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Full text of "School patrols for traffic safety"

SCHOOL PATEOIS FOP. TU WIC 



SAFETY 








SCHOOL 
=>ATROLS 





FOR 



fRAFFIC SAFETY 




CHECK ROAD 
BEFORE CROSSING 



iRTH CAROLINA PUBLIC SCHOOL 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 







THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 



Cp 37 1.79 
AX87P 



This BOOK may be kept out TWO WEE 
ONLY, and is subject to a fine of FI 
CENTS a day thereafter. It is DUE on 
DAY indicated below: 



Publication No. 291 



SCHOOL PATROLS 

for 

TRAFFIC SAFETY 




Issued by the 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Raleigh, N. C. 



,. 










:j 






Wfl'^L 



>**s* 




1 



: 




CONTENTS 

Page 
Foreword 5 

Safety Patrols and Educational Values 7 

Philosophy 7 

General Objectives 8 

Specific Functions 8 

School-Community Cooperation 9 

Utilizing Community Resources 9 

Organization and Responsibilities 11 

Suggested Organization 11 

Responsibilities of Superintendent and Principal 13 

General Responsibilities of the Teacher-Sponsor 14 

Responsibilities of Teachers Other than Sponsor 14 

Responsibilities and Duties Normally Assigned to Patrol 

Officers and Members 15 

Responsibilities of Student Body 15 

Status of Liability 16 

Teacher-Sponsors 18 

Selection 18 

In-Service Education of Teacher-Sponsors 18 

Responsibilities and Duties of Teacher-Sponsors 19 

Training of Safety Patrols '. 21 

Training Techniques 22 

Membership in Safety Patrols 23 

Method of Selection 23 

Qualifications 23 

Parent Approval 25 

Size of Patrol 26 

3 



<< 



General Rules for Patrol Members 26 

General Duties of Patrol Members 27 

Installation of Patrol 28 

Operation Procedures and General Rules for Traffic 
Patrols 30 

Location of Patrol-Protected Crossings 31 

Position and Procedure 31 

Relation to Traffic Signals and Police Officers 33 

Hours on Duty 33 

Bus Duty 33 

Equipment 36 

Insignia and Equipment 37 

Procurement of Equipment 37 

Suggestions for Proper Care of Equipment 38 

Safety Patrol Activities 38 

Suggested Status-Producing Activities 39 

Possible Award or Recognition Activities 41 

Evaluating Progress of Safety Patrols 42 

Appendix 46 

Bibliography for Materials and other Helps 46 

Suggestions for Keeping General School Patrol Records ... 47 

Recording and Analyzing Student Accidents 51 

Additional Detailed Suggestions for Patrol Operations 58 



FOREWORD 

Recognized as an integral part of the total educational pro- 
gram, safety education is being emphasized increasingly through 
a number of functional approaches. One of these is the school 
traffic patrol which affords many opportunities for developing 
habits of safety among all students. In this, as in so many other 
areas of education, emphasis is necessarily on both individual 
and group responsibility. The degree to which individuals be- 
come interested in their own personal safety, as well as that of 
their fellow citizens, is the degree to which programs of safety 
education can be effective. It is common knowledge that acci- 
dents result from many causal factors, the chief of which is 
human error. 

In North Carolina, and throughout the nation, accidents — 
especially traffic accidents — account for the greatest number of 
fatalities among youths of school age, four to twenty-four. This 
bulletin is designed, therefore, to assist schools in improving 
their programs of safety education through traffic patrols, one of 
the most widely recognized means for teaching and encouraging 
habits of safety. Traffic patrols are feasible in schools of all 
sizes and in all types of communities. Functional adaptations 
are discussed under organization ; school-community cooperation ; 
responsibilities of administration, teacher-sponsors, and pupils; 
membership in safety patrols ; operation procedures and general 
rules; equipment; activities; and evaluation. 

Fundamental to a successful program of safety education is 
the philosophy that education for safe living must be an integral 
part of the total education program; that it must engage the 
enthusiastic, cooperative support of administrators, teachers, 
pupils, and lay personnel; that it must be continuous, creative, 
and imaginative; and that it must be continually evaluated in 
terms of changing needs. Frequent expression of the philosophy 
that it is the school's inescapable responsibility to develop those 
attitudes and skills which will lead to habits of safe living in an 
ever-changing environment will be found throughout this manual. 
The Department of Public Instruction believes that traffic patrols, 
properly organized and supervised, can do much toward 
strengthening the total educational program. 

Acknowledgment is made of the services of John C. Noe, 
George D. Maddrey and Carlton T. Fleetwood, of the Division of 
Elementary and Secondary Education in the preparation of this 



bulletin, and to Vester M. Mulholland, Director of Research and 
Statistics, and L. H. Jobe, Director of Publications, for their 
editorial assistance. 




State Superintendent of Public Instruction 



January 1, 1956 



> 



School Patrols for Traffic Safety 

SAFETY PATROLS AND EDUCATIONAL 
VALUES 

Philosophy 

Safety patrols are operating extensively and effectively, not 
only in North Carolina but throughout the nation. Clear-cut 
understandings among school board members, parents, teachers, 
pupils, and the general public as to the purposes and responsi- 
bilities of safety patrols have brought about widespread coopera- 
tion with such patrols and increasing prestige for their efforts. 

Safety patrols justify their existence for many reasons. They 
have been responsible for saving lives and preventing injuries. 
Equally important are the day-by-day learning experiences 
which they foster and which result in the development and use 
of habits of safe living. Such experiences are compatible with 
school programs which are designed to develop attitudes, skills, 
and knowledge needed for effective living in a democratic so- 
ciety. Willing acceptance and fulfillment of responsibility by 
patrol members in providing a needed service to society is one 
of the significant outcomes of such an educational program. 
Responsibility is no less important for patrol members than for 
all those with whom they work; for unless the responsibility of 
cooperation is accepted by patrol members and all others with 
whom they come in contact, patrols can never achieve their ulti- 
mate usefulness. This usefulness is almost unlimited if those 
in charge of administering and supervising safety patrols look 
upon them as another significant means of extending education 
opportunities to all pupils. 

As an integral and continuing part of the entire education 
program, safety patrols offer dynamic motivation for the acquisi- 
tion of knowledge, habits, skills, appreciations, and attitudes 
essential to safe living. Patrols also provide opportunities for 
developing many learnings based upon actual needs of the school 
and community, such as, 

• Skills and attitudes necessary to leadership 

• Skills and attitudes necessary to following directions 

• Abilities in problem solving 

• Skills and attitudes supporting cooperative effort by school 
and community 



When safety patrol programs are closely related to the total 
curriculum, they provide outstanding opportunities for citizen- 
ship education. Cooperatively planned and operated, such patrols 
represent learning by doing at its best. 

General Objectives 

General purposes of safety patrols are in keeping with those 
of other valuable school experiences ; and specific purposes are in 
agreement with all that is acceptable in a functional educational 
program. Major purposes are : 

• To reinforce classroom instruction in safety with meaning- 
ful activities in which the students have a large measure of 
self -direction 

• To give pupils practice in cooperative planning 

• To develop qualities of leadership and responsible coopera- 
tion among patrol members through daily use of democratic 
processes 

• To develop an understanding and appreciation of law en- 
forcement functions relative to pedestrian and vehicular 
traffic control 

• To develop among all students and others an awareness of 
traffic hazards and to create proper attitudes toward safe 
traffic behavior at all times and places 

Specific Functions 

Specific functions of school patrols may vary somewhat from 
one community to another; but, by and large, the following 
duties are commonplace : 

• To assist teachers, law enforcement officers, and others in 
programs of safety instruction for all pupils within the 
school — through patrol activities, class activities, general 
assemblies, bulletin boards, exhibitions, and exemplary 
behavior 

• To assist pupils in developing standards of traffic safety for 
school campus, for the immediate neighborhood in which 
they live, and for the larger community of which they be- 
come a part 

• To assist members of the student body in safe use of 
throughfares, sidewalks, and other facilities on the campus 
and in the immediate vicinity of the school 



• To remind motorists and pedestrians as well as pupils of 
their responsibilities for safety in traffic. Acceptable ways 
of accomplishing this purpose include the placing of safety 
patrol members at strategic locations and building public 
understanding and interest in safety through the newspapers 
and other media 

Emphasis on safety education as part of the total educational 
program may also be found in other publications issued by the 
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, especially in 
the two following: Health Education, North Carolina Public 
Schools, pp. 333-357 and pp. 319-332; and Handbook for Ele- 
mentary and Secondary Schools. One of the chief purposes of the 
Handbook is to stress the fact that safety education, at its best, is 
a continuous and cooperative venture intimately interwoven with 
the entire educational program. 

SCHOOL-COMMUNITY COOPERATION 

Utilizing Community Resources 

Safety education as a school-community cooperative effort 
offers many opportunities for jointly planning and sharing nu- 
merous responsibilities. The school safety patrol, in particular, 
can readily engage the cooperative interest, imagination, and 
activity of the school, the home, and various community 
agencies. Such agencies as the PTA, local police, State Highway 
Patrol, fire departments, transportation organizations or clubs, 
safety councils, civic organizations, recreational and welfare 
groups, service clubs, radio and television stations and news- 
papers normally welcome the opportunity to cooperate with 
school patrol activities. Experience has shown that any school 
program is likely to be more effective when the school plans and 
coordinates its efforts with interested, community groups. 

Since the basic purposes of school patrols are educational in 
nature, those administering them are responsible for motivating 
and guiding all groups interested in building a good patrol pro- 
gram. Community agencies willing to cooperate with school 
safety programs should definitely be guided by educators and by 
sound educational principles. Ideas may come from any source, 
but school administrators are responsible for the functioning 
of an effective program which is in harmony with the educa- 
tional policies determined by the school and its board of 
education. 



Joint action with community groups demands that agreements 
be worked out in advance on such matters as instructing patrol 
members, obtaining insignia and equipment, financing the patrol 
program, publicizing the program, and providing recognition for 
patrol service. The school can not surrender its legal responsi- 
bilities, but it can enrich its program by utilizing the interest, 
ideas and services of community organizations. 

The feeling is rather general that school patrols, as an integral 
part of the whole education program, should be financed by the 
board of education. Where this is not possible, the school patrol 
may be temporarily dependent upon financial assistance from 
other sources, but only in accordance with sound educational 
policies. Schools have a responsibility to see that children are not 
exploited in any way. This means that any help the school ac- 
cepts from community groups must come from groups having 
a sincere public-service purpose. The school must reserve the 
right at all times to be final judge as to whether proposed co- 
operative arrangements are in accord with this principle. 

Community agencies whose materials and services are used by 
the schools may expect to be recognized in appropriate ivays for 
their cooperation; but the school should never be urged through 
its patrol activities to advertise any agency or community group. 
Cooperation of this nature, to the extent possible, should be re- 
garded as an opportunity for community agencies to serve their 
schools. 

The NEA publication of the National Commission on Safety 
Education, The Expanding Role of School Patrols * emphasizes 
this principle in the following statement: "The safety patrol 
program is one of the school's best opportunities for citizenship 
education. It is also an outstanding opportunity for the com- 
munity to participate in an educational program which depends 
for its success on complete school-community cooperation." The 
following chart, also quoted from this NEA publication indicates 
various levels of achievement in the cooperative arrangements 
between schools and community agencies. This descriptive outline 
indicates how schools can improve their relationships with com- 
munity agencies to the point that meeting the needs of pupils be- 
comes the single purpose of schools and community agencies. 



* Materials from this publication, copyright 1953, are used in this bulletin with permission 
of the NEA. 



10 



SEE CHART P^ G 



ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES 

Suggested Organization 

The following organization chart suggests the desirability for 
centering responsibility at all levels :* 



Superintendent 



ainervision 



Principal 



Supervision 



sfety Director 



Liaison 



Teacher-Soonsor 



Liaison 



Bus Driver 



! tudent-Cautain 



Liaison 



Traffic Lieutenants 






Sidewalk Patrols 
serving at street 
corners immediate- 
ly adjacent to 
school. 



