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SCIENCE 






•i 






/ - t - i 



AN ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL 



PUBLISHED IVEEKLY 



VOLUME XVII 



JANUARY-JUNE 1891 



NEW YORK 

N. D. C. HODGES 

1891 



INDEX TO VOLUME XVII. 



Abbott, A. C., 889. 

Abbott's Philomythus, 991. 

Abel, Sir F., address by. 896. 

Academy, National, of Science*, 248. 

Advertising exhibition, 841. 

Africa, health in east, 8. 

African and American, 78. 86. 

Agricultural experiment farms in Wyoming. 827. 

Alcohol and digestion, 877. 

Aldepaimitlo add, 186. 

Allen, Barrison, 888. 

Alligator products, 117. 

Alloy, brilliant, 856. 

Aluminum In iron, 88. 

Ambondrombo, ascent of, 101. 

America, the name, 9?. 

Amman's 0:d Navy and the New, 891. 

Analyses, organic, 8 6. 

Anatomists, association of, 109. 

Andres's Die Fluth-Bagen, 191. 

Anthrax, cure for, 169. 

Anthropological investigations In schools, 861. 

Antiseptic, a new, 804. 

Ants, use in surgery, 66. • 

Appalachian Mountain club excursions, 800. 

Apperception, 868. 

Appletons' School Physics, 805. 

Apteryx, anatomy of the, 8 8. 

Archaeology, Mexican, 888. 

Architecture, American idea in, 46; home-study in, 

886; influence of Christianity on, 90. 
Arctlo expedition, Nansen's, 178 _ 

Aristotle as a naturalist, 128; new manuscript of, 75. 
Armor-plate trials, 6 
Armstrong, H. E., on teaching scientific method, 

Asia, British influence In, 327. 
Aephyxiftvill. 

Atkinson's Dynamic Electricity, 862. 
Atlas of State of New York, 847. 
Atmosphere, eddies in*lhe, 846. 
Atmospheric pressure in Russia, 49. 
Audubon monument, 183, 190. 
Australia, explorations in central, 816. 

B 

Bacilli, number of, In tuberculous sputum, 888. 

Bacillus, chemistry of the tubeide, 100. 

Bacteria, 867: action of blood on, 66; action of coffee 
on, 178: Influence of foliage on, 3 :6. 

Bacteriological World, 18. 

Baker, H. B., on malaria, 197. 

Baldwin, J. Mark, on suggestion in Infancy, 118. 

Ballooning, O. Chanute on, 801. 

Baltimore, relief-map of, 339. 

Banana production, 889. 

Barkworth, T., on automatic writing, 833 

Barometric pressure, zones of, 8; variations, 814. 

Bashklrtseff s Journal, 166. 

Batteries, secondary, 7. 

Baur, G., 898; on American box-tortoises, 19> on a 
peculiar tortoise, 190; on horned Saurlans, 816. 

Bauxite in Arkansas, 171. 

Beal, W. J., on weeds, 800. 

Beaachamp, W. M., on copper Implements, 86. 

Bees, 888. 

Beetle, a water, 184. 

Bearing, E..65. 

Bell, A. Graham, on deaf-mute marriages, 160. 

Bell, R., on nickel and copper deposits, 169. 

Bereman, T. A., on cause of obliquity of ecliptic, 93. 

Beutenmuller, W.,867. 

Blbllotheca Polytechnlca, 88. 

Blnet'B Double Consciousness, 96. 

Birds, destroying their young, 838; flight of, 45; of 
Afrlca,386. 

Bishop, Sereno E., on cause of ice age, 889. 

Black-knot in Ohio, 168. 

Black Sea, exploration In, 184. 

Bleeding era, a new, 156. 

Blood, action of, on bacteria, 63; changes in, in dis- 
ease, 101; corpuscles seen in one's own eyes, 180; 
corpuscles, volume of, 166; sugar In, 66. 

Blue Hill observatory, 188. 

Boas, F., on anthropological Investigations in 
schools, 861; on mixed races, 179 

Bogue, B. E., on Ohio State University, 80S. 

