Fundstellen von Doppet* 
spath. — Th. Thoroddsen, in GeoL Foren, Foih^ 1890, 247-254; 
abs. in Zeit. f. KnsL, vol. xx., p. 376. 

Idiocyclophane calcite crystals. — H. G. Madan, in Nature^ 
1890, vol. 42, 99. — Abs. in Zeii. /. Krysl., vol. xx., p, 517. 1892. 

Mineralogische Beobachtungen. — H. Hofer in Min, Mitlh,^ xii., 
487-504, 1892. Corrosion of calcite crystals of Steirdorf, and 
Rawies. I'he bexoctahedron on fluorite of Sam thai Tyrol due to 

Celestite, Etc. 

Sur quelques mineraux provenant de Condorcet (Drome). — L. 
Michel, in BulL Soc, Aiin,^ xv., 27, February-March, 1892. 
Cryslallographic description of quartz, calcite and celestite. 


Haarformiger und gestrickter kupferkies von der Grube Hein- 
richssegen bei Musen. — H. Laspeyres, Zeit. f, Kryst^ xx., 529-534, 


Die Chloritgruppe.— G. Tschermak, 5//2. Wien Akad., i Theil., 
99, I., 1890, pp., 1-94. II. Theil., 100, 1891, p. 79. — Abs. Neues 
Jahrb. Min.^ 1892, II., 218-232, Ref. 


Analysis of Chromite.— E. Waller and H. T. Vult6, School of 
Mines Quarterly, xiii., 225-230, April, 1892. 


Quecksilberlagerstatte von Almaden in Spanien. — H. Pohlig, in 
Sitz.'Ber. niederrhein. Gts. fur Natur-u. Heilk.^ Bonn, 1890, 115- 
116; abs. in Zeit.f. Kryst.^ vol. xx., p. 526. 


Cliftonit aus dem Meteoreisen von Magura. — A. Brezina, in 
Anal. k. k. Nat. Hist., Hofmus, 1889, vol. iv., p. 202 ; abs. in Zeit. 
f. Kryst.y vol. xx., p. 292, 1892. 


Zwillinge von Kobaltglanz nach die Oktae Jerflache von der 
Grube Wingertshardt bei Siegen. — H. Laspeyres, in Zeit. f. Kryst.^ 
vol. XX., p. 550, 1892. 

Cohenite, Etc. 

Einige Bestandtheile des Meteoreisens von Magura. Arva. 
Ungarn. — E. Weinschenk, in Zeit.f. Kryst.^ vol. xx., No. 3, p. 291, 
1892. Cohenite, a new mineral, mentioned. 



Cookeite from Paris and Hebron, Maine. — S. L. Pen field, in 
Amer. Jour, Set'., xlv., 393-396, May, 1893. 


Occurrence of Sapphire in Scotland. — M. F. Heddlc in Miner- 
alo^icai Magazine y ix., 389-390, December, 1891. 

A single crystal in andalusite of Clova, Aberdeenshire. 

Blauen und gemeinen Korund aus den> Siebengebirge. — H. Pohlig, 
in Verh Naiuthist. ver. der RhtinL^ etc., Bonn, 1888,92-94; abs. 
in Zeit,f. Kryst.y vol. xx., p. 524, 1892. 

Crocoite, Etc. 

Synthesis of the minerals Crocoite and Phcenicochrojte. — 
C. Ludeking in Amer.Jour. Sei., ^d, xliv., 57-58, July, 1892. 

By exposure to air of a solution of lead chromate in caustic 


Danalite from Cornwall. — H. A. Miers and G. T. Prior in 
Mineralogical Magazine, x., 10-14, July* 1892. 


Datolite from Loughboro, Ontario. — L. V. Pirsson, in Amer, 
Jour. 5a., 3d, xlv., 100, February, 1893. 
Description of large, magnificent crystals. 


Sur Texislence du diamant dans le fer m^t^orique de Canon 
Diablo. — M. C. Friedel, in Buii. Soe. Min., xv., 258-263, Novem- 
ber, 1892. 

Proves the diamonds by burning them. 

Dioptase, Etc. 

Sur I'argent natif et la dioptase du Congo Frangaise. — E. Jan- 
net taz, Compt. Rend., cxii., 446-447, 1891. 

Dioptase from Comba mine, with quartz and chrysocolla. 


The Epidote of Ala. — G. La Valle, yii/i, d. R. Acead. d. Lincei, 
1890; abs. in Zeit.f. Kryst., xx., 621, 1892. 


Epsomit krystalle von Stassfurt-Leopoldshall. — L. Milch, in Zeit. 
f. Kryst., vol. xx., p. 221. 

Ettringite, Etc. 

Mineralogical Notes. — A. J. Moses, Amer, Jour. Sei., xlv , 488- 
493, June, 1893. 

Pyrite crystals from King's Bridge ; ettringite from Tombstone, 

Euclase, Etc. 

Mineralogische Notizen ausBrasilien. — E. Hussak, in Min. Mi/f., 

xii., 457-475» 1892. 

Brookite, cassiterite, xenotime, monazite, and a new locality 
(Bahia) for euclase. 



Ueber den Fichtelite. — Abstract articles by Hell, Bamberger 
and Spiegel, in Neues Jahrb, Min,^ 1892, ii., 241 ; ref. Probably 


On the use of fluorspar in optical instruments. — Sylvanus P. 
Thompson, in PhiL Mag,^ 31, 120-123, 1891. 


Fouqu^ite. — Al. Lacroix, abstract Zeif.f, Kryst.y vol. xx., p. 290, 


Friedelit von Harstigen. — G. Flink, in Bihang t. Sv, Vet^-Akad. 
handl., 1890, vol. xvi., ii., 1--23 ; abs. in Zftt f, Kryst.^ vol. xx., 
p. 371, 1892. 


Zusammensetzung des Gadolinit. — C. W. Blonistrand, Lunds 
Univ, Afskri/t, 1888, vol. 24; abs. in Zeit f. Kryst, yo\. xx., p. 
366, 1892. 

Studien iiber Gadolinit. — W. Peterson, in GeoL Foren, Forh.y 
1890, 275-347 ; Abs. in Zeii, f. Kryst.^ vol. xx., p. 376, 1892. 


Kreittonit von Bodenmais. — K. Oebbeke, in Sitz.-Ber. de Phys, 
Med, Soc^y 1889, vol. xx., p. 41 ; abs. in Zeit. /. Kryst.y vol. xx., p. 
310, 1892. 

Galenite, etc. 

Neue Form des Galenit. — G. Cesaro, in Zeit, f, Krysf,, vol. xx., 
p. 468, 1892. 

La Mineralogie du Plateau Central. — F. Gonnard, in Buii. Soc. 
Min,^ XV., 28-35, February-March, 1892. 

Notes on zeolites, forms of galenite of Pontgibaud and corrosion 
figures Beryl of Droiturier, psilomelane and ps^udomorphic quartz. 

Garnet, Etc. 

Canadian Spessartite and Mountain Cork.— B. J. Harrington in 
Canadian Record of Science, Oc\ohQT, 1890, p. 225-228. 

Striated Garnet from Buckfield Me., parallel to intersection of 
211: no. — W. S. Bayley, Amer, Jour, Sci., 3d, xliv., 79, July, 

La Pyr6n6ite. — Ch. Frossard, in Bu//. Soc. Min,^ xv., p. 58-61, 
February-March, 1892. 

Note sur les Calcaires noirs a pyr^n^ite. — Ed. Jannettaz, in BulL 
Soc, Min.,-yiw,^ 62, February-March, 1892. 

Eine Bemerkung zur Abhandlung von E. Mallard Sur le grenat 
Pyr^n^ite, R. Brauns, \xi Neues, Jahrb. Min,^ 1892, L 217-219. 

Disputes Mallard's theory that Pyr^n^ite is orthorhombic in 
symmetry but grouped in form of rhombic dodecahedron. 


Nickel ore from New-Caledonia. — T. Moore, in Chem. News,, 
1890, vol. 62, 180; abs. in Zeit. f, Kryst., vol. xx., p. 518, 1892. 


Garnierit (NIckeJgymnit) von Foldalen, Norwegen.~Chr. A.* 
Miinster, in Archiv. for Matemat. und Naturvidenskab^ vol. xvi., 
240: abs. in ZeiL f. Kryst,^ vol. xx., p. 402, 1892. 


Gay-Lussite from San Bernardino Co., California, — H.G. Hanks, 
in Mining and Scientific Press y March 26, 1892, 


Gismondin vom Hohenberg bei Buhne in Westfalen. — F. Rinne, 
in Sitzingsber. Preuss. Akad. d, fViss., Berlin, 1880, 1027 ; abs. 
in Zeif. f. Kryst.^ vol. xx,, p. 302, and N^eues Jahrb. Afin»y 1892, 
1., 505 Ref. 


Graphite from Borrowdale, Cumberland. — J Postlethwaite, in 
Quarts Jour n. GeoL Soc, 1890, vol. xlvi., 124; abs. in Z«/. /. 
A'ryst.f vol. xx., p. 517, 1892, 

Graphitgange im zersetzten Gneiss von Ceylon. — J. Walther, 
Zeitschr, d, deutsch, GeoLy 1889, vol. xli., p. 359 ; abs. in Zeit, f. 
Kryst.y vol. xx. p. 290, 1892. 


Optic Properties of Gyrolite. — M. F. Heddle, in Mineralogical 
Magazine ix., 391, December, 1891, 


Das Tetrakishexaeder (102) am Sleinsalz von Starunia. — A. 
Pelikan in Min, Mitth,^ xii., 483-486, 1892. 


Lenzinit. — K. Haushofer, in Sitz. Ber. d. Math.-Phys, CL Akad: 
d. IViss.f 1889, vol. xix., 13 ; abs. in Zeif. /, K^yst., vol. xx., p. 
304, 1892. 


Hausmannit von Jakobsberg. — G. Flink, in Bihang /. Szk Vet.- 
Akad, HandL 1890, vol. xvi., II, No. 4, S. 1-23; abs. in Zeit f, 
Kryst,^ vol. xx., p. 369, 1892. 


Doppeltbrechenden Haiiyn. — W. Bruhns, in Sitz, Ber, niederr- 
hein Ges, fur Naiur. u, Hetlk,^ Bonn, 1890, 30-31; abs. in Zeit. 
f, Kry^t,, vol. XX., p. 526, 1892. 


Helvin von Kapnikbanya. — A. Kalecsinozky, in Zeif. f Kryst., 
vol XX., p. 365, 1892. 
Chemical analysis given. 


Clinton Iron Ore. — C. H. Smyth, Jr., in Amr, Jour. Sci,, 3d, 
xliii., 487-496, June, 1892. A discussion of structure and forma- 

Occurrence of Hematite and Marti te Iron Ores in Mexico. 
Robert T. Hill, in Amer. Jour, Sci,, 3d, xlv., 111-119, February, 

Economic description. 

VOL. XV. — 12 



Herderite from Hebron, Maine. — H. L. Wells and S. L. Pen- 
field, in Amer.Jour. Set'., 3d, xliv, 14, August, 1892. 
Complete description. 

Heulandite, Etc. 

Ueber die Beziehung zwischen den Mineralien der Heulandit- 
und Desmin gruppe. — F, Rinne, in Neues Jahfb, Min.y 1892, I., 

1 2-44. 


Cordierite as contact mineral. Yasushi Kakuchi. — 'Journal of 
the College of Science \ Imperial University Japan, III., 313-334 ; 
abs. in Zdt. f Kryst,^ vol. xx., p. 501, 1892. 

Jacobsite, Etc. 

Mineralogische Mittheilungen. L. J. Igelstrom, in GeoL Foren, 
Fork., 1890, 137-139 und 440-443; abs. in ZeiL f Kryst,y vol. xx., 

p. 375. 1892. 

Jacobsite braunite, neotesite, chlorarsenate of lead, hausmanite. 


Josephinite, a neAv Nickel-Iron from gravel in stream in Oregon. 
W. H. Melville, in Amer. Jour, 5r/., 3d, xliii, 509-515, June, 1892. 


Kentrolith von Langbanshyttan. — G. Flink, in Bihang /. Sv. Vet,- 
Akad. Handle 1890, vol. xvi., II., No. 4, S. 1-23 ; abs. in Zeit. f 
Kryst^ vol. xx., p. 370, 1892. 


Rothspiessglanzerz. — P. Pjatnitsky, in Zeit. f Kryst., vol. xx., 
p. 417, 1892. 

Leadhillite, Etc. 

Minerals from Leadhills. — N. Collie, in Journ. Chem. Soc. Lon- 
don, 1889, ^o^' *^-i P- 9^ > ^t>s. in Zeit. f Kryst., vol. xx., No. 3, 
p. 284, 1892. 

Minerals mentioned : Leadhillite, lanarkite, chalcedony, linarite, 
pyromorphite, vanadinite, plumbocalcite, aragonite, strontianite, 
dolomite, calamine and lime-vanadium pyromorphite. 


On the presence of Magnetite in certain Minerals and rocks. — 
Liversidge, in Tram. Austral. Assoc. Adv. Science, 1891 ; abs. 
in Amer. Jour. Sci., 3d, xlv , 76, January 1893. 

Showing that magnetism of chromite, spinel, franklinite, etc., is 
due to scattered panicles of magnetite. 


Manganophyll von Langban. G.YVmV, Bihangtill Kgl.Svenska. 
Vet. Akad. Bd., xiii., II, p. 70; abs. in Neues Jahrb. Min., 
1892, II., 232, Ref. 

Mineralogische Studien. — A. Hamberg, in Geol. Foren. Fork., 
1890, vol. xii., 567-632; abs. in Zeit. f Kryst., vol. xx., p. 387; 
and in Neues Jahrb. Min., 1892, II., 233-237, Ref. 


Manganophyllite, chlorite containing manganese, ganophyllite, 
pyrophanite, ilmenite-hematite group, rhodonite and crystallo- 
graphic discussion 


Die Formel des Vesuvischen Meionite. — A. Kenngott, in Neues 
Jahrb, Min,, 1892, I., 48-53. 


Sur une nouvelle publication relative a la melanophlogite. — 
George Friedel, in Buii. Soc. Min,^ xv., 49-58, February-March, 


Enstehung von Melilith beim Brennen von Portland Cement. — 
G. Bodlander, in N-eues Jahrb, Min.., '892, I., 53. 

Little tetragonal crystals found light-brown in calor^ melilite in 
composition and angles. 

Menaccanite, Etc. 

Bemerkungen «ber einige Mineralien ausdem Fichtelgebirge, — F. 
V. Sandberger, in Ntuesjahrb, Afim.^ 1892, II., 25-37. 

Menaccanite, rhodochrosite, margarodite, chlorite, lepidolite, etc. 


Experiments upon the Constitution of certain Micas and Chlo- 
rites. — F. W. Clarke and.E. A, Schneider, in Amer. /oun Sci., 3d, 
xliii., 378-386, May, 1892- 

Continuation of work on the constitution of the natural silicates. 


Ueber die Zusammenseteung des Miiarites. — F. P. Treadwell, 
Neues Jahrh. Min.^ 1892,!., 167. 


Darstellung des Molybdanit. — A, von Schulten, in Zeitf^ Krysi,^ 
vol. XX., p. 283, 1892. 


Notice cristallographique sur la monazite de Nil St Vincent. — 
BulL Acad, Belg.^ 3 S-, xxi., 40-48, 1891 ; abs. Neues Jakrb, Min,^ 
1892, II., 403, Ref. 

Monazit von UraL — C. W. Blomstrand, in Lunds Univ. Arskrift,^ 
1888, voL XXV., Abth. 4^ Abs. in Zeit /. Kryst,^ vol. xx., p. 367, 


Analysis and crystal lographic study of some Venetian Natrolites. 
— Rivista di Min. E Crist, ItaL, 1890, 7, 16 and 69; abs. in Zeit, 
f. KrysL^ XX,, 628, 1892, 

Nickel-Brejthauptite, Etc. 

Mineralogical Notes. — School of Mines Quarterly, xiv., pp, 
49-56, November, 1892. 

A probably new Nickel Arsenide, E. Waller and A. J. Moses. 


Graphite and Magnetite Pseudomorphs, A. J. Moses. Orthoclase, 
from Canada^ B. C. Hinnan. Topaz, from Japan, W. D. Matthew. 


Ein Nocerin-ahnliches Mineral von Arendal in Norwegen. — F. v. 
Sandberger, in Neues Jahrb. Min,, '^92, I-, 221. 


Anatas von Bourg d'Oisans, Dauphin^. — K. Biisz, Zeit, f, Kryst,^ 
XX., 557' '892. 


Sur roffrttite espfee mineral noavelle. — Compt, Rend,, cxi., 1002- 
1003, 1890. 


Vicinalflachen an Adularzwillfngen nach dem Baveno-Gesetze. — 
von Zepharovich, in Siiz-Ber. d. k. k. Akad, d. Wiss., Wien, 1889, 
vol. xcviii. (i), p. 404; Abs. in Zeii, /. Krysi.y vol. xx., p. 301, 

Pentlandite, Etc. 

Pentlandite from Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and remarks upon 
three supposed new species from the same region, S. L. Penfield, 
in Amer/jour. Set., xlv., 493-497, June, 1893. 

Blueite, whartonite and folgerite are not distinct species. 


The Pinite of Breagein Cornwall. — ^J. H, Collins, in Mineraiogi- 
cai Magazine , x., 8-9, July, 1892. 

Pholidolite, Etc. 

Mineralien aus Drusenraumen von Taberg in Wermland. — G. Nor- 
denskiold, in GeoL Foren. ^i?M., 1890., vol. xii., 348-358; abs. in 
Zeit.f. Krysf.^ vol. xx., p. 382, 189?. 

Pholidolite, garnet, diopside, epidote, apatite. 


The Supposed Occurrence of Platinum in North Carolfna. 
— F. P. Venable, in Journ^ Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc,^ viii,, Pt. IL 
Concludes that evidence of occurrence has very slight value. 


Plattnerite, occurrence near Mullan^ Idaho^ and crystallographic 
notes. — W. S. Yeates and E. F. Ayres, in Amer. Jour, Sci., 3d, 
xliii., 407-412, May, 1892. 


Polybasite and Tennanite from the MoUie Gibson Mine in 
Aspen, Colo. — S. L. Penfield and S. H. Pearce, in Amer. Jour, Sci,, 
3d, xliv., 15-19, July, 1S92. 

Both minerals occur massive, the polybasite also in tabular crystals 
in siderite. 


Predazzite, Etc. 

Ueber Predazzit und Pencatit. — Ottpkar Lenecek, in Min. 
MUth,^ xii., 429-442 and 447-456, 1892. 

That these stones are not mixtures of calcite with brucite, but 
contain chiefly octahedral kernels composed of very fine, densely 
packed fibres or needles of hydromagnesite (pseudomorphed after 
periclase, etc.). 


Prehnit aus dera Floitenthale. — H. von Foullon, in Veri. k. k. geol 
Reichsanst^ 1889, p. 197 ; abs. in Zeit. /. KrysL, vol. xx., p. 294, 


, Pseudobrookit von Aranyerberg in Siebenbergen. — H. Traube, in 
Zeit.f. Kryst.y vol. xxi., p. 327, 1892. 

Ueber eine Zufallige Bildung von Pseudobrookit, Hamatit und 
Anhydrit als Sublimations Producte, Bruno Doss, in Zeit.f. KrysL, 
XX., 566-587, 1892, with Literature of pseudobrookite. 


New Occurrence Ptilolite. — Whitman Cross and L. G Eakins, 
in Amer, Jour, Set',, 3d, xliv,, 97-100, August, 1892. 

General discussion of the mineral. • 

Constitution of Ptilolite and Mordenite. — F. W. Clarke, in 
Anier, Jour. ScL, 3d, xliv., 10 1, August, 1892, 

Discussion of formulae. 


Pyrargyrit von Mexico. — K. Busz, in ZfiL /. Kryst, xx., 557, 


Kobaltund Nickelreicher Eisenkies von der Grube Heinrichs- 
segen bei Miisen. — H. Laspeyres, in Zeit.f, Krysi., xx., 553-555, 


Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Pyroxenfamilie in chemischer und 
optischer Hinsicht. — E. A, Wiilfing, Habilitationsschrift der Uni- 
versiidt Tubingen^ 1891, 65 pp.; abs. in Neues Jakrb. Min.^ 1892, 
II.. 23 ref. 

Pyroxene Analyses. — T. M, Chatard, Am, GeoL^ 1890, vol. vi., 
35 ; abs. in Zeit/f. Kryst., vol, xx., p. 501, 1892. 

Fibrous Intergrowth of Augite and Plagioclase in a Minnesota 
Gabbro. — W. S. Bayley, in Amer, Jour. Sci\, 3d, xliii,, 515-520, 
June, 1892. 

Ueber die sogenannte Sanduhrform der Augite. — Jos. Blumrich, 
in Mi'n. Afitth., xiii., 239-255, 1893. 

The peculiar ** hour-glass " figure shown between crossed nicols 
by many augite crystals from the more recent eruptive rocks. 

Diopsid von Achmatowsk. — K. Busz, in Zeit, f. Kryst., xx., 558, 

Pyroxene from volcanic rocks of the Island of Bonin. — 


Y. Kikuchi, \v\ /ourn. ColL ofSc. Imp. Univ. Japan ^ 1889, vol. iii.^ 
p. 67 ; abs. in Zeit, f, Kryst^ vol. xx., p. 287, 1892. 


Elektrische Eigenschaften des Quarzes. — ^VV. C. Rontgen, Ann. 
d, Phys, N. F„ 59, 16 10 24, 1890; abs. in Neues Jahrb. Min., 
Ref. 1892, 214. 

Md^moire siir diverses fornnes affect^s par le riseau fel6mentilre 
du quartz. — M.Levy and Munier-Chalmas, in Bull.Soc, Min.y xv., 
i59-i9ii July, 1892. 

A study of the fibrous Sip, of which Chalcedony and the allied 
materials, quartzine and leuticine, are fornns. 


Scheelit aus Neuseeland. — A. Gurit, in Sitz,-Ber. neiderrheuK 
Ges, f, Natur.'U, Heilk.^ Bonn 1.S88, S. 23; abs. mZeit, /. 
Krysty vol. xx., p. 524, 1892. 


Skorodit von Lolling. — K.Busz in Zeit. f, Kryst^ xx., 555-55 7r 


On the occurrence of an Aluminous Serpentine (Pseudophyte) 
with flint-like appearance near Kynance Cove. — Howard Fox in 
Minerahgical Magazine , ix., 275-277, December, 1891. 

Records analyses from four localities. 


Ueber kobalthaltigen Eisenspath von der Grube Hartebornthal 
bei Neunkirchen. — G. Bodlander, in Neues Jahrb, Min., 1892, 
IL, 236. 


Silver in volcanic dust. — J. W. Mallett, in Proc, Roy, Sac, 1890, 
vol. xlvii., 277 ; abs. in Zeif, f. Kryst,^ vol. xx., p. 515, 1892. 


Tesseralkies aus den Alpen. — L. Standenmaier,in Zeitf, Kryst^ 
vol. XX., p. 468, 1892. 

Soda Microcline. 

From the Yellowstone Park. — ^S. L. Pen field, Seventh Rep, U, S, 
Geo/, Sur,y Wash., 1888, p. 267; abs. in Zeit. f, Aryst,, vol. xx., 
No. 3, p. 286, 1892. 


Zinc-bearing Spring Waters from Missouri. — W. F. Hillebrand, 
in Amer. Jour, Sci,y 3d, xliii., 418-422, May, 1892. 


Stannite and alteration products from the Black Hills, S. D. — 
•W. P. Headden in Amer, Jour. Sci,, 3d, xlv., 105-110, February, 

Including a so-called new mineral, Cuprocassiterite. 


Stephanite, Etc. 

Mineralogische Notizen. — V. v. Zepharovich, No. xi., Nat.- 
ttnss, Jahrb.^ Lotos ^ 1889; abs. in Zeit. f. Kryst,^ vol. xx., p. 292, 

Minerals mentioned: pyroxene, rutile^ garnet, pseudo-stephanite. 



Schwefel von. Allchar in Macedonien. — A. Pelikan, in Miti, 
Mitih,^xi\.y 344, 1892. 

Small crystals on stibnite. Crystallographic examination includ- 
ing new face (122). 

Schwefel von Roisdorf bei Bonn; Schwefel von Milo ; Schwefel 
von Bassick, U. S. A. ; Schwefel von Concil bei Cadiz, Spain. — 
K. Busz, in Z^//. /. Kryst,, xx., 558-566, 1892. 


Rose-colored lime and alumina-bearing variety of Talc. — W. H. 
Hobbs, in Amer, Jour. Sa',, xlv., 404-407, May, 1893. 

Thaumasite, Etc. 

Mineral analytische Mittheilungen aus dem Chem. Lab. der 
Univers., Upsala. — O. Widman, in Geo/. F'dren. Fork., 1890, vol. 
xii., 20-29 ; abs. in Zeit. f, Kryst.^ vol. xx., p. 373, 1892. 

Thaumasite, wollastonite, chabazite, vesuvianiie. -^ 

Thenardite, Etc. 

Mineralien und Pseudomorph. des Roseneggs. — A. Leuze, ip 
Jahresb. d. Ver. f. vaterl. Naturk, i. Wiirtt,^ 1889, 305 ; abs. in 
Zeit. f. Krysty vol. xx., p. 303, 1892. 

Minerals mentioned : gypsum, thenardite, glauberile, argonite, 

Pseudomorphose von Thenardit nach Glaubersalz. — A. Pelikaji^ 
in Mm. Mitth,^ xii., 476-482. 


Neue Formen am Topaz. Ilmengebirge, Slid Ural. — L. Souhpur, 
in Zeit, f, Kryst.y vol. xx. p. 232, 1892. 

Natural Etching on Topaz of San Luis Potosi, Mex. — Min. Mitth.y 
xi., 331-348, 1893; abs.NeuesJahrd. Min,^ 1892, L, 506 Ref. 


Ueber die Formel der Turmaline. — A. Kenngott, Neues Jahrb, 
Min.y 1892, IL, 44. 

By study of 44 analyses reaches conclusion that they all corres- 
pond to isomorphous mixtures of two silicates 3RjO.Si02 + 5 (R, 
OjSiO,) and 2 (3RO.SiO,) + R,0,.SiO, and that the red tourma- 
line of Rumford, Maine is practically the first silicate while as yet 
no analysis has been made which closely approaches the other. 

Tysonite, Etc 

Tysonite, Bastnasite, Meteoric Iron from Va. Anatase (Calif.) 
and Sapphire (Mont.). — Geo. F. Kunz, in Mineralogical Magazine^ 
ix., 394, December, 1891. 



Studien uber den Idokras vom Vesuv. (Monte Somma) BolUtino 
delta Societa del Naturalisti in Napoli^ 1890, I., 173. — Abs. in Zeit, 
f. Kryst^y XX., 616, 1892. 

Krystallographische Beobachtungen am Idokras. — ^J. Boecker, in 
Zeit. f, Kryst,^ vol. xx., p. 225, 1892. 

Vesuvian-Pyroxenfels vom Piz Longhin. — Fr. Berwerth, Annal. 
k, k. Nat,' Hist, y HofmuSy 1889, ^o^- '^-j P» ■^7- — Abs. in Zeit. f. 
Kryst,, vol. XX., p. 291, 1892. 


J Plasticity of Ice crystals. — J. McConnel, in Proc. Roy. Soc, 

1890. vol. xlviii., 259; abs. in Zeit./. Kryst.y vol. xx., p. 515, 



Willemite as slag mineral. — W. M. Hutchings, in Geolog. Maga- 
zine, 1890, vol. vii., 31 ; abs. in Zeit. f. Kryst.y vol. xx., p. 518, 


Wurtzilite. — W. P. Blake, in Eng, Mining Journ., December, 
21, 1889 ; abs. in Zeit. f. Kryst.y vol. xx., No. 5, p. 492, 1892. 


Zinkitkrystalle von Franklin, N.J. — P. Grosser, in Zeit./. Kryst.y 
vol. XX., No. 4, p. 354, 1892. 


Zinnwaldite in the Granite of the Mourne Mountains. — W. J. 
Sollas, in Froc. Roy. Irish Acad.y 1890, vol. vi., 379; abs. in 
Zeit. / Kryst.y vol. xx., p. 519, 1892. 


Ueber kunstliche Darstelling des Zirkons auf nassem Wege. — 
K. V. Chrustschoff, Neues Jahrb. Min.y 1892, II., 232-235. 

ZuNYiTE, Etc. 

Mineralogical Notes. — S. L. Penfield, Amer. Jour. Sci.y xlv., 
396-399, May, 1893. 

Zunyite of Ouray Co. Col. Xenotime of Cheyenne Mt., Col. 

II. — Crystallography. 

Zwei Theorien der Krystallstructur. — L. Sohncke, in Zeit. /. Kryst.y 
vol. XX., p. 445-467, 1892. 

Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Beziehungen zwischen Krystallform und 
chemischer zusammensetzung, II. — A. Fock, in Zeit./ Kryst.y vol. xx., 
p. 434-444, 1892. 

Bemerkungen zu Herrn Fock's Aufsatz "Beitrage zur Kenntniss der 
Beziehungen zwischen Krystallform und chemischer Zusammen- 
setzung." — F. Becke, in Zeit. f. Kryst.y vol. xx., p. 253, 1892. 

Bemerkung zu dem artikel des Herrn E. von Fedorow, Die zusam- 



manstellung seiner krystallographischen resultate und der meinigen 
l>etreffend. — A. Schoenflies, in Zeit. f, KrysL^ vol. xx., No. 3, p. 259, 

Zur Isomorphiefrage in der Dolomitreihe. — ^J. W. Retger and R. 
Braiins, in I^eues Jahrb, Min., 1892, I., 210-217. 

Solution and Crystallization. — G. D. Liveing, in I. and II., Cambr, 
J^hiL Trans., 1889, 14, and III., 1890, 15 ; abs. in Zeit f, Kryst, 
vol. XX., p. 510, 1892. 

Notes on Crystallites. — Frank Rutley, in Mineralogical Magazine^ 
vol. ix., 261-271, December 1891. A brief discussion of forms and a 
plate with 43 figures. 

Zwei Hiilfsapparate zum Goniometer. — V. Goldschmidt, in ZeiLf. 
JCryst., vol. xx., p. 344, 1892. 

Apparatus for showing Crystal Forms. — R. J. Anderson, in PhiL Mag., 
1889 (5), vol. xxviii., p. 127 ; abs. in Zeit. /. Kryst, vol. xx, p. 284, 

Aufgaben der stereographischen Projection. — E. von Fedorow, in 
Zett,/. Krysi.^ vol. xx., p. 357, 1892. 

III. — Chemical Mineralogy. 

Versuche iiber die Loslichkeit einiger Mineralien. — G. A. Binder, in 
Minn. Mitih.^ xii., 332-343, 1892. 

The finely powdered minerals were placed in glass tubes with distilled 
water, or water containing CO,, the end of the lube closed by being 
melted together, and the tube placed in a water bath and kept at a fixed 
temperature for several weeks. 

Zur mikrochemischen Untersuchung einiger Minerale. — J. Lemberg, 
in Zeiisch. d. deutschen geoL 6r^j„ 42, 1890, 737 ; abs. in Neues Jahrb. 
Aftn., 1892, II., 7 ref. 

Rapid Qualitative Examination of Mineral Substances. — A. J. Moses 
and J. S. C. Wells, School of Mines Quarterly, xiv., 25-39, Novem- 
ber, 1892, zxidjourn. Anal. Chem.^ vii., 154 to 164. 

Bemerkungen uber einige Reactionen zum Bestimmen der Mineralien. 
Konst. Thaddeef, in Zeit.f. Kryst., vol. xx., p. 348, 1892. 

Action of HjSO^ upon natural oxide of manganese. Dioptase ; 
gypsum; Cobalt-carrying minerals. 

Verhalten der Silicate im Phosphorsalz. — K. Haushofer, in Sitz-Ber. 
//. Math.'Phys. Akad. d. Wiss., 1889, vol. xix., 8 ; abs. in Zeit.f. Krysi.^ 
vol. XX., No. 3, p. 304, 1892. 

Ueber das Verhalten der Titansaure gegen Phosphorsalz vor dem 
Lothrohr. — R. Brauns, in Is! eues Jahrb. Min,, 1892, II., 237. 
Production of crystals Ti^Oj. 

Formation of Minerals in Slags and Lavas Compared. — ^J. H. L. Vogt, 


in Afchiv f. Math, og Naturwid^ xiii., 310, and xiv., 11 ; abs. in Min- 
eralog. Mag., x., 33, July,i892. 

Ueber die Synthese der Minerale der Hauyn-Gruppe,— J. Morozie- 
wiez, Neues Jahrb, Mm., 1892, II., 139-141. 

IV. — Physical Mineralogy. 

Note siir la Propagation de la Chaleur dans les corps Cristallisds. — 
Ed. Jannettaz, Bull. Soc. Min,, xv., 133-144, June, 1892. 
Researches on seventy-one species. 

Ueber die Umanderungen, welche die Zeolithe durch Erwarmen bei 
und nach die Triibewerden Erfahren. — F. Ruine, in Sitz. d. k. Freuss. 
Akad., November, 1890, 1 163-1207 ; abs. in Neues Jahrb, Min,, 1892, 
II., 237 Ref. 

Ein billiger Erhitzungsapparat fiir mikroskopische Praparate. — A. 
Schrauf, iii Zeit. f, Kryst., vol. xx., p. 363, 1892. 

Devitrification of Cracked and Brecciated Obsidian. — Grenville A. J. 
Cole, in Mineralogic a I Magazine, ix., 272-274, December, 1891. 
Based on examination of a Lipari lava. 

Krystallrefractometer vereinfachter Form. — S. Czapski, in Neues 
Jahrb, Min,, 1892, I., 209-210. 

V. — ^^Optical Mineralogy and Petrography. 

Recherches sur les variations des spectres d*absorption dans les 
cristaux. — H. Becquerel, in Ann, Chim, Phys, (6), xiv., 170 and 257, 
1889; abs. in Neues Jahrb, Min,, 1892, II., i Ref. 

Die Optischen Anomalien der Krystall. — R. Brauns, in Neues Jahrb, 
Min,j 1892, I., 198-209. 

Sulla determinazione delle proprieta ottiche dei cristalli mediante tre 
prismi di orientazione qualunque. — Guiseppe Bartalini, in Gior. di 
Min., iv., 145-15 1, 1893. 

Eine neue Method der Optischen Untersuchung von Krystallplatten 
in Parallelem Lichte. — E. v. Federow, in Min, Mitih., xii., 505-509, 

Ueber die Zonarstructur der Plagioklase. — Richard Herz, in Min. 
Mitth,, xiii., 343-348, 1893. 

The Optical Indicatrix and the Transmission of Light in Crystals. — 
L. Fletcher, in Mi neralogical Magazine^ ix., 278-388, December, 1S91. 

A discussion of the behavior of light in crystals under the theories of 
compressible and incompressible ether. 

Methods of Modern Petrography. — Lea McI. Luquer, in School of 
Mines Quarterly, xiii., 357-364, July, 1892. 

Cutting and Grinding Machine, with illustration. — G. H. Williams, in 
Amer, Jour, Sci,, 3d, xiv., p. 102, February, 1893. 


VI. — Sundries. 

Mineralien des Miinsterthales. — A. Schmidt, in Geol. des Miinster- 
thales tm badischen Schwarzwaide^ iii., Th. Erzgange und Bergbau, 
Heidelb., 1889; abs. in Zeit.f, Kryst,^ vol. xx., p. 300, 1892. 

Mineralogisch-Geologisches aus Tarapaca in Chile. — C. Ochsenius, in 
Zeiti. d. d, geol. Gesselsch.^x^^^, vol. xli., p. 371 ; abs. in Zeit.f. Kryst,, 
vol. XX., p. 299, 1892. 

Mineral from Montgomery County, Md. — A. C. Gill, in Zeit,f, Kryst.^ 
vol. XX., p. 285, 1892. 

Contribution to Mineralogy of Maryland. — G. H. Williams, in Johns 
Hopkins Univ. Circ. 75 ; abs. in Zeit ./ Kryst,y vol. xx., No. 3, p. 285, 

Ueber ein Mineral der Noseau-Hauyn-Gruppe im Elaolith syenit von 
Montreal. — A. Osann, in Neues Jahrb. Min., 1892, I., 222-244. 

Mineralchemische Mittheilungen. — J. Loczka, in Math, und Naturw. 
Btrichie aus Ungarn^ 1890, vol. viii., 99-112; abs. in Zeit, f. Kryst, 
vol. XX., p. 317, 1892. 

Mineralogische Mittheilungen ausdem Siebenburgischen Erzgebirge. — 
J. Budai, in Orv. Term. Tud. Erfesits, 1890, vol. xv., 31 1-3 14 ; abs. in 
Zeii. f. Kryst.y vol. xx., p. 316, 1892. 

Mineralogische Mittheilungen aus Siebenbiirgen. — A. Koch, in Orv, 
Term. Tud. Ertesits^ 1890, vol. xv., 140-154; abs. in Zeit. /. ICrys/.^ vol, 
XX., p. 313, 1892. 

Beitrage zur Chemischen Kenntniss einiger Gesteine und Mineralien 
Corsikas. — E. Rupprecht, in Zeit. f. Kryst.^ vol. xx., p. 311, 1892. 

Barytabsatze einer Soolquelle. — G. Lattermann, in Jahrb, d. k,pr, Geof. 
Laudesufisty 1888, p. 259 ; abs. in Zeit, f, Kryst,^ vol. xx., p. 301, 1892. 


The President's Annual Report is of unusual interest and from it and 
Official Bulletin No. VI., the following facts, of especial interest to 
graduates of the School of Mines, have been clipped. 

Changes in the School of Mines. 

The year in the School of Mines has been marked by very import- 
ant changes in the organization of the Departments of Engineering and 
of Chemistry. The death of Prof. Trowbridge made the former neces- 
sary, and the resignation of Prof. Waller led up to the latter 

Two years ago, the Department of Mining was set apart and placed 
under the charge of Prof. Monroe, who had been, up to that time, 
adjunct professor of mining engineering. All the branches of engi- 
neering proper continued to be under the oversight of Prof. Trow- 
bridge. This system produced unity at the top, while, in fact, the in- 
terests that are common to all of these branches are to be found at the 

bottom It was clear to the Faculty, however, that the death 

of Prof. Trowbridge made it desirable to reorganize the department 
completely, rather than simply to fill the vacant chair. There was no 
difference of opinion as to the common foundation that underlies all the 
branches of engineering. It is clearly to be found in mathematics and 
in mechanics developed from the mathematical point of view. . . . 
The necessary instruction in mathematics was already well provided for. 
The death a year or two earlier of Prof. William G. Peck, who had been 
the principal instructor in mechanics, had left that department also in 
a position where it could be considered in connection with the engi- 
neering problem. It was accordingly determined to create a chair of 
mechanics which should give to all the engineers so much instruction in 
the theory and application of mechanics as is needed by all. The chair 
of engineering was abolished and a professorship was established in civil 
engineering, in mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering. 
This organization permits of the freest possible development of each 
specialty after the point of common instruction has been passed. Mr. 
R. S. Woodward, C.E., a graduate of Michigan University of the class 
of 1872, was appointed professor of mechanics with the understanding 
that he is to have charge of such instruction as may be needed in me- 
chanics not only in the School of Mines, but also in the School of 
Arts and in the School of Pure Science. Mr. Woodward's career 
since graduation has been almost entirely in the government service, 
latterly in the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and his stand- 
ing as a mathematician is well known Prof. William H. Burr, 

C. E., a graduate of the Troy Polytechnic Institute of 1872, was elected 
professor of civil engineering, coming to us from the Lawrence Scien- 
tific School of Harvard University. Prof. Burr has had much practice 


both as an instructor and in the 6e]d, and his reputation in both ca- 
pacities is high wherever he is known. The former adjunct professors 
of mechanical and of electrical engineering, Prof. Frederic R. Hutton 
and Prof. Francis B. Crocker, have been given deserved promotion to 
the full chairs of mechanical and electrical engineering respectively. 
In the Department of Chemistry, Prof. Elwyn Waller has hitherto been 
professor of Analytical Chemistry in charge of the Quantitative Labora- 
tory. In view of his resignation. Prof. Pierre de Peyster Ricketts, who 
has heretofore held the somewhat anomalous chair of professor of assay- 
ing, has now been made professor of analytical chemistry, and all the 
analytical laboratories, including that of assaying, have been put under 
his direct control, 

** There have been also certain char.ges in the various courses of study 
pursued in the seven lines of required study for the prescribed courses. 
These changes have been made pursuant to a principle of moving back- 
ward into the first two years of the of the four covered by the full 
courses, all of those studies which ai« fundamental and prelitninary, so 
as to leave the latter years freer for drill and for the pursuit of those ap- 
plications of these principles which form so important a feature of 
technical education. An especial feature of interest is the movement 
to secure in the first two years of the Academic Department a special 
preparatory and general training designed to lead from the end of the 
Sophomore year in that department into the beginning of the Freshman 
year in the scientific school, thus securing in six years something of the 
humanities and letters upon which the special work of the .technical 
school can best be grafted." 

The Trowbridge Ffllowship. 

This fellowship is endowed with the sum of ^10,000 by the Alumni 
Association of the School of Mines. The money was raised by subscrip- 
tions from over 150 persons, alumni of the School of Mines, and others, 
and is intended as a memorial to the late Professor Wra. P. Trowbridge, 
in token of the personal affection of his pupils and associates, in recog- 
nition of his distinguished ability, and to commemorate his important 
services in developing and strengthening the courses of instruction in 
the School of Mines. 

The money is given subject to the following conditions ; 

The Trustees to guarantee that the net income of the endowment 
shall not be less than five per cent, per annum. The fellowship to be 
known as the William Petit Trowbridge Fellowship in Engineering. 
The fellow to be appointed on the recommendation of a committee to 
consist of the President, and the Professors at the head of the Depart- 
ments of Mining, Civil, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering in 
the School of Mines. Committee to have power to add to their 
number, to ^1^ from time to time the conditions under which the fel- 
lowship shall be held, and to direct and control the work of the frl- 
lows. In case at any time for good and sufficient reasons the fellowship 
is not awarded, the income may be expended for the advancement or 
encouragement of engineering research as the said committee may de- 


The University Press. 

'^ Resolved, That the Trustees assent to the organization of a corpo- 
ration to be known as the "Columbia University Press'* .... and 
consent that such corporation use the title and imprint "Columbia 
University Press,*' upon the understanding that such permission shall 
be exclusive until revoked by the Trustees, and that upon the revoca- 
tion of such permission, the use of the title shall be discontinued.** 

The incorporation of the Press was affected on June yth, with the 
following incorporators: Seth Low, Francis B. Crocker, George M. 
Cnmmings, Brander Matthews, Richmond Mayo-Smith, Henry Fairfield 
Oiborn, Harry Thurston Peck, John B. Pine, and T. Mitchell Prudden. 
The objects of the corporation, as stated in its certificate, are : **To 
promote the study of economic, historical, literary, philosophical, 
scientific, and other subjects ; and to promote and encourage the publi- 
cation of literary works embodying original research in such subjects.'* 

The reasons ior this incorporation may best be understood" from the 
following extracts from a letter to the Trustees, 

" As a consequence of the development at Columbia of university 
work and university methods. during the last few years there is now pro- 
duced at the College by professors, instructors, and university students, 
a large amount of original work that is worthy of preservation, and 
which would, if the results were published with proper discrimination, 

reflect great credit both upon the authors and upon the College 

While the original work done by our officers and students offers, in 
many instances at least, a real contribution to knowledge, it is, never- 
theless, of such a technical or special character as to be often unaccep- 
table for commercial purposes to the general publisher We 

regard it as eminently desirable, that a ready means of publishing 
really meritorious works should be provided, and that the character 
and extent of the work done in the University should be made known 
through publications bearing the imprint, ' The Columbia University 
Press.* .... We propose to form a separate corporation, to be 
known as the * Columbia University Press,* the primary object of 
which shall be to provide for the publication of literary works embody- 
ing the original research of our professors and university students. 
.... No person shall be eligible to membership in the managing 
board unless connected with the College, either as a Trustee, or as a 
member of the Faculty.* ' 

Gifts to the College. 

The Treasurer has received the following sums: 

From the estate of the late President Barnard, 
From Joseph F. Lou bat for the Loubat Prizes, 
From James Gordon Bennett, for the Bennett Prize, 
From friends of the late Professor Trowbridge, on accoun 

of the Trowbridge Fellowship, .... 
From Joseph Pulitzer for the Pulitzer Fund, . 
From miscellaneous givers for miscellaneous objects. 

8,40c. 00 
1 ,000.00 






For the New Site. 

From J. Pierpont Morgan, 
From Cornelius Vanderbilt, 
From D. Willis James, 
From Alfred C. Clark, 
From Morris K. Jesup, . 
From A. C. Bernheim, 
From John A. King, 
From Abram S. Hewitt, 








1 1 08,000.00 

For the Library. 

From Samuel P. Avery ^18,673.47 

From F. A. Schermerhorn, 500 00 

From Charles H. Senff, 10,00000 

From Benjamin D. Silliman, 100.00 


The Pulitzer Fund. 

" Mr. Pulitzer has been desirous for several years to make it possible 
for a certain number of poor boys, graduates of the grammar schools of 
the City of New York, to get the advantage of the best possible col- 
lege training The boys whom he wished to aid, being poor, 

ordinarily would be compelled to go to work to earn their Qwn living 
when about fourteen years old. In order to make it possible for such 
boys to give more time to study, Mr. Pulitzer conceived the idea of 
giving $250 a year to each of those whom he might select, in the' hope 
that this sum would be considered by the parents of the boy as a fair 

offset to his earnings The second difficulty was harder to solve. 

Owing to the peculiar organization of the public school system in 
Ne'w York, there are no high schools in the city. Boys who are grad- 
uated from the grammar schools go directly into the sub-freshman 
year of the College of the City of New York, but at the end of this 
sub-freshman year they are not able to enter into any other college of 

good standing in the country The recent agreement between 

Columbia College and the Teachers College seemed to offer a happy 
way to solve the problem. The Teachers' College, among its other 
schools for children, maintains a high school, into which the boys 
may enter when they are graduated from the grammar schools of the 
city. It is estimated that the interval of three years will suffice to fit 
them to pass any college exammation in the country. Mr. Pulitzer's 
gift to Columbia College of J 100,000 carries with it, on the part of 
Columbia, the obligation to pay for the tuition of not more than ten 
boys a year during the three years which must be passed at the high 
school. Any excess of income beyond what may be called for to meet 
this obligation is available for the general uses of the College. 

*' The scheme, as it now stands, therefore, seems to be thoroughly 
practicable. Mr. Pulitzer proposes to pay ^250 a year to ten boys 
during the period of their high school and college education — that 
is to say, for a perion of seven years. Should the ranks remain full, 
Mr. Pulitzer's outlay for this generous purpose would be Ji 7,500 a 

1 84 


year, in addition to his gift to Columbia College of {100,000. Under 
these circumstances, Columbia College very cheerfully assented to Mr. 
Pulitzer's proposition that such of the boys as might choose Columbia 
for their Alraa Mater should enjoy here the privilege of free tuition." 

Instructors and Students of Columbia College. 



Professors, 51 

Emeritus Professors, 6 

Adjunct Professors, 17 

Clinical Professors, ......... 6 

Instructors, 19 

Tutors, ........... 15 

Assistants, 2J 

Curators 2 

Lecturers, . 15 

Director of Laboratories, ........' i 

Demonstrators, .......... 3 

Assistant Demonstrators, 7 

Clinical Lecturers, 3 

Chiefs of Clinic, . . lo 

Clinical Assistants, 48 


School of Law, 
School of Medicine, . 
School of Mines, 
School of Political Science, 
School of Philosophy, 
School of Pure Science, 

Less duplicates, 



No. holding 






of degrees. 































School of Arts, . 

Coll. Course for Women, 



Grand total. 




The Library. 

'* The additions for the year were 19,797 bound volumes, of which 
8732 were received from purchases or by exchange, and 11,065 by 
gift. During the year 705 different persons and institutions have 
presented books or pamphlets to the library ; the number of volumes 
presented to the library was 11,113; the number of pamphlets given, 

*' For the purpose of showing the rates of increase of the library, 
the number of books added during the past six years is given as 
follows : 

1887-1888, 5,807 

i888-i889» 8,502 

1889-1890, . . . . • 14,^25 

1890-1891, ' 16,440 

1891-1892, 15,408 

1892-1893, 19,797 

"The number of bound volumes in the library, exclusive of pamph- 
lets, duplicates and collections deposited here but not the property of 
the college, is, approximately, 160,000 volumes. 

'* The number of books loaned from the library for use at home 
was 28,184. An extension of time was asked on 15,958 of these 
loans: The record for the past six years of loans is as follows : 

1887-1888, 12,615 

1888-1889, 11,325 

1889-1890, 16,004 

1890-1891, . . .  22,721 

1891-1892, 26,632 

1892-1893, 28,184 

** These statistics show a constant and healthy growth. 

'* The library is kept open, as usual, from 8.30 a.m. until 1 1 p.m. dur- 
ing term time, and during the summer vacation until 10 p.m. 

"Several hundred volumes of pamphlets have been carefully cata- 
logued and placed on the shelves during the year. This work, which in 
every large library accumulates to an alarming extent, we purpose to 
prosecute from year to year." 

Department of Architecture. 

The third competition for the Columbia Fellowship in Architecture 
began on the 28th of last December, by the issuing of a circular to all 
the alumni of the Department, announcing the subject of the competi- 
tion to be " A Monumental Gateway to constitute the principal exter- 
nal feature of a large College building.' ' On Saturday, January 20th, 
the contestants, fifteen in number, came up for the twelve-hour sketch, 
for which a supplementary and more detailed programme was handed 
to each one on his arrival. The final drawings, based upon these 
sketches, are to be handed in on March loth. The winner receives a 
scholarship of ^1300 to be spent in foreign study. Mr. H. B. Mann, 
the winner of the second competition, held in 1892, has just returned 
from Paris. 

The Department has received from the Department of Works of the 
Columbian Exposition the very valuable gift of a complete set of work- 
ing drawings of the Fair buildings, as one of the results of the visit 
made to Chicago in December by Prof. Sherman and Mr. Snelling, 
thanks to the liberality of Mr. Schermerhorn. Other acquisitions are 

Prof. Hamlin announces a travelling class for architects desiring to 
study systematically the Italian Renaissance from the original monu- 
ments. It will be under his personal direction, and will start from 
Naples about June 7th, traveling northward to Rome, Florence, Siena, 

VOL. XV.— 13 


Venice, Verona, Milan, Genoa, and intervening points of interest; 
spending from a day to a week in' each of the places of minor impor- 
tance, with f¥om two weeks to a month each in Venice, Florence and 
Rome. The experiment of such a class has never been before 
attempted, and its result will be looked for with interest. A number 
of third-year and fourth-year students in the Department are expecting 
to join the class, and applications have been received from several 
alumni and from architects in Ohio and Illinois. The circular is pub- 
lished on another page. 

The lecture in French by Prof. Despradelle of the Department of 
Architecture of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, on ** the 
Buildings of the World's Fair and the principles of architectural com 
position ** was greatly appreciated by those whose knowledge of French 
permitted them to understand it. The criticisms were not unsympa- 
thetic, arvi were very interesting as expressing the views of a large- 
minded and cultivated French architect. 

A Travelling Class in Architectural History. 

The following circular sent out to all the alumni of the Department 
of Architecture, has been handed us for publication : 

New York, December 28, 1893. 
Dear Sir : 

During the summer of 1894, the undersigned proposes to conduct a 
travelling class in architectural history, for the systematic study of the 
Italian Renaissance from its monuments. It is intended to spend be- 
tween three and four months in Italy, following a carefully prepared 
programme, of which the main outlines are given below, and further 
details of which will be given out in due time. This programme is 
made out, with reference not only to a profitable survey of the different 
historic phases of the Italian Renaissance, but also to the exigencies of 
the Italian climate, and to a reasonable economy in the manner of 
covering the large territory gone over. 

It was at first intended to ii]^lude the French Renaissance in the pro- 
gramme of study. But as soon as this programme was laid out in detail 
it became evident that this would necessitate either going over the 
ground so hurriedly as to make serious study impossible, or leaving out 
of the itinerary important monuments and architectural centres, the 
omission of which would greatly impair the educational value of the 
trip. A sketch of the proposed itinerary is given on another page. 

The class will be restricted to twelve, or at most fifteen members, and 
is intended for such men as have already a fair equipment of architec- 
tural knowledge and experience, and are prepared to profit seriously by 
this opportunity for architectural and historical study. Advanced 
students and graduates of architectural schools, professional draughts- 
men and such others as can advantageously devote themselves to a criti- 
cal study of the actual works of the Renaissance, will be especially wel- 
come to its membership. 

Each member of the class will receive, as early as may prove practica- 
ble, an outline itinerary and a list of the chief monuments to be studied, 


and of the authorities to be consulted for each period, district or group 
of monuments. This will afford an opportunity for preparation on the 
salient facts of the history of these monuments, and for suggestions or 
criticisms regarding the details of the itinerary. 

Illustrated public talks will probably be given at Columbia College 
during the winter or spring, covering the same general ground. 

The undersigned will assume no financial responsibility for, or control 
over the expenses or individual movements of the members of the class, 
each of whom may take such conveyances, trains, lodgings and board 
as he pleases ; but he will co-operate with and assist any and all in 
making their arrangements. 

The class will meet at Naples early in June, 1894, and follow as 
nearly as practicable the proposed itinerary, radical modifications of 
which will be made only by general consent of the class. The class- 
work will consist not only of visiting and examining the monuments, but 
also of oral explanations and criticisms by the instructor, and reports, 
sketches and criticisms by the students, to be presented and discussed at 
informal meetings, in the course of the journey. 

The fees will be $150 for the whole trip; $125 for three months, and 
I90 for two months : payable $25 on subscribing ; ^25 on the first of 
May, 1894, and the balance in equal monthly instalments. 

The expenses of the whole trip, in addition to the class fees, will vary 
according to the tastes of the members, from a probable minimum of 
I500, to a maximum of |i2oo or over. This is estimated on a basis of 
travelling second-class by all trains and first-class by all steamers, and of 
an average daily expense for food and lodging, varying from $1.50 to 
J5.00 per day, with incidentals and sundries, averaging from 50 cents 
to $4.00 daily. It includes the transatlantic trip each way. 

It is requested that those intending to apply for membership do so as 
early as possible, in order to facilitate the organization of the class and 
the determination of details as yet unsettled. 

Correspondence is solicited with any desiring further information. 
All applications should be addressed to the undersigned, 


Columbia College, 

New York City. 


The class will meet early in June at Naples, where a week will be 
devoted to the Renaissance monuments, with side-trips to Pompeii, 
Herculaneum, Capri, etc. Caserta will be visited on the way to Rome, 
where the class will remain about four weeks. A week will be spent on 
the way from Rome via Spoleto, Foligno, Perugia and Arezzo to 
Florence, which will be the centre for four weeks of study, including 
visits to Sienna, Pisa, Lucca and Pistoia. Three or four weeks will be 
devoted to Bologna, Ferrara, Padua and Venice, the balance of the 
available time being devoted to Vicenza, Verona, Mantua, Brescia, 
Milan, Pa via and Genoa. 

If the class can start so as to be in Naples by the 7th of June, they 
may safely engage return passage by steamers due in New York early in 



Crosa-seclion of (.': 


r- -  *-'Q^ 

V\ M. 


Rivor Cables for l.lshl or Power, 
liirKely ustd for Draw -Brlrtgw- 

The imeraiic 

esof our Stran 

s are all filLcci ; our ConduMiirs li.'ver r.prrodc. 

Heavv Strand equal to 500,000 i.m., for in- 


damp walls, or under ground or under water, with 


or without lead encasing, made flexible by using 

line wires, if necessary Cables designed and 


made to meet any requirement. 

The Light House Department, Weather Bu. 

reau, Signal Service and Life Saving Service all 

use cables of our design and manufacture. 

HENRY A. REED, See. and Manager. 



School of Mines Preparatory School, 

417 Madison Avenue, 

Between 48th and 49th Sts., NEW YORK CITY. 





Twelfth Year Begins October 2, i8gj. 

Four hundred Students of Columbia School of Mines have been 
instructed in the Woodbridge School. 

Also a large number have been prepared for Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Stevens Institute, Sheffield Scientific School, Troy 
Polytechnic Institute, Cornell University, and the Classical, Medical 
and Law Departments of Harvard, Yale, Columbia and Princeton. 

Vol. XV. No. 3. APRIL. 1894. 







A.J. M08ES, Adj. Prof, of Mineralogy. E. WALLER, Analytical Chemist. 

J. F. KBMP, Prof, of Geology. J. L. GREENLEAF, Adj. Prof. Civil Engineer'g. 

R. PE£LE, Jr., Adj. Prof. Mining. JOS. STRUTHERS, Tutor in Metallurgy. 

Managinsr Editor, A. J. MOSES. 


Engineering itotes on Irrigation Canals. By W. Newbrough 189 

Simplified Method for Obtaining the "Axial Cross '* of Any Crystal 

from Any Projection of the Isometric Axes. By Alfred J. Moses ai4 

A Peruvian Salt Mine. By Robert Peele, Jr 219 

Catallel, Metallel, SynalleL By A. D. F. Hamlin 222 

Details of Modern Water- Works Construction. By Wolcott C. Foster, 230 
Contributions from the Analytical Laboratories of the School of Mines, 

Columbia College — Schemes for Qualitative Analysis. By J. S. C. 

>VeUs, Ph.D., and A. R. Cushman, Ph.D 244 

Abstracts 275 

Book Reviews 282 



Registered at the New York Post Office as Second Class Matter, 

All Remittances should be made payable to Order of " The School of Mines Quarterly.** 

Kearney & Foot , Co- 


Office, 100 and 102 Reade Street, New York. 



We make 



of plant 




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our first 




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Iieading houses througl 



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Supplies carry 


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Jenkins' Bros. Valves and 

Jenkins' Standard Packing. 




Vol. XV. APRIL, 1894. No. 3. 



The object of this paper is to treat of the particular portions of 
the work in the survey and construction of an irrig-ation canal 
that concern the young engineer. Therefore, those parts which 
require experienced engineering skill and financial ability, such as 
the construction of large weirs, the selection of proper irrigable 
lands and the business management will not be considered. 

A preliminary survey will first necessarily be made, for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining the grades on which the water will be carried 
from the source of supply to the designated tract of land which is 
to be irrigated. 

For this a level should be used, although, if great care is ex- 
ercised and the grade is not too gentle, a transit with a long 
bubble may be employed. The rod should be self- reading and 
graduated to tenths or half-tenths of a foot. Pacing will generally 
suffice for the measurements. Two or three men beside the 
engineer comprise the party. If possible, a team and wagon 
should accompany the surveyors ; thus time is saved in going to 
and from work, and the wagon can carry stakes, tools, etc., during 
the day. 

If a start can be made from the head of the canal, the rodman 
should hold the rod in the stream at the bottom. The reading 
should be taken, say it is 8.8. The rodman now comes to the 
bank where the headgate is to be placed and holds the rod, say it 

VOL. XV. — 14 


is 4.2. Hence the cut at that point will be 4.6. It is best to 
assume a grade. Suppose the grade to be 0.1 foot per loo feet, 
and also assume that the canal is to be cut 4 feet below the 
natural surface of the ground on the lower side. The next rod. 
100 feet beyond the edge of the bank, should then read 8.8 — 4.2 
= 4.6 + 0.1 = 4.7 feet. At station 2 it should be 4.8 ; at station 
3 = 4.9, etc. 

The rodman paces off lOO feet beyond station o on the bank, 
and holds the rod. The instrument man now moves him to the 
right or left until the rod reads 4.7, or if this is impossible, the 
cut is marked on the stake and the rodman goes on until he finds 
a place where the reading coincides with that which is required. 
At this point a stake is driven and marked thus, '* 4, cut 4 ft. O.K." 
Stakes subsequent to this, which are set 4 feet above the bottom 
of the canal, are merely marked with the number of the station. 

All the above points are entered in the field-book as follows : 











4.0 OK 


• • • 

O.K. being the symbol that shows the required height is 

Sometimes it is necessary to build a dam across the stream in 
order to cause the water to enter the canal. When this is the 
case, the point to which it is required to raise the water is noted, 
the depth of the canal subtracted and the survey proceeded with 
in the same manner as before. 

The rodman now goes forward from one to five hundred feet at 
a time, according to the ability of the leveller to see him, and 
moves to the right or left as directed, and stakes are driven at the- 
points where he stops and numbered according to distance. 
Thus: successive stakes might be 0-1-2-6-10-1 2-16, according 
to the amounts paced off between them, 400 feet being the dis- 
tance between 12 and 16. 

These points are turning points, and the turn is made on the 
ground. My own practice is to turn on the right hand side of the 
-^ immediately at the foot of the same. 


Bench marks should be put in least every 1500 feet. These 
may be on trees, rocks in place, or on stakes driven at least one 
foot in the soil and extending not more than two inches above the 
surface, with a witness stake alongside. 

It is not advisable to take -sights over 500 feet in length each 
way with a self-reading rod, and 400 feet is better. If a target 
rod is used and the rodman understands the work, 8do feet may 
be taken on a preliminary survey when the grade is not less than 
0.1 foot per 100 feet. Care should be taken to have the back- 
sights and fore-sights nearly equal in length. 

The method of work outlined above does away with volummous 
notes, as the number of the stake multiplied by the fall per station 
of 100 feet gives its height below the head of the ditch. The 
position of the bottom of the rod is always known. In the case 
cited it is 4 feet above the bottom of the canal. 

Hence after having set up the instrument and read the rod, it is 
only necessary to add the fall per station to the reading for every 
100 feet the rodman moves. 

Thus if the back-sight at station 17 is 5.1, at 18 it will be 5.2, 
at 19, 5.3, etc. There is less liability to error in this method than 
if regular section-level notes are used. The notes being headed 
with the date, cut below the natural surface and the assumed 
grade, only show the numbers of the stakes used, except where 
there is an extra cut, fill or change of grade, when the fact is 

If the assumed fall is found to be too great, a lesser one can be 
chosen, and the last stake moved up on higher ground to its new 
position and the survey carried on from this point. As above, 
station 17 is 1.7 feet below the head. If we reduce the fall to 0.5 
feet per 100 feet, we would have fallen but 0.85 feet ; hence we 
can move stake 17 0.85 feet higher. Note this fact in the 
field-book. The reverse of this proceeding occurs when the grade 
is too slight. We make this change on the assumption that the 
length of the line will not be materially affected, and generally 
such will be the case. 

Frequently it is necessary to cross a divide which affords a 
governing point, usually its lowest. 

This is assumed or found by running level lines, and the canal 
is ** backed in " to the head. This method may place the head 
of the canal in a very unfavorable position if a uniform grade is 


run from the divide to the head. The grade can generally be 
slightly cljanged for some distance so as to place the headworks 
in an advantageous position. 

The location of the headworks is a factor of importance. Usu- 
ally they are located where the stream is narrow and the adjacent 
slope of the country is steep. In all but very small canals a weir 
is built across the stream to divert the water into the canal. 

The site should be chosen so that the headworks will cost a 
minimum, and so that the length of the diversion line will be a 
minimum. The diversion line is that part of the canal which 
carries water from the head works to the land to be irrigated. 

Canals should be so designed that the angle at which they are 
diverted from the stream should cause the least deposit of silt 
before the headworks. In other words, the back eddy in front of 
the headgate should be a minimum. The ideal position is to build 
the weir directly across the stream, and to take out the canal at a 
right angle to the weir. In this case the weir should be provided 
wath a scouring sluice adjacent to the headgate. This will be 
better understood from the following diagram : 




Weirs are composed of brush and loose rock, loose rock, loose 
rock and earth or gravel, loose rock logs and lumber, rectangular 
piles and masonry. 

Brush and loose rock barriers, or those composed of loose rock 
alone, require no engineering skill tp be used in their construc- 

Weirs composed of loose rock and earth or gravel may be of 
large size, and require considerable calculation and study to obtain 
the proper slope of the banks, and also to determine the size re- 
quired. Care must also be taken in regard to the foundation and 
the junction of the ends of the weir with the natural banks of the 


Those weirs composed of loose rocks and logs require a good 
foundation, and consist of a crib-work firmly fastened together 
placed upon the foundation. From the crest of this crib-work 
planking extends backward up the stream, being set at an angle 
from the top of the crib-work to the bed of the stream. On this 
planking gravel should be placed. Such weirs are seen every- 
where throughout the United States. 

Rectangular pile weirs are used mostly in the west, and their 
occurrence is confined to shallow streams which have a gentle 
current. Eight or nine feet is about the limit of their height. 
They consist of a double row of piling driven across the stream 
and lined with sheet piles, the interior space being filled with 

Masonry weirs are generally constructed in connection with 
large enterprises, and if of any considerable size require a high 
degree of engineering skill and experience. Several good de- 
scriptions of such weirs will be found in Mr. H. M. Wilson's 
Irrigation Engineerings and to that book the seeker after in- 
formation in this direction is referred. As far as possible the 
grade in a canal should be kept uniform. However, in nearly 
every case conditions will arise where it will have to be changed. 
When this is done the cross-section of the ditch should be 
changed and so proportioned that the canal will maintain a con- 
stant velocity. The proper cross-section can be ascertained by the 
application of Kutter's formula. This cannot be done, however, 
when natural washes occur which run in the proper direction. If 
they are well defined water courses, and of sufficient size to con- 
tain the volume of water in the canal, it is perfectly legitimate to 
use them. This remark applies to the diversion line only. When 
natural channels are used the cross-section of the parts of the 
canal which are excavated should be increased in size, because a 
loss of water is incurred by their use, due to the absorption result- 
ing from roughness of the channel and the stream becoming 

Experience and judgment alone can determine whether it is 
better to carry a line around a low hill or to cut through it, or 
whether to go around a long, gently sloping cafion, or to build a 
fill across its mouth. In each case it is preferable to run both 


lines, roughly estimate the amount of loose and solid rock* to be 
encountered, calculate the relative cost, and then decide. This 
calculation will of course be made from level cross-section tables. 

I have known one or two cases where a fill was built across the 
mouth of a canon under the mistaken impression that the water 
backing up would form a small reservoir, the true fact being lost 
sight of, viz.^ that the only available water stored was equal to the 
area of the reservoir multiplied by the depth of the ditch, which 
amounts to a very small quantity. 

In the majority of cases, except where there is a certainty of 
heavy rock work to be encountered, it is better to go around the 
eafion on the grade contour, because fills, if of any height, with a 
considerable amount of water pressing against them, require con- 
stant repairs and attention, and should a break occur it \^ almost 
certain to be disastrous. 

Where a canal must cross several divides the general method 
of preliminary surveying is to back the line in from each divide. 

When taking it out of a natural wash, the most favorable place 
is selected for a weir or dam, and the line started from this 

Both these conditions occur frequently in small canals, and 
sometimes in those of considerable size. The Sheep Creek canal 
in Utah crosses three divides, and utilizes seven miles of natural 
wash in its twenty miles of length. 

The diversion line should be as short as possible, as it is the 
unproductive part of the canal. Any grade that the ground will 
stand should be given if necessary. On the Del Norte canal in 
Colorado the fall is 35 feet per mile through a rock cut, and on 
many parts of its constructed diversion line the fall is 8 feet per 
mile. This canal is 65 feet wide and 5^ feet deep. Smaller 
canals could be given a heavier grade. 

When the canal reaches the land to be irrigated, however, the 
grade must be much reduced. For large canals 2 feet per mile in 
sandy soil, and 33/< feet in ordinary soils is sufficient. For small 
canals up to 35 feet in cross-section, 5 feet can be used when the 
soil is firm. Heavy grades, if they do no other harm, cut the soil 
and make it difficult to take out the laterals. As examples of the 
relative sizes of grades, widths and depths, the following are 
given : 




Area Watered. 



Width of 


Bear River Canal, Utah...... 

Idaho Mining and Irr. Canal 

Calloway Canal, California.. 

Bear River and Yellow 

Creek Canal, Wyo. (not 

, completed) 

Laterals, Unita County.Wyo. 

200,000 acs. 

350,000 " 
80,000 " 

15,000 •' 
700 " 


70 '' 

32 " 

20 " 

X to I " 

I in 5280 
I " 2640 
I *'66oo 


I ** 1000 
I " 750 








In the survey of a canal sharp bends are to be avoided. They 
retard the flow and are dangerous to the canal banks. 

A good topographical map of the country, with five-foot con- 
tours, would be of great assistance in locating a canal, but com- 
panies are usually unwilling to pay for work of this kind, and 
such a map is unattainable otherwise, consequently nine times out 
of ten the preliminary and location surveys are made in the man- 
ner explained in this paper. 

After the preliminary survey has been made and the amount of 
land to be irrigated determined, the next step is to calculate the 
cross-section of the canal. 

Sometimes, when any desired grade can be obtained, the cross- 
section is assumed and the grade determined according to its 
dimensions. This state of affairs, however, is the most infrequent 
of the two. The cross-section of a canal largely influences the 
velocity of flow and the consequent quantity of discharge. Of 
two cross-sections, that which has the least wetted perimeter will 
give the greatest discharge. Hence the best theoretical shape is 
the semi-circle, but as its construction is awkward and expensive, 
a trapezoid is employed. From what has just been stated it would 
seem that a rectangular ditch 10 feet wide and 2 feet deep would 
be better in all cases than one 20 feet wide and i foot deep, the 
former having 14 feet of Wetted perimeter and the latter 22 feet. 
Also the evaporation and percolation would be less in the first 
than the second. The respective discharges of the two, according 
to Kutter's formula, taking n = .025, would be 44 second feet and 
32 second feet. Providing the soil was all earth, the advantage 
all lies with the first form, but should the ground be solid rock, 
with a foot or foot and a half of soil on top, it might be advisable 


to shape the ditch according to the second cross-section, even 
though it were necessary to make it larger. 

In other words, the material to be moved has an important 
bearing on the shape of the cross-section, on account of the rela- 
tive cost of excavating earth, gravel, cement, loose and solid rock. 

It is because large canals have a less wetted perimeter in pro- 
portion to their cross-section than small ones that they have a 
greater velocity. 

Before showing the method of calculating the cross- section, a 
few definitions of the units employed in irrigation work will be 

A " second foot " is a cubic foot of water with a velocity of 
one foot in one second. The carrying capacity of a canal is usu- 
ally expressed in second feet. If it is necessary to expiess it in 
gallons, multiply by 7^. 

An " acre foot " is the amount of water that will cover one acre 
one foot deep, or, it is 43,560 cubic feet. This unit is generally 
employed in stating the capacity of reservoirs. One second foot 
will make a little over two acre feet in 24 hours. 

A " miner's inch " is the quantity of water that will flow 
through an opening one inch square under a head varying from 
four to twelve inches, in one second. Consequently the amount 
varies, but is usually defined by State statute, 50 miner's inches 
constituting a second foot in California and 38.4 in Colorado. 

This measurement is used in mining work. 

The ** duty of water " is expressed by the number of acres a 
second foot will irrigate. This is a matter of doubt, and is at 
present being investigated largely in the arid region. It is found 
that when land is first irrigated it requires a greater quantity 
of water than it does in subsequent years. The climate and 
altitude also seem to affect the amount. The character of the 
crop influences the duty, oats requiring much more water than 
potatoes. Many of the western States prescribe a certain amount, 
beyond which water rights will not be granted. Thus Colorado 
and Montana prescribe 80 to 100 acres; Idaho and New Mexico, 
60; Wyoming, 70; and Utah, 60 to 80. In India the duty 
reaches from 200 to 300 acres, and with sub-irrigation it has gone 
as high as 800. 

When the amount of water necessary to irrigate a tract of land 
is calculated some margin should be left. If the diversion line is 


long and no extra supply is received into the canal from side-hill 
drainage or from streams other than the main one, a loss will 
occur due to evaporation and percolation. In a new canal this 
will amount to from 25 to 35 per cent, of the water entering the 
headgaie. The cross- section of the canal should be increased 

Kutter's formula may be employed to calcjulate the cross-section. 
It is expressed as follows : 

r 1. 81 1 ^ .00281 ^ 

+ 41.6 + — J— I 

I + ( 41.6 + — .- ) X — ^ I 

where v= velocity; « = a constant depending on the roughness 
of the channel ; 

. fall area of cross-section in square feet. 

distance ' wetted perimeter in linear feet. 

Various values of n are given : 

.012 = unplaned lumber (flumes). 

.017 = rubble, 

.020 = canals in good order and regimen. 

.025 = canals in moderately good order and regimen. 

.030 = canals having stones and weeds. 

.035 = canals in bad order. 

.050 = torrents and natural washes in caiions. 

Experience is necessary to judge what value of n to employ, 
but it is advisable to take it rather high. 

