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Copyright, 1920, 


Published June, 1920 

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JOHANN SAVER, 1615 63 

TIONS Opposite 75 




















DURING the periods known as the 
Dark and Middle Ages, medicine, as 
a science, practically ceased to exist. 
In the Christian era hospitals and asylums 
for the sick were established, but it cannot 
be said that the clinical material thus gath- 
ered was utilized to much good. Leper hos- 
pitals in great numbers were established 
throughout Europe and England, necessitated 
by the spread of that disease by pilgrims and 
crusaders returning from the East. 

To their preservation in various monastic 
libraries we owe the possession of most of the 
literary remains of ancient Greek, Latin, and 
Arabian medicine, but no additions were made 
during many centuries to the knowledge of 
anatomy, physiology, or other fundamental 
branches of medicine. The monks who wrote 

I 7 ) 

on medical subjects were either mere copyists 
who transcribed ancient manuscripts which 
were contained in monastic libraries, or com- 
piled formularies of therapeutic measures as 
absurd as those of the most primitive races. 

The Benedictines were, from the medical 
point of view, the most active of all the religious 
orders. At the Benedictine Monastery of 
Monte Casino, near Naples, in the ninth cen- 
tury, medicine, such as it was, was not only 
practiced but taught. Unfortunately, the 
records which remain of the cases treated 
there are chiefly accounts of miraculous cures 
wrought by St. Benedict, and though inter- 
esting from a historical point of view, possess 
absolutely no scientific value. The monastery 
had been founded by St. Benedict himself in 
the early part of the sixth century, and was 
sacked by the Lombards towards its close. 
The monks fled to Rome, but returned to 
Monte Casino in 720, when they rebuilt the 
monastery, only to be destroyed again, this time 
by the Saracens in 884. It was restored once 

more some seventy years later and became one 
of the most famous monasteries of the medie- 
val era. It continued its existence as a mon- 
astery until 1866, when at the dissolution of 
such institutions it was spared because of the 
intervention of some English well-wishers of 
Italy, and was classed as a national monu- 
ment, with its monks as custodians. 

One of the chief duties of the Benedictine 
order was to care for the sick. Although St. 
Benedict had forbidden the monks to act as 
teachers, the injunction was from an early 
period generally disregarded, and we find Monte 
Casino referred to not only as a hospital but as a 
medical school at a very early date. Most of 
the cures wrought at the shrine, however, 
were of a miraculous nature, such as that of 
the Emperor Henry II of Germany, in 1022, 
who had gone to the monastery to seek relief 
from stone in the bladder. He fell into a 
deep sleep during which St. Benedict relieved 
him of the cause of his sufferings. Several 
of its abbots, notably Bertharius, in the ninth 
[ 9 1 

century, and Desiderius (who became Pope 
Victor III), in the eleventh, wrote books on 
medicine, including four books on the miracu- 
lous cures wrought by St. Benedict. 

One of the most famous inmates of the 
monastery was Constantinus Africanus, who 
was born in northern Africa and travelled 
extensively in Egypt and India^ in the pur- 
suit of knowledge. When he returned to 
Carthage he was accused -of sorcery- and 
obliged to fly for his life. He fled to Saler- 
num where he was appointed secretary to 
Robert Guiscard, who had shortly before 
captured the town. He soon, however, gave 
up his position and entered the monastery at 
Monte Casino where in the silent cloister he 
wrote the many medical works which have 
preserved his name. These were chiefly trans- 
lations of and commentaries on Arabian and 
Greek authors, and it is principally to the 
labors of Constantine that we owe the in- 
jection of Arabic medicine, such as it was, 
into the medical learning of Europe. Con- 
[ 10 ] 

stantine died in 1087. Although undoubtedly 
a most learned man, the estimate of his writ- 
ings given by Freind in his "History of Physick," 
1750, is pretty generally adhered to by modern 
authorities. Freind states that though he 
compiled many books, most of what he wrote 
was merely a translation of the works of, the 
Greeks and Arabians, and in many instances 
he was guilty of gross plagiarisms. A col- 
lected edition of the works of Constantine 
was published at, Basle in 1539. *'j 

On a hill, just above the site of the present 
city of Salerno, thirty-five miles to the south- 
east of Naples, there was situated the ancient 
city of Salernum, which is first known as a 
Roman colony in 194 B. C. Because of its 
salubrious situation it became famous as a 
health resort at an early period in its history. 
After the Lombard conquest the city achieved 
great importance. In 1075 it was captured 
by Robert Guiscard, the Norman, after a 
siege lasting eight months. The city con- 
tinued to prosper until it was sacked and its 
[ ii 1 

material prosperity ruined by the Emperor 
Henry VI, in 1194. 

The monks of Monte Casino early realized 
the importance of Salerno as a health resort, 
and they lost no time in extending their in- 
fluence to that town. They established mon- 
asteries in the city and many authorities 
consider that the organization of the medical 
school of Salerno on a scholastic basis was 
chiefly attributable to their activities. That 
the teaching of medicine was carried on from 
a very early period at Salerno is certain, but 
the origin of the school is involved in great 
obscurity. The tradition which was formerly 
most generally accepted was that the school 
was founded by four physicians, a Jew, a 
Greek, a Saracen and a Latin, who fore- 
gathered at Salerno about the middle of the 
seventh century. This cosmopolitan group 
was supposed to explain why medicine, as 
taught at Salerno, embodied the learning of 
all nations. The prevalent view is that the 
school had no definite point of origin, but 
[ 12 1 

simply grew up out of the gathering together 
of many sick patients, especially those of 
wealth, for, like modern resorts of a similar 
nature, the majority of the people at Salerno 
were persons of means. Salerno was right in 
the path of many of the Crusaders and was 
a favorite stopping place for them both on 
their way and returning. Thus it was that 
Robert of Normandy, to whom I shall refer 
later, visited Salerno, and there were thou- 
sands of others who did likewise. 

The fact that the town was a resort for 
those who engaged in the holy wars would 
naturally attract the monks of the not far 
distant monastery, and, as we have seen, 
they hastened to erect monasteries and 
churches in its midst. At these shrines were 
deposited various holy relics which were re- 
puted to possess miraculous healing properties, 
and during the tenth century arose a cloud of 
testimonials not only to the healing properties 
of the air and baths and to the skill of the 
physicians of Salerno, but an immense num- 
[ 13 1 

her of tales of the wonderful cures wrought 
at its altars by saintly means. There were 
four shrines of especial importance from the 
medical point of view. They were those in 
which were enclosed the relics of St. Matthew, 
St. Archelaus, St. Thecla and St. Susanna. 

The literary activity of the School of 
Salerno first manifested itself about the mid- 
dle of the eleventh century. There exist a 
series of treatises which are by different 
authors manifesting rather an erudite knowl- 
edge of the writings of previous authorities 
in Arabic, Greek and Latin than any especial 
originality. Among the earliest known au- 
thors of Salerno were Gariopontus and Petro- 
cellus or Petronius. The former's compila- 
tion entitled " Passionarius G^leni" was long 
extolled as an authority on therapeutics, 
although it is said to be an almost literal copy 
of a work by Theodore Priscianus~of Constan- 
tinople. Gariopontus wrote about 1040. Pet- 
rocellus wrote his practice about 1035. One 
of the most traditionally famous authors of 

Salerno was Trotula, who has descended in 
the vernacular to quite modern times as 
Mother Trot. Trotula was a woman of noble 
family who not only wrote but taught at 
Salerno. She wrote on obstetrics, hygiene, 
and many other medical subjects, about the 
year 1059. Malgaigne 1 thought that he had 
proved that although Trotula existed and was 
a distinguished female resident of Salerno, 
there was no evidence that she had anything 
to do with the authorship of the works attribu- 
ted to her. Trotula is stated, by those who 
believe in her authorship, to have written 
two books, "De Mulierum Passionibus," 
generally known as Trotula Major, and a 
work on cosmetic hygiene, known as Trotula 
Minor. De Renzi in his history of the school 
of Salerno states his belief that Trotula was 
the wife of John Platearius, one of the mem- 
bers of the family of that name who occupied a 
professional chair at Salerno. In looking into 
the question of the authorship of books written 

1 Introduction, Les (Euvres d'Ambroise Par. 

in the ages before the invention of printing, 
it is constantly necessary to bear in mind 
that titles, authors' names, and other essential 
details of the books were frequently confused 
to an astonishing degree, because the suc- 
cessive copyists by the necessary frequency 
with which errors were made led to a consecu- 
tive increase in the obscurity as to many 
things of vital import. Very often the copy- 
ist would interpolate contemporary matters 
without indicating in any way that he de- 
flected from the original. Thus Malgaigne 
studied the supposed works of Trotula in 
different manuscripts of various dates. From 
his researches he concluded that there was 
no reason to think that Trotula was really 
the authoress of the works, as the name 
Trotula was only used in the title as " Summa 
quae dicitur Trotula," but nowhere in any 
of the manuscripts was there any distinct 
statement that Trotula or any other woman 
was the writer. x In some of the manuscripts 
the name Eros is used for Trotula. Most 

authorities hold with de Renzi, however, that 
Trotula was a very real person indeed and 
worthy of all the posthumous fame she had 
achieved. There were other women besides 
Trotula who practiced medicine and wrote 
on medical subjects at Salerno. 

In the fifteenth century Costanza or 
Costanzella Calenda, a woman famous alike 
for her beauty and intellectual acquirements, 
received the degree of doctor of medicine. 

Abella was another woman who wrote on 
medical topics in the early part of the fifteenth 
century. She was the authoress of two 
treatises in Latin verse, "De Natura Seminis 
Hominis," and the other "De Atrabile." 

Rebecca Guarna and a lady who wrote 
under the name of Mercuriadis also wrote 
medical books. The exact dates at which 
these three females flourished are uncertain, 
but the thirteenth was the century which 
witnessed their activities. 

Women were undoubtedly admitted to the 
medical course at Salerno and received de- 
[ 17] 

grees and licenses to practice. There is no 
authentic record, however, of a woman having 
served as a member of the Faculty. 

Other authors of Salerno in the eleventh 
century were Johannes Afflacius, Bartholo- 
mseus, the two Cophons, and Ferrarius. 
Archimathaeus wrote about the year noo, 
two works, one a practice of medicine, the 
other a guide to the physician on his com- 
portment and bearing to his patients. Dar- 
emberg 1 quotes the following interesting di- 
rections given by Archimathasus for the guid- 
ance of the physician on his professional 
visits : 

"When the physician p-oes to visit his pa- 
tients he should place himself under the 
protection of God and of the angel who 
accompanied Tobias. On his way he will try 
and learn from the person who came to fetch 
him as much as possible of the condition of 
the patient in order to put himself au courant 
of the affection he will have to treat, so that 

1 Introduction to L'Ecole de Salerne par Ch. Meaux Saint-Marc. 
[ 18] 

if, after having examined the urine and felt 
the pulse, he cannot soon learn the nature of 
the illness, he can by means of the facts 
previously ascertained at least inspire confi- 
dence in the patient by proving to him that 
he has divined something of the nature of his 
sufferings. It is well that the sick man before 
the arrival of the physician should confess 
himself or undertake to do so, because if his 
doctor finds it necessary for him he will 
believe his case desperate, and the inquietude 
will aggravate his illness, whereas more than 
one sick man who provides against the re- 
proaches of his conscience recovers because 
of his reconciliation with the Great Physician. 
"On his entrance the physician makes his 
salutations with a grave and modest demeanor, 
seats himself to take breath, praises, if oppor- 
tunity affords, the beauty of the location, the 
elegance of the mansion, the generosity of 
the family, in this way gaining the good will 
of those present and giving the sick man time 
to regain his composure. (Archimathseus then 
[ 19 1 

gives minute directions as to feeling the pulse 
and the examination of the urine.) 

"On departing the physician promises the 
patient he shall recover; to those who are 
about the sickbed, however, he must affirm 
that the patient is very ill; if the patient re- 
covers the physician's reputation will be 
enhanced, should he die the physician can 
state that the outcome was as he predicted. 
He should not allow his eyes to fix them- 
selves upon the wife or daughter, however 
beautiful they may be, for that would forfeit 
his honor and compromise the welfare of the 
patient by drawing upon the household the 
anger of God. If he is requested to dine, as 
is the custom, he must show himself neither 
indiscreet nor greedy. Unless he is forced 
he should not take the first place at the table, 
although that should be reserved for the priest 
or physician. If in the house of a peasant 
he should taste everything without finishing 
it, remarking on the rusticity of the food; 
if, on the contrary, the table is delicate, he 

should not yield to the pleasure of the appetite. 
He should ask for information as to the state 
of the patient from time to time, who will 
be charmed to find that he is not forgotten 
amidst the pleasures of the repast. Upon 
leaving the table the physician must go to 
the bedside of the patient, assure him how 
well he has fared, and above all must not 
forget to show solicitude as to the regulation 
of the diet of the sick man." 

It is evident that there was a good bit of 
charlatanry mixed with the medicine of the 
venerable Archimathseus. 

Among these authors should be mentioned 
especially Cophon the Younger who wrote 
in the twelfth century a book on the anatomy 
of the pig, "De Anatomia Porci," which was 
probably the standard textbook of anatomy 
at the School, and a book on the practice of 
medicine, "Ars Medendi." 

Daremberg spoke in terms of special com- 
mendation of the writings of Cophon the 
Younger, stating that he described certain 

[21 ] 

conditions not referred to by any other of 
the Salernian writers, among which may be 
mentioned ulceration of the palate, scrofulous 
glands in the neck, and condylomata. He 
refers to the custom which prevailed with 
Cophon, as well as many other of the Saler- 
nians, of giving different prescriptions to be 
used for rich patients than those to be given 
to patients less fortunately situated. This 
custom was not the result of any desire on 
the physician's part to make invidious dis- 
tinction, but because medicines could be given 
in a more agreeable form to those who could 
afford to pay for the gilding of the pill. Thus 
for a purge for a person of noble birth Cophon 
recommended rhubarb, very finely powdered, 
while for peasants he used mirobolanum 
macerated with or without sugar. 

Nicholas Prsepositus, who flourished in the 
middle of the twelfth century, was, as his 
name implies, director of the School. He 
wrote an Antidotarium which achieved great 
fame as a pharmacopoeia. Nicholas would 

seem to have been an ardent ecclesiastic 
to judge from the religious names which he 
gave to the various remedies contained in 
his books, such as Potio Sancti Pauli or the 
drink of St. Paul; Emplastrum Apostolicon 
or the apostolic plaster. Most of his remedies 
were nauseous mixtures of many ingredients. 
He also wrote a little book called "Quid pro 
quo," which gave a list of the drugs which 
could be substituted for one another in case 
of difficulty in procuring any special prepara- 

Matthew Platearius was another twelfth- 
century author of Salerno and a member of a 
family who supplied the school with several 
of its faculty. Much confusion exists among 
writers as to individuals of the Platearius 
family. Daremberg said that there were 
three, two named John and one named 
Matthew; all held chairs at Salerno. 

Master Bernard, the Provincial, also wrote 
on pharmacy at this epoch. To him we owe 
the preservation of many curious prescrip- 
[2.3 ] 

tions in vogue in his time. Bernard had an 
especially tender regard for the stomachs of 
archbishops. He particularly recommends 
wine for them and states that he discovered 
from his experience in the case of Archbishop 
Alphanus that it was not wise to give arch- 
bishops vomitive medicines on an empty 
stomach, but only after a meal. 

Musandinus who flourished about the middle 
of the twelfth century was the author of a 
book on the preparation of food and drink 
for the sick (De modo prseparandi cibos et 
potus infirmorum). 

The most famous of the twelfth-century 
authors, however, was ^Egidius Corboliensis. 
He was a native of Corbeil, near Paris, and 
after studying at Salerno, he returned to the 
French capital to practice. He was physician 
to Philip Augustus and wrote several books 
in Latin verse, one on the pulse (De Pulsibus), 
one on the urine (De Urinus) and a larger one 
on medicaments. 

The best known literary product of Salerno 

was the famous poem which survived many 
hundreds of years in great esteem as a stand- 
ard textbook, and which is the best known 
literary survival of medieval medicine. 

Before the invention of printing the Schola 
Salernitana or Regimen Sanitatis Salerni- 
tanum (sometimes called the Flos Medicinse 
Salerni and Medicina Salernitana) was spread 
over the civilized world in innumerable manu- 
script copies. Sir Alexander Croke 1 in his 
edition of the poem enumerates twenty edi- 
tions which ware printed between the years 
1480 and 1500, and Baudry de Balzac stated 
that to 1846, 240 editions of the poem were 
printed, and that there existed more than 
loo manuscript copies in European libraries. 

The poem was written as a work of medical 
advice for the benefit of Robert, Duke of 
Normandy, the eldest son of William the 
Conqueror. 2 Robert had been a rebellious 

1 Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum, edited by Sir Alexander Croke, 
Oxford, 1830. 

2 Daremberg thinks the poem was not especially written for 
Duke Robert. 

5 7 6 3 7 

son and had actually wounded his own father 
in a battle in 1079. The Conqueror forgave 
him and in 1087, when William died, Robert 
became Duke of Normandy, while his younger 
brother became King of England. It is un- 
necessary to dwell upon the fraternal feuds 
in which the sons of William the Conqueror 
indulged after their stern father's death. In 
1096, Robert was seized with the crusading 
ardor and to raise funds for the purpose 
mortgaged his dukedom to his brother William 
for 10,000 marks. On his way to the Holy 
Land he passed a winter at Salerno, which 
was the capital of the Duchy of Apulia, 
whose reigning duke, Ruggiero, was related to 
Robert. The two dukes seemed to have en- 
joyed one another's society immensely, and 
had a mutually agreeable time. 

Before sailing in April, Robert repaired to 
Monte Casino and received the benediction 
of the monks. Finally he arrived with his 
followers in the Holy Land, aided in the cap- 
ture of Jerusalem, and the establishment of 
[ 26] 

Godfrey de Bouillon as king of the conquered 
land. In September, 1099, Duke Robert 
returned to Salerno where Duke Ruggiero 
welcomed him once more to the hospitalities 
of his court. Here the returned warrior fell 
in love with Sybilla, daughter of the Count 
of Conversano, and was married to her. One 
reason for Duke Robert's return to Salerno is 
said to have been to seek relief in the skill of 
its physicians for a poisoned wound of the 
arm which he had received in the war. A 
romantic tale states that the physicians told 
him that there was but one chance for his 
recovery. This was to have the poison 
sucked from his wound. His affectionate 
wife volunteered for this service, but the Duke 
sternly refused to consider the proposition. 
Sybilla, not to be daunted, waited until he 
was sound asleep one night and then pro- 
ceeded to suck the wound, with most wonder- 
ful results, as it healed as if by magic. As 
the result of a year passed in pleasant dalliance 
at the court of Duke Ruggiero, Robert lost 

the crown of England, for while he was there 
William Rufus died, and although Robert 
was acknowledged as his successor by his 
companions in Italy, his brother Henry had 
secured actual possession of the throne of 
England. Robert tried for some years to 
dispose of his brother, but was finally, at the 
battle of Tenchebrai, in 1106, taken prisoner 
by Henry and passed the last twenty-eight 
years of his life in captivity. 

Attempts have been made to question the 
statement that the poem was intended for 
Duke Robert, but Sir Alexander Croke in the 
edition which he so ably edited advanced 
reasons which he thought should settle the 
point decisively. He states the poem was 
evidently written as early as the end of the 
eleventh century (Duke Robert's time), because 
it is imitated and referred to by ^Egidius Cor- 
boliensis in the middle of the twelfth century, 
and because of the early imitations of it at 
the universities of Paris and Montpellier. 
In the second place, no other king of England 

was connected with Salerno, as was Duke 
Robert. Richard Cceur de Lion stopped at 
Salerno on his way to Palestine but this was 
in 1199, long after the poem was in circulation. 
Doubt has been cast on its being Robert be- 
cause he never became king of England de 
facto. Croke states, however, that in many 
ancient writings Robert is distinctly referred 
to as King of England. He quotes a passage 
from Peter Diaconus in which he is termed 
Robertus rex Anglorum. Thirdly, as Croke 
says, there is the internal evidence arising from 
the recipe for the cure of a fistulous wound, 
which was the nature of Duke Robert's com- 
plaint, and which would indicate that the 
person for whom it was written suffered 
from it. 1 

The authorship of the Regimen is a matter 
of some doubt. Daremberg considered it of 
composite authorship, but it is generally as- 
appended to this brief history will be found a most valuable 
introductory note by Dr. Fielding H. Garrison in which he gives a 
succinct account of the latest views held by Sudhoff and other Ger- 
man investigators on this subject. 

cribed to one John of Milan, who is supposed 
to have been the head of the faculty of the 
School of Salerno at the time it was written. 
Some of the earliest manuscript copies of the 
poem bear his name, yet as Croke 1 says, 
Arnold of Villa Nova, the earliest commen- 
tator on the poem, who died in 1313, states 
that it was published by the doctors of 
Salerno. He adds, that although the name, 
John of Milan, is not found in any of the lists 
of the learned men connected with either the 
monastery of Monte Casino or the School of 
Salerno, "Yet that it should be so generally 
ascribed, in later times, to a person whose 
very name is not elsewhere to be found, unless 
it were known from undisputed and indevi- 
ating tradition, and ancient authorities, it is 
difficult to conceive." 