Bone grafting, 90. 

Bonney, T. G., on temperature of the glacial epoch, 

142. 
Borneo, 106. 

Boston zoological Garden, 63. 
Boetwlv*, A. B., on lightning flashes, 361. 
Brachytrypus, 186. 
Brain, relief of overworked, 90. 
Branner, J. C, 814; on bauxite in Arkansas, 171. 
Breathing, chemistry of, 173. 
Brewer's Historic Note- Book. 836. 
Brlnton, D. G., 338; on American languages, 131; on 

ethnology of Europe, 108. 
Brinton's American Race, 56, 881. 
British New Guinea, 163. 



Bronxe, derivation of, 108. 

Bryoe's American Commonwealth, 879. 

Buchanan's Therapeutic Saroognomy, 109. 

Buffalo milk, 100. 

Butldlng-etones of New Tork, 194. 

Burial of Prince Chun. 81 i. 

Burmah, wild tribes of, 144. 

Burton's Photographic Optics, 881. 

Butter extractor, 856. 



Call's Power through Repose, 8t4. 

Campbell, D. H., 888. 

Campbell, Helen, 815. 

Canada, Royal Society, 843; 813. 

Cards, playing. In Japan, 816. 

Caeatf s Soudan, 165. 

Cat, ferocity of the, 886. 

Cave near AJ socio. 888; near Vienna, 348. 

Census of Bengal, 838: of India, 886 

Century Dictionary , 868. 

ChamberlaiQ, A. P., on the African and American, 
78,86. 

Chatelaln's Klmbundu Grammar., 861. 

Chemical Society's jubilee, 908. 

Chickens, feeding of. 205. 

Cholera attacking a dog, 186; epidemics, 836; toxlne, 
863. 

Church and State separation, essay on, 165. 

Clayton. H. Helm, on cyclones, 10, 66. 

(Hlmatologfcal periods, 7. 

Clouds, double motion of, 880. 

Coal In the 8han States, 845; In Tonqain, 74. 

Coast Survey buildings. 144. 

Cocoanut- water as a culture-fluid, 100. 

Coffee, action of, on bacteria, 173. 

Cold waves, 191. 135. 

Color in the school-room, 146. 

Combustion, spontaneous, 3*6. 

Comegys's primer of Ethics, 166. 

Corners Growth of New Bngland Colleges, 189. 

Congress, agricultural, 888; of Americanists, 848; of 
geologists, 856; of hygiene, 814. 

Conn, H. W., on milk fermentation, 878. 

Consumption, Koch's care of, 43. 

Continents, mean coast-distances of, 861. 

Cope's Vertebrate, 806. 

Copper implements, 85. 

Corea, climate of, 840. 

Cork-industry in Spain, 80. 

Corn, crossing varieties of, 886, experiments, 887; 
experiments in Illinois, 159; planting of, 881; pro- 
tection of, from squirrels, "865; removing tassels 
from, 171. 

Cornell University, 5\ 

Costa, B. F. de, on Welsh early discovery of 
America, 173. 

Costa Rica, 801. 

Cotterlll's Applied Mechanics, 886. 

Cox, C. F., on faith-healing in the sixteenth century* 
96. 

Cragln's Geology of Kansas, 828. 

Creation, the story of the, 7. 

Cremation, 150. 

Crouter, A. L. E., on instruction of the deaf, 141. 

Crystals ofplatinum and palladium, 815. 

Cushlng's Harvard Graduates, 868. 

Cyanogen, synthesia-of, 86. - • - - 

Cyclones, 88, 47. 66; causes of, 10; Dr. Hann on, 4; 
memoirs, Indian, 886; tracks in Indian Ocean, 886. 



Dairy, better cows for the, 186. 

D' Anders's The 8tory of Early man, 848. 

Darwin's Coral Reefs, 164. 

Davis's Potable Water. 819. 

Davis, W. M., on Dr. Harm's studies of cyclones, 4; 
on tornadoes, 844. 

Dawson, G. M , 848. 

Dead, the, preserving by gal vano- plastic method, 6. 