Tables have been evaluated for Kutter's formula for different 
values of r and n. The one accompanying this article will be 
found to answer nearly every case, and is taken from Johnson's 
Theory and Practice of Surveying, When evaluated the for- 
mula reduces to 

v=- CV ri^ 

which is the Chezy formula. The value of r is deduced, n as- 
sumed and C taken from the table. 

This table is evaluated for i=- 0.00 1. The coefficient C changes 
so slowly with a change of slope that the error does not exceed 
3/^ per cent, if the table is used for all slopes from i in 10 to i 
in 52.80, which is a foot to the mile. 




giving Values of C in Kutter's . 

Formula when i = o.ooi. 

Values op «. 

T in feet 

•■in fr^t 












r 111 l^^fc« 



































III. 2 








































1 25. 1 

























58. 1 


























1 10. 3 


81. 1 











• 73.4 







1 14.0 




















1 16. 8 









148. 1 

1 18.0 










1 19. 2 

105. 1 



! 71.3 







107. 1 

91. 1 



















1 10.3 



1 75.8 







III. 6 

















To illustrate the use of the table a case is assumed. 
Amount of land to be irrigated, 10,000 acres. 
Duty of water = 100 acres per second foot. 
Fall of canal per mile = 5.28 feet; hence /= .001. 
Loss by evaporation, percolation, etc., is balanced by gain from 
extraneous drainage. 



Take n equal to .030. 

— '■ = ICX) second feet are required. 


Assume a cross- section 12 feet on the bottom, 18 feet on the 

top and 3 feet deep. This has an area of 45 square feet and a 

wet perimeter of 2]/9 + 9 -|- 12 = 20.486 feet. Hence, 45 -^ 
20.486 = 2.2 nearly = r. From the table, taking r equal to 2.2 
and n equal to .030, we have C= 55»2, and consequently v = 

55.2v''f7 = 55.21/2.2 X .001 = 2.49, and as Q =^Av or the ar^a 
of the cross- section multiplied by the velocity, we have Q = Av 
= 45 X 2.49= 112.05 second feet, while we only require 100. 

Had we taken a cross-section 1 1 feet on the bottom, 17 on top 
and 3 feet deep, the result would have been 105 second feet. The 
nature of the soil, the fact whether natural washes occur and 

various other external considerations will determine which of these 


two it is better to use. 

There are several other formulas given in works on hydraulics 
and mechanics which maybe used, but Kutter's gives the best sat- 

The cross-section of the canal having been determined and the 
grade being known, the location on the ground follows. 

The stakes on location should be large and long and set not 
over 100 feet apart, in rough ground not over 50, and numbered 
from o up, as in railroad work. Bench marks should be placed 
every 1000 feet at least and «?et far enough away from the staked 
line so as not to be disturbed by the construction of the canal. It 
is a good plan to mark them somewhat a<: follows: " B.M. 3.12 ft. 
above bottom of canal at Sta. 50, which bears S. 18° 45 E, 52.* 
ft.'* They then serve not only as bench marks but as reference 
points for the canal line as well. A good permanent bench mark 
on a rock or large tree should be placed near the headvvorks and 
fully described and entered in the field notes. It is well to write 
on this bench mark itself, or on a witness stake near by, a full de- 
scription of its position as " B.M. 4*** above bottom of canal at head- 
gate. Headgate bears S. 48" 15 E. 129 ft. Sec. cor. to Sees. 
4-5-8-9 bears N. 89° 10 W. 15 16 ft. Var. 16° 30' E." 

Bearing objects should be taken from this bench mark, and, in 
fact, if there is time, from all the bench marks. 

The proper tools to use in running a location line are an 
engineer's level, a 50- or lOO-foot chain and a Philadelphia target rod. 


The Philadelphia rod. in preference to the New York or Boston 
one, because it can be used as a self-reading one on intermediate 

Stakes should be set to the nearest half-tenth and turning points, 
and bench marks to the nearest half- hundredth of a foot. Before 
construction is commenced the line should be checked. 

Turning points should be small pegs of wood, as in railroad 
work, about one inch square and six inches long, and their posi- 
tions should be noted in the field book. 

The rodman should check the leveller on the turning points. 
Six hundred feet each way is far enough to take sights. Care 
must be taken to make the back-sights and fore-sights nearly 
equal in length. 

If water is plentiful, on side hill work the excavation is generally 
sufficient to make the bank on the lower side, and the water is 
allowed to back up against the hill on the upper side. In this 
case the stake is really on the lower side of the canal, and not on 
the centre. 

The adjustments of the instruments should be tested daily. 

The method of running the location level line is the same as 
the preliminary, except that stakes are set every 50 or 100 feet 

The level line is the most important part of the work on canal 
location, and should be run with great care and attention. Unlike 
railroad work a canal surveying party is generally small, consist- 
ing of the engineer and three or four men. This party runs the 
level line, the transit line, and the engineer takes the necessary 
topography and makes the maps, and frequently attends to filing 
the maps, notes and papers in the United States Land Office. 

Before treating of the alignment of the located line a few pre- 
liminary statements are necessary. 

The United States Government, in its system of public land 
surveys, allows the interior of a township to be run with a plain 
compass with telescopic attachments ; in other words section lines 
can be run with the needle. 

The limit of error varies somewhat, but if the closing on a section 
corner is within 50 links or 33 feet, it is generally considered good, 
and will pass the Government examination. Therefore it is pos- 
sible that a Government section corner, or quarter section corner, 
may lie anywhere within 33 feet of its true position. Many Gov- 


ernment surveys are very defective, especially those executed in 
years gone by, before the Government sent out special examiners 
of contracts. 

It is not unusual to find the declination of the needle to differ 
as much as three degrees from that given on the plats, and in the 
notes and for the corner to be found from 1 to 200 feet from its 
proper position. Wherever it may be. its position in the field is 
fixed, and no person has a right to disturb it, except a special officer 
appointed for that particular purpose by the General Land Office. 

In ordinary country, with a good, sensitive needle, a line two 
miles long (one mile north and one mile east), as surveys are run, 
can be made to close much within the limit of 33 feet, and it should 
close within ID or 12. 

The act of Congress, approved March 3, 1891, entitled an "Act 
to repeal the timber culture laws, and for other purposes," grants 
the right of way through the public lands of the United States 
for the use of canals, ditches and reservoirs heretofore or hereafter 
constructed by corporations, associations or individuals upon the 
filing and approval of the maps, notes and certificates. The right 
of i way of a canal or reservoir is the land contained within 50 feet 
of the marginal limits. 

Should any changes be made in the construction of a canal, or 
should errors be made in a survey which will not cause the canal 
to fall outside the 50 foot limit, the survey will pass inspection and 
be approved. In other words the limit of error in surveys of canals 
is fixfed at 50 feet on each side of the marginal limits. For this 
reason a survey of the canal can be run by the needle, and the 
needle need not be read closer than fifteen minutes. 

This is evident because the tangent of 0^15' = .00436, which 
for one mile gives a distance to the right or left of 23.02 feet, which 
in itself is well within both limits of error. The probability is that 
not more than one-half this error would be made, and as a fact it 
is generally considerably less, amounting to from 4 to 6 feet. 

The canal could be surveyed by a transit and the angles read 
by the plates, and under certain circumstances this might be ad- 
visable. However, were this done it would be useless if the courses 
were not measured with as great care as the angles, and to make 
the survey consistent the angles would be numerous and the courses 
exceedingly short. There are two reasons against this transit 
method ; one is that the Government does not require it, and the 
other that more men would be required on the survey. 


As the stakes have been set by the level wherever the grade line 
of the canal caused them to be placed, the chances are that no 
three stakes are in a straight line while fifteen or twenty may be 
approximately so. 

To overcome this difficulty and to make a survey of a canal, 
the following method answers very well : 

Beginning at the head of the canal, the head gate is tied directly 
to the first bench mark and to the nearest section or quarter-sec- 
tion corner by bearing and distance. 

The two chainmen and an extra man, generally the axeman, are 
then left at this point, which is Station O, the axeman standing 
exactly over the stake. The instrument- man starts from this point 
and walks along the line, taking care that no stake is more than 
25 feet from the straight line joining himself and Station O. This 
can be done very easily. The reason for setting large and high 
stakes, which was mentioned previously, is now evident. If in 
sage brush country, they should be high enough to be plainly 
visible. In timber, much shorter courses will have to be taken 
than in the open. Suppose the instrument-man stops at Station 
6, as he notices a decided bend in the line at this point. He sets 
up over stake 6 and reads the bearing and enters it in the notes as 
read. He is really reading a reverse bearing, but it i$ better to 
make changes afterwards in the office. It is a good principle in 
all kinds of surveying to enter in the note-book what is actually 
done in the field, and leave all changes to a subsequent time, never, 
however, erasing the original notes. 

The compassman then signals " all right," and the chainmen 
chain straight toward the instrument and give the engineer the 
distance when they reach it. 

The entry in the note-book appears thus : 

Sta. 6 to Sta. O— S. 54° 30' W. 591 feet. 

The axeman now takes his position over stake 6, the instrument- 
man goes to the end of another course, and the survey is carried 
forward. By this method the engineer selects the courses himself 
and does not trust to an inexperienced man. 

Compass stations, which are in the vicinity of bench marks, 
should be tied to them by course and distance, and then if de- 
stroyed during construction can be regained. If possible, always 
make a compass station at some even level station and not between 


two of them, as at 6 + 53. 6 + 53 is not fixed, as the height of 
that particular spot is not known, and if the station is destroyed 
there might be some little trouble in finding it. If, however, we 
wish to recover Station 6, we have both the compass notes and 
its height from the nearest bench mark. 

It is also recommended that observations be taken to find the 
declination of the needle instead of trusting to reports or other 
information. As an example of the value of reports, I merely 
state that they generally declare the variation in southwestern 
Wyoming to be 17° 40' E., while from actual observations both 
myself and many others have never found more than 16° 35'. 

In finding the declination, any of the ordinary methods in use 
will do, but observations upon Polaris at either elongation or cul- 
mination seem to be slightly in more favor with the General Land 
Oflfice. Why this is, I do not know. 

Any of the various solar attachments will do good work. Buff 
& Berger, of Boston, manufacture a cheap one, the Davis screen, 
which is being used considerably. 

The method of using it and the subsequent calculation is ex- 
plained in their catalogue. 

If the sun's altitude is not too high, by fastening a piece of col- 
ored glass over the eye-piece with wax and pointing at the sun's 
disk, a very good observation can be made. Read the vertical 
angle and the horizontal angle between the sun and some fixed 
object. The calculation is then the same as is used for the Davis 

Having obtained the variation, if the instrument has a variation 
arc it should be set off. 

As the survey progresses, the section lines and quarter-section 
lines^ are ** run in." At this stage of the survey the engineer will 
usually have a fair idea of the places where many of the corners 
are situated, and when he surmises that he is about crossing a 
government line he will go to the corner and run from it until he 
crosses the course on the canal and notes the distance on both 
lines. The entry is made in the note-book as follows : 

Sta. 48 4- 379 =511 S. of Cor. to Sees. 16- 17-20-21. 

Sometimes it will be necessary to re-run government lines in 
order to find the corner stones. If they are known to be well 


placed, pacing will suffice to find them, and in open level country 
a wagon-wheel with a rag tied on it makes a splendid odometer. 
If the government survey is poor, it is best to use a chain and run 
according to the government notes if obtainable. 

Every effort must be made to find a corner before it is reported 
as not being in place. 

As soon as possible after the field-work is done the survey 
should be checked up, \Vith the aid of a traverse table, to see if 
the distances of the section corners correspond with the survey of 
the canal. It is a good plan to run part of the level line of a sur- 
vey in the morning, and in the afternoon to back in the compass 
line towards camp. In the evening the compass line can be trav- 
ersed, and if anything is found amiss it can be remedied the fol- 
lowing day. 

Every gate along the canal, the terminus of the canal, and the 
termini of each lateral, must be connected directly to the nearest 
available government corner by course and distance. 

All changes in width, and the points where such changes occur, 
should be noted. 

The United States has no control over the land which it has sold 
to settlers or others, and arrangements will have to be made with 
them individually for right of way ; but their claims, whether 
homestead or desert, must be ascertained and placed upon the 
maps which are sent to the General Land Office. 

Record should be made of the points where the canal enters 
and leaves natural washes. 

The land granted by the government is only for the purpose of 
the canal, and is not transferred in fee. 

The date of every day's work should be entered in the notes. 

When the location of the canal and the main laterals is finished 
it is usual to draw the map and write up the notes. These are 
filed in the nearest land office and sent from there to Washington, 
where they are examined, and if found complete and correct, are 
presented to the Secretary of the Interior for his approval. These 
maps and notes must be in duplicate. One copy is kept in Wash- 
ington and the other returned to the local land office, where it is 
kept on file and is open to inspection by the public. 

The land through which the canal runs is sold to settlers, re- 
serving the right of way, although no deduction is made in price, 
the benefits they are supposed to receive offsetting the loss of land. 


The map should show the townships, ranges, sections and 
quarter- sections, and those sections through which the canal 
passes must show the smallest legal subdivisions, which are the 
forty-acre tracts. Entries made by settlers prior to the filing 
should also appear, and the portions of the public land through 
which the canal passes should be designated as vacant. 

These maps and notes should be filed with the register of the 
land office for the district in which such land is located, within 
twelve months after the location of ten miles of the canal if upon 
surveyed lands, and if upon unsurveyed lands within twelve 
months after the survey thereof by the United States. Forfeiture 
is declared if any section of the canal is not completed within 
five years after the location. 

All maps should be drawn upon a scale of not less than 2CX)0 
feet to the inch. 

The connections of the termini of the main ditch and laterals 
with the public survey must be shown on the maps and described 
in the field notes and affidavits of the engineer. 

The line should be platted and its courses, distances and widths 
shown and the connections with the section corners and quarter- 
section corners given. 

The maps should be accompanied by the field notes of the sur- 
vey, which, like the maps, should be in duplicate, and in these 
notes and on the maps the variation of the magnetic from the 
true meridian should be stated. 

It is unnecessary for the maps to show the boundaries of the 
right of way, nor is it necessary to show the topography. How- 
ever, a slight amount of topography generally improves the 
appearance of the maps. If the courses on the maps are short, 
a neat arrangement is to number the compass stations only and 
to put the courses, distances and connections in the form of a table 
alongside of the drawing. In drawing maps for the government 
the top of the map is taken as being north, and inclined lines are 
lettered as follows (see page 206). 

When lettered in this manner inclined lines can be easily read 
without turning the map. 

Care must be taken not to make the maps appear crowded. 

They should be exceedingly plain and neatly drawn. Even the 

title should be plain. 

There should be absolute agreement between the two maps 
VOL. XV. — 15 



and the two sets of notes; and to insure this they should be com 
pared at least twice. 

The maps must be drawn upon tracing cloth. 

Both the maps and notes should bear the certificate of the engi- 
neer and of the president of the company or the owner of the 
canal. These should be in the following form : 

Engineer's Certificate. 

John Doe being duly sworn, says that he is the chief engi- 
neer of [or is the person employed to survey the hne of route of 

the canal for] the canal company ; that the survey 

of the line of route of said canal from to , a distance 

of miles, was made by him [or under his direction] as chief 

engineer of the company [or as surveyor employed by the com- 
pany] and under its authority, commencing on the day of 

, 1 8 — , and ending on Ihe day of , i8 — , and that 

such survey accurately represents a proper grade line for the flow 
of water, and that such survey is accurately represented on the 
accompanying map and described in the accompanying notes; and 

that the head of the canal bears feet from the section corner 

to sections T. — N. R. — W. ; and that the end of the 

main ditch and beginning of the main lateral bears feet from 



J4 section corner to sections 

that the terminus of the main lateral bears 

S., R. — E., and 
feet from the 

section corner to sections 

T. — S., R- — W., and that no 

lake or lake bed, stream or stream bed, is used for the said canal 

except as is shown on this map. 

Sworn and subscribed to before me this 

John Doe, 

Chief Engineer, 

— day of , 1 8 — j 

Notary Public. 


President's Certificate. 

I, Richard Roe, do hereby certify that I am the president of 
the canal company ; that ^ who subscribed the fore- 
going affidavit, is the chief engineer of [or was employed to make 
the survey by] the said company ; that the survey of the line of 
route of the company's canal, as accurately represented on the 
accompanying map and by the accompanying field notes, was 
made under authority of the company ; that the said line of route 
so surveyed and as represented on the said map and by the ac- 
companying field notes was adopted by the company by resolution 
of its board of directors on the day of , 18 — , as the defi- 
nite location of the canal described as follows (describe the same) 

from to — , a distance of miles ; and that no 

lake or lake bed, stream or stream bed, is used for the said canal 
except as is shown on this map; and that the map has been pre- 
pared to be filed for the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, 
in order that the company may obtain the benefits of the Act of 
Congress approved March 3d, 1 891, entitled *' An Act to repeal 
the timber culture laws and for other purposes." 

Richard Roe, 

PresicUnt of the Canal Company. 

Attest : • 

Secretary, . 

{ SEAL OF 1 

If the survey is for an association of individuals or incorporated 
company the following papers are filed with the maps and notes : 


I. — Certificate of Organization, 

j^ ^ secretary [or president] of the Canal 

Company, do hereby certify that the organization of said company 
has been completed ; that the company is fully authorized to pro- 
ceed with the construction of the canal according to the existing 
laws of the State [or Territory] ; and that the copy of the articles 


of incorporation [or association] of the company filed in the 
Department of the Interior is a true and correct copy of the same. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my name and the cor- 
porate seal of the company. 

[seal] , 

of the Canal Company. 


, being duly sworn, says, that he is the president 

of the Canal Company, and that the following is a true list 

of the officers of said company, with the full name and official de- 
signation of each, to wit : [Here insert the full name and official 
designation of each officer.] 

f SEAL OF > 

President of the Canal Company, 

Sworn and subscribed to, before me, this day of , i8 — . 

[seal.]. , 

Notary Public, 


A copy of the articles of incorporation, duly certified to by the 
proper officer of the company,' under its corporate seal. [No form 
can be given for this, as the forms in which articles of incorpora- 
tion are drawn up differ widely.^ 


A copy of the State or Territorial laws under which the com- 
pany was organized (when organized under State or Territorial 
law), with the certificate of the Governor or Secretary of the State,, 
or Territory, that the same is the existing law. 


When the said law directs that the articles of the association, or 
other papers connected with the organization, be filed with any 


State or Territorial officer, the certificate of such officer that the 
same have been filed according to law, with the date of filing 

Many of the above directions are taken from a small pamphlet 
issued by the General Land Office, entitled, " Regulations concern- 
ing Railroads claiming Right of Way over the Public Lands ; also, 
concerning Right of Way of Ditch or Canal Owners over the Pub- 
lic Lands and Reservations for the purpose of irrigation." 

This pamphlet may be had on application, and should be in the 
hands of every surveyor concerned in irrigation work. 

The engineering work of construction, with the exception of 
building the headworks, waste-gates, flumes, etc., is w^ry similar to 
railroad work. The ground is cross-sectioned, the amount of ex- 
cavation and embankment calculated and classified according to 
the specifications. Nearly all handbooks on railroad work treat 
of these matters, and special books and diagrams are published 
upon them, so it is unnecessary to dwell upon this part of the sub- 
ject very extensively. 

The cross-section of a canal may be partly in embankment, and 
partly in excavation, or, wholly in one or the other. The charac- 
ter of the ground and the grade of the canal determine this point. 
Embankments in light soil, and on heavy grades, are not advised, 
because of the liability of the water to erode its bed. To make a 
cross-section, half in embankment and half in excavation, lessens 
the cost of cohstruction. This is only possible on moderately steep 

Before deciding to make a part of the canal wholly in excava- 
tion, the ground should be examined for rock, as this increases 
the expense of excavation from five to ten times over that of earth. 

The inner slope of a canal varies from 1 in i to i in 4, except 
in solid rock, where it is usually made about ^ in i. Rather 
more slope should be given than in railroad work. 

In embankments, shrinkage should be considered, and from 10 
to 15 per cent, allowed. 

Flumes are built to carry the canal across streams, or along a 
steep hillside, where excavation would be very expensive. They 
are also rarely employed to prevent percolation, and, to a limited 
degree, evaporation. 


The foundations of a flume must be secure ; and, if a stream is 
crossed, its flow must not be interfered with, or the foundations 
are liable to suffer. 

Leakage at the end of a flume must be guarded against. In 
order to diminish the cross-section, they are generally made deeper 
than the canal, and the sides have a slope nearer the perpendicular. 

The foundations may be rock, earth, piles, or trestles ; but no em- 
bankment should be allowed. If earth or rock, it should be care- 
fully levelled and mudsills laid. 

The superstructure should be securely braced and all the joints 
caulked — or else a tongue should be let in the planking. 

When the natural fall of the country through which the canal 
runs is considerable, and the canal must be carried through this 
land and water taken from it, falls or chutes are introduced. 

The effect of too heavy a grade is to cause the canal to erode 
its bed, and is due to excessive velocity. In the diversion line no 
harm is caused by this, but when the water must be diverted into 
laterals, it must not be too far below the ground surface. To effect 
this the velocity must be decreased, and this is done by concen- 
trating a large amount of the slope at a few points, and introducing 
falls or chutes. Falls are vertical, chutes inclined. 

If the canal is large, or the soil above the fall has little cohesion, 
the velocity of the canal immediately above the fall should be de- 
creased. To effect this a flash board weir may be introduced at 
the crest, or else the channel may be contracted. In the case of a 
fall the water impinges against a wooden- or masonry apron, or 
upon a water cushion, the canal for some distance (15 or 20 feet) 
above and below the fall being enclosed in a flume. 

When a chute is used a wooden flume is employed, and the 
cross-section of the stream is much diminished, and the discharge 
should be against some solid obstacle, which will throw the water 
back into a receptacle where it can flow over a flooring to the open 

The water is drawn from the canal into main lateral ditches, 
which in turn distribute their water into still smaller laterals. 
These laterals should command the greatest area of land, and to 
that end should follow ridge lines closely, so as to distribute water 
on both sides of the ridge. Too little care is generally given to 
the location of the laterals. 

The bottom of the lateral should be higher than the bottom of 


the canal in order to get the clearest water, and to discharge it 
from as great an elevation as possible. Laterals should be made 
large. More water will flow in a lateral of 8 feet cross-section 
than in two of 4 feet cross-section respectively, and the losses will 
be less. 

Waste ways must always be provided for the protection of the 
canal, and for the protection of weirs. Care should be taken to 
have them of sufficient size to carry off" all waste water in times 
of floods. They should always be constructed when leaving a 
natural wash and taking up an artificial channel. 

Outside of ordinary grading tools there are some special forms 
of scrapers, ditchers and graders used upon irrigating work. Some 
are worthy of mention, notably the Buck, and Fresno scrapers, the 
Benicia Ditcher, and the New Era Grader, all of which do good 
work, and move dirt in a surprisingly quick manner. 

After the canal and its laterals are completed, and the water is 
flowing, it becomes necessary to ascertain the number of second 
feet which are running, in order to dispose of it equitably and pro- 
portionately to the consumers. Water is either sold outright or 
rented. No method has yet been devised by which water can be 
measured and disposed of directly, that is by the numbers of 
second feet actually used. In India a certain proportion of the 
crop is generally taken. In the United States water is charged 
for according to the number of acres irrigated, and either rented 
out at a certain sum per annum or sold outright. To sell it 
directly some contrivance would have to be constructed whereby 
the exact amount entering the canal at any time could be ascer- 
tained, and this contrivance would have to be arranged so that it 
could not be tampered with. The second requirement is easily 
satisfied by using some kind of a lock, but the first is difficult of 
solution. The reason that the exact amount entering the canal 
cannot be determined is that the external head or pressure of the 
source of supply is continually changing, and the volume of water 
that passes through the headgate is never the same. 

The nearest solution to this question is to ascertain the amount 
entering the canal under various known heads, and under various 
depths; that is to say, to determine the amount under various 
depths of the source of supply in connection with the heights to 
which the headgate is hoisted. In the State of Colorado the State 
engineer does this work, and furnishes the water commissioners 


and the canal owners with a table. The headgate is then raised 
to the required height and locked. This method only gives an 
approximate idea of the water passing through. 

The distribution of this water into the laterals, proportioning 
the proper amount to each of them, is another problem which is 
far from solution at the present time. 

Various water metres and dividing boxes have been tried, but* 
so far have met with but little success. 

In some of the States and Territories of the arid region it is 
necessary, before making the survey, to obtain a ^'waUr permit." 
. Application for this permit is made to the State engineer, giving 
the following information: 

The nature and extent of the proposed use. 

If for irrigation, the lands to be watered must be described. 

The place of diversion, the location and the character of the 
diverting works must be stated. 

Upon the approval and allowance of the application the appli- 
cant send a map to the State engineer within six months, 
showing the location and amount of the distributing works, the 
source of supply, and the legal subdivisions of the land upon 
which the water to be appropriated is applied. Information relat- 
ing to the laws regulating the water of a State can always be ob- 
tained from the Slate engineer. 

For the sake of simplicity this paper has been written, as if there 
was only one party in the field, while the fact of the matter is that 
there may be several, one running the main line, one running pre- 
liminary surveys to learn if different tracts of land can be brought 
under the canal, while others may be busied on the laterals and on 

EVANSTO\, Wyomi NO, January 14, 1894, 

he above article was written the Department of the Inte- 
issued another pamphlet dated February 20, 1894, en- 
Legulations concerning Right of Way for Canals, Ditches 
;rvoirs over the Public Lands and Reservations for the 
)f Irrigation," which gives more complete data for pro- 
han ever before. 

ition to the papers above mentioned, there is required 
11 the company is operating in a Stale or Territory other 
in which it is incorporated. 



The certificate of the proper officer of the State or Territory, 
that it has complied with the laws of that State or Territory, to 
the extent required to entitle the company to operate in such 
State or Territory. 


A copy of the company's title or right to appropriate the water 
needed for its canals certified as required by the State or Terri- 
torial laws. 


A copy of the State or Territorial laws governing irrigation, with 
the certificate of the Governor or Secretary that the same is the 
existing law. 


A statement of the amount of water flowing in the stream sup- 
plying the canal at the point of diversion during the preceding 
year or years. For this purpose it is necessary to give the maxi- 
mum, minimum and average monthly flow in cubic feet per second 
and the average annual flow. All available data are required. The 
method of measurement or estimate by which these results have 
been obtained must be stated. 

Conditions are so varied that the department cannot be more 
explicit but must decide each tase on its individual showing. 

The field notes should state whether the middle or the side line 
of the canal was run. 

The stations and courses should be numbered. 

The kind and size of instrument used and its minimum reading 
on the horizontal circle should be noted. 

The method of running the grade line must be described. 

Whenever a public corner will be destroyed, marked monu- 
ments one on each side of the corner, must be set on the section 
lines. These monuments must comply with the requirements for 
witness corners of the Manual of Surveying Instructions (p. 31, ed. 
1890), and must be placed far enough from the works so as not to 
be destroyed during construction. 

The line on which such monument is set, is determined by run- 


ning a random line from the corner to be destroyed, to the first 
existing corner, setting a temporary mark on the random line at 
the distance of the proposed monument. If the random line 
strikes the corner run to, the monument will be established at the 
place marked. If not. the N. and S. or E. and W. distance to it is 
measured, the true course calculated, the correction for the tem- 
porary mark computed, and a permanent monument set in the 
proper place. The field notes for the surveys establishing the 
monuments must be in duplicate and separate from those of the 
canal, and certified to by the surveyor under oath. They must 
comply with the form prescribed in the Manual of Surveying In- 

This last pamphlet gives a slightly different wording of the En- 
gineer's and President's certificates, but the subject-matter is pre- 
cisely the same. 

EvANSTON, Wyoming, April 7, 1894. 



The substitution of direct measurement for the usual measure- 
ment, calculation and remeasurement employed in obtaining the 
axial projection of any crystal, diminishes the number of chances 
for error and is more rapid. The method herein described is ap- 
plicable to any projection of the isometric axes and is correct 
within the limits of a drawing. 

For illustration, the most frequently used clinographic* projec- 

* This projection is described in many text-books, notably C. F. Naumann, Lehrbuch 
der Krystallographicy 1 832 ; J. D. Dana, System of Mineralogy,, 3d. ed., p. 662, etc. The 
construction i^ as follows, Fig. I ; A horizontal line ss^ is bisected at O and trisected at 
t and Xf by perpendiculars. Distances s'e = % ss^ and sg = \ ss' are laid off as in- 
dicated. The point e determines the line cO, and A A'', the projection of the front 
horizontal axis is the portion of this line which is included between the perpendiculars 
at t and t'. The point g determines the radius Og, which is the length of half the 
projection of the vertical axis CC. For the projection of the third axis draw Af 
parallel to ss', draw fO, and from the intersection v draw vB, parallel to ss^ BB' is 
the de:>ired projection. 


tion of the isometric axis is employed (Fig. i); and Figs. 3, 4, 5 
and 6 are derived from it. 


Fig. I. 






In Fig. 2 the diagonal scale measures thousandths, and a unit's 
length of this scale is the radius of the quadrant. The perpen- 


. 2. 











-# ou 

i no 8 \ 


ifffQ J ^ a .4 j;i .^ .7 .^ .y 1, 

■1 *P* 


H I I H i 




dicular and horizontal lines from any degree of the quadrant are 
respectively the natural sine and cosine of the angle correspond- 



ing to the degree multiplied by a unit's length on the diagonal 

It is convenient in drawing to make the semi-axis OC (Fig. i) 
equal to a unit's length on the diagonal scale, though any desired 
ratio may be maintained by the use of proportionate dividers. In 
this article Figs, i, 3, 4, 5, 6 are one-third the scale of Fig. 2. 

In each of the following applications the isometric cross 
(Fig. i) is first assumed, and all measurements, whether axial 
lengths or sines and cosines of special angles, are measured on 
the scale or quadrant and laid off from the centre O on CC, and 
when needed the same proportionate parts of other lines are ob- 
tained by the application of the fact that " in any triangle a Ime 
parallel to the base divides the sides proportionately." 

Tetragonal Crystals. 

The recorded value of c \i measured on the diagonal scale and 
laid off on OC. 

Hexagonal Crystals. 

Fig. 3 gives the derivation of the axial cross of quartz (c = 1 .099) 
from the isometric axes. 

Fig. 3. 

Distances Oc = 1.099 and Om = 1.732* are measured on the 
diagonal scale and laid off on CC ; the former determines the ver- 

 Bauerman's Systematic Mineralogy y 1889, p. 197. 


tical axis, the latter is used in determining two lateral axes (BB' 
remaining as the third) as follows : Connect A and C. Draw mp 
parallel to AC. Connect p with B and B'. Bisect Op by a line 
I>arallel to BB' ; then ai and ag are extremities of the required 

Orthorhombic Crystals. 

In Fig. 4 the derivation of the axial cross of barite is shown. 
The ratio for barite is a : b : c = 0.815 : i : 1.3 1 3. The distances 
0.815 and 1.3 1 3 are measured on the diagonal scale and laid off 

Fig. 4. 



Fig. 5. 

. / 

■ic ^ 

on CC as Os and Oc respectively. Oc is half the projection of the 
desired vertical axis. Os is equal to OC X 0.815 ; hence, if C and 
A are connected and sa drawn parallel to CA, Oa will equal OA 
X 0.815 ; that is, aa' is the projection of the desired brachy axis. 

MoNocLiNic Crystals. 

In Fig. 5, the derivation of the axial cross of pyroxene is 

The constants for pyroxene are a : b : c = 1.092 : I. : 0.589 and 
/? = 74® 10'. The sine and cosine of 74° 10' are measured on the 
quadrant and laid off on CC as Om and 01 respectively. A and 
C are connected, mp drawn parallel to AC and the parallelogram 
pOlt completed to secure the point t and the line tO. 

The distances 1.092 and 0.589 are measured on the diagonal 
scale and laid off on CC as Ov and Oc respectively. C and t 
are connected and va is drawn parallel to C't; aa' is the projection 



of the desired clino axis and Oc is half the projection of the de- 
sired vertical axis. 

Triclinic Crystals. 

In Fig. 6, the derivation of the axial cross of axinite is shown. 
The constants are a : b : c = 0.492 : i : 0.479, aAc = ^ = 9l° 

52', b A c = « = 82° 54'. i-i A i-t ^(100) A (oio)^ = I ji° 39'. 

[a) To obtain the macro axis bb'. — The sine and cosine of 131° 
39' (48° 21') are measured on the quadrant and laid off on CC as 
Os and Ok respectively. C is connected with A' and B, and the 
points e and d are secured by drawing se parallel to CB and kd 
parallel to CA' ; the point n results from the completion of the 

parallelogram dOen. 

Fig. 6. 

The sine and cosine of 82° 54' are measured on the quadrant 
and laid off on CC as Oy and Ox respectively. C is connected 
with n and yr drawn parallel to Cn ; the completion of the parallel- 
ogram rO xb secures the extremity b of the projection of the de- 
sired macro axis. 

{b) To obtain the brachy and vertical axes, — The steps are pre- 
cisely those for monoclinic crystals. The sine and cosine of 91® 
52' (88*^ 8') are measured on the quadrant and laid off on CC as 
Om and Ol respectively. A and C are connected, mp drawn par- 
allel to AC, and the parallelogram pOlt completed to secure the 
point t and the h'ne tO. 

The distances 0.492 and 0.479 ^^^ measured on the diagonal 
scale and laid off on CC as Ov and Oc respectively. C and t 
are connected and va is drawn parallel to Ct; aa' is the projection 
of the desired brachy axis and Oc is half the projection of the 
desired vertical axis. 

AHneralogical Laboratory ^ Columbia College. 




On the west coast of Peru, about sixty miles north of the port 
of Callao, and a little south of Huacho, is situated a somewhat 

f remarkable deposit of salt. 

These " salinas," or salt fields, embrace portions of a nearly 
level tract bordering upon the ocean, — most of the area being 
practically at sea-level, some parts a little below. The field 
measures about four miles from north to south, with a width of 
from two to three miles. The workable deposit does not extend 
to the beach, for, close to the ocean is a narrow sandy tract, occu- 
pied by small shallow lagoons, containing a little salt and " caliche " 
(crude nitrate of soda). In the immediate vicinity of this salt 
plain the surface of the ground is covered by sand, with scattering 

! meagre vegetation. 

The deposit itself is entirely superficial, varying in thickness 
from a few inches to at least twelve or fifteen feet. Excavations 

I fifteen feet deep have been made in several places without striking 

the bottom ; at other points the bottom is reached at from four to 
seven feet. The salt is not continuous over the whole field, but 
lies in irregular depressions, feathering out at the edges, where- 
the sand appears at the surface. To determine, however, whether 
the sand in a given place is the true bottom is not always easy, 
because in many parts which are not being worked the surface is 
covered with drifted sand. When this occurs glimpses of the 
white salt may be obtained by reason of an efflorescence which 
here and there raises the salt in flakes and lifts with it the sand 
covering. Below is the massive salt in layers of varying thickness, 
some nearly pure, some containing an admixture of sand and other 
foreign material. The *' caliche," or nitrate of soda, is usually found 
upon the surface in greater or less quantity, and when its propor- 

i ticn is large it is very troublesome, acting not only as an impurity, 

but eating away the salt in a manner comparable to the action of 
salt itself upon ice. In some places considerable areas of caliche 
occur, overlying the sand and black mud to a depth of eight or 
ten inches. 

The amount of salt existing in this deposit is very great, but it 


would be difficult to estimate it until the development of the 
workings has been' carried much further. 

The process of extracting the salt in a marketable form is a 
peculiar though very simple one, resulting not only from the low 
and level nature of the deposit, but also from the climatic condi- 
tions which prevail on the Peruvian coast. For some purposes, 
such as the curing of hides, the natural salt, just as it is taken out, 
is of sufficiently good quality, but for the production of the purer 
grades the following method is adopted: 

At any convenient point the sand or other surface material is 
removed from the area to be worked, and the more or less impure 
salt is excavated to a depth of several feet, depending upon the 
thickness of the deposit. Generally a depth of two or three feet 
is sufficient, though deeper excavations are often made. These 
shallow excavations, called " potreros ** (literally in Spanish, '* pas- 
tures *'), are then flooded with water. It never rains on the Peru- 
vian coast, but in the months from June to September, — the colder 
or cloudy and misty portion of the year, — the level of the water 
in the lagoons bordering the seashore rises slightly, so that 
at any time during this season water may be admitted through 
small ditches to the potreros. This water soon becomes a satur- 
ated solution of salt in its passage from the lagoon, and by contact 
with the bottom and sides of the potrero, and subsequently by 
natural evaporation in the warm weather after September a rapid 
deposition takes place. This pure crystalline deposit of salt 
amounts to a layer of five inches, or thereabouts, per year over 
the whole area, and requires no further refining even for making 
table salt. 

In the month of October the water level in the lagoons begins 
to fall, and as evaporation advances the surface of the salt in the 
potreros becomes dry. This is the best time of the year for har- 
vesting the salt, for if it be left too long even the occasional gentle 
winds of the soft climate may carry some sand and dust upon the 
clean surface. Practically, however, this possible admixture of 
impurity is very slight, and it is customary to cut each potrero 
every two years. This is done similarly to the method of cutting 
ice by hand. The salt is divided into blocks from 1 8 to 20 inches 
square, and 8 to 10 inches thick. They are easily removed, because 
each time a fresh deposition takes place upon the old surface left 
by a previous cutting, there is very little adhesion between the 


layers, and after the blocks have been cut around to the depth of 
two layers a slight prying motion serves to separate them. The 
blocks are set upon edge in rows to drain and dry in the sun ; as 
roughly taken out b} hand their weight ranges from 1 30 to 1 50 
pounds. It is intended to introduce channeling machines like 
those employed for ice, to cheapen the cost of labor, and to obtain 
more uniformity in the size of the blocks. Moreover, in doing the 
work with axes, a large amount of salt is converted into fines which 
must be sacked for shipment. The axes have narrow blades about 
15 inches long, and with a cutting edge 4 to 4^ inches wide. 

In removing the surface for making new potreros, most of the 
excavated material is worthless, and is used only for making roads 
and embankments through the salt fields, upon which light port- 
able car tracks are laid to convey the salt to the main line of tram- 
road. Some of the purer salt, however, coming from the deeper 
portions of the excavation is sacked for shipment. Thus far but 
little regularity has been observed in opening the potreros, with a 
view to convenience of communication with the railroad, though 
improvements are in progress. The railroad is 30-inch gauge, 
and 6j^ miles long to a neighboring harbor, where a long wooden 
pier has been built for transferring the salt directly from the cars 
to vessels. A couple of small locomotives are used. The cars 
carry 5 tons each, and from 8 to 10 make up a train. 
Several grades of salt are recognized : 

1. '^Sal Corriente." or the regular shipping product from the 
surface deposition in the two years rotation of working. It is pure 
and rather soft. 

2. '*Sal de Corazon" (** heart salt"), the older salt, sometimes 
cut from the under layers, after the " sal corriente," or regular 
crop, has been removed. It is harder and may be mixed with 
a little foreign matter, due to having been worked over previously 
and to the drift sand. It is coarsely crystalline, often with a pinkish 

3. "Sal de Espuma" (foam salt). This variety is of little im- 
portance, occurring only in small quantities just under the surface 
of the deposit when covered with sand, and is the result of efflor- 
escence of the original crystalline salt when long exposed to the 
air. It is pure, white, and exceedingly fine-grained. 

4. A fourth grade is very coarsely crystalline, coming from the 
deeper portions of the deposit below the water level. 

VOL. XV. — 16 



By a. D. F. HAMLIN. 

The difficulty of finding simple and clear methods of express- 
ing elementary relations and propositions in mathematics, espe- 
cially in geometry and its derived sciences, is partly due to that 
very simplicity and laxity of grammatical construction which 
makes English so flexible and concise in all its ordinary uses. 
But it is also due to an actual poverty of vocabulary, which re- 
sults in the use of the same word or expression in several senses* 
and in the necessity of phrases or circumlocutions where precise 
terms are wanting. While in the natural sciences investigators never 
hesitate to fill up any gap in the resources of the language by the 
coinage out-of-hand of new words, our mathematicians have bravely 
struggled along with the imperfect outillage of old times. It is 
the object of this paper to break in upon this time-honored con- 
servatism by attempting to fill up this gap for a single but funda- 
mentally important series of geometrical relations. This deficiency 
is shared, it is true, by all other languages, and is consequently 
attributable rather to the mathematicians in general than to any 
peculiarity of our own tongue, but is none the less disastrous for 
that reason. It is that which exists in the treatment of the vari- 
ous kinds of parallelism, parallel transference or continuous 
equidistance between lines. Hitherto the nomenclature of mathe- 
matics seems to have recognized only two among them, which 
it has termed parallelism and concentricity, the former relating to 
right lines and the latter to curves. Two right lines are commonly 
defined as parallel when they lie in the same plane and are so 
placed that they will never meet, even though produced to infinity 
in either direction. This time-honored definition is imperfect be- 
cause it contravenes in direct terms the postulate of the higher 
mathematics that parallel lines do meet at infinity, and more espe- 
cially because it fails wholly to express the most obvious and prac- 

* It is hardly concise to say, •' The operation of graphically representing on an 
assumed plane the amount of protrusion of a projecting solid;" hut, on the other hand, 
it sounds like nonsense to express the same idea by saying, " The projection upon a 
plane of projection of the projection of a projection." This last form of statement 
is perfectly accurate and no doubt very brief, but it is absolutely unintelligible. 


tically useful fact about parallel lines, that they are at all points 
equidistant from each other. This fact of continuous equidis- 
tance it leaves to be inferred or deduced. Another definition of 
parallelism emphasizes the fact that the distance from any point in 
one right line to the nearest point in the other is constant ; a defini- 
tion which starts with the obvious fact of continuous equidistance, 
and allows the secondary fact to be deduced or inferred that the 
distance between the two lines measured /// any constant direction 
will be constant ; and the converse of this, that the measures of 
equidistance between parallel lines are themselves parallel in what- 
rver direction taken [aa^^ bb^, a^a^, byb2^ etc., Fig. i). 

The first of the above definitions has the merit of excluding 
from the outset all curved lines, and of thus differentiating abso- 
lutely between parallelism and concentricity. On the other hand, 
these two relations have this in common, that in concentric curves, 
as in parallel lines, the distance from any point in one curve to the 
nearest point in tlie other is constant. The second definition of 
parallelism given above, is on that account to be preferred, since it 
recognizes the common element in these kindred relations, while it 
differentiates between them by its expressed restriction to right lines. 
Thus the definition of concentricity may be made to correspond 
with that of parallelism as closely as do the relations which these 
words designate with each other, differing only in that which essen- 
tially differentiates those relations, namely, the rightness and cur- 
vature of the lines respectively. If we therefore define concen- 
tricity as that relation between curved lines lying in the same 
plane which exists when the distance from any point in either to 
the nearest point in the other is constant, it leaves us to deduce the 
corollary that these measures of equidistance are not mutually 
parallel, but normal to the curves, i.e.y towards or away from their 
common centres of curvature (Fig. 2j. 

Both these definitions call immediate attention to what is obvious 
and essential in the relations they define, and allow corresponding 
corollaries or deductions to be drawn regarding the direction in 
which the equidistance is measured. This is important in its bear- 
ing on certain other relations of continuous equidistance to which 
the text-books have as yet given no name, but which deserve both 
to be named and discussed. Their recognition in elementary 
mathematical text-books would, I am convinced, be a great gain 
to descriptive geometry and to the science of shades and shadows. 

224 Tfi^ QUARTERLY, 

if not to geometrical discussion generallj'. These hitherto un- 

named relations are confined to curved lines, as it is obvious that 


right lines can in no way be equidistant throughout except when 
parallel and in the same plane. 

The words " parallel " and " concentric " have each, as we have 
seen, a precise and distinct meaning, and designate closely-allied 
relations of continuous equidistance between right lines and curves 
respectively. But there is no word to designate the relation be- 
tween a pair of equal and similar curves so situated that their dis- 
tance apart, measured in a given constant dir^ction^ is everywhere 
equal. In other words, if we displace or transfer all points of a 
given curved line a given distance in a given direction, they will 
form in their second position a curve equal and similar to the first, 
and equidistant from it at all points, if the distances be measured 
along the paths of transference (Fig. 3). The curves are obviously 
not concentric, for their measures of equidistance are not taken in 
directions normal to the curves, which, moreover, have not, like 
concentric curves, common centres of curvature, nor are the dis- 
tances constant between nearest points from one line to the other. 
The curves cannot be called parallel, for either definition of paral- 
lelism excludes curved lines. And it would be both undesirable 
and unscientific to extend the application of the word parallel to 
include such curves. Undesirable, because what our mathematical 
language needs is precision and restriction, not extension of terms ; 
unscientific, because the relation of parallelism between right lines 
is unique, and because the equidistance we are now endeavoring to 
find a name for is restricted in every case to measurement in one 
constant direction. In this respect, as well as by the fact of being 
confined to curves, it is more closely akin to concentricity, in which 
the direction of the equidistance is restricted. But here again 
there is a difference, for concentric equidistance is measured in 
constantly-changing directions, while in the curves we are consid- 
ering the direction of measurement is constant. Let us, for the 
present, call this relation that of parallel transference, and investi- 
gate a little more closely both its properties and its importance. 

The first of the two definitions of parallelism above given em- 
phasizes the conception of non-intersection, as the second does 
that of continuous equidistance. Concentric curves present to 
the eye a corresponding aspect of non-intersection ; they do not 
seem to approach to and recede from each other. They are, how- 
ever, in their very nature dissimilar curves. Having, throughout 
common centres of curvature (as 0, 0/ o'^ in Fig. 4), their radii 


of curvature differ throughout by constant quantities, rendering 
the homologous portions obviously dissimilar. This becomes 
very noticeable in any series of concentric curves, as in Fig. 4, 
where the curve ^ ^z ^ ^ is as unlike as possible to b b b b. On the 
other hand, curves in parallel transference frequently do intersect ; 
they always appear to the eye to approach each other in certain 
portions and to recede in others, and they are, in the nature of the 
case, similar and equal curves (Figs. 3 and 5). All equal circles 
are mutually in this relation of parallel transference as Fig. 7 
makes clear to the eye by the equal parallel measures aa, bb^ cc ; 
bb', dd\ €e\ etc. 

So far, there has been nothing said to limit the direction of the 
parallel displacement. But it is obvious that according as the trans- 
position is effected in the plane of the curve or otherwise, there 
will ensue radically different relations between the curves. In the 
first case they will lie in the same plane ; in the second they will 
be in parallel planes. In the first case the two curves may touch 
or intersect at one or more points ; in the second case they cannot 
intersect at all. In this second case the parallel paths of equal dis- 
placement^ or in other words the measures of the transference, 
make an angle with the planes of the curves and form right-line 
elements of a cylindrical surface, of which the curves are parallel 
sections or bases. It is therefore important to distinguish between 
these two sorts of parallel transference, and to find a name for each. 
This is especially necessary in view of the frequency and impor- 
tance of these two relations in descriptive geometry, and particu- 
larly in some of its special branches, such as isometric perspective 
and sciography. Equal and similar curves in parallel planes, like 
the bases of a cylinder, or the front and rear edges of a wheel, or 
of the intrados of an arch, though commonly spoken of as par- 
allel, are really curves in parallel transference in space, while their 
projections are curves in parallel displacement in a plane, and the 
lines of transference or equidistance in this plane are the projec- 
tions of the paths of transference, as da and bb in Fig. 6. But 
how cumbrous is all this designation by phrases instead of words, 
and how unreasonable in the case of such common and familiar 
phenomena, in so practical a science as descriptive geometry ! 

Curves in parallel transference have an aesthetic value in addi- 
tion to their mathematical importance. They form the basis of 
nearly all repetitive ornament and constitute one of the most essen- 


tial elements of architectural splendor. For the repetition of the 
same arch over a series of windows, or of any other architectural 
form in the plane of the wall is merely a case of curves " in par- 
allel transference in a plane," while a series of transverse arches re- 
peated across a long nave or arcade derives richness of effect from 
the repetition of the same curve in parallel planes, that is " in par- 
allel transference in space." Counterchange (which is so conspicu- 
ous a feature of Moorish ornament and of some other styles) and 
nearly all gothic diaper-work, when executed with curved lines, 
are instances of the decorative use of curves in parallel transference 
in a plane (Fig. 8). At the same time the frequency of concentric 
curves, both in architecture and in decoration, as in the mouldings 
of an archivolt, in Greek guilloches, and in Byzantine interlacing 
patterns, makes it only the more desirable to confer upon each one 
of these relations a definite and intelligible name.* 

These new names should be etymologically allied to the word 
parallel^ because of the kinship between parallelism and the rela- 
tions they are to designate. The only Greek prepositions avail- 
able in the compounding of the new words would seem to be 
xard, fiera and <Tov^ either one of which combines readily with 
akXr^kwv to form " catallel," f *' metallel " and " synallel." AWa means 
not only "according to," but also ''down upon," and therefore 
seems especially appropriate to the case of parallel transfers in 
space; that is, of equal curves in parallel planes, because of the 
suggested possibility of bringing any one of these curves down 
upon the other, i.e., of superposing them. M&rd^ on the other 
hand, with its suggestion of sequence and successiveness (''after," 

* There are many cases of lines in parallel transference which at first sight appear 
anything but equidistant throughout; seeming, indeed, to utterly belie the parallelism 
claimed for them. The fact is, that parallel transference preserves the semblance of 
parallelism only when, as in Fig. 9, a series of curves having a common tangent are 
displaced in a direction at right angles to that tangent (A^ A^). Displacement in any 
other direction results in alternate approaches and recessions, or even intersections, of 
the carves, as with A'B and \M^/ where the doited lines cc/ cU/^ etc., indicate the 
direction of the transfer. In B' QQ^^ we have an example of the simplest counterchange ; 
and Fig. 8 shows how even the most elaborate Moorish counterchanged quarry or 
diaper is produced by oblique transfer, as of the heavy line a^abc. Continuous equi- 
distance in these cases is not apparent though real : but it emphasizes the necessity 
of coining a name which shall not, by the use of the word '* parallel," call attention to 
a property seemingly lacking. 

f I owe to Prof. W. R. Ware the first suggestion of this word, although the use 
here made of it is slightly different from that to which he proposed to apply it. 


either in time or place) is better adapted to express the idea of suc- 
cessive positions of the curve in a plane. Let us then call curves 
"in parallel transference in space" catallel curves, and their rela- 
tion to each other catailelism. In the same way curves " in parallel 
transference in a plane" should be meiallcl curves, and their mutual 
relation that of inctallelisnu We are now provided with a scientific, 
suggestive and appropriate term for each of the four most import- 
ant relations of continuous equidistance between lines; names ab- 
solutely restricted to definite cases, and impossible to confound 
one with another. The rails of a straight railroad track are par- 
allel ; when the track curves they are concentric ; the nearer and 
further edges of an arch-soffit, and the bases of a cylinder, are 
catallel; all equal circles in the same plane are metalUL The pro- 
jections of catallel curves on a plane are metallel curves. The 
shadow of a plane curve on a plane parallel to it is catallel to the 
curve, and the projections of the curve and of its shadow are 
metallel. If we call'the lines of equidistance (or *' paths of trans- 
fer") respectively " lines of catailelism " and " of metallelism/' we 
are able to state with perfect clearness and conciseness regarding 
the above curve and its shadow on a parallel plane, that ** the rays 
which cast the shadow are lines of catailelism between the curve 
and its shadow, and the projections of these rays are lines of 
metallelism between the projections of the curve and of its shadow." 
The whole discussion of the projection of shades and shadows, 
and, indeed, of many other problems of descriptive geometry is 
thus simplified and clarified, and many of the phenomena of solid 
geometry are rendered capable of concise and easy statement. The 
use of these terms is, therefore, herewith respectfully submitted to 
the consideration of mathematicians and teachers. 

There remain two forms of continuous equidistance which we 
have not yet discussed, but which are sufficiently interesting to 
deserve a word of comment, and possibly the coining of special 
designations also. The first of these is that of the parallel right 
sections of solids of revolution and of surfaces compounded from 
them. Such curves are not concentric nor metallel, because in 
different planes ; nor catallel, because they are unequal, except in 
the case of cylinders. But if their distances apart be measured 
along the generating or meridian elements of the surface, or along 
the chords of the intercepted arcs of these elements, they are 
found to be continuously equidistant. Moreover, the projections 


of these curves on a plane perpendicular to the axis of revolution 
are concentric curves, and they are thus brought into a certain 
kinship with those we have already discussed. Whether it is or 
is not worth while to apply to them the third of the names sug- 
gested above, and to call them *' synallel," we leave to the judgment 
of teachers and of writers of mathematical text- books. The name 
is not so rigorously descriptive as the other two, but is perhaps 
sufficiently so to serve the purposes of designation. 

It only remains to mention the case of curves, not plane figures 
themselves, which, when repeated by parallel transference, are 
uniformly equidistant in space though not' in parallel planes. There 
can be no objection to calling them catallel curves, since the rela- 
tion they sustain to each other is precisely the same as that of 
catallelism for each of their infinitesimal plane elements, and con- 
fusion cannot arise from such use of the term, because of the abso- 
lute distinction between plane curves and those which are not 
plane figures. The projections of such curves as these on a com- 
mon plane would be metallel curves, which further assimilates their 
relation to that of catallelism. And all these five species of con- 
tinuous equidistance between curves are brought into a common 
category by the fact that in all five cases the tangents to their 
homologous points are parallel ; or, in other words, that their 
homologous infinitesimal segments considered as right lines are in 
each case parallel. It would seem but reasonable to give each 
case its own name, and to expect that these new designations may 
help both to enrich and to simplify the discussions and investiga- 
tions alike of plane, solid and descriptive geometry. This confi- 
dent expectation the writer pleads as his excuse for presenting at 
such length the claims of the three new words which form the title 
of this paper. 






Part II. — Cast-Iron Flanged-Pjpe and Special Castings; 


Flanged pipe is straight pipe with a flange or broad circular 
ring cast on either one or both ends (Fig. 21). If there is a flange 
on one end only, the other end may be either of a bell or a spigot 
form, and it is then known as flange-and-bell or flange-and-spigot 

Fig. 21. 

Flanged-Pipe and Flange and Spigot-Pipe. 

pipe. It may be obtained in any length up to 18 feet, but is usu- 
ally supplied in 12-foot lengths. The pipe is put in a lathe, and 
the flanges turned up or ** faced." 

Where the joints of the pipe are likely to be submitted to a ten- 
sile strain, for piping inside the pump-house, and wherever the 
piping is likely to require being taken apart once in a while, flanged- 
pipe and specials are used. There are other cases where flanged- 
pipe is required, but a little practice will soon enable one to decide 
when it is appropriate to use flanged pipe and specials. 

Unless otherwise specified, the pipe is shipped with the flanges 
blank or undrilled, leaving the bolt-holes to be drilled on the work. 
This, however, is expensive, and it is better to have the bolt-holes 
drilled at the pipe-works. When this is done, it is necessary to 

* Copyrighted, 1 894, by Wolcolt C. Foster. 


send the makers either a template or data, showing the location of 
the holes with relation to each other and to the axes of the pipe 
when it is other than straight pipe, the diameter of the bolt-hole 
circle (that is, to the centre of the holes — in fact, all measurements 
are made in reference to the centres) and the size of the holes re- 
quired, together with such other information as may be pertinent. 
Fig. 22 shows such a diagram for the bolt-holes in a flanged bend. 

Fig. 22. 

Data for drilling flanged bend. Holes drilled off centre ; bolt-holes ^-incli diameter ; 
bolt-circle xi inches radius; number of bolt-holes six. 

There is no universal standard of weights for flanged pipes, nor 
is there an universal standard as to flanges, bolt-holes, etc. Each 
foundry usually has its own standard, and, unless otherwise or- 
dered, sends that standard. Standards have been suggested from 
time to time, notably one by Mr. John E. Codman, of Philadel- 
phia, an abstract of whose paper read before the Engineers* Club, 
of Philadelphia, is given in Engineering Neivs of January 12, 1S89, 
p. 24. When flanged work is to be connected together or with 
valves, care should be taken to specify the outside diameter of the 
flanges ; otherwise, the chances are that when the work is bolted 
up, one flange will be found larger than the abutting flange, and 
either the work will be unsightly and unworkmanlike or the ex- 
pensive method of chipping and filing down the flange will have to 
be followed. 

In Table III. will be found some of the details in relation to the 
various sizes of flanged pipe turned out by one of the prominent 

Flanged special castings or flanged .specials are very similar to 
bell-and-spigot or ordinary specials, except that flanges replace 
either one or all of the bells or spigots. 

The general remarks made in the first paper on bell-and-spigot 
pipe and specials apply to flanged material. 



Table III. — Weight and Dimensions of Medium Weight 


Diameter of Pipe. 

Length ,of Pipe. 





Medium Weight per 

Length including 








Weight of Each. 

Diameter from 
Centre to Cen- 
tre ot Holes. 

Number of 










































































































































46 • 



























The joints are made up by inserting a gasket of rubber packing, 
leather, sheet lead or copper between the abutting surfaces. The 
proper gasket to use will, of course, depend on circumstances, but 
as a rule sheet-lead is preferable. 

Flange-pipe is usually sold by the pound,, the same as special 

castings, and runs about the same in price for 12-foot lengths. 

When the lengths are other than 12 feet long, the price per pound 

is usually greater. , 


Water-works valves are made of cast-iron, with a few of their ' 
parts of a special composition similar to bronze. The ingredients 

* Compare with Table IV, 


and their amounts of this composition vary with the difTerent man- 
ufacturers, and are trade secrets. The valves are of the kind 
known as gate-valves, and may have either one or two gates. 
While there are some pretty well-known makes of the single-gate 
variety, those with double gates are more generally preferred and 

Of the latter kind, Figs. 23 to 25 show sections and outside 

Fic. J3. 



Purls of a Waler-Wojks Valve 

Fig. 23 shows the parts of an ordinary street-main valve of mod- 
erate size of the make known as the Eddy Valve. The following 
list gives the names of the parts, their uses and the material of 
which they are made : 

Case or body of the valve (cast-iron). 


Cover or bonnet (cast-iron). 

Lower part of the stuffing-box for the stem (cast-iron). 

Stuffing-box follower (cast-iron). 

Stud-bolts and nuts for fastening the stuffing-box together and to 
the cover (wrought-iron). 

Bolts for listening the bonnet to the body (wrought-iron). 

Stem or screw by which the valve is operated (steel and com- 

Ball-nut or gate-carrier (composition), into which the stem 
works to raise or lower the gates. The hooks extending out- 
ward from the stem of this nut work in grooves in the edges of 
the gates, and keep them in place when the gates are raised off 
their seats. The rounded projections at the lower end are called 
the trunnions. 

Fin. 24, Fig, 25. 

Section of Eddy Valve, 

Persjiective View Eddy Valve. 

Gates or leaves of the valve. The body of the gate is of cast- 
iron, the facing-ring of composition. 

Stem-nut (cast-iron), placed on top of the stem to give a grip 
for the wrench or key used in opening and closing the valve, and 
which is kept in place by a nut. The stem-nut is usually two 
inches square. 

The seats (composition) are the surfaces against which the gates 
bear when the valve is closed. 

Fig, 24 shows a sectional view of one of these valves put to- 
gether, and Fig. 25 an outside view. 


After the seat rings and facing rings on the gates are put in 
place and turned up the gates are ground on their respective seats 
with emery to a perfect bearing. 

These valves are known as centre bearing, that is, the pres- 
sure to keep the gates against their seats is applied at the centre 
of the back of the gates. In some makes the mechanism causes 
the pressure to be exerted on the back of the gates at their outer 
edges, usually at two or more points of the circumference. Centre 
bearing valves are to be preferred, as they are more likely to 
dose tightly should some foreign matter lodge between one of the 
gates and its seat. 

Double gate valves may in general be divided into two classes : 

1st. Those in which the seats are inclined to each other. 

2d. Those in which the seats are parallel to each other. 

In the first class the gates take the form of a very long wedge 
when being closed, and consequently require but comparatively- 
little power to make them tight. In the second class the gales or 
leaves are pushed apart and held against the seats by wedges or 
similar contrivances when shut. 

Fig. 26 shows the interior working parts of a valve with parallel 
seats, as made by the Rensselaer Manufacturing Company. 

Flo. a6. 

Inlerior Parts Rensselaer Valve. 

The Eddy valve described above has inclined seats, is easily 
closed tight and opened, and has a minimum number of parts. 

Any valve for use in street mains should not leak with the pres- 
sure on either gate, while wholly relieved from pressure on the 
other gate. 

With some makes of valves it is necessary to place one of the 
gates, which is usually painted a distinctive color, facing the pres- 
sure. It is not desirable to use such valves, as in a well-designed 


works the majority of the valves are likely to have the pressure on 
one face as often as on the other when closed. 

Valves are made to open by turning either to the right or left, as 
ordered, but unless otherwise specified usually open by turning to 
the left. 

The larger sizes of valves are geared with spur gearing when 
intended to stand upright, as shown in Fig. 27, and with bevel 
gearing when intended to lie on the side, as in Fig. 28. The size 
at which gearing is added depends upon the pressure and upon the 
depth that the pipe is laid in the ground. It is seldom that valves 
under 20 inches diameter have to be geared. With 40 to 50 pounds 

Fic, 27. 

Large Valve with Spur Gear 
to Stand. Upright, 

pressure it is usually necessary to gear valves 24 inches in diameter 
and over. As a rule, the larger sizes of valves in street mains have 
to be placed on their sides, otherwise they would extend above the 
jurfaceof the ground. 

Valves are made with a hub or bell on each end, with a spigot 
on each end, and with flange ends, with screw ends, or with any 
combination of these. The particular kind required should be 
specified, otherwise valves with a bell on each end will be sent. 

One or more by-passes or passages to carry the water around 
the gates when the valve is closed are placed on large gates. 


Large Bevel Geared Valve ivilh By-I'a.- 
I.. XV.— 17 


■These by-passes are closed by secondary valves. The object of 
the by-passes is to prevent excessive water hammer by a sudden or 
rapid stoppage of the entire flow and to partially relieve the pres- 
sure on the gates of the main valve when it is closed, so that 
it may be more easily opened (Fig. 29). 

When so desired, hand-wheels are placed on top of the stem 
in place of stem-nuts (Fig, 30). In ordinary valves the stem or 
spindle does not rise, i.e., as the gates are raised up the gate car- 
rier works up on the stem, while the stem always holds the same 
relative position to the case of the valve. 

Quick Opening or Sliding Slera and 
Lev^r Valve, 
Valve with Hand Wheel. 

For special uses, many other forms of valves have been designed, 
of which the following are among the more important: 

Rising stem-valves, in which the stem rises out of the case as 
the valve is opened. 

Sliding-stem and lever-valves, in which the gates are moved by 
a stem operated by a lever (Fig. 31). There is no screw-thread 
cut on the stem in this variety. They are usually marked S. S. & 
L. valves. 

Outside screw and yoke-valves (Fig. 32), known as O. S, & Y. 

Rack- and pinion-valves (Fig, 33). 


Fio, 37, FiR. 33, 

Hydraulic-lift valves (Fig. 34), in which the gates are moved by 
a piston operated by a hydraulic cylinder placed upon the valve. 

Ilydraulic-Lirc Valves, 



Flu me- valves are intended to withstand only light pressures, and 
while outside they have much the appearance of the ordinary 
valves for street mains, they are much lighter in construction, and 
have but a single gate (Fig. 35). 

Sluice gates are of pec61iar construction, and are sometimes used 
on the inlets and outlets of reservoirs, especially for large sizes of 
pipe (Fig. 36). 

The principal outside dimensions of the standard Eddy valve, as 
made by the Eddy Valve Company, are given in Table IV. 

Table IV. — Dimefisions of Standard Eddy Valve in Inches. 


Screwed Valves. 

End to Knd of 


» Valves. 

Hub End Valves 

Diameter of* 
Standard Flange. 

Face to Face 

End to End of 






































, '4i 








When it is desirable to use the ordinary stationary spindle-valve 
and it is necessary to be able to tell the position of the gates, an 
indicator is attached to the valve. The kind of indicator varies 
with the conditions and the maker. Where the valve is exposed 
to view, a worm working into a gear may be attached to the stem 
of the valve as shown in Fig. 37, or an index-finger moving along 

* Compare with Table III. 


a scale and operated by a fine thread cut upon the exposed por- 
tion of the stem may be used. 

Valve Indicator, 

Fig. 38 shows another style of indicator. 

Where the valve is not exposed, a post indicator, as shown in 
Fig. 39, or some similar contrivance, may be resorted to. 

The standard nut placed on the valves is two inches square. 
The valve- wrenches should always be kept convenient and in their 
places, so that properly authorized persons can get them at a mo- 
ment's notice in a case of necessity. Care should be exercised in 
operating valves. When closed they should simply be brought 



to a firm, even bearing, and should never be forced or jammed. 
If they will not close tightly with a moderate pressure on the 
wrench, something is wrong, and i{ forced,, injury is likely to re- 
sult. Either the stem will be strained, the threads stripped, some 
of the interior parts broken, or the faces of the gates or their seats 
damaged. As soon as the gates are off the seats the valves should 
work perfectly free and even* In newly-constructed systems, for- 
eign material, such as sticks, stones,, old shoes and miscellaneous 
articles are likely to be found in tJw pipes^ especially if the inspec- 
tion has not been quite as strict as it should be, and even with the 
best of inspection and care they sometimes get in. They will be 
found to gradually work aloi^ and find lodgement in either a valve 
or hydrant. If a valve will not close tight, the water should be 
shut off from the section on each side, and the valve taken apart 
by«removing the bonnet. It may then be cleaned out If the 
gates are raised up into the bonnet before removing^ it, all the inte- 
rior parts may be removed together. Care should be exercised 
not to tear or damage the gasket that will be fouixl between the 
case and bonnet. If this is injured and is not renewed the chances 
are greatly in favor of a leak. 

Table V. — Approximate Cost of Standard Make Double-Hub 
Water Works Valves^ Brass Mounted Iron Body. 















It will be noticed that in some of the foregoing cuts the valves 
have screw ends. Screw-end valves are only used on wrought-iron 
pipe, and these same styles of valves may be obtained with either 
hub, spigot or flange ends for cast-iron pipe. 


The cost of valves varies from time to time and depends upon 
the make, locality, condition of business and quantity. For esti- 
mating purposes in the middle and eastern states for moderate 
quantities the following prices, f. o. b. cars, may be used for stand- 
ard makes. The actual contract price may be somewhut less, but 
the estimate will be on the safe side and is not likely to be out 
over a few per cent. 




By J. S. C. WELLS, Ph.D. and A. R. CUSHMAN, Ph.D. 

Chemical Reactions. 

All chemical changes may be expressed by means of reactions 
written in the form of an equation, e.g,: 

BaCl, + Na^SO^ = BaSO^ + 2 NaCL 

Now let 'us examine this equation and see what it is intended 
to express by it. In the first place it is a kind of short hand for 
chemical names ; instead of writing out the words barium chloride 
we denote it much more easily by using the chemical symbol be- 
longing to each element contained in the compound, thus in the 
example given Ba stands for barium and CI for chlorine. Perhaps 
you may ask why we write it BaClg and not simply BaCl. This 
brings us to another important property of symbols, viz. : that 
they not only represent the elements themselves but they also rep- 
resent their atomic weights, as compared with the atom of hydro- 
gen which is taken as the unit. Now in the example under dis- 
cussion it has been found by quantitative analysis that it contains 
137 parts by weight of barium and 71 parts of chlorine. The 
weight of the barium atom has been found to be 137 times that 
of the hydrogen atom, hence in this compound we have an amount 
of barium equal to one atom. The chlorine atom has been 
been found to be 35.5 times as heavy as that of hydrogen, hence 
if BaCI, contains 71 parts of chlorine to one barium atom (137) it 
must contain 71 -T-35.S (weight of i atom of chlorine) equals 2 
atoms of chlorine. 

This we denote by writing the figure 2 at the lower right hand 
corner of the symbol of the element, hence we see that BaCI, 
means in the first place, the chemical compound barium chloride; 


second, that it represents definite weights of the constituent ele- 
ments, and also the number of atoms of each element in the mole- 

When a number is written before the symbol representing a 
molecule, as 2NaCl, it means ,two molecules. 

If we should perform the chemical operation expressed by 
the equation given we would find that 208 (Ba 137 + CI271) parts 
by weight of barium chloride and 142 (Nag 46 + S 32 + O4 64) 
parts of sodium sulphate would produce 233 (Ba 137 + S 32 + 
O4 64) parts of barium sulphatft and 117 (2(Na 23 + CI 35.5) ) 
parts of sodium chloride. 

It should be remembered that in all equations representing 
chemical change, that the number of atoms on one side of the 
equation must be exactly equal to those on the other ; nothing can 
be gained or lost. 

Having gained some idea as to what an equation means let 
us see if they differ from each other in any important respects. 

In the equation cited, it is evident that we have a simple inter- 
change of the elements contained in the two substances used, the 
barium replacing the sodium and the sodium the barium ; such a 
transposition is called metathesis and to this class of equations be- 
long a very large number of chemical reactions. 

It is a general r^ule,that if we mix two solutions, capable of form- 
ing by exchange or transposition a compound insoluble in the mix- 
ture, such insoluble compound will be produced and precipitated. 
In the case just given, although BaCla and NagSO^are both soluble 
in water, yet when we mix them, BaS04 is precipitated, because it 
is insoluble in water. 

Other forms of chemical change are those of combination or 
synthesis as : 

H2-hCl2=2HCl ' 

2C + O2 = 2CO. 

tho«?e of dissociation or analysis as : 

CaCOj (on ignition) = CaO + COj 
2AUCI3 " = 2Au + 3CI2 

and those of oxidation and reduction, the latter two representing a 
very important series of reactions. Oxidation, strictly speaking. 


\YOuld mean an increase in the quantity of oxj'gen contained in a 
body, but the term is often used when oxygen takes no part in the 
work, as when FeClj is changed to FejCl^ by means of chlorine. 

2FeCla + CI2 = FcjClg. 

Although oxygen does not enter into the reaction we say the FeClj 

has been oxidized, meaning that it has been changed from a salt 

corresponding to FeO to one corresponding to FegO,. 

As an example of an oxidation equation let us take the one 

showing the oxidation of FeS04 to FejCSOJj by KjMnjOg and 

H2SO, : 

SFeglSO^)^ + KjMnA + SHjjSO, = 

SFe^tSOJa + KjSO, + 2MnS0, + SH^O. 

In order to write such an equation as this, it is necessary to 
know first, how much oxygen is needed to change the body from 
the lower oxide to the higher ; second, how much oxygen we can 
get from each molecule of our oxidizing agent and what are the 
by-products formed by the reduction or decomposition of the lat- 
ter ; also what are the other products if any, that are formed by the 
chemical changes going on. In order to determine the amount of 
oxygen necessary, we will first examine the composition of the 
body to be. oxidized, FeSO^. 

Ferrous sulphate probably contains two atoms of iron in the 
molecule, as shown in the following graphic formulae : 

Fe = O ,, Fe = SO4 T. 

Ij Ferrous n * Ferrous 

Fe = O °^*^^ Fe = SO, Sulphate. 

The composition of ferric sulphate, the product of the oxidation, 
is shown by the foll6wing formulae : 

/ Fe = O / Fe = SO, 

0<^ r Ferric SO/ | Ferric 

^ Fe = O oxide. ^ Fe = SO, sulphate. 

On comparing the formula for ferrous oxide with that for ferric 
oxide, we see that in the reaction, every molecule of the former has 
taken up one more atom of oxygen, in order to become ferric ox- 
ide, or in other words, the ferric oxide contains one more atom of 
oxygen in the molecule than does the ferrous, hence, every atom 


of oxygen yielded by the oxidizing agent, will oxidize one molecule 
of ferrous oxide (FejOj), to ferric oxide (FejOs). 

Next let us see in what way the permanganate acts with the sul- 
phuric acid. It has been found that it is decomposed or reduced, 
when in presence of an oxidizable substance, as shown in the fol- 
lowing equation : 

KjjMnPg + 3HjS0,= 2MnS04 + KjSO^ + 5O + 3H2O. 

From this we see that every molecule of the KjMnjOg will yield 
five atoms of oxygen, free to enter into combination with the iron 
and we have already determined that each molecule of ferrous 
oxide (FejO^) requires one atom of oxygen to change it to ferric 
oxide (FcjO,) ; hence, five atoms of oxygen will oxidize five mole- 
cules of the Fe^Oj to FejO,. Next, how much H2SO4 will be 
needed besides that already contained in the ferrous sulphate. 
Ferric oxide when it combines with H2SO4 does so in the follow- 
ing manner : 

FeA + sHj^O^ = Fe2(SO,)3 + 3H2O. 

