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Full text of "Schwarzenau: A Journal of Dunker History (1939 - 1940)"

Us W. Van Buren Stwi 
Chicago 2*1 '""' 



m 






FOR REFERENCE 




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7i.S70(o 




SUMMER NUMBER 



Volume I 



JULY, 1939 



Number 1 



Published by the 

Alexander Mack Historical Society 
3435 Van Buren Street L j B R A B Y CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

BETHANY BIBLICAL SE?V!i?^ARY 

3435 W. Van Buren Street 

ChicJtgo 24, IHinoll 



SCHWARZENAU 

A Journal of Dunker History 

Published Semi-annually at Scottdale, Pa. 

by the 

ALEXANDER MACK HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY 
Editorial Office: 3435 Van Buren St., 
Chicago, III. 

The Price of Schwarzenau is One Dollar a 
year in the U. S.. Foreign postage extra. Single 
copies, thirty-five cents plus postage. Subscrib- 
ing members of the Alexander Mack Historical 
Society receive all issues of this journal of the 
Society. Send subscriptions or applications for 
membership in the Society to the Editorial 
Office. 



SCHWARZENAU 

EDITORIAL STAFF 

Editor, F. E. Mallott, Professor of Church History Bethany Biblical Seminary 
Assistant Editor, Elgin S. Mover 

Volume I JULY, 1939 Number One 



CONTENTS 

SCHWARZENAU 3 

Rufus D. Bowman, President Bethany Biblical Seminary 

Editorial 4 

Apologia Pro Vita Sua 6 

F. E. Mallon 

In the Shadow of Munich 1 1 

Chalmer Faw 

Why the Early Germans Came to Pennsylvania 15 

I. Introduction 
II. The Thirty Years' War 
L. D. Rose 

Semi-Centennial, Walnut Grove Meeting House 21 

Elffin S. Moyer 

History of Sandy Creek Congregation, First 

District of West Virginia 32 

Susie M. Thomas 

Attitudes of Brethren in Training Camps 

During the World War 57 

Kenneth Long 

Historical Society Notes 78 

Book Reviews 80 

William Beahm 



SCHWARZENAU 



WHO'S WHO IN THIS ISSUE 

Rufus D. Bowman, B.D., D.D., is President of Bethany Biblical Seminary 
and member of the General Mission Board. He is one of the ablest ministers 
among the younger men of the Church of the Brethren and one of the best 
known men in her ministry. This journal, like the sparrow of the Psalm, "hath 
found her a house" under the roof of the Seminary. Dr. Bowman speaks as 
President and gives us his blessing. 

Chalmer Faw, native of Washington, graduate of Laverne College and Beth- 
any Biblical Seminary, recently received his doctorate from the University of 
Chicago. At present he looks forward to the mission field of Nigeria. He has 
been Greek teacher at B.B.S. while attending the University and has been active 
in peace work. 

L. D. Rose, is Librarian and Professor of German at Elizabethtown College. 
A native of Eastern Pennsylvania and born with historical instinct Prof. Rose 
displays a matured talent in the field of research and writing. "Schwarzenau" 
is planning to add him to its staff as contributing editor. 

Susie M. Thomas, would have been in China but for the Sino-Japanese war. 
While held from the mission field she has been studying in Bethany Biblical 
Seminary. The paper reproduced here represents in abridged form her thesis 
for the M.R.E. She holds an A.B. from Fairmount State Teachers College. Her 
native place? See the splendid congregational history she has given us. 

Kenneth Long, minister. Church of the Brethren, has seen pastoral service. 
A.B. from Manchester College. B.D. of Bethany Biblical Seminary 1939. Diffi- 
cult to tell whether he is from Ohio or Indiana. We have told enough to give 
the origin of the study printed herein but the quality speaks for itself. 

F. E. Mallott, A.M., D.D., Professor of O. T. and Church History. Pastor 
of Church of the Brethren, Battle Creek, Michigan. Most serious concern just 
now is editing "Schwarzenau." 

E. S. Moyer, Ph.D., minister. Church of the Brethren, writer on missionary 
and historical themes. Many years member of the faculty of B.B.S. and at 
present Librarian, Moody Bible Institute. Assistant-editor. 

William M. Beahm, A.M., B.D. Professor of Christian Theology and Mis- 
sions of the Seminary. Missionary to Nigeria 1924-1935. Well-known in his own 
right and as the scion of a family long prominent in the Church of the Brethren, 
we hope to present him as a frequent contributor. 

Russel G. West, Pastor, Church of the Brethren, Roanoke, Va., and Miss 
Lnicile Sanger, student, Bethany Biblical Seminary have collaborated to furnish 
the cover design of this number. Study it. 




SCHWARZENAU 

RuFUS D. Bowman 
President Bethany Biblical Seminary 

This is a sacred name in Brethren history. The different bodies 
of Brethren people all go back to "Schwarzenau." The backward 
look is valuable for at Schwarzenau we see the great principles that 
bind us together. The name wins us because of the spirit of those 
eight pious souls who met on the banks of the Eder. Schwarzenau 
was the official birthday of Brethren history. The name has be- 
come a symbol for the great first principles upon which our Church 
was founded : the New Testament as our rule of faith and practice, 
the ordinances as a means of grace, no exercise of force in religion, 
religious freedom even at the cost of suffering, the simple spiritual 
life, peace according to the spirit and teachings of Jesus. I hope 
some day that an artist will paint the picture of Schwarzenau with 
Mack and his companions at the Eder. Until that time word pic- 
tures will keep alive the sacred torch of history. 

Dr. Floyd E. Mallott, head of the Church History department 
of Bethany ISiblical Seminary is a man who believes in the destiny 
of the Church of the Brethren and loves her traditions. For the last 
few years. Dr. Mallott with a few of his companions has been 
dreaming dreams of the creation of a Journal of Dunker History 
for the preservation of historical data. This issue is the first prod- 
uct of these dreams. One is finding today a tremendous interest in 
our own church history. Our people have a rich history full of 
inspiration for youth, but we have been short on preserving it. Con- 
sequently, we welcome "Schwarzenau" with its clear cut purpose 
to print historical data and preserve Brethren history. This journal 
is an independent project sponsored by the Church History depart- 
ment of Bethany Biblical Seminary. The Seminary is in full accord 
with the purposes and the creation of this project and I am sure 
that those who are interested in Brethren history will lend encour- 
agement to these efforts. 



4 SCHWARZENAU 

EDITORIAL 

This first number of an historical journal is issued in hope. The 
Sower Bicentennial observance stirred anew and revived into dis- 
cussion the latent historical interest among the spiritual descendants 
of Alexander Mack. In such a time of active discussion of our 
great heritage one feels that we need some such a medium of com- 
munication as this historical journal. 

In many different places there are individuals with not only a 
deep interest in our own distinctive tradition of Christianity, but 
many possess a valuable and even a specialist's knowledge of the 
subject. These students of Dunker history need to be made more 
aware of one another. 

An increasing number of good and able investigations and stud- 
ies in the field of our history are being carried on. At present many 
of these are written in connection with academic courses to fulfill 
institutional requirements. Up to the present there has been no 
medium of publication where the results of such studies could be 
shared. 

The difficulties confronting those who would make a contribution 
to our denominational literature are most discouraging. One must 
write a book and guarantee publication at his own expense. Many 
cannot do that. 

There is another reason why a journal such as this is needed. A 
great deal of historical data is already lost. More of it is about to 
be lost. The pages of such a journal may serve as a repository for 
much information that would otherwise be lost. But of more im- 
portance than actually publishing material, we believe the mere 
existence of such a publication will stimulate a new respect for the 
records and evidences of our history. There are a few libraries 
whose purpose is to gather collections of all extant historical mate- 
rials of our denominational family. Those responsible for such 
libraries need to be encouraged and there ought to be an increase 
of such collections of Dunkeriana. 



We are glad to present in this first issue two congregational his- 
tories. The Church lives in its congregations. A few excellent con- 



EDITORIAL 5 

gregational histories have been published in our midst and these 
ought to serve as an incentive to others. 

Every congregation ought to cultivate a pride in its own past. 
A people without a past has no future. Each church ought to cul- 
tivate pride in its own pioneers, its meeting houses, its achieve- 
ments, and its worthy families. 



Apropos of the last named item, it is the conviction of this writer 
that we are changing in America in our appreciation of genealogy. 
We Americans have been a people without ancestors. A well-known 
minister of the Church presented himself at a marriage-license 
window, for he had decided to exercise the privilege to which the 
Apostle referred. "What is the bride's mother's family name?" 
asked the representative of the Law. The bride-to-be was miles 
away at that moment. The bridegroom-to-be mopped his brow. 
The Law was courteous but specific. Finally, a bright idea. A trip 
to the telegraph office enlightened the bridegroom-to-be as to the 
name of the tribe which he was joining. 

Believe it or not, but — there are intelligent Americans who are 
not sure of the names of their own grandparents. 

It is characteristic of a pioneer people to be careless of ancestors. 
America is leaving pioneer days behind. We are even now begin- 
ning to develop local traditions and in places there is evident local 
atmosphere. 

This is gain. We shall strike roots into our soil. Our lives will 
be more colorful and richer. We shall learn to live more wisely and 
more leisurely. (We better! II) As in every old society we shall 
become aware of our ancestry. 

This is of significance to the historian. Genealogy and religion 
are the bases of history. The "key" to history is a knowledge of 
ancestry and of religious ideas. 

The Brethren have been a family people. The Church has been 
like Israel in one respect — it has been a cluster of superior families. 

All of which is a way of saying that we view genealogical studies 
as within the province of this journal of history. Its pages are open 
to studies concerning famihes of Church connections. 



6 SCHWARZENAU 

In another part of this issue is printed the tentative constitution 
of the Alexander Mack Historical Society for the perusal of all 
readers. The present relationship between the Society and this 
journal might be compared to the relationship between Siamese 
twins. If one grows and is healthy the other does also. 

There have been predecessors to this Society. As we view it 
they suspended because of lack of a definite task. So the A.M.H.S. 
has a good chance to live. Its task was born with it. 

The promoters of this journal dream of a quarterly. When? 
When the Historical Society becomes strong enough to supplement 
the present privately pledged support. 

Our first need is Subscribing Members. Our second need is Sus- 
taining Members. Our third need is more members for the Alexan- 
der Mack Historical Society. F. E. M. 



APOLOGIA PRO VITA SUA 

F. E. Mallott 

The name of this journal was not placed on the page by accident. 
It represents a deliberate choice. The name of that little-known 
German village signifies both an idea and an ideal. 

It has now been more than two centuries and a quarter since a 
small group of earnest men and women gathered to pray in that 
village of Schwarzenau. 

As they talked and read and prayed in their remote and quiet 
retreat, they were cognizant of the fierce influences of what we 
today call the "modern world". They had fled to Schwarzenau as 
refugees (how very modern) that they might preserve their own 
liberty from a tyrannical State. In their day the Church was in 
partnership with the State, and partook of its tyrannical nature. 

In 1708 the modern democratic movement was just getting under 
way. Just twenty years before that date there had occurred in Eng- 
land the Revolution of 1688, and in its wake came the Bill of 
Rights. By common consent the Bill of Rights is a major point of 
historical reckoning in the western world. 



APOLOGIA PRO VITA SUA 7 

In 1708 the disillusionment of thinking men everywhere had pre- 
pared the way for the revolt of The Enlightenment against organ- 
ized religion. The spread of rationalism was to reduce the Organ- 
ized Church to a state of weakness, such as she had known in only 
one other century — the awful tenth. The rise of humanitarianism 
with its inescapable effects for Religion had begun in 1708. As the 
vision of mediaeval universalism, expressed thru a World State 
(called an Empire) and a World Church faded from the memory 
of eighteenth century men they were becoming increasingly nation- 
alist and individualist. The clash between nationalism and individ- 
ualism was not seen as clearly in 1708 as in 1939. But in retrospect 
we can see the struggle. 

It is the sameness of that day to this day which gives relevance 
to the words and deeds of that company who met for prayer in 
Schwarzenau. We are accustomed to pay oratorical tribute to them 
as the founders of our Household of Faith. 

But our tributes are often hackneyed and but quotations from 
the books we have read. The genuineness of the idea developed at 
Schwarzenau has not been clear to us. And so its ideal has not chal- 
lenged us. 

There amid the beginnings of humanitarianism, humanism, polit- 
ical democracy, and modern nationalism that group at Schwarzenau 
matured their faith and took their stand. They have thrown a shaft 
of light across the darkened world and many of us are still walking 
in that light. But some who walk in it take their light too much as 
a matter of course and seem not to feel how dark the world-shad- 
ows are around us. Let us put the light emanating from Schwarze- 
nau under a spectroscope and attempt a partial analysis. 

The group yonder asserted the necessity of the Church. One of 
the commonest assumptions of today has been the irrelevance of the 
Church. The materialism and secularism of the age has set a sjfyle. 
It is so easy to drift with the spirit of the age. Even from Christian 
homes and Christian colleges go splendid young people who would 
recoil with horror from the degradations of a pagan society. For 
the ethical code of Christianity has been presented to them and won 
the assent of their reason. The sight of the practice of human 
slavery, the practice of witchcraft, of polygamy, or of cannibalism 
would rouse them to horror and to action — if these evils were pre- 
sented suddenly and not gradually. Yet these same people drift 



8 SCHWARZENAU 

along complacently with the forces that point ultimately to the 
depths of pagan depravity. 

The men and women of Schwarzenau had once been seceders 
from the Organized Church. They found the No-Church position 
empty and fruitless. They found themselves helpless to improve 
themselves or to improve others. And so they returned within the 
borders of organized, institutional Christianity. They constituted 
themselves a fellowship for their own good and their influence in 
the world. 

While they became a part of the historical, or institutional or 
Constantinian Church they became a unique group within its bor- 
ders. They did not lapse back quietly into conformity with the ways 
of the State Church about them. They became pioneers of a new 
conception, which re-interpreted the historical Church. It is a trick 
of fate that the name of their descendants has become identified as 
a synonym of unvarying conservatism. The men of Schwarzenau 
were pioneers and radicals. 

To elaborate — they stood for an ideal of society so far ahead 
of their day that many Christians (some of whom are Dunkers) 
have not even glimpsed their vision. The rule of the new brother- 
hood was to be the Sermon on the Mount and Matthew eighteen. 
The men of Schwarzenau were not learned scribes neither were they 
theologians and philosophers. So they did not long debate the how 
and the when. But as earnest pietists they went to work to build the 
Kingdom of Goodness. They began where all improvement must 
begin, with themselves. 

Over against the multi-form nationalism and imperialism of the 
modern world stands the ideal of a pacifist society founded on the 
teachings of Jesus and governed by His technique. At this present 
moment in Time, we seem to be as far as ever we were from the 
realization of that ideal. But was ever an age more restless? In 
occasional places and in individuals we glimpsed what this type of 
thinking will do and now we know — in that direction lies the King- 
dom. 

Analyzing further and under a different aspect we may say the 
men of Schwarzenau struck a balance between the sixteenth and the 
eighteenth centuries. The eighteenth century has been named the 
Century of Man and by the same logic the sixteenth is one of the 
Centuries of God. 



APOLOGIA PRO VITA SUA 9 

We need today to maintain a right balance between anthropo- 
centric and theocentric religion. After a long period in which most of 
the churches of America have acted as if "God were made for man" 
we seem to be entering a period of theocentricism. The very vio- 
lence of the reaction against the absurdity of treating God as if He 
were a public utility will no doubt carry us so far that the common 
Father of the Lord's Prayer will again be obscured. 

In taking the New Testament as a text-book and manual of life 
the brethren at Schwarzenau struck the happy mid-ground. For the 
New Testament preserves both the values of theism and human- 
ism. That type of democratic and ethical religion which grows 
from a study and practice of the New Testament was really needed 
by the world in 1708 — and since. 

In staking the case on the New Testament those men took ad- 
vanced ground. They had never heard the words, "progressive 
revelation" but they had apprehended the fact of a progressive 
revelation. There was set in Schwarzenau the example of open- 
minded, fearless, and withal devout study of the Scriptures. This 
example needs to be followed in each generation. For in each major 
shift in the currents of life, new light breaks out from the Word. 

And last but not least, there was struck at Schwarzenau a balance 
between form and spirit. Ritual or the sacramental always bulks 
largely in religion. Man will not long hold a philosophy in the 
abstract. He will make of his philosophy a religion. And a religion 
will clothe itself in a ritual. 

Therein is the explanation of our own lukewarmness toward the 
New Testament symbols in some quarters. A generation without 
religious passion is not greatly concerned over the forms of religion. 
Forms arise from the necessity of expressing vital conviction. But 
without such conviction forms become to the traditionalist a vain 
bondage and to the indifferentist something to be neglected and 
discarded at will. 

But the ardor of Pietism glowed in the souls of that group at 
Schwarzenau and they were touched by missionary passion. They 
were humble before the awful fact of the Incomprehensible Majesty 
and obedience to His Messiah became their watchword. Abjuring 
the intellectual error of secession they re-entered the Church. 
Therein they found their own spiritual freedom safeguarded and 
their soul growth directed in the New Testament symbols. These 



10 SCHWARZENAU 

ordinances they celebrated and propagated as the representative 
symbols of the new spiritual life and brotherhood as it is in Christ. 

Today Christendom is permeated by a most impressive liturgical 
emphasis. It is interesting to observe the effects of this influence 
upon some of our Brethren churches. What a laborious and arti- 
ficial straining after "worship" there is in some quarters. The invo- 
cation and the benediction are pronounced with the solemnity of 
Romish mass. The lifting of the offering is made a minor, if not 
indeed a major sacrament. Colored glass windows become an object 
of reverence and the minister acquires a "sanctified" tone of voice. 
This development is to be deplored for it leads straight to trivial- 
ities. Reverence becometh the house of God but so also does sim- 
plicity. 

It need scarcely be said here that the opposite error is an exclu- 
sively intellectual emphasis. The church assembly is made the occa- 
sion to carry on an educational propaganda. This leads to barren- 
ness and to empty pews. 

Between these two extremes is a simple, natural, hearty congre- 
gational life in which everything is done decently and in order. The 
New Testament ordinances or symbols are frankly the basis and 
raison d'etre for the maintenance of the congregational identity. 
Preaching is prophetic rather than academic. Here worship is real- 
ized as a simple and natural group experience from which issues in- 
dividual soul growth. The mock-solemnities of much of the current 
worship emphasis are not only unnecessary but may prove to be 
very harmful. 

The type of character developed in the intelligent practice of the 
New Testament symbols is the guarantee of the Tightness of this 
type of church-life. In the twentieth century we shall do well to 
base our church-life on apostolic precedent (our cue from Schwarze- 
nau) as nearly as we can, until the shadows of this world-darkness 
give way before the light of the New Jerusalem. Then we shall 
need no temple for the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb shall 
be the temple thereof. Until such consummation we shall need very 
much the fellowship of the living house into which we are being 
built as living stones. 

To the service of that living fellowship as it was visioned at 
Schwarzenau this journal is dedicated. 



IN THE SHADOW OF MUNICH II 

IN THE SHADOW OF MUNICH 

Chalmer Faw 

This article is the reproduction of an address given in Bethany Chapel in 
September, 1938 at a time when it seemed but a question of hours until irre- 
vocable catastrophe would be upon us. The clarity of its reasoning and the 
solemnity of the hour of its delivery when personal consequences seemed not far 
away, make it of unusual value as a present-day statement of our Peace Position. 
— Editor. 

In the light of this morning's screaming headlines I should like 
to retouch a well-known sermon text of Jesus to read, "Repent ye 
for the kingdom of hell is at hand !" Repent ye of participation, in 
any way, in the war system. Repent ye of slackness, of do-nothing- 
ness, for the kingdom of hell is at hand ! For, whether war comes 
immediately or is delayed, all hell will be turned loose in that hour. 
The kingdom of heaven will be curtained and the stage left to the 
forces of hate and destruction. And if the kingdom of hell is at 
hand, the men of the kingdom of heaven must be ready to resist it. 

"But if war can be (^onfined to Europe . . ." we soothe ourselves 
in smug isolation. Small comfort this, for if and when war comes 
in a large scale in Europe the United States will almost certainly be 
drawn into it. War is man's most costly sport. The major powers 
of Europe would not have fought a year before our country would 
be the only solvent great nation on the globe. The war would be 
fought on American money and American credit. Then, before 
we could realize it and against our every avowed desire, we would 
be in fighting to make the world safe for the American dollar. This 
process of sucking the United States into war would create such a 
maelstrom of high-pressure propaganda in this country that even 
the strong among us would be swept from their feet. Democracies 
would give way to war-time dictatorships, and peace-time social 
groups would be replaced by new groups born of the demands of 
force. 

Is there nothing that we, as Christian individuals, can do about 
it? In the faith that there is something we can do, I wish to submit 
a three-point program for the Christian pacifist. First, the Chris- 
tian should achieve religious and philosophical clarity in his own 
thinking on peace. Pacifism, as I see it, is basically a religious 
problem, and a clean-cut mastery of the fundamentals of the philos- 
ophy of peace is indispensable. In reality each one must think 



12 SCHWARZENAU 

through the problem for himself and reach his own working for- 
mula. All I can do this morning on this point is to share with you 
some thinking which has proved useful to me. Pacifism, in its re- 
pudiation of violence as a solution to individual and national prob- 
lems, has always been in danger of becoming passivism, a gradual 
retreat from the active scene, an abstraction into a Nirvana of rest- 
ful nothingness. As its critics well contend, it often works harder 
to avoid strife than to right wrongs and is in danger of losing its 
own soul in a negative program. Not so the true philosophy of 
pacifism. The Christian pacifist has a fight. And that fight demands 
all the zeal, intelligence, and strength the individual can summon. 
This fight, however, is not against humans but the common enemies 
of human beings. This is the point on which pacifism takes issue 
with militarism, not on the necessity of struggle. Instead of fighting 
persons, whether of the same race or nation — class war — or of a 
foreign nation — international war — the Christian pacifist is sum- 
moned to a relentless struggle against the enemies of persons and 
personality the world over. On the physical level his battle is 
pitched against such foes of mankind as famine, disease, hunger, 
ravages of the elements, disasters by land, sea, or air. On the in- 
tellectual plane the enemies to be exterminated include ignorance, 
prejudice, superstition, and intolerance, some of which is to be 
found in all men, including the pacifist and his associates. On the 
social level the fight must be waged incessantly against the injustice, 
oppression, inequality, and poverty which seem especially to haunt 
"Christian" civilizations and implicate individuals of most enlight- 
ened background in their outreach. On the spiritual level the Chris- 
tian's struggle is joined against the sin and sins of all humankind. 
Our wrestling is against the principalities, powers and spiritual 
hosts of wickedness in the heavenlies, those Intangible foes which 
make such hopeless victims of us all and which thrive because we 
have so feebly united to fight them. Our enemies are not human 
beings — not Hitler or Mussolini, nor any human opponent — but 
our enemies are the short-sightedness, the weaknesses of soul, the 
poverty of social imagination and the unregeneracy of spirit which 
infest not only the Hitlers and the Mussolinis, but ourselves. We 
have a fight, but our fight is never against persons, but is the fight 
of all mankind against his common enemies: physical, mental, so- 
cial, and spiritual. Instead of dividing persons and destroying 



IN THE SHADOW OF MUNICH 13 

personalities such a struggle unites man and men in a common 
drive against the foes of human welfare. For, once this philosophy 
becomes the dominant attitude of the individual, it must, by its very 
socially inclusive nature, spread from him into the enlistment of his 
society, nation, and world in this thrilling and constructive war on 
the real destroyers of mankind. 

Having achieved clarity in the religio-philosophical basis of paci- 
fism, the Christian must move on to a second attainment, that of 
intellectual integrity and discrimination. War is made possible by 
lies, some of the most delightful, vengefuUy delicious lies known 
to man: lies coated with sweet hatreds and camouflaged in an im- 
posing array of fact. Such lies are necessary before a large-scale 
war can be put over, for masses of peace-loving people do not easily 
leave their happy homes to engage in the cruel sport of bombing 
and plundering the homes of like peace-loving persons against 
whom they have neither grudge nor reason for grudge. Men must 
be lied to, taught to hate and hate bitterly a people whom they nei- 
ther know nor dislike. They must be hoodwinked into trampling 
upon every moral principle incompatible with the prosecution of the 
war. These war-time lies are the more effective because they have 
behind them all the sanction of established government, the ap- 
proval of the social group, and, sad to relate, very often the blessing 
of religion. To call these falsehoods into question has the appear- 
ance of a revolt against civil authority, the social group and religion. 
But the Christian pacifist can and must retain his intellectual integ- 
rity even in a crisis. The church has not always prepared him for 
careful discrimination, by its constant insistence upon child-like 
faith, often to the neglect of faith's indispensable corollary, honest 
doubt. Faith is not an unmixed virtue, for, shorn of all critical 
faculties, it lapses into gullibility and credulity. Discriminating 
doubt is the other side of the shield of faith. Just as one cannot 
believe in the one true God unless he doubts the existence of other 
gods, so to have faith in the ultimate triumph of righteousness one 
must doubt the tenets of its opposites, materialism and pessimism. 
The truth cannot be believed until the false is discerned and doubted. 
The Christian pacifist can achieve mental integrity and discrimina- 
tion only at the price of clean living, careful study, and clear reflec- 
tive thinking. He must keep himself informed, foreseeing and fore- 
arming himself against lying propaganda. Two among many help- 



14 SCHWARZENAU 

ful books for this purpose are Walter Millis' The Road To War 
and Abrams' Preachers Present Arms. The Christian will school 
himself to remember, whatever the pressure, that truth is bound to 
lie on both sides of a national controversy, that the use of shibbo- 
leths and slogans is not thinking but is a sell-out to the cause of the 
unscrupulous, that moral principles are as operative in war as in 
peace, and that the kingdom of heaven must be brought to earth 
even midst the war-time reign of hell. 

The third step in the crisis preparation of the Christian pacifist 
is the achievement of emotional stability. 

"If you can keep your head when all about you 
are losing theirs and blaming it on you ;" 

if you can keep sane in the insane world which a war crisis creates; 
if you can remain emotionally poised amid a hate-crazed, fear- 
fevered people — you'll not only be a man, my son, but a Christian. 
The emotional problem of a war situation is, after all, one of the 
most crucial. If men could remain and in full possession of their 
powers of reason they would know how utterly foolish and irra- 
tional war is and would stoop to it under no provocation. To do this 
demands of the Christian pacifist a new strengthening of the inner 
life, a grip on reality sufliciently strong to dispel all unreality and 
irrationality about him. While others exhaust their energies in 
vengeful attacks on the human foe the Christian will spend his 
time and strength combatting the true enemy, war hysteria itself. 
The best way I know to accomplish this necessary emotional con- 
ditioning is to cultivate a three-way line of contact: back into the 
long sweep of history, out into a sympathetic group fellowship, and 
up in a close communion with the Eternal. Set in an ongoing his- 
torical process the pacifist can hold tryst with the long Hne of kin- 
dred spirits who are calling upon him to hold true. Sharing the 
fellowship and support of a closely knit contemporary group of 
pacifists he can dare the disapproval of all other groups if necessary 
in his efforts for peace. Taking time for quiet periods of meditation 
and the reorientation of his life in harmony with his realization of 
God, he will come forth blessed with a clear-eyed calm to meet the 
pressures of the time. Fellowship with the long succession of peace- 
makers of the past will create in the individual a sense of responsi- 
bility to the centuries. The shuttling between group fellowship and 



THE EARLY GERMANS 15 

private devotion will weave a fabric of under girding relationships 
that will make the pacifist both strong and sympathetic. 

A war-crisis threatens. It is time for Christians to make special 
preparation for the extraordinary strains such a crisis would bring. 
This can be done, I believe, by achieving philosophical clarity, intel- 
lectual discrimination, and emotional stability. If the Christian 
learns to do this the kingdom of heaven will have already begun to 
come to supplant the kingdom of hell. 



WHY THE EARLY GERMANS CAME TO 
PENNSYLVANIA 

L. D. Rose 

I. Introduction 

The three dominant groups of people settling in Colonial Penn- 
sylvania were the Quakers, Scotch-Irish, and the Germans. The 
Quakers, English and Welsh under the leadership of the great 
Penn, founded our metropolis and engaged in trade with the mother 
country across the Atlantic. 

The Scotch-Irish, bold and aggressive and daring, pushed their 
way to the frontier, subdued the Indians, carved homes out of the 
wilderness, erected schools and churches, and materially modified 
the policies of the proprietary government. 

The Germans, lovers of home and of land, loyal and religious, 
peace-loving and industrious, sought the fertile soil of the Atlantic 
plain and engaged for the most part in agriculture. They laid the 
foundation of successful farm life in America; and their descend- 
ants, far and wide, are still the best farmers in America. They also 
in part gave themselves to the textile industries, weaving in flax and 
wool and later in cotton, giving to America her great textile indus- 
try. Others, especially the group that had contact with the schools 
at Halle, gave themselves to the study of the medicinal value of 
plants and set up the practice of medicine. The first medical school 
and botanical garden in America were in Germantown. From this 
enterprise of German people came the founding of the great med- 
ical school of the University of Pennsylvania — the first in America. 



16 SCHWARZENAU 

Nor were these Germans neglectful of the religious obligations that 
rest upon all people. They brought here a fine devotion to the 
things of the Spirit and set up in houses, barns and cabins, temples 
of worship to Almighty God. 

At least seven distinct faiths were represented in this German 
migration — the Lutherans, the German Reformed, the Men- 
nonites, the Moravians, the Schwenkfelders, the Brethren and the 
Seventh-Day Baptists.^ 

It is a fact that the first German immigrants to set foot on Amer- 
ican soil came to Pennsylvania. It is also a fact that most of the 
German immigrants who came to colonial America entered through 
the port of Philadelphia. Why are both of these statements his- 
torical facts? 

It is true that in Pennsylvania the modes of thought have per- 
sisted stronger among the descendants of the early Germans than 
in any other state; in other words the "Ideengang" has been subject 
to less change in Pennsylvania. It is also true that the whole view- 
point of life or "Weltanschauung" is more distinctly German in 
Pennsylvania than in any other state. Again, why are these state- 
ments true ? 

Recently the writer received a copy of "Unsere Heimat", a Ger- 
man magazine published in the Palatinate. Now the Palatinate is 
that beautiful section of southwest Germany dear to the heart of 
every student of Pennsylvania German history. It is the section 
from which the first immigrants came to America. In this magazine 
there is an article in dialect about a lady traveling to Philadelphia 
by rail with her mischievous boy. The youngster was a constant 
pest; entreaties in the choicest English were of no avail. Only a 
few words that showed "Die Macht der Muttersproch" were neces- 
sary to calm the youngster.^ 

In the same magazine there is also an article about "Das Brauch- 
en in Pennsylvanien". Here are given verses gegen Verbluten, 
Kopfweh, Gift, Wildfeier, Kolik, Owachse and other ailments." 
Without raising any question at all about the merits or demerits of 
powwowing, the question must be raised in all sincerity why two 
articles about Pennsylvania should appear in a German magazine. 



1. Brumbaugh, M. G., An Outline for Historical Romance Proceedings, Penn- 
sylvania German Society, Norristown, Pa., 1928, pp. 5, 6. 

2. "Unsere Heimat," Kaiserslautern, August, 1937, p. 334. 

3. Ibid., p. 328. 



THE EARLY GERMANS 17 

From Pennsylvania German Colonists settled in New York, 
Maryland, Virginia and other states. However, we never speak of 
Maryland German, Virginia German or any other type of Ger- 
man. Why only the term Pennsylvania German? 

Last summer a Rotarian from this county toured Europe. In his 
travels he met a number of men in Berlin whose names he recorded 
on slips of paper. On his return he was invited to address the Eliz- 
abethtown Rotary Club. During the course of his address he passed 
around the slips of paper to men of the same name he had met in^ 
Berlin. Our fellow Rotarian could have done the same had he se- 
cured names from any other city in Germany. Furthermore, he 
could have found names to match in any village or city in any Ger- 
man community in the country. 

Only a casual inquiry among the members of the faculty and 
student body of this institution would reveal a number of German 
names. In many instances it might be easy to trace lineage to the 
Fatherland. 

In this paper a number of questions have been raised. These 
questions cannot be answered in a sentence or two. To attempt an 
adequate answer it will be necessary in a series of discussions to ex- 
plore the devastating influences of the Thirty Years' V^ar on Ger- 
man culture ; a rather detailed study of the pietistic movement must 
be undertaken; and finally, there must be a resume of William 
Penn's missionary travels in Germany before he came to Pennsyl- 
vania October 27, 1682. 

II. The Thirty Years* War 

The seventeenth century was a period of turmoil. To Germany 
it meant the horrors of the Thirty Years' War and its terrible con- 
sequences. The war was primarily a religious war and was waged 
with the bitterness of such wars, but at the same time political ques- 
tions were interwoven with the religious question, with the conse- 
quence that the armies, considering themselves as their master's 
retainers rather than champions of a cause, plundered and burned 
everywhere, military violence being In no way restrained by expe- 
diency.^ The war began in 1618 in Bohemia when the Protestant 
princes refused to elect Ferdinand, a Catholic, to the vacant throne 
and ended with the Treaty of Westphalia In 1648. The war pro- 



1. Encyclopedia Britannica, (11th ed., 1911) vol. XXVI, p. 852. 



18 SCHWARZENAU 

duced several famous heroes : Tilly, Gustavus Adolphus, the Pic- 
colomini and Wallenstein. The last two form the theme of Schil- 
ler's trilogy which is usually considered his masterpiece: Wallen- 
stein's Lager, Die Piccolomini, Wallenstein's Tod. 

Other countries involved in the struggle at various times were 
Sweden, Denmark, Holland, England, Spain, Italy and France. 
Of these brief mention will be made only of France because of its 
importance for future discussions. When the war began Richelieu 
was the French premier. He propounded the doctrine that all ter- 
ritory west of the Rhine originally belonged to France. Hence the 
boundary line should be moved eastward. This doctrine stands in 
direct contradiction to the doctrine of Ernst Moritz Arndt as in- 
scribed on a monument to his honor on the bank of the Rhine at 
Bonn: "Der Rhein ist Deutschlands Strom, nicht Deutschlands 
Grenze." (The Rhine is Germany's river, not Germany's boun- 
dary.) 

Soon after the close of the war Louis XIV ascended the French 
throne. He regarded war as a fixed and permanent factor of civil- 
ization. In his study of history he arrived at the conclusion that the 
greatest glory had always fallen to the world's warriors and con- 
querors. Hence it is not surprising that he was almost continually 
at war for over half a century and that he sought domination of 
Europe by arms.^ How the pious, unassuming people of the Palati- 
nate fared at his hands will be recounted later. 

During the war very few pitched battles were fought. The 
armies were usually on the march. The coming of an army with its 
mob of camp followers meant ruin to any region. The country-side 
had to furnish wood, straw, food and fodder. The camp followers 
wandered around plundering and stealing everything of value.^ 

Johannes Herberle, a Swabian peasant, recorded in his diary: 
"Gott lob und Dank wir sind diesmal noch gern geflohen well es die 
letzte Flucht war, die 29. oder ungefahr die 30."* (God be praised 
we gladly fled this time because it was our last flight, the 29th or 
possibly the 30th.) 

The fate of the cities was only a little less severe. Often a city 



2. Hazen, Charles Downer, Modern Europe, p. 28. New York, Henry Holt & Co. 
1920. 

3. Kuhns, Osoar, German and Swiss Settlements of Pennsylvania, p. 3. New 
York, Henry Holt & Co. 1914. 

4. Ibid., p. 5, footnote. 



THE EARLY GERMANS 19 

was ransomed at great expense. If a city was captured, the con- 
querors cut down the men in masses, dishonored the women, and 
destroyed everything on which they could lay their hands. 

Volumes could be written about the economic and political losses 
of Germany as a result of the Thirty Years' War. However, these 
losses have to do with the outer life of man and in these discussions 
the dominant theme is the inner life of man. Spiritual and moral 
losses are equally important but more intangible. A whole genera- 
tion had grown up in Germany without schools, without the min- 
istrations of rehgion and without the civilizing influence of gaining 
a livelihood by means of industry and sobriety. Alles wert war 
vernichtet. (Everything of value had been annihilated.) Grad- 
ually the churches had been plundered and destroyed. The clergy 
had been killed and driven off, so that religious life was practically 
at a standstill.^ In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Germany 
had shared with Italy the leadership of the intellectual world; in 
the seventeenth she was thrown into a state of semi-barbarism. 
Alles wert war vernichtet. When her neighbors were developing 
their languages into flexible instruments of literary expression, Ger- 
many had to retain a cumbersome vernacular, so distasteful to her 
educated men that even in the eighteenth century Frederick the 
Great always wrote in French in preference to German.® 

During the Thirty Years' War Germany produced no great men 
who made substantial contributions to the world stream of culture. 
No renowned thinkers, scientists, historians, musicians. The flower 
of German youth had been sacrificed to the ravages of war. Leib- 
niz, mathematician and philosopher, was born two years before 
the close of the war, Bach and Handel, names too well known to 
require explanation, a generation after the war, Kant and Lessing 
three quarters of a century after the war, Goethe, Germany's great- 
est genius and one of the world's four, a century after the war. 
Germany did not regain her usual stride in the realm of the spirit 
until at least 125 years after the close of the Thirty Years' War. 

There is however, a sphere of activity that must be examined 
here; in fact, it must be emphasized because of its relation to future 
issues that will arise. Although the religious life of Germany had 



5. Hayes, Carlton J. H., Political and Cultural History of Europe vol. I, p. 322. 
New York, Macmillan. 1932. 

6. Ogg, David, Europe in the Seventeenth Century, p. 169. London, A. & C. 
Black. 1925. 



20 SCHWARZENAU 

been disrupted and had been practically at a standstill, yet there 
were men, devoted to the highest interests of mankind, who made 
a permanent contribution in their realm. This contribution is the 
German hymn. 

The hymnody of Protestant Germany is the richest in Christen- 
dom. By 1820 it was known to include more than 80,000 hymns of 
varying merit. In word and melody many of the German hymns 
have their origin in the Thirty Years' War and the generation fol- 
lowing. These hymns go to the very rock bottom of human experi- 
ence. The Oberammergau Passion Play, with its fine music and 
religious drama, also dates from this period. These creations of the 
spirit form an enduring monument to creative German genius. The 
earliest hymns of the Reformation were those of the Bohemian 
Brethren or Moravians, of which a collection of 89 was printed at 
Prague in 1501, and another of about 400, in 1505; but these were 
so effectually suppressed that only one imperfect copy of the for- 
mer is known to exist, and none of the latter. For practical pur- 
poses the history of modern hymnody begins with the publication in 
1524 at Erfurt and Wittenberg respectively, of two small books of 
German hymns, in each of which about three-fourths of the con- 
tents were from the pen of Luther. Many of these hymns are still 
in more or less common use.' 

At first, German hymns are neither didactic nor retrospective but 
natural, cordial, and fearless, and at once popular and churchly. 
Gradually there is a transition toward the subjective style of later 
times, with the introduction of references to personal circumstances 
and didactic matter. The Psalms now become the model and type; 
prominence is given to personal matters; brevity and terseness give 
place to enlargement of thought. During the Thirty Years' War, 
hymns assume more and more of a subjective character. "Der 
Deutsche steigt in sich hinein". (The German descends into him- 
self.) The objective features tend to disappear, while hymns relat- 
ing to various circumstances and events in life — as suffering, con- 
solation, death, the family, etc., — become more numerous. There 
is often a tendency to excessive length, a common characteristic of 
meditative verse.® 

The chief singer of this generation — in the judgment of many 



7. Hastings, James (Editor), Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. 7, p. 
28 ff. "Hymns" (Modern Christian) by T. G. Crippen. New York, Scribner. 1926. 

8. Ibid. 



WALNUT GROVE 21 

the greatest of all German hymnists — is Paul Gerhardt ( 1607-76). 
Foremost among his 120 hymns is the incomparable "O Haupt 
vol! Blut und Wunden" and not far behind it comes the ever pop- 
ular "Befiehl du meine Wege" and "1st Gott fiir mich so tretc gleich 
alles wider mich". To the same period belong Johannes Heer- 
mann, (1585-1647), "O Gott, du frommer Gott," Martin Rinck- 
hart, (1586-1649), "Nun danket alle Gott," Georg Neumark 
(1621-81), "Wer nun den lieben Gott lasst walten" and Joachim 
Neander (1650-80), "Lobe den Herrn den machtigen Konig der 
Ehren".^ These hymns have a decided subjective, contemplative 
character which is also one of the characteristics of the pietistic 
movement in Germany. 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL, WALNUT GROVE 
MEETING HOUSE 

Elgin S. Mover 

This paper was read at the Semi-Centennial observance held in the Silver 
Creek Congregation Oct. 2, 1938. The writer is our assistant-editor. He was called 
back to the old home congregation to participate in this celebration. — Editor. 

The Silver Creek congregation with its two meeting places, the 
Hickory Grove and Walnut Grove houses, is a scion of the Lick 
Creek church which now comprises the southern part of Williams 
County, Ohio. The Lick Creek congregation was organized in 1845 
and the church house was built in 1870. The Brethren of the Lick 
Creek church, like the Brethren in many other congregations, were 
interested in preaching the Word not only at their central meeting 
place but also at outlying points. Thus quite early in their history 
they were conducting preaching services in schoolhouses and in 
other church houses in the northern part of Williams County, Ohio, 
and in the southern edge of Hillsdale County, Michigan. 

As time wore on the membership in the northern part of the Lick 
Creek territory increased sufficiently to organize a new congrega- 

9. Ibid. 



22 SCHWARZENAU 

tion. Thus in 1874 the Silver Creek, church was organized with the 
following eighty-four charter members: 

Peter Baker and wife 
Nathan Bohner and wife 
Jacob Bollinger and wife 
Brother Clark and wife 
John Conley and wife 
George Copeland and wife 
Jacob Couts and wife 
William Finicle and wife 
Brother Freed and wife 
Frederick Greek and wife 
Martin Hoke and wife 
Jacob Keiser and wife 
John Keiser and wife 
Adam Kimmel and wife 
Jacob Kinsey and wife 
John Kinsey and wife 
George Kurtz and wife 
Samuel Landis and wife 
William Lehman and wife 
Jesse Long and wife 
John Mahler and wife 
David Martin and wife 
Brother Matthas and wife 
Joseph Moore and wife 
Washington Moyer and wife 
Abraham Reppard and wife 
Christian Rittenhouse and wife 
David Rittenhouse and wife 
Eli Rittenhouse and wife 
Samuel Rittenhouse and wife 
Jacob Shaneour and wife 
Edward Smith and wife 
John Stoner and wife 
George Throne and wife 
Henry Throne and wife 
John Wallace and wife 



WALNUT GROVE 23 

Lemuel Yocum and wife 

Josiah Blair 

Athelenda (Ethelinda?) Bollinger 

Nancy Burkholder 

Fortunatis Clark 

Sister Culbertson 

Catherine Justin 

Hannah Rittenhouse 

Sister Underwood 

John Wallace 

Susie Wallace 

For a few years council meetings were held in the homes of the 
members while communion services were conducted in barns. At 
the time of the organization of the church there were residing 
within the bounds of the new congregation three ministers, Joseph 
Moore, David Rittenhouse, and Jacob Shaneour; and eight dea- 
cons, John Keiser, John Mahler, John Martin, Abraham Reppard, 
Christian Rittenhouse, Eli Rittenhouse, Henry Throne, and Lem- 
uel Yocum. John Brown of the Lick Creek church was chosen as 
elder in charge of the new congregation. Just a few months later, 
the same year, B. F. Sholty, a minister, moved into the congrega- 
tion. 

On the day of the organization of the church, Jesse Long was 
called to the ministry, and Jacob Miller and John Lehman were 
elected deacons. In 1879 the church decided to ordain to the elder- 
ship one of its own number. As the election resulted in a tie vote 
for David Rittenhouse and Jacob Shaneour, these two brethren 
were given joint oversight of the church. 

In 1878 the first church house was built two and one half miles 
southeast of Pioneer. Being located within a clump of hickory 
trees, it became known as the Hickory Grove meeting house. When 
this congregation was organized it comprised and comprises today 
the extreme northwest congregation of the District of Northwest- 
ern Ohio. 

Before the building of the Hickory Grove house, however, the 
Brethren were holding meetings in the eastern part of what is today 
the Silver Creek congregation. Services were being held in school- 
houses, in a union church north of Primrose, and in a Universalist 



24 SCHWARZENAU 

church midway between Primrose and the present site of the Wal- 
nut Grove house. The Brethren seem to have been holding bi- 
weekly services in the Universalist house for quite some time prior 
to 1878, the time of the building of the Hickory Grove house. This 
practice came within the privilege granted by the Declaration of 
Principles of the Universalist church, dated December 29, 1863, 
which says that the house that was soon to be erected "shall be open 
for the use of all religious denominations, when not occupied by 
the one who has it in control." 

The Universalists organized their society at Primrose in Jan- 
uary, 1864, with a charter membership of twenty-five and built 
their house of worship shortly after. The growth of their church, 
however, was so meagre that before many years they found them- 
selves unable longer to finance the church or to carry on their serv- 
ices. They finally leased their property to the Brethren for a period 
of ninety-nine years. Under these arrangements the Brethren held 
preaching services here regularly for perhaps six or eight years and 
conducted a Sunday school here at least a part of the time. 

Some of the Brethren, realizing that that house was too small 
for their growing membership, which numbered perhaps forty in 
this part of the congregation, were urging that a new and more 
commodious house be built. In September, 1886, the Silver Creek 
church in council discussed the matter and appointed Jacob Miller 
and Samuel Landis to ascertain how much money might be raised 
for this purpose. But at the next meeting in December, the church 
decided to drop the project for the time being. At this meeting it 
was decided to raise funds to build horse and buggy sheds for the 
Hickory Grove church grounds instead. 

A year later another committee, consisting of Lemuel Yocum, 
H. W. Moyer, Noah Long and Jacob Rockey was appointed to 
raise funds for the Primrose meeting house. At a special council 
meeting in October, 1887, it being reported that $722 had been 
raised, the church decided to make plans for building, and appointed 
Jacob Miller as chairman of the building committee. In January 
H. W. Moyer was elected treasurer of this special building fund. 

Since the church had taken this action and knowing the desire 
of the church to have a house of worship near the church's burying 
ground, H. W. Moyer gave a new plot of ground for the site of 
the church. This plot lies about eighty rods south of Primrose. 



WALNUT GROVE 25 

The transaction was dated January 17, and the deed was recorded 
May 1, 1888. In 1884 he had given the adjoining plot for the 
cemetery. The first person to be buried in this new cemetery was 
Daniel Marks in 1888. 

With a plot of ground for cemetery and another for a church 
site belonging to the church, the members in this part of the Silver 
Creek territory urged that the church soon be built. 

Early in 1888 the subscription sum had grown to about two 
thousand dollars. With this amount and with the timber and stone 
that was donated by members and other neighbors, further plans 
for building were soon under way. Stone had been hauled by sled 
the previous winter from Noah Long's place five miles north and 
one and one half miles west of Pioneer. In the spring of 1888 the 
work of building was begun with George Mahler, a minister, and 
Jacob Miller, a deacon, as head carpenters and George Miller, 
George Keiser and Anthony Pickens as helpers. 

The trustees of the church whose duty it was to supervise the 
planning and construction of the building were Jacob Miller, Sam- 
uel Landis and Lemuel Yocum, all deacons in the church. 

The building was completed by midsummer. We find in the 
diary of my father, Mahlon Moyer, the following entry for Aug. 8, 
1888, "Church raising today. I was up awhile in the A. M. and 
also in the P. M. Got thru about 4 p. m. Perhaps 90 men present. 
Everything went together pretty nicely. Got all rafters up. Had 
basket dinner in our barn. About 200 persons ate dinner. Had a 
nice table set. Everything passed off nicely." 

On Sunday, Nov. 11, 1888, the house was dedicated. Father 
made the following record in his diary, "Weather cool and pleas- 
ant. Roads muddy. We all attended dedication of the Walnut 
Grove Church at Primrose, 10:30 a. m. Addressed by Elder J. C. 
Murray of North Manchester, Indiana. The earth and the fulness 
thereof were created for the purpose of man. Man was created 
for the purpose of God. Are we serving his purpose as we should? 
Had an able sermon. House well filled, some had to stand. Brother 
Murray used as his text John 5 :2. He impressed his audience with 
the importance of dedicating themselves to God and his service." 

Following the dedication service on November 11, a revival 
meeting was begun by Elder Murray and continued until November 
25, resulting in one accession to the church. 



26 SCHWARZENAU 

It may be in point here to mention that the little meeting house 
that had been owned by the Universalists and leased to the Breth- 
ren was purchased by grandfather Moyer in 1888 or 1889 for the 
sum of twenty-four or twenty-five dollars. The building was razed 
to the ground and the lumber was used in farm buildings. 

These two meeting houses, in true Dunker fashion, were named 
after some of nature's own handiwork. The new church was called 
Walnut Grove house, receiving its name from the small grove of 
black and white walnut trees growing on the Moyer farm a few 
rods south of the church. As has been mentioned the west house 
was built in a clump of hickory trees, and became known as the 
Hickory Grove house. 

The Walnut Grove house has been the meeting place for a mi- 
nority of the congregation, but in its regular Sunday school, weekly 
or bi-weekly preaching services, annual revival, and its prayer 
meeting thru the years, it has had a vital place in the life of the 
congregation, and has had no small influence in the life of the 
community. Although it is less than five miles distant from the 
Hickory Grove house, in the days of horse and buggy and muddy 
roads, this distance made it difficult for members to get to church 
and was a barrier in reaching the more or less disinterested non- 
members for Christ and the church. Thus many have become inter- 
ested in the church and have become followers of the Lord Jesus, 
who otherwise perhaps would never have been reached for the 
Kingdom. 

This church house was not built to accommodate love feast occa- 
sions. The communion services and council meetings have always 
been held in the Hickory Grove house which is more nearly in the 
center of the entire congregation. 

Nearly every year since the house was built, revival meetings 
have been held here; and even before the present house was built, 
Sunday school was carried on. In the earlier years the Sunday school 
was closed during winter months; but before many years this little 
church was able to report an "evergreen" Sunday school, that is a 
Sunday school carried on the year round. 

During the whole or a part of the last twelve years of the nine- 
teenth century, being the period that this brief history covers, there 
were in the Silver Creek church ten ministers and one other who 
died the preceding December. Following is the list: 



WALNUT GROVE 27 

Jacob Shaneour, in the ministry before 1874, died December, 
1887, Eider 1879; Joseph Moore, in the ministry 1864 to 1890, 
Elder, 1888; David Rittenhouse, in the ministry before 1874 to 
1914, Elder 1879; Jesse Long, in the ministry from 1874 to 1905; 
B. F. Sholty, in the ministry before 1874 to 1904, Elder 1888, and 
served as elder in charge from this time until his death; Jacob W. 
Keiser, in the ministry from 1891 to about 1934, Elder, 1898, be- 
ing elder in charge for more than twenty years following 1904; 
George Mahler, in the ministry from 1883 to 1913; EH M. Ritten- 
house, in the ministry from 1883 to 1919; John Mark, in the min- 
istry from 1886 to 1915; Alfred Throne and William St. John, 
called to the ministry in 1898. 

Of these eleven ministers, three lived within the bounds of the 
Walnut Grove territory, at the time of the building of the house 
in 1888, namely, Jacob Shaneour, Jacob W. Keiser, Eli M. Ritten- 
house. 

The following people who were members of the Silver Creek 
church, living in the Walnut Grove territory, at the time of the 
building of the house, are still living: Mary Sampson, Samuel and 
Rachel Miller, John Keiser and Dora Winters. 

The members living within the bounds of the Walnut Grove ter- 
ritory have always loyally and faithfully supported the work of the 
local branch, and have borne their share of the congregational, dis- 
trict and general budgets. In the main, peace and Christian fellow- 
ship have always existed among the members, and the work of the 
Kingdom has been a joy and a pleasure for the members of this 
little church. This little band of God's children thru the years has 
had a wholesome influence upon the community, and has again and 
again had the joy of taking into its fold those from among the un- 
saved of the neighborhood. 



pw t> ( /x t>VV 



•d-o 



o+S 





Hickory Grove Meeting House, Silver Creek Congregation 
District of N. W. Ohio 




Walnut Grove Meeting House, Silver Creek Congregation 
District of N, W. Ohio 




Mountain Dale Meeting House, Sandy Creek Congregation 
First District of West Virginia 




Salem Meeting House, Sandy Creek Congregation 
First District of West Virginia 



JJ-VXS 




32 SCHWARZENAU 

HISTORY OF SANDY CREEK CONGREGA- 
TION, FIRST DISTRICT OF WEST VIRGINIA 

Susie M. Thomas 

CHAPTER I 
Life During the Early Days of Preston County 

To grasp the importance of the early church in Sandy Creek 
Congregation an understanding of life in the early days of Preston 
County is of much help. The life of the people a few years prior to 
the organization of the Congregation may be described as follows : 

The people were of Welsh, German, and Scotch-Irish descent. 
They lived in the older and more developed half of northern Pres- 
ton County. Sometimes the farms had been cleared by the fathers 
before them. A local spirit had arisen. 

To use a single home as an example it would be somewhat as 
follows. It was composed of the father and mother, four living 
sons and four daughters of assorted sizes. An older girl died in 
early womanhood and two boys passed away in childhood. All the 
living children were still at home except the oldest daughter. The 
parents would have been very much surprised if they would have 
been asked, "Is your daughter a clerk or a teacher?" She was a 
wife and mother and lived in the settlement. 

To approach the home from the country road, a half mile of 
timber was passed through in which there was scarcely one tree 
missing. The squirrels, rabbits and feathered denizens of the forest 
were in great numbers. The public road was so narrow that one 
wagon could pass another only with great inconvenience. It was 
used more often by a man on horseback than by one in a noisy 
wagon of the period. It was variegated with rocks, stumps, and 
mudholes. The streams were without bridges and a man using his 
own locomotion had to either find a couple rails or pull off his foot- 
gear and wade through the waters. 

The home was made of hewed logs. A crowd of men gathered 
from an eight-mile radius and put up the walls in a single day. The 
chinks were filled by small flat stones, held in place by a plastering 
of reddish clay that gave the walls the color of ochre. From one 



SANDY CREEK 33 

end of the roof projected a massive Inside chimney of unhewn 
stone. The ends of a row of joists projecting below the eaves, and 
an opening in each gable were the only evidence of an upper story. 

One of the low rooms was lighted after a fashion by a half win- 
dow containing six panes of glass, the size of a pane being 8x10 
inches. The other room was lighted only when a shutter was 
opened. Below were three windows supplying two rooms. The 
sashes of the lower windows were of unequal size, there being nine 
lights In the lower ones and three In the upper. One sash was raised 
being held up by a stick. 

The cleated entrance door was furnished with very long strap 
hinges forged by the neighborhood blacksmith. Those of the door 
In the board partition were of the same material but smaller In size. 
There were scarcely more than two handfuls of nails in the whole 
house. The reason Is evident from the following. 

An inducement to the free use of wooden pegs lay in the fact that 
iron was ten cents a pound, even before it was slowly wrought into 
hand-made nails and hinges.^ 

The floors and partitions were of broad poplar boards which 
were unevenly sawed by an up and down saw driven by an overshot 
waterwheel. By use of the adze, however, the floors were made 
quite level. The strong arms of the owner and his friends supplied 
nearly all of the materials as well as the labor. 

It was no child's play to raise a heavy log. It took four men at 
each end and one in the middle. The ends had to be kept level to pre- 
vent a slipping, and perhaps a resulting accident. Even the roof, of 
riven clapboards, had to be held in place by heavy-weight poles, with 
their accompaniment of eve-bearers, ribs and knees. But since this 
help was gratuitous, save when it was returned in kind, the outlay in 
cash for materials was very small.^ 

The larger apartment of the lower division was kitchen, dining 
room and living room, all in one. All the rooms on the first floor 
were unfinished. The wall logs were In full view as were also the 
hewn joists over head. The large fireplace required much wood to 
fill It. It would have taken less labor to have dug black diamonds 
from the hillside, but the housekeepers regarded it Intolerably dirty 
for domestic use. 

There were no matches and the fire was started with a piece of 
maple punk, a piece of tow, and a few grains of powder. Later a 



1. Morton, Oren F., History of Preston Co., Part I, p. 110. 

2. Morton, op. cit., pp. 110, 111. 



34 SCHWARZENAU 

device came In as a substitute. It was a little oblong tin box with 
two partitions. In the larger of these were some punk and tow, and 
also a flint and a long cord. In the top of the smaller partition was 
a brass wheel an Inch and a half In diameter, with teeth like a clock 
wheel. The cord was wound around the pin, on which the wheel 
freely revolved, and the flint was placed in position. There was a 
quick jerk on the cord, and the wheel rotated too rapidly for the 
teeth to be distinguished, and a shower of sparks fell from the flint 
upon the combustibles below. 

The bedstead was massive and high with a network of creaking 
cords upholding the feather-ticks, which were hidden by a home- 
made coverlet. At the foot of the bed was the ladder leading to the 
upper rooms. At the top of the ladder were two broad, low cham- 
bers, looking very bare except for the beds, of which there were 
two or three in each room, the pile of extra bedding stacked on the 
floor, the big hardwood chest and a considerable quantity of wear- 
ing apparel dangling from pegs. Limited as was the house room 
and large as was the family, there was always a place over night 
for not only one guest, but more than one. 

Preparations for dinner were made in quite a different way to 
what they are made in our modern age. 

Close before the fire is a smooth, semi-carbonized board, on which 
lies a browning johnny cake. The housewife proceeds to turn it, so 
that the under side may get done. A pot simmering above a bed of 
coals contains bacon and vegetables. In another, hot water is 
bubbling.^ 

The husband would not have been true to the usage of the com- 
munity if he would not have insisted on the guests breaking bread 
with him. 

So we sit down to a bountiful repast of corn-bread, garden beans, 
potatoes, bacon, berries, spicewood tea, rye, coffee, and milk. If it 
were Sunday, a loaf of white bread and plump pie would grace the 
table, although the wheat loaf is not quite relished by some of the 
household. If it were later in the year, there would be a dish of apple- 
butter and another of stewed dried apples or berries. But there are 
no jellies, and no dish of fruit from a glass jar, the process of airtight 
canning being yet to come into vogue. "Store tea" and "store coffee" 
are great rarities on this table. As for rice, macaroni, or a dessert of 
bananas, we would never see such articles on John's table from the 
beginning of a year to its end. But during the colder months we would 

3. Morton, op. cit., p. 113. 



SANDY CREEK 35 

see venison, wild turkey, or pheasant, and perhaps bear meat or else 
some fish. The bill of fare is almost strictly a product of these hills.* 

The dishes were meager in variety and very plain in pattern. 
There were wooden and pewter spoons and wooden and common 
earthenware utensils. In the dooryard was a Dutch oven. It was 
built of stones. A fire was made in it and after the wood was re- 
duced to coals the embers were cleared away and the loaves of 
wheat dough were put in. The heat that passed into the stonework 
assured the baking. 

Not far from the house was a log barn. The roof was covered 
with rye straw bound with hickory withes. The spaces between the 
logs were wide and not generally chinked. 

There were many chestnuts and a sugar camp was made each 
year. Here was made all the sugar used at the house except for 
some honey from the hives which supplemented it. The surplus of 
maple sugar was sent to market over the National Road. There 
were no galvanized sap-spouts and sap-buckets, and no modern 
hives, for the bees. A concern of straw, or a section of a hollow 
log answered for hives. 

Stumps were quite gone from the old clearings, but there were 
plenty in the new ones. The virgin fertility of the former was much 
impaired. The opinion was still held that a field was to be consid- 
ered good for so many crops, and then thrown out of active use in 
favor of a new clearing. So long as new fields could be tilled there 
was little thought of keeping up the fertility of the older ones. The 
surface of the small tilled area was scratched with a wooden plow, 
which was liable to "ball up". There was a wooden-toothed harrow 
for heavy work, but the grain crop was brushed in with a bush 
harrow. The corn-field and the potato patch were given their 
chance against the weeds by means of the hoe, every grown and 
partially grown member of the family taking part in the crusade. 

The grain was reaped with a sickle. The expert reaper brought 
his narrow crescent blade close to the fingers that were grasping 
the handful of wheat or oats straw, and the left hand sometimes 
bore the scars of more than one miscalculation. Threshing was 
done with the flail. Twelve to fifteen bushels of grain were threshed 
a day not including the time spent in winnowing away the chaff. 
Portions of corn, wheat, and buckwheat were taken to some water 

4~ Ibid., p. 113. 



36 SCHWARZENAU 

mill, and there ground into flour or meal. Now and then the hand- 
mill was still used. 

The acre of flax that was annually grown was as necessary as the 
other crops that were grown. Cotton in bulk was almost a curiosity. 
The distance to where any could be obtained was far and the price 
was almost prohibitive for the lean pocket books of the people. 

By much hard labor and no little skill, and with almost no outlay 
in ready money, flax fiber and wool were produced and turned into 
cloth of which the family clothing, bedding, and the grain sacks 
were made. 

A brown color was given to the new cloth by a cold solution of 
walnut hulls, but if a black was desired the liquid was boiled. 
Madder, a plant, gave a red color, maple a green, and hickory a 
yellow color to the cloth. 

The process for preparing the flax is described as follows: 

The pulling, retting, breaking, swingling, and scutching of the 
flax consumes much time, and the swingling is dusty work. After the 
pulled stalks have become soft, as well as ill-smelling from retting in 
the damp, they are broken by blows from a wooden knife, and the tow 
is separated from the splintered bark by passing through sets of steel 
blades in the hackling boards. The fiber is boiled in lye to soften it 
.... The spinner is paid either by the clip or skein. The grades of 
the linen are the "pure linen", the tow linen, and the flax linen, the 
second has a tow woof, and the third a tow woof also, but coarser. 
Bleaching takes place on the grass. The sensation produced by put- 
ting on a new shirt of the coarser grades is compared by the boys to 
being rubbed with chestnut burrs. So it is the practice to beat the 
linen with clubs to break down the irritating "shivs," or to draw the 
shirt of torture back and forth over a smooth rail. 

The tenth of May was the conventional date for donning the 
summer's linen. When a warmer cloth was needed, it was found in 
the combination of wool and linen, known as linsey woolsey. 

Potatoes did not arrive until near the fall season. The garden 
yielded a smaller variety of vegetables than present day gardens, 
yet was more prominent with respect to savory herbs. There were 
some flowers and ornamental plants, among them a few tomatoes, 
known as Jerusalem apples, beautiful fruit not being supposed to 
be put into the mouth for it was thought they were poison. 

A heavy beam, with one end anchored in a large oak, supplied 
the squeezing power for separating apple juice from the pomace. 
Apples were wanted for cider as much as for other purposes. Fruit 



SANDY CREEK 37 

trees were set out soon after the arrival of the settler. In any but 
unfavorable seasons there was an abundant supply of apples, peach- 
es, pears, plums, and cherries, a large share of the apples finding 
their way to the big copper kettle where the sliced fruit emerged as 
apple-butter. Some were dried for winter use and also a quantity 
of blackberries from the old clearings. 

Very nearly everything worn or eaten by the settler and his 
large family was produced on the farm. Whatever the family need- 
ed could usually be had either by exchange of work or barter. At 
the store, he could sometimes get rid of a few pounds of butter or 
a few dozen of eggs, yet the price of the former was only six cents 
a pound and the latter only three cents a dozen. 

The nearest neighbor was at least a third of a mile down the run. 
There were a few people in the community who had a horror of 
over exertion, and lived a meager existence. 

In the settlement across the creek were so many people of Ger- 
man birth or ancestry that the family records were written in the 
German Bibles, and some instruction was given through the medium 
of the German tongue. The older people did not converse in Eng- 
lish with much freedom. 

A wedding was a great social event, and was followed by the 
infare at the home of the groom's father. A party went forth to 
meet the bridal group. The leaders on each side then galloped to 
the house, the one who arrived first received a bottle of liquor, 
which was immediately passed around with entire impartiality. A 
sequel to the infare was the inevitable serenade. The wedding fes- 
tivities were not likely to pass off without some very coarse jokes. 

In the weekday social gatherings utility was nearly always a 
feature. There were "frolics" galore. Every little while there was 
a clearing of new land, a log rolling, a corn husking, a wheat har- 
vesting, an apple paring, a quilting, a house raising, a wood chop- 
ping, a sheep washing, a fish gigging, or a kicking frolic. On an 
occasion of the latter sort, a hundred yards of new cloth were 
fulled by being laid on boards placed on the floor of the barn. The 
cloth was kept drenched with soapy water, and was then stamped 
on for several hours by barefooted men and women, lads and las- 
sies. 

People gathered from within a radius of several miles for the 
frolic. The demands of the stomach were liberally supplied from 



38 SCHWARZENAU 

a well-filled table after the work was done. There was always a 
period of amusement afterwards. 

These gatherings were both utilitarian and social. The purely 
social party was scarcely known, even among the young people. 
When it did occur, the sports which took place were likely to be 
rough. 

There were still other forms of neighborly assistance. The peo- 
ple of the settlement were usually stout but occasionally some one 
got down sick. There was a doctor fifteen miles away, but he was 
less often called than Aunt Polly Bee, who with her native tact in 
the sick room, and her packages of boneset, chamomile, pennyroyal, 
and fever few, seemed sufficient for any ordinary emergency. While 
the simple life rendered the people hardy, and nervous affections 
were not particularly common, the more serious diseases were 
more often fatal than with us, because their nature and proper treat- 
ment were less understood. Since certain ailments were not known 
to be contagious they worked no little harm. The crowded homes, 
and the nonobservance or downright ignorance of proper sanitary 
care, were responsible for much of the Illness, especially among the 
infants. 

When a neighbor was ill or had a broken bone, the neighbors 
took turns in sitting up with him, and In seeing that his farm work 
did not suffer. The nearest doctor was the only substitute for the 
professional dentist, yet all he could do was to jerk out the tooth in 
blissful ignorance of anaesthetics. 

Peace and harmony were not found at all times in the settle- 
ment. The persons who disagreed and had trouble over some mat- 
ter did not take it to the squire or the lawyer at the county seat but 
met and fought It out. Although it was understood that the battle 
was to be square and without kicks, the victor might show his tem- 
per and his brutality by gouging the eyes of the vanquished, or 
attempt mutilation of the other. Arrests were seldom made. As 
the men fought the boys did also. 

People went to the schoolhouse to hear an itinerant preacher once 
a month or met in some home for services. Few of the hearers 
were members of any church. 

The teacher boarded around the district. The schoolroom was 
well filled during the winter term of three months. It presented 



SANDY CREEK 39 

altogether a different scene as compared with the one-room schools 
of today. 

The county seat contained but fifty inhabitants, and the farmer 
went there no oftener than actually necessary. Every second or 
third Saturday he visited the new village eight miles away. There 
he traded for something at the one store, conversed with men he 
did not meet in his own settlement and took a possible letter or pa- 
per from the post office. Of remote portions of the county and of 
neighboring counties his knowledge was hazy, except for the illu- 
mination afforded by strangers who have lodged with him. 