Dear, education of the, 51; education, a new depart- 
ure in, 143; fund for teaching lip-reading to the, 
815; instruction, 105, 138; instruction of the, 141. 

Deaf-mutes, intermarriage of, 57, 160. 

Deafness, hereditary, 76. 

Deaver, J. B , 388. 

Diabetes, 308. 

Diamond-cuttiag,369; phosphorescence, 387. 

Dlets's Flrstr Aid Haodbook, 198 

Digestion, influence of exercise on, 883. 

Dinner, a Japanese, 58. 

Diphtheria, cure for, 1. 

Diseases, plant. 891; treatment of fungous, 818. 

Dog saving another from drowning, £00. 

Dolbear, A. B., on lightning protection, 845; on the 
magnetic field, 188. * *" 

Draper. D., 897. 

Dreyers Tycho Brahe, 40. 

Dunbar's Banking, 180. 

Dwarfs of Ogowl, 89e\ 

Dyer's Studies of the Gods, 880. 



E 

Earthquakes in Japan, 6, 814; submarine,^?. 

Earth's axis, 899. 

Sohlnoderms from Yucatan, 18. 

Ecliptic, cause of obliquity of, 98. 

Economic association, 88; British, 88. 

Education, association for advancing physical, 215; 

In Germany, 106; physical, 868, progress In Japan, 

88. 
Educational Review, 68. 
Edwards's Butterflies, 847. 
Sgg-plant|88l. 

Bfleston, T., on the Audubon Monument, 190. 
Egyptian temple, discovered by Petrle, fla. 
Eiffel Tower pressure-guage, 80S. 
Electric lamps, repair of, 101; curranta, ptiyslolorJ- 

oal effects of, 178 901; Instruments for schools, 9ft; 

line In Russia, 7; phenomena In production of 

solid carbon dioxide, 899; railway for parcels, SB; 

welding, 871 
Electricity, Crookee on, 75. 
Electrolysis of animal tissues, 817. 
Elevator, a security, 866. 

Bngelsman, B., on the education of the deaf, 51. 
Engineers, Canadian Society of, 80. 
Engineering Magaslne, 891; modern marine, 119. 
England, frost In, 188. 
Entomology, the outlook for applied, 15,89; scientific 

and economic, 77. 
Ether drinking, 199. 
BtLlcs, school of, X18, 866. 
Etruscsn-Pelasglan problem, 99; question, 378. 
Evaporation. 861, 864. 
Exhibition, botanical. 886; colonial, at Paris, 229, 

8ig; geographical, 887. 
Explosion of gas, 811. 



Fat, dietetic employment of, 199. 

Fay, E. A^ on deaf-mute education, 188. 

Fernald, C. F., on Insects, 814. 

Ferrae, Barr, on American idea In architecture, 46; 
on influence of Christianity on architecture, 91 

Ferrel and American meteorologists, 87. 

Ferrel, Wul, on sones of barometric pressure, 8; on 
cyclones, 88. 

Farrier, w. F., on harmototne, 87. 

Fertilisers, economical use of, 186; for corn, 887; his- 
tory of commercial, 807; reports on, 889; under 
glass, 900. 

Fevers of China, 8 $. 

Fire prevention, 864. 

Fish catches on Cornish coast, 886; commissi nn work, 
144, 816; in Lower Silurian, 107; collected by the 
44 Albatross," 888. 

Flake range-finder, 864. 

FlskeVBeyond the Bourn, 891. 

Flaws ft Casting*, 76. 

Flax culture in Russia, 809. 

Flowers, do Americans like 7 187. 

Flying machines, 846, 878. 

Fogs, action of, on plants, 5. 

Forests, Influence of, on temperature, 818. 

Fort Ancient, 898. 

Foundations for building, 854. 

Fowler's Qulntus Curtlus, 18. 

Fraenkel, £., 64. 

France, depopulation of, 78. 

French accent, 816. 

Fungous diseases, 813* 



Galapagos rookeries, 890. 

Gale, hTB., 898. 

Gallaudet, B. M., on new departure in deaf-mute 
education, 148. 

Game- preservation in Germany, 836. 