Hence it is evident that for each molecule of FegOg we shall need 
three of H^SO^, but as there are already two molecules present 
in the ferrous sulphate, we shall actually need but one more for 
every molecule of iron oxidized, and for five, the amount oxidizecj 
by one molecule of KgMngOg, five H2SO4 will be required, making 
eight in all, with the three needed for combination with the po- 
tassium and manganese of the permanganate. 

We have now determined the quantities of each reagent taking 
part in the reaction and also the quantities of the products. 

We will now take another reaction, in which at first sight, the 
action of the oxidizing agent is not so plain. If we heat chromic 
hydroxide with a solution of sodium carbonate and bromine, the 
chromium will be oxidized to chromic acid, although of course, 
the bromine itself contains no oxygen. Let us first write down 
the substances taking part in the reaction and the products formed. 

Cr2(OH)6 + NagCOa + Br = 2Na2Cr04 + NaBr + COg + H2O. 

The substance to be oxidized Cr2(0H)g, consists of Cr203 + 
3H2O ; the result of the oxidation, NajCrO^, consists of NajO + 
CrOj." As the molecule of Cr2(OH)Q contains two atoms of chro- 


mium, we must, if all the chromium is oxidized, produce two mole- 
cules of Na2Cr04. 

In NajCrOi, the CrO, is the acid anhydride and it has formed the 
salt by acting on NajCOg as follows : 

NajCOj + CrOj = Na^CrO, + CO,. 

We see, therefore, that the product of the oxidation is really 
CrOj and that the NajCrO^ results from the action of the CrO, on 
NajCOj. Now if we start with a molecule of Qxjd^ and obtain 
as a result of the reaction two molecules of CrOs, it is evident as 
shown by the following formulae : 

crA = { f^: 2Cro, = { jg;;- 

that the CrjOj has taken up three more atoms of oxygen in the 
change to 2Cr03, hence for every molecule of CrjO, oxidized, we 
must have three more atoms of oxygen. How does the bromine 
furnish it ? It has been found that Br in alkaline solution, acts as 
follows, when oxidizable matter is present : 

3Na,C03 + 6Br = 6NaBr + 3CO2 + 3O. 

6 parts of bromine and 3 of sodium carbonate will thus give us 
sufficient oxygen for the oxidation of one molecule of Cr2(0H)g to 

The 2Cr03 formed then combines with more of the sodium car- 
bonate to form sodium chromate as shown above. 

We will then need, besides the three molecules of carbonate that 
react with the bromine, two more to combine with the 2Cr03, 
making five in all, hence the complete equation will be : 

Cr2(OH)6 + sNa^COj + 6Br = 
2Na2Cr04 + 6NaBr + 5CO2 + 3H,0. 

An equation representing oxidation, generally represents reduc- 
tion as well ; reduction meaning just the reverse of oxidation. In 
the case just considered of the oxidation of ferrous salts by per- 
manganate, the latter is reduced, that is, loses oxygen and becomes 
manganous sulphate, while the iron salt is oxidized. Sulphurous 
acid is a strong reducing agent, owing to the facility with which 


it takes up oxygen and becomes sulphuric acid. This is shown 
in its action on ferric salts, thus : 

Fe2(SO^ + SO2 + 2H2O = 2FeSO, + 2H2SO,. 

Stannous chloride (SnClj), is another active reducing agent ; 
when added in excess to a solution of HgClj, it reduces the latter to 
metallic mercury; at the same time it is oxidized to SnCl4, thus : 

2HgCl2 + 2SnCl2 = 2Hg + 2SnCl4. 

Many more examples showing oxidation and reduction might 
be given, but sufficient have been shown to serve as types of all. 


Preliminary Tests. 

Before beginning the regular analysis of any substance, a pre- 
liminary examination with the blowpipe should be made. A 
number of metals are very quickly determined in this way, and 
the knowledge as to whether they are present or not often simpli- 
fies the analysis very materially. For the methods to be followed 
in making these tests, consult The School of Mines Quarterly, 
November, 1892, page 25; or Fresenius, § 175; also Prescott, 
Table I. 


If the material given for analysis is not already in solution, the 
next step, after making the preliminary examination, is to dissolve 
it. Two cases are to be considered, viz. : 

1°. The substance is neither a metal nor an alloy. 

2°. The substance is a metal or alloy. 

Substances of the 1° class are to be treated as follows : 

A. — Boil some of the finely-pulverized substance with water. 

a. All dissolves. 

Test solution according to Scheme No. I. 

b, A residue refnains. 

Filter, and evaporate to dryness a few drops of the filtrate in a 
platinum capsule, and see if any appreciable residue remains ; if 
so, test filtrate according to Scheme No. i. 


B. Residue insoluble in water. 

Boil a part of this residue with strong HCl (note if any gases 
are evolved), then dilute with water (not enough to precipitate bis- 
muth or antimony as basic salts). 

a. All dissolves. 

Evaporate solution to expel excess of acid, and then test accord- 
ing to Scheme No. i, Filtrate i. 

If silica has been shown by the blowpipe, in the preliminary 
tests, evaporate the solution to complete dryness, add a little HCl, 
boil, dilute with a little water, and filter from the separated SiOj. 

b. A residue remains. 

Treat a small portion of this residue with boiling water, filter, 
and test filtrate for lead with H2SO4 ; to the residue left after treat- 
ment with water add NH^OH ; filter, and test filtrate for silver with 

The presence of mercurous salts will be indicated by the resi- 
due turning black after the addition of ammonia. 

The remainder of residue b save for treatment with residue C, b. 

C. Take another part of the residue insoluble in water (5), and 
boil with strong HNOj, then dilute with water (not sufficient to 
precipitate bismuth or antimony). 

a. All dissolves. 

Evaporate solution nearly to dryness (if silica is present, evap- 
orate to complete dryness, as in 5, a, using HNO3 to dissolve dry 
residue instead of HCl), to expel excess of acid ; then dilute with 
water, adding a few drops of HNO^, if the water causes any 

Test solution according to Scheme i. 

b. A residue remains. 

Add it to residue B^ b^ and boil with aqua-regia ; dilute and 
filter, and test filtrate by evaporating a drop on porcelain capsule, 
to see if anything has dissolved ; if so, evaporate excess of acid 
and add to solution By a. 

Residue insoluble in aqua-regia. Treat according to D. 

D. Residue insoluble in aqua-regia. 

This residue may contain : AgCl, PbSO^, BaSOi, SrSO^, CaSOi, 
SiOj and silicates, AljOj, CrjOj, CaF^, C, S, SnOj. 

a. Test a small portion on charcoal or plaster, for Ag and Pb. 
If found, proceed according to r; if not, proceed according to 
Residue 2°. 


b. Test another small portion in a glass tube closed at one end, 
for S. 

c. Silver and lead salts are present. 

Take some of the residue, and heat with a concentrated solution 
of NH4A; filter, and repeat treatment until lead salts are all 

FiLT. I®. 

Lead salts -!- 2 parts. 

Add HiSOi 
whito ppt. 


Add HCl, filter 
if necessary, and 
add a few drops 
of BaCl2, wliite 
ppt. = BaSOi = 

Residue \^. 

Warm residne with KCy (if S is present, di- 
gest in the cold), filter, and repeat the treat- 
ment until Ag salts are all removed. 

FiLT. 20. 

AnCy.KCy, add 
(NH4)2 S, brown ppt. 
= AgaS — . Dissolve 
Ag2S in hot HNO3, di- 
lute, filter, and to 
filtrate add HCl — 
whit© ppt. = AgCl = 

Residue 2<*. 

If S is present, heat res- 
idue in porceUiin dish un- 
til the 8 has completely 
volatilized: tiien mix the 
residue with NaKCOa and 
a little NaNOs, and fuse in 
a platinum crucible; dis- 
solve the fusion in boiling 
water, filter and wash. 

Residue 3^ 

BaCOs, SrCOs, CaCOa, (SiOj, _ AhOn, 
CraOa, SnOa)? Treat with HA; heat and 

FlLT. 40. 

BaA?, SrA2, 

CaA2. Test in 
the usual way. 

Residue 4''. 

SiOi. SnOj, etc. Place 
in test-tube with Zn 
and strong HCl and a 
few small pieces of pla- 
tinum — SnOi if pres- 
ent, will be reduced t<> 
Sn. (See S. 0/ M. Quart., 
July, IbOl. p. 296). Dis- 
solve in HCl, and test 
with HgClj. 

Filtrate. 3P. 

NaaSiOs, NaF, NaaC'i-O*. NaiAlaO*, NaaSO*, 
NajSnOs. (?) Make slightly acid with HCl, 
and evaporate to dryness ; if Cr is present, 
a('<d a little alcohol ; (do not heat much 
above 100° C.) Add HCl to the dry res- 
idue, boil, dilute and filter. 

Ppt. 5.0 

Si02, SnOi (?). 
Prove iSiOa by 
salt of phospho- 
rus bead. 
reduction witli 

Filtrate 5.^ 

NaF, Al-iCU, CraClc, 
NajSOi, SnCU (?j. Pass 
H2S gas into tlic solut'n 
and filter from any ppt. 

Ppt. 0. 

SnSs, S. 

Filt. 6. 

NaF, AI2CI6, 
CrsCle -f 

add NH4OH to faint alkaline reaction and filter. 

Ppt. 7^. 

CrstOHs. Test 
in the usual way. 

Filtrate T^.— (Divide in two parts). 


Acidify with HCl 
and add BaCh, 
white ppt. = 

Add CaCl2 and let stand for some time ; filter, 
and test ppt. for Fl. by etching test. 

A better way to test for Fl. would be to take 

BaS()4— H2S0 4. some of residue No. 2 and test that directly, ei- 

ther by etching test, or by passing SiF4 into water. 



Mttals or Alloys. 

Case 2^. The substance is a metal or an alloy. Boil with strong 
HNO3, 3nd evaporate nearly to dryness ; add a few drops of HNO3, 
dilute with water, boil and filter. 

Residue l^'. 

Residue is white and non-metallic. Boil with strong eolation 
of H2C4U4OB: if any residue remains filter and wash. 

Filtrate V. 

Test according 
to Scheme No. 1. 

FiLTKATK 2**. 

Add a few 
drops of HCl, and 
pass in II sS, an 
orange ppt. = 

. . Residue 2*'. 

• Place in a platinum capsule with a piece of zinc and a little 
strong HCI. The Il^SnOs will be reduced to metallic tin. Re- 
move the zinc, dissolve the tin in HCl, and test solution with 
IlgCla ; a white or gray ppt. proves Sn. Gold and platinum, if 
present, will be left undissolved by the HCl, and should be tested 
ibr by dissolving in aqua regia, dividing solution into two parts, 
and testing for gold with FeSOi, and for platinum with KCl. 



II tl 


° M 

:. 1, w 






II on 

. I 


Filtrate 15. 

° Method for An. 

Tja, + AjrN(>i + HNO3. 

.. 11, wariu, shake and filter. 

♦'« J.: ApCI. Reject. 

lAsOa. Saturate with HiS. 
hows AsiSa, and proves As. 

2° Method for An. (20.) 

HgAsO, 4- AgNOs -f- H>J03. 

Add a few drops of AkNO,. and tlien 
NaC2H»02. Yellow ppt. shows AcjmAsOs, 
(20) and proves As. 








**HgS forms, with SnSj, after treatment with (NHJjSx of the 
mixed sulphides, a compound readily soluble in water. To avoid 
this the following modification of the scheme should be used : 

Digest the precipitate of mixed sulphides with (NHJjSx ; warm, 
and filter through a dry filter. Wash the residue with a lo per 
cent, solution of NH4NO3 instead of using water. 

Besidue a. 

(HgS, Sn3a), PbS, CuS, CdS, BiiSg. 

Beiuove from the filter, and heat gently 
with dil. HNOs. Filter and wash. 

Residue B. 

HgS + HaSnOs. 

Treat with aqua-regia in a porcelain 
dish. Boil, to expel excess of aeid. 

Residue C. 


Test on charcoal, by cobalt nitrate, in 
the O. F. of the blow-pipe. A bluish- 
green mass shows Sn. 

Filtrate A. 

Sulpho-salts of the 6° group. 

Proceed according to the usual scheme 
of separation. 


Filtbate B. 

Fb(NOs)s + Cu(N03)s + Cd(N03:2 -f- 


Proceed according to the usual scheme. 

Filtrate C. 

Hg CI2. 

Add a few drops of SnCls, and heat, a 
white ppt. turning dark, shows Hg2Cl3 
and proves Hg. 

VOL. XV.— 19 















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*he Absenci 

slight excos 

TE 22. 
in cold dill 

U a little i 
vitU NaiCl 
levi cork In 


dilate the 

Scheme III. — The Separation of Al, Cr, Ti, Co, Ni, Zn, 

Mn, Fe by KOH and Bromine. 

In the method commonly used for the separation of the above 

metals by means of potassium or sodium hydrate, the presence 

of zinc or chromium in the same solution very greatly compli- 
cates the analysis, owing to the fact that these substances precipi- 
tate each other in alkaline solution. The following scheme avoids t^^Vcfi 
this difficulty and is rapid and accurate. t«d. Fii 

To the solution of the metals, add NH^Cl in moderate quantity, 
then NH4OH until solution becomes slightly alkaline, and finally 
(NH J2S until solution smells distinctly of that reagent ; stir well 
and heat gently for some time,, filter and wash the precipitate. 

»».. an 

^he Absence of Phospk 

' »^— ■— ^—^— — — i^ 



slight excess ; warm and 

rE 22. 
in cold dilate HCl (sp. gr« 


iM a little couc. HNOsi, an^ 
vitb Na^COs, and poar inM 
4' 11 cork loosely and shall 

Ppt. 26. 

OH)« + Ah(0H)6 + crt(a: 

dilute the solotiou and adi 



. and fose in a platinum 
t of KCKJs : digest the ful 
ted. Filter and wash. 

-r'Tw cm 



Filtrate l**. 

Contains the alkalies and 
alkaline earths. 

Precipitate 1**. 

Treat with cold, dilate HCl (sp. gr. 1.02) in mode- 
rate excess *, filter and wash tbe residue thoroughly. 

Residue. (GoS and NiS). 

Test in borax bead, 

Bhie bead = Co. 
Brown bead ^ Ni. 

If Co is found to be present, treat the 
residue of sulphides as follows : 
Place in a small evaporating dish, add 
aqua-regia and boil, evaporating nearly 
to dryness; dilute with a little water; 
filter, if necessary ; nearly neutralize the 
solution with KOH ; add KCy in mod- 
erate excess — make strongly alkaline 
with KOH, and add Br, and warm, tak- 
ing care to keep the solution strongly 

Filter, and wash precipitate tbor- 
ougbly with boiling water. 

Filtrate 2*^. 

Evaporate nearly to dryness, to expel 
UtS and the excess of UCl ; dilute with 
a little water; filter, if necessary, from 
any separated sulphur* ; add strong so- 
lution of KOH in considerable excess, 
and then a few drops of bromine, (it is 
better to use pore bromine rather than 
bromine- water) ; heat gently for a few 
minutes, filter, and wash precipitate 
with boiling water. 


Cobalt may be deter- 
mined in this solution, if 
necessary, by acidifying 
with HNOa, and then add- 
ing (Hg)2(N03)a; filter, and 
ignite the precipitate, and 
test residue in borax bead ; 
blue = Co. 

(Nl9(0H)e. Black. 

Test in borax bead 
- brown bead = Ni. 

Ppt. 3. 

Test a portion in NazCOs ; 
bead in oxidizing flame, 
green bead = Mn. Dissolve 
some of the precipitate in 
HCl ; test a portion of this 
with NH4CyS for iron. 

Red color = Fe** ; test re- 
mainder of solution with Zn 
or Sn — violet color = Ti. 

Filtrate 3°. 
Divide solution into three parts. 



Pass HsS gas into the 
solution (not to satura- 
ation) — a white precipi- 
tate, insoluble in KOH 
.= ZnS. 

Acidify with HCl, then 
make very faintlv alka- 
line with NH4OH — a 
white flocculent precipi- 
tate = Ala(0Hj6. 


Acidify with acetic acid 
and add a few drops of 
plumbic acetate — yellow 
precipitate = PbCrO* = 

• If the color of the solution at this point does not Indicate the presence of chromium, 
the treatment with bromine may be omitted, but in ihis case, Iron (if present) must be oxi- 
dized by boiling the solution with a little IINO3 before the addition of the KOH. 

A solution, containing one part of chromium in ten thousand of water, shows a distinct 
bluish-green color, consequently a colorless solution could not contain more than a trace 
of that metal. 



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Scheme IV. — " Phosphate Separation" 

The Separation and Detection of Al, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Zn, 
Ba, Ca, Sr and Mg, in the Presence of Phosphorjc, 
Arsenic, Oxalic, Boric, Silicic, Hydro- 
fluoric, Acetic or Tartaric Acids 
AND Organic Matier. 

If a solution containing the above-mentioned acids and bases is 
made alkaline with ammonium hydrate, the following is likely to 
occur : 




























































HjC^II^O^ prevents precipitation of Al, Cr, Fe. 

HCjHjOj if solution is boiling and neutral, throws down Al, Cr and Fe as basic 

To test for the presence of these acids three small portions of 
the main solution are taken, as follows : 

Part I. Add HNOj and *(NHj6Mo7024 a yellow cryst ppt. in- 
dicates phosphates. 

Part 11. Add HjC^H^Og and NH^OH in excess ; a gelatinous 
ppt. indicates phosphates, borates, etc., the tartaric acid preventing 
the precipitation of iron, alumina and chromium as phosphates or 

Part III. Add cone. HgSO^ and evaporate to dryness ; a carbon- 
aceous residue indicates organic acids or organic matter. 

All the acids mentioned, except phosphoric, boric and arsenic, 
may be removed by evaporation with HNO3 and ignition. Borates 
are soluble in a considerable excess of ammonium chloride and 
give no trouble. 

Arsenates are removed by reduction with SOj and precipitation 
as AsjSg by HgS. This should be done before adding HNO3. 

After making these tests, return to the main solution. 

* Formerly written (NH^^MoO^. 


Boil out HjS, if present. Add a few drops of HNO3. If H2C2O4 
or organic matter is present, evaporate to dryness and ignite 
gently. If these are not present, but silicic acid is, then acidify 
with HCl and evaporate to dryness, but do not ignite. Treat the 
residue with HCl (cone), dilute with HjO and boil; it dis- 
solves wholly or leaves a white residue of SiO«. Filter. 

Residue 1°. 

Filtrate 1°. 

Nearly neutralize with NH4OH, dilute largely,* then add 
a moderate excess of NH4C2H3O3 and a little HC2H3O2, boil 
for about 5 min. and filter. Wash the ppt. with boiling water. 

Ppt. 2° 

Fe, Al and Cr as phosphates and basic 

Dry and mix with NaaCOs + KClOs, 
and fuse in platinum capsule. Dissolve 
the fusion in boiling water, and filter. 

Filtrate 2°. 

Metals of the 1°, 2° and 4® Groups, ex- 
cept iron. 

Analvze in the same way as any ordi- 
nary mixture of the first 4 Groups. 

Besidue 3°. 

Fe203, AhOst 
Fe2{P04)2 and 




Solution 3°. 
NaaCrO*, Na2Ah04, etc. (Divide in 2 parts). 

V acidify with HC2H3O2; 
if any precipitate forms, it 
hows AIPO4); filter, and to 
he filtrate add Pb(OjH302)a, a 
rellow ppt. — PbCrO* ; proves 

2° acidify with HCl ; then 
add (NH4:2COs, and boil. A 
white, flocculent precipitate 
proves Al. 

 If iron is not already present, in conRiderable quantity, add solution of FcoClfl until, on 
testing a few drops of the solution with NH4OH, a red precipitate is obtained. 

■* « 


£ fi. 65 









2 * 


.so. 6 

^ S w 

S « ii. 



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43 O rQ 

o « c 


CO S (S 
O c8 

8": a 

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w . a 

o 5 
















JSl J* 


S5Z + 
— — * — — ^ 

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£ S o g 





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a V g 


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91 e« 

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^ X ^ 




Table VII. 
Comparison of the Reactions of yd and \th Groups of Metals, 



fNH4^»S ppt. + 

HCl (dil.) 
(NH4^2S ppt. + 


KOH in excess. 


Cr2(0H)ebl. gr.* 




K2Cr204 (gr.) 



KOH in excess + 

N 11401 
KOH in exces8'Cr2(OH)«(bl.gT.) 

and boiling 

NH4OH iu excess 


NH4OH in excess Insoluble 

+ NH4CI 


Al2(OH)6 (wh.) 


Al2(0H)« (wh.) 
Al2(OH)6 (wh.) 



Al2(0H)« (wh.) 

ZnS (white) 


(NH4ViC08 in ex- 



KCN in excess 




Cr2(OH)«( ;Al2(0n)fl (wh.) 

Cr2(P04)2 ( 


Al2(0H)« (wh.) 
Al2(OH)o (wh.) 
Insoluble * 

Zn(0H)2 (wh.) 
(K2O, ZnO) 

ZnCl2, 2NH4CI 

fin dil. sol. 
t Zn(0H) 2 (wh.) 

ZnCl2, 2NH2CI 




Mn(OH)2 (wh.) 

Zn6(C03'2 OH)6 
' — . — ' (wh.) 
ZuCOs, NHs 


Mn(OH)2 (wh.) 


MnCh, 2NH4a 

MnCOs (wh.) 

MnCOa (wh.) 


Cr2(CN)« ( 


Al2rP04)2 (wh.) 

Al2(OH)o (wh.) 

^ — . — ' 

Zns(P04)2 (wh.) Mn3^P04)2 (wh.) 

Zn(CN)2 (wh.) |Mn(CN)2 (wh.) 

Zn(CN)2,2KCN Mn(CN)24KCN 

j I 


|Zn3Fe2:CN)i2(y) Mn3Fc2(CN)i2(w) 

Na-iCOs + KC103,Na2€r04 (yel.) Na2Al204 (wh.) 

fiorax bead in O.F. 

Emerald green. 



** Not precipitated by BaCos fh)m cold solution unless present as sulphate. 


Table VII. — {Concluded). 



CoS (black.) 

(NH>4)2S ppt. -f Insoluble 

HCKdil.) I 

(NHm/sS ppt. -|- Insoluble 

HCzHsOa I 

KOH Co(OH)2 (pink) 

KOH in excess 

NiS (black) 
Ni(OH)2 (green) 

Co(OH)2 (pink) 


FeS (black) 

Slightly soluble 
Fe(OH)3 (wh.) 

NH4OH in excess S0I.NH3 compounds 

NH4OH in excess CoGa, NH4CI 

-r NHCl 

Insoluble ilnsoluble 

Ni(OH)2 (green) |Fe(0H)2 (wh.) 

Sol. NHs comp'ds Insoluble 



FeCh, 2NH4CI 

3Co(OH)2, C0CO3 (red) 4Ni(OH)2, NiCOs IFeCOs (gr. wh.) 

(grn.) ^ 

3Co(0H )2, CoCOs (red) 

(NH4)2C08 in ex- Ck)COs,(NH4)2COs 

BaCCb ** 



KCN in excess 

4Ni(OH)2, NiCOa FeOOa (gr. wh.) 

^ . ' (grn.) I — . — ' 

NiC03(NH4)oCX)3 Insoluble 

FeS (blk.) 


Slightly soluble 





Co3(P04)2 (lilac) 


Fe2(OH)« (red) 
Fes'vOH). (red) 
Fe2(0H:. (red) 

!Ni3(P04;2 (green) Fe3fP04)2 (wh.) Fe2(P04)2(wh.) 

I ^ 

Co(CN')2 (brown wh.) Ni(CN)2 (yol. gr.) ,Fe(CN)2 (yl.rd.) Fe2(0Hl. (red) 

Co(CN)2, 4KCN 

KCN in excess + 

KOH + Br, or 

KN02 + CH2H502 KflCo2(N02)i2 (yellow) K4Ni(N02^e 

Ni(CN)2, 2KCN i Fe(CN)i, 4KCN Ilnsoluble 
Ni2(0H)« (black) 




Borax bead inO.F. 


Co2Fe(CN), (gr. grBy).;Ni2Fe(CN)o(gr.w.)|K2Fe"Fe(CN)6 

Ck)3Fe2(CN)i2 (brown) NisFezJCN)^ (gr.) Fe3Fe2(CN)i2 

1' . ' I ' . ' (yel.)i ' . '(bl.) 


Deep blue. 

Violet-brown. .Yellow or grn. 


^ , ' (bl. 

Fe2(CNS)c (red) 
Yellow or grn. 

• b., bl. — blue. g., gr., grn. — green. w., wh. _ while. bl., blk. — black. 
y.. yl..-yel. — yellow. l»r. — brown. 
** I^ot precipitated by BaCos from cold solution unless present as sulphate. 

gy. « gray. 



Scheme V. — Separation of the \st and 2d Groups, 

Filtrate 23. 

Evaporate to small bulk, and make slightly acid with HCl. Filter out separated 
S. To the filtrate from this, add NH4OH to alkaline reaction, then (NH4)2 COb in 
slight excess ; warm and filter. Wash the ppt. 

Ppt. 35. 

BaCOs + SrCOs + CaCOj. 

Dissolve in the least possible quantity 
of hot, dil. HC2H8O2 (36), and test a 
small portion of the sol. for Ba, by ad- 
dition of CaS04. An immediate ppt. 
shows Ba. If no ppt. forms at once, al- 
low to stand 10 min. The appearance of 
a ppt. OD standing will indicate Sr. 

If Ba has been found by the above 
test, add to the main part of the sol., 
KsCrOi* in slight excess; allow to stand 
a few minutes, filter and wash. (If Ba 
is not found as above, omit tliis treat- 
ment, and proceed to test for Sr and Ca, 
as below). 

Filtrate 35. 

MgClj, NH4CI -f KCl -f NaCl + traces of 
Ba and Ca -f- NH4 Salts. 

Divide into 2 parts, f 

Part 1°.— Add a little (NH4)2S04, and 
then a little (NH4)20i04; a white ppt. 
shows traces of BaS04 H-CaC204 (43). 
Filter. To the filtrate add NH40ir and 
NasHP04. A white, crystalline ppt. 
shows MgNH4P04 (44), and proves Mg. 

Part 2°. — Evaporate to dryness, and 
ignite, to expel all NH4 salts. Dissolve 
residue (45) in a little water, and filter. 
Evaporate the filtrate to very small 
bulk, and make the fiame-test for Na. 
Then add a few drops of HaPtCIe to the 
solution, and stir with a glass rod. A 
yellow, crystalline ppt. shows (46) 
KzPtClft, and proves K. Addition of 
alcohol increases tlie delicacy of this 

Ppt. 37. 

Ba CrOi (yellow). 

Confirm by diss, in dil. HCI, and add 
dil. H2S04. A white ppt. shows BhS04, 
and proves Ba. 

Filtrate 37. 

Sr(C2H80»)« + Ca(C2H302)t. 

Add NH4OH to alkaline reaction, then 
(NH4)3C03 in slight excess, heat and fil- 
ter; wash thoroughly. 

Ppt. 38. 

Sr,C08 + CaCOs. 

Dissolve in hot dil. HC3H8O2. Divide solution into two parts. 

FiLT. 38. 

NH4 salts. 


Part 1°. 

Add a solution of CaS04« warm 
and allow to stand some time. A 
white ppt. = SrS04. Moisten 
ppt. with HCl (cone) and test in 
the flame. Crimson flame proves 

Part 2°. 

Make alkaline with NH4OH, then add a con- 
centrated solution of (NU4;3S04 boil for some 
minutes and filter. 

Ppt. 41. 
SrS04 + CaS04. 

Filtrate 41. 

Add NH4OH -K 
(NH4)2C204 and warm. 
A white ppt.= CaC204 
— proves Ca. 

• Prepared from KjCrjO? by adding NH4OH until the color changes to yellow, 
t NII4 is to be tested for in the original solution by beating a portion of it with KOH added 
to alkaline reaction. 


, ICa- 

r Ca(C2H30-i)2 
( HCaHsOi 


Ppt f SrSOi 
41 tOftSO*? 

rC:iS04 1 Ppt.42^0ftCr04, 

•41 iifn^ffih [+(NH4).(M)4 Sol.42{NH4 8alte. 
[ NH4OH J 




Table IX. — Comparison of Reactions of the ist a?td 2d Groups 

of Metals, 












H«S04(cin.) or \ 
Solable sulphate j 




Chlorides -{- 


In cone. sol. 

Ba CO3 (white) 


In cone. sol. In cone. sol. 
Sr(0H)2 (white),Ca(0H)2 (wh.) 


SrCOs (white) 


BaCOs (white) jSrCOs (white) 
BaHP04(white) SrHP04 (white) 

* — ^ — ' (white) 

BaCa04 (white) 
BaS04 (white) 


^ — . — ' (white) 
SrC204 (white) 

SrS04 white) 


CaCOs (white) 
CaCOs (white) 
CaHP04 (white) 


^- y '* incmplt 
MgCl2, NH4CI 


' . ^(w.) 


Nitrates + 



BaS04 (wbite) SrS04 (white) 
BaSiFe (white) 
Insoluble Soluble 


Yellowish -gre'n Crimson 

Ca3( P04)2 ' MgNH4P04( wh) 
(white) !' . ' 

CaOi04 (white) 
CaS04 (white) 














On ignition 


KaPtCle (yel.) NaaPtCU 





(NH4) HC4H40« 


(NH4) HC4H4O6' (white) 

Intense yellow 




Scheme VI. — Acids. 

Boil the solution containing the acids, with excess of Na2(X>s ; filter hot. 

* Precipitate A. 

Contains bases and perhaps silicates, phosphates and flnorides. 

Divide into two parts. 

Part 1°. 

Acidify with HNOs, and evaporate to 
dryness. Take up the residue with HNOs 
and HaO ; filter and wash. 

Part 2°. 
Acidify with HOiHsOa, and filter. 

Residue 1^ 

Filtrate 1' 

A white, gritty i Add(NH4)6Mo7024 

powder = SiOa. 

Test with nieta- 
phosphate bead. 

a yellow crystalline 
ppt., = UsPO^. 

Filtrate 2®. 

Residue 2°. 

If no Si02 has 
been found in resi- 
due 1°, treat residue 2° with H2SO4 
(cone.) in a Pb or Pt dish, and see if 
fumes will etch glass ; if they do = HF. 
Should SiOa have been found in residue 
1°, treat 2° according to Fres., \ 146, 6 
for HF. 

Filtrate A. 

Contains the acids. 
Divide into two unequal parts. 

Part1° (I of a.) 

Add HNOs to fainily acid reaction ; then NH4OH to 
slightly alkaline reaction, and boil until all free 
NH4OH is driven olf. Divide in two parts. 

Part 1*. 

Part 2*. 

Take a small portion of! Take a small portion of 
this neutral solution, and; this neutral solution, add 
add BaClz. A whiteppt. ^ AgNOa, and then acidify 
acids of Group 1. To this with HNOs. Ppt. -^ acids 
ppt. addHCl; all dissolve! of the 2d Group. Note the 
except BaS04; proves H'iS04 color of the ppt. before and 

after adding HNOs. 

Part 2° (i of A). 

Evaporate to small bulk, 
cool and acidify a portion of 
this solution with cone. 
H28O4, and test for HNOs 
with FeS04. 

Brown ring = HNO3. 
HC10.^,HBr,HI and HiCr04 
impede this reaction, and 
should be removed. Fres., 
g 192, 5. 

Test 2d portion for HClOs 
see Fres., § 160, 5, 6, 7. 


Scheme VI. — Coficludcd, 

It Group 1° haa been found by test on part 1% take the remainder of this 

solution and divide into five part8: 

1°. Acidify 
with HC2H8C)2, 
and ad<t a solo- 
tiou of CaS04; 
a white pulve- 
rulent pptv =- 
CaCV)4 = 


Co n fi rm by 
testing another 
portion of the 
solution witli 
MnOa + H2SO4 

2°. Acidify 
with HCI, and 
test for H3BO3 
with tunnerii- 
paiier. A red 
color = HsBChu 
Evaporate the 
same solution to 
dryness, and 
take up residue 
with a little 
HCl and water 
a white insol. ' 
residue = SiOz' 

3°. AddCnCIj 4°. Acidify 
andalittleNHi-'with HNOs.add 
OH ; filter ppt.if,(NH4 «Mo7(>24, a 
any ; dry, and if yellow ppt. = 
8i02 has not'HsP04. IfAssOs 
been found in 2^ I has been found, 
test for HF by in the test for 
etching test. If bases, it should 
SiOs has been 

found, then test 

be removed bv 
acidifying with 

5. If H2Cr04 
is present, the 
solution will be 
yellow. Confirm 
by acidifying 
with HC2HsOa, 
and adding 
Pb(C2H804)2, a 
yellow ppt. = 

accor<rg to Fres. I H('l, passing in 
^ 146, 6. 'H2S gas, and fil- 

jtering before 
{testing for 


When HI,HBr,H4FeCy«,HeFe2Cyi2 and 
HCy have not been found to be present, 
a white curdy ppt. on addition of AgNOs 
insoluble iu HNO3, and soluble in NH4- 
OH = HCl. HCl may also be tested for 
by means of H2SO4 and MnOs. See Fres., 
^152,6. If HI,HBr,HCy,H4FuCyfland He- 
Fe2Cyi2 are present, see Fres., ^ 157, for 
detection of HCl. 


If present, will*be found on acidifying 
the sodium carbonate solution with acid, 
when H2S will be given off, and will 
turn paper moistened with Pb(C2Hs03)2 
black. H2S is usually found in testing 
for the bases, as it given off when dissolv- 
ing the oiiginal substance. See Fres., 
§ 180, 2. 

If 2d Group has been found to be present by test of Part 2*^, test remainder of 
solution for acids of this Group as follows: Divide into four parts. 




Add a little CS2J Acidify with HCl, I Acidify with HCl 
and then a fe wand test with FeS04, and add Fe2Clfl; 
drops of HCl, then a blue ppt. = a bine pppt. = 
NaCIO very care- Hrt(FeCy«)2. The H4FeCye. 
fully ; the I is set FeS04 solution must, 
free, and colors CS2,be reciutly made, 
purple ; add more 
NaClO very care- 
fully, and finally the 
I color disappears, 
and the Br is then 
liberated and colors 
CSj brown. 


Acidify slightlv 
with H2SO4 and if 
HCy is present, it is 
known by its pecu- 
liar odor. Cure 
should be taken not 
to inhale this gas. 

Test for HCy. See 
Fres. {J 155, 6. 

If H4FeC.V6, or 
Ho(FeCy« 2 have 
been found in 2 and 
3 test for HCy, as 
given in Scheme for 
2d Group acids. 


H2C4H40», etc. 

Test the original solution with Ha; if I H2C4H40«h HsGjHfiOT and HC/2n30t. 
effervescence, pass the gas into lime wa- For these acids, follow Fres., ? 193. 

ter. A white ppt., soluble in llOilliOt, 
with effervescence proves H2CO3. 

To see if 6rganic acids are present, 
evaporate the neutral solution to dry- 
ness; and ignite gently. 

A carbonaceous residue = organic 
acids, or organic matter. 

VOL. XV.— 19 



Alternate Scheme for Separating and Detecting HCv, 
H^FeCy^, H^FejCyij, HCl, hi and HBr. 

To a portion of filtrate A add NaHCOj and distil, carrying dis- 
tillation to dryness and pass the distillate into KOH, test this for 
HCy in the usual way ; when cyanides are removed, cool, dis- 
solve residue in HjO, acidify very slightly with H^SO^ and add 
CuSO^ as long as a ppt, is formed, and until the liquid becomes 
blue or green ; filter. 



Note. — Test 
for these acids iu 
the original solu* 
tion with ferric 
and ferrous salts. 


Add cone, solution of (NH4)2Fej^&04)4, and boil ; pass vapor 
into starch -water. Blue color indicates HI; when this is re- 
moved, add a drop of cone. HtiSOi, some dil. KzMnzOtt, and 
boil as Ions as Br is f^iven ofi*, adding more KjMuzOs until 
color no longer disapitears. Finally test solution with HNOa 
and AgNOs, a white curdy ppt. sol. in NH4OII and repptd. by 
HXOs, indicates HCl. 





























• ^^ 




























>» f 


n 1 n 




OB — 

3 ^ 





^ ^ O 



•>« a 

*3; fa M M 

0) 8 

•« -^® 
^^ *a *a 

0*0 "o 

>r. a 




-< -* GO 






= ■% 




eg 5 












is !« 









K i 

+ + 




CO 73 

S 1 








Table XII. — Organic Acids, 

Oomparisen of the Beactions of Tartaric Citric, and Acetic Acids. 
Salts •f tkese Acids separate Carbon on ignition. 


GaCIi i« excess. 



<::»C4H«Q8 (white) <^{C^l&^)i* 

CaCli ppt -)- KOH ,8ol(re-ppt. om boilinf ) Insoluble. 

Lime wat«r (€aH202) CaC4n4Q6 (white) 

in exreas. 

> ^ 

KCiHiOrfHCjHjOa KHCiH40« (white) 

A;?NOs. Agj^SiOa (white) 
AgNOs ppt. dis- \ ^ » ' 

solved in K^HiOH \ 'Ag (silver mirTor) 

and gently heated ) . -y- 

On ignition Odor of btirnt asgar. 

f Heated with oonc. 
\ H2S04 Black residue 


( Heated with oonc. \ 
\ H3BO4 and alcoltol \ 
FeS04 4- KOH f- (violet solution.) 
HaOz or Nuaol 

Xo ppt. ia c«ld sol. 
Ppt. «u boiling 

AgsCya^Or (white) 


JBlack residue 

(€Os) given off, 

•• *«••••• 

HC2HSOJ (volatil- 

I ether given off 

* Soluble Id ^1X401, and re-precipUated on boiling. 



Table XIII. — Solubilities. 

Name of Salt. 









Phosphates ) 
(Ortho.) i 

Oxalates i 



Arsenites and 


6olu))le in Water. 

Alls-allne cax'bonates. 

f All sulphates except 
\ those in 3 and 4 


Soluble or decom- 
posed by acids. 


Insol. in Water 

and acids. 


Some basic sulphates, B^SO*. SrSO,. 


'Alkaline sulphite!* and AH salphites are de 

acid sulpltitesof al- 
kaline earths. 

I Sulphides of the alka 
I lies and alk. earths. 

f All except some basic 
\ nitrates. 

composed l>v acids, 
yielding (S6j). 

All ; some by HCl. 
HaS evol. ; olhei's by 
HNOsjor aq.r. S. 

Some basic n it rates sol. 
in dil. HNOs. 



All except tlK>se given ^ /f7 ^if^Y'^T^^^f^^^^^^^f^^ 

i« -^ a.wl J *"" HgaCia> Cu«Cl.iv (HeaClaSol. in 

iiidand4, p^^,,^^ HNOaorCl). 


All except those given Ajrl,. 1*1)1^ Hg2l2jAgI. Hgala, decom- 
in 3 and 4. CU2I3, Hgls. [ posed by CI. 

Those of the alkalies, ^^n j j 1 

and a few otiiers: *» deeon,pn«e<l by 

AgF, HgPfc *""'>"8 ^'^<^*- 

Those of the alkalies. 

f Potassic and sodic sili- 
1 catea (not native). 

All normal 


Many are decomposed Many native sili- 
by acids separating! catcs decomposed 
H^SiOi. by HF. 


{Those of the alkalies 
and Cr and Sn^MMg All 
and Fe*« sparingly). 

f Normal alkahne tar- 
\ trates. 

Alkaline citrates. 


Those of tbo alkalies. All 

f Those of the alkalies ^n „.,| -. 

an<l Sr. C», Mg, Zii. A": "'"' » '«" "^^'^^P' 
I. Feta Cu. 



Analytical Chemistry, by E. Waller, Ph.D. 

Determining Metals as Oxides. Schmidt {Ber. xxvii., 225). It is 
often convenient and desirable, after separating some metals as sul- 
phides, to convert them to oxides for weighing. Experiments made by 
igniting the sulphides with HgO, gave results always somewhat high, 
due to retention of some basic sulphate. Igniting with HgO and 
Hp(N03)2 ^^s better, but still showed a little too high. But when a 
solution of Hg(CN), and ammonia was added, and the material heated 
finally to intense ignition, excellent results were obtained. Test analy- 
ses were made with Cu. Zn, Bi, and Fe. Incidentally, the formation of 
the compound Hg(CN)2NH, was observed. 

Barium and Strontium in Rock Analysis, Hillebrand (J. Am, Chem, 
Soc.y xvi., ?^^^, When much Ca is present, all the Sr, if small in 
amount, will precipitate with the CaQO^, especially if the excess of 
(NHJ2C,0^ added is very decided. Unless, however, the Ca largely pre- 
dominates, some Sr escapes precipitation. In the case of Ba, when 
large amounts of Ca are present, if a rather slight excess of (NHJ^C^O^ 
is added, and alkaline chloride is present, practically all the Ba will re- 
main in solution. (The author gives no warning of the possible pres- 
ence of sulphate in the (NH^\C,0^ ordinarily supplied for laboratory 
use. — Abs.) The Ba, thus escaping precipitation, will usually also more 
or less completely escape* precipitation as phosphate along with the Mg 
precipitate which ordinarily follows. 

Examination of Zinc- Ores, Jensch (Z/j. /. Angew. Chem,, 1894, 
155). Blendes containing zinc silicates were encountered which often 
failed to surrender to solvents 7 to 10 per cent, of the zinc present. 
The remedy was found to be fusion with alkaline carbonates in order to 
effect solution. 

Manganese J Review of Methods, Saniter {J, S, C /, xiii., 112). 
Geographically, the methods used are stated to be in general terms; in 
England, Pattinson's method or Riley's modification of the same ; on 
the Continent, Volhard's method; in the United States, the pyrophos- 
phate (gravimetric). The gravimetric determination as MUgO^ is stated 
to be more or less in use in all countries. It was found practically im- 
possible to obtain theoretical MngO^. An average of 20 lots of ignited 
precipitates contained 71.4 per cent. Mn against theoretical 72.05 per 
cent Mn. (In the discussion, reference was pnade to the point noted by 
Messrs. Pattinson that the thickness of the crucible, the temperature of 
ignition, and many other points, apparently trivial, made a difference 
in the composition of the precipitate when weighed.) Ignition, when 
ammonia had been insufficiently washed about, also gave low results. 
Volatilization of some Mn under these conditions was asserted, but proof 
of this point was not very clear. The pyrophosphate method, as de- 
scribed by Blair {Analysis of Iron and Steel^y was found to be the most 


accurate. The possible presence of Ca or Mg (derived from reagents or 
apparatus) may give high results. The remedy consists in separating as 
MnS, dissolving, and then precipitating as NH^MnPO^. Obtaining a 
perfectly crystalline precipitate, and washing with cold ammoniacal 
NH^NOj. are insisted upon as indispensable for accuracy. 

Volhard'^s method is described as consisting in separating the iron, 
etc., by basic acetate, separating the Mn from the filtrate by Br, and dis- 
solving this (ignited) precipitate in HCl, neutralizing with ZnO, and 
titrating with carefully standardized permanganate solution. The results 
were found to be a little low, " as there is always a doubt as to the pre- 
cipitate being absolutely all Mn02." 

PattinsorC s method — precipitation as MnO,, and titration with FeSO^ 
(see Quarterly, xii., 336), gave results lower than in the case of the 
Volhard, and requires that one*s method of working should be standard- 
ized upon Mn oxide of known composition. It was noted that though 
different chemists differed from each other, each chemist agreed con- 
sistently with himself. In the discussion, Mr. Gray spoke of .higher re- 
sults being obtained by chemists in the United States than in England. 
This assertion was not accepted by another speaker. 

Nickel in Nickel Steel. Campbell {/, Am, Chem. Soc, xvi., 96). In 
a 500 c.c. flask, dissolve 2.2222 grammes of the steel in 20 c.c. HNO, 
(Gr. 1.2) with 5 c.c. HCl (Gr. 1.21). Boil until the solution is clear, 
remove from the heat; and add 155 c.c. Na,HPO^ solution (200 grammes 
crystallised, in i860 c.c. of water). If any precipitate forms, redissolve 
by a few drops of HCl, add 25 c.c. HC^HjO^ (Gr. 1.04), then 100 c.c. 
NaCjHjjO, (250 grammes in 820 c.c of water), shake, dilute to 502.5 
c.c, shake, and let stand fifteen minutes; filter through a large dry 
filter, catching the filtrate in a dry beaker. When enough has run 
through, draw off 250 c c. of the filtrate, which represents one-half of 
the amount taken. (The volume of the Fe,(POJj has been determined 
to be 2.5 c.c.) Boil, and add 20 grammes KOH, dissolved in 40 c.c. of 
water. Boil five minutes, and then keep hot until the precipitate settles 
well. Filter the precipitate (containing all the Cu, Mn, and Ni) through 
asbtstos, decantiiig as much of the solution as possible before getting 
the precipitate upon the filter. Wash with water. Dissolve the precipi- 
tate in 6 c.c. of strong HCl with an equal volume of water. Wash with 
a little water. The whole solution should not exceed 50 c.c. When at 
a temperature of 40° or 50° C, add 15 grammes granulated Pb (pte- 
viously washed with HCl), and agitate lor five or ten minutes. This 
will separate Cu. Filter through glass wool, wash, and boil down to 
60 c.c, add 10 c.c of the Na^HPO^ solution, then ammonia until a pre- 
cipitate just forms, then HCl to just clear it, cool, and place in a flask 
graduated to iii.i c.c Add 5 c.c strong ammonia, dilute to the mark, 
shake, and let stand fifteen minutes. This separates Mn and Pb. Filter 
through a 9 cm. filter. Take 100 c.c. of the filtrate = i gramme of steel 
for determination of Ni. electrolytically or volumetrically. For the 
electrolysis, add 5 c.c of strong ammonia, dilute to 175 c.c, and elec- 
trolyze. The volumetric method is essentially that of Moore {vide 
Quarterly, x., 373, and xi., 70), with Cu,FeCyg indicator. 

Nickel in StecL Westesson. {^J. Am, Chem. Soc, xvi., 1:0.) Dis- 


solve I gramme of the sample in 20 c.c. H^SO^ (Gr. 1.16), and boil for 
some time, after a while adding 5 c.c, of HNOj, a little at a time. 
Evaporate to expel the HNO,, cool, dilute and heat until clear. Nearly 
neutralize with Na^COj, dilute to about 400 c.c, then add NaQHjOg, 
and precipitate basic acetatfes, redissolve and reprecipitate twice more. 
Evaporate the united filtrates to 400 c.c., add to the hot solution 10 c.c. 
strong ammonia, boil, and filter off HjOjMnO,. Then electrolyze for Ni. 

Separating Cobalt and Nickel. Herrenschmidt and Capelle. {Fres. 
Zts.Anal, Chem,^ xxxii., 607.) The nitrite separation was found by -these 
authors to be unsatisfactory and incomplete ; the cyanide method was bet- 
ter, but not altogether satisfactory. The method they regarded as more 
complete consists in suspending the hydroxides in soda lye and warming 
to 50° C. while passing a current of CI. Ni goes into solution while Co 
remains undissolved. The method recommended, after removing H.^S, 
and separating Fe and Al bv repeated precipitations with (NHJ^COj, is 
to add (NHJjS. Let stand, acidify with HC^HjOj. boil, filter, wash 
with NH^CjH^O, solution, dissolve in HNOj, and divide the solution in 
halves. One-half is evaporated to dryness, the residue moistened with 
HjSO^, and the Co and Ni together weighed as sulphates (ZnSO^ might 
also be present). The second half is precipitated by KCy and Br, as 
recommended by Fresenius, and the Ni2(OH), treated with NaOH and 
CI, as suggested above. The solution of Ni is acidulated with HCl, 
and after boiling out CI, is poured into NaOH solution. This is redis- 
solved in HCl and evaporated to dryness, finally moistened with H^SO^ 
and weighed as sulphate. The Co is obtained by difference. If Zn is 
present, the salts from the first half are dissolved, and the Zn separated 
by Wohler's KCy method, after which it may be estimated. 

Commercial Copper — Foreign Metals, W. Hampe. ( Chem. Ztg,^ xvii . , 
1 691.) The main feature is the separation of Cu as Cu2(CNS)2. Dis- 
solve 25 grammes of the sample in 200 HjO, 100 c.c. cone. H^SO^ and 
about 45 c.c. HNO, (Or. 1.21). After solution, add 200 c.c. more 
HjSO^, filter from PbSO^ (with Cu and Bi antimonates^. Make a sep- 
arate examination of this precipitate. Warm the filtrate to 40° C, pass 
SO, until all N oxides are expelled and the solution smells strongly of 
SO,; add two drops HCl and filter off AgCl, add KCNS, pass SO, again, 
dilute to two litres, filter off 1800 c.c, evaporate out the SO, and exam- 
ine for foreign metals. An allowance must be made for the volume of the 
Cu,(CNS), precipitate. 25 grammes of Cu will afford a precipitate 
having a volume of 15,983 c.c. 

Impurities in Pig- Copper^ etc, De Benneville (^J. Am, Chem. Soc., xvi., 
66.) Thie author has sought to manage in such a way that the major 
part of the predominant constituent would be left in solution, and a 
comparatively small precipitate containing many of the constituents 
sought would be obtained. A method giving this result partially con- 
sists in dissolving, say 10 grammes of the material in HNO,, removing 
any large excess of acid by evaporation, adding ammonia in sufficient 
excess to form soluble cupro-ammonium salts, diluting to about 150 c.c, 
and then adding an excess of BaO,. The precipitate may then be fil- 
tered off, and well washed with dilute ammonia, to remove copper salt. 


The separation of Pb, Bi, Sn, Fe, Mn and Sb is complete. Ag, Zn and 
Cd can be separated from the filtrate by decolorizing with KCy and 
passing H,S. On account of the dilution, the method is only qualita- 
tive for As and P. 

Electrolytic Separation of Lead and Copper, Classen. {Ber., xxvii., 
163.) The solution (75 c.c), containing 20 c.c. of HNO, (Sp. Gr., 
1.35 to 1.38), is electrolyzed hot (50 to 60° C), with a current of i.i 
to 1.2 amperes (ND,oo ^-5 ^^ '•?) ^^^ *" hour. By this means 98 to 99 
per cent, of the lead is deposited on the anode as PbO.^, while no Cu is 
deposited on the cathode. The solution, transferred to another weighed 
dish, is then over-neutralized with ammonia (until the blue color ap- 
pears), and then 5 c.c. of nitric acid is added, and it is diluted to 120 
to 150 c.c. After standing until it becomes perfectly cold, it is electro- 
lyzed for 3 or 4 hours with a current of ND^^^, i to 1.2 amperes. In this 
the remainder of the Pb is deposited on the anode, while the Cu sepa- 
rates on the cathode. 

PbSO^, if present in the liquid to be analyzed, can be brought into 
solution sufficiently for the purposes of the first deposition by treating 
with a little ammonia, and then pouring the mixture into the 20 c.c. of 
hot HNO3 ^^ ^^^ capsule. 


Electrolytic Separation of Lead. Kreichgauer. {Ber.^ xxvii., 315.) 
The most favorable conditions were found to be a solution containing 
I part of free HNO, (Sp. Gr. 1.4) to 7 parts of water. The precipitate 
should be washed twice with alcohol before drying and weighing. Re- 
sults somewhat variable were obtained when only water was used for 
washing, the reason being, apparently, that the removal of all free acid 
by this means was not easily made complete. 

Volumetric for Lead — Estimation in Tinned Ware, Bsiyrac (f.BAarm, 
CAem,, xxviii., 500.) A standard solution of Na,HPO^ (in crystals) 
(11.922 grammes per litre) is used, which is standardized by Pb(NOj,), 
solution (15.99 grammes per litre), i c.c. = 0.01 gramme Pb, and should 
require i c.c. of the phosphate solution. The operation is conducted 
in a solution containing acetic as the only free acid. The end reaction 
is determined by a spot-test with a (10 per cent.) solution of KI. (Fail- 
ing to show yellow Pbl^ when all Pb has been precipitated.) For tin, 
dissolve i gramme in HNO, ; evaporate ; digest the residue with 20 c.c. 
water and 20 c.c. of (10 per cent.) soda-lye for ten minutes; filter off, 
acidulate slightly with HNO3, evaporate off the excess, add 3 c.c of (3 
per cent.) NaC^HgO, solution, and titrate. If much Pb is present, the 
test-solution should be five times as strong as the above. 

Volumetric for Si her. Deniges. (C -^^«//., cxvii., 1078). A stand- 
ard solution of KCy of about i per cent, strength is used. This keeps 
remarkably well, its stability being increased by the presence of free 
alkali. A standard solution of AgNO,, the value of which is known in 
terms of the KCy solution, is necessary. On taking 20 c.c. of the KCy 
solution, the addition of the AgNO, solution fails to give any turbidity 
until enough Ag salt to form the double cyanide (KAgCy,) has been 
added. For this purpose the solution must be exactly neutral, but it 


has been found that a sharp end-reaction may be obtained if the solu- 
tion contains free ammonia and a little KI. If, then, we dissolve a 
weighed quantity of the argentiferous substance in 20 c.c. of the KCy 
solution, it requires less of standard AgNO, to produce the end-reac- 
tion. The amount recommended to be taken for examination is 150 
to 200 milligrammes (one-thousandth of an equivalent of the compound 

Approximate Determination of the Equivalent of Rare Earths. Kriiss 
and Loose {Zts. f. Anorg, Chem./\w,^ 161). By adding an excess of 
standard oxalic acid to a weighed quantity of the oxides, filtering, and 
titrating the excess of HjCjO^ remaining in the solution with standard 
permanganate, constant results were obtained. The operation did not 
seem to be sensibly affected by solubility of the earthy oxalate, but for 
some unknown reason gave rather high results. When the results were 
calculated on the assumption that the precipitate contained 17 equiva- 
lents of the rare earth metal to 16 equivalents of oxalic acid, the values 
obtained were fairly in accord with the atomic weight determinations 
made by weighing as sulphate. 

Separating Cerium from Lanthanum and Didymium. Bricourt ( C. 
Rend., cxviii., 145). In a slightly acid solution of CeCO, in HjCrO^ an 
electrolytic current of 2.5 to 3 volts gave an immediate deposit of CeO,,- 
2CrOj,,2HjO on the positive pole as brilliant orange-red crystals. La 
and Di give no corresponding deposition even when present in a solu- 
tion from which Ce is being deposited. 


Thorium Separation. Dennis and Kortright {Am. Chem. Jour., xvi., 
79). Potassium hydronitride (KN,) when added to a nitric acid solu- 
tion of a mixture of the rare earths from monazite which had been 
nearly neutralized with ammonia, gave a white gelatinous precipitate, 
consisting apparently of pure thorium hydroxide. 

Colorimetric for Vanadium, von Klecki {Zts. f. Anorg, Chem.^ v. 
374). A solution of V^Og in cone. H^SO^ becomes green or blue by 
addition of grape sugar. Iron under these conditions gives a colorless 
solution. The method may therefore be used as a colorimetric test in 
presence of considerable quantities of Fe. 

Separating Vanadium from Chromium, von Klecki {Zts, f Anorg. 
Chem., v., 381). V^O^ as well as CrO, may be precipitated by uranium 
salts from a neutral solution. If free acetic acid is present, and the 
solution is boiled the chromate remains dissolved while the vanadate 
is precipitated. After standing for 12 hours it may be filtered and 
washed, etc. 

Iodine in presence of Bromine and Chlorine. Groger {Zts. Ang. Chem. , 
1894, p. 52). Weigh out, dissolve to a definite volume and take a meas- 
ured portion not containing more than 0.050 gramme of I, render neu- 
tral or slightly alkaline, place in a flask on the boiling water bath, and 
run in solution of potassium permanganate (i in 25) until the pink color 
is permanent. The reaction occurring is : KI -f K2MnjOg -f H^O- 


=s KIO3 + 2KOH + MnO,. No corresponding reaction occurs with 
bromide or chloride under these conditions ; add a few drops of alcohol 
and heat until colorless. Filter off MnO, and wash well, and to the cold 
filtrate add a solution containing about 0.5 gramme KI free from iodate 
and acidify with HCl. The reaction occurring is KIO, + 5KI + 6HC1- 
= 6KCI -f 3H,0 + 3I,. Titrate with tenth normal Na,S,0,. One- 
sixth of the I thus found has come from the substance tested. If ammo- 
nium is present in the original substance, it must be removed by adding 
excess of KOH free from nitrite and heating, before adding the 
K,Mn,Og, otherwise it would form nitrite in the solution and occasion 
high results. The solution should not be too strongly alkaline when 
permanganate is added, or a partial reduction (formation oi green man- 
ganale) will occur. The method may be applied for determining the 
purity of sublimed iodine. 

Boric Acid in Wines^etc, Kulisch {Zts,f. Angew Chem., 1894, 147). 
The solution should be as concentrated as possible, and needs only to be 
decidedly acid. The red coloration of tumeric paper is only decisive 
for B,0, if it turns blue-black on treatment with alkaline solutions. 
The presence of fixed alkaline chlorides is detrimental to delicacy of 
reaction, but this is obviated by the use of a little phosphoric acid along 
with the HCl. 

Phosphorus in Coal and Coke. Lychenheim {Trans, Am. Inst. Mi n, 
Eng.y Virginia Beach Meeting, Feb., 1894). The most rapid method, 
which afforded results quite as accurate as more elaborate methods, con- 
sisted in burning the coal to ash in a boat made of platinum foil 2 inches 
square and ^ inch deep, and boiling the ash with 40 c.c. of strong 
HCl, evaporating down to 10 c.c. adding 40 c.c. of HNO^, (Gr. 1.42) 
and evaporating to about 20 c.c. diluting and proceeding as in the case 
of ores. 

Phosphorus in Steel. Dudley and Pease {J. Am. Chem, Soc, xvi.). 
When it is required that duplicates shall agree within one- or two-thou- 
sandths, the ** acetate method " {vide Blair), or, as some call it, ** the 
citric acid method,'* is inaccurate. In this method, if but little Br is 
used, to afford a minimum of ferric salt to carry down P^Oj, some P^Oj 
does not accompany the basic acetate precipitate; also, some P^Oj may 
fail to go into solution when this precipitate is treated with HCl; fur- 
ther, in the final precipitation, the Mg mixture fails to precipitate P^Oj 
completely. This last feature was not entirely absent in other cases 
where citrates were not present. 

For very accurate results use 10 grammes of the sample, and carry it 
on, as described by Blair for the *' acetate method," up to the point of 
adding Br. Then add enough Br. to oxidize full 0.5 gramme Fe, con- 
ducting the basic acetate separation in other respects as usual. Dissolve 
in HCl, evaporate to dryness, take up with strong HNO,, evaporate 
again, then take up with diluted HNO3 (Gr. 1. 13), and precipitate with 
molybdate. Dissolve the precipitate in ammonia, saturate this solution 
with H,S, acidify with HCl, and filter off MoS^ (with As sulphides if 
present), wash, concentrate filtrate and washings to small bulk, and pre- 
cipitate with Mg mixture. 


As to the molybdate precipitate (yellow precipitate), some reasonable 
doubts exist as to whether it contains all the P when formed in presence 
of much Fe. 

Also, the ratio of MoO, to P in this precipitate seems to yary accord- 
ing to the character and proportions of ammonium salts (and other) 
when precipitation is effected. 

Different methods of reducing the MoO, in the precipitate also afford 
different results when the volumetric method is used. 

These points might be elucidated by experimenting on known 
amounts of the pure yellow precipitate, but, to obtain it unaltered, by 
drying, etc., in a form adapted for weighing out, etc., is attended with 
difficulty. The necessity for determining these points may be evaded 
by using a volumetric method, in which the permanganate solution has 
been standardized with a steel in which the P has been determined 
gravi metrically. With constant conditions, the results are always con- 

Graphite in Pig-Irons, Crobaugh (/, Am, Chem. Soc.^wi.^ 104) quotes 
experiments which indicate that when 5 grammes of the pig-iron were dis- 
solved in 125 c.c. of HNO3, with 12 c.c. of 40 per cent. HFl, aud heat- 
ing until solution was effected, then filtering through a pair of counter- 
balanced filters 9 cm., washing off the iron with water, and then wash- 
ing out the hydrocarbons, etc., with ammonia (i : 3 by volume), only 
graphite remained on the filter, in amount corresponding to the more 
elaborate combustion method. Determined by drying and weighing, 
afterward igniting to obtain residual mineral matter (SiOj, etc.). Wash- 
ing with diluted ammonia seemed to replace p)erfectly the washing with 
KOH, alcohol, and ether, usually deemed necessary. 

Determining OxaAc Acid, Gunn (^P harm, J, and Trans, ^ liii., 408). 
A solution of ferrous phosphate, containing an excess of HgPO^, is col- 
ored yellow by oxalic acid, and this reaction is used as the basis of a 
colorimetric method of estimation. 

Precipitating Barium Sulphate in Presence of Silica. Sleeper {C, N,, 
Ixix., 63). The results of a number of trials go to show that SiO^ is 
not co-precipitated with BaSO^ under the conditions ordinarily obtained 
in, say, examination of pyrites. 

Treatment of BaSO^ with HP and igniting, caused a loss, due, appar- 
ently to the formation of BaF,. If but little H^SO^ was added together 
with the HF, some loss, though not so much, was experienced; with 
larger quantities of H^SO^* decomposition of the kind could be entirely 
prevented, and no loss was sustained. 

Nitrates in Potable Waters, Gill {/, Am, Chem, Soc, xvi., 193) 
gives a series of comparative results made between the aluminum method 
and the phenol sulphuric method. The latter is shown to be the most 
delicate, and yields more accurate results ; the aluminum process giving, 
on the whole, lower results than the phenol sulphuric. Other reduction 
methods are also regarded as less delicate or satisfactory. 


Thbrmodynamtcs of Reversible Cycles in Gases and Saturated Vapors. By 
M. I. Pupin, Ph.D.; John Wiley & Sons. 1894. 

This is a pleasant little volume of 112 pages, containing a full syn- 
opsis of a ten weeks' undergraduate course of lectures delivered by Dr. 
Pupin, arranged and edited by Max Osterberg, student in electrical en- 
gineering, Columbia College. It retains the piquancy of lectures not 
intended for the press, and presents the elements of the science with 
clearness and vigor. J. W. D. 

Plane Trigonometry. By S. L. Loney, M.A., late Fellow of Sidney Sussex Col- 
lege, Cambridge, Professor at the Royal Holloway College; University Press, 
Cambridge. New York : Macmillan & Co. 1893. 

Preceding ihi text proper come several pages of the principal formu- 
lae listed together for ready reference. 

The work is divided into two parts, Geomeirical and AnalyticaL In 
the former the exposition of systems of angular measurement, nature of 
trigonometric functions, their periodicity, inter-relations, and particular 
values, is exceedingly plain and thorough. Typography is made a fac- 
tor in the numerous suggestive tabular statements ; diagrams are not 
spared, and well- devised problems enforce each principle. Logarithms 
are introduced after the deduction of the formulae for sums, differences, 
multiples, and submultiples of angles. Then follow the applications 
to triangles, and to the solution of many interesting propositions. 

Part II, opens with the development of exponential and logarithmic 
series, and then proceeds to the discussion of complex quantities.^ 
{x-^ yV — i), with their application to expansions, evolutions, and the 
production of important theorems relating to circular and hyperbolic 
functions, and common numbers. 

A striking feature of the work is the lucidity of the demonstrations. 
To the instructor who would review in an easy way, as well as to the 
student who would acquaint himself with the elements and a rather ex- 
tensive scope of the applications of plane trigonometry, Mr. Loney's 
treatise will prove very serviceable. J. W. D. 

The Ore-Deposits of the United States. By James F. Kemp, A.B., E.M. 
Professor of Geology in the School of Mines, Columbia College. New York : 
Scientific Publishing Company. 1893. Large 8vo., xvi. and 302 pp., 67 cuts. 
Price, $4. 

Professor Kemp, in his preface, says that his book has a two-fold pur- 
pose ; first, to supply a condensed account of the metalliferous resources 
of the country, for a text-book and book of reference; and second, to 
give an extended view of the whole field, to show what has been done, 
and thus to stimulate further investigation and study of the puzzling 
questions of origin and formation of metalliferous deposits. 

There can be no doubt that Professor Kemp has succeeded admirably 
in the objects he had in view. He has given us a most satisfactory con- 
densation of the very voluminous literature relating to the ore-deposits 
of this country ; the book is clearly written, and well arranged for study 


and reference, and the text is everywhere supplemented by abundant 
references to original sources of information. 

The book is divided into two parts. Part I. occupying about one- 
quarter of the volume, is introductory and theoretical. Part II. contains 
descriptions of typical ore-deposits of the different metals. Part I. con- ^ 
tains the following chapters: I. Geology and topography of the United 
States. II. Formation of cavities. III. Vein minerals and their source. 
IV, Filling of veins. V. Characteristics of Veins. VI. Classification 
of ore-deposits. 

In the chapter on the filling of veins, Professor Kemp states fairly 
and judicially the evidence for lateral secretion, and in support of infil- 
tration from below. He shows clearly that the weight of evidence is in 
favor of the latter and more generally accepted theory, but suggests as 
well a common gronnd on which the advocates of each theory may 

In the chapter on classification the author gives the schemes proposed 
by various writers on the subject in modern times, and shows that the 
earlier attempts were based wholly on shape and form, and that as the 
knowledge of the origin and methods of formation increased, schemes 
based partly on form and partly on origin were adopted. He gives 
credit to the reviewer for a scheme of classification based entirely on 
place and method of deposition, adopted a number of years ago as a 
basis for lectures on the irregularities of mineral deposits introductory 
to the course on mining. As these irregularities are largely due to the 
method of formation, a genetic system of classification seemed to be 
necessary for their proper and logical discussion. In like manner a 
treatise on ore-deposits concerns itself largely with questions of origin, 
and thus a genetic system would seem to be both rational and useful. 

Acting on this idea. Professor Kemp has developed an elaborate sys- 
tem of classification for metalliferous deposits. This was first published 
in the School of Mines Quarterly for November, 1892, and now ap- 
pears in a somewhat modified form. Ore-depjsils are divided into three 
groups: I. Of igneous origin ; II. Deposited from solution; and III. 
Deposited from suspension. In the first class, of igneous origin, the 
author places only a few iron-ore deposits, constituting excessively basic 
developments of fused and cooling magma. The third class are sec- 
ondary deposits due to erosion or weathering of mineral-bearing rocks. 

The great bulk of ore-deposits fall into the second class. This class, 
deposits from solutions, is subdivided into eleven groui>s. The first 
group, surface precipitations, is again subdivided according to the 
method of precipitation. The other ten groups are all underground 
deposits. It seems to us that here the author has introduced an unnec- 
cessary number of subdivisions, and that his classification would be much 
improved by judicious combination of some of these groups. For exam- 
ple, he recognizes in his groups many different kinds of cracks, fissures 
and cavities, viz., extended fissures, shear zones, cracks at bends in strata, 
joints caused by cooling or drying, cracks in collapsed beds due to solu- 
tion of underl ing rocks or to dolomitization, chambers in limestone, 
volcanic necks. Groups of this sort might be multiplied almost indefi- 
nitely. It is questionable whether such minute classification serves any 
useful purpose, and whether it does not, on the other hand, tend to ob- 
scurity rather than to a clear recognition of salient lines of division. 

284 7»^ QUARTERLY, 

The mere place of deposition does not seem to be of sufficient impor- 
tance to be thus magnified. The place of deposition, in the case of 
these subterranean deposits, is simply the channel through which the de- 
positing solution has passed on its way to the surface. It is conceivable 
that the same deposit may at different parts of its comse be found in 
all the different kinds of cracks, fissures and cavities above enumerated, 
and may belong at the same time to each and all of the different groups. 

Part I. concludes with a bibliography of modern works and papers 
on ore-deposits, which will be useful to students of this subject. 

Part II. is divided into the following chapters: I. Iron ores, limonite, 
siderite. II. Hematites, red and specular. III. Magnetite and pyrite. 
IV. Copper. V. Lead, alone. VI. Lead and zinc. VII. Zinc, alone 
or with metals other than lead. VIII. Lead and silver. IX. Silver and 
Gold. In each chapter the examples given are arranged more or less geo- 
graphically and according to nnining regions. The examples of ore- 
deposits are numbered consecutively throughout the book, and deposits 
of a similar origin and character are grouped under a single nuftiber. 
Thus, example i6, the beds (veins) of pyrite, often lenticular, of the Ap- 
palachian region appears first at the end of the chapter on iron, on page 
131. Next, example i6d5, Ore Knob, N. C, and 16/^, Spenceville, Cal., 
copper pyrite deposits, appear in the chapter on copper, pages 135 and 
136. Examples 16^ and idd appear under nickel, pages 269 and 
270. For the benefit of those who may wish to study certam groups of 
ore-deposits, without regard to their location or their mineral contents, 
a supplementary index of examples would prove serviceable and should 
be inserted in subsequent editions. This lack is only imperfectly sup- 
plied by the table of contents at the beginning of the book. 

The descriptions of individual deposits are clear and satisfactory, even 
though necessarily much condensed, and the opinions of the different 
authorities as to origin and manner of occurrence are most admirably 
summed up. This condensation of such a mass of material must have 
cost the author much labor. It would have been less work to have com- 
piled an encyclopaedia, in several volumes, describing the same deposits, 
and such a monumental work would have made a greater impression on 
the average reader than the present modest volume. The student, the 
investigator and the man of affairs who have occasion to consult th6 
book will, however, appreciate highly this feature In each case the de- 
scription is supplemented by copious references to the original papers, 
so that the student can obtain such further details as he may need. The 
author states that every effort has been taken to make the bibliography 
complete. H. S. M. 



School of Mines Preparatory School, 

417 Madison Avenue, 

Between 48th and 49th Sts., NEW YORK CITY. 




I? E.I2<TO I :P-Al L- 

Twelfth Year Begins October 2, i8gj. 

Four hundred Students of Columbia School of Mines have been 
instructed in the Woodbridge School. 

Also a large number have been prepared for Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Stevens Institute, Sheffield Scientific School, Troy 
Polytechnic Institute, Cornell University, and the Classical, Medical 
and Law Departments of Harvard, Yale, Columbia and Princeton. 

Vol. XV. No. 4. JULY, 1894. 





I mmw 


A. J. MOSES, Adj. Prof, of Mineraloi^y. £. WALLER, Analytical Chemist. 

J. F. KBMP, Prof, of Geology. J. L. GREENLEAF, Adj. Prof. Civil Engineer'^. 

R. PBBLE:, Jr., Adj. Prof. Mining. JOS. STRUTHERS, Tutor in Metallurgy. 

ManafiTlngr Editor, A. J. MOSES. 


The Optical Recognition and Economic Importance of the Common 

Minerals Found in Building Stones. By Lea McI. Luquer 285 

Fire Assay for Lead. By Malvern W. lies 336 

Project for Utilizing Bassasseachic Falls. By Edward D. Self. 345 

On the Occurrence of Cretaceous Clays at Northport, L. 1. By 

Heinrich Ries 354 

The Kosaka Mining and Reduction Works, Ricchoo, Japan. By M. 

Kuwabara, Osaka, Japan 355 

Abstracts 375 

Book Reviews 381 



Registered at the New York Post Office as Second Class Matter. 

All Remittancca should be made payable to Order of "The School of Mines Quarterly.*' 

Kearney ^wot Co 


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Vr,L. XV.. JULY, 1894. No. 4. 



By lea McI. LUQUER. 


As the scope of this work is necessarily limited, it will be im- 
possible to take up in detail the nomenclature, geological forma- 
tion, chemical and physical structure, mineralogical composition, 
and causes of deterioration of building stones. Special attention, 
however, will be called to the facts that can be observed by a care- 
ful microscopic examination of thin sections of building stones. 

This kind of investigation was first recommended by Cordier, in 
1 8 16, but at that time neither chemical nor optical methods were 
sufficiently developed to make it practicable. H. C. Sorby was 
one of the first to successfully apply the microscope to the study 
of lithology. 

The great importance of this method is clearly set forth by 
Spencer F. Baird in an article on the study of thin rock sections : 
" This method of study in the hands of the microscopic lithologist 
has been most fruitful in developing valuable and interesting knowl- 
edge of a scientific character. By its means the nature and com- 
position of almost all of the commonly occurring rocks have been 
determined, and exactly those same features which are of import- 
ance in scientific study are the ones which determine the value and 
VOL. XV. — 20 


appearance of building stones, and there is no distinction between 
the scientific and the practical." * 

The facts that can be determined by a microscopic examination 
may be divided into two classes, mineralogical and physical or 
structural : 

1°. Mineralogical: {a) The Component Minerals. — Although a 
large number of minerals have been found in building stones, those 
that are essential and of economic importance are few in num- 
ber, rarely exceeding three or four in any one kind of rock. It is 
well to remember, however, that minerals present even in minute 
quantities may be of great economic importance. 