The only musical instruments they knew were the "fiddle", ac- 
cordion, and the jewsharp, with the addition of the drum and fife 
on musterdays. 

The stranger visiting in the settlement was an object of curiosity. 
The people found out about the person if they could possibly find 
any way of doing so. Yet they treated him with great hospitality 
and the other stranger, who had moved into the settlement to stay, 
was made welcome with a housewarming. 

Bachelors and spinsters of long standing were few. The daugh- 
ters continued to live in the settlement. One of the sons would 
build a small house on the home farm, and eventually own a half 
of the place. Another would purchase some wild land, and though 
it was not easy to raise $100 with which to purchase the hundred 
acres the parent would come to the rescue although not in a gratui- 
tous way. The third son would go to the newer land of promise 
toward the Father of Waters. He would never think of turning 
his steps in the direction from which his grandfather came. He 
would not think of moving to Pittsburgh, for then it had few work- 
shops. 

The call of the city is a mild voice in 1825. The industries of the 

land are performed mainly by hand labor, and are carried on in the 

•villages and farmsteads quite as much as in the cities. The people of 

America are still living in very much the same manner as when the 

Declaration of Independence was signed.^ 

Life in Preston County today presents altogether a different pic- 
ture with the many modern conveniences in the homes, electric 
lights, automobiles, and good roads making it possible for them to 
reach the important centers. 



5. Morton, op. cit., p. 124. 



40 SCHWARZENAU 

CHAPTER II 
Religion in Preston County 

Although a desire for religious freedom led to the founding of 
more than half of the American colonies, it would be a great error 
to suppose the American people were generally religious at the time 
the settlement of Preston began. A religious feeling was not prev- 
alent in a very vital form during the entire Revolutionary period. 
The wild freedom of the frontier wilderness was little inclined to 
observe the salutary restraints of either law or religion. Yet this 
spirit was only a passing cloud, for the backwoodsman was not so 
perverse as he presents himself to us of the present day. After the 
year 1820, there was a very marked change for the better. 

The denominational preferences of the settlers of Preston are 
capable of ready explanation when we look at the characteristics 
of the elements that people the county. 

The first arrivals were mainly of the Scotch-Irish, and this people 
came to America as Presbyterian. It is to them that the existence of 
this denomination in Preston is assignable. The very numerous Ger- 
man element was primarily Lutheran, German Reformed, or German 
Baptist, and all these sects were represented. Members of the Re- 
formed Church were few as compared with the Lutherans, and were 
absorbed by the latter. The Methodist Church arose in America 
shortly before the Revolution, and its peculiar fervor struck a very 
responsive chord, especially in the South. That it heavily predom- 
inates in Preston is thus a matter of course. The Methodist Protes- 
tants are an offshoot of the parent Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
the United Brethren and the Evangelicals are also so similar that no 
special remark concerning them is here necessary. The Baptists have 
always been a strong and aggressive branch of Protestantism, and it 
would therefore be strange not to find this denomination present.® 

The Lutherans were the first to settle in Preston County. The 
first church in Grant District and the second in Preston County was 
that of the Friends organized between 1796 and 1812. 

Strong for a number of years, the organization shrank in member- 
ship to such an extent as to close the doors of its church in 1847. In 
1868, the building was torn down."^ 

The Methodists came next. They had class about 1819. The 
Baptists next appeared. 

The German Baptists or Dunkers were the fourth group to come 
into Grant District and the fifth in Preston County. They are most 



6. Morton, op. cit., pp. 169, 170. 

7. Scrapbook of Preston County History. 



SANDY CREEK 41 

numerous in Grant and Union Districts but have organizations in 
Pleasant, Portland, and Reno Districts. The parent church in 
Grant, is the Salem, which dates from 1845. 

The Church of the Brethren and Methodists predominate in 
Grant District. The Lutherans have decreased in number. There 
are a few Baptists. 

An enumeration taken about 1913 shows that the Methodist 
Episcopals had 54 buildings, the Lutherans 11, the Baptists 10, 
the United Brethren and the German Baptists, each 7, the Meth- 
odist Protestants and the Roman Catholics, each 6, and the Evan- 
gelicals 4, the Presbyterians 3, the Disciples and the African Meth- 
odist Episcopals, each, 1, thus making a total, including the union 
churches, of 113 in the County of Preston. 

CHAPTER III 

Some Historical Incidents 

One of the most severe calamities to hit Preston County occurred 
in 1859. A white visitor came during the night of June 3 and the 
results of the visitation were seen on a Sunday morning. 

It was the June Frost. 

Although wheat had been selling at advanced prices during the 
spring of 1859, during the latter part of May the signs of a prom- 
ising crop caused a drop in the market. Waving fields of wheat 
could be seen all over the county, for by that time there was much 
cleared land. 

Other crops were good, and with no very serious thoughts of an 
approaching inter-state war there seemingly was no warning. Peo- 
ple observed Saturday by doing their shopping, trading in town, 
and the various early-summer gatherings that were then popular. 

A blanket was all over the county on Sunday morning. Droop- 
ing blades and leaves were mute evidence to the slaughter worked 
on growing things. Fields of wheat that had once flung their heads 
into the sun, now forlornly bent as if all life had been ruthlessly 
dragged from them. 

The farmers became quite alarmed, but as the sun mounted 
higher and higher during the day, thoughtful planning slowly took 



42 SCHWARZENAU 

the place of alarm and panic. Hurriedly, the owners of the once 
planted fields took off in search of additional grain for seed before 
the demand for it would cause prices to advance too much. Others 
took stock, and decided upon a different approach. 

Fields were plowed under. Buckwheat, corn and potatoes, al- 
though planted late sprouted in fine shape and later in the fall, a 
plentiful harvest was taken in. 

In the fall of 1860 great havoc was wrought among the young 
by an epidemic of diphtheria, a half dozen children sometimes per- 
ishing in a single home. The scourge was a new as well as severe 
disease, and it almost defied the measures taken to combat it. The 
next year the infected localities suffered a second visitation though 
in a milder form. 

Almost the only immigrants to Preston County who made use 
of slavery were men like Fairfax who came from east of the Blue 
Ridge. There seem to have been no slaves in Grant, Pleasant, and 
Union Districts and no more than a very nominal representation in 
Lyon and Reno. There were few in Portland, or in Kingwood Dis- 
tricts, outside the county seat, Kingwood. 

The older Virginia looked upon the western Virginia as being 
different. It sought to prevent a transfer of political power to the 
westward face of the Alleghenies. The western Virginian folks 
were in sympathy with the Union. May 23, 1861 the people of 
Virginia voted upon the ordinance of secession. In Preston the 
affirmative ballots were 63 and the negative 2,256. A comparison 
of these figures with the total population shows that few voters 
failed to go to the polls. 

Although Preston County furnished many men and boys to the 
Union cause during the Civil War, with the exception of a skirmish 
at Rowlesburg and the firing of a few shots at Terra Alta little 
action was seen in this county. 

Jones' raid was the title given the activity, and while neither the 
county seat nor Preston County was the main objective, the fact 
that the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, an important link in the 
communication system between the armies of the west and head- 
quarters in Washington traversed this county led these Confederate 
raiders to this section. 

West Virginia adopted its first constitution in 1862. On June 20, 
1863 it became an independent state in the Union. 



SANDY CREEK 43 

CHAPTER IV 

Historical and Geographical Sketch of Grant District 
AND Preston County 

Sandy Creek Congregation is located in Preston County, West 
Virginia. There are many things of interest connected with this 
county. Preston County was originally under the jurisdiction of 
Orange County, Virginia from 173^1 — 1738 and Augusta County 
from 1738 — 1776. During the Revolutionary War it became a 
part of Monongalia County and was under its jurisdiction until 
1818 when Preston became a separate county, due to the increasing 
population of this section of Monongalia County which prompted 
a desire for the division of the county. 

Preston County is one of the fifty-five counties of the State of 
West Virginia. It is not as homogeneous as the average county. 
There is but one Preston County in the United States and it lies in 
a northeastern angle of West Virginia. 

Preston County is divided into eight districts and in this history 
we are mainly concerned with one district in which five of the 
churches with which the Church of the Brethren are connected, are 
located. There is one church house in Sandy Creek Congregation 
which is located in Pleasant District and a schoolhouse in Pennsyl- 
vania. 

The territory of Grant District was embraced in the First 
(Magisterial) District when Preston County was divided in 1852. 
In 1863, in order of division of the county as then made, it became 
without any change of boundaries, Pleasant Township. By a change 
of designation merely in 1873, it became Grant District. It is 
bounded on the north by Pennsylvania, on the east by Maryland, on 
the south by Pleasant District, and on the west by Cheat River, 
which separates it from Valley District. 

Grant was the first district to become numerously settled. For 
about seventy years it stood foremost in population, wealth, and 
development. Until after 1850 it continued to about hold its own. 
Its relative decadence since then was due to the superseding of the 
National Road by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The improved 
roads in recent years have offset this condition. 

Grant District was named for the victorious commander-in-chief 
of the Union armies in the war of 1861. 



44 SCHWARZENAU 

The early settlers of Grant were mainly of English and Scotch- 
Irish derivation. Their descendants have in large measure mi- 
grated, thus giving place to a steady influx of German families 
especially from Somerset and Bedford counties in Pennsylvania, so 
that now the predominant strain of population is of German origin. 
This later immigration helps to account for the community interest 
of the people on either side of the state line. In great degree Grant 
is the parent district whence many families or branches of families 
dispersed into other portions of the county. 

The Sandy Creek Glades 

To the region of the Sandy Creek Glades rightly belongs the 
credit of at least the second, if not the first, permanent settlement 
on the soil of Preston County. 

Jacob Judy settled here in 1769, and the same year on a 400 
acre tract of land whose northern boundary was the Mason and 
Dixon Line, John Cuppy (Cuppett) built his log cabin, cleared his 
patch of corn ground, and firmly established a "settlement right." 
Subsequent to this date and by the year 1782, no fewer than seven- 
teen like settlements had been made within this area, around the 
nucleus of Fort Morris. 

Of these, all but two of the pioneers came from Pennsylvania 
territory, mostly from the vicinity of Philadelphia, York and Lan- 
caster, and thought they were settling on lands owned by Pennsyl- 
vania. They were of German extraction and "Pennsylvania Dutch" 
was spoken as fluently as English. 

Both Pennsylvania and Virginia laid claim to this territory. 
Virginia exercised jurisdiction over a part of Fayette and Green 
counties of Pennsylvania and held her courts for a time at the home 
of Theophilus Phillips, (near New Geneva) and as late as 1784 
Washington in his last journey across the mountains, found out 
that Cheat River was not wholly within Virginia territory. 

Pennsylvania and Virginia disputed over part of what is now 
West Virginia territory, but the dispute was finally settled in 178 L 

The Mason and Dixon Line was begun in 1767 and extended as 
far as the northern boundary of Preston when the Indians stopped the 
surveying party from going farther. A path twenty-four feet wide 
was cut through the forest by the surveying party, and this afterward 
afforded a road for the incoming settlers who entered north Preston, 
Another route followed by the settlers was the old Braddock Road 



SANDY CREEK 45 

which at its nearest point was only four miles from the northeast cor- 
ner of Preston, Over these two routes came the first settlers to the 
Sandy Creek Glades. From data in possession of the Pennsylvania 
Historical Society it appears that the Mason and Dixon surveying 
party, of which there were a considerable number, were Pennsyl- 
vanians, and mostly from Philadelphia, York, and Lancaster counties, 
and there is very strong- reasons to believe that the later settlers in 
the Sandy Creek Glades gained information of the location of this 
desirable region from some of the surveying party.^ 

Grant District lies within the celebrated Ligonier Valley. On 
the east Laurel Hill and on the west Chestnut Ridge loom up, 
while through the center high and broad-topped hills extend. The 
surface is broken except in the eastern part, where a high elevated 
plain, called "The glades", stretch away to the foot of Laurel Hill 
Ridge. 

On the hills the soil may be classed as a clay loam, while along 
the creek bottoms and on the chestnut ridges, it is a sandy loam 
and when properly tilled yields very good crops of wheat, corn, rye, 
buckwheat, oats, and potatoes. The suitability of Grant for tillage 
is above the average in Preston and there is rather more than the 
average of good farm buildings. 

The Climate 

The climate is healthy, but naturally cold in winter from the high 
elevation of the district. At Glade Farms on the eastern rim the 
elevation is 2110 feet, at Brandonville, 1798 feet, at Clifton Mills, 
1529 feet and at Bruceton Mills 1548 feet. The winters are mostly 
open and broken with cold spells. The district is well supplied with 
water. Springs are abundant, and Big Sandy Creek with its trib- 
utaries. Laurel Run from the west, and Little Sandy from the East, 
afforded water power for saw and grist mills at many different 
points. 

Timber 

Timber is still plentiful although much of it has been destroyed 
and hauled away. Oak is most abundant on the hills and chestnut 
was on the ridges. The chestnut blight has killed the chestnut trees 
which were very plentiful and were a source of delight for children 
and older folks too, in the fall when they supplied many chestnuts 
to be sold and to be eaten around the fireside in winter when the 



8. Scrapbook of Preston County History. 



46 SCHWARZENAU 

snow was falling and the winter wind howled outside. There are 
many maple trees, not as many as in years gone by, however, which 
were a source of sugar and also provided building material. The 
locust trees have been a source of post in mines and for fences and 
wherever very strong material was needed in building. During the 
past year the locust blight hit the locust trees and they were dying 
by the thousands. 

Animals 

The panther, bear, buffalo, elk, and wolf once roamed over the 
hills and through the glades. Wild-cats were the last formidable 
animals to disappear. Deer still remain in limited numbers. 

Indian Graves and Trails 

Grant District as a hunting ground did not possess sufficient 
attraction for the dusky sons of the forest to cause them to locate 
permanently on its soil. Near Bruceton there are one or two large 
Indian stone-pile graves that never have been opened. Arrows 
and spear heads are found all over the district. A tomahawk was 
found on the land owned by the father of the writer. An old Indian 
Trail came down Big Sandy Creek and McCuUough's old path, 
coming up Big Sandy and passing through Wymp's Gap, was or- 
iginally the great northern Indian Trail. 

Fort Morris 

On the land of Richard Morris in the Sandy Creek Glades in 
1774 stood Fort Morris. It stood in a glade a fourth of a mile 
southwest of Glade Farms. The wall was built of sapling logs 
standing eight or ten feet above the ground and sunk about three 
feet into the soft alluvial earth. It contained one or two cabins, and 
here the families fled for shelter at the rumor of an Indian invasion. 
People from Washington County, Pennsylvania, and from around 
Morgantown flocked there for safety. When immediate danger 
seemed past, the men would return to their clearings, leaving their 
families in the stockade. 

The fort was on a run emptying into Little Sandy, graced by the 
more practical than euphonious name of Hog Run. The correct 
name is Hogue Run named for Zebulon Hogue. The women and 



SANDY CREEK 47 

children drank of the water from the run in low marshy ground and 
had something like the ague. 

A monument now marks its site. The land on which it stands is 
owned by James Barnes, a son of Fleming Barnes who was an early 
minister in the Church of the Brethren. 

Moccasin Rock 

Not far from Fort Morris is Moccasin Rock, which bears its 
name from the imprint of an Indian moccasin in the rock. It looks 
as though at some time the rock had been heated and an Indian had 
stepped upon it. 

Cooper Rocks 

A little distance from the Monongalia County line and not far 
from Pisgah are the Cooper Rocks, a spot of repute for picnicing. 
They were named for Frederick Cooper, who came in the year of 
American Independence. Here are some huge rock masses that 
look as though they were in an unstable equilibrium. To outward 
appearance a not very strong force would pitch them into the chasm 
below. 

These rocks were the subject of a very clever newspaper hoax 
perpetrated by the late Henry C. Hyde. It stated that some men and 
boys succeeded in dislodging by levers one of the larger rocks, which 
took a mad plunge down the river-hill, snapping trees like pipestems 
and falling with terrific force into the middle of the channel. The 
effect was to open a crevice in the rock-bed through which the waters 
disappeared into a cavern. It further stated that the people near by 
were leaving their homes, fearing the whole mountain was hollow. 
The Pittsburg dailies were victimized by this cock-and-bull story, and 
one of them dispatched a member of its staff provided with a camera. 
When he had arrived near enough to learn the truth, he vented his 
chagrin in language that had a strong odor of sulphur.® 

Beautiful scenery can be seen most everywhere. On a bright 
summer day it is not often surpassed for quiet pastoral beauty. 
Between the mountains are rounded hills and oblong ridges, some- 
times wooded and sometimes grassy. The tracts of fairly level land 
sometimes skirt the watercourses and sometimes they are lifted 
above them. There are meadows and tillage fields of every im- 
aginable outline. Dotting the wavy expanse are white frame houses 
with their shade trees, orchards and gardens and quite large barns. 



9. Morton, op. cit., pp. 238, 239. 



48 SCHWARZENAU 

CHAPTER V 

Organization of Sandy Creek Congregation 

Name and Location 

Sandy Creek Congregation was named from "Big Sandy Creek," 
the stream of water flowing south through its territory. 

It is located in the northern part of Preston County, in the whole 
eastern part of Grant District and northeastern part of Pleasant 
District. 

Originally it embraced part of Wharton and Henry Clay town- 
ships in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, and a small part of Garrett 
County, Maryland. 

In 1879 the territory in Pa. and Md. were cut off and organized 
into a separate congregation, known as the Markleysburg congrega- 
tion, now belonging to the Western District of Pennsylvania. How- 
ever it was understood when it was cut off, that those members living 
in Pennsylvania, along the West Virginia line could hold their mem- 
bership in the Sandy Creek congregation if they so desired ; hence, 
there are a number of members in Wharton Township, Pennsylvania, 
that have their membership in Sandy Creek.^^ 

This congregation had two regular preaching places in Pennsyl- 
vania at the Canaan Schoolhouse and the Guthrie Schoolhouse. At 
the present time it includes only the Canaan School. 

Organization 

There is a great difference of opinion by writers as to when the 
Sandy Creek Congregation was organized. Howard Miller, in the 
Record of the Faithful, says it began in 1820. 

The early history of the Salem Church of the Brethren dates back 
to about 1830. At that time there was no church building but meet- 
ings and the occasional visits into the community by ministers were 
always occasions for services, which were held in homes of the early 
settlers. Schoolhouses and even barns were used for services. 

One of the homes used for these meetings during the early period 
of the church was the home of Jacob M. Thomas, who became one 
of the first ministers. 

It is generally accepted by the people of Sandy Creek Congrega- 
tion that it was organized in 1835 and the Centennial of its found- 
ing was celebrated at Salem Church August 11, 1935. 



10. Thomas, Jeremiah, History of Sandy Creek Congregation, 



SANDY CREEK 49 

There is no record to be found of the organization of the congre- 
gation. It is possible that it grew into a congregation, rather than 
having been made so by any special act or council. It was probably 
informally organized in 1835.^^ 

The first minister known to be elected in Sandy Creek Congrega- 
tion was John Boger who preached in German. He was elected 
sometime between 1830 and 1835. 

Very soon after the election of John Boger, Jacob M. Thomas 
was elected to the ministry in 1836 and shortly after ordained to 
the eldership in 1841, being the first resident elder of the congre- 
gation. 

Next in order were Andrew Umbel and Michael M. Thomas. 
Then George Meyers was called who preached in German, but 
later went off with the sect led by George Shumaker (Shumakers) 
but in their decline he returned and preached for the Brethren again. 

Philip J. Brown and Christian Harader were elected between 
1850 and 1855. Following them were Samuel C. Umbel, Larkin 
Hall and James Bennett. Larkin Hall was a man of ability and a 
fine scholar who was a great debater. He had an all-night debate 
with the learned school teacher, Jacob Rush, who afterward became 
a minister in the Church of the Brethren. Bro. Hall later moved 
to Iowa. Philip Brown was also a man of considerable ability. He 
moved to Ohio and later went with the Progressive Brethren. Bro. 
Harader moved to Iowa and Joseph Reckner and William Thomas 
were in the congregation for only a short time. 

Fleming C. Barnes was elected to the ministry about 1863. He 
remained until his death in the Sandy Creek Congregation. John S. 
Hook was elected at the same time. He was somewhat advanced 
in age when called. 

Jacob Beeghly moved here from Bear Creek Congregation, 
Maryland about 1855. He died in the Markleysburg Congrega- 
tion. 

About 1868, Michael J. Thomas was called to the ministry, 
labored a number of years, moved to Iowa, and later gave his 
labors to the Progressive Brethren. 

In 1874 Jacob Rush moved from here to Cheat River Congrega- 
tion after having labored here for several years. 

In 1875, Solomon Bucklew moved here from Cheat River Con- 
gregation, near Terra Alta and labored for Sandy Creek Congre- 

11. Ibid. 



50 SCHWARZENAU 

gation a little over 13 years. Jacob M. Thomas, who had been 
elder for thirty-five years and now eighty years old, was largely 
instrumental in having Bro. Bucklew to come here and take charge 
of the congregation as presiding elder. 

Joseph Drennen moved here from Maryland, in 1878, labored 
here in the ministry for two years, and then moved West. 

Joseph Guthrie was called to the ministry in 1880, and was 
ordained to the eldership. 

On January 14, 1882, Jeremiah Thomas and John H. Baker 
were elected to the ministry. In a few years Bro. Baker moved to 
Illinois where he died. Bro. Thomas was promoted to the second 
degree of the ministry, July 4, 1885, and ordained to the eldership 
March 23, 1889. Eld. Solomon Bucklew was now leaving Sandy 
Creek Congregation and Bro. Thomas was given charge as pre- 
siding elder, and continued in that capacity until his death in 1934. 

George W. VanSickle and Vestus Thomas were elected to the 
ministry sometime before 1898. Bro. Thomas did very little while 
in the ministry and was later relieved by the church. Bro. Van- 
Sickle was ordained to the eldership and is still living in the con- 
gregation. 

In April, 1905, Calvin R. Wolfe was called to the ministry. 
Later, he moved to the Markleysburg congregation, where he was 
ordained to the eldership. 

James W. Wolfe and Chester A. Thomas were elected to the 
ministry in 1913. Later, both of them were ordained to the elder- 
ship. Bro. Wolfe moved to Los Angeles, California, where he now 
resides, while Bro. Thomas is presiding elder in the congregation 
where he was elected and ordained. 

Lloyd Liston was called to the ministry April 6, 1918 and Walter 
VanSickle was duly ordained in 1919. Both are active in the min- 
istry at the present time. 

Many of the ministers were deacons when called to the ministry, 
especially in the early years of the congregation. 

It has been the custom for many years to have a series of meet- 
ings at each church in the congregation every year, conducted either 
by the home ministers, or by ministers called from elsewhere. 

Since the organization of the congregation, many ministers have 
been called to conduct series of meetings, or at least preach a few 
sermons. Years ago, it was more customary to call a minister to 



SANDY CREEK 51 

preach possibly Saturday night, Sunday and Sunday night. Of late 
years, a series of meetings are held for about two weeks at each 
church within the congregation. 

Through the faithful labors of the home ministers and assisted 
by the evangelists hundreds of souls have been brought into the 
family of God. Several ministers and scores of members have been 
transferred to other congregations. 

The places of worship are Salem, Shady Grove, Mountain Dale, 
and Mountain Grove, and Canaan School. Sandy Creek Congrega- 
tion also has a part in the union church houses. Glade Union and 
Union Center. 

Communion services are held at two of the churches, Salem and 
Mountain Dale, each year. The communion meetings are very well 
attended by the membership. The deacons visit the entire mem- 
bership each year prior to communion service. 

Council meetings are held quarterly in the churches adapted for 
communion services, and annual councils are held at the others. At 
these council meetings arrangements are made to hold series of 
evangelistic meetings each year at all the churches. The member- 
ship selects the evangelists to hold these meetings. The home min- 
isters hold some of them, but more frequently the evangelist is 
called from elsewhere. By this method the territory is well worked. 

The Christian Workers Meetings and Vacation Bible Schools 
have helped to educate and hold the young people. The first Vaca- 
tion Bible School was held in 1920 with Olive Early of Bridgewater 
College and Ruth Howe of Blue Ridge College in charge. 

Sunday schools are in session each year at all the places of wor- 
ship. The first Sunday school in Preston County was organized at 
Atirora in 1825 by the father of James H. Shaffer. After that time 
they spread rapidly to the other churches in the county. There is 
no record of when a Sunday school was first organized in Sandy 
Creek Congregation, but they were probably held at an early date. 

A social and prayer meeting was organized In 1898. Bro. Jer- 
emiah Thomas gave the following comments about it in the Gospel 
Messenger : 

Our social and prayer meeting- is progressing nicely. It was grat- 
ifying to see our young members take up their cross in these meetings, 
each one taking his turn in leading. I think the many congregations 
throughout the Brotherhood, who have not established meetings of 



52 SCHWARZENAU 

this kind, would do well to do so without delay, and see the good re- 
sults. 

My impression is that too many of our members especially the 
young feel that they have nothing to do in church work, excepting to 
be listeners. In the preaching service, and probably scholars in the 
Sunday school, there being no other meeting established by the con- 
gregation in which they can take part. Why not have a social and 
prayer, or young people's meeting in every church established and 
guarded by the congregation, so that all, young and old, can have the 
privilege to exercise in public prayer and talk upon Scriptural topics? 

It is surprising to see what improvements many of our brethren 
and sisters make when they have the opportunity to do so. 

My observation is, that many, who, at first, because of inexperi- 
ence, can scarcely ofifer public prayer or stand up and speak a single 
minute on a subject to edification, will, through perseverance, become 
creditable speakers, and, above all, more fully consecrated to God and 
more fully educated in the Scriptures. 

The young people now have this opportunity in the B. Y. P. D. 

Sandy Creek Congregation has always been missionary in spirit 
although not much money was spent on missions for quite a long 
time. Many of the ministers were filled with the missionary spirit 
and traveled on horseback for long distances, gave their time and 
services free, and bore all expenses of the trips themselves. 

Word would come to the better and older organized churches 
from members who had moved into a new settlement. The minis- 
ters would go over rough and winding mountain paths, through 
dense forests infested by wild and dangerous animals, and often 
more dangerous Indians, wading or fording rivers and streams to 
carry the message of Hope and Salvation to the rugged pioneers. 
Frequently they went by twos, perhaps partly as a means of safety 
and companionship, but also because it was apostolic. 

Ministers went on missionary trips that extended over weeks and 
sometimes months. They went from settlement to settlement, hold- 
ing meetings and love feasts. 

For a number of years the congregation has been supporting 
some foreign missionary. First Sister Mary Cline was supported 
on the China mission field and at the present time the members are 
supporting Mrs. Lynn Blickenstaff who Is working In India. 

There has never been a pastor In the congregation. The seven 
regular places of worship are cared for by the home ministers who 
are four in number, Chester Thomas, George W. VanSickle, Wal- 
ter VanSIckle, and Lloyd LIston. There Is a ministerial program 
and each minister Is responsible for his part of the program which 



SANDY CREEK 53 

rotates so that each minister gets to all the places of worship in his 
circuit. The church provides a small fund from which the minister 
is paid at each appointment. 

Rev. Jeremiah Thomas, in his sketch of Sandy Creek Congrega- 
tion states its greatest needs as follows : 

Our greatest need is more pastoral or ministerial visitation among 
the members. Our ministers are engaged in making a living and do 
not have time for as much visiting in all the homes as would be profit- 
able. Because of this need, we have asked the membership in council 
assembled, to consider the advisability of securing a pastor who could 
give his entire time to the work of the church, but they decided that 
we were not ready for a pastor, as we were getting along very well 
with our present method. 

Considering the size of our territory, it hardly would be possible 
for one pastor to serve all places of worship, however, if our present 
working ministers would co-operate with a pastor, more effective 
work might be accomplished. 

There is a fine spirit of unity between the people of the different 
places of worship. Much that is worthwhile has been accomplished 
by the ministers and the desire of the congregation is that the cause 
of Christ may go forward. 

CHAPTER VI 

Churches in Sandy Creek Congregation 

Salem Church 

The Salem Church was the first one built in Sandy Creek Con- 
gregation. It was built in 1845. This house was 40 x 80 feet, ten 
feet of the end being partitioned off for a kitchen. Before this time 
services were held in schoolhouses, dwelling houses, and for large 
gatherings, barns were often used. Love feasts were frequently 
observed in large barns. 

Salem Church is located in Grant District, Preston County, 
West Virginia, about four miles northeast of Brandonville. 

The old Salem church was replaced by the present one in 1890, 
after having served its purpose for forty-five years. It was first 
built 35 X 50 feet, besides the kitchen, and later to accommodate the 
growing congregation, a wing 25 x 35 feet was added to it in 1914. 
Electric lights were installed in 1923. Since that time quite a num- 
ber of improvements have been made in the interior. 



54 SCHWARZENAU 

The church is on the farm now owned by Elder Chester Thomas. 
Near it stands the Thomas Schoolhouse. There is a cemetery not 
far from it on the Noah Thomas farm. 

Evangelistic meetings are held here each year. Some 400 mem- 
bers take part in the communion service which is held at the close 
of the meeting. In 1934 the communion service was changed from 
Saturday evening to Sunday evening. 

It was at this house that the centennial of the congregation was 
observed in an all-day meeting August 11, 1935. Dr. J. M. Henry 
was the chief speaker of the day. 

Mountain Dale Church 

Mountain Dale church house is in Pleasant District, three miles 
southeast of Hazelton, W. Va. The church house was built in 1896. 
It is 28x40x 14 feet in size, besides the kitchen. This house is 
equipped for communion services. It was built to take the place of 
two services held in schoolhouses. 

Mountain Dale church is the only one in the congregation be- 
sides Salem which holds lovefeast services. As many as one hun- 
dred and sixty persons have taken part there in the sacred com- 
munion service. 

Evangelistic meetings are held each year. There is Sunday school 
annually and council meeting is held quarterly. 

Shady Grove Church 

Shady Grove Church is one and one half miles east of Brandon- 
ville, W. Va., on State Route 26. There is a grove of trees which 
makes it ideal for picnics and reunions. 

Shady Grove Church was built in year of 1913. It was dedicated 
September 14, 1913, free of debt. Bro. D. K. Clapper of Meyers- 
dale, Pennsylvania preached the dedicatory sermon. 

The land on which the church is standing was donated by H. F. 
Goodwin and Mrs. Jones Miller. The money was solicited by Rev. 
Fleming Barnes before the building was erected. It was through 
his influence that the church was built. He also picked the location 
and gave it the name of Shady Grove. The bell was put on the 
church because he always liked to hear the bell ringing calling the 



SANDY CREEK 55 

people to church. He also thought a funeral service seemed more 
solemn when the bell was tolled. 

The size of the church is 26 x 40 feet. The contract for building 
was given to David Bishoff. 

The Willett Cemetery which is now called the Union Cemetery 
is near the church and therefore many funerals are preached at this 
place. 

Sunday school is held here nine months out of the year. District 
Sunday school conventions have been held here a number of times 
in which all the churches in Grant District took part. 

Mountain Grove Church 

The Mountain Grove Church is five miles northwest of Bruceton 
Mills. The first preaching done here was in a schoolhouse. The 
church was built in 1900 to take the place of two services held in 
schoolhouses. It is 25 x 40 feet in size. The Mountain Dale and 
Mountain Grove churches are about twenty miles apart. 

Canaan Schoolhouse 

The Canaan Schoolhouse is two miles north of Clifton Mills in 
Pennsylvania near the West Virginia line. It is the only place of 
worship outside West Virginia at the present time in Sandy Creek 
Congregation. Services were held at the Guthrie Schoolhouse for 
a time but were discontinued. 

Formerly evangelistic meetings were held in the Canaan School- 
house. In a letter written by Jasper Barnthouse to the Gospel Mes- 
senger which was published January 22, 1889, is found the follow- 
ing account of one : 

I left my home in Garrett Co., Md., on the Saturday before Christ- 
mas, and preached at the Canaan, Pa., schoolhouse the same evening. 
We met again on Sunday morning for public worship, and also Sun- 
day evening when Bro. S. C. Umbel of Markleysburg came to our 
assistance. We held forth the Word until the following Sunday eve- 
ning when we closed our meetings. On Monday morning three young 
sisters and six young brethren were buried in the emblematic grave, 
confessing Christ as their Savior. Three, who had wandered away 
from the fold were reclaimed. One applicant for baptism, a young 
man, is very anxious to go with God's children, but is hindered by his 
father, who has gone "progressive", and wants his son to go with him. 



56 SCHWARZENAU 

This he refuses to do. In all, we had ten meetings, receiving 12 into 
the church. May God bless the young lambs of his fold, and keep them 
from the snares of the devil ! 

People from this section attend evangelistic meetings at Salem 
and Clifton. There is Sunday school each Sunday and services 
once a month. 

Union Churches 

Union Center Church 

Besides the four church houses named, Sandy Creek Congrega- 
tion has a one-third interest in two other church houses. Union 
Center Church is at Clifton Mills in the north central part of Grant 
District. It was built in 1879. Clifton Mills is a small country vil- 
lage on Big Sandy Creek. 

Glade Union Church 

Glade Union Church is one fourth mile northwest of Hazelton. 
At first church was held in an old log building near the present one. 
Rev. Westfall was a Methodist circuit rider at the time the church 
house was built. The new one was built by the Baptists, Methodists, 
and Brethren. The Baptists never used it very much. 

Jacob Thomas, Solomon Bucklew, and Jacob Beeghly worked 
in this church. There has been Sunday school here as much as six 
months every year and evergreen Sunday school a time or two. 

The Methodists have services twice a month and revival meet- 
ing once a year. The Brethren have services once a month and 
revival meeting once a year. 

(To be continued) 



BRETHREN IN TRAINING CAMPS 57 

ATTITUDES OF BRETHREN IN TRAINING 
CAMPS DURING THE WORLD WAR 

Kenneth Long 

Introduction 

In his Imitation of Christ Thomas 'A Kempis has made this 
interesting comment: "For occasions do not make a man frail, but 
they show what he is." The statement is not without merit. And 
whether or not we would agree unreservedly with 'A Kempis, cer- 
tainly we are ready to admit that while the World War may have 
made the Church of the Brethren's stand for peace neither frail 
nor strong, it has at least helped us to see what it was at that time. 
For the World War was an occasion when historical peace tra- 
ditions and convictions wrestled against mass hate, stirring propa- 
ganda, intense public opinion. In such a crisis those who dared raise 
their voice for peace were outstanding. The pacifist was Uncle 
Sam's sore thumb which demanded no little attention. 

It is the purpose of this study to present the attitudes concerning 
Peace and War which are portrayed in letters written by those 
members of the Church of the Brethren who were drafted and 
went to the various training camps of our country. Over two hun- 
dred letters written directly from the camps by the boys themselves 
have been read and studied. The views and attitudes of 93 mem- 
bers of the church are represented. These men lived in different 
parts of the United States, from Virginia to California, from Mich- 
igan to Texas. By far the largest part of these letters were ad- 
dressed to W. J. Swigart, chairman of the Central Service Com- 
mittee, a committee appointed by the Special Annual Conference 
of Goshen in 1918 to deal with the many problems directly arising 
from the war. In other words, the letters likely present a one- 
sided view of prevailing opinions, as most of this correspondence 
came from definite problems arising in the camps. This very fact 
does mean that the attitudes are very apparent, but represent those 
mainly in cases of trouble and uncertainty. 

Attitudes arise from the combination of two factors. There is 
the individual himself, his training, education, temperament, ethics, 



58 SCHWARZENAU 

character. Added to this is the situation in which he is placed, his 
environment, his treatment, his problem or obstacle. From the 
interaction of these two factors emerge attitudes. This latter factor 
is, for the most part, clearly discernible in the letters. Not so the 
former. 

It would be both an interesting and valuable study to make a 
comparison of attitudes of men in similar situations who had differ- 
ent training. One wonders how the well educated man responded 
in a given situation compared to one who had received little formal 
education. How much did parochial training influence the attitudes 
shown ? 

Unfortunately we cannot answer these questions with the data 
available. For in only a very few cases can one know the educa- 
tional attainments of these men and the same thing is true regard- 
ing their parochial training — in both cases far too few to base any 
accurate deductions or conclusions. The temptation here is, of 
course, to strive to determine by the style of the letter, the writing, 
and the general tone, what the educational attainments were and 
then to work backward from that to what has produced the atti- 
tudes. The fallacy is apparent; one starts on an assumption which 
he then attempts to prove by a reverse in the argument. 

This study, therefore, will of necessity be only a presentation of 
the various attitudes found among the Brethren men in the camps 
with some observations based on the total picture presented. 

The Background 

As a background for the study of the attitudes of our Brethren 
men who were in training camps during the years 1917, 1918, 1919, 
it will be well for us to observe briefly the conditions surrounding 
them at that period. Questions such as the following might be 
raised. What was the attitude of our Church prior to and during 
the war? What was the attitude of the government toward church 
people who objected to fighting? What steps were taken by our 
denomination to solve the problems arising out of the extraordinary 
situation? 

The mind of our Church on this question prior to 1914 can be 
found by a careful reading of minutes of Annual Meeting. To 



BRETHREN IN TRAINING CAMPS 59 

summarize minutes scattered over a period of one hundred and 
thirty-five years one might say that the general attitude of our 
Church was a positive aversion to war expressed in a negative way 
— in refusal to bear arms, drill, or participate in any form. Prac- 
tically nothing was done to further peace aside from the pledge at 
baptism and the exhortation to teach peace. Both of these were 
largely negative. As early as 1875 it was petitioned Annual Con- 
ference "to adopt suitable measures to enable the Church to co- 
operate actively with the peace association of America." The an- 
swer given was: "Our Church itself being a peace association, we 
need not, as a body co-operate with others, but we may, as indi- 
viduals, give our influence in favor of peace." In 1911 a peace 
committee was appointed, but a request to send a representative 
to the Universal Peace Conference was disapproved. This refusal 
to co-operate with peace groups seems rather indicative of the gen- 
eral lethargy on this point. 

With the outbreak of the war and a Peace committee already 
appointed there was much more mention of this doctrine in the 
minutes of Annual Meeting. Those taking the form of resolutions 
and reports expressed: Our Church's abhorrence of the war and 
dislike of increasing militarism in the United States; our commen- 
dation of Pres. Wilson for his efforts to end hostilities and to keep 
us out of the conflict; our faith in the Word of God as the only 
perfect standard of conduct for men and nations ; and our belief in 
judicial arbitration of all international differences. Three queries 
against mihtarism and military training were unanimously passed 
by Annual Conference in 1916. In 1917 W. J. Swigart and H. C. 
Early were authorized to co-operate with representatives from the 
Mennonite and Friends churches for the common interest of peace 
and nonresistance. 

A special General Conference was called at Goshen, Indiana, 
January 9, 1918 for the purpose of considering "the draft for mil- 
itary training and service, the attitude our drafted Brethren should 
maintain in the training camps, their spiritual care here and in 
Europe, if any are sent across the sea, relief work, and such other 
matters as may demand attention." 

In a paper adopted by the conference, copies of which were sent 
to Pres. Wilson, Secretary of War, Newton D. Baker, and Provost 



60 SCHWARZENAU 

Marshal, Gen. Crowder, this statement was made : "We earnestly 
and humbly pray the President of the United States to assign to us 
our noncombatant duties In agriculture and the peaceful Industries, 
where loyal and valuable service to our country may be rendered 
without violence to conscience, and In a way that will avoid un- 
happy confusion In camps, In the effort to apply the provisions for 
noncombatant service under the military system, or to do. In har- 
mony with our nonreslstant principles, relief work and reconstruc- 
tion work, here or elsewhere, at the judgment of, and If need be, 
under the control of the government." 

To the drafted brethren In camps the following was Issued: 
"I. We believe that war or any participation In war Is wrong and 
entirely Incompatible with the spirit, example and teachings of 
Jesus Christ. 

"II. That we cannot conscientiously engage in any activity or 
perform any function, contributing to the destruction of human 
Hfe." 

The Foundations of our Belief were re-stated and the Church's 
attitude toward the government was expressed as loyalty to the 
leaders who are ordained by God — this loyalty to be superseded 
only by supreme loyalty to God. The members were urged to pray 
faithfully for our nation and her leaders; to contribute liberally to 
the relief of human suffering; to express gratitude to God by giving 
freely to constructive relief work, such as Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., 
Friend's Relief Work, or through our own Service Committee; to 
labor strenuously and live frugally, so that the suffering and hungry 
in the world may be warmed, clothed, and fed. 

Furthermore, the conference commended the Brethren in the 
camps for their loyalty to the position of the Church and enjoined 
them to continue to be faithful and true. It appointed a committee 
to look after relief and reconstruction work. 

A Central Service Committee, replacing the Special Peace Com- 
mittee was appointed. Its task was to represent the Church and her 
Interests at Washington, to advise with all committees visiting the 
training camps and to receive reports from them and help unify the 
work, to be the final avenue for adjustments of problems of draft, 
noncombatant work, etc., and to co-operate as seemed advisable 
with other churches holding views similar to ours. W. J. Swigart 



. BRETHREN IN TRAINING CAMPS 61 

was the chairman of this committee ; I. W. Taylor and C. D. Bon- 
sack were the other members. 

Camp Visitors were appointed from the various districts to 
visit the men in the camps and help them obtain proper treatment 
and advise them as to noncombatant work, as well as to provide for 
their spiritual well-being in so far as they could. 

This, then was the official position taken by our Church. Two 
factors, however, need to be kept in mind. In spite of the best 
efforts through the "Gospel Messenger", pamphlets, and peace 
meetings there were quite a number of men who reached camp 
without a clear conception of the Church's stand. In addition it 
must be admitted that these statements made were, at best, general 
and the individual was forced to put his own interpretation on them. 
In the second place owing to our democratic form of Church polity 
opinions throughout the Brotherhood differed widely. For exam- 
ple, in the "Gospel Messenger" of September 22, 1917, p. 594, 
D. L. Miller writes in an editorial as follows : "Pres. Wilson has 
placed hospital work and caring for the suffering wounded as non- 
combatant service. . . . Simply caring for the sick and wounded, 
feeding the hungry and clothing the naked ... is fully in accord 
with the teachings of Jesus. It is always right, and not only right 
but our duty, to help the suffering, no matter how the suffering has 
been brought about. When Jesus commended the good Samaritan 
because he cared for the naked, wounded man by the wayside, he 
did not favor the robber. The care for the suffering caused by war, 
is not favoring war." 

On the other hand Wm. K. Conner in an issue published January 
5, 1918, p. 12, writes: "It is very inspiring to see the firm stand 
many of you (boys in camp) are taking against becoming a part of 
the war machine — refusing even to do 'noncombatant service'. I 
heartily agree with the officers who say there is no such service. 
What a pity that the Church did not make that declaration I May 
we all recognize it now!" 

A few statements in regard to the attitude of the government 
toward persons whose religious convictions would not permit them 
to engage in war are now in order. For the most part the govern- 
ment men were very gracious in their attitude. Especially were the 
higher officers considerate provided they felt the men were really 



62 SCHWARZENAU 

sincere and conscientious in their stand. It was not until March 22, 
1918 that the President issued his statement regarding what types 
of service were considered as noncombatant ones in which the 
religious objector was asked to serve. This long delay made a diffi- 
cult situation in many camps where some petty officers did not share 
the generous attitude of their superiors. 

In some cases Local Boards refused to classify ministers in V and 
insisted on Class II B. Occasionally they refused to issue form 
1008 to religious objectors. At other places the Boards and officers 
were unusually considerate, so we find as great a range in attitude 
here as in that of the church members. 

Under such conditions it will be only natural to expect a wide 
variety of attitudes on the part of the conscientious objectors, and 
such there were. It is to these that we now direct our attention. 

Attitudes Toward the War and Government 

With only a few direct references to petty camp officers it would 
hardly be fair to attempt a generalized statement regarding the 
attitude of the C. O.'s (conscientious objector) to them. Still the 
ones expressed show a likeness in their general distrust and mis- 
giving. This comes from a belief that these officers are trying to 
"work" them Into active service by hook or by crook. Let me 
quote as a typical example No. 6. "They (the officers) lie to us 
and deceive us In various ways when they can." Another man, No. 
11, gives a good and bad example In this statement, "They took 
my form 1008 and my Church certificate away from me the other 
night. They went through my suit case. The captain we had was 
an awful man. But the one we have now Is an awful nice fellow. 
... I am praying every day and I feel that there was a change 
coming." No. 1 made a strong picture, recording a strong attitude 
of distrust. Said he, "We are going to make the best stand we 
can, but we think It would be well for someone to investigate our 
situation at once for you can't risk what an officer tells you, not 
even his 'death bed' oath." No. 28 shows an unusual attitude and 
gracious spirit. The war spirit is an awful thing and the C. O.'s 
are made a "gazing stock" and called the offscourings of the world, 
"but we love them (the officers) just the same and pray for them." 



BRETHREN IN TRAINING CAMPS 63 

In regard to the higher officers the attitudes seem more evenly 
divided with more respect usually shown. In most cases the boys 
thought the officers were very slow in getting promises carried out. 
It seemed a common experience of some men to be continually 
transferred to escape exempting them from combatant service. 
So No. 39 wrote: "They have transferred me again so you see 
that they don't intend to give me justice on my exemption." No. 1 
remarks, "They took the advantage of us throughout and sent us 
here as privates with no noncombatant marks at all." No. 49 had 
a different attitude, "Thursday morning ... I refused to go out 
to drill. The captain was up to see me and was very nice. I . . . 
wondered why there hadn't been anything done about my transfer. 
He told me there was something being done. . . . The first ser- 
geant came . . . and asked me what was the matter. Monday 
I was called up to the Fort Adjutant's office. ... I was much 
surprised that he did not try to persuade me to take combatant 
service. ... he was very courteous." 

The few references to our highest war officials. President Wilson 
and Secretary Baker show an attitude of respect and confidence as 
well as gratitude for their consideration of C. O.'s. Some impa- 
tience was evident at the seemingly long delay before the Pres- 
ident pronounced upon noncombatant service. No. 61 probably 
best represents the general attitude towards these executives. 
"However the President of the United States has promised all 

C. O.'s the right to noncombatant service and Bro. and I are 

determined to make use of this splendid privilege." When officers 
refused to segregate the C. O.'s No. 57 wrote: "Now if this is in 
accordance with the wishes of the President and Secretary Baker, 
then I have no complaint to make. If it is not ... I would like 
to have you investigate the matter," 

No. 28 gives us a more religious point of view and also intro- 
duces us to our next sub-division in our study, i. e., the attitude of 
the C. O.'s toward the government in general. To quote: "I say 
we cannot thank God enough for our good government we have 
as I know it is ordained of God. I know the President and Sec- 
retary of War have respected our convictions and I know that the 
Lord has directed them as we have offered many prayers for them." 

The boys in camp desired to be loyal to the government. It was 



64 SCHWARZENAU 

not that they loved the United States less, but that they loved God 
more. It was a case of conflicting loyalties and they felt that above 
any government their God should be obeyed. Thus we find No. 73 
accurately interpreting the consensus of opinion. "We are anxious 
to do what we can for our government and still be true to our 
God." At the same time they desired that the government should 
give them fair consideration. "I think the government ought to do 
the right thing by me" states No. 13 during a time of trouble in 
getting his noncombatant claims recognized. 

In some places the C. O.'s were segregated in Detention camps 
and this they appreciated very much. It was not, by any means, 
easy for them to stand against the overwhelming opinion of the 
majority of the men who accepted the army life without question. 
The militarism on every hand distressed them and the conduct of 
their fellow men was often revolting. No. 1 had a positive aver- 
sion against the unsanitary conditions in which they were forced 
to live. Venereal disease abounded and the danger of contamina- 
tion was ever present. No. 25 passes judgment in this sentence, "I 
want to get out on a farm, this Is such a wicked place," while No. 2 
observes, "God knows that this Is the toughest of all the camps." 
From this It is easy to infer that none in his experience was very 
satisfactory. 

Yet even so the men still tried to set a good example. "We try 
to set the boys an example of clean living and high ideals but of 
course are only laughed at for our sober ways," says No. 64. 

One case Is outstanding enough to be included in more detail. 
No. 50 had refused to wear the uniform and when men and officers 
asked him why he did so he told them his religious convictions. 
That evening they returned and demanded again that he put on the 
uniform. When he refused they seized him, put him In a blanket, 
and took him out of the tent. "They carried me a few rods to the 
end of the tents, and started with their fun. I don't know how 
often they tossed me up or how high. And I don't know how 
many had hold of the blanket. But I was told that all took a hold 
that there was room for. I held to the edge of the blanket a few 
times with my right hand and I suppose that had a tendency to 
throw me on the ground. They might of did it (sic) on purpose 
and left me fall on the ground for all I know. I noticed that my 



BRETHREN IN TRAINING CAMPS 65 

arm was broken and I told them that it was. They picked me up 
and took me to the tent, and called an ambulance. Took me first 
to the infirmary and then to the hospital. It happened about eight 
in the evening of the 20th of September. . . . That is about as 
good as I can tell you about it by writing. I received very good 
attention since I have been at the hospital." 

The letter was written over three months after the accident 
occurred and the man was still in the hospital, his arm in a cast, 
and he wasn't sure "if it will straighten out or not." And yet in 
the whole letter, five large pages, there is no word of condemna- 
tion, no syllable of bitterness or hate. 

Attitudes Regarding the Church 

A great variety of attitudes are given regarding the church and 
her stand, her convictions and faith. Rather naturally none of the 
letters question whether the peace position is right or not. Those 
of our Brethren who apostatized and entered into the war with- 
out reserve had little occasion to write to our Central Service 
Committee for help or advice. The questions in the minds of the 
ones who did write were : Just what is the stand our Church has 
taken in regard to the war? Noncombatant service? How far 
shall we go? Should one refuse to do anything at all? 

Along with the first came many pleas that the Church might 
take a firm and more clear cut stand on the issue. Notice the atti- 
tude expressed by No. 82. "I have learned that the authorities 
want us to make a definite stand. Let our stand be supremely for 
peace, for we cannot do even the least little thing in the military 
machine and not prolong the war. If we, as a church, want to 
stand for peace we must stan^ 'four square'." In close relation to 
this No. 81 would like to see more positive work done by the 
brotherhood. "I am very sorry that our church has not gone into 
the reconstruction work more fully, for that is not only noncom- 
bative but is doing something to alleviate and help build up what 
the war has destroyed. It seems to me that a church like ours 
should show more interest in a crisis like this, and as we are ex- 
posed to war in all its forms we could do more in preaching peace 
and doing more to bring about peace ... we are keeping too 
much in the background and I am afraid that we will get the rep- 



66 SCHWARZENAU 

utation of being just objectors and who wants to be an objector 
when there is so much to do that is constructive. What a good 
many of us need is an ability to appreciate the other fellow's posi- 
tion, and not think of our own interests all the time." 

One brother was especially interested in the Church setting 
aside a special day for prayer. He had for some time felt the need 
for the whole Church to pray for peace, and was continually asking 
his father to write to the editor of the "Gospel Messenger" and 
suggest this. Accordingly his father did so. But the editor felt 
that he had no authority to do this, so stirred by his son's insistence 
the father wrote to Bro. J. H. Moore and asked him to do what 
he could. Bro. Moore sent the father's and the son's letters to 
W. J. Swigart with a note of explanation. This correspondence 
was dated during the latter part of October. So it came about that 
in the "Messenger" of November 9, 1918 was included an article, 
"A Request and An Appeal," the first paragraph of which I quote: 

Impressed with a deep personal desire and having received sug- 
gestions from others, the Central Service Committee of the Church of 
the Brethren makes request that on Sunday, Nov. 10 special and 
united prayers be made in behalf of the righteous termination of the 
war and a speedy return of peace to the earth. 

Meanwhile the son. No. 43, wrote in reply to a letter from Bro. 
Swigart. "I certainly am glad that you are setting aside a special 
day that our whole church may unitedly go to God in prayer and 
ask that peace might reign on the earth again." The day following 
the Armistice he observed, "I surely believe God has heard . . . 
and has already begun to answer our prayers." 

One more reference might be in place. In a letter dated Novem- 
ber 16, this same brother expresses the wish that we might "have 
special prayer in behalf of this (peace) conference in the near 
future, for I believe it will have lots to do with peace." Twenty- 
one years later we realize more truly how much in need of guidance 
that peace conference had been I 

Loyalty is shown in letters such as No. 13 penned. "Find en- 
closed $5.00 as you didn't tell me what your expenses were. If you 
have spent more let me know. As I don't want our Church to pay 
for my expenses." No. 6S had an interesting way of expressing it, 
although it might be interpreted a bit pugnaciously. "I solemnly 



BRETHREN IN TRAINING CAMPS a 

respect my vow to the church not to take direct part in war or 
bloodshed and if I were forced to continue here I would defend it 
with my hfe." 

One or two were not completely satisfied with what the Church 
was doing in their cases. It was already two weeks since No. 14 
had written for help and none had come. "I can't understand," 
he says, "why the church doesn't stand back of us. We have told 
the officers here that we had the support of our respective churches 
and so far no evidence has been produced of the veracity of this 
statement. This morning three of the C. O.'s were put in the 
Guard house and it is only a question of time until the fate of the 
rest is sealed." 

Two cases are recorded where the home church gave positions 
which the C. O.'s thought were not in accord with the Brother- 
hood's convictions. "Last night," writes No. ^(i telling of a com- 
panion's problem, "he got a letter from congregation ad- 
vising him to take up some kind of noncombative. I don't see how 
they can take this view of the war against the church principles. 
It seems like our church is just a little lenient on this war question. 
I think she should come out and declare herself just what she 
stands for as the Mennonites and Friends do. ... It is certainly 
discouraging to when his own home Church doesn't en- 
courage him in his stand. If our Church gives in in this war the 
government will not recognize her at all in future wars." 

The, men were always eager for the camp visitors to call upon 
them. They looked forward to the same and were grateful for 
the service done to them. Next to the Central Service Committee 
their help and advice was most respected. But occasionally the 
men did not agree with the advice given. After two brothers had 
called and advised noncombatant service No. 22 wrote a bit un- 
kindly to W. J. Swigart: "It seems like it isn't our place to be in 
service and this is the reason I am writing for men's advice that 
I can put confidence in." 

No. 18 observed that "our ministers who come here to see us 
look at the matter so differently (from Mennonites who stand be- 
hind their boys). Judging from both the preachers and the boys 
it is a little hard for the officers to decide whether or not to class 
us as objectors. I should say that some of our ministers who come 



68 SCHWARZENAU 

have apparently not given the matter much study as we succeeded 
in getting them to see things somewhat differently after telling 
them what our experience had been." 

Now and again the men were inclined to think that the camp 
visitors were a bit negligent in their activities on their behalf. "I 
can't help but feel that our committee is a little slack, perhaps I 
am wrong, tho' I know they are very busy," writes No. 86 wishing 
to give them the benefit of the doubt. 

In the Central Service Committee the men found their chief 
source both for advice and for obtaining their rights. Here our 
evidence is more nearly unanimous. The attitudes are two : Confi- 
dent expectation of sound advice or efficient service, and sincere 
gratitude for such advice and service already given. In a quota- 
tion from No. 65 we find these two attitudes combined. "I feel to 
thank you heartily for the action you have taken in helping me to 
secure my rights in the army. I assure you I will remember your 
kindness .... Please do all within your power to get action 
done before we leave here, because you can appreciate my anxiety 
and concern in the matter." 

Using sound psychology, although he hkely never heard of that 
word No. 21 states persuasively, "I am not going to ask you to 
come down, but it has been nearly two months since you were 

here." After some deliberating No. 42 says, "Mr. and I 

have decided for you and Bro. to be our advisors. We 

will try our best to keep you posted as to where we are located." 

The four references to the "Gospel Messenger" show in four 
ways how the men in the camps valued it and used it. No. 21 
followed advice given through its columns; No. 24 can't learn 
what he as a C. O. should do as he has failed to get the paper for 
three weeks. Through the "Messengers" sent to him by his 
mother No. 87 manages to keep himself "pretty well posted;" 
while No. 89 closes a letter to the editor of the same "With kind 
regard to yourself and all the folks who help publish our excellent 
'Messenger'." 

Attitudes Regarding Themselves 

A large part of the C. O.'s attitudes were moulded by their 
treatment and it is interesting to try to determine the general re- 



BRETHREN IN TRAINING CAMPS 69 

sponse to suffering in so far as they themselves are personally con- 
cerned. Much was endured but it is very difficult to ascertain how 
they regarded it. It would be fair to say that all felt the injustice 
of it, but this was so evident they do not dwell upon it. Certainly 
none openly sought punishment. The nearest thing we have to 
the martyr complex is suggested by No. 28 when he says, "I know 
the more I am persecuted the better and closer I get to Christ. I 
believe the Lord has us here for a purpose." 

There is resignation felt as No. 33 writes of his refusal to drill 
along with other C. O.'s. "The captain had the others to beat us 
every day until we had to go to drilling. . . . We no (sic) they 
have no right to do so, but we can't help ourselves. . . . We 
showed our card to the captain and he made us taire them up." 

A contrasting note of triumph comes from Fort Leavenworth 
where No. 91 was sentenced. He writes: "I am getting along as 
well as can be expected behind stone walls and iron bars. In the 
eyes of the military authorities I am a criminal, but the day I 
passed through the iron gates an honor was bestowed upon me and 
when the time comes for me to be dishonorably discharged, I will 
be honored again." 

Much more were the men concerned about the future. In most 
cases the present treatment could be endured, but what of the fu- 
ture? Fort Leavenworth via a court martial or combatant service 
and going across to the actual fighting were the Scylla and Charyb- 
dis between which they endeavored to steer their course, and at 
the same time remain loyal to God, their conscience, and, as much 
as possible, the government. 

No. 43 showing some signs of anxiety which doubtless gave rise 
to his insistence on a special day of prayer, noted earlier, writes: 
"I came here against my will as I said before. I was afraid I got 
started wrong and now I feel it more than ever. I have been try- 
ing to get transferred, but haven't made much headway. I am 
awful anxious for Bro. M. C. Swigart to call on me as I feel if 
I could get help right away I could get through all right." 

He who was No. 21 sees difficult times coming. Says he, "I 
have just been transferred from the depot Brigade to the artillery. 
There is trouble ahead just now for me. I mean to make a stand 
God helping me. ... I want to be with the Hosp. Corps, not as 



70 SCHWARZENAU 

a noncombatant with combatants. ... I was almost ordered to 
do guard duty. But the order was withdrawn. I intended to say no. 

"We are in quarantine but they will drill us. 

"Oh my I" Later he writes again. "I was to the intelligence 
on Sat.^ evening and I fear I signed the wrong papers. It is all 
right if the officers are all right, but I am afraid they can make 
an ammunition carrier of me. But I was weak and they were 
sharp." 

The separation from the fellowship of the church was no little 
item. No. 12 remarks expressing the views of a good many. "We 
feel utterly alone here. We have been earnestly praying for help 
and none has come. Please do something immediately." 

Yet in spite of their concern over the uncertainty of coming 
events the majority of men expressed a faith in God that was vital 
and strengthening. No. 21 in another letter states it in this way: 
"Now I may have done some of these things in a clumsy manner 
but I did the best I knew at the time. 

"As I said before I do not know what will be next but I trust 
God will take care of me in life or death — to him I leave it . . . ." 

The largest or most important problem of the C. O. was that 
of noncombatant service. Is there such a thing as noncombatant 
service? If so, what is it? Where is the line to be drawn? Merely 
at taking human life? What of drilling? Wearing the uniform? 
Is reconstruction work under government direction consistent with 
our stand as a church? These were some of the questions the C. O. 
had to answer. A study of the chart will immediately show the 
great variety of attitudes expressed. One half of the men either 
accepted or were willing to do some form of noncombatant work 
such as serving in the Medical corps, the Quarter Master corps, 
or the Remount Station. Over against this 15 expressly refused 
to do any noncombatant work. The other 30 were undecided or 
did not state their views definitely enough for classification. No. 
8 1 had evidently given the matter much thought before he wrote : 
"You know I have changed my mind about these things quite a bit, 
although I cannot tell many people about it for it is not everyone 
that understands, but the condition of affairs has gotten so that it 
seems to me that everyone should endeavor to help in some way or 
other. There are so many different departments that one can have 



BRETHREN IN TRAINING CAMPS 71 

a variety of things to choose from and if a fellow is really sincere 
it seems to me that he can find something to do that will not inter- 
fere with his conscience." 

The period between the outbreak of the war and the declaration 
of President Wilson was an anxious one for many of the C. O.'s. 
In several camps special detention barracks were provided. Here 
the C. O.'s were segregated and awaited the President's state- 
ment. During this time they did nothing but take care of their 
camp doing the cooking, cleaning up, etc., and also exercised 
enough to keep physically fit. Most of the men agreed with No. 1 
who said that the "best place for us boys is in a detention camp 
until some action is taken by the war department." A number 
were glad to accept noncombatant service from the very beginning, 
however, especially those who were first placed in combatant serv- 
ice and succeeded in getting transferred. When the President 
finally did declare on noncombatant service, there were imme- 
diately varying attitudes. What about the service the President 
declared as noncombatant wonders No. 79? "Most of the boys 
here I don't think will accept anything under the military arm. 
. . . These fellows hold that to do this work is the same as bear- 
ing arms. . . . You would do me a favor if at your earliest con- 
venience you would give me the position of the Church and your 
opinion." 

In contrast No. 49 says, "On account of the statement of the 
President being so plain I have no fear of being forced into com- 
batant service. On this account I have also decided to accept the 
uniform. While I do not question the decision of the men who 
have gone to a detention camp, the idea is repulsive to me. The 
monotony I should think would be the most tiresome. I should 
prefer to be in some capacity where my mind and body would be 
busy, provided, of course, it was some line of work where I could 
labor with a clear conscience." 

No. 69 used this system. "I have taken all the work given me, 
at the same time making it clear and plain to the officers that it 
was against my conscience. That is some of the work." It worked 
to his satisfaction, too, for at a later date he states: "I was given 
everything I asked for. I asked to care for the sick and wounded. 
Surely that was the work assigned to me as an orderly in the ward. 



72 SCHWARZENAU 

I have been treated O. K. ever since I arrived and have not had 
hard 'sledding'. And now that I have my job I am going to try to 
make good." 

We must not overlook the absolute objectors. At least five men 
refused to do any work whatever, not even fatigue duty about the 
camp. Here is the way they looked at it. "The reason I have not 
accepted any service," quoting No. 82, "whether combatant or 
noncombatant is because both of these capacities are a constituent 
part of the military machine. One part will not work without the 
other. If I wear the uniform I am advertising militarism and that 
is absolutely inconsistent to our principles of nonresistance, and as 
you know yourself that Baker knew that fact and has said we are 
not required to wear the uniform. . . . Again in accepting any 
form of military service a military oath or affirmation must be 
taken, if, then, after affirmation has been taken, and a person 
refuses to obey some order that he feels is against his conscience, 
he is, at once, subject to court martial. 

"Furthermore, if even we should accept hospital service the 
regular military drill must be engaged in. This we cannot do for 
our church has said that we are not to learn the 'art of war'. I and 
others are living up to this, and upholding the standard of the 
church, but we cannot do it alone. We want you and the entire 
church with us." 

No. 18 says: "It is hard for many to understand why we cannot 
accept Medical service. In fact I came very near doing it at one 
time, but one is 'not their own' anywhere in the service and to me 

II Cor. 6:14-18 is good advice." 

In the case of No. 35 after he had worked at the Base Hospital 
and later in the Quarter Master corps he decided he couldn't do 
any work at all for the officers told him that all work was com- 
batant. Therefore he has been charged with violating Article of 
War 64 and is being held awaiting his trial. He has laid aside the 
uniform. 

The uniform was a problem. Direct reference in the letters tell 
us that 17 men accepted it while only 7 refused it. No. 15 doesn't 
object to wearing the uniform but "I do object to being placed 
. . . where I may be called at any time to do combatant service." 
No. 12 is "wearing the uniform but I positively will not bear arms 



BRETHREN IN TRAINING CAMPS 73 

nor drill." The main objection to the uniform was that it adver- 
tised the war and mihtary spirit as No. 82 has already suggested. 

In regard to drilling the men were more obstinate, as might be 
anticipated from the quotation just given. Five tell us they accept- 
ed it, at least some, six more did but only after severe punishment 
while ten refused outright. Standing guard and bearing arms were 
incompatible with the C. O.'s. Yet one or two needed help here 
as the case of No. 13 indicates. He was compelled to drill and the 
officer said he would have to take a gun when they told him to or 
he could be shot. "So you see when they offer me it I will hafto 
take it and drill. ... So please advise me what to do in this case. 
As I can't do anything within my selfe." 

Only the extreme of the extremists spoke against farm fur- 
loughs. Nineteen were in favor of this work. No. 76 suggests 
that "If there is any chance at all I would like to be furloughed on 
a farm, for I don't feel like I can conscientiously do anything else 
but I made the mistake when I signed up to work here in the Q. M. 
but they told (me) to sign for it and I did it but I tried to urge 
that I be furloughed on a farm somewhere but it seems that it 
didn't do any good." Another brother. No. 85, doesn't want any- 
thing under the military arm and he feels farm work would be 
under it. He would like to get into mail service. 

Five wrote letters of inquiry about reconstruction and in no 
letter was there any trace of doubt as to the advisability of doing 
this work, although some of the absolute objectors would likely 
have refused to do that under government supervision. 

No. 6 writes after the Armistice has been signed in regard to 
this work and wonders "if the chance is still open, because I feel 
able to do the work, and willing to make the sacrifice of a year's 
time to do it." He goes ahead at some length to describe his abil- 
ities in various lines of work. 

Having been sentenced to Fort Leavenworth No. 61 says: "In 
regard to the Reconstruction work I presume the committee has 
done practically nothing. ... If we apply for a furlough for 
Reconstruction work it seems to me that the church should be 
prepared to take care of us and send us across at once if released. 
... I am more than willing to do farm work but I think Relief 
work better shows our Christian spirit and our willingness to sac- 



74 SCHWARZENAU 

rifice in order to help carry the burdens of the world as true Chris- 
tians." 

These conscientious objectors had faith and convictions and 
frequently expressed the same in their letters. They were loyal to 
the church and to their own consciences. So No. 29 could write: 
"I have never refused to work at nothing what I thought wasn't 
against the rules of the church of the Brethren." Another one 
remarks (No. 6S), "In my conversations with them (officers) I 
have upheld our doctrine and never wavered. . . . May we ever 
be faithful to our God and to our country where possible." 

The men realized that their stand would affect the position of 
the church and were concerned that it might be for the best. Thus 
No. 53 gives expression to this idea. "If we go into extremes too 
much we might cause some unnecessary trouble and that possibly 
the government would not be so considerate to our people after 
this." Of course the problem was that of determining where the 
"too much" extreme began. 