Convoy 
jieutenants 

T 

r _J 

] Members to convoy 
i students walking 
| to and from school 
| on rural or urban 

roadways. 
I 



Auxiliary 
Lieutenants i 



Bus 
Lieutenants 



, «- 

'Members 
i serving 
'playground 
I and other 
I outdoor 
j areas of 
i campus . 



Members 
serving 
indoor 
school 
areas . 

I 



Members serving 

as monitors 

on buses 



The organization chart above indicates many specific types 
of activity which may be performed by the school patrol organi- 
zation. It is not likely, how r ever, that any particular school would 
attempt to organize a patrol which would assume all of these 
functions during the first year of its operation; nor would this 
seem wise. This chart is designed to illustrate the organization 
of an extensive program and to serve as a guide for growth from 
a single-phase program to one providing many additional serv- 
ices. Since traffic accidents are the greatest cause of death and 
serious injury to persons of school age (4-24) in North Carolina, 
it appears that the organization of a patrol to teach and guide 
students in safe traffic behavior should receive first consideration. 
In rural areas, school bus patrols may need to be organized first ; 



* Solid lines of chart indicate phases of patrol activity which need to be organized immedi- 
ately, while broken lines indicate phases to be entered into at a later date. 

Heavy lines indicate strong responsibility for supervision relative to various aspects of 
the patrol program while fine lines indicate liaison with limited direct responsibility for 
supervision. 



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in larger cities, it may be best to give priority to organization 
of sidewalk patrols to serve at street corners or mid-block cross- 
ings immediately adjacent to the school. In small cities or towns 
with consolidated schools serving both urban and rural pupils, it 
may be wise to organize bus patrols and sidewalk patrols simul- 
taneously. For practical purposes this publication considers bus 
patrols as those whose members serve as monitors on a school bus 
and the terms bus patrol members and bus monitors are used 
synonomously throughout this publication. 

Experiences gained from successful operation of sidewalk and 
bus patrols should point the way toward the organization and 
operation of effective convoy and other auxiliary patrol units, 
such as stairway and corridor patrols, fire and disaster patrols, 
and playground patrols. 

Responsibilities of Superintendent and Principal 

The superintendent and principal should assume responsilibity 
for encouraging school safety patrols and for determining over- 
all safety patrol policies. 

The principal is responsible for organizing the patrol. He 
should be thoroughly familiar with the program and give it his 
active support. In view of his supervisory responsibilities, he 
should see to it that sound educational principles are assured in 
the patrol program and that only appropriate instructional tech- 
niques are employed. The principal should recognize the import- 
ance of good school-community relationships as safety patrols 
materialize and begin to function. He should assume much of the 
responsibility for community understanding and acceptance of 
the safety-patrol idea. It is necessary that he be familiar with 
liability of individuals or the board of education as it relates to 
the operation of school patrols, and that he inform pupils, 
teachers, and parents concerning such liability. He must also 
know whether patrol activities compLy with State and local 
regulations ; and he must assume the legal responsibilities rela- 
tive to patrol activities which are his by virtue of his position. 

The National Commission on Safety Education (NEA) in its 
bulletin, The Expanding Role of School Patrols, states: "Co- 
operative planning of the patrol program by teachers, students, 
and parents does not relieve the principal of his administrative 
responsibility for it. He must either see that the necessary 
things are done, or that the way is made clear for them to be 
done. Administrative responsibility for the success of the school 
patrol program, or any aspect of it, rests with the principal. 

13 



The following items suggest types of specific responsibility 
for the principal : 

• "Arousing interest and securing the cooperation of all school 
personnel and pupils in the patrol program. 

• "Providing opportunities for the faculty to discuss the work 
of the school patrols and their problems. 

• "Organizing the teacher-sponsor's program to provide suf- 
ficient time for carrying out the duties entailed in patrol 
sponsorship. 

• "Clearing the way for the school to draw upon community 
resources. 

• "Providing for the integration of safety education, including 
school patrols, within the total school program. 

• "Interpreting the school patrol program to the community." 

General Responsibilities of the Teacher-Sponsor 

The teacher-sponsor is responsible for directing the training of 
the patrol ; for keeping records ; for giving general supervision 
to the patrol program ; for coordinating patrol activities with 
the total school program ; and for securing the cooperation of 
the school staff, student body, parents, and community agencies 
or individuals who are interested in the patrol program. The 
teacher-sponsor, in cooperation with others responsible for school 
bus operations, is also responsible for assisting in planning and 
conducting training for school bus patrols. 

Responsibilities of Teachers Other Than Sponsor 

Although the teacher-sponsor is more closely connected with 
the safety patrol than any other adult, all teachers in the school 
should definitely assist in making a success of the patrol pro- 
gram. Teachers have many opportunities, in class and out, for 
observing the strong and weak points of patrol members and 
other students in relation to the patrol program. They should 
take every opportunity possible to commend the good work of 
patrol members and other cooperating students ; they should be 
willing to make and take suggestions for improvement. In as 
many other ways as possible each teacher should cooperate with 
the teacher-sponsor in achieving the goals of the patrol program. 

The National Commission on Safety Education (NEA) says: 
"Since the patrol program is school-wide, each teacher should 
be kept informed about patrol activities and developments. Each 
teacher should encourage discussions of patrol problems and 

14 



activities related to the ongoing instructional program. The 
personal attitude and example of every teacher ivith respect to 
patrols is important, and should be positive and helpful . . . 
"Each teacher should utilize every opportunity to : 

• "Maintain the interest and morale of patrol members, and 
of all students in the school patrol program. 

• "Instruct patrol members in the essentials of good patrol 
work. 

• "Recognize the work of the patrols. 

• "Bring to attention of entire faculty any patrol problems 
that need discussion and clarification. 

• "Assist patrol sponsors positively and constructively in 
achieving the goals of the patrol program." 

Responsibilities and Duties Normally Assigned to 
Patrol Officers and Members 

The captain is responsible for assisting the teacher-sponsor 
and others in training lieutenants and patrol members for their 
specific functions. He should also see that records are kept con- 
cerning attendance, punctuality and performance by officers and 
other members. Conducting daily inspections of patrol activities 
and reporting accidents and violations of patrol rules to the 
teacher-sponsor are also his duties. 

Lieutenants are responsible to the captain, and through him 
to the teacher-sponsor. Their general duties include assisting 
the teacher-sponsor and captain with the training of patrol mem- 
bers and keeping necessary records concerning attendance, punct- 
uality, and activities of patrol members. Daily inspections of 
their patrols, and reporting to the captain on accidents, violations 
of patrol rules, and general performance by patrol members are 
also their duties. Bus lieutenants should normally serve as the 
liaison between the patrol captain and bus members, assist the 
teacher-sponsor with training, and represent the bus patrol 
members in reporting problems relative to bus patrol operations. 

Patrolmen are responsible to the lieutenants for making 
necessary reports and for performing their specific duties as 
outlined in the rules governing school patrol operations. Bus 
patrolmen, however, are responsible for their actions to the bus 
driver and the principal. 

Responsibilities of the Student Body 

Each pupil has the definite responsibility of cooperating in 
every way possible with the school safety patrol in order that it 

15 



may operate effectively for the benefit of all. Students should 
take advantage of opportunities in the classroom, in student 
council meetings, in total student body meetings with patrol mem- 
bers and sponsors, and elsewhere to raise and discuss problems 
related to the school patrol program. Cooperation may take the 
form of encouragment of fellow students in following the leader- 
ship of patrol members in safe practices. 

Until each pupil in school becomes interested in his own safety, 
the safety of his fellow students and others, no safety program 
will be entirely successful. 

Status of Liability 

Concern is sometimes expressed relative to the liability of 
school officials in permitting pupils to serve as members of traffic 
safety patrols. The hazards which these pupils encounter depend 
in part on the scope of their activities. In North Carolina as 
well as in many other states, pupils are not allowed to direct 
motor vehicular traffic; nevertheless, certain hazards are in- 
volved in whatever duties are performed. 

According to the NEA study entitled Who is Liable for Pupil 
Injuries?, several states which have statutory authorization for 
operation of school traffic patrols provide for non-liability of the 
district or school employees in case of injury to members of the 
school traffic patrol. If negligence is responsible for injuries to 
students, the local board of education obviously would be liable. 
Negligence, as usually interpreted, consists of any conduct — in- 
cluding acts of commission or omission — which falls below the 
standard of care required for the protection of pupils against 
unreasonable risk of harm. Since negligence has been estab- 
lished as the key to liability, the sponsor of the school traffic 
patrol should exercise every effort to establish a teaching situa- 
tion in which there is little likelihood that such charges of negli- 
gence can be made. The NEA study also indicates that "no in- 
jured street traffic patrol pupils have claimed damage in any 
court of record; nor has any other pupil in a school operating 
such a patrol. . . . The legal status of pupil patrols has not been 
judicially determined. Although there is no court ruling to sub- 
stantiate the point, theoretically, permission of parents does not 
change the potential liability of school personnel. The best way 
to avoid the necessity for a court opinion on the question is to 
prevent accidents so far as possible." 



^6 



The position of the North Carolina Attorney General on lia- 
bility is made clear in the following excerpts from a letter which 
emanated from his office following requests for a ruling on lia- 
bility with regard to members of the school patrol in case of 
accident or injury while they are on duty in the morning or 
afternoon : 

"I find no express statutory authority for schools or municipalities to 
permit school children to act as junior policemen or as members of a school 
patrol, although I know that such practice is customary in a great many 
communities in North Carolina. 

"In case of BETTS v. JONES, 203 N. C. 590, our Supreme Court held 
that if members of boards of education or school trustees act in good faith 
and in the exercise of their best judgment, in the performance of their 
official duties, they are not responsible for personal injury or property 
damage; but if they act maliciously or in bad faith or knowingly employ 
an incompetent person, they will be personally liable for the negligent acts 
of their employees. See also SPRUILL v. DAVENPORT, 178 N. C. 364. 
The case of BETTS v. JONES was one arising in Anson County in which 
a child was killed when a school bus was overturned in a creek. It was 
alleged in the complaint that the school committee acted willfully, wrong- 
fully, maliciously, and corruptly in the employment of a bus driver known 
to be an incompetent and reckless driver. I assume that local school authori- 
ties will always select competent, mature, and capable students to act as 
members of the school patrol. 

"If the local authorities act in good faith in the selection of capable stu- 
dents to act as members of a school patrol, I am of the opinion that the local 
authorities would not be personally liable for an injury sustained by a 
member of the patrol while on duty. Such an injury would likely be caused 
by the driver of an automobile. Of course, such a person would be liable for 
any damage done under the ordinary rules of negligence applicable to such 
cases." 

The 1955 recodification of the school laws of the State, in Sub- 
Chapter IX, Article 21, Section 6.4 has this to say about school 
bus monitors: 

"The principal of a school, to which a school bus has been assigned, may, 
in his discretion, appoint a monitor for any bus so assigned to such school. 
It shall be the duty of such monitor, subject to the direction of the driver of 
the bus, to preserve order upon the bus and do such other things as may be 
appropriate for the safety of the pupils and employees assigned to such bus 
while boarding such bus, alighting therefrom or being transported thereon, 
and to require such pupils and employees to conform to the rules and regu- 
lations established by the county or city board of education for the safety 
of pupils and employees upon school buses." 

It appears that the local board of education should officially 
adopt all patrol rules and regulations. 

17 



TEACHER-SPONSORS 

Selection 

Since so much of the effectiveness of school safety patrols de- 
pends on those who supervise them, it is essential that faculty 
leadership be dynamic and sympathetic with the goals being 
sought. Invariably, the achievements of the patrol will reflect, 
in large measure, the strength and quality of faculty leadership. 
The superintendent or principal, therefore, should make certain 
that the teacher-sponsor of the safety patrol is, first of all, a 
person who has a keen interest in safety education programs. 
In addition, the teacher-sponsor should have the ability to or- 
ganize student activities, and direct them giving due considera- 
tion to individual differences, needs, and capacities. He should 
possess skill in leading both students and adults, and have the 
ability to cooperate with law enforcement officers and other 
community groups. He must realize at all times the great im- 
portance of satisfactory school-community relationships. 