The Regimen is really a handbook of do- 
mestic medicine. It was not intended for 
the medical profession, but for the guidance 
of laymen, primarily King Robert, but its 

1 Edition of the Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum, Oxford, 1830. 

merits were such that the demand for it led 
to its being copied many times and translated 
into many tongues. It was quite customary, 
in the days before printing, to write in verse 
upon any subject, medical, theological, his- 
torical, etc., because it was so much easier 
to memorize than prose and could thus be- 
come more generally diffused and readily 
transmitted. Many manuscript copies are 
still in existence in the libraries of Europe 
and England. The Bodleian Library at Ox- 
ford and the British Museum each contain 
several. As in all books which went through 
numerous copyings, the text varies greatly. 
Thus the text commented upon by Arnold of 
Villa Nova contains about 363 lines, and some 
of the other manuscript editions contain even 
less, while in other manuscripts the poem is 
swelled to over a thousand lines. The manu- 
script as given by Arnold of Villa Nova is 
regarded as the most authentic of all the 
texts, because he lived (in the thirteenth 
century) nearer the date of its composition 

than any other known commentator, and was 
often in Sicily in the immediate neighborhood 
of the place where it was composed. 

Arnold of Villa Nova (1235 ?-i3 1 1) was born 
near Valencia. He studied medicine at Paris 
and Montpellier, and at the latter place taught 
for ten years. He was a very learned man, 
knowing Hebrew and Arabic as well as Greek 
and Latin. He became physician to three popes 
and was the physician and intimate coun- 
sellor of the Kings of Arragon and of Sicily. 
He was a friend of Raymond Lully, the peri- 
patetic alchemist, to whom Arnold taught the 
art of making brandy from wine. Arnold is 
said to have been the first to use brandy 
medicinally. He is stated to have composed 
a tincture of gold wherewith he cured Pope 
Innocent V of the plague. Arnold was a bold 
man and an independent thinker; and after 
1299 was largely engaged in schemes of ec- 
clesiastical and social reformation. He was 
accused of practicing alchemy and of holding 
heretical opinions. It was for Frederic of 

Sicily that Arnold edited his edition of the 
Regimen. In spite of his disfavor with the 
Inquisition, Pope Clement V held him in 
high esteem, because in 1313 that pontiff 
wrote letters to all those whom he thought 
might help in his search requesting that they 
aid him in recovering a book, "De Praxi 
Medica," which Arnold of Villa Nova had 
promised to send him. Villa Nova died be- 
fore the book was actually sent. Another 
pope, Boniface VIII, was accused of heresy 
because he approved of the writings of Arnold. 
In Croke's edition of the Regimen he gives 
the Latin text of Arnold of Villa Nova and 
expresses his opinion that the version he 
reprints is nearer the original as written at 
Salerno than any other known manuscript. 

The version of the Regimen Sanitatis 
Salernitanum which Sir Alexander Croke used 
as the text for his English reprint in 1830 is 
reprinted from an English edition published 
anonymously in 1607 under the title, "The 
Englishmans Doctor or the Schoole of Salerne, 
[33 1 

or Physicall Observations for the Perfect Pre- 
serving of the Body of Man in Continuall 

All the translations into the popular tongues 
of other nations bear the same character as 
the English version, namely, that of a series of 
wise maxims written in plain language on the 
care of the health. 

In the year 1224, the Emperor Frederick II, 
the Hohenstauifen, published a decree which 
may be regarded as setting the seal of glory 
on Salerno. Already King Roger III had 
recognized it by an edict as the source from 
which it was necessary to obtain authority to 
practice in his kingdom of the two Sicilies. 
By the decree of Frederick II, in 1224, it 
was ordered that thenceforth no one should be 
permitted to practice medicine in the king- 
dom of the two Sicilies without having under- 
gone an examination before the faculty of 
Salerno. In order to be eligible for this 
examination it was necessary for the candidate 
to prove the legitimacy of his birth, to have 

reached the age of twenty-one years, and to 
have studied medicine for at least seven years. 
He was examined in the works of Hippoc- 
rates, Galen, and Avicenna, and in the 
works of Aristotle. If he passed a satisfactory 
examination he was given the title of Magister, 
the term doctor being used chiefly at that 
time to indicate one who taught, or was a 
professor. In a decree subsequent to that of 
1224, it was ordered that before undertaking 
the study of medicine, the candidate should 
have studied at least three years in logic. 
He was then required to study for five years 
in the medical school, after which he under- 
went a rigid examination. After his gradu- 
ation he was required to practice for a year 
as an assistant or a sort of apprentice to an 
older practitioner. It is curious to find that 
during the five years that the student pursued 
his curriculum he was authorized to teach 
and expound the writings of Hippocrates and 
Galen. Other decrees ordained the charges 
which were permitted by physicians for their 

services, regulated the apothecaries, requiring 
them to pass an examination and make only 
certain charges, and also set forth the training 
necessary for those who desired to practice 
surgery. In order to obtain a license as a 
surgeon it was necessary to study anatomy 
for a year at the School of Salerno or the 
University of Naples and pass a rigid exam- 

Physicians were absolutely forbidden to 
accept fees or commissions from apothecaries 
or to have any financial interest in apothecary 
shops. The fees to be charged by physicians 
were fixed and there were rigid ordinances 
concerning the sale of poisons and of love 
philtres or other charms, and the manage- 
ment of contagious diseases. 

To Roger of Parma, a graduate of the 
School of Salerno in the early part of the 
thirteenth century, is generally ascribed the 
honor of founding modern surgery. Roger, 
after graduating, taught for a time at Salerno 
before going to Montpellier where, according 

to Sprengel, he became chancellor of the 
University, although Malgaigne believes that 
it was not he but another Roger who held 
this office. In 1180 he wrote his Chirurgia. 
In this work he advocated the application of 
wet dressings and ointments to wounds, in 
order to favor coction and the formation of 
what was subsequently for many generations 
known as "laudable pus." This teaching 
prevailed for many years and although, as 
we shall see, it was originally opposed, its 
pernicious influence did untold harm. 1 Roger 
fractured the bones in order to remedy badly 
set fractures. In the treatment of scrofulous 
ulcers and broken down glands he used tents 
made of sponge, and he used setons as a 
means of counterirritation. Roger used the 
ligature if cauterization and styptics failed to 
check hemorrhage. He also used the suture. 

1 For a most authoritative and interesting summary of chis 
and other subjects, the address of Dr. Clifford Allbutt on "The 
Historical Relations of Medicine and Surgery, " read at the St. Louis 
Congress in 1904 and since published in book form, should be read. 
Its learned author sums up in a limited space the gist of the entire 


Roland of Parma, who flourished in the 
middle of the thirteenth century, was Roger's 
most distinguished disciple. He wrote a 
surgery which in reality is merely a com- 
mentary on the works of his master, inter- 
spersed with some original views of his 

About the year 1270, there was written at 
Salerno a book, "Glossulse Quatuor Magis- 
trorum Super Chirurgium Rogerii et Rolandi," 
which purported to be a commentary by four 
of the faculty of Salerno on the surgeries of 
Roger and Roland. This commentary of the 
Four Masters was widely copied and regarded 
as an authoritative work on surgery for many 
generations. A number of manuscript copies 
are contained in the libraries of Europe and 
England. 1 The commentary of the Four 
Masters naturally advocated wet dressings, 
fomentations and ointments. Many bold 
surgical procedures are described in it. The 

^aremberg Ipublished an edition at Paris in 1854. This is 
readily accessible and is accompanied by the most illuminating notes. 


use of the ligature is dwelt upon, and trephin- 
ing, operations on aneurisms, and goitre are 
described. In reading this or other medieval 
works one is struck with the frequent mention 
of surgical measures such as the ligature, many 
of them known even in much more ancient 
times, which were subsequently allowed to 
lapse entirely from view. Operations for 
vesical calculus and anal fistula are well 

The thirteenth century witnessed the birth 
of the intellectual movement which was ulti- 
mately to burst in the glory of the Renais- 
sance. In it the great universities of Europe, 
many of which continue to flourish, first 
showed signs of real life. Crowds of students 
flocked to Paris and Montpellier, or to Bo- 
logna and Padua, and the great Emperor 
Frederick II founded the universities of 
Naples and Messina which under his fos- 
tering care showed marvelous growth, and 
threw their more ancient rival at Salerno 
into the shade. 


As the University of Naples grew in the 
importance of its professors and the numbers 
of its students, Salerno gradually declined. 
No great names illumine the roll of its faculty, 
and from the thirteenth century it steadily 
lost standing. One of the last tokens of re- 
spect which it received was in 1748, when the 
Faculty of Medicine of Paris referred to the 
Faculty of Salerno the subject of the relative 
standing of the physicians and surgeons in 
France, a matter over which professional 
opinion in that country was so heated that 
it was deemed necessary to derive aid from 
outside in its settlement, and the traditional 
reputation of Salerno led to resort being 
made to this authority. In 1811, the School 
of Salerno was formally abolished by the 
decree of the Emperor Napoleon. In its place 
a lycee medicate or secondary school of medicine 
was established. Daremberg visited Salerno 
in 1848 and tells how he found absolutely no 
trace of the medical school which had once 
been its glory. "No echo of tradition; not a 

stone of the ancient edifice; not one manu- 
script in a library; not even a good edition of 
the Regimen Salernitanum in the home of 
the only doctor, Santorelli, in whom the old 
remembrances were not extinct." 

It became the custom for students as well 
as teachers to travel from one city to another 
in search of learning. In this peripatetic 
fashion not only did the seeker of wisdom 
derive what he sought, but learning was more 
generally diffused and the scope of men's 
minds broadened and mellowed. From this 
time it is almost impossible to assign a teacher 
to one particular school, as they not only 
taught as a rule in more than one, but also 
went to several to obtain their education. 
Unfortunately in almost every centre of learn- 
ing the same slavish submission to tradition 
prevailed, and scholasticism and superstition 
benighted the minds of those who should have 
led the fight for intellectual freedom. The 
influence of the Arabs had overshadowed the 
pure Greek^tradition. Very few of the scholars 
[41 1 

of France or of Italy had any knowledge of 
Greek, and Hippocratic medicine was known 
to them solely through the medium of its 
Arabic and monkish translators who dis- 
figured and corrupted it by the introduction 
of their fantastic, superstitious and nauseating 

Sir Alexander Croke (1758-1824) was a 
distinguished English lawyer and scholar, 
who, in addition to publishing many legal 
works, attained distinction as a student of 
Latin and Greek. In 1830 he published the 
little volume in which was contained the 
Latin text of the "Regimen Sanitatis Salerni- 
tanum," with a translation into English, pub- 
lished anonymously, in the year 1607. The 
book contains a learned dissertation on the 
Latin poetry as used in the composition of 
the School of Salerno, with an historical in- 
troduction and numerous notes. It has long 
been out of print and difficult to obtain. 

In the present edition we have reproduced 
the Latin text used by Croke, which was 

published in 1491, with the following title: 
"Regimen Sanitatis, cum expositione Magistri 
Arnaldi de Villa Nova. Incipit Regimen 
Sanitatis Salernitanum excellentissimum pro 
conservatione sanitatis totius humani generis 
perutilissimum: nee non a Magistro Arnoldo 
de Villa Nova Cathelano omnium medicorum 
viventium gemma, utiliter, ac secundum om- 
nium antiquorum medicorum doctrinam vera- 
citer expositum: noviter correctum ac emem- 
datum per egregissimos ac medicinse artis 
peritissimos Doctores Montispessulani re- 
gentes, anno MCCCCLXXX, predicto loco 
actu moram trahentes." At the end, "Hoc 
opus optatur quod flos medicinse vocatur. 
Tractatus qui de Regimine Sanitatis nuncu- 
patur finit feliciter impressus Argen: (Stras- 
burg) : Anno Domini MCCCCXCI, in die 
Sancti Thomae Cantuariensis. Apud me." 
Croke compared and corrected it with other 
editions of the same century. The English 
text used by Croke was published anony- 
mously in 1607, with the following title: 
[43 1 

"The Englishmans Doctor or, Schoole of 
Salerne. Or, Physicall Observations for the 
perfect Preserving of the Body of Man in 
continuall Health. London : Printed for John 
Helme, and John Busby Junior and are to be 
solde at the little shop, next Cliffords Inne- 
gate, in Fleet-streete. 1607." 

In 1870 Dr. John Ordronaux, professor of 
medical jurisprudence in the Law School of 
Columbia College, New York, published his 
edition: "Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum. 
Code of Health of the School of Salernum, 
translated into English verse, with an Intro- 
duction, Notes and Appendix." Professor 
Ordronaux reprinted the Latin text of the 
edition published at Rotterdam by Zaccharias 
Sylvius in 1657, which he considered the 
editio recepta. It was entitled " Schola Saler- 
nitana, sive De Conservanda Valetudine Prse- 
cepta Metrica. Autore Joanne de Mediolano 
(hactenus ignoti) cum luculenta et succinta 
Arnoldi Villanovani in singula capita exegesi. 
Ex recensione Zacchariae Sylvii. Medici Rot- 

erodamensis. Cum ejusdem Prsefatione. 
Nova editio, melior et aliquot Medicis opus- 
culis auction Roterodami. Ex: Officina Ar- 
noldi Leers, 1657." This text differs in 
places from the Latin text of the 1491 edition 
given by Croke, particularly in the inclusion 
of the additions by way of commentaries of 
Arnold of Villa Nova. The variations from 
the text of Croke's edition have been placed 
in footnotes in the present edition, our object 
being to give the reader as nearly a final 
Latin text as possible. Professor Ordronaux 
also added to his text the additions made to 
the text of Arnold of Villa Nova by Darem- 
berg in the edition published in Paris in 1861. 
As Daremberg derived these from various 
Salernian authors other than those who might 
be regarded as the authors of the original 
"Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum" and there- 
fore entirely extraneous to it, they have not 
been included in the present reprint. 

The English translation made by Professor 
Ordronaux is a free one, and though more 
[45 1 

polished and poetical than the old English 
translations is, by consequence, no more 

The most complete of the modern editions of 
the "Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum" is that 
originally published in 1 860 by Daremberg. 
This has been republished with additional 
commentaries, in 1880, with the following 
title: "L'Ecole de Salerne, traduction en 
vers Francais par Ch. Meaux Saint-Marc, 
avec le texte Latin. Precedee d'une intro- 
duction par le docteur Ch. Daremberg, et 
suivie de commentaires avec figures. Paris, 
J. B. Bailliere et fils, 1880." In this edition 
the Latin text is much longer than that given 
.in those of Croke and Ordronaux, and there 
are very full notes and commentaries. The 
Latin text, however, contains matter of periods 
very much later than the date of the original 
composition, and written by authors who 
lived several centuries after the time at which 
it was composed. These additions though 
possessing much intrinsic interest cannot, 

therefore, be justly considered as representing 
the body corporate of the original. 

The English text which is reproduced in 
this edition is that of Sir John Harington 
which was first published in 1607. Harington 
was one of the most characteristically Eliza- 
bethan of the courtiers of the Virgin Queen. 
He was born in 1561. His father's first wife 
was a natural daughter of Henry VIII, who 
had been richly endowed by that parent with 
the confiscated estates of several religious es- 
tablishments. She died without issue, leaving 
her property to her husband, who remarried, 
this time with one of Queen Elizabeth's gentle- 
women, by whom he had John, the translator of 
the ''Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum." As the 
father had loyally stood by Elizabeth when she 
was in the distress which beset her prior to 
her ascent to the throne, the latter befriended 
him after that event. She acted as godmother 
to his son John, and throughout the latter's 
eventful life she remained his benefactor 
although her patience must have been sorely 

tried by some of his innumerable escapades. 
Sir John Harington was a man of culture and 
esteemed a great wit by his contemporaries. 
He wrote a number of books, many of them 
showing a ribald vein. He is the inventor of 
the modern water-closet which is described in 
a work entitled "A New Discourse of a Stale 
Subject called the Metamorphosis of Ajax. 
London, 1 596." In Elizabeth's time a common 
term for privies was the jakes (see Prof. Adams' 
article on Harington in the Johns Hopkins 
Hospital Bulletin, Oct., 1908). His translation 
of Orlando Furioso, published in 1591, is said 
to have been brought about as a punishment. 
He had written and circulated in manuscript 
among the ladies of the court, a translation of 
the twenty-eighth book, containing the story 
of Gioconda. Queen Elizabeth scolded him 
for circulating such an improper piece of 
literature among the women of her court, and 
as a punishment ordered that he remain in 
retirement in the country until he had trans- 
lated the entire work, in lieu of only the im- 

proper portion. He got into serious trouble 
with his royal mistress in connection with the 
Irish expedition, on which he accompanied the 
ill-starred favorite, Essex. He wrote many epi- 
grams which have been published and at his 
death, which occurred in 1612, left several 
manuscripts bearing on contemporary history 
which were published many years after his 
death. Just why Harington undertook the 
publication of his English version of the 
"Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum" is not 
known. He was appointed as one of those to 
look after the education of Prince Henry, and 
it is possible he thought the book might con- 
tain matter of service to his youthful charge. 1 
I have appended a list of a few of the books 
which are most readily accessible bearing upon 
the subject of the School of Salerno. A full 
bibliography of the subject would require 
many pages. The following will cover the 
subject as fully as would be necessary for the 

Opposite page 75 is reproduced the first page of a MS of 
Harington's translation in possession of Professor Osier, in a scribe's 
hand, but with Harington's own corrections. , 


general reader, and as the books of both 
Daremberg and Croke contain copious bibli- 
ographies, I have not thought it necessary to 
repeat them. 

L'Ecole de Salerne et les medicins Salernitains. 
G. Becavin. Paris, 1888. 

Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum. A poem on the 
preservation of the health in rhyming Latin verse. 
Addressed by the Sehool of Salerno to Robert of 
Normandy, son of William the Conqueror, with an 
ancient translation; and an introduction and notes 
by Sir Alexander Croke. Oxford, England, 1830. 

Glossulae Quatuor Magistrorum super chirurgiam 
Rogerii et Rolandi. Nunc primum ad fidem Codies 
Mazarieni edidit. Charles Daremberg. Paris, 1854. 

Storia documentata della scuola medica di Salerno, by 
S. De Renzi, 2nd edition, Naples, 1857. 

Collectio Salernitana; ossia documenti inediti, e trat- 
tati di medicina appartenenti alia scuola medica 
Salernitana, raccolti e illustrati da G. E. T. 
Henschel, C. Daremberg, e S. Renzi premessa la 
storia della scuolare publicata a cura di S. e 
Renzi. Napoli, 1852-1859. 

The School of Salernum, by H. E. Handerson. An 
address read before the Medical Society of the State 
of New York, 1883. 

(Euvres completes d'Ambroise Pare revues et cclla- 
tionees sur toutes les editions, avec les variantes; 
ornees de 217 planches et du portrait de 1'auteur; 
accompagnees de notes historiques et critiques; et 
precedees d'une introduction sur 1'origine et les 
progres de la chirurgie en Occident du sixieme au 
seizieme siecle, et sur la vie et les ouvrages d'Am- 
broise Pare, par J. F. Malgaigne. Paris, 1840. 

Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum. Code of health of 
the School of Salernum. Translated into English 
verse with an introduction, notes and appendix: 
by John Ordronaux, LL.B., M.D. Philadelphia, 


L'Ecole de Salerne, traduction en vers Franfais par 
Charles Meaux Saint-Marc, avec le texte Latin, 
precedee d'une introduction par le docteur Ch. 
Daremberg et suivie de commentaires avec figures. 
Paris, J. B. Bailliere et fils, 1880. 

The Schola Salernitana; its history and the date of its 
introduction into the British Isles, being the Fin- 
layson Memorial Lecture, by Norman Moore, 
Glasgow M. J., 1908, Ixix, 241-268. 

[51 1 

2um Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum, by K. Sudhoff. 
Arch. f. Gesck. d. Med., Leipz., 1914, vii, 360; 
1915, viii, 292, 352. 

The illustrations accompanying the text 
are drawn chiefly from the old editions of 
the "Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum," some 
of them being old cuts used in the German 
editions of Curio in the sixteenth century, 
and utilized by Croke in his edition. The 
headpieces and initial appearing in the English 
version have been exactly reproduced from 
the Harington edition. 



IN spite of frequent assertions to the con- 
trary, it has been fairly well demon- 
strated, through the researches of Sud- 
hoff and Neuburger, that the influence of 
Constantinus Africanus upon the School of 
Salerno was only episodic and negligible, al- 
though his Latin translations from the Arabic 
writers were destined to play a unique part in 
the fastening of Saracenic culture upon the 
medicine of Western Europe, during the 1 2th 
century and later. The Saracen overlords of 
Sicily, during their period of domination (829- 
1060), made frequent incursions into Southern 
Italy, and, in 1016, as Leo Ostiensis relates, 1 
forty brave Norman pilgrims saved Salerno 
from one of their attacks. Islam was therefore 

1 Leo Ostiensis [Marsicanusl : Chronica, I, II, c. 37. Amatus, 
Monachus Cassinensis: L'Ystoire de li Normant fed. J. J. Champol- 
lion-Figeac], Paris, 1835, I, 35. Cited by G. La Farina, Storia 
d'ltalia, Firenze, 1846, 235. 

[53 1 

not specially popular with the Salernitans. 
During the Norman dominion of Sicily (1060- 
90), what little of the Arabic culture went 
over to Salerno was quietly absorbed by peace- 
ful infiltration, so that Constantine, in Sud- 
hoff's phrase, was " a mere symptom of a great 
historic process." 

It is also clear that the School of Salerno 
was of purely laical character, a civitas Hippo- 
cratica in the midst of monastic foundations, 
and the reasons for this are not far to seek. 
The fact that Salerno was ruled by Northern 
overlords, by Lombard dukes during the 9th 
and loth centuries, and, after the nth cen- 
tury, by Norman princes, Hohenstauffen and 
Anjou emperors, counted for something. But 
the point of greatest importance is that the 
far southern location of Salerno, its proximity 
to that "Magna Graecia" which formed the 
"toe" of the Italian boot, put the little town 
in direct touch with the last survivals of a 
vanishing Greek culture which from the 6th 
century B.C., and long after the Roman con- 

quest of Greece, had gone on untouched and 
undisturbed, in spite of Cicero's " Magna 
GrcBcia nunc quidem delenda est" and the 
gradual decay of its towns. Up to the loth 
century, Sicily, Reggio, and Otranto were still 
part of the Byzantine Empire. Greek influ- 
ences from Byzantium itself were not wanting 
also. Knowledge of Greek was extremely 
widespread all over Sicily and Northern Italy. 
Medical translations, made directly from the 
Greek into Latin, abounded, and, as Sudhoff 
has shown, so numerous were the towns and 
communities in which Greek was the spoken 
language that the Hohenstauffen emperor, 
Frederick II (1198-1250), actually had his 
legal ordinances printed simultaneously in 
Latin and Greek. 1 

Thus, Salerno at the start stood heir to the 
Latinized Greek culture of Brindisi, .Reggio, 
Sicily and Beneventum, and the earlier com- 
pilations of its School were in no wise different 
from the other compilations of the 6th-8th 

1 Sudhoff: Milt. z. Gesch. d. Med., Leipz., 1914, XIII, 180-182. 

[55 1 

centuries. At Salerno was compiled the famous 
"Latin Dioscorides," an alphabetical arrange- 
ment of extracts from pseudo-Apuleius, Ori- 
basius, Gargilius, etc., a work of trimming and 
interpolation, which, to distinguish it from the 
7th century "Lombard Dioscorides" (a Latin 
translation of the first five books) is either 
styled "pseudo-Dioscorides" or, given its 
original spelling, "Dyascorides" (Sudhoff). 1 
From this Salernitan "Dyascorides," along 
with Gargilius, Constantinus Africanus, and 
the Gothic-Lombardic "pseudo-Pliny," after- 
wards published at Rome in 1509, was com- 
piled the famous herb-book of the nth cen- 
tury, "Macer Floridus." 2 The tendency of 
the period was toward pseudo-authorship, to 
pass off a patch-work of choppings and trim- 
mings from the early writers, stitched together 
with many "insertions," as the bona fide 
treatise of some famous name of the past, 
such as Dioscorides or Pliny or Apuleius, in 

* Pagel-Sudhoff : Geschichte der Medizin. ate Aufl., Berl., 1915, 

., 163. 

order to make it more widely read and re- 
nowned. In the period succeeding the Dark 
Ages, in which timid learning, paralyzed by 
the constant succession of wars and social up- 
heavals, ever pulled its forelock to authority, 1 
this device naturally suggested itself. The 
"Regimen sanitatis," essentially a compilation 
passed off as an original production of the 
Salernitan School, had a similar origin. In its 
original form, it was a short poem of 362 
verses, about which Arnold of Villanova wrote 
a commentary, and which the zeal of De Renzi 
and his predecessors has increased to 3520 
verses. According to SudhofF, neither Fred- 
erick II nor Gilles de Corbeil ever heard of it. 
His later investigations would make it seem 
probable that the poem did not become gen- 
erally known until about the middle of the 
1 3th century. 2 The statement of Haeser that 
most of the manuscripts begin with the words 

1 R. Pepin speaks of the Middle Ages as "une 6poque ou la produc- 
tion originate n'existait, pour ainsi dire, pas, les e'crivains se copiant 
mutuellement." See J. Brinkmann, Leipzig diss., 1914, p. 36. 

2 _Sudhoff: Arch.f. Gesch. d. Med., Leipz., 1915-16, IX, 1-9. 


"Anglorum regi" must be accepted with cau- 
tion, for Sudhoff, who has devoted his life to 
the study of medical manuscripts, finds that 
while "Anglorum regi" appears in the printed 
editions, many of the So-odd MSS known be- 
gin with the dedication "Francorum regi." 1 
This disposes of the old story that the poem 
was composed for the benefit of Robert, son 
of William the Conqueror, who, having sus- 
tained a wound in the arm, stopped at Salerno 
for treatment. The. date of his visit (noi) 
has given wide currency to the belief that the 
"Regimen sanitatis" goes back to the nth 
century or earlier. Sudhoff traces its origins 
to a prose hygienic epistle (De conservatione 
corporis humani) supposed to have been writ- 
ten by Aristotle for the benefit of his pupil, 
Alexander the Great, and translated into 
Latin, at the beginning of the I2th century, 
by a baptized Jew, John of Toledo (Joannes 
Hispanus). In 1860 F. J. Herrgott, a medical 
professor of the Strassburg Faculty, had al- 

1 Pagel-Sudhoff, op. tit., 173. 


ready found_some indications of an early an- 
cestor of the "Regimen" in a parchment MS. 
made by the nun Guta in the cloister at Mar- 
bach in H54- 1 In this, the arrangement of 
certain dietetic precepts by months and the 
marked resemblance of these to the monthly 
series in the "Regimen" is significant and 
striking. In the I2th century, during the 
primacy of Raimund, Archbishop of Toledo 
(1130-50), Toledo was a great storehouse of 
Arabic MSS., and its school of medical trans- 
lators, of whom Gerard of Cremona was the 
earliest (1114-87), had no insignificant influ- 
ence upon mediaeval medicine. Among these, 
John of Toledo Latinized his hygienic Alexan- 
der-epistle from an Arabic MS., the Sirr-el- 
asrar, or "Secretum secretorum," attributed 
to Aristotle and alleged to have been found in 
a remote temple. This supposititious MS. of 
pseudo-Aristotle, a compilation from Greek 
sources, was frequently translated in the Mid- 
dle Ages. The use of the high-sounding names 

1 F. J. Herrgott: Gaz. mid. de Paris, 1860, 3.3., XXV, 551-559- 
[ 59] 

of Aristotle and Alexander was a mere Arabic 
business device, to give "go" to the produc- 
tion. The temple fiction, like the story of the 
epistle which Caesar is said to have found in 
an ivory capsule (capsula eburned) in the tomb 
of Hippocrates, was also one of the stalest bits 
of Arabic supercherie . l The Alexander-epistle 
of pseudo-Aristotle enjoyed wide popularity. 
Some sixty-five manuscript versions have been 
found, including many translations. The origi- 
nal translator, John of Toledo, as with pseudo- 
Pliny and pseudo-Dioscorides, was destined 
later to have many spurious compilations 
foisted off under his own name. As in the 
later "Regimen," John dedicates his epistle 
to royalty, Princess Tharasia, daughter of 
Alphonse VI, being in this instance flattered 
with the title of "Queen." In the I4th and 
1 5th centuries, there was, in fact, a veritable 

1 This tendency of the Arabic compilers and translators has been 
fairly well established by M. Steinschneider, the leading investigator 
of Arabic and Hebrew MS, in his "Alfarabi" (1869) and elsewhere. 
The reaction of any hidebound intelligence to some commonplace 
statement ascribed to a great name affords an amusing illustration 
of the subtlety of this mediaeval device. 


flood of hygienic rules, addressed to great lords 
and ladies, some for travel and sea voyages, 
some for army campaigns, some for the 
regime of pregnancy, and all dealing with 
dietetics, the hygiene of the mouth and the 
teeth, bathing, care of the hair, sleep, and 
other phases of daily life. The striking re- 
semblance between the prose epistle of pseudo- 
Aristotle and the versified "Regimen sani- 
tatis" was first pointed out by SudhofF l and 
developed at length by one of his pupils. 2 
The Alexander-epistle, at least a hundred years 
older, was, in all likelihood, the prose model 
of the poem. Many wise saws of Salerno, 
compressed into verse form in the "Regimen," 
are also found in the epistle, and the fact that 
the latter was derived from Greek sources is 
evidenced by similar passages in Oribasius. 

1 Sudhoff : Mitt. z. Gesch. d. Med., Leipz., 1914, XIII, 308-309. 
Arch. f. Gesch. d. Med., Leipz., 1913-14, VII, 360; 1914-15, VIII. 
377; 1915-16, IX, i. 

2 J. Brinkmann: Die apokryphen Gesundheitsregeln des Aristo- 
teles fur Alexander der Grosse in der Uebersetzung des Johann von 
Toledo. Leipzig dissertation, 1914. This dissertation contains the 
facts about the Alexander-epistle given above. 

[ 61 ] 

Thus, from three different streams of culture, 
those emanating from Magna Graecia, Byzan- 
tium and Toledo, Salerno became the isolated 
outpost of Greek medical tradition in the 
Middle Ages. The "Regimen sanitatis," as 
far as it goes, confirms the view of Haeser 
that the Salernitan period was a "period of 
the domination of Greek medicine," and the 
opinion of SudhofT that the Greeks were the 
originators of a rational system of personal 
hygiene, dietetics and gymnastics. But the 
Greeks were blind to the fact of contagion, 
did not in the least understand that disease 
can be transmitted from person to person, and 
hence could do nothing for prophylaxis by 
segregation of actual and suspected cases of 
infection or by incineration of fomites. This 
phase of public hygiene, as we know from 
Leviticus (XIII-XV), was the actual achieve- 
ment of the Hebrews. In the later Middle 
Ages, the principle of isolation and segregation 
proved to be the main coefficient in the 
stamping out of leprosy. "Light from the 
[62 ] 

East/' says Sudhoff, "was transformed into 
pulsating energy by the European peoples, 
while, in the Orient, the disease swung its lash 
unchecked and unhindered." 1 

Sudhoff: Deutsche Rev., Stuttg. & Leipz., 1911, IV, 46-48. 
Translation of Dr. Frank J. Stockman. 

Villa Nova commenting on the Schola Salerni 






The Schoole of Salerno. 

Phyficall obferuations forthepcrfed 

Prtferuingofthe My ofCtfan in 
y ~^ontinuall health. 


Printed for John Heltne , and lohn 

iBusby Junior an d are to be folae at the little (hop 
nextCliflfords Inne-gate,in Fleet- 


the Reader. 

EADER, the care that I have of 
'thy health, appears in be f towing 
thefe Phyficall rules upon thee : 
neither needeft thou bee afhamed 
'to take leffons out of this Schoole: 
for our beft Doctors /come not to reade the in- 
ftructions. It is a little Academic, where every 
man may be a Graduate, and proceed Doctor in 
the ordering of his owne bodie. It is a Garden, 
where all things grow that are neceffarie for 
thy health. This medicinall Tree grew firft in 
Salerne ; from thence it was remoued, and hath 
borne fruit and bloffomes a long time in Eng' 
land. It is now replanted in a wholefome ground, 
and new earth caft about it by the hand of a 


To the Reader. 

cunning Gardiner, to \eepe it ftill in flourifh' 
ing. Much good husbandry is beftowed upon it: 
yet whatfoeuer the coft bee, thou reapeft the 
fweetneffe of it for a fmall value. It came to me 
by chance, as a Jewell that is found, whereof 
notwithstanding I am not couetous, but part the 
Treafure amongst my Countrymen. The Author 
of the paines, is to me un^nowne, and I put this 
Childe of his into the open world without his 
confent. Bring it up therefore well, I befeech 
thee, and hope (as I doe) that he will not bee 
angry, finding this a Traueller abroad, 
when by this trauell fo many of 
his own Countrey are fo 
manifoldly ben- 



Ad Librum. 

GO Booke, and (like a Merchant) new 

Tell in how ftrange a traffick thou haft thriu'd 
Vpon the Countrey which the Sea-god faues, 
And loues fo deare; he bindes it round with 

waues : 

Caft Anchor thou, and impoft pay to him 
Whofe Swans vpon the breft of I s i s fwim. 
But to the people that doe loue to buy, 
(It skills not for how much) each nouelty 
Proclaime an open Mart, and fell good cheape, 
What thou by trauell and much coft doft 


Bid the gay Courtier, and coy Lady come, 
The Lawyer, Townfman, and the countrie 



Ad Librum. 

'Tis ware for all: yet thus much let them 


There are no drugs heere fetcht from Mexico, 
Nor gold from India, nor that {linking fmoake, 
Which Englifh gallants buy, themfelues to 


Nor filkes of Turkic, nor of Barbary, 
Thofe lufcious Canes, where our rich Sugers lie: 
Nor thofe hot drinkes that make our wits to 


The wilde Canaries: nor thofe Grapes of France, 
Which make vs clip our Englifh nor thofe 


Of fertile Belgia, whofe wombe compares 
With all the world for fruite, tho now with 


Her body be all ore defac'd by warres : 
Go, tell them what thou bringft exceeds the 

Of al thefe Countries for thou bringft them 



In Librum. 

r, Learning, Order, Elegance of Phrafe, 
Health, and the Art to lengthen out our daies, 
Philofophie, Phyficke, and Poefie, 
And that skill which death loues not, (Surgery) 
Walkes to refrefh vs, Ayres moft fweete and cleare, 
A thriftie Table, and the wholefom'ft cheare, 
All forts of graine, all forts of flefh, of fifh, 
Of Fowle, and (laft of all) of fruits a feuerall difh: 
Good Breakefafts, Dinners, Suppers, after-meales, 
The hearbe for Sallads, and the hearbe that heales, 
Phyficions Counfell, Pothecaries pils, 
Without the fumming vp of coftly bils, 
Wines that the braine hall ne're intoxicate, 
Strong Ale and Beere at a more eafier rate, 
Then Water from the Fountaine: clothes (not deere) 
For the foure feuerall quarters of the yeere, 
Meates both for Proteftant and Puritan, 
With meanes fufficient to maintaine a man. 
If all thefe things thou want'st, no farther looke, 
All this, and more than this, lyes in this Booke. 


In Laudem Operis. 

rjlHE Gods vpon a time in counfell fitting, 
JL To rule the world what creature was moft fitting. 
At length from God to God this fentence ran, 
To forme a creature like themfelues (call'd Man) 
Being made, the world was giuen him built fo rarely, 
No workman can come neere it: hung fo fairely, 
That the Gods viewing it, were ouer-ioyed: 
Yet grieu'd that it fhould one day be deftroyed: 
Gardens had Man to walke in, fet with trees 
That ftill were bearing: But (neglecting thefe) 
He longd for fruits vnlawfull, fell to riots, 
Wajted his god-like bodie by ill dyets. 
Spent (what was left him) like a prodigall heyre, 
And had of earth, of hell, or heauen no care, 
For which the earth was curft, and brought forth weeds, 
Poyfon euen lurking in our faireft feeds, 
Halfe heauen was hid, and did in darkeneffe mourne: 
Whilft hell kept fires continuall, that fhould burne 
His very joule, if ftill it went awry, 
And giue it torments that fhould neuer die, 
Yet loe; How bleft is man? the Deities, 
Built up the Schoole of Health, to make him wife. 


ll]P$EJ3a.ttrn. /?fo>k\tp & *w &..<*%,**- 
C?T g*f* io n<fCah ^fn^nc >,tF^4jp 

/ n ^ /%*- 11' IT. / "V 1h^v *~ i^ 


.ft ^ 

^- twff*$rp& ^kf^j"^^'. 

[4^.1>^n o> lyvVrnff <xl sffnavTnr&^ti/i*/rtt4nnt:a.ntrf 

First page of a MS of Harington's Translation, in a Scribe's Hand 
but with Harington's Own Corrections. 


THE Salerne Schoole doth by thefe lines 

All health to Englands King, and doth aduife 
From care his head to keepe, from wrath his 


Drinke not much wine, fup light, and foone arife, 
When meate is gone, long fitting breedeth 


And after-noone ftill waking keepe your eyes. 
When mou'd you find your felfe to 

Natures Needs, 

Forbeare them not, for that much dan- 
ger breeds, 

Vfe three Phyficions ftill; firft Doctor Quiet, 
Next Doctor Merry-man, and Doctor Dyet. 


RISE earely in the morne, and ftraight 

With water cold to wafh your hands and eyes, 
In gentle fafhion retching euery member, 
And to refrefh your braine when as you rife, 
In heat, in cold, in luly and December. 
Both comb your head, and rub your 

teeth likewife: 
If bled you haue, keep coole, if bath* 

keepe warme: 

If din'd, to ftand or walke will do no harme 
Three things preferue the fight, Graffe, 

Glaffe, Stfoutains, 
At Eue'n fprings, at morning vifit mountains. 


The Medieval Physician in His Offio 

IF R. be in the month, their Judgements erre, 
That thinke that fleepe in after-noone 

is good: 

If R. be not therein, fome men there are 
That thinke a little nap breeds no ill bloud: 
But if you mail herein exceed too farre, 
It hurts your health, it cannot be with ftood: 
Long fleepe at after-noones by ftirring fumes, 
Breeds Slouth, and Agues, A king heads 

and Rheumes: 

The moyfture bred in Brest, in lawes and Nofe 9 
Are cal j d Catars, or Tyfiqu:, or the Pofe. 


The Banquet 
Ex magna caena stomacho fit maxima paena 

REAT harmes haue growne, & maladies 

By keeping in a little blaft of wind: 
So Cramps & Dropfies, Collickes haue 

their breeding, 

And Mazed Braines for want of vent behind: 
Befides we finde in ftories worth the reading, 
A certaine Romane Emperour was fo kind, 
Claudius 1 by name, he made a Proclamation, 
A Scape to be no loffe of reputation. 
Great fuppers do the ftomacke much offend, 
Sup light if quiet you to fleepe intend. 