When a number of C. O.'s were confined in the Guard house 
after having been run hard and then made to stand at attention 
for several hours one writes : "The situation is rather acute, how- 
ever the boys are standing firm, for that which they believe to be 
right. I'm inclined to think that such treatment is almost punitive 
hardship. . . . Everyone of our Brethren boys have stood firm." 
Later when this group was up for trial for breaking Articles of 
War 64 and 6S No. 62 has another paragraph indicative of the 
attitudes of these Brethren. "The boys felt as if they didn't want 
an advocate or counsel as this is only a trial, a test of Christian 
faith and principles and they didn't care to make a fight of it. Of 
course they will plead guilty of disobeying an order, and whether 
it is lawful is to be found out yet. The boys are feeling good, 
cheerful and hopeful, knowing they are standing firm in the Lord." 
Another month passed and one of these tells W. J. Swigart that 
he has seen his (own) name in the paper as having received a ten 
year sentence to Fort Leavenworth culminating in a dishonorable 
discharge. Nevertheless, "I am as certain as ever that no true 
Christian has any place in the Army." (No. 61.) 

In several camps the men held prayer meetings regularly and 
their letters give ample evidence of the value and help they de- 



BRETHREN IN TRAINING CAMPS 75 

rived from personal and group communion with God. No. 87 says 
simply : "I have been doing right and reading in my Bible daily and 
pray . . . every night and ask Him to forgive all of my sins and 
to guide and strengthen me through this terrible war and army. 
And I know that God will never forsake any of us if we live as 
near to him as we can." 

Let us close with a glimpse of an attitude developed through 
camp life which led to a broader, more comprehensive view of 
Christianity. The C. O.'s were of several denominations and as 
is often the case a common cause brought a new feeling of brother- 
hood. Here is how No. 61 admirably describes it. 

"We at camp live much on the community plan. Each one's be- 
longings, news, etc.,. are very much in common. Churches have 
long since dropped from minds and it is the man we love. Creeds 
are forgotten, differences of opinions are charitably borne which 
I think is a Christian grace that too many church members don't 
exercise." 

Observations and Conclusions 

Certain observations may be made after noting the attitudes of 
these conscientious objectors. But always reservations must be 
held. For as has been stated this study does not include all the men 
coming from Dunker homes into the training camps. There is no 
way of knowing how many joined the army with no tinge of con- 
science and were swallowed up in the very immensity of it. Again, 
these letters do not come from all the C. O.'s of our Church, al- 
though it is probable that the majority are here represented. 
Finally, we must remember that most of the letters arose out of 
specific needs, usually a need of help in time of trouble, and so are 
not as unbiased nor as complete as personal friendly letters or 
diaries would have been. Still the following observations may be 
ventured. 

It is apparent that our Church members have been taught to 
respect and honor our government. Whether the Church is directly 
responsible or not the fact remains. In no letter do we find dis- 
respect or bitterness against the nation. The absolute objectors 
may differ violently in their beliefs. The men may dislike the 
treatment of certain officers and officials. The C. O.'s may become 



76 SCHWARZENAU 

impatient with the seeming slowness in providing transfers and 
certificates. Yet the nation and government were loved and re- 
spected. It was not animosity towards the state that made the 
C. O.'s refuse to join the army. It was their hatred for war and 
bloodshed. 

Again and again is expressed the desire to find some way in 
which loyalty may be expressed to the government without dis- 
obeying the higher loyalty to one's conscience and one's God. And 
many of those who refused to do anything and went to Fort Leav- 
enworth did so believing that by so doing they were proving most 
loyal to their country. 

This attitude of respect and honor to the government is surely 
commendable. 

There is likewise clearly discernible a loyalty to the Church 
which is wholesome. It is true that this took various forms and 
degrees. As to exactly what constituted loyalty was not entirely 
agreed upon, but the essence of loyalty was there. No one would 
say that mere unenlightened loyalty is enough, but the quality 
itself is essential. Part of this loyalty was engendered, no doubt, 
by the helpful and efficient service of the Church to these men. 
Here the Central Service Committee is to be especially honored. 

On the other hand it is evident that the Brotherhood's stand was 
not as united nor as clear as many of the C. O.'s desired. This is 
to be expected in as democratic an organization as we have. Yet 
it would be fair to say that had the Church declared herself more 
clearly and had so instructed her Camp visitors and the conscien- 
tious objectors those who were weakest might have been more 
strong while those who were convinced in their own minds would 
have continued faithful in their beliefs. 

Finally it is to be observed that the Church in her stand was on 
the defensive almost altogether. Her greatest concern was to 
keep her members out of the war. In a country at war, it may be 
argued, there is little that can be done for peace in a positive way. 
It was apparent, however, that our peace work had been largely 
negative before the war, for we were not able to turn to recon- 
struction work as easily as did the Friends. Serious thinking C. 
O.'s realized this fact as their letters have indicated and wished 



BRETHREN IN TRAINING CAMPS 77 

for the Church a more aggressive and positive position in this 
field of peace. 

In conclusion let us say that the World War was an occasion 
which made the Church neither strong nor weak but helped us to 
see how effective our peace teaching and doctrine has been. And 
this deeper insight points us to the need of developing a more pos- 
itive and aggressive program to help bring about the reality of 
peace on earth. 

APPENDIX 

Classification of Conscientious Objectors into classes as Evident from 
Their Letters as Studied by Kenneth Long. 

Absolute Objectors (refuse to do anything at all) 6 

Those refusing all noncombatant work such as Quarter 
Master Corps, Medical Corps, but occasionally did a 

little fatigue duty, cleaning up the camp, etc 11 

Accepted (or were willing to accept) noncombatant 

work as outlined by the President 49 

Those refusing uniform 7 

Those accepting uniform 17 

Those refusing drill 10 

Those who accepted drill only after severe punishment 6 

Those accepting drill 5 

Favorable to furloughs 19 

Favorable to reconstruction work 5 

In all cases these figures represent only those men who stated in 
their letters their position clearly. Some who stood with the first 
two groups later accepted noncombatant work and therefore are 
classed in the third group, i. e., accepted noncombatant work as out- 
lined by the President. 



78 SCHWARZENAU 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY NOTES 

AN HISTORICAL SOCIETY ORGANIZED 

After several years of discussion and everybody agreeing that it ought to 
be done, a meeting of those interested in forming an historical society met in 
one of the offices of Bethany Biblical Seminary. When the meeting was called 
to order there were eight (!!) persons present. But upon computation it was 
found that the number who were fully informed and actively enlisted in the 
project totaled thirteen (!) persons. We are not superstitious. 

After F. E. Mallott had been called to the chair and Susie M. Thomas was 
appointed secretary pro tem the meeting proceeded to a leisurely and enthusiastic 
discussion and organization. The organization issued in the following officers: 
F. E. Mallott, President, E. S. Moyer, Vice-President, Mrs. Ruth Mallott, Sec- 
retary-Treasurer, additional members of the Executive Committee, Ira Scrogum, 
Chalmer Faw. The Executive Committee was instructed to draft a tentative 
constitution incorporating the ideas agreed upon in the meeting. This they did 
on April 21 and the result of their draft is presented in this issue. 

The organizing group decided to hold open the organization until after 
Anderson Conference of the Church of the Brethren, at which place a public 
invitation to membership in the Society would be issued. 

Tentative Constitution of the Alexander Mack Historical Society 

Article I. — Name. 

The name of this society shall be Alexander Mack Historical So- 
ciety. 

Article II. — Purposes. 
The purposes of this society shall be : — 

1. To encourage the serious study of Dunker history. 

2. To promote the publication of historical studies and studies 
in allied fields that are related to Church life. 

3. To stimulate interest in the preservation of our historical land- 
marks and in the erection of memorials ; to encourage the development 
of library and museum facilities as they relate to Dunker history. 

4. To foster fellowship among those interested in history who 
regard themselves as spiritual descendants of the brotherhood found- 
ed at Schwarzenau. 

Article III. — Membership. 

The membership of this society shall consist of three classes as 
follows : — 

1. Subscribing Members shall pay dues of one dollar per year 
and be entitled to receive the journal of the Society. 



ALEXANDER MACK HISTORICAL SOCIETY 79 

2. Sustaining Members shall pay dues of five dollars per year 
and be entitled to receive all publications of the Society and shall be 
entitled to vote in the business meetings. The Executive Committee 
may grant Sustaining Memberships in return for services rendered. A 
Sustaining Membership for life may be secured by payment of One 
Hundred Dollars to a fund designated by the Society. 

3. Honorary Life Membership may be granted by a vote of the 
Society and carries with it the privilege of voting. 

Article IV — Organization. 

Section 1. — The officers of this society shall be President, Vice- 
President, and Secretary-Treasurer. 

Section 2. — The Executive Committee shall consist of the three 
officers and two additional elective members. 

Section 3. — The duties of the officers shall be those that commonly 
pertain to their respective offices. 

Section 4. — The term of all officers shall be one year or from one 
regular business meeting to the next except the Secretary-Treasurer 
who shall be elected for three years. 

Section 5. — ^The Executive Committee shall appoint a nominating 
committee of two, at least three months before the Business Meeting. 
The poll of the society shall be by mail and the result announced at the 
Business Meeting. 

Section 6. — The regular Business Meeting shall be held annually, 
the time and place to be decided by the Executive Committee. The 
members at a regular Business Meeting shall constitute a quorum. 

V. — Publications. 

Section I. — The journal "Schwarzenau" is declared to be the of- 
ficial journal of the Society. 

Section 2. — The editorial staff of the journal shall be chosen by the 
Executive Committee with the approval of the Society. 

Section 3. — The Society shall assume the financial responsibility 
for the journal as they are able and the Secretary-Treasurer shall dis- 
burse all money at the direction of the Executive Committee. 

VI. — Amendments. 

This tentative constitution will become the permanent constitu- 
tion of the society by an affirmative vote at the Business Meeting of 
1940. Thereafter it may be amended at any regular Business Meeting 
by a two thirds vote, provided the notice of intention to amend with 
the proposed amendment has appeared in the journal, at least a month 
before the Business Meeting convenes. 



80 SCHWARZENAU 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Die Deutschen Familiennamen by Dr. Paul Cascorbi. Sold by Buch- 
handlung des Waisenhauses. — Berlin, Germany — $6.25. 

This is a volume published in Berlin in 1933 and is a recent addition to 
the Bethany library. It is the result of the continued research in the field of 
German family names, first published in 1882 by Dr. Heintze and here re- 
vised in its seventh and enlarged edition by Dr. Cascorbi. It is based on the 
researches of many scholars and is supported by a substantial bibliography. 

The material of the book consists of a hundred pages of stimulating 
discussion of the nature and development of family names throughout 
Europe. There then follows 430 pages more consisting of an exhaustive 
dictionary of German family names. 

It is first pointed out how family names serve as a mirror of the spirit 
of a people. For these names often contain early words which have long 
since gone out of current usage. But they have become fixed in the form of 
family names and thus represent one of the most basic philological sources of 
earlier culture. Accordingly the Greek names suggest imagination and an 
idealistic flair. We have Pericles (very famous), Sophocles (famed for 
wisdom) and Euagoras (excellently spoken of). The old Roman names 
show the marks of a practical spirit. They include Agricola (farmer), 
Poi'cius (swineherder), Rufus (the red one), Tertius (the third one), and 
Octavianus (the eighth one). Hebrew names are laden with religious sig- 
nificance. There are Nathanael (God-given), Elieser (my God is help), and 
Ohedia which is the equivalent of the Arabic Abdullah (servant of God). 
The German names speak of the early days of war, of battle, of weapons, of 
victory, and of heroic struggle. The name stems HUd- and Wig- referred to 
war and battle and so we have Hildebrand, Brunhilde, Wigand, and Lode- 
wig. The old German throwing spear was ger and that leads to Garibald, 
Ansgar and Osgar. The shield was called rand and so we have Bertrand. 

German family names are classified according to origin. There are, first 
of all, those family names coming from the early pre-Christian personal 
^ames. They were at first not inherited by the son from the father but later 
on came to be used, not only as personal names, but as the fixed family name 
and continuing through the generations as they do today. They include the 
list of warlike names above together with many other types. There are 
animal names like Eherhard (Eber, wild boar), Arnold (Aar, eagle in old 
German), Wulfila, Wolfgang, fFo^//H» (Wolf, wolf) as well as the names 
of the mythological names of the ravens who were the servants of Wotan. 
There are God-names like Gottlieb, Godfrey, Godzvin, and Goddard. An 
older name for God (Asen, ans, 6s) shows up in such names as Anselm, 
Anson, and Oswald. 

Then there are, in the second place, those family names based on per- 
sonal names which came in during the Christian era. These would include 
both Hebrew names on the one hand and Graeco-Latin names on the other. 
So we have Paulus, Pefrus, Johannes, Jacobus, Philippus, Michael, Chris- 
toph, Georg with their many varied forms. A good example would be the 
case of Johannes — which appears to come from the Hebrew and to mean 



BOOK REVIEW 81 

"whom God has favored" — which shows up all over Europe in the varied 
forms of John, Jean, Yohn, Jon, Jan, Ian, Ion, Giavanni, Ivan and the 
patronymic forms of Johnson, Jansen, Fitz-John, Ivanovitch, and the Welsh 
Jones which used to be spelled Johan's. 

All these personal names, whether German, Hebrew, Greek, or Latin, 
continued to be used as personal names even after they came also to be fixed 
as family names. Indeed the practice of christening has had much to do in 
the spread of the names brought in during the early years of the Christian 
era. But later the early German names came again to the fore even in the 
Church. By the time of the Crusades the Christian names were largely 
German again. 

One of the earliest ways in which these personal names came to be used 
as family or surnames (as contrasted with personal or christening names) 
was the use of patronyms whereby the son would be designated as the son 
of the personal name of the father. This was an ancient custom especially 
prevalent among the Semitic people with the Hebrew Ben-, the Aramaic 
Bar- and the Arabic Ibn- which are familiar to us in Benjamin, Benhadad, 
Benoni, Barabbas, Barnabas, Bar-jonah, Ibn KhaHd, Ibn Khaldun, and Ibn 
Saud. This shows up in the European usage by the addition of "son" to 
the name or by the genitive form of the fathers' names. So we have 
Gabrilovitch, Johnson, Hansen, McDonald, O'Connor, Fitz-Hugh, Williams 
and Davis. 

The third class of family names are based on additions to or qualifica- 
tions of these earlier personal names of the above two classes. Among the 
many such names at least three distinct groups can be seen. There are names 
of position or occupation. These are the equivalent of our very prevalent 
trade names and include the butcher : Fleischauer, Schlachter, Fleischmann, 
Metzger, Metzler, and Wurstler ; the carpenter : Zimmerman ; the merchant : 
Kauflfman ; the mason : Steiner, Steinhauer ; the smith : Schmidt, Messer- 
schmidt, Eisenhauer, Schmelzer ; the tailor : Schneider ; the tile-maker : 
Ziegler ; the weaver : Weber. It would also include the town officers Schulze, 
Meier, and Richter, i. e. mayor and judge. Other names of this sort would 
be Bucher, Buchfeller, Rothmaler and Drucker of the publishing business, 
Weidmann and Jaeger of the chase, Hoffmann, Bauer, and Ackerman of the 
farm and Geiger, Pfeifer and Rohrer of the town band. 

A second group of this third class are names of place or origin. Here 
would fall all the "von" names of the Fatherland which are used so lavishly 
among those who can affect them. There are other names ending in "-er" 
which are also place names such as Schweitser, Hamburger, Wiener, and 
Frankfurter. The majority of the names based on origin or place are 
those which contain significant suffixes like: -bach (brook), -baum (tree), 
-berg (mountain), -bruck (bridge), -burg (citadel), -dorf (town), -feld 
(field), -haus (house), -heim (home), -hof (manor or court), -thai (valley, 
dale), -ivald (woodland). Many of these names show up with the ending 
-er in addition to the above stem endings. So we have Brubacher, Sham- 
berger, Kochendorfer, Schwenkfelder, Niederhauser, Weltsheimer and so 
on. 

The third group of this third class would be called "characteristic" or 
nick-names. These are very familiar in the form of Jung and Alt, Lang 
and Kurtz, Gross and Klein, Weiss and Schwartz as well as Grosskopf, 



82 SCHWARZENAU 

Rotbart, Krumbein, Stolsfusz. Closely related to these names would be parts 
of the body like Mund, Haar etc., and pieces of clothing like Rothrock and 
Holzschuh. 

The fascination of these name lists is almost endless and there are good 
reasons why our readers would be profited by the volume under review. It is 
very suggestive material for the principles involved in the growth of words 
and the development of language. It gives glimpses into the psychology of 
personal names and the sociology of family names. The study of these 
names is enlightening in the tracing of population migration. And this book 
would be invaluable as a background for the study of genealogy. Members 
of the Church of the Brethren are thoroughly German in genealogical back- 
ground. And the names in this dictionary read almost like the Brethren Year- 
book. We are a folk of strong clan consciousness or Freundschaftgefiihl in 
our veins and we would do well to collect and arrange much of the genealogi- 
cal material now still existing in the memories of the older members of oui 
group. This book will help much to awaken our interest in this field of re- 
search. 10 May 1939. 

Chicago, Illinois. William M. Beahm. 



SCHWARZENAU 

EDITORIAL STAFF 

Editor, F. E. Mallott, Professor of Church History Bethany Biblical Seminary 
Assistant Editor, Elgin S. Moyer Contributing Editor, L. D. Rose 

Volume I OCTOBER, 1939 Number Two 



CONTENTS 

Editorial 3 

"The Development of Practical Ethical Mysticism" 

OR The Roots of Pietism 5 

Earl S. Mitchell 

A Study of the Yearbook of the Church of the 

Brethren 13 

Chester I. Harley 

History of Sandy Creek Congregation, First 

District of West Virginia 35 

Susie M. Thomas 
Book Reviews 60 

S. O. S. — Calling Sower Bibles 63 



SCHWARZENAU 



WHO'S WHO IN THIS ISSUE 



Susie M. Thomas, A. B., M. R. E. of 

Bethany Biblical Seminary has sailed to join 
the China Mission during the past summer. 
This issue concludes the congregational 
history. We have printed it somewhat a- 
bridged. 

Chester I. Harley, minister, Church of the 
Brethren, has been in pastoral service. A. B. 
of Bridgewater College, Virginia. B. D. 1939 
of Bethany Biblical Seminary. His most re- 
cent location is Greene County, Virginia. 

Earl S. Mitchell, minister. Church of the 
Brethren, Pastor of Naperville, 111. Church. 
A. B. of Bridgevi^ater College and at present 
waiting to receive his Seminary degree. The 
quality of his production makes us hope for 
further articles from his pen. 




EDITORIAL 

We have been very grateful for the kindly reception of the first 
number of this historical journal. Letters of encouragement and 
words of appreciation have come from all sections of the country. 
Some have been from old friends and students. For these I have 
been happy. Some of the men whose scholarship Is universally re- 
spected have endorsed the journal and given us the encouragement 
of taking membership In the Alexander Mack Historical Society. 
A large- number of the active pastors have joined the society and 
have expressed pleasure In "Schwarzenau." We welcome every 
Subscribing Member as a colleague In this endeavor to perpetuate 
the memory of an Ideal and an Unique People and to interpret and 
apply our spiritual inheritance In our generation. 



Approximately three hundred Subscribing Members represents 
the statistical position of the Alexander Mack Historical Society 
at the time of this writing. 

In order to put "Schwarzenau" on a permanent quarterly basis 
we need four hundred paid subscriptions. But we are going forward 
in the expectation of a sufficient increase In our Subscribing Mem- 
bership roll to make It possible. 

It Is really an achievement to have gathered so many subscribers, 
when we have had no funds to advertise and no formally appointed 
agents. 

We expect to publish four numbers in this year. After that? Our 
course will depend upon the interest and co-operation of the Church 
pubHc. Right now we need one hundred additional Subscribing 
Members. 

3 



4 SCHWARZENAU 

We (editorial we and also the editorial associates) are proud of 
the quality of every contribution appearing in this journal. (We 
hope the quality of editorials may improve.) And so it might seem 
gratuitous to single out a certain contributed article for comment. 

But we are so proud of a number appearing in the present issue 
we just must offer a word of commendation by way of introduction. 
"The Development of Practical Ethical Mysticism" represents the 
type of study this paper is glad to pass to its readers. 

Sometimes there is an atmosphere of unreality about the discus- 
sion of our denominational history. The cause is frequently a lack 
of knowledge and appreciation of the relation of denominational 
achievement to the course of general Christian history. 

To see our denomination in the larger setting makes one humble 
but this writer has never seen "inferiority feeling" come from a 
genuine knowledge. To understand the relationship of denomi- 
national history to the course of Christian development is most 
important. 

To that end we commend the thoughtful reading of "The De- 
velopment of Practical Ethical Mysticism." 



A footnote to editorial comment. We are planning to print a 
general index and are investigating a commercially available cover 
for the volumes of "Schwarzenau". We believe a year's issue (nay, 
a quarter's issue) has more value than many hard bound volumes, 
that stand on library shelves. 



"THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRACTICAL ETHICAL 

MYSTICISM" 

or 

THE ROOTS OF PIETISM 

Earl S. Mitchell 
I. Introduction 

Mysticism "may be termed that emphasis on religion which makes 
it essentially an immediate awareness of God. It is a personal re- 
lation that is established and primarily promoted by renunciation, 
prayer, and meditation even apart from the ordinary rites and of- 
fices of the church. The latter may be utilized, as the mystics some- 
times did, but they were not essential."^ Rufus M. Jones says that 
mysticism is both the first hand experience of direct intercourse with 
God, and the union of the human soul with this Ultimate Reality.^ 

Mysticism has to do largely with the metaphysical experiences 
of life, but there is one phase of it which has to do with the practical 
and ethical side of life. Here and there in the history of the race 
there have been certain individuals and groups who have attempted 
to achieve this mystical union with the Ultimate Reality by means of 
practical ethics and morality in their daily living. But by far the 
larger group of mystics have attempted to come into the presence 
of, and to enter into union with, the Infinite by other means : by 
contemplation and prayer, by asceticism and suffering, or by the 
observance of church ordinances and rites. 

Practical Ethical Mysticism is concerned with the spiritual union 
of the individual with the divine by means of the high quality of 
living in terms of ethics and morality. The rise of Pietism in the 
eighteenth century is the best example of this type of mysticism; 
and even though this was a comparatively new approach to religion, 
it was not really new. This type of mysticism was rooted deep in the 
Ethical Monotheism of the Hebrew religion, it found much expres- 
sion in the teachings of Jesus and the Hfe of the early church, and 
there were traces of it all down through Christian history. 



1. Nagler, The Church in History, p. 107. 

2. Hastings, Encyc. of Religion and Ethics, Vol. IX, p. 83. 

5 



6 SCHWARZENAU 

All devout Christians have in one sense been mystics, but only a 
small portion of them have placed major emphasis on the ethical 
quality of their daily living as the means of attaining this spiritual 
union with God. Through the influence of the Greeks, the devout 
Christians of the second, third and fourth centuries thought of 
attaining this mystical union by means of the proper intellectual 
understanding of the nature of the Divine Reality and by giving 
full accent to it. It was an intellectual mysticism. Sincere members 
of the Roman Catholic Church have attempted to achieve this 
mystical union through the observance of ordinances and rites and 
obedience to ecclesiastical authority. Those who doubted the suf- 
ficiency of this means have entered the monasteries and lived a life 
of asceticism. There have been others whose mysticism took the 
form of emotional and psychic behavior which included the seeing 
of visions and talking in tongues and similar experiences. The prac- 
tical ethical mystics represent only a small portion of the whole 
Christian Church; this however does not mean that all the other 
Christians were immoral and unethical, but that morals and ethics 
were not of first Importance in the attainment of their highest and 
most spiritual experiences of the Divine. 

II. Basis in the Hebrew Religion 

An Ethical God. — As the Hebrew nation and religion developed 
from a nomadic tribe Into a well organized society, they were con- 
stantly attempting to establish the universality of the power and 
Influence of the God in whom they believed and the ethical quality 
of his activity in dealing with men. Even though they could not 
always understand their difficulties and hardships, they never doubt- 
ed the justice and fairness, the righteousness and goodness, of their 
God. And it was on this moral uprightness and ethical purity and 
holiness of God that they based their religion. If God was ethical 
and moral, then the only way Into contact with him was through 
ethical and moral living on the part of his people. This did become 
conventionalized in later Judaism; but back of their legalism there 
were many practical, ethical mystics who were seeking to come into 
Intimate contact with God through the quiet, simple, upright quality 
of their daily living. There were many such Hebrew mystics among 
the common people when Jesus came. 



ROOTS OF PIETISM 7 

III. Christ and the Early Church 

Jesus had Intimate Fellowship with His Heavenly Father. — 
He was deeply devotional and intensely religious, yet he had a con- 
stant contact with his fellowmen. He lived in the presence of his 
loving heavenly Father; God was real, and intimate and personal; 
he lived in the mystical presence of God. Jesus demonstrated the 
mystical contact with the divine by the confidence in which he did 
his work, the calmness with which he faced danger, the faith with 
which he prayed, and the spiritual uplift which he was able to give 
others. 

The early church lost this intimate mystical contact with God; 
they swung back to the apocalyptic which placed God far away. 
But they did have contact with a special power, the Holy Spirit. 
The mysticism of the early church was more ecstatic than practical; 
nevertheless there was a very practical emphasis in the relationship 
of the individuals within the group. 

The church, during the last half of the first century, began to 
swing back to practical, ethical mysticism. Paul still held to some 
of his apocalyptic concepts of God and Christ; but he also believed 
in the mystical presence. He spoke of being "in Christ", and hav- 
ing fellowship "with Christ". The author of the Johannian liter- 
atureplaced primary emphasis on this mystical, spiritual union with 
God, and with Christ, here and now. "The kingdom of God is 
within you." (L. 17:21) They were to "abide in Christ." Christ 
was to be in them; he said, "He that abideth in me, and I in him, 
the same beareth much fruit." (Jn. 15:5). And this mysticism 
was to be based on ethical and practical Christian living: "Love one 
another;" "if we say that we have fellowship with him and walk in 
the darkness, we lie, and do not the truth." "He that saith he *a- 
bideth in Him' ought himself also to walk even as He walked." 
(I Jn.). The Christian Church at the end of the first century was 
placing primary emphasis on that which was nearer to the heart of 
Jesus' own life and message than at any other time prior to the 
Reformation. They emphasized the mystical and spiritual presence 
of the Divine Reality, and the possibility of one having union and 
fellowship with Him; but this fellowship with God and knowledge 
of Him was to come only through the high moral and spiritual 
quality of their everyday lives. 



8 SCHWARZENAU 

But by this time the Church had already come into contact with 
Greek philosophy, which was a new and challenging form of mysti- 
cism. During the next several centuries the primary emphasis of the 
Church was shifted from the practical ethical philosophy of life to 
the intellectual speculations regarding the nature and activity of 
God and of the Christ. The practical ethical mysticism was lost 
sight of as the major emphasis of the church; and, except for rare 
individuals here and there, it was not recovered until the modern 
period and then by only a small portion of the church. 

IV. MONASTICISM 

Monasticism grew out of the Greek philosophy of dualism. The 
body, the material world, and all physical manifestations are evil; 
these must be suppressed for the full development of the spirit of 
man. These ascetic ideas drove many individual Christians out into 
lonely places of the world during the second, third and fourth cen- 
turies. The crushing influence of the declining Roman civilization, 
and the growing rigidity of the ecclesiastical system, helped to in- 
crease the number of these hermits. During the fourth century 
they began to get together in groups for worship and fellowship ; 
this was the beginning of monasticism. It continued to grow through 
the centuries, and was one of the most profound influences on the 
life of the church during the middle ages. Yet there was little in 
monasticism, with its primary emphasis on asceticism and individ- 
ual righteousness, that resembled the practical, social, ethical teach- 
ings of Christ and the early church. 

However, under the influence of the Benedictine Rule, the life 
in the monasteries was better organized and the 'religious' began 
to participate in slightly more practical activities. As a part of their 
prayer life they were permitted and encouraged to render help to 
those outside the monasteries who were in actual need. The reform 
of Benedict (480-543) did give new life and organization to the 
monastic orders, but it failed to save monasticism from the decay 
that swept over the church and civilization during the dark ages. 

The Cluniac Revival. — After another period of darkening shad- 
ows in both church and state, another revival was greatly needed; 
it came in the form of a quiet monastic attempt to clean its own 
house. This revival that started at Cluny, France (910) spread 
rapidly, and with the support of Gregory VII, its influence was felt 



ROOTS OF PIETISM 9 

for a short time throughout the church. "It sought to spiritualize, 
not merely the personal lives of monks, but the wider social relations 
of men. Thus a propaganda for peace called the 'Truce of God' re- 
ceived its hearty support. Certain evils in the church, such as simony, 
clerical marriage, and lay investiture, were made special objects of 
attack. On the whole this movement saved its own soul by losing 
its life in service."^ Thus, we see that in the Cluniac revival there 
was greater unity of practical ethics and mysticism than at any 
previous time in the history of monasticism. But the noble influence 
of this revival was short lived. The capture of the papacy by Hilde- 
brand brought them in control of the church. Increased wealth 
brought luxury; and accumulated power led to secularization. The 
Cluniac monasteries lost much of their spiritual power and grad- 
ually declined. This was followed by the inroads of the Norsemen 
and the marching of men in the great Crusades. The world was 
beginning to awaken, but the activities of the Crusaders is sufficient 
evidence of the lack of practical ethical mysticism in the church. 

Bernard of Clairvaux: The Cistercian Revival. — This revival 
began with the founding of a monastery at Citeaux in 1098 by 
Robert, a nobleman of Champagne ; it re-interpreted the Benedictine 
Rule and began a stricter enforcement of the monastic ideals : pov- 
erty and simplicity, chastity, obedience and humility. But it re- 
ceived its greatest impetus through the efforts of Saint Bernard 
(1090-1153) ; he was, indeed, one of the most remarkable men of 
this whole middle period of church history. As a monk, a saint, a 
prophet, and a crusader he was the first great exponent of PRAC- 
TICAL ETHICAL MYSTICISM since the first century. "Al- 
though abbot of Clairvaux, his influence was felt throughout the 
church ; although a pronounced mystic, he entered into all the vital 
concerns of church and state. To an age of moral laxity in church 
and world, of increasing apathy toward things divine. Saint Ber- 
nard became God's spokesman. In his manifold activities as ad- 
visor of popes and kings, as father confessor to high and low, he re- 
vealed the moral grandeur of an Isaiah. His beautiful, spiritual 
piety radiated streams of spiritual light and warmth to many whose 
lives were dark and cold."^ 



3. Niagler, The Church in History, p. 310. 

4. Nagler, op. cit., p. 311. 



10 SCHWARZENAU 

Bernard made Jesus the ideal pattern for man's life and conduct. 
He consistently emphasized throughout his life that all men should 
live just as near as they could to this pattern. He placed the primary 
emphasis on the spiritual experience of God, and not on the intel- 
lectual concept of God. He recognized both the intellect and the 
affections as means of discovering the Ultimate Reality; but in op- 
position to the school men of his day, who placed major emphasis 
on the intellect, he thought of the affections as man's best road to 
God. He openly opposed the free thinking Abelard, and stood 
consistently for his principles in spite of much opposition from the 
theologians of his day. 

Those of us who in later years have valued the Pietistic tradition 
might join with the Catholics in calling Bernard a saint. 

Francis of Assisi : The Franciscan Friars. — What Bernard had 
taught and lived in the monastery, Francis of Assisi and his follow- 
ers actually lived out among the poor and needy people of the 
world. His was indeed a practical mysticism lived among people. 

Saint Francis (1182-1226), the man of humility and prophet of 
love, came from a wealthy family. As a youth he aided his father 
in his business when he was not leading the boys of the community 
in some mischief and hilarity. He joined with the poor people in a 
war against the nobles; he was captured and spent a year in prison. 
This brought no noticeable change in his character. A little later in 
failing health he went through a gradual conversion. He became a 
monk despite his father's protests; he turned his back on a life of 
wealth and luxury, and married his life to Poverty. Being disin- 
herited by his father he spent the next two years in and about Assisi 
helping the unfortunate and sharing life with the common people. 

"In 1209, the words of Christ to the Apostles (Matt. 10:7-14), 
read in the (church) service, came to him as a trumpet call to action. 
He would preach repentance and the kingdom of God, without 
money, in the plainest of garments, eating what might be set before 
him. He would imitate Christ and obey Christ's commands, in ab- 
solute poverty, in Christ-like love, and in humble deference to the 
priest as His representative. . . . Like-minded associates gath- 
ered about him. For them he drafted a 'Rule', composed of little 
besides selections from Christ's commands, and with it, accompanied 
by eleven or twelve companions, he applied to Pope Innocent III 
for approval (1215) . . . and Francis was not refused. . . . 



ROOTS OF PIETISM 11 

"Francis's association was a union of imitators of Christ, bound 
together by love and practicing the utmost poverty, since only thus, 
he believed, could the world be denied and Christ really followed. 
Two by two, they went about preaching repentance, singing much, 
aiding the peasants in their work, caring for the lepers and out- 
casts. . . . 

"He withdrew increasingly from the world. He was much in 
prayer and singing. His love of nature, in which he was far in ad- 
vance of his age, was never more manifest. Feeble in body, he 
longed to be present with Christ. . . . On October 3, 1226 he died 
in the church of Portiuncula."^ 

"His graciousness of manner, his winsome attitude, his humility, 
unquenchable joy, love of nature and all living beings, have com- 
bined to make him one of the world's most potent forces. . . . 

"Although the church laid its hands upon the movement and 
threatened to crush the lofty ideal of the founder, his spirit walked 
abroad in the hearts of men and could not be quenched. This was 
especially true of the third order called the Tertiaries, founded by 
Saint Francis in order to give the common people the advantage of 
living a holy life without strict adherence to the monastic vows. Of 
them, on the contrary, was demanded a wholesome love of neighbor, 
the simple life of service, humihty, harmlessness, pacifism, and 
mutual helpfulness. The significance of this innovation lay in the 
transference of the ideal of Christian perfection from the regular 
monks to the common people. To proclaim love as the supreme 
ideal; to maintain that all, irrespective of station, ordination, or 
rank, might be expected to attain unto it; to assert that living after 
the manner of Jesus was essentially the way of salvation — was to 
transcend the double standard which this asceticism of the mon- 
astic Institution had foisted upon the church. It was a momentous 
milestone in the direction of the great Reformation doctrine of the 
sacredness of all callings of life. Had the medieval Catholic In- 
stitution adopted this noble Tertian ideal with all of its implications, 
the revolutionary schism of the sixteenth century might have been 
avoided."^ 



5. Walker, Church History, pp. 257-259. 

6. Nagler, op. cit., pp. 314, 315. 



12 SCHWARZENAU 

V. SUMMARIZATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 

First. — Practical ethical mysticism is rooted far back in the re- 
ligion of the Hebrews. It is most truly manifested in message of 
the great Old Testament Prophets who lived during the sixth and 
seventh centuries B. C. 

Second. — Jesus, and his immediate followers, were concerned 
primarily in the ethical quality of individual living. But this ethical 
living is founded on the concept of God as a loving and just Heav- 
enly Father who is always near and ready to share the life of his 
children. Jesus gave little attention to speculative theology, and con- 
demned publicly the evils of institutionalism. 

Third. — ^After the first century the major interest of the church 
was speculative theology and institutionalism. In order to be Chris- 
tian one had to know and be able to use the exact words, without 
variation, in speaking of or to the Deity. Loyalty and obedience 
to the church was placed before and between one's loyalty and obe- 
dience to God — to God through the church. 

Fourth. — Monasticism arose because of the secularism and 
formalism of the church; the church was no longer meeting the re- 
ligious needs of the people. Monasticism has stood through the 
centuries as a testimony to the inadequacy of institutionalized re- 
ligion. 

Monasticism has been primarily an introverted, ascetic form of 
mysticism. It has appealed mostly to the eccentric and introverted 
personalities, and these people have engaged in many extravagant 
and unusual experiences. But in spite of all this, it has been through 
monasticism and especially a few of her great leaders that the ethi- 
cal and moral qualities of Jesus' message have held its place in the 
life of the church. 

Fifth. — In response to the great intellectual waves that have 
swept over the church, there have arisen great practical ethical 
mystics to pull the church back to the center of the road. In response 
to the Gnostic intellectualism there arose the Benedictine Rule with 
some emphasis on practical, spiritual religion; in fact the whole 
monastic system is in one sense a response to this Greek thought 
movement. In response to the Schoolmen, Bernard and Francis 
came as great powers in the Christian movement. 



ROOTS OF PIETISM 13 

And if we were to go over into the next period, which is beyond 
the scope of this paper, we would discover the rise of Spener and 
Francke and the Pietistic movement in response to Rationalism. 
And it may be possible the influence of Barthianism and other promi- 
nent movements of today are the response of the church to the 
over emphasis on science. 

Finally. — Practical ethical mysticism is fundamental in the life 
of the Christian church. It has not been a major emphasis since the 
first century, but it has been kept alive as an undercurrent down 
through the centuries. A re-emphasis of this phase of the Christian 
message has produced great revivals in the church. In this present 
low ebb of the church, those of us who have been schooled in this 
phase of the Christian message have a unique opportunity of leading 
in the revival of the life and influence of the church today. 



A STUDY OF THE YEARBOOK OF THE 
CHURCH OF THE BRETHREN 

CHAPTER I 

Chester I. Harley 
History of the Yearbook 

The history of the Yearbook of the Church of the Brethren is 
extremely interesting. A study of its development to the present 
stage presents a varied bit of evolution, both from the standpoint 
of appearance and inner contents. To study the contents of the 
Yearbook is to gain insight into the onward march of the Church 
of the Brethren itself. This will be stressed more at length in the 
chapter, "Changes in the Contents of the Yearbook", but it is the 
immediate purpose of this chapter to give the history of the pub- 
lishing of the Yearbook. 

The first issue was published in the year 1871 at Tyrone, Pennsyl- 
vania by H. R. Holsinger. At this time he was publishing a weekly 
paper for the Brethren, the Christian Family Companion. In ad- 
dition he had a monthly publication, The Pious Youth, designed, 
he said, "To promote the welfare, and enlarge the number of the 
class of persons whose name it bears. "^ 



1. Brethren's Almanac, 1871, Back Cover. 



14 SCHWARZENAU 

It was through the Christian Family Companion that H. R. Hol- 
singer first advertised the Brethren's Almanac. Here we find in his 
own words the following: 

"We are making preparations to publish an almanac for our Brethren 
and friends who may wish to use the popular household commodity for 
the year 1871, and we now solicit suggestions, selections, and contribu- 
tions. — It will contain history, statistics, doctrine, peculiarities, and inci- 
dents. It will also contain the names of all our ministers so far as they can 
be obtained. — The astronomical calculations and calendars will be as full 
and reliable as in the best works of the kind. Will be ready by the first of 
September. Sent postpaid by single copy for 12 cents; ten copies for one 
dollar. Liberal deductions to dealers and merchants to sell again."^ 

The first edition of the Brethren's Almanac must have sold much 
better than first anticipated. The copy was ready for sale by Octo- 
ber 1, 1870, and not by the first of September as first announced. 
But by the sixth of December nearly all of the Almanacs were sold. 
Thus we find appearing in the December 6th issue the following: 

"The edition of our Almanacs has already been exhausted. As there 
is quite a demand, and being yet time enough before it will be wanted for 
use, we have concluded to publish another edition, and orders may be sent 
in by the hundred."^ 

This preface appeared in the 1871 issue: 

"Almanacs having become a household necessity, their pages afford a 
valuable medium for disseminating wholesome instruction to every family 
throughout the land. The publisher being aware of this fact, and from the 
conviction that it is the duty of the Christian, not only to improve the op- 
portunities presented, but even to seek after occasions for doing good, has 
resolved to publish an annual pamphlet to be called the Brethren's Almanac, 
of which this is the first issue. It will impart all information usually ex- 
pected in such works. The reading matter will be such as will be thought 
most useful to, and acceptable with its patrons. The present edition has 
been somewhat hastily compiled, yet it is hoped it may be generally accept- 
able."^ 

The first issue of the Almanac was printed, not by Holsinger, 
but by a printer in Philadelphia. By the second year Holsinger 
printed it himself. He writes this: 

"Last year we had it (Brethren's Almanac) printed in Philadelphia, 
but thought it had cost us too much. In consequence of doing the work 
ourselves we reduced the price, and now find that we again have been a 



2. Christian Family Companion, July 19, 1870, p. 459. 

3. Christian Family Companion, December 6, 1870, p. 762. 

4. Brethren's Almanac, 1871, p. IS. 



THE YEARBOOK 15 

little too liberal. Besides, we committed a mistake in announcing the price. 
The dozen price had been reckoned at one dollar, instead of which we gave 
it at 75 cents, and now we shall sell the whole edition at the figures an- 
nounced."^ 

By the time the 1872 issue of the Brethren's Almanac was ready 
for printing, H. R. Holsinger had moved his printing plant from 
Tyrone to Dale City, Pennsylvania. From the Christian Family 
Companion we find that the move was made in the period between 
October 17th and October 31st, 1871. 

Here at Dale City, Holsinger printed the 1873 issue also. How- 
ever, by 1874 James Quinter had taken over the printing interests 
of Holsinger. He continued to publish the Almanac from Dale 
City in 1874 much as his predecessor had done.^ 

In 1873, H. B. Brumbaugh & Bro. of James Creek, Pennsyl- 
vania started publishing the Pilgrim Almanac as a free supplement 
to all who subscribed to the Weekly Pilgrim. No copies could be 
bought. Here is their statement: 

"The Pilgrim Almanac is highly spoken of by all who see it, and are 
especially pleased with our improved "Ministerial Record". We still have 
a good supply and are waiting to give them free to every subscriber for 
1873. To some we may have sent two copies ; such would do us a favor by 
giving one to some person who would be willing to take the Pilgrim. Re- 
member, we have none for sale."'^ 

By 1874, H. B. Brumbaugh & Bro. had moved their printing plant 
to 1400 & 1402 Washington Street, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania. In 
1875, Quinter and Brumbaugh, feeling it was an unnecessary dupli- 
cation to have two almanacs published by the Brethren, combined 
to publish one almanac which they called The Brethren's Family 
Almanac. Quinter was then located at Meyersdale, Pennsylvania. 
The price for this combined issue was 1 copy, 10 cents; 12 copies, 
75 cents; 17 copies, $1.00; and 100 copies, $5.75.^ 

With each publisher still being located as cited above, the 1876 
issue was again published jointly, but under the title Brethren's 



5. Christian Family Companion, December 12, 1871, p. 782. 

6. I have not beeen able to see a copy of this 1874 James Quinter issue, for we do 
not have it here in the Bethany Library, nor do they have it at Elgin. But it is in the 
Juniata College Library, and through the kindness of the librarian there, Miss Lillian 
Evans, who described its contents so well to me by letter, I have been enabled to in- 
clude it in this study. Her information made it possible for me to index the articles 
which appeared in this 1874 almanac published by James Quinter, which would have 
otherwise been impossible. 

7. The Weekly Pilgrim, January 14, 1873, p. 15. 

8. The Pilgrim, November 24, 1874, p. 364, and December 8, 1874, p. 380. 



16 SCHWARZENAU 

Almanac. However, in 1880 the title was again The Brethren's 
Family Almanac. By 1877 Quinter had moved to Huntingdon, 
combining interests with Brumbaugh. They continued thus until, 
in 1883, the Brethren's Publishing House was formed at Hunting- 
don, Pennsylvania. In 1884 the front of the Almanac has "Breth- 
ren's Publishing Co., Huntingdon, Pa., and Mt. Morris, 111." Its 
printing continued thus until in 1891 when the Brethren's Publish- 
ing Co. had Its sole interests In Mt. Morris. 

With the turn of the century the Brethren Publishing House 
sought a location which would be accessible by railroad. This was 
thought necessary because of the expansion of publishing, so the 
House moved to Elgin in 1899. Thus we find the Almanac coming 
from there In 1900. 

The Almanac has been published from there ever since. There- 
fore, from 1900 on there Is little to be said about the history of Its 
publication. One significant change was made in 1918 when the 
name was changed from Brethren Family Almanac to Church of 
the Brethren Yearbook. In the succeeding year, 1919, the name 
was changed to Yearbook of the Church of the Brethren and has 
remained so ever since. Since the year 1931, J. E. Miller has been 
editor of the Yearbook. 

Before finishing the history of the Almanac I should mention 
several other almanacs not of the main stream just followed In the 
above history. In 1880, H. J. Kurtz of Dayton, Ohio started pub- 
lishing an almanac called Our Almanac and Annual Register. This 
continued at least for the next year, 1881. In 1882 the publishers 
of Brethren At Work put out an almanac called The Brethren At 
Work Almanac and Annual Register For All the People. This 
was printed at Mount Morris. Here in the Bethany Theological 
Library there is only this one copy. From all evidence It is the only 
one. 

The break having occurred In 1881 which led to the formation 
of the Progressive Brethren Church and The Church of the Breth- 
ren, the former started an almanac of their own. H. R. Holslnger, 
first publisher of the Brethren's Almanac, 1871, was the publisher 
of this in 1884. It was called The Brethren's Annual and published 
at Ashland, Ohio. According to the files at Bethany Library he 
continued for two years and then in 1886 H. J. Kurtz published 
Our Almanac from Covington, Ohio. It may be others were pub- 



THE YEARBOOK 17 

lished aside from these mentioned. However, the significant thing 
is that as late as 1887, which is the last issue in our library, they 
still had the ministers of the Church of the Brethren listed. These 
were in a separate list, however, from their own ministers. Another 
separate list contained the ministers of the Old Order Brethren. 
From an excerpt one may gather that they still had a circulation 
among some of the members of the Church of the Brethren as well 
as the Old Order Brethren, hence these three lists of ministers. 
Here Is their statement: 

"The aim has been to make a good family almanac especially adapted 
to the wants of the Brethren organizations."^ 

I am not prepared to write further about these Progressive Breth- 
ren Almanacs. 

CHAPTER II 

The Almanac 

It is probably hard for the youth of today to realize the import- 
ance of an almanac in the lives of our forefathers. They studied 
an almanac almost as religiously as their Bible. Because the Breth- 
ren were a rural people they depended much on signs and on the 
weather predictions made by almanacs. The following excerpt from 
a letter in the 1872 Almanac may well show this: 

"In writing to you about Almanacs a week or more ago, we said sub- 
stantially that the greatest objection to your Almanac, by the brethren, 
was, that there were not 'signs' and other conjectures enough in it. Some 
have said that it did not look much like an Almanac — meaning no doubt 
that the signs, conjectures, notable days, etc., were not given sufficiently in 
detail — not being able to find all the sage and venerated prognostications to 
be found in the old Lancaster Almanacs. It must be remembered that the 
study of the Almanac, in some families, constitutes the most important and 
persistent literary pursuit, with some of its members at least."^'' 

The 1871 issue of the Brethren's Almanac has the following 
things contained in the actual almanac section : ( 1 ) Eclipses of the 
year 1871, (2) Memoranda for 1871, (3) Epochs of 1871, (4) 
Moveable Festivals, (5) Perigee and Apogee of the moon, (6) 
Seasons, (7) Astronomical characters explained, (8) Planets and 
aspects, (9) Signs of the Zodiac, (10) Chronological Cycles, (11) 



9. Our Almanac, 1886, p. 48. 
10. The Brethren's Almanac, 1872, p. 22, 



18 SCHWARZENAU 

Ember Days, (12) and a chart for every day of the year, giving 
every possible bit of information, including conjectures of the 
weather. 

Substantially, the almanac continued from this time to 1905 
without much change. However, there was a dropping out now and 
then of a few of the first bits of information, so that in 1905 there 
is no longer a Memoranda, Epochs, the Chronological cycles, or 
Conjectures of the weather. This 1905 issue added a remarkable 
and helpful feature which has been of great interest to the Brethren 
people. Among the pages of the almanac, along with the days of the 
year, there are listed "Notable events". These give important 
dates in Brethren History and the history of the world. This fea- 
ture continued through the year 1927, which was the year before 
the Almanac itself was discontinued. 

Because of the interesting events and information contained, I 
go through the year 1927 and list the events appearing there which 
I think should be of special interest to Brethren people. I choose 
the year 1927 because it is the last year this feature appears and 
hence should give us the items of most up-to-date interest. I list 
these just as they appear, abbreviations and all. 

Jan. 1, 1876, C. Hope started for Denmark. 

Jan. 7, 1796, Peter Nead was born. 

Jan. 12, 1913, B. F. Heckman died in China. 

Jan. 12, 1874, Henry Kurtz died in China. 

Jan. 14, 1914, Mary Quinter died in India. 

Jan. 24, 1826, James R. Gish born in Virginia. 

Jan. 25, 1917, J. G. Royer died in Elgin, 111. 

Feb. 1, 1816, James Quinter born in Philadelphia. 

Feb. 4, 1835, Daniel Vaniman was born. 

Feb. 6, 1895, John Forney died in Kansas. 

Feb. 7, 1890, Jacob Miller died. 

Feb. 15, 1832, Geo. C. Bowman was born in Tennessee. 

Feb. 19, 1735, Alex. Mack, Sr. died in Pennsylvania. 

Feb. 24, 1737, Christopher Sower II was baptized. 

Feb. 28, 1903, A. H. Puterbaugh died in India. 

March 7, 1908, H. M. Barwick, editor of the "Inglenook" died. 

March 8, 1892, R. H. Miller died in Mt. Morris, Illinois. 

March 14, 1908, A. W. Vaniman died. 

March 15, 1795, Jacob M. Thomas born in Pennsylvania. 

March 16, 1877, Peter Nead died near Dayton, Ohio. 

March 20, 1803, Alex. Mack Jr., died. 



THE YEARBOOK 19 

April 1, 1851, "Gospel Visitor" started. 

April 3, 1910, First converts in China. 

April 13, 1923, I. J. Rosenberger died in Ohio. 

April 17, 1921, J. H. B. Williams died in Africa. 

April 22, 1838, J. G. Royer born. 

April 23, 1908, Abram H. Cassel died in Pennsylvania. 

April 25, 1897, first eleven baptisms at Bulsar, India. 

April 27, 1873, John H. Umstad died in Pennsylvania. 

April 29, 1910, Enoch Eby died in Illinois. 

April 30, 1896, James R. Gish died in Arkansas. 

May 1, 1906, Jacob M. Meyer died in Pennsylvania, 

May 2, 1917, W. M. Howe died. 

May 3, 1867, W. M. Howe born. 

May 10, 1879, Jacob M. Luck died in Pennsylvania. 

May 16, 1839, Daniel Hays born. 

May 19, 1888, James Quinter died at North Manchester, Indiana. 

May 21, 1910, I. D. Parker died. 

May 24, 1894, First Missionaries appointed for India. 

June 6, 1885, D. P. Sayler died. 

June 7, 1921, D. L. Miller died in Huntingdon, Pa. 

June 11, 1922, J. B. Brumbaugh died. 

June 13, 1884, Church Erection and Missionary Committee organized. 

June 15, 1864, John Kline killed in Virginia. 

June 17, 1797, John KHne born. 

June 20, 1857, Geo. B. Holsinger born, 

June 23, 1811, D. P. Sayler born, 

July 3, 1911, E. W. Stoner died in Maryland. 

July 13, 1895, Brethren Missionaries arrived in Asia Minor. 

July 18, 1856, Jesse C. Ziegler born, Berks County, Pa. 

July 22, 1796, Henry Kurtz born in Germany. 

July 31, 1899, Christian Hope died in Kansas. 

Aug. 1, 1914, Germany declares war on Russia. The Great War begins. 
Aug. 3, 1890, J. B. Ebersole died in Ohio. 
Aug. 4, 1885, Book and Tract Work organized. 
Aug. 20, 1879, Mt. Morris College opened. 

Sept. 5, 1899, Publishing House Moved to Elgin. 

Sept. 8, 1863, John A. Bowman killed in Tennessee. 

Sept. 14, 1876, "Brethren at Work" started, Lanark, 111. 

Sept. 18, 1884, Sarah R. Major died in Ohio. 

Sept. 21, 1820, Abram H. Cassel born in Pennsylvania. 

Sept. 25, 1909, First Brethren Missionaries reach China. 

Oct. 3, 1905, Bethany Bible School opened. 

Oct. 4, 1899, Brooklyn Church, N. Y., organized. 

Oct. 11, 1816, Samuel Zigler born. 

Oct. 16, 1894, First Brethren Missionaries sailed to India. 



20 SCHWARZENAU 

Oct. 20, 1910, C. H. Brubaker died in India. 
Oct. 25, 1874, Christian Hope baptized. 
Oct. 28, 1832, Daniel Yount born in Virginia. 

Nov. 4, 1884, Brethren arrived in Southern California. 

Nov. 5, 1916, Daniel Hays died. 

Nov. 6, 1900, B. F. Moomaw died in Virginia. 

Nov. 8, 1910, John S. Holsinger died in Virginia. 

Nov. 12, 1875, Danish Mission started. 

Nov. 15, 1828, Enoch Eby born. 

Nov. 15, 1903, Daniel Vaniman died in Kansas. 

Nov. 16, 1865, Geo. Wolfe died in Illinois. 

Dec. 4, 1893, S. S. Mohler died in Missouri. 
Dec. 7, 1844, Christian Hope born in Denmark. 
Dec. 31, 1923, Barbara Kindig Gish died. 

In this sample list one sees the names of some of our outstanding 
leaders of our church before 1927. 

With the improved communications, better transportation, and 
daily weather reports the use of the almanac began to wane in im- 
portance. In 1917 there were thirteen pages given to the almanac, 
but by 1918 this number was reduced to seven pages. From 1917 
through 1927 there were seven pages devoted to the almanac. Then 
in 1928 this number was boosted up to thirteen pages again, but 
this was the last year for the almanac. From that time on the pub- 
lication was indeed a Brethren "Yearbook" and not a Brethren 
"Almanac", though the name had changed in 1918. 

CHAPTER III 

Advertisements in the Yearbook 

The Yearbook did not carry any advertisements in the first issue 
except those advertising the editor's own publications or books 
which he had for sale. However, he had the following insertion 
which brought results In the 1872 issue: 

"We will admit a limited number of select advertisements at the fol- 
lowing rates : One insertion, 20 cents a line. Each subsequent insertion, 
15 cents a line. Yearly advertisements, ten cents. No standing advertise- 
ments of more than 20 lines will be admitted, and no cuts will be inserted 
on any consideration."^^ 

In 1872 the entire Inside of the front cover was an advertisement 
of "Dr. Peter Fahrney's Celebrated Blood Cleanser or Panacea". 



11. The Brethren's Almanac, 1871, Back cover. 



THE YEARBOOK 21 

In the years which followed Dr. Peter Fahrney was a consistent 
advertiser in the Almanac. But Holsinger's Almanac never carried 
many advertisements. The Pilgrim Almanac carried more. With 
the coming of The Brethren's Almanac published jointly by Quinter 
and Brumbaugh we find the following policy: 

"We shall probably publish about eight thousand copies of our Al- 
manac for 1876. We insert advertisements on the cover, and the number 
we publish being large, it affords a good advertising medium. We yet have 
some space, and we call the attention of the advertisers to the circumstance. 
We will insert unobjectionable advertisements at the following rates : 1 
column, $30.00; >^ column, $16.00; Yj. column, $12.00; ^4 column, $10.00; 
yi column, $6.00."i2 

It would become monotonous and it is useless to follow a care- 
ful history of the advertising through all of the issues. Suffice it to 
say that an increasing amount of advertising appeared in the al- 
manac until it reached its peak in 1911. In that year there were 
twenty-one pages given to advertising. From that time to the pres- 
ent there has been a diminishing amount of space devoted to ad- 
vertisements, so that in the 1939 Yearbook there is only one page 
given to advertisements, and these are all strictly concerning Breth- 
ren interests. 

The Annual Meeting gave some decisions concerning advertise- 
ments in church publications. However, none directly mentioned 
the Brethren Family Almanac. But there is a minute of interest 
and significance in the minutes of the 1911 Annual Meeting which 
is fitting here : 

"We, the Middle Creek Congregation, assembled in council, April 14, 
1911 petition Annual Meeting, through the District Meeting of Western 
Pennsylvania, to pass a decision preventing any real estate advertising from 
appearing in the literature of the Church of the Brethren. — Passed to An- 
nual Meeting." 

After a lengthy discussion the answer of the Standing Committee 
that the query be "referred to the General Mission Board" was 
passed. P. R. Keltner said this before it was passed: 

"I want to give the reason for this answer on behalf of Standing Com- 
mittee. We consider this query to be too sweeping. It says, *to pass a de- 
cision preventing any real estate advertising from appearing in the liter- 
ature of the Church of the Brethren'. A brother might have a farm for 
sale and might like to advertise it in our literature. He would be prevented 
from doing even this. It cuts out every opportunity of this kind. Our Gen- 



12. Christian Family Companion and Gospel Visitor, August 31, 1875, p. 554. 



22 SCHWARZENAU 

eral Mission Board are men of experience and good brethren. They are 
going to profit by this query in this paper, and it is the judgment of the 
Standing Committee, by referring this paper to them, that they will do 
the very best they can to keep out everything that will be objectionable."^^ 

This decision must have had its effect, for the advertising shrank 
from twenty-one pages in 1911 to eleven pages in 1912. 

The bulk of advertising can be grouped into certain classifications. 
I am going to give these classifications and attempt to list a few of 
the most interesting advertisements under each one. 

1. Remedies — 

A. Dr. Peter Fahrney's Blood Cleanser or Panacea. These adver- 
tisements appeared in the Almanac for about thirty consecutive 
years. 

B. Dr. Wengert's Vegetable Family Medicine. 

C. "Ebersole's Sure Cure" — For the relief and cure of rheumatism, 
neuralgia, scrofula, dyspepsia, and kindred diseases, arising 
from impurities of the blood. 

D. Dubbel's Family Medicines. 

E. Catarrh Successfully treated with the Ox-o-na-ter. 

The Almanac grew up In the days when patent medicines were at 
their height. At the turn of the century a total of three or four 
pages was appearing in each Almanac. These continued to appear 
through the years but they gradually began to be more conserva- 
tive, that is, they no longer carried advertisements which made such 
miraculous claims for themselves. 

2. Farm Land. 

A. Advertising Southern Idaho — 1901 issue and following. 

B. Advertising North Dakota and Western Washington — 1901 is- 
sue and following. 

C. Advertising California — Various issues. 

Railroad companies and land agencies Inaugurated their adver- 
tising through the 1901 Almanac. They made the new land ap- 
pealing, giving some testimonials of the few Brethren who were al- 
ready there. It Is an Interesting observation that we now have large 
numbers of Brethren In most all of the sections which we find ad- 
vertised In our Almanacs. 

3. Farm Machinery. 

A. Peerless Machinery 

Threshers Traction Engines 

Clover Hullers Portable Engines 

Hay Presses Stationary Engines 

Gasoline Engines Saw Mills 

Grain Drills Steam Plowing Outfits 



13. Annual Meeting Minutes, Met at St. Joseph, Mo. 1911, pp. 194-196. 



THE YEARBOOK 23 

B. Studebaker Wagons. 

C. General Farm Machinery — Larimer Manufacturing Company, 

Chicago. 

One could easily surmise from the numerous advertisements of 
farm machinery in the Almanac that the Brethren are a rural 
people. 

4. Books. 

A. Gish Fund Books. 

B. Bibles 

C. Bible Biographies, by Galen B. Royer. 

D. Bible Student's Library — A long list of books suggested by the 
Brethren's Publishing Company, Mount Morris, 111, 

E. A suggested library for the Sunday School. 
P. Hymnals. 

5. Publications. 

A. Church Periodicals. 

1. The Christian Family Companion. 

2. The Pious Youth. 

3. Weekly Pilgrim. 

4. The Christian Family Companion and Gospel Visitor. 

5. The Young Disciple. 

6. The Brethren At Work. 

7. The Primitive Christian and Pilgrim. 

8. The Gospel Messenger. 

9. The Inglenook. 

10. Our Young People. 

11. The Missionary Visitor. 

12. The Brethren Teachers' Monthly. 

B. Books. 

1. Brethren Hymnal. 

2. Hymns of Praise. 

3. Various books by Brethren authors. 

4. Other outstanding books. 

6. Brethren's Plain Clothing. 

A. Suits and hats for men (Various dealers). 

B. Bonnet supplies. 

C. Covering supplies. 

Many different individuals and companies carried these adver- 
tisements. 

7. Schools. 

A. The Brethren's School, Huntingdon, Pa. 

B. The Brethren's Normal, Huntingdon, Pa. 

C. Ashland College, 

D. Wolf's Business College, 



E, McPherson College. 

F, Elkhart Institute, 






24 



SCHWARZENAU 



Later the Brethren schools received publicity through the Gen- 
eral Education Board and didn't have formal advertisements. 

This is in no sense an exhaustive list of even the types of adver- 
tisements, but it is hoped that these will be of interest and give the 
reader an insight into what an important medium for advertising 
the Yearbook was in its early days, though at present it is in no 
sense used for this purpose. 

CHAPTER IV 

The Ministry of our Church 

Each one of the Yearbooks has carried a ministerial list in as 
complete form as the editors were able to compile. They have ac- 
knowledged the incompleteness of the list from time to time and 
have appealed to the people for corrections. 

I have made a count of the ministry for each of the years from 
1871 through 1939. The graph on the following page will show 
the trends in the ministry of our church during this period. I will 
record all of these figures here, at the same time telling how they 
were found: 





Number of 


Year 


Ministers 


1871 


641 


1872 


965 


1873 


1,107 


1874 


1,237 


1875 


1,423 


1876 


1,467 


1877 


1,509 


1878 


1,549 


1879 


1,579 


1880 


1,605 


1881 


1,688 


1882 


1,695 


1883 


1,686 


1884 


1,726 


1885 


1,745 


1886 


1,766 


1887 


1,762 


1888 


1,839 


1889 


1,777 


1890 


1,885 



How THE Number Was Found 
By actual count 



in the Pilgrim Almanac 



By adding the totals which are listed by states. 

By actual count 
>> >j >j 

" " " (In addition there were listed 6y 
"Old Order Brethren" Ministers and 20 "Progres- 
sive Brethren" Ministers.) 
By actual count 



THE YEARBOOK 



25 



1891 


1,962 


!> }> 






1892 


2,004 


JJ J> 




1893 


2,014 


}) J> 




1894 


2,055 


y> » 




1895 


2,103 


» 5> 




1896 


2,150 


Totals given in the Yearb 


1897 


2,208 


>j } 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1898 


2,298 


5> J 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1899 


2,361 


}> } 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1900 


2,397 


it ) 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1901 


2,569 


JJ J 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1902 


2,646 


" ' 


f JJ 


JJ JJ 


1903 


2,750 


JJ J 


JJ 


J> JJ 


1904 


2,763 


JJ J 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1905 


■ 2,769 


JJ J 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1906 


2,723 


JJ J 


> JJ 


JJ JJ 


1907 


2,831 


JJ J 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1908 


2,938 


JJ J 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1909 


2,987 


JJ J 


f JJ 


JJ J» 


1910 


3,012 


JJ > 


J JJ 


JJ JJ 


1911 


3,049 


JJ J 


> JJ 


JJ JJ 


1912 


3,066 


JJ J 


> JJ 


JJ JJ 


1913 


3,017 


JJ J 


» JJ 


JJ JJ 


1914 


3,062 


JJ J 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1915 


3,082 


JJ J 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1916 


3,106 


JJ J 


J JJ 


JJ JJ 


1917 


3,172 


JJ J 


> JJ 


JJ JJ 


1918 


3,250 


JJ J 


JJ 


JJ JJ 


1919 


3,330 


JJ J 


J JJ 


JJ JJ 


1920 


3,400 


JJ J 


) JJ 


JJ JJ 


1921 


3,551 


JJ J 


J JJ 


JJ >J 


1922 


3,448 


J> J 


> JJ 


JJ JJ 


1923 


3,535 


JJ J 


) JJ 


JJ JJ 


1924 


3,405 


Actual count, including n 
centiates. 


1925 


3,551 


Same as for 1924, 


1926 


3,525 


i( it 






1927 


3,095 


t( (( 






1928 


3,226 


<( <( 






1929 


2,986 


(( a 






1930 


2,766 


(I (( 






1931 


2,894 


<< te 






1932 


2,917 


<c « 






1933 


2,920 


<( (( 






1934 


2,965 


<< <( 






1935 


2,976 


<< (C 






1936 


3,044 


<< <( 






1937 


3,043 


<( <( 






1938 


3,032 


<< (( 






1939 


3,003 


« <( 







including missionaries. 



26 SCHWARZENAU 

This list may have its inaccuracies, for it would be very easy for 
one to make a slight error in counting two or three thousand names 
in every Yearbook. However, this list is accurate enough to show 
that the ministry of our Church grew steadily until it reached its 
peak of 3,551 ministers in 1921 and again in 1925. In the next few 
years there was a rapid decline until in 1930, when it was the lowest 
since 1906. After 1930 there was a rise until 1936. Following 
1936 we have been on the decline a little each year. These figures 
make one wonder how far our ministry will shrink in number the 
next few years, especially when he realizes how many ministers of 
old age there are in our Church and how few young men are being 
added. 

One may wonder what caused such a sharp drop in 1927 and 
again in 1930. The only explanation I can offer is that up to the 
year 1926 there were a number of names being retained which 
should have been dropped. A revision of the ministerial list nat- 
urally corrected this. Therefore one should not become alarmed by 
the drop, but should be thankful that the record is more accurate. 

J. E. Miller wisely gave this advice after I had questioned him 
about the situation: 

"Don't take statistics, especially church statistics, too seriously. They 
are often faulty and never perfect. About the only thing that statistics 
teach us is that nothing is very correct. In spite of the old saying about the 
truthfulness of statistics, my observation is that they often do 'lie'."^^ 

In 1925, when we had the most ministers on our ministerial list 
(except in 1921 when it was the same), there appeared for the first 
time a number of sisters who were licensed to preach and a list of 
men who were licensed to preach. A list of the sisters will show this 
growth in numbers : 

Years Number of Sisters 

1925 21 

1926 25 

1927 28 

1928 37 

1929 37 

1930 31 

1931 32 

1932 39 

1933 43 



14. In his letter to me of May 13, 1939. 



THE YEARBOOK 27 

1934 49 

1935 47 

1936 52 

1937 53 

1938 53 

1939 59 

Likewise, there have been more licentiates added, with 1939 
showing the largest number. The following table gives the totals 
for each year : 

Year Number of Licentiates 

1925 56 

1926 81 

1927 100 

1928 131 

1929 104 

1930 114 

1931 118 

1932 99 

1933 121 

1934 141 

1935 162 

1936 155 

1937 192 

1938 212 

1939 222 

The Yearbook gives invaluable information concerning the min- 
isters. The churches owe to the Elgin Office an accurate list of the 
name and address of every minister in his local church, for that is 
the only way the records can be kept accurate. 

CHAPTER V 

Excerpts of Interest 

It is the purpose to show in this chapter some of the nuggets con- 
tained in the Almanac, or Yearbook. Certain passages which should 
prove especially interesting and informative will be cited. 