A teacher-sponsor with these qualifications should be an en- 
thusiastic and dependable leader who can readily earn and main- 
tain the respect of pupils and fellow teachers. Since the teacher- 
sponsor will be working directly with patrol members, it is 
necessary that he possess these characteristics to a marked de- 
gree if he is to encourage initiative and dependability on the part 
of each member. Such a sponsor can also do much toward creat- 
ing proper attitudes of safety and cooperation among the total 
student body. 

Experience in many schools has shown that best results are 
achieved when the teacher-sponsor volunteers for the job and 
works with the patrol for several consecutive years. Teacher- 
sponsors may be appointed by the administrator ; or teachers 
themselves may wish to prorate responsibilities among them- 
selves according to interests and abilities. Irrespective of the 
method used to select or delegate patrol responsibility, the ex- 
perience afforded teachers and students through safety patrols 
can be as valuable as any others over which the school has super- 
vision. Favorable attitudes and belief in values of these experi- 
ences are necessary on the part of the teacher-sponsor and all 
other staff members if safety patrols are to function effectively. 

In-Service Education of Teacher-Sponsors 

Teacher-sponsors for safety patrols often assume their respon- 
sibilities with much interest and enthusiasm for the job but with 

18 



little technical know-how. The latter deficiency can be overcome 
rather easily if there is genuine interest in the work to be done. 
The following techniques are suggested as possible aids for in- 
service growth : 

• The use of printed materials and visual aids relative to 
school patrol programs. These are available through many 
state departments of education and other agencies as indi- 
cated in the Appendix. Sponsors definitely can grow in use- 
fulness as they become familiar with ideas and practices 
used elsewhere. 

• The use of consultants from local, state, and national educa- 
tion agencies. 

• The use of consultants from civic agencies in the local com- 
munity or from state or national groups. 

• Participation in university and college extension courses in 
safety. 

• Holding group discussions in local staff meetings, at which 
representatives from the student body, the PTA, and other 
community agencies may be present. 

• Having city-wide and county-wide workshops for the pur- 
pose of sharing ideas and experiences among teacher- 
sponsors. 

• Making visits to other schools in which safety patrols are 
functioning. Observations in such schools, plus discussions 
with teachers, pupils, and administrators, frequently help in 
securing valuable information. 

Responsibilities and Duties of Teacher-Sponsors 

Responsibilities and duties of the teacher-sponsor are varied 
and all are important if the safety program of the school is to 
engage the active interest of all teachers and all pupils. Many of 
the following suggestions are listed though not discussed in 
School Safety Patrol, a publication of the Department of Public 
Instruction of Pennsylvania: 

1. In the first place, it is the responsibility of the teacher- 
sponsor to see that members of the patrol are selected according 
to school policy and procedure. This may involve the formulation 
of special policies through cooperative faculty-student-adminis- 
trative procedure ; or it may simply mean the careful adherence 
to policies already determined for all school activities. Some ad- 

19 



ministrative units have found it feasible to establish policies and 
procedures which will be applicable throughout the entire unit. 
This idea is worthy of serious consideration. 

2. It is the sponsor's duty to assume general responsibility for 
the organization and operation of the patrol. Type of organiza- 
tion and details of operation, as indicated elsewhere in this 
bulletin, will vary from school to school. 

3. Training patrol members in their duties and responsibilities 
is the responsibility of the sponsor. Training techniques will be 
discussed more in detail in a later section of this chapter. 

4. It is the duty of the teacher-sponsor to maintain contact 
with all cooperating agencies through proper channels. This may 
involve reports of progress, cooperative efforts in projects of 
mutual interest and other positive public-relations activities. 
Experienced teacher-sponsors invariably state that keeping an 
up-to-date file on local patrol activities including literature con- 
cerning patrols is an invaluable aid in carrying out the duties of 
this position. 

5. Since safety activities are an integral part of the total edu- 
cational program, it is imperative that teacher-sponsors assume 
initiative in coordinating the safety education work of the school 
with other school activities. 

6. Realizing the significance of motivation and recognition, 
teacher-sponsors nowadays accept as their responsibility the 
development of programs which emphasize desirable motivation 
and wholesome recognition. Such programs should be charac- 
terized by sound teaching techniques. 

7. Another responsibility of the teacher-sponsor is that of 
continually encouraging parents to cooperate with the safety 
program of the school. It is especially important that parents 
exemplify safe behavior in their daily activities. 

8. Finally, the teacher-sponsor is responsible for a program of 
continuous and constructive evaluation of all phases of the safety 
program. This may include testing the patrol on its general and 
specific information concerning the operation of safety patrols. 
It may include appraisal of staff members' attitudes toward the 
program. It may include an evaluation of public-relations tech- 
niques being used, evidences of administrative cooperation, pa- 
rent cooperation, and attitudes of the student body. Since prog- 
ress and effectiveness in the safety program of the school are so 
closely connected with creative evaluation, every teacher-sponsor 

20 



should continually seek and use every means of evaluation to im- 
prove the program. 

Teacher-sponsors of safety patrols definitely have some of the 
most significant responsibilities in the total educational program. 
Regarded in this manner, it should be stimulating and challeng- 
ing for any teacher to work in this vital area. 




PATROL INSTRUCTION 

Training of Safety Patrols 

The teacher-sponsor, as has been previously mentioned, is defi- 
nitely responsible for the training experiences of patrol members. 
Even though this responsibility is inescapably his, he should re- 
member that in addition to school personnel other individuals 
and agencies in the community, as well as persons on the state 
and national level, are also willing to. share this responsibility. 
Law enforcement agencies ; industrial organizations ; transporta- 
tion agencies or clubs ; automobile manufacturers ; medical so- 
cieties; and civic-minded individuals, such as PTA members, 
chairmen of safety committees in civic organizations, consultants 
from state and national organizations, and others are vitally 
interested in the patrol movement and are usually eager to give 
assistance to local schools in organizing and operating effective 
school patrol programs. The teacher-sponsor should also remem- 
ber that older students experienced in safety patrol techniques 
may serve as valuable assistants in the training program. 



21 



Training Techniques 

As in other aspects of teaching, a variety of training tech- 
niques can be used to improve safety patrol knowledge and skills. 
Some proved techniques are : 

• Field trips for the purpose of studying pedestrian and ve- 
hicular traffic behavior, including situations in which law- 
enforcement officers are operating. 

• Group discussions of safety problems suggested by field 
trips or other experiences. 

• Cooperative formulation of rules, regulations, and policies. 

• Use of consultants and specialists. 

• Study of available literature, including daily papers. 

• Demonstrations. 

• Exhibits. 

• Panel discussions. 

• Illustrated lectures. 

• Motion pictures. 

• Role-playing. 

• Setting of good example by the teacher-sponsor, other school 
personnel and parents. 

Through such teaching techniques the teacher-sponsor should 
use every opportunity to provide experiences which emphasize the 
development of responsible citizenship, including qualities of 
leadership and cooperation. 

In the training of safety patrols, it is likely that emphasis will 
alternate between individual and group experiences. Teacher- 
sponsors will often find large and small group experiences effect- 
ive for achieving some purposes, whereas individual assistance 
on other occasions will likely be more beneficial. 



22 



MEMBERSHIP IN SAFETY PATROLS 

Method of Selection 

There is no one best plan for the selection of patrol members 
which will fit all situations. Membership should be open to both 
boys and girls. Whatever plan is used, pupils, teachers, and 
parents should cooperate in determining the pattern; and all 
activities should be carried out democratically. Patrol members 
may be appointed by the principal or teacher-sponsor ; they may 
be selected by the principal and/or teacher-sponsor from a group 
of candidates suggested or elected by the student body or they 
may be chosen through school-wide elections with possible class 
or homeroom representation. The student government organi- 
zation may have a voice in the selection of patrol members. In 
some instances prospective members may volunteer. From the 
standpoint of guidance, participation in patrol activities may be 
the therapy needed by some students. Occasionally, therefore, 
a counselor or homeroom teacher may recommend, on a trial 
basis, some student for participation in patrol activities. In 
the final analysis, membership in the patrol is ahvays subject to 
the approval of the teacher-sponsor and the principal. 

Again, it should be emphasized that both the manner and cri- 
teria by which members are selected are basic to an effective 
safety program. It is imperative that the overall objectives of 
the safety patrol be kept in mind as members are agreed upon. 
The qualifications of members of a safety patrol determine the 
character of a patrol. It is also true that a strong patrol 
strengthens the character of its members. 

Qualifications 

Desirable qualifications for membership in safety patrols in- 
clude the following: 

• Dependability 

• Interest in safety education programs as a means of reduc- 
ing accidental injuries and deaths occurring to school stu- 
dents or others. 

• Safety consciousness and a willingness to use safe practices. 

• Desire to help others. 

• Courtesy, patience, fairness and tact. 

• Neatness, personal cleanliness and bearing. 

• Regularity and promptness. 

23 



• Respect for rules and regulations and for the rights of others. 

• Good judgment. 

• Alertness in suggesting improvements in the patrol program. 

• Willingness to keep equipment clean and in good condition. 

Those who possess such qualifications tend to develop into 
efficient members of the safety patrol. On the other hand, the 
patrol assumes among its obligations the development of these 
characteristics among all its members. 

In elementary schools, membership in the patrol is usually 
limited to pupils from the upper grades. Beyond elementary 
school practically all pupils are capable of understanding the 
importance of safety and serving as patrol members. Pupils in 
grades seven, eight, and nine usually show considerable interest 
in safety-patrol activities. This interest stems from their recent 
experiences in elementary school, the subject matter pursued 
in these grades and the general characteristics of early adoles- 
cence. Interest in all aspects of safety is still important in senior 
high school and seldom wanes when principal, teachers and 
pupils take time to stress its significance. Techniques for moti- 
vating interest in safety usually vary with age groups and with 
different communities. It is generally accepted that service in 
the patrol should be voluntary. Membership in the patrol should 
seldom be regarded as a reward and never as a punishment. 

Bus patrol members should be older pupils who can serve as 
bus driver's first-hand helpers. If there is only one patrol mem- 
ber per bus, he should ride at the front of the bus, where, in 
conjunction with the driver, all responsibilities for pupil safety 
can be coordinated and carried out. He should be given definite 
instructions as to his duties and should not be permitted to act 
independently of the driver. The feeling should exist that the 
patrol member has been selected to help the driver. In a State 
Board of Education bulletin entitled, Rules, Regulations and 
Laws Governing Public School Transportation in North Carolina, 
the editors state, "The ideal choice for this important post would 
be a boy who because of physical size, strength, character and 
personality has the respect of his classmates, and who in addition 
lives near the end of the route." The school laws of North Caro- 
lina, as indicated earlier, permit administrative appointment of 
such bus monitors, whose duties are strictly those of helpers. 



24 




Parent Approval 

Written consent of the parent or guardian is almost univer- 
sally required by schools before students are permitted to serve 
on patrols. Such a policy is considered fundamental to the suc- 
cess of any patrol program, not only from the point of view of 
school-community relations but for quasi-legal reasons as well. 
The approval form which follows may be used as a model ; how- 
ever, the local board of education in cooperation with its schools 
may develop a different form. The reverse side of the form may 
be used for explaining the aims and accomplishments of the 
patrol. 



APPROVAL OF PARENT OR GUARDIAN 
Understanding the aims of the School Safety Patrol, I hereby give my 
consent to have serve as a member of the 

School Safety Patrol of School, if he is 

accepted for this service. 

Patrol Sponsor or Principal Parent or Guardian 
Date : 



25 



Another suggestion which has often been found helpful is that 
of having the patrol sponsor or school principal meet with the 
parents or guardians of prospective patrol members in order to 
give them a clear and complete understanding of the aims and 
responsibilities of the patrol. This can be accomplished through 
individual home visitation or through special individual or group 
conferences at the school. Such contacts between school and home 
should help in vitalizing the school patrol program and improve 
school-community relations in general. Parental approval with- 
out an understanding of the patrol program and a willingness to 
cooperate with it is meaningless. 

Size of Patrol 

The size of the safety patrol obviously will vary according to 
the size and needs of the school, the density of the population, the 
number of crossings and other hazards in the vicinity of the 
school, the volume of vehicular and pedestrian traffic, and the 
variety of activities to be engaged in by the patrol. National fig- 
ures indicate that the average patrol has ten to twelve members 
including a captain and at least one or more lieutenants. Smaller 
patrols of five or six members need only a captain, whereas 
larger patrols may require a captain and several lieutenants. A 
captain should not be assigned to a specific post but should re- 
main free to move from post to post carrying out his responsi- 
bilities as leader. Frequently two bus patrol members are 
assigned to each bus, one for the front and one for the rear. It is 
important that the size of the patrol be compatible with all as- 
pects of the school safety program. 