{p) The Chemical Composition of these Minerals. — Much may be 
learned regarding this by an optical examination. Many of the 
ferruginous varieties of certain mineral species have stronger pleo- 
chroism, etc., than those containing less iron, and, as the ferrugi- 
nous varieties are more liable to decomposition, this fact is im- 

[c] The Condition of these Minerals, — As to whether they are fresh 
or weathered, or contain many cleavage cracks, fractures, and in- 

2°. Physical or Structural : (a) The dense or porous nature 
of the rock, (b) The kind of cohesion existing between the com- 
ponent minerals, (c) The homogeneity of the distribution of these 

The structure of the stone and the state of the component min- 
erals are very important facts for consideration, as the greatest 
cause of disintegration in our climate may be said to be due to 
extreme changes of temperature, action of frost, etc. According 
to Prof Geikie, the action of frost is equivalent to the pressure of 
138 tons per square foot. Water may " freeze out" of a coarsely 
porous stone, while in a compact stone it may do much damage. 
" Other things being equal, the value of a building stone may be 
said to be inversely as its porosity." 

An elementary knowledge of optics, including the use of the 
lithological microscope, is needed for the recognition of the 
common rock-forming minerals by the characters given in the fol- 
lowing tables. 

For those who lack this knowledge, the author refers to the 

* Building Stone Collection, U. S. Nat. Mus., No, 9. 


following works: Atkinson's Ganot's /y/;'^/^^ (for optics) ; Iddings' 
translation of Rosenbusch's Mikroskopische Physiographic der pet- 
rographisch wichtigen Mineralien; E. S. Dana's Text- Book of Min- 
eralogy , and the article on " Building Stones " in the Tenth United 
States Census (for principles of optical mineralogy and description 
and use of instruments); Rutley on Rocks and Methods of 
Modern Petrography by H. Hensoldt and L. McI. Luquer, in 
School of Mines Quarterly, Vol. X., p. 212; Vol. XL, p. 29; 
Vol. XII., p. 132; and Vol. XIII., p. 357 (for the preparation and 
mounting of sections). 

The order of arrangement of the mineral species is, in general, 
that adopted by Rosenbusch in his Mikroskopische Physiographie 
der petrographisch wichtigen Mineralien ; but, in some cases, for 
convenience in study and reference, changes have been made, as, 
for example, the two iron sulphides, marcasite and pyrrhotite, are 
placed immediately after pyrite. 

Synopsis of Order of Minerals : 

Isotropic: Isometric. 

Anisotropic: C/«/^;«^/— Tetragonal and hexagonal. Biaxial — 
Orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic. 


The group classification is used for the feldspars, micas, and 
chlorites, as in some cases it is almost impossible to differentiate, 
by the microscope alone, between similar members of a group, and 
in many cases this is not economically important. 

Nearly all the rock-forming minerals become transparent in thin 
sections, but when opaque, attention is called to the fact, and the 
examination is made by incident light. The optical characters of 
the minerals are recorded in the order they would be observed in 
the course of an examination with the lithological microscope. 

With transmitted light are noticed phenomena of structure, 
color, relief, cleavage, inclusions, etc. With parallel polarized 
light, the polarizer or lower nicol being in position, pleochroism 
may be noticed on revolving the stage. With the analyzer or 
upper nicol also in position (crossed nicols) phenomena of polari- 
zation colors, extinction, etc., are observed ; and by rotating the 
stage, extinction angles can be measured. In a few cases the 
results of observation with convergent polarized light are given, 
but generally this method of observation is not practicable, and 


therefore the reader is referred to the very detailed description 
of all the optical properties of minerals found in Rosenbusch*s 
Mikroskopische Physiographie der petrographisch wichtigen Min- 
eralien (Iddings* translation). 

An effort has been made to make this work as simple as possible, 
because, when a mineral cannot be recognized by the following 
tests, the difficulties of determination are very much increased, 
and can only be attempted by an expert petrographer. 

Under the head of artificial alteration is stated the action of 
acids, which may be important to consider in certain localities 
where the atmosphere is contaminated by acid fumes. To show 
the effect of organic acids, acting through long periods of time, on 
the minerals composing building stones, the results of Dr. Bolton's 
experiments with citric acid are given in the appendix. These 
results are not incorporated in the tables, because, in some cases, 
the action has been allowed to continue for two years, and it is 
quite probable that minerals which are now regarded as insoluble 
in certain acids would be effected in a similar way if exposed for 
an equal length of time. 

As a matter of convenience, the important diagnostic properties 
are grouped together ; and for a like reason, prominence is given 
to the method of differentiating similar minerals. 

It is hoped that with proper preliminary knowledge the appli- 
cation of the facts here recorded may be useful to architects, civil 
engineers and builders. 

In addition to the microscopic investigation of any building 
stone proposed for use, it is, of course, expected that the other 
general facts regarding cost, transportation, artistic effect, weather- 
ing properties, crushing strength, etc., should be considered. 

In closing, the author wishes to express his grateful apprecia- 
tion of the valuable advice and assistance given in the preparation 
of this work by Dr. Thomas Egleston, Professor of M neralogy 
and Metallurgy; Dr. J^ F. Kemp, Professor of Geology; and Dr. 
A. J. Moses, Adj. Professor of Mineralogy. 

PYRITE, Pyrites. 


Composition : FeSg. H., 6 to 6.5. Sp. gr., 4.9 to 5.2. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : Crystallized in cubes, pen- 


tagonal dodecahedrons, or combinations of these forms. Some- 
times in irregular grains. Outline of cross-section generally square. 
Opaque, and by incident light bright yellow, with strong 
metallic lustre. 

Alteration : 

Artificial. — Soluble in nitric acid, but not noticeably acted on by 
hydrochloric acid. 

Natural {7veathering), — Alters very easily to the oxides of iron 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : May be present in 
all kinds of rocks. Found in granite, syenite, gneiss, schists, 
sandstone, limestone, serpentines, clays and slates. Its presence 
can often be detected by dark grayish black streak while grinding 


The same in composition as pyrite, but more easily decomposed, 
and, therefore, more injurious in building stones. Distinguished 
from pyrite by absence of square cross-sections, 


I Composition: Fe^S^ to Fe,iSi2. Distinguished from pyrite by 

being practically always in irregular masses and not in crystals, 
and by bronze yellow color in incident light. 

Economic Effect of the Sulphides of Iron in Building 
Stones : The presence of pyrite, etc., is generally considered det- 
rimental in stone ; but its liability to decomposition and the re- 
sulting injurious effects depend on the nature of the pyrite and the 
structure and character of the stone. Sharp, well defined pyrite 
i crystals are hard to decompose, and may remain unaffected in 

stone if it is non-absorbant, compact and composed of unweathered 
minerals. On the contrary, the presence of pyrite is very injurious 
in porous, decomposed stone, as its alteration commonly causes 
unsightly rust stains. The oxidation of the sulphide of iron into 
sulphate is also accompanied by an increase in volume, which adds 
the mechanical effect of expansion to help in disintegrating the 

Sandstone. — The sulphides may decompose and disintegrate the 
stone, but, unless present in large amounts, the only danger may 
be the staining or discoloration of the stone. If pyrite is evenly 


distributed in small particles through the sandstone it may even 
do good by supplying a new cementing material.* 

Limestone. — The presence of pyrite, and especially marcasite, 
is generally very injurious. In the process of weathering the car- 
bonates of lime and magnesia are decomposed by the sulphuric 
acid, resulting from the pyrite, and sulphates are formed with set- 
ting free of carbon dioxide. Magnesium sulphate is a soluble, 
efflorescent salt, while calcium sulphate is insoluble. Therefore, 
a magnesium or dolomitic limestone may be more affected than a 
pure calcium limestone. 

MAGNETITE, Magnetic Iron Ore. 

Composition : Fe304. H., 5.5 to 6.5. Sp. gr., 4.9 to 5.2. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : Grains, crystals (generally 
octahedra) and massive 

Twinning, — Common, according to Spinel law. 

Opaque, and by incident light, bluish-black, with strong metallic 
lustre. Strongly magnetic. 

Alteration : Soluble in hydrochloric acid, and when altered 
becomes coated with earthy limonite. 

Differentiation: From Hematite, Chromite, Ilmenite and 
Graphite by being easily separated from powdered rock by weak 

Usual Associates in Sections : In the eruptive rocks belongs 
to the oldest secretions from the magma, immediately followed by 
chrysolite, biotite, hornblende, augite, etc., and often appears as 
inclusions in these and other minerals. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones: Very widely dis- 
tributed in crystalline schists and eruptive rocks. May be present 
in granite, in minute crystals, but not common in muscovite 
granite ; also in syenite and slates. 

Economic Effect in Building Stones : When present in large 
amounts it may become entirely changed into the sesquioxide of 
iron (rust). The rock becomes then stained a rusty red color, as 
seen in many diabases. 

* Prof. Winchell, Geol. of Minn., Vol. I., p. 189. 




Composition: FeCr304. H., 5.5. Sp. gn, 4,3 to 4.6. 

Usual^ Appearance in Sections: Octahedral crystals, like 
magnetite, and grains. 

Differentiation : From Magnetite. By having weak metallic 
lustre and grayish-black to black color. It is sometimes trans- 
parent in very thin sections, when it has no metallic lustre and its 
color (by transmitted light) is brown to reddish-brown, with a 
very rough surface due to the high index of refraction. It is non- 
magnetic, gives chromium bead test and is often surrounded by a 
green halo of chrome ochre. 

Alteration : Not acted on by acids. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : Common in crys- 
talline rocks, rich in magnesium, and in serpentine. 



Composition : Fe2(OH)j, Fe^Og, frequently quite impure. 
H., 5 to 5.5. Sp. gr., 3.6 to 4. 

Usual Appearance and Characters in Sections : A yellow- 
ish brown, non-metallic, earthy substance, which being amorphous 
is isotropic. It is essentially a decomposition product, and is often 
found forming a halo around magnetite. It is soluble in hydro- 
chloric acid. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones, and Economic Ef- 
fect : May be present wherever there has been decomposition of 
the iron ores or ferruginous minerals, and for this reason is usually 
a sign of weakness in the stone. 


Isotropic. Isometric. 

Composition : R"s R^'j (SiOJg, R'' is Ca, Mg, Fe or Mn ; R'" is 
Al, Fe'", or Cr, rarely Ti. H., 6.5 to 7.5. Sp. gr., 3.15 to 4.3. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : Irregular grains, somewhat 


resembling spots of gum ; also in aggregates or simple crystals, 
showing forms ocO(i lo), and 202(21 1), alone or in combination. 

Parallel Polarized Light: 
Color. — Colorless or nearly so, to red. 
Index of Refraction. — n^a = 1.7468 — 1.8141. 
Relief. — High, and rough surface. 

Fracture. — Irregular cracks occur, due to great brittleness of 
mineral ; but no cleavage is noticed. 
PUochroism. — None. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : As it is iso- 
tropic, sections remain dark during complete rotation. Optical 
anomalies may however occur. 

Alteration : 

Artificial, — Practically insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 
Natural (weathering). — Usually fresh, but may be found altered 
to chloritic matter. 

Important Diagnostic Properties : General reddish color. — 
High relief and rough surface. — Irregular cracks, and absence of 
cleavage. — Isotropic character. 

Usual Associates in Sections: Quartz, orthoclase, biotite, and 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : Most plentiful in 
metamorphic rocks ; as accessory in granite, gneiss, schists, crys- 
talline limestone, serpentine, slate, etc. ; as characterizing constit- 
uent of the garnet rock or marble of Morelos, Mexico. This rock 
is composed of pink garnet, yellowish brown vesuvianite and lime- 
stone. It is cut and used for ornamental slabs, etc. 

Economic Effect in Building Stones : Detrimental in stones 
designed for finely polished work. Garnets are hard and brittle, 
and are apt to break or chip out from the stone during process of 
dressing and polishing. 


Anisotropic. Uniaxial. Tetragonal. 

Composition : TiOg. H., 6 to 6.5. Sp. gr., 4.15 to 4.25. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : In grains, when the individ- 
uals are large, but in sharp, prismatic crystals when microscopic. 


Twinning. — Very common. The very small individuals of rutile 
may form net-shaped groups, called sagenitey the crystals crossing 
one another at angles of 60^. 

Parallel Polarized Light: 

Color, — Yellow to reddish^brown. 

Index of Refraction, — oi^^ = 2.6158. ^n* = 2.9029 (Barwald). 

Relief, — Very strong, and very rough surface. 

Cleavage. — Very perfect, parallel to the prism oc P ( 1 10), appears 
as fine straight cracks. May also have imperfect cleavage parallel 
to the second order prism oc P x) (100). 

Pleochroism, — Not especially noticeable. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction. — Very strong. 

Polarization Colors. — Of minute needles, very brilliant. If the 
section is thick, the polarization colors are indistinct and of the 
higher orders, and therefore not noticeable when the rutile is 
strongly colored. 

Extinction, — Rutile is uniaxial, but basal sections only remain 
dark during rotation of stage, when twinning is absent. The ex- 
tinction in all other sections is symmetrical, being parallel and at 
right angles to the longitudinal axis. 

Alteration : 

Artificial, — Insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Natural (weathering). — Alters to a white or yellowish, fibrous or 
granular substance, strongly refracting, and similar to the alteration 
product of ilmenite. 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Twinned structure. — Yel- 
lowish to reddish-brown color. — Very high relief and rough sur- 
face. — Brilliant polarization colors in minute crystals, and general 
absence of polarization colors in large crystals. — Symmetrical ex- 

Differentiation : From Zircon. — See under Zircon. 

Usual Associates in Sections : Quartz, orthoclose, horn- 
blende, augite, garnet, etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : May be either pri- 
mary or secondary ; and may be found in gneiss, crystalline schists 
(especially those rich in hornblende and augite), slates, etc. 



Anistropic. Uniaxial. Tetragonal. 

Composition: ZrSiO^. H., 7.5. Sp. gr., 4.68 to 4.70. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : In short prismatic crystals, 
never massive. 

Parallel Polarized Light : 

Color. — Generally colorless or light yellow. 

Index of Refraction. — u> = 1.960 ; e = 2.015 (Brewster). 

Re/iff. — High, and rough surface. 

Pleochroism. — Not noticeable. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols ; 

Double Refraction. — Very strong. 

Polarization Colors. — Very brilliant even in minute crystals. 

Extinction. — As zircon is uniaxial, basal sections remain dark 
during rotation of stage. In all other sections the extinction is 
symmetrical, being parallel and at right angles to the longitudinal 

Convergent Polarized Light : Basal sections show several 
rings in addition to dark cross, and the optical character is +. 

Alteration : Not attacked by acids, and very rarely altered. 

Important Diagnostic Properties: Generally in short pris- 
matic crystals. — Strong relief and rough surface. — Brilliant polari- 
zation colors. — Symmetrical extinction. 

Differentiation : 

(a) From Rutile. — By absence of test for titanium on isolated 
crystals, and by absence of cleavage and twinned structure. 

{U) From Titanite. — By absence of cleavage and the acutely 
rhombic sections, so common in titanite. 

Usual Associates in Sections : Quartz, orthoclase, plagio- 
clase, biotite, hornblende, augite, etc. 

It is one of the oldest constituents of the rocks in which it 
occurs, and hence may often be found as inclusions in other min- 

General Occurrence in Building Stones ; Found in granite 
and syenite as an accessory mineral, especially abundant in 
Gloucester granite ; and may also occur in gneiss, diorite, gabbro, 
schists, limestone, etc. 



Composition: C. H. i to 2 ; Sp. gr., 2.09 to 2.23. 

Usual Appearance in Section : In minute particles, or in 
flakes and grains of irregular shape, seldom crystallized. 

Opaque, and by incident light black with metallic lustre. Not 
acted on by acids. 

General Occurrence in Building Stone: In granite, gneiss, 
crystalline schists, limestone, etc. 


Hexagonal. • 

Composition : Fe203. H., 5.5 to 6.5. Sp. gr., 4.9 to 5.3. 

Usual Appearance and Characters in Sections : Occurs in 
irregular flecks and scales, earthy or granular. Distinct crystal- 
line forms are not often observed in rocks. It is opaque and, by 
incident light, black with tinge of red and metallic lustre, or red, 
especially when earthy or granular. It may also be transparent 
with red tints. No pleochroism is observed. It is soluble in 
hydrochloric acid. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones and Economic 
Effect : Found in granite, syenite, crystalline schists, etc. Very 
often as inclusions in minerals, giving them a reddish color, as in 
the quartz, feldspar and mica of granites. 

In the amorphous form it is often the cementing material of the 
red or brownish-red sandstones. 

ILMENITE, Menaccanite. 


Composition : FeTiOj to n FeTiOg + nt FejOg. H., 5 to 6. 
Sp. gr., 4.5 to 5.0. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : Irregular masses without 
crystallographic outline. 

Opaque, and by incident light iron black with brownish tinge and 
metallic lustre. 


Alteration : 

Artificial, — Attacked slowly by hot hydrochloric acid, solution 
when heated with tin becomes violet. 

Natural {feathering). — Alters to a whitish, strongly refracting 
substance, only slightly transparent. Its structure is sometimes 
granular, sometimes fibrous. This alteration product often devel- 
ops along definite crystallographic directions. 

Differentiation : From Magnetite. — By occurring in irregular 
masses, and by whitish, strongly refracting decomposition product. 
Magnetite being in crystals or grains, and having a brownish de 
composition product. 

Usual Associates in Sections : Plagioclase, augite, horn- 
blende, chrysolite, magnetite, etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stone : It belongs to the 
oldest secretions from the magma, and its distribution in rocks is 
very great. It is found in granite, syenite, gneiss, diabase, diorite, 
gabbro, crystalline schists, etc. 


Anistropic. Uniaxial. Hexagonal. 

Composition : SiOj. H., 7. Sp. gr., 2.60 to 2.66. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : Massive or in grains, and as 
it was apparently the last mineral to form in crystallized rocks, its 
outline is determined by the other component minerals. Very 
rarely crystallized in rocks. 

Parallel Polarized Light: 

Color, — Colorless, although by incident light it may appear col- 
ored or cloudy, if it contains many inclusions. 

Index of Refraction. — **>ri%=^ i. 54418; ^na = 1-55328 (Rudberg). 
Relief. — None, and plain surface. 
Cleavage. — Rarely noticed. 
Ificlusions, — Liquid, gas and solid. 
Pleochroism.— None. 

Parallel Polarized Lights, Crossed Nicols : 
Double Refraction, — Weak. 

Polarization Colors, — Bright but weak in very thin sections, only 
blue gray, etc. 


ExHfiction. — As quartz is uniaxial, basal sections remain dark 
during a complete rotation of stage. In all other sections extinc- 
tion takes place, but due to the absence of cleavage and crystallo- 
graphic outlines no extinction-angles can be obtained. Thin sec- 
tions do not show circular polarization. 

Convergent Polarized Light: Basal sections show a dark 
cross, without any rings, and the optical character is +. 

Alteration : 

Artificial. — Not attacked by ordinary acids. 

Natural ( Weathering). — Always appears fresh and unweathered 
in sections. 

. Important Diagnostic Properties: Colorless. — Absence of 
cleavage and pleochroism. — Low relief and not very brilliant po- 
larization colors. — Dark cross without rings, and + optical char- 
acter in convergent light. — Fresh, unweathered appearance. 

Differentiation : 

{a) From Santdine when in grains. — By use of convergent light 
on sections which appear isotropic. 

{b) From Nephelite and Apatite. — By absence of hexagonal 

{c) From Calcite. — By absence of cleavage and twinning, and 
by no effervescence with acids. 

Usual Associates in Sections : Orthoclase, more rarely plagio- 
clase, mica, hornblende and augite. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : Found in granite, 
gneiss, crystalline schists, sandstone, quartzite, etc., and in small 
amounts in limestones and slates. 

Economic Effect in Building Stones. 

Granite. — Essential constituent, together with feldspar and 

Quartz is brittle, has a constant hardness, and does not deter- 
mine the hardness or ease of working of granite. Stones like 
granite, however, which are rich in quartz, work more easily and 
crush sooner than the trap-rocks, which contain no quartz. 

Granitic quartz often contains, a large number of pores partially 
filled with fluids. It is well to consider the number and size of 
these pores, as they may tend to explode when subjected to high 
heat, and thus affect the durability of the stone.* 

* This view does not seem to be sustained by an examination, made by G. P. Mer- 


The source of the blue color of the quartz in some granites is 
not known. 

Sandstone. — Principal constituent together with many other 
accessory fragments of the rock-forming minerals. 

Sandstones may be divided into siliceous, calcareous, ferrugi- 
nous and argillaceous varieties, depending on the character of the 
cementing material. 

The siliceous sandstone is the most durable, especially if it has 
been metamorphosed into a quartzite ; but at the same time it is 
very hard to work and light in color. 

The calcareous sandstone is not safe to use when subjected to 
the action of acid waters or vapors, especially in crowded citi^ 
where there is an excess of COj in the air, but can be worked very 

The ferruginous sandstone is generally the best (unless the iron 
has come from decomposing pyrite), as it is not so hard to work 
as the siliceous and not so easily weathered as the calcareous 
sandstone ; also, the brown or reddish color of this variety is 

The argillaceous sandstone is the most objectionable, as the 
clayey cement absorbs water easily and tends to disintegrate the 

The structure also affects the durability, sharp grains of pure 
quartz, with little cementing material, making a much more dura- 
ble sandstone than one composed of rounded grains mixed with 
fragments of other minerals, which may be more or less decom- 
posed. The more porous sandstones may be said to be the less 

The accessory mineral fragments present often give special char- 
acter to the sandstone. Kaolinized feldspar, mica, pyrite, marca- 
site, calcite in quantity, and clay, when present, are injurious, as 
they are all liable to decomposition. The quartz in sandstone may 
contain cavities and bubbles as well as the granitic quartz. 

A microscopic examination may enable the observer to deter- 
mine whether the decomposition of the accessory mineral grains 
has taken place before or subsequent to the ** make up " of the 

rill, of a large number of sections of granite used for buildings in this country. See 
G. P. Merrill, The Collection of Building and Ornamental Stones in the U, S. Nat. 
Museum : A Handbook and Catalogue^ p. 341, Washington, 1 889. 


sandstone ; and thus, in connection with the structure of the rock, 
to judge as to its probable durability.* 

Limestone. — May be present as an impurity. The silicious and 
compact limestones are better for construction purposes than the 
argillaceous or ferruginous limestones. 


Anisotropic. Uniaxial, Hexagonal. 

Composition : CaCO^. Ca may be replaced by small quantities 
of Mg, Fe, Mn, etc. H., 3 or less. Sp. gr., 2.71 to 2.72. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : In grains and aggregates. 
May be fibrous or oolitic. Never in crystals in rocks. 

Tivinning. — Generally shows polysynthetic twinning parallel to 
— ^ R 'r(oii2), which is very common in the crystalline lime- 
stones, and may have been produced by pressure. The twinning 
shows itself between crossed nicols as a series of light and dark 

Parallel Polarized Light: 

Color. — Colorless when pure, but may appear colored by trans- 
mitted light, due to organic pigments. 

Index of Refraction. — m^^ = 1.6585, e^. = 1.4864. 

Relief, — Low, and plain surface. 

Cleavage. — Parallel to the rhombohedron R ^ (loii) appears in 
thin sections as many sharp cracks, whose angles of intersection 
depend on the position of the section. 

Inclusions. — Fluid inclusions frequent. 

Pleockroism, — None. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction. — Very strong. Can be noticed with analyzer 

Polarisation Colors. — High, even for very thin sections, being 
clear white or pale green. The brighter colors of the lower orders 
are wanting. 

Extinction. — As calcite is uniaxial, basal sections remain dark 
during rotation. In all other sections extinction takes place, and 

* Thomas Egleston, Ph.D , ** The Cause and Prevention of the Decay of Building 
Stones," Trans. Am. Soc. C, E., Vol. XV., 1886. 


in general the direction of extinction is not parallel to any outline, 
but is symmetrical to the cleavage cracks when they appear. 

Convergent Polarized Light : Basal sections, even when very 
thin, give interference cross and several colored rings, and optical 
character is — . 

Alteration : Very easily attacked and completely dissolved 
with effervescence by cold dilute acids, including carbonic. 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Not in crystals. — Poly- 
synthetic twinning. — Cleavage parallel to rhombohedron. — Very 
strong double refraction, giving polarization colors of a high order 
(white or very faint green). — Effervescence with cold dilute acids. 

Differentiation : 

{a) From other Isomorphous Carbonates. — By ease with which 
it is attacked by cold dilute acids, test can be made on slide after 
removing coveh 

(^) From Magnesium- BEARING Calcite. — Use micro-chemical 

Usual Associates in Sections: In nearly all rocks bearing 
augite, hornblende, biotite, and plagioclase. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : Distribution very 
great, in addition to great sedimentary limestone deposits. It is 
very often a secondary product, and may be found in granite, 
syenite, gneiss, diabase, diorite, basalts, serpentine, clays and 


Anisotropic. Uniaxial. Hexagonal. 

Composition : (CaMg)C03, when pure CaO =: 30.4, MgO = 
21.7, C02 = 47.8. Proportions of Mg and Ca vary, and Fe and 
Mn also occur. H., 3.5 to 4. Sp. gr., 2.8 to 2.9. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : In rocks chiefly as crystals, 
even dense homogeneous aggregates show tendency towards crys- 
talline boundaries (saccharoidal structure). Crystals almost always 
unit rhombohedron R t^ (ioii), with tendency to curved surfaces. 
Also in grains. 

* Microscopical Physiography of Rock- Making Minerals^ Rosenbusch, Iddings* 
translation, p. 112. 


Its behavior, under the microscope, is similar to that of calcite. 

Alteration : Only slightly attacked by cold dilute acids, in- 
cluding carbonic, but if acid is heated it dissolves easily with 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Crystals or crystalline. — 
Rhombohedral cleavage. — Very strong double refraction, giving 
polarization colors of a high order (white or very faint green, etc.). 

Differentiation : From Calcite. — Not easily attacked by cold 
dilute hydrochloric acid, unless mixed with calcite. Test can be 
made on slide with cover off. By absence of polysynthetic twin- 
ning, which is present in calcite, and by crystallized or crystalline 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : As an independent 
rock and as crystals in limestone, may also occur in slates. 

Economic Effect of Calcite and Dolomite in Building 
Stone : 

Sandstone. — Calcite may be present as cementing material, 
and is injurious on account of its easy solubility in acid waters, 
thus rendering the sandstone porous and more liable to decompo- 
sition. Calcite may also be present as product of kaolinization of 

Marbles, Limestones, Etc. — Essential constituents. The dif- 
ferent kinds of limestones may be classed as silicious, argillaceous, 
ferruginous, magnesian and dolomitic. 

They vary greatly in texture, strength and durability, some 
being stronger than many granites in crushing strength and, under 
certain conditions, equally enduring. Well crystallized and ho- 
mogeneous marbles and silicious and compact limestones are the 
best for construction purposes. These stones can be easily worked 
and are beautiful in appearance, but are not always the most durable, 
especially in cities. The color depends on impurities, such as oxide 
of iron, carabonaceous matter, etc., and, as a general rule, the blue 
and gray limestones are more durable than the white.f Loosely 
cohering grains render stone liable to become friable and easily 

Pure dolomitic marble does not consist of a mixture of the 
crystals of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate, but is 

* John C. Smock, Bull, N, K State Museum, Vol. II., No. lo, Sept., 1890. 
t U. S., X. Census Report. Article on " Building Stones." 
VOL. XV. — 21 


composed of the double carbonate of calcium and magnesium 
crystallized as one substance, and should contain 54.35 per cent. 
CaCOj and 45.65 per cent. MgCOj. Dolomitic marble is very 
highly valued for building purposes, and when pure is considered 

by English and other authorities to be more durable in an acid 


atmosphere than pure limestone. It seems yet to be proved, how- 
ever, in the United States that a pure limestone is less durable than 
dolomite. The coefficient of expansion is much less in calcite than 
in dolomite, thus rendering the latter kind of limestone more liable 
to physical decomposition than the former. 

Prof. Hall considers magnesium limestone less durable than pure 

The carbonate of magnesium is less easily soluble in carbonic 
and other acids than the carbonate of calcium, and is a very com- 
mon ingredient of many limestones. The pure calcite may thus 
dissolve out first and pit the stone. The magnesium limestones 
are also, as a rule, more porous, friable and less firm in character 
than pure limestone. It has been proved, however, by experience 
that the nearer a magnesium limestone approaches a dolomite the 
more durable it is. 


Anisotropic. Uniaxial. Hexagonal. 

Composition: Ca5(ClF) (P04)3. H., 4.5 to 5. Sp. gr., 3.17 
to 3.23. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : Minute, slender, hexagonal 
prisms, with sharply defined boundaries. Crystals often in clus- 
ters. Also in grains. Cross-sections show regular hexagonal 

Parellel Polarized Light : 

Color. — Generally clear, bright white, may sometimes be col- 

Index of Refraction. — «'na= 1-6388, e„. = 1.6346 (Lattermann). 

Relief. — A little more marked than that of the colorless asso- 
ciated minerals. 

Cleavage. — Seldom observed microscopically. 

Parting. — Long columnar crystals generally show a transverse 
jointing, so that pieces may be more or less separated. 

* U. S., X. Census Report. Article on ** Building Stones," p. 290. 


Pleochroism, — Only noticed in case of colored varieties. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction, — Weak. 

Polarization Colors. — Scarcely exceed white of the first order 
in thin sections. Generally in grayish blue tones. 

Extinction, — As apatite is uniaxial, basal sections remain dark 
during rotation of stage. 

In all other sections the extinction is symmetrical being paral- 
lel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. 

Convergent Polarized Light: Basal sections show a crossf 
without rings, and the optical character is — . 

Alteration : 

ArtificiaL — Easily soluble in hydrochloric and nitric acids. 

Natural (tveathering), — Found perfectly fresh in decomposed 
rocks, which is quite remarkable, considering its easy solubility in 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Small size and hexagonal 
type of prismatic crystals. — White color and low relief. — Sym- 
metrical extinction. » 

Differentiation : 

{a) From Nephelite. — Relatively much smaller and longer than 
the nephelite crystals. 
{b) From clear Feldspar crystals. — By hexagonal cross-section. 

Usual Associates in Sections ; Especially with nephelite, bio- 
tite and hornblende, appears as one of the oldest secretions from 
the magma, and hence often found as inclusions in other minerals. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : May be present in 
many different rocks, and as an unimportant accessory constituent 
in granite, syenite, mica schist, etc. 

NEPHELITE, Elseolite. 

Anistropic. Uniaxial. Hexagonal. 

Composition : NagAIgSigOgy, with partial replacement of Na by 
K or Ca. H , 5.5 to 6. Sp. gr., 2.55 to 2.65. 

Nephelite (Nepheline). 

Nephelite bears the same relation to elaeolite as sanidine does 
to orthoclase. It occurs in the younger volcanic rocks in minute 
hexagonal crystals. 



Usual Appearance in Sections : Massive or grains. 

Parallel Polarized Light: 

Color, — Colorless. 

Index of Refraction, — Wna= I -541 6, en»= 1-5376 (J. E. Wolff.) 

Relief, — None. 

Cleavage, — Imperfect parallel to prism cxP (loio) and base oP 
(oooi). More marked in elaeolite than in nephelite. 

Inclusions. — Microscopic needles of augite and hornblende quite 
Common, also fluid and gas. 

Fleochroistn, — None. 

Parallel Polarized Light» Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction, — Weak. 

Polarization Colors, — Low^ generally grayish blue or white of 
1st order. 

Extinction, — As elaeolite is uniaxial, basal sections remain dark 
during rotation of stage. In all other sections extinction takes 
place and is symmetrical to cleavage lines when these appear. 

Alteration r 

Artificial, — Gelantinizes with acids.* 

Natural {feathering), — Alters easily to fibrous zeolites, with bril- 
liant polarization colors, muscovite and kaolin. 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Massive. — Colorless. — 
Low relief and low polarization colors. — Common presence of in- 
clusions. — Gelatinization test with acids. 

Differentiation : From other minerals by gelatinization test* 

Usual Associates in Sections: Sodalite, orthoclase, micro- 
cline, augite, titanite. etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : Essential in elaeolite 
syenite, also occurs in augite, syenite, etc. 

Anisotropic. Uniaxial. Hexagonal. 

Composition : Uncertain, Ri8B2(Si05)4 R chiefly Al, K, Mn, Ca, 
Mg, Li, F. H., 7 to 7.5. Sp. gr , 2.98 to 3.20. 

Usual Appearance in Sections: In columnar crystals, fre- 

* Microscopical Physiography of the Rock-Making Minerals^ Rosenbusch, Id- 
dings' translation, p. 95, 


quently in staff-like individuals in bunched or radiating aggre- 
gates. Cross-sections of crystals are hexagonal in shape or show 
the outline of a spherical triangle. 

Parallel Polarized Light: 

Color, — Varies greatly, grayish blue and brown most common. 

Index of Refraction. — ^97= 1.6240, oip-=^ 1.6444 (Des Cloi- 

Relief — Noticeable against the colorless rock constituents, and 
rough surface. 

Cleavage, — Not noticeable in sections, but there may be irregu- 
lar cracks both transversely and longitudinally. 

Pleochroism and Absorptioft, — Very strong. Distinct even in 
light colored varieties, and increases with the depth of color. The 
color varies from the natural color of the crystal to dark brown or 
almost black, and the crystal becomes darkest when its longitudi- 
nal axis is at right angles to the plane of polarization (or to the 
vertical cross-wire in the eye-piece). The other minerals having 
this very strong absorption are hornblende, dark colored mica and 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction, — Quite strong. 

Polarization Colors, — Rather brilliant. 

Extinction, — As tourmaline is uniaxial, basal sections remain 
dark during rotation of stage. The extinction in all other sections 
is symmetrical, being parallel and at right angles to the longitudi- 
nal axis. 

Convergent Polarized Light : Cross-sections show a sharp 
cross, and the optical character is — . 

Alteration : Not acted on by acids, and does not weather. 

Important Diagnostic Properties : General shape of crystals 
and color. — Pleochroism and strong absorption at right angles to 
longitudinal axis. — Unweathered condition. 

Differentiation : From dark Mica and Hornblende. — By ab- 
sence of cleavage, and by the fact that the greatest absorption 
takes place in tourmaline at right angles to the longitudinal axis, 
while in mica and hornblende it takes place approximately parallel 
to the cleavage lines, which, in hornblende, are parallel to the lon- 
gitudinal axis. 


Usual Associates in Sections : Quartz, orthoclase, mica, stau- 
rolite, garnet, etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : May be character- 
izing accessory in granite. Found also in crystalline schists (espe- 
cially clay schists), crystalline limestones, slate, clastic rocks, etc. 


Including all members of the Chlorite group. 
Anisotropic. Biaxial. Monoclinic. 

The minerals of this group usually appear uniaxial, and crys- 
tallize in part with rhombohedral symmetry and uniaxial optical 

Composition : May be considered as isomorphous mixtures of 
H4(MgFe)3Si20a and H,(MgFeyAlFe)2Si09 (Rosenbusch). 
H., 2 to 3. Sp. gr., 2.65 to 2.97. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : In aggregates of small, flat 
scales of irregular outline, with parallel, laminated structure. 
Sometimes with hexagonal crystallographic outlines. May also 
occur with fibrous structure, or in minute grains, as a pigment in 
other minerals. 

Parallel Polarized Light; 

Color, — Generally green, may vary from greenish white to dark 

Index of Refraction, — e =i.S7S,<^ = i.576 (Haidinger). 

Relief — None. 

Cleavage. — Like mica, very perfect ; parallel to flat face, which 
is considered to be the basal plane. In cross sections appears as 
numerous parallel lines. Plates parallel to cleavage face never 
show cleavage lines. 

Pleochroism, — Varies, being more marked in dark colored varie- 
ties. Basal sections are not pleochrbic, as the mineral is practi- 
cally uniaxial. 

Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction, — Very weak. 

Polarization Colors, — Very low; therefore not noticed, on ac- 
count of natural color of mineral. 


Extinction, — Plates parallel to cleavage generally appear isotro- 
pic, or only show faint illumination. In other sections extinction 
is apparently parallel and at right angles to the cleavage. 


Convergent Parallel Light: Plates parallel to the cleavage 
generally show an indistinct interference cross, which may open 
into two hyperbolas, indicating monoclinic nature of crystallization. 

Alteration : Acted on by hot hydrochloric acid, decomposed 
easily by sulphuric acid. 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Green color and low relief. 
— Faint pleochroism. — No polarization colors. — Symmetrical ex- 
tinction and usual uniaxial character. 

Differentiation : From Serpentine. — By being generally more 
pleochroic and not having the aggregate structure of serpentine. 

Usual Associates in Sections : Being very often of secondary 
origin, derived from aluminous varieties of mica, pyroxene, amphi- 
bole, garnet, etc., it is often found with these minerals and also 
with magnetite. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones ; Very widely dissem- 
inated in rocks. Found in granite and gneiss as a rare character- 
izing accessory, in chlorite schists as an essential constituent, and 
also in diorite, diabase, serpentine and clay slates. 

Economic Effect in Building Stones : The characteristic color 
which gives the name of greenstone to the dio rites and diabases is 
due principally to the secondary chlorite contained in them. 

Viridite : 

A name used for a green decomposition product related to chlo- 
rite and serpentine. 


Anisotropic. Biaxial. Orthorhombic. 

Composition: Fe(A10)4(A10H)(Si04)2, but varying, may con- 
tain Mg or Mn. H., 7 to 7.5. Sp. gr., 3.65 to 3.75. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : As single individuals or twins, 
may assume form of grains. Forms and twinning at 90° and 1 20*^ 
like the macroscopic crystals. Absence of elongated forms cha- 

Cross sections acutely rhombic or almost hexagonal, longitudi- 
nal sections rectangular. 

The twinning often only recognized optically. 


Parallel Polarized Light : 

Color, — Yellowish to reddish-brown. 

Index of Refraction. — ?p = 1.749 (^^s Cloizeaux). 

Relief, — Very high and rough surface. 

Cleavage, — Variable. Prismatic cleavage may appear, also a 
pinacoidal cleavage parallel to the short diagonal. 

Parting. — Occurs parallel to the base oP (ooi). 

Pleochroism. — Distinct but not strong, may be more marked 
around interpositions. In the direction of c, reddish; in the direc- 
tion of a and b, yellowish red, or with tinge of green. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction. — Strong. 

Polarisation Colors. — Brilliant even in very thin sections. 

Extinction. — Symmetrical, being parallel and at right angles to 
cleavage cracks and longitudinal axis, except in cross sections, 
when It bisects the prism and cleavage angles. 

Alteration : Not acted on by hydrochloric acid, partially solu- 
ble in sulphuric acid. Decomposition rare. 

Important Diagnostic Properties: Characteristic shape and 
twin structure like macroscopic crystals. — Yellowish brown color. 
Strong relief and rough surface. — Faint pleochroism. — Brilliant 
polarization colors. — Generally fresh appearance. 

Differentiation: From Titanite. — In convergent light, the 
axial plane is shown to be in the longer diagonal of the cross sec- 
tion, while in titanite it is in the shorter diagonal. 

Usual Associates in Sections: Quartz, orthoclase, cyanite, 
mica, garnet, etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : In Archaean rocks, 
gneiss, especially in mica schists, slates, etc. 

Not found in schists, rich in amphibole, or in eruptive rocks. 

Enstatite and Hypersthene. 

Anisotropic Biaxial. Orthorhombic- 

Composition: (Mg Fe) SiOj. Hypersthene contains more iron 


than enstatite, and the optical character of hypersthene begins to 
show with 10 per cent, of iron. 

Resembling the Monoclinic Pyroxenes in sections and dis- 
tinguished from them by the following characters : 

Columnar or fibrous structure common. 

Colors vary a little more than in the monoclinic pyroxenes, be- 
cause, on account of the strong pleochroism, the color depends a 
good deal on the position of the section relative to the crystallo- 
graphic axes. 

In addition to the prismatic cleavage (angle 92°) the massive 

varieties show a good parting parallel to the brachy pinacoid 

oc P a (010), and there may be also an imperfect parting parallel 

to the macro pinacoid oc P a (100). (Dialjage shows parting 

parallel to the ortho pinacoid or. P 6c (100), but is not pleochroic). 

May contain inclusions of the iron ores and metallic or sub- 
metallic scales (generally brownish), arranged in regular order and 
giving metallic sheen to the cleavage faces. 

Pleochroism, which is more intense as the iron percentage in- 
creases, is generally noticed as producing a decided change in 
color (in case of hypersthene from brownish red to greenish, paral- 
lel to c axis). 

Extinction always symmetrical, being parallel to the pinacoidal 
cleavages, and bisecting the angles of the intersecting prismatic 

Alteration : 

ArHficial.-^-lvi general not attacked by acids. Hypersthene 
partly soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Natural [weathertftg), — Alters to fibrous aggregates of bastite or 
to serpentine, limonite, amphibole, etc. Hypersthene withstands 
decomposition better than enstatite. 

Usual Associates in Sections : Plagioclase, augite, chrysolite, 
magnetite, etc., less frequently with hornblende, biotite, quartz, etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones: Rare in quartzose 
rocks. Enstatite in norites, gabbros, peridotites, etc., and in chry- 
solite, basaltic and Archaean rocks, trachytes and andesites. Hy- 
persthene in the more basic members of the granular eruptive rocks, 
gabbros, norites, etc., and in porphyritic trachytes, andesites and 
lavas. Hypersthene is found with plagioclase (labradorite) in the 
norite, called " Au Sable granite." 



Anisotropic. Biaxial. Orthorhombic. 

Composition: (MgFe)2Si04. H., 6.5 to 7. Sp. gr., 3.27 to 

Usual Appearance in Sections: Tabular crystals, incipient 
forms of growth, grains or granular aggregates. Longitudinal 
sections more or less lath shaped, with corners truncated. Out- 
lines of crystals often rounded or corroded. 

Parallel Polarized Light: 

Color, — Nearly colorless to greenish white ; may appear reddish 
when altering. 

Index of Refraction. — ^^^ = 1.678. 

Relief, — Strong, with rough surface. 

Cleavage, — More or less distinct parallel to the brachy oc P dc 
(010) and macro oc P oc (100) pinacoids. 

There is also an irregular fracturing, which increases with the 
alteration into serpentine. 

hiclusions, — The iron ores, etc., frequent. 

Pleochroism, — In general, none. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols: 

Double Refraction — Very strong. 
Polarization Colors, — Brilliant. 

Extinction, — Always symmetrical, being parallel and at right 
angles to cleavage lines. 

Alteration : 

Artificial, — Decomposed by hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, 
with separation of gelatinous silica. 

Natural [weathering), — These processes are very important. 

1°. Proper weathering. 

2°. Alteration into serpentine, which is most common. The 
alteration starts from the surface and cracks, producing fibres of 
serpentine, which stand at right angles to the edges and cracks. 
As serpentization proceeds, new cracks form, due to increase in 
volume, and process may continue until a complete net of serpen- 
tine fibres is formed, replacing the chrysolite. Observations show 
that under present conditions this strong tendency to decompose 
into serpentine may not take place.* 

* Article on " Building Stones,*' Tenth U. S. Census. 


3°. Alteration into fibrous amphibole. 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Colorless to greenish 
white. — High relief and rough surface. — Pinacoidal cleavage, 
irregular fracturing and alteration into serpentine. — Brilliant polar- 
ization colors. — Symmetrical extinction. 

Differentiation : 

(a) From Orthorhombic Pyroxenes. — By absence of prismatic 
cleavage and pleochroism. 

(b) From light-colored Monoclinic Pyroxenes. — By symmet- 
rical extinction. 

(c) From Sanidine. — By rough surface and brilliant polarization 

(d) From minerals of similar habit. — By test for gelatiniza- 

Usual Associates in Sections : Augite, plagioclase, nephelite, 
hornblende, biotite, magnetite, etc. Almost never with primary 
quartz and orthoclase. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : In basaltic rocks, 
traps and crystalline schists. Also in dolomitic limestone and ser- 

lOLITE, Cordierite , Dichroite. 

Anisotropic. Biaxial. Orthorhombic. 

Composition: Mg3(AlFe)gSi8028. H., 7 to 7.5. Sp. gr., 2.6 
to 2.66. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : In grains, sometimes in crys- 

Parallel Polarized Light : 

Color. — Generally colorless; more rarely yellowish, blue, or 
violet, depending on position of section. 

Index of Refraction. — ^ = 1. 541 (approx.). 

Relief — None, and plain surface. 

Cleavage. — Very variable, sometimes observed in thin sections 
parallel to brachy pinacoid a P oc (010). 

An irregular parting often seen. 

Pleochrotsm. — Hardly noticed in thin sections, but often quite 

* Microscopical Physiography of the Rock Making Minerals^ Rosenbusch, Iddings* 
translation, p. 95. 

312 Tllh QUARTERLY. 

strong in thick sections from the prism zone (from yellowish white 
or brown to blue). 

Pleochroic halos, surrounding microscopic inclusions, are com- 
mon and bright yellow in color. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction, — Weak. 

Polarization Colors, — Seldom exceed yellow of the ist order, 
generally blue, gray, and white tones, like quartz. 

Extinction. — Symmetrical when cleavage shows, taking place 
parallel and perpendicular to cleavage cracks. 

Alteration : 

Artificial. — Only slightly acted on by acids. 

Natural (feathering). — Readily alters to more or less fibrous 
or lamellar aggregates, or to yellowish or greenish products. The 
decomposition commences along the crevices. 

Differentiation : From Quartz. — By treating section with hy- 
drofluosilicic acid; when the evaporated solution yields char- 
acteristic prismatic crystals of magnesium fluosilicate. By presence 
of decomposition along the crevices, and by pleochroism in thick 

Usual Associates in Sections : Quartz, orthoclase, plagio- 
clase, garnet, biotite, the iron ores, etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : May be character- 
izing accessory in granite (rare), but its real home is in the gneiss 
formation, cordierite-gneiss. 


Including the monoclinic minerals of the Pyroxene family, which 
show distinctly the characteristic cleavage parallel to an almost 
right angled prism. 

Anisotropic. Biaxial. Monoclinic. 

Composition : RSiOj, R = Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Al chiefly. 
H., 5 to 6. Sp. gr., 3.2 to 3.6. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : In irregularly bounded in- 
dividuals, well developed crystals, grains, and acicular microliths. 
Prism angle = 87° 6' (important in cross-sections). 

Habit varies with the chemical composition, following the 
general rule: 


Pyroxenes of the diopside and acmite series, long columnar 
crystals with subordinate prism planes. 

Pyroxenes of the atigite series, short prismatic crystals and 

Dicdlage ^tn^x^Xy shows fibrous structure parallel to the vertical 
c axis. 

Sections nearly at right angles to the vertical c axis are octago- 
nal or square with truncated corners, while those parallel to the 
c axis are lath-shaped. 

Twinning. — Common, usually the twining plane is the ortho 
pinacoid oc Poc (100). 

Parallel Polarized Light : 

Color, — From almost colorless through green to brown, may 
even be violet. The common pyroxene in granite, etc., generally 
green, in eruptive rocks generally greenish black. 

Index of Refraction. — /5 = 1.70 (augite from Borislau by 

Relief — Strong, and rough surface. 

Cleavage, — More or less perfect parallel to prism of 87° 06'. The 
cleavage cracks are distinct and numerous, but do not generally 
run uninterruptedly through crystal. In some basaltic rocks there 
are augites showing no cleavage. The cleavage is not so perfect 
as that of amphibole. 

Parting, — Diallage has distinct parting parallel to the ortho 
pinacoid oc P <x (100). Long prismatic crystals may show an ir- 
regular parting approximately at right angles to the vertical c 

Inclusions, — Tabular microscopic interpositions, similar to those 
in bronzite, may occur in diallage. The iron- ores, apatite, etc., 
may occur in augite. 

Pleochroism,'^\is^\2\\y feeble, and in general only shows itself as 
different shades of the body color. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction. — Strong. 

Polarization Colors. — Brilliant, especially noticed in the colorless 

Extinction, — The extinction is always symmetrical in sections 
showing intersecting cleavage lines, when it bisects the angles of 
the cleavage. The extinction, in sections showing parallel cleavage 


lines, is only symmetrical when the section is parallel to the ortho 
pinacoid oc P <x (lOo); in all other sections an extinction angle is 

The extinction angle is large in all pyroxenes except acmite,* 
and varies with the chemical composition from 36° 30' to 54®. 

The maximum extinction angle is only obtained when the sec- 
tion of the crystal is parallel to the clino pinacoid oc Poc (010), 
and it varies from this angle to 0°, when the section is parallel to 
the ortho pinacoid oc P^ (lOo). 

Alteration : 

Artificial. — In general not attacked by acids. 

Natural {zveathering). — The processes of alteration are very dif- 
ferent, depending on the chemical composition ; the ferruginous 
varieties being apt to decay more rapidly than those poor in iron. 

Diopside (Ca, Mg pyroxene) may alter to greenish, fibrous, 
serpentme aggregates. 

Diallage (near diopside in composition, often containing Al) 
may alter to serpentine or chlorite, with more or less calcite and 

Augite (Ca, Mg, Fe, Al pyroxene) generally alters to chlorite, 
or may change by further alteration to mixtures of carbonates, 
limonite, epidote, clay and quartz. 

Uralitization may take place, which is a change into amphibole 
with the amphibole cleavage, while retaining the exterior shape of 

Pyroxene seems more likely to decay than amphibole.f 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Greenish or brown color. — 
Rather strong relief — Prismatic cleavage of nearly 90°. — Very 
slight pleochroism. — Brilliant polarization colors. — Characteristic 
large extinction angle 36° 30' to 54°. 

Differentiation : 
• {a) From the Orthorhombic Pyroxenes. — By usually much 
fainter pleochrism, and by characteristic extinction angle. The 
orthorhombic pyroxenes always have symmetrical extinction. 

{b) From Amphibole — See under amphibole. 

[c) From Epidote. — By examination in convergent light. The 

* Acmite, the soda pyroxene, has small extinction angle 4** -5°, and is not very 

f John Smock, Bull. A'. K S.ate Mus.^ No. 10, 1890. 


plane of the optic axes being parallel to the longitudinal axis and 
cleavage cracks, while in epidote it is at right angles. The maxi- 
mum extinction angle is also larger. 

Usual Associates in Sections: Augite with plagioclase, mag- 
netite, nephelite, chrysolite, biotite, etc., more rarely with ortho- 
clase, hornblende and quartz. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : Among the most 
widely distributed of the rock-forming minerals. Found in granite, 
gneiss, crystalline schists, diabase, gabbro, trap, basalt, limestone, 
serpentine, etc. 

Economic Effect in Building Stones : 

Granite. — May be present, as characterizing accessory. More 
abundant than generally supposed, and formerly often taken for 
hornblende, with which it is frequently associated in the same 

Pyroxene is more brittle than hornblende, has not so easy a 
cleavage, and, during process of dressing the stone, is more apt to 
crack or chip out apd pit the surface. It is also more likely to 
occur in bunches than hornblende. 

Pyroxene granite is therefore not so durable as hornblende 
granite, and it is important to distinguish between them. The 
Quincy granite contains very brittle pyroxene. 

Trap and Basalt. — Essential constituent with plagioclase. The 
rock is compact, tough, dark in color, and used for paving ; but, 
on account of smallness of blocks and difficulty of working, these 
rocks are not much used for buildings. 

AMPHIBOLE, Hornblende. 

Anisotropic. Biaxial. Monoclinic. 

Composition : R4(SiOs)4, with R = Ca, Mg, Fe chiefly, also 
may contain Al, Na, Mn. H., 5 to 6. Sp. gr., 2.9 to 3.4. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : Without regular crystallo- 
graphic boundaries, except in porphyritic rocks. Crystals simple 
in form of prismatic habit, with prism angle of 124° 30'. Some 
varieties have tendency to form long blade like crystals. Often 
fibrous. Intergrowths with pyroxene and biotite occur. Cross 
sections are acutely rhombic, generally with acute angles truncated. 
Longitudinal sections are lath shaped, and ends may be frayed out 


instead of terminated by planes. Crystals less often microlitic than 

Twinning. — Frequent, parallel to the ortho pinacoid oc P oc (loo). 

Parallel Polarized Light : 

Color, — From colorless, through green to brown.* Common 
hornblende generally green. 

Index of Refraction. — ^/i= 1.642 (common hornblende from 

Relief. — Quite considerable, but not so great as pyroxene. 

Cleavage, — Pefect, parallel to the prism of 124*^ 30'. Generally 
appears in thin sections as sharp cracks crowded closely together. 
More perfect than in pyroxene. 

Inclusions. — The iron-ores, apatite, etc., may be found in com- 
mon hornblende. 

Pleochroism. — All colored amphiboles show pleochroism, which 
is stronger the darker the color of the variety. The differences of 
absorption are very marked, being greatest in the general direc- 
tion of the cleavage lines, in longitudinal sections. Marked differ- 
ences in absorption are also characteristic of the mineral species 
biotite, tourmaline, and allanite. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Cross Nicols : 

Double Refraction. — Quite strong. 

Polarization Colors. — Ratlier bright. 

Extinction. — Is always symmetrical in sections showing inter- 
secting cleavage lines, when it bisects the angle of the cleavage. 
In sections showing parallel cleavage lines, it is only symmetrical 
when the section has been taken parallel to the ortho pinacoid 
oc P oc (100). In all other sections an extinction angle is observed. 
This extinction angle is smaller than in pyroxene, varying with 
the chemical composition from o°-20°. In common hornblende 
15^-18° ; in the basaltic hornblendes o°-io°. The maximum ex- 
tinction angle is only obtained when the section of the crystal is 
parallel to the clino pinacoid ocPoc (010), and it varies from this 
angle to 0°, when the section is parallel to the ortho pinacoid 
oc P oc (100). 

Alteration : 

Artificial, — In general not affected by acids. 

Natural {weathering). — The processes of alteration differ, de- 

* Glaucophane, the soda amphibole, is blue. 


pending on the chemical composition. The more highly ferrugin- 
ous varieties are apt to decompose more rapidly than those poorer 
in iron. 

Tremolite (Ca, Mg amphibole) into talc. 

Actinolite (Ca, Mg, Fe amphibole) sometimes decomposed to 
serpentine like matter. 

Common hornblende (Ca, Mg, Fe, Al amphibole), into chlorite, 
with secretion of epidote or calcite and quartz. The hornblende 
frays out and becomes fibrous during this change into chlorite. 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Green to brown color. — 
Perfect cleavage parallel to prism of 124° 30^ — Strong pleochro- 
ism and absorption. — Bright polarization colors. — Extinction angle 
0° to 20°. 

Differentiation : 

{a) From Pyroxene. — By much stronger pleochroism, absorp- 
tion, and by cleavage and extinction angle. In pyroxene the 
cleavage is less perfect, and is parallel to prism of 2>7^ Q6'y and the 
extinction angle is much larger, varying from 36° to 54°. 

{b) From Biotite. — By the extinction in the latter being about 
parallel and normal to the cleavage. Both have strong pleochro- 
ism and absorption, but biotite shows very slight pleochroism in 
sections parallel to the cleavage. 

(c) From Tourmaline, — By presence of cleavage, and by the 
fact that absorption is most marked about parallel to the longitu- 
dinal axis (also to cleavage lines), while in tourmaline the absorp- 
tion is strongest at right angles to the longitudinal axis. 

(d) From the Orthorhombic Pyroxenes. — By extinction angle, 
the latter always having symmetrical extinction. Pleochroism is 
strong in the colored varieties of both species, but in amphibole 
it appears more generally as a variation in the body color; while 
in the orthorhombic pyroxenes a change in color is often noticed 
(in case of hypersthene, from brownish red to greenish parallel to 
c axis). 

Usual Associates in Sections : Orthoclase, plagioclase, quartz, 
biotite, more rarely with augite and olivine (tremolite with calcite). 

•Xieneral Occurrence in Building Stones : Amphibole comes 
next to pyroxene in importance and distribution of the dark col- 
ored ferruginous rock forming minerals, and is supposed to differ 

from pyroxene by having formed from slowly cooling magma. 
VOL XV. — 22 


As a rule, hornblende occurs in rocks with a large percentage of 
silica, associated with quartz and orthoclase; while augite generally 
occurs in rocks of a basic nature, associated with plagioclase and 
little or no free silica. Found in granite, syenite, gneiss, diorite, 
schists, crystalline limestone ; sparingly in sandstone, serpentine, 
etc. May occur in granite with dark mica, but never with light 
muscovite (Haw's Lith, of New Hampshire). 

Economic EfTect in Building Stones: 

Granite and Gneiss. — Characterizing accessory, and generally 
in granular form of a dark green or black color. It is tough and 
less brittle than pyroxene (having better cleavage), and takes a 
better polish. Hornblende granite is, therefore, generally pre- 
ferred to pyroxene granite. It is easier to polish than mica, and, 
unless showing a tendency to decompose, is usually considered to 
be a good thing in granite. 

Syenite. — Essential constituent with orthoclase. It is tough 
and acts as a good binding material, making syenite a good stone 
to withstand shocks.* 

Diorite, also known as trap or greenstone. — Essential with 
plagioclase. Gives dark color to rock, and being tough and dura- 
ble makes rock also durable; but, on account of smallness of 
blocks and difficulty of working, these rocks are not much used 
for building. 


Biotite, Phlogopite, Muscovite. 
Anisotropic. Biaxial. Monoclinic. 

May appear hexagonal or orthorhombic. 

Composition : 

Biotite (black mica) = (HK)2(MgFe)2Al2(Si04)3, approx. 

Phlogopite = a magnesium mica, near biotite, but containing 
little Fe. 

Muscovite (white mica) = H2(KNa)Al2(Si04)3, with some re- 
placement by Mg or Fe. H., 2 to 3. Sp. gr., 2.75 to 3.2. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : Without crystallographic 
boundaries except the basal planes. Notched and jagged shreds, 

* J. L. Greenleaf, Building Stones^ etc^ School of Mines' Quarterly, Vol. I., 
pp. 28 and 52. 


etc. When distinctly crystallized appear in thin hexagonal plates, 
whose plane angles are 120°. 

Parallel Polarized Light: 

Color. — Depends on chemical composition. Biotites, brown, 
green or red to almost opaque. Muscovites and phlogopites, col- 
orless to light yellow to greenish. 

Index of Refraction. — /5 = 1. 541 (muscovite by Bauer). 

Relief — Low, and plain surface. 

Cleavage. — Very perfect parallel to base oP (001). Basal sec- 
tions show no cleavage, but all other sections show many sharp, 
parallel cleavage lines. 

For percussion anH pressure figures, see reference given below.* 
Faults and planes of separation, parallel to lines of pressure figure, 
are common in rock making micas. 

Inclusions. — Very often arranged parallel to lines of pressure 

Pleochroism, — Varies with color, being very strong in the colored 
varieties. All micas show strong absorption about parallel to the 
cleavage-lines. Cleavage-plates are only slightly pleochroic (es- 
pecially in biotite). The same strong absorption is only noticed 
in basaltic hornblende, tourmaline and allanite. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols: 

Double Refraction, — Very strong. ' 

Polarization Colors. — Brilliant. 

Extinction. — About symmetrical, being nearly parallel and at 
right angles to cleavage-lines. Basal sections of biotite (the ap- 
proximately hexagonal mica) may appear isotropic. 

Convergent Polarized Light : Basal cleavage plates always 
show brilliant interference figures, generally biaxial in character. 
The axial angles vary greatly, being usually small for biotite (may 
appear uniaxial) and large for muscovite. 

Alteration : 

Artificial. — Biotites and phlogopites attacked by sulphuric acid 
at high temperatures. Muscovites but slightly attacked by acids. 

Natural (iveathering). — Biotites decompose quite easily, lose 
color and may become completely bleached ; this appears to be 

* Microscopical Physiography of Rock Making MineralSy Rosenbusch, Iddings' 
Translation, p. 256. 


due to a leaching out of the iron. May alter to green chlorite, 
with a fraying out of the mica, or may finally turn into a mixture 
of carbonates or epidote with the iron ores and quartz. 

Phlogopites may alter to fibrous, scaly masses, apparently chiefly 

Muscovites are characterized by their freshness, and do not seem 
to suffer from weathering. 

Important Diagnostic Properties : General absence of crys- 
tallographic boundaries. — Perfect basal cleavage. — Strong absorp- 
tion, and strong pleochroism in colored varieties. — Almost sym- 
metrical extinction. 

Differentiation : 

( a) From Hornblende. — Black mica has extinction about 
parallel and normal to the cleavage, while hornblende may have 
extinction angle of from o° to 20°. Both have strong pleochroism 
and absorption, but biotite shows very slight pleochroism in sec- 
tions parallel to the cleavage. 

{b) From Chlorite. — By bright polarization colors, and gener- 
ally stronger pleochroism. 

{c) From other minerals by perfect basal cleavage. 

Usual Associates in Sections: Biotite (black mica) with 
quartz, feldspar, hornblende, augite, magnetite, etc.; intergrown 
with muscovite in true granite only. 

Phlogopite with calcite, serpentine, etc. 

Muscovite (white mica) with quartz, feldspar, tourmaline, etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : Biotite found in 
nearly all rocks, common in granite, gneiss, schists, etc. ; also in 
the eruptive rocks. 

Phlogopite found chiefly in crystalline limestones and serpen- 

Muscovite found in granite, gneiss, schists, sandstone, clays and 
slates ; but not in the volcanic massive rocks. 

Economic Effect of the Micas in Building Stones : 
Granite. — One of the characterizing accessory minerals with 
quartz and feldspar. The mica may be black or white and help to 
give color to the granite. It does not polish or keep its polish so 
well as quartz and feldspar, owing to its greater softness. It is 
better to have it distributed uniformly in rocks in many small 
crystals rather than in a few large plates. Foliated structure may 


be caused by parallel position of the plates, resulting in lines of 
weakness. The ferruginous micas are more apt to decay than the 
other component minerals. 

According to Rosenbusch there is usually less quartz and more 
plagioclase irt biotite granite than in muscovite granite. 

Gneiss. — May contain large percentage, and being stratified is 
more likely to split than granite. 

Mica Schist. — Essential together with quartz. When rock is 
fine grained and compact it makes pretty fair building material ; 
but poor if coarse grained, especially if the mica is of the black or 
ferruginous variety. 

Sandstone. — Occurs as an impurity ; but may even give char- 
acter to the stone, and render it liable to easy decay, especially if 
of the ferruginous variety (biotite). 

In the sandstone of Trinity Church, N. Y., the micas are the 
most decayed of all the minerals, and the decay seems to have 
progressed in the more weathered portions,* 


Anistropic. Biaxial. Monoclinic. 

Composition : Ca2Al2(A10H) (Si04)3, with some Fe replacing Al. 
H., 6 to 7. Sp. gr., 3.25 to 3.5. 
Usual Appearance in Sections : In columns, more or less 

elongated parallel to ortho axis b, or in irregular grains or aggre- 

Parallel Polarized Light : 

Co/or. — From almost colorless through pale yellow to pale 

Index of Refraction.— ?P = 1.754 (Klein). 

Relief — Strong, and rough surface. 

Cleavage, — Perfect parallel to the base oP (00 1), shows in sharp 
cracks which are however^not very numerous, and appear parallel 
to the general direction of extension. 

Cleavage may also appear parallel to ortho pinacoid (xP 6c 

Pleochroism, — Varies with the color, being faint in the light col- 

* Thomas Egleston, Ph.D. "The Cause and Prevention of Decay of Building 
Stones,*' Trans, Am, Soc. C.E,^ Vol. XV., 1886. 


ored ones. In crystals from Sulzbach it is very strong, green to 
colorless or light yellow. Not so strong as in hornblende. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction. — Very strong. 

Polarization Colors, — Brilliant. 

Extinction. — Symmetrical to the cleavage in sections parallel to 
the direction of elongation. In other sections the extinction angle 
may vary from o° to 28.® 

Alteration : Partially decomposed by hydrochloric acid. Not 
readily altered by weathering. 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Color yellowish to green- 
ish. — Strong relief and rough surface. — Faint pleochroism. — 
Polarization colors brilliant. 

Differentiation : 

(a) From light-colored Monoclinic Pyroxene. — By parallel 
extinction in elongated sections, and by extinction angles being 
smaller than those of pyroxene in other sections. By having plane 
of optic axes at right angles to cleavage lines (running parallel to 
longitudinal axis), while in pyroxene plane of optic axes is parallel 
to prismatic cleavage lines. 

[b) From Chlorite. — By relief and general appearance of 

Usual Associates in Sections: Feldspars, biotite, hornblende, 
augite (more rarely), quartz, chlorite, etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : It is essentially a 
decomposition product, resulting from the alteration of the feld- 
spars, and a side product of the chloritization of calcium, iron and 
magnesium silicates. 

May be present in granite as characterizing accessory, as at 
Dedham, Mass. Common in many crystalline rocks, as syenite, 
gneiss, schists (especially those containing hornblende), serpentine, 
etc. ; and may be present in slates as decomposition product. 

TITANITE, Sphene. 

Anisotropic. Biaxial. Monoclinic. 

Composition: CaSiTiOg. H., 5 to 5.5. Sp. gr., 3.4 to 3.56. 

Usual Appearance in Sections: Well crystallized in wedge 
shaped cr>stals, or in irregular grains. The sections are com- 
monly acute rhombs or long lath like shapes. 


Twinning. — Only seen between crossed nicols, when the twin- 
ning boundary bisects the acute angles of the rhomb. 

Parallel Polarized Light: 

Color. — Colorless to yellowish or reddish brown, may be only 

htdex of Refraction. — ^ = 1.905 — I.910. 

Relief — Very high, and rough surface. 

Cleavage. — Imperfect {)arallel to the prism, only appears as a 
few rough cracks. As the prism is not a predominant form the 
cleavage cracks are not parallel to any crystallographic boundary, 
which fact is characteristic of titanite. 

Pleochroism. — Varies with the color, being more distinct in col- 
ored crystals. Not so distinct as that of hornblende. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction. — Not yet measured, but does not appear to 
be great. 

Polarization Colors. — Not generally noticeable on account of the 
strong dispersion. 

Extinction. — Extinction angles are noticed, but are not charac- 
teristic. There may be no complete extinction in white lights 
owing to the strong axial dispersion. 

Alteration : 

Artificial. — Partly soluble in hot hydrochloric acid, completely 
decomposed by sulphuric acid. 

Natural {weathering). — When decomposing it bleaches, loses 
lustre, the lime separates out and a dull alteration product remains. 

Important Diagnostic Properties: Strong relief and rough 
surface. — Common acute rhombic shape of section. — Cleavage not 
parallel to any crystallographic outline. 

Differentiation : From Staurolite. — In convergent light the 
axial plane is shown to be in the shorter diagonal of the cross- 
section, while in staurolite it is the longer diagonal. 

Usual Associates in Sections . Orthoclase, plagioclase, 
augite, hornblende, biotite, chlorite, quartz, etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : Only as an acces- 
sory in granite, syenite, gneiss, schists, diorite, granular limestone, 
etc. According to Frazer it seems to be a necessary accessory 
mineral in the amphibole granites and syenite. It also occurs in 
the Archaean rocks rich in MgO and FeO. 



Orthoclase, Microcline and the Plagioclases. 


Anisotropic. Biaxial. Monoclinic. 

Composition : KAlSijOe, with some roplacetnent by Na. 
H., 6 to 6.5. Sp. gr., 2.44 to 2.62. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : Without regular crystallo- 
graphic boundaries. Rarely in rods. May appear in well defined 
crystals in porphyrttic rocks, with habit of crystals more or less 
tabular parallel to the clino pinacoid oc P oS (010), or rectangular 
much extended parallel to the clino (a) axis. Intergrowths with 
microcline and plagioclase important. 

Twinning, — Very common, generally after the Carlsbad law. 
The twinning boundary more or less divides the section longitud- 
inally, being parallel to the edges of the crystal, or is an irregularly 
bent or jagged line. Twinning after other laws less common.* 

Parallel Polarized Light: 

Color, — Colorless, or tinged red by oxide of iron. 

Index of Refraction. — /5/> = 1.5239 (Des Cloizeaux). 

Relief, — None, and smooth surface. 

Cleavage, — Very important. Perfect parallel to base oP (ooi) 
and clino pinacoid oc P oc (oio>. The cleavage lines are only seen 
in thin sections, and are parallel or intersect at angles of from 90® 
to 63° 53'. Not, as a rule, so distinct as the cleavage of mica, 
hornblende, etc. 

Pleochroism, — None. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction. — Very weak. 

Polarisation Colors. — Faint, gray to yellow, not so bright as 
colors of quartz and plagioclase. 

Extinction. — The extinction angles, with reference to the cleav- 
age lines, vary from 0° (in sections parallel to the ortho axis) to 
3°-7® (rarely 12°) in other sections. Hence, as a rule, extinction 
angles are small. 

* Microscopical Physiography of the Rock Making Minerals^ Rosenbusch, Iddings' 
translation, p. 278 


Alteration : 

Artificial. — Practically insoluble in acids. 

Natural {weathering), — Leaching out of the potash produces an 
alteration into kaolin* or muscovite. The alteration generally 
commences along the cleavage cracks, producing aggregates of a 
perfectly uniform, colorless substance, strongly doubly refracting. 
When the alteration has progressed very far the whole feldspar 
appears opaque or cloudy, and no perceptible change takes place 
between crossed nicols. Epidote is often noticed as a decompo- 
sition product. 

Important Diagnostic Properties: Generally without crys- 
tallographic boundaries. — Commonly twinned. — Low relief — 
Cleavage. — Low polarization colors. — Frequently more or less de- 

Usual Associates in Sections : Quartz, biotite, muscovite and 
hornblende ; more rarely augite and plagioclase. 

Gene^ral Occurrence in Building Stones : Found as the pre- 
vailing feldspar in granite (rich in quartz), syenite, gneiss, crystal- 
line schists, etc. May also be present in limited quantity in sand- 
stone, limestone, clays and slates. 


This glassy, clear variety of orthoclase, occurs in the later erup- 
tive rocks; while orthoclase occurs in the older massive and 
Archaean rocks. Sanidine often has a rude parting parallel to the 
ortho pinacoid oc P ex (100), which may be noticed in sections so 
thick that the cleavage is not seen. It often encloses associated 
minerals, and intergrowths with plagioclase are common. In gen- 
eral it shows no sign of decomposition, and its associates are the 
same as those found with orthoclase, with the addition of augite, 
nephelite and leucite. 


Anisotropic. Biaxial. Triclinic. 

Composition: KAlSijOg. H. 6 to 6.5. Sp. gr., 2.54 to 2.57. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : As a rock constituent in irreg- 
ular grains, never in regular crystals. Grains are scarcely ever 

* This change to kaolin in granite called by Dolomieu " La maladie du graniij'^ 


simple individuals, but polysynthetic masses, twinned after the 
Albite and Pericline laws. The lamellae are microscopic in thick- 
ness. Intergrowths with orthoclase and albite are frequent. 

The general characters and alteration are the same as with or- 

Differentiation : 

(a) From Orthoclase. — The extinction angle, on the base oP 
(ooi), with the cleavage parallel to the clino pinacoid oc P oT 
(oio) is + 15° 30'f while in orthoclase it is 0°. This can only be 
easily observed in simple crystals. 

(b) From all other Feldspars.— All sections, except those par- 
allel to the clino pinacoid oc P yT (010), show between crossed 
nicols the characteristic gridiron structure or crossed rectangular 
grating of microcline. Lamellae are not generally so broad as in 
the plagioclases. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : With orthoclase, 
often almost replacing it in granite, syenite, gneiss, etc. Formerly 
classed as orthoclase. Important in Egyptian granite, less fre- 
quent in quartz and other porphyries. 


Albite, Oligoclase, Labradorite, Anorthite. 
Anisotropic. Biaxial. Triclinic. 


Albite, Na Al SiA- 

Oligoclase, n (Na Al SijOg) -f Ca AlgSijOg, « = 2 to 6. 

Labradorite, Na Al SijOg + n (Ca AlgSijOg), « = i, 2 or 3. 

Anorthite, Ca Al^SijOg. 

H., 6 to 7. Sp. gr., 2.59 to 2.72. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : Not always with crystallo- 
graphic boundaries. Well-defined crystals, resembling those of 
orthoclase, occur only in porphyritic rocks. Dimensions of pla- 
gioclase crystals vary greatly from microlitic upwards. 

Lath-shaped forms very common, especially in basaltic rocks. 

Iwinning, — Polysynthetic twinning, after the Albite law, is very 
common. The twinning appears between crossed nicols as a se- 
ries of dark and light bands, which seem to be broader in the 
basic than in the acid series. The twinning is not observed in 


sections parallel to the brachy pinacoid oc P ot (010). In some 
cases polysynthetic twinning, after both the Albite and Pericline 
laws, may take place at the same time, giving rise to a structure 
similar to that of microcline. 

Parallel Polarized Light : 

Color, — Colorl ess. 

Indices of Refraction, — About the same as for balsam. 

Relief — None. 