One might think he had picked up a philosopher's scrap book or 
a new book of Proverbs, if he should judge by the maxims and 
philosophical sayings appearing at the bottoms of numerous pages 
of the 1 87 1 and 1873 issues of the Brethren's Almanac. Some which 
should fit well into any minister's sermon today will be selected : 

"Thought. — Keep the mind constantly filled with pure thoughts, and 
there will be no room for impure ones to come in ; so long as the measure 



28 



SCHWARZENAU 



GRAPH SHOWIMQ THE TREHLS OP TEE MINISTRY 




THE YEARBOOK 29 

is full of something good, it will hold nothing bad. Never think of any- 
thing bad."i5 

"The gem cannot be polished without friction, nor man perfected 
without a diversity. "^^ 

"Work. — Hard work is the grand secret of success. Nothing but rags 
and poverty can come of idleness. Elbow grease is the only stuff to make 
gold with. No sweat, no sweet. He who would have crows' eggs must 
climb the tree. Every man must build up his own fortune now-a-days. 
Shirt sleeves rolled up lead on to the best broadcloth ; and he who is not 
ashamed of the apron will soon be able to do without it."^''^ 

"It is the small, unsuspected habits of the mind that usually control 

"God's word is like God's world — varied, very rich, very beautiful. 
You never know when you have exhausted all its secrets. The Bible, like 
nature, has something for every class of minds. Look at the Bible in a 
new light, and straightway you see some new charms. "^^ 

"The word 'heart' is named 800 times in the Bible, the word 'soul' 
440 times, and the word 'head' only 80 times.''^^ 

"Men are born with two eyes, but with one tongue, in order that they 
may see twice as much as they say."^^ 

"In quarrels, leave open the door of reconciliation. "^^ 

"Self-made men are apt to be a httle too proud of the job."^^ 

In the year 1883 there appeared a timely article on "How to 
Preach".^* This article is full of good, sound advice for any minister, 
whether he preached In 1883 or 1939. 

The main points of the article are, first, make no apologies; 
second, have short prefaces and Introductions; third, leave self out 
of the pulpit, and take Jesus in; fourth, do not bawl nor scream; 
fifth, do not scold the people ; sixth, stop your declamation and talk 
to folks; and seventh, regulate your breathing. 

In order to show the pointed words and sentences of the article 
I am going to quote a portion of the last paragraph: 

"Come down from sacred tones; become a little child. Change the 
subject if it goes hard. Do not tire yourself and everyone else out. Do not 
preach till the middle of your sermon buries the beginning, and is buried 
by the end. Look people in the face, and live so that you are not afraid of 
them. Take long breaths, fill your lungs, and keep them full — stop to 
breathe before the air is exhausted. Then you will not finish off each 

15. Brethren's Almanac, 1871, p. 1. 

16. Brethren's Almanac, 1871, p. 1. 

17. Brethren's Almanac, 1871, p. 2. 

18. Brethren's Almanac, 1871, p. 5. 

19. Brethren's Almanac, 1871, p. 10. 

20. Brethren's Family Almanac, 1871, p. 13. 

21. Brethren's Family Almanac, 1873, p. 3. 

22. Brethren's Family Almanac, 1873, p. S. 

23. Brethren's Family Almanac, 1873, p. 10. 

24. Brethren's Family Almatiac, 1883, p. 13. 



30 SCHWARZENAU 

sentence-ah with a terrible gasp-ah, as if you were dying for air-ah, as 
some preachers do-ah, and so strain their lungs-ah, and never find it out-ah, 
because their friends dare not tell them-ah, and so leave them to make 
sport for the Philistines-ah. — Aim at the mark. Hit it. Stop and see where 
the shot struck, and then fire another broadside. Pack your sermons. Make 
your words like bullets. A board hurts a man worse if it strikes him edge- 
wise." 

I. J. Rosenberger wrote an interesting article for the Almanac 
entitled "Some Events of Interest in the Lives of Some of Our Old 
Brethren. "^^ Two of the men of whom he wrote are Elder Henry 
Kurtz and Elder Henry Reubsome. Here is a portion of the article : 

"It is generally known that Elder Henry Kurtz, our pioneer editor, 
emigrated from Germany, a Lutheran minister. On board the vessel he 
fell in company with Elder Henry Reubsome, who was educated for a 
Cathohc priest. Although one a Lutheran and the other a Catholic, they 
separated at New York warm friends. 

To their joy, they met the next time at an Annual Meeting, both 
members and ministers among the Brethren. Brother Reubsome died some 
years ago at his home near Springfield, Ohio." 

An unusual article appears in 1894 concerning the life of "Johnny 

Kline". ^^ This sketch, seven pages long, was written by Mrs. Ora 

Langhorne for the New England Magazine. Mrs, Langhorne was 

not a member of our church, but lived near John Kline in the Valley 

of Virginia at the time he was shot. She tells how patiently he bore 

the sorrow of having a wife who had lost her mind and how he 

ministered to the Brethren far and near. John Kline had been to 

her father's home just before he was shot while returning home. 

She tells of how her father wept when he learned of the passing of 

the grand old Tunker preacher. She concludes her tribute to him in 

the following way : 

"Among the Tunker communities throughout the Union the memory 
of gentle old Johnny Kline will ever be revered, and the example of his 
patient, faithful life will be held up for emulation among his people. To- 
day in all that region 'Johnny Kline' is spoken softly as the household 
word — of one whom God has taken." 

In 1904 James M. Neff writes interestingly of being "Among the 
Mountains".^^ He was born in Indiana and had never seen a moun- 
tain until he was twenty-nine years old, though his parents were 
natives of Franklin County, Virginia. New experiences were his 
as he travelled among the mountains of Pennsylvania, Maryland, 



25. Brethren's Family Almanac, 1887, p. 19. 

26. Brethren's Family Almanac, 1894, p. 3. 

27. Brethren's Family Almanac, 1904, p. IS. 



THE YEARBOOK 31 

the Virginias, the CaroHnas, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama. 
This paragraph will show how picturesquely he describes the things 
he saw: 

"Within the last twelve months I have seen the old horse-power 
thresher at work, I have visited homes where the old-fashioned spinning 
wheel still sings and where deft fingers ply the shuttle and the old loom 
rattles out the homespun slow but sure. I have been received with the 
heartiest welcome in homes where most of the indoor life was spent in 
one room, and where we and 'the old folks' retired in beds arranged in a 
row at one end of the room so close together that we could easily shake 
hands from bed to bed while the young folks sat and 'sparked' by the fire- 
place at the other end of the room. I have visited and lodged in many a 
home where a good-sized family Hves in a one-room log house and some- 
times where the clapboards serve as both roof and ceiling, eighteen of us, 
men, women and children, having slept one night in such a room, and that, 
too, without suffering for want of ventilation, though there were no win- 
dows and the doors were closed. In many such homes they depend for 
light upon the open doors in the summer and the fire in the fireplace in 
winter, and upon the open cracks for ventilation, and so the modern ex- 
travagance in the way of windows is scarcely thought of. — " 

The last excerpt I wish to make is from the life of "Elder Peter 
Nead in Rockingham County, Virginia".^^ Peter Nead was a class 
leader and lay preacher identified with the Methodist Church. He 
read a little book by Elder Benjamin Bowman, written in German, 
on "Christian Baptism". This drew his interest and he was led to 
visit Rockingham County, where Benjamin Bowman lived. His 
visit coincided with a love feast being held there. After further 
inquiring into the teaching and practice of the Church he was bap- 
tized. A very fruitful life in business and the ministry followed. 
Listen to a paragraph by D. H. Zigler : 

"Elder Nead's home life greatly strengthened his work in the minis- 
try. Soon after uniting with the church, he formed the acquaintance of 
Elizabeth Yount, whose home was near Broadway, Va. Their marriage 
followed Dec. 20, 1825, and they setded on the Yount homestead. Here 
he spent fifteen years of his busy life. Beside meeting the calls for his 
ministerial service, he conducted a tanning business and taught school 
during the winter. It was his custom to rise at three o'clock in the morn- 
ing and read, write, or commit passages of scripture to memory until six 
o'clock, the usual breakfast hour. The duties of the day were met in sys- 
tematic order, and the evenings were spent with the family or in communion 
with his God.—" 

Such is the nature of the articles which appear in the issues from 
1871 through 1913. These types, as will be clearly pointed out in 



28, Brethren Family Almanac, 1913, By D. H. Zigler, p. 15. 



32 SCHWARZENAU 

the next chapter, soon began to fade out, giving way to the organ- 
izations and movements of the Church of the Brethren, which were 
well pubHcized in the Yearbook, beginning about 1917. 

CHAPTER VI 

Changes in the Contents of the Yearbook 

The Brethren's Family Almanac has gone through a complete 
change since its beginning. One could pick up the 1871 Almanac 
and never know it was the ancestor of the 1939 Yearbook. The 
only bit of contents which has remained the same is the ministerial 
list. This has always been an important part of the Yearbook and 
itself has been useful enough to justify a yearly publication of the 
Almanac, or Yearbook. 

Remembering this one constant bit of contents I will trace briefly 
the disappearance of certain important contents and the appearance 
of new and important contents. 

The chapter on "Advertisements in the Yearbook" shows the 
growth and decline of the use of the Yearbook as an advertising 
medium. Likewise, the chapter on "The Almanac" shows how it 
declined in importance and the number of pages used for it, until 
in 1929 it was no longer contained in the Yearbook. 

One of the important items which has lasted for most of the life 
of the Yearbook is that of biography. Glance over the index and see 
how frequently the names of great men and women of the Church 
of the Brethren appear. Names like John Kline, the two Chris- 
topher Sowers, George Wolfe, James Quinter, the two Alexander 
Macks, and John Umstad will be found appearing from three to 
five or six times. Biography continued in this form from 1871 
through the year 1917. In 1918 there appeared a group of articles 
under the heading "Entered into Rest". These contained a brief 
biography of outstanding men of the Church of the Brethren who 
had died the preceding year. 1924 was the last year of these biog- 
raphies and from that time on there were no biographies in any 
form. 

Articles on doctrine were an important part of the early Issues. 
The very first article of the first issue was "What the Brethren 
Preach". Other doctrinal articles follow, such as "Is the Brethren 
Church the True Church of Christ?", "New Testament Simplic- 



THE YEARBOOK 33 

ity", and "On the Simplicity of Dress". Such doctrinal subjects as 
these continued until along about 1910. After this time there fol- 
lowed only a few articles, gradually being replaced by the activities 
of the Church of the Brethren in the realm of the educational and 
the organizational functions of the Church. It must be remembered 
that these doctrinal articles continued to come before the members 
of the church through the Church publications other than the Al- 
manac. The Almanac, or Yearbook, was just beginning to change 
its function. 

History is one of the outstanding features of the Almanac. There 
appear histories of individual congregations, of districts, of work 
in certain states, of movements, of the printing of church publica- 
tions, of missions, and of other activities. The last historical articles 
seem to have appeared in the year 1916, though "Important 
Events" continued to be Hsted in the pages of the almanac through 
1927. 

Miscellaneous articles have appeared throughout all of the Year- 
books up to about 1920. They were of a wide and varied nature, 
ranging from anecdotes, jokes, etc. to long discourses on the dangers 
to be faced in this modern age. 

In a brief way this traces the disappearance of certain outstanding 
features which were a large part of the early issues. Now let us see 
just how new features came to take their place. 

At the turn of the century there begin to appear certain things 
in the Yearbook which show a growing consciousness on the part of 
the Church leaders that there is a need for closer unity and organi- 
zation within the ranks of the Church. Thus as this organization 
is effected we find the Yearbook being the place that it could best be 
published to get it before, and keep it before, the people. 

The first evidence of this is in the 1900 issue when there is print- 
ed, just before the Ministerial List, a list of "The Mission Boards 
and Their Organization" and also a list of the "Sunday School Sec- 
retaries". 

This same listing appeared until in 1912 when there was added 
"Temperance Committees and Their Organizations". "General 
Sunday-School Board" was listed in 1913. At the same time there 
were minor bits of information appearing in rapid order: "General 
Missionary Receipts", "Membership in Churches", "Old Folks' 
and Orphans' Homes", "Missionary Offerings at A. M.", "Gen- 



34 SCHWARZENAU 

eral Education Board", "Our Ministerial Force", "Annual Meeting 
Delegates", "Sunday School Statistics", "Our Church Boards", 
and "Total Receipts for the Year". 

Then in the year 1917 five full pages were devoted to the "Gen- 
eral Education Board of the Church of the Brethren". In connec- 
tion with this extensive information was given about our Brethren 
Colleges and Bethany Bible School. Also, five pages were given to 
the Sunday School work of the Church, including plans for "Re- 
modeling an Old Church". 

In 1918 "The Forward Movement In the Church of the Breth- 
ren" was launched. Ten pages were devoted to "Home and For- 
eign Missions". This time nine pages were given to the "Sunday 
School Work" and eight pages to "Our Educational Activities". 
There followed In this same year thirteen pages on "General Re- 
forms and Relief Work". 

In general, these types of activities continued through the next 
ten or twelve years. Meanwhile, added space was being given to 
statistics. These included "Conference Budget", "Financial Report 
of the Council of Promotion", "General Statistics of Giving For 
the Year", "Financial Statement of the General Mission Board", 
"The Home Department" (statistics of), and "Summary Statistical 
Report of General Ministerial Board". 

The early nineteen thirties finds less space being given to statis- 
tics and church organization. In fact, the Yearbook itself began to 
shrink In size. In 1928 there were 127 pages in it, but by 1933 
there were only 64 pages. Since 1933 the size has remained the 
same, there being also 64 pages In the 1939 Issue. Thus we come 
to the 1939 issue. It contains information designed to Inform the 
ministry and laity of the church. To the minister It Is Indispensable, 
for it keeps him informed about the addresses of his fellow ministers 
and their churches, at the same time giving Invaluable statistics 
and the personnel of the Brotherhood and District Organizations. 
For the laity it serves the same purpose, and it also assists all in 
getting a view of the total Church of the Brethren in a way that 
would otherwise be impossible. 

(To be continued) 



HISTORY OF SANDY CREEK CONGREGA- 
TION, FIRST DISTRICT OF WEST VIRGINIA 

Susie M. Thomas 

(Continued from July Number) 

CHAPTER VII 

Biographies of Ministers Who Served in Sandy Creek 

Congregation 

John Boger 

John Boger, son of Christian Boger, a German immigrant, was 
born at Pine Hill, Pennsylvania, 1774. About 1808 he came with 
his family to the A. K. Frazee place, between Brandonville and 
Hazelton, West Virginia. He there built a brick house which has 
since been torn down. He was a justice of the peace and a minister 
of the Church of the Brethren. 

He was married to Frances Cover who died in 1806 and then he 
married Barbara Breneisen. 

Though a hardworking man he was a lifelong reader. He was 
the first minister known to be elected in Sandy Creek Congregation, 
being elected about 1830 to 1835. He was the grandfather of 
Mary Boger who married Emanuel Beeghly. 

John Boger and Jacob Thomas preached in the first church 
house built at Salem in 1845. He preached in German and was well 
versed in the Scriptures. He was one of the pioneers of Preston 
County. 

During the last eight or nine years of his life he gave himself 
wholly to study of the prophetical books of the Bible. 

The walls of at least one room in his house were covered with his 
calculations concerning those prophecies which related to the mil- 
lennium. The result appeared in 'The Coming of Jesus Christ," 
written "with a trembling hand in my seventy-third year." This book- 
let, written in German, was published by Jonathan Rau of Somerset, 
Pa., and came out in 1846. It contained 24 pages, four by six inches in 
size, and was the first printed volurne emanating from Preston.^^ 



12. Morton, O. F., History of Preston County, p. 324. 

35 



36 SCHWARZENAU 

This treatise fell into the hands of "Pastor" Russell and formed 
the foundation for the Millennial Dawnists Church. The calcula- 
tions worked out by Boger were taken by Russell and furnished the 
principal material for his sensational propaganda. 

John Boger died in 1852 and is buried on the Boger farm near 
Brandonville, W. Va. Through emigration and a shortage in male 
posterity, the family name has disappeared from this county. 

Jacob M. Thomas 

The Thomas family originally came from Wales, England in 
Colonial days. There were three brothers who sailed across the 
waters of the Atlantic together. They were Alexander, William, 
and Lewis. Alexander settled in Pennsylvania, William went West, 
and Lewis settled in the southern part of Ohio. 

From Alexander who located on a large farm in Lancaster 
County, near Philadelphia descended the Thomases of Preston 
County. He was a large and successful farmer, but lost all he had 
by selling his farm for Continental money, which proved valueless. 

His son Michael Thomas, Sr., was born in Conemaugh Town- 
ship, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, August 15, 1774. Michael 
Thomas, Sr., married Magdalena Maust who was the daughter of 
Abraham Maust, and she was born near Summit Mills, Somerset 
County, Pa., December 25, 1775. She was of German descent. 
They were married October, 1794. To this union were born seven 
sons and three daughters. An initial "M" was used in each of these 
sons' names in honor of their father. These seven sons were Jacob 
M., Michael M., George M., John M., Samuel M., Daniel M., and 
Christian M. The sisters of these brothers were Magdalena, Bar- 
bara, and Anna, the latter becoming the wife of Andrew Umbel 
and spending her life in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. The sons, 
Michael and George, remained in Fayette County, Pa.; Samuel and 
Daniel went West, one to Iowa and the other probably to Ohio. 
John and Jacob became permanent residents in W. Va. 

Jacob M. Thomas was the oldest of the children. He was born 
on a farm in Conemaugh Township, March 15, 1795. 

In 1810 the family moved to a farm near what is now Markleys- 
burg, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, near the West Virginia line 
where all the children were reared. Jacob grew to manhood on his 
father's farm where he worked and took advantage of the little 



SANDY CREEK 37 

schooling those early days afforded. He was a real student and 
acquired a wide range of knowledge. 

It is not known when or where Michael Thomas, Sr., united with 
the church, but his wife was the first person ever baptized in the 
Sandy Creek congregation. All the children with their companions 
became faithful members of the church of their parents, who were 
hardy pioneers in a rough country. 

Jacob M. Thomas was united in marriage to Mary Fike on 
August 8, 1816. He came to West Virginia from Fayette County, 
shortly after the close of the second war with Great Britain. He 
built his pioneer home on his farm four miles east of Brandonville, 
near Salem Church, and lived there the rest of his life. Four sons 
and six daughters were born to them. They were John J. who 
married Lydia Maust, about 1840 to whom were born four sons 
and three daughters; Andrew, born May 4, 1836 and died Feb. 2, 
1907, was married twice. His first wife was Barbara Boger, born 
May 3, 1840 and died February 22, 1879. She was the daughter 
of Samuel and Elizabeth Boger. They lived on the home place and 
took care of the father. To them were born one daughter and three 
sons. Elizabeth, the daughter married Ervin Wilson, to whom 
were born four daughters, Etta, Delila, Stella, Cora, and one son, 
Victor. Jeremiah Thomas, who became elder of Sandy Creek Con- 
gregation, Noah Thomas, who still lives on part of the home place, 
and Ira Thomas who lives at Bruceton Mills, were their sons. 
Andrew was married again to Hester Wilson, who remarried and 
is still living. They had one son, Scott. The home place was di- 
vided between the two sons, Noah and Scott. Jacob married Nancy 
Lambert and to this union five sons and five daughters were born. 
The daughters were Magdalena, who died unmarried; Sallie who 
became the wife of Adam Rosenberger; Anna who married Wil- 
liam Conn; Barbara who was the wife of Joseph Zimmerman, and 
Catherine who married Samuel Rishel. After the death of the 
mother of these children April 27, 1840, Jacob Thomas married 
Hepsy Davis, but there were no children from this union. 

As a business man and farmer he was successful, being the owner 
of a good 175-acre farm. While an industrious farmer, his life was 
of considerably more importance than that of an individual business 
man. 



38 SCHWARZENAU 

There were no Church of the Brethren and no minister where 
they hved. They welcomed occasional visits of ministers, and their 
home was open for their services. 

When thirty-five years old Jacob M. Thomas united with the 
Church of the Brethren and from the start was an earnest student 
of the Bible. He could read German and English equally well, but 
his sermons were delivered In English. He knew German well be- 
cause his mother was of German ancestry and the Thomas family 
had lived in a German community of Pennsylvania. 

In the year of 1835 the Sandy Creek Congregation was organ- 
ized and a year later he was called to the ministry. He had a gift 
as an expounder of religious doctrines, and as a missionary, accom- 
panied by a few friends, built up church communities and caused 
the erection of a number of places of worship. 

The Sandy Creek Congregation grew and Brother Thomas grew 
In the work. His earnest contention for the faith stirred the people. 
In 1841 he was ordained, the first bishop In the First District of 
West Virginia, and perhaps in the State. 

Under his preaching and fatherly shepherding the membership 
increased rapidly. In 1845 the Salem meeting house was built. 
This was much enjoyed by a people who had been holding their 
meetings and love feasts in barns and homes under many discom- 
forts. His usefulness was not confined to his home congregation; 
neither did he wish to center all his labors in so narrow a limit. 
Astride his horse with Bible in hand, he went forth and planted the 
seed of the Gospel over a large territory of Pennsylvania, West 
Virginia, and over into Maryland. Sometimes he was gone for 
three and four months. On some of these journeys he was accom- 
panied by Elders Samuel Fike and Jacob Beeghly. He held meet- 
ings at the homes, sometimes In barns and often preached in court- 
houses at the Invitation of the judges who frequently turned their 
halls of justice into meeting houses for his accommodation. He 
preached in the courthouses of three counties. 

He was a large man, somewhat of muscular build, was capable 
of great endurance and when about sixty years old retired from the 
active duties of a farm life and devoted all of his time and attention 
thereafter to the work of the Gospel. That he might not be at the 
expense of the others of the church, he reserved a competence out 
of his own life's earnings, including a horse. 



SANDY CREEK 39 

He was a leader in his District, served as moderator frequently, 
and represented the District on the Standing Committee several 
times. He served on a number of important church committees. 

His knowledge and interest extended to the events of his day. 
He was one of the early readers of the old Wheeling Intelligencer 
and was one of the pioneer voters of the Republican faith in his 
section of West Virginia. He was a great reader and was Informed 
on a large range of subjects. 

Earnestness and sincerity characterized all his actions. He was 
a good councillor, earnest and sincere in what he did. On his con- 
victions he stood and would not be moved; yet his mind was ever 
alert to understand fully first before taking his stand. His simple 
faith was a fortress in his dark days; it also led him as he grew 
older to pursue nothing but the Master's work, leaving all else for 
this. Yet all was done without receiving any compensation from the 
church. He lived to see his labors bear fruit in multiplied congrega- 
tions and many happy in Jesus. 

He continued to go on missionary journeys as long as his health 
would permit. The following excerpt is taken from the Gospel 
Visitor, Sept., 1870. 

Report of an Exploration of Western Virginia by Elder Samuel 
A. Fike and Elder Jacob M. Thomas. 

The last District Meeting of West Virginia having requested 
Brother Fike to visit the scattered churches and members in North- 
western Virginia, Bro. Thomas cheerfully offered to accompany him 
on his mission of love. Bro. Thomas left home on the 17th of June, and 
arrived at St. Joseph and stayed all night at Bro. D. Millers, and met 
Bro. Fike next day at Bro. Dancer's on the Northwestern pike. On 
the 19th they preached the funeral of Sister C. Lefter, in a schoolhouse 
near Stephen Bollyards. In the forenoon of the 20th they had a meet- 
ing in the schoolhouse near Bro. Keyser's, and in the afternoon in a 
Methodist meeting house near Valley Furnace. When they arrived 
at this place they were told that a few weeks before a Methodist min- 
ister had preached in this meeting house and maintained "that bap- 
tism was altogether non-essential to salvation" and that the brethren 
had announced that at 4 o'clock in the afternoon on the 20th of June, 
Samuel A. Fike would answer or reply to this sermon. The announce- 
ment of which caused a considerable excitement among all classes of 
people — all anxious to hear the reply, and the house was therefore 
overcrowded, and many could not get in, and it was said that not less 
than nine licensed Methodist ministers were present. The time of 
meeting was here, and Bro. Fike had but little or no time, on so short 
a notice, to prepare himself for such an important issue. The large 
and respectable audience — expecting to hear a severe stricture and 



40 SCHWARZENAU 

defence of the mode of baptism and our church doctrine generally — 
were not a little surprised to hear it so mildly announced that as nei- 
ther the mode of baptism nor any other essential doctrine was assailed, 
Bro. Fike would confine his reply alone on the Essentiality of Baptism 
in the plan of salvation. Several of the ministers present took down 
notes, and after Bro. Fike closed his remarks, the Rev. Mr. Hacker 
(who had made the aforesaid assault) rose and asked leave to reply; 
his request being granted, he said that he always understood the birth, 
to which Christ referred in his conversation with Nicodemus, to be 
the natural birth — explaining that birth in language and expressions 
altogether inadmissible here, and which ought never to be permitted 
to be used before a mixed audience. 

Bro. Fike replied briefly : that he could not believe his friend be- 
lieved what he said himself, and felt certain that the audience was too 
intelligent to believe what he did say ! Mr. Hacker then said that he 
looked upon baptism as a mere outward form — like that of marriage — 
where the married couple were brought out of a single into a married 
state. Bro. Fike replied that that was our identical views, and showed 
that such a view was a perfect confirmation of the essentiality of bap- 
tism, etc. After the meeting one of the ministers present told Bro. 
Fike, that he had done today the very best day's work he ever had 
done before — in establishing so important a scriptural doctrine. And 
one of the ministers who took notes and went home to compare his 
notes with the Scriptures with a view to overset the doctrine, de- 
clared the next day that no powers on the earth could overset the 
doctrine which Mr. Fike had so well established by the Word of God. 

Many other expressions were made and incidents took place that 
showed that Bro. Fike's humble eft'orts to maintain and establish so 
important a scriptural doctrine gave general, if not universal satisfac- 
tion, and made a deep impression upon the people. The doctrine of the 
"non-essentiality of baptism," so universally preached in West Vir- 
ginia, has, we hope and trust, received a "death blow," at least in old 
Barbour County. 

On the 21st, at 10 o'clock, they had a meeting at Bro. Moats' 
and in the afternoon went to Bro. Rasse's in Taylor Co. On the 22nd, 
in the forenoon they preached a funeral in the Baptist meeting house 
at Simpson's station ; preaching at the same place in the afternoon. 
On the 23rd to Harrison Co., (saw wheat cut at three different places) 
stayed with Bro. John Skidmore, at Turtletown. On the 24th to Bro. 
Moser's in Lewis Co.. and had two meetings next day and a Lovefeast 
in the evening. Meeting again at the same place on the 26th, and after 
meeting Tobias Moser was ordained and Bro. Riffee advanced from 
first to second degree. On the 27th went in company with Bro. 
Moser to Sister Sigans in Doddridge Co. On the 28th two meetings at 
Sister Sigans — small congregations. On the 29th to Ritchie Co., and 
meeting in the afternoon at Bro. Freadlies. On the 30th in the fore- 
noon meeting again at the same place, and in the afternoon at Bro. 
Coughron's. On the 1st of July meeting again at the same place, in the 
forenoon, and Bro. Sigans chosen deacon, and in the afternoon meet- 
ing at Bro. Coughron's mill. On the 2nd two meetings at friend 
Moat's. On the 3rd, forenoon, meeting at Bro. Freadlie's and baptized 



SANDY CREEK 41 

two. In the afternoon preached Sister Charity Flanagan's funeral at 
friend Flanagan's house. On the 4th came to Doddridge Co., meeting 
at Strait-Fork, and also Sister Sigans. On the 5th to Gilmer Co., 
meeting at friend T. Law's, and in the afternoon went to Bro. Moser's. 
On the 6th to Upshur Co., meeting in the evening at Bro. J. Houser's. 
On the 7th two meetings in the Sand Run meeting house. On the 8th 
returned into Barbour Co., to Bro. Wilson's, and had meeting in the 
afternoon, and baptized three. On the 9th to Randolph Co., meeting 
in the forenoon at Leeting Creek, council meeting in the afternoon, 
and restored one to membership. On the 10th two meetings at the 
same place and baptized one, stayed all night with Bro. Samuel A. 
Perkey. And on the 11th returned into their home (Preston County) 
to Bro. Samuel A. Fike's. On the 12th meeting at our newly built 
Maple Spring meeting house. On the 13th Bro. Thomas left for home, 
some 35 miles northeast from German Settlement. 

The brethren Fike and Thomas were absent from home nearly 
four weeks, travelled through eleven different counties, held twenty- 
eight meetings, preached three funerals, and received six members 
by baptism. The field which these brethren but partially explored, is 
truly a very important one — ^^and is perhaps of all others the most 
neglected, by the ministerial brethren of our church. Only at about 
one half of the places where they held the above meetings are regularly 
organized churches — and at some of them large congregations could 
soon be gathered and organized into regular churches, if they had 
but more regular preaching. Ministerial brethren, traveling east or 
west ought to visit more frequently these destitute counties. Stopping 
at Simpson's Station in Taylor Co., and Ellenborough, Ritchie Co., on 
the Parkersburg R. R., will bring brethren in reach of our members 
and friends, who will receive them gladly and give them the most 
important points or places to preach at. 

The foregoing report was hastily prepared from a few notes and 
conversation with the brethren on their return home with a request to 
have the same published in our church periodicals. J. M. 

About ten years before his death Brother Thomas was very sick. 
The attending physician told him one morning that his end was at 
hand and left, telling the neighbors that he was dying. He called 
for the anointing and recovered speedily to the amazement of the 
doctor, who said he had felt a death pulse in him. 

Brother Thomas started out again on a missionary tour but his 
health would not permit him to continue as is shown by a report in 
the March, 1871, Gospel Visitor. 

Of an Exploration of Southwestern Virginia 

During the late exploration of a portion of Western Virginia, in 
June and July last, by Elder S. S. Fike and Elder J. M. Thomas, the 
Macedonian cry, "Come over and help us," reached these brethren so 
often and repeatedly from the more southwestern counties, that on 
their return home they resolved that they would visit these counties 



42 SCHWARZENAU 

in Sept. and Oct. But we are sorry to say that the extensive and 
laborious traveling over mountains and dales in the heat of mid-sum- 
mer, exposed to a warmer climate than they were used to at home, 
and impure air and water, proved too much for the feeble and broken 
down constitution of our dear beloved and aged brother and Eld. 
Thomas, who is some eighty years of age ; and soon after his return 
home was prostrated with a severe attack of sickness for several weeks, 
which at one time seemed to threaten to close his so long useful career 
on earth but by the over-ruling Providence of a merciful God, he is 
yet a little while restored to health and strength, to enable him to 
travel some thirty-five miles to attend on the 29th and 30th our Com- 
munion season here in the German settlement, which it is admitted 
on all sides, was the largest, the most solemn and interesting religious 
meeting ever held in this section of the county. Our large and exten- 
sive new church house was over-crowded at each meeting from Satur- 
day to Sunday niglit, with anxious hearers and a large number of true 
worshippers of the living God. It was truly a feast of love in the nour- 
ishing of hungry souls with the bread of life. And the writer, with a 
large number of dear and beloved brethren and sisters, were once 
more rejoiced and refreshed in the participation in the glorious ordi- 
nances of the house of God in their primitive and apostolic purity and 
simplicity. 

The feeble constitution of Bro. Thomas would not justify the 
attempt to accompany Bro. Fike on the contemplated mission of love, 
and Bro. Jacob Beeghly of Pa., took his place .... J. M. 

When eighty-five years of age, Elder Thomas, by special request 
preached the first sermon, the Saturday evening before the dedica- 
tion, in the large church in the Markleysburg congregation in Penn- 
sylvania. He was blessed with a clear, strong voice; his delivery was 
exceedingly earnest, even to the removal of his coat when he be- 
came too warm; his discourses were largely exegetlcal, strongly for- 
tified by many proof texts; and the closing was warm and touching 
admonition. He was revered by old and young and for the most 
part delighted to heed his advice. With a clear mind and an abiding 
trust In his Lord unto the end, he passed peacefully to his long rest, 
November 21, 1881, aged 86 years, 8 months, and 6 days and his 
body was laid In the family cemetery on his own farm, which is 
known as the Thomas cemetery, not far from the Salem Church. 

Andrew Umbel 

Andrew Umbel was the son of Isaac and Nancy Umbel. He was 
born July 9, 1802, near Markleysburg, Pennsylvania. He was 
married to Anna Thomas, who was born October 11, 1805. They 
were married January 22, 1825. They united with the church In 
their young days. Five sons and three daughters were born to this 



SANDY CREEK 43 

union. Three of the sons were deacons, Michael T., Isaac M,, and 
Elijah and Samuel C. was an elder. 

Brother and Sister Umbel were born and reared In the vicinity 
of Markleysburg, and all their children were born and reared In 
the same house. Brother Umbel was a minister In the Church of 
the Brethren for nearly fifty years. By trade he was a tanner, and 
worked In the same yard sixty years. 

He preached more powerfully by his consistent, upright life than 
he did from the pulpit. He was very charitable, giving liberally to 
the church and the needy. He was opposed to taking interest on 
money loaned out. His son, S. C. Umbel, who was his executor, 
found that he had written across the back of the notes he held 
against people, "This note is without Interest." He died December 
30, 1887, aged 85 years, 5 months, and 21 days, and is buried In 
the Umbel cemetery on the home farm. His last words in this 
world were, "Praise the Lord." 

Michael M. Thomas 

Michael Thomas was born in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, 
January 18, 1804. He was ordained to the ministry at the same 
time that Andrew Umbel was. He was one of a family of fifteen 
children, twelve of whom attained to manhood. He married twice 
and was the father of sixteen children. He had a total of 311 
descendants. 

He was a minister of the Church of the Brethren for many years. 
His energy and labor were confined to his local church. He died 
and was buried on the farm on which he had lived many years, In 
Fayette County, Pa., July 28, 1898, In his ninety-fifth year. 

Samuel C. Umbel 

Samuel C. Umbel, the son of Andrew and Anne (Thomas) Um- 
bel, was born May 20, 1835. The Umbels were of English de- 
scent. His mother was of Welsh and Irish ancestry. 

On December 22, 1854, he was united In marriage to Miss 
Martha L. Brown, daughter of Robert S. Brown, who was a min- 
ister in the Church of God. June 12, 1855, both united with the 
Church of the Brethren, In the Sandy Creek Congregation being 
baptized by Christian Harader. He was elected to the ministry 
March 14, 1856. In 1860 he was advanced to the second degree 
ministry and 1906 was ordained to the eldership. He started 



44 SCHWARZENAU 

preaching the Word before he was twenty-one years of age and has 
preached more than fifty-nine years. 

Elder and Sister Umbel were the parents of three children — two 
sons and one daughter. Elder Umbel reared his family on the farm, 
but gave them a liberal education, and his sons began teaching at 
the ages of sixteen and fifteen, respectively. His eldest son, 
Demaerid, died in Denver, Colorado, about 1908. Their daughter, 
Emma Arnett, lives in Uniontown. The youngest son, Robert 
Emery, was elected judge of Fayette County in 1900. 

When Elder Umbel was young the school facilities were poor. 
Three months a year was the length of the terms. Thirty-five 
years he worked at the tanner's trade. Elder Umbel had a large 
territory to cover. When Markleysburg became a congregation he 
remained in that territory. 

Fleming C. Barnes 

Fleming C. Barnes was born in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, 
March 9, 1839. When about six years old he was brought to Pres- 
ton County and lived two or three years with his aunt, Sarah A. 
Barnes and was then taken into the family of Samuel A. Boger, 
where he remained until of age, receiving in the meantime a com- 
mon school education and the advantages of an excellent home. 

He began teaching school when 21 years of age. He was a suc- 
cessful teacher and taught eight successive terms. He was also 
highly successful at selling books. He was reared a farmer, how- 
ever, and his attentions were naturally directed to that line of 
work and he was known as one of the successful farmers of the 
county. The farm on which he and his family resided was bought 
of William Glover in 1880. The farm now belongs to one of his 
sons, James M. Barnes. It is located two miles from Salem Church. 

Brother Barnes was married to xllcinda Guthrie, April 20, 
1862. The following year he was elected to the ministry in Sandy 
Creek Congregation. They were much interested in the work of 
the church and did much to help the sick and needy in the commu- 
nity. 

To them were born five daughters and two sons, Lovina C, 
Barbara Ella, Rosa May, Dora, and Pearlie Grace, and James M., 
and Harrison F. Lovina, Barbara Ella and Pearlie Grace are de- 
ceased. All the children were and are faithful members of the 



SANDY CREEK 45 

Church of the Brethren and have worked in Sandy Creek Congre- 
gation the most part of their Hves. 

Brother Barnes died in 1927 at the age of 88 years after having 
lived a very useful life in his community. 

Jacob Beeghly 

Elder Jacob Beeghly was born July 18, 1808. At the age of 22 
he was married to Justina Horner. Soon after this union they, by 
mutual consent, were united with the church in holy baptism. 
There were born unto them seven children — one son and six daugh- 
ters. Elder Jeremiah Beeghly was one of his sons. He was elected 
to the ministry about 1841 and moved from Bear Creek Congrega- 
tion, Maryland to Sandy Creek Congregation about 1855, where 
he lived for a time. 

He used to travel with Jacob M. Thomas over several counties 
in West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, preaching to iso- 
lated members and establishing churches. 

On January 27, 1857, Justina, wife of Bro. Beeghly, departed 
this life, in full hope of a blest immortality. 

Elder Beeghly was twice married, the second time to Nancy 
Umbel, Aug. 11, 1857. She preceded him to eternity, November 
17, 1885. 

Elder Beeghly was truly a good man and respected by all who 
knew him, both in and out of the church. 

The later years of his life were rendered somewhat gloomy on 
account of the loss of his sight. He was sick only a few days pre- 
vious to his death, and peacefully passed away Jan. 9, 1892, at the 
age of 83 years, in the Markleysburg Congregation, Pennsylvania. 

Solomon Bucklew 

Solomon Bucklew was the son of Philip and Catherine Miller 
Bucklew. They were of German descent, and lived on a farm in 
Preston County, W. Va. 

Elder Bucklew was born August 24, 1840, being the ninth child 
of a family of thirteen children. He received but little education as 
the school advantages, at that time, were not very good, and the 
need of his labor, to help support the family, kept him from some 
of the school advantages he might otherwise have enjoyed. But 
having a thirst for knowledge, he, during his spare time, read and 



46 SCHWARZENAU 

studied thereby gaining most of what education he had. He also 
learned the blacksmith trade, which he followed for several years. 

There was no Brethren church close to the Bucklew home, but 
Bro. S. A. Fike preached for them. A deep impression was made 
on the mind of Solomon, and before Bro. Fike left, Solomon and his 
aged uncle were baptized. He was twenty years old at that time. 

There were no ministering brethren living nearer than eighteen 
or twenty miles from here. Brethren Fike and Benjamin Beeghly 
were the closest and occasionally they would preach for the people 
at that place. In the meantime a few more accepted the Gospel, 
and a church was organized known as the Cheat River Church. 
At this place was Solomon's first opportunity to take part in church 
work. He united with the church in 1860. 

He was united in marriage to Elizabeth Strawser January 16, 
1862. To this union three children were born. The same year he 
was called to the office of deacon, and in the fall of 1864 was elected 
to the first degree of the ministry. In 1865 he was advanced to the 
second degree, and later, the same year, was ordained to the elder- 
ship. 

He became widely known as a preacher, his excellent voice for 
public speaking proving of great value. He made use of his natural 
endowments to good advantage. 

By this time the calls for his services were many. He had to labor 
very hard to obtain a living for his family, but was always ready to 
deliver the message of salvation. Within a few years he was called 
by the Sandy Creek Congregation as their pastor. He moved there 
from the Cheat River Congregation, Preston County, West Vir- 
ginia, in 1876. This call he accepted and labored faithfully, though, 
at first confronted by considerable opposition. During his first year 
at this place 135 confessed Christ and were baptized. In a few 
years the church had become very strong, and as other ministers 
were elected to help with the work, Brother Bucklew was given 
some time for evangelistic work. He made, therefore, many trips 
to churches in other counties and states. Some of them are recorded 
in a letter he wrote to the Gospel Messenger. 

The following was published in the February 19, 1884 issue of 
the Gospel Messenger. 



SANDY CREEK 47 

My Trip to Illinois — Solomon Bucklew 

I left home November 27th, and reached Franklin Grove, Lee Co., 
111., the 30th, at 7 o'clock. Bro. Raffensberger met me and took me to 
his home where we met his family for the first time. Here I entered 
upon my first labors in Illinois. I visited the brethren and sisters and 
preached a little over a week. The brethren at Franklin Grove, seem 
to be good workers in the Master's cause. From here I went to Pine 
Creek Cong., Ogle Co., 111., and preached a little over one week. Had 
the most of the time pretty fair congregations, considering the stormy 
weather. Good interest manifested both by the members and outsiders. 
From there I went to the Silver Creek Cong. I met Bro. Quinter at 
the Chapel at Mt. Morris. Bro. Quinter preached on Sunday morning 
and in the evening. I then continued the meetings until the next 
Sunday evening. I preached one time in the Chapel. I had a large 
congregation, and the best of order and good interest. From here I 
went to West Branch Cong., and had some good meetings, but some 
of the time the weather was so cold that it was almost impossible to 
get to meeting. But notwithstanding the cold weather, we had some 
excellent meetings. One precious soul was received into the fold by 
baptism, and the church revived. From here I went to Waddam's 
Grove ; preached a little over one week. We had large congregations 
and good order, and good interest manifested. The church seemed 
much revived. From here Bro. Titus and I went South, to Marshall 
Co., where we met Bro. C. S. Holsinger at the station. He took us to 
his home, where we met Bro. Holsinger's family ; found all well ex- 
cept Sister Holsinger. The church here is in its infancy and needs 
much labor and watching both by the ministers and laity. There is a 
great deal of opposition between the United Brethren and Disciples 
who are opposing the Brethren strongly. I think a few good lessons 
of the Gospel in its primitive purity would be good for them. I 
preached here one week ; had large congregations, good order and 
good interest manifested. I closed my labors in northern Illinois on 
the 22nd of Jan., and on the 23rd I started for home. I reached home 
on the evening of the 25th ; found all well. I was eight weeks from 
home, preached every day except when I traveled. I feel that we are 
not thankful enough to the good Lord for His protecting care. Now, 
in traveling through the different parts of the country, and through 
diflFerent churches in our beloved Brotherhood, we see the need of 
faithful and fervent labor. I found the Brethren in 111. in the order 
and faithful to duty. They labored to make brethren happy when 
they came to them. I must think of the many brethren and sisters, I 
formed acquaintance with, and with whom I stayed and shared so 
bountifully of their hospitality, and say, accept my grateful thanks 
for your kindness. 

Clifton Mills, Preston Co., W. Va. 

Jan. 27, 1885 
At Home Again 
Dear Brethren: 

By the request of the brethren, I give an account of my trip to 
Washington Co., Md. I left home Dec, 1, and arrived at Hagerstown 



48 SCHWARZENAU 

the next day, I was taken to Bro. N. Martin's, about three fourths of 
a mile from town. Bro. Martin is one of the elders in the Welsh Run 
congregation and he and his family know how to make brethren feel 
at home. On the evening of the 2nd of Dec, in company with Bro. M., 
we went to the place of meeting, known as the Broad-ford-ing meet- 
ing house. Here I preached for two weeks to large and attentive con- 
gregations. The interest of the meetings increased until the close. 
The church was much revived, and ten precious souls were baptized 
into the fold. Returning home, I stopped with the brethren of Union- 
town, Fayette Co., Pa., and preached for them in their new meeting 
house, morning and evening. The next day I continued my journey 
home, where I arrived in due time and found all well, and was glad, 
indeed, to meet with my dear family and others. And now, dear breth- 
ren and sisters. I thank you for the love and kindness shown to me at 
Broadfording. I feel that we all ought to take a deeper interest in the 
welfare of the church, and spare no time or pains in declaring the 
truths of the Gospel in their simplicity, so that the power thereof may 
have its effect. 

I notice an article in the Messenger by Bro, I. J. Rosenberger, in 
regard to the great number attending our A. M. We agree with him, 
and can say, that we love the brethren, and would like to have the 
A. M. come to us, but we cannot provide for the vast amount of people 
who come. Would it not be well for Annual Meeting to take into con- 
sideration the matter of making a change, so as to lessen the labors 
of the brethren who are taking the meeting? I suggest the following 
plan for the consideration of the brethren, and if others have plans, 
let them be given. Inasmuch as the Delegate system has been adopted 
by A. M., let the brethren who make the arrangements for the meeting, 
provide for the Standing Com. and Delegates, and let all others who 
may attend the A. M. secure lodging and boarding to the best advan- 
tage they can. 

Solomon Bucklew. 
Clifton Mills, W. Va. 

Oct. 13, 1885 
Church News 

As church news is desired and seems to be read with much inter- 
est, I will try and give a little from our church, Sandy Creek congrega- 
tion. Our love-feast is in the past. We had a feast, indeed, one that 
will long be remembered by the most of us. We had a large audience 
and good order. A great many brethren and sisters communed, which 
made us feel glad for the great interest that was taken in the meeting. 
There have been three precious souls added to the church in this con- 
gregation since I last wrote. We have some opposition with the differ- 
ent elements at this time, but we try to treat all with kindness and 
with that courtesy that belongs to all Christian people. 

I started from home on the 23rd of Sept., went to the Georges 
Creek congregation. Met the dear brethren and sisters in council on 
the 24th according to previous arrangements. The Council was not 
so pleasant as it might have been, but we still hope for a brighter 
season to come, and that all things will work together for good. I 
know it will to those who love the Lord. 



SANDY CREEK 49 

From here I went to Meyersdale on the 25th. The Brethren of 
the Meyersdale cong. had been having meeting during the past 
week. On Saturday evening was their love-feast and a feast it was. 
I think there could be no better in this world. A large number of 
brethren and sisters communed. Everything seems to be in love and 
union. Bro. C. G. Lint is the elder at this place, and I think he is the 
right man in the right place. Solomon Bucklew. 

On one trip to Bedford County, Pennsylvania, after being away 
for seven weeks he returned home after having had the pleasure of 
seeing eighty-four start on the new life by being baptized. Surely 
God was with him and crowned his labors with success. 

The Gospel Messenger for April 7, 1885, gives under Gleanings 
from the Churches the following: 

Bro, Solomon Bucklew, of Clifton Mills, W. Va., sends us a postal 
card, dated Mar. 19, containing the following good news : "We have 
just closed a series of meetings in the Sandy Creek Cong., with 16 
additions to the church, and one more applicant. Our church is much 
revived and is working in harmony at this time. Hope the good Lord 
may be our helper that we may ever live in peace." 

After living near the Sandy Creek Church for about twelve years, 
he moved to Markleysburg, Pennsylvania to operate a Hour mill, 
but still had charge of the Sandy Creek congregation. He worked 
In the Sandy Creek congregation for a little over thirteen years. 

During the week one could find Bro. Bucklew at work In the 
mill, but on Sundays he was busily engaged In preaching the Gospel. 
After three years' time he sold what httle property was In his pos- 
session, and moved to Fulton County, Illinois, to serve as pastor 
of the Cole Creek Congregation. He had good success at this place 
though his labor was not confined to the one congregation. Being a 
good evangelist his service was In demand among the other con- 
gregations of the State, He served many times on the Standing 
Committee, and conducted several debates. 

He remained In Illinois twenty-three years, moving from there 
to Iowa, because of his wife's health. Then, too, they wished to 
be near their married daughter, who hved there, and who desired to 
care for her mother. 

Within a little less than two years, after going to Iowa, his dear 
companion was called home. Soon after Bro. Bucklew returned to 
West Virginia and Pennsylvania, to visit his relatives and to renew 
old friendships with the many whom he had seen converted while 
laboring here many years ago. 



50 SCHWARZENAU 

In 1914 he again located in Markleysburg, Pennsylvania, where 
for a year he did most of the preaching. On February 6, 1914, he 
was married to Mary C. Sterner of near Markleysburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, by Elder Jeremiah Beeghly. After living there for a year, 
he received a call from the Mount Union congregation, near Mor- 
gantown, Monongalia County, West Virginia, and located there 
in the spring of 1915. He worked in the congregation for about 
ten years. He died about 1926 after having preached the Gospel 
for sixty-one years. 

Elder Bucklew kept no record of his work, so it is impossible to 
give the number he had baptized, during his sixty-one years as a 
minister. He preached many funerals and solemnized a large num- 
ber of marriages. To build up the church for Christ, was his aim, 
and for this cause he faithfully labored. 

Joseph Guthrie 

Joseph Guthrie was the son of William and Mariah Guthrie. 
He was one of a family of twelve children and was of German 
descent. He was born in 1846 near Hazelton, Preston County, 
West Virginia, and was reared on the farm. 

He spent his busy life of sixty-six years as a farmer and minister 
of the Gospel near the place of his birth. 

Early in life Brother Guthrie became a member of the Church 
of the Brethren. He served as a deacon for many years. In 1880 
he was elected to the ministry and later was elected to the eldership 
in Sandy Creek Congregation. 

He was married to Hannah Ellen Kelly, daughter of Alfred and 
Christina (Smith) Kelly in 1870 and to this union were born six 
children — Charles Allen (deceased) married Emma Spiker (de- 
ceased) of Accident, Maryland. To this union were born two chil- 
dren, Harry and Grace. Charles was later married to Flossie 
Spoerlien. Two children were born to them, Eula and Wayne. 
Martha Ellen married Rev. George W. VanSickle. Martha died 
August 21, 1931. To this union were born six children, Asa, Cora 
and Quinter deceased and Rosa, Ruby and Walter who are living 
in Hazelton, W. Va. Samuel Floyd married Rosa Barnes and they 
have one son, Ward. Mary was married to Oren VanSickle and 
to this union were born three children — Evelyn, David and Ruth. 
Sarah married David VanSickle and they have one adopted child, 



SANDY CREEK 51 

Marian. Frank married Millie Knox to whom two children were 
born, Helen and May. 

Elder Guthrie died In 1912, Hannah Guthrie, his widow, is still 
living at the age of eighty-eight years. 

Jeremiah Thomas 

Jeremiah Thomas was born near Brandonville, West Virginia, 
just one year before West Virginia became a separate state, June 
20, 1862. He was the son of Andrew Thomas and Barbara Boger 
Thomas, and the grandson of Jacob M. Thomas. 

Oh Barbara, it's a boyl 

It was one of those beautiful, peaceful, breezy days in June. All 
nature was turned toward heaven. Each bird in the tree seemed 
to sing a song of cheer and good will. Nature was not alone with 
its joys. In a snug corner in a humble home a sweet faced mother 
looked for the first time upon the form of her new born with Its 
beaming blue eyes and coveted smile. Elizabeth was three years 
old. Now a boy made Its appearance into this home and you may 
be sure he was a very welcome member. Barbara, the gentle 
mother said, "Well, I hope he will grow to be a useful person." 
One day a neighbor lady came to see this Infant. In the course of 
their conversation the visitor suddenly snatched the baby and left 
the room. She was gone two or three minutes. When she returned 
she said, "Barbara, I just took the baby to the attic and held him 
as high as possible among the rafters. You know this will make 
him a great person some day." Barbara smiled and said, "Puh! I 
don't believe in such superstition." Within the next week the baby 
was named Jeremiah. 

His childhood days were those of the average farm boy, the 
home being a comfortable one, without luxuries but surrounded by 
plenty. His devoted mother died when he was only sixteen years 
of age. 

He attended the public schools of the county and also West Vir- 
ginia University. His schooling ended In 1881. It was not unusual 
for parents to discourage their sons and daughters In higher educa- 
tion in those days. The ambitious young man in order to attend the 
University hired help for the farm In his place and paid this amount 
to his father when he began teaching school. 

He began teaching at the age of nineteen. His work was in the 
same school where he had learned his first lessons, and he taught 



52 SCHWARZENAU 

that school altogether for 15 years. His ability as a teacher ben- 
efitted other schools and his career as an educator came to a close 
after he had taught for twenty-seven years, besides teaching sev- 
eral summer normals. Here the youth learned more than the rules 
of arithmetic and grammar. Here they learned to know the great 
Teacher of Galilee had sent a disciple into their midst. 

At the age of twenty years he was united in marriage with 
Susanna Seese, daughter of John and Mary Ann Umbel Seese. She 
was a native of Fayette County, Pennsylvania, born December 19, 
1861. In their courtship days they traveled on horseback. On 
their wedding day he took two nice, fat, sleek horses, rode to a 
block, the bride-to-be sprang on one horse and they were off to the 
minister Samuel Umbel at Markleysburg, Pennsylvania, uncle of 
the bride, where the ceremony was performed. Before marriage 
this young man was known to give his intended wife one gift — a 
candy apple. Every penny owned he earned through labor. They 
went to housekeeping in the home with his father. Here the first 
child, Walter, was born. 

His first business venture was with a Company Store in Hazelton, 
which later he and his brother Noah purchased. This was an enjoy- 
able occupation but there were too many outstanding accounts to 
make any financial gain. While in the home here the good wife 
sewed carpet which had truly been earned. In Hazelton, Chester, 
the second child was born. 

He left the mercantile business in the course of four years and 
moved in the milk-house loft on the home place. Here he farmed 
for his father. Following this he bought a farm, near the Salem 
Church, from his brother-in-law Ervin Wilson on which he resided 
until 1908. Here the youngest child and only daughter, Ethel, was 
born. For about twenty years he surveyed lands in many counties 
of West Virginia and other states. 

One day while working on the farm L. E. Friend of FriendsvIUe, 
Maryland, President of the Bruceton Bank, drove to his house to 
have an interview with Mr. Thomas. He explained the state of 
affairs at the Bruceton Bank and urged him to go help them in the 
Bank — stating that the people of the entire community had con- 
fidence in him and they needed that type of person for their help. 
After several hours conference Mr. Friend left the matter for his 
consideration. He hesitated stating he would never accept the bank 



SANDY CREEK 53 

position unless he could continue his work in the ministry. Within 
a short time he moved from the farm into the village of Bruceton 
Mills where he became active in the banking business. The Bruce- 
ton Bank was organized in 1903 at which time he was a charter 
member and director. The following year he became Vice-pres- 
ident. In 1908 while L. E. Friend was president Bro. Thomas was 
elected cashier. In 1913 he was unanimously elected president and 
served as active president until 1931. At the time of his death he 
was Vice-president of the Bank. 

He helped to organize and was president of the Bruceton Milling 
Company, was also one of the charter members of the Farmers 
Union Association and Fire Insurance Company, an institute 
started in 1901. At the time of his passing he was Secretary of 
the Company. He was president of the Kingwood and Bruceton 
Telephone Company, Inc., and a member of the Town Council of 
Bruceton Mills. He spent hours of thought and travel in helping 
to found the Grant District High School located at Bruceton Mills. 
While he was teaching school he was urged to permit his name to 
be used in connection with the nomination for county superintendent 
of schools but he declined the honor. His competence as a surveyor 
also led friends to induce him to become candidate for county sur- 
veyor, but this too he declined having no ambition for political 
honors. He made trips to Charleston, sent in petitions, wrote letters 
and did all in his power to get the good road, over which the people 
in Grant District now travel — Route 26. Only a few weeks before 
his death he became an honorary member of the W. C. T. U. 

In January, 1877, at the age of fourteen, he was converted and 
baptized by Solomon Bucklew into the Church of the Brethren. 
On January 14, 1882, he was elected to the ministry, when he was 
nineteen years of age and a year later began preaching as a helper 
to Elder Solomon Bucklew. On July 4, 1885 he was promoted to 
the second degree of the ministry and on March 23, 1889 at the 
age of twenty-six was ordained to the eldership to take charge of 
the congregation. Rev. Thomas followed in the footsteps of his 
grandfather, Elder Jacob M. Thomas, who lived a useful hfe in 
the ministry of the Lord. 

He preached his first sermon at the Valley Schoolhouse near 
Wymp's Gap from the text, "How shall we escape if we neglect so 
great a salvation." 



54 SCHWARZENAU 

At the time he took charge of Sandy Creek Congregation there 
was only one church house, Salem, with a small membership. To- 
day there are four commodious places of worship, namely Salem, 
Shady Grove, Mountain Dale and Mountain Grove, with part 
Interest In two Union churches, Clifton Mills and Glade Union, all 
known as Sandy Creek Congregation. Regular services are held in 
all of them. The congregation grew to more than five hundred dur- 
ing his life time. He did practically all his work among the churches 
on horseback until recent years. It was not unusual for him to ride 
horseback some fifty miles to preach a funeral. He repeatedly 
emphasized the fact that Sunday was the hardest day of the week. 
The territory over which he labored was large, with rough and 
hilly roads. Often before daybreak the faithful horse was fed and 
the pioneer was off for a long ride to two and sometimes three 
preaching places. The return trip was made many times after dark. 
He preached without price or compensation most of his life. He 
always attended the District, Ministerial, Welfare, etc., meetings. 
When at all possible he attended annual Conference and served on 
the Standing Committee many different years. 

The road was never too long nor the night too dark for this 
pioneer of faith to go where duty called him. One day a message 
came to him from a sick child who called for a minister to come 
at once. He was weary from plowing that day In the busy month 
of May. The Tempter said, "Tomorrow" but a still small voice 
said, "Today." The journey v/as completed at midnight. The doc- 
tor had told the young girl that she could live only a few weeks. 
She was not a Christian and a blind sister of the sick girl waited 
to hear the message about Jesus. Bro. Thomas opened the Blessed 
Book and read its comforting message then told the story of God's 
love, while three listening souls yearned for a new life. The fervent 
prayer touched these hearts and brought peace. It was a humble 
home. The people were too poor to keep the minister or to care 
for his horse. Lodging was found at the home of a neighbor and 
after a few hours sleep the faithful Elder again called on the sick. 
Joy had come into the home. The sick girl, the blind sister and a 
sister-in-law requested baptism. A buggy was borrowed to take 
the helpless to a stream of water. The once sick girl Is still living. 
When Rev. Thomas returned home the day was done. 



SANDY CREEK 55 

One night while holding a series of meetings at Clifton Mills, in 
1917, Bro. Thomas had an accident which might have cost his life. 
In leaving the church after services, this being a very dark and rainy 
night, the horse, in crossing a bridge having no hand railing, 
walked so close to the edge that the wheels of the buggy on one side 
missed the end of the planks, upsetting the buggy into the water, 
the weight of the buggy jerking the horse in also. Bro. Thomas 
was hurled into the water which was six to eight feet deep, and 
barely escaped being drowned. Loving and willing hands hearing 
his call for help, came to his rescue, and assisted in saving him from 
a watery grave. 

The work that always lay nearest his heart was that of the min- 
istry. He kept a record of his church affairs. During his ministry 
he preached 1,083 funerals, baptized 1,313 persons, married 557 
couples, anointed 245 persons, and preached 4,325 sermons be- 
sides assisting in scores of others. 

He was not unappreciated. His home town, community and 
county looked to him and leaned upon him in civic, religious, home 
and business life. Men, old, young and middle aged came to him 
for advice. His advice was given freely, fully and carefully. He 
was urged by his friends at different times to run for the Legisla- 
ture but without gaining his assent. His love for his home and 
family was outstanding. He was most hospitable and a guest 
never left his home, but what he hoped he might return again, for 
he found this home more enjoyable than the most luxurious man- 
sions. Bro. Thomas often expressed how his good wife had sac- 
rificed and endured hardships at home while he was away preaching 
the Gospel. 

The first failing moment in his useful life was on Sunday, Jan- 
uary 6, 1929. On that day he filled his regular appointments. In 
the morning and afternoon he preached a sermon and also held a 
funeral that day. In the evening he went to the church in his home 
town to deliver another sermon. After opening the service he be- 
came very ill. Another minister finished the service. Mr. Thomas 
was carried home and was given medical attention. This was his 
first attack of leakage of the heart. He was in failing health for 
the five years following and was able to preach only on special 
occasions. He often said, "It is like a thorn in the flesh not to be 
permitted to go forth and labor as I did for forty-seven years." 



56 SCHWARZENAU 

In the evening of July 12, 1934, Rev. Thomas was found lying 
on the floor in his home. The end had come suddenly being caused 
by a heart attack. 

Funeral services were held Sunday afternoon July 15 at the 
Salem Church. Bro. William Earl Fike of Petersburg had charge 
of the services at the church and was assisted by Bro. SoUenberger, 
of Uniontown, Pennsylvania. Eighteen ministers were present at 
the services and were given a place on the platform. A crowd of 
two thousand attended the funeral of one of Preston County's most 
beloved sons. Thus has fallen a noble man of service in the home, 
church, community, county, state and nation. His life lives on in the 
hearts of many. One poem he loved to quote was: 

"When I fall like some old tree 
And subtle mold makes change of me, 
May I show a fertile line 
Where purple wild flowers bloom and shine." 

George W . FanSickle 

George W. VanSickle was the son of Zechariah and Mary (Bur- 
gess) VanSickle. He was born October 24, 1869 about three miles 
east of Glade Farms, West Virginia in an old log house that was 
on the state line between Maryland and West Virginia. He slept 
on the Maryland side and ate on the West Virginia side. His par- 
ents were both German. He had five living brothers and one sister. 
His father had been married before and had at least five children 
who died in twelve days. 

The first year he went to school he attended twenty-seven days. 
The second year he got frozen feet and was able to attend only two 
days. The next three years he was permitted to attend fairly reg- 
ularly. About five years of attendance at school comprised his 
education. 

After finishing school Bro. VanSickle went to live with and work 
for George Deberry on a farm. 

His father died in November, 1875 and his mother married 
Jacob Deberry. She died December 28, 1892. 

Some time after the election of Jeremiah Thomas to the min- 
istry and before 1898 Bro. VanSickle was elected at council meet- 
ing. A couple of days after that he found out the decision of the 
council which was quite a surprise to him. He was elected to the 
eldership in 1917. 



SANDY CREEK 57 

On April 7, 1892 he was married to Martha Guthrie, the daugh- 
ter of Rev. Joseph Guthrie. To this union were born six children, 
Cora, Asa, and Quinter deceased and Rosa, Ruby, and Walter. 
Mrs. VanSickle died Aug. 21, 1931. 

Bro. VanSickle lived most of his life on his home place until 1927 
when he moved to Hazelton, W. Va. He has always been a farmer, 
and has faithfully fulfilled his duty as a minister. He has held 
funerals in forty different church buildings and in schoolhouses and 
homes. There is no record of the number of sermons he has 
preached. 

Calvin R. Wolfe 

Calvin R. Wolfe was born near Clifton Mills, W. Va., Novem- 
ber 18, 1881. His parents were John E. and Lydia Wolfe. He 
was educated in the schools of West Virginia and Pennsylvania and 
has followed the teaching profession for thirty-five years having 
taught twenty-one terms in the schools of West Virginia and four- 
teen terms in the state of Pennsylvania. 

He was elected to the ministry in Sandy Creek Congregation, 
April 5, 1905. This is the congregation founded by his great- 
grandfather, Jacob M. Thomas. 

He married Cora Wilson and to them were born three children, 
Noah, Ruth, and Clarence. 

Bro. Wolfe labored in the Sandy Creek Congregation, First Dis- 
trict, W. Va., for fifteen years and the Markleysburg Congregation 
for fifteen years where he served as elder and pastor for a number 
of years. At the present time he lives at Gibbon Glade, Pa., and is 
teaching school and preaching the Word of God in Pennsylvania. 

Chester A. Thomas 

Elder Chester A. Thomas was the son of Jeremiah Thomas and 
Susanna (Seese) Thomas. He was born March 25, 1886 in the 
little village of Hazelton, Preston County, West Virginia. 

He was reared on a farm. He attended the public schools of 
West Virginia, Fairmont State Teachers College, Fairmont, West 
Virginia, and some Normal select schools. He began teaching 
school in 1905 and is now teaching his thirty-second term of school. 

At the age of fourteen years he united with the Church of the 
Brethren and has always been a member in Sandy Creek Congrega- 
tion. 



58 SCHWARZENAU 

He was married May 19, 1908 to Grace Wolfe, daughter of 
John E. and Lydia Wolfe of Clifton Mills. To this union were 
born two daughters, Pauline Edna, in 1910 and Alma Grace in 
1916. 

Brother Thomas was elected to the deaconship in 1910, first 
degree of the ministry in 1913 and second degree of the ministry 
September 18, 1915. In 1935 after the death of his father, Jer- 
emiah Thomas, he was elected presiding elder in Sandy Creek 
Congregation. 

Bro. Thomas is a farmer, teacher, and minister of the Gospel, 
and has much Influence in his community. 

Lloyd Lis ton 

Rev. Lloyd Liston was born near Bruceton Mills, Preston 
County, Grant District, W. Va., in 1888. He is the son of Abra- 
ham Liston and Eliza C. (Wolfe) Liston. His father died in 
August, 1900. His mother is still living. He has always lived near 
the place of his birth. 

Bro. Liston was educated in the public schools of Grant District. 
He began teaching in the public schools of West Virginia in 1912 
and taught eighteen terms. He is now teaching a private school. 

At the age of sixteen he united with the Church of the Brethren. 
April 6, 1918 he was called to the ministry and has served in that 
capacity ever since. 

His home church is the Mountain Grove Church. He has held a 
number of revival meetings in Sandy Creek Congregation. 

Walter VanSicklc 

Rev. Walter VanSickle was born in 1895. He is the son of Rev. 
George VanSickle and Sister Martha (Guthrie) VanSickle. 

He was elected to the ministry in Sandy Creek Congregation, 
April 6, 1918 and duly installed into the ministry April 6, 1919. 

In 1922 he was united in marriage to Miss Grace Hewitt. In 
1917 he began teaching in the public schools of West Virginia and 
taught until 1930, except for two years. 

Bro. VanSickle attended Bethany Bible School the summer term 
of 1923 and the winter term of 1924-25. 

He lives at Hazelton near the Glade Union Church. He is a 
postmaster and merchant and preaches the Gospel. 



SANDY CREEK 59 

Deacons Who Have Served in Sandy Creek Congregation* 



Samuel Boger 
Joseph Thomas 
John M. Thomas 
Joseph Zimmerman 
Henry Turney 
Solomon Workman 
John H. Nieman 
John Wilhelm 
Christian M. Thomas 
Peter Strawser 
Harrison H. Glover 
Samuel Thomas 
John Seese 
Emanuel Beeghly 
Sylvanius Thomas 
John B. Nicola 
Jeremiah Guthrie 
John H. Baker 
Joseph Guthrie 
Charles H. Thomas 
Irvin Wilson 
Jonas Spiker 



John A. Reckart 
Ezra Glover 
Joshua Knox 
Noah Thomas 
Czar Herring 
Hosea Rodeheaver 
Charles Guthrie 
Newton DeBerry 
Scott Thomas 
Harry Hinebaugh 
S. F. Guthrie 
E. F. Sisler 
Orval Friend 
Victor Wilson 
William Kelley 
J. C. Everly 
Harold D. Moyers 
H. R. Guthrie 
Emra Sisler 
Hosea Wolfe 
John Maust 



*This list is not complete but includes all the names known to the writer. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

"The Evolution of Physics" by Albert Einstein and Leopold Infeld. 
Simon and Schuster — New York — 1938. $2.50. 