Garrett, Emma, 814. 

Gelkie, J., on the Ice age, 811. 

Geographic Magaslne, 897; names, 816 

Geological survey of Missouri, 887. 

Geologists, congress of, 188. 

Georgian Bay surrey, 48. 

Gilbert, G. K., on Lake Bonneville, 188. 

Glllett, P. Q., on lnter-marriage of deaf-mutea, 57. 

Glacial epoch, temperature of the, 148; grooves on 
Kelley's Island, 858, 

Glaciers, advance of, 108. 

Glass and metal joining, 103. 

Gore's German Science Reader, 193. 

Graffenreld, de, Clare, 915. 

Graham's Massage, 848. 

Graham's Socialism New and Old, 81. 

Grant's Our Common Birds, 805. 

Grapes, brown-rot In, 92. 

Grasserie's Grammaire Compare©, 861. 

Greenland, exploration of, 101, 888; Nansen's Jour- 
ney across, 98. 

GrtbayedofTs French Invasion of Ireland, 161. 

Gun-ettel, 7. 

Guns, sub-marine, 119. 

Gutierrez, Don Jose, death of, 48. 



Vol. XVII.] 



INDEX. 



[Jan.-June, i 891 



Hsamolymph glands, 199. 

Hall, 853; storms In Wurtemberg, 187. 

Hair, strange growth of. 814. 

Hamilton's Modallst, 861. 

Hankin, B H., on care for tetanus and diphtheria, 1. 

Hann, J., on temperature on Sonnbllok. 864. 

Harmotome from a Canadian locality, 87. 

Harpnd Euclid, 107. 

Harris School of Science, 299. 

Harris's He gel 'a Logic, 95. 

Hartland'a Science of Fairy Tales, 51. 

Hart's Federal Government, 41. 

Harvard medical school course, 885; yard, 6. 

fiawk moths, 886. 

Haynes, H. W., on the skeleton In armor, 5" 

Hazen, H A, on cold waves, 131; on condensation 
theory of storms, 47; on double motion of clouds, 
880; on eddies In trie atmosphere, 846; on European 
meteorology, 877; on flying machines, 846; on 
moisture in storms, 5; on rain formation, 80; on 
storms and high areas, 150; on storms in France, 
304 

Health in east Africa, 3. 

Hearing of Herman school children, 355. 

Helmholtz, 272. 

Hemp In Poilipplne Islands, 816 

Hensoldt, H., on Immortality, 800. 

Hewitt, J. N. B., on Iroquotan etymologies, 817, 234. 

Hllgard, J. E., death of, 278. 

Himalayas. 288. 

Hlorn'aMlxed Metal*, 206. 

Historical association, 22. 

H J alt's Organic Chemistry, 1(8. 

Hodges, N. D. C, on protection from lightning, 258 

Holding's Outlines of Psychology, 179 

Homoeopathy and Koch controversy, 288. 

Hornblende, artificial, 229. 

Horsford's uefencesoi Norumbega, 819. 

Horticulture In Ohio, 49. 

Household refuse, 3^2. 

Howe's Metallurgy of Steel, 109. 

Humidity, effect, la sensations of heat and cold, 814, 

Hunger and Infection, 66. 

Hunt's A New Baals for Chemistry, 187; Chemical 
and Geol >glcal Essays, 187; Mineral Physiology and 
Physiography, 187; Systematic Mineralogy, 187. 

Huxley. Professor, 84a 

Huxley's Social Diseases, 106. 

Hydrogen peroxide, 296. 

Hydrographlc Office work, 145. 

Hydrophobia, 868. 



Ice age, cause of, 289, Europe during, 211. 

Iceland explorations, 6. 

Immortality, 800; Id the light of modern dynamics, 

383. 
India, census of, 886. 
Indian languages, 71; workshop, the Plney Branch, 

186 
Infancy, suggestion In, 118. 
Infant prodigy, 858. 
Infection, hunger and, 66. 

Influenza, cradle of, 65; in the German Army, 196; 
Ingalls's Problems in Direct Fire, 11. 
In wet attacking clover, At; lmmltatlng snake, 159, 

methods of destroying, 814. 
International Journal of Ethics, 88; 
iron and Steel Institute, address by Sir F. Abel to, 

295. 
Iron-ore, separation of magnetic, 856. 
Iroquotan etymologies, 217, 284. 
Ives, J. R., on echlnoderms from Yucatan, 12. 