Cleavage. — Perfect parallel to the base oP (001) and brachy 
pinacoid oc P S (010). The cleavage cracks appear in thin sec- 
tions, and never intersect at right angles, as may be the case in 

Pleockroism. — None. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction. — Not very strong. 

Polarisation Colors. — A little brighter than for orthoclase. 

Extinction. — As these minerals are triclinic, extinction will take 
place in all sections unsymmetrically with respect to crystallo- 
graphic or cleavage lines, hence, extinction angles will always be 

For characteristic extinction angles measured on the cleavage 
sections, see Microscopical Physiography of Rock-Making Minerals, 
Rosenbusch (Iddings' translation) p. 299. 

General Rules Regarding Extinction Angles. — Small extinction- 
angles (under 10®) in all sections indicate oligoclase. 

Large extinction- angles (over 30°) in all sections indicate anor- 

Medium extinction-angles (5° to 20°) in all sections indicate 
albite and labradorite. 

These rules apply to microlites, which are usually elongated 
parallel to the brachy axis (a), as well as to crystals. 

These extinction-angles are to be measured from the cleavage- 
lines or the traces of the planes of composition in twin crystals. 

Alteration . 

Artificial. — Anorthite and labradorite, niore or less decomposed 
by hydrochloric acid. Albite and oligoclase not acted on by 
hydrochloric acid. 

Natural [weathering). — The alteration processes are partly the 
same as in orthoclase, forming kaolin, musco^ite, etc. Calcite is 
more common as a side-product. 


The basic feldspars appear to decompose more easily than the 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Generally without crys- 
tal! ographic boundaries, lath-shaped form common in some rocks. 
— Polysynthetic twinning, giving series of parallel bands. — Low 
relief. — Cleavage. — Low polarization colors. 

Differentiation : 

{a) From Orthoclase. — By repeated twinning after the Albite 
law, giving between crossed nicols a series of alternate dark and 
light bands, and by polarization colors being a little brighter. 

{F) From Microcline. — By common absence of the microcline 
gridiron structure between crossed nicols. 

Specific gravity separation by use of heavy solutions, and chemi- 
cal and micro- chemical (Boricky's) tests should be used to confirm 
other determinations in differentiating the members of the feldspar 

Usual Associates in Sections : Albite with the granitic min- 
erals, and also intergrown with orthoclase and microcline. Oligo- 
clase with orthoclase, quartz, hornblende, augite, biotite, etc. 
Labradorite with augite, etc., does not seem to occur with ortho- 
cfase and quartz. Anorthite with augite, hypersthene, chrysolite, 
etc., not with quartz. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones: Albite in granites 
and gneisses, especially in those with high percentage of silica, 
also in crystalline schists, rare in eruptive rocks. The twinning 
may be absent. 

Oligoclase very frequent in granites, syenites, gneisses, diorites, 
etc. Twinning almost always shows, and the lamellae are narrow. 

Labradorite confined more to the basic eruptive rocks and to 
crystalline schists rich in amphibole and pyroxene. 

Anorthite in diorites, diabases, gabbros, basalts, etc. 

Economic Effect of the Feldspars in Building Stones. 

Granite. — Feldspar, essential constituent with quartz and mica, 
and the most important from an economic standpoint. The feld- 
spar is usually orthoclase if the granite is rich in quartz and also 
contains hornblende. The feldspar determines the color, appear- 
ance, hardness, quality of polish and probable resistance to decay 
of the granite. The color may be white, gray, flesh-colored, red, 
etc., and at times may be affected by the color of the other compo- 


nent minerals. Granite with large dull crystals of feldspar is not so 
durable as when the crystals are small, bright and homogeneously 
distributed, and very large feldspar crystals may split or chip out 
during the process of cutting or polishing. The hardness and 
toughness of granite for cutting and working depend on the feld- 
spar and not on the quartz, which is brittle and always has a con- 
stant hardness. Undecomposed, compact feldspar makes granite 
hard, while decomposed or porous feldspar makes it soft for 

The colorless feldspar of the red Scotch granite is albite, and 
the common associate of the orthoclase in the gray Scotch granite 
is oligoclase. 

A safe composition for granite is as follows : As few component 
minerals as possible; unaltered orthoclase, as the feldspar, and no 
plagioclase ; relative high percentage of silica ; absence of pyrox- 
ene and large mica plates, and small percentage of light-colored 
hornblende and mica, which, being free from iron, are not likely 
to decompose. 

Granites vary greatly in ability to resist agencies tending lo their 
kaolinization and destruction, and the condition of the feldspar is 
a matter of the greatest importance. 

Causes of decay in granite, — A careful microscopic examination 
might prove kaolinization of the feldspar, due to the solvent 
action of water, to be progressing in granite in buildings ; but 
this has not been definitely determined.* The cause seems to be 
due rather to disintegration of the grains, which have different 
coefficients of expansion, due to exposure to extremes of temper- 
ature, freezing, etc.f The condition of the feldspar when sub- 
jected to these mechanical forces must be considered, as it is more 
liable to disintegration if already kaolinized. Examples, the ob- 
elisks in London and New York.J 

A case of rapid disintegration of granite, subjected to great 
extremes of temperature, was noted by Helmerson, and was 
thought by him to be caused by the presence of large grains of 
plagioclase, which expand and contract unequally in the directions 

* John C. Smock, Bull. N. V. Stale Museum^ No. lo, Vol. II., Sept., 1891. 

t Thomas Egleston, Ph.D., ** Cause and Prevention of Decay in Building Stones," 
Trans. Am, Soc, C. E.^ Vol. XV., 1886. 

J A. A. Julien, "Decay of Building Stones in New York City," N. Y.Acad, Set., 
Jan.- April, 1883. 


of the three crystallographic axes. Example^ the Alexander col- 
umn in St. Petersburgh.* But it seems yet to be proved that 
rocks rich in plagioclase decompose more rapidly than those con- 
taining orthoclase. 

In spite of the " maladie du granit," granite is one of the most 
durable of stones, and is now much used for large buildings. 
Granite " spalls " in large fires, and its fusibility depends on the 
kind of feldspar it contains. 

Syenite. — Feldspar essential constituent with hornblende, and 
determines character in same way as in granite. White or light- 
colored oligoclase is the important triclinic feldspar in Egyptian 

Gneiss. — Feldspar essential constituent as in granite. An exam- 
ple of gneiss is said to exist in Philadelphia, in which the process 
of kaolinization is going on, aided by mechanical disintegration, 
reducing the stone to clay and sand. Paint has been used as a 

Feldspar Porphyry. — Feldspar essential constituent. When 
stone is compact it takes a beautiful polish, and may be stronger 
than granite. t Generally only obtained in small pieces. Decom- 
position occurs, but, so far as is known, only " in situ." 

Diabase, Norite, Diorite, etc. — Plagioclase essential con- 
stituent, together with augite or hornblende, magnetite, etc. These 
rocks are generally darker in color, not so good for beautiful 
buildings and harder to quarry than granite. They may be i^sed 
for paving. 

Sandstone. — Large percentage of feldspathic material maybe 
found in brownstone or sandstone, so much so as even to ^\v^ 
character to the stone and render it liable to easy decomposition, 
especially if the feldspar is kaolinized. The presence of grains of 
kaolinized feldspar may not always be injurious, provided the struct- 
ure of the sandstone is firm and impervious to water. Example^ a 
specimen of sandstone, containing kaolinized feldspar grains, from 
Trinity Church, New York, showed, when examined, that the 
grains had not suffered any further decomposition since the 
** make-up " of the sandstone % 

* Helmerson, Science , Jan. 22, 1886, p. 75. 
f Rankine, Ctvj'I Engineeringj article on " Building Stones." 
J Thomas Egleston, Ph.D., "Cause and Prevention of Decay in Building Stones," 
Trans. Am. Soc, C, E,, Vol. XV., 1886. 


CYANITE, Disthene. 

Anistropic. Biaxial. Triclinic. 

Composition : (AlOjj SiOg. H., 5 to 7. Sp. gr., 3.56 to 3,67. 

Usual Appearance in Sections : As crystals and parallel 
columnar aggregates. Crystals are blade like and elongated par- 
allel to prism axis. Cross-sections show two long parallel edges, 
and four shorter edges. 

Twinning. — Very frequent. 

Parallel Polarized Light : 

Color. — Colorless to bluish. Pigment generally disseminated 
irregularly. May become almost opaque on account of carbona- 
ceous matter. 

Index of Refraction. — Pp = 1.720 (Des Cloizeaux). 

Relief, — High, and rough surface. 

Cleavage, — Very perfect, parallel to macro pinacoid oc P 6c 
(100), forming sharp cracks which are parallel to the longest 
edges in cross-sections. Less distinct parallel to brachy pinacoid 
oc P ^ (010). There is also a parting parallel to the base oP (001). 

Plcochroism, — Only noticed in well colored crystals, colorless to 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction, — Quite strong. 

Polarization Colors, — Rather bright. 

Extinction. — Being triclinic extinction angles are observed in 
all sections, reaching a maximum of 30° to 31° on the macro 
pinacoid a P ^ (100). On the base oP (001) the extinction an- 
gle is very small, measured from the most perfect cleavage. 

Alteration : Not attacked by acids, and weathering seldom ob- 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Colorless to bluish. — High 
relief and rough surface. — Cleavage. — Polarization colors rather 
bright. — Extinction angles always observed. 

Usual Associates in Sections: Garnet, quartz, mica, horn- 
blende, etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : Highly character- 
istic of mica schists, gneisses, etc. , especially if of metamorphoric 



Homogeneous Aggregate. 

Composition : H4Mg3Si20j„ with replacement by Fe. H., 2.5 

to 4. Sp. gr., 2.5 to 2.65. 

Usual Appearance in Sections: Fibrous or laminated in 

Parallel Polarized Light : 

Color, — Greenish, bluish green or yellowish brown, often nearly 

Index of Refraction, — Low, being about the same as balsam. 

Relief, — None, and smooth surface. 

Inclusions, — Pieces of the undecomposed parent mineral are often 
present, giving to the section a mesh-like or net-like appearance. 

Pleochroism, — Very feeble. 

Parallel Polarized Light, Crossed Nicols : 

Double Refraction, — Rather weak. 

Polarization Colors, — Pale bluish gray and neutral tints. The 
aggregate structure is distinctly seen between crossed nicols. 
Fine, confusedly fibrous aggregates may appear isotropic. 

Alteration : Attacked quite strongly by hydrochloric acid, still 
more so by sulphuric acid. 

Important Diagnostic Properties : Yellowish green color. — 
Faint pleochroism. — Aggregate structure between crossed nicols, 
and low polarization colors. 

Differentiation : From Chlorite. By aggregate structures be- 
tween crossed nicols and faint pleochroism. Chlorite has com- 
monly a micaceous structure and is pleochroid, although in certain 
cases very feebly so. 

Usual Associates in Sections : Serpentine is essentially a de- 
composition product, principally from the minerals chrysolite, am- 
phibole, pyroxene, etc. ; and is therefore found with these minerals 
and also with the orthorhombic pyroxenes, garnet, magnetite, 
chromite, chlorite, magnesite, etc. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones : As a massive rock 
and as the result of decomposition in rocks. It may also occur 
mixed with calcite or dolomite, forming the so-called verd-antiquc 
marble or ophiolite. 


- Economic Properties : Serpentine rock is tough, compact and 
of variable color. At the same time it is soft, can be easily carved, 
takes a good polish, and is very available for indoor work. It is 
useless for large buildings on account of its softness ; and when it 
contains calcite as an impurity is unfit for use in cities, as the cal- 
cite will dissolve away, pitting the stone and dulling the polish. 
When, however, it is free from impurities and bad veins, it is non- 
absorbent and not affected by gaseous atmosphere. It is not 
mined much outside of Pennsylvania, and it is not generally pos- 
sible to get it out in large pieces. 

KAOLIN, Clay. 

Earthy Aggregate. 

Composition: H^AlSigOg. H., 2 to 2.5. Sp. gr., 2.6 to 2.63. 

Usual Appearance in Sections: Loose earthy aggregates, 
formed by weathering of feldspars and other silicates. 

Aggregates of kaolin are cloudy and scarcely translucent, and 
no perceptible change takes place between crossed nicols. 

Loose scales are transparent and colorless. 

Index of refraction about the same as Canada balsam. 

Double refraction strong. 

Alteration: Insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acids, decom- 
posed by sulphuric acid. 

Differentiation : From colorless Mica. When in scales is only 
distinguished by proving absence of alkalies chemically. 

General Occurrence in Building Stones, and Economic 
Effect : 

Granite, etc. — May be present as decomposition product, re- 
sulting from alteration of the feldspars. It is injurious, as it ren- 
ders the granite much more liable to disintegration through the 
action of percolating water and frost. 

Sandstone. — May be present and absorb moisture, thereby in- 
creasing the rate of disintegration of the .stone. 

Limestone. — May be present and has injurious effect due to 
absorption of water and expansion. 

Serpentine. — May be present as an impurity. 

Clays and Sijvtes. — Essential constituent. 
VOL. XV. — 23 




A. — The effect of the action of citric acid on the minerals found 
in building stones.* 

Quickly Decomposed. 

Slowly Decomposed. 

Very Slowly 

Not Decomposed. 





(Calcite, Dolomite) 



Cyanite (?) 



Albite (?) 

















These results of actual investigation are of great interest, and 
illustrate very well the undoubted action of organic acids as de- 
composing agents. In some cases the investigations extended 
over long periods of time, even to the extent of two years. 

B. — List of References consulted. 

Bayley, W. S. — Summary of Progress in Mineralogy and Petrog- 
raphy, 1892, pp., 53, 167. On Alteration of Minerals. 

Baird, S. F. — Building Stone Collection. Proc, U. S. Nat. Mu- 
seum, 1 88 1, No. 9, Appendix. 

Caffall, R. M. — Preservation of Building Materials by Paraffin 
as used on Obelisk. Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., November 25, 

Dana. — A System of Mineralogy, 1892 (Wiley). 

* H. Carrington Bolton, " Application of Organic Acids to the Examination of Min- 
erals," (third paper). Proc, Am, Assn./or Advancement of Sci. ^WoX, XXXI., August, 


Egleston, Prof. T. — The Cause and Prevention of Decay of 
Building Stone. Trans. Am. Soc. C. E., vol. xv., 1886. 

ENCYCLOPiEDiA Britannica. — Article on Mineralogy. By M. F. 
Heddle. Vol. xvi., 1883. 

Frazer, p. — Mineralogical and Chemical Examination of the Obe- 
lisk. Trans. Am. Inst. M. E., February, 1883. 

Geikie, PROF.-^Rock Weathering as Illustrated in Edinburgh 
Church Yards. Proc. Roy. Soc. of Edinburgh, Session 1879 
-80, p. 518. 

Greenleaf, J. L. — Building Stones, Their Properties and Classi- 
fication. School of Mines Quarterly, vol. i., pp. 28, 52. 

Hawes and Merrill. — Report on Building Stones of the U. S., 
and Statistics of Quarry Industry for 1880. Tenth Census 
of U. S., vol. X., Washington, 1884. 

Henry, Prof. J. — Mode of Testing Building Materials. Am. 
Jour. Sci. [II.] vol. xxii., p. 30, 1856. 

HussAK AND Smith. — The Determination of. Rock-Forming Min- 
erals, 1886 (Wiley). 

Johnson's Encyclopaedia. — Building Stones and Bibliography. 
Article by J. S. Newberry, 1886. 

Julien, a. a. — Decay of Building Stones of New York City. 
N. Y. Acad. Sci., January-April', 1883. 

Julien. A. A. — Article on the Obelisk as a Decayed Boulder. 
Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. viii., July, 1893, Nos. 1*3. 

Kemp, Prof. J. F. — Lecture Notes on Economic Geology. 

Levy et Lacroix. — Les Mineraux des Roches, 1888. 

Merrill, G. P. — Plan for Collection of Building and Ornamental 
Stones in U. S. National Museum. U. S. National Museum, 
1884, No. 25. 

Merrill, G. P. — Building and Ornamental Stones (Rept. Smith. 
Inst.. 1885-86. Part II., pp. 277-648), 1889, Washington. 


Rankine, W. J. M. — Civil Engineering. Article on Building 
Stones, 1887 (London). 

RosENBUSCH. — Microscopical Physiography of the Rock-Making 
Minerals. Iddings' Translation, 1889 (Wiley). 

RuTLEY, F. — The Study of Rocks. Text-Books of Science, 1888 

Science in Short Chapters, January 29, 1883, p. 281, On the Cor- 
rosion of Building Stones. 


Smock, J. C. — Bull. N.. Y. State Mus. of Nat. Hist., No. 3, March, 

Smock, J. C — Building Stones in New York State. Bull. N. Y. 
State Museum, vol. ii., No. 10, September, 1890. 

Universal Knowledge. — 1879. Article on Building Stones. 

Wadsworth, M. E. — Atmospheric Action on Sandstone. Ab- 
stract in Proc. Bostoo Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. xxii.^ February 7, 
1883. ^ 



The attentfon of the writer has recently been directed to this 
subject by reason of a large ore shipper making claim for a larger 
amount of lead ia the ore than that shown, in many cases, by the 
most accurate chemical tests. As the amount of money involved 
was quite large, it was decided both by the ore shipper and the 
smelter to carefully investigate the matter in order to arrive at a 
fair settlement. This investigation developed many facts of a sci- 
entific nature, aside from the commercial aspect of the subject, 
which, it is believed, will be of interest and value to the readers of 
the Quarterly. 

The ore in question was a galena concentrate, which had been 
concentrated from the crude ore runaing from 10 to 12 per cent, 
of lead up to a product running from 47 to 58 per cent, of lead. 
There was a small, yet variable, amount of arsenic and antimony 
in the ore. 

We will first produce a tabulated statement showing' the fire 
assays of the ore shipper, the chemical determination of the lead 
as obtained by the Alexander method,* and also a column show- 
ing the result of four differeat highly responsible assayers, having 

* Colorado State School of Mines Scientific Quarterly ^Wq\, L, No. 4; also The En- 
gineering and Mining Journal ^ Vol. LV., No. 13, April i, 1893; ^^^^ Furman*s 
Manual Practical Assayings p. 142. 


years of experience and making daily a large number of fire assays 
upon lead. 

This last-named column was derived by adding together the 
result of each of the four control assayers, dividing by four, and 
subtracting this amount from the percentage of lead, as shown by 
careful chemical tests. This column, then, will show how much 
the fire assay is below the actual contents of the or€. 

f our iimpkes. 
chemical. Chemital. Mine. 

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 

I, 1.67 55-00 5540 

2, ..... . 1.29 54.00 54.80 

3, 2.53 55.00 5520 

4 • 3.'7 57 .00 56.90 

5 2.17 52.80 52.70 

6 1.16 49.50 48.50 

7, 2.22 52.30 53.10 

8, . , . . .1.32 49-5^ 50.20 

9, 1.60 53.20 57,20 

10, 1.60 48.40 49.00 

18.73 526-70 533.00 

Average, .... 1.873 52.67 53.30 

We learn from the above table many highly interesting and val- 
uable things, some of which I will briefly point out. The result 


of forty careful umpires on lead by fire assay, as made by four 
good, responsible assayers, give as a result an average of 1.873 
per cent, lower lead than the true amount. It shows that upon 
the same grade of ore the fire assay is subject to considerable va- 
riation even in the hands of the same person3. It shows that the 
seller of ore is likely to claim, say 53.30 per cent, lead in an ore 
when there is actually only 52.67 per cent., thereby giving rise to 
much trouble, delay, expense, and, not unfrequently, much un- 
necessary ill-feeling. In this particular case the mine-owner was 
a man of the highest integrity and honesty, and there was a dis- 
position on the part of the seller and purchaser to treat each other 

In order to throw still further light upon the question of differ- 
ence between the fire assay on lead and that shown by careful 
chemical determination, there will be given ten more cases upon 
this same ore, and practically same grade, viz. : 


Fire assay. Chemical. 

Per cent. Per cent. 

I, 574 58.8 

2, 46.0 48.5 

3, 54.7 56.0 

4, 50.4 52.0 

5, 44.6 47.2 

6, 50.4 52.5 

7» 46.0 48.6 

8, 49.0 51.0 

9 50.4 52.4 

10, 58.0 58.8 

506.9 525.8 

Average, 50.69 52.58 

This shows a difference of 1. 9 1 per cent, lower lead than that 
shown by chemical tests. 

Taking the average of the first and second series of experi- 
ments, we get 1. 891 per cent, as the amount the fire assay is under 
the chemical determination of the lead in a certain grade of sul- 
phide ore. 

It does not follow, however, that all ore will show by fire test 
about 2 per cent, lower than that shown by chemical test ; yet I 
will say that this is not far from the truth. The variation is, of 
course, dependent upon many things, chiefly, however, upon the 
nature of the impurities in an ore and the mode of assaying. 

The elements which tend to make the assay high are as follows : 

Antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, 
nickel, platinum, silver, tin ; aside from these may be mentioned 
carbon in the form of a carbide of iron ; pieces of slag, arsenide 
of iron or speiss, and always some sulphide of potassium and so- 
dium, mechanically adhering to the button even when flattened 
out. The most common things which tend to produce high re- 
sults are: using too powerful reducing flux, causing iron, copper, 
arsenic and antimony to enter the button, and also the imperfect 
separation of mechanically adherent particles. I have not unfre- 
quently seen so-called lead buttons which had a strong copper 
color, also pieces of iron adhering to the button, pieces of slag, 
etc. The things which tend to produce low results are: fusing at 
too high a temperature, keeping the crucible in the fire too long, 
improper flexing, and using too low a heat. Whilst many other 
things are conducive to low results yet they can be classed as 


losses by volatilization, scorification and improper separation of 
the lead button. 

I feel quite certain theie are a large number of cases where the 
ore seller is paid for more lead than his ore contains. In order to 
ascertain the average percentage of impurities which are weighed 
up and called lead, I had the buttons from lead assays saved for 
two weeks; I then counted out 702 buttons, rejecting two as doubt- 
ful cases; these 700 buttons were then weighed upon an accurate 
balance used for weighing Dore bars, giving 38.45 troy ounces, 
which is equal to 1195.95 grammes; this would give an average 
weight of 1.7085 grammes for each button. 

Now, since 5 grammes of ore was taken in each case, then the 
average percentage of the ore giving the 700 buttons was 34. 1 7 
per cent. lead. During the time these 700 buttons were being 
accumulated there were 400 umpires containing about 40 per cent, 
lead each, and the silver contents in this ore was above the general 
average. This last statement is made because it is not generally 
considered that the amount of silver and gold which enters the 
lead button amounts to enough for consideration, which is an en- 
tirely fallacious view. 

By carefully sampling these 700 buttons, and weighing out a 
duplicate amount of i assay ton, it was shown that the lead buttons 

3.60 ounces gold per ton of 2000 pounds. 
117.90 *' silver '* 

(< «( 

This corresponds to : 

Per cent. 

Gold, 0.0123 

Silver 0.4042 

Total, 0.4165 

That is to say, the lead buttons contained about 0.42 per cent, 
impurities in the form of gold and silver alone. 

In order to take an entirely fair sample of these 700 buttons, I 
took a sharp pair of shears and divided each button into 10 parts, 
flattening out all thick buttons to a thin sheet. These clippings, 
resulting from a long and tedious operation, were then carefully 
stirred up and mixed as thoroughly as possible. I then turned 
this product over to the chemist, who weighed out two samples of 
10 grammes each, dissolved the lead in nitric acid, and transferred 


to a litre flask, taking care to bring a small amount of sulphate of 
lead into solution, dilute to litre mark, removed loo c.c. solution, 
and determined the lead by the Alexander method. Our Mr. H. 
H. Alexander performed all th€ chemical work in a most careful 
ctnd painstaking manner by his most admirable and proven correct 

These lead determinations gave : 

Per cent. Lead. 

^ ^ I 96.20 


or an average of four determinations of 96.25 per cent. lead. This 
shows the total impurities in the 700 lead buttons to be 3.75 per 
cent. The first series of ten chemical determinations on different 
lots of ore ran on an average of 52.67 per cent, lead; the second 
series gave 52.58 per cent, lead; the average is 52.625 percent, 
lead. The result of the fire assay upon these twenty lots showed 
the fire assay to be 1.891 per cent, under the chemical test. By 
subtracting 1.891 from 52.625 we get 50.734, or the percentage of 
lead as shown by the fire assay ; but the result of an investigation 
of 700 buttons showed there was 3.75 per cent, of impurities, hence 
50.734 X .0375 = 1.902 or say grammes of impurities. Now by 
taking 1.902 from 50.734 we get 48.832 as representing the amount 
of pure lead as shown by the fire assay; hence (52.625) minus 
48.832 = 3.792 or loss from volatilization and scorification, and all 
other sources of loss. This would correspond to 7.20 per cent. 
i.e. : 

(52.625) : (3.792) : : 100 : X 

X = 7.20. 

The actual percentage of loss will vary with different ores, ac- 
cording to the actual percentages of contained lead ; the less lead 
an ore contains the higher will be the percentage of loss ; and 
when the lead, as in slags, is low, say -^^ to ^^ per cent, then the 
percentage of loss will often be found to be 50 to 60 per cent. 
This, of course, is due to the difficulty in collecting such minute 

Sufficient care is not always observed to get and maintain the 
so called " Lead Flux." 


The Denver Fire Clay Company of Denver, Colo., make up two 
kinds of lead flux as follows : 

No, 7. — Lead Flux. 

S parts carbonate of potash. 
6j^ parts bicarbonate of soda. 
2^ parts flour. 
2^ parts borax glass. 

No. 4.. — Lead Flux. 

2 parts carbonate of potash. 
2 parts bicarbonate of soda. 
I part flour. 
I part powdered borax. 

The price on the No, I mixture is somewhat higher than the 
No. 4. by reason of the fused borax. The borax in the No. 4 mix- 
ture has been heated up in order to expel the water of crystalliza- 

It is the opinion of the writer that the No. i mixture is the 
better of the two cited and safer in every way. A part of the 
errors and discrepancies, I think, can be traced to the difference in 
the way the lead assays are fluxed. 

I believe, from long observation and tests, that the Lead Flux 
Mixture No. i, as prepared by the Denver Fire Clay Company, is 
a good and reliable mixture, and well suited for the buyer as well 
as the seller of ores. 

I suppose every assayer has his certain little ** knacks " and pe- 
culiarities in making an assay on lead which often he deems highly 
essential for correct results. The fact of the matter is, that there 
should be some standard method, and then much of the trouble 
alike to the buyer as well as the seller of ore would disappear. 

The best method for making lead assays, so far as my knowl- 
edge extends, is that used at the Globe Smelting and Refining 
Company of Denver, Colorado. This method I will give some- 
what in detail, as there are features I think entirely new, but which, 
from a long period of tests,* is found reliable. 

Fire Assay Method for Lead. 

The ore comes from the sampling-works department in paper 
sacks, and has been thoroughly dried, powdered, and intimately 
mixed, using a screen of 100 meshes. 


The ore is poured from the sacks upon a thin sheet of cloth, 
covered with white rubber. The ore is then thoroughly rolled and 
mixed with a large painter's spatula, flattening out to a layer of 
about ^ inch in thickness. From this there is uniformly weighed 
out 5 grammes of ore pulp, which is transferred directly to a Den- 
ver Fire Clay Company lead cup, known as the "5-gramme cup." 
The pan of the scales is flattened scoop-shape, in order to facili- 
tate the introduction of the ore into the cup without any chance 
of loss. The dimensions of this cup are as follows : 2^ inches 
height by 2 J^ inches width at top, and has a flat bottom i J^ inches 
in diameter. It holds 65 c.c, of water. 

There is then placed directly upon the ore a spoonful of No. I 
Lead Flux mixture. The spoon is made from an ordinary tea- 
spoon, having the point somewhat ground off" so as to hold 15 
grammes. This is then thoroughly stirred with a painter's spatula, 
blade 4 inches long and 5^ inch in width at widest part. After 
this thorough stirring, the crucible is gently tapped to settle down 
its contents; then add directly to the top 15 more grammes of the 
same No. i Lead Flux. 

The crucible is again tapped gently, and there is introduced 
from I to 4 tenpenny nails, with points down. For slags and 
basic ores, add 3 grammes fused borax on top. There are a few 
ores whose nature is such as to make it unnecessary to add any 
nails, for example, the refinery litharge and certain iron fluxes 
having no sulphur; also certain well-known oxidized or carbonate 
ores free from sulphur. After the introduction of the nails, the 
crucible is transferred directly to the muffle assay furnace, having 
three muffles, each 12 inches wide by 19 inches long. 

The fusion generally takes from fifteen to thirty minutes, accord- 
ing to the degree of heat of the furnace, and also according to the 
extent the muffle is cooled off". The moment a good quiet fusion 
is obtained, the crucibles are removed from the muffle ; the nails 
removed with small tongs, shaking off" any particle of lead which 
may have adhered to the nails. Tap down the crucible with three 
or four sharp raps upon a cast-iron plate, and pour out the entire 
contents of the crucible upon the iron plate or old bucking-board; 
string the slag out to a thin point ; at the extreme end, free from 
slag, will be found the lead button, however small. This button 
will generally be loosely adherent to the thin slag and quite easily 
removed. The button is then gently hammered to free itself from 
any slag or foreign substance and weighed, and as 5 grammes were 


taken, the results are doubled to obtain percentage of lead. The 
appearance of the material poured out on the plate is roughly as 
follows : 


Especial attention is called to the fact that a covering of salt is 
entirely omitted, as it is believed it is unnecessary; and, further- 
more, tending to produce results too low, due to the volatilization of 
lead as a chloride. Furthermore, an earthenware cover is not used, 
as was at one time thought desirable. The use of cyanide of potas- 
sium, as a reducing agent, has been entirely abandoned years ago, 
as the results are not reliable, as this chemical has such a powerful 
reducing power as to cause copper and many other things to enter 
the lead button, particularly iron, arsenic and antimony. 

Regarding the use of cyanide of potassium for making lead 
assays, I must positively disagree with my teacher of assaying, 
who states : " the assay by cyanide gives lower results, but cleaner 
buttons, and is to be recommended " (see Dr. Rickett's Notes on 
Assaying, p. 61). Cyanide of potassium furthermore is not a safe 
thing to use daily at large assay offices where one is often forced 
to use a number of different helpers. 

The breaking of the lead assay cups, or crucibles, is now an 
entirely obsolete practice throughout the west. 

Dr. Rickett states (p. 59), '* The lead assay is not accurate for 
several reasons, chiefly because of the volatility of the lead, and 
the presence of substances which alloy with the button." He 
further states: "Antimony and zinc in an ore interfere with the 
assay ; as the first will generally be found with the lead, while the 
zinc, though partially driven off, carries lead with it." The writer 
heartily agrees with these last mentioned remarks, but cannot but 
feel the language should have been stronger and more explicit. 

In addition to the antimony and zinc which he mentions, many 
other things might have been mentioned, for example : arsenic, 
copper, iron, either as metallic iron, a carbide of iron, or as an 
arsenide of iron (or speiss). Also much gold or silver in the ore, 
and, in short, all easily reducible elements. 



It is my firm conviction that when one uses the best known 
method to determine the lead in an ore, he is only making a blind, 
rough guess, and that whilst for some metals the fire assay is a 
good and useful thing, and likely to stand the test of time, yet 
with lead assays by fire the whole practice should be discontinued 
as an unsafe and barbarous practice. It is dangerous to the ore 
purchaser, because he often pays for more lead in an ore than it 
really contains; to the ore seller it must be highly unsatisfactory 
and extremely annoying. No one now thinks of making a fire 
assay for copper, but there is deducted from i ^ to 2 per cent, 
from the chemical method to obtain the so-called " dry assay on 
copper." The reason why this could not be done in the past 
was largely due to the fact that there was no quick and accu- 
rate method for lead. Were it not for the fact of the difficulty 
of obtaining pure aluminium the method of Von Schultz & Low 
would have ultimately replaced the fire-assay method in the 
opinion of the writer. The method of Mr. H. H. Alexander has 
met with very general favor amongst the chemists and assayers 
throughout the west, and the results are remarkably good and 

I would suggest the use of the Alexander method in place of 
the fire assay on lead, with a uniform deduction of 2 per cent, from 
the results as shown by this method. I think this would be fair 
both to the purchaser as well as the seller of lead ores and lead 
products. I notice that Mr. Furman, in his excellent book on 
Practical Assaying, gives the following composition for lead flux 
mixture, viz.: 

1 6 parts sodium bicarbonate. 
1 6 parts potassium bicarbonate. 

8 parts flour. 

4 parts borax glass. 

This, it will be observed, is different from that made up and sold 
by the Denver Fire Clay Co. I am not prepared to state which 
is the better of the two mixtures, yet this fact only illustrates the 
wisdom of having some uniform standard. Mr. Furman also 
states in scheme for fire assay (p. 137) there is used **^ caver of 
borax ;^' this, in the majority of cases, is not necessary, but upon 
all basic ores, also for slag assays, there is recommended the plac- 


ing of 3 grammes of fused borax on top of the assay mixture. 
For slags and iron fluxes this has been proven to be absolutely 

Berthier was the first to point out the advantages derivable by 
fusing in an open crucible, since he found that such fusion of the 
ore with three times its weight of sodium carbonate, the lead would 
be separated in the metallic form, whilst the antimony would be- 
come oxidized, uniting with the soda and remain in the slag to a 
very large extent* 

Dr. Hofman, in his Metallurgy of Lead gives, on page 71, no 
less than nineteen different charges for making lead assays. 

Whilst it is true that different ores require different treatment, 
yet actual work at the large smelters show that it is not necessary 
or even desirable to vary the method for making assays upon lead 
products widely. Whilst I believe the only proper and final solu- 
tion is to cast aside the fire assay entirely as a relic of the dark 
ages, yet, until others can be brought to this belief, the next best 
thing would be the calling of a general conference, and decide upon 
some standard method or methods for the determinations of lead. 



A FEW years ago the writer visited the falls of Bassasseachic, to 
measure the power produced, and report upon the practicability 
of utilizing it for mining operations some miles distant. The lo- 
cation of the falls, in the heart of the Sierra Madre mountains, 
its great height, and the distance over which the power must be 
transmitted, made the problem a unique one, for every condition, 
such as head of water, irregularity of flow, character and in- 
accessibility of country, were found magnified far beyond usual 

It may be interesting, therefore, to readers of the Quarterly 
to briefly describe the falls, and general method of considering the 
project for utilizing the power. 

* See Philip's Metallurgy^ p. 532. — 1874 ed. 


On account of difficult transportation, it is necessary that no 
piece of machinery should weigh over 200 or 300 pounds. The 
country is so mountainous that the last 150 miles of the journey, 
from Chihuahua to Bassasseachic, must be by mule-back, over a 
trail in many places so steep and narrow that it is almost impas- 
sable. When the falls are reached, the necessity of having alt ma- 
chinery of easily manageable weight is even more evident. 

The Bassasseachic river rises on the western slope of the- Sierra, 
and is a tributary of the Rio Mayo. The sides of the caflon 
through which it flows, are precipitous near the fall, but a short 
distance back the valley widens, forming a basin which receives 
the drainage of about 75 square miles. Where the sides of the 
ravine are vertical, and the water is restricted to a narrow channel, 
it has cut for itself curious grooves, 1 5 or 20 feet deep and a few 
feet wide, in the porphyritic rock of the river bed. The erosion 
by sand and gravel has produced several deep potholes near the 
stream, that during the rainy season, are probably slowly deep- 
ened by boulders and sand found in them. One such pothole was 
doubtless formed near the top of the fall, and its partial destruction 
has left a remarkable arch of rock, under which the water passes 
before making its final leap. 

There is no indication above the fall that a precipice is near. 
The break in the bed of the stream is so smooth and sudden that 
one might easily walk to the very brink without suspecting dan- * 
ger. Only by leaning over the edge and looking a distance of 
nearly 900 feet, can the pool at the bottom be seen. Similar walls 
rise from 1 500 to 2000 feet above the bed of the stream at the bot- 
tom and form the sides of the amphitheatre. The distance to the 
vertical cliff on the opposite side of the ravine is about 3000 feet. 
The stream below disappears in the piles of gravel and debris 
through which it flows. Looking down, the task of getting safely 
to the bottom seems impossible, but by retracing our steps a trail 
is found leading over a knife- like spur of rock forming part of 
the left side of the amphitheatre, behind which we can descend by 
equal use of hands and feet. About halfway down there is a break 
in the rock, behind which the trail leads, and from this opening, 
called La Ventana, or window, the first and most striking view of 
the fall is obtained. Looking up 400 feet, one sees the water 
leaping from the cliff and falling past him to the pool over 400 
feet below La Ventana. The path then passes behind the rocks 


and further view of the water is lost. When at the bottom, it is 
still a work of difficulty to reach the pool, for, what from above 
appeared to be piles of gravel, now prove to be masses of huge 
boulders difficult to surmount. The ravine below is well wooded, 
and the bottom is broken by hills several hundred feet high formed 
from the debris fallen from above. The bed of the stream is very 
steep, so it is evident an additional head can be easily obtained by 
locating the power station some distance down the canon. Such, 
then, is a description of the falls whose power it is desired to 

The problem divides itself into several parts, each of which we 
will consider briefly. 

First, the height of the fall must be obtained. Not having a suit- 
able wire by which the vertical distance could be obtained directly, 
a transit and stadia rod were employed. The instrument was set up 
on one of the huge piles of debris, as far as possible from the foot, 
and by foresight and backsight the distances and angles were 
measured. The result obtained by stadia measurement checked 
very closely with the distance determined by triangulation. By 
the former method, the height of the fall was found to be 871 feet. 
The next step, the measurement of water flowing, was accom- 
plished above the fall, to avoid error from seepage into the am- 
phitheatre of water from other sources. A weir was constructed, 
' and frequent measurements taken. The observations were made 
at the end of a very long dry season, to ascertain the minimum 
power that should be expected from the fall. At the time of my visit, 
only 125 cubic feet were passing per minute. The effect of evap- 
oration at high altitudes was made very evident, for measurements 
taken at night or morning showed considerable variation; 125 
feet, however, represents a fair average. The power which this 
quantity of water will produce being less than the power required 
for immediate use, the obvious expedient of storage suggests itself. 
We must be able to avail ourselves of the flow of the stream dur- 
ing the rainy season or times of flood, by impounding the water 
by dams, and retain enough to increase the flow at the fall to the 
amount desired during the dry season. The size of the dam re- 
quired to do this needs careful consideration. A small dam could 
be made to retain the water passing at night, which will more than 
double the working capacity of the fall, provided the generating 
plant runs only by day. Such a limitation in capacity is inadmis- 


sible for an important plant, so we must examine the conditions 
that regulate the flow of the stream throughout the year. The first 
question is to find the area drained, its topography, and the rainfall. 
Unfortunately, the actual rainfall in districts where such problems 
as these are found is seldom known, and the percentage of rainfall 
entering the river can only be estimated. The engineer must, 
therefore, make his own observations, over an extended period, or, 
as is more frequently the case, content himself with a careful exam- 
ination of high-water marks in the stream. Water-worn rock on 
the banks, piles of drift-wood, exposed tree trunks from which the 
bark is worn off, and the size of green shoots growing in or near 
the stfeam, are excellent indications. If these observations check 
with the tales of the '* oldest inhabitant," if there be one, an esti- 
mate can often be made that is nearly as close as if obtained by 
more accurate means. Having ascertained thus the approximate 
maximum flood-levels, and also normal conditions of water, and 
making a liberal allowance on the side of safety, we are able to 
calculate the storage capacity required, and the size of waste-way 
of dam. The height of the dam depends, of course, upon the re- 
sult of a survey to determine the volume impounded at various 
levels, and, in general, its location depends upon the situation 
that gives maximum capacity for minimum cost of dam. In 
high altitudes in warm climates, it is better to select a site that 
will give a deep reservoir, and employ a higher, more expensive 
dam if necessary. In this way, the loss by evaporation will be 
reduced directly as the area of exposed water surface. For a 
similar reason, one of the first steps towards securing a permanent 
regular flow, especially if the stream be small, or its capacity be 
doubtful, is to obtain control, if possible, of adjoining timber land, 
for a well wooded water-shed may be a better reservoir than one of 
earth and stone. The dam required for storing water, for the case 
we are considering, requires to be of moderate height, and should 
be located some distance from the fall. We find at this point that 
it is better to lose the head between the dam and the intake at the 
top of the falls than lay piping the entire distance from the foot of 
the dam to the wheels. The complete separation of sand and gravel 
is thus made simple by employing open catch-boxes over which 
the water passes slowly. A calculation of the thickness of the 
pipes to convey the water to the wheel shows that if it were pos- 
sible to make a single pipe of sufficient strength to resist the pres- 


sure at the foot, and large enough to carry the water required, it 
would be so heavy that it could not be delivered to the falls even 
in sections. But this fact is, in itself, really an advantage, because 
it prevents the possibility of committing the serious error of not 
subdividing the power at the generating station into several com- 
plete and independent units. The size of these units depend- 
ing partly upon conditions already mentioned, is of vital import- 
ance from commercial, engineering, and electrical reasons. A com- 
plete discussion of this part of the subject is too long to under- 
take with the space at our disposal. It is sufficient to point out 
one controlling condition only. The plant should be so divided 
that the failure or break-down of any part will not cause a stoppage 
of the mill receiving the power ; and the arrangement of parts 
must provide for future enlargement according to actual needs for 
power. It should not be designed, either, solely in reference to 
using the machinery built by any one builder, but should allow 
the purchase of the most improved machinery that may be found 
in the market, when it is desired to increase the plant. 

Having determined, therefore, on using a number of small pipes, 
we must look for a means of getting them down to the generating 
station or power house. Two routes are open. One is through a 
tunnel and down the trail on the right-hand side of the falls, as 
shown in the illustration. The other is down the face of the front 
of the cliff. The former is circuitous, and involves much blasting 
and rock cutting, and an unknown difficulty in crossing ravines. 
The latter, which is an unusual method, for an 871-foot vertical fall 
has never been made captive in this way, is to bolt the pipes to the 
face of the cliff. The first illustration shows a general view of the 
fall and the proposed location of the pipes and the method of erect- 
ing them by a suspended cradle, and the second is a larger view of 
the cradle to be used for putting the pipes in place. At the bot- 
tom, well out of reach of the highest floods, a suitable foundation 
is required, on which steel elbows are bolted. When they are in 
place, and a section of pipe secured to them, the cradle is lowered 
from above until its floor is level with the tops, and other pipes are 
lowered from above into place, the joints made fast, and the sec- 
tions secured by straps held by anchor bolts let into the rock. 
The cradle is again raised to the top of the pipe, and the next set 
are lowered into position. Workmen are lowered in chairs or lifted 
from the foot of the falls to the cradle by the same means. An 

VOL. XV. — 24 




advantage of this method of erecting the pipe line, is more evident 
when it is known that all supplies and machinery must be deliv- 
ered at the top of the fall, and lowered in some way to the bot- 
tom, for there is no road to the foot. The labor of blasting a route 
down the trail would probably require the same number of drill- 
holes as would be used for stay-bolts by the first method. Having 
reached the amphitheatre, it is a comparatively simple task to cut 
a suitable trench in which the pipes can be laid to the power- 

The building in which the wheels are to be located must be a 
substantial structure, having channels for the tailwater so arranged 
that the foundations may never be endangered by an escape of 
water from the supply pipes. Besides having valves near the 
wheels, other gates must be located in the sluice at the top of the 
falls to divert the water from the mains. To prevent danger of 
excessive strains on the resilience of the pipes if the water be sud- 
denly shut off at the wheels, it is essential to keep the velocity of 
flow as low as possible. This can, of course, be done by using 
pipes of ample diameter in reference to the discharge nozzles, and 
employing practically the same size pipe throughout. 

The importance of keeping the velocity of flow small is evident 


from the value of ^wz^, the energy developed by bringing to 
rest the body of moving water. This energy must be absorbed 
by the resilience of the metal composing the main or by air 
chambers; or safety valves must be employed for the escape of 
the water to prevent fracture or distortion of the pipe. For a 
given size pipe having a thickness d-d' we have where the pres- 
sure is / pounds per square inch \ )^'X/= bursting pres- 


sure. But the value oiv varies inversely as }^7ld'''^ and the shock 
varies as v.^ From which it is evident that a uniform low velocity 
is desirable, and a safer construction for very high heads or dan- 
gerous pressure is the employment of small-sized pipes and power 

The only type of water-wheel developed that can operate suc- 
cessfully under a head of 1 500 feet, our total available head, is a jet 
wheel. So from this class of motor we must make our selection, 
taking statements of efficiency given by builders **cum grano salis." 
The wheels must be covered with steel casings especially designed 
to protect neighboring machinery in event of accident to nozzles, 
valves or buckets. As the conditions of the problem require that 
the power be made available about 1 1 miles from the falls, we turn 
immediately to electricity as without a rival as a means of trans- 
mitting power over long distances. The shaft of the jet wheel 
should pass through suitable stuffing boxes in the wheel casing 
and extend preferably through a partition into a room especially 
designed for the dynamos. One or more armatures may be con- 
nected to each wheel shaft. 

In the electrical part of the problem we find a wide field for 
demonstration of efficiencies from actual working tests. A few 
observations concerning the principles involved will suffice at pres- 
ent. When comparatively low voltage generators are used, the 
cost of copper conductors is often the most expensive part of the 
entire plant. It therefore is necessary to operate lines with a cer- 
tain loss of potential. By comparing the interest on the cost of 
the line and the value of the horse power lost, by heating the con- 
ductor, we find that as the value of each (in the present case it is 
the cost at which the power is now produced), is increased, the 
less can be the allowed loss of electro- motive force between the 
terminals of the line for the highest economy. We can now find 
an expression covering the loss due to interest, etc., plus the loss 


due to resistance, which we make equal to C, a variable. Differ- 
entiating, we obtain a value V, for the loss of volts on the line 
which will be theoretically most economical and which is indepen- 
dent of the total electro-motive force. This gives a loss of about 
3 per cent, taking a working pressure of 4500 volts. If, however, 
we calculate the value of copper required allowing only 3 per cent, 
drop we shall find that to transmit only 100 amperes will require an 
expenditure of over $90,000, a practically prohibitory cost. This 
result is obtained because our formulas cannot contain terms that 
express the condition of the money market, but assume that un- 
limited capital can be had for merely asking. So we must turn to 
another method to determine V by assuming values and calcu- 
lating cost of copper until we obtain one that makes the solution 
a business possibility. 

Omitting details and calculations, cost of copper to transmit 
500 horse-power 1 1 miles at 20 per cent, loss will be, for the prob- 
lem at hand, as follows: 


1000, ;^252,ooo 

2000, 63,cxx> 

3000, 28,000 

4000, 15,750 

5000, 19,080 

10,000, 2,520 

Comparing the cost of copper for different losses on line using 
3000 volts at motor, we can find the following: 

10 15 20 25 30 per cent, loss on line. 

$63,000 $39,750 $28,000 $21,000 $16,300 cost of copper. 

A comparison of these figures leads us to select as high a volt- 
age as can be safely insulated and a drop of say 20 per cent, at full 
load. These conditions lead to a discussion of the various sys- 
tems of electrical transmission and the selection of motor, which 
we must omit as it is not our purpose to touch upon the relative 
merits of rival electrical apparatus in this paper. Progress in the 
direction of the use of higher electro- motive force has been con- 
tinuous, and the advantage of the use of high voltage is strikingly 
shown by the above table. An examination, however of the chief 
electrical transmission systems in actual use is the safest guide in 
the selection of machinery for a new plant. 


We must now close this very general statement of an interesting 
problem. If we have succeeded in suggesting to the reader the 
importance of dividing engineering problems rigidly into their ele- 
ments as the first step toward solution, the purpose of this paper 
will be fulfilled. However formidable an undertaking may appear, 
taken as a whole, it must be remembered that no problem need 
ever be solved in this way. Tlie engineer who most readily analy- 
zes such problems seldom sees an array of complicated unsolvable 
difficulties but a series of concise questions to each of which he 
can, with aufficienjt lajbor, give a definite answer. 




The geological age of the extensive clay-beds on the north 
shore of Long Island has been a matter of much speculation, as 
the organic remains hitherto found have been few or fragmentary. 
Glen Cove is the only locality where identifiable fossils (of creta- 
ceous age) have been found in the clay, and while these same fos- 
sils have been found along the shore as far as Lloyd's Neck,* 
their condition usually tends to point to their derivation from a 
distant source. 

On Little Neck, in Northport Bay, is an extensive deposit of 
stoneware clay and fire-sand which has been successfully worked 
for a number of years. The clay is stratified, the layers being 
separated by laminae of sand. In color the material varies from 
black to brown and yellow, and it becomes very sandy in its upper 
portion. There is a dip of 15° S.E. Overlying the clay is cross- 
bedded fine sand and gravel, the latter containing much coarse 
material near the surface. Very little glacial till covers the whole, 
and much fine white fire-sand occurs in the bank. 

In a previous paper! the writer mentioned this clay deposit, and 

* A. liolUck : •* Some Further Notes on the Geology of the North Shore of I^ng 
Island ^'—Trani. N, Y. Acad. Set., Vol. XIII. 

t "Notes on the Clays of New York State and Their Economic Value." — Trans, 
.V. y.Acati,SU,Wo\, XI. 


expressed the belief that it would be found to be of cretaceous 
age. Such has proven to be the case. In a recent visit to the 
locality a careful examination of the section exposed showed that 
a brownish-black seam of the clay, two feet thick, contained plant 
fragments in great quantity, and a few of them were sufficiently 
well preserved to permit identification and prove the cretaceous 
age of the deposit beyond doubt. Mr. Arthur Hollick. to whom 
the material was turned over for study, has kindly given me the 
following preliminary list : Paliurus integrifolia (Hollick), Laurus 
angusta (Heer), Paliurus sp.,* Protceoides daphnogenoides (Heer), 
Myrsine sp., Williantsonia sp., Celastrophyllum sp. Diatoms have 
also been found in this clay,t £ind their occurrence is important 
on account of its being the earliest recorded occurrence of these 

As fragments of sandstone containing cretaceous plants have 
previously been found only on that portion of Long Island lying 
to the north of a line joining the southern boundary of the creta- 
ceous areas of New Jersey and Martha's Vineyard, it was sup- 
posed that the cretaceous of Long Island would also be found 
only within these limits. As such a line, however, passes from 
Long li'land at Lloyd's Neck, this theory cannot be retained in 
its present form, as the Little Neck cretaceous deposit is several 
miles southeast of Lloyd's Neck. 




Topographical and General Remarks, — The Kosaka Mining and 
Reduction Works are located at the northwestern part of Ricchoo, 
a province in the northern part of the Mainland of Japan. The 
hills, where^the mining operations are carried on, are nearly 1000 
feet above the sea level. The reduction works are situated in a 
valley, a little more than a mile south of the mines. 

* Resembles Paliurus Colombi (Heer), a Tertiary species (Fl. Foss. Arct. I., 122, 
pi. xvii , Fig. 2d), but is much smaller. It is probably a new species 

t *« Micro-Organisms in the Clays of New York State." H. Ries — 7>tf«j. N, Y, 
Acad. 5a., Vol. XII [. 


The locality is somewhat hilly; the hi 11- ranges generally run- 
ning north and south, or parallel to the main mountain chains 
traversing a few miles east of the mines. The rivers and rivulets 
from different valleys of these hills form the Kosaka river, which, 
passing near the reduction works, makes its way to the river 
Yoneshiro ; the latter is navigable, in some seasons, to within 
four miles of the works, forming a communication between the 
Japan Sea and this important mining district of the province. The 
Kosaka river and its upper branches are largely utilized for float- 
ing logs and fuel wood from the hilly forests of the north, but they 
are not high enough to be applied to the machinery of the min- 
ing or the reduction works. The lowlands along the banks of 
the river Kosaka are widely cultivated for rice, with scattering 
villages here and there. 

On the plateaus and valleys near the mines, stands a mining 
office including an assay room, in the neighborhood of which the 
crushing, sifting, and sorting places, and miners' houses, etc., are 
regularly arranged, about a hundred and fifty in number. Around 
the reduction works there is also a village, or rather a small town, 
containing about two hundred and fifty houses. These two vil- 
lages together contain more than two thousand inhabitants, nearly 
one-half of whom are the employes of the mines and the reduc- 
tion works. 

No coal is found in this district, and as the transportation is not 
easy, either by land or water, it cannot be imported from Hoccaido 
or other coal-producing provinces of this country, so that these 
works, as well as other works in the neighborhood, depend wholly 
for their fuel on the forests, which are becoming quickly exhausted, 
and wood is becoming dearer and dearer every year. The water- 
power, too, is very limited. There are at present, two over-shot 
water-wheels at the reduction works, each 20 feet in diameter and 
lo feet in breadth. The one which is placed at a higWer level is 
connected with the pulverizing rolls for the ore, while the other, or 
the lower, is connected to the brine-pumps, blowing-engines, brick- 
making machinery, workshops, etc. A third one, of nearly the 
same size, may be constructed at an intermediate position between 
the other two ; but the power obtainable with these three wheels 
will not together exceed about 30 to 60 horse-power per d.iy of 10 
hours, varying with seasons. 

The maximum height of snow in winter ranges from three to 


five feet, and the average highest and lowest temperature through- 
out the year is about 90° F. and 10° F., respectively. The rain- 
fall is somewhat heavy, as compared with the average of the 
whole islands. 

The prices of manual labor in this district are low, though much 
higher than the average of the whole country, as may be seen 
in the following examples, viz., miners, from 38 to 18 sen,* per 8 
hours; roasters, 40 to 20 sen per 12 hours; lixiviators, 38 to 18 
sen per 12 hours; blacksmiths, 40 to 20 sen per 10 hours; car- 
penters, 42 to 15 sen per 10 hours, etc. 

Short History, — The discovery of the northern portion of the 
" Kosaka Lode " was made, in the year 1829, by a peasant of a 
neighboring village. The ore then discovered was the "black 
ore," so called in this locality. He worked it for some time, and 
tried the extraction of lead and silver from this ore with an open 
Japanese hearth, but at last abandoned it as a complete failure. 
In 1861, another farmer, by the name of Kobayashi, of the same 
village, rediscovered the lode, but at its middle portion this time. 
He was successful in extracting some silver from the recently dis- 
covered ** black ore " by the same method as his predecessor. Two 
years after the discovery, he built a few huts for his men in the neigh- 
borhood of the mines, and continued his work, but on a very small 
scale and without any profit, till the year 1866, when the governor 
of this province took the work into his own hands. Mr. Oshima, 
a foremost metallurgist at that time, and a resident of the province, 
now built a smelting furnace of European style, and several open 
hearths. This smelting furnace was the first one ever built on the 
islands; but, unfortunately, it had hardly time to be set in blast 
when the great civil war broke out in the next year, and thus post- 
poned the work of our entire mines. 

In 1870, two years after the conclusion of the civil war, the 
works were taken up by the government, and the same Mr. 
Oshima, having been appointed manager, recommenced his treat- 
ment which consisted of the following processes : 

1. Heap-roasting the "black ore." 

2. Smelting the roasted " black ore " and raw " earthy ore " 
(which was then discovered) in the smelting furnace, with siliceous 
sand, slags, and charcoal. As soon as the molten matte formed 

* One sen equal about ]4. cent. 


in the furnace, it was drawn out into the matte-pans, molten lead 
was added and briskly stirred with iron tjols in order to extract 
as much silver as possible from the njatte in the form of silver- 

3. Heap-roasting of the partly-desilverized matte, and subse- 
quent smelting of the roasted matte with plumbiferous products 
in open hearths, for the production of silver-lead, and the concen- 
tration of copper at the same time. These were repeated several 
times, until the copper contained in the matte was recovered in 

- the metallic form. The crude copper thus obtained was cast into 

4. Cupellation of silver-lead in the Japanese cupellation hearths. 
The brick-silver was melted in crucibles and cast into bullion. 

In 1873 Mr. C. Netto, a German mining engineer, was appointed 
the chief engineer of the works. He built two large Mansfeld 
smelting-furnaces, two double-hearth reverberatory roasting-fur- 
naces with a 100-foot stack, and two English cupellation-fumaces. 
His treatment consisted of the following processes : 

1. Heap-roasting the *' black ore." 

2. Smelting the roasted '* black ore" and the "earthy ore " in the 
Mansfeld furnaces, and granulating the matte thus produced in 
cold water. 

3. Grinding the granulated matte with large stone-mills. 

4. Roasting the ground matte in the reverberatories for sul- 
phate of silver. 

5. Ziervogel process to the roasted matte for the extraction of 

6. Hunt and Douglass process to the residues of the previous 
process, for the extraction of copper. 

7. Refining the cement-silver in the cupellation- furnaces and 
casting into bullion. 

8. Melting the cement-copper in open hearths and casting in 

By this method about 70 per cent, of the silver and 30 to 50 per 
cent, of the copper contained in the matte are said to have been 
usually recovered. Mr. Netto left the works in 1877, and was ap- 
pointed the professor of mining and metallurgy in the Imperial 
University, Tokyo. 

By Netto's improvements — or, rather, revolution — of the re- 
duction processes, the product was trebled ; but as charcoal and 


wood, which are the only fuels in this district, became scarcer 
and scarcer, and their prices higher and higher, it would have 
been impossible to support the works any longer, were it not for 
another great improvement in 1881. This was the abandonment 
of the smelting- furnaces and the application of the Augustine pro- 
cess direct to the " earthy ore," 

This improvement not only avoided the large consumption of 
charcoal, but also greatly increased the capacity of the reduction 
works, thus entirely altering the financial conditions of the works. 
The works were bought by Ftijita & Co., in 1884, and have been 
continued, with improvements, to the present day, 

Geology, Form of the Ore-Deposit, etc. — The geological forma- 
tipn of this district consists chiefly of a pale, green-colored tuff of 
the Tertiary age. Its general strike is nearly north and south, 
dipping 30° to 60" toward the east. Through the beds of tuff 
and nearly along their strike, quartz-andesite outcrops at several 
places, forming more or less high peaks or ranges among the wide- 
spreading plateaus. The ore-deposits — of which there are sev- 
eral, but only one workable — are, as a rule, found in the tuff near 
the lines of contact of the two above-mentioned rocks. The only 
workable one, called the " Kosaka Lode," obeys also this general 
rule, and it seems (see Fig, i) to have been formed in the neigh- 
borhood of the junction of andesite and tuff-beds, by means of 
segregation and impregnation through the coarse breccia-like vol- 
canic products forming the country rock. There is no definite 
division between the foot-wall and the lode, but a most distinct 
line is observable along the hanging-wall. In most parts of the 
lode distinct marks of stratification can be observed, leading one 
to believe them, at first sight, to be a bedded vein ; but after close 


observation it will be found that the stratification has no relation 
to the mode of deposition, but is only the original marks of strati- 
fication of the tuff through which the ore had afterwards impreg- 

This lode runs along the strike and dip of the country-rock. 
Its length, already explored, is more than 1500 feet, with the 
breadth averaging about 100 feet, and nearly filled with ore from 
wall to wall. In the upper portions of the lode, say 100 feet down 
the outcrops, the ore is decomposed, showing an earthy appear- 
ance of various shades and resembling the ** colorados " of the 
Mexicans or the "pecos" of the Peruvians, but generally much 
poorer. This is called the " earthy ore " in this district. The 
lower parts consist of heavy black-colored ore, corresponding to 
the ** negroes " of the Mexicans ; this is called the '* black ore." 
The vein stuff consists chiefly of volcanic ashes, heavy spar and 
gypsum. The " black ore " is composed of heavy spar, galena, 
zinc-blende, copper and iron pyrites, tetrahedrite, etc., all of which 
are commonly found in minute crystals and thoroughly intermixed 
with each other. It is compact, hard and heavy, and no method 
of concentration seems practicable. The annexed is the analysis 
of an average sample of '* black ore " : 

Per Cent. 

Gold, 0.0003 

Silver, 0.03 

Copper, ............ 2.96 

Lead, 8.02 

Zinc, '. . . . 12.26 

Iron, 7.69 

Tin, 0.50 

Bismuth, .0.21 

Antimony, ......... . o 20 

Arsenic, 0.5 1 

Alumina, 5.45 

Lime, 1.13 

Magnesia, .......... 0.64 

Silica, 2.50 

Sulphur, 22.02 

Barium sulphate, 35' '7 

Total, 99*2903 

Among the minerals of which the black ore is composed tetra- 
hedrite stands foremost in the richness of silver, but its occurrence 
is exceedingly rare; next comes galena, the third copper pyrites, 


the fourth zinc- blende, and the fifth iron pyrites; so that the value 
of a piece of blj'ck ore can be judged approximately by the pre- 
dominance of one or the other of its constituent minerals. The 
portions rich in galena are comparatively rare, while those rich in 
iron pyrites are most abundant. 

The "earthy ore" is nothing more than the decomposed "black 
ore." Its value in silver can generally be told by its diflferent shades ; 
the greenish and yellowish varieties are the richest, brownish, red- 
ish. grayish and whitish following in order. The following is an 
imperfect analysis of a richer class of the " earthy ore :" 

Per cent. 

Silver 0036 

Copper, 0.23 

Lead, . . 4 4^ 

Iron, . . . ' 7.41 

Zinc, 2.44 

Alumina,. . . . . . . . . .1.85 

Silica, 27.00 

Lime, . . . . , 0.50 

Magnesia, 0.35 

Sulphur, 2.66 

Barium sulphate, 49.28 

Total, 96.176 

Only the '* earthy ore " is worked at present, the metallurgical 
treatment of the black ore being not yet determined. 

Aiming and Dressing. — As the lode can be reached by levels 
from neighboring valleys to the depth of more than 2000 feet, no 
shaft, hauling engine or pump is needed in mining the earthy 
ore. A modification of the post and stall system of collieries is 
adapted in getting the earthy ore, as the deposits were formed 
not only in sitUy but widely spread out since their formation, at- 
taining a breadth in some places of 700 feet, with a thickness of 5 
to 50 feet, and resembling a thick bed of coal. The deposits are 
commonly covered by new beds of volcanic ashes and pumice, 10 
to 30 feet in depth, and where the superficial covering is not very 
thick, quarrying is used for getting the ore. The earthy ore is 
almost exclusively attacked with picks, very rarely needing blast- 
ing. Each drift is 5 feet by 7 feet in size, and is timbered through- 
out its length. 

The ore from all the workings is carried out by tramways and 
dumped on a platform near the entrance of the main level, where 



big pieces are picked off, and the rest is thrown down to the bin 
of a trommel placed below the platform and worked by two boys. 
The trommel is 2 feet in dinmeter, 4 feet in length, with 8-mesh 
wire-cloth. The fine pieces passing the screen fall through an in- 
clined shoot into cars which carry them to another and lower shoot, 
whence they are carried to a storing place. The large pieces which 
did not pass the screen also run down an adjacent shoot into other 

Fig. 2. 

cars, which carry them to a different shoot, whence they are carried 
to a cobbing place, and after being cobbed are finished with 2-mesh 
hand-sieves. The big pieces put aside at the platform are spalled 
and afterward brought to the same cobbing place. The cobbing 
is performed with peculiar broad-faced cobbing-hammers by women 
or by the weaker men, each cobbing 200 to 500 pounds per day, 
and getting three sen per roo pounds. 

As no water-power is obtainable in the mines and fuel is very 
difficult to be brought up, all work necessarily is performed by 


manual labor. Three sets of hand-rolls were recently adapted for 
the cobbing with a good success, each set, worked by two young 
workmen, crushing i J^ tons per day. All sorts of earthy ore are 
mixed so as to form a single quality, and carried down by tram- 
ways to the drying- furnace situated above the pulverizing-mill. 
The metallurgical treatment of earthy ore involves: 
I. Drying and Pulverizing, — The ore, being always wet, must be 
dried before pulverizing. This is done with a step furnace (Fig. 2) 
4 feet square and about 30 feet high. The ore is fed in showers 
from the top by a workman with a shovel and is received by iron 

Fig. 3. 


Sc«K«ii«l PUtj 

cars at the bottom and carried to the bins of the pulverizing rolls. 
A feeder, a stoker and a carman are employed in the furnace per 
shift of 12 hours, and about 100 tons of ore are dried per 24 hours, 
using 3 cords of wood. 

The pulverizing is performed by two sets of Cornish rolls, 18 
inches in diameter and 18 inches in length, worked by an over- 
shot water-wheel, 20 feet in diameter and 10 feet in width, and 
delivering 8 to 20 horse-power. The dried ore is charged with 
a shovel on a flat percussion sieve, and the part which does not 
pass through the sieve falls on the rolls. The rolls are only 
worked during the day, the two sets together producing about 


100 tons of pulverized ore per day. The punched screen of the 
sieve has 4 holes to the linear inch. The roll-tires are cast of 
white-iron, and renewed once every month. The pulverized ore is 
carried in cars to the top of the roasting furnaces, a distance of 
nearly half a mile. 

2. Roasting. — This is done with long 3-hearth reverberatory 
calciners (Fig. 3), of which there are two in constant work and one 
is in reserve. Each hearth of the furnace is 9 feet by 12 feet, 
and the fire-place is 2 feet by 9 feet, the stack common to the three 
furnaces being 100 feet in height. A charge consists of 1700 pounds 
of ore, with 4 per cent, of salt and some iron-pyrites, which is 
charged on the hearth furthest from the fire-place. The ore is 
kept in each hearth, with frequent stirring, during 20 minutes, and 
removed to the next hearth, taking an hour to finish each charge. 
The first, or finishing hearth, is kept at a cherry-red heat, but the 
third, or hearth furthest back, is almost dark. Each furnace needs 
two shifts of 6 roasters and i assistant each, and roasts 60 charges, 
or 102,000 pounds of ore, per 24 hours, using 4 cords or thereabouts 
of wood. The roasted ore is received from the finishing hearth in 
iron cars and carried to the cooling floor, where it is left by itself 
for some hours, and lastly sprinkled with cold water. 

About 7 per cent, of silver originally contained in the ore is 
lost in the roasting, while about 75 per cent, of the remainder is 
converted into chloride. The work of the cooling floor and that 
of carrying and charging the cooled ore to the dissolving vats is 
performed by contractors at 72 sen per ton. 

3. Lixiviation arid ' Precipitation, — These operations are per- 
formed as in the Augustine process. There are 21 dissolving vats 
placed in a straight line on the highest floor, next to that of the 
storage-tanks, of the lixiviation room. The vats are elliptical in 
shape, measuring 7 feet in length, 5 feet in breadth and 2^ feet in 
depth, holding 2 tons of roasted ore. A much larger size of vats 
is desirable, but the size of the room does not permit it. Over 
the false-bottom of the vat, perforated with i-inch holes, two 
sheets of straw-matting are laid, and fixed against the sides of the 
vat by means of a temporary wooden hoop. The ore is charged 
on the filter bottom thus formed to within 6 inches of the rim of 
the vat, but it shrinks many inches after the introduction of hot 
brine. Base metal leaching with water does not precede the lixi- 
viation with brine. The brine is introduced over the top of ore 


through a wooden trough, which runs along the discharging side of 
the row of dissolving vats, and receives the brine from the storage 
tanks placed on the highest floor at one end of the room. The 
brine contains about 18 per cent, of common salt and large quan- 
tities of chloride of iron. Its temperature is generally kept at 
70° C. The current of the brine is broken by a piece of matting 
floating in the vat. 

It takes about 10^ hours to complete the lixiviation of a vat of 
ore, 41 cubic feet, or 20^ cubic feet per ton of ore, of brine being 
usually needed. When no trace of silver is detected in the solution 
by a polished copper plate held at the discharging cock of the vat, 
the flow of brine is cut off", and wash-water is turned on in its 

Fig. 4. 


place, from a much smaller trough placed adjacent to that of brine, 
to take out the brine remaining in the tails as completely as pos- 
sible. The washing with water continues about one hour, and 
the tails are taken out with wooden shovels to the wagons on the 
tramway along the charging side of the vats, and carried to the 
dump-heap, a distance of about a quarter of a mile. The precipi- 
tation tanks, Fig. 4, are built wholly of bricks, lined with the Port- 
land cement inside. The first or highest tank is only for the settle- 
ment of some fine slimes and ferruginous matter contained in the 
solution coming out of the vats. The second and third are for 
precipitating the silver by means of copper. These have a false 
bottom formed just like that of the dissolving vats. Over the false 
bottom covered with straw-matting, a bed of bean- shot copper, 
about 2 inches thick, is laid, which, in turn, is covered with double 
layers of sheet-copper, after the manner of setting tiles on the roof, 

each sheet being 8 inches x 6 inches and i inch thick. On the 
VOL. XV.— 25 


top of the sheet-copper beds in the second tank, wooden frames 
resembling those of a window, are placed, over which double layers 
of matting are laid, to form a filtering bottom. This is important 
for separating the thick ferruginous deposits which will, other- 
wise, be mingled with the cement-silver deposited below them. 

The fourth or lowest tank is for precipitating the copper by 
means of iron, the iron used being old pcraps from iron-works. 
The brine escaping the fourth tank flows down to the brine-sump, 
whence it is constantly pumped back to the storage-tanks, by 
means of five wooden pumps worked by a water-wheel. The 
brine is warmed to the proper degree in the storage tanks by 
means of steam, and lasts indefinitely, salt being added, from time 
to time, in the brine-sump. This addition of salt amounts to a 
ton per day, or nearly 19.6 pounds per ton of ore. A boiler of 20 
nominal horse-power furnishes the steam here used, and consumes 
a little more than 2 cords of wood per day. 

Each of the precipitation tanks, 125 feet in length, is divided 
into eight equal compartments, independent of one another, so 
that any compartment can be emptied without interfering with 
the work of the other compartments. The cement-silver is taken 
out once every month and squeezed to circular disks, I foot 
in diameter and nearly 33^ inches thick, by means of a screw- 
press. The cement-silver, when dried, contains from 15 to 75 
per cent, of silver. The cement-copper is taken out from two 
compartments, alternately, every day, fresh scrap-iron being added 
each time. The cement-copper contains about 70 per cent, of 
copper and 0.15 per cent, of silver. About 80 per cent, of silver 
and 60 per cent, of copper are usually extracted from the roasted 
ore, the residues holding about 0005 percent, of silver. 

Two shifts of 8 men each, are needed in the lixiviation works 
every 12 hours ; 5 at the vats and tanks, i at the pumps, and 2 at 
the boiler. The residues from the dissolving vats are removed 
by contractors at a cost of 48 sen per ton. 

4. Refining the Cement-Silver, — The disks of cement-silver are 
dried in retort dryers, and subsequently refined with an addition 
of lead, in the two English cupellation furnaces. The tests are 
made of the best hydraulic cement, with no addition of sand ; 
125 pounds to 170 pounds of cement-silver make the charge 
for a campaign of cupellation, and the lead to be added to a 
charge is about 300 pounds. It takes ten hours or thereabouts 


to finish a campaign, and a test lasts for three successive campaigns. 
The silver, after refining, is poured into water, while still in the 
molten state, for granulation. The granulated silver is melted in 
graphite crucibles and cast in cast-iron moulds. A brick of the 
bullion measures 12 inches long and 3.4 inches wide at the top, 
14 inches long and 5.4 inches wide at the bottom, and nearly 4.2 
inches thick, weighing, on an average, 1000 ounces. Their aver- 
age fineness is 985. They are sent to the mint, at Osaka, to be 
cast into coins. 

5. Treatment of the Cement- Copper, — It is melted in small open 
hearths with charcoal, with some addition of quartz-sand and 
lime, and after skimming the slag thus formed the molten copper 
is cast into ingots. Half a ton of cement-copper is melted in a 
hearth per day, a smelter and an assistant, and a little more than 
400 pounds of charcoal, being needed. The size of an ingot is 17 
inches by 7 inches, and I inch in thickness, weighing 50 to 60 
pounds. It is above 80 per cent, fine and is sold as argentiferous 
ingot-copper. A part of the cement-copper, however, is further 
refined for the manufacture of the copper-plates and shots to be 
used in the precipitation tanks. 

Yield of the Reduction Works, — For the year ending September 
30, 1 891, the results obtained in the reduction works were as 
follows : 

Ore treated, . . . 32,181.8 tons. 
Bullion produced, . 214,014.3 ozs. 
Ingot-copper produced, 88.72 tons. 

Thus, the yield of silver was 78.59 per cent., and that of copper 
70.43 per cent. 

Cost of Treatment. — The mining and reduction expenses for the 
same year were as follows : 


Silver contents. 
269,515 5 OZS. 
211,809.0 ozs. 
Not calculated. 

Copper contents. 
1 17.14 tons. 

82.50 tons. 

Boring, . . . . 

Underground exploration, 
Repairing of levels, 

Yen, Per ton. 


16,514.585 0.455 

Mini7ig and Sorting, 

Mining, 32,039.014 

Sorting, 6,054.650 

38,093.664 1.049 



Yen. Per ton. 