This book carries a sub-title "The Growth of Ideas from Early Con- 
cepts to Relativity and Quanta." The sub-title is accurate and descriptive. 

This review is intended to be an enthusiastic sales talk. Here is a 
book written by scientists which preachers ought to read. Let me hasten 
to add that I do not think preachers ought to make scientific pronounce- 
ments of any sort, nor preach sermons on scientific theories. 

However, this is the Period of a Scientific Revolution. The preacher 
out of college a few years needs to read a book on scientific progress oc- 
casionally lest he succumb to brain rust. A preacher should also read oc- 
casionally on scientific lines lest he preach science and not know it. (We 
once heard a good gospel sermon which endorsed "measuring for short- 
growth.") 

This book makes the promise that "as we are concerned only with 
fundamental physical ideas we may avoid the language of mathematics." 
(p. 29.) The promise is kept. It is distinctly and successfully written for 
the layman who wants to know. 

Certainly the supposed warfare between science and religion is past. 
One of the world's greatest physicists can write, "Science is not and will 
never be a closed book. Every important advance brings new questions." 
(p. 308) It would be certainly a queer religionist who would insist upon 
suspecting scientific knowledge. 

When I study this book and remember the ideas which I absorbed, 
negligently and half-fearfully, just two decades ago I am staggered. Much 
that the book states was known then, but it was the possession of the ex- 
perts. 

When one encounters such a crystal statement as "But thought and 
ideas, not formulae, are the beginning of every physical theory" (p. 291) 
he feels impressed. And when one reads that there came "a complete 
breakdown of the belief, that all phenomena can be explained mechanically." 
(p. 87) "Science did not succeed in carrying out the mechanical program 
convincingly, and today no physicist believes in the possibility of its ful- 
fillment." (p. 125) he is impressed profoundly. For these are the words of 
a man who can speak with authority in this field. 

Those of us who came through the last hour of the night of conflict 
between Christianity and mechanistic philosophy are grateful for the dawn 
of The Scientific Revolution. It is a distinct reassurance to be told 
by such an authority as Albert Einstein that mechanistic theories of the 
world are impossible. 

Yet this book is not here proposed for canonization. One reads the fol- 
lowing statement with growing interest and bewilderment. 

"The results of scientific research very often force a change in the 
philosophical view of problems which extend far beyond the restricted 
domain of science itself .... Philosophical generalizations must be 

60 



BOOK REVIEWS 61 

founded on scientific results. Once formed and widely accepted, however, 
they very often influence the further development of scientific thought by 
indicating one of the many possible lines of procedure." (p. 55) 

Is this just unfamiliar vocabulary or is the writer muddled or has the 
planet changed direction recently? Isn't there a confusion here between 
"philosophy" and "hypothesis"? From one aspect this paragraph would 
seem to say that the priests and elders help determine scientific develop- 
ment. If that be true the Elders' Meeting has several neglected items on 
its agenda. But I doubt the suitability of such reference to the Elders. 
Although?? Well, the author said science was not a closed book. 

To one lay, second-rate, sensitive mind this is the clearest exposition yet 
encountered of the meaning of Relativity. The following is not meant to 
be complete but are meant to whet the mental appetite. 

"The new concepts originated in connection with the phenomena of 
electricity." (p. 129) "The attribution of energy to the field concept was 
stressed more and more, and the concepts of substances, so essential to the 
mechanical point of view, were more and more suppressed." (p. 148) 

"The influence of the theory of relativity goes far beyond the problem 
from which it arose. It removes the difficulties and contradictions of the 
field theory ; it formulates more general mechanical laws ; it replaces two 
conservation laws by one; it changes our classical concept of absolute 
time. Its validity is not restricted to one domain of physics ; it forms a 
general framework embracing all phenomena of nature." (p. 210) 

"According to the theory of relativity, there is no essential distinction 
between mass and energy. Energy has mass and mass represents energy." 
(p. 208) 

"We have two realities : matter and field. There is no doubt that we 
cannot at present imagine the whole of physics built upon the concept of 
matter as the physicists of the early nineteenth century did." (p. 256) 

Another direction which scientists of the future may develop furth- 
er is indicated by such a statement. 

"This result closely connecting the problem of the structure of matter 
with that of electricity follows, beyond any doubt, from very many inde- 
pendent experimental facts." (p. 270) 

There is another development which is the outgrowth of quantum 
physics, 

"We have had to forsake the description of individual cases as objec- 
tive happenings in space and time; we have had to introduce laws of a 
statistical nature. These are the chief characteristics of modern quantum 
physics." (p. 302) 

We are here running parallel to a problem which is a philosophical 
problem, and hence a religious problem. A certain Great Teacher pro- 
pounded a view of the universe which takes account of the individual item. 

While rejoicing in the death of a mechanistic philosophy allegedly 
based on the bed-rock of Eternal Science — are we to be deHvered over to 
a horrible Pantheistic conception, which will empty the universe of any in- 
dividual personal significance? 

Nay, verily. Just here the Christian mysticism of another great scien- 
tist and popular expounder of the Scientific Revolution is a great comfort. 

It was the prestige of the name Einstein and the desire to compare his 
views with those of Eddington, that caused me to read this book. I 



62 SCHWARZENAU 

feel grateful for Eddington. I shall quote Einstein and Infeld, for they 
have instructed me. 

Again, this book is most heartily recommended to all who have heard 
of the Scientific Revolution and to those who have not. 

It is really interesting and at least as thriUing as the news from Europe. 
Maybe more important. 

F. E. Mallott. 

"Pacifist Handbook" 48 pp. $.10. 

Board of Christian Education, Church of the Brethren, Elgin, 111. 

The times make this booklet one of the most opportune of the year. 
It is to be hoped that a large number of them will be distributed over the 
country — in haste, emphasis upon the need for haste. 

The method of writing is the question and answer method. Far from 
being uninteresting, it is easily read and an astonishing amount of informa- 
tion is packed into the pamphlet. 

"Among pacifist organizations, the Fellowship of Reconciliation in 
1939 had 8,500 members ; the War Resisters' League had enrolled 16,296 
by the beginning of 1939; and the Methodist Episcopal Church has en- 
rolled more than 6,000 conscientious objectors. Even these respectable 
numbers appear small beside the membership of the historic peace churches 
—116,000 Mennonites, 105,000 Quakers, 192,000 in the Church of the 
Brethren — and there are a number of smaller church groups which take 
the pacifist position. The total is over 1,000,000." 

Not in any sense a summary, the following paragraph strikes one as 
noteworthy. "While the nation is at war most of the work of war resisters 
will be done in the local church or peace group. The local group should 
make every effort to follow the movements of its members, keeping their 
names as a roll of honor. Letters should be sent them frequently, material 
and moral support afforded them and their families, prayers raised con- 
stantly for them and intercession be made with civil and military authori- 
ties to protect them from brutahty." 

The title page of the Handbook announces that it is issued by Peace 
Section, American Friends Service Committee, Board of Christian Educa- 
tion of the Brethren, Fellowship of Reconcihation, Friends Book Commit- 
tee, General Conference Commission on World Peace, Methodist Church, 
The Mennonite Peace Society, and Women's International League For 
Peace and Freedom. 

Ministers and young people ought especially to have copies of this 
book. In dozen lots it is one dollar. Its circulation is urgent. 

F. E. Mallott. 



S. O. S. — CALLING SOWER BIBLES 

The name Sower (spelled Saur frequently) is a name known to 
everyone with only the most superficial acquaintance with Brethren 
history. The name of the famous family who gave the Germans of 
Colonial America their Bibles deserves to be known. 

The purpose of this notice is not to tell again the story of their 
worthy achievement. But we have been asked to call attention to 
the fact that a fresh census of surviving Sower Bibles has been 
begun. An Eastern dealer in early Americana, who specializes in 
Bibles and religious books, has undertaken such a survey. He has 
enlisted Eld. Reuel B. Pritchett, White Pine, Tenn. in the search. 

A Sower Bible may be one of three editions. The first edition 
bears the date 1743. This royal quarto Bible was the first Bible to 
be printed in a European tongue in America. In size it was 7^ x 10 
inches, and contained 1248 pages. The immensity of such an under- 
taking in the wilderness of America can hardly be overstated today. 
Sower had to make his own paper, then his own ink. He had to set 
the forms for only four pages at a time, print the entire edition and 
redistribute his type. But he soon found he could not do this much 
because of type shortage. So he experimented and cast type. Then 
he taught himself to bind the Bibles. The total edition was 1200 
copies. 

The usual price of a Bible shipped from Germany was four pound 
ten shillings. Christopher Sower Sr. sold his Bibles for eighteen 
shillings. In appearance and workmanship they have been declared 
equal to most European Bibles of that period — a wonderful tribute 
to the craftsman. A shilling in that period of Colonial America has 
been computed to be equal in purchasing power to a present-day 
dollar. Hence it was as if Sower reduced the price of Bibles from 
ninety dollars to eighteen dollars. This was still enough for the 
poverty stricken colonists to pay for a Bible. 

The number printed was sufficient to supply the demand for 
twenty years. Many who were too poor were given Bibles by Chris- 
topher Sower himself. 

There was need for a second edition by 1763. In that year Chris- 
topher Sower Jr. issued the second Sower Bible, very similar to the 
first one. A change had come over colonial America. Money was 

63 



64 SCHWARZENAU 

more abundant and the publisher soon found himself with unexpect- 
ed profits on hand from the sale of the edition. He used these profits 
in the publication of the first religious magazine ever published in 
North America. Fifty numbers of the Geistliche Magazin were is- 
sued at irregular intervals over a period of seven years. It was dis- 
tributed free to German households thruout the colonies to afford 
them edifying reading. 

In 1776 Sower Jr. was issuing a third edition of the Bible. 
It was printed and the unbound pages were kept in the loft of the 
Germantown Meeting House. They were there when the Battle 
of Germantown was fought. The cavalrymen used these sheets for 
bedding for their horses. Hence a large part of this edition was 
lost. 

On uncertain authority it is stated that ninety copies of the Sower 
Bible survive to this day. 

The ownership of these Bibles is known. But ownership changes 
and must sometimes be traced. Occasionally a new copy is discover- 
ed. It is probable that in the old trunks, in attics, and in storerooms 
of Brethren homes are lying undiscovered copies of the Sower Bible. 

Eld. Pritchett has undertaken responsibility to help in this survey 
since the membership of the Church is a particularly important group 
to survey. 

It is believed the readers of this journal will have a natural in- 
terest in such a search. Many of them will be advantageously lo- 
cated to assist in the search. Every old German Bible in a home or 
among the stored rubbish of a meetinghouse is to be suspected. If 
the Bible has lost title-page and preface it can still be identified by 
one who has studied the Bibles. 

This call is a broadcast invitation to every reader. Please com- 
municate results and also suspected findings to Eld. Reuel Pritchett, 
White Pine, Tenn. It is desired to know the name and address of 
every owner of a Sower Bible, and if known the date of the copy. 



SCHWARZENAU 

EDITORIAL STAFF 

Editor, F. E. Mallott, Professor of Church History Bethany Biblical Seminary 
Assistant Editor, Elgin S. Mover Contributing Editor, L. D. Rose 

Volume I JANUARY, 1940 Number Three 



CONTENTS 

Editorial 3 

In This World 5 

Morley J. Mays 

The Life and Work of Peter Nead 9 

Loren Bowman 

History of the Oak Grove Church 

OF Southern Illinois 22 

Mrs. M. A. PFhisler 

Ephrata a Musical Center of Colonial America 25 

Mary Elizabeth Wertz W'leand 

Hymnody of the Brethren in the Eighteenth Century 39 
William Beery 

A Study of the Yearbook of the Church 

OF THE Brethren 48 

\ Chester 1. Harley 

Book Reviews 62 

F. E. Mallott 



WHO'S WHO IN THIS ISSUE 



Morley J. Mays, graduate of Juniata College and faculty 
member for six years. A.M. from University of Pitts- 
burgh. At present a fellow in the University of Chicago, 
doing post-graduate work in English. One of that increas- 
ing company of the sons of the Fraternity who find no 
necessary conflict between academic interests and concern 
for spiritual values. 

Loren Bowman, minister of the Church of the Brethren. 
Has already qualified as experienced pastor. Graduate of 
Bridgewater College. At present resident student of 
Bethany Biblical Seminary. 

Mary Elizabeth Wertz Wieand is a graduate of Juniata Col- 
lege. In addition to being a minister's wife and a resident 
of Bethany Biblical Seminary, where her husband is 
teacher-student, she is a musician in her own right. 

William Beery, is the dean of all the church musicians of the 
Church of the Brethren. He is author of hymns, music 
composer, teacher, and singer. Makes his home with his 
daughter at Elgin, Illinois, when he is not traveling. 

Mrs. M. A. Whisler is the wife of the pastor of Oak Grove 
Church, Southern Illinois. She is an illustration of a per- 
son who can appreciate historical values in the local scene. 

Chester I. Harley, minister and pastor of the Church of the 
Brethren. Graduate of Bridgewater College and Bethany 
Biblical Seminary. Pastor of the Mt. Carmel Congrega- 
tion in Virginia. 




EDITORIAL 

This third number of our first volume is, we believe, not one 
iota inferior to its predecessors. 

In this number we present a sample of the bibliographical work 
that needs to be done in the field of Dunker history. With Chester 
I. Harley's index of the Yearbook, the files of the Yearbook will 
become usable to students. Someone has defined research as the 
search for information in obscure places and its transfer to some 
other obscure place. It is one object of this journal to make that 
definition less true in our special field of history. 

Ephrata is of perennial interest to our people and in fact to all 
those interested in colonial Pennsylvania. We are very glad to pre- 
sent the article on Ephrata as a Musical Center. In all the literature 
of Ephrata one will not find a more interesting and relevant pres- 
entation. 

We are urging a careful reading of the study of Peter Nead. 
We are getting far enough away from the nineteenth century that 
our perspective is improving. The Brethren, in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, a company of quiet mystics, tinged with views of religious com- 
munism and various other radicalisms, became in the nineteenth 
century imbued with Evangelicalism. They adopted Evangelical 
viewpoints and the characteristic machinery of Evangelicalism — 
mission boards and revival meetings. How did it transpire? 

The answer is we believe — leadership. Is leadership about to 
bring another major shift in emphasis and technique in the twentieth 
century? 

The past two decades have seen the religious educational 
emphasis give us the camps. Peace emphasis has given the Work 
Camp and made the relief worker a familiar figure. 



4 SCHWARZENAU 

At Christmas we received our first subscription to Volume II. 
A young lady, who is in college, subscribed for her ministerial fa- 
ther's Christmas gift. She made the acquaintance of "Schwarzenau" 
on the college library magazine rack. Not knowing that her father 
was already a subscriber, she concluded that here was one magazine 
a minister in the Church ought to have. Her judgment was excellent. 



In parenthesis we want to explain that we are still selling Volume 
I. We have some back numbers and are anxious to dispose of them 
— believing that the contents are of more than transient interest. 
It will be a crisis in the life of this youthful journal when the end of 
Volume I is reached. (There will be a Volume II, D. V.) 

But the college student of this editorial has pointed a way by 
which the crisis could be alleviated. If all our subscribers, admirers, 
and supporters were to develop the habit of sending Gift Subscrip- 
tions (there are birthdays and Christmas is always coming) to po- 
tentially interested friends it would alleviate said crisis. And it 
would be— WONDERFUL. 



IN THIS WORLD 

MoRLEY J. Mays 

It is sometimes difficult to see how out of the present world crisis 
any good can come. Surely the wanton cruelty inflicted on helpless 
people under government sanction in great areas of the world is bad 
in its conception and in all its consequences. Surely the insistence 
upon individual devotion to a political deity to the utter self-efface- 
ment of the individual is a barbaric philosophy in its origin and in 
every aspect of its manifestation. Surely the mass practice of force 
is an eruption of an uncivilized impulse which should be committed 
to oblivion. The stifling of religion must surely be a work of the evil 
one himself. To anyone who holds to human ideals as they are of- 
fered by the Christian religion, the world picture seems irretrievably 
to be one of disenchantment and despair, and yet by no false inter- 
pretation of the facts the Christian can find in that picture some 
seeds of potential good. 

It is a commonplace of life that one does not appreciate his pos- 
sessions fully until he is in danger of losing them. That is only an 
easy way of saying that it is perfectly natural for us to let the values 
of both spiritual and material goods become dimmed by a constant, 
unchallenged familiarity with them and that only when we are 
brought to realize that we might lose them do we find them glowing 
with a fresh radiance. This seems to be especially true of our Chris- 
tian heritage. Have we not been letting it become a bit pallid be- 
cause we were sure that it was indisputably ours, that it was beyond 
the grasp of an iconoclast? In much of the world at least there has 
been no physical barrier to the promotion and practice of our reli- 
gion, and we have come to assume that we could go on in our peace- 
ful way being Christians and propagating our faith just as much as 
we could finance it and lend it spiritual aid. But we can no longer be 
complacent, no longer quietly presumptive. The opposition now 
stands at our door, and we are in danger of having Christianity per- 
force taken from us. There are unleashed in the world forces ac- 
tively committed to the destruction of Christianity, forces which are 
taking an increasing toll in spiritual allegiance. There is scorn for 
Christ and the church in our midst. It is precisely at this point that 

5 



6 SCHWARZENAU 

we can locate one of the goods which can Issue from a world situa- 
tion like the one in which we unfortunately find ourselves, for it is 
in persecution, whether intellectual or physical, that the church finds 
new resources of growth. 

We have been taught to believe that our religion was not just 
another system of dogma but the only true rehgion the world can 
find, Christ's church being the holy vessel of salvation to all peoples 
without regard to race or sign, station or training. To be accepted, 
it need only be seen, we apparently beheved. But now we must be 
prepared to offer the world ample reason for asking it to place its 
faith in Christian living, and that is a task prompting us to an ex- 
pression of faith that will command the respect of every intelligent 
man and woman who hears it. The initial, and perhaps most impor- 
tant, step to that end is the realization that each of the destructive 
forces — Marxism, Fascism, or personal laissez-faire — is simply a 
manifestation of an underlying, actuating philosophy. It is not 
enough for us to pull our hats down over our eyes and plunge a- 
gainst these forces in our old, unexamined ways of thinking. We 
cannot refute them merely by saying that we are against them. Our 
fervent preaching against them must be preceded by a knowledge 
of their underlying frames of reference and their usual methods of 
argument. Happily we have learned that the way to meet the 
claims of nineteenth and twentieth century science is not to bombard 
it with accusations of heresy, but to make an attempt to understand 
it. Can we not exercise the same patient inquiry in meeting the new 
social forces? It is a terrific task that we as ministers of the cross 
must face, but it is a wholesome and salutary one, because it brings 
into focus an important responsibility of the church in our time. 

If, therefore, we are to represent our faith adequately in this 
day and generation, we must have an understanding of the ideas 
which men have at one time or another evolved and in turn been 
ruled by. Perhaps the best place to begin, since systems of thought 
are closely related by the processes of action and reaction, is with 
ancient philosophy. There we may find the world of thought into 
which Christianity was born and against which it had to struggle at 
the beginning of our era. We need to know the long span of medie- 
val Christian and pagan systems of thought against which the ideal- 
ism of Huss and Wyclif, Luther and Calvin rebelled. We need to 
know the rationahsm of the eighteenth century. Then we may be in 



IN THIS WORLD 7 

position for further inquiry into the intellectual milieu of our day 
and for dealing with the problems which are immediately ours. 
And, of course, we cannot successfully represent the Christian 
teachings to the world unless we have a command of the auxiliary 
techniques. We should know the patterns of logical thinking and 
the elementary principles of argument. Our command of the Eng- 
lish language should be polished and convincing. I hope I am not 
proposing that we should, like Francis Bacon, take all knowledge 
for our province. But I am proposing that all of us, minister and 
layman alike, must represent our religion more adequately than we 
have many times in the past. It is because I feel more and more 
keenly the shafts of criticism and scorn which we all must suffer that 
I want Christianity presented compellingly. 

The resistance to such a point of view is likely to be very great. 
The old ways die hard; new, disturbing ideas are uncomfortable. 
Once I spoke with a young man, a prospective minister of another 
denomination, about going to college. The biggest obstacle to his 
wanting to go was not money or lack of ability, but simply, as he 
said, that he was afraid he would learn some things that would 
weaken his faith. And he was not thinking about any one college, 
but college in general. He simply had not learned that under the 
impact of modern world trends of thought his own parishioners 
might one day ask him embarrassing questions about the nature of 
reality or the Christian message about social security or the claims 
of another way of hfe. I think it cannot be denied that people in 
general are becoming more sophisticated — I use that word in its 
basic sense — about the world of thought about them. The old dis- 
tinctions between urban and rural life are rapidly becoming oblit- 
erated. When the modern parishioner turns to his spiritual adviser 
for help he expects intelligent direction. 

But obviously we must not think of Christianity only as a system 
of thought; it is also a way of life. Despite all that I have said, I 
think there is a very real danger that in considering the counter 
claims of other systems of thought one may make Christianity only 
something to philosophize about and not also something to live. 
Too much abstract theorizing may result on the one hand in mys- 
ticism which conquers the world by running away from it, or on the 
other in a kind of pseudo-theological speculation about those details 
of faith for which there seems to be no available answer. I recall, 



8 SCHWARZENAU 

for example, having heard preachers in my early youth attempt to 
date the second coming, to describe its manner in amazing detail; or 
to interpret all the symbols in the Revelation with uncanny self- 
assurance ; or to speculate at length on what the unpardonable sin is. 
Such speculation generally results in what seems to me to be a false 
separation between what might be called theoretical Christianity 
and practical Christianity. It has taken modern psychology to re- 
emphasize for us the fact that one never really knows anything until 
that thing has found some kind of overt expression. Any school boy 
knows that he cannot remember history just by reading a book. He 
begins to learn only when he closes his book and says, "Now just 
what have I been reading? How does it compare with what I read 
yesterday?" Similarly, I do not think we can be Christians until we 
have translated the word of God into the work of God. If you 
really want to know that the pure in heart or the peacemakers or 
the poor in spirit are blessed, merely memorizing a statement of 
words will not suffice; you must have an experience of life. All 
through His life Jesus was commanding His disciples, at times with 
impatience, to try His teachings, to put them into practice in life in 
order to know their eternal significance. He never spoke more a- 
mazing words, it seems to me, than when He said, "Do the will and 
ye shall know the doctrine." He startled His hearers by asking 
them to learn in a new way. Many of them thought they knew the 
doctrine because they knew all the laws and precepts of the old 
order, but here they were suddenly asked to know in the only true 
way one can know. One must know the abstract truth, but one must 
also know the concrete experience, and it is precisely in the tension 
between those two poles that the Christian must live his life. 

I am appealing for an intelligent penetration of the ideas which 
are commanding attention the world over today, and secondly for a 
new endeavor to interpret our own ideals in terms of human action. 
In short, I am asking for a critical appreciation of the life about us 
and a living refutation of it. 



THE LIFE AND WORK OF PETER NEAD 

LoREN Bowman 

This paper attempts, in a brief way, to give a proper place to Peter Nead in 
the developing church. It aims to evaluate his work, and to give some hints as to 
the direction which his energies gave to the church. It will be a Hmited story. 
Early information about his life, prior to his becoming a Dunker, is scarce. We 
have to build on observations and upon circumstantial evidence as revealed in 
his character when he appears on the scene. As to his influence upon the church, 
we must rely upon his ministry and upon his writings. For none of his contem- 
poraries were keen enough to analyze or appraise Nead's work. Upon such a 
foundation, one may easily draw false or incomplete conclusions. Yet I shall 
dare to put into words a few conclusions which follow an inexhaustive but chal- 
lenging study. 

The paper will fall into three general sections: 

The Background and Family Life of Peter Nead. 
His Call and His Work as a Minister. 
His Place as a Brethren Writer. 

In the last two sections, frequent mention will be made concerning the im- 
pact of this "foreigner" upon the life of the church. The use of and the result 
of his special gifts appear in due prominence throughout these sections. 

It is the privilege of only a few men to direct the actuar course 
of any great movement. Only a limited number may determine the 
direction of a given institution. This is true for two reasons. First, 
the very nature of organizational units limits the number of actual 
directors. Secondly, only a few men are able and willing to accept 
the responsibility for controlling the destinies of their fellows. 

Peter Nead was a man who made himself felt in the developing 
church of the early 19th century. He had convictions; he was able 
to persuade others to accept them. He had vision; he was able to 
translate it for his generation. He wanted to serve, and he had the 
time and means to do so. He was sincere, and others were aware 
of his deep concern. In order to see these facts as they relate to the 
person, it is necessary to look into his background and into his fam- 
ily life. Here we find the seed bed for the qualities and the temper 
of the man's life as we see him in action within the church. 

The family background is laid in Germany. The parents of the 
early Brethren theologian were of a sturdy Lutheran type. They 
were above the level of the farmer-peasant of Germany, but not 
wealthy. Nead's father was a strong man, a good manager, and a 
stern parent. The new land appealed to Mr. Nead, and he brought 
his family to America just before the Revolutionary War. They 

9 



10 SCHWARZENAU 

came direct from Germany. The talents which had lifted the Neads 
above their natural group in Germany began to serve them in this 
country. Peter's father became a successful tanner. His business 
developed rapidly, and the Neads by careful management soon be- 
came a prosperous family. This had a definite influence upon the 
family standing in the new land. 

The Nead home, in Germany and in America, was dominated by 
a distinct religious atmosphere. In the home land, the Lutheran 
Faith had been accepted. In the new land, the profession of the 
elders continued in harmony with their original confession. One 
cannot doubt their sincerity, for all the children had a profound re- 
spect for religion. At least three out of the four sons became min- 
isters. Even though the parents were devoutly religious, they must 
have been exceptionally broad in their denominational views and 
deeply sympathetic in their understanding. They did not force their 
opinions upon their children. Only one of four sons ever joined the 
Lutheran church. Two sons, Daniel and John, died in the state of 
Tennessee in active service. They were ministers in the Church of 
the Brethren. 

Peter Nead was born at Hagerstown, Maryland on January 7, 
1796. As far as we know he lived a normal life during childhood. 
He played, he went to the village school, he shared the responsibility 
of the chores around the tannery, and he went to church with his 
parents. The family status was already high enough that Peter 
could be given more than average opportunities for attending school. 
He was an apt pupil. Therefore, he was given a good education. 
His grandfather saw the possibilities of the lad, and offered to 
finance his way thru school if he would prepare for the Lutheran 
ministry. We do not know why, but the young man refused. He 
continued to study in his home community, and spent his time clerk- 
ing in a store. He had ambition, and he depended upon his own 
abilities to get himself ahead. 

Some time about 1820, the family moved South into Virginia. It 
may have been a little earlier. At least, Peter Nead was a young 
man. He was a citizen in his own right. And he asked no one to be 
responsible for him, although he moved with his parents and re- 
mained with them for several years so far as we know. It is too 
bad that we have such little information regarding his parents, and 
the type of home they maintained. 



PETER NEAD 11 

In their new home in Frederick County, Virginia, the young lad 
began to learn his father's trade. He had immediate success. He 
held an enviable record as a tanner. In addition to his work, Peter 
taught school in the winter time. The school season was short. 
Thus he was able to carry on his work without serious handicap. In 
this dual role, this young man had more than his share of influence 
in the life of the community. He was a successful business man, and 
he was the teacher of the people's children. 

The time came to establish his own home. On December 20, 
1825 Peter Nead was united in marriage with Elizabeth Yount. 
The bride was from Rockingham County. The union was a happy 
one. Prosperity and peace continued to be the Nead lot. In 1840 
they moved to Rockingham County. Then, in 1842 they went on 
south to Botetourt County. They lived here for six years. At the 
end of this period, they were caught in the Westward movement. 
They moved to the Stillwater congregation near Dayton, Ohio. 
They bought a farm just nine miles northwest of Dayton. Here 
the Nead family remained until Peter's death in 1877. Again, they 
were successful. The children did much of the work, leaving their 
father free for his other interests. They lived well, and there is no 
doubt that Peter Nead could have succeeded splendidly as a business 
man. 

So far, the chronology of our story has been consistent only in 
family matters. And even in this, the story is all too short. One 
wishes that much more definite data were available regarding the 
family of Nead himself, as well as that of his parents. Such infor- 
mation would help a great deal in understanding the nature and the 
gifts of the man. It would reveal the factors conditioning his reli- 
gious life, also. We are thankful for what we have, however. And, 
all that we have is on the favorable side. Thus helping us under- 
stand his greatness, and appraise his general temper. 

Another line of inquiry about Nead proves more fascinating than 
the family life. It is his religious development, and his work as a 
minister in the church. No doubt a part of the strength of this story 
rests upon the good family life. But here we are especially con- 
cerned about the impact of this man upon a DEVELOPING 
CHURCH in a transitional period. Or, at least, we want to see 
the direction in which he turns his energies for the Kingdom of God. 



12 SCHWARZENAU 

We do not know exactly when he became definitely Interested in 
religion. However, it would seem that it was rather early. Some- 
time after Peter declined the offer of his grandfather, probably in 
his late teens or early twenties, he joined the Methodist Church. 
He was leader material. Soon he became a class leader. His good 
education, and his experience as a public school teacher gave him a 
distinct advantage in this new work. He was appreciated, and his 
talents recognized. Thus he was given the privilege of preaching 
whenever the opportunity presented itself in the Methodist Church. 
Evidently his efforts were successful. More and more opportunities 
came ; he became more and more interested in the work. Hence he 
did not wait for opportunities, but began making appointments. 
He visited out-of-the-way places, and preached his sermons to all 
who would listen. He worked hard in sharing what he believed to 
be the vital message needed by man. 

From circumstantial evidence, one would say that his work a- 
mong the Methodists as class leader and lay preacher was highly 
satisfactory. But somehow it could not satisfy Peter Nead very 
long. He now takes the role of an independent preacher — still in 
non-official terms. In searching for the reasons for this action, one 
finds only a blank so far as the literature is concerned. Several rea- 
sons may be adduced as one reads the records carefully. Some may 
have thought that Peter was assuming too much authority as a lay 
preacher. This could have been the case. Out of this situation crit- 
icisms may have arisen which determined that he would go the road 
of an independent. On the other hand, he may have been dissatis- 
fied with the creed and the discipline of the Methodist Church. 
Some writers, such as Winger, assume this to be the case. It may 
be true. But it is a very easy thing for a member of the fraternity 
which he later joined to advocate such a reason. There must have 
been a reason, because Peter Nead was not the type of man to make 
decisions on the basis of a mere sentiment. I should rather think 
that both of the above factors played into the situation. And, it 
was by slow, reasoned steps that he moved from the Methodist cir- 
cle to the independent role and on into the Church of the Brethren. 

While in the throes of indecision, a pamphlet by Rev. Benjamin 
Bowman fell into his hands. He studied it carefully. He compared 
it with his New Testament. He was struck immediately by the force 
of the New Testament doctrines as interpreted by the Brethren. 



PETER NEAD 13 

He made inquiries concerning the way the Brethren practiced these 
principles in their respective communities. He longed to see the 
doctrines in operation. He located a company of Brethren and 
found out when they were going to have a Communion Service. 
With a sincere mind and with honest questions racing thru his mind, 
Peter Nead attended a Brethren Love Feast. He observed the en- 
tire service with great care; he went to his home deeply impressed. 
He was still not decided. Thus he continued his independent work. 
As he worked, he studied. After much meditation and searching of 
Scripture, we do not know how much, Peter Nead offered himself 
as a candidate for membership in the Church of the Brethren. He 
was cordially received into the fellowship of the church. The Breth- 
ren were glad to welcome such an upright young man into their 
group. They showed him the deepest respect in every way, even 
allowing him to fill the preaching engagements which he had upon 
the docket. This was an unusually liberal thing for that day. 

Nead's community record, his varied abilities, and his deep inter- 
est in religion were not denied long by the Brethren. They called 
him to the Christian Ministry at an early date. They reahzed that 
Nead was not entirely adjusted in his new faith, but they felt he 
should be using his talents in the service of the church. It may be 
that they thought it necessary to hold him since he had been so active 
before coming to them. Most important, it seems that there was a 
friendly feeling on the part of the membership, as well as the recog- 
nition that time was required in making such adjustments wisely. 
And, Nead seemed anxious to make any shifts necessary to become 
more useful in his ministry. Both of these viewpoints are represent- 
ed in the incident related concerning conformity in dress. One Sun- 
day after dinner Benjamin Bowman took Nead to the barn with 
him. He explained carefully how the effectiveness of Nead's preach- 
ing could be improved if he would cease wearing his high white hat. 
Peter heard him gladly, and Bowman reached down into the fan- 
ning mill and pulled out a new low-crowned, broad-rimmed black 
hat. He presented it to the young preacher; he accepted it. Always 
afterward the black hat was a part of Nead's wardrobe. 

This young Methodist-independent preacher came to the Breth- 
ren at a very crucial time in their development. The German-Amer- 
ican people were just beginning to use English in common speech 
and in worship. The Brethren were almost wholly German, and 



14 SCHWARZENAU 

had held their church services in the mother tongue (or in local 
modifications of German) up to this period. The time to change 
was upon them, and most of their preachers were among the older 
folk. Therefore, the shifting of the worship language was a most 
difficult problem. Nead was well educated, he was vigorous, he had 
had experience in preaching in English — he was the man of the 
HOUR. There is no doubt but that this speeded up his rise to 
prominence tremendously. Yet it was no false gain, because he had 
the qualities necessary to succeed without this decided advantage. 
At any rate, he soon became known as the "English Preacher" in 
the society of these German-speaking Dunkers. This factor in- 
creased the demand for his preaching. And, once he was heard — he 
was wanted again, not only because he preached in English but be- 
cause he preached with skill and with power. And, it did not take 
him long to preach his sermon. 

While living in Virginia, his reputation spread throughout the 
State. He was active in the work of the church wherever he hap- 
pened to be. He could not be indifferent; he was too much in de- 
mand. He must, as in the days when he was a class leader, be busy. 

The greatest period of service in the work of the ministry lies 
within the years spent in Ohio. He was twenty-seven years in the 
Stillwater Congregation of Southern Ohio. His headquarters were 
centered on the old homestead nine miles northwest of Dayton. He 
was a resident farmer and minister. His sons were able to do much 
of the work. He was able to care for other things by his favorable 
financial status. Thus he was free for much travel among the 
churches. And it required much travel to meet the demands which 
were placed upon him. He was a much sought after man. He was 
wanted for Council Meetings. His judgment was sound, his emo- 
tions were controlled, he respected every person, and he longed for 
justice in a positive way. Such qualities were needed in the men who 
would do business in the Kingdom in a TRANSITIONAL PERI- 
OD. Nead possessed them in a marked degree. This made him 
popular as a moderator of Councils within the churches. And when 
an adjoining elder was needed, Peter Nead was called. 

His advice and counsel were desired just as greatly at District 
Meetings. He was always welcome, and was often sent for. He 
was not only an asset in stabilizing the work of such a meeting, but 
he had a vision of the urgency of preaching the gospel which in- 



PETER NEAD 15 

spired leaders of local churches to action. He felt that the Gospel 
was all-important in the life of man. Therefore, it should be pre- 
sented to all people. Not with the hope that all would accept, but 
with the desire that all would have a chance to accept. In this role, 
then, Nead became the source of inspiration for an expanded pro- 
gram within the Districts. He was in demand; he was a prophet. 

The District was not large enough to contain this enthusiastic 
preacher of the Word. He was in the Denominational Program. 
Twelve times he served on Standing Committee. He was interested 
in the whole work of the church. And, he was interested to see this 
work carried on in closest harmony with Gospel principles. Thus it 
was essential for him to be at Annual Meeting to assist in setting 
the direction of the "big ship." He was concerned that the Church 
remain pure from the center out to every local church in the broth- 
erhood. Hence it was his duty to be at Annual Meeting, and help 
guide the church aright. 

As a minister, Peter Nead was well endowed. He had an enquir- 
ing mind. He was a keen thinker, an able analyzer, and a careful 
composer. He was favored with good health. He had a strong 
body. He took care of it, and lived happily until near the end of a 
long, useful life. His habits were well fixed; he was temperate in all 
things. He possessed a good speaking voice. It was clear and strong. 
He could be heard easily throughout almost any auditorium that 
he was called to speak in. He spoke with clear accent, and with 
force. Not least by any means, Nead had a large command of the 
Bible. He could quote freely and widely from the Scriptures upon 
any occasion. He knew how to enlist the scripture in bringing his 
messages home to his hearers. And as we hinted earlier, this preach- 
er was always on time. He believed and practiced punctuality. His 
appointments were filled on time and ended on time. He did not 
believe in lengthy services as many of the Brethren did. 

One of the abiding convictions of Peter Nead was that there 
should be no departure from the early practices of the Church. He 
wanted, above everything else, a pure church. And, the more nearly 
like the Primitive Church the better. While he was more of a scholar 
than most of the men of his day, Nead was largely a literalist. Thus 
he conceived that the church was ministering in an unfriendly world, 
and that things would become increasingly fruitful for the devil. 
Therefore, he was opposed to bringing any major innovations into 



16 SCHWARZENAU 

the BODY of CHRIST. As such, he was set for a defense of the 
gospel. The intrusion of worldly things meant the work of Satan. 

It would be fair to suppose that such an active minister would 
have his hands full. One would also suppose that the measure of 
success which Nead attained would be sufficient satisfaction for any 
man. And, one certainly could not accuse him of shirking his duty or 
of being a lazy Christian. Yet he was not content with what he was 
able to accomplish for the Kingdom of God. He wanted to do more. 
He felt he ought to do more. He understood that the forces of evil 
were always active; he thought that the agents of righteousness 
should be just as active. He longed for some other field of service 
beside that of the preaching of the Word. He thought of writing. 
The Brethren had not been doing much in this field. Nead thought 
it presented a great opportunity. He felt that people needed to read 
and study. He felt that Christians needed help in formulating a 
satisfactory basis for their Christian hving. He would help this by 
writing concerning the Christian hope. His efforts were successful; 
he was the most prolific writer of the early Brethren. He dared to 
write large books on strictly religious matters. And he sold his 
productions. His writings represent one of the most powerful el- 
ements in his career. They contain the seed of much of his influence 
in directing a developing church toward fixed goals. They demon- 
strate the force of his impact upon a given group of people. 

These writings should be examined from two standpoints. First, 
one should get a glimpse of the volume of his writing. Secondly, 
one should examine the subjects with which he deals — pointing out 
the high peaks of development and of exposition. 

Turning to this first task, one is rather surprised at the amount 
of writing for his day. Yet when one remembers the severe straits 
of discipline thru which Nead put himself, it is not such a marvel. 
He arose almost regularly at three o'clock in the morning. He ate 
a dry crust of bread and studied or wrote until six o'clock. He 
published his first book, "Primitive Christianity", in 1833. It was 
a 138 page book, published in Staunton, Virginia. He was quite 
gratified at the wide circulation which this book gained. In 1845, a 
pamphlet of 131 pages was published. It discussed Baptism, Faith, 
Prayer, the World, the Corrupt Church, and the Church of Christ. 
Five years after this second pubHcation, Nead's "Theological Writ- 
ings" was pubHshed. This book was more comprehensive. It con- 



PETER NEAD 17 

tained the first two books, plus additional material. It was a 472 
page book — quite imposing for a Brethren writer in the middle of 
the nineteenth century. Then, his next effort was in the form of 
articles for a periodical. He was instrumental in promoting and 
constant in contributing to the "Vindicator" which was started in 
1870. From the start of this paper until his death, Nead was deeply 
interested in its mission. He supported it in every way possible. 
Articles appeared from his pen in almost every issue from 1870-76. 
He wrote many short articles defending some position or explaining 
some phase of the work of the church. He also wrote continued 
articles under such heads as: The School of Christ; The Land of 
Promise ; The Restoration of Primitive Christianity. The last pro- 
duction of any size was "The Wisdom and Power of God as Dis- 
played In Creation and Redemption," pubhshed in 1866. It is a 
352 page book, and Is quite a polemic for the Christian gospel. One 
cannot help being struck with the amount of writing for his day. 
And, it was done when the Brethren were not writing books. This 
makes It all the more significant. 

One cannot read these works of Nead without being moved by 
the strength of his convictions and of his mind. He understood 
what he was attempting to do, and he went about it with a whole 
heart. In a limited paper like this, one cannot begin to analyze all 
his works. Rather one must be content with pointing out certain 
high points, certain recurring emphases, and certain general qual- 
ities of all his productions. 

There are certain fields of interest which represent the high 
points of Nead's writing, as well as the highest form of his writing 
art. On these subjects his writing becomes more powerful and more 
skillful. Some of these more important fields, although there Is 
over-lapping, are common Interests in the early history of the 
church. A great deal of his time Is spent In defining and defending 
the peculiar New Testament Practices of the Church. These doc- 
trines are set up as the conditions upon which the Church becomes 
the true bride of Christ. Closely related to this field of Interest, Is 
Nead's emphasis upon Primitive Christianity. Two things are in- 
volved in this concept that made It one of his high points. First, he 
has In mind the restoration of Christianity to Its original elements. 
He would, as far as possible, go back to the days of Apostolic 
Christianity. He wrote on this phase at great length in the VIndi- 



18 SCHWARZENAU 

cator. Secondly, he is concerned about keeping the Church of the 
Brethren in line with the concepts of the founders. He would insist 
upon being historically true to the original position of the Church. 
Especially, would this be true in matters of doctrine and discipline. 
There is still another thread woven into this same web — the corrupt 
condition of Christendom. This concern received much attention in 
his writing. He was concerned about the churches which showed 
no special interest in organizing themselves according to the New 
Testament principles. Without this center for organization, Nead 
held that there could be nothing but confusion. Worse than this, 
however, was the fact that such organization meant the erasing of 
the line of demarcation between the church and the world. This 
gave Nead cause for much alarm. Yet he held that nothing else 
could be expected. The Devil was at work; times were getting 
worse; the end of the age was coming. Thus it became more im- 
portant that his church should remain loyal to her task, and save all 
those who would be saved. Yet in direct contrast, one discovers an- 
other high light in his concern for the true church. He said very 
plainly that the divisions of Christendom presented a real scandal 
In our religious living. The TRUE CHURCH should have a com- 
mon profession and a common character. The profession should 
consist of loyalty to one Head, Christ, and leadership of one Book, 
the New Testament. Her character should be expressed thru 
the New Testament Doctrines as Interpreted by the Brethren. 
And the members must remember that they are pilgrims so far as 
this world Is concerned, and they must keep themselves from be- 
coming entangled within It. Associated with these former concepts, 
Nead develops a lengthy theory regarding the Second Advent of 
Christ. His interpretations smack of strong literalism in this field. 
And, tliey are closely related to and dependent upon his concept of 
the corrupted church. He expects Christ to come before too long 
and set things right. In His coming, the church will reach Its right- 
ful place of triumph. Those who have not been loyal will receive 
their just dues. Nead does Insist upon a rather consistent type of 
justice throughout his discussions of Final Things. He thinks that 
there will be degrees in the rewards of the righteous, as well as In 
the punishment of the wicked. 

In discussing these great fields of Christian interest, Peter Nead 
was influenced by the times a great deal. The church was facing a 



PETER NEAD 19 

hard struggle In the transition of America into an urban civilization. 
The issues which he saw had the marks of reality for him. And the 
thinking of many of his contemporaries made the subjects more 
surely alive for him. In spite of these influences, which no man can 
entirely escape, Nead was a thinker in his own right. He read 
widely; he studied much. He knew what he believed and was able 
to bring data and argument to the support of his convictions in a 
most striking manner. He was not simply putting into print things 
that any minister could say, but he was crusading intelligently for 
a cause. And he had the experience and the research necessary to 
give him a note of authority which had real significance in the direc- 
tion of church. One cannot pass over his work lightly. It was read 
by the people of his time. It made the Brethren conscious of the 
significance and the seriousness of religious values. The church was 
to be reckoned with. This stands out in all of Nead's works, and 
shows up in every major field of interest. 

One might pull out a few of the often recurring themes in these 
major fields of interest. For one cannot read the works without 
being aware of certain MAJOR ARTICLES in Nead's FAITH and 
CREED. These items can only be mentioned. Over and over he 
emphasizes the essential need of BAPTISM, FAITH, and RE- 
PENTANCE. These are the necessary foundations for beginning 
the New Testament way of life. Much is made of baptism in his 
work; he is sure that the Brethren MODE is THE way. Closely 
associated with these elements of conversion, stands the ATONE- 
MENT of Christ. In his first publication, "Primitive Christianity", 
he says "that the atonement upon Calvary secures the redemption 
of the whole Christian family."^ He would not make this magic. It 
is based upon the freedom of man. Yet the ransom theory of atone- 
ment Is involved — tying up closely with the depravity of the human 
soul. This sinful nature, traced from our first human parents, is 
made rather arbitrary in Nead's concepts. He seems to believe that 
inherent depravity Is real. Yet he does not carry It to serious ex- 
tremes, because he allows that children who die before reaching the 
age of reason are not condemned. And he does place the seat of the 
soul In the m.Ind, This, with his emphasis upon the freedom of 
choice. Is very wholesome. One idea that comes out in his develop- 
ment of the Second Advent Is the salvation of the Jews. This will 

1. Page 26. 



20 SCHWARZENAU 

give them another opportunity to accept the once rejected Messiah. 
He gives special emphasis, also, to the non-conforming aspects of 
the Dunker faith. Finally, Nead gives much encouragement for an 
active campaign of Christian propaganda. People are to be saved 
by hearing the Word of God. It possesses converting power ; it must 
be preached. And it is the duty of the Christian minister to expound 
the Word soundly and forcefully. It was with such a passion that 
Nead wrote. And, according to all reports that was the way he 
preached. This would lead one to think that our character played a 
great part in the swing of the church toward mass evangelism. This 
was an acute problem in the latter part of Nead's life. With the 
available material carefully covered, I should say that he did have 
a very definite influence in swinging opinion toward the use of mass 
evangelism. Yet it was an indirect impact mingled with some defi- 
nite contradictions. That is, it appears that his influence was 
largely by his example. He believed in preaching. He encouraged 
an expanded preaching program. He insisted on short, ordered 
services. He imbued other ministers with the greatness and serious- 
ness of their calling. He preached and he wrote with vigor and 
with force. Here lies the line of his influence in the revival method. 
For, in words, he sets himself in opposition to the rapidly rising 
technique of modern evangelism in the mass meeting. He criticizes 
the churches that do not have definite gospel statements as their guid- 
ing principles. He says they are concerned about numbers more than 
they are about being loyal to Christ. "And during their protracted 
meetings, they enlist great numbers in their ranks. But it is not 
done by gospel means — but by means of their own appointments. 
I will not dispute but that those strange maneuvers (here he refers 
to singing, praying, altar calls, and emotional preaching) are cal- 
culated to create a great anxiety, and produce a partial change; but 
I contend, that in as much as they have not been appointed by Jesus 
Christ, or the Apostles, that they have never been blessed, so as to 
produce a genuine change in man — though we frequently hear the 
advocates for these modern means say, that they know that God 
has and does bless those means. I should like to know in what way? 
Do they mean, that by the use of those means, so many have joined 
their society? If this be the blessing they allude to, I am inclined 
to believe that it is a great curse instead of a blessing. The reader 
may take it for granted, that the doctrines and commandments of 



' PETER NEAD 21 

men are always in the room of the gospel, and when received, are 
sure to produce a false impression: and if such deluded souls are 
not apprised of it in this life, they will be, when their case cannot be 
remedied. I have no doubt, but that thousands believe that such 
revivals are occasioned by the outpourings of the Spirit of God, 
and will view me as a great enemy to the spread of Christianity. 
But I cannot help it ; I believe that it is my duty to protest against 
such corrupt proceedings. I say corrupt, because they are in lieu 
of the Word of God, and calculated to blind, not only the present, 
but the rising generation. The preacher's sole aim is, the feelings 
of his audience. If he can only succeed in alarming them, he is sure 
to gain his point : whereas, it is the duty of all preachers to labor to 
illuminate the understanding in man, by preaching the pure Gospel 
of Jesus Christ, and if a sense of the gospel does not cause them 
to yield obedience to Christ, then their salvation cannot be effected; 
for the Word of God is the seed of the new birth, and not the inven- 
tion of man. If you be converted by the Word and Spirit of God, 
your conversion is from Heaven : but if you have been converted 
by such means as are of man's appointment, your conversion is from 
the earth ; you cannot claim Jesus Christ as your Savior — but poor 
sinful man. He is the head of your church, and not Jesus Christ."^ 
This rather lengthy quotation appears to be in harmony with his 
thinking. It is repeated and enlarged in his book of Systematic The- 
ology — Theological Writings. It would appear that the early 
Dunker teaching and example rose above his own temperament and 
background. This is not so difficult to square when one is familiar 
with the strength and logical quality of his mind. One would be 
tempted to say that this was an earlier position of Nead's. But he 
writes somewhat in the same strain in the Vindicator in the last 
decade of his life. He criticizes the methods of the churches severely. 
"Singing is not for the conversion of the sinner,"^ is an adequate 
sample of his feeling. And yet the testimony is not unmixed. In 
the same volume of the Vindicator, he says, "How natural it is for 
us, ministers of the gospel in our day, to make a great show of our 
profession of religion, and to publish the many sermons we preach, 
and the many converts made under our ministration."* This would 
appear to lend some support for active campaigns of preaching for 



2. Primitive Christianity, pp. 49, 50. 

3. Vindicator, Vol. 1-2, 1870-71, p. 106. 

4. Vindicator, Vol. 1-2, 1870-71, p. 43. 



22 SCHWARZENAU 

the purpose of reaching sinners. Yet it may be irony. From his 
writing, I should say that Peter Nead leaves a favorable balance of 
evidence in opposition to the evangelistic efforts of his day. By 
example and by exhortation, he favored an active preaching pro- 
gram that should reach to the widest possible regions. This preach- 
ing should be dynamic and powerful — dealing wisely with the Word 
of God and leaving it to do its work in the heart. 

The Pulpit could not satisfy this Methodist-Brethren preacher. 
Thus he gave us these written productions. They are all character- 
ized by good style, vivid pictures, strong, clear argument, and life- 
like interest. Nead was a man of power and of influence. If he had 
lived thru the days of the church division, we should have been able 
to see more of his real strength. For he was active until the end. 
He died March 16, 1877. 



HISTORY OF THE OAK GROVE CHURCH 
OF SOUTHERN ILLINOIS 

Mrs. M. a. Whisler 

The Oak Grove church is located twenty-five miles northeast of 
Peoria, 111., in the northwestern part of Woodford County, in the 
vicinity known as Bricktown. Here had been a brick kiln and tile 
shed, established in 1835, giving employment to a number of early 
settlers who built their log houses in this vicinity. The first school- 
house in Cazenovia Township was built in 1838, of unhewn logs and 
had a wooden chimney. It was in the Bricktown vicinity for a time. 
Then it was moved, and a new frame building was erected to take its 
place, the first frame building in the township. 

It was in this schoolhouse that Bro. James R. Gish, of Roanoke, 
(and others) came in the 70's and preached the gospel as understood 
by the Brethren, at that time known as "The German Baptist Breth- 
ren." The people crowded the schoolhouse, glad to hear the gospel. 
By the year 1881 an organization was effected with thirteen charter 
members, as follows: (if we have been correctly informed, the old 
records are missing) Bro. and Sister Henry Long, Bro. and Sister 
Samuel Holman, Bro. and Sister Bernhardt Braun, Bro. and Sister 




OLD 

OAK GROVE 

MEETING 

HOUSE 



The Picture of the Old Oak Grove Meetinghouse Recently Destroyed by Fire. 

This House Had a Number of Historic Associations, Among Them 

Being Its Connection with the Gish Family. 




1^' 





Ji^i^m. 



'%A!^ : 






The New Oak Grove Meetinghouse dedicated December 17, 1939. 
Cost of building alone $3,484. 



24 SCHWARZENAU 

John Ivins, Bro. and Sister Carmichael, Bro. and Sister John Lewis, 
and Sister Maria Calvert. 

In the summer of 1883 an acre of land was secured from the 
Michael Wagner farm for a building site on which to erect a church 
building. The records at the courthouse show a consideration of 
$40.00 for this land, but Mr. Wagner donated this to the church. 

By fall the building was completed, and a large crowd assembled 
for the dedication, at which time a vote of the members was taken 
and the name Oak Grove was selected. This name is still used, but 
locally it is better known as the Bricktown Church. 

Quoting from one who was then a small boy, C. S. Holman, says : 
"Everybody was so happy in the thought that we could have preach- 
ing and Sunday School every Sunday. . . . Some of us had a lumber 
wagon in which to ride and many of the folks would walk to church. 
. . . "Uncle" Rufus Gish was a dear old man and he was the moving 
spirit and the principal financial support in the building." 

James R. Gish was the first elder, and some years later he gave 
the lumber to have another room built to the church, which was used 
as a kitchen and later used also as a Sunday School room. It was in 
this room that three little girls were playing on the evening of June 
6, 1939, and accidentally set the church afire. The building and con- 
tents were soon consumed. There was some insurance on the build- 
ing, which was paid in full, and so, with the help of many contributors, 
a nice new building has been erected which was dedicated Dec. 17, 
1939, with Bro. Otho Winger of North Manchester, Indiana, giving 
the dedicatory address. 

Former pastors are : C. S. Holsinger, Samuel Henry, Solomon 
Bucklew, D. E. Eshelman, J. W. Switzer, Irvin Weaver, Jesse Cook, 
and Daniel Funderburg. The present pastor and elder of the church 
came here in the spring of 1926 and has seen the membership grow 
from 35 to 78 at present. There had been a period of inactivity, 
which had caused the membership to become smaller. Then the Mis- 
sion Board of the southern district of Illinois helped keep the work 
going until the year 1932, when the board felt no more help could 
be given. It is now giving some financial assistance in rebuilding. 



EPHRATA A MUSICAL CENTER OF 
COLONIAL AMERICA 

Mary Elizabeth Wertz Wieand 

About fifteen years ago, several cousins and I climbed to the top 
of Berkebile Hill, a high peak overlooking the entire city of Johns- 
town, Pennsylvania. Though we had often hiked gleefully and with- 
out care to this same spot, this time we had come neither for a sled 
ride down the steep embankment nor for a picnic on the inviting 
plateau at the foot of the bank. On this crisp Friday night as we 
stealthily gained a topmost rock, silence reigned among us. Only the 
boldest dared shift position or whisper. Suddenly even breathing 
stopped. In the distance appeared the first white shadow, followed 
by a long line of identical figures, swaying rhythmically as they wound 
along the hillside path. On came the procession. Through the moon- 
light we discerned the eyes, nose, and mouth cut in each white head 
and face covering, which fell into the folds of the long white robes. 
At last we were to witness the solemn ceremony about which we had 
heard so much but knew so little. The locally organized Ku Klux 
Klan was about to burn their lighted cross. 

As I read of the Ephrata Cloister musicians, I picture them best 
by imagining a similar scene in Ephrata exactly two hundred years 
ago. On each night when singing classes met, the attending brethren 
would walk in solemn procession from the Zion convent, their home 
on the hill, down to the sister house in the meadow. "Being dressed 
in white, they presented a spectral scene as they slowly wended their 
way down the hillside."^ Any little Pennsylvania Dutch knaben or 
madchen who happened to awake in one of the neighboring Domestic 
Households of the Ephrata group would have seen the monastic 
brethren returning homeward in the same manner, arriving at their 
convent just in time for the midnight mass. 

Ephrata, now a town of 4,988^ inhabitants, owes its beginnings to 
its famous leader, John Conrad Beissel. Born in 1690, at Eberbach, 
on the Neckar, in the Palatinate, Beissel experienced much in his 
early life which was bound to encourage his developing into a very 



1. J. F. Sachse, The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania, 1742-1800, p. 138. 

2. Matthews Northrup New International Atlas, p. 218. 

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EPHRATA MUSICAL CENTER 27 

unusual character. His drunken, dissolute father died a few months 
before Conrad was born. Eight years later, his godly mother died, 
leaving her children destitute. During the next seventeen years, he 
served successively as apprentice to a jovial baker, as chief musician 
(violinist) at weddings and parties, as journeyman baker under the 
husband of a termagant woman (Beissel called her a Jezebel, and 
left), and as prison inmate resulting in banishment because of his 
connections with the Pietists. Having fled to the vicinities of Marien- 
born, Schwarzenau, and Creyfelt where he met many of the Breth- 
ren, he and two of his intimate friends, Stiefel and Stuntz, sailed to 
America and went directly to Germantown, arriving just a year after 
Peter Becker's group settled there in 1719. Here for one year Beis- 
sel lived with Becker learning the weaver's trade, during which time 
he absorbed a number of the Dunker doctrines. After going off to 
live as a hermit for a time, Beissel returned to the Dunkers, was bap- 
tized, and became one of their ministers. However, before long the 
new minister began to set forth strange doctrines, such as defending 
seventh day observance, denouncing the married state, and leaning 
toward the Mosaic law. In 1728 he and his followers were rebap- 
tlzed in the Conestoga Creek, and the group thus completely sep- 
arated from the German Baptist society. At this point arose the 
three groups in the spiritual household ; namely, the Household mem- 
bers, or those who were married; the Solitary brethren who lived a 
single, chaste life; and the Spiritual Virgins, who from time to time 
fled to Beissel and placed themselves under his guidance and vowed 
to live a pure, virgin life. Finally, in 1732 Beissel gave the elders of 
the congregation charge over the group and left, to live again as a 
hermit. When he refused his followers' request that he return to 
them, some of them moved to him. The date 1732 marks the real 
beginning of Ephrata, according to M. G. Brumbaugh^ and from 
that time on numerous discontented souls came from all parts of east- 
ern Pennsylvania, making Ephrata a growing colony with Beissel as 
supreme leader. "In 1740 there were in the Ephrata cloisters thirty- 
six single brethren and thirty-five sisters ; and, in later years, when the 
society was at the height of its prosperity, the whole congregation, 
including those living outside the principal buildings but in the imme- 
diate neighborhood, numbered about three hundred."* 



3. M. G. Brumbaugh, History of the German Baptist Brethren, p. 446. 

4. Church Music and Musical Life in Pennsylvania in tlie XVIII Century, p. 27. 



28 SCHWARZENAU 

Julius Friedrich Sachse, the Pennsylvania historian, has in his 
THE GERMAN SECTARIANS OF PENNSYLVANIA paid 
worthy tribute to the ingenious ability and the tireless industry of this 
religious folk. The Ephrata group of two centuries ago, like the 
Amana Society of today, excelled in the things they made and in the 
quality of their undertakings. 

"One of the most unique features of the Ephrata Cloister was the 
peculiar music which originated with the Community on the Cocal- 
ico."^ Apparently Conrad Beissel's early training on the violin and 
his love of singing were his only educational resources for the musical 
work which he undertook as Capellmeister. Early in the life of the 
Cloister, he started choirs and singing schools on certain evenings 
each week, the sessions usually lasting four hours, from eight o'clock 
until midnight. The explanation of the white garments mentioned 
earlier in this paper is a clue to a noble spirit. When Capellmeister 
Beissel and the Solitary Brethren met with the Spiritual Virgins in 
the latters' house, Beissel insisted on all, even himself, appearing in 
pure white in order to impress upon all the necessity for absolute 
purity of heart. 

According to the CHRONICON EPHRATENSE, however, 
Beissel was not the first teacher of the singing school. A certain 
house-father, Ludwig Blum, was both a singer and one informed 
somewhat in composition. By bringing some of his work to Beissel, 
he induced the superintendent, as he was called, to make use of him 
in the Cloister singing school. The work prospered for awhile, until 
certain of the Sisters complained to the superintendent that they 
wished to dismiss their singing teacher and have Beissel teach them. 
Accordingly, Blum was continued as teacher until the Sisters felt that 
they had learned enough from him to teach Beissel the necessary har- 
mony and methods ; then he was dismissed. The superintendent 
capellmeister conducted the school with great sternness, says the 
Chronicle, so that whoever did not know him, might have thought 
him to be a man of unchecked passion. Sometimes he scolded for an 
hour or two in succession. In time this grew so hard for the sensitive 
maidens to bear that they sent one of their number to Beissel to tell 
him that they intended to break off entire connection with the school. 
Later, however, the sisters sent another message to Beissel saying 
that they wished to resubmit to his guardianship, and the school 



5. Sachse, op. cit., p. 128. 



EPHRATA MUSICAL CENTER 29 

opened again. "Soon after a choir of sisters appeared in the meeting, 
and sang the hymn, 'God, we come to meet Thee,' with five voices, 
which was so well received in the settlement, that everyone had his 
name entered for the choir, so that one did not know who should per- 
form the outside work."® To make plain the organized plan of the 
choir, after Beissel laboriously taught his pupils the first principles 
of singing, we quote the following paragraph from CHURCH MU- 
SIC AND MUSICAL LIFE IN PENNSYLVANIA IN THE 
XVIII CENTURY. 

"The celibates, male and female, were divided into five choirs, with 
five persons to each choir, namely, one soprano, one tenor, one alto and 
two bass singers. The sisters were divided into three choirs, the upper, 
middle and lower; and in the choruses a sign was made for each choir 
when to join or alternate in the singing. These three choirs had their re- 
spective places at the table of the sisters during love feasts, the upper choir 
at the upper end, the middle at the centre and the lower at the lower end. 
In singing antiphonally, therefore, the singing went alternately up and 
down the table. Not only had each choir to observe its place to join, but, 
because there were solos in each chorale, every voice knew when silence 
was to be observed by it. Apparently, it is to be understood that all parts, 
save the high and low bass, were sung chiefly by female voices."''' 

Not only was Beissel a stern teacher, but he was also a stern disci- 
plinarian in the rules he laid down for his singers. In his preface to 
the TURTEL-TAUBE, the Ephrata hymnal, Beissel states his prin- 
ciples and rules for mastering the art of choral singing. Briefly, these 
are as follows :^ 

1. Divine virtue must be observed upon the pinnacle of perfection. 

2. Upon every occasion both scholar and master must seek to make 
themselves agreeable and acceptable to the Spirit of this high and 
divine virtue. 

3. The wants of the body are to be restrained, so that the voice may 
become angelic, heavenly, pure, and clear, and not harsh screeching 
and croaking, caused by a coarseness of the food. 

4. It is necessary to know what foods quicken the spirit and make the 
voice subtile and thin, as well as those which cause it to be coarse, 
sluggish, lazy, and heavy. For example, of those foods which we, 
with great injustice, take from the animals : 

a. Milk causes heaviness and uneasiness. 

b. Cheese makes one fiery and hot brained, and causes a longing 
after forbidden things. 

c. Butter makes one lazy and stolid, and at the same time satiates 
so much that one desires neither to sing nor to pray. 



6. Lamech and Agrippa, Chronicon Epkratense, p. 164. 

7. Op. cit., p. 36. 

8. Sachse, op. cit., (paraphrase), pp. 152-153. 



30 SCHWARZENAU 

d. Eggs awaken various and extraordinary desires. 

e. Honey causes light eyes and a cheerful spirit, but no clear voice. 

5. For quickening of the spirit and natural cheerfulness, nothing is 
better than wheat and then buckwheat, both of which have the same 
virtues, either in bread or in cooked dishes. 

6. Nothing is more useful than the potato, beet, and similar roots. 

7. Beans carry a weight with them and satiate too much, and create 
an unclean desire. 

8. At the same time, above all things it is to be remembered, that the 
spirit of this royal art, as it is a clean, pure and virgin spirit, suffers 
no unclean polluted or sinful love for woman, which in young 
hearts inflames the carnal spirit and agitates it to such a degree as 
to make them entirely unfit and useless in mind, heart, voice, and 
spirit. 

9. The best drink for treading the straight path, and the one that has 
greatest righteousness is innocent, clear water, either as it comes 
from the well, or made into soup with a little bread added. Chang- 
ing water into a sort of delicacy, by cooking it with other foods is 
sinful, vain, and an abuse. 

10. We have nought to do with any unmannerly paunch stuffing. 

With our scientific knowledge of foods, we cannot help smiling at 
Beissel's diet, and feeling sorry for those who were conscientiously 
deprived of our stable dairy products. However, the author of the 
CHRONICON continues with a paragraph which shows even more 
the deeply spiritual motive of Belssel in his choir work. Anyone who 
has had the least experience with any of our present day choirs, some 
of which have been truly and sadly called the "war department of the 
church", can appreciate the truth of Beissel's principle which fol- 
lows, and will wish that more of our singers today were thus moti- 
vated. 

"But he also added to the things necessary to be observed in united 
song, that godly virtue must be at the source of our whole walk, because 
by it you obtain favor with the spirit of singing, which is the Holy Spirit. 
It has been observed that the least dissension of spirit in a choir of singers 
has brought confusion into the whole concert."® 

Beissel's purpose In his singing school was to make manifest the 
wonderful harmony of eternity, in a country which but lately wIFd 
savages had Inhabited; the CHRONICON continues, "for God 
owed this to North America as an Initiation Into the Christian church, 
therefore these choirs belong to the firstlings of America. "^^ Because 
of his desire to bring out the meaning of the words of the hymns, in 
every case he attempted to let the accent of the word rule, rather 



9. Chronicon Ephratense, p. 162. 

10. Ibid., p. 165. 



EPHRATA MUSICAL CENTER 31 

than the accent of the bar, thus making the music subservient to the 
words. Thus the music, though barred, was free. It made no use 
of a meter signature. Rather, the bars, some of which contained 
three, four, five, six, or even seven counts in the same hymn, served 
mainly to divide motives and phrases. 

Another pecuharity in the mechanical structure of Beissel's com- 
positions lay in his use of the clef signs. Whereas our modern hym- 
nals use the G or treble clef for all the treble voices, Beissel used the 
C clef for all the treble voices. His motive in doing this, and a very 
reasonable one it was, corresponds exactly to the modern orchestral 
arranger's motive in using the C clef for the viola ; namely, to avoid 
the use of leger lines. 

The harmonic arrangement of the Ephrata hymns and chorales 
varied in two, four, five, and seven parts. When both Orders were 
present (Solitary Brethren and Spiritual Virgins) , the brethren sang 
only the two lowest parts, both in the bass clef. At the services of 
the Brotherhood four-part music was used — tenor, descant, and 
bass. J. F. Sachse had in his possession a specimen of Ephrata music 
set in two parts, first and second, "for social praise of two to- 
gether."" The same hymn was set in four parts and also arranged 
in five parts, which latter was the arrangement generally used in 
public worship. The writers of the CHRONICON tell of a service 
connected with a dramatic event in the development of the Cloister 
music, when a choir of sisters appeared in the meeting and sang a 
hymn In five voices. 

Before he attempted the group choral singing, Capellmeister 
Conrad Beissel with much trouble broke the Ice (as Brother Agrlppa 
states In the CHRONICON) and taught the first principles of 
singing to the scholars. His dissertation on harmony Is published as 
a preface about the art of singing (Vorrede von der Sing arbelt) in 
the famous TURTEL-TAUBE. In this treatise, Beissel sets forth 
the importance of the tonic, mediant, and dominant (do, mi, so in 
our scale), calling these notes the "rulers" and the super tonic, sub- 
dominant, and submedlant (re, fa, la in our scale), the "servants." 
He seems not to mention the seventh note of our scale, ti, although 
on the modern notation arrangements of his chorales, that note is 
used. After this discussion comes an explanation of the use of the 
various notes In the chords, relative to proper doubling and Inver- 
sions. 