1 Notes for this and other indicated passages will be found on 
page 181 and the pages following. 


f"T"V3 keepe good dyet, you fhould neuer feed 
-* Vntill you finde your ftomacke cleane 

and void 

Of former eaten meate, for they do breed 
Repletion, and will caufe you foone be cloid, 
None other rule but appetite fhould need, 
When from your mouth a moyfture cleare 

doth void. 2 
All Peares and Apples, Peaches, Milke 

and Cheefe, 
Salt meates, red Deere, Hare, Beefe and Goat: 

all thefe 
Are meates that breed ill bloud, and 

If ficke you be, to feede on them were folly. 1 


EGGES newly laid, are nutritiue to eate, 
And rofted Reare are eafie to digeft. 
Frefh Gafcoigne wine is good to drinke 

with meat, 

Broth ftrengthens nature aboue all the reft. 
But broth prepared with floure of fineft wheat, 
Well boild, and full of fat for fuch are beft. 
The Priefts rule is (a Priefts rule fhould 

be true) 
Thofe Egges are beft, are long, and white 

and new. 

Remember eating new laid Egges and foft, 
For euery Egge you eate you drinke as oft. 

81 1 

FINE Manchet* feeds too fat, Milke fils the 

New cheefe doth nourifh, fo doth flefh of Swine: 
The Dowcets 5 of fome beafts, the marrow, 


And all fweet tafting flefh, and pleafant wine, 
Soft Egges (a cleanely difh in houfe of Swaines) 
Ripe Figs and Rayfins, late come from 

the Vine: [yeere> 

Chufe wine you meane fhall ferue you all the 
Well-fauor'd tafting well, and coloured cleere. 
Fiue qualities there are, wines praife 

aduancing, [dancing. 

Strong, Beautifull, and Fragrant, coole and 


The Public Bath. 

WHITE Muskadell, and Candie wine, and 

Do make men's wits and bodies groffe and fat; 
Red wine doth make the voyce oft-time 

to feeke, 

And hath a binding qualitie to that; 
Canarie, and Madera, both are like 
To make one leane indeed : (but wot you what) 
Who fay they make one leane, would 

make one laffe 
They meane, they make one leane vpon 

a ftaffe. 

Wine, women, Baths, by Art or Nature warme, 
Vs'd or abus'd do men much good or harme. 


The Public Bath. 

SIXE things, that here in order fhall enfue, 
Againft all poyfons haue a fecret power, 
Peare, Garlicke, Reddifh-roots, Nuts, Rape, 

and Rue, 

But Garlicke chief e; for they that it deuoure, 
May drinke, & care not who their drinke 

do brew: 

May walke in aires infected euery houre. 
Sith Garlicke then hath powers to faue 

from death, 

Beare with it though it make vnfauory breath: 
And fcorne not Garlicke, like to fome 

that thinke [ftinke> 

It onely makes men winke, and drinke, and 


THOUGH all ill fauours do not breed 

Yet fure infection commeth moft by fmelling, 
Who fmelleth ftill perfumed, his complexion 
Is not perfum'd by Poet Martials telling, 
Yet for your lodging roomes giue this direction, 
In houfes where you mind to make 

your dwelling, 

That neere the fame there be no euill fents 
Of puddle-waters, or of excrements, 
Let aire be cleere and light, and free 

from faults, 
That come of fecret paffages and vaults. 


IF wine haue ouer night a furfet brought, 
A thing we wifh to you fhould happen 


Then early in the morning drinke a draught, 
And that a kind of remedie fhall yeeld, 
But gainft all furfets, vertues fchoole hath 


To make the gift of temperance a ihield: 
The better wines do breed the better humors, 
The worfe, are caufes of vnwholefome tumors. 
In meafure drinke, let wine be ripe, not thicke, 
But cleere and well alaid, and frelh and quicke. 


Si tibi serotina noceat potatio vim 
Hra matutina rebibas et erit medicina 

THE like aduice we giue you for your 

We will it be not fowre, and yet be ftale: 
Well boild, of harty graine and old and cleare, 
Nor drinke too much nor let it be too ftale: 
And as there be foure feafons in the yeere, 
In each a feuerall order keepe you lhall. 
In Spring your dinner muft not much exceed, 
In Summers heate but little meate mail need: 
In Autumne ware you eate not too much f ruite : 
With Winters cold full meates do fitteft fuite. 


IF in your drinke you mingle Rew with Sage, 
All poyfon is expeld by power of thofe, 
And if you would withall Lufts heat affwage, 
Adde to them two the gentle flowre of Rofe: 
Would not be fea-ficke when feas do rage, 
Sage-water drinke with wine before he goes. 
Sal^ Garlicke, Par fly, Pepper, Sage, and Wine, 
Make fawces for all meates both courfe 

and fine. 

Of warning of your hands much good doth rife, 
Tis wholefome, cleanely, and relieues 
your eyes. 

[91 1 

EATE not your bread too ftale, nor eate it 
, hot, 

A little Leuend, hollow bak't and light: 
Not frefh of pureft graine that can be got, 
The cruft breeds choller both of browne 

& white, 

Yet let it be well bak't or eate it not, 
How e're your tafte therein may take delight. 
Porke without wine is not fo good to eate,1 
As Sheepe with wine, it medicine is and meate, 
Tho Intrailes of a beaft be not the belt, 
Yet are fome intrailes better than the reft. 


SOME loue to drinke new wine not fully fin'd, 
But for your health we wifh that you 

drinke none, 

For fuch to dangerous fluxes are inclined, 
Befides, the Lees of wine doe breed the ftone, 
Some to drinke onely water are affign'd, 
But fuch by our confent fhall drinke alone. 
For water and fmall beerewe make no queftion, 
Are enemies to health and good digeftion : 
And Horace in a verfe of his rehearfes, 
That Water-drinkers neuer make good verfes. 

[93 1 

E choyfe of meate to health doth much 

auaile [bloud 

Firft Veale is wholefom meat, & breeds good 

So Capon, Hen, and Chicken, Partridge, Quaile, 
The Phefant, Woodcock, Larke, & Thrum , 

be good, [railej 

The Heath-co^ke wholefome is, the doue, the 
And all that doe not much delight in mud. 
Faire fwans fuch loue your beauties make 

me beare you, 

That in the dim I eafily could forbeare you. 
Good fport it is to fee a Mallard kil'd, 
But with their flefh, your flefh mould not be 



S choyce you make of Fowle, fo make of 


If fo that kinde be foft, the great be beft, 
If firme, then fmall, and many in a dim: 
I need not name, all kinds are in requeft. 
Pike, Trozut, and Pearch, from water 

frefh I wifh, 
From Sea, Bace, Mullet, Brean, and Souls 

are beft: 

The Pyke a rauening tyrant is in water, 
Yet he on land yeelds good fifh ne're the later, 
If Eeles and Cheefe you eate, they make 

you hoarfe, 
But drinke apace thereto, and then no force. 


SOME loue at meals to drink fmal draughts 
and oft, 

But fancie may herein and cuftome guide, 
If Egges you eate, they muft be new and foft. 
In Peafe good qualities and bad are tryed, 
To take them with the skinne that 

growes aloft, 

They windie be, but good without their hide. 
In great confumptions learn'd Phyficions 


'Tis good a Goat or Camels milke to drinke, 
Cowes-milke and Sheepes doe well, but yet 

an Affes 
Is be ft of all, and all the other paffes. 


. JlfllLKE is for Agues and for Head-ach 
* '** naught, 

Yet if from Agues fit you feele you free, 
Sweete-butter wholefome is, as fome 

haue taught, ^ 

To cleanfe and purge fome paines that inward 
JVhay, though it be contemn'd, yet 

it is thought 

To fcoure and cleanfe, and purge in due degree: 
For healthie men may Cheeje be wholefome 


But for the weake and fickly 'tis not good, 
Cheeje is an heauie meate, both groffe and cold 
And breedeth Coftineffe both new and old. 


/CHEESE makes complaint that men on 
V^4 wrong fufpitions 
Do flander it, and fay it doth fuch harme, 
That they conceale his many good conditions, 
How oft it helpes a ftomack cold to warme, 
How fafting 'tis prefcrib'd by fome Phyficions, 
To thofe to whom the flux doth giue alarme: 
We fee the better fort thereof doth eate, 
To make as 'twere a period of their meate^ 
The poorer fort, when other meate is fcant, 
For hunger eate it to releeue their want. 


Arnold of Villa Nova. 

ALTHOUGH you may drinke often while 
I * you dine, 

Yet after dinner touch not once tne cup, 
I know that fome Phyficions doe affigne 
To take fome liquor ftraight before they fup: 
But whether this be meant by broth or wine, 
A controuerfie 'tis not yet tane vp: 
To clofe your ftomack well, this order futes, 
Cheefe after flefh, Nuts after fifh or fruits, 
Yet fome haue faid, (beleeue them as you will) 
One Nut doth good, two hurt, the third 
doth kill. 


SOME Nut 'gainft poyfon is preferuatiue: 
Peares wanting wine, are poyfon from the 


But bak't Peares counted are reftoratiue, 
Raw Peares a poyfon, bak't a medicine be 
Bak't Peares a weake dead ftomack doe reuiue, 
Raw Peares are heauie to digeft we fee, 
Drinke after Peares, take after Apples order 
To haue a place to purge your felfe of ordure. 
Ripe Cherries breed good bloud, and help 

the ftone, 
If Cherry you doe eate and Cherry- ftone . 

[ioo ] 

COOLE Damfens are, and good for health, 
by reafon 

They make your intrailes foluble and flacke, 
Let Peaches fteepe in wine of neweft feafon, 
Nuts hurt the teeth, that with their teeth they 


With euery Nut 'tis good to eate a Raifon. 
For though they hurt the fpleen, they help 

the back, [telHng> 

A plaifter made of Figges, by fome mens 
Is good againft all kernels, boyles and fwelling, 
With Poppy ioyn'd, it drawes out bones 

are broken, 
By Figges are lice ingendred, Luft prouoken. 


EATE Medlers, 7 if you haue a loofeneffe 

They bind, and yet your vrine they augment, 
They haue one name more fit to be forgotten, 
While hard and found they be, they be 

not fpent, 

Good Medlers are not ripe, till feeming rotten, 
For medling much with Medlers fome are Ihent. 
New Renifh-wine ftirres vrine, doth not binde: 
But rather loofe the Belly breeding winde, 
Ale humors breeds, it addes both flelh 

and force; 
Tis loofing, coole, and vrin doth enforce. 

SHARPE vineger 8 doth coole, withall it dries, 
And glues to fome ill humor good 

correction : 

It makes one melancholy, hurts their eyes, 
Not making fat,nor mending their complexion: 
It leffens fperme, makes appetite to rife, 
Both tafte and fcent is good againft infection. 
The Turnep hurts the ftomack, winde it 

Stirres vrine, hurts his teeth thereon 

that feedeth, 
Who much thereof will feed, may wifh our 

Would well allow of Claudius proclamation. 


IT followes now what part of euery beaft 
Is good to eate: firft know the Heart is ill, 
It is both hard and heauy to digeft. 
The Tripe with no good iuyce our flefh doth 


The Lites 9 are light, yet but in fmall requeft: 
But outer parts are beft in Phyficks skill 
If any braines be good, (which is a queftion) 
Hens braine is beft and lighteft of digeftion: 
In Fennel-feed, this vertue you ihall finde, 
Foorth of your lower parts to driue the winde. 


OF Fennell 10 vertues foure they doe recite, 
Firft, it hath power fome poyfons to 


Next, burning Agues it will put to flight, 
The ftomack it doth cleanfe, and comfort well : 
And fourthly, it doth keepe and cleanfe the 


And thus the feed and hearbe doth both excell. 
Yet for the two la ft told, if any feed 
With Fennell may compare, 'tis Annis-feed: 
Some Annis-feed be fweete, and fome more 

For pleafure thefe, for medicine thofe are fitter. 


DAME Natures reafon, far furmounts our 

We feele effects the caufes oft vnknowne, 
Who knows the caufe why Spodium ftancheth 


(Spodium 11 but afhes of an Oxes bone) 
We learne herein to praife his power exceeding, 
That vertue gaue to wood, to hearbs, to ftone; 
The Liuer, Spodium; Mace, the heart 

delights, [Lites . 

The braine likes Muske, and Lycoras 1 * the 
The Spleene is thought much coforted 

with Capers 
In ftomack, Gallingale^ alwaies ill vapors. 


SAUCE would be fet with meate vpon the 

Salt is good fauce, and had with great facilitie: 
Salt makes vnfauourie vyands manducable, 
To driue fome poyfons out, Salt hath abilitie, 
Yet things too fait are ne're commendable: 
They hurt the fight, in nature caufe debilitie, 
The fcab and itch on them are euer breeding, 
The which on meates too fait are often 

feeding: 15 

Salt mould be firft remou'd, and firft fet downe 
At table of the Knight, and of the Clowne. 


A> taftes are diuers, fo Phyficions hold 
They haue as fundry qualities and 


Some burning are, fome temperate, fome cold, 
Cold are thefe three, the Tart, the Sharpe, 

the fozvre, 

Salt, bitter, byting, burne as hath beene told, 
Sweet, fat and frefh, are temperate euery 


Foure fpeciall vertues hath a fop in wine, 
It maketh the teeth white, it cleares the eyne, 
It addes vnto an emptie ftomack fulneffe, 
And from a ftomack fill'd, it takes the dulneffe. 


IF to an vfe you haue your felfe betaken, 
Of any dyet, make no fudden change, 
A cuftome is not eafily forfaken, 
Yea though it better were, yet feemes 

it ftrange, 

Long vfe is as a fecond nature taken, 
With nature cuftome walkes in equall range. 
Good dyet is a perfect way of curing: 
And worthy much regard and health affuring. 
A King that cannot rule him in his dyet, 
Will hardly rule his Realme in peace and quiet. 


THEY that in Phyfick will prefcribe you 

Six things muft note we heere in order touch, 
Firft what it is, and then for what 'tis good, 
And when and where, how often, and how much: 
Who note not this, it cannot be with-ftood, 
They hurt, not heale, yet are too many fuch. 
Coleworls 16 broth doth loofe, the fubftance 


Thus play they fa ft and loofe, and all behind: 
But yet if at one time you take them both, 
The fubftance (hall giue place vnto the broth. 


IN Phyficke Mallowes 11 haue much reputa- 

The very name of Mallow feemes to found, 
The roote thereof will giue a kind purgation, 
By them both men and women good 

haue found, 

To womens monthly flowers they giue laxation, 
They make men foluble that haue beene bound. 
And left wee feeme in Mallowes prayfes 

P artiall > [Martiall. 

Long fince hath Horace praifed them, and 

The worms that gnaw the wombe & neuer 

ftint > [Mint. 1 * 

Are kil'd, and purg'd, and driuen away with 


BUT who can write thy worth (O foueraigne 
Sagel). 19 
Some aske how man can die, where thou 

doft grow, 

Oh that there were a medicine curing age, 
Death comes at laft, though death comes ne're 

fo flow: [fwage, 

Sage ftrengths the finewes, feuers heat doth 

The Palfy helpes, and rids of mickle woe. 
In Lattin (Saluia) takes the name of fafety, 
In Englifh (Sage) is rather wife then crafty. 
Sith then the name betokens wife and fauing, 
We count it natures friend and worth 
the hauing. 


TAKE Sage and Primrofe, Lauender and 
With Walwort that doth grow twixt lime 

and ftone, 

For he that of thefe hearbes the iuyce expreffes, 
And mix with powder of a Caftor-ftone, 
May breed their eafe whom palfy much 


Or if this breed not helpe, then looke for none. 
Rezv is a noble hearbe to giue it right, 
To chew it fafting, it will purge the fight. 
One quality thereof yet blame I muft, 
It makes men chafte, and women fils with luft. 

FAIRS Ladies, if thefe Phyficke rules be 
That Rew hath fuch ftrange qualities 

as thefe, 

Eate little Rew, left your good husbands 
(REW) [difeafe) 

And breed betweene you both a fhrew'd 
Rew whets the wit, and more to pleafure you, 
In water boyld, it rids the roome of fleas. 
I would not to you Ladies, Onyons praife, 
Saue that they make one faire (jEfclapius faies) 
Yet taking them requires fome good direction, 
They are not good alike for each complexion. 

IF vnto Choller men be much inclin'd, 
'Tis thought that Onyons are not good 

for thofe, 

But if a man be flegmatique (by kind) 
It does his ftomack good, as fome suppofe: 
For Oyntment iuyce of Onyons is affign'd, 
To heads whofe haire fals fafter than it growes: 
If Onyons cannot helpe in fuch mimap, 
A man muft get him a Gregorian cap. 
And if your hound by hap mould bite 

his mafter, 
With Hony, Rezv, and Onyons make a plafter. 21 

I "Si 

THE feed of Muftard is the fmalleft graine, 
And yet the force thereof is very great, 
It hath a prefent power to purge the braine, 
It adds vnto the ftomack force and heat: 
All poifon it expels, and it is plaine, 
With fuger 'tis a paffing fauce for meate. 
She that hath hap a husband bad to bury, 
And is therefore in heart not fad, but merry, 
Yet if in fhew good manners fhee will keepe, 
Onyons and Muftard-feed 22 will make her 


THOUGH Violets* fmell fweete, Nettles 

Yet each in feuerall kind much good procures, 
The firft doth purge the heauy head 

and penfiue, 

Recouers furfets, falling fickeneffe cures: 
Tho Nettles ftinke, yet make they 


If your belly by the Collicke paine endures, 
Againft the Collicke Nettle-feed and hony 
Is Phyfick: better none is had for money. 
It breedeth fleepe, ftaies vomits, fleams 

doth foften, 
It helpes him of the Gowte that eates it often. 

CLEANE Hyfop is an hearbe to purge 
and clenfe 
Raw flegmes, and hurtfull humors from the 


The fame vnto the lungs great comfort lends, 
With hony boyl'd : but f arre aboue the reft, 
It giues good colour, and complexion mends, 
And is therefore with women in requeft: 
With Hony mixt, Cinquefoyle cures 

the Canker, 

That eates out inward parts with cruell ranker. 
But mixt with wine, it helpes a grieued fide, 
And ftaies the vomit, and the laske befide. 

I "81 

TJ^LLECOMPANE 27 ftrengthens each 

* ' inward part, 

A little loofeneffe is thereby prouoken, 

It fwageth griefe of minde, it cheeres the heart, 

Allaieth wrath, and makes a man faire fpoken: 

And drunke with Rew in wine, it doth impart 

Great help to thofe that haue their bellies 


Let them that vnto choller much incline, 
Drinke Penny-royall fteeped in their wine. 
And fome affirm that they haue found 

by tryall, 
The paine of Gowt is cur'd by Penny-royall?* 

TO tell of Creffes zg vertues long it were, 
But diuers patients vnto that are 


It helpes the teeth, it giues to bald men haire, 
With Hony mixt, it Ring-worms kils and 


But let not women that would children beare 
Feed much thereof, for they to faft were better. 
An hearbe there is takes of the Swallowes 


And by the Swallowes gets no little fame, 
For Pliny writes (tho fome thereof make 

It helpes young Swallowes eyes when they 

are out. 


GREENE Willow though in fcorne it oft 
is vf'd, 

Yet fome are there in it not fcornefull parts, 
It killeth wormes, the iuice in eares infuf'd, 
With Vineger: the barke deftroyeth warts* 
But at one quality I much haue muf'd, 
That addes and bates much of his good 


For writers old and new, both ours and forren, 
Affirme the feed make women chaft 

and barren. 

Take Saffron if your heat make glad you will, 
But not too much for that the heart may kill. 31 


Leebes** are good, as fome 
Phyficians fay, 
Yet would I choofe how er'e I them beleeue, 
To weare Leekes rather on Saint Dauids day,^ 
Then eate the Leeke vpon Saint Dauids Eue, 
The bleeding at the nofe Leekes iuice will ftay, 
And women bearing children much releeue. 
Blacke Pepper** beaten groffe you good mail 


If cold your ftomacke be, or full of winder 
White Pepper helps the cough, and fleame it 

And Agues fit to come it oft forbiddeth. 


OUR hearing is a choyce and dainty fenfe, 
And hard to men, yet foone it may be 

Thefe are the things that breed it moil 


To fleepe on ftomacke full and drinking hard, 
Blowes, fals, and noyfe, and fafting violence, 
Great heate and fodaine cooling afterwards; 
All thefe, as is by fundry proofes appearing, 
Breed tingling in our eares, and hurt our 


Then thinke it good aduice, not idle talke, 
That after Supper bids vs ftand or walke. 