Jago's Inorganic Chemistry, 67. 

Japan, educational progress In, 83; reaction In, 296. 

Japanese census, 145. 

Jensen's Kosmologle der Babylonler, 191. 

Jerome's Told after Sapper, 81. 

Jews, vital statistics of, 825. 

Johns Hopkins appointments, 90; House of Com- 
mons, 84 ?. 

Johnson, E. M., 886. 

Jones's Heat, Light, and 8ound, 279 

Journal of American Ethnology* 890; of Psychology, 
268. 



Kamtcbatka, 260. 

Kansas University 8clence Club, 812. 

Keeler, J. E., 885 

Keep's Essential Uses of the Moods, 167. 

Kemp, J. F., 888. 

Kllauea, 241. 

Kitasato, Dr., 65. 

Knoflach's Sound-Eagllsh Primer, 198. 

Koch's cure of consumption, 48; action of, on the 

monkey, 186; men working with, 64. 
Kryokonlte, 341. 
Kunz G. F., on phosphorescence of the diamond, 

327; on precious stones, 859, 



Laboratory, Brooklyn Institute biological, 270; 
chemical, of Case 8chool, 356; engineering, at 
Cambridge. Eng., 842; Johns Hopkins marine, 886; 
marine biological, 188; physical, at the Smithson- 
ian 826. 

Lake! fresh-water, near Sea of Aral, 800; Iroquol*, 
an arm of the sea, 107; In Persia, 49. 



Languages, American. 121. 

Latitude, change of, 102. 

Lazenby, on Ohio horticulture, 49. 

Le Conte, John, death of, 267. 

Leff mann and Beam's Examination of Water, 198. 

Leldy, Joseph, death of, 857. 

Life saved in Michigan, 90. 

Ughtnlng,actlon of ,172; flashes, 861; protection from, 

1*7,845,853,267. 
Lion meat, 75. 
Locust of India, 886; In Algeria, 889, 337; in Egypt, 

897. 
Lovell's Nature's Wonder Workers, 82. 
Lowell's Fable for Critics, 12. 
Lowell's Noto, 18, 881. 



Mc Adie, A., on Ferrel and American meteorologists, 

87. 
MacCanhy, G., on plant diseases, 891. 
McGaire, J. D., on an Indian workshop, 135. 
McLarsn, Dice, on pollination of Zea Mays, 238. 
Madagascar, Catat and Malstre In, 117. 
Magazine of American History, 18. 
Magnetic fieli, change of form affecting a, 186; 

storm, 886. 
Mahogany of Honduras, 79. 
Malaria, 197. 
Manna, rained, 74. 

Marcet, on chemistry of breathing. 178. 
Marr. R. A., 91. 

Martin, H. N., on the oyster question, 169. 
Maryland, exploration of, 242, 889, 845. 
Mason, O. f ., on anthropoid heads In stone, 136; on 

time- measuring among savages, ST. 
Meat-preservatloo, 79. 
Medicine, advances in, 170; the British Institute of 

Preventive, 840 
Mediterranean, exploration In the, 84C- 
Meteorite, a new Kansas, 8 

Meteorological Instrument*, exhibition of, 158; ob- 
servatory in New York, 897. 
Meterologtsts, Ferrel and American, 87. 
Meteorology. American a^d European, 877; and 

mathematics, 51; of New England, 125. 
Michigan, health of, 90. 
Microbes in great cities, 100; use of, 100. 
Ml ;ro9C"ptst0, American Society of, 856. 
Mlddendorf's Worterbuoh dee Runa Siml, etc, 235 
Milk, fat in, SO; fermentation, 878; souring during 

thunder-storms, 178. 
Mineral waters of the Yellowstone Park, 36. 
Minerals presented Stanford Uulverslty, 358. 
Missouri Geological Survey, 102, 841. 
Mocking-birds and their young, 361. 
Moles, food of, 191. 