11. Sachse, op. cit, p. 134. 



32 SCHWARZENAU 

To describe the effect of this music upon the listener, one who has 
never heard it had best quote from one who has heard the strains. 
Hence, I quote a paragraph which Sachse has copied from a 
manuscript in his possession : 

"Beissel took his style from the music of nature, and the whole of it, 
comprising several large volumes, is founded on the tones of the ^olian 
harp ; the singing, in a word, is the yEolian harp harmonized. It| is very- 
peculiar in its style and concords, and in its execution. The tones issuing 
from the choir imitate very soft instrumental music, carrying a softness 
and devotion almost superhuman to the auditor. Their music is set in two, 
four, five and seven parts. All the parts save the bass, which is set in two 
parts, are led and sung exclusively by the females, the men being confined 
to the high and low bass. The latter resembling the deep tones of the organ, 
and the former, in combination with one of the female parts, the contrast 
produces an excellent imitation of the concert horn (hautboy). The whole 
is sung in the falsetto voice, which throws the sound up to the ceiling, and 
the melody which seems to be more than human, appears to be descending 
from above and hovering over the heads of the assembly."^^ 

The Committee on Historical Research quotes from Daniel Rupp's 
History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, part of a letter from 
a visitor to the cloister to Governor John Penn, as follows : 

"The counter trebles, tenor and bass, were all sung by women, with 
sweet, shrill and small voices, but with a truth and exactness in time and 
intonation that was admirable. It is impossible to describe to your Lord- 
ship my feelings upon this occasion. The performers sat with their heads 
reclined, their countenances solemn and dejected, their faces pale and ema- 
ciated from their manner of living, the clothing exceedingly white and 
quite picturesque and their music such as thrilled to the very soul ; I almost 
began to think myself in the world of spirits, and that the objects before 
me were ethereal. In short the impression this scene made upon my mind, 
continued strong for many days, and I believe will never be wholly oblit- 
erated."i3 

Again, the same writers repeat a first hand account of a visit to a 
cloister service by the Swedish Provost, Magister Israel Acrelius, 
in August, 1753. An excerpt of this reads: 

"We went and knocked at the Convent door. Their Prioress came out, 
and when she heard our request, she bade us remain in the church until the 
sisters came in the proper order to sing. We received an invitation, and 
went up a still narrower set of stairs than any that we had before seen, and 
came into a large room ; in that there were long tables, with seats upon 
both sides of them. Here there were some of the sisters sitting, and writ- 
ing their notebooks for the hymns — a work wonderful for its ornaments. 
Six of them sat together and sang a very lovely tune. . . . 



12. Sachse, op. cit., p. 134. 

13. Church Music and Musical Life in Pennsylvania in the XVIII Century, p. 38. 



EPHRATA MUSICAL CENTER 33 

"The church was not large, and could be filled by some hundred per- 
sons. . . . When they were all assembled they sat for some moments per- 
fectly still. . . . Father Friedsam . . . finally sang in a low and fine tone. 
Thereupon the sisters in the gallery began to sing, the Cloister brothers 
joined in with them, and all those who were together in the high choir 
united in a delightful hymn which lasted for about a quarter of an hour. 

"It is to be observed that to every psalm there are three different mel- 
odies, according to which the note-books are written by the sisters of the 
convent. Different brothers, as well as the sisters, understood vocal music, 
as does also Father Friedsam. When they sing, each holds a note-book as 
well as a psalm-book, both of which are of quarto size, looking into each 
alternately, which custom would be more difficult if the singing were not 
performed so regularly every day."^* 

Morgan Edwards, writing In 1770, said of the Cloister people 
and their music: 

"A smiling innocence and meekness grace their countenances, and a 
softness of tone and accent adorn their conversation, and make their de- 
portment gentle and obliging. Their singing is charming; partly owing to 
the pleasantness of their voices, the varieties of parts they carry on together, 
and the devout manner of performance."^^ 

The Chronicler, too, comments upon the fame of the Ephrata 
singers and composers: 

"This wonderful harmony resounded over the country ; whoever heard 
of it, wished to see it, and whoever saw it, acknowledged that God truly 
lived among these people."^^ 

There are striking similarities of thought in the above quotations. 

Although I have not been privileged to hear any of the Ephrata 
chorales performed, I have examined a few of the manuscripts in 
modern notation. They are written in wide vocal range and there is 
much crossing of parts (second part beginning lower than first, and 
then going higher, etc.). Our harmony teachers would say that 
Beissel's four part writing is very bad, according to present stand- 
ards. Particularly peculiar are his Inversions and voice doublings. 
Nevertheless, even when the parts are merely played upon the piano, 
the effect is singular and ethereal, and if one Imagines the white 
robed falsetto singers. It becomes pleasingly uncanny. 

"The music of the Ephrata Cloister was entirely unlike the an- 
cient church music. It had none of the rhythm and swing of either 
the religious or the secular folksong of the Reformation. With the 



14. Ch. Mus. and Mus. Life in Pa. in XVIII Cent, p. 40. 

15. Ibid, p. 41. 

16. Chronicon Ephratense, p. 165. 



34 SCHWARZENAU 

decline of the monastic or celibate feature of the Community, its 
music fell into disuse and gradually became a lost art."^'^ However, 
as the propositus of a new system of music, Father Friedsam Gott- 
recht (Conrad Beissel) stands as a picturesque personality in the 
annals of Colonial Pennsylvania Music. As a consequence of the 
monastic simple and severe type of life he upheld, his group gained 
for itself an honorable reputation. When the study and practice of 
music became an established feature of the Ephrata institution, the 
poetic abilities of the Solitary Brethren and the Spiritual Virgins 
awoke, resulting in their writing both words and music for a great 
number of hymns. In Mr. Sachse's manuscript^^ there is record of 
over one thousand pieces of original music by members of the 
Cloister. 

The climax of the work of the Ephrata musicians was the pub- 
lishing of the famous TURTEL-TAUBE (Turtle-Dove), a hym- 
nal designed to replace the Saur and Franklin books then in use, 
distinctive for the use of the solitary and secular organizations, all 
hymns to be the product of the Cloister inmates and set to music 
of their own composition. ^Apparently the first hymn-book printed 
at Ephrata, it was printed in 1747 by the Brotherhood. Sixteen 
brothers and twenty-three sisters contributed ninety-six hymns, the 
remaining one hundred thirty-one of the first edition being contrib- 
uted by Beissel. The foreword and preface were Belssel's own trea- 
tise on harmony, his instructions on care of the voice through proper 
diet and mode of life, and other principles in the Ephrata system 
of music. The English translation of the title page of the TUR- 
TEL-TAUBE reads: 

"The Song of the Solitary and Deserted Turtle-Dove, namely the 
Christian Church ; or spiritual and experienceful-songs of Sorrow and Love, 
as therein both, a foretaste of the new world as well as the intervening ways 
of the cross and sorrow are presented according to their dignity in spiritual 
rhymes. 

"By one who is peaceful and a pilgrim striving toward the Silent Eter- 
nity; and now gathered together and brought to light for the use of the 
Solitary and Deserted in Zion."^^ 

Other editions of the TURTEL-TAUBE followed In 1755 and 
1762, with variations of text. 



17. Ch. Mus. and Mus. Life in Pa. in XVIII Cent., p. 42. 

18. Sachse, op. cit., p. 134. 

19. Sachse, op. cit., p. 144. Also Ch. Mus., p. 48. 



EPHRATA MUSICAL CENTER 35 

Beissel's crowning works, though, were his choral songs which 
were brought to Hght in 1752 and entitled PARADISISCHES 
WUNDER-SPIEL (Paradisiacal Wonder Music). The complete 
translated title is as follows : 

"Paradisiacal Wonder Music, which in these latter times and days be- 
came prominent in the occidental parts of the world as a prevision of the 
New World, consisting of an entirely new and uncommon manner of sing- 
ing, arranged in accord with the angelic and heavenly choirs. Herein the 
song of Moses and the Lamb, also the Song of Solomon, and other wit- 
nesses out of the Bible and from other saints, are brought into sweet har- 
mony. Everything arranged with much labor and great trouble, after the 
manner of singing of the angelic choirs, by a Peaceful one, who desires no 
other name or title in this world. "^^ 

Because with the abandoning of monastic hfe at Ephrata, the 
Cloister music fell into disuse, one might minimize the importance 
of this colonial movement. In fairness to the writers and singers of 
the TURTEL-TAUBE, let us examine the extent of their influ- 
ence. Of course, no one can judge just how far they did influence 
Pennsylvania's musical development indirectly, but it is possible to 
trace a few direct descendant groups. During the last two or three 
decades of the eighteenth century the Snow Hill nunnery was built 
up and organized in Franklin County, on one of the branches of the 
Antietam. This is a direct outcome of the efforts to spread the Eph- 
rata group spirit. W. M. Fahnestock commenting on this branch 
about 1854 said, 

"Their singing, which is weak in comparison with the old Ephrata 
choir is so peculiar and affecting that when once heard it can never be for- 
gotten, "^i 

He related his weekly visits at Snow Hill, where each Friday eve- 
ning found him irresistibly driven back to Snow Hill to hear the 
music. He continued, 

"As often as I ventured, I became ashamed of myself, for scarcely had 
these strains of celestial harmony touched my ear, than I was bathed in 
tears. Unable to suppress them, they continued to cover my face during 
the service, nor in spite of my mortification could I keep them away. They 
were not tears of penitence, for my heart was not subdued to the Lord, but 
tears of ecstatic rapture, giving a foretaste of the joys of heaven. "^^ 

Later a number of the Snow Hill people pushed on to Morrison's 
Cove, where a German Seventh Day Baptist church was organized 
early in the nineteenth century. By 1939, several generations have 



20. Sachse, op. cit., p. 150. 

21. H. R. Holsinger, History of the Tunkers, p. 145. 

22. Holsinger, op. cit., p. 145. 



36 SCHWARZENAU 

lived and gone on since the time of the fathers of the Morrison's 
Cove congregation, at present located in Salemville, Bedford 
County. During the school years '35-'36, '36-'37, and '38-'39, I 
taught music in the consolidated high school at New Enterprise, 
Pennsylvania, about two miles from Salemville. All of the Salem- 
ville Seventh Day Baptist children attended our school. In my work 
there, I found the Salemville children phenomenally enthusiastic in 
their music. Although Salemville consists of one tiny store, a Dunk- 
ard and a Seventh Day Baptist church, and a few dozen homes, 
mostly of farmers, it has a substantial little building known as The 
Salemville Band Hall, which is the property of the Salemville Band. 
The band members are very cordial in welcoming folk from the 
neighboring little Cove towns into their midst, and it was at the 
repeated request of several of my pupils that I, too, joined the band. 
The experience was one which I would not have missed for a great 
deal, as it has never been duplicated for me. At the first practice I 
arrived a bit early, just as the director was building the fire in the 
stove which stands in the middle of the one room practice hall. 
(The director is superintendent of the Dunkard Sunday School, but 
of German Seventh Day Baptist ancestry.) While several of us 
warmed our hands at the stove, the bandmen arrived. First came a 
ruddy farmer, clean shaven In neat blue overalls and carrying a 
trumpet. Then followed a tall man In overalls and high top boots, 
barely able to lug his huge Sousaphone through the narrow door- 
way. Then young high school students and gray haired men and 
even one or two middle aged mothers appeared. Soon after we had 
started to practice, the minister of the Seven Day church strolled In 
with his mellophone. The Salemville Band, with a membership of 
thirty or more. Is constantly called upon by the surrounding towns 
for thirty and more miles around. Another even more popular com- 
munity organization whose nucleus Is largely Dunkards and "Sleben 
Tagers" Is the Morrison's Cove Male Chorus. The past directors 
of this group have also been Seventh Day Baptists and Dunkards. 

The musical little Salemville settlement may or may not have 
derived its musical Interests from the Ephrata and Snow Hill Influ- 
ences. Certainly their music Is of a vastly different type. However, 
the fact remains that Salemville, one community settled by Belssel's 
spiritual children, stands at the very top In natural musical talent 
and Interest. The Interest here seems to be directly traceable to 
Beissel because of the presence of one of the few German Seventh 










V 




38 SCHWARZENAU 

Day Baptist churches in existence. No doubt, Pennsylvania as well 
as other states, may never know how many other little communities 
are bursting anew with the musical seeds planted by Belssel. 

In recent years, a wave of Interest has revived some of the Eph- 
rata Cloister music, transcribed Into modern notation. The work of 
Julius Friedrich Sachse and of the Committee on Historical Re- 
search of the Pennsylvania Society of the Colonial Dames of Amer- 
ica has been largely responsible for what we do know of the music 
of the Ephrata Cloister. At the Church of the Brethren Annual 
Conference of 1935, Professor A. F. BrlghtblU directed the Con- 
ference Choir In several of the old Ephrata Chorales. The next 
year the Juniata College choir, under the direction of Professor C. 
L. Rowland, had a few of the chorales In their reportoire. Research 
and interest continues in the two-century old Ephrata music. 

We who feel a close kinship with the German Seventh Day Bap- 
tist Brethren would be very happy to say with M. G. Brumbaugh, 
one time Governor of Pennsylvania and President of Juniata Col- 
lege, that "Ephrata was the musical center of colonial America. "^^ 
Surely we can agree with Hazel Gertrude KInscella, that the Ger- 
man settlers at Ephrata have left a worthy legacy .^^ However, be- 
fore we honor Ephrata with the title THE Musical Center of Colo- 
nial America, we must pause a moment out of respect to the other 
musical groups In colonial America. Particularly, we must mention 
the music of the Moravians at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where they 
founded a college of music before 1750, an orchestra was Introduced, 
oratorios were given before 1800, and to this day there are annual 
Bach celebrations. Therefore It does not seem proper to call either 
of these two eastern Pennsylvania towns THE musical center. 
Nevertheless, Ephrata stands superlative in her specialty, the devel- 
opment of seven-part harmonies, which has no counterpart in Amer- 
ican musical activity In her century and that which followed. Beis- 
sel's musical system Is likely the earliest musical system evolved 
during the eighteenth century, and a native Pennsylvania product. 
The singing at Ephrata was such as "had never been equaled in the 
Christian church from the days of Ignatius on, to whom was first 
made known by revelation the antiphonal mode of singing practised 
by the Holy Angels."-^ 



23. Brumbaugh, op. cit., p. 463. 

24. Hazel Gertrude Kinscella, Music on the Air, p. 145. 

25. John Joseph Stouclt, Consider the Lilies How They Grow, p. 143. 



HYMNODY OF THE BRETHREN IN THE 
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

William Beery 

An attempt to write the history of the Christian church in her 
activities and ministries, true and adequate, without saying anything 
about its hymnody, would be comparable to an effort to explain the 
performances of an airplane and forgetting to mention the motors 
and wings and their functions. Just as the airplane can be of no 
practical use without motor power to give it life and wings to lift 
and carry, so the church without the use of hymns and music is vitally 
handicapped in her efforts to carry on. The hymns provide spiritual 
power, and the tunes lift and carry. 

The Church of the Brethren has not been without hymnody dur- 
ing the more than two centuries of her life. The Brethren, from 
the beginning, have regarded hymn singing in the church services 
and all religious meetings as in a high degree essential and helpful 
in the carrying on of the work; as is evidenced by the fact that their 
history abounds in references to the use of it. Not only so, but in 
the early days of their church life in America a considerable number 
,of hymn books were printed on a press established and owned by 
them. It is also noteworthy that there were among them some who 
wrote hymns, and those who possessed more than ordinary musical 
ability and talent to lead in the singing of hymns. 

At the time of the organization of the Church of the Brethren in 
Germany, music, vocal and instrumental, had already reached a high 
degree of development in Europe. Congregational singing had be- 
come prevalent, largely as a result of the impetus given it by Martin 
Luther at the time of the Reformation. The charter members of the 
new denomination had previously belonged to other communions 
then in existence — Lutherans, Presbyterians, Reformed, etc. In 
these churches they of course profited by the musical advantages thus 
afforded, which stood them well in hand in their new relations. 

As to the manner in which the Brethren conducted their song serv- 
ices in those early days of their religious activities no definite infor- 
mation is available. Nor do we know what hymns they sang, but 
the probability is that they used some of the hymns they learned to 

39 



40 SCHWARZENAU 

sing in the churches to which they belonged previously. Surely it 
may be assumed that their song worship was simple, sincere, and 
void of any exhibition of voice or manner, and that their singing was 
with the spirit and with the understanding also. At the time when 
the Church of the Brethren was organized a number of collections 
of hymns had already been published in Germany and America, 
some of which it is known they used in their services. A number of 
editions of some of these collections were subsequently printed on 
the press above mentioned, established, owned and operated by 
Christopher Sower. (For information concerning the setting up 
of the Sower press see A History of the Brethren by Dr. M. G. 
Brumbaugh and The Literary Activities of the Brethren in the 
Eighteenth Century by Dr. John S. Flory.) 

The first book printed on the Sower press was a hymn book, en- 
titled Zionitische Weyrauchs-Hugel, for the Ephrata congregation. 
After much delay, due to difficulties attending the efforts to obtain 
and equip this subsequently famous press, to Sower's great delight, 
it was ready for work. Sower had made his own ink, and with a 
small supply of paper on hand, the work on this first book was be- 
gun. When the proprietor began to look for more paper he found, 
to his dismay, that there was none on the market in Germantown, 
and soon learned that Benjamin Franklin, of Philadelphia, at that 
time controlled the whole stock of printing paper, and that his 
terms were cash; nor would he give credit to the "Dutch." Neither 
Sower nor Beissel, head of the Ephrata Society, had the ready 
cash. 

Fortunately, one of the members of the Ephrata Brotherhood, 
Conrad Weiser, who was financially able, came to the rescue by 
going to Philadelphia and making satisfactory arrangements with 
Franklin and procuring the paper of which they were so much in 
need. So the work on the book was resumed. Some of the cloister- 
ites had had some experience in the art of printing; the Rev. Peter 
Miller being an experienced printer was made supervisor; Samuel 
Eckerlin and Michael Wohlfare set most of the type and acted as 
advisory board. Among the 692 hymns furnished for this book 
there were a number of compositions by Conrad Beissel and his asso- 
ciates. While in the process of printing Sower noticed some hymns 
that did not appeal to his sense of propriety or taste. One of Beis- 
sel's own pieces was especially obnoxious to Sower because it seemed 



HYMNODY OF BRETHREN 41 

to him to be a fulsome and almost idolatrous glorification of Conrad 
Beissel. Hoping to obtain permission from Beissel to leave this out 
and substitute another Sower wrote him a letter which evidently 
lacked the discretion or tact necessary to get what he desired. 

The following excerpts from letters which passed between the 
two men indicate the spirit of the correspondence. It is gratifying 
to know, however, that a reconciliation followed some time later. 

LETTER 

From Sower to Beissel 

I have been in the last few days in hopes that the work which I did 
and caused to be done upon the hymn book should redound to the honor of 
God, to whom I am under greatest obligations for all that He has done for 
me, and I remain bound to Him even if I shall see no good day more. It is 
His way that if we dismiss all which is not from Him He fills with that 
which more concerns Him. The result is that we love all that is from Him, 
and have a hatred and horror of all that does not please Him. In the be- 
ginning much remains concealed, while we are in the shoes of children as 
the saying is, which in youth and manhood becomes as clear as day. I have 
therefore with patience overlooked some hymns, which I had rather sacri- 
ficed to Vulcan by throwing them in the fire. I thought something might 
be given to the first alphabet scholars as it were according to their ability, 
and which they could grasp and that it would not be wise to break down the 
first rongs of the ladder. I have willingly let go what the amateur poet 
through vanity and sentiment has brought together, especially since Brother 
Peter Miller said to me: "The worst soldiers are always put to the first 
rank." Taking this view of it I had nothing more to say. Afterwards so 
much wood, straw, stubble and trash came that it went pretty hard with me. 
It was very deeply impressed upon me that each work should be a birth to 
appear in eternity, not in the lightness of mercurial pictures drawn by men 
but to stand in the clean way. However I remained in hope that something 
better would come in the future. A still greater mercy befell me, to wit : 
In the beginning of the 16th rubric or division there was placed a silly 
hymn which, on first reading through it, I considered to be among the stu- 
pid amateur poetry and I wished that something better could be put in its 
place. In the 29th verse it runs : 

"Der doch traged deine Last 
Und dabei hat wenig Rast." 

There I stopped and read the remainder over again, but while I was 
attending to sonie other business it was printed. I was not at ease about it. 
I thought that if it should come, either here or in Germany or anywhere 
else, before the eyes of an enlightened spirit who has found and delights 
in God and his Saviour as the true rest, he might be deceived by such miser- 
able stuff after such a magnificently brilliant title-page and I should be a- 
shamed because of my negligence. 



42 SCHWARZENAU 

I might perhaps be able to find excuses that would answer before men, 
but in my breast would burn a fire that would be quenched by no excuses. I 
thereupon asked Brother Samuel whether he did not think a great mistake 
had been made in writing, since unskilled poets are often compelled for the 
sake of their rhyme to use words which destroy the sense. He said to me, 
"No, I shall let it stand as it is." I consented to do it then because it sud- 
denly occurred to me that in the pine forests the industrious ants gather 
together straw, wood, earth, shells and resin from the pines which they 
carry underneath into the hill, and that this is called "Weyrauch." This 
pacified me to some extent because it accorded with the title. Still I could 
not reconcile the word "Zionitsche" with it, because upon Mt. Zion no such 
collection can be found as I have described. 

But you said in the meeting when I was there that every word was suit- 
able for Mt. Zion. That is easily said if a man has a well smoothed tongue. 
You will find out otherwise however. ... I read the whole hymn over 
again once more and saw the man who was intended and it gave me great 
sorrow. But I remembered how far the human race depart from God and 
that man is inclined to idolatry and easily moved to make images to honor 
himself while the tendency to depart from the true way is born in him. 

I determined then to write to you and ask you whether you had not 
seen or read this piece or had not considered what a dreadful production it 
is ; to say that without serious difificulty it can still be taken out and in its 
place something to the honor of God, or for the good of weak souls can be 
put in ; . . . and to ask you whether on the other hand it was done accord- 
ing to your wish and inclination. . . . The angel struck not the unwitting 
people because they were inclined to idolatry but him who accepted the 
godly honor. Already you suffer yourself to be called "Father." . . . You 
are the greatest God in the community. . . . And did you not the other 
day in the meeting significantly and at great length speak of this idolatry? 
. . , And now will they with full throats sing : 

"Sehet, sehet, sehet an! 
Sehet, sehet an den mann ! 
Der von Gott erhohet ist 
Der ist unser Herr und Christ." 

(Translation) 

"Look, look, look! 
Look, look upon the man 1 
He is exalted by God, 
He is our Lord and Christ." 

. . . There is nothing more to say except that, with the permission of 
Brother Micheal, I should like, if I might, to take out this one hymn and 
put another in its place because it concerns the honor of God. It is easy to 
see that I have no earthly concern in it and that the influence of no man's 
interest has anything to do with it. ... I am sure that a thousand pounds 
would not persuade me to print such a one, for the reason that it leads the 
easy way to idolatry. If it were my paper it would have been already 
burned. With such disposition of the matter for my own part I can be at 
peace. God will find a way to protect His honor. As to the rest, I love 
thee still. 



HYMNODY OF BRETHREN 43 

LETTER 
From Betssel to Sower 

In some respects the subject is entirely too bad for me to have any- 
thing to do with it, since it has been written : "Answer not a fool according 
to his folly, least thou also be like him." "Answer a fool according to his 
folly, least he be wise in his own conceit." This is the reason that I have 
been moved and thou needest not think that thou hast made a point. But 
that I should be like unto thee from having to do' with thee will not happen, 
since we already before made the mistake of having too much to do with 
thee. Thou wast not fit for our community. Therein also was fulfilled what 
has been written : "As he that taketh away a garment in cold weather, and 
as vinegar upon niter, so is he that singeth songs to an heavy heart." 

If thou hadst not always acted in this way it might perhaps have been 
thought that there was some reason for it, but since thy whole heart is 
always ready to blame what is above thy conceited sophist-Heaven, it is no 
wonder that thou comest now puffed up with such foolish and desperate 
conceit; through which thou layest thyself so bare that any one who has 
only ordinary eyes can see that thou art indeed a miserable sophist. If thou 
hadst only learned natural morality thou wouldst not have been so puffed 
up. A wise man does not strive to master or to describe a cause of which 
he has neither comprehension or experience, but it is otherwise with a fool. 
Thou ought first to go to school and learn the lowly and despised way of 
the cross of Jesus before thou imaginest thyself to be a master. Enough 
for thee. This may inform thee that henceforth I will have nothing to do 
with thy two-sided, double-hearted, odious and half -hypocritical preten- 
sions of godliness, since thy heart is not clean before God, otherwise thou 
wouldst walk upright in the way and go not to the crooked way thou dost. 

One almost springs aloft when he sees how shamefully the name of 
God is misused. The world sings its little song and dances straight and 
without hesitation to hell, and covers it over with the name of God so that 
the deception and wickedness may not be seen. Believe me, thy way is sure 
to come before God, thy juggling tricks and spiritual slight of hand which 
thou, from the natural stars and not in the true fear of God, hast learned 
will come to judgment. And I say unto thee as the word of truth that if 
thou dost not make atonement and change thy heart thou mayest expect a 
wrathful and terrible God, since the Lord is hostile to all that is double- 
faced and false. Indeed, the paths that lead from thee run through one 
another so wonderfully that the wonder is that God does not punish it at 
once as He did the rebellious pack, — Korah, Dathan and Abiram. 

Thou hast also in thy letter to me said that a fire burned in thy breast 
over this or that. It would be a good thing if that fire, if there is one, should 
consume thee until there should nothing remain but a soft and sweet spring 
of water in which thy heart might be mollified to true repentance. Then 
indeed couldst thou for the first time learn to know rightly what is from 
God and what is from nature, what from God and what from the stars in 
the heavens. ... 

As concerning those other things in which one man has to do with 
another it has also come to an end. Further and lastly it is my determina- 
tion to remain as I have said above. I am so tired of the untruth of men 
that if I were not under the greatest necessity, if God did not plainly intend 



44 SCHWARZENAU 

and it were not His will that I must be needed for the cause of conscience 
I would rather be dismissed into the still everlasting. On that account I 
would have prayed that I might henceforth be spared from such defama- 
tion, but should it give pleasure to load me with more of it I shall bear 
myself as one who knows not that there are such things in the world. I 
will at the last be separated from all and will no further participate pro or 
con. Still will I in some measure continue my writing and do it again if 
circumstances require it. 

What I have still further to say is this : that henceforth all right over 
my person shall be taken entirely out of thy hands, since thou for many 
years hast gone to work so wonderfully about it as if thou hast bought it 
for a sum of money in order to do with it according to thy pleasure. Thou 
must not think that one is blind and foolish and dost not see what thou hast 
in mind. It does not even please me that I could write German to thee, 
since thy envy and falsehood are so great that it is not easy to measure them. 
Therefore I consider thee entirely unfit to be a judge in Godly affairs, and 
for this reason I have little or nothing more to answer to thy letter. Thou 
hast no experience in the way of God, for thou all the time walkest thine 
own way. 

Sower's Comment 

We have now heard a voice, whether it came from Mt. Zion or Mount 
Sinai may those judge who know the difference. I am inclined to make a 
comment upon each word but every one may make his own as he chooses. 
I wish him only the soft sweet spring of water which he needs instead of 
the fiery zeal of Sinai. Otherwise when he goes forth soon will he make 
fire fall from heaven, which we always hear crackle in his letter, and do 
signs and wonders. If I had thought he would take the trouble to describe 
my propensities and his, I should have sent him a great register of the old 
Adam in me which I could describe much better than he. Since I for a 
long time have besought God to enable me thoroughly to discern their enor- 
mity, and since I have found so much to do with myself I am ready to say 
the simple truth so that man need not to be disturbed about me. And this 
is the reason for my long silence, and also for my seldom thinking of his 
person, not that it is too bad for me, but it can neither aid nor hinder me. 
If I were in such a position as he, to give my natural possession I should 
need only the princes and powerful who still to a considerable degree have 
rule over the conceited Sophist-heaven, since they desire so much to rule 
upon earth and to fasten their throne there. I could also have given him 
certain information that I have been beloved by spiritual persons who truly 
were more beautiful and purer than those whom he holds above Christ. 

God has also willed it that I for the same time cannot otherwise believe 
than that all is good to which the same spirit impelled me. I blame not the 
spirit which impelled him. He is God's creature. I only say: he is not 
clean, and is still far from the spirit of Christ. I rejoice that he praises 
God the Lord as all good spirits do, and in that respect I love him. I hate 
only the untruth which he brings to light and wishes to lay in the hearts of 
men. . . . 

When one approaches him he shows first the complaisance of Jove; 
when one bends, rises, heeds well he finds his sweetness and lovingness 
from Venus, his solar understanding and mercurial readiness. If one fails 
a little he shows the gravity and earnestness of Saturn. If one attacks 



HYMNODY OF BRETHREN 45 

only a little his spiritual pride he shows the severity of Mars with thunder 
and lightning, popely ban, the sword of vengeance and fiery magic. . . . 

Therefore I have said, I would counsel no one without higher strength 
to oppose this Spirit. It is very powerful. He has intruded upon my 
ethereal past, which has taught me how it goes with others, and now I have 
need of the support of my Saviour, and to press into the center of love or 
heart of Jesus where this aqua fortis cannot reach. 

It has happened because of his beautiful and well-proportioned nature 
that he would like to be something great. He looked upon the dumb crea- 
tures in their deformity and wanted to bring them to the right. For this 
purpose he takes to means, method and way which pleased him. So that 
now all must dance according to his will, and do what through the power 
of his magic he compels. But I also want to say that I by no means over- 
look what he has in him which is good, and I freely recognize that he has 
much that a true Christian cannot be without, and this many innocent peo- 
ple see and they are drawn to him by it. But for myself I can never be 
attached to him for the reason that I know that his teaching hitherto has 
been a compound of Moses, Christ, Gichtel and Conrad Beissel. And no 
one of them complete. 

If he had not for the future taken entirely out of my hands all right 
to his holy person, I could and would have opened up to him the inner 
ground of his heart a little between him and me alone, but I must now be 
entirely silent for I am bound hand and foot. It seems to me that during 
the two weeks which he took to write to me he did not remember Him who 
suffered an entirely different proposition from sinners who, although it was 
in the godly image, held it not for a wrong to be like God but lowered Him- 
self and became a man. But this one must be regarded as God, and there- 
fore the little calf should and must remain upon its place. When my Saviour 
had done a little deed He desired it should be unknown. But to this god we 
must sing to his folly. 

If I had ten hymns in the book and had been requested I would have 
taken them out, but Conrad is not accustomed to having his will broken. I 
could have overlooked it in silence out of natural morality and as a printer, 
but it concerned the love of God that I should not be silent. The spiritual 
harlotry and idolatry would have been increased and confirmed my sup- 
port. I would rather die of hunger than earn my bread in such a way. I 
have, without baptizing myself and letting myself be baptized four times 
(like him), still not had the freedom to ask of him that he make an officer 
of me; but I gave myself to Him, as He best knows, as poor clay to be 
formed in His hand as by a potter, or to be thrown into a corner as clay 
which is worthless. He has nevertheless appointed me as the least beneath 
His standard as a sentry to watch my post, a watchword has been given to 
me which reads "love and humility." ... I must then fire my piece so 
that each upon his post may be warned. But since the Commander is not 
far away He will Himself have a care. To Him only the honor. For me 
willingly the shame. 



46 SCHWARZENAU 

LIST OF TITLES 

The following list of titles of the hymn books printed on the 
Sower press, with annotations, will give some idea of the spiritual 
nature of their contents, as well as of the sincere, conscientious 
Christian minds and hearts of those who wrote and compiled them. 

The first, Zionitische Weyrauchs-Hugel, was begun in the early 
part of June, 1738, and completed in about one month's time. Ex- 
odus 30 :34-36 is given as a partial explanation of the peculiar word- 
ing of the title. 

On the title page are these words : Zionitic Incense Hill or Moun- 
tain of Myrrh Wherein there is to be found all sorts of lovely and 
sweet-scented incense, prepared according to the apothecary art. 
Consisting of divers workings of effectual love in God-awakened 
souls, which has developed in many and various lovely hymns. Also 
herein the last call to the supper of the great God, in various ways 
is most admirably set forth, for services of those who, in this be- 
nighted part of the world, at the setting of the sun. Awakened 
Church of God, and is given to the light for their encouragement, 
upon the midnight advent of the bridegroom. 

The book proper has a preface of ten pages. To the complete 
book there is an appendix of 45 pages, containing 38 hymns. The 
title of the appendix reads : The once withered but now requickened 
and fruit-bearing rod of Aaron, consisting of an appendix of weighty 
hymns, fraught with experience; Wherein the steps of God within 
His sanctuary are circumstantially presented, for the encourage- 
ment of the orphans and forsaken in Zion. 

Upon the reverse of the title is a quotation from the Song of Sol- 
omon, VIII : 6, 7. The majority of the hymns were original with 
Beissel and his followers; but a number of popular German hymns 
were included evidently on account of the familiarity of the tunes, 
if not the associations of the Fatherland. 

The mystic cult Weyrauch is but a synonym of gebet, prayer. 
It was taught that when lighted during supplication the prayer be- 
came corporeal and was wafted in fragrant clouds toward heaven. 
Upon this account the gun was kept exclusively for religious uses. 
A Hugel, or hillock, also denoted an object held in special venera- 
tion by the mystics, as the rising sun first gilded the hill tops when 
it rose in the east. Thus from time immemorial hills have always 
been designated as holy ground and became the chosen place for 
offering sacrifice. 



HYMNODY OF BRETHREN 47 

To the adepts the chief line meant more than a mere hill of in- 
cense. It typified the volume as a book of prayer, which, if properly 
used, like the visible fumes of burning incense, go direct to the 
throne of grace. 

Ausbund. — Of this collection at least four editions were printed 
on the Sower press — 1742, 1751, 1752 and 1767.' ttis book was ^ 
especially popular with the Mennonites, and was extensively used '^ 
by most of the orthodox Christians for more than two hundred ^^ ^« 
years. It was a large, cumbersome volume. Most of the hymns ^^ 
were long, consisting of biographical details of the martyred Chris- ' ^^^ 

tians. It was first printed in Switzerland, in 1583. It is altogether 
likely that the Brethren used this book in America. 

Das Kleine Dividische Psalterspiel. — This was printed in Ger- 
many in 1718. It was also a large and heavy book, containing more 
than a thousand hymns, many of them also long, but perhaps less 
personal, and most of them of better quality than those in the Aus- 
bund. This, it seems, was the hymn book used by most of the Breth- 
ren congregations when they came to America. 

The Psalter. — In many of the European countries the Psalter 
was the hymn book used for centuries, and we are told that the 
Brethren used it in their worship. Sower printed a number of edi- 
tions of this book. 

Das Wonderspiel. — This was used for many years by the Bunk- 
ers, until they issued one for themselves in 1791. 
"""Bekanthusz Sines Christen. — ^This was a supplement added to the 
Ausbund in 1752. 

Die Turtel Taube. — 1753. 

Das Kleine GeistUche Harfe. — ^A Mennonite hymn book; also 
Das Mennonisten Liederbiich. — 1753. 

ekantnusz Sines Christen. — This was a supplement added to the 
Ausbund in 1752. 

Marburger Gesang buch, the first Lutheran hymn book printed 
in America.— 1757, 1759, 1762. 

N eu-Eingerichteted Gesang-Buch. This was a hymn book for 
the Schwenkfelders. — 1762. 

N eu-V ermenhrt und Vollstandges Gesang-Buch. — 1763, 1772. 

Follstandges Marburger Gesang-Buch. — 1770, 1774, 1777. 

Der Psalter Davids. — 1773. 




'< 



48 SCHWARZENAU 

The following were printed on the same press (reconstructed). 
(See Brumbaugh and Flory histories.) 

Vollstandges Marbtirger Gesang-Buch. — 1784. 
Erbauliche Lieder Samlung, — a Lutheran hymn book. — 1786. 
Liebliche und Erbauliche Lieder. — 1788. 

The Christian's Duty, Exhibited in a Series of Hymns. This was 
the first really Dunker Hymn Book printed in America. The first 
edition was printed in 1791, and another in 1825. On the title page 
of the 1825 edition are these words : Collected from various authors, 
designed for THE WORSHIP OF GOD, and for the edification 
of Christians recommended to the serious of all denominations, by 
the Fraternity of Baptists. 

Fourth Edition, Improved 

Germantown 

Published by John Leibert 

Billmeyer, printer 

1825 

The other two editions were issued at intervals between 1791 and 

1825. 

Die Kleine Harfe, an appendix to Das kleine Davidische Psalter- 
spiel, which ran through the eighth edition before the end of the 
eighteenth century. 

(To be continued) 

A STUDY OF THE YEARBOOK OF THE 
CHURCH OF THE BRETHREN 

Chester I. Harley 

(Continued from October Number) 

CHAPTER VII 

An Index of the Yearbook 

This chapter is intended to be the most useful part of this study. 

When J. E. Miller suggested a study of the Yearbook as a possible 

thesis subject he gave this as one of the primary purposes of such 

a study. On a card of November 1, 1938, from J. E. Miller he 

wrote this: 

"We have an index of some of the Yearbooks. That should be com- 
pleted and thus make the Yearbook doubly valuable to future generations." 



THE YEARBOOK 49 

When I first started indexing the Yearbook I began to include 
every article of every Yearbook. I soon began to realize this would 
be a tremendous task. But more than that, there would be much 
"chaff among the wheat". Many of these articles had titles which 
suggested history, doctrine, or some subject of special interest when 
in reality it was only a joke, or something akin to it, or it would be 
only a few lines long if it were really on the subject. Other articles, 
such as "Household Hints", "Wife-Poisoning", "Give the Baby a 
Drink", or "Coach Varnish" would hardly be enough to send a 
person to his attic to dig out the old "Brethren's Almanac". Real- 
izing these facts, I wrote to J. E. Miller, asking his advice. His 
reply in part in a letter of March 28, 1939 was as follows: 

"Your good judgment will tell you what to put in and what to leave 
out. And remember good cooks are good not only because of what they 
put into their food, but also what they leave out." 

I have tried to follow this advice in forming the index. There 
have been no articles containing doctrine, biography, history, items 
about the Bible, articles concerning the Church, etc., intentionally 
omitted. Exceptions may be cited as the Ministerial List, which 
appeared every year; the almanac, which appeared every year 
through 1928; and other such bits of information as appear in 
nearly every recent issue. The member who is interested enough 
to make inquiry through this index will know enough about the 
Yearbook to know that these regular features appear anyway. In 
some cases I have given the first year for the appearance of certain 
articles, stating that they will be found in certain years which follow. 

Before choosing or rejecting any article, I read at least enough 
of it to know whether or not, in my judgment, it were worth includ- 
ing. 

The pages of the Almanacs, beginning with the Pilgrim Almanac 
in 1873 and continuing through 1890, were not numbered. There- 
fore I penciled in the numbers at the tops of the pages of the Al- 
manacs here in the Bethany Seminary Library. I began the num- 
bering with the first page after the cover page, just as the other 
Yearbooks did. Thus by following from page one it will be easy to 
locate articles in this period. 

With these explanations, the following index is listed with the 

hope that it may enable searchers to easily find valuable articles 
i 



50 SCHWARZENAU 

which have appeared in the Yearbook from its beginning in 1871 
through the year 1939: 

ARTICLE 
Abilene Church, Kansas, A History of the, 
Admissions About Baptism 
Advice to Parents 
Age of Man 
Aid Society 
xA.id Society 
Aid Society 
Aid Society 
Aid Society 
Alfred Shakers, The 
Almanacs 

Among the Mountains 
Ancient Civilization of Peru, The 
Ancient Cliff Dwellers, The 
Ancient Portraits of Paul and Peter 
Ancient Wine Press 
Ancient Wonders 
Anecdotes of the Brethren 
Annual Meeting Delegates 
Annual Meeting of 1856 
Annual Meeting for 1905 
Annual Meeting for 1906 
Annual Meeting for 1907 
Annual Meeting for 1908 
Annual Meeting for 1909 
Annual Meeting for 1910 
Antietam Church, FrankUn Co., Pa. 
Antietam Church, Franklin Co., Pa., History of the 
Antietam Congregation, Pa. 
Approximate Baptismal Statistics 
Arnold, C. E. 

Astonishing Accuracy of the Bible 
Aughwick Church, Huntingdon Co., Pa., History of the 
Baby Over the Way, The, (Poem) 

Bachelor Run Church, Carroll Co., Indiana, History of the 
Baptism in the Jordan, Dec. 6, 1889, The 
Baptism of Jesus, The 

Baptist Brethren, Original Hist, of the, (Pilgrim Almanac) 
Baptizing in Samaria 
Barnhart, A. B. 
Bashor, Elder M. M. 

Beaverdam, Md., Church of, (Pilgrim Almanac) 
Becker, Peter 
Berkebile, Steven P. 

Best Cultivated Co., in America, The, (Lancaster Co., Pa.) 
Beyond, (Poem) 
Bible Arithmetic 



Year 


Page 


1905 


25 


1883 


11 


1880 


25 


1876 


13 


1925 


33 


1926 


35 


1927 


41 


1928 


65 


1929 


38 


1889 


7 


1887 


9 


1904 


15 


1896 


31 


1914 


17 


1895 


3 


1876 


11 


1882 


15 


1871 


23 


1911 


29 


1913 


19 


1905 


13 


1906 


19 


1907 


33 


1908 


33 


1909 


34 


1910 


31 


1877 


13 


1879 


17 


1905 


19 


1880 


7 


1903 


21 


1888 


13 


1878 


21 


1911 


19 


1901 


11 


1893 


13 


1895 


27 


1874 


13 


1902 


29 


1921 


47 


1914 


19 


1874 


5 


1871 


19 


1920 


46 


1884 


5 


1888 


19 


1882 


23 



THE YEARBOOK 51 

Bit of Southern History, A _ 1903 15 

Black River Congregation of Northeastern Ohio 1905 21 

Blessings in Disguise 1888 19 

Blough, P. J. 1921 50 

Board of Christian Education 1933 6 

Board of Religious Education 1930 27 

Board of Religious Education 1931 26 

Board of Religious Education 1932 12 

Bollinger, Dan (Pilgrim Almanac) 1873 7 

Bowman, Elder G. C., of Tennessee, A Character Sketch 1899 17 

Brethren, The (Pilgrim Almanac) 1873 17 

Brethren and Their Reformatory Movement, The 1897 3 

Brethren Church in Franklin County, Va., The 1901 9 

Brethren Church in Franklin County, Va., The 1909 32 

Brethren Historical Society, The 1925 37 

Brethren in Southern California 1904 13 

Brethren Mission Field in India 1908 31 

Brethren's Mission, The 1894 33 

Brethren on the Stormy Ocean, The 1890 11 

Brethren or "Dunkards", The 1891 3 

Brethren Publishing House, The 1925 34 

Brethren Publishing House, The 1927 43 

Brethren Reading Couse 1934 63 
Brief Biography of the Brotherhood, in Western Penna., 

Western Maryland, and Western Virginia 1873 18 

Bright, John Calvin 1920 41 

Brower, Elder Peter 1916 21 

Brownsville Church, Maryland, History of the 1879 17 

Brubaker, Charles H., of India 1912 17 

Brumbaugh, H. B. 1920 43 

Brumbaugh, J. B. 1923 57 

Buffalo Valley Church, Middle Dist., Pa. 1875 9 
B. Y. P. D. Cabinets, (These appear every year from this 

time to the present and hence are not indexed each year. ) 1928 53 

Calvert, Mills, In Memoriam, The Death of 1878 9 

Cassel, Abraham H. 1908 21 

Caylor, Eld. Elias, Biography of 1889 9 

Centennial Items 1876 3 

Century's Changes, A 1882 9 

Character 1885 13 

Chicago Church, The 1895 9 

Child Rescue Work 1919 27 

Child-Saving Work of Oklahoma 1913 31 

Christian Home, The 1894 31 

Christian Workers' Society 1920 25 

Christian Workers' Society 1921 26 

Christian Workers' Society 1922 29 

Christian Workers' Society 1923 34 

Christmas 1904 29 

Christ's Love 1882 11 

Church and Family Chronicles 1873 16 



52 SCHWARZENAU 

Church and Her Ministry, The 

Church and Her Ministry, The 

Church and Her Ministry, The 

Church and Her Ministry, The 

Church Directory for Cities 

Church in North Dakota 

Church of the Brethren, The Origin of 

Church of the Brethren in Pennsylvania in 1770 

Churches and Missions, With Pastors or Elders in Charge, 

(These appear every year through 1927 and hence are 

not indexed separately for each year.) 
Churches of S. W. Missouri 
Churches Organized 
Civil War Times 
Communion Bread 
Communion Wine 
Compassion 
Computation of Time 
Compulsory Military Service 
Confessions of an Editor 
Confidence in Christ 

Conversion Admits of no Degrees, (Pilgrim Almanac) 
Coon River Church, Iowa 
Corrections for the List of Annual Meetings in Last 

Year's Almanac 
Cost of War and Education 
Cottage at Bethany, The 
Council Meetings 
Council of Boards, The 
Council of Boards, The 
Council of Boards, The 
Council of Promotion 
Council of Promotion 
Council of Promotion 
Council of Promotion 
Council of Women's Work, The 
Council of Women's Work, The 
Counsel for the Young 
Country Boy, The 
Courage in the Right, (Poem) 
Cripe, Eld. J. W., Sketches from the Life of 
Crumpacker, Abram, (Pilgrim Almanac) 
Curiosities of the Jordan 
Curious Legend, A 
Daily Comic Pictures 
Damascus 
Darst, Elder John 
Dates of Sacred Events 
Day and Year of Christ's Crucifixion 
Deeter, William R. 
Description of Christ 



1928 


71 


1929 


40 


1930 


41 


1931 


45 


1904 


34 


1896 


27 


1911 


21 


1914 


24 


1910 


31 


1881 


17 


1876 


21 


1915 


26 


1902 


34 


1895 


15 


1883 


7 


1875 


33 


1916 


25 


1919 


32 


1881 


15 


1873 


11 


1903 


31 


1889 


17 


1895 


29 


1889 


11 


1897 


32 


1929 


4 


1930 


4 


1931 


4 


1925 


2 


1926 


3 


1927 


3 


1928 


22 


1930 


39 


1931 


32 


1877 


19 


1902 


29 


1888 


9 


1902 


27 


1873 


5 


1878 


17 


1885 


9 


1916 


11 


1894 


29 


1872 


20 


1882 


9 


1884 


11 


1919 


48 


1889 


11 



THE YEARBOOK 53 

Devotional 1889 21 

Directory of the Churches, (These appear every year from 

this time to the present and hence are not indexed 

each year.) 1928 78 

Dispensary Work in India 1905 30 

District Meetings for 1900, (These appear nearly every 

year for a number of years and hence are not indexed 

each year) 1900 31 

District Ministerial Boards, (These appear every year from 

this time to the present and hence are not indexed 

each year) 
District Missionary Secretaries 
District Welfare Boards 
Doctrine of Election, The 
Don't Be Too Certain 
Dreadful Silence, A 
Dream of Truth, A 
Dress Reform 

Dry Creek Church, Linn Co., Iowa, Historical Sketch of the 
Duboy, Abram 
Early Training 
Easter and Pentecost Dates 
Eby, Elder Enoch, A Biographical Sketch of 
Echoes from Eternity, Soliloquies 
Echoes from the Press 
Editorial 

Education and Our Church 
Education vs. Money, or What Education Does 
Eighteen Eighty Nine 
Elgin, The Brethren Church, 
Elk Lick, Pennsylvania 
Elkhart Church, The 
Elklick Congregation, Pa., History of the 
Emmert, Bro. David 
Emmert, Elder Jos., (Pilgrim Almanac) 
Episode by Brother A. Harper 
Eshelman, M. M. 
Ethical Code for Ministers and Congregations of the 

Church of the Brethren 
Every Tongue Shall Confess — Rom. 14:11. 
Extract of the Census of 1880 
Facts About Our Schools 
Facts for the Curious 
Family Prayer 
Family Religion 

Farewell Words, (By H. R. Holsinger) 
Father's Return 
Feetwashing 
Few Moments Aside, A 
Fifteen Follies 
Filmore, John H. 



1926 


45 


1914 


Z7 


1932 


17 


1916 


28 


1873 


19 


1913 


33 


1910 


29 


1919 


28 


1895 


ZZ 


1872 


19 


1877 


7 


1907 


15 


1911 


7 


1875 


35 


1881 


7 


1928 


16 


1902 


11 


1905 


11 


1889 


3 


1905 


7 


1907 


17 


1889 


29 


1902 


13 


1912 


13 


1873 


7 


1874 


19 


1922 


56 


1936 


64 


1892 


15 


1882 


19 


1927 


32 


1883 


17 


1879 


11 


1881 


13 


1874 


14 


1903 


34 


1883 


3 


1898 


21 


1881 


19 


1909 


23 



54 SCHWARZENAU 

Fingal Cave, The 1901 13 

First American Bible 1877 3 

First Love Feast and Church in Barbour County, W. Va. 1915 21 

Flat Rock, Valley of Virginia 1877 7 

Florida 1895 13 

Flory, Elder John, (Pilgrim Almanac) 1873 9 

Flory, Elder Samuel 1915 3 

Forward Movement in the Church of the Brethren 1921 2 

Forward Movement in the Church of the Brethren 1922 2 

Forward Movement in the Church of the Brethren 1923 2 

Forward Movement, Our 1924 2 

Frantz, Michael 1873 15 

Frantz, Roy A. 1919 50 

Fulfillment of the Scriptures, The 1890 5 

Garber, Amanda Miller 1914 13 

Gems of Knowledge 1892 9 
General Church Erection and Missionary Committee of the 

Brethren or German Baptist Church 1889 13 

General Education 1929 35 

General Education Board of the Church of the Brethren 1917 22 

General Information for 1934 1935 62 

General Mission Board 1917 16 
General Missionary Receipts, (Not indexed separately in 

the years which follow.) 1911 29 
General Outlook, (A Forward Movement in the Church 

of the Brethren) 1918 11 

General Reform and Relief Work 1918 41 

General Reform and Relief Work 1920 27 

General Reform and Relief Work 1921 29 

General Sunday School Board 1917 27 

General Welfare Dept. 1926 37 

General Welfare Dept. 1927 35 

Germantown, A History of the Brethren Church at 1896 3 

Gibson, D. B. 1922 58 

Gish, Elder James R. 1898 27 

Gish, Elder James R. 1907 7 
Gish Publishing Fund, (These appear every year from 

this time to the present and hence are not indexed every 

year.) 1900 30 

Gluttony 1881 7 

Golden City, Jerusalem, The — Rev. 21. 1897 15 

Good Rules for All 1892 7 

Gospel Messenger, The 1904 34 

Hairy People of Ainu, Japan 1895 11 

Hamilton, Elder Hiel 1892 13 

Haughtelin, Jacob D. 1919 51 

Hays, Daniel 1918 54 

"He Leadeth Me" 1880 15 

Heckman, Elder B. F. 1914 27 

Helps to Prayer 1887 17 

Hickory Grove Church, Miami County, Ohio 1900 9 



THE YEARBOOK 55 

Hillery, Elder Lemuel 1914 9 

Historical Facts Relating to the Bible 1886 11 

Historical Sketch of the Brethren in Tennessee 1890 13 

Historical Sketch of Printing in the Church 1919 34 

History and Biography 1880 9 

History of the Brethren in Lancaster Co., Pa. 1873 21 

History of the Brethren in Southern Ohio for a Century 1906 27 

History of the Brethren's Missions 1899 5 

History of the Far Western Brethren 1890 9 

History of the Septuagint 1876 17 

Hoke, Elder Geo., (Pilgrim Almanac) 1873 7 

Holsinger, Elder Daniel M., Biographical Sketch of 1915 9 

Holsinger, George B., As He Impressed Me 1910 15 
Home and Foreign Missions, (These appear in this form 
or another in every issue to the present and hence are 

not indexed each year.) 1918 14 

Home and the Child's Religious Education 1916 9 

Homeopathy 1880 23 

Honesty Rewarded 1881 11 

Honites, The 1890 15 

Hoover, Daniel F. 1920 43 

Hoover, Samuel W. 1898 13 

Hope, Elder Christian 1908 19 

Hospital Committee 1928 67 

How All May Preach 1890 15 

How and What to Read 1876 7 

How May a Mother Exert a Good Influence over Her Boy? 1900 23 

How Old Is the English Bible? 1886 17 

How to Preach 1883 13 

How to Spoil a Child 1884 9 

Howe, W. M. 1918 55 

Ike Walton's Prayer, (Poem) 1906 25 

In Debt, in Danger 1881 21 

"Incidents in a Preacher's Life 1889 31 

India 1897 29 

Indiana Gas Boom and Conference of '93 1916 27 

Information About Mission Boards 1899 27 

Is the Church of the Brethren the True Church of Christ? 1872 21 

Items About Presidents 1885 21 

Joppa 1877 15 

Keyser, Mr. Peter 1874 17 

Klein, Elder George 1872 20 

Kline, John 1908 30 

Kline, Elder John 1898 15 

Kline, Johnny 1894 3 

Kolb, Elder Thomas J. 1915 15 

Kurtz, Elder Henry, Biography of 1878 13 

Last of the Samaritans 1878 19 

Laugh of a Happy Boy, The, (Poem) 1915 17 

Lauver, Elder J. M. 1913 34 

Law Suit Illustrated, A 1898 34 



56 SCHWARZENAU 

Leaves from Memory's Book 1904 9 

Life Everywhere 1877 17 

Limestone Church, Tennessee, The 1916 15 

List of Missionaries Under the General Board 1911 25 

Literary Activities of the Brethren in the Nineteenth Century 1919 39 

Little Brown Church, The 1913 32 

Living Church, The 1919 4 

Longanecker, Elder Samuel, Biography of 1910 21 

Lord's Box, The 1897 21 

Lord's Money, The 1898 33 

Lord's Prayer, The 1883 13 

Mack, Alexander " 1871 17 

Mack, Alexander, Sr., (Pilgrim Almanac) 1873 3 

Mack, Alexander, Jr. 1871 18 

Mack, Alexander, Jr. (Pilgrim Almanac) 1873 5 

(Mack, Elder Jacob) — Reminiscences of a Pioneer Preacher 1909 31 

Major, Sister Sarah 1901 5 

Major, Sarah 1909 13 

Marriage Formulas 1882 7 

Marsh Creek from its Organization to the Present Time, 

History of the Church at 1878 21 

Martin, George Adam 1872 15 

Mazarin Bible, The 1886 11 

McCann, S. N. 1918 58 

Measure of Life 1876 15 
Membership and Churches (These appear every year for 
a number of years and hence are not indexed each 

year.) 1911 29 

Men's Work 1929 38 

Miller, D. L. 1922 49 

Miller, D. L., Reminiscences of 1922 59 

Miller, George (Pilgrim Almanac) 1873 5 

Miller, Elder R. H. 1909 7 
Min 
Min 
Min 
Min 
Min 
Min 
Min 



ster's Little Wife, The 1911 11 

stry and the Church, The 1922 31 

stry of the Church, The 1923 Z7 

stry of the Church, The 1924 Zl 

stry of the Church 1925 42 

stry of the Church 1926 43 

stry of the Church 1927 47 

Miscellaneous Activities 1922 43 

Miscellaneous Activities 1923 51 

Miscellaneous Activities 1924 46 

Mission at Smyrna, The 1897 29 
Mission Boards and Their Organization 

(These appear every year through 1920 and hence are 

not indexed separately for each year) 1900 Z2 

Mission of the Average Man 1903 30 

Missionary Calendar 1897 27 

Missionary Chronology 1913 38 



THE YEARBOOK 57 

Missionary Collections at Annual Meeting (These appear 
every year through 1920 and hence are not indexed 
separately for each year) 

Missionary Need in the United States 

Mississinewa Church, Delaware Co., Ind., History of the 

Mohler, Elder S. S. 

Mohler, Elder Samuel, A Sketch of the Life of 

Moody on Marriage 

Moral Danger of the Theatre 

Moravians, The 

"Morbus Sabaticus" 

Morgantown Sabbath Discussion 

Most Ancient Manuscripts, The 

Mother, The 

Mother, The (Poem) 

Mound Builders, The 

Mount Lebanon Shakers, The 

Mt. Sinai 

Music Department, The 

Music Department, The 

Music Department, The 

Myers, Eld. Grabill, A Biographical Sketch of 

Naas, John 

Names Taken from Trades 

Naperville Church, DuPage Co., Illinois, History of the 

Natural Bridge 

Nature's Face Washing (Poem) 

Nazareth 

Nead, Elder Peter 

Nead, Elder Peter, In Rockingham County, Virginia 

New and the Old, The 

New Testament, The (Poem) 

New Testament Simplicity 

Newcomer, M. S. 

Newspaper Extract 

Nimishillen Church, The 

Nineteen Nineteen 

Number Seven, The 

Observations of the Closing Year 

Official Directory (These appear every year from this time 
to the present and hence are not indexed each year) 

Oimanites, History of the 

Old Age Without Religion 

Old Story in India, The 

Old-Fashioned Preacher, The 

Older Than Moses 

Oldest Bible Manuscripts, The 

On Mt. Gerizim 

On the Simplicity of Dress 

One Hundred Years Ago 

One of Our Strong Men (Elder D. P. Saylor) 



1911 


30 


1897 


27 


1902 


17 


1913 


23 


1892 


11 


1880 


7 


1876 


15 


1904 


32 


1889 


13 


1916 


17 


1885 


5 


1897 


19 


1888 


5 


1907 


13 


1904 


31 


1876 


5 


1926 


33 


1927 


40 


1928 


63 


1913 


9 


1872 


15 


1883 


15 


1878 


15 


1900 


13 


1902 


33 


1880 


3 


1909 


27 


1913 


15 


1905 


29 


1888 


13 


1915 


5 


1921 


49 


1871 


16 


1883 


11 


1920 


2 


1882 


7 


1890 


3 


1926 


3 


1888 


9 


1876 


9 


1913 


36 


1883 


7 


1902 


34 


1884 


23 


1901 


5 


1889 


15 


1875 


34 


1898 


7 



58 SCHWARZENAU 

Organization of the Coal Creek Church, Fulton Co., 111., 
Our First Acquaintance with Geo. Wolfe, etc. 

Origin of Hymns 

Origin of the Names of the Days 

Our Church History 

Our Church Music 

Our Church School Work 

Our Churches and Their Work 

Our Educational Activities 

Our Educational Work 

Our Educational Work 

Our Educational Work 

Our Educational Work 

Our Educational Work 

Our Educational Work 

Our Educational Work 

Our Educational Work 

Our First Church in Denmark 

Our First Weekly Paper and Its Editors 

Our Foreign Missionary Work 

Our Homes and Orphanages 

Our Lineage in Church Literature 

Our Meetinghouses 

Our Ministerial Force 

Our Mission and Tract Work 

Our Mission Points 

Our Missionaries in India 

Our Moral and Social Welfare 

Our Publications 

Our Sunday School Work 

Pagan Legend of Christ 

Page From History, A 

Panther Creek Church, Woodford County, Illinois, The 
Organization of the 

Parental Self-Control 

Parker, Elder I. D. 

Parsee, Jew, and Christian, The 

Past and the Future 

Peace Committee 

Peculiar Fashion, A 

Petra 

Pfau, Adrian 

Pfautz, Michael 

Places and Dates of Annual Meeting 

Planting the Church in the State of Indiana 

Population of the Earth, The 

Potter's Wheel, The 

Prayer, A Word on Family (Pilgrim Almanac) 

Praying Machine, A 

Preacher's Wife, The 

Preaching 



1877 


9 


1906 


32 


1876 


11 


1879 


3 


1921 


42 


1928 


48 


1922 


24 


1918 


33 


1923 


29 


1924 


28 


1925 


27 


1926 


27 


1927 


30 


1928 


55 


1930 


36 


1931 


42 


1902 


32 


1902 


30 


1881 


3 


1928 


68 


1878 


5 


1905 


17 


1907 


30 


1895 


19 


1898 


32 


1908 


11 


1925 


39 


1928 


17 


1896 


13 


1878 


15 


1876 


17 


1878 


15 


1888 


17 


1911 


15 


1890 


7 


1877 


11 


1919 


26 


1898 


11 


1896 


17 


1872 


20 


1874 


15 


1871 


26 


1902 


23 


1883 


17 


1905 


32 


1873 


13 


1876 


7 


1894 


25 


1880 


25 



THE YEARBOOK 59 



Prenatal Influence 

Preservation of the Bible 

Price, D. E. 

Progress of Education in the Church of the Brethren 

Progress of Education in the Church of the Brethren 

Progress of Education in the Church of the Brethren 

Publishing Interest of the Church of the Brethren 

Pulpit Voice 

Punctuality 

Pursly, Elder John W. 

Quemahoning Cong., Somerset Co., Pa., A Hist, of the 

Queries for Christian Parents 

Quinter, Elder James 

Quinter, Elder James 

Quinter, Elder James, Reminiscences of 

(Quinter, James), Some Memories of My Father's Life 

Quinter's Discussion on Freemasonry 

Raysheya to Hasbeya, From 

Reese, Elder A. W. 

Reform and Relief Work 

Reform and Relief Work 

Reform and Relief Work 

Religions of the World 

Religious Education 

Remarks Upon Courts 

Remodeling an Old Church 

Rose of Jericho, The 

Rosenberger, I. J. 

Rothenberger, Elder Geo. Philip, Biographical Sketch 

of the Life of 
Rothrock, John (Pilgrim Almanac) 
Royer, J. G. 

Rules for Telling Dates Without an Almanac, A 
Rules for Church Killing 
Sais or Forerunners 
Samaria 

Sayler, Elder D. P. 
Saylor, Daniel P. 

(Saylor, Elder D. P.), One of Our Strong Men 
Scene in Life, A 

Schools of Training for Domestic Service 
Schwarzenau, Germany, A Visit to 
Schwarzenau As I Saw It 
Sea of Galilee 
Secret of Happiness, The 
"Seek and Ye Shall Find" 
Sharpsburg, Md. 
Shermanites, The 
Ship of the Desert 

Shively, Elder D. P., Life and Work of 
Shoemaker, John (Pilgrim Almanac) 



1905 


21 


1877 


15 


1924 


55 


1919 


21 


1920 


20 


1921 


21 


1921 


41 


1880 


15 


1886 


13 


1884 


17 


1907 


21 


1885 


17 


1898 


5 


1908 


7 


1910 


11 


1903 


7 


1892 


3 


1902 


7 


1906 


7 


1922 


34 


1923 


41 


1924 


38 


1879 


3 


1929 


28 


1871 


20 


1917 


30 


1909 


11 


1924 


53 


1883 


21 


1873 


7 


1918 


56 


1884 


9 


1897 


23 


1895 


30 


1876 


11 


1908 


27 


1902 


21 


1898 


7 


1914 


36 


1904 


25 


1893 


21 


1908 


13 


1898 


3 


1885 


19 


1889 


5 


1898 


17 


1892 


17 


1900 


7 


1901 


17 


1873 


9 



60 SCHWARZENAU 

Short Sketch of the Origin and Growth of Philadelphia 

Side by Side in Death 

Simon Says "Pow Wow" 

Sisters' Aid Societies 

Snyder, Elder J. S. 

Solomon's Creek Church, Elkhart Co., Ind., History of 

Some Events of Interest in the Lives of Some of 
Our Old Brethren 

Some Facts About Our Colleges for the School Year, 
1915-1916 

Sontag, Jacob 

Sower, Christopher 

(Sower) Saur, or Sower, Christopher 

(Sower) Saurs, The Two Christophers, (Father and Son), 
First Printers of the Bible in America 

Sower's, Christopher, Arrest — An Old Document 

(Sower) Saur's Journal, Brother Christopher 

Sower, Christopher, Residence of 

Spiritual Associations and Incidents 

Spiritual Magazine, The (Pilgrim Almanac) 

Spring Run, Pa., The Church At 

Startling Statistics 

State Church in Sweden, The 

Statistics Relating to Baptism 

Steele, Lafayette L, 

Sterling, Colorado, The Church at 

Stoner, Elder Ephriam W. 

Summary Statistical Report of General Ministerial Board 
(Similar report in all following issues to the present, 
hence not indexed separately each year) 

Sunday Schools 

Sunday School Secretaries (These appear every year 
through 1928 and hence are not indexed in the 
years which follow) 1900 31 

Sunday School Statistics for the Year Ending December 
31, 1913. (These appear every year through 1926 and 
hence are not indexed separately each year) 1915 19 

Sunday School Work (These appear every year through 
1928 and hence are not indexed separately each year) 

Swenkfelders, The 

Temperance 

Temperance Committees and Their Organization (These 
appear every year through 1924 and hence are not in- 
dexed separately each year) 

Temperate Miller, The 

Ten Business Rules 

To Our Patrons 

Tract Work, The 

Tract Work, The 

Trails of the Early German Emigrants (Two Letters) 

Triplet Maxims 



1876 


15 


1905 


34 


1872 


22 


1919 


31 


1901 


7 


1878 


5 


1887 


19 


1917 


26 


1874 


16 


1898 


34 


1871 


19 


1886 


5 


1872 


17 


1882 


17 


1894 


17 


1877 


19 


1874 


11 


1878 


17 


1892 


5 


1904 


19 


1906 


30 


1919 


46 


1904 


23 


1912 


7 


1930 


44 


1876 


19 



1918 


24 


1880 


17 


1919 


23 


1912 


58 


1891 


13 


1888 


7 


1876 


5 


1921 


43 


1925 


36 


1879 


5 


1881 


11 



THE YEARBOOK 61 

Two Council Meetings 

Two Views of Life 

Unbeaten Pathway of the New Year 

Universalism 

Umstad, Elder John H. 

Umstad, J. H., A Memoir of 

Umstad, John H., Reminiscences of 

Ups and Downs 

Urner, Martin, Sr. 

Urner, Martin, Jr. 

Utz, Elder Samuel H. 