General Rules for Patrol Members 

General rules for patrol members, as well as emergency regu- 
lations, may be agreed upon cooperatively by members of the 
total student body or by some student organization. Homeroom 
suggestions, along with those from patrol members, school staff, 
teacher-sponsor, law enforcement officers and representatives 
from the local safety organization, should likewise be considered. 
Rules and regulations formulated as a result of such cooperative 
endeavor usually have the support of those who are expected to 
follow them. Such rules and regulations should have the approval 
of the local board of education. 

All but the last two of the following suggestions are found in 
the Pennsylvania Department of Public Instruction bulletin, 
School Safety Patrol: 

26 



• Report to post on time and remain during the prescribed 
period, or until properly relieved. 

• Perform duties outlined and do not exceed prescribed 
authority. 

• Wear patrol belt at all times while on duty. 

• Behave politely at all times. 

• Attend strictly to the task and do not permit attention to be 
diverted, while on duty by any unnecessary conversation, by 
games or amusements, or by "horseplay." 

• Remain on the curb — not in the street. 

• Direct children — not vehicular traffic. 

• Know the simple rules of first aid . . .* 

• Notify teacher-sponsor in advance of anticipated absence. 

• Report accidents to captain of patrol, who, in turn, should 
report them to the teacher-sponsor, using the standard stu- 
dent accident report forms. (See Appendix, p. 51.) 

• Observe specific directions set up for handling accidents or 
emergencies. 

General Duties of Patrol Members 

Duties of patrol members are well presented in the publication, 
The Expanding Role of School Patrols, by the National Commis- 
sion on Safety Education. In this bulletin the topic is discussed 
as follows : 

"The scope and limitations of the duties, responsibilities, and 
privileges of all patrol members should be clearly defined and 
understood by everyone in the school-community. The leadership 
role is best fulfilled by the boy or girl who exemplifies such prac- 
tices as these: 

• "Knows and attends to the duties of his post. 

• "Maintains an attitude of cheerfulness while on duty. 

• "Genuinely tries to help others. 

• "Shows a willingness to serve as- a member of the patrol 
team. 

• "Displays confidence and self-reliance in carrying out his 
duties. 

• "Adheres to safe practices at all times, whether on or off 
duty. 

• "Shows respect for his fellow pupils, for school personnel, 
and for others. 

• "Enjoys serving as a patrol member. 



* For further guidance in first aid instruction in grades 1-12, see Health Education 
North Carolina Public Schools, pages 319-332. 

27 



"The relationship of the patrol member to other students is 
extremely important. In no case should the patrol member as- 
sume that he is a policeman with the power to arrest other stu- 
dents. Rather, he should view his role as that of one who assists 
others constructively and helpfully in situations which might 
otherwise be disorderly and dangerous. The patrol plan developed 
in a school should provide an easy and effective way for patrol 
members to report to the teacher-sponsor instances of recalci- 
trant behavior on the part of the students. Such reports should be 
followed with appropriate action to discourage improper and un- 
safe behavior." 

Duties of a more specific nature are discussed in subsequent 
sections of this bulletin. 




INSTALLATION 



Installation of the Patrol 

Installing patrol members at the beginning of each school year, 
preferably at school-wide assembly, is an effective way of bring- 
ing all students into the program. Parents of patrol members, 
newspaper reporters, and other guests may be invited to this 
special program as a means of extending understanding of the 
safety patrol as well as increasing its prestige. 



28 



The function of the safety patrol and the responsibility of all 
students relative to the school safety program should be empha- 
sized at this assembly by the principal, superintendent, law- 
enforcement officers, and by pupils themselves. This can be done 
through speeches, panel discussions, charts, graphs, exhibits, 
filmstrips or moving pictures. 

Patrol members may then be sworn in and presented with 
belts, insignia, and identification cards in front of the entire 
student body. The principal or some community leader may make 
the presentations, with the teacher-sponsor placing the insignia 
on the patrol members. The following suggested form printed 
in a size suitable for carrying in a wallet may be used as an 
identification card : 



This is to certify that 

is a member of the Safety Patrol of School 

for the school year 

, Principal 

, Teacher-Sponsor 



SUGGESTED PLEDGES FOR PATROL MEMBERS 

If desired, patrol members may recite in unison a patrol pledge 
which they themselves, along with the sponsor, have formulated ; 
or one such as that suggested by either the State of Minnesota or 
the Pennsylvania Department of Public Instruction. The pledge 
itself may be printed on one side of the identification card. The 
following pledges are typical : 

Minnesota Pled a ge 
"I promise on my honor: 

• "To do my duty to God and my country, and obey the law. 

• "To work for the safety of the pupils of the schools as I would want 
those appointed to work for my safety and the safety of my family and 
friends. 

• "To try to protect myself and those with whom I come in contact from 
the risk of unnecessary chances. 

• "To keep myself clean morally, mentally and physically — by being 
honest, trustworthy, loyal, helpful, obedient, and brave. 

• "To do my part in helping reduce the number of accidents during the 
year and by my example to try to make my school a model one for safety. 

29 



• "To perform faithfully the duties as outlined for school safety patrol 
. . . [members]. 

• "To preserve and return my equipment when ordered to do so." 

Pennsylvania Pledge 
"I promise faithfully that as a member of the School Safety Patrol of 

School I will obey all safety rules 

and encourage others to do the same. I will do everything in my power to 
protect members of my school and other child pedestrians when they are 
crossing streets or highways at my post. 

"I further promise to wear my patrol insignia when on duty and to guide 
my own conduct toward traffic in such a manner as to set an example to 
all other children and to guard myself against accidents while on duty. 
I will be prompt and obedient; I will be loyal to my patrol, my school, and 
my community." 

In turn, a pledge indicating student-body cooperation may be 
formulated by the students themselves and spoken in unison, 
following the pledge recited by the patrol members. This two- 
way acceptance of responsibility can do much toward guarantee- 
ing an active and highly respected student safety patrol. The 
following pledge, or one similar, may add meaning to the safety 
program : 

We, the members of the . . student body, 

realizing the importance of using safe procedures at all times, promise to 
cooperate with out safety patrol in its efforts to help us. We shall abide by 
all safety regulations which are agreed upon for our school, our campus, 
and our community. And, as good citizens, we shall strive on all occasions to 
help each other in developing and using patterns of safe living. 

Whatever form the installation of the patrol may take, it 
should be simple, dignified and conducive to an understanding 
of the purposes of the patrol and the necessity for school-wide 
cooperation in carrying out its policies. 

OPERATING PROCEDURES AND GENERAL 
RULES FOR TRAFFIC PATROLS 

These suggestions are adaptations of standard rules for opera- 
tion of school safety patrols to meet North Carolina needs.* 

The traffic patrol function is to assist teachers and parents 
in the instruction of school pupils relative to safe practices in 



* The standard rules were originally formulated in 1930 and were revised in 1937 and 
again in 1948 by a committee composed of representatives of the American Automobile 
Association, the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the National Commission on 
Safety Education of the National Education Association, the National Congress of Parents 
and Teachers, the National Safety Council and the United States Office of Education. These 
rules were affirmed by a conference of organizations interested in safety education. Through- 
out the country these rules have done much to bring unity and clarity of purpose to school 
traffic safety patrols. 

30 



the use of streets and highways at all times and places. Patrols 
should not be charged with the responsibility of directing vehic- 
ular traffic nor should they be allowed to direct it. They should 
never function as vehicular traffic police; and need not, there- 
fore, be recognized by city ordinances or state laws dealing with 
vehicular traffic. 

Location of Patrol-Protected Crossings 

Crossings should be so located that adequate sight distances 
enable the driver to see the patrol member in time to insure a 
safe stop or to make whatever other driving adjustments may be 
needed. The standard belt worn by the patrol member standing 
on the sidewalk attracts attention of drivers under normal 
conditions when sufficient sight distances are provided at the 
crossing. In some school areas, the location of crossings with 
adequate sight distances may not be possible because of hilltops, 
curves, foliage, or other conditions. Where the patrol member 
cannot be seen at least as far away as the safe stopping distance 
for the legal speed at that location, the following procedures 
should be used : 

Encourage the local government to place an effective flashing signal, sign, 
or some other suitable warning device at the appropriate spot, thereby 
giving warning of a school crossing ahead, in order to insure the adequate 
reduction in speed of approaching vehicles. 

Advise residents of the community, through available media, of hazards 
at school crossings and encourage them to take the necessary precautions for 
protection of school students. 

The use of warning flags as a means of increasing visibility is 
not recommended for use in North Carolina. Their use is often 
misleading and can be dangerous.* 

Position and Procedure 

The patrol member's position is on the curb, not in the street ; 
in this position he holds back the pupils until he sees an adequate 
gap in traffic. When such a gap occurs, he steps aside and directs 
the pupils to cross the street in a group. He keeps his position on 
the curb except when his view of traffic is obstructed ; then he 
may step into the street only a sufficient distance to obtain a clear 
view. The pupils remain on the curb until the patrol member 



* Student efforts to direct vehicular traffic tend to increase with the use of flags. Patrols 
come to depend upon flags as a "solid wall" capable of protecting pupils from vehicles 
while crossing and pupils tend to rely upon the flags as absolute protection. Such dependence 
results in failure on the part of patrol members and pupil pedestrians to maintain constant 
vigil while crossing. 

31 



directs them to cross. After the pupils have crossed, the patrol 
member returns to his position on the curb. 

School authorities should confer with traffic officials in arrang- 
ing for proper parking of cars near schools so that only in ex- 
ceptional cases will the patrol member need to step into the street. 




PROPER 
POSITION 




POSITION ONLY WHEN 
VISABILITY IS 
BLOCKED 



32 



When the street is wide or the traffic heavy, there should be one 
or more patrol members on each side of the street. They should 
operate under the direction of one member who should determine 
when the gap in traffic is adequate to allow the group of pupils 
to reach the opposite curb in safety. 

When adequate gaps in vehicular traffic do not occur at fre- 
quent intervals, permitting pupils to cross the street or highway 
safely, the vehicular traffic problem is not a safety patrol re- 
sponsibility but should be handled by the police. 

The American Automobile Association's publication, "Safety 
Patrol Handbook," gives additional detailed suggestions with 
illustrations on patrol position and procedure, some of which 
are reproduced on pages 58 to 68 of the Appendix. 

Relation to Traffic Signals and Police Officers 

At interesections without any traffic control the flow of traffic 
may be sufficiently heavy to require the assignment of a police 
officer at those times when pupils are going to and from school. 
For intersections at which traffic is controlled by a police officer 
or a traffic signal or both, the safety patrol member assists by 
directing children across the street in conformance with the di- 
rections of the police officer or the signal device. 

Hours on Duty 

It is essential that patrol members be on duty at all times while 
children are crossing streets or highways in going to and from 
school. Patrol members should reach their posts at least ten or 
fifteen minutes before the opening of school in the morning and 
at noon, and should remain on duty until the tardy bell. For 
duty at dismissal times, they should leave their classes two or 
three minutes before the bell and should remain on duty until all 
pupils who are not stragglers have passed their posts. 

Efficiency in school safety patrol operations makes it desirable 
to have all classes dismissed at the same time. If there are 
several dismissal times, the size of the patrol should be increased 
and the members rotated so that no one member will be absent 
too long from his class. 

Bus Duty 

Assignment to bus patrol duty in no way relieves the bus driver 
from full responsibility which he has for the safe conveying of 
children to and from school. The function of the bus patrol is 
purely that of assisting the bus driver. School authorities should 

33 




CHECK ROAD 
BEFORE CROSSING 



instruct pupils to obey both the bus driver and any patrol mem- 
ber assigned to bus duty. 