Morey's Genesis of Written Constitutions. 1C9. 
Morgan's Animal Life and Intelligence, 246 
Morphological Society, 85. 
Morris's Civilization, 819; Geometry* 193. 
Moulton, R. G., on university extension, 174. 
Mummies at Delr el-Bahlri, 156; from Dehr-el- 

Baharl, 314. 
Munroe, H. 8., 838 

N 

Nansen's Arctic expedition, 178. 

Negro, transporting the, ba 'k to Africa, 48. 

Nesting in western India, 299. 

New Zealand Journal of Science, 248; science in, 
146. 

Nias, Cerruti's col'ections in, 318. 

Nichols, C. F., on Koch controversy, 233. 

Nickel and copper In Sudbury district, Canada, 159. 

Nile, source of the, 338. 

Nltiogen, anesthetic action of, 310. 

Nomenclature, 67. 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadel- 
phia, 290. 

Nuttall, G. H. F., on tuberculous bacilli, 828. 



Oats, planting of, 186. 

Oceanographlc expedition, 242. 

Ohio geological survey, 124; State University, 207. 

Olive-oil adulteration, 158. 

Olives In Persia, 157. 

Onyx in Virginia, 388 

Optics of solutions, 108. 

Orcutt, C. R., on nomenclature, 67. 

Orton, E., on geology of Ohio, 124 

Osier, W., on advances in medicine, 170. 

Osmium, atomic weight of, 157. 

Osteologlcal notes, 817. 

Oar Language, 879. 

Oxygen from chloride of lime, 157; spectrum of 

liquefied, 800. 
Oyapock, Condreau's exploration of, 102. 
Oyster beds, Georgia, 155; culture, 847; question, 

the, 169. 



Paint of lasting quality, 200. 

Panther's methoi of hunting, 6. 

P&ntoblbllon, 847, 819. 

Parsons's Prussian Schools, 262. 

Pedagogical 8emtnary, 52. 

Pelrsol, G. A., 888. 

Petrie's explorations in Egypt. 256. 

Photographic lens testing at Kew, 243. 

Photographing burglars. 145; In colors, 145, 888; used 

in Canadian survey, 841. 
Photography, time of exposure, 829. 
Phthisis, 310. 



Pierce's Life-Romance of an Algebraist, 847. 

Pilcomayo, Page's exploration of, 91; Storm's ex- 
ploration of, 91. 

Pipe, welding copper, 215. 

Plants for school children. 852. 

Plum trees, spraying of, 897. 

Poey, F., death of, 103. 

Poison, arrow, 120. 

Poisonous mussels, 196. 

Political and Social Science Annals, 3)9; Science 
Academy, 886. 

Pollination of Zea Mays, 28 2. 

Population, Increase In European, 21. 

Porcelain industry in France, 281. 

Portraits, typical, of races, 61. 

Powell, J. W., on Indian languages, 71. 

Powers's War and Weather, 878. 

Pratt, W. H., on immortality, 318. 

Preserves, Indian, 60 

Pressure-gauge on Eiffel tower, 858. 

Preston, B. D., on change of earth's axis, 102. 

Preston's Theory of Light, 191. 

Prize for extinguishing fires in theatres, 858; for salt 
packing, 854; in physics, 318; for essays on women 
wage-earners, 216; Johns Hopkins, 241; of Royal So- 
ciety of New South Wales, 173. 

Psychical Research Society, 48. 



Races, mixed, 179. 
Railway, Transandlne, 831. 
Rain in Great Britain, 157; formation, 80, 106. 
Rainfall, 229; In Assam, 24 i. 
Raining food, 74 
Range-finder, 864. 

Reel us' Primitive Folk-Studies In Comparative Eth- 
nology, 164. 
Renin's Future of Science. 5?. 
Rice, J. E.. on feeding chickens, 206. 
Riley, C. V., on applied entomology, 15, 29. 
Roads, Improvement of, 101. 
Roberts Austen's Metallurgy, 847. 
Roberts's University Extension, 819. 
Rocky Mountains. Pacific air over the, 859. 
Robrba-m, C. E. M., on mean coast-distances, 261. 
Roman tools, 896. 