I I2 3 ] 

YOU heard before what is for hearing 

Now fhall you fee what hurtfull is for fight: 
Wine, women, Bathes, by art to nature 

Leekes, Onyons, Garlicke, Muftard-jeed, fire 

and light^ [brought, 

Smoake, bruifes, dufi, Pepper to powder 
Beanes, Lentiles, ftrains, Wind, Tears, 

& Phabus bright, 

And all fharpe things our eye-fight do moleft: 
Yet watching hurts them more then all the reft. 
Of Fennells, Veruin, Kellidon, Rofes, Rew^ 
Is water made, that will the fight renew. 


IF in your teeth you hap to be tormented, 
By meane fome little wormes therein do 

Which paine (if heed be tane) may be 


By keeping cleane your teeth when as you feed, 
Burne Frankincenfe (a gum not euill fented) 
Put Henbane vnto this, and Onyon feed, 
And in a Tunnel to the Tooth that's hollow, 
Conuey the fmoake thereof, and eafe 

mall follow. 35 

By Nuts, Oyle, Eeles, and cold in head, 
By Apples and raw fruits is hoarfeneffe bred. 

^T^O fliew you how to fhun raw running 

Rheumes, [fleepe> 

Exceed not much in meate, in drinke, and 
For all exceffe is caufe of hurtfull fumes, 
Eate warme broth warme, ftriue in your 

breath to keep, 

Vfe exercife that vapours ill confumes: 
In Northern winds abroad do neuer peepe 
If Fiftula do rife in any part, 
And fo procure your danger and your fmart, 
Take Arfenicke, Brimftone, mixt with Lime. 

and S P*' [hope. 

And make a tent 36 , and then of cure there's 


IF fo your head doe paine you oft with aking, 
Faire water or fmall beere drinke then or 


So may you fcape the burning fits and fhaking 
That wonted are to company the Feuer. 
If with much heate your head be ill in aking, 
To rub your head and temples ftill perfeuer, 
And make a bath of Morrell (boyled warme) 
And it mail keepe your head from further 


A Flix dangerous euill is, and common, 37 
In it fhun cold, much drinke, and ftraine 
of women. 


fT^O faft in Summer doth the body dry, 

* Yet doth it good, if thereto you enure it, 
Againft a furfet vomiting to try, 
Is remedy but fome cannot endure it. 
Yet fome fo much themfelues found helpe 


They go to fea a purpofe to procure it. 
Foure feafons of the yeare there are in all, 
The Summer and the Winter, Spring and Fall: 
In euery one of thefe, the rule of reafon 
Bids keepe good diet, fuiting euery feafon. 


The Four Seasons. 

THE fpring is moift, of temper good and 

Then beft it is to bathe, to fweate, and purge, 
Then may one ope a veine in either arme, 
If boyling bloud or feare of agues vrge: 
Then Venus recreation doth no harme, 
Yet may too much thereof turne to a fcourge. 
In Summers heat (when choller hath 

Coole meates and moift are beft in fome 
opinion : 

The Fall is like the Spring, but endeth colder, 
With Wines and Spice the Winter may be 


The Four Temperaments. 


NOW if perhaps fome haue defire to know, 
The number of our bones, our teeth, 

our veines, 

This verfe enfuing plainly doth it fhew, 
To him that doth obferue, it taketh paines: 
The teeth thrife ten, and two, twife eight arow. 
Eleu'nfcore bones faue one in vs remaines: 
For veines, that all may vaine in vs appeare, 
A veine we haue for each day in the yeare: 
All thefe are like in number and connexion. 
The difference growes in bigneffe and 

complexion. 38 


FURE humors raigne within our bodies 

And thefe compared to foure Elements, 
The Sanguine, Choller, Flegme, and Melancholy, 
The latter two are heauie, dull of fence, 
Th' other two are more louiall, quicke and 


And may be likened thus without offence, 
Like ayre both warme and moift, is Sanguine 


Like fire doth Choler hot and drie appeare. 
Like water cold and moift is Flegmatique, 
The Melancholy cold, drie earth is like. 

Quatuor humores in humano corpore constant, 
Sanguis cum cholera phlegma, melancholia, 

COMPLEXIONS cannot vertue breed 
or vice, 

Yet may they vnto both glue inclination, 
The Sanguine game-fome is, and nothing nice, 
Loue Wine, and Women, and all recreation, 
Likes pleafant tales, and news, playes, cards 

& dice, 

Fit for all company, and euery fafhion: 
Though bold, not apt to take offence, 

not irefull, [ fu j 1: 

But bountifull, and kinde, and looking cheere- 
Inclining to be fat, and prone to laughter, 
Loues mirth, & Mufick, cares not what 

comes after. 


The Sanguine Man. 
Hos Venus et Bacchus delectant fercula, risus. 

QHARPE Choller is an humour moft 

^ pernitious, 

All violent, and fierce, and full of fire, 

Of quicke conceit, and therewithall ambitious, 

Their thoughts to greater fortunes ftill 


Proud, bountifull ynough, yet oft malicious 
A right bold fpeaker, and as bold a lyar, 
On little caufe to anger great enclin'd, 
Much eating ftill, yet euer looking pin'd: 
In yonger yeares they vfe to grow apace, 
In Elder hairie on their breft and face. 


The Choleric Man. 
Est humor Cholera qui competit impetuosis. 

THE Flegmatique are moft of no great 

Inclining to be rather fat and fquare: 
Giuen much vnto their eafe, to reft and floth, 
Content in knowledge to take little fhare, 
To put themfelues to any paine moft loth. 
So dead their fpirits, fo dull their fences are: 
Still either fitting, like to folke that 


Or elfe ftill fpitting, to auoid the flegme: 
One qualitie doth yet thefe harmes repaire, 
That for the moft part Flegmatique are faire. 


The Phlegmatic Man. 
Otia non studio tradunt, sed corpora somno. 

THE Melancholly from the reft doe vane, 
Both fport and eafe, and company 


Exceeding ftudious, euer folitary, 
Inclining penfiue ftill to be, and mufing, 
A fecret hate to others apt to carry: 
Mo ft conftant in his choife, tho long a chufing, 
Extreme in loue fometime, yet feldom 


Sufpitious in his nature, and miftruftfull, 
A wary wit, a hand much giuen to (paring, 
A heauy looke, a fpirit little daring. 


The Melancholy Man. 

Restat adhuc tristis Cholerae substantia nigra 
Qua? reddit pravos pertristes, pauca loquentes. 

NOW though we giue thefe humors feuerall 

Yet all men are of all participant, 
But all haue not in quantitie the fame, 
For fome (in fome) are more predominant, 
The colour fhewes from whence it lightly came, 
Or whether they haue bloud too much or want. 
The watrie Flegmatique are faire and white, 
The Sanguine Rofes ioyn'd to Lillies bright, 
The Chollerick more red; the Melancholly, 
Alluding to their name, are fwart and colly. 


IF Sanguine humor doe too much abound, 
Thefe fignes will be thereof appearing 

The face will fwell, the cheekes grow red 

and round, [breefe, 

With ftaring eyes, the pulfe beate foft and 
The veines exceed, the belly will be bound, 
The temples and the fore-head full of griefe, 
Vnquiet fleepes, that fo ftrange dreames 

will make, 

To caufe one bluih to tell when he doth wake : 
Befides the moifture of the mouth and fpittle, 
Will tafte too fweet, and feeme the throat to 

IF Choler doe exceed, as may fometimes, 
Your eares will ring, and make you to be 
wakefull, [times 

Your tongue will feeme all rough, and often- 
Caufe vomits, vnaccuftomed and hatefull. 
Great thirft, your excrements are full of flime, 
The ftomack fqueamifti, fuftenance 

vngratef ull : 

Your appetite will feeme in nought delighting, 
Your heart ftill grieued with continuall byting, 
The pulfe beate hard and fwift, all hot extreme, 
Your fpittle fowre, of fire-worke oft you 


IF Flegme aboundance haue due limits paft, 
Thefe fignes are heere fet downe will 

plainely fhew, 

The mouth will feeme to you quite out of tait, 
And apt with moyfture ftill to ouer-flow: 
Your fides will feeme all fore downe to 

the waft, [{low: 

Your meate wax loathfome, your digeftion 
Your head and ftomacke both in fo ill taking, 
One feeming euer griping t'other aking: 
With empty veines the pulfe beate flow 

and foft, 
In fleepe, of Seas and riuers dreaming oft. 


BUT if that dangerous humor ouer-raigne, 
Of Melancholy, fometime making mad, 
Thefe tokens then will be appearing plaine, 
The'pulfe beate hard, the colour darke and bad : 
The water thin, a weake fantafticke braine, 
Falfe grounded ioy, or elfe perpetuall fad; 
Affrighted oftentimes with dreames like 


Prefenting to the thoughts ill apparitions, 
Of bitter belches from the ftomacke comming, 
His eare (the left efpeciall) euer burning. 


AGAINST thefe feuerall humors 

As feuerall kinds of Phyficke may be good, 
As diet, drinke, hot baths, whence fweat is 


With purging, vomiting, and letting bloud: 
Which taken in due time, not ouerflowing, 
Each malladies infection is withftood. 
The laft of thefe is beft, if skill and reafon, 
Refpect age, frength, quantity, and feafon. 
Of feuenty from feuenteene, if bloud abound, 
The opening of a veine is healthfull found. 


OF Bleeding 39 many profits grow and great, 
The fpirits and fenfes are renewed 


Tho thefe men flowly by the ftrength of meat, 
But thefe with wine reftor'd are by and by. 
By bleeding, to the marrow commeth heat, 
It maketh cleane your briiine, relieues 

your eye, 

It mends your appetite, reftoreth fleepe, 
Correcting humours that do waking keepe: 
All inward parts and fenfes alfo clearing, 
It mends the voyce, touch, fmell & taft, & 


THREE fpeciall Months (September, April, 

There are, in which 'tis good to ope a veine; 
In thefe 3 Months the Moone beares greateft 


Then old or yong that ftore of bloud containe, 
May bleed now, though fome elder wizards fay 
Some dayes are ill in thefe, I hold it vaine: 
September, April, May, haue dayes a peece, 
That bleeding do forbid, and eating Geefe, 
And thofe are they forfooth of May the firft, 
Of other two, the la ft of each are worft. 


BUT yet thofe dales I grant, and all the reft, 
Haue in fome cafes iuft impediment:" 
As firft, if nature be with cold oppreft, 
Or if the Region, He, or Continent 
Do fcorch or freize, if ftomacke meate 

deteft : 

If Baths or Venus late you did frequent, 
Nor old, nor yong, nor drinkers great are fit, 
Not in long fickeneffe, nor in raging fit, 
Or in this cafe if you will venture bleeding, 
The quantity muft then be moft exceeding. 


Sit brevis aut nullus tibi somnus mcridianus. 

Exhilarat tristes iratos placat amantes 
Ne sint amentes phlebotomia facit. 

TT THEN you to bleed intend, you muft 


Some needfull things both after and before, 
Warme water and fweet oyle, both needfull are, 
And wine, the fainting fpirit to reftore: 
Fine binding clothes of linnen, and beware, 
That all the morning you do fleepe no more : 
Some gentle motion helpeth after bleeding, 
And on light meates a fpare and temperate 


To bleed doth cheere the penfiue, and remoue 
The raging luries bred by burning loue. 


MAKE your incifion large and not too 

That bloud haue fpeedy iffue with the fume, 
So that from finewes you all hurt do keepe, 
Nor may you (as I toucht before) prefume 
In fixe enfuing houres at all to ileepe, 
Left fome flight bruife in fleepe caufe an 


Eate not of milke, nor ought of milk com- 

Nor let your braine with much drink be con- 
Eate no cold meats, for fuch the ftrength 

And fhun all mifty and vnwholefome aires. 


ESIDES the former rules for fuch as 


Of letting bloud to take more obferuation, 
Know in beginning of all fharpe difeafes, 
'Tis counted beft to make euacuation: 
Too old, too yong, both letting bloud dif- 


By yeares and fickneffe make your computa- 

Firft in the Spring for quantity you mall 
Of bloud take twife as much as in the Fall: 
In Spring and Summer let the right arme bloud, 
The Fall and Winter for the left are good. 

THE Heart and Liuer, Spring & Summers 
The Fall and Winter, hand and foot doth 


One veine 40 cut in the hand, doth help ex- 
Vnto the fpleene, voyce, breft, and intrailes 

And fwages griefes that in the heart are 


But here the Salerne Schoole doth make an end : 
And here I ceafe to write, but will not ceafe 
To wifh you Hue in health, and die in peace: 
And ye our Phyficke rules that friendly read, 
God grant that Phyficke you may neuer need. 





ANGLORUM Regi scripsit 1 schola tota Salerni. 

Si vis incolumem, si vis te reddere sanum, 
Curas tolle graves, irasci crede profanum, 
Parce mero, coenato parum, non sit tibi vanum 
Surgere post epulas, somnum fuge meridianum, 
Non mictum retine, nee comprime fortiter 

Haec bene si serves, tu longo tempore vives. 

Si tibi deficiant medici, medici tibi fiant 
Haec tria, mens laeta, requies, moderata diaeta. 

Lumina mane manus surgens gelida lavet 

Hac iliac modicum pergat, modicumque sua 


Extendat, crines pectat, dentes fricet. Ista 
Confortant cerebrum, confortant csetera membra. 

1 Notes for this and other indicated passages will be found on 
page 203 and the pages following. 


Lote, cale: sta, pranse, vel i; frigesce, minute. 2 

Sit brevis aut nullus tibi somnus meridianus. 
Febris, pigrities, capitis dolor, atque catarrhus, 
Hsec tibi proveniunt ex somno meridiano. 

Quatuor ex vento veniunt in ventre retento, 
Spasmus, hydrops, colica, vertigo, quatuor ista. 3 

Ex magna coena stomacho fit maxima poena. 
Ut sis nocte levis sit tibi coena brevis. 

Tu nunquam comedas stomachum nisi nov- 

eris ante 
Purgatum, vacuumque cibo quern sumpseris 


Ex desiderio poteris cognoscere certo: 
Haec tua sunt signa, subtilis in ore diseta. 4 

Persica, poma, pyra, lac, caseus, et caro salsa, 
Et caro cervina, leporina, caprina, bovina, 
Hsec melancholica sunt, infirmis inimica. 

Ova recentia, vina rubentia, pinguia jura, 
Cum simila pura, naturae sunt valitura. 

Nutrit et impinguat triticum, lac, caseus 


Testiculi, porcina caro, cerebella, medullas, 
Dulcia vina, cibus gustu jucundior, ova 

Sorbilia, maturse ficus, uvaeque recentes. 

Vina probantur odore, sapore, nitore, colore. 
Si bona vina cupis, haec quinque probantur in 


Fortia, formosa, fragrantia, frigida, frisca. 5 
Sunt nutritiva plus dulcia, Candida, vina. 
Si vinum rubens nimium quandoque bibatur 
Venter stipatur, vox limpida turbificatur. 

Allia, nux, ruta, pyra, raphanus, et theriaca, 
Haec sunt antidotum contra mortale venenum. 6 

Aer sit mundus, habitabilis ac luminosus. 
Nee sit infectus, nee olens fcetore cloacae. 

Si tibi scrotina noceat potatio vini 
Hora matutina rebibas, et erit medicina. 
Gignit et humores melius vinum meliores. 
Si fuerit nigrum, corpus reddet tibi pigrum. 
Vinum sit clarumque vetus, subtile, matu- 

rum, 7 

Ac bene lymphatum, saliens, moderamine 
sumptum. 8 

Non sit acetosa cervisia, sed bene clara, 
De validis cocta granis, satis ac veterata. 
De qua potetur stomachus non inde gravetur. 9 

Temporibus veris modicum prandere jube- 


Sed calor aestatis dapibus nocet immoderatis. 
Autumni fructus caveas; ne sint tibi luctus. 
De mensa sume quantum vis tempore brumae. 

Salvia cum ruta faciunt tibi pocula tuta. 
Adde rosse florem minuit potenter amorem. 

De Absynthio. 

Nausea non poterit quemquam vexare ma- 
Antea cum vino mixtam si sumpserit illam. 

Salvia, sal, vinum, piper, allia, petroselinum, 10 
Ex his fit salsa, nisi sit commixtio falsa. 
Si fore vis sanus ablue ssepe manus. 11 
Lotio post mensam tibi confert munera bina, 
Mundificat palmas, et lumina reddit acuta. 

Panis non calidus, nee sit nimis inveteratus, 
Sed fermentatus, oculatus sit, bene coctus, 
Modice salitus, frugibus validis sit electus. 
Non comedas crustam, choleram quia gignit 


Panis salsatus, fermentatus, bene coctus, 
Purus sit sanus, quia non ita sit tibi vanus. 

Est caro porcina sine vino pejor ovina: 
Si tribuis vina, tune est cibus et medicina. 
Ilia porcorum bona sunt, mala sunt re- 

mpedit urinam mustum, solvit cito ven- 

trem, 12 
Hepatis emphraxim, splenis general, lapi- 

Potus aquae sumptus fit edenti valde noci- 

Infrigidat stomachumque cibum nititur fore 


Sunt nutritivse multum carnes vitulinse. 13 
Sunt bona gallina, et capo, turtur, sturna, co- 


Quiscula, vel merula, phasianus, ethigoneta, 14 
Perdix, frigellus, orix, tremulus, amarellus, 

Si pisces molles sunt magno corpore tolles, 15 
Si pisces duri, parvi sunt plus valituri: 
Lucius, et parca, saxaulis, et albica, tenca, 
Sornus, plagitia, cum carpa, galbio, truca. 16 

Vocibus anguillae pravse sunt si comedantur. 
Qui physicam non ignorant haec testificantur. 

Caseus, anguilla, nimis obsunt si comedantur, 
Ni tu saepe bibas et rebibendo bibas. 17 
Si sumas ovum molle sit atque novum. 
Pisam laudare decrevimus ac reprobare. 
Pellibus ablatis est bona pisa satis 18 
Est inflativa cum pellibus atque nociva. 
Lac ethicis sanum, caprinum post cameli- 

num : 19 

Ac nutritivum plus omnibus est asininum. 
Plus nutritivum vaccinum, sic et ovinum. 
Si febriat caput et doleat non est bene sanum. 
Lenit et humectat, solvit sine febre buty- 

Incidit, atque lavat, penetrat, mundat 

quoque, serum. 
Caseus est frigidus, stipans, grossus, quoque 


Caseus et panis, bonus est cibus hie bene sanis. 20 
Si non sunt sani tune hunc non jungito pani. 

Ignari medici me dicunt esse novicum, 
Sed tamen ignorant cur nocumenta feram. 21 
Languenti stomacho caseus addit opem, B 
Si post sumatur terminat ille dapes. 23 
fi6 4 ] 

Qui physicam non ignorant haec testificantur. 
Inter prandendum sit saepe parumque biben- 


Ut minus aegrotes non inter fercula potes. 
Ut vites poenam de potibus incipe caenam, 
Singula post ova pocula sume nova. 24 

Post pisces nux sit, post carnes caseus adsit 
Unica nux prodest, nocet altera, tertia mors 


Adde potum pyro, nux est medicina veneno. 
Fert pyra nostra pyrus, sine vino sunt pyra 


Si pyra sunt virus sit meledicta pyrus. 
Si coquas, antidotum pyra sunt, sed cruda 

venenum. 25 
Cruda gravant stomachum, relevant pyra 

cocta gravatum 
Post pyra da potum, post pomum vade faeca- 

tum. 26 

Cerasa si comedas tibi confert grandia dona : 
Expurgant stomachum, nucleus lapidem tibi 

tollit, 27 

Et de carne sua sanguis eritque bonus. 