One or two patrol members may be appointed for each bus, de- 
pending upon the capacity of the bus. When two patrol members 
are on duty, one should be at the rear of the bus and one at the 
front. When only one is used, he should be located at the front 
of the bus. In the selection of patrol members for bus duty, it 
is desirable that they be among the first to board the bus en route 
to school and among the last to leave the bus when returning 
home. Duties of bus patrol members include the following: 

• To assist the bus driver in checking attendance and making 
certain that all pupils are aboard the bus and in safe riding 
position before the bus starts. 

• To assist the driver in maintaining order while the bus is 
en route. This includes observing that no pupil has his head, 
arms or hands out of windows and that all pupils remain 
in safe riding positions at all times. 

• To assist the bus driver in directing pupils to board and 
leave the bus in a quiet and orderly manner. When pupils 
are ready to leave the bus, a patrol member alights first and 
stands ready to give assistance to pupils getting off. 

• To assist the bus driver in preventing pupils from crossing 
any highway or street until directed to do so by the driver. 

34 



The patrol member should also make certain that all pupils 
are out of the roadway before boarding the bus after a stop. 

To assist the bus driver in making certain that the roadway 
is clear in all directions when pupils must cross the street or 
highway in the process of boarding or leaving the bus. The 
driver must make the decision that the highway is clear for 
adequate distances, then direct the students to cross in front 
of the bus. The patrol member should escort very young 
pupils across the roadway only if and when specifically 
authorized by the principal and only upon the driver's signal 
to cross. (The 1955 recodification of the school laws of North 
Carolina permits the administrative appointment of school 
bus monitors whose duties shall be those of helpers under the 
direct supervision of bus drivers.) 

To assist the bus driver in the use of the emergency bus door 
and to assist him in administering first-aid. Patrol members 
should be given instructions for these functions as part of 
the regular patrol-training program. They should be in- 
structed to operate the emergency door or to direct first-aid 
activities when requested to do so by the driver, or to act on 
their own initiative when the driver is unable to give 
directions. 

To report to the driver any bicycle riders, roller skaters, or 
other "hitchers" on the bus. 

To report to the driver any violation of the bus rules and 
regulations by any passenger. 

To get off the bus when it stops at the approach to hazardous 
railroad crossings and other hazardous places, when approved 
by the principal and directed by the bus driver, observe con- 
ditions, and signal the driver when it is safe to procede. Upon 
request, assistance in planning procedures for such hazard- 
ous places is available from the Division of Transportation, 
State Board of Education, Raleigh, N. C. After the bus has 
passed such a hazardous place, the driver should not stop 
to take on the patrol member until the bus is in such a posi- 
tion past the hazard that his stopping will not force the 
entrapment of other vehicles. 



3.5 



EQUIPMENT 

Procurement, use, and proper care of equipment and insignia 
are essential to a successful safety-patrol program. Patrol mem- 
bers need to be impressed with the importance of properly using 
and caring for their equipment. They should be helped to realize 
that neatness, cleanliness, and bearing help significantly in gain- 
ing respect for the safety work they are doing. A clean white 
belt makes the patrol member more visible, more easily identified. 
Moreover pride in equipment and the manner in which it is worn 
are almost invariably a true indication of a patrol member's 
good attitude toward his work. 

It cannot be assumed that equipment will be adequately cared 
for ; nor will haphazard efforts in this direction be satisfactory. 
Patrol members must be instructed in the proper care and use 
of their equipment. Initial training for this is the responsibility 
of the teacher-sponsor ; however, much of this responsibility can 
become a function of the patrol captains as they gain experience 
in their jobs. 



CLEAN 
NEAT 




PROPER 
PROUD 



36 




1 






Li • 




Insignia and Equipment 

Each patrol member should have a Sam Browne belt made of 
two-inch wide material, a badge, a raincoat, and a rain hat. The 
Sam Browne belt should be worn over the outer garment at all 
times while on duty; and the badge on the belt at right breast 
level. Since patrol members must serve in all kinds of weather, 
it is essential that a raincoat and hat be provided for their use. 
The Sam Browne belt is very effective as a traffic warning, since 
it is immediately recognized by the motorist and consequently 
provides some protection for school crossings. 

Procurement of Equipment 

Schools should purchase patrol equipment under contracts 
made by the North Carolina Division of Purchase and Contract ; 
equipment is usually less expensive when purchased through 
this channel. Individual schools should place their orders for 
patrol equipment with the superintendent for purchase in the 
same manner as all other materials under State contract. De- 



37 



tailed information concerning such equipment is filed in the 
superintendent's office. 

Suggestions for Proper Care of Equipment 

• Sam Browne belts should be cleaned regularly according to 
directions given by the manufacturer. 

• Belts should be worn only when on duty. 

• Belts should be repaired as frequently as necessary. 

• Badges should be affixed to belts and removed only when belt 
is being cleaned. 

• Badges should be cleaned or polished as frequently as neces- 
sary according to instructions of the manufacturer. 

• Raincoats should be hung on rustproof hangers in a place 
provided for such purposes. 

• Periodic inventories and inspections of equipment should be 
made and recorded. This should lead to practices which 
would enable the equipment to give greater service. 

• At the end of the school year, or any time when members 
sever relationship with the patrol, equipment should be re- 
turned to the captain or the teacher-sponsor for safe keeping. 

• During the summer equipment should be properly stored for 
protection from dust, dampness, and excessive heat. Rain- 
coats, when stored for long periods of time, frequently fare 
best if placed in individual paper or plastic garment bags. 
Any specialized suggestions for storage made by the manu- 
facturer should be followed carefully. 

SAFETY PATROL ACTIVITIES 

Much has been said about the safety patrol organization and 
objectives, selection and duties of members, responsibilities of 
teacher-sponsors, and training techniques for sponsors and 
pupils alike. Perhaps the most significant aspect of effective 
safety patrols is that their activities should be so integrated and 
correlated with all other school activities that they are always 
regarded as part of the continuing and total school program. 
Unless patrol activities are so planned and so regarded, they 
are likely to lose much of their meaning. 

The importance of the school patrol in the total educational 
program must be recognized by parents, teachers, the student 
body, and the patrol members themselves if it is to be success- 
ful. Every efficient patrol will include in its day-by-day efforts 
a wide variety of activities, carefully planned as part of the 

38 



regular school program and designed to develop in the school and 
community the highest possible regard for safety through patrol 
work. When such an attitude is developed, problems of organiza- 
tion, selection, training, and operation of the school patrol are 
reduced to a minimum. Motivation, recognition, and morale re- 
ceive due consideration in any successful patrol program. 

Recognition of patrol members should be in harmony with the 
philosophy of the individual school and its administrative unit, 
and should be so understood by all teachers, all pupils, all parents 
and others in the community interested in the activities of the 
patrol. The Safety Patrol Bulletin, issued by the Department of 
Public Instruction in Pennsylvania, states that wholesome atti- 
tudes toward safety patrols are developed through two types 
of activities: status-producing activities and reward activities. 
Suggestions from that bulletin are given below : 

Suggested Status-Producing Activities 

• Installation ceremonies (See pp. 28-30, this publication.) 

• Patrol-sponsored assembly, such as a play, a problem forum, 
or a traffic court. 

• Patrol representation in the student council or in some other 
comparable student government organization. 

• Safety-patrol section in the school publication with a patrol 
reporter. 

• A safety bulletin board maintained by patrol members. 

• A training program for the lower grades involving visits to 
homerooms by patrol members for the purpose of emphasiz- 
ing safety in traffic and all other places. 

• School-safety committee, council, or commission, to assist 
in correlating patrol activities, and to give impetus to the 
whole safety program. 

• Patrol meetings which are regular, well-planned, and pur- 
poseful. The meetings should include training and study 
sessions, with occasional entertainment. Now and then a 
special guest will add variety. Meeting dates and topics 
should be planned and posted well in advance. When possible 
it may be wise to hold these meetings during school hours. 

• Accident reporting and record keeping. This is a necessary 
process in determining weaknesses of the safety program 
and in revealing causal factors in the accidents which occur. 
The information is very useful in evaluating the safety pro- 
gram and in re-shaping it to meet changing needs. 

39 



• A system of apprenticeship in which regular members help 
to train new members. This can be useful in preparing new 
members for their duties and responsibilities as well as in 
screening undesirables. It is desirable for this training peri- 
od to come in the spring thereby paving the way for an 
effective patrol in the fall. This technique has possibilities 
of bringing patrol activities before the public in an impres- 
sive manner, provided it is not over-used. 

• Special duties such as fire-drill aides, ushers, guides, special 
messengers, members of first-aid teams, members of emerg- 
ency or civil defense teams, and playground aides. These 
activities also have possibilities of producing status for the 
patrol in many communities. 

• A safety court, cooperatively planned and conducted by pupils 
and sponsor and designed primarily as a training medium 
rather than a punishing body. Such courts require the pres- 
ence of strong faculty leadership at all sessions. 

CAUTIONS ABOUT SCHOOL SAFETY COURTS* 

Though student courts may have certain advantages, they may 
easily become dictatorial and do immeasurable harm to the patrol 
program and the school. The publication of the National Safety 
Council, Student Safety Activities, gives the following com- 
ments and precautions concerning "School Safety Courts" : 

"Some schools have inaugurated school safety courts whose responsibility 
it is to enforce safety regulations. In schools which operate a court system, 
the safety court is usually a part of the regular court proceedings, held by 
the Student Government Association. If students have a clear understand- 
ing of the function of the court, they are willing to give it their whole- 
hearted support and the court can contribute a great deal to the success of 
the program. If the student body is not in sympathy with the idea of a 
court and will not respect the decisions of the court, the safety program will 
progress better without a court. 

"The court is an enforcing body which carries out safety regulations and 
teaches appreciation and observation of the law. The court consists of a 
judge and a clerk, or a panel of judges and a clerk, or, in rare cases, of 
a judge, jury, and clerk. The adviser serves as a court of appeals. 

"Judges should be appointed by the president of the student safety organi- 
zation from a list recommended by the faculty. 

"The court convenes regularly — as often as the docket requires — to con- 
sider cases called to its attention by a card (which may be prepared by the 
student safety organization) containing the name of the offender, the nature 



* Many schools of the nation have expressed the opinion that courts have no place in the 
schools; however, some feel that they do. If courts are to be used, this information indicates 
precautions to be considered in operating them. 

40 



of his offense, and the witnesses. Students should be encouraged to report 
only acts which may lead to accidents. 

"Penalties, if imposed, should be carefully administered. Frequently pen- 
alties are too harsh. If the defendant is found guilty, penalties which have 
proved adequate are: 

"A reminder or reprimand 

"A visit to the city court to witness disposition of traffic offenders 

"Denial of privileges connected with the type of offense 

"Referral to the principal 

"Some schools have found the courts effective even though no penalties 
were imposed." 

Possible Reward or Recognition Activities 

Motivating interest in patrol work and maintaining morale 
among members is a matter of continuing concern for all schools 
which sponsor patrols and especially for teachers and sponsors. 
Handling this problem in cooperation with students themselves 
helps greatly to increase the prestige and status of the school 
patrol in the eyes of the entire student body. ''When pupils feel 
that the school patrol program is their program, they are eager 
to serve and they find great personal satisfaction in the oppor- 
tunity to serve. In these circumstances, it may be questioned 
whether any regular pattern of special recognition for patrol 
service is either necessary or desirable." This quotation from 
The Expanding Role of School Patrols, National Commission on 
Safety Education, NEA, expresses the philosophy of many 
schools. 

Rewards, on the other hand, may serve a useful purpose. 
Certainly all plans involving special recognition for patrol serv- 
ice should be appraised in terms of their educational values and 
their benefits to the greatest possible number of pupils. Such 
plans should credit the entire patrol group for its service, rather 
than glorify one person or a few individuals. 

Reward activities, whether individual or group, sometimes 
serve as positive motivating influences which give status to the 
patrol and at the same time serve as incentives for continuing 
the good work already under way. Individual awards, such as 
certificates of merit for all those who give satisfactory service, 
may serve a useful purpose, but group awards are usually con- 
sidered more acceptable, since they tend to develop a sense of 
unity and loyalty which makes for good relations among mem- 
bers of the patrol. Some of the following suggested recognition 
activities may prove useful : 

• Free movies and athletic events. Local theatre owners are 
frequently willing to sponsor a Safety Patrol Day during 

41 



which patrol members are admitted free of charge. Some 
schools admit patrol members to athletic events free of 
charge. 