Romanes, Geo. J., on Aristotle as a naturalist, 128. 
Rome, record of games found at, 840. 
Roosevelt's New York, 58. 
Rowland, H. A., on spectrum work. 105. 
Royal Society, new members of, 898, 858. 
Rubles, artificial, 6; in Slam, 81. 
Russia, free, 353; illiteracy in, 853. 



Sahara, the, as a health resort, 329; water- supply in 

the, 215. 
Salonlca, filling of harbor of. 888. 
Sangha tributary of the Kongo, 91. 
Sanitation In Michigan, 281. 
San- Roman's La L*ngua Cunza, 261. 
Saurians, horned, 216. 
Sawdust, use for, 201. 
8chllemann, 265. 
School, workwoman's, 389. 
8chuchardt's Kreollsche Studlen, 261. 
Scudder's Fossil Insects of North America, 138. 
Seas, dangers from heavy, 25. 
Selenium cells, 6. 
Sewage treated by filtration, 896. 
Sheep of Asia Minor, 839. 
Short-sightedness, 7. 

Shoup's Mechanism and Personality, 192. 
Shrike, the, 817. 
Shufeldt. R. W., on the apteryx, 818; on the National 

Z x>loglcal Garden, 184; on the negro, 48. 
Slam, precious stones in, 21. 
Slog, Idiots without power of speech can, 353. 
Skeleton in armor, 50. 
Slade. D.D., osteologlcal notes, 317. 
Sleeping, eating before, 199. 
81 >ane'B Rubber Hand Stamps, 198. 
8mall-pox, 889. 

Smock's Building-Stones of New York, 124. 
Smoke abatement, 858. 
Snakes, venomous, 255. 
Snow, F. H., on a Kansas meteorite, 3. 
Snow observations, 855. 
Soaps, new medicinal, 199. 
Soda, nitrate of, as a fertilizer, 811, 812. 
Soil moisture, 827; structure of, 842. 
Soul:), African doctrine of, 104. 
Spectrum work, progress in, 105. 
Spinning Tops, 237. 
Spitsbergen, explorations In, 7. 
Squirrels, 173. 
Stanford, E., 228. 
Starlings eaten by rooks, 101. 
Stas, S., 340. 

Steam-jacket efficiency, 887. 
8teers, feeding. 206. 
Sternberg, G. M., on cocoanut-water as a culture- 

fi lid, 100. 
Stomach, why it does not digest itself, 150. 
8tone anthropoid heads, 186. 
Stone, G. H., on air passing Rocky Mountains, 359; 

on Lake Iroquois, 107. 
Storms, formation of, 312; in France, 304; moisture 

in, 5; motion of, 150; Dr. Hann and the condensa- 
tion theory of, 47. 
8trong, G. B., wn plum trees, 297. 
Strychnine in the stomach, 811. 
Suez Canal traffic, 2 1. 
Sugar in blood, 65. 
Sugar-beet culture In Wisconsin, 158; In Ohio, 841; In 

Kansas, 258. 




Jyrwtel 




•8«7 



ARTES SCIENTIA VERITAS 



t. 



SCIENCE 



61 
f 






AN ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL 



PUBLISHED IVEEKLY 



VOLUME XVII 



JANUARY— JUNE 1891 



NEW YORK 

N. D. C. HODGES j 



1891 



\ 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 415 



Dr. Hann's Studies on Cyclones and Anticyclones. 

Pbofessob Febbel's letter in Science of Deo. 10, commenting 
on mine of May 80, closes with the suggestion that I should make 
further statement of the matter of Dr. Hann's studies, which I 
do with pleasure. 