Value of Visit to the Bible Lands, The (By E. B. Hoff) 

Verses for Table Service (Poems) 

Visit to the Mamertime Prison, A 

Waddams Grove Congregation, Stephenson and Jo Daviess 

Counties, 111., Organization of 
War— What It Is (Illustration) 

Watchman's Cry — A Warning Voice (Pilgrim Almanac) 
Waterloo Congregation 
Way to Do — Is to Do, The 
Wayside Thoughts 
Welfare Department 

What Are the Children to Read? (Pilgrim Almanac) 
What Is a Minister of the Gospel? 
What Might have been (Sower's Printing) 
What the Brethren Preach 
What We Spend Our Money For 
Where All the Dead Presidents Are Buried 
Where All the Annual Meetings Have Been Held 
Where All the Annual Meetings Have Been Held 
Where the Three Thousand Were Immersed 
Whys and Wherefores 
Williams, J. H. B. 
Wisdom of Love Making 
Wise, Elder John 
Wise Words 
Wolf Creek Church, Montgomery Co., Ohio, History of 

the (Chapter I) 
Wolf Creek Church, Ohio, History of the (Chapter II) 
Wolfe, Elder George 
Wolfe, Elder George 
Wolfe, Eld. George, Life and Times of 
Wolfe, Eld. George, The Home of 
Wonderful Image, A 
Work of Ten Years 
Worshipping the White Elephant 
Wrong Book, The 
Young, E. S. 
Ziegler, Jesse C. 
Zigler, Elder Samuel 



1902 


33 


1905 


9 


1916 


5 


1873 


21 


1909 


17 


1875 


3 


1899 


13 


1888 


17 


1873 


15 


1872 


15 


1916 


3 


1903 


27 


1900 


29 


1895 


31 


1887 


7 


1915 


7 


1874 


9 


1871 


16 


1888 


11 


1895 


7 


1928 


58 


1873 


11 


1894 


19 


1908 


9 


1871 


15 


1892 


7 


1882 


21 


1898 


23 


1906 


13 


1902 


23 


1899 


21 


1922 


53 


1873 


22 


1910 


25 


1883 


9 


1898 


7 


1912 


23 


1898 


23 


1908 


25 


1893 


3 


1904 


7 


1899 


11 


1907 


32 


1896 


23 


1916 


28 


1924 


57 


1919 


49 


1903 


33 



BOOK REVIEWS 

"Union Now" by Clarence K. Streit. Harper & Bros., 1939, $3.00. 

In these times any man who believes he knows the way out of chaos is 
entitled to a respectful hearing. Clarence K. Streit is an American jour- 
nalist, a comparatively young man but of unusual experience in European 
capitals and of long residence at Geneva. 

From a most unusual life experience Clarence Streit has reached the 
conviction that a world union (not a league of nations) is the solution to 
our world's anarchic condition. And as the book's title indicates the union 
must be — now. 

"Union has been an unexampled success wherever democracies have 
tried it, regardless of conditions — But history is studded with the failure 
of leagues, aUiances, the balance of power, and isolationism." 

The author proposes that ten democracies — the American Union, 
British Commonwealth of Nations, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Switz- 
erland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland (!!!) unite to form a 
common government for their people. 

"Union and league I use as opposite terms. I divide all organization 
of inter-state relations into two types, according to whether man or the 
state is the unit and the equality of the state is, 'the principle it lives by and 
keeps alive.' I restrict the term union to the former, and the term league 
to the latter." (p. 5) 

"This book holds that the major ills of the world today originate in 
the assumption among the democrats that their own freedom requires 
them to organize the relations among the democracies with their state in- 
stead of themselves for unit, on the absolutist principle of nationalism in- 
stead of the democratic principle of individualism." (p. 171) 

"Man's freedom began with men uniting. Both love of kin and love 
of country have served our species as a means of freeing man by uniting 
men." (p. 225) 

The Union of democracies will start with as many democracies as will 
join. It is the ultimate goal to include the world. Whenever a national 
community accepts the basic philosophy that government is to be "of the 
people, for the people, and by the people" it is ready to join the Nuclear 
State. Regions which are culturally and politically immature are to be held 
in a state analogous to the American process of territorial organization 
until they have matured. 

The Union is to have five main rights : — 

1. The right to grant citizenship. 

2. The right to make peace and war, to negotiate treaties and 
otherwise deal with the outside world, to raise and maintain 
a defense force. 

3. The right to regulate interstate and foreign trade. 

4. The right to coin and issue money, and fix other measures. 

5. The right to govern communications. 

Outside of these spheres each hitherto independent national state is 
to continue as before its entrance to the Union. 

62 



BOOK REVIEW 63 

This great federal republic bears a striking resemblance to the Amer- 
ican Republic. Streit sees the world of today in the situation of the Amer- 
ican States in the period of the Articles of Confederation. The League of 
Nations corresponds to the Confederation. The next step is Union — World 
Union. 

Utopian? Yes, but — ^there is greater solemnity now than there was 
after Munich when Streit wrote "Only by dying together can we escape 
this problem of Hving together, of organizing world government." (p. 169) 

It is significant that the British Labor Party has recently declared for 
a modified national sovereignty — at least in Europe. 

As a literary composition the book is uneven in interest. An unusual 
number of interesting quotations adorn its pages. One is surprised to read 
from President Grant as of 1873 : 

"Transport, education, and rapid development of both spiritual and 
material relationships by means of steam power and the telegraph, all this 
will make great changes. I am convinced that the Great Framer of the 
World will so develop it that it becomes one nation, so that armies and 
navies are no longer necessary." 

It has passages of rare insight and genuine eloquence. The chapter 
on "My Own Road to Union" may well become one of the great narratives 
of Twentieth Century literature. At other times the style seems to become 
prosaic and repetitious. 

With all its faults the book ought to be required reading for every 
lover of peace in every land. Here is a man with an idea — a democrat and 
humanitarian — a man whose basis of reckoning is Magna Charta, the Bill 
of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution. It is 
amazing to think these ancient documents may be something more than 
clubs to brandish against the Russians. 

Perhaps after all we of the generation of the World War have lost 
our bearings and apostatized. Here is one who calls democrats to repent- 
ance and renewed faith. 

An organization has grown up in the wake of the book, since it was 
first published in the U. S. in March, 1939. An association called Inter- 
democracy Federal Unionists has been launched. Those interested are 
invited to write to 

Union House: 445 West 23rd St., New York, N. Y., from which a 
monthly bulletin is issued. 



Rites and Ordinances and Ground Searching Questions. Being the 
Writings of Alexander Mack, Sr. Prof. M. A. Stuckey, Ashland, Ohio, 
1939, $.40. 

Every student of Brethren history is indebted to Prof. Stuckey for 
bringing out this handy and neat-looking reprint of the Writings of Alexan- 
der Mack, Sr. 

The text follows the edition of Henry Kurtz and James Quinter is- 
sued in 1860. That was a bi-lingual edition and the German has been omit- 
ted from Prof. Stuckey 's reprinting. 



64 SCHWARZENAU 

There has been no issue of Mack's writings since 1860, save that as a 
chapter in Holsinger's History of the Tunkers, the writings were printed. 

This then is an opportunity for each student of Brethren history to 
equip his book shelves with a copy of Mack's Writings at the nominal price 
of forty cents. Libraries especially ought to be interested, as it is obvious 
that Mack's Writings are historical source material of prime importance. 

Publication was obviously a non-profit affair to Prof. Stuckey and the 
association which he represents. 

The original valuable prefaces of Mack Sr. and Mack Jr. are in- 
cluded as well as the prefaces of 1860. Prof. Stuckey has added a very 
modest foreword of his own. 

The 100-page work is of the size of the present popular pocket-mag- 
azine style and is bound in tough art paper in imitation of a handsome 
leather. 

To offer adverse criticisms would be wholly gratuitous and a mere 
picking of fly specks. Prof. Stuckey deserves unqualified commendation. 

There is need in our generation for the Writings of Alexander Mack 
to be issued with a commentary thereon. But that would be another enter- 
prise. In the meantime, we are glad for this successfully executed project. 

— F. E. Mallott. 



SCHWARZENAU 

EDITORIAL STAFF 

Editor, F. E. Mallott, Professor of Church History Bethany Biblical Seminary 
Assistant Editor, Elgin S. Mover Contributing Editor, L. D. Rose 

Volume I APRIL, 1940 Number Four 



CONTENTS 

Announcement 3 

Editorial 4 

Poem — We Shall Have Peace 4 

JVilUam Kinsey 

The Brethren and the Berleburg Bible 5 

Gerhard Friedrich 

Hymnody of the Brethren in the Eighteenth Century 10 
William Beery 

Culture Adaptations in the Church of the Brethren 17 
Merlin E. Garber 

Book Review 62 

B. M. Mow 

Volume Index 63 



WHO'S WHO IN THIS ISSUE 



Merlin Estes Garber, A.B. and A.M. of the 
University of Illinois. A native of Virginia 
he has attended Bridgewater College. A min- 
ister of the Church of the Brethren and a 
pastor, he serves the Church at Champaign, 
111. He continues his studies at Bethany Bib- 
lical Seminary. We anticipate other contri- 
butions from his pen in this chosen field of 
his study. 

William Kinsey is well known in circles of 
the Church of the Brethren. Minister, pastor, 
college teacher, lecturer, and writer, he lives 
quietly at New Windsor, Md. It is antici- 
pated that a book, from which the poem in 
this issue is taken, will appear soon. 

William Beery made his initial appearance 
in the pages of Schwarzenau, in the last issue. 

Mr. Gerhard Friedrich is a young German 
librarian who has been cataloging and an- 
notating German manuscripts and books in 
the Juniata College Library on a grant from 
the Carl Schurz Foundation of Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. 




PRIZE ESSAY CONTEST 

We have had many enthusiastic words of endorsement. Among 
our supporters and well-wishers we are especially appreciative of 
the interest of Mr. Will Judy, President of the Judy Publishing 
Company of Chicago, 111. Mr. Judy is President of the Juniata 
College Alumni Association. Due to Mr. Judy's interest in Dunker 
history and to his liberal and enthusiastic endorsement of this ven- 
ture of an historical magazine, we are able to sponsor a writing 
contest. 

We believe this will meet a response among our readers and will 
interest many beyond the circle of our subscribers. The following 
will make clear the conditions of this, the first prize essay contest, 
sponsored by Schwarzenau. 

I. Essays for publication are solicited on the following subjects: 

1. The Dunker Church in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. 

2. Dunkers as Publishers. 

3. The Contribution of the Brumbaugh Family to the Dunk- 

er Church. 

II. The essays may vary in length. Ten thousand words is a 
maximum length. 

III. Essays are to be submitted to the Editor of Schwarzenau, 
3435 W. Van Buren St., Chicago by April 30, 1941. 

IV. The merits of all contributions are to be judged by a com- 
mittee of three. The committee is E. S. Moyer, Assistant Editor, 
Homer Sanger, a member of the Educational Board of the Church, 
and Dr. D. W. Kurtz, Pastor of the Church of the Brethren, La- 
Verne, California. 

V. For the best essay submitted on each of the three subjects 
and published in Schwarzenau, Mr. Judy will award a prize of 
($25.00) twenty-five dollars. 

VI. The directing of the contest and the answering of inquiries 
is the duty of the Editor of Schwarzenau. 

3 



EDITORIAL 

We are very glad to devote the major part of this number of 
ScHWARZENAU to the study, "Culture Adaptations in the Church 
of the Brethren". Prepared and presented to a University faculty, 
it is not an academic essay merely to fill requirements for a post- 
graduate degree. 

It represents the living interest of the writer in the creation of a 
brotherhood. We are glad to say that further contributions of the 
same writer are at hand. We are sure the reading of such a produc- 
tion ought to evoke further contributions on the general subject of 
creating brotherhood. 

Our times call for sustained, critical, and creative thought. 



WE SHALL HAVE PEACE 

Wm. Kinsey 

In boyhood days of yester-age, 
My peace was marred betimes; 
A heavy hand, — the meted wage, 
For mv aggressor crimes. 
The lightning-flash, the thunder-roll; 
The mystery of death, — 
Gave me a bayoneted soul 
With scars that lingereth. 

Both work and play were fettered, too, 

With tortures more or less. 

The strains, the straits; the ruse, the stew, — 

Alike to curse and bless. 

The green's exnanse, and wooded "proms" 

Too oft forbade a pass: 

There were, to blight, the bees-nest-bombs. 

And skunks with poison gas. 

Tod^iv. a man am I. with grief, — 

With rurses still pursued. 

The Hell of War. with no relief;— 

How lone, O Lord, The Rude? 

Thev Dale the earth, and cloud the skies, 

And shower death with glee: 

I dreamed for earth a paradise, — 

She's still a Calvary! 

How long, — to whom. — and when, and where, — 

That "Peace, Good-will to men"?— 

When Mine have Love, and dare to dare, — 

To trust, and die, whv then 

'Twill come. That Peace; and brotherhood 

Shall reign from sea to sea, 

And midst an Everlasting Good, 

No more a Calvary. 

♦Copyright 1939 Wm. Kinsey ♦By permission of author. 



THE BRETHREN AND THE 
BERLEBURG BIBLE 

Gerhard Friedrich 

The value and success of a religious group are not at all deter- 
mined by a large membership, but rather by the spiritual influence 
which those who are members exercise upon their fellow men, and 
by the reforms they promote and achieve. That the Church of the 
Brethren has played an important part in the development of print- 
ing and book-making in this country, is sufficiently manifested by 
such names as Christoph Saur and Peter Leibert, famous printers 
of Germantown during the eighteenth century. We know that in 
the territory which is now the United States of America, the first 
Bible in any European language, the first religious periodical, and 
the first essay on education were published in close connection with 
the Church of the German Baptist Brethren. But it is still an open 
question whether, or to what extent, the "Taufers" had been active 
in this same direction prior to their emigration from Germany. As 
long as they were living in the Province of Wittgenstein, under the 
protection of pious and tolerant rulers, there was at least a possibil- 
ity for them to use the printed word, first as a means to educate 
themselves, and then also in an effort to reach the hearts and minds 
of other people. 

In the "High-German American Almanac" for the year 1746, 
when the first edition of Saur's Luther Bible had already made its 
appearance, Christoph Saur inserted a notice that "Berleburg Bi- 
bles, with beautiful interpretations, the 8 parts bound in 4 volumes, 
are sold by the printer of this almanac for 4 pounds 15 shillings." 
As if to defend the Berleburg edition, he adds : "Up to the present 
Satan's companions have been trying to cast suspicion and blame 
upon it, because it testifies and teaches of Christ and his kingdom." 
The large folio Bible that Saur refers to in this advertisement is one 
of the most remarkable editions of all times. Consisting of eight 
separate parts, it was published successively in 1726, 1728, 1730, 
1732, 1735, 1737, 1739, and 1742. The text is a revision of Lu- 
ther's translation, with comparison of the English and French ver- 
sions, and with an appendix containing the Apocrypha of both the 

5 



6 SCHWARZENAU 

Old and New Testaments, the Pseudepigrapha, and the post-apos- 
tolic writings. The running exposition, which occupies about four 
times as much space as the Biblical text, gives the literal, spiritual, 
and mystical interpretations. Among the religious authors quoted 
most frequently are Origen (about 186 — 253 A.D.) and Madame 
Guyon (1603—1669). 

As usual with old books, this voluminous work was issued under 
an interesting descriptive title. The well-balanced title-page of the 
first part reads as follows: "The Holy Writ, containing the Old 
and New Testaments, newly revised and translated after the orig- 
inal tongues : With some explanation of the literal meaning as well 
as of the most notable parables and prophecies of Christ and his 
kingdom, and also with some advice as to the state of the churches 
in these latter days; To which is added an interpretation which 
sets forth the inner condition of the spiritual life, or the ways and 
works of God in the soul of man, for its purification, enlightenment, 
and unification with him. Printed at Berleburg, in the year of our 
Redeemer Jesus Christ, who is the foundation of the Holy Writ, 
1726." In the preface, dated Berleburg, January 19, 1726, the 
hope is expressed that "the truths which the divine spirit has revealed 
to so many souls that were fearing the Lord and longing for his 
light, might be accepted also by others, and lead them to find our 
Philadelphian Community an open door, through which to get an 
insight into many mysteries." What the open door and the many 
mysteries are supposed to look like, is shown by an elaborate frontis- 
piece, inscribed "Die Philadelphische Gemeinde" or "The Philadel- 
phian Community." 

Berleburg is a small town in Westphaha, about 25 miles north- 
west of Marburg-on-the-Lahn, famous German university city. Two 
centuries ago, Berleburg belonged to the principality of Wittgen- 
stein, which included also the nearby village of Schwarzenau where 
Alexander Mack and seven others were baptized in the river Eder. 
In close proximity to these centers of extraordinary religious activ- 
ity, in the town of Laasphe, Christoph Saur senior was born in 1693. 
If we consider the fact that the foundation of the Brethren church 
was a result mainly of careful Bible study, it seems very likely that 
the new denomination was deeply interested in the preparation and 
printing of the Berleburg Bible, and perhaps participated in it. Yet 
only thorough investigation could determine whether or not the 



BERLEBURG BIBLE 7 

Brethren were responsible for this great enterprise, as Abraham H. 
Cassel has suggested. Alexander Mack himself is said to have con- 
tributed liberally to the funds that were collected for its publication. 

Both the editor and the printer of the Berleburg Bible preferred 
to withhold their names. Only the so-called "Philadelphian Com- 
munity" is mentioned, and even this term is used in such a way that 
it is hard to believe it was applied to any distinct church organiza- 
tion. However, it should be remembered that at the close of the 
seventeenth century a circle of mystics in some parts of England, 
Holland, and Germany called themselves "The Philadelphian Soci- 
ety for the Advancement of Piety and Divine Philosophy." Their 
English leaders were a certain Jane Lead (1623 — 1704) and her 
adopted son, Francis Lee (1661 — 1719). We should note also that 
Philadelphia means Brotherly Love. The Philadelphian Commu- 
nity may have been a group of seekers after truth, more or less pie- 
tistic in spirit, undogmatic, and based only on the principle of Chris- 
tian brotherhood. "Philadelphian Community" and "Church of the 
Brethren" are somewhat similar designations. 

Strange enough, an old German novel throws more light on the 
history of the Berleburg Bible than our best encyclopedias. Johann 
Heinrich Jung-Stilling (1740 — 1817), who in his early years felt 
attracted and inspired by the Philadelphian Community at Berle- 
burg, wrote what he calls "a true history" of the religious separa- 
tists of the eighteenth century. It first appeared in 178^1 — 1785, 
under the title "Theobald oder die Schwaermer." The first transla- 
tion into English was published at Philadelphia, in 1845, as "Theo- 
bald, or the Fanatic". From the rather undistinguished translation 
by Samuel Schaeffer, I quote a paragraph beginning on page 75 : 

"The different literary characters who dwelt at Berleburg," 
Jung-StiUing reports, "were in the frequent habit of holding con- 
ferences in the presence of Count Casimir. Haug in one of these 
conferences brought forward his great plan for their consideration. 
It was nothing less than to write an entirely new interpretation of 
the Bible, for the successful completion of which he desired to supply 
himself with all the mystical dictionaries, and mystical comments 
extant, and to this great labour he intended to devote his whole life. 
Every one present professed to feel the value of such a work, since 
all the commentators of the day were formed according to the 
language of the schools, and therefore were considered ill-adapted 



8 SCHWARZENAU 

to the heart; but the great question to be decided was who should 
defray the expense of printing? None of these men were possessed 
of the means, and the Count was sagacious enough to see that if he 
undertook, it on his own responsibiKty it would require his whole 
income and that of his family, besides involving all his landed prop- 
erty. Still the plan was too important to be altogether abandoned; 
it was at length resolved that the Berleburg church should assume 
the responsibility of printing it, that in case the enterprise succeeded, 
the avails might be in good hands, and in case of failure, the whole 
church collectively could better sustain the loss than a single indi- 
vidual. The church accordingly took up the plan, and Haug set 
himself to work. He and his coadjutors had many distinguished 
acquaintances in various parts of Europe, especially in England and 
Denmark. Among these were a number of intelligent and excellent 
men who, as soon as they were apprised of the nature of the plan, 
cheerfully gave it their approbation and encouragement. He now 
began to translate and to comment, and as soon as a portion was 
ready it was sent to his various correspondents for examination and 
criticism. He afterwards consulted the views of the most eminent 
mystics upon the various passages, and then proceeded to write all 
anew. In this manner he laboured unweariedly for upwards of 
twenty years, and the Berleburg Bible consisting of eight folio vol- 
umes was completed, a work, bating all the paradoxical sentiments 
it contains, unquestionably worthy of a high place in the library of 
the theologian." 

There we have some evidence that it was chiefly Johann Heinrich 
Haug who projected and undertook the revision of the Bible. He 
had received a master's degree at Strassburg, and had been expelled 
from that city by the church authorities for holding a meeting of 
Philadelphians and other religious separatists. Then he found ref- 
uge in the castle of Count Casimir at Berleburg, where he remained 
until his death in 1753. Haug was much admired by Ernst Chris- 
toph Hochmann (1670 — 1721), who in turn had a great influence 
upon Alexander Mack, his intimate friend and companion on mis- 
sionary tours along the "Rhine. Jung-Stilling tells that "Hochmann 
paid Haug a visit, almost immediately after his arrival. When he 
became acquainted with the vast extent of his learning, he felt so 
deep a reverence for his person, that he soon began to fancy him to 
be some great and extraordinary personage. In a short time all his 



BERLEBURG BIBLE 9 

followers were of the same opinion. Indeed, nearly all the pietists 
at the commencement of that century firmly believed that the mil- 
lennial reign of Christ upon earth was even at the door; accordingly 
every man of talents who espoused their doctrines was regarded as 
a remarkable character. They therefore supposed that if Haug 
himself was not a religious reformer, or the Saviour himself, he 
must at least be his forerunner." 

"Haug had a brother by the name of Johann Jakob," Jung-Stil- 
ling continues on page 76, "a printer by trade, whom he sent for to 
establish a printing office at Berleburg. Here books of all sorts 
which no publisher would ever think of issuing, were printed and 
scattered broad cast among the people." It is known that at the fair 
held at Leipzig in the year 1731, Johann Jakob Haug, the Berleburg 
printer, was represented by several publications. In Ludwig C. 
Schaefer's Hebrew dictionary, which was issued at Berleburg in 
1720, the printer's name is spelled Hauich, and many other Berle- 
burg publications appeared without indicating by whom the press- 
work was done. One of the fragments now in the Library of Juniata 
College, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, contains a detailed account of 
a lovefeast observed by fifty "inspired" persons. It was held on 
October 20, probably in the year 1715, and included feet-washing 
and the Communion. 

Alexander Mack's "A Plain View of the Rites and Ordinances of 
the House of God," and his reply to Eberhard Ludwig Gruber's 
"Ground-Searching Questions" are alleged to have first been pub- 
lished at Schwarzenau, in 1713. The question arises whether the 
Schwarzenau press was identical with the press of Johann Jakob 
Haug at Berleburg, or whether perhaps the early Brethren con- 
ducted a printing-office of their own. Whatever the answer may be, 
one is anxious to learn which books were edited by — or with the help 
of— the mother congregation in Germany, and what became of the 
printing establishment when the "New Baptists of Wittgenstein" 
set out for America. Surprisingly little is known about these aspects 
in the early history of the Brethren church. When free communica- 
tion will again be possible with Germany and Holland, a special 
study ought to be made of the everyday life of Mack and his first 
followers, of their contact with various individuals and religious 
bodies, and of their endeavors to influence and inspire their fellow 



10 SCHWARZENATJ 

men by the same media that were used so successfully later in Penn- 
sylvania, namely broadside* and book. 

Of the three Berleburg Bibles in the Library of Juniata College, 
one has frequently been referred to as Christoph Saur's own copy. 
Suffice it here to point out the enthusiasm, the courage and the dil- 
igence with which a group of God-loving men undertook the difficult 
task of a comprehensive Bible revision and interpretation. After 
eleven years of indefatigable work, when some subscribers began to 
express impatience and discontent, the editors published an apology 
that is well worth quoting: "Yes, some of us have died, but the Bible 
has remained, and others have come and have taken up the unfin- 
ished work in order to complete it. Men are passing away contin- 
uously. Does any one think that is reason enough to cut short an 
important enterprise?" 



*A broadside is a sheet of paper printed on one side only. 



HYMNODY OF THE BRETHREN IN THE 
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

William Beery 

(Continued from the January Number) 

HYMN WRITERS OF THE CENTURY 

Among the leaders of the Church of the Brethren in the 18th 
century were a number of gifted writers of both prose and poetry. 
Only those who wrote hymns will be mentioned here. 

Peter Becker, — the first to organize a group of Brethren fam- 
ilies to sail for America, was born in 1687. He was baptized in the 
Creyfelt congregation in 1714. Not long after he was elected to the 
ministry. In 1719 he organized a group of twenty families who 
were the first contingent of Brethren to cross the briny deep and 
take up their abode in the wilds of Pennsylvania. As the records 
have it, he was skilled as a musician, and generally led the singing 
at the Germantown meetings. He was not a literary man, but wrote 
letters, and occasionally a hymn. 

One of his hymns was printed in the second edition of Das 
Kleine Dividsche Psalterspiel. The following three stanzas will 
give some idea of its content: 



HYMNODY OF BRETHREN 11 

Thou, poor pilgrim, wander'st here 

In this vale of gloom, 
Seeking, longing evermore 

For that joyous home ; 
Yet many friends oppose thee here 

So that now thou weepest more, — 
Patience. 

10. 

Patient was the love of Christ 

Throughout His blessed life; 
This in sincerity He showed 

In every hostile strife. 
As patient as a lamb was He 
That died upon the sacred tree. 
Patience. 

Ah, precious soul, take courage new, 

All this will have an end ; 
The cross's load will grace renew; 

Soon blissful rest shalt find. 
The sorrow of this fleeting time 
Is worthy of a joy divine. 
Patience. 

John Naas came from North Germany. He was physically 
strong and intellectually brilliant, and became a strong leader in the 
church in Germany. Soon after joining the church he was put in 
the ministry. 

In 1715 Creyfelt, where Naas held membership, was under 
the control of the king of Prussia. The country was being canvassed 
by recruiting officers for the army. The king was especially anxious 
to secure tall, strong men for his body guard. Naas was a head 
taller than any other man in the community. He was seized and 
urged to enlist, but he refused on the ground of conscientious scru- 
ples. The horrible tortures that followed did not cause him to con- 
sent. They had him hanging in the air with a rope attached to his 
left thumb and his right great toe, until they feared they might kill 
him, when they finally cut him down. 

To the question by the king why he refused to enlist he an- 
swered: "Because I cannot as I have long ago enlisted in the noblest 
and best army; and I cannot become a traitor to my King." "And 
who is your captain?" asked the king. "My Captain is the great 
Prince Emmanuel, our Lord Jesus Christ. I have espoused His 
cause, and cannot and will not forsake Him." "Neither then will I 



12 SCHWARZENAU 

ask you to do so," answered the king, the noble ruler, handing him 
a gold coin as a reward for his fidelity. The king then released him. 
In 1723 Naas came to America and was warmly welcomed by 
Alexander Mack upon his arrival at Germantown. Following are 
three stanzas out of the seventeen of one of his poems, which will 
give an insight into his mind and heart : 

Saviour of my soul, 

Grant that I may choose 

Thee and Thy cross in this life, 

And surrender myself wholly to Thee. 

Grant that I may choose this 

Saviour of my soul. 

O Jesus, look within, 
That Thy Spirit alone 
May now rule my entire life, 
niad to go with Thee into death. 
Because the time is passing 
And nothing shall endure. 

Lord Thou hast the power. 
Vindicate Thy honor. 
Most precious, Jesus Christ, 
It has indeed cost Thy blood, 
Lord, it lies in Thee. 

Christopher Sower, Jr., was three years old when the family 
came to America. When he was ten his father sent him to a school 
conducted by Christopher Dock, a rather whimsical pedagogue, but 
a thorough scholar and a good teacher. Here young Sower laid the 
foundation of his English scholarship. Later, when his father need- 
ed some one to take charge of the English department of his pub- 
lishing interests he put the young man at the head of it. At the age 
of fifteen he was baptized into the Church of the Brethren. In 1745 
he was elected to the ministry, and in 1753, ordained to the elder- 
ship. He and Alexander Mack, Jr., were elected to the ministry at 
the same time, and these two young men were given charge of the 
Germantown congregation. 

After his father's death Christopher, Jr., became the owner 
and controler of the parental possessions and business, which, under 
his wise directions, grew and developed. But there was trouble a- 
head. Under an ordinance passed by the Pennsylvania government 
June 13, 1777, all citizens were required to revoke their allegiance 
to the king of England and transfer it by oath to the government of 



HYMNODY OF BRETHREN 13 

Pennsylvania. This he could not conscientiously do. Upon his re- 
fusal he was arrested and outrageously treated until discharged by 
General Washington. But soon all his belongings were confiscated 
and sold. - 

Young Sower was a prolific writer of prose, and once in a while 
a poem came from his loving heart. In 1788 Peter Leibert, who 
purchased the Sower press, published a booklet of verse in which 
one of Sower's poems was included. The first and last stanzas of 
this poem follow : 

Christians here themselves must plant 

In the cross's narrow way ; 
They must suffer, toil, lament, 

Rising to the heavenly day; 
Who with Jesus hopes to be 
Must gain Him through the bloody tree ; 
Those who win the laurels there 
Here a crown of thorns must wear. 

Glory to my soul and praise ! 

Hail to God, His patience see, 
Which in many wondrous ways 

Has shown to me His clemency. 
Let His goodness lead me on, 
Trusting in His love divine 
Let His grace not from me wend 
Until I reach my destined end. 

Alexander Mack, Jr., — the youngest son of the founder of the 
Church of the Brethren, was born at Schwarzenau in 1712. He 
was the most prolific writer of poetry of them all. He was twelve 
years old when the family came to America. The death of his fa- 
ther in 1735 cast a gloom over the young man. Surrounded by mys- 
tical influences he began to yield to strange doctrines promulgated 
by Conrad Beissel and others. For some time he was associated with 
Beissel, the Eckerlings and others, sharing with them some very 
unpleasant experiences. In 1 748 he returned to Germantown. The 
members there had not lost confidence in him, and on June 7th of 
that year he was elected to the ministry, and In 1753 ordained to the 
eldership. 

In 1912 the Brethren Publishing House issued a volume of 
his poems, entitled "The Religious Poetry of Alexander Mack, Jr." 
This was edited and compiled by Samuel P. Heckman, of New York 
Citv. It contains 268 pages, consisting of upwards of thirty poems. 



14 SCHWARZENAU 

a number of them quite lengthy. Two of the shorter poems are here 
given; the first is a hymn written by Mack as a tribute to the worth 
of his fellow worker, Christopher Sower, Jr., which was sung at the 
funeral. This hymn is found in the Psalterspeil : 

1. Now breaks the earthly house entwain, 
Now can this mortal frame decay ; 
The pilgrimage is brought to end 
Now can the spirit fly away, 
Through Jesus was the victory won. 

2. Now unto Jesus will I go, 
Who died for me as mortals die ; 

And found for me, through pain and woe, 
A place of refuge in the sky, 
He has for me a better house. 
In store prepared above the sky. 

Speak not of others' worthiness. 
But only of what Christ has done ; 
The world, with all its vanities, 
Can never save a single one. 
Redemption has appeared to men 
Through Jesus' grief and dying pain. 

In a small book of what the publisher, Peter Leibert, calls 
"Beautiful and edifying songs," entitled, "Ethliche Liebliche und 
ErhauHchen Lieder," the first is the following: 

Jesus Christ the Son of God, 

May praise and honor be given to Thee. 

Who sittest upon the throne 

Round which thousands of angels hover. 

The number of which holy watchers 

Is counted into ten thousands. 

O Lord, bless Thou the church 

Which Thou hast bought with Thy blood. 

Let Thy blessings come to us, O Lord, 

Thou who hast died for us, 

For Thou hast made us Thy choice 

And numbered us with Thy people. 

O Lord, guard the conditions and standing 

Of Thy flock. Thine own members. 

Reveal Thyself to them aright, 

And collect them soon again. 

In the name of Thy might 

Give to them the strength of knights. 



HYMNODY OF BRETHREN 15 

Lord lift up Thy holy face! 
Give to us Thy divine peace 
And let the light of Thine eyes 
Shine always in their midst, 
Lead Thy lambs in and out 
Faithful in person. 

Amen. 

The accompanying paraphrase of the above hymn in regular 
rhythm and rhyme, is by William Beery, also set to music by him, 
of which a plate was secured by the Brethren Publishing House. 



Jesus Christ, Thou Son of Love, 

Honor, praise to Thee belong; 
Sitting on Thy throne above, 

'Round Thee hov'ring angels throng, 
Numbering ten thousand, yes, 

A winged legion numberless. 

Bless Thy church, O dearest Lord, 

Purchased by Thy precious blood ; 
Bless us with Thy gracious Word, 

Thou who died for us as God ; 
For us Thou hast made a choice, 

With Thy people to rejoice. 

Guard and keep Thy flock as Thine, 

Thine own members of Thy fold ; 
Show Thyself to them benign; 

Gather soon again and hold 
Thy dear children in Thy might ; 

Give to them the strength of knight. 

Lord, lift up Thy holy face. 

Give to us Thy peace divine ; 
Be Thy light in ev'ry place. 

Always in our midst to shine. 
Keep Thy lambs from all alarms ; 

Lead them, hold them in Thine arms. 

These poems, by Alexander Mack, Jr., were originally printed 
in the German language, of which Dr. Heckman made a free trans- 
lation, and says : "No attempt was made to preserve the meter or 
the thyme in the translation." 



16 SCHWARZENAU 

TUNES IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

Concerning the tunes the Brethren used in their services in the 
eighteenth century very little can be said with certainty. It is said 
that the first melodies used by the Dunker Brethren and the Sab- 
batarians consisted chiefly of the severe German chorals. These 
peculiar psalm tunes which came into use after the Reformation 
were not set in harmony, but were sung in unison, and were originally 
adopted by the Genevan authorities so as to get away as far as 
possible from Rome. 

Up to the thirteenth century the music of the church was 
homophomous (in unison). The psalms were chanted. The origin 
of chorus music, it may be assumed, appeared in the ritualistic wor- 
ship of the Hebrews. We can readily understand that these psalm 
chants of the Hebrews were carried into the Christian church. Also, 
the Hebrew songs were nonmetrical, as also are the hymns in the 
early hymn books printed by Christopher Sower. 

As to the manner in which the Brethren at Germantown and 
the newly organized congregations roundabout conducted their song 
service no explanation seems to be available. Let us hope that their 
singing was not, at least, as bad as that of the New England Puri- 
tans at about the same time; of which the Rev. Thomas Walter 
says: "In some churches the tunes are tortured and twisted and 
quavered into a medley of horrid and discordant noises, until the 
singing often sounds like five hundred different tunes roared out at 
the same time." 

We do not know that in the Germantown congregation there 
were leaders of ability; but the probability is that in the outlying 
churches they were not all so fortunate. Being located in the wilds 
of the country the opportunity to get help in that line was certainly 
not favorable. In the first place there was a lack of means of trans- 
portation, and good roads there were none, so that it was next to 
impossible for them to secure help from musicians in Germantown 
or Philadelphia, or for any of them to go where they might get in- 
struction and training. It would be interesting to know the tunes 
they used; whether they chanted, sang in unison or polyphonically. 
It would perhaps be a safe guess that they did not sing in parts, 
though long before that time tunes were harmonized. 

(To be continued) 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS IN THE CHURCH 
OF THE BRETHREN 

Merlin E. Garber 

CHAPTER I 

Introduction 

This study attempts to give an analysis and interpretation of a 
rather unique culture group, commonly known as the "Brethren." 
The term "Brethren" is relatively recent in the history of this sect, 
inasmuch as the label has evolved along with other aspects of the 
social organization, and reflects an internal adjustment in its scheme 
of life to the impersonal, environing societal system. In the early 
years of its organization the group was referred to by various appel- 
lations. Because some of the persons concerned had practiced Pie- 
tism before affiliating with this body, the new group likewise was 
called Pietist. Also because of the opposition to infant baptism, they 
were known as Anabaptist. However neither of these terms was 
correctly applied to this group. Its members were neither Pietist 
nor Anabaptist, They left the Pietist movement just as the Pietist 
before them had withdrawn from the state religions. They were not 
Anabaptist, for Mack and his followers could not accept what they 
regarded as "excesses" of this religious body. Nevertheless these 
general terms were applied to them until some specific and charac- 
teristic name had been devised. Such a descriptive symbolic label 
grew out of their distinctive interpretation of baptism. Baptism by 
immersion was common, but trine baptism (that is immersion three 
times forward, "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the holy Ghost"^'), was unusual. Because of this ritual they came 
to be called Taufers, a word which was derived from the German 
"toufen," meaning to baptize, or to christen. Although such a de- 
scriptive name would seem to apply to all who baptize, this charac- 
terization came to be applied only to this particular group so far as 
the writer has been able to ascertain. These people were also called 
Domphelaers, a term meaning "dippers." Later they came to be 
known as Tunkers, from the German "tunken" meaning to dip. 
Timkers evolved into Dunkers, a name that was most commonly ap- 



1. Matthew 28:19. 

17 



18 SCHWARZENAU 

plied to this group in America. The name Dunkers became vulgar- 
ized into Dunkards. This vulgarized form existed even after the 
term has lost its disparaging connotation. However the semi-official 
name, which they originally chose for themselves was "German Bap- 
tist Brethren," and such it remained until 1908 when the name offi- 
cially adopted was the "Church of the Brethren." In this manuscript 
the official name "Church of the Brethren" is used to refer to the 
denomination and the term ^'Brethren" is used in reference to the 
members. Wherever any of tTie other appellations are used they 
will occur in contexts which make clear the reasons for the variations. 

The social setting in which the Church of the Brethren arose was 
typical of the inception of many, if not most, socio-religious or sec- 
tarian groups. Like all other sects, it shared in the unrest and re- 
alignments of the great movement of thought and social relations 
following the reformation and its accompanying conflicts. Thus the 
setting for its origin is to be sought in the upheavals of European 
mental and social life occasioned by a clash of values and the forming 
of new values and social structures as a result of these very up- 
heavals. The reformation in Germany came about primarily be- 
cause of the position held by men such as Peter Abelard, pupil of 
William of Champeaux, Erasmus, and Martin Luther. It was their 
conviction that the foundation of a true religion should be reason 
instead of religious dogma. This principle that religion must be an 
appeal to the individual's reason eventually led to the establishment 
of competing sectarian systems; which at first were approximately 
represented by the labels Lutheran, Reformed, and Catholic. In 
time these three enjoyed the protection of the state. Germany of 
the post-reformed period was made up of provinces, each ruled over 
by a lord. It was within the discretion of the lord to choose which 
of these three churches should be recognized within his province. 
Once a particular church was established, an active program of per- 
secution was aimed at all dissenters and those who did not conform 
found themselves the victims of Intolerance. It has been pointed out 
by writers of particular denominations that their founders were 
enlightened men. But this distinction was claimed similarly by all 
of the new or dissenting groups; and, indeed, those who rebelled 
may have been those Intelligent enough to perceive the fallacies and 
shams of any state-dictated system of dogmas. 

There were, happily for the persecuted, a few princes who dared 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 19 

to rebuff the established churches and give protection to religious 
and poHtical refugees. Such a prince was Count Heinrich von Witt- 
genstein. Although his province was somewhat poor and isolated, 
it did offer temporary freedom for the oppressed. To this province 
came, among others, Alexander Mack, a man of wealth and with 
leanings toward the Reformed Church. Unable to accept the views 
and practices of the established church, he became a Separatist, for 
which cause he was forced to seek refuge by flight from his native 
province. He came to the town of Schwarzenau, where he met oth- 
ers who had undergone similar persecutions. Mack became partic- 
ularly interested in Christopher Hochmann, a Pietist, and student 
of the University of Halle, with whom he had many things in com- 
mon, among which was a belief that the ordinances of the church 
should be derived from the New Testament and that this book, with 
no other additions or formalized creeds, should be the one basis for 
church organizations and policy. The contribution of Hochmann 
to the church was his "Confession of Faith" which served as a guide 
in the foundation period of the sect. Hochmann, remembering the 
evils of the other established sects, refrained from all attempts to 
create a new group. Mack, however, believed that any great con- 
cept, to have power, must be embodied in an institution. For this 
reason, he gathered those of like beliefs around him, and in the year 
1708, formally organized what later came to be known as the 
Church of the Brethren. The tenets of faith adopted were few and 
simple. They were briefly as follows : ( 1 ) Acceptance of the Bible 
as the only creed; (2) trine immersion in running water as the only 
form of baptism; and (3^ absolute nonresistance or the abstinence 
from all use of coercive force.^ Eight pious people, after much 
prayer and discussion went down to the river Eder and were bap- 
tized, — one of the group first baptizing Alexander Mack, and he, in 
turn baptizing the others. The group therefore began earnestly to 
propagate its beliefs ; and the church at Schwarzenau grew rapidly, 
until within seven years it had gathered a considerable congregation. 
Eventually missions were started at such places as Crefeld, Marien- 
born, and Epstein. 

The death of the tolerant prince in 1719 changed conditions in 
Wittgenstein. On assumption of rule by another prince, the policy 

2. Dove, F. D. Cultural Chmiges in the Church of the Brethren. Brethren Pub- 
lishing House, Philadelphia, 1932, pp. 44-45. 



20 SCHWARZENAU 

of religious freedom was nullified. Persecution drove about two 
hundred of the members to Crefeld and then on to West Friesland. 
It was impossible for the Brethren to carry on their organization 
under such persecution as followed them wherever they moved. 
As a result, one of two things was bound to occur: either they would 
be driven out of their native land or else the principles to which they 
had held so tenaciously would be discarded. They chose the first 
alternative, and emigrated to America, the land promising freedom 
and opportunity. In a comparatively few years no Brethren re- 
mained in Europe. 

Before turning to the development of this sect in America we 
shall find it worthwhile to note a few cultural conflicts that occurred 
within the group. The structure of the organization was, of course, 
not very stable in its early years. Formal control within the group 
was of necessity rather weak, and some of the internal dissensions 
that developed within some of the congregations in Europe did as 
much, if not more to weaken the cohesion of the group than the 
persecution meted out by their enemies. One illustration is found in 
the conflict occasioned by the fact that a young minister (Haecker) 
married a girl who was not of the Brethren faith. For this action 
he was expelled from the sect. The membership being divided on 
the issue, severe dissension grew up over the incident. Even the 
leaders disagreed. It has been estimated that as many as one hun- 
dred people withdrew from the sect as a result of the dispute. The 
Incident remained a bone of contention even after emigration to 
America began. Later, Christian Libe, the leader In the pro- 
test against Haecker, became a wine merchant, and. In direct viola- 
tion of his own principles, married a woman who was not a member 
of this sect. 

Although the groundwork of the organization of the Brethren 
was laid In Europe, the greater part of Its life has been in America. 
In the year 1683 a colony of thirteen German Immigrants settled In 
Pennsylvania and founded the village of Germantown. They were 
not of the Brethren faith, but were for the most part Mennonltes. 
Of these thirteen people, eleven were from Crefeld; they sent back 
to the townspeople, and to their friends, reports of this land of op- 
portunity. There is no doubt that the Information sent back was 
overdrawn; and In this propaganda, they were ably assisted by the 
agents of William Penn. Stirred by these reports and the tension 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 21 

following the disorganization at Crefeld, a group of some twenty 
families, one hundred and twenty persons, led by Peter Becker, left 
Crefeld in 1719 for the voyage to the new and fertile land about 
which they had heard such glowing reports. They landed at Phil- 
adelphia and went to Germantown where the original group of col- 
onists from Crefeld had settled. 

It is reported that on the voyage, agitation over the Haecker case 
arose. This lack of accord is also reflected in the fact that these 
emigres did not settle compactly, as one would assume ; nor did they 
have collective worship. It was not until 1723, when Peter Becker 
made a personal tour among these people, that interest in group 
worship was expressed. There was no real social organization a- 
mong the Brethren prior to this time. They thought of themselves 
as members of the home Church at Crefeld, but on Christmas Day, 
1723, they set up their organization. They elected Peter Becker as 
their Elder. Completing their elections in the morning, they devoted 
the afternoon to religious observances and the baptism of six appli- 
cants for membership. These were the first converts to the Church 
in America. After the baptismal service, the members held their 
first communion or, as the Brethren term it, their love feast. There 
is probably no ordinance in the Church of the Brethren that makes 
so much for social unity and harmony within the group as this serv- 
ice. The "foot washing" ceremony, the "holy kiss of Charity" and 
"the right hand of fellowship," were symbols of identification and 
non-rivalrous relations, and it may be inferred that these observ- 
ances inculcated and established effective primary relations and 
rapport that otherwise could not have been developed. 

Once established, the mother church at Germantown manifested 
great missionary zeal among those who were of like culture origin. 
On November 7, 1724, a new congregation was organized at Cov- 
entry. In November of the same year a third church was organized 
at Conestoga in Lancaster County. This last named church had as 
its minister Conrad Beissel, around whom much legendary history 
has grown. He was a mystic, and was unable to bring his own views 
into compatibility with those of the Brethren. As a result he broke 
away from the group and the first internal dissension among the 
Brethren in America developed. Conrad Beissel built up a strange 
monastic type of settlement about which various legends developed. 



22 SCHWARZENAU 

The community thrived as long as its leader lived; after his death 
some of his followers returned to the Church of the Brethren. 

This schism might have been as disastrous to the church in Amer- 
ica as had been the one in Europe, had it not been for the arrival of 
Alexander Mack in 1729 with the majority of the Brethren from 
Europe. (Those who did not come to America were assimilated into 
other cultural streams so that this sect lost its identity in Europe.) 
The movement to America by Mack and his group strengthened the 
fraternity already established here and supplied the leadership that 
was necessary to carry on the organization. After the death of Mack 
there emerged other capable leaders, who led the church during its 
period of growth in colonial America, among whom were Christo- 
pher Sower and his son, Christopher Sower, Jr. 

The growth and spatial distribution by half century periods shows 
the following growth. By the end of 1770 there were twenty con- 
gregations and eight hundred members living in Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey and Maryland. By 1825 the membership had doubled de- 
spite war and massacre, and the congregations extended to Virginia, 
North Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky. During the third half 
century the Brethren pushed on to the Pacific Coast, and by 1882 the 
members numbered about 58,000.^ At the turn of the century the 
communicants numbered something over one hundred thousand 
members and on September 30, 1935, the statistical report of the 
church gave the total number of members to be 160,335.^ 

The interpretation of events in the history of the group has been 
undertaken from various points of view and the application of socio- 
logical principles to a study of this denomination is not new. How- 
ever the approach here attempted has not hitherto been undertaken, 
as far as the writer is aware. In 1906, John L. GiUin published his 
doctor's dissertation on A Sociological Interpretation of the Diink- 
ers. A case study of the Brethren at South English, Iowa, was made 
by Ellis L. Kirkpatrick in 1920, in fulfillment of the requirement 
for a degree of Master of Arts in Sociology, at the University of 
Kansas. In 1932 F. D. Dove made a study in cultural sociology 
called Cultural Changes in the Church of the Brethren, for his doc- 
tor's dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania. These works 
have supplied valuable help in an understanding of this group from 



3. Dove, F. D., op. cit., p. 57. 

4. Yearbook of the Church of the Brethren, 1936, p. 40. 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 23 

a cultural point of view; for they portray the life of this socio- 
religious fraternity from within, the writers being qualified by par- 
ticipation with the group to disclose its characteristic form of organ- 
ization, values, and spirit. Works other than the above-named, 
which also deserve to be mentioned in this setting, are M. G. Brum- 
baugh, A History of the Brethren, 1899; H. R. Holsinger, History 
of the Dunkers, 1901 ; Two Centuries of the Church of the Breth- 
ren: Bi-centennial addresses, 1908 ; Otho Winger, History and Doc- 
trines of the Church of the Brethren, 1919; The Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man Society Proceedings and Addresses, Volume 10, 1899, Part 
VIII, "The German Baptist Brethren or Dunkers," by George N. 
Falkenstein. 

In addition to these rather general works, there are books dealing 
with specific phases of the denomination, such as missions, education, 
and hterary activit}'. These materials serve as a useful secondary 
source in the preparation of this manuscript. However chief reli- 
ance has been placed upon the following primary sources : Minutes 
of the District Meetings of the Southern District of Illinois, various 
Yearbooks of the Church of the Brethren, the United States Census 
Bureau Report of Religious Bodies, 1926, and the Fifteenth Agri- 
cultural Census of the United States, 1930. (See Appendix D.) In 
addition to these published sources, firsthand information was se- 
cured through interviews and correspondence with various officials 
of this denomination. 

From a sifting of the available body of materials reporting the 
changes in the institutional organization during more than two hun- 
dred years, these general facts became apparent ; namely, the culture 
of the Brethren is expressed in two ways, first, in Its social organ- 
ization; and, secondly, in the manner of adjustment by the group 
to the competitive social situation; These two conclusions evolved 
after a preliminary but detailed investigation of the data at hand, 
and served as points of departure after they became discernible 
through the process of deduction. 

The techniques of investigation necessarily differed in the anal- 
ysis of each of the two named facets of the subject. The method of 
procedure in analysis of the first cultural fact, namely, that the 
culture of the Brethren group is expressed in its social organization, 
is as follows : First, the structure of the original group was defined 
by determining its generic elements. While this particular group 



24 SCHWARZENAU 

possessed the general characteristics belonging to all socio-religious 
structures it also contained those elements which differentiated it in 
name and organization from the so-called denomination life-form. 
That is, it possessed distinctive characteristics which we shall des- 
ignate by the term "Brotherhood." Secondly, the structure of this 
brotherhood was tested by various methods to determine the effect 
of the environing culture upon it, and the modifications that were 
made in an attempt to adjust to the impact of this environing cul- 
ture. The changes in this structure were reflected in several ways 
such as the discussions concerning social rituals and rules of conduct 
between the Brethren. 

Information on these points was derived from the minutes of 
church meetings, and descriptions of the management of the Brother- 
hood. The minutes of the church meetings reflect attempts to resist 
the encroachment of the larger culture, in as much as these attempts 
were recorded in queries sent to the governing bodies. Accordingly 
the Minutes of the District Meetings of Southern Illinois covering 
a period of forty-one years (1866-1907) were analyzed. All que- 
ries relating to social relations were assembled on separate cards. 
There were 132 queries thus recorded. These queries were then 
sorted into groups that dealt with the generic elements or aspects of 
this phase of the problem. These assorted inquiries were then stud- 
ied, in order to determine the changes occurring within the respec- 
tive phases of the Brotherhood. The queries that were representa- 
tive were selected to be embodied in the manuscript, as will be noted 
in Chapters II and III. In brief, the data indicate that the social 
structure of the group was undergoing a transformation to the ex- 
tent that the larger culture was intruding upon it. The character- 
istics that distinguished this brotherhood became less perceptible 
and its life organization tended to conform to that of the culture 
at large. These facts led to the deduction that the Church of the 
Brethren was no longer a brotherhood but a denomination. 

This change in structure was further noted and substantiated 
in a detailed analysis of the changing forms of mutual aid employed 
by the Brethren. A study of sixteen institutions of the Church for 
the care of the dependent was made in a further test of the propo- 
sition that the distinctive original qualities of the Church of the 
Brethren are undergoing such a transformation. Information re- 
garding these homes for dependents was secured from schedules 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 25 

circulated by correspondence. The questionnaire (See Appendix A) 
was sent through the offices of the General Boards of the Church of 
the Brethren, thereby securing authoritative, and, no doubt, accu- 
rate information. The replies to the questions were compiled by 
means of master work-sheets, and subsequently reduced to smaller 
tables, suitable for use in manuscript. (See Chapter III.) 

The second proposition, that the culture of this group is a factor 
in its adaptation to the competitive environment, is subjected to a 
detailed test with reference to the adjustment to the land base. 
This phase of the analysis was prompted by the popular behef that 
the Brethren live on the richer soil. The method used in testing this 
hypothesis entailed the following procedure : first, by way of limit- 
ing the problem to a manageable volume of detailed work, the 
project was restricted to include two sample states, namely, Pennsyl- 
vania and Illinois. The place of abode of the Brethren by districts, 
counties, and townships was determined. Each of these areas was 
subjected to distinctive analyses. 

A list of the counties was obtained from the United States Census 
Report of Religious Bodies for 1926. These counties were aggre- 
gated and, by use of the items reported in the Fifteenth Agricultural 
Census of the United States for 1930 as a basis, a comparison was 
made between the vicinal counties and the counties in which the 
Brethren reside. The data comprised in this comparison pertain to 
the value per acre of the land and buildings, as well as the size of 
the farms, respectively of the two classes of counties. 

No record of the townships in which the Brethren lived was avail- 
able from published census reports. However this information was 
obtained in the following manner. First, a letter was sent to the 
secretaries of the seven church districts of Pennsylvania and Illinois, 
requesting information as to the name, location by county, township, 
and position within the townships, of the churches in their districts. 
These secretaries responded readily, but the fact that many of the 
churches were located in the open country rnade it difficult for them, 
in some instances, to give the exact locations. Letters were then 
written to all the local churches whose locations had not been defi- 
nitely determined by the district secretaries. Finally, the writer, by 
means of information supplied by the Yearbook of the Church of 
the Brethren, determined the location of the remaining churches 
whose township location had not been defined through the other two 



26 SCHWARZENAU 

methods. The Yearbook records the location of churches by direc- 
tion and distance (in miles) from designated postal stations by 
means of which (and the use of a rule and a scaled map showing the 
minor civil divisions) the desired location was established within an 
adequate degree of accuracy. The information by townships thus 
secured, the size and valuations of farm properties were compared 
on a township basis in the same manner as already described for the 
county areas. 

In order to ascertain the variabilities of these data among the 
Brethren groups themselves, a breakdown of the data into district 
units was undertaken. This gave a basis for comparing the Brethren 
groups with each other, and with the vicinal non-Brethren in the 
respective districts. 

The order of presentation of the material in this manuscript is as 
follows : Chapter II deals with the Brotherhood as an organization 
of a value system and personal relations. The modification of this 
organization as a result of the interaction with the environment is 
noted. Chapter III discusses mutual aid, charity, and the seculariza- 
tion of Brotherhood relations. Chapter IV is concerned with the 
question of the adaptation by this culture group to the competitive 
processes, so far as this may be judged by deviations in the adjust- 
ments to the land. Chapter V offers an interpretative summary. 

CHAPTER II 

The Brotherhood : An Organization of a Value System 
AND Personal Relations 

In order to indicate somewhat the outcome of the direction of 
cultural change in the Church of the Brethren, we may introduce 
the first phase of our analysis by the hypothesis that this church is 
no longer a brotherhood. Although the members still use this term 
when referring to their group, the generic elements which charac- 
terize a brotherhood as a system of personal, as over against formal, 
relationships are in most instances, either barely perceptible or non- 
existent. And it is significant that while the members continue to 
address, and to speak of, one another as brothers, this term has lost 
its original meaning. 

The Church of the Brethren had its origin in the European reli- 
gious and political conflict during the seventeenth and early part of 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 27 

the eighteenth centuries. This conflict gave rise to various social 
movements, out of which arose characteristic institutions, each seek- 
ing to formulate a philosophy of life and a method of social organ- 
ization. Such institutions are formed because conflict fails to dis- 
solve the difiiculties over which it arises, thereby giving occasion for 
a social movement, which, when once it has assumed a formal struc- 
ture, may be delegated to a secretariat or some other permanent 
functionary. This explains the large number of groups that grew 
out of the Reformation and Pietistic era. These groups were re- 
garded as radical, not because they attempted to create a new polit- 
ical order, but because they were seeking to formulate a new life 
policy. This new "way of life" as it is usually called, was in keeping 
with a religious view of values, rather than with the generally pre- 
vailing competitive and pecuniary valuations that existed simulta- 
neously. In order for these groups to effect and maintain a distinc- 
tive "way of life," a degree of voluntary or enforced isolation from 
contradictory patterns is essential. Indeed it seems that sectarian 
groups ultimately depend for survival upon isolation devices, where- 
by contacts are regulated and ingroup values are emphasized. Only 
in this way can a distinctive system of values be maintained in the 
midst of alluring competing schematizations of life. Among such 
isolation devices employed by the Brethren are the mode of settle- 
ment on the land, distinctive attire, and especially, creeds and rituals 
that set the adherents apart from the "world" in an effort to empha- 
size the chosen values. 

The isolation so produced has unintended, as well as intended, 
effects. An example of the first is a degree of individual retardation. 
The emphasis upon the distinctive values and the regulation of per- 
sonal contacts also foster the developments of distinctive social 
types, even though this is not foreseen. The intended effects are its 
affirmation of a new or distinctive value or system of values and their 
internalization at least in the members. This becomes apparent 
when we analyze the characteristics of sects in general. In order to 
actualize their scheme of life, they separate themselves from the 
generally prevailing political and social order. When later, com- 
peting forces from the "world" begin to operate upon the ingroup, 
the individuals respond in a way that is consistent with their philos- 
ophy of life. Thus in time of war they express their conscientious 
objection to military conscription and become the objects of sus- 



28 SCHWARZENAU 

picion and reproach. The pacifist view is characteristic of many of 
the reHgious brotherhoods such as the Mennonite, Amish, and Molo- 
kan groups. The values that are integrated in the groupal pattern 
of Hfe are derived from various sources and are not necessarily de- 
veloped de novo. Some of these are found in cultural inheritance; 
and the self-induced isolation thus becomes an important instrument 
in retaining ancient heritages and culture continuity. Other sources 
of such values are culture borrowing, the most important source to 
sectarian groups being the Bible. Frequently, if not usually, these 
groups are literal in their acceptance of Biblical interpretation and 
application. While the sectarian groups necessarily involve certain 
distinctive social relations either within or outside the groups they 
always contain a rehgious element. This is due to the fact that in 
formulating a way of life they project their ideals beyond the realms 
of human experience. Thus in integrating their highest values such 
groups develop what we shall call a socio-religious brotherhood, in 
contrast to a denomination which, though it is a socio-religious 
group, is not a brotherhood, but an accommodation group. 

The ideal of such a religious brotherhood is unity; and this is the 
cohesive force that cements or soHdifies the group and allays rival- 
rous and invidious comparisons between the members. "There is 
social unity wherever there are common, correlated, mutually con- 
ditioned activities, ideas, and sentiments, and of course there may 
be more or less unity in any given organization."^ The character- 
istic that distinguishes the brotherhood from other types of social 
life-forms is that in the attempt to create an intense social unity it 
tries to prevent disrupting contrasts and personal rivalries. To this 
end it prescribes for its members what they should do and should, 
not do; in intimate and personal affairs for example, how they may 
wear their clothes, shave their beards, practice rituals of greeting 
and adjust their actual or fancied grievances. The following queries 
sent by the local churches to the District Meeting of the Southern 
District of Illinois are illustrative of this point: 

Query number 4 (1866) 

"Do the Brethren understand the word mustaches in article 37 
of the last Annual Meeting to mean the beard on the upper lip and 
above the mouth, and if not, should it not be amended so as to forbid 
that practice?" Answer: — "In as much as wearing the beard on 



1. Lumley, Principles of Sociology. McGraw-Hill Book Co. N, Y. C. 1935, p. 132. 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 29 

the lip is offensive to some members, we recommend to those breth- 
ren who claim to be conscientious in this matter that they look well 
to what their consciences are founded upon, and if they cannot find 
strict word to base their consciences on, we advise them to cut off 
the beard for the sake of their brethren according to I Cor. 10:32, 
33, and 12:13." 

Query number 5 (1880) 

"In the minutes of the Annual Meeting of 1866, Article 27, 
sisters' overcoats are classed with jewelry and other vain things. 
Shall, therefore, sisters who wear plain cloaks or overcoats, for 
this act be dealt with according to Math. 18?" Answer: — "No." — 
Query Sent to annual Meeting as a higher authority. 

Query number 12 (1887) 

"We the Sugar Creek Church ask the District Meeting to decide 
that it is not consistent for the brethren to allow other people to 
decorate with flowers the dead of our members and their children." 
Answer: — "We entirely disapprove of the vain and useless custom 
of decorating the dead." 

These examples serve to illustrate not only the attempt to create 
unity, but also the dilemma involved in trying to maintain it through 
conformity to external duties. For when the point is laid down 
that such external conformity is necessary for unity, the attempt 
to enforce a rule leads to practical difficulties, if not to logical ab- 
surdities. Individual desires (and at times even the demands of an 
entire local congregation) are subordinated in order to maintain 
uniformity of belief and practice. 

The foregoing passages imply a distinction in types of groups. 
This becomes clear when we compare associations known as reli- 
gious brotherhoods, with those known as denominations. Whereas 
both of these types of groups have characteristics of associations, 
they differ essentially in that a religious brotherhood concerns itself, 
theoretically at least, with all of the elements that constitute the 
sphere of normal living, subordinating them to the religious scale 
of values. A denomination, however, concerns itself primarily with 
the existing culture and prevalent scale of values. 

The generic elements that form a religious brotherhood are man- 
ifestations of the central idea of its unity. These elements may be 
briefly characterized under the following four topics. First of all 
there is social self-sufficiency. This is true not only with reference 



30 SCHWARZENAU 

to self-government, insofar as no external system is imposed upon 
it, but also with reference to mutual aid. The brotherhood considers 
it a disgrace to have any of its members provided for by an outside 
agency, such as in public relief. Homogeneity is another evidence 
of unity. The behavior of the members displays a high degree of 
uniformity. There is also equality and solidarity. Thus there is no 
ranking difference based on personal rivalry, although there is an 
order based on the central values of the group, such as sanctity or 
functional efficiency in promoting the objectives of the group, inter- 
preting its past and pointing out its course of endeavor. Social con- 
trol, in which the personal feelings and group opinion, rather than 
a system of fixed rules and regulations, are guides in arbitration, 
may be mentioned as the fourth characteristic of the brotherhood. 

The unity of the brotherhood is generally maintained by a con- 
stant reaffirmation and direction of attention upon this ideal. Still 
other elements contributing to group unity should be mentioned. 
These are not dissimilar to the isolation devices but are additional 
forces that make for persistence of the social unity in spite of shift- 
ing population. The first is continued residence in the proximity of 
the culture group. This rural abode and settlement within the cul- 
tural community — within the group's land base — alone does not 
guarantee unity, but is an element in that it is an essential point 
of attachment to a stable group life. A second element is physio- 
logical coherence of members through successive generations. Be- 
cause this is so important the brotherhood excludes those who enter 
into exogamous marriages in order to maintain its ideal. A third 
means of maintaining unity is the objectification of the coherence of 
the group by means of utilitarian and symbolic culture traits. These 
three elements, relation to the land base, blood unity and objectified 
culture traits, are suggestive of the means whereby unity of the 
group is effected and maintained. 

Tn order to determine whether any life form is of the brotherhood 
type it is necessary to analyze the group with reference to the ge- 
neric elements that characterize this relationship. Four aspects of the 
Church of the Brethren will be analyzed briefly in this chapter, 
namely: leadership, membership, social control, and the focus of 
church attention. 

That the Church of the Brethren is no longer a brotherhood will 
become apparent from the ensuing contrasts of these four phases 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 31 

of the structure as found in a brotherhood and in other types of 
soclo-religious associations. This comparison does not imply that 
the Brethren do not, in the abstract, hold to the original values, but 
rather that the erstwhile brotherhood has acquired characteristics of 
organization of a denomination. 

The generic element of equality in a brotherhood was expressed 
in many ways. Among these was opposition to elevated pulpits in 
order that every member might be on the same level symbolically. 
When a change in these attitudes began the incipient encroachments 
were reflected in queries directed to the church counsellors. This 
query, number 5 of the District Meeting of 1873, was in reference 
to this hierarchization of the membership. "Would it not be better, 
and nearer the gospel and our profession, to have no stand or plat- 
form elevated at the place of holding our Annual Meeting for the 
committee brethren and others of the meeting to sit and stand upon 
during the time of council?" Answer: "It is best to have no stand 
or platform in the Annual Council." Referred to the Annual Meet- 
ing for confirmation. 

1. In the leadership of a brotherhood as in other groups, the 
dominant individuals personify the chief values of the group. The 
leader incorporates group values in his own life; he is not chosen 
because of his ability, as such, but because he more nearly than oth- 
ers has embodied the things for which the group stands. Accord- 
ingly status was formerly accorded the leaders to the degree to 
which they conformed to the rules of the brotherhood. But today 
the pastor no longer derives prestige from simply being a conformist 
to group values; instead prestige is granted in accordance with his 
ability in adjusting to, or competing with, the values currently ac- 
cepted as the objects of endeavor by other denominations. 

The pastor is granted consideration because of his ability to make 
friends, or to mix with people, or because of his educational achieve- 
ments and his ability to administrate the affairs of the church in a 
chanpring world efficiently. Not only has this been true of the pastor 
but also the Elder who is the highest oflicial in the Church of the 
Brethren. This is expressed In a query to the conference asking that 
only those who conform to the rules be granted the privilege of be- 
ing on the Standing Committee (the highest honor accorded an 
Elder). This query reflects the awareness among the Brethren that 
leadership Is losing Its symbolic affirmation of the tenets of the 



32 SCHWARZENAU 

founders. Comparable changes are also occurring in the functions 
and criteria of status of the deacon and deaconess as attested by the 
recent opposition to the deacon's life tenure of office. 

The earlier leaderships among the brotherhood were not salaried. 
Their functions were performed along with other vocational activ- 
ities. Whatever honorarium was given was simply in the form of 
kind. As the larger culture made its encroachment upon the brother- 
hood and specialization in economic fields took place, part of the 
ministry began to be salaried. 

This change is reflected in query number 16 of the District Meet- 
ing of 1889. "Whereas, our brotherhood has always been opposed 
to local salaried ministry, what should be done with such brethren, 
who against all advices are preaching for a stipulated sum?" The 
answer was deferred by being sent to the Annual Meeting, the high- 
est authority in the Church of the Brethren. The fact that decision 
upon the question was deferred, might indicate two things: either 
the question may have been considered of such importance that it 
was handed to a higher authority, or, the practice of accepting sal- 
aries may have been so prevalent that public opinion on the issue 
was not sufficient to warrant a negative answer. While the Church 
oT the Brethren has been slow to accept the principle of a paid min- 
istry, the increasing number of part-time and full-time salaried min- 
isters attests this change. 

2. The changed basis of membership of the church of the Breth- 
ren is also indicative of the transition from a brotherhood to a de- 
nomination. In the brotherhood type of association, an individual 
was not admitted to the group until he had assimilated the values 
and symbols of unity relatively well. This Involved not only mat- 
uration of the young but also inculcation by the young and adult 
recruits alike. As to the age factor, the individual was not incor- 
porated into the brotherhood until young adulthood. The writer 
knows of some instances where the individuals were not admitted 
until they were close to thirty years of age. Such preliminary pro- 
bation may be supposed to have been favorable to the development 
of solidarity to the extent, at least, that the delay implied deliberate 
commitment to the principles involved and resistance to social dls- 
or(?anIzation. Today the age factor has come to assume less Im- 
portance, and admittance is made at the Indeterminate age of "ac- 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 33 

countability." There are many evangelists who work primarily with 
the children and stress church membership at a very early age. 

As to the second point, inculcation by process of evangelizing out- 
side adults, a corresponding tread toward denominationalism has 
taken place. Admittance to the group is not now dependent upon 
assimilation of the distinctive doctrines and incorporation into a 
well-knit structure but upon a profession of faith. The absolutistic 
rules of conduct have broken down and the intrusion of modern 
dress and customs mark this change in the type of the peculiar asso- 
ciation. 