• Field trips to points of interest may be stimulating to patrol 
members. 

• Participation in patrol athletic activity programs and in 
special play days arranged for patrols from several schools 
is likewise valuable at times. 

• Special trips, banquets, picnics, sponsored by PTA's, safety 
councils, service clubs, or the like, may be desirable at times. 

Efforts to provide out-of-state or other distant trips are some- 
times attempted for all members of the patrol in an administrat- 
ive school unit. Such trips often involve heavy expenses which 
are not commensurate with rewards associated with other school 
activities. Since some schools attempting such trips do not yet 
have adequate safety libraries or other needed services, it seems 
unwise to spend unnecessarily large sums of money in this man- 
ner even though it may be provided by non-school agencies. If 
the school feels that it must be represented at distant patrol 
meetings it might be better for such trips to be restricted to a 
few persons from each school. The number would likely be de- 
termined by the patrol members who have given outstanding 
service to the school and community. Persons who are privileged 
to take such trips might best be elected by patrol members, sub- 
ject to approval of parents, school sponsor, and the principal. 

Again, it should be stressed that rewards and recognitions 
must necessarily be handled carefully, as every wise sponsor 
realizes, if full educational and morale values are to be gained. 
Handled unwisely, they can be harmful ; yet they may sometimes 
constitute the spark which gives day-by-day vitality and effec- 
tiveness to patrols. 

EVALUATING PROGRESS OF SAFETY 
PATROLS 

The accompanying check lists are suggestive of techniques 
which may be used for determining progress in safety-patrol 
activities. The first check list is a slightly modified version of the 
one appearing in The Expanding Role of School Patrols (Nation- 
al Commission on Safety Education, NEA) ; whereas, the second 
is a reproduction of the evaluative statements appearing in the 

42 



appendix of School Safety Patrol (Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania, Department of Public Instruction). 

These particular check lists may be useful as a means of im- 
proving the operation of safety patrols. On the other hand, the 
student body, patrol members, and faculty members, with the 
cooperation of others, may prefer to formulate their own tech- 
niques for evaluation. Regardless of the methods used, it is im- 
portant that frequent evaluation be part of the continuous pro- 
gram for improving patrol activities. 

CHECK LIST A 
(Check level of achievement which best represents your school.) 

Making Progress Toward An Ideal Goal Length of Achievement 

12 3 
The student body participates cooperatively with 
the school safety patrol in formulating the rules 
and regulations under which the patrol operates. ■ 

The safety rules and regulations of the school are 
based on a comprehensive and cooperative survey 
of possible hazards in the immediate vicinity of 
the school as well as the larger community. 

There is a conscious and continuous effort by all 
members of the school staff to foster safe traffic 
habits on the part of all pupils. 

The student body accepts the safety patrol as a 
necessary and vital part of the school organiza- 

Teachers and pupils are given frequent oppor- 
tunities to express their opinions regarding patrol 
operation through such means as questionnaires, 
suggestion boxes, and open discussions. 

Time needed to do effective work with the safety 
patrol is made available to the teacher-sponsor by 
the principal within the day's work program. 

The teacher-sponsor has had adequate prepara- 
tion in the basic principles of safety education, 
and has a thorough knowledge of local traffic 
problems and regulations. 

Definite qualifications have been established for 

the selection of patrol members. 



Both boys and girls are eligible to serve on the 
safety patrol. 



43 



The written permission of parents is obtained be- 
fore a student can become a patrol member. 

Appropriate insignia and equipment are provided 
at public expense so that the patrol can function 
effectively at all times. 

If insignia and equipment are provided by out- 
side agencies, it is free from advertisement and 
entails no undesirable obligations on the part of 
the school. 

Patrol membership rotates among many pupils in 
order that the advantage of first-hand experience 
in patrol work is spread as widely as possible. 

There are regularly scheduled and carefully 
planned meetings of the safety patrol at which 
time matters of interest and concern are dis- 
cussed. 

There are definite provisions for instructing pa- 
trol members in such matters as: 

• qualifications of a good patrol member 

• general duties of a patrol member 

• what to do in case of accident 

• exemplary behavior by patrol members leads 
to desirable student attitudes toward patrols. 

• use and care of insignia and equipment 

Appropriate recognition is provided from time to 
time for all patrol members to help maintain 
their interest and morale. 

Accident records are kept and are carefully ana- 
lyzed to determine ways of improving the patrol 
program 

The press, radio, and television are used when- 
ever possible in order to keep the community fully 
informed of the activities and achievements of the 
safety patrol. 

The school initiates periodic appraisal of the long- 
term effectiveness of the safety patrol, or co- 
operates with community agencies in appraising 
the patrol. 



44 



CHECK LIST B* 



Each building in the school district has a well-organized Safety 
Patrol 

Adequate faculty supervision is given to the Safety Patrol. 

The Safety Patrol is made up of pupils above the fourth grade. 

Patrol members are selected on the basis of leadership and 
reliability. 

Special courses of instruction on duties are given to all pupils 
serving on the Safety Patrol. 

School recognition is given pupils serving on the Safety Patrol. 

Both boys and girls serve on the Safety Patrol. 

Each school system sets up its own procedures for controlling 
violations. 

Safety Patrols assist in loading, unloading, and keeping order 
on school buses. 

The standard insignia are worn by patrol members while on 
duty. 

Parents or guardians are required to give written consent 
before any pupil is permitted to serve as a member of a Safety 
Patrol. 

Where conditions are hazardous, patrol members and/or police 
are stationed on opposite curbs of the thoroughfare. 

Patrol members are on duty at least 15 minutes before the 
opening of school and remain on duty until the scheduled time 
for the opening of the school day. 

The Safety Patrol members are furnished with adequate equip- 
ment to protect their health in all kinds of weather. 

The school Safety Patrol not only helps at intersections but is 
given other assignments where the safety of pupils is involved. 

The school welcomes cooperation by police and other com- 
munity agencies in organizing and directing the safety patrol. 

At least one faculty meeting is devoted to School Patrols each 
year. 

The Safety Patrols, traffic lights, street markings, and other 
protective measures are periodically checked so that they offer 
the proper protection to those who are on their way to or from 
school, and insure proper operation of safety devices for pupils 
and others. 



Yes No 



* School Safety Patrol, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Public Instruction. 

45 



APPENDIX 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The Expanding Role of School Patrols. National Education 
Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washington 6, 
D. C. 

Handbook for Elementary and Secondary Schools. Issued by the 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, N. C, 
1953. 

A Handbook for School Bus Drivers. North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Motor Vehicles, Raleigh, N. C, 1954. 

Health Education. Issued by the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, Raleigh, N. C, 1953. 

How to Organize and Supervise a School Safety Patrol. Ameri- 
can Automotive Association, Washington, D. C, 1950. 

Minnesota School Safety Patrol Manual. Department of High- 
ways and Department of Education, State of Minnesota, 
1946. 

Pupil Patrols in Elementary and Secondary Schools, Research 
Bulletin, Vol. XXVIII No. 1, National Education Associa- 
tion, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washington 6, D. C, 
1950. 

Rules, Regulations, and Laws Governing Public School Trans- 
portation in North Carolina. North Carolina State Board of 
Education, Raleigh, N. C, 1950. 

School Safety Patrol, Bulletin No. 391. Department of Public 
Instruction, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania, 1951. 

School Safety Patrols, Standard Rules for Street and Bus Patrols 
in Virginia. State Department of Education, Richmond, 
Virginia, 1951. 

Student Safety Activities, Student Safety Organization Hand- 
book for Secondary Schools. National Safety Council, 425 
North Michigan Ave., Chicago 11, Illinois, 1945. 

Who is Liable for Pupil Injuries? National Education Associa- 
tion, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washington 6, D. C, 1950. 

References for Materials and Other Helps 

In addition to specific publications available from the State 
Department of Public Instruction in the forty-eight states, ma- 
terials and other helps concerning school patrols may be secured 
from the following sources : 

46 



Films and Filmstrips 

The Driver Improvement Section, State Highway Patrol, North 
Carolina Department of Motor Vehicles, Raleigh, N. C, will 
send, upon request, its extensive list of available films and film- 
strips. They are available on loan; however, return transporta- 
tion costs must be paid by the borrower. 

Traffic Patrol Materials 

American Automobile Association, Mills Building, Washing- 
ton 6, D. C. (Also available through its North Carolina 
affiliate, The Carolina Motor Club, Charlotte, North Carolina.) 
Association of Casualty and Surety Companies, 60 John Street, 
New York, N. Y. (Also available through its affiliate, The 
North Carolina Association of Insurance Agents, Inc., Com- 
mercial Building, Raleigh, North Carolina.) 
National Association of Automotive Mutual Insurance Com- 
panies, 20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago 6, Illinois. 
North Carolina Association of Mutual Insurance Agents, Inc., 
Raleigh Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 
National Commission on Safety Education, National Educa- 
tion Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washington 6, 
D. C. 

National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 600 S. Michigan 
Boulevard, Chicago, 5, Illinois. 

National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 
11, Illinois. 
United States Office of Education, Washington 25, D. C. 

Fire Materials 

National Board of Fire Underwriters, 85 John Street, New 
York 38, N. Y. 

National Fire Protection Association, 60 Batterymarch Street, 
Boston 10, Mass. 

Other 

State Civil Defense Office, Civil Defense Building, Jefferson 
Street, Raleigh, N. C. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR KEEPING GENERAL SCHOOL 
PATROL RECORDS 

The following student record procedures may be helpful in 
developing forms for use in the school's patrol program. Such 
records can be very helpful to the sponsor for planning training 
programs and increasing the overall effectiveness of the patrol 
program. 

47 



Suggestive record form No. 1 is an adaptation of a pupil-viola- 
tion report form found in "Safety Patrol Captain's Manual", 
produced by Carl Pike and Don Hurst, for use in Jackson, Michi- 
gan. Since it is worthwhile to commend safe practices as well 
as to report violations of safety regulations, the form has been 
changed so that it is usable for both purposes. This form can be 
used by all patrol members. 

Record form No. 2 is suggested for use by the patrol captains 
or lieutenants in recording daily patrol operations for each 
month. This is an adaptation of a form illustrated in "Safety 
Patrol Handbook" published by the American Automobile 
Association. 

As a matter of practicability, forms Nos. 1 and 2 may be most 
useful if a sufficient supply of No. 2 is placed in the front of a 
patrol record book and a suitable supply of No. 1 is placed in the 
back of the same book. Copies of the standard accident report 
form can be folded and placed in the back of the patrol record 
book for use when needed. 

Record form No. 3 is devised to serve as a daily and monthly 
summary of the operations of each of the respective patrols. 
The sample illustrates one designated for a sidewalk patrol and 
one for a bus patrol. Such summary record forms could be made 
up on poster board and located in a prominent place. This would 
enable the teacher-sponsor or others to readily note the day-to- 
day progress of patrol operations. Lieutenants can report daily 
to their captain who can summarize the reports and enter the 
summaries on record form No. 3. 

SAMPLE RECORD FORM NO. 1 





Patrol Report on Pupil Behavior, Where Patrols Operate 








Commendation 


<- Check one -^ 


Violation 








Pnnil 


's Name 








Pupil 
A o. t.i n 


's Homeroom No. 
n by Pupil 


























Reported by Rm. No 





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55 






RECORDING AND ANALYZING STUDENT ACCIDENTS* 

Information on the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions causing 
accidental injuries and deaths to students is essential to the func- 
tioning' of an efficient school safety program. For this reason 
it is essential that records be kept and the analysis be made of 
these records. 

Importance of Records 

The successful initiation and continuation of this fundamental 
safety education activity — the securing of accident data and the 
using of it — requires: 

1. The recognition by school authorities of the value of such 
student accident reports. These reports may be used in 

a. Adjusting the safety curriculum to immediate student 
needs 

b. Individual student guidance 

c. Modifying the structure and use of the building and 
grounds 

d. Protecting the school from unfortunate publicity and lia- 
bility suits growing out of accident cases. 

2. The adoption of the Standard Student Accident Reporting 
System, preferably on a system-wide basis. This will help 
attain uniformity and make possible a comparison of records. 