Infrigidant, laxant, multum prosunt tibi, 

pruna. 28 

Persica cum musto vobis datur ordine justo. 
Sumere sic est mos: nucibus sociando ra- 


Passula non spleni, tussi valet, est bona reni. 
Scrofa, tumor, glandes, ficus cataplasmate 

cedit, 29 

Junge papaver ei confracta foris tenet ossa. 
Pediculos, veneremque facit, sed cuilibet ob- 

stat. 30 
Multiplicant mictum, ventrem dant escula 


Escula dura bona, sed mollia sunt meliora. 31 
Provocat urinam mustum, cito solvit et in- 

Grossos humores nutrit cerevisia, vires 
Prsestat, et augmentat carnem, generatque 

Provocat urinam, ventrem quoque mollit et 


Infrigidat modicum, sed plus desiccat ace- 


Infrigidat, macerat, melan: dat, sperma min- 


Siccos infestat nervos, et impinguia siccat. 
Rapa juvat stomachum, novit producere 


Provocat urinam, faciet quoque dente ruinam. 32 
Si male cocta datur hinc torsio tune generatur. 
Egeritur tarde cor, digeritur quoque dure. 
Similiter stomachus, melior sit in extremitates. 
Reddit lingua bonum nutrimentum medicinse. 
Digeritur facile pulmo, cito labitur ipse. 

Est melius cerebrum gallinarum reliquorum. 
Semen fceniculi fugat et spiracula culi. 33 
Emendat visum, stomachum comfortat ani- 


Copia dulcoris anisi sit melioris. 34 
Si cruor emanat spodium sumptum cito 

sanat. 35 

Vas condimenti prseponi debet edenti. 
Sal virus refugat, et non sapidumque saporat. 
Nam sapit esca male quse datur absque sale. 
Urunt persalsa visum, spermaque minorant, 
Et generant scabiem, pruritum sive rigorem. 36 

Hi fervore vigent tres, salsus, amarus, acu- 

tus 37 . 

Alget acetosus, sic stipans, ponticus atque. 
Unctus, et insipidus, dulcis, dant tempera- 

Bis duo vippa facit, mundat dentes, dat 

Visum, quod minus est implet, minuit quod 


Omnibus assuetam jubeo servare disetam. 
Approbo sic esse, nisi sit mutare necesse. 
Est Hippocras testis, quoniam sequitur mala 


Fortior est meta medicinae certa diaeta: 
Quam si non curas, fatue regis, et male curas. 
Quale, quid, et quando, quantum, quoties, ubi, 

Ista notare cibo debet medicus diaetando. 38 

Jus caulis solvit, cujus substantia stringit: 

Utraque quando datur venter laxare paratur. 

Dixerunt malvam veteres quia molliat al- 


Malvae radices rasae dedere faeces, 39 

Vulvam moverunt, et fluxum ssepe dederunt. 

Mentitur mentha si sit depellere lenta 
Ventris lumbricos, stomach! vermes que noci- 

Cur moriatur homo cui salvia crescit in 

horto ? 
Contra vim mortis non est medicamen in hor- 

tis. 40 

Salvia confortat nervos, manuumque tremores 41 
Tollit, et ejus ope febris acuta fugit. 
Salvia, castoreum, lavendula, premula veris, 
Nastur : athanasia, sanant paralytica membra. 42 
Salvia salvatrix, naturae consiliatrix. 

Nobilis est ruta quia lumina reddit acuta. 
Auxilio rutse, vir, quippe videbis acute. 
Ruta viris coitum minuit, mulieribus auget. 43 
Ruta facit castum, dat lumen, et ingerit astum. 
Cocta facit ruta de pulicibus loca tuta. 

De cepis medici non consentire videntur. 
Cholericis non esse bonas dicit Galienus. 
Flegmaticis vero multum docet esse salubres, 
Praesertim stomacho, pulcrumque creare col- 


Contritis cepis loca denudata capillis 

Saepe fricans poteris capitis reparare deco- 

rem> 44and45 

Est modicum granum, siccum, calidumque, 

Dat lacrimas, purgatque caput, tollitque vene- 

Crapula discutitur, capitis dolor, atque gra- 

Purpuream dicunt violam curare caducos. 

De Urtica. 

JEgns dat somnum, vomitum quoque tollit 

Compescit tussim veterem, colicisqus med- 


Pellit pulmonis frigus, ventrisque tumorem, 46 
Omnibus et morbis subveniet articulorum. 
Hyssopus est herba purgans a pectore 

Ad pulmonis opus cum melle coquatur hysso- 


Vultibus eximium fertur reparare colorem. 

De Cerifolio. 

Suppositum cancris tritum cum melle med- 


Cum vino potum poterit separare dolorem. 
Saepe solet vomitum ventremque tenere solu- 

tum. 47 

Enula campana reddit prsecordia sana. 
Cum succo rutae si succus sumitur hujus, 48 
Affirmant ruptis nil esse salubrius istis. 

De Pulegio. 

Cum vino choleram nigram potata repellit: 
Sic dicunt veterem sumptum curare poda- 
gram. 49 

De Nasturtio. 

Illius succo crines retinere fluentes 
Allitus asseritur, dentisque curare dolorem, 60 
Et squamas succus sanat cum melle perunctus. 

De Celedonia. 

Ccecatis pullis hac lumina mater hirundo, 
Plinius ut scribit, quamvis sint eruta reddit. 

De Sal-ice. 

Auribus infusus vermes succus necat ejus. 
Cortex verrucas in aceto cocta resolvit. 
Pomorum succus flos partus destruit ejus. 

Comfortare crocus dicatur laetificando, 
Membraque defecta confortat hepar reparando 

De Porro. 

Reddit fcecundas permansum saepe puellas. 
Isto stillantem poteris retinere cruorem. 51 
Quod piper est nigrum non est dissolvere 


Flegmata purgabit, digestivamque juvabit. 52 
Leucopiper stomacho prodest, tussique dolori 
Utile, prseveniet motum febrisque rigorem. 
Et mox post escam dormire nimisque mo- 
ver! : 

Ista gravare solent auditus, ebrietasque. 
Metus, longa fames, vomitus, percussio, 


Ebrietas, frigus, tinnitum causat in aure. 
Balnea, vina, Venus, ventus, piper, allia, 


Porri, cum cepis, lens, fletus, faba, sinapi, 
Sol, coitus, ignis, labor, ictus, acumina, pulvis, 
Ista nocent oculis, sed vigilare magis. 
Feniculis, verbena, rosa, celidonia, ruta, 63 
Ex istis fit aqua quse lumina reddit acuta. 

Sic dentes serva, porrorum collige grana. 
Ne careas jure, (thure?) cum hyoscyamo simul 

Sicque per embotum fumum cape dente re- 

motum. 64 

Nux, oleum, f rigus capitis, anguillaque, potus, 
Ac pomum crudum, faciunt hominem fore 


Jejuna, vigila, caleas dape, valde labora, 
Inspira calidum, modicum bibe, comprime 


Hsec bene tu serva si vis depellere rheuma. 
Si fluat ad pectus, dicatur rheuma catarrhus: 
Ad fauces bronchus: ad nares esto coryza. 

Auripigmentum, sulphur, miscere memento: 
His decet apponi calcem: commisce saponi. 
Quatuor hsec misce. Commixtis quatuor istis 
Fistula curatur, quater ex his si repleatur. 55 

Ossibus ex denis, bis centenisque, novenis, 
Constat homo: denis bis dentibus ex duodenis: 
Ex tricentenis, decies sex, quinqueque venis. 66 
Quatuor humores in humano corpore con- 

Sanguis cum cholera, phlegma, melancholia. 
Terra melan: aqua fleg: et aer sanguis, cole: 

ignis. 57 

Natura pingues isti sunt atque jocantes, 
Semper rumores cupiunt audire frequentes. 
Hos Venus et Bacchus delectant, fercula, risus, 
Et facit hos hilares, et dulcia verba loquentes. 
Omnibus hi studiis habiles sunt, et magis apti. 
Qualibet ex causa nee hos leviter movet ira. 
Largus, amans, hilaris, ridens, rubeique coloris, 
Cantans, carnosus, satis audax, atque benig- 

Est et humor cholerae, qui competit impetu- 

Hoc genus est hominum cupiens praecellere 


Hi leviter discunt, multum comedunt, cito 


Inde magnanimi sunt, largi, summa petentes. 
Hirsutus, fallax, irascens, prodigus, audax, 
Astutus, gracilis, siccus, croceique colons 
Phlegma vires modicas tribuit, latosque, 

brevesque. 58 
Flegma facit pingues, sanguis reddit medi- 


Otia non studio tradunt, sed corpora somno. 69 
Sensus hebes, tardus motus, pigritia, somnus. 
Hie somnolentus, piger, in sputamine multus. 
Est huic sensus hebes, pinguis, facie color al- 

Restat adhuc tristis choleras substantia 


Qu93 reddit pravos,pertristes,pauca loquentes. 60 
Hi vigilant studiis, nee mens est dedita somno, 
Servant propositum, sibi nil reputant fore 


Invidus, et tristis, cupidus, dextraeque tenacis, 
Non expers frandis, timidus, luteique colons. 
Hi sunt humores qui praestant cuique col- 

Omnibus in rebus ex phlegmate fit color albus. 

Sanguine fit rubens: cholera rubea quoque 

rufus. 61 

Si peccet sanguis, facies rubet, extat ocellus, 
Inflantur gense, corpus nimiumque gravatur, 
Est pulsusque frequens, plenus, mollis, dolor 


Maxime fit frontis, et constipatio ventris, 
Siccaque lingua, sitis, et somnia plena rubore, 
Dulcor adest sputi, sunt acria, dulcia, quseque. 62 
Denus septenus vix phlebotomiam oetit 


Spiritus uberior exit per phlebotomiam. 
Spiritus ex potu vini mox multiplicatur, 
Humorumque cibo damnum lente reparatur. 
Lumina clarificat, sincerat phlebotomia 
Mentes et cerebrum, calidas facit esse medul- 
Viscera purgabit, stomachum ventremque co- 


Puros dat sensus, dat somnum, tsedia tollit, 
Auditus, vocem, vires producit et auget. 
Tres insunt istis (Maius, September, April- 


Et sunt hmares sunt velut hydra dies: 
Prima dies primi, postremaque posteriorum : 
Nee sanguis minui, nee carnibus anseris uti. 
In sene vel juvene si venae sanguine plense 
Omni mense bene confert incisio venae. 
Hi sunt tres menses, Maius, September, April- 
In quibus eminaus ut longo tempore vivas, 

Frigida natura, frigens regio, dolor ingens, 
Post lavacrum, coitum, minor setas atque sen- 

ilis, 63 

Morbus prolixus, repletio potus et escae, 64 
Si fragilis, vel subtilis sensus stomachi sit, 
Et fastiditi, tibi non sunt phlebotomandi. 

Quid debes f acere quando vis phlebotomari, 65 
Vel quando minuis, fueris vel quando minutus ? 
Unctio, sive potus, lavacrum, vel fascia, motus, 66 
Debent non fragili tibi singula mente teneri. 

Exhilarat tristes, iratos placat, amantes 
Ne sint amentes, phlebotomia facit. 

Fac plagam largam mediocriter, ut cito 


Exeat uberius, liberiusque cruor. 

Sanguine subtracto, sex horis est vigilan- 


Ne somni fumus laedat sensibile corpus. 
Ne nervum Isedas, non sit tibi plaga pro- 

Sanguine purgatus non carpas protinus escas. 

Omnia de lacte vitabis rite, minute, 
Et vitet potum phlebotomatus homo. 
Frigida vitabis, quia sunt inimica minutis. 
Interdictus erit minutis nubilus aer. 
Spiritus exultat minutis luce per auras. 
Omnibus apta quies, est motus valde nocivus. 

Principio minuas in acutis, peracutis. 
^tatis mediae multum de sanguine tolle, 
Sed puer atque senex toilet uterque parum. 
Ver tollat duplum, reliquum tempus tibi sim- 

^Estas, ver, dextras: autumnus, hiemsque, 

Quatuor haec membra, cephe, cor, pes, hepar, 

vacuanda. 67 

Ver cor, hepar sestas, ordo sequens reliquas. 
Dat salvatella tibi plurima dona minuta: 63 

Purgat hepar, splenem, pectus, praecordia, 

Innaturalem tollit de corde dolorem. 69 

Si dolor est capitis ex potu, limpha bibatur, 
Ex potu nimio nam febris acuta creatur. 
Si vertex capitis, vel frons, aestu tribulentur, 
Tempora fronsque simul moderate saepe fri- 


Morella cocta, nee non calidaque laventur. 
Temporis sestivi jejunia corpora siccant. 
Quolibet in mense confert vomitus, quoque 

Humores nocuos stomachi, lavat ambitus 

Ver, autumnus, hiems, sestas, dominantur in 


Tempore vernal! calidus fit aer, humidusque, 
Et nullum tempus melius fit phlebotomise. 
Usus tune homini Veneris confert moderatus, 
Corporis et motus, ventrisque solutio, sudor, 
Balnea, purgentur tune corpora cum medi- 


JEstas more calet sicca, nascatur in ilia 

Tune quoque prsecipue choleram rubeam dom- 

Humida, frigida fercula dentur, sit Venus ex- 

Balnea non prosunt, sint rarse phlebotomise, 

Utilis est requies, sit cum moderamine potus. 


(1) According to Suetonius in his life of the Emperor 
Claudius, the latter had in contemplation the issuance 
of a proclamation justifying the emission of flatus 
wherever and whenever the need might exist. Mon- 
taigne in his Essay on the Force of the Imagination 
expresses the wish that the Emperor might at the same 
time have granted also the power to do so. 

(2) i. e. This is indicated in the common expression 
"the mouth waters." 

(3) Avicenna thought peaches a wholesome food if 
eaten before other heavier articles of diet. The 
Ancients lay stress on the difficulty of obtaining 
peaches exactly ripe and dwell on the dangers of the 
fruit when either unripe or overripe. Pears were re- 
garded as in general unwholesome because of the 
difficulty with which they undergo digestion, being 
very apt to produce colic and flatus. Apples were 
regarded as indigestible because "they engender ventu- 
osities in the second digestion." Milk was dangerous 
for the sick because of its tendency to curdle; but 
Hippocrates recommended its use in phthisis. The 
command to abstain from salt meat is very much in 
line with the modern "salt-free diet." Hare and goat's 
flesh were held to "engender melancholly blood." 

(4) Manchet. Fine white bread. 

(5) Dowcet. Testicle. 

(6) Muskadell. Muscatel was a term applied to a 
number of different sweet wines made in Italy, Spain, 
and France. Candy wine wine of Candia. 

(7) The fruit of the Mesphilus Germanica very 
much like a small apple; it was only eaten when some- 
what overripe. 

Gerarde (Herbal, ed. 1636) says: "Medlars do stop 
the belly, especially when they be greene and hard, 
for after they haue been kept awhile, so that they 
become soft and tender, they do not binde or stop so 
much, but are then more fit to be eaten. The fruit 
of the three graine Medlar, is eaten both raw and 
boyled, and is more wholesom for the stomacke. These 
Medlars be oftentimes preserued with sugar or hony: 
and being so prepared they are pleasant and delightful 
to the taste. Moreover, they are singular good for 
women with childe: for they strengthen the stomacke 
and stay the loathsomeness thereof. The stones or 
kernals of the Medlars, made into pouder and drunke, 
doe breake the stone, expell grauell, and procure urine." 

66 "Rosalind. I'll graff it with you, and then shall I 
graffit with a medlar; then it will be the earliest fruit 
i' the country; for you'll be rotten ere you be half 
ripe, and that's the right virtue of the medlar." As 
You Like It, Act III, Sc. II. 

(8) Vinegar was formerly held in great esteem for 
the several reasons mentioned in the text. It was 
supposed to reduce obesity, to act as a sexual sedative 
and was in great demand as a disinfectant. Matthew 
Carey in his account of the epidemic of yellow fever 


in Philadelphia in the year 1793 states that "Those 
who ventured abroad, had handkerchiefs or sponges, 
impregnated with vinegar or camphor, at their noses, 
or smelling bottles full of thieves' vinegar." The latter, 
or vinegar of the four thieves, as it was more usually 
termed, was a preparation the composition of which 
was said to have been discovered by four young men 
during the plague at Marseilles in 1720. It was 
claimed to have rendered them immune from the disease 
and enabled them to rob the sick while pretending to 
serve as nurses. 

(9) Tripe. The stomach and intestines. Lites. 
(Lights) The Lungs. 

(10) Gerarde (Herbal, ed. 1636, page 1032) says of 
fennel (fceniculum vulgare), "The powder of the seed 
of fennell drunke for certaine daies together fasting 
preserueth the eye-sight: whereof was written this 
Distichon following: 

Fceniculum, Rosa Verbena, Chelidonia, Ruta, 
Ex his fit aquaqua lumina reddit acuata. 

Of Fennell, Roses, Vervain, Rue, and Celandine, 
Is made a water good to clere the sight of eine. 

The green leaves of Fennel eaten or the seed drunke 
made into a Ptisan, do fill womens brests with milke. 

The decoction of Fennell drunke easeth the paines 
of the kidnies, causeth one to auoid the stone, and 
prouketh urine. 

The roots are as effectuall, and not onely good for 


the intents aforesaid, but against the dropsie also, 
being boiled in wine and drunken. 

Fennell seed drunke asswageth the paine ofthestom- 
acke, and wambling of the same or desire to vomit, 
and breaketh winde. 

The herbe, seed, and root of Fennell are very good 
for the lungs, the liver, and the kidnies, for it openeth 
the obstructions or stoppings of the same, and com- 
forteth the inward parts. 

The seed and herbe of sweet Fennell is equall in 
vertues with Annise seed." 

(11) Spodium. Greek (oirodtvp) ashes. 

(12) Gerarde (Herbal, ed. 1636, page 1302) says of 

"The root of Licorice is good against the rough 
harshnesse of the throat and brest; it opens the pipes 
of the lungs when they be stuffed or stopt, ripeneth 
the cough, and bringeth forth flegme. * * * It is 
good against hoarseneses, difficulties of breathing, in- 
flammation of the lungs, the pleurisie, spitting of bloud 
or matter, consumption and rottennesse of the lungs, 
all infirmities and ruggednesse of the chest." 

(13) The caper bush belongs to the genus Capparis. 

(14) Gerarde (Herbal, ed. 1636, page 33) says of 
gallingale, the alpinia officinarum, or galanga: 

"These roots * * * strengthen the stomach, 
and mitigate the pains thereof arising from cold and 
flatulencies. The smell * * * comforts the too 
cold braine; the substance thereof being chewed 


sweetens the breath. It is good also against the beating 
of the heart. They are useful against the collicke 
proceeding of flatulencies, and the flatulent affects of 
the wombe; they conduce to venery, and heate the too 
cold reines. To conclude they are good against all 
cold diseases." 

(15) Scorbutic disorders of the skin were terribly 
prevalent among those who went on long sea voyages 
in times when their chief article of food was salted 

(16) Colewort or cabbages were held in much es- 
teem for their supposed medicinal properties. Ger- 
arde (Herbal, ed. 1636, page 317) gives a lengthy list 
of the various uses to which the different parts of the 
plant were applied : Thus Dioscorides taught that it was 
good when eaten "for them that have dim eies, and 
that are troubled with a shaking palsie;" "It is reported, 
that colewort beeing eaten before meate, doth preserue 
a man from drunkennesse: the reason is yeelded, for 
that there is a naturall enmitie betweene it and the 
vine, which is such, as if it grow neere vnto it, forth- 
with the vine perisheth and withereth away." "Pliny 
writeth, that the iuice mixed with wine, and dropped 
into the eares is a remedy against deafnesse." * * * 
etc., etc. 

(17) Gerarde (Herbal, ed. 1636, page 932) says of 
the virtues of mallow: "The leaves of Mallowes are 
good against the stinging of Scorpions, Bees, Wasps, 
and such like: and if a man be first annointed with the 


leaves stamped with a little oile, he shall not be stung 
at all, as Dioscorides saith. The decoctions of mal- 
lowes with their roots drunken are good against all 
venome and poyson, if it be incontinently taken after 
the poyson, so that it be vomited up againe. 

"The leaves of mallowes boiled till they be soft and 
applied, doe mollifie tumors and hard swellings of the 
mother, if they so withal sit over the fume thereof 
and bathe themselves therewith. 

"The decoction used in clysters is good against the 
roughness and fretting of the guts, bladder, and funda- 
ment. The roots of the Veruaine-m allow do heale the 
bloudy flix and inward burstings, being drunke with 
wine and water, as Dioscorides and Paulus Aegineta 

(18) Mint was anciently a very popular remedy in 
all disorders associated with the female organs. It 
was also used very greatly in digestive disturbances. 