Drying and pulverizing, 7,804.558 

Roasting, 39,466.832 

Lixiviation, 20,451.640 

Refining, casting, etc., of cement- copper, . . 5,206.585 
Copellation of cement-silver and silver lead (the lat- 
ter being produced in refining cement- copper), . 2,915.424 
Bullion casting, 155.160 

76,000.199 2.362 

Suggestions for a Treatment of Seventy Tons of the 

"Black Ore" Per Day. 

1. Spalliftg. — The ore coming out of mines is mostly in large 
lumps. The lumps are to be spalled by spalling-hammers, some 
gangues and poor portions being picked off at the same time. As 
manual labor is very cheap, while both fuel and water-power are 
very scarce, it is profitable to use this and the next method instead 
of breakers. 

2. Cobbifig. — The spalled ore, which is 6 to 4 inches in average 
size, is to be broken to about i-inch size. This can be done by 
women, or weak men, with cobbing-hammers. A woman of 
average strength is able to cob about 1250 pounds of ore, getting 
1 2 sen per day, and for cobbing 70 tons of ore per day there 
must be some 150 workmen. 

3. Stall-Roastmg of the Cobbed Ore. — This is to be done in the 
stalls shown in Fig. 5. Each stall is 6 feet wide, 10 feet long, 3^ 
feet and 2^ feet deep in the front and the back wall respectively, 
so that the bottom is ascending towards the back wall in the ratio, 
I : 10. There are two parallel air- ways beneath the bottom cov- 
ered with perforated cast-iron plates. These air-ways are for the 
introduction of air to the interior of the ore-heaps during the oper- 
ation, the air being regulated with bricks at the entrance holes. 
About two- fifths of a cord of wood is spread regularly over the 
bottom of the stall, and 8 tons of ore are piled on the wood floor 
thus formed. The fire is set from the entrance holes at the front 
wall, two short temporary chimneys of slabs being built at the 
back wall. The ore is roasted twice in this manner, the first and 
the second roasting taking about nine and seven days respec- 
tively. A battery of about 240 stalls is wanted for roasting 70 
tons of ore per day. This preliminary roasting is unavoidable, 
for the roasted ore is much easier to pulverize and reduces the 


time necessary for the chloridizing- roasting nearly one-half, as 
compared with the raw ore. 

4. Pulverizing the Roasted Ore. — This is to be done by three 
sets of 26 inch Krom rolls, two sets of which being each con- 
nected to a water-wheel and devoted to coarse crushing, while 
the third is worked by a steam-engine and adapted to fine crush- 
ing. Each of the water-wheels exerts about 12 horse-power for 
ten hours per day, while the steam-engine is 40 horse-power and 
works through day and night. The coarse-crushed ore is sifted 
through a i6-niesh sieve previous to the fine-crushing, that part 
which passes the sieve being estimated at about 50 per cent, of the 

total amount. With these arrangements it will be able to crush 
70 tons of ore per day so as to pass the i6-mesh sieves. 

g. Chloridizing-Roasting of the Pulveri::ed Ore — The roasting is 
to be done in long reverberatory calciners, just like those used in 
the treatment of the earthy ore, but having four hearths instead of 
three. A charge consists of ^ ton of ore and 4 per cent, of com- 
mon salt. The ore is kept one hour and a half in each hearth, 
thus taking six hours to pass the four hearths. The salt is added 
in the last hearth an hour before its discharge. Six of such fur- 
naces are needed for roasting 70 tons of ore, each furnace roasting 
14 charges per day. The finished ore is received by iron cars and 
conveyed into the cooling floor, where it is to be kept for several 
hours, and finally sprinkled with water. 


6. Treatment of the Chloridized Ore by the Augustine Process, and 
Subsequently by the Kiss Process, — The dissolving-vats, precipita- 
tion-tanks, etc., for the Augustine process, are exactly the same as 
those used in the case of the earthy ore. The lixiviation with a 
hot saturated brine is continued for eleven hours and is then leached 
with water so as to remove the remaining brine. The silver and 
copper are precipitated with copper and iron respectively in the 
same manner as in the case referred to, the cement-silver being 
taken out and formed into disks once a month, while the cement- 
copper is to be cleaned out from two compartments of the tank, 
alternately every day. 

After leaching the residues of the foregoing process with water 
for an hour, lixiviation with a cold 2 per cent, solution of calcium 
hyposulphite is commenced and continued about twenty-two 
hours. The residues are then washed with water for an hour and 
carried off by cars to the dump-heap, as sluicing is not practica- 
ble. The argentiferous liquid running out of the vats is con- 
ducted to large precipitation-tubs, placed in a row in the neigh- 
borhood of the precipitation- tanks of the preceding process. Each 
of these tubs is 7 feet in diameter and 7 feet in depth. The silver 
is precipitated from the liquid in the precipitation tubs with cal- 
cium sulphide, the clear solution above the settled precipitates 
is to be run into a sump, and pumped back to the storage- 
tanks. The precipitates are to be cleaned out from every tub once 
a week, and boiled with caustic soda or lime for saving the 
free sulphur contained in them. The sodium or calcium sulphide 
solution is siphoned out and used for precipitating fresh charges, 
while the residual sulphides are to be thoroughly washed with 
water and squeezed into disks by means of a screw-press or a filter- 
press, such as Johnson's. 

About seven-tenths of the silver extractable in these processes 
will go into the cement-silver, one-tenth to the cement-copper and 
the remaining one-fifth to the sulphides. The cement-silver usually 
contains 40 per cent, of silver, and the cement copper per 
cent, of silver and 65 per cent, of copper, while the sulphides, 
whose composition is very variable, contain something like 0.56 
per cent, of silver, 35 per cent, of lead, 20 percent, of copper, and 
some gold, which amounts to about 0.5 per cent, of the silver con- 
tained in them. Now, assuming the yield of silver as 80 per cent. 


of its original amount in the ore, and that of copper 50 per cent., 
there will be formed about 860 ounces of cement-silver, 1200 
pounds of sulphides, and 3000 pounds of cement-copper, from 70 
tons of ore. 

The two different lixiviations are applied to this ore in order to 
obtain, by the Augustine process, as much silver as can be ex- 
tracted in the metallic state, and the greater portion of the copper 
at the same time ; and by the Kiss process to extract the silver 
and gold which would not be recovered by the former process. 
The precipitates from the Kiss process are very troublesome to 
handle, and a large loss of silver may occur ; but much of this 
can be avoided by the introduction of the Augustine process as 
here suggested. 

7. Roasting the Sulphides. — This is to be done in a small muffle- 
furnace, the sulphurous acid gas generated in the furnace being 
utilized for the manufacture of calcium hyposulphite. The sul- 
phides will lose about 20 per cent, of their weight by roasting ; 
so that 960 pounds of roasted products will be obtained by roast- 
ing 1200 pounds of raw sulphides. 

8. Reduction of the Roasted Sulphides. — For this purpose the 
roasted sulphides are to be formed into balls, about 3 inches in 
diameter, with some addition of clay. These balls are to be melted 
in a small smelting- furnace, with some fluxes and charcoal, the 
products being cupriferous silver-lead and some matte. The matte 
must be roasted in a stall or a kiln and again added to the furnace. 
About 620 pounds of the cupriferous silver-lead will be obtained 
from 960 pounds of roasted sulphides. 

9. Liquation of the Cupriferous Silver- Lead. — For separating the 
copper and lead in the cupriferous silver-lead, it is to be liquated 
in the Japanese liquation-furnaces, the products being silver-lead 
and crude copper. From 620 pounds of cupriferous silver-lead 
about 320 pounds of pure silver-lead and 266 pounds of crude 
copper will be formed, the silver-lead containing 2 per cent., or 
thereabouts, of silver. 

10. Treatment of the Cement Copper and the Crude Copper. — The 
cement-copper and the crude copper from the last operation are 
melted in open-hearths and cast in iron moulds, in exactly the 
same way as in the case of the cement-copper obtained from the 
earthy ore. From 3000 pounds of the cement-copper, about 2400 


pounds of the ingot-copper, of about 80 per cent, in fineness, will 
be produced. 

11. Manufacture of Copper^Plates and Bean-Shot Copper. — 
Besides the cement- copper, there will be produced about 1000 
pounds of cement-copper per day from the copper plates and shots 
placed in precipitation-tanks. This quantity of copper must be 
refined by melting it with plumbiferous products in open-hearths 
and liquating the alloy thus formed in Japanese liquation- fur- 
naces, the products being silver-lead and crude copper; the latter 
contains about 92 per cent, of copper and is cast into plates and 
shots to be again added to the precipitation-tanks. On treating 
1000 pounds of cement-copper, about 147 pounds of silver-lead 
and 700 pounds of plates and shots will be produced. 

12. Cupellation of the Silver- Leads from the Prei^ious Opera- 
tions, — This is to be done in the English cupellation-furnaces, 
cupelling 10,000 pounds of silver-lead in a campaign lasting 
four days. The products are auriferous brick-silver, litharge, and 
hearth-bottom. From 467 pounds of silver-leads obtainable per 
70 tons of ore, about 109 ounces of auriferous brick-silver will be 

13. Refining the Cement-Silver. — This is to be cupelled in the 
English cupellation-furnaces, exactly as in the case of the similar 
substance from the earthy ore. From 860 ounces of cement- 
silver, about 350 ounces of brick-silver will be obtained. 

14. Casting the Brick-Silver. — The common and auriferous 
brick-silvers are to be separately melted in graphite crucibles, and 
cast in iron moulds well smoked with a piece of burning rosin. 
From 109 ounces of auriferous brick-silver and 350 ounces of 
common brick-silver, about 107.43 ounces and 346.00 ounces of 
auriferous and non-auriferous bullions will be produced respec- 

15. Reduction of Litharge and Hearth Bottom, — Some of the 
products from the cupellation furnaces are used in the eleventh 
operation, but most of them are to be smelted in the same smelting 
furnace used in smelting the roasted sulphides, with an addition 
of acidic slags, and the lead thus reduced cast into bars. Some 
of this is to be used in the refining of cement- silver, and the rest is 
sent to markets. From 70 tons of ore, some 300 pounds of lead 
will be produced. 


Estimated Product from 70 Tons of Ore. 

107.43 ounces of auriferous bullion, containing 2.43 ounces of 
gold, 97.39 ounces of silver, 985 fine, ..... 

346.00 ounces of silver bullion, containing 340 88 ounces of 
silver 985 fine, («) 1.22 yen, 

2666 pounds of argentiferous ingot-copper, containing 80 per 
cent, of copi->er and 0.12 per cent, of silver, (a- y. 0.12, 

300 pounds of bar-lead, @ y. 0.04, 






Estimated Daily Cost of Treating 70 Tons of Ore. 

1-2. Mining. 

Surveying, .... .... 0.30 

Exploration, ....... 65.00 

Mining, ' . . 144.00 

Spalling and cobbing, 25.00 

3. Stall-Roasting. 

Contract on roasting @, y. 0.24 per ton, 
10 wood conveyers @, y. o 30, 
6 cords wood @ y. 3.10, 

Tools, repairs, etc., 

Sundries, . 

4^. Coarse- Crushing. 

4 feeders @ 0.30, 

2 men on rolls and sieves @ 0.30, 

2 oilers @ 0.30, . 

8 carmen @ 0.25, 

I helper @ 0.18, . 


Tools, .... 


4^. Fine- Crushing. 

4 feeders @ 0.30, .... 
2 oilers @- 0.30, .... 

4 carmen @ 0.22, 
I helper (a 0.18, . 

6 stokers (n), 0.25, .... 
Wood conveyers @ 0.06 per cord, 

5 cords wood @» • 
Sundries, repairs, etc., . 


Per Ton. 




Per Ton. 








Per Ton. 







1. 00 





Per Ton. 










* April, 1894, one silver yen equal 50.1 cents; one gold yen equal 99.7 cents. 



5. CMoridising-Roasting. 


8 feeders @ 0.27, . 

• • • « a 


72 men on furnaces @ 

.30 to 0.40, 

. 23.40 

I helper @ 0.27, . 

 • • • • 


Wood conveyers @ 0.06 

per cord, 


18 cords wood @ 3.10,. 

• • fl «  


2.8 tons salt @ 17.43, . 

 • • • t 


Tools, repairs, etc., 

* •   4 



• • • • • 


Per Ton. 

@ 0.06 per ton 


6. Lixiviation and Precipitation, 

Contract on cooling and charging @ 0.08 per ton, 
15 lixiviators @ 0.32 to 0.38, 

4 men on pumps @ 0.30, 
3 men on preparing chemicals @' 0.25, . 

5 men en precipitates @, 0.25, 
7 men on cement copper @ 0.22, . 
j^^ man on cement-silver squeezing @« 0.22, 
% man on cement-silver @ 0.22, . 
2 general assistants @ 0.20, 
I office helper (a) 0.20,. 
Contract on carrying residues 
I ton scrap-iron @ 40.00, 
\ ton salt ©17 40, 
^ t<m sulphur @ 15.00, 
^i ton lime @ 12.00, . 

Tools, repairs, etc.. 

7. Roasting 1200 pounds of sulphides from Kiss 


8. Reduction of 960 pounds of roasted .sulphides, . 

9. Lixiviation of 620 pounds of cupriferous silver 

lead, ........ 

10. Melting 3000 pounds of cement-copper and 266 

pounds of crude copper, .... 

11. Refining looo pounds of cement-copper, . 

12. Cupel iation of 467 pounds of silver leads from 

ninth and eleventh operations, 

13. Refining 860 ounces of cement-silver, 

14. Casting 109 ounces of auriferous and 350 ounces 

of non-auriferous brick-silvers, 

15. Reduction of plumbiferous products for 300 

pounds of bar-lead, 






Per To 






































Analytical Chemistry, by E. Waller, Ph.D. 

Action of Acids an Glass. Foerster {Fres. Zts, Anal. Chem.^ xxxi i i., 299). 

1. The attack of glass by aqueous solutions of acid is not essentially 
dependent on the kind, and within certain limits, the concentration of 
the acids. 

2. The attack on glass by aqueous solutions of acids only results from 
the water contained in them. 

3. The co-operation of the dissolved acids consists simply in neutral- 
izing the alkali passing into s61ution. 

4. Aqueous acid solutions attack glass more weakly than does pure 
water ; also, 

5. Glasses rich in lime, as well as flint-glasses containing much lead, 
undergo strong attack by aqueous solutions of acid, which attack is de- 
pendent on the kind and concentration of the acid solutions. 

6. Boilijig sulphuric acid acts more weakly upon ordinary lime-glasses 
than does boiling water. 

7. Sulphuric-acid fumes attack glass strongly at high temperatures, 
since coatings of alkaline sulphates form, and exert a profound altera- 
tion of the surface of the glass. 

Researches on the superficial clouding of the surfaces of glass (Ver- 
witterung, /A, p. 322), lead to the conclusion that the phenomenon is 
chiefly due to water of composition in the glass. Some lime-glasses are 
hygroscopic and cloud up more quickly. 

Filter Paper, Cramer {Zts. Aug, Chem.^ 1894, 269) recommends the 
use of filter papers partially, or entirely, composed of nitrocellulose. 
Such paper filters more quickly than ordinary paper, as the nitrocellu- 
lose has less tendency to felt together ; it is less hygroscopic, and is, of 
course, quickly incinerated. 

Volatilization of Salts during Evaporation. Bailey {J. Lond. Chem. 
Soc,^ Ixv., 445) communicates a preliminary note of this subject. The 
experiments were conducted chiefly with alkaline chloride solutions. 
The loss, in many cases, was quite perceptible, and suggests a hitherto 
unsuspected source of error in some determinations. 

Ammonia by Nessler Reagent. De Koninck {Chem. News^ Ixix., 220). 
The assertion that alcohol in a solution diminishes the sensitiveness of 
the Nessler test having been questioned, a series of experiments are 
recorded which confirm that assertion. The presence of one-sixth of 
alcohol modifies the appearance of the precipitate perceptibly. Bohlig^s 
test (with HgClj) is unaffected by alcohol. 

Free Acids in Salts of the Heavy Metals. Hoffmann (^Chem. Zeit.^ 
xvii., 13 18). The base is precipitated by a slight excess of K^FeCyg, 
and the free acid is then titrated in an aliquot portion of the clear solu- 
tion with N/10 soda, using phenolphthalein as indicator. The metals 
should be in the highest state of oxidation ; e.g., the method is inap- 
plicable with FqSO^. 


Volumetric for Barium. Soltsien {Phann. Ztg., xxxv., 372). The 
solution must be neutral, or, at most, contain only a trace of acetic 
acid. A standard solution of KjjCrO^ is then run in until a drop of the 
solution on a porcelain plate just begins to give a blue-black with a drop 
of haeraatoxylin solution. 

Iron in Ores, Mixer and Dubets {^Eng, and Min. J.^ Ivii., 342). A 
rapid method in use in the Lake Superior region is described. It con- 
sists in dissolving the ore directly in acid SnCl^ solution, and titrating 
with standard permanganate. 

The solutions used are: Standard permanganate, i c.c. = o.oio 
gramme FerSnCl^ solution ; i pound SnCljin i pound cone. HCl, diluted 
to 2 litres ; ** titrating solution,*' 160 grammes MnSO, in 1750 c.c. water, 
to which is then added 330 c.c. phosphoric acid and 320 c.c. H^SO^ ; 
saturated solution of HgClj. 0.5 gramme or less of the pulverized ore 
is treated in a beaker with 2.5 c.c. of the SnCl, solution; then 10 to 15 
c.c. of HCl (1:1) are added, the beaker covered, and the solution is 
boiled until the ore is completely dissolved. This requires * to 5 min- 
utes. While the solution is still hot, more SnCl, solution is added, drop 
by drop, until the yellow color of Fe,Clj just disappears. Then 5 c.c. 
of the HgClj solution are added to remove the excess of SnCl^. The 
solution is then poured into a 500 c.c. beaker, diluted, and 5 to 10 c.c. 
of the ** titrating solution '* added. Titrate immediately with the stand- 
ard permanganate. 

It is regarded as safer to keep on hand a standard ore, which is dis- 
solved and titrated with each set of analyses, to check against any pos- 
sible errors due to changes in the solutions. 

Separating Titanium from Iron, Baskerville (y. Am, Chem. Soe,, 
xvi., 427). It is found that if a neutralized solution of TiCl^ and Fe^Cl, 
not too dilute is boiled with an excess of SO^, a complete separation is 
readily effected. 

Analysis of Commercial Nickels, Fleitmann (^Fres, Zts, Anal, Chem.^ 
xxxiii., 335). Dissolve 5 grammes in aqua regia and evaporate repeatedly 
with HCl to convert to chlorides, and filter off C and SiOj. To the 
solution add gradually and with caution very dUute Na^CO, in amount 
sufficient to precipitate only the Fe ; add a drop of acetic, boil and fil- 
ter. Dissolve the precipitate in HCl, and precipitate with ammonia. If 
any Cu has adhered to the precipitate, reserve it to be added to the re- 
mainder of the Cu when obtained. After separating Fe from the main 
solution, add a drop of HCl, and then gradually H^S solution, until all 
Cu is precipitated, a point easily detected. Avoid carefully an excess 
of H^S. After filtering off the Cu, pass H^S in the cold to separate 
ZnS ; filter off the ZnS. Boil H^S out of the filtrate, neutralize, warm 
to 60-80° C, and then add gradually a weakly alkaline solution of 
NaClO. All Mn precipitates as brown MnO,, then Co as blackish 
brown Co^O,, and finally Ni as deep black Ni^O,. The beginning of 
the precipitation of the last is marked by a noticeable evolution of O, 
as well as by the change in color. Boil and filter. When managed 
with care, by stopping at the right point, but little Ni will remain in 
the precipitate. Dissolve in hot HCl, heat to expel CI, convert 10 


acetic solution ; precipitate all three by passing H,S. Dissolve in 
HNOj, separate Co by KNO,, and determine Mn in the filtrate. 

Phosphor Tin. Lobry de Bruyn {^Rec, Trav. Chim,^ xii., 262). About 
I gramme of the alloy in small pieces is weighed out in a small flask. 
40-50 c.c. of water is added, and, after placing the flask in cold water 
to moderate the reaction, about 5 c.c. of liquid Br is added gradually 
(i c.c. or less at a time). Care must be exercised to keep the tempera- 
ture down as much as possible, and sufficient Br must be added to effect 
complete decomposition. Rinse with cone. HCl into a porcelain cap- 
sule, and heat until all free Br is expelled. Dilute, separate Sn by H,S, 
and in the filtrate determine P by magnesia mixture. 

Phosphor Tin, Teed (A^afysfyXix., 133). The method recommended 
is to oxidize with HNO,; destroy the HNO, by evaporation with 
NH^Cl ; render alkaline with ammonia, and warm with excess of 
(NH J,S. Metals of the lead group may here be filtered off, and from 
the solution the SnS^ is separated by acidifying. In the filtrate, P^O^ 
may be determined by magnesia mixture. In the discussion, Dr. Dyer 
said the method failed to give SnS, free from P^O^. His method was : 
Dissolving in HNO,, then adding very little HCl, only enough to keep 
Sn in solution, and then precipitating out P,Oj by molybdate. 

Electrolytic Separations, Smith and Spencer (y. Am, Chem, Soc^w'x,^ 
420) Ag and Cu. Classen's method for separating these metals by pre- 
cipitating out the Ag as oxalate, and then electrolyzing separately, was 
found to be inaccurate, some Ag being always found with the Cu. By 
use of KCy solution at 60 to 65° a perfect separation was effected. Ag 
only, deposited. Jig and Cu; satisfactory, in KCy solution ; Hg only, 
deposited. Ag and Cd ; also satisfactory in KCy; Ag only, deposited. 

Volumetric Solution of Arsenious Acid, Namias (Gazz. Chim, Ital,, 
XX., 508) recommends solution of 8 grammes As^O, by heating for some 
time with 300 to 400 c.c. of water containing 80 grammes NH^CjHgO,. 
The solution may be used for titrating bleaching powder, chlorates, py- 
rolusite, etc. 

Platinum Alloys, etc, Mylius and Foerster {Zts.f,Instrumentenkunde^ 
^"•1 93)' ^y forming Schutzenberger's compound — distilling at 240° 
in a current with CI and CO, which affords a volatile platinous chlo- 
ride containing CO — very pure platinum may be obtained, or analyses 
may be made of Pt alloys. 

Impurities in Commercial Copper. Blount {Analyst^ xix., 92^), reports 
that his method is essentially the same as Hampe's {vid. Quarterly). 
The sp. gr. of Cu^CCNS)^ he finds to be 2.846 instead of 2 999 as found 
by Hampe. He dissolves 13.215 grammes of the sample in aqua regia, 
removes excess of HNO3 ^"^ precipitates the Cu^CCNS).^ as described 
by Hampe, and then draws off 750 c.c. which (allowing tor the volume 
of the Cuj(CNS)2), corresponds to 10 grammes. The distillation 
method is preferred for As. 


Arsenic in Copper, Flatten (y. 5. C. /., xiii., 324), 20 grammes ig- 
nited Fe^Oj are dissolved in 150 c.c. HCl and boiled in a Wurz flask con- 
nected with a condenser. When (?o c.c. have distilled over the distillate 
is tested with H.^S. If no As^Sj appears, the reagents are assumed to be 
pure, and 10 grammes of drillings of the copper to be tested, are added 
to the flask, which is then heated until all the As has been distilled over. 
The distillate is saturated with H,S, filtered at once, the precipitate 
washed carefully, and then boiled with 400 to 500 c.c. of water for i or 
2 hours which will dissolve it, when the HjAsO, may be titrated with 
centinormal iodine. 

Estimating Cadmium. Muspratt (y. S, C, /., xiii., 211) has investi- 
gated the methods in use. 

1. Precipitation by Na,COj, igniting and weighing CdO. The pre- 
cipitate often contains some basic salt. Ignition converts much of it to 
CdjO, and strong ignition appears to volatilize the oxide as such. He 
recommends separating the precipitate from the paper, igniting in a 
current of oxygen, and dissolving off" the carbonate adhering to the 
paper by HNO, evaporating and heating to CdO, separately weighing 
this portion. 

2. Rose's method, precipitation by H^S, and igniting in H gas, gave 
good results but was too tedious. 

3. Electrolytic separation in (1) KCy solution (2) dilute H,SO^ and 
(3) (NH^)jC20^. These gave satisfactory results. The H^SO^ solution 
is to be preferred. Dilute solutions and weak currents must be used. 

Bismuth; Separation from Copper, Jannasch and I^resinsky {BericJitey 
xxviii., 2908). In a nitric solution containing 0.3 gramme each of these 
metals, 40 to 50 c.c. of a 3 per cent. H,0, solution with 15 c.c. cone, 
ammonia effected complete separation even in the cold ; more rap- 
idly if brought to boiling. Especial care is necessary in washing the 
precipitate. In presence of hydroxylamine the precipitate was more 
readily filtered and washed, but it was necessary to redissolve and repre- 
tipitate a second time to eff*ect a perfect separation. 

Sulphur in Pyrites. Gladding (y. Am, Chem. Soc, xvi., 398). HNO, 
in the solution (for precipitating HaSOJgave high results, the plus error 
being increased when KCl and NaC'l were present. In the absence of 
HNO, those salts had no appreciable influence. The presence of Fe in 
the solution always gave low results. In Lunge's method, where Fe was 
first separated out by ammonia, some sulphuric acid was invariably car- 
ried down with the ammonia precipitate, which could be recovered by 
resolution and reprecipitation. The method recommended is essen- 
tially the bromine method, already described by Ferguson (vi/fe Quar- 
terly, XV., 155). A review of various methods is given in Pres. Zts, 
Anal, Chem, (xxxiii., 208) by Hinz. 

Phosphorus in Steel, etc, Doolittle and Eavenson {J, Am, Chem, Soc,^ 
xvi., 234). Experiments which are fully described indicate that the 
ratio of P. to MoO, in the yellow precipitate is 1.797 : 100. 

In using a reductor, the results were not concordant unless the solu- 
tion poured through was hot, and the column of Zn was of considerable 
length. Reduction with Zn in a flask, as prescribed by Emmerton, may 
easily be incomplete. 


As in the solution seemed to be without influence, except as mechani- 
cally dragged down with the phosphorus. 

The *• acetate" (or *' citric acid**) method (gravimetric) was found 
to give low results. 

Phosphorus in Irons ^ etc, — Alkalimelric Method, Handy (y. Am, 
Chem, Soc, xvi., 231). An investigation as to the interference of As 
with the titration indicated that the precipitation of As with the P^Oj 
precipitate is a mechanical one, and may be obviated by redissolvingihe 
yellow precipitate in ammonia and reprecipitating. 

Phosphoric Acid, by alkalimetric titration of the molybdate precipi- 
tate. Pemberton {J, Franklin Inst,^ Feb. 20, 1894). In a former paper 
(Quarterly, xv., p. 156), the ratio between the P^O^ of the precipitate 
and the standard alkali was recorded as 23.2 mol. Na,0 to i mol. P^O^. 
Careful experiments show that the ratio should be made 23.0 instead of 
23.2, or 323.7 c.c, of normal H^SO^ should be diluted to i litre, and the 
alkali solution should be made to correspond c.c. for c.c. to obtain a 
solution of which 1 c.c. = 0.001 gramme PjO^. 

Volumetric for Phosphoric Acid,^ Holleman {Fres. Zt, Anal, Chem.^ 
xxxiii., 185). If a slight excess of standard AgNO, solution is added 
to a neutral solution of the phosphate containing some NaCjHjOj. 
AgjPO^ is precipitated, and in an aliquot part of the filtrate therefrom, 
the amount of Ag in excess may be titrated by NH^CNS (Volhard's 
method). The process has been found applicable to HNO, solution of 
Ca, (PO^),. A large excess of AgNOj solution must be avoided. 

Citrate Soluble Phosphoric Acid, Ross {J, Am, Chem. Soc, xvi., 
304). To estimate the citrate soluble phosphoric acid directly, the 
author recommends after the 30 minute digestion with 100 c.c. of 
citrate solution, to filter off 25 c.c, place in a Kjeldahl flask — add about 
15 c.c. cone. HjSO^, and heat until foaming ceases, then add HgO or 
metallic Hg ; heat until colorless. Cool, dilute, neutralize with ammo- 
nia, add HNOj and precipitate with molybdate mixture. 

Methods for Determining Boric Acid, Hefelman {Pharm, CentrWi., 
ix., 116), and Reischle (Z/j. J. Anorg, Chem.^ iv., 1 11), have both given 
recently reviews of the methods for determining BjO,. Stromeyer's 
method by precipitation of 2 KFjBFj is regarded as unsatisfactory by 

Titration Afcthods. — In these, usually two indicators must be em- 
ployed. Borates insoluble in water must "be dissolved in some mineral 
acid (HClor H^jSO^). The free mineral acid must then be titrated with 
an indicator which is unaff*ected by H3BO3 and in another portion the 
titration is performed with an indicator which is sensitive to HjBOj. 

For indicators unaff'ected by HjBOg, Congo red and Helianthin have 
been recommended. For those sensitive to H^BOg, orcein and litmus. The 
latter when suitably prepared (de Luyne's method), gives a wine red with 
HjBOj perceptibly different Irom the ordinary red imparted by mineral 
ands. Hefelman finds Parmentier's method (titration with Helianthin, 
and with litmus) satisfactory. Reischle does not. 


Wills* titration with standard Ba(0H)2 was found to lack sharpness. 

Rose's method — determination of the CO,, evolved by fusing a borate 
with Na^COj, is condemned by both. 

Hefelman reports Gooch's methyl alcohol distillation method as giv- 
ing variable, and usually low results. 

Determining B^Oj by loss on heating with NH^F or HF and H^SO^ 
was found by both to be the most satisfactory, though the details of the 
manipulations used by the two experimenters differed materially. Reis- 
chle*s plan was the simpler. The material is mixed (in Pt dish) with 
six times its weight of NH^F, warmed slowly to drive* off the most of the 
2 NH^F, BF,. cooled, and then cone. H^SO^ is added, which is heated 
off, finally leaving the bases as sulphates, which are weighed. From the 
difference in weight the 6,0, is calculated. 

Carbonic Acid in Presence of Soluble Sulphides. Wolkowicz {Zts, 
Angew. Ch.^ 1894, 165). Adding a 20 per cent. CuCI, solution will 
hold back the H^S on acidifying, allowing only CO^ to escape. 

Methods for Total Carbon in Iron. Gottig {Abh. d, Ver, Bef d. 
Gewerbefl., viii., 321). The conclusions are : 

I. Direct estimation by combustion of the iron in a current of oxy- 
gen yields low results, and cannot in any case be recommended. 

II. Wet combustion (H^SO^ and CrOj) can be directly applied. It is 
advisable to use a good excess of CrO, (12 to 15 times that of the iron), 
and to include a tube of glowing CuO and a drying apparatus before 
the absorption bulbs. 

III. In methods involving the solution of the iron in CuSO^ there is 
no need to separate the precipitate Cu from the carbon if the wet com- 
bustion is applied. 

As regards graphite determinations, the author observes : 

1. Thorough boiling with HNO3 or HCl renders subsequent washing 
with KOH, alcohol and ether unnecessary, and gives better results. 

2. As compared with HCl, the use of HNO, may lead to low results. 

3. HNO3 is preferable to HCl, in that it more readily affords a residue 
free from combined carbon. 

Silica Estimation. Cameron (C/4^w. A^ifZ^/J, Ixix., 174). Dehydration 
on a water-bath left about 3 per cent, in solution ; over a naked flame, 
under 2 per cent, remained dissolved. Filtering and evaporating a 
second or even a third time before all silica is separated is necessary. 
Evaporating without filtering off did not seem to be effective. 

Dehydration with H,SO^ proved no more effective than evaporation 
with HCl. A large excess acted no better than a small excess. 

In presence of Al^O, or Fe^O^, especially Al^Og, insoluble compounds 
of those bases tended to remain with the SiO^ when H^SO, was used. 
The presence of Ca salts seemed to have no effect in the separation. 

New Element ? Bayer (C//^/f/. A^<rav, Ixix., 256). In the examina- 
tion of a French bauxite some reactions were obtained which seemed to 
indicate the presence of an element hitherto unknown. The amount 
of material was, -however, too small to permit of satisfactory exami- 


The Mineral Industry : Its Statistics, Technology and Trade in the United States 
and Other Countries from the Earliest Times to the End of 1893. VoL II. Edi- 
ted by Richard P. Roth well. New York : The Scientific Publishing Co. 8vo. 

I'his second volume supplements and vastly increases the mass of in- 
formation furnished in the first volume as to the history, occurrence, 
methods of mining and preparing for market, uses, prices current, etc., 
of the many economically important minerals and mineral aggregates. 

The substances discussed in Vol. I. are further considered, especially 
with reference to changes and production during 1893, and chapters upon 
many economically less important elements as arsenic, cadmium, bis- 
muth, iodine, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, tungsten are added. 
Building materials as limestone, marble, lime and slate and such min- 
eral substances as gypsum, magnesite, peat, mineral wax, marl, alum, 
copperas, bauxite, etc., are considered in separate chapters, with greater 
or less thoroughness. A chapter on abrasives, for instance, discusses 
corundum and emery, infusorial earth and carborundum, but omits 
garnet and quartz, of which thousands of tons are used as abrasives, 
especially in the sand papers. 

A feature of great value is the insertion in the different chapters of 
articles by specialists which are not simply statistical but which present 
a definitely mastered synopsis of great industries or group of industries, 
and in the opmion of the writer the most permanent value of the work 
is in these. '* The History of Alkali Manufacture in Great Britain," by 
A. M. Gibson, is perhaps the most striking article, but is closely matched 
in interest by the chapters on " Aluminum," by Prof. Joseph Richards ; 
** American Practice in Electrolytic Copper Refining," by Titus Ulk6; 
the very thorough articles on "Clays," by Henrich Ries, and on ** Sul- 
phur," by J. F. Kemp, and the historical rfeumfes, by W. R. Ingalls, on 
*' Distribution and Production of Lead," and "Present Condition of 
the Zinc Industry in Europe.'* 

Other special articles are : 

"Sketch of Certain Advances in Iron and Steel Metallurgy in 1893," 
by H. M. Howe. 

" Recent Improvements in the Treatment of Argentiferous Lead 
Ores," by H. O. Hofman. 

"Improvements in Metallurgy of Copper during 1893," by E. D. 

"Present Practice in Copper Concentration and Extraction," by 
Titus Ulk6. 

''Open-Hearth Work at Steelton," by H. H. Campbell. • 

** The Future of Copper-Mining in Montana," by Albert R. Ledoux. 

"Gold Resources of Colorado," by T. A. Rickard. 

"The Rare Elements," by W. R. Ingalls. 

"Limestone Marble and Lime," by T. C. Hopkins. 

VOL. XV.— 26 





































































































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"Treatment of Franklinite/' by Titus Ulke. 

** Gold and Silver Mining in South America/* by Courtenay de Kalb. 

** Cuprous Chloride Process," by C. Hoepfner. 

In reading over the work the enormous aggregate value of the mineral 
products of the world each year becomes more and more apparent, and 
m an attempt to obtain a bird's-eye view of this the writer compiled 
from the book the table on the opposite page, in which, as far as possi- 
ble, the values given are those of the crude ore or mineral prior to any 
metallurgical or chemical treatment. With certain metals as gold, silver 
and tin, the values are chiefly those of the extracted metals. 

The returns for some countries are very incomplete and the aggregate 
value is much larger than that given, and it is also obvious that the 
statistics for building stones, iron-ore, manganese-ore, nickel and cobalt- 
ore, phosphates, precious stones and clays, are not complete. It is to 
be noted that lead-ore is largely reported as silver lead. 

Omitting the products, arsenic, alum shale, asbestos, barite, bauxite, 
bismuth, chrome-ore, corundum, cryolite, feldspar, fluorspar, iodine, 
lime, magnesite, marl, mica,mineral paints, mineral water, nitrates, natural 
gas, ozocerite, platinum, potash salts, soapstone, tungsten, titanium, 
uranium, which are mined in only a few localities, but which, as re- 
corded, aggregated in 1892, over $100,000,000 as crude material, and 
remembering the host of smaller less important minerals for which no 
satisfactory figures are obtainable, the value of the minerals produced in 
the world in the year 1892, was evidently in round numbers, at least 
two thousand miliion dollars. This, too, in general means the value at 
the place of production and in the raw state. Of this enormous sum 
eight products constitute four-fifths of all ; these are in order : 

Millions of Dollars. 
Coal, . . ' 8^6 

^llXCij .*■•.••••*.. 22/ 

Gold 137 

Building stones (very incomplete, should be larger), . . , 109 

Copper-ore, ........... 65 

Iron-ore, 63 

Petroleum, etc., 62 

oaii, ..•.«..•....• 34 


The preparation of such a work with due care is an enormous task. 
It is evident that more time would secure more definite agreement be- 
tween the statistics by countries and by products; for instance. New 
Caledonia the greatest nickel- producer of the world does not appear in 
the statistics by countries. On the other hand, Russia is credited 
(p. 752), in 1 89 1 (the last year given for most Russian products), with 
11,839 metric tons of asbestos; Canada (p. 706), with 6576 tons in 
1893; Italy (p. 740), with none, although (p. 38), Mr. Donald states: 
"Small areas in only two countries, Italy and Canada, can be con- 
sidt^red as of any importance as producers of it.*' 

It is difficult at times to judge whether a reported product is mineral 
or metallurgical, and whether when ore and metal are both given (/-g-, 
U. S., antimony ore, 771 tons ; antimony, 318 tons) the ore from which 
the meial was derived is included in the reported ore-production or is 
additional ; no uniform usage seems to prevail. In the opinion of the 



writer, the quantity of ore or mineral, and its value at the place of pro- 
duction should be always given when obtainable, and the manufac- 
tured products separately except perhaps in the case of gold and silver. 
In endeavoring, for instance, to compare statistics of iron-ore, it was 
found that for the United States only pig-iron was recorded, whereas, for 
Great Britain the ore was recorded and the pig-iron not ; in Sweden 
both, and so on. These, however, are faults which can be remedied, 
and the great value of the work is not to be questioned. A. J. M. 

Le Cuivre. By Paul Weiss, Ingineur au Corps 'des Mines. Paris. J. B. Baillidre 
et Fils, 1894. i2mo., cloth binding, 344 pp., 96 illustrations. Typography and 
paper of good quality. 

This work is divided into three parts. The first treating of the origin, 
occurrence, etc., of copper. The second embraces the metallurgical 
treatment and the third its manufacture into commercial forms. 

Under part I. are di.scussed the physical and chemical properties of the 
metal with the various methods of analysis, and special mention is de- 
served of the microphotographic plates of etched polished surfaces. Il- 
lustrations are given of the following metals : Perfectly refined copper, 
imperfectly refined copper, copper with 8 per cent, phosphorus, ordi- 
nary bronze, phosphor-bronze, aluminium- bronze, manganese-bronzes, 
antifriction metals, brass, etc. These microphotographic illustrations are 
of good quality and distinctly show the changes in structure of the metal. 

Under part II. the metallurgy of copper is treated in a general way. 
The subject is discussed under heap, stall and furnace roasting of ore. 
Fusion for bronze mattes in shaft, reverberatory or oil-fired furnaces. 
Fusion for black copper in shaft, small or large reverberatory furnaces 
with a special chapter on the Swedish regenerative gas-fired furnace and 
Bessemerization of copper mattes. 

Refining of black copper in low hearth, reverberatory and electrolytic ; 
a special chapter is devoted to the various wet methods of extracting 
copper from its ores. 

Part III., gives the manufacture of the refined copper into the various 
forms as plate, wire, rods, tubing, etc., and includes a short description 
of brass founding. 

For an elementary work embracing the general metallurgical practice 
of copper smelting this work is commendable, but it is to be regretted 
that the author in briefly describing modern practice has not given the 
references when the details could be easily obtained by those who wished 
to go into the subject further than this work has advanced. J. S. 

Gas- Lighting and Gas- Fitting. By Wm. Paul Gerhard, C.E. Second edition. 
i6mo Pp. 190. Van Nostrand's Science Series. 1894. 

This little volume is intended for all who are in any way interested 
in the distribution or use of illuminating gas. Among the more impor- 
tant topics discussed are the piping of buildings, gas-burners and fix- 
tures, hints to consumers on the use of gas, and the use of gas for heat- 
ing and cooking. 

VVe notice some errors of minor importance, but on the whole the 
volume will be found reliable and useful. 

The great want at present, however, is not so much bojks like that 
of Mr. Gerhard's, as it is for architects, gas-fitters and consumers who 
will read and profit by those already written. E. G. L. 

ERRATA. 385 

Wells-Cushman Schemes for Qualitative Analysis, 

(School op Minks Quarterly, April, 1894.) 

Table II.— 1st column 13th line, read (NH^)^ for (NH)^ 

Scheme II.— Filtrate C, 3d line, read Scheme V. for Table VII. 

Scheme II.— Ppt. A, 2d line, read HCl for HlC. 

Table III.— ist column 6th line, read HNOj for NHOg. 

Table VI.— ist column 7th line, read CoCl, for COClj. 

Table VII.— Foot-note, read BaCOj for BaCo,. 

Table VII.— 3d column 5th line, read KjAl^O^ for KjAl^O. 

Table VII.— 4th column loth line, read 2NH^C1 for zNH^Cl. 

Table VII.— (Concluded) ist column 8th line, read NH^Cl for NHCl. 

Table VIII.— Under Metals in title, 2d line, read (C^HjO,), for (CjAjOa),. 

Table VIII.— Under Metals in title, 3d line, read HCjHjOj for H^HgOj,. 

Table X.— 8th column loth line, read (CO,), for (CO3). 

Table XI. — 6th column 7th line, read Fe5(FeCy,)j, for Fe3(KeCyg)3. 

Table XIII. — 3d column 3d line, read Hg/ for H^^g. 




Members op the Alumni Association and Other Graduates 

Detecting Errors in the Succeeding Lists 

Will Please Send Corrections to 




No. 12 West Thirty-first Street, 
New York City. 



Board of Managers 





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Columbia College, N. Y. 


Terms expire 18(J3. Group. Terms expire 1894. 

A. W. HALE, '67. L WM. ALLEN SMITH, '68. 



GEO. R. TUSKA, '91. IV. D. LeR. DRESSER, '89. 

Note. — Correspondence concerning dues and other clerical details of the work o/ 

the Association may be conveniently addressed to Mr« Francis W. 

HoADLET, Assistant to the Secretary and Treasurer, 

No. 12 West 3l8t St., New York City. 


Officers of the Association, ..... 
List of all Graduates by Classes, 

List of Members of Alumni Association (alphabetical), 
List of Honorary Members, .... 
List of Graduates Not Members af Alumni Association, 
List of Members Classified by States and Towns, . 
Cortstitution of Alumni Association, 








All Graduates, 

Members of Alumni Association, 

Honorary Members, . 

Life Members, 


Other Graduates, 







(Revised to April Ist, 1894.) 

LIST No. 1. 

Contains the names of all Graduates and Members of 


the Alumni Association grouped by classes from 
the beginning. The details as to Residence and 
Professional Occupation are given in the sec- 
ond or alphabetical list for convenient reference. 

(Revised to April 1st, 1894.) 

— 6 — 






[Note, — Where the name is followed by a date, it denotes that the person is no 
longer living, and the date is the year of the death.] 

Adams, J. M., 1892. 
Bridgbam, S. W. 
Bronson, R S. 
Brown, F. G. 
Church, J. A. 

Barnard, A. P* 
Baxter, G. S. 
Carson, J. P. 
Chester, A H, 
Coursen, G. 11. 
Geer, G» J., Jr. 
Hanna, G. B. 
MacMartin, A, 1881. 

Blossom, T. M., 187G. 
Bnickman, F. 
Campbell, A. C. 
Delafield, A. F. 
Hooker, W. A. 

Haight, O., J 80 1. 
Iiigersoll, W. H. 
Knapp, J. A. 


Cornwall, H. B. 
Giddings, E. E. 
Gracie, C. K., 1891. 
Hale, A. W. 
Harding, G. E. 


Melliss, D. E. 
MofFatt, E. S., 1893. 
Parsons, G. H. 
Pennington, J. P. 
Pistor, W. 

Piatt, c. s: 

Robertson, K. 


Huntington, C. 
Irving, R. D., 1888. 
Jenney, W. P. 
Munroe, H. S. 


Lilienthal, J. L. 
Lindsley, S. 
Parrot, E. M. 

Harmer, T. H. 
Heath, E. M, 
Tuttle, W. W. 
Van Lennep, D. 

Shack, A P. 
Schermerhorn, F. A. 
Smith, L. 
Smith, W. A. 
Stalknecht, F. 
Van Arsdale, W. H. 
Wheeler, M. D., 1889. 

Nettre, L. R. 
Newton, H., 1877. 
Potter, W. B- 
Randolph, J. C. F. 

Terhune, R. H. 
Van Wagenon, T. F. 
Waller, E. 

— 7 — 

Fales, W. E. S. 
Goldscbmidt, S. A. 
Gordon, J. 

Austen, P. T. 
Jenney, R, 1876. 

Canfield, F. A. 
Colton, G. A. 


Ricketts, P. de P. 
Riggs, G. W. 
Roberts, G. S. 


McDowell, R H. 
Sloane, T. 0'C\ 


Mott, H. A. 
Webb, H. W. 


Allen, C. S. Lillie, S. M. 

Benedict, W. de L. Murray, G. 

Cameron, J. G. M., 1892. Olcott, E. E. 
Ledoux, A. R. Rees, B. R 

Iblseng, M. C. 
lies, M. W. 
Jackson, C. E. 
Joy, D. A., 1888. 
Lamson, R., 1876. 
Leavens, H. W. 
Macy, A., 1891. 

Austin, T. S. 
Bruen, R E., 1884. 
Cornwall, G. R. 
Craven, R C, 1890. 
Foote, H. C.,1888. 
Grarrison, E. H. 
Gratacap, L. P. 
Hall, R. W. 
Hamilton, S., Jr. 


Noyes, W. S. 
Pfister, P. C. 
Putnam, B. T.. 1886. 
Rees, J. K. 
Rolker, C. M. 
Russell, S. H., 1892. 
Stewart, H. 


Holbrook, F. N. 
Hoyt, W. L. 
Hunt, R F. 
Hutton, F. R. 
King, C. 
Lord, N. W. 
Love, E. G. 
Maghee, J. H. 
Morewood, H. R 

Robertson, R S., Jr. 

Wendt, A. R, 1893. 

Williams, J. T. 

Rbodes, R B. F. 
Williams, F. H. 

Thompson, M. S. 
Tucker, J. H. 
Vanderpoel, F. 
Wells, J. S. C. 
Wetmore, E. A. 
Wright, A. A. 

0' Grady, J. W., 1890. 
Randolph, J. F. 
Ross, W. C. 
Schneider, A. F. 
Tilden, G. C. 
Van Blarcom, E. C. 
Walbridge, A C, 1892. 
Wardlaw, J. R. 

Barros, L, de S. 
Barus, C. 
Beard, J. T. 
Behr, E, 


Buckley, C. R. 
Cady, L. B. 
Canfield, A. C. 
Cauldwell, J. B. 

Clark, H. G., 1881, 
Colby, C. E. 
Constant, C. L. 
Cornell, G. B. 

— 8 — 

Floyd, F. W. 
HcUeberg, F. S., 1883. 
Hildreth, W. E. 
Ihlseng, A. O. 
Jordao, J. N. P. 
Kelly, W. 

Martin, E. W. 
Murphy, J. G. 
Nichola, R. 
Noiris, D. H. 
Priest, J. K, 1880. 
Radford, W. H. 

Mackintosh, J. B., 1891. Reed, S. A. 

Rogers, C. L. 
Sage, E. E. 
Smeaton, W. H. 
Smythe, R. M. 
Thacher, A. 
Van Boskerck, R. W. 
Waterbury, C. R. 

Adams, W. J. 
Benjamin, M. 
Blydenburgh, C. E. 
Downing, O. P. 
Drummond, I. W. 
Eliot, W. G. 
Fernekes, A., 1884. 
Haas, H. L. 
Hasegewa, Y. 
Hodges, H. A., 1883. 
Holden, E. H. 
Hollis, W. 
Johnson, E. M. 
Johnson, G. H. 


Karr, C. P. 
Booracm, R. E. 
Brinkerhoff, G. C. 
Butler, W. P. 
Lawrence, B. B. 
Lyman, F. 
Martin, N. 
McCulloh, E. A. 
Morewood, G. B. 
Morris, G. W. 
Munsell, C. E. 
Murphy, H. N. 
Nambu, K. 
Newberry, S. B. 

Cushmau, A. R. 
Davis, J. W. 
Devereux, W. B. 
Noyes, J. A. 
Olmstead, O. F., 1881. 
Owen, F. N. 
Palmer, C. E. 
Parker, R. A. 
Pazos, V. F. 
Perry, N. W. 
Strieby, W. 
Willis, B. 

Bolton, R. 
Britton, N. L. 
Cloud, L. G. 
Cornwall, H. C. 
Dcluze, L. P. 
Eastwick, G. S. 
Haffen, L. F. 
Harker, C. 8. 
Hathaway, N. 
Hollerith, H. 
Hollick, C. A. 
Johnson, I. B. 


Johnston, R. A. 
Koch, E. C. 
Leggett, T. H. 
Ludlow, E. 
Marsh, C. W. 
Mathis, T. S. 
Mayer, R. E. 
Merwin, H. J. 
MiUiken, G. F. 
Munroe, O. M. 
Neftd, K. 
Nesmith, J. 

Noble, C. M. 
Reed, W. B. S. 
Rhodes, R. D. 
Rutherford, F. M. 
Sheldon, G. H., 1889. 
Starr, H. F. 
Stewart, F. B., 1879. 
Stone, G. C. 
Suydara, J. R, Jr. 
Williams, G. W. 

Beebe, A. L. 
Benjamin, F. P., 1893. 
Browning, F. D,, 1885. 
Browning, J. H. B. 
Brugman, W. F. 
Buller, N. 


Churchill, A. D. 
Clark, E. P. 
Elliott, W. 
Engel, L. G. 
Francke, R. 0. 
Garlichs, H. 

Greene, W. U. 
Grcenleaf, J. L. 
Hallock, A. P. 
Hendricks, H. H. 
Hooper, L. M. 
Hopke, T. M. 



— 9 — 

Hudson, E. E. 
Klepetko, F. 
Kunhardt, W. B. 
Mattison, J. G. 
Meissner, C. A. 
Merritt, J. H. 
Navarro, J. A. 

Parker, A. McC. 
Parks, J. R. 
Robinson, H. A. 
Ruttman, F. 
Singer, G. 
Singer, G. H. 
Smalley, W. B., 1886. 

Smith, M. 
Tonnel€J, T. 
Torrey, C. H. 
Walker, J., Jr. 
Wheeler, II. A. 

Andresen, C. A. 
Aschman, F. T. 
Bleecker, C. P. 
Braschi, V. M. 
Bush, E. R. 
Chazal, P. E. 
Colby, A. L. 
Curtis, C. G. 
Douglas, E. M. 
Dunham, E. K. 
Elliott, A. H. 
Furman, H. V. P. 
Griswold, W. T. 


Hemmer, F. A. 
Judd, C. B. 
Leary, D. J. 
LeBoutillier, C. 
Jjedoux, A. D. 
Little, W. P. 
Meserole, W. M. 
Neyniann, P. 
O'Connor, M. J. 
O'Connor, T. D. 
Pitkin, L. 
Raymer, G. S. 
Richmond, W. T. 

Roberts, A. C. 
Sawver, C. P. 
Share, W. W. 
Starr, C. D. 
Stearns, T. B. 
Swain, A. E. 
Tuttle, E. G. 
Van Sinderen, A. H. 
Vult6, H. T. 
Wiechmann, F. G. 
Williams, W. F. 
Wilson, H. M. 

Caiman, A. 
Conant, T. P., 1891. 
Cooper, W. H. 
Crocker, F. B. 
Dougherty, O. V., 1889. 
Downes, S. B. 
Downs, W. F. 
Emrich, A. F., 1893. 
Falk, D. B. 
Feuchtwanger, H. 
Fitch, C. L. 
Going, C. B. 
Hill, W. 


Illig, W. C, 1894. 
Joiiet, C. H. 
Mesa, A. E. 
Moses, A. J. 
Oothout, E. A., 1894. 
Page, W. S. 
Parsons, W. B. 
Payne, C. Q. 
Porter, J. B. 
Powers, C. V. V. 
Sands, F. 

Shumway, W. A., 1892. 
Staunton, W. F. 

Stockwell, N. S., 1888. 
Toucey, D. B. 
Traphagen, F. W. 
Vondy, R. H. 
Wain Wright, J. H. 
Wanier, A. G. 
Ward, N. R. 
White, W. S. 
Wilson, W. A. 
Wittmack, C. A. 
Young, E. L. 

Abeel, G. H. 
Adams, R. 
Ayestas, A. 
Balch, S. W. 
Banks, J. H. 
Bardwell, A. F. 


Biereton, T. J. 
Brewster, H. D. 
Bullman, C. 
Carr^re, J. M. 
Channing, J. P. 
Endicott, G., 1889. 

Ferrer, C. F. 
Ferris, J. C. 
Fiallos, E. C. 
Haasis, D. F. 
Humbert, W. S. 
Lilliendahl, A. W. 

— 10 — 

MacTeague, J. J. 
McKenna, C. F. 
Oxnard, J. G. 
Painter, J. G. 
Paraga, C.F. 
Peele, R, Jr. 

Adams, W. C. 
Alden, H. C. 
Baldwin, W. M. 
Barnard, E. C. 
Barratt, E. G. 
Bodelsen, 0. 
Brinley, J. R. 
Bryce, W. 
Buckingham, F. E. 
Burritt, W. W. 
Corcoran, J. T. 
Del Calvo, F. 
Duncan, W. P., 1889. 
Duseu berry, W. T. 
Easton, L. C. 
Fahys, G. E. 
Fitch, J. H. 
Fitzgerald, G. E. 
Fowler, S. S. 
Glover, C. G., 1888. 
Gosling, E. B. 

Amy, E. J. H. 
Barkley, H. F. 
Bemis, F. P. 
Brennan, A. J. 
Bush, W. F. 
Gary, G. 
Clark, F. S. 
Cozzens, H. 
Crowell, C. B. 
Detwiller, C. H. 
Doolittle, C. H. 
Dwight, A. S. 
Eddie, E. C. 
Engelhard t, E. N. 
Graflf, C. E. 
Hart, B. 

Powell, F. 
Randolph, E. 
Renault, G. 
Rich, J. M. 
Richardson, J. C. 
Ridsdale, T. W. 


Griffin, S. P. 
Gross, L. N. 
Horn, J. T. 
Kemp, J. F. 
Lamb, A. J. 
Luttgen, E. 

McGenniss, J.W.Jr., 1890 
McKim, R. A. 
McLoughlin, C. S. 
Miller, C. W. 
Moeller, W., 1887. 
Moran, D. E. 
Morgan, W. F. 
Mulford, R. 
Napier, A. H. 
Newberry, W. E. 
Newbrough, W. 
Nolan, F. 

Northrop, J. I., 1891. 
Nye, A. C. 
Painter, C. A- 


Hawkes, E. McD, 
Hildreth, R. W. 
Hollis, H. L. 
Huntington, F. W. 
Ingram, E. L. 
Johnson, A. G. 
Lacombe, C. F. 
Jjce, G. B. 
Mannheim, P. A. L. 
Mari6, L. 
Meyer, H. H. B. 
Merrill, F. J. H. 
Miller, C. L. 
Moldehnke, R. G. G. 
Noble, L. S. 
Norris, R. V. A. 

Suter, G. A. 
Tibbals, G. A. 
Tower, A. E. 
Walker, A. L. 
Weed, W. H. 

Pearis, C. F. 
Pellew, C. E. 
Post, A. S. 
Powers, L. J. 
Proctor, W. R. 
Reckhardt, D. W. 
.Roeser, F. 
Rood, R. G. 
Rowland, C. B. 
Rupp, P., Jr. 
Schoney, E., 1888. 
Sherman, F. D. 
Slack, C. G. 
Smedberg, H. A. 
Snook, T. E. 
Speyers, C. L. 
Tibbals, S. G. 
Value, B. R, 
Walbridge, F. K. 
Wood, G. E. 

Page, G. S. 
Pierce, H. N. 
PoUedo, Y. Y. 
Sanders, W. E. 
Shope, H. B. 
Starek, E. 
Struthera, J. 
Thomas, F. M. 
Titus, W. H. 
Van Cortlandt, E. N. 
Watson, F. M. 
Whitman, E. P. 
Wiltsie, E. A. 
Woolson, I. H. 

— 11 — 

I . 

Agramonte, E., Jr. 
Agramont^, J. C. 
Bell, H. M.,Jr. 
Berry, W. G. 
Casey, E. P. 
Conant, H. 1). 
Edwards, R M. 
Frankfield, E. 
Good, G. McC. H. 
Home, W. D. 
Howe, E). 

Aldridge, W. H. 
Appleby, W. R. 
Bellinger, H. P. 
Bien, J. R. 
Bums, A. L. 
Burns, E. Z. 
Butler, W. C. 
Church, E. D. 
Cole, H. M. 
Congdon, E. A. 
Cox, J. S., Jr. 
Darwin, H. G. 
Davis, C. H. 
Donnell, H. E. 
Ferguson, W. C. A. 
Gage, S. E. 
Goldsmith, B. B. 
Gudeman, E. 

Allen, R. L. 
Appleby, J. S. 
Baker, G. L. 
Bartlett, F. R. 
Beohstein, C. A. 
Beck with, C. E, 
Berry, G. 
Colt, S. B. 
Comstock, C. N. 
Dodge, F. D. 
Dodsworth, W. A. 
Dow, A. W. 
Fisher, W. 
Frank, J. W. 


Janeway, J. H. 
Jenks, A. W. 
Kissam, H. S. 
Lederle, E. J. 
Lee, H. C. 
Newhouse, E. L. 
Norton, L. H. 
Ormsbee, J. J. 
Osterheld, T. W. 
Peck, S. B. 
Porter, H. H., Jr. 


Heinsheimer, A. M. 
Huntting, H. O. 
Jacobs, D. M. 
Jacobs, S. J. 
Jeup, B. J. T. 
Lahey, J. 
Lahey, R. 
Luquer, L. McI. 
Lusk, G. 
MacKaye, H. S. 
Mannheim, H. C. 
Marsh, J. R. 
Middle ton, J. 
Moeller, R. 
Muller, G. 
Nichols, H. P. 
Primelles, J. A. 
Restrepo, C. 


Gardner, W. D. 
Hebert, O. B. 
Hopkc, F. E. , 1 890. 
Jones, W. D. 
Koen, J. J. 
Lenox, L. R. 
Lipps, H., Jr. 
Mcllvaine, A. R. 
Maclay, J. 
Morgan, L. 
Miller, R. P. 
Munoz del Monte, A. 
Parker, 0. B., 1891. 
Parsons, H. 

Ryon, A. M. 
Spooner, A. N. 
•Stodder, R H., 1887. 
Stuart, W. H. 
Thompson, H. C 
Trowbridge, S. B. P. 
Van Brunt. A. H. 
Von Nardroff, E. R 
Wallace, W. J. 
Wheatley, J. Y. 
Wilson, C. E. 

Rice, G. S. 
Rowland, G. 
Rutherford, L. H. 
Schieffelin, W. J. 
Seligman, J. G. 
Siraonds, F. M. 
Slade, R E. 
Stanton, F. McM. 
Staunton, J. A., Jr. 
Stevens, A. 
Tower, F. W. 
Trask, G. F. D. 
Tyler, W. L. 
Warner, J. L. 
Wels, P. 0. 
Wertheimer, L. 

Percival, G. S., 1892. 
Perkins, T. S. 
Schumann, C. H. 
Shriver, H, T. 
Smith, F. P. 
Smyth, C. H., Jr. 
S tough ton, A. A. 
Taylor, J. B. 
Tucker, A. 
Van Dyck, E. 
Van Volkenburgh, E. 
C. Volckening, G. J. 
Wampold, L. 
Ward, D. W. 

— 12 — 

Atha, H. G. 
Berry, G. 
Brown, R. G. 
Cramer, S. W. 
Cromwell, J. W. 
Denton, F. W. 
Dresser, D. LeR, 
Eastwick, E. P. 
Eilers, K. E. 
Ellis, A. V. H. 
Escobar, F. 
Fearn, P. LeR, 
Fowler, A. C. 
Freedman, W. H. 
Gifford, S. D. 
Griffith, V. C. 
Griggs, W. E. 
Guiterman, E. W. 

Andrews, S. W. 
Beck with, G. A. 
Behlen, H. 
Betts, R. T. 
Black, A. L. 
Blake, E. M. 
Book, D. D. 
Bradley, S. R. 
Buckland, W. A. 
Cairns, F. I. 
Carson, J. 
Clark, D. L. 
Clayton, W. R. 
Colton, F. G. 
Connell, fl. R. 
Coykendall, T. C. 
Davis, W. M. 
Deghnee, J. A. 

Anderdon, Geo. 
Bliss, C. P. 
Blossom, F. 
Boecklin, W. 
Boyd, R. C. 


Harrington, T. H. 
Harris, E. 
Heinze, F. A. 
Holt, M. B. 
Ives, A. S. 
Jopling, R. F. 
Luquer, T. T. P. 
Mahony, A. S. 
Mapes, C. H. 
Mason, C. S., 1889. 
Massa, C. G. 
Matthews, C. T. 
Monell, J. T. 
Mosley, R. K. 
Oseransky, I. H. 
Piez, C. 
Post, A. Van Z. 


Douglas, J. S. 
Ferguson, G. A. 
Fisher, L. W. 
Foy^, A. E. 
Gudewill, C. E. 
Gould, E. C. 
Hart, C. H. 
Hewlett, J. M. 
Hicks, G. J., 1891. 
Hinman, B. C. 
Hooper, F. C. 
Hoyt, J. S. 
Hurlburt, E. D., Jr. 
Jarmulowsky, M. 
* Jones, T. J. 
Kohn, R. D. 
Korn, L. 
Levy, A. L. 


Brosnan, F. X. 
Cristy, E. B. 
Eberhardt, Wm. G. 
Goodwin, E. 
Hawley, J. F. 

Preston, W. E. 
Provost, A. J., Jr. 
Provot, G. 
Raymond, R. M. 
Raynor, R. 
Rogers, 0. L. 
Schroeder, J. L. 
Skidmore, S. T. 
Small, F. M. 
Smith, A. 
Smith, F. M. 
Stoughton, C. W. 
Waters, G. S. 
Wedekind, E. H. 
Weekes, E. F., 1893. 
Weeks, W. H. 
Whitlock, H. P. 

Lichtenstein, E. G. 
Lowndes, W. S. 
McKleroy, W. H. 
Mann, H. B. 
Massa, L. F. 
Meikleham, T. M. R, 
Montenegro, M. R. 
Parker, H. C. 
Portuondo, J. 
Post, W. S. 
St. John, T. M. 
Steers, J. R. 
Thome, W. L. 
Wainright, R. T. 
Warren, C P. 
Welch, A. McM. 
Welsh, H. F. 

Holter, N. B. 
Hornbostel, H. F. 
Keeler, F. S. 
Kinsey, F. W. 
Langthorn , J. S. 

— 13 — 

Leary, Geo. 
Lilliendahl, F. A. 
Livingston, A. E. 
Mahl, J. T. 
Miller, E. H. 
Mora, M. K 

Ansbacher, L. A. 
Anthon, A. 
Bergen, C. H. 
Bolles, R. 
Burden, H., 2d. 
Casamajor, G. H. 
Clark, Edmund. 
Clarke, W. C. 
Dolan, C. F. 
Dufourcq, E. K 
Durham, E. B. 
Dutoher, B. H. 
Fenner, C. N. 
Friedman, S. 

Agramonte, I. E. 
Aldrich, C. H. 
Ayres, W. C. 
Bebrman, G. W. 
Bossange, E. R. 
Brooks, W. F. 
Canfield, M. C. 
Clark, G. H. 
Covell, W. S. 
Foster, R. G. 
Gregory, L. E. 
Hankinson, A. W. 
Harte, C. R. 

Raymond, A. 
Skinner, E. 
Strout, W. A. 
Thomas, F. C. 
Totten, G. 0., Jr. 


Gillette, H. P. 
Granger, A. D. 
Hay, A. 

Herckenrath, W. A. 
Jackson, 0. 
Kletchka, J. J. 
Livingston, G. 
Longacre, L. B. 
Jiord, F. R. 
McTlhiney, P. C. 
McKinlay, J. B. 
Meisel, F. C. A. 
Merz, E. 


Haskell, H. G. 
Hoyt, R. 
Hyde, F. S. 
Jones, J. E. 
Kurtz, E. L. 
Langmuir, A. C. 
Liebmann, A. 
McKee, S. H. 
Macy, V. E. 
Malukoff, A. J. 
Matthew, W. D. 
Newton, T. M. 
Oakes, J. C. 

Tucker, S. A. 
Tuska, G. R. 
Warren, L. 
Watson, R. B. 
Wiener, Wm. 

Pierce, F. K. 
Reckhart, G. F. 
Ries, H. 
Rosenthal, A. 
Savage, S. M. 
Southard, G. C. 
Temple, S. J. 
Towart, J. 
Vanlngen, D. A. 
Werner, H. C. 
White, R. D. 
Windecker, C. N. 
Windolph, A. P. 

Pederson, F. M. 
Pomeroy, W. A. 
Post, R. B. 
Prince, A. D. 
Provot, F. A. 
Reynolds, M, T. 
Robinson, F. G. 
Schrotef, G. A. 
Smith, H. A. 
Thompson, S. C. 
Tilghman, H. A. 
Tuttle, W. 

LIST No. 2. 

This list embraces the members of the Alumni 
Association of the School of Mines under the 
Constitution of that body. It is urged that all 
graduates of the School should list themselves 
under this group. Names not found here are 
grouped in List No. 3, Tvhich includes graduates 
who are not also members. All graduates are 
requested to try to make and keep this list correct 
and accurate. 

— 16 — 




Abeel, George Howard, E.M , 1883. 

Box 638, Hurley, Iron Co. , Wis. 

1883-1884, Chemist Iron Cliffs Co., Ne^aunee, Mich. 1885-1688, Assistant Manager 
Cliflfe Co., Negaunee, Mieh, 188(>-1887, Supt. Negaunee Gas Light Co., Mich. 188&- 
1889, Manager Ironton Iron Mining Co., Bessemer, Mich. 1888-1889, Agent Pilgrim 
Mining Co., Bessemer, Mich. 1889, Supervisor Bessemer Township, Gogebic Co., 
Mich. 1889-1892, Agent Ruby Iron Mining Co., Bessemer, Mich. 1888 to date, 
General Manager of Montreal River Iron Mining Co., Hurley, Wis. 1892 to date, 
Vice-President First National Bank, Hurley. Wis. 1892 to date, Vice-President Wis- 
consin Mining Supply Co., Hurley, Wis. 1893, Vice-President and General Manager 
Section 33 Iron Mining Co., Hurley, Wis. 

Adams, Randolph, E.M., 1883. 

Broken Hill, N. S. Wales, Australia. 
1884-87, Assistant Superintendent and Superintendent of the Silver King Mine, 
Silver King, Arizona. 1887-91, engaged in Australia as Mining Superintendent and 
Mining Expert, and now Manager of the Central Broken Hill Mine, Broken Hill, 
N. S. Wales, Australia. 

Adams, William Crittenden, C.E., .... 1884. 

47 W. 28th St. and 200 West End Ave., N. Y. City. 
Agramonte, Emilio, C.E., . , 1886. 

118 E. Seventeenth Street, New York City. 

Aldridge, W^ alter Hull, E.M., 1887. 

Manager United Smelting and Refining Co., East Helena, Montana. 
Beginning July, 1887, Assayer at Colorado Smelting Co., Pueblo. At different 
times. Chemist of Colorado Smelting Co., Pueblo. August, 1890-91, Assistant Su- 
perintendent and Metallurgist of Colorado Smelting Co., Pueblo. Assistant Manager 
United Smelting and Refining Co. 1893, Manager as above. 

Allen, Chas. Sumner, Ph.B., M.D., .... 1874. 

Practicing Physician. 

— 17 — 
Allen, Egbert Lawrence, A.M., E.M., . . 1888. 

102 Cambridge Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Amy, Ernest Julius U yacinthe, A.B., E.M., . . 1885. 

Durango, Colo. 
1885-1886, Chemist and Assayer at works of the San Junn and N. Y. M. and S. Co., 
at Durango, Colo., with the exception of three months' professional visit to Old 
Mexico. 188G-1887, Assistant Manager of the San Juan and N. Y. M. and S. Co., at 
Dnraugo, Colo. 1887-1888, Manager of the Hazelton Mountain Mining Co., at Sil- 
verton, Colo. 1888 to April 1, 1890, Assistant Manager of Works of the San Juan 
Smelting and Mining Ch)., at Durango, Colo, (the S. J. S. and M. Co. being formed by 
the consolidation of the S. J. and N. Y. M. and S. Co., of Durango and the Hazelton 
Mt. Mfg. Co., of Silverton, CoIo.)i Since April 1, 1890, General Manager of the San 
Juan Smelting and Mining Co.. at Durango, Colo. 

Andrews, Samuel Wakeman, Jr., Ph.B., . . . 1890. 

Andrews, Waters & Sherwin, 35 W. Forty- second Street, New York 
1890-1891, Designing with Tiffany Glass and Decorating Co., New York. 1891 to 
date, member of above firm. 

Ansbacher, Louis Adolph, Ph.B., .... 1892 

A. B. Ansbacher & Co., 4 Murray St , New York Cit\\ 

Anthox, Archibald (Associate), 1892 

458 Pleasant St., Maiden, Mass. 

Appleby, W. R., A.B. (Associate), 1887 

Professor of Mining aud Metallurgy, University of Minnesota, and 911 
Fifth St., S. E., Minneapolis, Minn. ; also 29 Bentley Avenue, Jer 
sey City, N. J. 

Atha, Henry Gurney, Ph.B., 1889 

756 High Street, Newark, N. J. 

AusiEN, Peter Townsend, Ph.B., Ph.D., . 1872 

Polytechnic Institute and 876 President St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1878-1880, Assistant Professor of Analytical Chemistry, Rut;:rers College. 1880- 

1889, Professor of General and Applied Chemistry, Rutgers College. 1891, Superin 
tendeut Manufactories of W. J. Mutheson & Co., limited, Ravenswood, N. Y. 1892 
General Manager, Ledonx Chemical Laboratory. 1893, Professor of Chemistry, Poly- 
technic Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Austin, Thomas Septimus, E.M., 1876. 

Albuquerque, New Mexico. 
1877-1878, in Cuba as Chemist. 1879-1880, Assayer German la Smelting Co. 1880- 

1890, Superintendent Rio Grande Smelting Co., Socorro. N. M. 

Baker, George Lewis, Ph.B., 1888. 

Address unknown. 

Balch, Samuel Wekd, E.M., 1883. 

Box 333, Yonkers, N. Y., and 757 Equitable Building, N. Y. City. 
1883-1884, Otis Elevator Co. 18K4-iaH(), Mowing Machines. 1880-1889, Garvin 
Machine Co., Tools and Special Machinery. 18vS9 to date, General consulting practice 
aa Mechanical Expert and Patent Attorney. Specialty, Difficult Mechanical Problems. 


— 18 — 
Baldwin, William M., Ph.B. (Life MemW), . . 1884. 

55 Beekman St., N. Y. City, and Garden City, Queens Co., N. Y. 
Since 1885, Chemist for the New York Dye Wood Extract and Chemical Co. Since 
1888, Vice-President of the above corporation, and at present having charge of their 
man ufac taring department. 

Banks, John Henry, E.M., 1883. 

104 John Street, New York City. 
1883-1885, Chemist with Ledoux & Ricketts, New York. 1885-1891, Private As- 
sistant to Prof. Ricketts, School of Mines, New York, in general analytical, metallar- 
gical and mining engineering work. 1889-1891, Hon. Fellow in Assaying, School of 
Mines. 1891 to date, in partnership with Prof. Ricketts, at above address, in general 
chemical, metallurgical and mining engineering work, with Ore-Testing Works, at 
Waverly.'New Jersey, for determining treatment of ores, and examination of pro- 

Bardwell, Alonzo Frick, E.M, 1883. 

Box 773, Aspen, Col. 

Barnard, Edward Chester, E.M., .... 1884. 

U. S. Geological Survey. Washington, D. C. 
Assistant Topographer and at present Topographer in the United States Geological 
Survey, 1884-1891. Have been engaged in mapping in Virginia, West Virginia,and 
the mountains of East Kentucky. 1893. Mapping Northern New York. 

Barratp, Edgar Grant, C.E., 1884. 

1022 The Rookery, Cliicago, III. 
1884-iaS8, Engineer for The Exiiaust Ventilator Co. 1888 to date, President and 
Proprietor of The Exhaust Ventilator Co. 1891 to date. President and General Man- 
ager of the Variety Maimfacturing Co. Fill the above positions at present and am 
consulting Ventilating and Heating Engineer. 