The Standard system is not a new system, but was devised by the Na- 
tional Safety Council and cooperating school authorities many years ago. 
It consists of an original accident report form and a monthly summary 
sheet. It has been in use in some school systems for about 20 years. The 
National Safety Council will furnish, without charge, a year's supply of 
both the accident report form and the summary sheet. Subsequently sup- 
plies may be printed locally or purchased from the Council at nominal rates. 

3. The education of the entire instructional staff on the value of 
the Standard Student Accident Reporting System; and the 
training of all teachers and other designated persons to fill 
out completely the accident reports, to give full details, and 
to make reports promptly. 

Responsibility for the preparation of the original accident 
report is primarily with the teacher in charge when the acci- 
dent occurs. Accidents in areas of patrol supervision should 
be reported by patrol members, but the school sponsor should 
be summoned immediately to lend assistance and verify the 



* Information in this section is taken largely from Safety Education Memo # 3, a mimeo- 
graphed bulletin; Student Accident Records and Analysis, published by the National Safety 
Council. 425 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago 11. Illinois. 

51 



report. If a motor vehicle is involved, the police should also 
be summoned. If a motorist who is involved leaves the scene 
where he has caused an injury, the patrol member should 
record his license number and report it to the teacher-sponsor. 
The patrol member should also record the license number and 
specific acts of any motor vehicle driver operating a vehicle 
in an unsafe manner in the vicinity of his post. The teacher- 
sponsor with local police assistance may confer with such 
drivers as a means of correcting such unsafe acts by motor- 
ists. Reports should be filled out completely and, on all school- 
jurisdictional accidents, should be forwarded to the superin- 
tendent's office not later than twenty-four hours after the 
accident happened. (Some superintendents require an im- 
mediate report, by telephone, on serious accidents of this 
type, followed by a written report.) Reports on non-school 
accidents should be completed as soon as the student returns 
to school. 

The development of specific plans for the use of reports. 
Use of reports will vary from one school system to another. 
In general, it is desirable that copies of all student accident 
reports be examined by the teacher-sponsor, the principal, 
the supervisor, the superintendent, and others who may find 
such information useful. In some instances, selected reports 
should be examined by the individual staff member concern- 
ed. For example, the custodian should study reports of all 
building and ground accidents resulting from poor plant con- 
ditions. The physical education teacher should examine the 
reports of all accidents in physical education and recreational 
activities, whether on school property or not ; the shop teach- 
er should examine reports on all shop accidents. Accident 
reports should be studied by the advisers of all students 
involved in the accidents. 

The analysis of completed reports by some competent person 
to determine the real causes of the accident and the needed 
protective measures. This analysis, together with a copy of 
the accident report, should be sent to the persons who are 
particularly concerned with the accident, the custodian, the 
physical education teacher, the home economics teachers, 
and others. 

Parent cooperation in order that the Standard Student Acci- 
dent Reporting System may function efficiently. 
Parents may be the source of much information on non- 



52 



school accidents. They will, very likely, become increasingly 
sympathetic with the school's efforts to improve facilities, 
if they are informed about the student accident situation. 

Will Many Reports Be Required? 

In view of their functional significance, the amount of time 
invested in the collection of student accident reports is amazingly 
small. On an average, there is one serious (necessitating loss of 
one-half day or a doctor's care) accident a month to every 500 
pupils. In addition, there would probably be a number of less 
serious accidents occurring on school property for which records 
should also be made. At most, however, no school would be bur- 
dened with excessive reporting. 

What Accidents Are Reported? 

Accidents of the following type should be reported : 

1. All injuries requiring a doctor's care 

2. Those keeping a student out of school one-half day or more, 
regardless of where the student was when injured — on school 
property, en route to or from school, at home, or elsewhere. 

3. All school jurisdictional accidents, however slight. (Unless 
otherwise defined by administrative ruling or court action, 
school jurisdictional accidents are those occuring while stu- 
dents are on school property, in the school building, and on 
the way to and from school). 

Making out the Accident Report 

The first step in the making out of the accident report is to 
collect all necessary data. The next step is to read the instruc- 
tions carefully at the top of the Standard Student Accident Re- 
port Form ; then complete and answer accurately all questions 
on the form. Brevity, without sacrificing precision, is desirable ; 
but no questions should be overlooked or omitted. If the precise 
answer to any question is not known, the lack of information 
should be recorded. 

The most significant part of the accident report is the "De- 
scription of the Accident." The ultimate value of the report de- 
pends largely on the clarity, completeness, and accuracy of this 
description. In reporting an accident on a swing, it is not suffi- 
cient to state, "student fell from swing." A useful report of the 
accident might read: "Rusted link of swing broke as the swing 
reached the top of forward arc, causing student to fall ten feet 
to ground. School custodian had warned children "to be careful of 

53 



the swing,' but had not informed playground supervisor of the 
condition of the swing nor had the custodian taken the swing out 
of service." All questions on the accident report form have been 
asked in simple, non-technical terms ; and will cause no confusion 
when filling in the forms. 

Student Accident Summary Sheet 

Each month, the information contained in the accident report 
should be tabulated on the Student Accident Summary Sheet so 
that the school administrator may see (1) what kinds of accidents 
are frequent among the students; (2) the causal factors relative 
to such accidents; (3) the trends for different types of accidents 
and the causal factors involved therein. Summaries for indi- 
vidual schools, as well as for the entire school system, should 
be compiled monthly and made available for the entire system. 
Such summaries provide a basis for determining whether the 
safety education program of the school system should be revised. 

Using the Summarized Data 

The data on the summary sheets have both immediate and 
long-range value. It is desirable for the person in charge of acci- 
dent reports to use these data in the preparation of a monthly 
memorandum for teachers, calling attention to progress made 
in various areas of safety, to the high frequency in certain types 
of accidents, and suggesting necessary emphasis during the 
following month. 

At the end of the academic year the current report should be 
compared with the one of the previous year and such questions 
as the following should be answered : 

1. To what degree has progress been made during the past 
year? 

2. What weaknesses are noticeable in the safety education pro- 
gram? How may they be overcome? 

3. What special emphasis should be made during the next year? 

4. How do the accident records of this locality compare with 
national records, or with those from similar communities? 

Data on student accidents should be gathered primarily for 
local use. It is to the advantage of all schools, however, to have 
maximum information on the accident situation in other com- 
munities. School systems, therefore, are urged to forward copies 
of their monthly summaries to the National Safety Council so 
that published tabulations of student accidents may be as com- 
plete as possible. Student accident data are invaluable to all 

54 



safety agencies endeavoring to serve the schools, and for this 
reason all agencies cooperating with the school in its safety pro- 
gram should invariably be supplied with these reports. 

Reproduction of Standard Accident Forms 

Standard accident report forms are reproduced in miniature 
on the following pages. These forms may be had in small quan- 
tities, free of charge, from the National Safety Council to those 
schools reporting their accidents each month. The forms are 
not copyrighted and may be reproduced by any school desiring 
to do so. 



55 



STANDARD STUDENT ACCIDENT REPORT FORM 
Part A. Information on ALL Accidents 



Name: 

School: 

Time accident occurred 
Place of Accident: 



Home Address: 

Sex: MO; FQ Age:. 



Grade or classification: 



Hour 



A.M.; 



P.M. Date: 



School Building □ School Grounds □ To or from School □ Home □ Elsewhere □ 



T" 

On 

w 

N 

{,:■ 
!■'"' 

y 
w 

M< 
Mi 

^r 
V- 



<- 



a. « 

1-5 

< 



Abrasion 

Amputation 

Asphyxiation _ 

Bite _ 

Bruise 

Burn 

Concussion 

Cut _ 

Dislocation _ 
Other (specify) 



Fracture 

Laceration 

Poisoning 

Puncture 

Scalds 

Scratches 

Shock (el.) 

Sprain 



Abdomen _ 

Ankle _ 

Arm _ 

Back _ 
Chest 

Ear _ 

Elbow _ 

Eye _ 

Face 

Finger _ 
Other (specify) 



Foot 

Hand 

Head 

Knee 

Leg 

Mouth 

Nose 

Scalp 

Tooth 

Wrist 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCIDENT 

How did accident happen? What was student doing? Where was student? 
List specifically unsafe acts and unsafe conditions existing. Specify any tool, 
machine or equipment involved. 



Degree of Injury: Death fj Permanent Impairment fj Temporary Disability Q Nondisabling fj 
Total number of days lost from school: (To be filled in when student returns to school) 



Part B. Additional Information on School Jurisdiction Accidents 

Teacher in charge when accident occurred (Enter name) : 

Present at scene of accident: No: Yes: 



9. Z 
ui 

III ±c 

< 



First-aid treatment 
Sent to school nurse 
Sent home 
Sent to physician 

Sent to hospital 



By (Name) :. 

By (Name) :_ 

By (Name) :_ 

By (Name) :_ 

Physician's Name:_ 
By (Name) :_ 

Name of hospital:. 



10. Was a parent or other individual notified? No:. 

Name of individual notified: 

By whom? (Enter name) : 

Witnesses: 1. Name: 

2. Name: 



Yes: When: 



11 



. Address: 
. Address: 



Ibiec ■ 



12. 



Athletic field 

Auditorium 

Cafeteria 

Classroom 

Corridor 

Dressing room 

Gymnasium 

Home Econ. 

Laboratories 



Specify Activity 



Locker 

Pool 

Sch. grounds _ 

shop _ 

Showers 

Stairs _ 

Toilets and 

washrooms _ 
Other (specify) 



Specify Activity 



Remarks 

What recommendations do you have for pre- 
venting other accidents of this type? 



Signed: Principal: 



Teacher: 



(Natiooal Safety Council — Form School I) 



56 



Printed in U.S.A. Kct. JOM— IU»— WHF, 



mi-is 



noon s 



STUDENT ACCIDENT SUMMARY 



Month of_ 



City. 



.SchooL 



Year. 

No. of school days 
in above month 



i Stud.rrt ACC. 2 (1941) 



accidental death* thh month. Cop/ei of original report cardt covering thorn aro attached. t 



: 



CLASSIFICATION 



STUDENTS KILLED AND INJURED. BY GRADES 



SndM i*' Q ' n 6rada Grada Grade Grada Grad« Gradt Gr«d» Grad« Grad. Grad 



-i — i — r 



TOTAL ACCIQCNTS 



D SCHOOL BUILDINGS 








































































































































































































_»«!,.- 












































































































































































































~k Other building ,„ 




















- 










. 















SCHOOL GROUNDS 







i 


























_,IM„ 


. _.._ 




1 




























































.. 


• 
































., 






































































" _fn«tti«ll . 








































































































































Unorganized 
Activities 


































































I 


































Other.._ 


_ . 































1 



GOING TO OR FROM SCHOOL 



Motor vehicle— bicycle- 
Other motor vehicle 

Other bicycle 

Other 



HOME 



Falli i 




























1 


































































Other home . 1 ... 










.. ._. 


.._ 
























OTHER 



I Motor vehicle — bicycle 

| Other motor vehicle 

[ Other bicycle 

Other street & sidewalk 

I Playgrounds (not school) 

[Other places 



■ ENROLLMENTS AND DAYS LOST 






1 




























jf Days lost— This month's 
































1 Days lost this month from pre- 
ll vious month's accidents ...__..„ .... 


; 









































Report made by_ 



Title. 



copy of this report should be sent each month to the National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Ave., Chicago II, covering all schools in the 
that maintain records. 

I BOM— 550— NSC Printed In U.S.A. 



57 



ADDITIONAL DETAILED SUGGESTIONS FOR 
PATROL OPERATIONS 

To assist teachers in giving basic instruction to new Patrol 
members and in retraining old members, the following illustrated 
explanation of standard Patrol operation has been prepared.* 
1. OPERATION WITH ONE PATROL MEMBER 
Used only on quiet streets tvhere traffic flow is not heavy and 
where no special hazards exist. 




Fig. 6. This is the standard position for Patrol members on duty. 

An Intersection 

The Patrol member stands on the SIDEWALK, one pace back 
from the curb-line and midway between the crosswalk lines. He 
faces the street watching for traffic. He glances over his shoulder 
to watch for children approaching. When they approach, he 
raises his arms sideward so that they point downward from his 
shoulders at 45 degree angles. The children stop behind his out- 
stretched arms. (Fig. 6.) 