(19) The statement in Gerarde's Herbal, ed. 1636, 
page 766, fully agrees with the laudation of sage con- 
tained in the Regimen: "Agrippa and likewise Aetius 
haue called it the Holy-herbe, because women with 
childe if they be like to come before their time, and are 
troubled with abortments, do eate thereof to their 
great good; for it closeth the matrix, and maketh them 
fruitfull, it retaineth the birth, and giveth it life, and 
if the woman about the fourth day of her going abroad 
after her childing, shall drinke nine ounces of the juyce 
of sage with a little salt, and then use the company 
of her husband, she shall without doubt conceire and 


bring forth store of children, which are the blessing 
of God. * * * 

Sage is singular good for the head and braine; ic 
quickeneth the sences and memory, strengtheneth the 
sinewes, restoreth health to those who haue the palsie 
vpon a moist cause, takes away shaking or trembling 
of the members; and being put up into the nostrils, 
it draweth thin flegme out of the head. It is likewise 
commended against the spitting of bloud, the cough, 
and paines of the sides, and bitings of serpents," etc., etc. 

Sage tea is still held in much popular esteem in men- 
strual disorders. 

Sage has previously been praised in the poem for 
its virtues as a prophylactic against seasickness, 
vide p. 91. 

(20) Rue or herb of grace had a high place in the 
pharmacopeia of the ancient physician. It wa? used 
both locally and internally. It was especially esteemed 
as a carminative and diuretic. 

(21) In Gerarde's Herbal, ed. 1636, page 170, we find 
that onions "stamped with Salt, Rue, and Honey, and 
so applied, they are good against the biting of a mad 

(22) Even the ancients found mustard of but little 
service in internal medicine, except as a stimulant of 
the digestive tract. It was in great vogue, however, 
as a counterirritant. Gerarde (Herbal, ed. 1636) says, 
"The seed of mustard beaten and put into the nostrils 
causeth sneezing, and raiseth women sicke of the Mother 


(hysteria) out of their fits. It is good in the falling sick- 
nesse, and such as haue the Lethargic, if it belaid plaister- 
wise vpon the head (after haueing been tempered with 
figs). It helpeth the Sciatics, or ache in the hip or 
hucklebone." * * * 

(23) In addition to their usefulness in epilepsy and 
as a purgative in surfeits, there were many other 
medicinal uses to which they were applied. Gerarde's 
Herbal, ed. 1636, page 852, says, "the floures are 
good for all inflammations, especially of the sides and 
lungs; they take away the hoarseness of the chest, 
the ruggedness of the winde-pipe and jawes, allay the 
extreme heate of the liver, kidnies, and bladder, miti- 
gate the fiery heate of burning agues, temper the sharp- 
nesse of choler, and take away thirst." * * * 

(24) Gerarde's Herbal, ed. 1636, page 707, contains 
a very glowing exordium of the virtues of nettles. 

"Being eaten, as Dioscorides saith boiled with 
Periwinkles, it maketh the body soluble, doing it by 
a kinde of clensing facultie: it also provoketh vrine, 
and expelleth stones out of the kidnies: being boiled 
with barly cream it is thought to bring up tough 
humors that sticke in the chest. Being stamped, and 
the juice put up into the nostrils, it stoppeth the 
bleeding of the nose: the juice is good against the in- 
flammation of the uvula. * * * It concocteth and 
draweth out of the chest humors. It is good for them 
that cannot breathe vnlesse they hold their necks 
vpright, and for those that haue the pleurisie, and for 
such as be sick of the inflammation of the lungs, it 


be taken in a looch or licking medicine, and also against 
the troublesome cough that children haue, called the 
chin-cough. Nicander affirmeth, that is a remedie against 
the venemous qualitie of Hemlocke, Mushroms and 
Quicksilver. And Apollodorus saith that it is a counter 
poison for Henbane, Serpents and Scorpions." * * * 

(25) Gerarde, Herbal, ed. 1636, page 580. 

"A decoction of Hyssop made with figs, and gargled 
in the mouth and throte, ripeneth and breaketh the 
tumors and imposthumes of the mouth and throte, 
and easeth the difficultie of swallowing, comming by 
cold rheumes. The same made with figges, water, 
honey, and rue, and drunken, helpeth the inflamma- 
tion of the lungs, the old cough, and shortness of 
breath, and the obstructions and stoppings of the 

(26) Gerarde, Herbal, ed. 1636, page 991, writes: 

"The decoction of the roots of Cinke-foile drunke > 
cureth the bloudy flix, and all other fluxes of the belly, 
and stancheth all excessiue bleeding. The juyce of 
the roots while they be young and tender, is given 
to be drunke against the diseases of the liuer and lungs 
and all poyson. The same drunke in mede or honied 
water, or wine wherein some pepper hath been mingled, 
cureth the tertain or quartain feuers: and being drunken 
after the same manner for thirty daies together, it 
helpeth the falling sicknesse. * * * The juyce of 
the leaues drunken doth cure the jaundice, and com- 
forteth the stomacke and liuer. The decoction of the 


roots held in the mouth doth mitigate the paine of 
the teeth, staieth putrifaction, and all putrified vlcers 
of the mouth, helpeth the inflammations of the almonds, 
throat and the parts adjoining * * * and helpeth 
the bloudy flix. The root boyled in vinegre is good 
against the shingles, appeaseth the rage of fretting 
sores, and cankerous vlcers." 

(27) Gerarde, Herbal, ed. 1636, says: "It is good 
for shortnesse of breath, and an old cough, and for 
such as cannot breath vnlesse they hold their neckes 
vpright. It is of great virtue both giuen in a looch, 
which is a medicine to be looked on, and likewise pre- 
serued, as also otherwise giuen to purge and void out 
thicke, tough, and clammy humors, which sticke in 
the chest and lungs. The root preserued is good and 
wholesome for the stomacke: being taken after supper 
it doth not onely helpe digestion, but also keepeth the 
belly soluble. * * * The decoction of Enula (Elle- 
compane) drunken prouoketh vrine, and is good for 
them that are grieued with inward burstings, or haue 
any member out of joynt." * * * 

(28) Gerarde, Herbal, ed. 1636, page 672, says: 

" Pennie Royall boyled in wine and drunken prouok- 
eth the monethly termes, bringeth forth the secondine, 
the dead childe and vnnaturall birth: it prouoketh 
vrine and breaketh the stone especially of the kidnies. 
Pennie Royall taken in honey clenseth the lungs, and 
cleareth the breast from all grosse and thicke humours. 
The same taken with hony and Aloes, purgeth by stoole 


malancholy humours; helpeth the crampe and draw- 
ing together of sinewes. The same taken with water 
and vinegre asswageth the inordinate desire to vomit, 
and the paines of the stomacke. If you haue when 
you are at the sea Penny Royall in great quantitie dry, 
and cast it into corrupt water, it helpeth it much, 
neither will it hurt them that drinke thereof. A gar- 
land of Pennie Royall made and worne about the head 
is of great force against the swimming in the head, and 
the paines and giddinesse thereof. The decoction of 
Penny Royall is very good against ventositie, windines, 
or such like, &, against the hardnesse and stopping of 
the mother being used in a bath or stew for the woman 
to sit ouer." 

(29) Gerarde, Herbal, ed. 1636, enumerates a number 
of varieties of cresses, such as water cress, winter 
cress, bank cress, garden cress, and sciatica cress, and 
attributes many virtues to them. Thus of winter cress 
he writes: "The seed of Winter Cresse causeth one 
to make water, and driveth forth grauell, and helps the 
strangurie. The juyce thereof mundfieth corrupt and 
filthy vlcers, being made in form of an vnguent with 
wax, oile, and turpentine. * * * This herbe helpeth 
the scuruy, being boiled among scuruy grasse, called 
in Latin Cochlearia, causing it to work the more 

The garden cress is also highly commended for scurvy, 
and "it scoureth away tettas mixed with brine." 

Sciatica cress derives its name from its supposed 
value in that complaint. 


(30) Gerarde, Herbal, ed. 1636, page 1392, affirms 
of the willow: "The leaues and barke of Withy or 
Willowes do stay the spitting of bloud, and all other 
fluxes of bloud whatsoever in man or woman, if the 
said leaues and barke be boyled in wine and drunke. 
The greene boughes with the leaues may very well be 
brought into chambers and set about the beds of those 
that be sicke of feuers, for they doe mightly coole the 
heate of the aire, which thing is a wonderfull refreshing 
to the sicke patients. The barke hath like vertues: 
Dioscorides writeth, that this being burnt to ashes, 
and steeped in vineger, takes away cornes and other 
like risings in the feet and toes: diuers, saith Galen, 
doe slit the barke whilst the withey is in flouring and 
gather a certain juyce with which they used to take 
away things that hinder the sight, and this is when 
they are constrained to use a clensing medicine of thin 
and subtill parts." 

(31) Gerarde, Herbal, ed. 1696, writes of saffron: 
"Avicen affirmeth that it causeth headache and is 

hurtful to the braine, which it cannot do by taking 
it now and then, but by too much using of it; for the 
too much using of it cutteth off sleep, for want whereof 
the head and sences are out of frame. But the moderate 
use thereof is good for the head and maketh the sences 
more quick and liuely, shaketh off heauy and drowsie 
sleepe, and maketh a man merry. Also saffron 
strengtheneth the heart, concocteth crude and raw 
humors of the chest, opens the lungs, and removeth 
obstructions. It is also such a special remedie for 


those that haue consumption of the lungs, and are as 
wee terme it, at death's doore, and almost past breath- 
ing, that it bringeth breath again, and prolongeth life 
for certaine dayes, if ten or twenty graines at the most 
be given with a new or sweet wine." Saffron was also 
much used locally in affections of the eyes and ears. 
The use of the meadow saffron, or colchicum, for gout, 
dates back to antiquity. The dangers of its too free 
use in that complaint were well recognized. 

(32) Leeks were recommended as antidotes against 
the bites of venomous beasts, being used both internally 
and locally. The juice of the leek was considered of 
great value when dropped into the external auditory 
meatus, in earache and tinnitus aurium. 

(33) Gerarde, Herbal, ed. 1636, makes no distinc- 
tion as regards the medicinal properties of white or 
black pepper. He writes: "Dioscorides and others 
agreeing with him affirme, that Pepper resisteth poyson, 
and is good to be put into medicaments for eies. All 
Pepper heateth, prouoketh vrin, digesteth, draweth, 
disperseth, and clenseth the dimness of the sight, as 
Dioscorides noteth. 

(34) "Fceniculum, Rosa, Verbena, Chelodonia, Ruta 
Ex Us fit aqua qua lumina reddit acute. 

Of Fennell, Roses, Vervain, Rue and Celandine 
Is made a water good to cleere the sight of eine." 

(See Gerarde's Herbal, ed. 1636, page 1032.) 

(35) Guerini, "History of Dentistry," 1909, ascribes 
the origin of the legend that dental caries is due to 


worms in the teeth to the following passage in Scrib- 
onius Largus: 

"Suitable also against toothache are fumigations 
made with the seeds of the hyoscyamus scattered on 
burning charcoal; these must be followed by rinsings 
of the mouth with hot water; in this way sometimes, 
as it were, small worms are expelled." 

He adds: "This passage of Scribonius Largus has 
given rise to the idea that dental caries depends upon 
the presence of small worms, which eat away the 
substance of the tooth. Such an explanation must 
have well succeeded in satisfying the popular fancy; 
and it is for this that such a prejudice, although fought 
against by Jacques Houllier in the sixteenth century, 
has continued even to our days." 

Lastly he tells from his own knowledge the following 
story which shows a modern Italian charlatan doing 
very much what was taught in the Regimen: 

"With regard to this I would like to record the fol- 
lowing fact : Not many years ago there lived in Aversa, 
a small town near Naples, Italy, a certain Don Angelo 
Fontenella, a violin player, who professed himself to 
be the possessor of an infallible remedy against tooth- 
ache. When summoned by the sufferer, he carried 
with him, in a bundle, a tile, a large iron plate, a funnel, 
a small curved tube adjustable to the apex of the funnel, 
a piece of bees' wax, and a small packet of onion seed. 
Having placed the tile on a table, the iron plate was 
put upon it, after it had been heated red hot. Then 
the operator let a piece of bees' wax fall upon the 


red-hot iron, together with a certain quantity of onion 
seed; then, having promptly covered the whole with the 
funnel and made the patient approach, he brought the 
apex of the said funnel close to the sick tooth, in such 
a way as to cause the prodigious, if somewhat stinking, 
fumes produced by the combustion of the wax with 
the onion seed to act upon it. In the case of a lower 
tooth, the above mentioned curved tube was adopted 
to the funnel, so that the fumes might easily reach 
the tooth. The remedy, for the most part, had a 
favorable result, whether because the beneficial effect 
was due to the action of the hot vapor on the diseased 
tooth, or to the active principles resulting from the 
combustion of the wax and onion seed, or to both, 
or perhaps also, at least in certain cases, to the sug- 
gestion that was thus brought to bear upon the sufferer. 
It would not be at all worth while to discuss here such 
a point. The interesting point is that when the patient 
had declared that he no longer felt pain, Don Angelo, 
with a self-satisfied smile, turned the funnel upside 
down, and showed on its internal surface a quantity 
of what he pretended to be worms, which he affirmed 
had come out of the carious tooth. Great was the 
astonishment of the patient and of the bystanders, 
none of whom raised the least doubt as to the nature 
and origin of these small bodies, no one having the 
faintest suspicion even that these, instead of coming 
from the tooth, might come from the onion seed." 

(36) Tents were formerly much used in surgery to 
keep wounds open in order that they might heal from 


the bottom outwards. Many substances were used for 
the purpose, especially lint or other fabrics soaked in 
balsmic oils. 

(37) Flix. Gleet, a chronic discharge from the 

(38) Gray's Anatomy, ed. 1887, gives the number 
of bones in the adult skeleton as follows: 

The spine or vertebral column (sacrum 

and coccyx included) 26 

Cranium 8 

Face 14 

Os hyoides, sternum, and ribs 26 

Upper extremities 64 

Lower extremities 62 


"In this enumeration the patellae are included as 
separate bones, but the smaller sesamoid bones and 
the ossicula auditus are not reckoned. The teeth 
belong to the tegumentary system." 

Any attempt at an accurate enumeration of the veins 
is impossible. It must be remembered that at the 
epoch when the Regimen was composed, injections of 
the bloodvessels were not practised. 

In ancient East Indian medicine the following 
classification of the human body was made. It con- 
sists "of six members (the four extremities, the trunk, 
and the head), and has 7 membranes, 7 segments, 70 
vessels, 500 muscles, 900 sinews, 300 bones, 212 joints, 


but only 24 nerves, and 9 organs of sense, etc. The 
vessels contain not only blood, but they carry also 
bile, mucus, and air about through the body. Of the 
nerves, which take their origin from the navel, 10 
ascend, 10 descend, and 4 run transversely, as soon as 
the 10 ascending nerves reach the heart, however, 
they divide into 30." (Baas, "History of Medicine," 
Handerson's translation, page 49.) 

(39) Garrison's "Introduction to the History of 
Medicine" contains several figures reproduced by per- 
mission of Sudhoff of so-called bloodletting men 
(Aderlassman), illustrating the planetary influences 
on the human body as regarded the proper times and 
places for bloodletting. These figures, printed as 
calendars, were among the earliest productions of the 
printers' art. The belief in the astrological relation 
between bloodletting and the heavenly bodies continued 
into the seventeenth century. Bleeding was regarded 
as a very solemn function until but a few hundred 
years ago. Hippocrates and the ancient Greeks and 
Latins employed it frequently. Under the influence 
of the Arabian School the so-called "derivative" 
method of bloodletting came into vogue. This con- 
sisted in drawing blood from the opposite side of the 
body from the affected part. Early in the sixteenth 
century Pierre Brissot, a physician of Paris, proclaimed 
the fallacy of the Arabian view and after a fierce battle 
lasting over a period of years the medical profession 
finally returned to the standard of Hippocrates, and 
bled once more from the diseased side. Pare gives the 


following exposition of the reasons for letting blood. 
I take it literally from Johnson's translation of his 
works, edition of 1678, page 411: 

"Phlebotomy is the opening of a vein, evacuating 
the blood with the rest of the humors; thus Arterotomy, 
is the opening of an artery. The first scope of Phle- 
botomy is the evacuation of the blood offending in 
quantity, although oft-times the Physician's intention 
is to draw forth the blood which offends in quality, or 
other way by opening a vein. Repletion, which is 
caused by the quantity, is two-fold; the one ad vires, 
that is, to the strength, the veins being otherwise not 
very much swelled: This makes men infirm and weak, 
Nature not able to bear his humor, of what kind soever 
it be. The other is termed ad vasa, that is, to the 
vessels, the which is so called comparatively to the 
plenty of blood, although the strength may very well 
away therewith. The vessels are oft-times broke by 
this kind of repletion, so that the Patient casts and 
spits up blood, or else evacuates it by the nose, womb, 
hemorrhoids, or varices. The repletion which is ad 
vires, is known by the heaviness and wearisomeness of 
the whole body; but that which is ad vasa, is perceived 
by their distension and fulness, both of them stand in 
need of evacuation. But blood is only to be let by 
opening a vein, for five respects: The first is to lessen 
the abundance of blood, as in plethorick bodies, and 
those who are troubled with inflammation without 
any plenitude. The second is for diversion or revulsion, 
as when a vein of the right is opened to stay the bleed- 
ing of the left nostril. The third is to allure or draw 

down; as when the saphena is opened in the ankle, to 
draw down the courses in women. The fourth is for 
alteration or introduction of another quality; as when 
in sharp feavers we open a vein to breathe out that blood 
which is heated in the vessels, and cooling the residue 
which remains behind. The fifth is to prevent immi- 
nent diseases; as when in the Spring and Autumn we 
draw blood by opening a vein in such as are subject 
to spitting of blood, the Squinancy, Plurisie, Falling- 
sickness, Apoplexy, Madness, Gout, or in such as are 
wounded, for to prevent the inflammation which is to be 
feared. Before blood-letting, if there be any old 
excrements in the guts, they shall be evacuated by a 
gentle Clyster or suppository, lest the mesaraick veins 
should thence draw unto them any impurity. Blood 
must not be drawn from ancient people, unless some 
present necessity require it, lest the native heat, 
which is but languid in them, should be brought to 
extreme debility, and their substance decay; neither 
must any in like sort be taken from children, for fear 
of resolving their powers by reason of the tenderness 
of their substance, and rareness of their habit. The 
quantity of blood which is to be let, must be consid- 
ered by the strength of the Patient and greatness of 
the disease: Therefore, if the Patient be weak, and 
the disease require large evacuation, it will be con- 
venient to part the letting of blood, yea by the in- 
terposition of some days. The vein of the forehead 
being opened is good for the pain of the hind-part of 
the head, yet first we foment the part with warm water, 
that so the skin may be softer, and the blood drawn 

into the veins in greater plenty. In the Squinancy, 
the veins which are under the tongue must be opened 
aslant, without putting any ligatures about the neck, 
for fear of strangling. Phlebotomy is necessary in all 
diseases which stop or hinder breathing, or take away 
the voice of speech; as likewise in all constitutions by 
a heavy stroke, or fall from high, in an Apoplexy, 
Squinancy, and Burning-feaver, though the strength 
be not great, nor the blood faulty in quantity or quality, 
blood must not be let in the height of a Feaver. Most 
judge it fit to draw blood from the veins most remote 
from the affected and inflamed part, for that thus the 
course of the humors may be diverted, the next veins 
on the contrary being opened, the humors may be the 
more drawn into the affected part, and so increase 
the burthen and pain. But this opinion of theirs is 
very erroneous, for an open vein always evacuates and 
burthens the next part. For I have sundry times 
opened the veins and arteries of the affected part, as 
of the hands and feet in the Gout of their parts; of 
the temples in the Megrim; whereupon the pain always 
was somewhat asswaged, for that together with the 
evacuated blood, the malignity of the Gout, and the 
hot spirits (the causes of the Head-ach or Megrim) 
were evacuated. For thus Galen wisheth to open the 
arteries of the temples in a great and contumacious 
defluxion falling upon the eyes, or in the Megrim or 

Heister (English translation of his "General System 
of Surgery," London, 1757) says, "A good phleboto- 
mist should have a steady, nimble and active Hand, 


with a sharp Eye and undaunted Mind; without which 
he may be either liable to miss the Vein, or commit 
some Accident that may be injurious or fatal to the 
Patient and his own Character. For these Reasons 
it is that Venesection is less readily practiced by the 
Surgeon as he advances in Years: because old Age is 
generally accompanied with a weak Eye and a trem- 
bling Hand." 