Bartlbtt, Ficank Root, C.E., 188S. 

Care R. & D. R.R., P. O. Box 14, Greensboro, N. C. 
1888 to date. Assistant Engineer Maintenance of Way on Atlanta and Ch^lotte 
Division of Richmond and Danville Railroad. From May, 1892, to date, Supervisor of 
North-western North Carolina and North Carolina Midlands R. Roads ( North Carolina 
Division of Richmond and Danville Rail Roads). 

Barus, Carl, Ph.D. (Associate), 1877. 

National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Baxter, George Strong, A. B., E.M., .... 1868. 

17 Broad Street, New York City. 
1878-1879, Civil and Mining Eiiginoer. 1880, Cashier N. P. R.R, 1890, Treasurer 
N. P. R.R. 

Beard, Jamf^ Thom, E.M., C.E., 1877. 

Address unknown. 
1879-80, Assistjint Engineer, East River Bridge. 

Beebe, Alfred L., Ph.B., 1880. 

42 Bleecker Street, New York City and 44 Sanfrid Av., Fiusliing, L. I. 
1880-1887, inclusive. Private Assistant to Prof. Ricketts, School of Mines, New 
York, in general analytical work, especially Mineral Analyses. Also Assistant in 
Assaying and Fellow in Clicmistry, 1881-1887, inclusive. 1888-1892, Assistant 
Chemist, New York Health Deimrtment. Since September, 1892, Bacteriologist, 
New York Health Department. 

— 19 — 
Behrman, George William, C.E., . • . . 1893. 

201 Ross Street, Brooklyn, N, Y. 
November, 1893, to January, 1894, Transitman and Draughtsmau, with the Ranb 
Locomotive Works and Land Improvement Company. 

Bellinger, Hiram Paulding, C.E., .... 1887. 

Solvay Process Company, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Bemis, Frederick Pomeroy, A.B., E.M., . . . 1885. 

109 West 3d St., Davenport Iowa. 

Benedict, William de Liesseline, E.M., . . 1874. 

Welles BId'g, No. 18 Broadway, Rooms 617 and 618, New York City, 
and 282 Vandcrbilt Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1878-1880, Assistant Superintendent and Superintendent, Revere Concentrating 
Co., Utah. 1880-1681, Assistant Superintendent, Germania Smelting & Refining Co., 
Utah. In 1882, opened an office in New York City as C^onsulting Mining Engineer 
and Metallurgist, and have since been engaged in examining and reporting on Mines 
in the United States, Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Mexico and England. 

Benjamin, Marcus, Ph.B., A.M. (Lafayette 1888) (LifeMbr.) 1878. 

Ph.D. (Univ. Nashville, 1889), Editor, D. Appleton& Co., No. 1 Bond 
Street and 640 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

1878-1882, with E. B. Benjamin, dealer in Chemical Apparatus. 1882, Editor Ameri- 
can Pharmacist. 1883, Editor Weekly Drug iVetr«, May, 188,'i, to June, 1885, Chemist, U. S. 
Laboratory, New York. 1885, Sanitary Engineer, N. Y. Board of Health. 1886-89, 
Editorial Staif, Appleton's Cycloptedia of American Biography. 1890, Editorial Staff, En- 
gineering and Mining Journal^ chiefly engaged in editing and preparing for the press, 
George F. Kunz's Gema and Precious Stones of North America. 1891-93, Editor of Gen- 
eral Guide to the United States, Handbook of Winter Resorts, and Handbook of Summer Re- 
sorts^ publislied by D. Applotou & Co. Editorial Staff in charge of Chemistry, 
Standard Dictionary, 1891-93. During 1884-86, Lecturer on Chemistry at New 
York Women's Medical College and Hospital for Women. At various times on 
editorial staffs: of Scientific American, 1^8.'i-89; Independent CHI Journal, 1886, and on 
technical subjecte in New York DaHy Nexcs, 1886 to date. New York Star, 1890-91 
and Pharmaceutical Record, 1891, also of Appleton's Annual Cyclopadia since 1883. 
Other work includes translation of Berthelot*s lectures on *' Explosive Materials" 
(New York, 1883), authorship of Druggist* s Circular, Prize Essay on " Disinfectants," 
authorship of chapters on " Mineral Paints" in Mineral Resources of the United States, 
for years 1884-86, and compilation of a book of Poems, entitled May Time (New York, 
1889), and authorship of chapter on "Thomas Dongan and the Granting of the New 
York Charter," 1682-1688, and '* The Development of Science in New York City," in 
The- Memorial History of the City of New York^ 1892. Contributor to Scientific Amet^ican 
and Supplement, The Chatauqnan, Harper's Weekly, Popular Science Monthly, The Cosmopol- 
tton, etc. Life fellow of the London Chemical Society, and of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, and member of other Scientific Societies in this 
country and abroad. Member International Jury of Awards, World's Fair, Chicago, 

Berry, Wilton Guernsey, Ph.B., .... 1886. 

42 Bleecker Street, New York City. 
1886-1889, Universities of Berlin and Heidelberg and General Chemical Research. 
1889 to date, Assistant Chemist, New York Health Department. 

— 20 — 
Berry, George, C.E., 1888. 

78 Morton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

BiEN, Joseph Rudolph, E.M., 1887. 

140 Sixth Avenue and 321 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York City. 
1887-88, Topographer, U. S. Geological Survey, Survey of Geyser Basins, Yellow- 
stone Nat. Park. 1888-90, Piractice as Civil and Mining Engineer, firm of Vernieule 
& Bien, Now York City. 1890-W, Practice as Civil and Tupograplileal Engineer 
alone, New York City. At present, Secretary Julius Bien & Co., Lithographers, En- 
gravers and Geographical Publishers. 

Black, Alexander Leslie, E.M., .... 1890. 

56 Carandelet Street, New Orleans, La. 
1800-di, Traveling. 1891-92, Assistant in Mining-expert work in Montana and 
Mexico. Since November, 1892-93, Assistant Superintendent Madeleine Consolidated 
Mining and Milling Company. 

Blake, Edwin Mortimer, E.M., Ph.D. (1893), . . 1890. 

Fellow in Mathematics, Columbia College, New York City, and 230 
Washington Avenue, Brook)>'n, N. Y. 

Blossom, Francis, C.E., 1891. 

Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., 620 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, 
Mas»., and 440 Henry St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1891-92, Engineer with C. W. Hunt Co. 1892, Assistant Engineer Equity Gas Works 
Construction Company. 1893, as above. 

Blydenburgh, Charles Edward, A.B., A.M., E.M.,. . 1878. 

Milling Expert and Prospector, Box 189, Rawlings, Wyoming. 
BoDELSEN, Oscar, E.M., 1884. 

Consolidated Gas Co., 1547 Broadway, and 309 W. One Hundred and 
Twenty-seventh Street, New York City. 
BcECKLiN, Werner, Jr., C.E., 1891. 

Burlington, Iowa. 
January to^Mny, 1893^ ran level en preliminary (150 miles), H. & E. Extension, C. 
O. & S. W. Rsiilwayrin cbaige of all profiles and estimates under Chief Engineer. 

Book, D wight Dana, C.E., E.E. (1892),. . . . 1890. 

159 Washington Park, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
BookjEM, Robert Elmer, M.E. (Life Member), . . 1878. 

34 We»t lltk St., New York City. 
1879, Assay cr, geneval work in LeadviUCr Colorad©-. 1880-87, Assistant Superin- 
tendent, afterward Manager, Evening l&tar Mining Co., Morning Star Consolidated 
Mining Co. and others at Leadvilie, Colorado, Lead-silver Mines. Also in charge 
Farwell Con. M. Co., Gold Mines at Indepemlence, Colorado. 1887-90, General Man- 
ager Blue Bird Mining Co., Ltd., Butte, Montana, Operating 90-Stamp Mill, Dry 
Crushing, Chloridizing, Amalgamating Process. 1891, General Consnlting Mining 
Engineer and Consulting Director in Gold, Silver, and Lead-Mining Companies, of 
which a Specialty is made. Also Mine Operator and Owner, Silver Mines at Aspen, 

Boyd, Richard Charles, Pn.B., A.M. (1892), . . 1891. 

50 Charles St., New York City. 

Bradley, Stephen Rowe, Jr., Ph.B., .... 1890. 

392 Broadway, New York City, and Nyack, N. Y. 

— 21 — 

Jnly, 1891 to 1894, Secretary and Treasurer Union Electric Co. January, 1S94, 
Secretary and Treasurer The Arlington Manufacturing Co., New York City. 

Braschi, VicriX)R Manukl, Ph.B , E.M., C.E , . . 1881. 

Apartado 830, City of Mexico, Mex. 
June, 1884, to October. 1884, Inspector of New York Tenement House Commission. 
October, 1884, to May, 1885, Interpreter and Sec'y to Gov. Chilian Commissioner to 
Visit and Report on American Mining and Smeltini?. May, 1885, to October, 1885, 
Employed by Rend-Rock Powder Co. in Flood Rock Explosion Work. October, lSi<5, 
to January, 1889, Assistant ConsiiltiuK Engineer and in Charge Foreign Business, 
Rand Drill Co. January, February, March, 1889, Reporting on Mines In Mexico for 
above Co., and for three years, from April, 1890, to April, 1H93, engaged in intro- 
ducing Rand Rock Drilling Machinery in Mexican mines. In April, 1893, arranged 
to open a general Mining Machinery and Supply business, in the City of Mexico, in 
which I am at present engaged. 

Brereton, Thomas J., A.B., 1879, C.E , . . . 1883. 

Engineer Cumberland Valley Railway, Chanibersburg, Pa. 

1879, Rodman on Lo<ration of Redstone Br. P. R, R. IBvSO and 1881 (Summers) on 
New York State Geodetic Snrvey of Adirondacks. 1883-85, Leveller P. R. R. Clear- 
field Co. Surveys and Construction. On Corps of Engr. M. of W. P. R. R. 1888-89, 
Assistant Supervisor, P. R. R. 1890-92, Supervisor Tyrone Div., P. R. R. 1893, En- 
gineer Cumberland Valley Railway. 

Brewster, Henry Draper (Associate), .... 1883. 

Care Brewster & Co., 49th Street and Broadway, New York City. 

Brinley, John Rowlett, C.E., 1884. 

Morristown, N. J. 

1884-88, Department of Public Works, New York City. 1888 to date, Civil and 
Sanitary En^^ineer. 

Britton, Nathaniel Lord, E.M., Ph D., . , . 1879. 

Columbia College, School of Mines, New York City. 

Assistant of Geology, School of Mines, 1879-1887. Instructor in Botany, Columbia 
College, 1887-iaW. Adjunct Professor of Botany, Columbia College, 1890-1891. 
Assistant, Geolojfical Survey of New Jersey, 1880-1887. Botanist, Geological Survey 
of New Jersey, 1881-1890. Field Assistant, U. S. Geological Survey, 1882. Professor 
of Botany, 1891. Specialty— Systematic Botany. 

Brosn AN, Francis X A viER, C E. 1891. 

146 W. Seventy-fourth Street, Now York City, 

Brown, Francis G., E.M., 1867. 

Merchant, 15 Whitehall Street and 462 Lexington Avenue, N. Y. City. 

Browning, John H. Brower, M.D. (Associate), 1880. 

10 W. Forty-third Street, New York City. 
College of Physicians and Sargeons of City of New York, in year 1882. Afterwards 
Assistant Physician, New York City Insane Asylum, Ward's Island, 1882-83. House 
Physician and Surgeon to St. Francis Hospital, 1883-85. At date, Member County 
Medical Society of New York, Member Physicians' Mutual Aid Association, Fellow 
American Geographical Society, and Assistant to Chair in Surgery, New York Poly- 
clinic, Medical Examiner for Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, General Prac- 
titioner of Medicine and Surgery. 

— 22 — 
Brugman, William Frederic, Ph.B., .... 1880. 

One Hundred and Forty-fourth Street and Southern Boulevard, New 
York City, and Los Angeles, Cal. 

Bryce, William, Jr:, Ph.B 1884. 

40 W. Fifty-fourth Street, New York City. 

Buckley, Charles Ramsay, A.B., A M., E.M., . . 1877. 

29 Broadway, New York City. 

Bdllman, Charles, Ph.B., 1883. 

Editor The Safety Valve, New York City, and Plainficld, N. J. 
1883. Tutor in Stoichiometry, Chemist Putnam Coinpaiiy Chemical Works. 1884- 
1835-86, Venezuela; phosphates, copper, sulphnr. 1887, French Guiana; phosphates. 
1888, 1889-90, North Odrolina, Georgia, Colomhia, S. A. (2) ; Rokl and platinum. 1891, 
Sandwich Islands ; phosphates. California (2) ; gold and irrigation. 1892. New 
Jersey; copper and graphite. \S^2-9^, Yi^\\lox^2^ ^ia,f^ Engineering and Mining Jour- 
nal ; also Translator and Editor of Mining Laws of the Republic of CofontMa, and Author 
of Platinum and South America in " The Mineral Industry." 

Burden. Henry, 2cI., A.B., Ph.B., 1892. 

Cazeuovia, N. Y. 

Burns, Abraham Lincoln, E.M., 1887. 

3 Worth Street, New York City, and 297 Halsey Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Since November, 1887, with Messrs. Jabez Burns & Sons (Millwrights and Machin- 
ists, and Manufacturers of Patented Machines for Treating Coffee and Spices). Since 
July, 1890, in above firm. Professional ^ork has been general shop draughting and 
machine design, and arranging machines and power transmission in coffee establish- 

Burns, Elmer Z., E.M., 1887. 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
1887-88. Engineer and Chemist for The Pittsbargh and Lake Angelioe Iron Co. 
1889-90, Assistant Electrician for the United States Electric Light Company. 1890- 
1891, Assistant Electrician for the Mather Electric Company. 1891-93. City Engineer 
of Niagara Falls, and Consulting Engineer for the Lewiston and Youngstown R. R. 
Company, for the North Tonawanda Street Rail Road Company, and for the Niagara 
Falls and Suspension Bridge Rail Road Company. 

BUKRITT, WiLMOT WoODWARD, Ph.B., .... 1884. 

Chemist, Englewood, N. J. 

Bush, Edward Renshaw, E.M., 1881. 

Mining Engineer, with Ricketts & Banks, 104 John Street, N. Y. City. 

BuTLER, Nathaniel, E.M., 1880. 

51 Cedar Street, Koom 7, New York City, and Glen Ridge, Bloom- 
field, Essex Co., N. J. 
1880-1882, U. S. Harbor Improvement and Railroad Engineering. 1882-1894, Bar- 
low's Insurance Surveys as Surveyor, Superintendent and Executive. 

Butler, Wili^iam Curtis, M.E., 1887. 

Everett, Washington, and 175 Hamilton Avenue, Paterson, N. J. 
1887-iaS9, Assaycr. El Paso Smelting Co., El Paso, Texas. 1889-1890, Chemist, 
afterward Assistant Superintendent; Arkansas Valley Smelting Co., Leadville, Colo. 
1S90, Chemist, now Assistant Manager, Aurora Iron Mining Co., Superior Mining Co., 

— 23 — 

Comet Mining Co., Palone Iron Mining Co., Penokee and Gogebic Development Co. 
(Operating Colby and Tilden Mines). Also in charge Iron wood Electric Co., Qogebic 
Electric Co. 1892, Superintendent Monte Cristo Mining Co., Seattle, Washington. 
1893, Manager Pugct Sound Reduction Co. 

Butler, Willard Parker, E.M.,LL.B. (Life Member), 1878. 
Counsellor at Law and Solicitor of Patents, 59 Wall Street, New York 


Cady, Lixus Bertram, E.M., C.E., .... 1877. 

327 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Calman, Albert, Ph.B., Ph.D., 1882. 

332 W. Fifty-sixth Street, New York City. 

Canfield, Augustus Cass, E.M., 1877. 

Address unknown. 

Caxfield, Frederick A., A.B., A.M., E.M ., . . . 1873. 

Mining Engineer, Dover, N. J. 

Carson, James Petigru, E.M., 1868. 

147 West Forty-second Street, New York City. 

Casamajor, George H., C.E.,. ..... 1892. 

East River Gas Co., 63d St. and Avenue A, New York City and 372 
Greene Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Casey, Edward Pearce, C.E., Ph.B. (1888), . . 1886, 

Arcliitect, 171 Broadway and The Alpine, 55 West Thirty-third 

Street, New York City. 

With McKini, Mead & White, architects. New York City, until January, 1890. 

Abroad, and Student in L'Ecole National des Beaux Arts. Paris, from February, 1890, 

until September, 1893. Five mentions in Architecture, and a medal in Modeling. 

At present Architect, 171 Broadway, New York City. 

Cauldwell, John BRrrxox, C.E., 1877. 

Century Club, 7 West Forty-third Street, New York City. 

Channing, John Parke, E.M., 1883. 

Calumet, Lake Superior, Mich. 
1883, Chemist Hudson River O. and I. Co. 1834, with S. E. Cleaves & Son, Manu- 
facturers of Mining Machinery, Houghton, Mich. 1884-1885, Assistant Mining En- 
gineer Tamarack Mine, Calumet, Mich., Dep. Comm. Mineral Statistics, Michigan. 
1885-1886, Superintendent Honduras Land and Navigation Co. 1886-1887, Explor- 
ing for iron on the Gogebic Range, and Mining Engineer for Milwaukee L. S. and 
Western Railway, Superintendent Iron Belt Mine. 1887-1890, Inspector of Mines, Go- 
gebic Co., Mich. 1890-1892, Superintendent East New York Iron Co.,Ishpeming, Mich. 
1892 to 1893, Superintendent Iron Exploration, C, M. and St. P. Railway. 

Chazal, Philip Edward, A.B., E.M., .... 1881. 

68 Meeting Street, Charleston, S. C. 
1881-1883, Prospecting in Northwest Georgia. 1883-1889, State Chemist of South 
Carolina. 1889 to present* Partner in Shepard Laboratory, specialties Phosphate and 
Fertilizer Analysis and examination and reporting on Phosphate lands [in South 
Carolina and Florida). 

— 24 — 
Chester, Albert Huntingdon, A.M., E.M.,Sc.D., Ph.D., 1868. 

Professor of General and Applied Chemistry, Rutgers College, and 
64 College Avenue, New Brunswick, N. J, 
Professor of Chemistry at Hamilton College from 1870 and Mineraloj?y from 1878 
to 1891. Conducted the Analytical Laboratory there from 1871. Chemist New York 
State Board of Health, 1882. Examined and reported on mines of iron, gold, silver, 
^ead and zinc, in Michigan, Maine, Ontario, Arkansas, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Cali- 
fornia, and Nova Scotia. Analytical work has been largely in two lines, viz., for 
iron-blast furnaces and of paints and varnishes. Field work has been, a great part 
of it, in the iron mines of Minnesotti and the gold mines of Colorado. 

Church, Elihu Dwight, Jr., E.M., .... 1887. 

Church & Co., 36 Ash Street, and 127 Milton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1887-1888, Fellow Qualitative Analysis, School of Mines. 1888-1889, Assistant Su- 
perintendent of Lead Mine and Concentrating Works. 1889-1891, with Church & Co., 
in charge of experimental plant. 

Church, John Adams, A.M., E.M., Ph.D , . . . Ift67. 

Corn Exchange Building, 11 William Street, New York Cit}-. Cable 
address, Scotist, N. Y. 

Clark, Diego Lombillo, C.E., 1890. 

Cardenas, Cuba. 

Clark, Edmund (Associate), 1892. 

Brad dock, Pa. 

Clark, Edwin Perry, E.M., 18S0. 

Title Guarantee and Trust Co., 26 Court Street, and 425 Fifth Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1880-1883, Engineer and Surveyor for Silver-Cord Combination, and Robert E. Lee 
Mining companies. Lead ville, Colo. 1883-1834, Medical student. 1884 to date, Assist- 
ant Superintendent and afterwards Superintendent Title Guarantee and Trust Com- 
pany, 55 Liberty Street, New York, and 26 Court Street, Brooklyn. In charge of 
eonstruction and maintenance of locality-indexes of Rsal Elstate Records of New 
York, Kings and Westchester counties, N. Y. 

Clark, Franklin Sinclair, E.M., Ph.D., . . . 1885, 

Carolina Oil and Creosote Co., Wilmington, N. C, and 627 Madison 
Avenue, New York City. 
1835-1887, Chemist to Fernoline Chemical Co., Charleston, S. C. 1887 to date, Pro- 
prietor of Southern Chemical Works and consulting chemist for the Carolina Oil and 
Creosote Co., Wilmington, N. C. Specialty, Distillation of Wood and refining products 
and crcosoting wood. 

Clark, George Hallett, C.E., 1893. 

59 E. Sixty-seventh Street, New York City. 
1893-94, Transitman Metropolitan Traction Co., Lexington Ave. C*able Construction. 

Colby, Albert Ladd, PilB., 1881. 

Bethlehem Iron Co., South Bethlehem, Pa. 
1881-1883, Assistant to Prof. C.F. Chandler on New York State Board of Health Bu- 
reau of Chemical Analysts. 1883-1886, Instructor in Quantitative analysis and Chem- 
ical Philosophy in the Lehigh University, South Bethlehem, Pa. 1886-92, Head 
Chemist of the Bethlehem Iron Co. 1893 to date, Metallurgical Engineer same Com- 
pany, South Bethlehem, Pa. Specialty, Metallurgy of Iron and Steel. 

— 25 — 
Colby, Charles Edwards, E.M., C.E., , . . . 1877. 

Adj. Professor Organic Chemistr}', Columbia College School of Mines, 
New York City. 

Cole, Harold Morris, E.M., C.E., .... 1887. 

Care of Helena & Livingston S. & R. Co., Wickes, Montana. 

CoLTON, Charles Adams, E.M., 1873* 

21 W. Park Street, and 57 Broad Street, Newark, N. J. 
1873-1882, Assistant in Mineralogy, School of Mines. Columbia Collojfe, New Yotk. 
1882-1884» Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Rose Polytechnic Institute, Terre 
Haute, Indiana. 1884 to date, Director and Instructor in Chemistry and Physics, 
Newark Technical School. 

CoNANT, Henry Dunning, E M., 1886. 

iP. O. Box 16, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
1886-1888, Assistant Engineer Tamarack and Osceola Mines, Lake Superior, andH. 
and C. R.R. 1888-1889, Assistant Engineer on Preliminary of Northern Michigan 
Railroad. 1889, Assistant in Chief Engineer's OfSce, Buffalo and Qeneva Rail- 
way. 1889-91, Assistant and Resident Engineer Norfolk and Western Railroad, in 
charge of Preliminary Location and Coustruction. 1891, Engineer Coeburn Land and 
Improvement Co. 1893, Assistant Engineer N. Y., N. H. & H. Ry. 

CoNGDON, Ernest Arnold, Ph.B., F.C.S., . . 1887. 

Professor of Chemistry, Drexel Institute Arts, Science and Industry, 
and 1336 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
1887-1889, Chemist to Champlain Fibre Co., Willsborough, New York. 1889, Studied 
at the University of Berlin, Summer Semester. 1889 to date, Instructor in Quali- 
tative Analysis and Assaying at the Lehigh University. 1891, Professor of Chemistry 
in the Drexel Institute of Arts, Sciences and Industries, Philadelphia, Pa. 

CoNNELL, Hewlett Ratjston, C. E., . . . 1890. 

140 Pierrepont Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cooper, William Hamilton, Ph.B. (Life Member), . 1882. 
Address unknown. 

Corcoran, John Thomas, E.M., S.E., .... 1884. 

131 Smith Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cornell, George BiRDSALL, E.M., C.E., . . 1877. 

29 Broadway and 46 West Fortyei^rhth Street, New York City. 
Assistant Engineer Manhattan Elevated Railway. Engineer for Contractors for 
structure Manhattan Elev. Ry. Assistant Engineer Brooklyn Elev. Ry. Assistant 
Engineer New York, Chicago and St. Louis R. R. Pnncipal Assist. Engineer Roch- 
ester and Pittsburgh Ry. Inspector and Engineer Bridge Dept. N. Y., West Shore and 
Buffalo Ry. Principal Assist. Engineer Brooklyn Elevated Ry. Chief Engr. Brook- 
lyn Elev. Ry. Chief Engr. Union Elevated Ry.of Brooklyn. Chief Eng. Chicago and 
South-side Elev. Ry. Chief Engr. J. B. & J. M. Cornell Iron Works. At present Chief 
Engineer East River Bridge Company. 

Cornwall, Henrv Bedinger, A.B., A.M., E.M., Ph.D., 1867. 

Professor Analytical Chemistry and Mineralogy, College of New Jer- 
sey, and 51 Nassau St., Princeton, N. J. 

Cornwall, Harry Clay, E.M., 1879. 

Commonwealth Insurance Co., Nassau Street, New York City. 

— 26 — 
Cox, Jennings SrocKTox, Jr., Met. Exg., . . . 1887. 

Everett, Washington, and 76 W. Sixty-eighth St., N. Y. City. 
1887, Government Survey for Canal between Harlem and Hndson River. 1888-1889, 
Homestead Steel Works, Dranglitsraan and afterward Assistant Master Mechanic. 
1890, Inspected construction of Steamer "Sezurania" and " Vigilancia" for the U. 8. 
and B. M. S. S. Co., at Roach's Shipyurd, Chester, Pa. 1891, Reporter for same Com- 
pany on Engineering: matters along the Brazil coast. 1892, with same company in 
New York. 1892, Assist't Superintendent Aarora Iron-Mining Company, Ironwood, 
Michigan. 1893, Assist. Supt. Monte Cristo Mining Co., Pride of the Monntain Mining 
Co., Rainy Mining Co., and United Concentration Company. 

Cram KR, Stuart W., E.M. (Associate), .... 1889. 

Charlotte, N. C. 
Graduate of United States Naval Academy; resigned from the United States Navy 
September, 1888. Graduate student at S(*.hool of Mines, 1888-1889. Assayer in charge 
of the United States Assay Office, Charlotte, N. C, 1889-93. Special agent for col- 
lection of statistics on gold and silver for the Southern States, 1890. March 10, 1893, 
to present time, Engineer and Chemist for the D. A. Tompkins Company, General 
Engineers and Contractors, of Charlotte, N. C. Special correspondent of Enffineering 
and Mining Jounuil. Specialty: Westinghouse system of electric lighting and trans- 
mission of power. 

Crocker, Francis Bacon, E.M., ..... 1882. 

Prore8.sor Electrical Engineering, Columbia College School of Mines, 
and 26 W. 22d Street, New York City. 
1882-iaSO, Electrical Engineer and Inventor. 1886-1887, Vice-President and Elec- 
trician of "C. and C." Electric Motor Co. 1887-1889, Vice-President and Electrician 
Crocker-Wheeler Electric Motor Co. 1889-92, Instructor in Electrical Engineering, 
School of Mines, Columbia College. 1892, Adj. Professor. 1893, Professor. 

Crowell, Charles Burton, Ph.B., 1885. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

CusHMAN, Alexander Ramsay, Ph.B., Ph.D., , . 1878. 

Assistant Analytical Chemistry, Columbia College School of Mines, 
and 128 E. Sixteenth Street, New York City. 
1878-1880, Post Graduate study at the School of Mines, for degree of Ph.D. 1880- 
1882, in Colorado, visiting mines and smelters. 1832-1890, Engaged in pursuing 
chemical studies and lecturing on geology. 1890 to date, Assistant Instructor in Quali- 
tative Laboratory at the School of Mines, Columbia College. 

Darwin, Harry Gilbert, C.E., 1887. 

Room 23, 160 Broadway, New York City, and Gien Ridge, N. J. 
June, 1887 to October, 1887, Rodman and Leveller on Railroad field work in New York 
State. October, 1887 to May. 18SS, Draujchtsmau Strong Locomotive Co., New York 
City. August, 1888 to date, Assistant Engineer and Acting Superintendent Safety 
Car Heatinv and Lighting; Co., New York City. Erection of special gas works, and 
equipment of railroad cars, etc. 

Davis, Charles Henry, C.E., .... 1887. 

J 20 Broadway, New York City, 308 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, and 
576 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

— 27 

Expert course and Thomson- Honston Electric Co., Lynn, Mass., summer 1887. 
Agent, Lawyer Mann Electric Co., winter 1887-88. Supt. selling and construction 
New York office S. M. Elec. Co., summer and winter 1888. Agent Westinghouse 
Electric Company, winter 1889. Consulting and Supervising Electrical Engineer 
from May, 1889, to date. 

Davis, John Woodbridge, C.E., Ph.D., .... 1878. 

Principal Woodbridge School, 417 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

Deghu^e, Joseph Albert, Ph.B., A.M. (1892), Ph.D. 
(1893) 1890. 

College Phvs. and Surg., New York Citv, and 247 Harrison St., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 
Assistant Demouitrator in Physics and Chemistry, College of Physics and Surgery. 

Delafiei.d, Augustus Floyd, Ph.D. (Associate), . . 1869. 

University Club, New York City. 

De LuzK, Ijouis PHiLrppR, C.E , 1879. 

DeLuze & Enimett, Engineers and Surveyors, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Dexton, Frederick Warxer,,C.E., .... 1884. 

Institute Civil and Mining Engineers, Houghton, Mich. 

Devereux, Walier Bourchier, A.B., A.M., E.M., . 1878. 

Glenwood Springs, Colorado. 

Dodge, Frank Despard, Ph.B., Ph.D., . . 1888. 

Dodge & Olcott, 137 Water St. and 111 Montague St.Brooklyn, N. Y. 
From October, 1891, to date, Chemist, with Dodge & Olcott, manufacturers of es- 
sential oils, etc. 188S-90, Fellow in Chemistry, Assistant in Organic Laboratory 
School of Mines. 1890-91 (studying in Germany). 

Dodsworth, Walter Albert, Ph.B., . . . • 1888. 

19 Beaver Street, New York City, and 253 Henry Street, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

With Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin. 

DoLAN, Charles Francis, C.E., 1392. 

Ill East 129th Street, New York City, and Department Street Im- 
provements, 2622 3d Avenue cor. 141st Street. 
1892-93, United States Inspector of Dredging Operations, Harlem Slip. Canal and 
Newtown Creek. 1893 to date, with Department of Street Improvements, New York 

DoNNELL, Harry Ellingwood, Ph.B., . . . . 1887, 

Address unknown. 

Douglas, John Sheafe, C.E., 1890. 

Union Elect Company, 45 Broadway and 72J Irving Place, N. Y. City. 

1890, Course Electrical Engineering, Columbia College. 1891, Crocker- Wheeler 

Electric Motor Company, and now Assistant Engineer Western Electric Company in 

Lighting Department. 1893, Superintendent of Union Elect. Co.'s Exhibit at World's 

Columbian Exposition, Chicago. 

Douglass, Edwarh MoREHousEJ, C.E., . . , . 1881. 

Topographer U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

— 28 — 
Dow, Allan Wade, Ph.B. (Life Member), . . 1888. 

Care The Barber Asphalt Paving Company, fjot of 4Gth St., Long 
Island City, N. Y. 
1888-89, Honorary Fellow Quant. Laboratory. School of Mines. 1889, Chemist at 
Tilly Foster Mine, New York. 1839-91, Assistant Chemist of The Barber Asphalt 
Paving Co. 

DowNES, Stancliff Bazen, C.E., 1882. 

1071 Madison Avenue, New York City. 
December, 1882. to April, 1885, Assistant, Office Topojrraphical Engineering De- 
partment Public Parks. New York City. April, 1885, to January, 1891, Assistant 
Engineering Deixartnient Public Parks. April, 1886, elected Junior Member American 
Society Civil Engineers. January, 1891, to date, Civil Engineer, Fonlham, New York 
City, opposite Harlem Railroad station. 

Downs, William Fleicheu, E.M., .... 1882. 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., and 75 Fairview Avenue, Jersey City, N. J. 
With the Joseph Dixon Crucible Co. since graduation. From June, 1882, to Sep- 
tember, 1882, at experimental work. From September, 1882, to October, 1884, in 
charge of lubricating department. From October, 1834, to present time Superinten- 
dent of crucible and other departments. * 

Dresser, Daniel LeRoy, C.E., 1889. 

Merchant, 273 Church St., New York City, and Flushing, N. Y. 

Drummond, Lsaac Wyman, E.M., Ph.D., . . 1878. 

F. W. DeVoe & Co., William and Fulton Streets, New York City. 

DuFOURCQ. Edward Leonce, M.E., .... 1892. 

846 Lexington Avenue, New York City. * 

1892-93. Assistant Superintendent Cost}\Rica Pacific Gold Mining Company, Puuta 
Arenas, Costa Rica. Summer of 1893, Assistant in Mining, Columbia College and 
Transitman for J. F. Carey & Co., Brooklyn. November, 1893, Assistant Engineer, 
Mazapil Copper Company, Concepcion de Oro, Zacatecas. Mexico. 

Dunham, Eqward Kellogg, Ph.B 1881. 

338 East Twenty-sixth Street, New York City. 
Professor of Pathology, Bacteriology and Hygiene iu the Bellevue Hospital Medi- 
cal College, New York City. 

DusENBERRY, Walter Lorton, E.M., .... 1884. 

Department Public Works and 361 Produce Exchange, New York 


1884-87, miscellaneous. U. S. Coast Survey. Mining in Mexico and the west. 

Survey of New Parks, Westchester County, etc. 1887--89, Inspector of Masonry and 

Transit-man on New Croton Aqueduct. 1839-91, in charge of party and Assistant 

Engineer of Construction Department of Public Parks, New York City. 

DuTCHER, Basil II., Ph.B., 1892. 

525 Manhattan Avenue, New York City. 
Summer of 1890, on Reconnaisance Survey iu Idaho and Nevada, Biological Survey, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Summer of 1891, on Death Valley Survey, Cali- 
fornia, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Summer of 1892, Biological Survey, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, in Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico. Winters, 
1892-93 and 1893-91, Student, College Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia College. 

— 29 — 
DwiGHT, Arthur Smith, E.M., 1885. 

Superintendent Colorado Smelting Co., Pueblo, Colorado. 
1885, Assistant Assayer at works of The Colorado Smelting Company, Pueblo, 
Colorado. 1885 to 1888, Assistant Chemist and Chemist, except autumn of 1886, when 
examining and reporting on lead deposits of Coeur d'Alene region, Idaho Territory, 
and spring of 1889, when acting as Assistant Snpt. Madonna Mine, Monarch, Colo. 
1888-90, Metallurgist, and 1890 ta date. General Supt. of the Colorado Smelting Co. 

Easton, Langdox Cheves, C.E., 1884. 

Port Harford, San Luis Obispo Co., Cal., and 344 Soutli Grand Avenue, 
Los Angeles, Cal 
1885-88, Engineer Corps, Aqueduct Commission, New York City. 1889, City Sur- 
veyor's Corps, Los Angeles, Cal. 1869 and 1891, in charge of harbor improvements, 
Port Harford, Cal., under direction of U. S. Corps of Engineers. 

Eastwick, George Spencer, C.E., 1879. 

Manager American Sugar Refinery Co., 24 North Peters St., New Or- 
leans, La., and 1425 Broadway, New York City. 

Eastwick, Edward Peers, Jr., Ph.B., S.E., C.E. (1892), 1889. 

Care of American Sugar Refining Company, New Orleans, La. 

Eberhardt William G., M.E., 1891. 

Richardsville, Culpepper Count}', Virginia ; 450 W. Twenty second St., 
New York City. 

Eddie, Edward Crittenden, E.M., .... 1885. 

Colorado Smelting Co., Box 8, Pueblo, Colo. 

Edwards, Richard Mason, E.M., 1886. 

Red Jacket and Houghton, Mich. 
1886-87, general assay office at Hooj^hton, Mich. 1888-89, Professor of Mining, 
Michigan Mining Scliool, Houghton. 1890 to date, Mining Engineer for Tamarack, 
Tamarack, Jr., Osceola and Kearsarge Mining Cos., L. S., Mich. 

EiLERs, Karl Emrich, E.M., ...... 1889. 

Care of Colorado Smelting. Co., Pueblo. Col, and 751 St. Mark's Ave- 
nue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1889-91, student and travelling in Europe. 

Elliott, Arthur Henry, Ph.B, Ph.D, . . . 1881. 

4 Irving Place, N. Y. City, and Peekskill, N. Y. 
Professor Chemistry and Physics, New York College of Plmrmacy. Chemist to 
Consolidated Qas Co. Editor Anthony's Photographic Bulletin. Author A. H. Elliott's 
Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 

Elliott, William, Ph B., 1880. 

56 Wall St., New York City. 

Engel, Louis George, E.M., 1880. 

Brooklyn Sugar Refinery, American Sngar Refining Co., and 238 Cler- 
mont Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Three years, Tilly Foster Iron Mine (E. M.). Ten years, Brooklyn Sugar Refinery. 

Engelhardt, Eugene Nicholas, E.M., . . . 1885. 

Selby, Contra Costa Co. , Cal. 

— 30 — 

1886, Assaycr, Chemist and Assistant Superiutendent Pueblo Smelting and ReAning 
Go. 1887 and 1888, Superintendent of the same company. 1889, Assistant Superin- 
tendent Anaconda Smelting Co. From 1890 and to present time, Assistant Snperiuteu- 
deut Selby Smelting and Lead Co. 


Fahys, Gkoroe Ernest, C.E., 1884. 

38 Maiden Lane, New York City, and 285 DeKalb Avenue, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

Treasurer, Prentiss Calendar Time Co. 

Falk, David Beauregard, C.E., 1882. 

Savannah, Ga. 

Fearn, Percy Le Roy, E.M., 1889. 

1326 Monadnock Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
1889-90, Assayer and Surveyor, Trinidad Mine, Costa Rica. 1890-92, Superintend- 
ent, Trinidad Mine, Costa Rica. 1892-93, Consulting Mining Engineer Illinois Fluor 
Spar and Lead Co. 

Ferguson, William Cushman Augustine, Ph.B., . 1887. 

Nichols Chemical Co., Laurel Hill Chemical Works, Laurel Ilill, N. Y., 
and 520 Nostrand Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
From 1887 to 1888, Chemist, Fulton Sugar Refinery. From 1888 to date (1891), 
Chemist for Nichols Chemical Co., Manufacturers of Sulphuric, Muriatic and Acetic 
Acids, Alum, Salt Cake, Bisulphate Soda, Blue Vitriol, and Smelters of Copper Ore; 
also Manufacturers of Acid Phosphate^ Work : Investigation of different questions 
affecting above, and also in new lines, such as Sulphate of Alumina, etc. Also ana- 
lytical work. 

Ferrer, Carlos Ferrer, C.E., 1883. 

39 Broad Street, New York City. 

After graduation, for a few weeks on work at the School of Mines. Then under 
Mr. W. £. Worthen, C.E., on some work for the Water Commissioners of the State of 
New Jersey. From March, 1H84, to January, 1887, on the Engineering Corps of the 
Aqueduct Commissioners, New York City, as Assistant to Engineer of Construction ; 
Leveler in charge of field work on Section " A "; reduced to Rodman in charge of 
same; promoted to Assistant Engineer: resigned in January, 1887, and have since 
been engaged in business for my own account at above address. 

Ferris, Junius Colton, E.M., 1883. 

Carthage, III. 
Feuchtwanger, Henry, Ph.B., 1882. 

Room 19, 99 Franklin Street, New York City. 

FiALTX)s, Enrique Constantino, C.E., .... 1883. 

No. 27, Calle lOa, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, C. A., and care Ernest 
Scl-.ernikow, P. O. Box 3540, N. Y. City. 
General practice in Engineering. Professor of Mathematics and Mineralogy in the 
University of Tegucigalpa. The most extensive practice has been, as Government 
Surveyor of Lands and Mines. ' 

Fl&HER, WiLLARD, E.M., 1888. 

361 W. Fifty-sixth Street, New York City. 
Draughtsman to Parsons, C.E., New York City. Assistant to Superintendent 
Segovia Gold Mining Co., Nicaragua. Clerk, Office of Rich Hill Coal Mining Co., 

— 31 — 

Rich Hill, Mo. Engineer and Mine Surveyor, Rich Hill Coal Mining Co., Rich Hill, 
Mo. Prospecting for coal, Southwest Missouri, along the line of Wicliilnw & Western 
in the interest of the Missouri Pacific Railroad. Soutliern Sales Agent, Coal Cos. on 
the lines of Missouri Pacific Railway. President Tyler S. E. Railway of Texas. 

Floyd, Frederick William, C.E., E.M., . . . 1877. 

539 W. Twentieth St. and 175 W. Eighty-seventh St., N. Y. City. 
1877-78, Honorary Assistant in Metallurgy, Scliool of Mines. 1878-81, U. S. Geo- 
graphical Surveys, West of 100th Meridian. 1881-82, Preliminary Surveys, New 
Croton Aqueduct and Dam, New York. 1882, Reporting on Mines in Colorado. 1883 
to date, Firm of James R. Floyd & Sons, Iron Works. Specialty, Gas Engineering 
and Gas Works Construction. 

Foster, Reginald Guy, C.E , 1893. 

16 E. Thirty-first Street, New York City. 

Fowler, Albert Casimik, C.E., 1889. 

Cienfuegos, Cuba. 

Fowler, Samuel Stewart, A.B., E.M., .... 1884. 

Golden, British Columbia, Canada, and Room 201, 34 Clark Street, 
Chicago, 111. 
1885, Civil Engineering Work, New York. 1880, Assistant Superintendent, Iron 
Hill Mining and Milling Co., Black Hills, South Dakotiv 1887, Assistant Superin- 
tendent Galena Reduction Co., Black Hills, South Dakota. 1888, Superintendent, 
International Smelting Works, Textis. Engineer and Assayer, Bunker Hill and Sul- 
livan Mg. and Cone. Co., Idaho. 1889, Reporting sundry properties. 1890 to date, 
Superintendent Golden Mining and Smelting Co., Golden. B. C, Canada. Deputy 
Commissioner World's Columbian Exposition, 1893. 

Foy£, Andrew Ei^nest, C.E., 1890. 

Tutor in Civil Engineering, Scliool of Mines, Columbia College, and 
163 West Seventy-ninth Street, New York City. 
1890-92, Engineer's ofllce, M. W. P. R. R. 1892 to date, as above, 

Frank, Jerome William, Ph. B, 1888. 

Standard A^arnish Works, 207 Avenue D, New York City. 

Freedman, William. Horatio, C.E., .... 1889. 

41 E. 49th Street, and 120 W. One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Street, 
New York City. 
Post-graduate in Elect. Engineering, 1889-91. John Tyndall Fellow, 1891-92. Tu- 
tor in Elect. Engineering, since 1892. Additional degree of E. E. in June, 1891. 

Friedman. Samuel, C.E., 1892. 

Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Furman, Howard Van Fleet, E.M , .... 1881. 

U. S. Mint, Denver, Col. 
1882-88, Assayer and Chemist and Foreman, German ia Lead Works, Utah. Chem- 
ist, Globe Smelting and Refining Co., Denver. Assistant Superintendent, Billings 
Smelter, Socorro, New Mexico. Superintendent, Bailey Smelter, Denver, Colo. 1888- 
91, some experience as Consulting Engineer and Metallurgist. 1894, Chief Assayer 
U. S. Mint, Denver, Colo. 


Garlichs, Herman, E.M., . . . . . . 1880. 

Omaha and Grant S. and R. Co., Omaha, Neb. 

— 32 — 

1880-83, Flarveying and Reporting on Mines in Colorado. 1883-87, Assistant Super- 
intendent, Aurora S. & R. Co., Aurora, III. 1887, and to the present. Superintendent, 
Refining Department, Omaha and Grant S. and R. Co. Special ty. Silver and LfOad 
Smelting and R'^fluing. 

GiFFORD, Stanley Devol, E.M., 1889. 

Butte City, Montana, and Tuckalioe, N. Y. 
Vice-Presidont, Montana Ore Purchasing Co. 

Going, CuARLEs Buxton, Ph. B., 1882. 

President Cincinnati Desiccating Co., Cincinnati, and Glendale, Oliio. 

GoLDSCHMiDT, Samuel Anthon y, A.B., A.M., E.M., Ph.D. 

(Life Member), .1871. 

Treasurer Columbia Chemical Works, 43 Sedgwick St. , Brooklyn, N. Y. , 

and New York Cit}'. 
Assistant Ohio Geological Survey, 1871. Chemist and Assistant Inspector of Fer- 
tilizers, Savannah, Ga., during winters of 1871-75. During summers, Assistant to 
Dr. Chandler, Inspector New York Board of Health, 1873-75. Reporting on Guano 
Islands, South Pacific, 1876. General Consulting Pnu-tice, 1876-80. Inspector Of- 
fensive Trades, New York Board of Health, 1879-88. Treasurer and Manager Colum- 
bia Chemical Works, 1880 to date. Specialty, Ammonia Manufacture. 

Good, George McClelland Houtz, E.M., . . . 1886. 

Mining Engineer, Osceola Mills, Clearfield Co., Pa. 
1892, Mining Engineer to The United Collieries Company. 1893, Assistant Gcn'l 
Manager of the same. 

G(K)DWiN, Edward, E. M., 1891. 

Harte, Shasta Co., Cal., and Governor's Island, N. Y. 

Gordon, John, Jr., E.M., 1871. 

G. O. Gordon, 69 Wall St., N. Y. City. 
Merchant, Edward Johnston <& Co., 62 Sas Pedro, Riode Janeiro, Brazil. 

Gosling, Edgar Bonaparte, E.M., C.E, . . 1884. 

Windsor Hotel, New York City. 
Tutor in Mathematics, Columbia College from 1884 to 1885. Draughtsman and 
afterwards Assistant Engineer in Department of Docks, New York City, 1886-88. In 
Manufacturing Business in Paris, France, 1888-89. Tutoring in Mathematics and 
Engineering Branches in New York, and Superintending building of houses, intro- 
ducing Culm-burning Furnace in U. S., 1889-91. In charge of erection of buildings in 
artificial stone (Betou Coignet), for the Suez Canal Company. Egypt. 

Graff, Charles Everett, EM., . . ' . . 1885, 

50 Highland Avenue, Jersey City, N. J. 
1885-87, Assistant Engineer, Central Entre Riano Railroad, Argentine Republics. 
A. 1887-88, Engineer, Arizona Union Mining Co., Prescott, Arizona. 1888-90, Manu- 
facturing Work, Binding Twine and Reapers. 1890-91, Engineer, Eagle Oil Co. 

Gratacap, I/OUis Pope, Ph.B., 1876. 

Curator American Museum Natural History, New York City, and West 
New Brighton, S. I. 

Greenleaf, James Leal, C.E., . . . . 1880. 

Adj. -Professor Civil Engineering Columbia College Sphool of Mines, 
and Llewellyn Park, West Orange, N. J. 
Special Agent for Tenth Census for Water-power from 1880 to 1882, Since instruc- 

— 33 — 

ting in engineering, civil and sanitary, in Soliool of Mines, Colnmbia College. 1891, 
Adjunct Professor Civil Engineering, Columbia College. 

Griffin, Samuel Palmer, Jr., E.M., .... 1884. 

Building Dept., Eighteenth St. and Fourth Ave., and 449 Paik Ave., 
New York City. 
Griswold, WiLLfAM Tudor, C.E., . . . . . 1881. 

U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C, and Boise City, Idaho. 

Gross, Louis Nathan, B.S., E.M., 1884. 

Merchant and 38 East Fifty-eighth Street, New York City. 

Gudeman, Edward, Ph. B., Ph.D., 1887. 

Peoria Grape Sugar Co., Peoria, 111., and P. 0. Box 3001, N. Y. City. 
Student at the Universities of Berlin and Gottingen, 1887-80. Private Assistant 
with Dr. C. F. Chandler, and Honorary Assistant at the School of Mines. 1869 
and 181K), Professor of Chemistry in charge of the Department of Chemistry, Dyeing 
and Pottery at the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 1890-92, Chemist with the American Glucose Company at Bufl'alo. N. Y., 
and Peoria, 111. 1892-93, Chemist in charge of Peoria Grape Sugar Company, at 
Peoria, 111. 

GuDEWiLL, Charles Edward, C.E., .... 1890. 

P. 0. Box 921, Montreal, Canada. 

GuiTERMAN, Edward Wolf, Ph.B., . . 1889. 

Passaic Print Works, Pas.saic, N. .1., and 335 West Fifty-eighth Street, 
New York City. 
1890 to date, Chemist above works. 

Haa^is, Dunbar Ferdinand, E.M., .... 1883. 

U. S. S. '' Gedney," Box 173, and 83 Rector St., Perth Auiboy, N. J. 
1883-84, Inspector of bridge work, Stony Point, New York. 18S5-88, Assayer and 
Chemist, afterwards General Manager Parral Mining and Milling Co. (silver), Mexico. 
1889, with Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., on New York Harbor Improvements. 1890 
to date. Engineer Marion Phosphate Co., Florida, and Engineer Hamburg Phosphate 
Co., Florida. Surveying, prospecting and reporting on phosphate deposits. 1892-93, 
with U. S. Engineers in charge construction Concrete Fortifications. In charge of 
Harbor Improvements. Assistant Engineer of Dominion Construction Company for 
pipe laying and Riservoir engineering. 

Haffen, LouiS Francis, A.M., C.E., .... 1879. 

Conjmij<sioner Street IniprovcmeiUs. One-Hundred and Forty-first St. 
and Third Ave. and 047 Corllandt Ave., 23d Ward, N. Y. City. 

Hale, Albert Ward, A.B., A.M., E.M., . . 1867. 

Department Public Works, East Twenty-fourth Street, and 81 Clinton 
Place, New York City. 

Hall, Robert William, E.M., 1876. 

University Building, Washington Square, New York City. 
Trom 1879 to 1888, Chemist to the American Gas Fuel and Light Company and to 
some associated companies. Since the autumn of 1888, Acting Assistant Professor of 
General Chemistry in the University of the City of New York. Since the autumn 
of 1890, also Acting Professor of Analytical Chemistry in the same institution. 1891, 
Professor of Analytical Chemistry, same institution. 


— 34 — 
Hallock, Albert Peter, Ph.B., Ph.D., . . • 1880. 

440 First Avenue and 434 Lenox Avenue, New York Cit.v, 
June, 1880, to October, 1880, with Dr. P. de P. Ricketts. October, 1880, to Novem- 
ber, 1897, Chemist Consolidated Gas Co. November, 1887, to January, 1889, in the 
shell lime business. January, 1889, to date. Chemist to Carl H. Schultz, Mineral 
Water Factory. Specialty, Gas and Mineral Water Chemistry. 

Hankinsox, Albkrt Wouthington, C.E., . . . 1893. 

114 West Forty.fifth Street, New York City. 

Hanna, George Byron, A.B , E.M., .... 1868. 

Charlotte, N. C. 
Chemist and Assistant Geologist North Carolina Geoloji^ical Survey. Melter and 
Assistant Assayer U. S. Assay Office, Charlotte, N. C. Also Consulting Mining Engi- 
neer and Chemist, etc. 

Hakding, George Edward (Associate), . . . . 1867. 

Architect, Postal Telegraph Building, New York City. 

Harrington, Thomas Henry, C.E., .... 1889. 

Westchester, Westchester County, N. Y. 
July, 1889, to March, 1893, Inspector Clerk and General Superintendent on U. S. 
Works, Flood Rock, Hell Gate, East River, N. Y. April, 1893, in charge of Exhi- 
bit of River and Harbor Improvements from New York City and Hudson River, 
at World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago. 

Harris, Edwin, A., Ph.B., 1889. 

Secretary and Treasurer, Globe Steam Heating Co., 412 N. Eleventh 

Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

1889-90, Chemist of the Camden Consolidated Oil Company. 1890 to date, Cliemist 

Camden Consolidated Oil Company and agent for oil, mineral and timber lands in 

West Virginia and Ohio. Chemist to the Phosphorus Works of J. J. Allen's Sons, 2 

Chestnut St., Philadelphia, 1892-93. 

Harte, Charles R., ..:... . 1893. 

Box 136, Milford, Conn. 

Haskell, H. G., 1893. 

915 Delaware Avenue, Wilmington, Del. 

Hathaway, Nathaniel, Ph.B., 1879. 

Swain Free School, and 43 Elm Street, New Bedford, Mass. 
1879-80, Booth and Etlgar Sugar Refinery. 1880-83, Private Assistant to Dr. E. 
Waller, Now York. 1883-91, Teacher of Chemistry and Physics Swain Free School, 
New Bedford, Mass., and general analytical work. 

Hawley, John Francis, C.E., 1891. 

Aparlado 172, Guatemala, C. A. 

HUBERT, Octave Britton, C.E., 1888. 

72 W. f)9th Street, New York City. 

Heinsheimer, Alfred Maurice, C.E., .... 1887. 

Kuhn, Loeb & Co., 30 Nassau Street, and 71 East Ninetieth Street, 
New York City. 

Hendricks, Henry Harmon, Ph.B. (Life Member), . 1880. 

Hendricks Bros., 49 Cliff Street, New York City. 

— 35 — 
Herckenrath, Walter Augustus, A.M., CE^ , . 1892. 

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontjwio, "Canada. 
1892-93, Erie City Iron Works and with City Engineer on pavements and sewei-s; 
Wilmington, Vt., on Railway and General Engineering; Inspector U. S. Dredging 
Operations, Gowanus Bay. At present temjwrari^y employed in tbemathematical 
Department of the University of Ottawa. 

Hewletf, James Monroe, Pn.B., . . . . . 1890. 
McKiiD, Mead & White, I W. Twentieth Street, and ^8 Remseci St., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hildreth, Russell Wadsworth, E.M^ . . . 1886. 

R. W. Hildreth & Co., Inspecting and Civil Engineers, Specialty Bridge 
Works, No. 2 Wall Street, amd 25 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

Hildreth, Walter Edwards, C.E., E.M., . . , 1877. 

Metropolitan Hotel, 584 Broadway, New York City, 

Hill, William, C.E., 1882. 

Assistant Superintendent -Collins Company, Box 196, CJoHinsville, 
One year practical experience in mannfactureof crucible steel. Two years draughts- 
man and assistant to master mechanic'of conipany manufacturing crucible steel, bar- 
iron, edge tools, plows and wrenches. Engineer in charge of reconstruction of dam 
600 feet long, 32 feet high, at Otis, Mass. 1886 to date, Assistant 'Superintendent for 
the Collins Company, maiHifacturing principally edge tools. November 1st, 1891, 
appointed agent of the Collins Company, with general charge of j)lant at CoUi<isville 
Conn., employing 650 men. 

HiNMAN, Bertrand Ciiase, Ph.B., A.m. (1892), . 1890. 

929 Flushing Avenue, Brooklyn, and Mansville, Jefferson County, 
N. Y. 

Since Jane, 1890, Chemist to .the Iron Clad ManufactHring Company, engaged in 
the mauafactnre of sheet-iron enamelled ware. 

HoLBR(H)K, FRA^'CI8 ^'ewberry, C E., . , . . 1876. 

• 42 Pine Street, New York City, and Box 395, Tarrytcrwn, N. Y. 
From &11, 1876, to spring, 1880, Assistant Assay Laboratory School of Mines. 
Spring and Summer-on Geological Survey, West Texas. Then to 1881, spring, Super- 
intendent Corralitos Co., Chihuahua, Mexico. 1884-87, expert work, office El Paso, 
Texas. Summer and fall, 1887, Siiperintendeat of United Verde Copper Company, 
Arizona. 1888, spring, en geological work for the Southern Pacific Compaay in West 
Texas. Summer and fall, running gold mine and mill for self in Arizona. 1889-90, 
Manager for U. S. Circuit Court in suit between the Con. Kansas City Smelting and 
Refining Company and tiie Guadalupe C<»m,pany, in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 1890 to 
February, 1891, employed by<the CompauiaMetalargica Mexicana. March and April, 
1891, charge of cojpper snicker, Tucson, Arizona. Expert work until 1892, when re- 
turned to Com p. Metal., Mexico. 

HoLDEN, Edward Henry, C. E., . . . . . 1878. 

1074 Boston Avenue, New York City. 

Hollerith, Herman, E.M., Ph.D. (1890), . . . 1879. 

Electrician and Expert, 501 F. St., Washington, D. C. 

HoLLicK, Arthur, Ph.B., 1879. 

Columbia College, New York City and New Brighton, N. Y. 
Superintendent Mexican Mine, Mariposa, <Da]., 1880. Kew York City Health De- 

36 — 

partiueut Inspector from 1881-90. Sanitary Engineer from 1890-91^ Special In- 
spector, ]8J)2. Special Expert and Inspector of Offensive Trades, Xew York State 
Board of Healtli, both in consultation and field work, from IS^^S to date. Boai'd of 
Health, VilhiKe of New Brighton ; 1880-92, a menilier of the Board. Board of Health, 
Long Island City, Sanitary Adviser, 1890. In general practice as a sanitarian from 
1883 to date. U. S. Geological Survey — engaged in collecting specimens in the Terri- 
tories, in 1882. Appoint*^d Fellow in Geology, Columbia College, January, 1690; re- 
appointed, 1891 ; Assist., 1892. 1893, Tutor in Geology. Recording Sec'y Torrey Bo- 
tanical Club, N. Y., 1883-88. Corresponding Secretary Natural Science Association of 
Staten Island, 1881 to date. Associate Editor, BuUetin, Torrey Botanical Club, 1888- 

Mollis, Henry Leonard^ E.M., 18S5. 

1232 Tlie Rookery, Cliicago, III., and 804 Perry-Paine Bldg., Cleve- 
land, 0. 
I^Sii, Assistant Chemist Edgar Thomson Steel Works. 1885-87, Assistant Chemist. 
North Chicago Rolling Mill Company. 1887-90, Chief Chemist, North Chicago Roll- 
ing >fill Company, which, in 1889, became by consolidation part of the Illinois Steel 
Company. Ih90, member of firm of Rattle, Nye & Hollis, Analytical Chemists and 
Mining Engineers. 1893, Member of firm of II. L. Hollis & Co., Analytical Chemists 
and Mining Engineers. 

Hollis, William, C.E., 1878. 

Box K)9, Eagle Pass, Texas. Agent for Alamo and Coahuila Coal Cos. 

Holt, Marmaduke BuRRELL, E.M., .... 1881*. 

Colorado Smelting Company, Pueblo, Colo., and 287 Lexington Ave., 

New York City. 

1889-90, Student in course of Electrical Engineering, School of Mines. 1890-91. with 

Aspen Mining and Smelting Com pi^ny, serving as Mining and Electrical Engineer. 

1891 to fall of 1892, Agent and Electrical Engineer with the " C. and C." Electric Motor 

Co., N. Y. City and Denver. 1892-93, \ssayer Colorado Smelting Co., Pueblo, Colo. 

H(K)KER, William Augustus, A.B., A.M., E.M., 1869. 

Hooker & Lawrence, 145 Broadways New York City. 

Hooper, Frank Cyrus, Met. Eng., .... 1890. 

American Graphite Co., Ticondcroga, N. Y. 
1890-1891, Asvsistant Engineer De Lamar Mining Co., Limited. 1892-93, American 
Graphite Co. Spring, 1893, Investigation and report on Sisal Hemp Industry in The 
Bahamas for The Inagua Fibre Co. Summer and Fall,. Erection of Concentrating 
Plant in Adirouducks. 

Hopke, Theodore M,, Ph.B., 1880. 

Pitt.sburgh Reduction Co., Ferguson Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
August, 18H9, November, 1881, Analytical Chemist with Ledoux & Co., New York. 
November, 1881 to November, 1885, Member of the firm of Elliott, Hopke & Mattison, 
Analytical and Consnlting Chemists and Assayers. July, 188G to November, 1889, 
Cliemist for Linden Steel Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa , also had charge of Physical testing de- 
partment. November 1889 to date. Manager Open-Hearth department of above Co., 
having full charge of manufacture of all gradis of sti-el made by the company, also 
building of open hearth furnaces. 

Horne, William Dodge, Ph.B., 1886. 

Yonkers, N. Y. 
June, 18h6 to December, 1887, Chemist to Fulton Sugar Refinery, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Octo]>er, 1887 to December, 1887, Assistant Instructor in Chemistry, School of Mines, 

— 37 — 


Columbia College. December 1887 to June, 1888, Chemist to St. Louis Snirar Refinery, 
St. Louis, Mo. October, 1888 to October, 1889, Chemist to Standard Sugar Refinery, 
Boston, Miiss. November, 188P, to present time. General Analytical Chemistry, Lab- 
oratory and office in New Brunswick, N. J. January, 1890, to present time, Chemist 
to Delaware Sugar House, Philadephia, Pa. January, 1891, to present time. Instruc- 
tor in Analytical Chemistry in Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. January 1890 
to January 189.3, Consulting Chemist to Delaware Sugar House, Philadelphia. Janu- 
ary to June, 1891, Instructor in Analytical Chemistry at Rutgers College, New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. May, 1893, Consulting Chemist to National Sugar Refining Company, 
Yonkers, N. Y. 

Howe, Epenetus, E.M. (Life Member), .... 1886. 

Box 69, Monterey, Mexico, and North Salem, N. Y. 
Assayer and Chemist with the El Paso Smelting Co., and the Argentine Works, 
Kansas, 1887-1889, and with Lacia Constancia Esmeralda Sierra Mojada Coahuila, 
Meifico, 1889. 

HoYT, Walter LowRiE, E.M., C.E., .... 18V6. 

St. Louis Smelting and Refining Company, St. Louis, Mo. 
1877-1880, Chemist and Metallurgist at Smelting Works in Utali, Montana and Col- 
orado. 1880-1884, Metallurgist with Omaha & Grant Smelting and Refining Co., 
Omaha, Neb. 1884. Mining Engineer with El Callao Gold Mining Co., Venezuela, S. 
A. 1885-1891, Superintendent St. Louis Smelting and Refining Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Humbert, William Scott, E.M. , 1883. 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
1883-1885, Surveys and location of Tunnel for New Croton Aqueduct. 1885-1887, 
Construction work new Croton Aqueduct and extensive Topographical Survey of the 
Croton Valley. 1887-1888, In charge of construction as Assistant Engineer at shafts 
No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23 New Croton Aqueduct (night shift). 1888 to 1891 Assistant 
Engineer in charge of the construction of two large dams and tunnels connecting the 
two basins of Douhle Reservoir " I," located 2 miles east -of Brewster, N. Y., on the 
east Branch of the Croton River. 1891, Special Assistant Engineer Cataract Con- 
struction Company. 

Hunt, Frederick Furneaux, E.M., C.E., . . . 1876. 

77 Pine Street, New York Citj-. and New Brighton, S, L 

Huntington, Fredkrick Wolcoti^, E.M., • • . 1885. 

Address unknown. ' 

Hurlbut, Elisha Denison, Jr., C.E., , , , . 1890. 

100 Hicks Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1890-91, at Columhia College Law School. 1891-93, Assistant in Mechanical Engi- 
neering, School of Mines. 

Hutto.v. Fredeuick Remsen, A.B., A.M., E.M., C.E., 

Ph.D. (Life Member), 1876. 

Columbia College, and 200 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 
1876-1877, Assistant in Engineering, School of Mines. 1H77-1882, Instructor in 
Mechanical Engineering?. 1 882-1891. Adjunct Professor Mechanical Engineering. 
1891, Professor Mechanical Eugineeriug. 

Hyde, F. S., 1893. 

215 Scbemierhorn Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Investigations in Glass, for L. C. Tiffany, New York City. 

— 38 — 

Iiii^EXG, Axel Olaf, B.S., E.M., C.E., .... 1877. 

Carthage, Mo. 
1877-lvS32, Chief Chemist, Havemeyer J?iiRar Refininj? Co., RroakTyn, E. D. 1882- 
1890, U. S. Dep. Mining Surveyor, District of a)loraflo. 188-2-1883, Chemist and 
Assayer, La Plata Smelter, Leadville, Colo. 1883, >fetallirr^i8t, Martha Rose Smelter, 
Silverton, Colo. 1884, Assayer, Sloiber S'amplin)7 Works, Silverton, Colo. 1885, 
Duyckinck,*Schuyler & Ihlsen^, Ore Samplers, Silverton, Colo. 1886-1890. Manager 
of Mt. Queen Mining Co , Reliance Mining Co., Brown Mining Co., and the Hale 
Mines, Silverton, Colo. 1890-1892, Operating Zincite Mine and others near Webb 
City, Nevada, and in constructing concentrating plants. Manager Pleasant Valley 
Mines, Carthage, Mo. 

Ihi^eng, Magnus C, KM., C.E., Ph.D., . . . 1875. 

Professor Engineering, State School of Mines, Golden, Cola. 

Iles, Malvern Welt^, Ph.B., Ph.D. (Life Member), . 1875. 

Superintendent Globe Smelting Co., Denver, Colo. 

Ingersoll, William Halsey, A.R, A.M., LL.B., E.M., 

(Life Member), ....... 1870. 

North port, Suffolk County, N. Y. 
1875-1878, Assistant in £Ingineering, Columbia Cbllege. lvS78-1831, Assistant in 
Mechanics and Astronomy. 1881-1887, Manufacturing tin-\\'are, PortlaiKl, Conn. 
1887-date, Incapacitated from practice by lack of l>ealth. 

INGRAM, Edward Lanning, C.E., .... 1885. 

Box 82, San Diego, Cal., and 109 Prospect Ave., BuffaJt^ N. Y. 
From November, 1891, Principal Assistant E^igkieer, Intevnational Boundary Sur- 
vey, United States and Meziuov 


Jackson, Oswald, C.E., 1892. 

550 Park Ave., N. Y. City. 
Inspector of Work on P. R. R., since January 1st, IS^l. 

Jacobs, David Mark, Ph.B., 1887. 

K J. Jacobs, 41 New St., and 30 W. Tliirty-eigbth St., N. Y. City. 

Jacobs, Solomon Joseph, Ph.B., . . . . . 1887. 

R. J. Jacobs, 41 New St., and 30 W. Thirty-eighth St., N. Y. City. 

Janeavay, John Howell, E.M., 1886. 

John A. Roebling^s Sons Co., and 124 West Srat43 St., Trenton, N. J. 
1886, Underground and Surface Surveyor for Cooper, Hewitt & Co. 1837-1891 
Draughtsman and Designer and Constructing Engineer of Wire Rope Tramways in 
Montana, Oregon, Alaska, and CiilifcM*nia for the Trenton Iron Co., Trenton, N. J. 

Jenks, Arthur Wilton, E.M.. 1886. 

Superintendent Balbach Smelting and Refining Co., Newark, N. J. 
Summer 1886, New Jersey on Geological Work. 1836-1887, In Oerro de Pasco, 
Peru, S. A. Assayer and Ctiemist to the commission examining that silver mining 
district. Spring, 1887, In New York, Chemist with Ledoux & Co. 1887-1888, In Au- 
rora, 111., Assistant at tlie works of the Chicago and Aurora Smelting and Refining 
Company. Summer and Fall 1888, In Dutch Guiana, S. A., Assayer and Assistant in 

— 39 — 

the examination of gold deposits. Fall 1888 to 1893, in Aurora, Ills., Assistant 
Superintendent at the Aurora Works of the Chicago and Aurora Smelting and 
Refining Co. 1893, Superintendent Kootenay Reduction Co. 1894, Superintendent 
Balbach Smelting and Refining Co., Jersey City, N. J. 

Jedp, Bernard John Theodore, C.E., . . 1887. 

Assistant City Engineer, 119 Walcott St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Johnson, Arthur Gale, E.M., 1885. 

Jensen, Utah. 

Johnson, Elias Mattison, Ph,B., ..... 1878. 

Isaac G. Johnson & Co., Spuyten Duyvil, N. Y. 

Johnson, Gilbert Henry, Ph.D., 1878. 

Isaac G. Johnson & Co., Spuyten Duyvil, N. Y. 

Johnson, Isaac Bradlky, E.M., 1879. 

Isaac G. Johnson & Co., Spuyten Duyvil, N. Y. 

Jones, John Elmer, E.M., 1893. 

As.sistant Superintendent Mill Creek Coal Co., New Boston, Pa., and 
Hazleton, Pa. 

Jones, William Denison, Ph.B., 1888. 

Hecker, Jones, Jewell Milling Co., 206 Produce Exchange, N. Y. City, 
and 62 Clark Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

JoPLiNG, Reginald FuRNEss, E.M., .... 1889. 

American Wire Co., 842 Wilson Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 
November, 1889 to February, 1890, Chemist, Otis Steel Co., Ltd. February. 1890-92, 
Assistant Manager American Wire Co. Vice-president of same, January, 1892. 

JouET, Cavalier Hargrave, Ph.B., .... 1882. 

104 John Street, New York City, aiid Roselle, N. J. 
Analytical Cliemist with Ledoux & Bicketts, 1H82-1875. Analytical Chemist with 
G. H. Nichols & Co., Acid Manufacturers at Laurel Hill, L. L, from 1885-1888. Work 
comprising analyses of their various products and a partial supervision of their mana- 
factare. Analytical Chemist from 1888 to present time with Bicketts & Banks. 

Kelly, William, A.B., E.M., 1877. 

Yulcan, Dickinson Co., Mich. 
1877, '79, '80, Assistant Superintendent. Chemical Copper Co., Phoenixville, Pa. 1878, 
Chemist, Himrod Furnace Co., Youngstown, Ohio. 1881-84, Superintendent, Kemble 
Coal and Iron Co., Biddlesburg, Pa.; 1885, Superintendent, Glamorgan Iron Co., 
Lewistown, Pa.; 1880-89, Superintendent, Kemble Iron Co., Biddlesburg, Pa.; In 
charge of Bhust-furnaccs, Coal Mines, Coke Ovens, Ore Mines, Quarries, Bailroads, 
etc. 1889 to date. General Superintendent and Geu'l Manager Penn Iron Mining Co. 
Vulcan, Mich.; In charge of Iron-ore Mines on the Menominee Ban ge, Lake Supe- 
rior. Also, 1885-89, President Board of Examiners of Bituminous Mine Inspectors 
of Pennsylvania. 

Kemp, James FuRMAN, A. B., E.M., .... 1884. 

Prof. Geology, Columbia College, School of Mines, and 303 W. 138th 
St., New York City. 
Several months with the Band Drill Co., 1883-1884. Private Assistant to Prof. J. 

— 40 — 

S. Newberry, 1884-8.">. Student of Oeolopy and Mineralogy at the Universities of 
Leipzig and Munich, Germany, I880-86. Instructor in Geolojry at Cornell, 1886-88. 
Assistant Professur of Geology and Mineralogy, lHHS-91, and SL»cretary of the Faculty. 
1888-89. Have travelled in the West in 1889, and for two summers past have been 
working on the Geology of the Lake Champlain region and Adirondacks. Am 
especially engaged on Inorganic and Economic Geology. 1891, Adjunct Professor of 
Geology, School of Mines, Columbia College. Professor, 1892. 


Manager for 11. W. Ilildretli & Co., 2 Wall St., N. Y. City, and 10 
South Street, Newark, N. J. 
Assistant to Engineers' Rapid-Transit Commission, 1891-92. Engineer of Construc- 
tion East. Providence Water Works, 1892. Designing Engineer with S. M. Gray, 
1892-93. 1893, Manager for R. W. Hildreth & Co. 

KissAM, Henky Snyder, Ph.B., ..... 1886. 

Architect, Psi Upsilon Club, 33 W. Forty-second St., N. Y. City. 
1888-89, Manager of Office of Pickles & Sutton, Architects, Tacoma, Washington. 
1889-90, Practicing Architecture with P. W. Morris under firm name of Kissam <fc 
Morris, Tacoma, Washington. 1890 -J)2, Practicing Architecture alone under* name 
of Henry Snyder Kissam, Tacoma, Washington. 1892, Practicing Architecture with 
Jno. G. Proctor, under firm name of Proctor & Kissam, Tacoma, Washington. Dur- 
ing 1893, in New York City, as Student of Special Coustruction. 

Klepetko, F., E.M., 1880. 

Boston and Montana Consolidated Copper and Mining Company, Great 

Falls, Montana. 

Superintendent Smelting Department, Tamarack, Osceola Copper Mannfacturing 

Company, Dollar Bay, Mich. At present Superintendent of Construction of the Great 

Falls Smelter, for the Boston and Montana Consolidated Copper and Silver Mining 

Company. Address, Great Falls, Montana. 

Koch, Edward Cabot, E.M., 1879. 

Assistant General Manager, Elmore Gold Co., Limited, Rocky Bar, 
Idaho, and 160 E. Fifty-sixth Street, New York City. 
1880, 1881, 1SS2, Assayer and Chemist at Sineltei-s, Leadville, Colo. 1883-1893, Sur- 
veyor and Assistant Superintendent. L. A. G. Mg. ("o., Colo. 1889 to date, Assistant 
General Manager E. G. Co., Ltd., and V. G. Co., Ltd., Idaho. 

KoEN, Joseph John, C.E., 1888. 

Board of Health, 301 Mott Street, New York City, and Pearsalls, N. Y. 
1889-90, Computer on New Croton Aqueduct. 1890-91, to date, Sanitary Engineer 
on New York City Board of Uealth. 