The Patrol member then looks in all directions (See Fig. 7) 
until there is a suitable lull in vehicular traffic to permit children 



*Material and illustrations, pp. 58 to 68, are used by permission of the American Auto- 
mobile Association and are taken from its publication, "Safety Patrol Handbook," Copy- 
right 1950. 



58 




Fig. 7. Notice how the properly-trained Patrol member looks in all 
directions for approaching vehicles. 



to cross safely. {In urban areas, it is recommended cars be at 
least one block away and not approaching at an excessive rate of 
speed. In rural areas, the distance would be greater since speeds 
are higher.) The Patrol member then drops his arms and steps 
left, watching for traffic in all directions — especially that ap- 
proaching from his left, which would constitute the most im- 
mediate hazard. As he steps aside, he continues to face the street, 
and he cautions the children to WATCH FOR TURNING CARS. 
He then returns to his position on the center of the sidewalk, 
cutting off the stragglers. (See Fig. 8). 

If the crossing is located on a one-way street, the Patrol mem- 
ber steps right or left, depending upon the direction from which 
traffic approaches. Where possible, crossings on one-way streets 
should be on the side of the intersection from which traffic 
approaches. (See Fig. 9.) This means that the Patrol member 
has traffic approaching in only one direction, and no turning 
traffic. He should be on the alert for vehicles turning into the 
one-way street through error. 



59 




Fig. 8. This Patrol member has made certain that it is safe to 
cross the street. He drops his arms to his sides and steps to the left. 
He continues to look in all directions, following the numbered order 
shown above. 





C>/^> 



A 



Fig. 9. This shows a one-way street with Patrol post located on 
the side of the intersection from which traffic approaches. 



60 



Parked Car Hazard 

If a parked car or other obstruction hinders the Patrol mem- 
ber's view of traffic approaching from the left, the procedure 
changes in one respect from that just outlined. The Patrol mem- 
ber takes his standard position and then follows through with 
the steps outlined until he has looked in all directions. Then, 
cautioning the children to WAIT ON THE CURB, he steps into 
the street just far enough to see past the parked car or other 
obstruction. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES MAY THIS DIS- 
TANCE BE MORE THAN 3 PACES. 

He looks first to the left, for his own protection from approach- 
ing cars, then in all directions. (See Fig. 10.) If no vehicle is 
coming, he drops his arms and motions the children to cross. He 
continues to watch for traffic. After the children have crossed, 
he returns to the sidewalk, cutting off stragglers. 




Fig. 10. A car parked too close to the intersection constitutes a 
hazard. The view of the Patrol member is obstructed. He is permitted 
to step into the street more than three paces to observe approaching 
traffic. 

At Mid-Block School Crossings 
In cities and towns, mid-block crossings are not normally 
used, though, in some rare instances, they may prove necessary. 
Operation at a mid-block school crosswalk is exactly the same 



61 



as at an intersection, except that, since the Patrol member has 
no traffic approaching from the rear or front, he looks both 
RIGHT and then LEFT before stepping left to allow the children 
to pass. 




Fig. 11. A mid-block crossing presents special hazards. Before re- 
leasing children to cross the street, the Patrol member must make cer- 
tain that vehicles are not approaching at excessive rates of speed. 



The Patrol member should be instructed to pay particular 
attention to the speed of approaching vehicles. School authorities 
should see that ample warning signs are erected and painted 
crosswalk lines are at least two feet wide, so as to be readily 
visible to approaching motorists. (See Fig. 12.) 

At a "T" Intersection School Crossing 

At a "T" intersection, Patrol operation depends upon the loca- 
tion of the Patrol posts. The location of possible posts at such an 
intersection are indicated in Fig. 13. 

Operation at posts 1,2,3, or 4 is the same as at a regular 
intersection, except that the Patrol member has traffic approach- 
ing from one less direction. Particular attention should be paid 
to turning cars, since there are likely to be heavy turning move- 
ments. Patrol members stationed at posts 1 and 4 should be 

62 





Fig'. 12. At mid-block crossings, crosswalks should have lines at 
least two feet wide to be easily visible to motorists. 

instructed that all traffic entering the "T" must turn either left 
or right. Patrol operation at posts 5 and 6 is more difficult than 
at a mid-block crossing because the Patrol member must watch 
for cars turning several ways. 



*m- 




Fig. 13. Possible Patrol posts at a "T" intersection. Patrol mem- 
bers placed at positions 1 and 4 must be especially alert to turning 
cars. 



63 



2. OPERATION WITH TWO PATROL MEMBERS 

Used at school crossings on heavily traveled streets; at excep- 
tionally wide streets; at places where special hazards exist, such 
as parked cars; where the view is obstructed by curves or 
hedges; at street intersections ivith heavy turning movements; 
and at the intersection of more than two streets. 

In a two-man operation, the Patrol members are stationed on 
opposite sides of the street. One acts as a "sender" and the other 
as "receiver." 

The position of each Patrol member is the same as has been 
explained and illustrated by Figure 6, that is, on the sidewalk 
one pace back from the curb and midway between the crosswalk 
lines. When children approach a Patrol member, he raises his 
arms to the standard side position, and the children stop behind 
his outstretched arms. Both Patrol members then look in all 
directions for approaching traffic. (See Fig. 14.) 




Fig. 14. Heavily-traveled, exceptionally wide streets require two 
Patrol members, a "Sender" and a "Receiver". 

After making sure that there is sufficient lull in traffic to per- 
mit safe crossing, the Patrol member holding back the children 
cautions them to LOOK BOTH WAYS BEFORE CROSSING 
and WATCH FOR TURNING CARS, and then follows the 
regular procedure. At the same time, the Patrol member on the 
opposite corner faces the intersection to watch for traffic. 



64 



Both Patrol members remain on the curb. The children cross, 
and both Patrol members return to their original positions. 

Both Patrol members remain on the curb. The children cross, 
and both Patrol members return to their original positions. 

Points to remember in two-man operation are: 

1. The Patrol member first approached by the children de- 
cides when it is safe to cross. 

2. Each Patrol member watches primarily to his left for 
traffic while children cross. 

If view of traffic is blocked by parked vehicles, a Patrol mem- 
ber may step into the street so as to get a better view, but 
NEVER MORE THAN 3 PACES. 

3. TWO-MAN POST WITH "SECONDARY" PATROL 
MEMBER 

Sometimes, when parked vehicles interfere with the view of 
approaching traffic and the Patrol member must step into the 
street, the children crowd into the street after him. While 
children should be cautioned to stay on the curb, it is sometimes 
desirable to use a "secondary" Patrol member to hold the chil- 
dren on the curb. 

In operations of this nature, the "secondary" Patrol member 
takes the fixed post on the sidewalk, one step back from the 
curb. He holds the children on the sidewalk. 

The regular Patrol member, although he has no fixed post, 
must remain on the sidewalk, except when he steps into the street 
to see past the parked vehicle. He is responsible for giving the 
signal that it is safe to cross. The "secondary" Patrol member 
releases the children at this signal. 

Operation is as follows : Children gather behind the outstretch- 
ed arms of the "secondary" Patrol member. The regular Patrol 
member then steps into the street just far enough to see around 
the parked vehicles— NEVER MORE THAN 3 PACES. He then 
looks for approaching traffic. (See Fig. 10.) If there are no 
approaching vehicles which constitute a hazard, he signals to 
the "secondary" Patrol member to release the children. Then, 
facing the street, he watches in all directions for approaching 
traffic. 

At the signal of the regular Patrol member, the "secondary" 
Patrol member drops his arms and steps to the right, faces the 
intersection, and watches for approaching traffic. After the 
children have crossed, the regular Patrol member returns to the 

65 



sidewalk and the "secondary" to his fixed position on the side- 
walk, one step back from the curb. 

The Patrol member stationed across the street operates in 
the same manner described under regular two-man operation. 

4. OPERATION OF A THREE- OR FOUR -MAN 
CROSSING 

On wide streets with a safety island, or zone, in the center, it 
may be desirable to place a Patrol member on the island. If the 
island is particularly wide, such as might be the case on a park- 
way or boulevard with a wide dividing strip, two Patrol members 
may be stationed there. The Patrol member on the island func- 
tions in the same manner as on the curb. 




Fig. 15. Where there are safety islands or zones in the center of 
the street it may be desirable to post an additional member on the 
island. 

Care should be taken by the Patrol member releasing children 
from the curb that he does not overload the island. 

5. OPERATION WITH A POLICE OFFICER 

When stationed at an intersection controlled by a police 
officer, the function of the Patrol member is to hold the children 



66 



on the sidewalk until the police officer stops traffic and signals 
to the Patrol member to allow the children to cross. 

6. OPERATION AT AN INTERSECTION WITH 
TRAFFIC SIGNAL 

At an intersection with a traffic signal, operation is as follows : 
The Patrol member is in the standard position, one step back 
from the curb. If children approach when the light is red, the 
Patrol member stops them behind his outstretched arms. 

When the light turns green in the direction the children are to 
cross, the Patrol member makes certain that all approaching 
cars are stopping for their red light. When he is sure that traffic, 
especially turning cars, does not constitute a hazard, the Patrol 
member cautions the children to WATCH FOR TURNING 
CARS and, following the usual procedure, steps aside to permit 
the children to pass. 

Before the red signal comes back on, the Patrol member re- 
turns to his normal position, cutting off stragglers. He does this 
to prevent children being caught in the middle of the street 
when the light changes. The Patrol member must know the 
length of time the green is on and be able to estimate the correct 
moment to stop the flow of child pedestrians. To illustrate to 
the Patrol member how this can be done, work out with him 
the following information concerning his crossing. Children 
walk approximately 4 feet per second. Thus, if his street is 40 
feet wide, it would take 10 seconds to cross. If the green period 
of the signal is 30 seconds, the Patrol member would count off 
20 seconds and then stop further crossing until the light com- 
pletes the cycle and turns green again. Have him try this for 
four or five days, until he becomes adept at estimating the instant 
when the child pedestrian flow should be stopped. 

It will be noted that the Patrol member does NOT start the 
children the moment the light turns green, but waits until he 
is certain that approaching cars will stop on their reel signal and 
that turning vehicles will not constitute a hazard. 

7. RURAL SAFETY PATROLS 

In rural sections where the children walk to school along the 
highway, the Standard Rides for the Operation of School Safety 
Patrol should be followed. Where the school is located on a dan- 
gerous highway, Patrol members should be on duty at selected 
locations to caution pupils to cross only when oncoming traffic 

67 



does not constitute a hazarcL Operation at such crossings would 
be the same as that just outlined for use at various types of 
school crossings. Most state or county road maintenance depart- 
ments, upon request, will paint crosswalks and place school warn- 
ing signs at approved school crossing points. 

Where several children walk for a considerable distance along 
the highway, they should walk single file on the left side of the 
highway facing oncoming traffic, with the Safety Patrol member 
leading the way. When the Patrol member sees a car approach- 
ing, he should call it to the attention of the pupils. On a two-lane 
pavement, all should step off the hard surface until the car has 
passed. . . . 




Fig. 16. In rural areas, along- heavily traveled highways, Patrol 
members should lead single fine on the left side of the roadway, facing 
traffic. 



9. USE OF VERBAL CAUTIONS BY PATROL MEMBERS 
The use by the Patrol members of such phrases as LOOK 
BOTH WAYS BEFORE CROSSING and WATCH FOR TURN- 
ING CARS IS PARTICULARLY ADVANTAGEOUS. This 
practice provides a means of re-emphasizing, at points of cross- 
ing, rules for safe walking taught in the classroom. It also serve; 
to correct the tendency of some children to depend blindly on the 
Patrol member. These verbal cautions may be varied from time 
to time and for different situations. On rainy days the Patrol 
member might caution the children to KEEP YOUR UMBREL- 
LA HIGH SO YOU CAN SEE. Another caution which could be 
used is KEEP TO THE RIGHT IN THE CROSSWALK. 



68 






UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



00034026731 



FOR USE ONLY IN 
THE NORTH CAROLINA COLLECTION 



IT,-.,.™ M^ A OCO D^w o/nc