The importance of this question of assimilation (acceptance and 
internalization) of a point of conduct is illustrated by the problems 
arising over the rules regarding dress. Indeed the question of dress 
has been a source of .cultural conflicts among the Brethren. Owing 
to the intrusion of modern dress, schisms developed, the church be- 
came intolerant and many individuals withdrew altogether. Query 
number 21 of the Meeting of 1897 reflects this conflict and change 
from the brotherhood tvoe of society. "Whereas, the established 
order In the Brethren Church has always been to exact from the 
applicants for membership, an obliofatlon of promise to transform 
from the world and to conform to the rules of the church as pre- 
scribed in Minute Book pap-e 26, article 8, and pasre 150, article 6.3 
and 12, also oagre 155, article 3, and inasmuch as there Is prevailing 
In some localities a stron? sentiment that this is a matter of advice, 
thus declaring that no obligation of promise Is to be made or taken 
with applicants, to conform to the order In dress, we therefore ask 
Annual Meeting through District Meeting to define said articles 
and say If It Is possible for one applying for membership to declare 
his agreement with the church as specified, without an oblleration of 
promise? Also whether article 3, page 259, referring to Bro. H — 
Is corroborating those above mentioned." "Answer: Sent to Annual 
Meeting." 

The brotherhood was also non-competltlve. There was no rlvalrv 
among: the Brethren in any aspect that was not open to the entire 
p-roun. Whatever competition there was between the members was 
onlv in those achievements that were open to the whole membership. 
This meant that hierarchizatlon as to wealth, education, personal 
achievement, and family repute was lacking In the determination of 
the status of the members. Probably for like reasons they also 



34 SCHWARZENAU 

banned secret societies, lodges, and fraternal orders in which mem- 
bership was restricted and selective. The same principle was made 
to apply in regard to the holding of public office. Query number 17 
of the 1889 conference asks this question: "Is it wrong for a brother 
to serve in the office of Supervisor?" Answer by the conference — 
"Yes I" This non-rivalrous trait of the brotherhood is also a thing 
of the past. Brethren colleges now confer honorary degrees. Mem- 
bers now join fraternal orders as well as clubs; they hold electoral 
offices and bid for the support of their Brethren. A state governor 
and several members to congress, as well as more minor officers, 
have come from this group. Ministers become leaders in civic or- 
ganizations, and laymen display their wealth. In fact the various 
methods of gaining status and the devices of participation that char- 
acterize the general order of American life are generally accepted 
among the Brethren. 

3. A religious brotherhood claims the unconditional loyalty of 
the individual. This implies effective social control, which is appar- 
ent in the arbitration of disputes. Formerly the church of the 
Brotherhood was not only a house of worship, it was a court of 
justice. Members were forbidden to go to law, and instead of civil 
litigation their grievances could be and, indeed would be, aired be- 
fore the congregation. The decisions handed down in this way were 
likely to be more effective than those given by the impersonal courts 
at law. For since unanimity of opinion was characteristic of the 
brotherhood, public opinion was relatively effective. One dared not 
rebuff the church for fear of excommunication and a loss of security 
supplied by the group. 

But this form of social control has gone with the passing of the 
religious sanctions regulating the intra-group relations. This fact 
is disclosed by an observation of the minutes of Annual Conferences, 
District Councils, and Local Church Meetings. The following query 
shows such a breakdown of social control within the group. Al- 
though the article refers to the loss of control over the ministry it is 
indicative of the breakdown of group opinion in other respects as 
well. "The District Meeting of the Southern District of Illinois to 
the Standing Committee and Annual Meeting of 1880, greetings: 
Whereas the General Brotherhood at last Annual Meeting assem- 
bled was much aggrieved at the past written articles, as also the then 
present conduct and appearance of certain ministers in the Brother- 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 35 

hood, apparently by their action bidding defiance to former decisions 
of Annual Meeting, (See Minutes, page 357, article 21, and page 
416, article 8) thus refusing to hear the Church, we therefore ear- 
nestly petition Annual Meeting to appoint a Committee of five or- 
derly and experienced brethren to investigate such matters and deal 
with such offending ministers at Annual Meeting if present, and if 
they will not comply with the council of the General Brotherhood, 
reheve them of the ministry; and if they still continue self-willed 
and rebellious deal with them according to the 18th chapter of 
Matthew. If such offenders be not present at Annual Meeting, said 
committee to be empowered by Annual Meeting to go where such 
offenders reside and deal with them according to their transgres- 
sions; said committee to report their proceedings to the present or 
following Annual Meeting for confirmation or rejection, a respect- 
able majority of the members present to decide these special cases 
as in Common Council Meetings; we being confident if these and 
other important matters must be decided by unanimous consent and 
that including the transgressors, our Annual Meeting will be of but 
little use in the future. Therefore we earnestly request the Stand- 
ing Committee of 1880, to give this matter early attention that the 
mind of the General Brotherhood may be relieved from its present 
sad dilemma. The above sent by District Meeting to Standing Com- 
mittee to be at their disposal." 

The queries sent to conference no longer apply to rules of conduct 
but to church methods and policies. The question of administration 
techniques has supplanted that of morality and conduct expressive 
alike of personal relations between the members and of personal 
preferences in "private questions." 

Another form of social control characteristic of the religious 
brotherhood is visitation by the Elders (or leaders) to the mem- 
bers of the church. This afforded opportunities to the members for 
reaffirmation of faitlTand the discussion of love and harmony among 
the Brethren. These visits thus were a means of social control inas- 
much as suggestions and criticisms were in order. However, with 
the coming of denominationalism the visitations and the ensuing dis- 
cussions of these topics are rapidly disappearing. Local churches 
that still maintain the custom of visitations find it ineffective for 
control, as shown by the fact that today the Brethren often resort 
to the due processes of law in order to protect their interests. Thus 



36 SCHWARZENAU 

the brotherhood sanctions have been replaced by the secularized 
sanctions of legislation. 

4. The focus of attention of the Church of the Brethren also 
indicates the direction and character of the changes it is undergoing. 
Individuation that has come through social change and disorganiza- 
tion has broken down bonds of interest, and secondary relations have 
been substituted for the personal and primary relations. (Chapter 
III will analyze the change in mutual aid that has occurred with the 
change in type of institution.) Whereas the brotherhood was pre- 
viously concerned with the understanding and relationship between 
members, today the group sends representatives to Spain to distrib- 
ute relief to the victims of war. Thousands of dollars are sent to re- 
lieve the suffering in China. Missionaries are established in Sweden, 
Africa, India, and China, and charity and evangelism are directed 
to those whom the members do not know personally. In other words 
the focus of church attention has shifted from the Individual mem- 
bers to impersonal and casual relations of extraneous peoples. 

Changes such as those summed up under the four preceding top- 
ics indicate that the brotherhood has broken down under the impact 
of the larger environing culture. The change from the earlier to 
the later type of society did not come wilfully. It came in spite of all 
the techniques of resistance that were accessible; and the Brethren 
have used most of these. In these tensions and adjustments of the 
ffroup, can be seen the encroachment of, and conflict with, the dom- 
inant culture patterns and value systems and the gradual but decisive 
breakdown of the brotherhood. 

CHAPTER III 

Secularization OF Mutual Aid 

A genuine brotherhood maintains a relatively simple system of 
co-operation based on personal relationships. Whenever aid be- 
comes complex in its procedures and impersonal in its application, 
it is evident that the social relations of the group are no lonsrer of the 
brotherhood type. This is observable in the society of the Brethren, 
where the denominational form of fraternity has supplanted that of 
the original sect and certain pronounced changes have taken place 
in the reciprocities that were customarily rendered. Two facts are 
apparent in tracing the system of relief that discloses the break- 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 37 

down of the brotherhood: first, the changes in the form of reciproci- 
ties tend to conform to the estabhshed social relations of the larger 
culture; and, second, there is depersonalization of mutual aid, as 
expressed in the building of old people's homes and the problems 
arising in the maintenance of these homes under conditions of im- 
personality. 

Among the members in a typical brotherhood aid is usually direct 
and immediate, even when it is standardized and pre-arranged. Each 
church or local community cares for its own needy members in ways 
suited to the circumstances. In some instances the money is given 
to the poor in their own homes, in other cases the poor make their 
home with the more well-to-do. Most churches attempted to meet 
emergencies by establishing a poor fund. The first record of such 
giving of aid to the poor by this fraternity is supplied by the Ger- 
mantown (Pa.) congregation poor book. This is the official record 
of money received and paid out from 1747 to 1807, The following 
are a few excerpts : 

"May 10, 1747. Today the box was emptied and there was in it 
of contributions 14 shillings. On June 5th Brother Henry Schling- 
luff, a deacon, was made custodian of the poor fund, and he was 
charged with 4£, 9s, 3d. 

On June 28, the box was emptied. 

It had in it 12s. 
On July 24, the box was emptied. 

It had in it 6s. 
On Aug. 23, the box was emptied. 

It had in it 6s, 6d. 
On Oct. 4, the box was emptied. 

It had in it 17s. 
Brother Peter Wentz paid 1 £, 14s, 6d. 
On Nov. 5, the box was emptied. 

It had in it 10s. 
On Nov. 22, the box was emptied. 
On Dec. 25, the box was emptied. 

It had in it 10s. 
Total receipts for the year 1 1 £, 16s, 3d."^ 
From this it will be seen that the congregation had a box, later two 



1. Brumbaugh, M. G., History of the Brethren. Brethren Publishing House, p. 
171. 



38 SCHWARZENAU 

boxes, somewhere in the meetinghouse which at this time was the 
second story of the dwelling of Christopher Saur, an early leader. 
Into this box the members voluntarily dropped whatever sum they 
felt free to give to the poor fund. Other Brethren contributed di- 
rectly to the fund. 

It is interesting to note also some of the expenditures taken at 
random : 

"Jan. 12, 1752, To a poor woman whose child burnt itself — 7s, 
6d. 

Nov. 18, 1752, To widows for meal (rye flour) — 17s, 6d. 

Aug. 29, 1758, For the coffin of Sister Charitas — 17s. 

Jan. 1, 1759, To Sister Cundis for month of January — 12s. 

Dec. 2, 1762, For wood for the meeting rooms — 13s. 

Dec. 7, 1762, To Sister Sophie for 1 cord of wood — 1 £, 8s. 

July 15, 1763, Paid for the fare of Sister Sophie from Lancas- 
ter — 16s. 

Aug. 6, 1763, Paid for taking Sister Sophie back — 15s. 

April 17, 1776, To Sister Feith, 5s, in money and some sugar 
and coffee— 7s, Sd."^ 
It may be observed from the above quotation that there was 
directness and immediacy of relief due to the personal relations be- 
tween the members. A simple system of co-operation typical of 
closely knit social groups is essential to a brotherhood. Thus the 
breakdown of the brotherhood structure is first apparent when pri- 
vate homes were no longer voluntarily made available for the needy. 
When the members no longer had that personal interest and devo- 
tion to each other, the effect of individuation had begun its disin- 
tegrative effects. 

The expressions of mutual aid based on personal relations in the 
brotherhood were based on inner identification, backed by religious 
sanctions. When Alexander Mack and his followers refused to sub- 
scribe to a formalized creed and decided to use the Bible as their 
only guide and standard of life they fell heir to the great number 
of commands and exhortations to care for the widows, the father- 
less, and the aged. Such verses as are found in Deuteronomy 15 :7, 
8 have been used again and again as a religious sanction to encourage 
alms-giving in the brotherhood. This Biblical injunction pertains to 
the assistance of the "brethren within any of thy gates," and it ad- 



2. Brumbaugh, M. G., op. cit., p. 171. 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 39 

vises not only assistance by gifts, but also by lending. However, 
while assistance was meant especially for those who were solidary 
with the group, especially needy neighbors of whatever faith were 
apparently also given help, as the quotations of the preceding par- 
agraphs suggest. Nevertheless, the conclusion that relief was es- 
pecially of the brotherhood type is disclosed in answers to entries 
quoted, as well as the language of the Biblical sanctions. This has 
continued to be the main emphasis throughout the history of the 
group, for indeed, this is the nature of a brotherhood and, in fact, 
is the elementary and most effective and suitable method of "char- 
ity." However, this primordial expression of identification changed 
when the Brotherhood as a sectarian group evolved into a denom- 
inational type of organization. 

Inasmuch as the change was evolutionary, the structural break- 
down was gradual rather than immediate, and ways of adjusting 
ideas and methods were developed by the group to prevent disorgan- 
ization and a complete loss of solidarity. Accordingly the writer has 
made an inquiry into this aspect of the Brethren's cultural adapta- 
tion. One of these methods of readjustment in mutual aid was to 
provide custodial or so-called institutional care (in what the Breth- 
ren commonly called homes) for the dependent, both young and 
aged. The plan of building special homes for the dependent seems 
to have originated in the Germantown congregation. On the elev- 
enth day of August, 1760, a deed of the Pettikoffer house, (property 
of a deceased member) was issued to four principal men of the 
Brethren congregation, Alexander Mack, Christopher Sower, Peter 
Libert, and George Schriber. These four men as trustees on the 
following day issued a "Declaration of Trust"; in which we find 
the beginning of the plan of caring for dependents that was later to 
develop into considerable proportions. The following is a part of 
the deed that establishes the charitable use to which this dwelling 
was to be devoted: 

"To the use and intents hereinafter mentioned and under condi- 
tions and restrictions hereinafter limited and restricted and to no 
other use or purpose whatsoever, that is to say, one room in the said 
home to be made use of for a meeting place of the said people living 
at or near Germantown aforesaid and for such others as the said 
community may think proper to admit thereto, the which room may 
be improved or enlarged for the better convenience of the said meet- 



40 SCHWARZENAU 

ing at the discretion of the said community in such manner as they 
may think meet. And one room and kitchen of the said messuage 
to be made use of for a dweUing place for some widow woman of 
the said society or community to Hve in rent free and that the said 
society or community shall and do keep the said Messuage or Ten- 
ement and pieces or parcels of land or ground in repair from time 
to time."^ 

For ten years the conditions of the Declaration were met, one 
room being used as the place of worship while one room and a kitch- 
en were retained for some widow belonging to the society. Evidence 
indicates that the congregation grew until the entire home was 
needed for the services, but rather than waive the second part of 
the Declaration of trust a new meeting place was built and later 
dedicated on July 8, 1770. The Pettikoffer house was then set apart 
as a home for widows. As such, it remained until 1861. It has been 
asserted, although the contention has never been established, that 
this was the earliest institutional provision for dependents made by 
any denomination in America. 

Although this first dependents' home was estabhshed in 1770, it 
was not until 1883 that the idea was sufficiently acceptable for a 
district to establish such an institution as a substitute for the tra- 
ditional mode of helping the needy. In 1883 at Honey Creek, In- 
diana, the Southern District of Indiana organized their "Old Folks' 
Home." Now, in 1938, there are eighteen such institutions. It is 
interesting to note that eight of these homes were estabhshed in the 
first decade of the twentieth century, five were established prior to 
1900, and only three have been established since 1910 — the last two 
being in 1921. This suggests that there is a trend away from the 
establishing of such homes or that there is no need for more. 

Of these eighteen homes listed in the "Yearbook of the Church 
of the Brethren," information was secured from seventeen. One 
of these seventeen had ceased to function as an institution, the home 
and farm having been sold; the care of the needy in that particular 
district is carried on by other means. Accordingly the analysis which 
follows pertains to sixteen homes operated by the Brethren, and 
deals with their nature, location, size and valuation, functioning, 
and trends. 

All but four of the institutions were established for the care of 



3. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society. Part VIII, p. 123. 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 41 

the aged. These four were Children's Homes. Thus there are two 
distinct types of institutions, although their functions at times over- 
lap. This is due to the fact that in some of the homes temporary 
arrangements are made for the care of a dependent until there is 
room available in the institution to which the individual should go. 
For example, in case a district has no children's home a child might 
be placed in the old people's home until a private home is available 
or some other adjustment is made. One of the four children's homes 
had such provision for the temporary care of old folks in its charter, 
However in some states legislation forbids the housing of the two 
groups in the same quarters. At present (middle of 1938) these 
sixteen homes have a total of 413 inmates. Some of these homes 
are filled to capacity. Several reported thus, "We need more room; 
we are not able to receive all the applicants." One home, however, 
reported that the need that was most pressing was for more inmates. 
This particular home was in a state with a rather small Brethren 
constituency and served only one district of the state, the other dis- 
trict also maintaining a home. An attempt was made to determine 
the trend of custodial care of dependents by ascertaining the maxi- 
mum and minimum number of inmates during the past years. A full 
report could be gotten from only seven of the homes on this ques- 
tion. Poor record keeping made it impossible to get the complete 
data. For those reporting, however, the years of the maximum 
number of inmates are found during 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938. The 
years of lowest enrollment occurred in the earlier part of the his- 
tory of the institution. A few showed a slight decrease in inmates 
during the depression years of 1929 to 1933. However, the sam- 
pling here is not adequate to justify any general conclusions. 

The sixteen custodial homes are located in the various church 
districts of the Brethren in the United States. In some instances, one 
church district maintains a separate home, in other cases two or 
even three states have combined to maintain a home for their de- 
pendent. In keeping with the rural tradition of the Brethren, eight 
of these homes are strictly rural, while of the remaining number, 
three are listed as suburban to small cities or towns. Of those listed 
as urban several stated that a farm was maintained in conjunction 
with the home. 

The properties, as one would expect, vary in size and value. In 
number of rooms they range from twelve to eighty-two, with an 



42 SCHWARZENAU 

average of thirty-five rooms for the sixteen homes. In value, they 
range from as low as $12,000 to as high as $100,000. The total 
valuation of the fifteen homes that replied to this question was 
$553,000. It should be noted here that the values given are not truly 
accurate. For one thing, the properties were not assessed by the 
same boards. Since they were church properties, and exempt from 
taxation, many states did not trouble to assess them at all. In some 
cases the value stated is simply the best judgment of the officers in 
charge. However the suggested valuations are indicative of the fact 
that the per capita investment of the Brethren is comparatively 
large. These facts show the trait in the Brethren culture to care for 
their own dependents, but it also shows the encroachment of indi- 
viduation and the imitation of the general culture patterns in the 
impersonal apphcation of aid in institutions. 

We turn now to the important question as to the way these homes 
are functioning, and the light this throws on the depersonalized rela- 
tions which have developed in a structure which was once a vital 
brotherhood. The index used is the financial arrangements of these 
various institutions. 

Financial records give the indication of being well kept and busi- 
ness like. All gave rather accurate accounts of incomes and expendi- 
tures. The operating costs, as well as the sources from which these 
resources were obtained, during 1936 and 1937 were available for 
all sixteen homes. Surprisingly enough, most of the cost of oper- 
ation is met by the inmates themselves. Of the 413 inmates reported 
nearly the middle of 1938, 270 or 65 per cent of them were paying 
either part or all of their expenses. Also more than half of the 
actual operating cost was derived from these persons. The total 
reported cost was $101,586.67 for the year 1937; of this sum 
$57,116.26 or 56.2 per cent was paid by the inmates themselves. 
Thus in a sense, they are not charity patients. They do not think of 
themselves as such nor do the officials in charge regard them as 
paupers in any sense. In reply to the question, "What is the present 
number of inmates?", the secretary of one of these institutions re- 
plied : "We do not call our people nor think of them as inmates. We 
call them guests." As far as could be determined through interview 
with inmates, supervisors, and officials of these custodial homes, 
there was no distinction in treatment between the paying and the 
non-paying "guests." 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 43 

Although all sixteen homes derived a part of the income from the 
"guests," there are differences in the manner of securing the re- 
mainder of the operating costs. The total amount received by the 
homes in 1937 was $126,137.45 or 19.5 per cent more than was 
needed for actual operation; of this total amount, $14,561.05 or 
11.5 per cent was paid in through church apportionments. Income 
from the farms, in so far as it was reported, accounted for $16,- 
463.96 or 13.0 per cent. In many instances there was no record of 
the amount or value of farm produce that was consumed by the 
homes. If this sum were included, both the income from the farm, 
and the operating cost would be increased. The income from en- 
dowments, amounting to $14,388.33 or 11.4 per cent of the total 
for 1937, gives us an insight into the amount of money invested in 
the homes other than in real estate. If we assume the rate of interest 
to average as much as four per cent, we find the total endowment 
fund to be approximately $360,000. Those who listed bequests as 
such, reported a total of $8,200. This constitutes 6.5 per cent of 
the total income for the year. Special "offerings," such as those 
collected by Sunday Schools, accounted for $395.73 or about one 
third of one per cent of the total income. Individual donations a- 
mounted to $1,031.65 or .81 per cent. Two homes specified amounts 
totaling $787.24 or .62 per cent as coming from group, in contrast 
to the individual donations. The balance of the income, amounting 
to $13,293.23 or 10.4 per cent, was listed simply as miscellaneous. 

Owing to the fact that these homes enjoy the benefit of large en- 
dowment funds, and other sources of relatively dependable income, 
the financial standing seems at first glance to be very secure. Upon 
analysis, however, the opposite is apparent. Four of the homes 
listed the most serious problem facing them as financial. Deperson- 
alization with the resulting loss of interest in these charities is quite 
evident in the support of the institution by the churches. One oflicial 
of an institution relates, "Our problem is financial, caused by the 
failure of the district churches to pay their quota. Last year the 
churches paid in $753.19 on their quota of $5,928.00, or about 
one eighth of the full amount assessed by the district. An extra good 
wheat crop at a fair market saved us some embarrassment. But we 
don't get a crop like that every year. If churches would pay in one 
half of the assessed quota the home would get along very nicely." 
The secretary of the Board of Trustees of another institution re- 



44 SCHWARZENAU 

lates : "We have people who would like to come to the home, who 
would be charity inmates. When the home was started, that was 
the object for which it was built. Those who had nothing were ac- 
cepted; other applicants, if they had some means, gave it to the 
home. The churches supported the institution through their contri- 
butions. The depression came, the churches failed to meet their ap- 
portionments, and some of our investments were lost .... Since 
the churches do not pay we can't take them in. Some of the church- 
es are criticizing us because we cannot take them. We feel this is 
unfair. If the churches would support their home as they once did, 
then we could do differently. Our problem is to get the churches to 
see why we cannot take these destitute ones without funds when 
they think we should." 

It is quite evident that in some of the cases, the home, in order 
to maintain itself, must reject the charity inmates, for whose care 
it was founded, and receive only those who can pay for part or all 
of their maintenance. This helps to explain the fact that 65.3 per 
cent of the inmates are either wholly or partially self-supporting. 
Thus the system begins to appear not so much a system of benev- 
olence as some form of hotel arrangement for the paying guests, or 
at best co-operation in mutual aid, for those who contribute labor 
equivalent to some or all of the cost of their support. Such attempts 
to adjust to changing conditions supply illustrations of the process 
of evolution in the social structure, whereby a brotherhood is changed 
into a denomination; and a plan of fraternal support of dependent 
members of the group is transformed into a plan of commercialized 
co-operation or associative individualism. 

These custodial homes face other problems than financial ones. 
Two supervisors expressed the need for hospital facilities; one, 
especially, cited the need for facilities to care for those who became 
mentally deficient. One problem facing the homes is that of secur- 
ing competent directors or superintendents. While many are com- 
petent superintendents, others are not. One correspondent states, 
"A good superintendent and matron are almost indispensable and 
very hard to get. It's hard to get a man and wife who both have the 
needed qualifications, such as business judgment, tact, wisdom, pa- 
tience, ability to co-operate, good health, economy and a brand of 
good religion, and a capacity for work." Others expressed the same 
view. All of the homes had a paid superintendent; none had the 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 45 

renter-manager type of director that was formerly used by certain 
agencies such as county farms, and that at times resulted in various 
forms of exploitation. 

Deduction concerning the trends of these forms of custodial care, 
leads to the belief that the children's homes of the Church of the 
Brethren will soon disappear. All the officers of the children's homes 
were cognizant of the need of child placement in homes rather than 
in institutions. Even if the deteriorating effects of institutional care 
upon the personality of the child were disregarded there is doubt 
that some of the homes could overcome the problems they face. 
Various states are enacting laws in regard to child care. Some states 
require as high as a $10,000 bond for each child; statutes concern- 
ing equipment make it almost impossible for the none-too-well 
financed home to exist. For example, some states require a bath- 
room for every eight children, and boys and girls cannot use the 
same facilities. All rooms must have a stand, chair, wardrobe, and 
dressers, and articles more luxurious than utilitarian. Some states 
will not permit children to be kept in the old people's institutions, 
so a separate home must be provided. 

Some representative sentiments concerning these children's homes 
are expressed in the following comments selected from replies to 
the inquiries sent to the present district officers, leaders, and directors 
of these Children's Homes : "We are considering seriously doing 
orphanage work without the institution." "I should not advise any 
district to provide a children's home. Instead, I think an experi- 
enced, if not trained, executive secretary, should be intrusted with 
the investigation of homes and children's needs and be paid a salary 
sufficient to give all her time to the work." 

From the fact that such ideas and practices in the management 
of facilities for both the old and young dependents are forming, 
breakdown of the brotherhood appears to be in process. The indi- 
viduation characteristic of our present-day society is sucrgested by 
the failure of the churches to pay their apportionments. The adiust- 
ments made by the home in receiving only paying guests further illus- 
trate the breakdown of the standards of mutual aid customary of 
the brotherhood structure. The fact that these homes are contem- 
nlatino- other adjustments implies that the reciprocities of relief 
carried on by the Brethren will probably be left to some impersonal 
svstem, such as the government. Many of the church members hold 



46 SCHWARZENAU 

the opinion that there is no necessity for maintaining a home and 
duplicating charity since they are legally compelled through taxation 
to care for the poor of the general population as well. This opinion 
is not recent. As early as 1893 the Macoupin Creek. Church of 
Southern Illinois asked the district through query number 18 
"Whether churches have a right to call on the county for financial 
aid to help support their poor members?" The religious sanctions 
to almsgivings have been displaced by legal compulsions as the func- 
tion of relief has been transferred to the state. Therefore the adop- 
tion of the devices of the larger culture shows that the generic type 
of mutual aid based on personal relations is no longer prominent in 
the Brethren's scheme of life. 

CHAPTER IV 

Culture Adaptations and Competition; Relation 
TO THE Land Base 

The preceding chapters dealt with the Brethren's expression of 
their distinctive cultural values in their social structure, and the 
modification of their culture and social structure as a result of the 
changes growing out of greater complexity, mobility, impersonality, 
increased interdependency, and decrease of local solidarity and self- 
sufficiency. This chapter will deal with the manner in which the cul- 
ture of the Brethren made adjustment to the competitive environ- 
ment, and specifically, with the way this culture found expression in 
the relation of this group to the land base. 

The peasant experience of the members of the Church of the 
Brethren and their devotion to a simple life were factors in prompt- 
ing these people to settle on the land, rather than in urban centers. 
Settlement in rural areas facilitated their co-operation and encour- 
aged simplicity in their mode of living. Their "way of life" could 
not have been maintained so readily or so long if the Brethren had 
settled in urban areas where mobility, impersonality and competitive 
and complex relations are dominant. This preference for agriculture 
as a mode of livelihood supplies the occasion to test the hypothesis 
that the culture of the Brethren prompted them to select the more 
fertile lands in the areas where they settled. But irrespective as to 
the conclusions demanded by the data, their culture characteristics 
will be seen to affect their adjustments to the competitive environ- 
ment in various other specific ways. 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 47 

The manner of adjustment to the land base may be spoken of as 
an example of ecological organization. But this approach neverthe- 
less involves the culture. Indeed, some elements of every culture 
have reference to the habitat in which the members of a group 
live. However, it does not follow that the various items of the 
culture are produced by the habitat nor that they even reflect the 
habitat; for they may, as in the instance at hand, have been trans- 
planted. In various ways the extent to which the environment has 
conditioned culture has been misjudged. Indeed, some writers have 
gone so far as to say that the land entirely determines the culture 
of those who live upon it. However this is fallacious for two reasons : 
first, unlike cultures can and do exist in the same environment, and, 
secondly, like cultures can and do exist in unlike environments. 

However, the physical features of the habitat may become in- 
volved in the organization and culture of a group in various ways, 
depending on the manner in which these natural features are instru- 
ments or obstacles to a plan of living or of values created by the 
group. This is the case before us. The habitat in which the Brethren 
sect arose may have served as a facilitating factor, for this district 
of Wittgenstein was somewhat isolated by mountains ; it was a rough, 
stony and unfruitful area. These two facts served to make it a place 
of refuge because it was segregated by these topographical features 
from the other states that were not so hedged in. The fact that this 
sect arose in an area of infertile soil indicates that if the members 
do seek out the better soil this culture trait cannot be ascribed to a 
direct geographic cause, and the inference that the culture was 
"caused" by the habitat would lead to the untenable inference that 
the geographic environment produces logically opposite results. 
However, the topographical features may affect ease or difficulty 
of communication under simple conditions of technology and facilities 
for mobility, and thus through isolation facilitate homogeneity of 
the stock and of the culture. But the barren habitat cannot be con- 
sidered the cause even of the emigration ; for this was caused by per- 
secution occasioned by a clash of cultures. 

In an analyses of this nature it would be pertinent to know the 
value of the land at the time the Brethren immigrated to America. 
Thus it could be determined whether the members sought out the 
richer soil. However, there are no available data on the differences 
in land values for different areas or sections of Pennsylvania when 



48 SCHWARZENAU 

the Brethren began their immigration to America. Hence, there is 
no way of knowing whether they settled on the richer soil at that 
time. However, there are a few figures available on parcels of land 
in the area of the early settlement in Pennsylvania. These probably 
do not reflect prices for areas other than Eastern Pennsylvania, 
where the value of land was considered high ; but they give some in- 
dication of price levels that prevailed during several decades. 

"About 1717, in Eastern Pennsylvania where land was considered 
very high in price, the agent of George I quoted it at from 20 to 100 
pounds sterling per 100 acres. William Penn offered land to all who 
would come, at the rate of 1 00 acres for 40 shillings, a sum which 
Fiske says was equivalent to between $40 and $50, subject only to 
the quit rent of one shilling per 100 acres per annum. In 1763, 147 
acres of land near Ephrata, Lancaster County, were sold for 66 
pounds, 3 shillings, subject to the usual allowance of 6 per cent for 
roads and highways. In 1732, 500 acres on which Lancaster is now 
situated, sold for 31 pounds, 10 shillings. In 1717, Penn's commis- 
sioners conveyed 400 acres of land in Springtown Manor, Chester 
County, for 40 pounds. In 1701, Logan sold for Penn 1000 acres 
in East Jersey for 300 pounds. In his prospectus to settlers and ad- 
venturers, Penn set his price at 100 pounds sterling for each 5,000 
acres, subject to the quit rent of 1 shilling for each 100 acres per 
annum. He also offered to give to each master who brought over 
servants, 50 acres for every servant brought over, when the latter's 
time had expired with a quit rent of 2 shillings per annum. To those 
who could not afford to buy land, Penn offered to rent land at a rate 
of 200 acres, which was the maximum to be rented to any one man, 
for 1 pence per acre per annum."* 

In keeping with our hypothesis then, we ask whether the Brethren 
live today on the richer or the poorer soil. Federal Census reports 
(See Tables 5, 6, 7, 8) supply information which can be used in mak- 
ing comparisons between this culture group and the general popula- 
tion. These data pertain to the size of farms, the value of land and 
buildings combined, and the value of each of these items separately. 
A comparison on each point is made between the counties, townships, 
and districts in which the congregations of the church of the Brethren 
are located and the adjacent areas in which none of these congrega- 
tions are situated. Such a comparison should indicate whether tradi- 



1. Giiiin. p. 92-93. 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 



49 



tions of the Brethren have found distinctive expression relative to 
the type of land which they select, and if so, the degree to which this 
is true. However, if it is found that they live on the more valuable 
land, there may still be the theoretical possibility that they have 
improved the land correspondingly. 

The first datum to be considered is the farm acreage. In no in- 
stance, either in county or township totals, do we find the average 
size of farms occupied by the Brethren to equal the average for the 
state or any county or township division with which they are com- 
pared. The average number of acres (See Table 1) per farm for 
the state of Pennsylvania is 89. However, the average size of the 
farms in those counties in which the Brethren have settled is 85 
acres; whereas the average size of farms in the non-Brethren coun- 
ties is, namely, 95 acres, or 10.1 acres above the average for the 
Brethren counties. In comparing the corresponding points involving 
the minor civil divisions (that is, townships) we find that the size 
of the farms in townships in which the Brethren's Churches are locat- 
ed is 76, as compared with 86 in the other townships in the same 
counties (namely the non-Brethren townships). In this latter figure 
we find the non-Brethren close to the state average, an average dif- 
ference of 3 acres per farm (Table 1 ) . 



TABLE I 

Farm Acreage and Values in Brethren and Non-Brethren Areas in 
Pennsylvania and Illinois as of 1930* 

Per Acre Farm Vahies 



Geographic 


Acres 


Land 


Buildings 


Land 


Percent of 


Land & 




per 


and 


only 


only 


Buildings 


Value 


Divisions 


Farm 


Buildings 






Buildings 
only 


Land 
only 


Pennsylvania 














State 


89 


$ 79 


$ 44 


$ 35 


56% 


44% 


Counties 














Brethren 


85 


88 


49 


39 


56 


44 


Non-Brethren , 


95 


66 


n 


29 


56 


44 


Townships 














Brethren 


76 


98 


56 


41 


58 


42 


Non-Brethren 


86 


85 


47 


38 


55 


45 


Illinois 














State 


143 


109 


25 


83 


23 


n 


Counties 














Brethren 


141 


122 


28 


94 


23 


77 


Non-Brethren 


144 


103 


24 


79 


23 


77 


Townships 














Brethren 


126 


119 


35 


84 


29 


71 


Non-Brethren 


143 


123 


28 


94 


22, 


77 



♦Fifteenth Agricultural Census Report of the U. S. 1930. 



50 SCHWARZENAU 

In Illinois a comparable difference is found for here also we see 
that the Brethren are settled in counties and townships in which the 
smaller farms prevail, as compared to the remaining counties and 
townships. 

The average number of acres per farm in Illinois is 143, while 
for the Brethren counties it is 141 and non-Brethren it is 144. It Is 
in the minor civil division that the most marked difference is noticed. 
Brethren townships contain an average acreage of only 126, as 
compared to 143 in the non-Brethren townships. The data of both 
Pennsylvania and Illinois thus force us to conclude that the Brethren 
have smaller farms than the average in the same areas. 

This definite and marked trend of the Brethren to live on the 
smaller farms gives rise to several important implications. In the 
agricultural districts of the United States a positive correlation has 
been found between the size of the farms and the per acre value of 
the farm lands. In other words, it has been established, as a general 
proposition, that if culture areas are ignored, in Illinois, the richer 
the land the larger, on the average, are the farms. (See Table 2). 

Such a general, unqualified proposition would imply that the 
Brethren live on the poorer soil, because the size of their farms is 
smaller on the average, than that of the vicinal farms. Such an in- 
ference is not in keeping with the results of our analysis; for, as it 
will be shown later, the Brethren as a whole actually live on the 
richer, or at least the more valuable, land. Therefore, we must look 
to explanations other than those supplied by a naturalistic, or even 
a competitive approach such as that implied in the proposition con- 
cerning the positive association between the size of farms and the 
natural fertihty of the land. 

Among the possible explanations, three stand out as the more 
plausible. These are as follows: First, there is the possibility that 
the farms were originally larger but through the passing of the gen- 
erations, and through the process of inheritance, were broken up 
into smaller plots. Second, as a hypothetical explanation, it may be 
that the Brethren, in keeping with an aversion against heavy indebt- 
edness, may have acquired such acreage as they could pay for. Third, 
an explanation less valid than the foregoing, is intimated by a writer 
dealing with the early history of this church, to the effect that the 
early members of the church were not entirely agriculturalists, but 
had other occupations to supplement their incomes. While they 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 51 

owned small farms they also were weavers, printers, etc., and this 
early practice continued for some time ; when they turned exclusively 
to agriculture, they still maintained this practice of owning small 
farms. 

The second of the foregoing explanations seems to be the most 
plausible in view of the known facts regarding the value of the farm 
land. These data indicate conclusively either that the Brethren se- 
lected the better land, notwithstanding their smaller holdings, or 
that they improved their land above the average of the vicinal town- 
ships and counties, for these units in which the Brethren live are 
listed at a higher value than the non-Brethren units. With one ex- 
ception this is true of both the valuations of land and buildings and 
of each item taken separately. 

a. As shown in Table 1, the average valuation of farm land 
and buildings combined for Pennsylvania is $79, as compared with 
$88 in the Brethren counties and $66 in the non-Brethren counties. 
The data of the minor civil divisions further substantiate the pattern. 
The Brethren townships are valued at $98 per acre as compared with 
$85 for the non-Brethren townships. In Illinois the state average 
per acre combined value of land and buildings is $109; while in the 
Brethren it is $122, and in the non-Brethren counties it is only $103. 
In the comparisons involving townships we find the first and only 
exception in the phase of analysis, for while the Brethren townships 
average $119, the non-Brethren townships average $123. However, 
this exception is seen to be only partly true ; for when the township 
totals are broken down for the state into districts we find that this 
deviation obtains only for southern Illinois. (See Table 3). This 
variation will be commented upon in the discussion of the interregion- 
al differentiation. Whether or not we can adequately account for 
this apparent deviation, it is clear that at least with this exception, 
our data support the hypothesis that the Brethren live on land which 
is more valuable owing to natural conditions of the soil or to improve- 
ments produced by the owners. 

b. In analyzing the ascribed valuations of buildings only, we find 
that the Pennsylvania value of buildings per acre is $44. In the 
Brethren counties it is $49, and in the non-Brethren counties it is 
$37. The comparative townships data also show significant patterns. 
In the Brethren township the average per acre valuation of build- 
ings is $S6 as compared to $47 for the non-Brethren townships. This 



52 SCHWARZENAU 

same trend is further borne out in an analysis of the same data for 
Illinois, although the per acre value ascribable to the buildings is 
relatively very low. Here the state average value of the buildings is 
$25 per acre as compared to $44 in Pennsylvania. The Brethren 
counties averaged $28 as compared to $24 for the non-Brethren, 
while the corresponding townships averages are, respectively $35 
and $28. Thus, in both Pennsylvania and Illinois and in all types 
of tested areas the Brethren areas have a uniformly higher rating in 
the value of buildings. 

TABLE II 

Valuation of Farm Realty per Farm and per Acre by Size of Farms, 
In Illinois 1930 (Based on U. S. Census).* 



Type of Farm 




Number 


of Acres 




Realty 


Total 


Under 20 


20-49 


50-99 


Valuation per acre 










All-Farm Realty 


108.68 


601.05 


150.54 


90.00 


Land Only 


83.24 


290.37 


94.17 


67.63 


All Buildings 


25.44 


310.68 


53.36 


31.37 


Valuation per farm 










All Farm Realty 


15,553 


5,299 


5,125 


7.489 


Land Only 


11,912 


2.560 


3,206 


5,116 


All Buildings 


3,641 


2.739 


1,919 


2,373 


Type of Farm 




Number 


of Acres 




Realty 


100-174 


175-499 


500-999 


1000 


Valuation per acre 










All-Farm Realty 


104.86 


107.56 


96.55 


102.02 


Land Only 


78.62 


87.14 


80.20 


86.23 


All Buildings 


26.24 


20.41 


95.35 


15.82 


Valuation per farm 










All-Farm Realty 


14.393 


27,347 


58,537 


149,426 


Land Only 


10.791 


22,157 


49,135 


126.262 


All Buildings 


3,602 


5,190 


9,402 


23,164 



♦Adapted from Charles L. Stewart. "The Place of Buildings in Appraising 
Illinois Farms," Journal of the American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers, 
April, 1935, Table II. 



A scrutiny of Table 1 indicates that the relatively low per acre val- 
ue of the buildings in Illinois is associated with a large average size 
of farms. Indeed, the same contrasts are found when data pertaining 
to one of these states are further averaged. In a breakdown of the 
Illinois data, Stewart finds that the smaller the farm, the greater the 
valuation for buildings (See Table 2). Thus the conclusion seems 
to be warranted that the high average per acre valuation of buildings 
in Pennsylvania, is explained by the smaller size of the farm. This 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 53 

tendency is further accentuated by the tendency to have smaller 
average holdings than the vicinal population.^ 

c. The trend in valuations of the land only follows that of the 
land and buildings. In each instance, with but the one exception, 
already noted, the Brethren people are settled in areas containing 
the higher appraisals or valuations of land considered alone. In the 
Pennsylvania sample, the per acre value of the land alone was $35, 
whereas the Brethren counties was $39, as compared to $29 per non- 
Brethren counties. The townships were similar, although less pro- 
nounced. The Brethren townships averaged $41 as compared to 
$38 for the non-Brethren areas. 

Illinois exhibits a similar pattern, although it should be noted that 
the per acre land valuation for Illinois is more than twice that of 
Pennsylvania. The average per acre value in Illinois is $83, while 
in the Brethren counties it is $94 and in the non-Brethren counties 
$79. However the same exception exists here that has already been 
described in connection with the value of land and buildings. Indeed, 
it now appears that the land valuation accounts for the exception 
observed in connection with the comparative value of land and 
buildings. Whereas the Brethren townships had a valuation of land 
of only $84 per acre (one dollar per acre over the state average) the 
non-Brethren townships were $10 per acre higher, or $94. This ex- 
ception will be explained when divergencies within the group are 
discussed. 

It should be noted that for Illinois there was no instance in either 
the counties or the minor civil division in which the land is not ap- 
praised at a higher figure than for the buildings, while in Pennsylvania 
the opposite is true. In Pennsylvania there is no instance where the 
value of the land is quoted at a figure as high as the buildings alone. 

2. In this discussion of farm buildings it is worthwhile to refer to Kirkpatrick's 
comments regarding buildings on the farmsteads of the Brethren. In this study of a 
typical church, he analyzes 39 farmsteads. Concerning these he writes: 

"In general, the farmsteads of the neighborhood were neat and well kept. Barns, 
and outbuildings showed evidence of upkeep, from the standpoint of both repair and 
painting. The houses and barns were large. Eight of the 31 farmsteads operated by 
owners and tenants had two barns, one large and the other medium in size. Barns 
were well supplemented by other buildings, including cribs, granaries, hog houses, 
machine sheds, garages, and occasionally a workshop. A number of the farmsteads 
showed a poor arrangement of buildings with regard to convenience in choring and 
protection from disagreeable weather. The four county homes occupied by retired 
farmers compared favorably with all others. Gardens and lawns in connection with 
these homes were especially well cared for. All of the 39 farmsteads had large lawns 
which gave evidence of care and attention." 



54 



SCHWARZENAU 



TABLE III 



Farm Acreage and Value of L<ind and Biiildings Classified by 
Church Districts in Selected States 



Per Acre Farm Value 



% of Land & Bldgs. 
Value 



Geographic 


Acres 


Land 


Buildings 


Land 


Buildings 


Land 




per 


and 


only 


only 


only 


only 


Divisions 


Farm 


Buildings 










Pennsylvania 














State 


89 


$ 79 


$ 44 


$ 35 


56% 


44% 


Districts 














Eastern 














Counties 


tl 


109 


68 


40 


63 


37 


Brethren Twps. 


59 


125 


83 


40 


68 


32 


Non-Brethren 


70 


104 


64 


40 


61 


39 


South-Eastern 














Counties 


66 


210 


120 


90 


57 


43 


Brethren Twps. 


53 


178 


113 


65 


63 


Z7 


Non-Brethren 


68 


213 


121 


93 


56 


44 


Middle 














Counties 


112 


46 


25 


21 


54 


46 


Brethren Twps. 


106 


53 


29 


24 


54 


46 


Non-Brethren 


117 


41 


22 


19 


53 


47 


Western 














Counties 


94 


69 


Z7 


i2 


59 


41 


Brethren Twps. 


88 


77 


40 


17 


52 


48 


Non-Brethren 


95 


67 


30 


30 


54 


45 


Southern 














Counties 


82 


69 


42 


28 


60 


40 


Brethren Twps. 


75 


82 


50 


32 


61 


39 


Non-Brethren 


86 


64 


38 


26 


60 


40 


Illinois 














State 


143 


109 


25 


83 


23 


77 


Districts 














Northern 














Counties 


140 


151 


42 


108 


28 


72 


Less Cook 


153 


125 


39 


87 


31 


69 


Brethren Twps. 


133 


149 


48 


101 


32 


68 


Non-Brethren 


157 


122. ■-■ ' 


.37 


65 


,30 


70 


Southern 














Counties 


141 


• 108 


■ 21 


86 


21 


79 


Brethren Twps. 


121 


100 , 


26 


7Z 


27 


7Z 


Non-Brethren 


143 


109 


■ 22 


87 


20' 


80 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 55 

In summing up this section of the chapter, we find then that the 
Brethren Hve on farms that are much smaller than the average for 
the non-Brethren, both in tlie state as a whole, the counties, and also 
the minor civil divisions. But while they live on farms that are small- 
er they also live on the richer land, with but one exception ; also the 
value of their farm buildings is in excess of the buildings of the non- 
Brethren, in some instances as much as $12 per acre. 

As far as the two states are concerned, Illinois has larger farms 
and higher appraisal valuations for the land, and consequently for 
the land and buildings, whereas Pennsylvania has smaller farms 
with smaller valuations per acre in land and thus in land plus build- 
ings also but a greater valuation for buildings alone. 

The preceding analysis has been concerned with the comparative 
data involving county and township units. We turn now to a com- 
parison based upon a breakdown of the same data according to dis- 
tricts. These districts are the "conferences" of the Church of the 
Brethren. Pennsylvania is divided into five of these districts and Ill- 
inois, into two. Although these church districts are solely adminis- 
trative, nevertheless, with the general exception referred to in the 
foregoing discussion, and another minor deviation yet to be noted, 
which was not discernible in the breakdown already reviewed, these 
districts have the same general pattern as to land value and farm 
size as those noted in the preceding paragraphs. These new data are 
set forth in Table 3. 

As may be seen by an inspection of these tabulated data, the aver- 
ages for the districts in each of the sample states show considerable 
variation as to the size of the land holdings and the per acre value 
among the Brethren townships. The same two items also vary 
among the non-Brethren townships in the several districts in a very 
similar manner. 

The explanation of the variations in land holdings and land values 
may involve both natural and geographic factors.' The variations 
in the average per acre land value in areas large enough to obscure 
any effects of localized cultural influences are due to the natural con- 
ditions of the soil; but the fiactors that prompt individuals or groups 
of like capital holdings to select the better land in a given locality 
are cultural. This is true in the selection of the land, and especially 
in the investment of wealth in buildings, insomuch as the cultural 
traits are almost, if not completely, accountable for producing these 



56 SCHWARZENAU 

variations. This will be seen from the fact that the Brethren areas 
have higher per acre building values than the neighboring areas 
under all of the reviewed soil conditions. The cultural factor is also 
observable in the size of the land holdings. Thus in every comparison 
by county, townships, and districts, the Brethren areas show a small- 
er average farm holding than the non-Brethren areas do. Accord- 
ingly this fact must be ascribed to variations in ideas pertaining to 
the adjustment of the mode of living to the land base. Thus when 
the Brethren exhibit a pattern that is not in keeping with the general 
schematization of adjustment to the competitive order in which the 
entire areas under review are involved, this peculiarity of pattern 
is to be attributed to the distinctive culture characteristics of this 
group. Such a distinctive pattern is exhibited in the data at hand; for 
in every district, with but two exceptions, they conform to the unusual 
plan of seeking out the better soil and living on land-holdings that 
are smaller than the average of the sampled districts. 

The two exceptions to the otherwise general pattern are found in 
southeastern Pennsylvania and southern Illinois. The deviation in 
southeastern Pennsylvania is not apparent in the broader analysis 
which dealt with the state as a whole rather than with the districts. 
However, in this breakdown we see that the value of land and build- 
ings in the Brethren townships of this district is lower than that of 
the vicinal minor civil divisions. We find a clue to the explanation of 
this divergence in the patterning by comparing the size of the farms 
in this district with the size in others. In so doing we see the farm 
acreage in the southeastern district to be smaller than elsewhere. 
This suggests that these land holdings may not be farms in the usual 
sense of this term, but rather they are truck or dairy or poultry farms 
that serve the great centers of ecological dominance, such as Phila- 
delphia. Reference to the census bureau bears out this hunch and 
we find that whereas in the Eastern District 35.9 per cent of the 
farms are engaged in general farming, the type with which we as- 
sume the Brethren to be associated, in the district under review, only 
16.8 per cent of the farms are engaged in general farming. The 
majority of the other farms are listed as crop specialty farms, dairy- 
ing, poultry, and abnormal farms (established part time, institution- 
ally, etc.). This unusual type of farming in an area containing few 
Brethren accounts for the above exception. For when we compare 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 57 

values of land used for these special purposes, we see that the ex- 
ception is only apparent. The price per acre for general farm land 
is only $65 per acre, while for crop specialty farms it is $96 ; truck, 
$287; fruit, $160; poultry, $109; and abnormal, $120. Thus the non- 
Brethren townships containing such specialties raise the average 
above the land value of the Brethren townships which lie at a greater 
distance from the great metropolitan areas. 

The apparent exception observed in southern Illinois can apparent- 
ly also be explained on historic grounds. Inasmuch as the manipula- 
tion of the data consistently indicated that southern Illinois offers an 
exception to the otherwise general rule regarding the selection of 
the better land, the writer made direct inquiries concerning this 
point. It is the consensus of opinion among the Elders who were 
interviewed that originally the culture trait was applied also in that 
area. Thus when the early Brethren moved into Illinois from the 
South and Southeast, they followed their tradition of settling on the 
better soil accessible at the time. However this soil was not the un- 
drained swamp lands which later became the fields of luxuriant fertili- 
ty, but the higher table lands and hill sections of the country. Once 
established, the Brethren improved their homes, built better build- 
ings and in that way, tried to compensate for the poorer soil. Some 
of the Brethren, however, did break the sentimental attachments to 
the homestead and migrated to Ogle, Whiteside, Carroll, and other 
counties of the north, where land was richer. 

The variations in the adjustment to the land led the writer to 
other research from which valid explanations for divergences could 
be drawn. This led to the effort to determine the number of local 
congregations and of their membership in these districts in question. 
The results are tabulated in Table 4. These figures, compiled from 
the 1936 Yearbook of the Church of the Brethren disclose the fol- 
lowing; the total membership for the state of Pennsylvania was 
42,390; of this number the eastern, southeastern, middle, western, 
and southern districts contain the following respective per cents, 
23, 8, 25, 29, and 15. Of the 188 congregations, the same districts 
comprised the following respective per cents, 22, 10, 22, 30, and 16. 
Likewise in Illinois the reviewed districts have an unequal ratio of 
the Brethren. Of the 7,290 members in that state, the northern dis- 
trict contains 65 per cent and the southern district only 3S per cent. 



58 SCHWARZENAU 

A lesser ratio of the congregations (54 per cent) are located in the 
northern district. 









TABLE IV 






Number and Percentage of Congregations and of Members by 




Districts in 


Peimsylvania and Illinois, 


as of 1936* 




State and 




Congregations 


Membership 


District 




No. 


^''. 


No. 


% 


Pennsylvania 




188 


100. 


42,390 


100. 


Eastern 




41 


22. 


9,833 


23. 


South-Easten 


1 


19 


10. 


3,552 


. 8. 


Middle 




42 


22. 


10,478 


25. 


Western 




57 


30. 


12,064 


29. 


Southern 




29 


16. 


6,463 


15. 


Illinois 




52 


100. 


7,290 


100. 


Northern 




28 


54. 


4,742 


65. 


Southern 




24 


46. 


2,548 


35. 



♦Yearbook of the Church of the Brethren, 1936. 



When one compares this distribution with the size of farms and 
land valuations of the preceding analysis, it is seen that in those dis- 
tricts where variations from the general pattern exhibited by the 
Brethren occur, the membership is small. In southeastern Pennsyl- 
vania where an exception to the general tendency for the Brethren 
to live on the richer soil was noted, we find only 10 per cent of the 
congregations and 8 per cent of the membership. Even these figures 
do not give a true picture ; for the total number of congregations and 
membership include some congregations and members from other 
states which are within the administrative organizations of this dis- 
trict. The other divergent area, that of the southern district of 
Illinois, contains only 35 per cent of the members of that state. 

In fine, inasmuch as the majority, of the Brethren live on the better 
land of any described area, and all but two areas conform to this 
pattern, and also the exceptions in these two areas seem to be ac- 
counted for by historic incidents, we conclude that the proposition 
is substantiated: that, by culture-induced attitudes, persons of this 
group seek out the better soil on which to settle; that, on the aver- 
age, their land holdings are smaller, and the relative value of their 
equipment is higher than is true of the general population living in 
the several areas of the two sampled states. 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 59 

CHAPTER V 

Conclusion 

This study has attempted to analyze two ways in which the cul- 
ture of the members in the Church of the Brethren has found ex- 
pression; namely, through their social organization, and their ad- 
justment to the competitive process, as reflected especially in their 
selection of agricultural land. As to the first item, the social organ- 
ization, we have seen that the Brethren no longer constitute a broth- 
erhood; and we have traced the process of this transition. The 
brotherhood type of socio-religious society, originating in a conflict 
setting, has as its purpose the attainment of a way of life that is 
thought to be superior to the rivalrous relations typical of modern 
times. We have called the early Church of the Brethren a socio- 
religious brotherhood because the central idea of such a group is a 
way of life including unity, rapport, equality, mutual aid, and ab- 
sence of invidious comparisons in regard to worldly values. In a 
brotherhood so defined, these values are the focus of attention and 
the basis of group regulation. When these values have been incor- 
porated in a group which seeks sanctions for its way of life in reli- 
gion, it may be designated a religious brotherhood, in contrast to 
the other main type of socio-religious group which we have called 
denominations; for in the latter the main focus of attention is ad- 
justment to the existing culture and prevalent scale of values. The 
generic elements of the religious brotherhood comprise the follow- 
ing elements : homogeneity, unanimity, and mutual aid based on 
personal relations, with a resulting lack of individuation and rivalry 
in egoistic attainments, although there may be emulation in regard 
to those values which are considered to be corporate. 

That these elements of a religious fraternity are no longer char- 
acteristic of the Brethren is shown in an analysis of the Minutes of 
the Southern Illinois District Conference covering a period of 41 
years, 1866-1907. In these records are reflected the changes in 
social relations within the organization. An analysis of the leader- 
ship, membership, social control, and focus of church attention, con- 
clusively demonstrates that the ideal of unity in the erstwhile broth- 
erhood has broken down, and the group has developed into a denom- 
ination. 



60 SCHWARZENAU 

The impact of the larger culture and the changes occurring in 
contemporary society which are listed as growing complexity, im- 
personahty, mobility, and the decrease of solidarity and of self- 
sufficiency are reflected in the history of the group. The change in 
the type of organization is traceable in any one of the above-named 
generic elements. Accordingly, mutual aid was submitted to a de- 
tailed analysis. Under the earlier brotherhood type of structure, 
the Brethren had a direct system of assistance for the needy. They 
gave directly and immediately to the dependents whenever the occa- 
sion demanded. The members took those who were incapable of 
caring for themselves into their own homes. The growing imper- 
sonality is reflected in the fact that soon no homes were available 
for the dependent and a more impersonal method of custodial care 
was introduced; namely, the placement of the dependent in institu- 
tions. These "homes," as the Brethren termed them, were supported 
by the contributions of members. The growth of impersonal rela- 
tions was further exemplified by a decrease in giving relief, and a 
lack of support for these institutions. As a result of the decreasing 
contributions by the church members, these agencies are unable to 
supply free assistance to all of the applicants who would be strictly 
charity inmates; they mainly admit those applicants who can pay 
for some or all of the cost of their care. This has led to a trend 
toward commercialized management of the intended charitable in- 
stitutions. 

Such an evolution marks a change from the brotherhood type of 
organization to the denomination form, and a corresponding growth 
of individuation. 

The second line of inquiry whereby we have attempted to test the 
manner in which the culture of the group has found expression per- 
tains to the adjustment of the Brethren to the competitive process. 
The hypothesis with which this phase of the research began is the 
proposition that the Brethren settle on the richer agricultural land. 
The resulting manipulation of the data led to several subsidiary 
findings. Pursuant to this hypothesis a comparison was made be- 
tween the Brethren and non-Brethren of Illinois and Pennsylvania 
on a county and township basis to determine the relative size of 
farms, value of land, value of buildings, and of the combined value 
of land and buildings. The data affirm the proposed hypothesis, 
with but one exception, namely, that in southern Illinois, as of the 



CULTURE ADAPTATIONS 61 

year 1930, the members did not live on the better soil for reasons 
noted in Chapter IV. 

The hypothesis was further tested by a breakdown of the areas 
of comparison into church districts. The comparative data of this 
breakdown in Pennsylvania, again with only one minor exception, 
confirmed the foregoing generalization. This minor exception is 
that in one district of Pennsylvania the Brethren townships have a 
lower per acre value than the non-Brethren townships do, owing 
to the fact that as farmers the Brethren do not live in the townships 
adjacent to the metropolitan areas, where land values are highest. 
Thus we find that the breakdown of the Pennsylvania data into dis- 
tricts adds a refinement and an apparent exception to our conclu- 
sion ; but the explanation of this apparent exception strengthens our 
hypothesis inasmuch as the deviation is readily accounted for by the 
culturally given attitude of the Brethren to avoid settlement in the 
vicinity of the great cities. The breakdown of the Illinois data adds 
no new insight, although it does confirm the deviation already found 
by the earlier county and township organization of the data. 

The testing of the foregoing hypothesis led to some subsidiary 
discoveries which in turn agree with, and support, the proposition 
that the culture of the group has been involved in the manner in 
which the members have met the competitive processes. These sub- 
sidiary findings are, namely, that the Brethren live on smaller farms 
than the average and that they hold the more valuable properties 
estimated on the per acre value of land and buildings combined, and 
that they especially excel in the ratio of the value of buildings to the 
total value of the farmsteads. An allocation of the congregations 
and their constituent members to the various areas classified by in- 
tervals of land value further confirms these conclusions by showing 
that the majority exhibit the described tendency in a marked way; 
and that only a small minority deviates from the established pattern. 
Such facts are instances of the interference of the cultural processes 
with the operation of the competitive forces characterisflc of the 
impersonal relations of the larger societal system. 



BOOK REVIEW 

Settlement of the Brethren on the Pacific Slope, — by Gladdys E. Muir, 
M.A., Professor of History in La Verne College. 469 pages -\- 24 of pre- 
liminaries + 28 plates of pictures. $2.00. Brethren Publishing House, 
Elgin. 1939. 

When I saw this book, its title caught my fancy at once — surely a 
story that ought to be written up. Parts of it have been written here and 
there, but we have been looking for the comprehensive survey of the whole 
movement, which should be of firstrate interest to students of Brethren 
History. 

I myself had been carried westward in the migration nearly forty years 
ago. I was just a boy then, and did not know what it was all about. Nor 
did I study the movement in the following years, with mind diverted by 
many other things; but there were plenty of memories. We took the 
Inglenook. Father knew personally some of the promoters, and two or 
three of his brothers had already gone west. So we moved to Idaho, and 
took our portion from the soil while we rendered our portion of service to 
the struggling Church, as hundreds of other families were doing. Why 
did we do it ? 

The book abundantly filled expectations, and I join in its praises. I had 
best quote a few words from Edward Frantz in his introduction; after 
relating the author's eminent qualifications he says : "It does not essay to 
tell everything that happened. It is a study in the principles and methods 
of Brethren colonization. Miss Muir's fine sense of proportion and strict 
fidelity to truth often stood her in good stead : the first, in deciding what 
must be left out, activities which living persons concerned would have been 
pleased to see included ; the second, in allowing unpleasant facts to tell their 
own story, when missionary and mercenary motives got mixed and failed 
to yield a happy result. . . . This book will have a special interest . . . for 
all who like to see history, art and philosophy blended into one fascinating 
picture. It is well worthy of the high place it will make for itself in the 
literature of our church." 

The Brethren have always furnished a goodly percent of migrators 
ready to brave frontier hardships. We remember the first line of f rontiering 
is usually done with trade and operations which call for the use of trickery 
and arms and violence — of which there was no lack in the U. S. expansion. 
In such the Brethren have no part nor interest, and very few individuals 
even of our church are to be found in such areas. But in the second line, 
after the dirty work is done, the Brethren have proved themselves ready to 
do their share in repairing the damages, developing resources, and building 
up an ordered society ; this share be not necessarily or directly in the realms 
of politics and administration, but in preaching and living the principles of 
godliness that are needed as foundations of society. 

On the other hand it is one of the ironies of fate that the messengers of 
peace and goodwill among men in their very loyalty to principle (we hope) 
often fall to biting and devouring one another, thus undermining their own 
house. Both factors, constructive and destructive, are abundantly exempli- 
fied in the history of the western churches. 

Congregations were barely on their feet in the middle region (the old 
"Northwest") when calls were heard for men to come farther west. An 

62 



BOOK REVIEW 63 

individual or two went to California to pan gold in the grand rush; and a 
short time later families were trekking over the mountains and deserts to 
settle the good land. The first nucleus, of 23 members, was organized in 
Willamette Valley, Oregon, in 1855 or early '56; and the first Church of 
the Brethren in California was organized in 1858 near Monterey. One by 
one others were founded in these states and those adjoining, Washington, 
Idaho, Montana, Arizona, Western Canada, until the total comes to 118; of 
which 78 are functioning at present. The membership now is some over 
1 1,000. The majority of these are immigrants or the children of immigrants. 

From the early days the church publications gave prominence to cor- 
respondence from the west, describing facilities there, but replete with calls 
for ministers and laity to come out to Macedonia. Presently the railroads 
and real estate companies were advertising, and the colonization movement 
got into full swing. The railroads even sought out Brethren men as their 
immigration agents. Missionary and colonization theories were debated, 
again and again, and improvements in method were evolved. The stream of 
immigration was directed to one place and another; and there were great 
numbers of comers who did not rest with one migration. Organized churches 
sickened or died in the ebb. But there are very few instances in which a 
family migrated back to the east. 

All 25 chapters of this book are filled with interesting material. It is 
well illustrated, documented, and indexed. It was authorized by the Churches 
of the District of Southern California. Miss Muir found access to great 
quantities of original and unpublished documents, as well as those in print. 
She has selected the data well and interpreted them well. Reviewers of books 
are expected to read with critical eye ; but the possible slips of the pen I have 
looked for are so few as to be beneath mention. The historian must of 
course be impartial, which she is ; and this attitude of courtesy toward both 
sides of a disputed point might be displeasing to the active partisans in the 
dispute. Apart from a possible dissatisfaction arising in this way, all 
Brethren in any way interested in our past must surely be delighted with 
this book. . — B. M. Mow. 



INDEX TO VOLUME I 
1939-1940 

Contributors 

Beahm, William. Die Deutschen Familiennamen — Reviewed by. 
Beery, William. HymLnody of the Brethren in the Eighteenth Century. 

Bowman, Rufus D. Schwarzenau. 
Bowman, Loren. Life and Work of Peter Nead. 
Faw, Chalmer. In the Shadow of Munich. 
Friedrich, Gerhard. Brethren and the Berleburg Bible, The. 
Garber, Merlin E. Culture Adaptations in the Church of the Brethren 
Harley, Chester I. A Study of the Yearbook of the Church 
of the Brethren. 

Kinsey, William. We Shall Have Peace — Poem. 

Long, Kenneth. Attitudes of Brethren in Training Camps 

During the World War. 1 57 



umber 


Page 


1 


80 


'. 3 


39 


4 


10 


1 


3 


3 


9 


1 


11 


4 


5 


I. 4 


17 


2 


13 


3 


48 


4 


4 



64 



SCHWARZENAU 



Mallott, F. E. Apologia Pro Vita Sua. 

Mallott, F. E. The Evolution of Physics. Reviewed by. 

Mallott, F. E. Pacifist Handbook. Reviewed by. 

Mallott, F. E. Rites and Ordinances and Ground Searching 

Questions. Reviewed by. 
Mallott, F. E. Union Now. Reviewed by. 
Mays, Morley J. In This World. 
Mitchell, Earl S. The Development of Practical Ethical 

Mysticism or The Roots of Pietism. 
Mow, B. M. Settlement of the Brethren on the Pacific Slope. 

Reviewed by. 
Moyer, Elgin S. Semi-Centennial, Walnut Grove Meeting House. 
Rose, L. D. Why the Early Germans Came to Pennsylvania. 
Thomas, Susie M. History of Sandy Creek Congregation, First 

District of West Virginia. 
Whisler, Mrs. M. A. History of Oak Grove Church of 

Southern Illinois. 
Wieand, Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Wertz. Ephrata, A Musical Center 
of Colonial America. 

Titles 
Apologia Pro Sua Vita. F. E. Mallott. 
Attitudes of Brethren in Training Camps During the World War. 

Kenneth Long. 
Book Reviews: 

"Die Deutschen Familiennamen" 
Reviewed by William Beahm. 
"Evolution of Physics, The" 

Reviewed by F. E. Mallott. 
"Pacifist Handbook" 

Reviewed by F. E. Mallott. 
"Rites and Ordinances and Ground Searching Questions" 

Reviewed by F. E. Mallott. 
"Settlement of the Brethren on the Pacific Slope" 

Reviewed by B. M. Mow. 
"Union Now" 

Reviewed by F. E. Mallott. 
Brethren and the Berleburg Bible, The. Friedrich, Gerhard. 
Calling Sower Bibles. 

Culture Adaptations in the Church of the Brethren. Merlin E. Garber. 
Editorials. 



Ephrata, A Musical Center of Colonial America. Mary Elizabeth 

Wertz Wieand. 
Historical Society Notes. 
Hymnody of the Brethren in the Eighteenth Century. William Beery. 

History of the Oak Grove Church of Southern Illinois. 

Mrs. M. A. Whisler. 
History of Sandy Creek Congregation, First District of West 

Virginia. Susie M. Thomas. 

In This World, Morley J. Mays. 

Munich, In the Shadow of. Chalmer Faw. 

Mysticism, Development of Practical Ethical. Earl .S. Mitchell. 

Peter Nead, Life and Work of. Loren Bowman. 

Poem — We Shall Have Peace. William Kinsey. 

Schwarzenau. Rufus D. Bowman. 

S. O. S. — Calling Sower Bibles. 

Walnut Grove Meeting House, Semi-Centennial. Elgin S. Moyer. 

Why the Early Germans Came to Pennsylvania. L. D. Rose. 

Yearbook of the Church of the Brethren, A Study of. Chester I. Harley. 



1 

2 

2 


6 
60 
62 


3 
3 
3 


63 

62 

5 


2 


5 


4 
1 

1 


62 
21 

15 


1 


32 


3 


22 


3 


25 


1 


6 


1 


57 



80 

60 
62 
63 
62 

62 

5 
63 
17 
4 
3 
3 
4 

25 
78 
39 
10 

22 

32 
35 

5 
11 
5 
9 
4 
3 

63 
21 
15 
48 



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