KuNHARDT, Wheatox Bradisht, EM. (Life Member), . 1880. 

32 Beaver Street, New York City. 
1880-82, Travel and Study in the West and in Europe. 188:J-88, Engineer for the 
Bower-Barff Rustless Iron Co., and Assistant of Geo. W. Maynard in consulting work 
on Iron-mines and Ore-dressing. 18SS-89, First Assistant Engineer of the Baston 
Heating Co., under A. V. Ahbot, as Chief Engineer. 1890-91, Examination and 
Exploration of Iron and Coal D^'posits in New England, with the Diamond Drill. 
Report on Direct Steel Processes and on Magnetic Separation for Iron-ores. Acting 
Secretary of the American Institute of Mining Engineers for four months. 1892, 
President of tiio Oiceola (Gold) Gravel Mining Com pen y. 

Kurtz, Edward Laurence, E.M., 18.93. 

In Europe, 1894. 

— 41 — 

LAaWuB, Charlks Frederick, E.M., .... 1885. 

The Mountain Electric Co., P. 0. Box 1545, and 1 and 2 Duff Block, 
1754 Larimer Street, and 1528 Gilpin Street, Denver, Colo. Also, 
University Club, New York Cit.v. 
1885 to 1880, Assayer and Surveyor and Foreman of Lucky Boy and South Galena 
Mines, in Bingham, Utah. 1SS6 to 1888, Assistant Instructor in Assaying, and Fellow 
in Chemistry, School of Mines, Columbia College, N. Y. 18^8 to 18iK), Examining 
Gold and Silver Mines in Colorado, Utah, Montana, Arizona and Old Mexico. 1890, 
Testing Electrical Apparatus in Virginia City, Nevada. 1890, Manager of the Gilpin 
Co. Light, Heat and Power Co., Central City, Colo. 1890 to date, President and Man- 
ager, The Mountain Electric Co. Specialty, Installing Electric Light and Power 
Stations, and adapting electric light and power for mining purposes. 

Lahey, Joseph, E.M., 1887. 

162 E. Scyenty-eiglith Street, New York City. 

Lahey, Richard, E.M., 1887. 

Wilson Bros. &Co., Drcxel Building, Philadelphia, and 162 E. Sev- 
enty-eighth Street, New York City. 

Lamb, Andrew Johnson, E.M., 1884. 

L. & N. Railway, Louisville, Ky. 
June, 1884, to June, 1887, New York Croton Aqueduct, Draughtsman. June, 1887, 
to Sept., 1890, Assistant Engineer, L. & N. Railroad. Sept., 1890, to June, 1891, 
Assistant Roadniaster, Knox. Div., L. & N. Railroad. 

Langmuir, a. C, 1893^. 

22 Leopoldstrasse, Heidelberg, Germany. 

Langthorn, J. S. (Associate), 1891. 

Superintendent's Office, Jamaica and Brooklyn Electric Road Company, 
Jamaica, L. I., N. Y., and 196 Joralemon Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Lawrence, Benjamin Bowden, E.M., .... 1878. 

Hooker & Lawrence, 810 Boston Ave., Denver, Colo. 
1878-84, Superintendent, Montezuma S, M. Co., and of other mines of Summit Co., 
Colo. 1884-91, Lessee and Operator of Mayflower and Pelican-Dives Mines, Clear Creek 
Co., Colo. In 1886, Formed partnership with W. A. Hooker, E.M., Class of 18(59, with 
office at 145 Broadway, as Consulting Mining Engineers. I make a specialty of oper- 
ating under lease or otherwise, true fissure Gold and Silver Mines, also Concentration 
of Gold-silver ores. 1893-1894, Georgetown, Colo., at the Pelican-Dives Mines. 

Leary, Daniel James, C.E., E.M., .... 1881. 

Eagle and Provost Streets, Brooklyn, N. Y., 22 State Street and 43 E. 
Twenty -fifth Street, New York City. 
1882 to date, Constructing Highway and Railroad Bridges, Wharves, Docks, Dredg- 
ing and Harbor Improvements generally, in vicinity of New York City, as Designing 
and Supervising Engineer, as well as Contractor in most instances. In general, 
make a specialty of both Engineering and Constructing work, or Engineering work 
alone, in this branch of the profession. 

Leary, George, C.E., 1891. 

43 E. Twenty-fifth Street, New York City. 

Leavens, Harry Wenman, E.M., .... 1875. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

— 42 — 
LeBoutillier, Clement, Ph.B., 1881. 

High Bridge, New Jersey. 
1884-7, Assistant Chemist, Cambria Iron Co. 1887-92, Chemist, Eliza Furnace. 
March, '92, to date. Chemist, Taylor Iron and Steel Company. 

Lederle, Ernst Joseph, Ph.B., 1886. 

Assistant Chemist, New York City Health Dept., 42 Bleecker St., and 
120 W. 90th St., New York City. 
1886-87, Hon. Fellow Quant. Anal, and Assist. Intr. Gen. Chemistry, School of 
Mines. 1887-88, Chemist, Cranmoor Farm, Tom's River, N. J. 1888-89, Asst. Chem- 
ist, New York City Health Dept. 1890-91, Chemist and Supt., Reed & Carnrick, New 
York. 1891-92 as ahove, specialties, food and food preparations. Lecturer on Chem- 
istry and Director of the Chemical Laboratory, New York Dental School. 

Ledoux, Albert Reid, M.S., Ph.D. (Associate), . . 1874. 

Ledoux & Co. , 9 Cliff Street, New York City. 
Lee, George B A rstow, E.M., ...... 1886. 

Brentwood, L. I., N. Y. 
18(55, Assjiyer in Butte, Montana. 1886-1887, Assayer, Kansas City Smelting and 
Refining Co. 1887 to date. Assistant Superintendent, Rio Grande Smelting Co., 
Socorro, New Mexico. 1890 to 1894, Superintendent, Rio Grande Smelting Works, 
Socorro, New Mexico. 

Leggktt, Thomas Haight, E.M., 1879. 

Standard Consolidated Mining Co., Bodie, Mono County, Cal., also 
18 Broadway, N. Y. City. 
1880, Assistant Engineer, New York River and Harbor Surveys. 1881-1883, Saperin> 
tendent of Mining Properties in the Batopilas District, Chihuahua, Mexico. 1884, 
Travelling in the West, through the principal Mining Camps. Butte, Leadville, etc. 
1884-1887, Mining Engineer to the New York and Honduras Rosario Mining Co., at 
San Juaucito, Honduras. 1888, Manager of Mudsill Mining Co., Fairplay, Colo.; of- 
fice, 23 Bucklershury, London, E. C. 1889-1890, General Manager, Darien Gold 
Mining Co., Ltd., of Cana, Rep. of Colombia. 1891-93, President and Manager Standard 
Consolidated Mining Co. 

Lenox, Lionel Remond, Ph.B., 1888. 

Assistant Professor Chemistry, Leland Stanford, Jr., University, Palo 

Alto, California. 
After three years' work in the School of Miues, and previous to my senior year, I 
was respectively in : 1887, three mouths Assistant Chemist to Fulton Sugar Refinery. 
1887, six montlis Assistant Chemist to Bethlehem Iron Co. 1888-89, Instructor in 
Qualitative Analysis and Assaying, Lehigh University. 1889-91, Instructor in Quan- 
titative Analysis and Industrial Chemistry, Lehigh University. 1892-93, Chemist, 
Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C. 

Levy, Albert Lrxa^LN, E.M., 1890. 

Fischel & Levy, Hartford, Conn. 

LiEBMANN, Alfred, C.E., 1893. 

28 East Seventy-second Street, New York City. 

Lilliendahl, Alfred Whipple, E.M., .... 1883. 

Superintendent, Mazapil Copper Co. (Ltd.), Concepcion del Oro, Es- 
tado de Zacateca.s, Mexico. 
1883-85, Assistant Supt. Aurora Smelting and Refining Co., Aurora, 111. 1885-87 

— 43 — 

Assistant Sapt. Grande Milling and Refining Co., Guani^aato, Mexico. 1886-93^ Sa- 
periutendent of the Mazapil Copper Co., Ltd., Conccpciou delOro, Zacateeas, Mexico. 
Superintendent, Coahaila and Zaeateois Railroad. 

LiLLiENDAHL, Frank Armstrong, E.M., . . 1891. 

Assistant Superintendent and Metallurgist, Mazapil Copper Co. (Ltd.), 
Concepcion del Oro, Estado de Zacateeas, Mexico, (via Laredo, via 
1891-93, as above. 

LiLiENTHAL, JoHN Leo, E,M. (Life Member), . . 1870. 

1918 Jackson Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
1871, Assistant in Laboratory, Prof, Chandler, School of Mines. Assistant in Field 
Work, Prof. Newberry, Ohio (Geological Survey. Assistant in Lecture Room, Prof. 
Joy, Colambia College. Assistant in Metallurgical Laboratory, Prof. Egleston, 
School of Mines. 1872-1891, Mercantile Business, San Francisco. 

LiLLiE, Samuel Morris, E.M., 1874. 

328 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
1874-75, Chemist, Kings County Refining Co., Green Point, L. I. 1876-8.5, Chemist, 
Franklin Sugar Refinery, Philadelphi(\, Pa. 1886-1887, Sugar Engineer and Chemist. 
1888, 1889 and 1890, Vice-President and Manager of "The Sugar Apparatus Manufac- 
turing Co.," a Company organized under the Laws of Pennsylvania, to operate under 
his patents. 1891, President of said Company. 

Lipps, Henry, Jr., C.E., 1888. 

R. & D. R.R., Box 14, Greensboro, N. C. 
From July, 1888, to August, 1889, Assistant Engineer Maint. of Way, Dep. R. & D. 
R.R., W. N. C. & Va. Mid. Div. August, 1889, to January, 1890, Supervisor Track, 
N. C. Div. R. & D. R.R. January, 1890, to date. Engineer Maint. of Way, N. C. 
Div. R. & D. R.R. 

Little, Willard Parker, E.M., Ph.B 1881. 

Architect, 28 West Twenty-Third Street, New York City. 

Livingston, Archibald Rogers, C.E., .... 1891. 

20 North Washington Square, New York City. 
Since November, 1891. in employ of Lackawanna I. & S. Co., Scran ton. Pa. 

IjOngacre, Lindsay B., M.E., 1892. 

Spuyten Duyvil, N. Y. 

Lord, Frederick Reuben, C.E., 1892. 

General Manager, Clifton Coal Company, Bay Street cor. Vanderbilt 
Ave., Clifton, and Box 228 Stapleton, Richmond County, N. Y. 

Love, Edward Gurley, A.M., Ph.B., Ph.D., . . 1876. 

Gas Examiner, Department Public Works, and 80 E. 55th St., New 
York City. 

Ludlow, Edwin, E.M , 1879. 

Superintendent Choctaw Coal and Railway Company, Hartshorn, Indian 
1879-81, Assistant Engineer in charge of hydrographic work on Delaware River, 
under U. S. Engineer. 18S1, Assistant Engineer Mexican National Railroad, Mexico. 
1882-89, Assistant Superintendent, then Superintendent, for Pennsylvania Railroad 
coal-mines at Shaniokin, Fa. 1889 to date, Superintendent of Mines, Choctaw Coal 
and Railroad Company, Hartshorn, Indian Territory. 

— 44 — 
LuQiiER, Lea McIlvaine, C.E., 1887. 

Tutor in Mineralogy, School of Mines, N. Y. City, and Bedford, N. Y. 
Summer of 1887, Assistant in Geodetic Surveying with Professor Rees. Summer 
of 18S7, Assistant in Surveying with Professor Monroe. Summer of 188S, Assistant 
in Geodetic Surveying with Professor Rees. 1887-90, Fellow in Mineralogy, School 
of Mines. 1890. Assistant in Mineralogy, School of Mines. 1891 to date, Tutor in 
Mineralogy, School of Mines. 

LuQUER, Thatciiku Taylcr Payne, C.E., E.E. (1892), . 1889. 

25f) Broadway, N. Y. City, and 618 Henry St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1890, Fellow in Engineering. 1890-91, Fellow in Surveying and Practical Mining. 
1891, Assistant in Mining, Columbia College, School of Mines. 1892, with H. Ward 
Leonard & Co., New York City. 1893, Engineer, Union Electric Co., N. Y. City. 
1894, Engineer the Fiter Conduit Company. 

LusK, Graham, Ph.B, Ph D. (Munich, 1891), . . 1887. 

Assistant Professor of Physiology at the Yale Medical School, New 
Haven, Conn. Address: 47 East Thirty-f«mrth Street, N. Y. 
1887-1888, Student at Munich. 1889, Student at Munich ; also at Bellevue Hos- 
pital Medical Cxtllcge, N. Y. 1890, Studied at Bellevue; afterwards in Munich. 
1891, Studied at Munich ; and was later appointed Instructor of Physiology at the 
Yale Medical School. 1892, Assistant Professor of Physiology. 

Ltjttgen, Eberhard, Ph.B., . . . . ^ . 1884. 

Wissahickon Chemical Works, Ambler and Chclten Hills, Wyncote 

P.O., Pa. 

1884-85, Assistant Chemist, Crane Iron Company, Catassiuqna, Pa. 1885 to date, 
Chemist and Manager, Keasbey & Mattison's Cliemical Works, Ambler, Pa. Specialty, 
manufacture of magnesia. 

Lyman, Frank, A.B.,M.E 1878. 

50 Remsen St, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

McCuLLOH, Edwin Au.stin, Ph.B., .... 1878. 

Glencoe, Md. 

McIlhiney, p. C, 1892. 

619 Grand Street, Jersey City, N. J. 

McKenna, Charles Francis, Ph.B., .... 1883. 

221 Pearl Street and 144 West Ninety-ninth Street, New York City. 
1R83 84, Chemist Havemeyer Sugar Refining Company, Jersey City, N. J. 188.5-86, 
Chemist Canibr«a Company, Jcihnstown, Pa. 1887-90, Chemist Edgewater Lime 
Works, Edgewater, N. J. 1890, Chemist Jas. J. McKenna & Bros., Brass Founders, 
424, 426 Eiist Twenty-third Street, New York City. 1893, Director, Physical Testing 
Department, Lahoratories, Dr. G. E. Moore, 221 Pearl Street, New York City. 

McKiM, RoBEKT Albert, C.E., 1884. 

Room 213, 280 Broadway, and 9 East Tenth St., New York City. 
Assistant Engineer on New Croton Aqueduct. (Entered Aqueduct Engineer Corpa 
as Chainman, in February, 1885.) 

McLaughlin, Charles Swain, Ph.B., .... 1884. 

874 Broadway and 2041 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

— 45 — 
Ma cKa YE, Harold Steele, C.E., 1887. 

Westinghousc Electric Mfg. Co., and 3407 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Three months' work in New York Harbor in Army Corps of Engineers. One year's 
employment in the Office of Patent Solicitors. 1889-92, acting as Fourth Assistant 
Examinef of the U. S. Patent Office. Since July, 189*2, Patent Counsel for Westing- 
house Electric and Manufacturing Company. 

MacTeague, John Joseph. E.M., 1883. 

Mexican Ore Company, El Paso, Texas. 

Maclay, James, C.E., 1888. 

Tutor in Mathematics, Columbia College, and 87 Union Street, New- 
ark, N. J. 

Mahony, Arthur Stuart, E.M., 1889. 

51 West Ninety- fourth Street, New York City. 
1890, First Assistant Geneml Manager of the New Birmingham Iron and Land 
Company. 1891, Treasurer of the same company, also Chemist to the Tassie Belle 
Furnace, New Birmingham, Texas. 

. Mannheim, Hermann Charles, E.M., .... 1887. 

254 Cumberland St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mannheim, Paul August Louis, E.M.,. . . . 1885. 

United Smelting and Refining Company, East Helena, Montana. 

Marij6, Leon, E.M., 1885. 

12 East Forty-sixth Street, New York City. 

Marsh, John Rollin, E.M., 1887. 

Chief Engineer Indiana Bridge Co., and 616 E. Adams St., Muncie, Ind. 
August 1, 1887, to date, as above. 

Martin, Edward Ward (Associate), .... 1877. 

Chemist, Board of Health, 301 Mott Street, New York Cit3\ 

Massa, Charles Griswold, C.E., 1889. 

143 W. 34th St., N. Y. City, and Fort Lee, N. J. 
Oct. 1889 to date, on railroad and street railway construction, and miscellaneous 

Mass A, Louis Ferdinand, C.E., 1890. 

Fort Lee, N. J. 
October, 1890, to 1892, shop practice, Maryland Steel Works, at Sparrow's Point, Md., 
as follows: October, 1890, to July, 1891, Machine-shop practice. July, 1891, to Sept., 
1891, Bessemer-mill Construction. Sept.. 1891, to Sept., 1892, Bessemer Rail-mill and 
Roll-house ; Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering. October, 1892, to 1893, Post- 
graduate Electrical Engineer at C/lumbia College. 

Mathis, Theophilus Smith, E.M., .... 1879. 

Engineer of Mines, and U. S, Surve3'or General's Office, and 529 East 
St., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
From January, 1890, to February, 1891. Assistant Draughtsman U. S. Surveyor Gen- 
eraPs Office, Salt Lake City, Utah. Since Feb., 1891, Chief Draughtsman of Mineral 
Division of said Office, and still holds that position. 

Mayer, Ralph Edward, C.E., 1879. 

Instructor in Mechanical Drawing, School of Mines, Columbia College, 
New York City. 

— 46 — 
Meissxer, Caul August, Ph.B., 1880. 

Vanderbilt Steel and Iron Company, Box 867, and 2512 7th Ave., Bir- 
mingham, Ala. 
One year. Assistant Chemist Joliet Steel Company. Three y<»ars, Chemist and 
Assistjint Snperintendeut Brier Hill Iron and Coal Company, Youngstown. Ohio. 
One and a half years. Head Chemist Joliet Steel Company. Three years, Manager 
Sterling Iron and R'wy Company, Sterlington, N. Y. At present, Vice President 
and General Manager of the Vanderhilt Steel and Iron Company, Birmingham, Ala., 
after having personally organised this company. President, Jefferson County Min- 
ing and Quarrying Company. 

Melliss, D. Ernest, A.M., Ph.D. (Associate),. . . 1868. 

Price's Building, 524 Sacramento Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
^tudent regular course, three years, School of Mines. Afterwards, two and a half 
yeara University of Goettingen, graduating Ph.D., in 18G9. One year at University 
of Vienna. Since then, constantly occupied in civil and mining engineering. In 
1873, was Chief Engineer in charge of Topographical and Geological Survey of Guano- 
caste and Nicoya for the Costa Bican Gt)vernment. In 1881, Consulting Engineer to 
the Pacific Gas Light Company, of San Francisco, and in its interest studied the dif- 
ferent gas-making systems in the United States, England, France and Belgium. 
Have made plans for and erected numerous gold, silver, copper and lead mines. 
Planned the Union Iron Works of San Francisco, and superintended their construc- 
tion ; also the Arctic Oil Works and several other industrial establishments on the 
Pacific Coast. Designed and built the MazatUn Water Works in Mexico ; the Hy- 
draulic Press Brick Works, of California, the largest establishment of its class on the 
Pacific Coast. Four years in Central America and Mexico. Was Administrator of 
San Josii de las Bocas and Consulting Engineer to Guadalupe de los Reyes, the most 
successful silver mine of Sinaloa. Now Consulting Engineer in San Francisco, and 
particularly occupied in that capacity for the Olympic Salt Water Company, whose 
works are now being erected under his supervision and according to his plans. 

Merrill, Frederick James Hamilton, Ph.B., Ph.D., . 1885. 

State Museum, and 2 Sprague Place, Albany, N. Y. 
1885-87, Assistant on the Geological Survey of New Jersey. 188d-90, Fellow in 
Geology, Columbia College. 1890 to date. Assistant State Geologist and Assistant 
Director of the New York SUite Museum, Albany, N. Y. 

MERRirr, James Haviland, Ph.D., A.M., . . . 1880. 

Care of Trenville Temple Smelting Company, 41 E. 49th St., New 
York City, and 3 Munroe Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
From 1881-1888, Chemist to the Bradley White Lead Co. In 18S9, entered the 
School of Mines as Post Graduate in the course of Architecture. 1892-i>3, Architec- 
tural Study. 

Merwin, Hubert John, E.M., 1879. 

The American Association (Ltd.), Middlesborough, K}\ 

Merz, Eugene, M.E., 1892. 

Box 112, and 143 Littleton Ave., Newark, N. J. 

MfiSEROLE, Walter Monfort, C.E., . • . 1881. 

189 Montague St., and 2789 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1881, Transitman and Topographer Continental Railway Co. 1881-83, Assist. Eng. 
in Construction N. Y., West Shore and Buffalo Ry. 1884-85. Division Engin'r Mainten- 
ance of Way ; IS&S, Chief Engineer Catskill Mtn. and Cairo Railway. 1885, in charge 
Topographical Survey for Kings County Charities' Commission. 188G to date, in 

— 47 — 

General Practice, located at Brooklyn, N. Y. Specialties: Improvement and Devel- 
opment of Real Estate and SiirveyinR for Legal and Construction Purposes; City 
Surveyor of the City of Brooklyn ; Chief Engineer South Brooklyn R. R. and Ter- 
minal Company, German- American Improvement Co., and Hancock and State Line 
Railway Company. 

Meyer, Herman Henry Bernard, E.M., . . 1885. 

539 W. Twentieth Street, New York City, and 162 Heywood Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Surveying, Field and Office work at Pelham Park, Westchester Co., July to No- 
vember, 1885. December, 1835 to date, Engineer for Oregon Iron Works, New York ; 
designing and erecting machinery for mauutacturing illumiuating gas. 

Middleton, John, C.E., 1887. 

2789 Atlantic Avenue, and 14 Glena'le Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1888 to date. Surveyor, Assistant to M. M. Meserole, C.E. 

Miller, Charles Lewis, E.M., 1885. 

Illinois Steel Company, 3179 Ashland Avenue, and 3009 Kllis Avenue, 

Chicago, III. 

1886, Assistant Chemist Edgar Thomson Steel Works, Braddock, Pa. 1886-87, 

Chemist and Assistant Supt. Carbon Iron and Pipe Co., Parry ville, Pa. 1887-90, Supt. 

The Missouri Furnace Co., St. Louis, Mo. 1890 to date, Supt. Blast Furnaces at Union 

Works of Illinois Steel Co., Chicago, 111. 

Miller, Charles Watts, E.M 1884. 

Box, 401, Aspen, Colo. 
1884-1885, Metallurgical Engineer Hecla Bronze and Iron Works. 1885-1886, As- 
sayer and Chemist, Aspen, Colo. 1886-1891, Mining Engineer and United State 
Deputy Mineral Surveyor, Aspen, Colo. General mining engineering business. 

Miller, Edmund Howd, Ph.B., A.M. (1892),. . • 1891. 

A8.sistant in Assaying, Columbia College School of Mines, and West 
Nyack, N. Y. 
1892-93, as above. 

Miller, Rudolph Philip, C.E., 1888. 

806 E. Leigh St., Richmond, Va. 
1888-18C0, Assistant to E. M. W., 1890 to date. Supervisor R. and D. Railway. 

MiLLiKEN, George Fanshawe, E.M., .... 1879. 

Land Department, N. P. R. R., Tacoma, Wash., and Union League 
Club. New York City. 
1879-1880, Superintendent " Milton Mining: Company." 1880-iaS3, General Mana- 
ger *' Chester Mining Company." 1883-1887, In General Consulting Practice as En- 
gineer. 1887-1890, General Manager " Costa Rica Mining Co., Ltd." 1890 to date, 
Consulting Engineer Northern Pacific Railroad. 

Moldehnke, Richard George Gottlob, E.M., Ph.D., . 1885. 

McConway & Torley Co., Forty-eightli Street and A. V. R.R., and 
104 Home Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
1885, '8(>, '87, Three Summer seasons with United States Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey, New York and Pliiladelphia Harbors and Cape Cod, Mass., Ifydrographic IVbrfc, 
Triangulation, Levelling, etc. 188r>-188(), Winter, nine months. Sanitary Engineering^ 
Inspector, etc., New York Association for Improvement of Condition of Poor. 1887 
-1889, Electrical Engineering, five months Mining Engineer Spraguc Electric Railway 
and Motor Co., seven months Mechanical Engineer Crocker-Wheeler Motor Co., five 

— 48 — 

months experimenting on patents taken ont. 1889, Manufacturing for myself. Spe- 
cialty in Machinists' Tools. 1889-18JK), Professor Mechanical and Electrical Engineer- 
ing, Michigan Mining School, Houghton, Mich. 1890 to date, Engineer McConway & 
Torley Co. (Manufacturers Jjinney Coupler, M. C. B. type). In addition to regular 
Engineering Work of Manufacturing Plant, conducting Metallurgical Investigations 
in line of Malleablization of Cast-iron. Specialties: Malleablized Cast-iron and Oil 
Fuel Gas. 

MoNELL, Joseph Thompson, C.E., . . . . . 1889. 

Coliiiiibia College, and 236 W. Twenty-secoTid Street, New York City. 
1891, Electrical Engineering, Curtis Electrical Mfg. Co. 1892 to date. Tutor in As- 
tronomy, Columbia College. 

Montenegro, Manuel Rafael, E.M , . . . . 1890. 

539. W. 20th Street, New York City, and 53 Washington Street, IIo- 
boken, N. J. 
1890, Spiral Weld Tube Company, East Orange, N. J., and studying machine-shop 
practice. 1891-189*2, engaged in the formation of mining companies. 1892 to date, 
Assistant Superintendent Oregon Iron Works, New York Citj'. 

Mora, Mariano Lui.«<, C.E., 1891. 

Columbia College, School of Mines, New York City. 

MoRAN, Daniel Edward, C.E., 1884. 

Sooypuiith & Co.. 2 Nassau Street, and 26 W. Eighteenth Street, New 
York City. 

Morgan, William Fellowes, A.B., E.M. (Life Member), 1884. 

Brooklyn Bridge Freezing and Storage Co. , Arch 4 Brooklyn Bridge, 
New York City, and Short Hills, N. J. 
1884-1888, Banking and Brokerage. 1888 to date, as above. 


Meyers, Rutherford & Co., 58 Wall Street, and 123 W. Thirty fourth 
Street, New York City. 
Banker and Broker. 

MosLEY, Richard Keeler, Ph.B., .... 1889. 

Architect, 19 W. Twenty-fourth St,, N. Y. City, and 139 Glenwood 

Avenue, East Orange, N. J. 

From June, 1889, to January, 1893, worked a.s Draughtsman in the Offices of S. J. 

O'Conner, Carrere & Hastings, and Richard M. Hunt, of New York, and Benj. Silli- 

man, of Yonkers, N. Y. Since January, 1893, practicing Architecture independently 

at the above address. 

Mose8, Alfred Joseph, E.M., Ph.D., .... 1882. 

Adj. Professor Mineralogy, Cohiiiibia College School of Mines, and 
9 Hudson Place, Now York City. 
1882-1885, Assistant in Mineralogy, School of Mines. 1885-18J)0, Instructor in 
Mineralogy and Metallurgy. 1890 to date, Adjunct Professor of Mineralogy. Man- 
aging Editor School of Mines Quarterly. 


■\It. Vernon, N. Y. 
1890, Assistant Superintendent Rio del Oro Gold Co., Argentine Republic, S. A. 
1891, Honduras ? 

— 49 — 
MtJLLER, George, Ph.B., 1887! 

Cheniint, care Puget Sound Reduction Co., Everett, Washington. 

MuNOZ DEL Monte, Adolpho Carlos, C.E., Ph.B., . 1888. 

Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Retarned from Enrope, November, 1892, where, from June, 1691, travelled as a 
** McEim Fellow iu Architecture." 

MuNROE, Henry Smith, E.M., Ph.D., .... 1869. 

Professor Mining, Columbia College School of Mines, and 45 Sidney 

Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1869-1870, Post Gniduate student in Chemistry and Economic Geoloj^y, School of 
Mines. 1870-1871, ARsistant Geologist Ohio State Geological Survey. 1870-1872, As- 
sistant Chemist, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 1872-1875, Assist- 
ant Geologist and Mining Engineer, Geological Survey of Yeddo, Japan. 1875-1876, 
Professor of Geology and Mining, University of Tokio, Japan. 1877-1891, Adjunct 
Professor of Surveying and Practical Mining, and 1891, Professorof Mining, School of 
Mines Columhia College, New York City. Specialties, Economic Geology, Ore Dress- 
ing, and Mining Engineering. 1881-1884, Manager, and 1890-1892, Vic^-Presideut 
American Institute Electric Engineers. 

Munroe, Otis Mortimer, Ph.B., 1879. 

Banker, De Soto, Mo. 
MuNSELL, Charles Edward, Ph.B., Ph.D., . . . 1878. 

Assistant Chemist, F. W. Devoe & C. T. Reynolds Co., 283 Plymouth 
Street, New York City, and Rye, N. Y. 
November, 1878, with A. E. Foote, Mineral Dealer, Philadelphia. March, 1879, 
with T. a. Edison, Menlo Park, N. J. May, 1879, Chemist, Bnshwick Chemical 
Works, Brooklyn, N. Y. October, 1879, Stencilographer and Celestyper, School of 
Mines, N. Y. January, 1880 to December, 1885, Milk Inspector, New York City 
Health Department. July, 1881 to May, 1883, State Milk Inspector, New York State 
Board of Health. January, 1886 to date, Analyst and Assistant Chemist, F. W. Devoe 
& Co., and C. T. Reynolds Co., New York City. Specialty, Paints and Colors. 

Murphy, Henry Morgan, E.M., 1878. 

Murphy Varnish Co., Chestnut and McWhorter Streets, Newark, N, J. 

Murphy, John Glenville, E.M., C.E., .... 1877. 

Times Building, New York City. 
Assistant Superintendent Orinoco Exploring and Mining Co., Gold Mine. Assist- 
ant Superintendent Callao Gold Mining Co. Territorial Geologist of Wyoming. Su- 
perintendent Esmeralda Mining Co., Black Hills, Dakota, Gold Mine. Superintend- 
ent New York and Lee Mountain Syndicate, Montana, Lead-Silver Mines. Has 
made professional examinations in nearly all parts of the United States, the Pachuca 
Silver and Jugnann Copper Districts in Mexico, and two and half years ago made a 
six months' trip in Colombia and Ecuador. 

Napier, Arthur Howell, E.M., 1884. 

Sanitary Engineer, Lincoln Bldg., 1 Union Square, West, New York 
City, and 179 Harrison Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1884, Sanitary Engineer and Inspector for New York State ''Tenement House Com- 
mission "and New York " Society for Improving (condition of Poor." 1885-1889- 
*' Assistant Sanitary Engineer," New York Health Depiirtment. 1889 to date. Prac- 
ticing as Sanitary Engineer, New York City. 


— 50 — 
Navarro, Juan Adalberto, C,.E., 1880. 

Hacienda de San Cristobel Aciimbara, Estado de Guanajuato, Mexico, 
and care Mexican Consul General, 35 Broadway, New York City. 
1881-1882, Civil Engiueering Course in Polytechnicum, Hanover, Germany. 1882- 
1884, Mexican Government Commissioner to study railway systems of Europe. 1885 
-1886, Railroad Inspector in Interoceanic Railroad, Mexico. 188(5-1887, Assistant 
Compiler of Memoir published by Department of Public Works (Foiwoifo), Mexico. 
1887 to date, Engineer in charge of Surveys and Representative in Chiopasofthe 
Mexican Land and Colonization Co. 

Neftkl, Kmgut, C.E., Ph.D 1879. 

115 Broadway, New York City. 

Nesmith, Jame8^ E.M., ....... 1879. 

256 Henry Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Newberry, Spencer Baird, E.M., Ph.D., . . 1878. 

Professor Cliemistry Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Newberry, Woi.a>TT Ely, E.M., 1884. 

Colorado Springs, Colorado. 
1885-1885, Metallurgist, Casa Grande Co., Arizona. 1885-1886, Assistant Superin- 
tendent Cananea Mg. Co., Sonura, Mexico. 1886-1887, Superintendent Argentum 
Mining Co., Aspen, Colo. 1887, General Manager Aspen Mg. and Smelting Co., As- 
pen, Colo. 1888 to present time, General Manager Enterprise Mg, Co., Aspen, Colo- 
Superintendent Aspen Contract Mg. Co., Aspen, Colo. Superintendent Mutual Benefit 
Mining and Milling Co., Aspen, Colo. 1892, General Manager Isabella Gold Mining 
Company, Cripple Creek, Colorado. 1893, as above. 

Newbrough, William, A.B., E.M., .... 1884. 

128 W. Thirty-fourth Street. New York City. 
Newhouse, Edgar LiEBER, E.M., 1886. 

75 and 77 Worth Street, New York City. 

NiCHoii^, Ralph, HM., C.E., 1877. 

General Superintendent, The Comstock Tunnel Co., Sutro, Lynn Co., 

Noble, Louis Spencer, E.M., 1885. 

76 W. Ninetieth Street, New York City, and liCadville, Col. 
1885-1889, Mining Engineer to Iron-Silver Mg. Co., and Nisi Prius Cons. Mg. Co.. 

of Leadville, Colo. Also during 1889 Consulting, Reporting and Law-suit work on 
otiier Colorado properties. 1889-1890, Superintendent of Mines and Mining En- 
gineer to Constancia Mining and Smelting Co., at Sierra Mojada, Coahuila. Mexico. 
1890-1891, Mining Engineer on Law-suit preparation, with Blue Bird Mining Co., 
Ltd., of Butte, Montana. Specialty, Lead, Silver and Gold Mines and Mining. 

Nolan, Thomas, M.S., Ph.B., 1884. 

Architect, 503 Wilder Building, Rochester, New York. 

NoRRis, Dudley Hiram, E.M., 1877. 

Address unknown. 

NoRRis, Robert Van Ar-dale, E.M., .... 1885. 

Assistant Engineer, P. R. B., Dept. of Anthracite Coal, Room 28, First 

National Bank Building, and 24 S. Franklin Street, Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

1885, Assistant in Practical Mining and Surveying, School of Mines. U. S. Inspector 

— 51 — 

of Dredging, in charge of Manrice River Improvement, MillviDe, N. J. 1886, Chem> 
ist, Herman Behr. Manufacturer of Colors, Brooklyn, N. Y. June, 1886, to date, Assist- 
ant Engineer, Pennsylvania Railroad, Department of Anthracite Coal Collieries. Spe- 
cialty, Mechanical Engineering of Collieries. 

Norton, LuoiEN HoLLEY, E.M., 188(5. 

Mingo Smelting Co., Sandy, Utah, and 123 Fairfield Avenue, Bridge- 
port, Conn. 
1837-1890, Engineering OiBce, N. Y., N. H. & W. R. R. Experience in Railroad 
Construction, Location and Preliminary Surveys, Office Work and General Survey- 
ing. 1890, Assayer and Engineer to West Indian New Gold Mining Corporation, San 
Domingo, West Indies. Experience in Free Melting of Gold-ores, Assaying, Survey- 
ing, etc. January, 1891-92, Assayer for Daly Mining Co., Park City, Utah. Ex- 
perience in Assaying, General Analyses. Also Leaching of Silver-ores by the 
Russell Process. 1892 to date, as above. 

NoYEs, James Atkins, Ph.B., A. B. (Harvard, '83), (Life 

Member), 1878. 

74 Sparks St. , Cambridge, Mass. 
NoYES, WiLLFAM Skaats, E.M., 1875 

Shafter, Presidio County, Texas, and Oakland, Cal. 
1877-1879, Assayer for McCrackin Mining Co., Mohave Co., Arizona. 1879-1881, 
Foreman of Bodie Mill, for Bodie Coal Mining Co., Bodie, Cal. 1881-1883, Examining 
Mines for San Francisco Capitalists. 1883 to present time, Superintendent of Pre- 
sidio Mining Co., and The Cibilo Creek Mill and Mining Co., Shafter, Presidio Co., 

Nye, Alvan Crocker, Ph.B , 1884. 

Hayden Furn. Co., 1 West Thirty-fourth St., and 107 E. Seventieth 

Street, New York City. 

1884-a5, Draughtsman, C. C. Haight, Architect, New York City. 1885-90, -Designer 

and Head Draughtsman, Herter Brothers, New York City. 1890 to date, Furniture 

Designer and Architect, The TiflHuy Glass Co., New York City. 1892, Chief Designer 

as above. 


O'Connor, Michael Joseph, E.M., Ph.B., . . 1881. 

Architect (1884), 28 W. Twenty-third Street, New York City. 

O'Connor, Thomas Devlin, Ph.B., .... 1881. 

O'Connor & Elliott, 16 Exchange Place, and 12 E. Forty-fourth Street, 
New York City. 

Olcott, Eben Erskine, E.M., 1874. 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineer, 18 Broadway, and 38 W. Thirty- 
ninth Street, New York City. 
1874-75, Chemist to the Ore-Knob Copper Co , in charge of Hunt &, Douglass Pro- 
cess. 1875-76, Assistant Snpt Penna. Lead Co.'s Works, Mansfield Valley, Pai. 1876-78, 
Assistant Supt. Orinoco Exploring aud Mining Co., at their Gold Mines in Venezuela. 
1878-70, Supt. of the same. 1879-81, Examining Mines in Colorado, Utah, Nevada 
and California, for New York Investors. 1881-85, Supt. St. Helena Gold Mines, So- 
nora, Mexico. 188o, opened office in New York as Consulting Engineer, and since 
then has been engaged as Consulting Mining and Metallurgical Engineer, in Peru, 
Republic of Colombia, Dutch and British Guiana, Mexico, British Columbia, Ontario, 
New Brunswick, and the United States. 

— 52 — 
Ormsbee, James Jackson, E.M., . . . . . 1886. 

The Sequacliee Valley Coal and Coke Co., Pikeville, Bledsoe County 
1886-91, Miuing Engineer at Tracy City Mines, of Tennessee, Coal, Iron and Kail- 
road Co. 1891 to date, Superintendent, Thomas Coal Mines, of Tennessee Coal, Iron 
and Bailroad Co^ Whitwell, Tenn. 

Osterheld, Theodore W., E.M., . . . . 1886. 

Yonkers, N. Y. 
Assistant Superintendent of Blast-furnaces, P. S. Co., 1886-87. General Foundry 
Practice, Worthington P. Works, 1887-88. Owner of Foundry and General Iron 
Works, 1888-89. Vice-President, Pendleton Mining Co., and Consulting Engineer, 
1889, '90, '91, and General Consulting Engineer, Iron and Coal Specialty, and Metal- 
lurgist of Iron and Finished Manufacturing. Interval of 1880-91, of the months 
December to May, Superintending Construction of Rolling Mill, Southwest Virginia. 
Specialty, Coal and Iron of the Virginias. President of the Southern Reducing Co., 
Experts, Chemists and Mining Engineers. 

Owen, Frederick Nash, E.M., 1878. 

Civil and Sanitary Engineer, 58 W. Ninety -first Street, New York Citj'. 


Page, George Stephen, fl.M., 1885. 

Care of Park Bros. & Co., Limited, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Manager of Steel Works. 

Page, William Stevens, E.M., 1882. 

Aqueduct Commission^ Sing Sing, N. Y. 

Painter, Charles Albert, E.M., .... 1884. 

Ji Painter & Sons, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Painter, George Edwards, Ph.B., .... 1883. 

J. Painter & Sons Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., and 20 Bedwin St., Allegheny 
City, Pa. 

Parker, Andrew McClean, E.M., .... 1880. 

Acting 1st Assistant Engineer, Dept. of Docks, Pier A, and »% W. One 
Hundred and Nineteenth Street, New York City. 

Parker, Herschel Clifford, Ph.B., . . . . 1890. 

Dei:>t. of Physics, Cokimbia College, New York City, and 21 Ft. 
Greene Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1890-91, Fellow in Physics^ Assistaat Instructor, Course in Physical Measure- 
meuts. 1891-d3, Assistant. 189a-{M, Tutor in Physics. 

Parker, Richard Alexander, C.E., .... 1878. 

East Ohio Street, Marquette, Mich. 
1878-79, Assistant Superintendent, Montezuma Silver Mining C6., Montezuma* 
Colo. 1830-81, Surveyor at Georgetown. 1831-82, Chief Draughtsman, Mexican 
Natl. Cons. Co., Laredo, Texas. 1883-84. Examining Mines in Colorado. Utah and 
Idaho mainly 1885-86, Superintendent, Atlanta Hill Gold Co. Also Superintendent 
of the Big Lode (Gold) Co., Atlanta, Alturas Co., Idaho. 1887 to date. Resident Mana- 
ger and Asrent for Samson Iron Co., Imperial Iron Co.. and Barasa Iron Co. Also Con- 
sulting Mining Engineer. Specialties, Gold and Silver Mining and Milling, aud 

— 53 — 
Parks, John Randolph, E.M., 1880. 

Helena, Mont. 
Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Parkaoa, Chari,E8 Frederick, C.E. (Life Member), . 1883. 

58 William Street, and 145 W. Ninety-seventh Street, New York Citj% 
1883-84, Inspector of Construction of Bridges and Railroad Material in Europe. 
1884-86, Railroad Engineer in Colombia, S. A, 1887 to date, General Expert Busi- 
ness. 1891, Delegate from Colombia to the Inter-Con tineutal Railway Commission at 
Washington, D. C. 

Parrot, Edward Moore, E.M., 1870. 

Ontario, Wayne County, N. Y. 

Parsons, George Rowland, E.M., .... 1868. 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 
1870 to 1880, In Nursery BusineRS at Flushing, L. I. 1880 to present time, Secre- 
tary and General Manager of tlie The Colorado Springs Co.. and of The National 
Land and Improvement Co., of Colorado, with Central Office in Colorado Springs. 
Experienced in the development, improvement and sale of lands in Colorado, espe- 
cially in and around Colorado Springs, Manitou and Pueblo, also in irrigation works 
and growth of trees in Rocky Mountain region. Specialty, Investments in Real 
Estate, Mortgages and Mines in Coloi-ado. 

Parsons, Henrv, C.E. 1888. 

Vice-president City and Suburban Ry., Savannah, Gra., and 1033 Mad- 
ison Avenue, New York City. 

Parsons, William Barclay, A.B., C.E., . . . 1882. 

22 William Street, and 51 Fifty-third Street. New York City. 
Graduated at Columbia College School of Arts, 1879, with degree of A.B. ; School 
of Mines. 188*2, with degree of C.E, ; 1881, Assistant Engineer Blosshurg Coal Com- 
pany and Arnot and Pine Creek Railroad ; IS^^-So, New York, Lake Erie and Wes- 
tern Railroad ; 1885 to date, Consulting Engineer, New York City. Member Ameri- 
can Society Civil Engineers; Member American Society of Mining Engineers; 
Member Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain). 

Payne, Clarence QuiNTARD, E.M., .... 1882. 

President Payne Separator Co., 136 Liberty St. and 9 W. Thirtieth 
St., New York City. 

Pearis, Charles Fowler, E.M., 1884. 

Box 374, Helena, Mont. 

Peck, Staunton Bloodgood, C.E., M.E., . . . 1886. 

Link Belt Machinery Co., Thirty-ninth Street and Stewart Avenue, 
Ciiieago, 111., and HI East Thirty-fourth Street, New York Cit}'. 
One and a half yeai*s Mechat?ical Engineer, Burr & Dodge, Philadelphia. Two 
years Assistant Chief Engineer Link Belt Engineering Company, Philadelphia. Since 
1888, Assistant Chief Engineer Dmlge Coal Storage Company. Since 1890 and at 
pre.sent. Chief Engineer Link Belt Machinery Company, Chicago. Specialty, hand* 
ling materials in bulk or package and power transmissions. 

Peele, Robert, Jr., E M 1883. 

Adjunct Professor of Mining, School of Mines, Columbia College, *' Tho 
Monterey," One Hundred and Fourteenth St. and Manhattan Ave., 
New York City. 

— 54 

1883, Assayer, Desiprnolle Bfeduction Works, Charlotte, N. Carolina. 1883-84, As- 
sayer and Assistant Snpt. Silver-Kin^ Mining and Milling Co., Monteznnia. Colorado. 
1894-86, Foreman, Dry-crushing and Amalgamating Silver-mill, Silver-King Mining 
Co., Pinal, Arizona. 1886, went to England to examine systems of Sewage-disposal 
used in inland towns. 1887. Professional work as Assistant, in New York and Ari- 
zona. 1888, Examining gold-mines in Republic of Colombia, S. A. Snpt. Mudsill 
Mining Co., Ltd., Fairplay, Colorado. Examinations and Ore-testing on Copper and 
Tin Properties, New Mexico and North Carolina. 1889, Examining Gold-placers, 
Dutch Guiana, South America. 1889-90. Supt. Oregon Gold-mining Co., Cornucopia, 
Oregon. 1890-92, Examining Silver-, Tin-, and Gold-mines in Peru, Bolivia, and 
Republic of Colombia, S. A., for the Peruvian Exploration Syndicate, Ltd., London, 
and Lima, Peru. 1892, Adjunct Prof, of Mining, School of Mines, Columbia College. 

Pellew, Charles Ernest, E.M., 1884. 

, College Physicians and Surgeons, 437 West Fifty-ninth Street, and 68 
East Fifty-fourth Street, New York City. 
1884-8o, studied chemistry at. Lehigh University and Bethlehem Steel Works. 
18S5-87, studied chemistry, physi(», microscopy and bacteria at School of Mines and 
at College Physicians and Surgeons. Private Assistant to Professor Chandler. 1887 
to date, Instructor and, later. Demonstrator in Physics and Chemistry at College 
Physicians and Surgeons. Hon. Fellow in Applied Chemistry, School of Mines. 
Also in general chemical practice with Professor Chandler (as partner). Specialty, 
chemical and other expert work, including medical and sanitary questions, e.g^ tox^ 
icology. Also as patent expert in chemical and physical subjects. 

Penmngion, Joheph Pope, A.M. (Associate), . . . 1868. 

Morristown, N. J. 
Assistant Engineer E. T. V. & G. R.R. 1881-83, Engineer Tombstone Mill and 
Mining Company. 1883-84, 1885 et aeq., railroad construction with general con- 
tractors. Assistayt Secretary, Louisville, St. Limis and Texas Railway. Resigned 
August, 1893. Previous responsibilities in connection with life insurance interests. 

Perkins, Thomas Slade, Ph.B., 1888. 

Ninth Street and Gowanus Canal, South Brooklyn, and 39 Garden 
Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1889 to date. New York Tartar Company. 

Pierce, Frederick Emery, C.E., . . ' . . 1892. 

22 W. Forty-Bfth Street, New York City. 
Learner in Baasemer Mill, Maryland Steel Co., Sparrows Pt., Maryland. Draughts- 
man, New Jersey Steel and Iron Co., Cooper, Hewitt & Co., New York City. 

PiEZ, Charles, E.M., . 1887. 

Chief Engineer Link Bfelt Engineering Co., Nicetown, and 430 Frank- 
lin Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

PiSTOR, William, E.M., 1868. 

Architect, No. 1 Madison Ave. and 201 W. Fifty-fifth St., N. Y. Oity. 

Pitkin, Lucius, A.B., Ph.B., 1881. 

138 Pearl Street, New York City. 
l,S81-8o, Chemist to Laurel Hill Chemical Works, of Nichols Chemical Company, 
Heavy chemicals, especially sulphuric acid. 1885 to date, Analytical and consulting 
Chemist, at above address. Specialty, in consulting. Manufacture of acids and 
heavy chemicals, treatment of pyrites and copper smelting. Analytical work. Gen- 
eral, but special experience in argentiferous and auriferous copper-ores and products. 
Microscopical and experimental investigations. 

— 55 — 
PoLT.EDo, YsiDORO Ygnacio, E.M., .... 1885. 

Apartado 167, Mataiizas, Cuba. 
1885, Assistant Engineer, Survey for Water- Works for city of Santiago de Cuba, 
1886-89, Assistant Engineer and Principal Assistant Engineer in charge of track and 
structures, C&rdenas and Jiicuro R.R., C&rdenas, 1889-90; Manager of Santa Barbara 
Sugar Plantation, Biir6. 1694-94, General Manager C&rdenas Sugar Refinery, Gar- 
den as. 

Porter, Henry Hobart, Jr., E.M., .... 1886. 

Westingliouse Electric and Mfg. Co., 120 Broadway, New York City, 
and Lawrence, L. I. , N. Y. 
1886-87, Fellow in Geology, School of Mines, Columbia College. 1887-88, Sur- 
veyor and Assayer Mexican Ore Company, Sierra Mojada, Mexico. 1888-89, Assis- 
tant Mining Engineer Batopilas Mining Company, Batopilas, Mexico. 1889-90, Sur- 
veyor and Assayer, Duqucsne Mining Company; Assistant Superintendent, Ray & 
Poorman mine examinations, same company; Assistant Superintendent Sierrita 
County, Arizona, same company. 1890-91, Engiueer with C. W. Hunt Company. 
1891 to date, Wescinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co. 

Porter, John BoNSALL, E.M., Ph.D., .... 1882. 

Proctor- Gamble Co., Ivorydale, Ohio. 
Assistant Engineer and Expert in tests of metals for various railways and corpora- 
tions. Lecturer on Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgy in University of Cin- 
cinnati for some years. At present and for several years past. Engineer Maintenance 
of way, C. H. & D. R.R. system. Headquarters, Cincinnati, O. 

Post, Abram Skidmoke, C.E., ..... 1884. 

173 Madison Avenue, N. Y. City. 

Post, Albertson Van Zo,C.E., 1889. 

45 Wall Street, and 4 East Sixty-second Street, New York City. 
1889-90, Division Engineer, construction, Baltimore and Eastern Shore Rtiilroad. 
1891 to date, with the Railroad Equipment Company, of 45 Wall Street, New York 

Potter, William Blbecker, A.B., E.M., . 1869. 

Profe.ssor Metallurgy and Mineralogy, Washington University, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Powell, Frederick, A.B., E.M., 1883. 

Charlotte Mineral and Mining Co., Charlotte, N. C. 
1883-84, Mechanical Draughtsman and Engineer. 1885, Assayer at Duluth, Examina- 
tion and Reports on Mineral Deposits in northeastern Minnesota and Canada, Assayer 
and Manager for Sentinel Gold Mining Co. of Minneapolis and Colorado. 1886 to 1888 
Superintendent and Manager in Colorado for Denbigh Mining Co. of New York. 1888- 
92, Miscellaneous Surveying. 1893, Engineer for Charlotte Mineral and Mining Co., 
Charlotte, N. C. Examining and Reporting on Mines in North Carolina. 

Powers, Louis J., Jr., E.M., 1884. 

Connecticut River Paper Company, Holyoke, and 4 Mattoon Street, 

Springfield, Mass. 

1885, Superintendent Vermont Construction Company, St. Albans, Vt. 1886, 

Superintendent Standard Pulp Company, Springfield, Mjbs. 1887-88. Assistant 

Superintendent Union Manufacturing Company, Holyoke, Mass. 1888 t^ date, Agent 

Connecticut River Paper Company, Holyoke, Mass. 

— 66 — 


Prestox, William Evax,-C.E., ... . 1889. 

U. S. A. BuiMing, 39 Whitehall Street, and 1427 Washington Avenue, 
New York City. 
1889 to date, submarine blasting and dredging for U. S. harbor work with grapple, 
divers and centrifugal pump. 

Provost, Andrew Jacksox, Jr., C.E., .... 1889. 

Municipal Building, and 403 Washington Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1889 to date, Assistant Engineer in Sewage Construction, Department City Works, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Randolph, John Cooper F., A.B., A.M., E.M., . . 1869. 

Consulting Mining Engineer, Mills Building, 15 Broad and 35 Wall 
Street, New York City, and 18 Elm Street. Morristown, N. J. 
Graduated : Princeton. 1866, and School of Mines, New York City, 1869. 1869-7J, 
in Germany, service of U. S. Govt. 1874, in service Japanese Govt. 1884, in Central 
China for a Chinese Syndicate. 1887, Resident Manager of La Plata Mines, Republic 
of Colombia, S. A. ; National Commissioner of Mines for Tolima, Republic of 
Colombia, S. A. 1890, Resident Manager in Borneo of Borneo Diamond Exoloration 
Syndicate, Ltd. For 23 years actively engaged in Professional Work in the United 
States, Mexico, etc. At different times Member of Council and Vice-president of the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers. 1891, sick. 1892, all the year in Mexico 
and Colorado. 1893, in Sonora and Virginia, and various other mining matters in 
different parts of tlie country. 

Randolph, James Fitz, B.S., E.M., .... 1876. 

Coinmunipaw Coal Co., Ill Broadway, New York City. 

Raymond, Robert Matthew, A.B., E.M., . . . 1889. 

Diamond (R) Mining Co., Neihart, Mont. 

1880-82. Assistant Assayer, State of Maine Assay Office, Portland, Me. 1882-86, 

Assayer and Assistant Superintendent, Haile Gold Mine, S. C. 1886-89. School of 

Mines. 1889-90, Assayer and afterwards Assistant Superintendent, Montana Smelting 

Co., Great Falls, Mont. 1891, Superintendent, The Diamond Mining Co., Neihart. Mont. 

Raynor, Russell, Ph.B., 1889. 

42 Bleecker Street, and 114 E. Forty-fifth Street, New York City. 
Sept., 18S9, to Aug., 1891, Cliemist, with Martin Kalbfleiscli Sons Co. Sept., 1891, 
to April, 1892, Assistant Chemist, Barber Asphalt Co. May, 1892, to date Assistant 
Chemist New York Health Department. 

Reckhart, Daniel William, E.M. (Life Member), . 1884. 
Reckhardt & Heckelman. Assaycre, Box 88, El Paso, Texas. 

Reckhart, George Frederick, C.E., .... 1892. 

Hotel Lome, Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, and 500 W. Thirty- 
fifth Street, New York City. 
Member of "The Southwestern Mining Association " (Incorporated). 

Reed, Svlvanus Albert, A.B., A.M., E.M., Ph.D., . 1877. 

Rialto Building, Chicjij^o, and Union Club, Chica<ro, 111. 
1878, Secretary to Assistant Commissioner General, Paris Exposition. 1879, Lec- 
tured on Chemistry. Reported on Mine^ in Colorado. 1830^4, Superintendent and 
part Proprietor, Sampling and Cancentratioa Works in Colonido, and Reported on 
Mines there and in Idaho and in the South. 1886, Consulting Practice in New York, 

— 57 — 

Pfttoiit Ex|>ert work and on Dredgiug in New York Hurbor. 1836-91, Superintend- 
ent Inspection Department of Fire Insarance Co. (Commonwealth, of New York). 
1893, Expert for New Insarance Bating, Mercantile Section of Boston. May, 1893, 
appointed Manager Western Factory Insurance Association. Special Agent Western 
Department of Continental Insurance Co. 

Rees, John Krom, AB., A.M., E.M. (Life Member), . 1875. 
Prof. Geodesy, Practical Astronomy, and Director of Observatory, • 
Columbia College, and 1 W. Seventy-second St., New York City. 
Assistant in Mathematics, School of Mines, 1873-76. Professor of Astronomy and 
Mathematics, Washington University, St. Lonis, Mo., 1876-81. Member Fort Worth 
Solar Eclipse Party, July, 1878. Instructor in Geodesy, etc., Columbia Collei^e, 1881- 
82. Adjunct Professor in Geodesy, etc., Columbia College, 1882-84. Professor in 
^Geodesy, etc., Columbia College, 1884 to date. Director of Observatory, Columbia 
College, 1881 to date. Chairman of Board of fklitors, School of Min£8 Quabterly, 

Renault, George, C.E., • . . . . . 1883. 

61 Irving Place, New York City. 

Restkepo, Camilo Claudio, E.M., C.E., . . 1887. 

D. Delastro & Co., 54 William St., and Box 1609, New York City. 

RaoDEs, Francis Bell Forsyth, E.M., . . 1874. 

National S. & R. Co., South Chicago, 111., and Quebec, Canada. 
May, 1875, to December, 1876, Surveyii»g Corps, Coxe Bros., Driftoii, Pa. January, 
1877, to May, 1878, Assistant Superintendent, Soutli American Mining Co., Venezuela. 
November, 1878, to June, 1879, Working at Lead Mine. Canada. October, 1879, to 
April, 1880, Laborer, Ontario Mill, Park City, Utah. April, 1880, to July, 1881, Assist- 
ant Superintendent, Minge Furnace Co., Utah. August, 1881, to January, 1882, 
Assistant Superintendent St. Helena Mine, Sonora, Mexico. January, 188*2, 
to April, 1883, Assistant Superintendent, Tombstone M. and M. Co., Arizona. May, 
1883, to December, 1883, Superintendent, Bamsliam Smelting Furnace, Idaho. Jan- 
nary, 1884, to May, 1885, Assistant Superintendent, Minge Furnace Co., Utah. June 
1885, to December, 1885, Foreman of Blast-furnac9 Department, Kansas City S. and 
B. Co. Octolier, 1886, to December, 1889, Superintendent, Chicago Works, Chicago 
and Aurora S. and R. Co. January, 1890, to date, Superintendent National S. and R. 
Co., South Chicago. 

Rhodes, Robert Dunn, E.M., 1879. 

Supt. Arkansas Valley Smelting Works, Leadville, Col., and Box 726, 
Quebec, Canada. 
1879-80, Foreman, Germania Smelting Co., Salt Lake City. 188D-82, Night Fore- 
man, Ontario Silver Mining Co., Park City, Utah. 18vS2-83, Superintendent, Tomb- 
stone M. and M. Co. Reduction Works, Charleston. 1883-84, Mill Foreman, St. 
Helena Gold and Silver Mine, Sonora. 1884-85, Assisfcint Superintendent, Billing 
Smelter, New Mexico. 1885-86, Assistant Superintendent, Viola M. and S. Co., Idaho. 
1887-88, Assistant Superintendent, Anglo-Mexican Mining Co., Yedras, Mexico. 1889 
-91, Gcneml Superintendent, Dnquesne M. and R. Co., and Sicrrita County, Arizona. 
1891-92, Engineer Eraser & Chalmers, City of Mexico. 1892-94, Supt. as above. 

Rice, George Samuel, Jr., E.M., 1887 

119 S. Market Street, and 432 N. Court Street, Ottumwa, Iowa. 
1887, Assistant Field Engineer, Colonida & Utah Railway. 1888-89, Assistant 
Mining Engineer of Colorado Fuel Co. 1890 to date. Mining Engineer of VViiitebreast 
Fuel Co. 

— 58 — 
Rich, Jacob Monroe, E.M., C.E. (Life Member), . . 1883. 

50 W. Tliirty-eighth Street, New York City. 
Pursuing farther studies siuce graduation. 

Rechardson, John Clarence, E.M., C.E., . . . 1883. 

Address unknown. 

RiCKETrs, Pierre dePeyster, E.M., Ph.D., . . .1871. 

Professor, Analytical Chemistry, Columbia College, School of Mines, 
and 115 E. Seventy-ninth Street, New York City. 
1868, Assistant, General Chemistry, Columbia College. 1871-72, Assistant in Min- 
eralogy and Metallurgy, School of Mines. 1872-75, Assistant in Assaying, School of 
Mines. 1875-80, Instructor in Assaying, School of Mines. 1886 to date, Professor of 
Assaying, School of Mines. Since graduation also engaged in general Mebillargical, 
Chemical and Mining Engineering work. 

RiusDALB, Thomas Weddle, E.M., . . . . 1883. 

n. R. Worthington, 145 Broadway, New York City, and Mont- 

clair, N. J. 
Assistant Superintendent of the Ruby Durango Mine, and Wilder-Macdonald Con- 
centrating Mill to 1834. Superintendent of the Wilder-Macdonald Mill, 1884. From 
1888 with the Worthington Pumping Engine Co. From June, 1889, as Secretary of 
the Company. 

RiEs, Hbnrich, Ph.B., . 1892. 

Care of Prof A. J. Moses, School of Mines, Columbia College, New 
York City. 

Summer of 1891 and 1892, on New York Geological Survey. October, 1892, to 
August 1st, 1893, Assistant Director, New York Scientific Exhibit at World's Fair. 
July 1st, 1893, to July 1st, 1894, Fellow in Mineralogy, Columbia College. 

RoESER, Frederick, B.S., E.M., 1884. 

240 West 130th Street, New York City. 

Rogers, Oscar Legar£, Ph.B. (Arch.), .... 1889. 

No. 1 Madison Avenue and 57 West Eighty-fifth Street, New York City. 
1889-92, in Europe. 1893, Architect as above. 

RoLKER, Charles M., E.M. (Life Member), . . . 1875. 

18 Broadway, New York City. 
1868-70, At Royal School of Mines, Clausthal, Germany. 1871-72, Working practi- 
cally in Iron Mines of Hibernia and Mt. Pleasant, N. J., Wisconsin Lead Mines and 
Iron Mines of Lake Superior. 1872-75, At School of Mines, Columbia College. 1876, 
Asaayer at Allouez Copper-dressing Works, Lake Superior. 1877, Mining Engineer 
to the Mariposa Land and Mining Co., Mariposa Co., Cal. (Gold). 1878, Superintend- 
ent, Brooklyn Company, Washoe Co., Nevada (Base Metal). 1879, Superintendent. 
Stormont Silver Co., Silver Reef (Silver). 1880-82, General Manager, Chrysolite S. 
Mg. Co., Leadville, Colo. (Lead Carbonates). Siuce then to date, in General Con- 
sulting Practice as Mining Engineer and Metallurgist, Examining Mines, Mills and 
Placers, in the United States, Old Moxico, Central America. South America and East 
Indies. Specialty, Precious and Base Metals other than Iron. 1891-92, Cons. Engr. 
to the British South African Company in its sphere south of Zambesi. 

Rood, Roland GouvERNEUR, Ph.B., , . . . 1884. 

Care Prof. 0. N. Rood, Columbia College, New York City. 

— 59 — 
Rosenthal, Albert, C.E., 1892. 

158 East- Seventy-ninth Street, New York City. 

Rowland, Charles Bkadlky, C.E., .... 1884. 

Continental Iron Works, Greenpoint, Brooklyn, N. Y., and 329 Madi- 
son Avenue, New York City. 

Rowland, George, C.E., 1887. 

Continental Iron Works, Greenpoint, Brooklyn, N. Y., and 329 Madi- 
son Avenue, New York City. 

Rupp, Philip, Ph.B., M.D., . . . . . . 1884. 

84 Second Avenue, New York City. 
1884-87, Student in Medicine, College of Physicians and SurReons, N. Y. 1887-88, 
House Physician and House Surgeon, St. Francis Hospital, N. Y. 1883 to date, Prac- 
ticing Physician. 

Ruttmann, Ferdinand, Jr., E.M., .... 1880. 

35 Broadway, New York City. 

Ryon, Augustus Meader, E.M., ..... 1886. 

President and Prof. Engineering, College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts, Bozeman, Montana. 
1886-87, Assistant Engineer on New London Wat«r Works. Assistant in Metal- 
lurgy, School of Mines, Columbia College. 1837-88, Assistant to F. N. Owen, Civil 
and Sanitary Engineer, New York City. 1888-91, Professor of Engineering and Min- 
ing, School of Mines, College of Montana, Deer Lodge, Mont. 1892 to date. President 
and Professor of Engineering, Montana College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, 
Bozeman, Montana. 


Sage, Edward Eugene, C.E. (Life Member), . . . 1877. 

United States Assay OflBce, 30 Wall Street, New York City, and 77 

Hillside Avenue. Orange, N. J. 
I have been connected with this office since February, 1879, and have consequently 
no outside experience except in electricity, being President of the Essex County 
Electric Co., of Orange, N. J., and in Analytical Chemistry. 

Sakds, Ferdinand, A.B., Ph.B., 1882. 

Drugs and Assaying Supplies, Box 1172, Butte, Mont. 
Schermerhokn, Fkederick Augustus, E.M. (Life Mem- 
ber), 1868. 

41 Liberty Street, and 61 University Place, New York City. 
ScHiEFFELiN, WiLLiAM Jay, Ph.B., Ph.D. (Muiiich), . 1887. 

Schieffelin & Co., 170 William Street, and 35 West Fifty-seventh St. , 
New York City. 
Schneider, Albert Francis, E.M., C.E. (Life Member), 1876. 

Care of Great Falls Smelting Co., Monterey, Mexico. 
1876-1877, In Europe visiting Smelting and Dressing Works. 1878, Chemist and 
Assayer Germania S. and B. Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. 1879, Foreman, Assistant and 
Superintendent Germania S. and R. Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. 1880-'83, Superin- 
tendent Germania S. and R. Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. 1883-85, Superintendent G. 
Billing Smelting Works. Socorro, N. M. 1885-87, Superintendent Kansas City S. and 

— 60 — 

E. Co., Arjfentine, Kansas. 1887, Connected with the Rio Grande S. Co., Socorro, N. M. 
1887 to 1893, General Manager St. Lauis S. and B. Co., St Louis, Mo. Superintendent 
Great National Smelting Co., Monterey, Mexico. 

SciiROEDER, Jamfvs Langddn, C E., . . . . 1889. 

Member of firm of* Parrish & Schroeder, Architects, 1 Madison Ave., 
New York City. 
July, 1890, to January, 1894, with Benwick, Aspenwall & Benwick, New York 
City, as Architectural Draughtsman. 

ScHROTER, George Austin, E.M., .... 1893. 

1525 Blake Street, Denver, Colo. 
Superintendent Keystone and Manager Logan Group Mines, Colorado. 

Schumann, Charles Henry, C.E., .... 1888. 

Room 187, 68 Broad Street, New York City, and 349 Sixth Avenue, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1888. May, 1890, Assistant Engineer Chesapeake and Ohio Railway Co., Cincinnati, 
charge of Real Estate, Bight of Way and Track and Construction work. May to Au- 
gtist, 1890, Assistant Engineer to H. Alher. C. E., Birmlngliam, Ala., General Engi- 
neering. August, 1890 to March, 1891, Assistant Enoiineer Chesapeake and Ohio 
Bailway Co., charge of subdivision of Town of Wtist Clifton Forge, Va., and Bight of 
Way on line of road. 189*2-93, Assistant Engineer Long Island B. B., and Engineer for 
Ferris & Richards Contractors for Bailroadsand Waterworks, at 98 Hudson St.. Jersey 
City, N. J., to date with J. James B. Cores, C.E., Waterworks Supply and Sewerage. 

Seligman, Joseph Guy, E.M., 1887. 

Mining Superintendent, and 69 W. Ninety-fifth St., New York Citj'. 

Share, William Waldemar, Ph.B., Ph.D., . . . 1881. 

Adelplii Academy, and 331 McDonougli Street. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1881, Superintendent Columhia Chemical Works, Brooklyn, N. Y. 1881 to 1888, 
Assistant Physics, Columbia College. 1888, Consulting Electrician, Department of 
Public Parks, Brooklyn, N. Y. 1889 to date, Professor of Chemistry, Adelphi Acad- 
emy, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Sherman, Frank Dempster, Ph.B., .... 1884. 

Adjunct Professor of Architecture, School of Mines, Columbia College, 
New York City. 

Shriver, Henry Tower, Ph.B., 1888. 

T. Shriver & Co., 333 E. Fifty-sixth Street, and G86 Park Avenue, 
New York City. 
In Iron Foundry and Works, as above since graduation, 

SiMONDS, Francis May, E.M., Ph.D., .... 1887. 

Assistant in Assaying, Columbia College, School of Mines, and 147 E. 
Thirty-fourth Street, New York City. 

Singer, George, Jr., EM., 1880. 

Ill Fourth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Singer, George Ha RTON, E.M., 1880. 

Singer, Nimick & Co., and 17 Park Street, Allegheny, Pa. 

Skinner, Elmer, C.E., 1891. 

227 Cumberland Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

— 61 — 
Slack, Charles GrODDARD, E.M., 1884. 

Everett, Wash., and Marietta, Ohio. 

Slade, Richmond Edward, Ph.B., .... 1887. 
White Plains, N. Y, 

1887, Assistant Saperintendent United Gas Improvement Co., Yonkers, N. Y., 
Plants. 1888, Superintendent Gas Department, Asheville (N. C), Light and Power 
Co. 1889, Superintendent Gas and Electric Plants, Citizens' Gas Light Co., Jackson, 
Tenn. December, 1889 to date. Secretary, Superintendent and Trustee Citizens Gas 
and Electric Co., White Plains, N. Y. 

Smith, Augustus, A. B., C.E, 1889. 

136 Liberty Street, and 460 W. Forty-fourth Street, New York City. 
Summer of 1886, Land Surveying ^in charge of Party). July to November, 1889, 
Draughtsman, Link Belt Engineering Co., Nicetown, Phila. November, 1889-91, Chief 
Draughtsman, New York Office Link Belt Engineering Co. 1891-92, out of Profes- 
sional work. 1892, Salesman and Engineer as alcove. 1893, private practice as Engi- 
neer and Contractor. 

Smith, Frank Marshall, E.M., . . . . . 1889. 

Supt. United Smelting and Refining Co., Smelter, Mont. 
1889-1890, On the United States Geological Survey, engaged in hydrographic work 
on the Irrigation Survey and triaugulation on the Topographic Survey, in Idaho and 
Oregon. 1891, Assayer Colorado Smelting Co., Pueblo, Colo. October, 1892-93, 
Assistant Superintendent. 1893, to date, Supt. United Smelting and Refining Co., 
Smelter, Mont. 

Smith, Francis Pitt, Ph.B., 1888. 

Mamaroneck, N. J. 
Analytical Chemist in Leather trade, 1888-'89. Superintendent Chemical Works, 
Wm. H. Swift & Co., East Boston, Mass., 1889-'90. Consulting Chemist, Dening <& Logan, 
58 William Street, 1890. Assistant Chemist New York City Health Department, 42 
Bleecker Street, 1890-92. Specialty, Chemical Mechanics. 1892-93, Inspection 
Brooklyn Navy Yard. 

Smith, Lenox, A.B., A.M., E.M. (Life Member), . . 1868. 

120 Broadway, New York City. 

Smith, William Allen, E.M., 1868. 

52 Wall Street, New York City, and Pelliam Manor, N. Y. 

Smyth, Charles Henry, Jr., Ph.B., .... 1888. 

Professor of Geology, Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. 
1888-89, Chemist Franklin Iron Mfg. Co. 1889-90, Geological Field Work in New 
York, Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee. Jane, 1890, received Degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy from Columbia College. 1890-91, studied Petrography and Mineralogy 
with Prof. Rosenbusch at ihe University of Heidelberg. 1891, appointed Professor 
of Geology in Hamilton College. Engaged in the study of the Western Adirondack 
region, and the investigation of Problems in Central New York. Chiefly in Petro- 
graphic, Chemical and Glacial Geology. 

Snook, Thomas Edward, E.M., 1884. 

Arulutect, 12 Chambers Street, New York City. 
1884-87, Supt. Cons, for John B. Snow, Architect. 1887, to date, Architect. 

Southard, George Carroll, C.E., .... 1892. 

114 Brooklyn Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

— 62 — 

June, 1892, to March, 1893, Equity Gas-Works Construction Co., Brooklyn, E. D. 
March, 1893, to January, 1884, with Heine Safety Boiler Co. January, 1894, to date, 
with Heck er- Jones- Jewell Milling Co. 

Spooner, Allen Newhall,C.E., 1886. 

Department of Docks, Pier A, North River, New York City, and 186 

Carteret Avenue, Jersey City, N. J. 

July, 1886 to August, 1887, Rodman and Draughtsman, Penn B.R., Jersey City. 

August, 1887 to May, 1890, Hydrographer Department Docks, New York City. May, 

1890-1891 to present time, Assistant Engineer Department Docks. New York City. 

Specialty, Railroad Engineering. River Submarine and Harbor Engineering. 

Stanton, Fkank McMillan, E.M., .... 1887. 

Superintendent Atlantic Mine, Hougjiton Co., Mich. 
1887-1888, Superintendent pro tern. Central Mine, Mich. 1888-1S89, Engineer At- 
lantic Mine, Mich. 1889 to date. Superintendent Atlantic Mine, Mich. 

Starek, Emil, LL.B., LL.M., E.M., .... 1885. 

Keller & Starek, Patents, Iloom 303 Times Building, Broadway, and 

2730 Ellendale Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 
1885-1887, Assistant in United States Geological Survey. 1887 to 1892, Assistant 
Examiner United States Patent Office, Washington, D. C. 

Starr, Chandler Dann AT, C.E., 1881. 

Address unknown. 

Staunton, John Armitage, Jr.. E.M., A.B. (Harvard), , 1887. 

232 W. Forty-fifth Street, New York City. 
1887-88, Instructor in Mathematics. Rochester, N. Y. 1888-90, Student in Har- 
vard University. 1890-92, Student in the General Theological Seminary, N. Y. 
1892-93, in charge of Church of the Holy Trinity, Wallace, Idaho. 1893, Assistant 
at Church of St. Mary the Virgin, New York City. 

SfAUNTON, William Field, E.M., 1882. 

Superintendent Tombstone