Heister gives the following directions for preparation 
for the operation: 

"Preparatory to Bleeding you should have in Read- 
iness, (i) a Linen Fillet, about a Paris Ell in Length, 
and two Fingers in Breadth, with or without small 
Strings fastened at each End of it. (2) Two small 
square Bolsters. (3) Porringers or Vessels to receive 
the Blood. (4) A Sponge with warm Water. (5) Some 
Vinegar Wine, or Hungary Water, to raise the Patient's 
Spirits if he should be inclinable to faint. (6) Two 
Assistants, who must be void of Fear, one to hold the 
Porringer, the other to reach you anything that you 
shall want. (7) A small Wax Candle, when the 
Patient is to be blooded at Night, or in a dark Place. 
(8) You must place your Patient upon a Couch; or, 
if he is very fearful of the Operation, lay him upon 
a Bed, lest he should fall into a Swoon. (9) Lastly, 
you should take Care that no 1 r air, or the Cloaths of 
the Patient lie in your Way. The Patient himself 
should take Care that nothing should give him any 
Concern: And he should avoid terrifying himself with 
recollecting the Mischiefs which have happened by 
the unskilful Performance of this Operation. Lastly, 

the Operator should be as expert in bleeding with his 
left Hand as with his right. For, as you are readier 
at bleeding in the right Arm with your right Hand, 
so when you are to open the Veins of the left Arm, 
you will find it necessary to use your left Hand: And 
there are some Patients who insist upon being blooded 

in the left Arm." 


(40) This was a small vein situated on the back of the 
hand, between the ring and little finger, known as the 
salvatella vein, a branch of the cubital. In the days 
of cheiromancy it was believed to have an intimate 
relation on the right side with the liver, the right kid- 
ney, and the right lung; on the left side with the 
spleen, the left kidney and the left lung. 


(1) Ordronaux has "scribit" instead of "scripsit." 

(2) After "minute" Ordronaux inserts: 

"Fons Speculum Gramen, haec dant oculis re- 

Mane igitur montes, sub serum inquirito fontes." 

Arnold of Villa Nova. 

(3) "Spasmus,hydrops, colica, vertigo, hoc res probat 
ipsa." Ordronaux. 

(4) "Tu numquam comedas stomachum nisi noveris 

Purgatum, vacuumque cibo, quern, sumpseris 


Ex desiderio id poteris cognescere corto; 
Haec sint signa tibi, subtilis in ore saliva." 


(5) Ordronaux inserts a line: 

"Corpora plus augent tibi dulcia, Candida vina 
Alii sic, 

(6) "Haec sunt antidotum, contra lethale venenum^ 

(7) "Vinum sit clarum, vetus, subtile, maturum." 


(8) "Ac bene dilutum, saliens, moderamine sump- 

turn." Ordronaux. 


(9) Between this line and the next Ordronaux has 
the following lines: 

"Grasses humores nutrit cerevisia, vires 
Praestat, augmentat carnem, generatque cruorem 
Provocat urinam, ventrem quoque mollit et inflat. 
Infrigidat modicum; sed plus desiccat acetum, 
Infrigidat, macerat, melancholiam dat, sperma 

Siccos infestat nervos, et impinguia siccat.'" 

(10) "Adde rosa florem, minuitqne potenter amorem 
Nausea non poterit haec quemquam vexare, 


Undam cum vino, mixtam qui sumpserit ante 
Salvia, sal, vinum, piper, allium, petroselinum." 


(n) In Ordronaux's version this line is transposed so 
that it follows the next two, thus: 

"Lotio post mensam tibi confert munera bina 
Mundificat palmas et lumina reddit acuta 
Si fore vis sanus, ablue saepe manus." 

(12) "Ilia bona sunt porcorum, mala sunt reliquorum 
Provocat urinam mustum, solvit cito ventrem." 


(13) Between the foregoing lines the following, 
accredited to Arnold of Villa Nova, are given by 

"Vina bibant homines, animantia coetera fontes 
Absit ab hurnano pectore potus aquae." 


(14) "Quiscula, vel merula, phasianus, ortygometra." 


(15) "Si pisces sunt molles, magno corpora tolles." 


(16) These lines do not occur in the text given by 
Professor Ordronaux. 

(17) Between this and the next line the following is 
found in the Ordronaux: 

"Inter prandendum sit saepe parumque bibendum." 

(18) "Pisum laudandum decrivimus ac reprobandum 
Est inflativum cum pellibus atque nocivum 
Pellibus ablatis sunt bona pisa satis. 

(19) "Lac phthisicis sanum caprinum post came- 

linum." Ordronaux. 

(20) "Caseus est frigidus, stipans, crassus, quoque 


Caseus et panis, sunt optima fercula sanis." 


(21) Between lines 106 and 107 the Ordronaux text 
has the following: 

"Expertis reor esse rarum, quia commoditate." 

(22) Between lines 107 and 108 Ordronaux has: 
"Caseus ante cibum confert, si defluat alvus." 

(23) "Si constipetur terminat ille dapes." 



(24) "Post pisces nux sit, post carnes caseus adsit. 
Unica nux prodest, nocet latera, tertia mors est 
Singula post ova, pocula sume nova." 


(25) "Si coquis antidotum pyra sunt sed cruda 

venenum." Ordronaux. 

(26) "Post pyra da potum, post pomum vade 

cacatum." Ordronaux. 

(27) "Expurgat stomachum nucleus lapidem tibi 

toilet." Ordronaux. 

(28) "Infrigidant, laxant, multum prosunt tibi 

prunae." Ordronaux. 

(29) "Srofa, tumor, glandes, ficus cataplasmati 

cedunt." Ordronaux. 

(30) "Pediculos, venerem que facit, sed cuilibet 


Addition by Arnold of Villa Nova, Ordronaux. 

(31) "Mespila dura bona, sed mollia sunt meliora." 


(32) After line 143 Ordronaux has the following lines, 
which he states are an addition by Arnold of Villa 

"Radix rapa bona est, comedenti dat tria dona; 
Visum clarificat, ventrem mollit, bene bombit. 
Ventum saepe rapis, si tu vis vivere rapis." 

(33) "Semen foeniculi pellit spiracula culi." 



Immediately following line 149, Ordronaux has the 
following two lines, an addition by Arnold of Villa 

"Bis duo dat marathrum, febres fugat atque ven 

Et purgat stomachum, lumen quoque reddit acutum.', 

(34) "Copia dulcoris aniso fit melioris." 


(35) Immediately between this line and the next 
Ordronaux gives the following addition by Arnold of 
Villa Nova: 

"Guadet hepar spodio, mace cor cerebrum quo que 

Fulmo liquirita, splen capparis, stomachumque 


(36) Between lines 157 and 158 Ordronaux's version 
has two lines of Arnold of Villa Nova: 

"Sal primo poni debet, primoque reponi 
Non bene mensa tibi ponitur absque sale." 

(37) "Hie fervore viget tres, salsus, amarus, acutus:" 


(38) In Ordronaux's version there is an additional 
line between lines 169 and 170: 

"Ne mala conveniens ingrediatur iter." 

(39) "Malvae radices rasas deducere faeces." 



(40) "Contra vim mortis, non tails medicainen in 

hortis." Ordronaux. 

Ordronaux states that he has substituted talis in this 
line instead of est y as the original has it. He points 
out that est plainly contradicts the preceding line, and 
has substituted talis, as better illustrating the general 
high character of the plant, of whose virtues the sub- 
sequent lines serve to give a more detailed exposition. 

(41) "Salvia confortat nervos, manumque tremorem" 


(42) "Nasturtium, athanasia, haec sanant para- 
lytica membra." Ordronaux. 

(43) "Auxilio rutae, vir lippe videbis acute 

Ruta viris minuit Venerem, mulieribus addit." 


(44) "Saepe fricans, capitis poteris reparare de- 

corem." Ordronaux. 

(45) Ordronaux inserts the two following lines by 
Arnold of Villa Nova: 

"Appositas perhibent morsus curare caninos, 
Si trita cum melle prius fuerint at aceto." 

(46) "Aegris dat somnum, vomitum quoque tollit et 


Illius semen colicis cum melle medetur. 
Et tussim veterem curat, si saepe bibatur. 
Frigus pulmonis pellit, ventrisque tumorem." 



(47) "Oppositum cancris tritum cum melle medetur 
Cum vino potum laeteris sedare dolorem 

Saepe solet, tritam si nectis desuper herbam." 


(48) "Cum succo rutae succus si sumitur hujus." 


(49) "Appositam veterem dicunt sedare podagram." 


(50) "Illius succus crines retinere flueutes 
Illitus asseritur, dentesque levare dolorem." 


(51) "Hujus flos, sumptus in aqua, frigescere cogit 
Instinctus Veneris, cunctos acres stimulantes 
Et sic desicat, ut nulla creatio fiat. 
Confortare crocum dixerunt exhilarando 
Membra defecta confortat hepar reparando. 
Reddit fbecundas mansum per saepe puellas; 
Ills stillantem poteris retinere cruorem, 
Ungis si nares intus medicamine tali." 


(52) "Phlegmata purgabit, concoctricemque juvabit'' 


(53) After this line (238) Ordronaux has: 
"Subveninut oculis dira caligne pressis, 

Nam ex istis fit aqua, quae lumina reddit acuta." 

(54) "Cum hyoscyamo ure adjunct simul quoque 


Sic per embotum fumum cape dente remotum.' 



(55) Between lines 253 and 254 the Ordronaux con- 
tains the following: 

"Si capitis dolor est ex potu, lympha bibatur. 
Ex potu nimio nam febris acuta creatur 
Si vertex capitis vel frons aestu tribulentur 
Tempora fronsque simul moderate saepe frieentur; 
Morella cocta nee non calidaque laventur; 
Istud enim credunt capitis prodesse dolori. 
Temporis aestivi jejunia corpora siccant, 
Quolibet in mense, et confort vomitus quoque purgat 
Humores nocuos, stomachi lavat ambitus omnes. 
Ver, Autumnus, Hyems, Aetas, dominatur in anno; 
Tempore vernali calidus fit aer, humidusque, 
Et nullum tempus melius fit phlebotomise. 
Usus tune homini Veneris confert moderatus. 
Corporis et motus, ventrisque solutio, sudor, 
Balnea, purgentur tune corpora cum medicinis. 
Aetas more calet sicca, et noscatur in ilia 
Tune quoque praecipue choleram rubram dominare. 
Humida, frigida fercula dentur, sit Venus extra, 
Balena non prosunt, sint rarae phlebotomise 
Utilis est requies, sit cum moderamine potus." 
In the Latin version used by Croke these lines form 
the concluding stanzas: 

(56) "Et ter centenis decies sex quinque venis." 


(57) "Terra melancholias, aqua confertur pituita. 
Aer sanguineis, ignea vis choleras." 

Immediately after the above lines Ordronaux has the 
following addition by Arnold of Villa Nova: 


"Humidus est sanguis, calet, est vis seris illi 
Alget phlegmia, humetque illi sic copia aquosa est. 
Sicca calet cholera, et igni fit similata, 
Frigens sicca melancholia est, terras adsimilata." 

(58) "Phlegma viros modicos tribuit, latosque' 

brevesque." Ordronaux. 

(59) "Otio non studio tradunt, sed corpora somno." 


(60) "Restat adhuc cholera; virtutes dicere nigrae 
Qua reddit tristes, pravos, perpauca loquentes." 


(61) After this line Ordronaux has the following ad- 
dition by Arnold of Villa Nova: 

"Corporibus fuscum bilis dat nigra colorem; 
Esse solent fusci quos bilis possidet atra. 
Istorum duo sunt tenues, alii duo pingues, 
Hi morbos caveant consumptos, hique repletos." 

(62) Following this line Ordronaux's version contains 
the following which is interesting as an exposition of 
symptoms indicative respectively of excess of bile, of 
phlegm, and of black bile: 

"Accusat choleram dextrae dolor, aspera lingua, 
Tinnitus, vomitusque frequens, vigilantia multa, 
Multa sitis, inguisque egestio tormina ventris, 
Nausea fit morsus cordis, languescit onexia 
Pulsus adest gracilis, durus, veloxque calescens 
Aret, amarescitque, incendia somnia fingit. 
Phlegrna supergrediens proprias in corpore leges, 


Os facit msipidum, fastidia crebra, salivas, 
Costarum, stomachi, simul occipitisque dolores, 
Pulsus adest rarus, tardus, mollis, quoque inanis. 
Praecedit fallax phantasmata somnus aquosa. 
Humorum pleno dum faex in corpora regnat, 
Nigra cutis, durus pulsus, tenuisque urina, 
Sollicitudo, timor, tristitia, somnia tetra; 
Acesunt ructus, sapor, et sputaminis idem. 
Levaque praecipue tinnit vel sibilat auris." 

(63) Ordronaux has this: 

"Balnea post, coitum, minor aetas atque senilis." 

(64) "Morbus prolixus, repletio potus et escae." 


(65) "Quid debes facere quando vis phlebotomari." 


(66) "Unctio sive lavacrum, potus, vel fascia, motus." 


(67) "Ver, aestas, dextras; autumnus, hyemsque 


Quatuor haec membra, hepar, pes, cepha, cor, 
vacuanda." Ordronaux. 

(68) "Ex salvatella tibi plurima dona minuta." 


(69) In the version of Professor Ordronaux the lines 
which follow line 344 in Croke's are to be found follow- 
ing line 253. 



Ague, 97, 122 
Ale, 102 
Arsenic, 126 

Bathing, 75 
Beer, 90 

care after, 154 

instructions for, 146, 148 

rule on, 149, 156 

salvatella vein in, 156 
Blows and falls, 123 
Bones, 131 

crusty, 92 
fine, 82 
sops, 108 
Bronchus, 77 
Broth, 81 
Brimstone, 126 

Catarrh, 77 

Cheerfulness as an aid to cure, 75 
Choleric, 115, 132, 136, 144 
Claudius, Emperor 

proclamation of, 79, 103 
Coitus, 130, 150 
Colic, 117 
Constipation, 75 
Consumption, 96 
Cramps, 79 

Diet, 109 

Ague, 97, 122 

Colic, 117 

Constipation, 75 

Consumption, 916 

Cramps, 79 

Dropsy, 79 

Epilepsy, 117 

Fever, 127 


Fistula, 126 

Gout, 117, 119 

Headache, 79, 127, 145 

Palsy, 112, 113 

Phthisis, 77 

Rheum, 77, 126 

Rheumatism, 77 

Seasickness, 91 

Scab, 107 

Toothache, frankincense for, 


beer, 90 

often, at dinner, 99 

water, 93 

wine, 99 
Dropsy, 79 

Dwelling, ventilation and sur- 
roundings of, 87 

Embotum (funnel), 125 
Epilepsy, 117 
Exercise after dinner, 76 
bodily, 126 

Falls, blows and, 123 

Fasting, 128 

Fever, 127 

Fecation after apples, too 

Fistula, 126 

Flatulence, 79, 104 

Food, six things to be observed 

1 10 

From Animals 
Brains, 82, 104 
Butter, 97 
Cheese, 95, 97, 98 
Eggs, 8 1 
Heart, 104 
Honey, 117, 118, 120 



Lights, 104 
Marrow, 82 
From Animals 
Milk, 97 

Oil, 125, 153 

Testicles, 82 

Tripe, 92, 104 

Beef, 80 

Goat, 80 

Hare, 80 

Mutton, 92 

Pork, 82, 92 

Salt meats, 80, 107 

Veal, 94 

Venison, 80 

Capons, 94 

Chicken, 94 

Dove, 94 

Duck, 94 

Hens, 94 

Lark, 94 

Moorhen, 94 

Partridge, 94 

Pheasant, 94 

Plover, 94 

Quail, 94 

Rail, 94 

Swan, 94 

Thrush, 94 

Woodcock, 94 

Bass, 95 

Bream, 95 

Eels 95, 125 

Mullet, 95 

Perch, 95 

P,ke, 95 

Sole, 95 

1 rout, 95 

Apples, 80, 125 
Cherries, 100 
Figs, 82 


cataplasm of, 107 
Medlars, 102 
Peaches, 80, 101 
Pears, 80, 86, 100 
Plums, 101 
Raisins, 82, 101 
Nuts, 99, 101, 125 

Anise, 105 

Beans, 124 

Cabbage, no 

Capers, 106 

Cinquefoil, 118 

Elecampane, 119 

Fennel, 104, 105 

Galangal, 106 

Garlick, 86, 91 

Henbane, 125 

Hyssop, 113, n8 

Lavender, 113 

Leek, 122 

Lentils, 124 

Licorice, 106 

Mace, 106 

Mallow, in 

Mint, in 

Musk, 106 

Mustard, 116 

Nettle, 117 

Onion, 114, 115 

Parsley, 91 

Pea, 96 

Pennyroyal, 119 

Pepper, 91, 122 

Pppy> 101 

Primrose, 113 
Radish, 86 
Rape, 86 
Rose, 91, 124 
Rue, 86,91, 113, 114 
Saffron, 121 
Sage, 91, 112 
Turnip, 103 
Vervain, 124 


Prophylatic Measures, 


Avoid repletion, 126 

Violet, 117 

Avoidance of sleep at midday, 

Wallflower, 113 


Water cress, 120 

Bathing, 75 

Willow, 121 

Bodily cleanliness, 75, 76, 84, 

Frankincense for toothache, 125 


Elimination of flatulence, 79, 

Gout, 117, 119 


Hair, onion juice for the, 115 
Headache, 79, 127, 145 

Exercise, after dinner, 76 
bodily, 126 
Fasting, 128 

Hearing, 123 
Heart, 156 
Hoarseness, 95, 125 
Honey, 117, 118, 120 
Humors, 132 

Fecation after apples, 100 
Onion juice for the hair, 115 
Purging, 100, 146 
Six things to be observed in 
foods, no 

Lime, 126 

Purging, ioo, 146 

Liver, 156 

Repletion, avoid, 126 
Rheum, 77, 126 

Ale, 102 

Rheumatism, 77 

Beer, 90 

Gascon y, 81 
Red wine, 84 
White wine, 84 

Salt, 91, 107 
Sauces, 91, 107 
Sanguine man, the, 132, 134, 143 

Melancholy, 132, 140, 147 

Scab, 107 
Seasons of the year, 

Oil, 125, 153 

Varying food in the, 90, 128, 


Palsy, 112, 113 
Parts or Functions of the]Body 

Seasickness, 91 
Sight, 124 

Hearing, 123 

Spleen, 106 

Heart, 156 

Sleep at Midday, 77 

Humors, 132 

Sloth, 77 

Choleric, 115, 132, 136, 144 

Soap, 126 

Melancholy, 132, 140, 147 

Spodium, 106 

Phlegmatic, 132, 138, 145 
Sanguine, 132, 134, 143 
Liver, 156 

Stomach, 144, 147 
Supper should be light, 75, 79 
exercise after, 123 

Stomach, 144, 147 

Surfeit, 88 

Teeth, 125, 131 

Phlegmatic, 132, 138, 145 
Phthisis, 77 

Tastes, various, 108 
Teeth, 125, 131 

Poisons, 86, 91 
Arsenic, 126 

Choleric, 115, 132, 136, 144 


Temperaments Vinegar, 103 

Melancholy, 132, 140, 147 Vomiting, 128, 146 

Phlegmatic, 132, 138, 145 

Sanguine, 132, 134, 143 Warts, 121 

Temperance, 88 Water, 93 

Urine, 102, 103, 147 Gascony, 81 

Good, 88 

Veins, 131 Red, 84 

Venereal, 127, 130, 150 Strong, 82 

Ventilation and Surroundings of White, 84 

dwellings, 87 Sop in, 108 

Paul B. Hoeber, 69-71 East spth Street, New York 


Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 

FEB 121974 

11 APR"" 135 

MAR 13 1974 

ifcfi'D LD-Ufi| 

stP 29tfT5 

Form L9-Series 444 

A 000029350 6 

5^-t f* r> "*y 
/ b J 7