The best reasoned general account of the convections! theory 
of cyclones and anticyclones (by the latter term I mean areas of 
high pressure) that I know of is given in Professor FerreVs 
" Popular Treatise on the Winds." Of various statements in regard 
to cyclones, the following may be quoted from the concluding 
paragraph on their vertical circulation : *' The greater tempera- 
ture of the interior [of cyclones] causes an upward expansion of 
the air and greater vertical distances between the isobaric sur- 
faces here than in the exterior part where the temperature is less " 
(p. 241). In regard to anticyclones or areas of high pressure, of 
the kind that Dr. Hann has investigated, the following explana- 
tion may be quoted : " The principal cause of the large areas of 
very high barometer which frequently occur in the higher lati- 
tudes in winter is undoubtedly found in the clearness of the atmos- 
phere over these areas and the intense coldness produced by the 
radiation of heat at a time when little is received from solar radia- 
tion. The density and pressure of the air are much increased 
from this cause, and the areas are too large and irregular for this 
disturbance to give rise to a cyclone with a cold centre " (p. 845). 
The inversion of temperature accompanying such areas of 
high pressure is referred to on the next page, but still with the 
implication that the mass of air in the anticyclone is cooled be- 
low the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere, and there- 
fore that it descends and flows out at £be base by gravitative con- 
vection. 

These quotations might be further extended, but they suffice to 
show that the essential of the generally accepted theory of the. 
areas of low and of high pressure which appear so frequently on 
our weather-maps is that the first are relatively warm, and the 
second are relatively cold, when compared with their surround- 
ings. Cyclonic and an ticy clonic areas are both of common occur- 
rence, and therefore as a rule their temperatures should be re- 
spectively above and below the normal temperatures of their time 
and place. 

Records of temperature made on high mountain-peaks furnish 
the best means of testing the convectional theory of cyclones ; 
for, even if all other tests were successfully borne, failure under 
this test would be fatal to the theory. Dr. Hann's essay on the 
anticyclone of November and the cyclone of October, 1889, as ob- 
served in the Alps, furnishes the best means of applying this test 
that has come to my knowledge. It is true that one example of 
each of these phenomena is not sufficient for final determinations, 
and it is very apparent that the results would be far more con- 
vincing if they included records from mountain stations scattered N 
over a much larger area than that of the Alps. Surely no one 
will be more careful to supplement these deficiencies, whenever 
possible, than Dr. Hann himself. 

I do not see any reason for believing that the anticyclone that 
stood over the Alps in November, 1880, was exceptional in its 
nature or in its relation to the surrounding atmosphere. All of 
its features except its mean temperature warrant the belief that 
it was a typical example of the phenomena referred to under the 
heading of " Areas of High Pressure " in Professor Ferrers treatise. 
Unless it can be shown to have been of exceptional nature, the 
abnormally high temperature of its air mass is a direct contradic- 
tion of the fundamental idea of the convectional theory of areas 
of high pressure. It has not been claimed that the conditions of 
a cyclone exist in this high-pressure area; but the explanation of 
high-pressure areas as quoted above is a direct corollary of the 
cyclonic theory. If the corollary is contradicted by facts, the 
theory needs revision. The burden of proof in this case lies with 
those who would maintain that the anticyclone in question was 
of so exceptional a nature that it cannot be regarded as a repre- 
sentative of its class. Its long duration does not show it to be a 
thing of another kind from other areas of high pressure: the long 
duration merely gave good opportunity for repeated observation 
of its prevailingly high temperature. 



As to the cyclone of October that was examined by Dr. Hann, 
it was certainly of moderate development ; but it was as good an 
example, according to Dr. Hann, as he could find. The observa- 
tions that he quotes show that its general central temperatures 
were below the normal of its time and place. The fact that the 
temperatures were not determined in the free air, but at stations 
on the surface of the ground, does not seem to me to invalidate 
their use here ; for on the peaks where the critical observations 
were made the air is generally in motion, and the mass of the 
mountain is small; and for both these reasons the control of the 
temperature of the air by the ground is not great enough to ex- 
plain the reported low temperatures. Over a broad surface of 
a lowland, where the wind is weaker and the opportunity for 
contact of air and ground is greater, the case is different. The 
low temperature of the central part of this cyclone may fairly be 
regarded as contradictory to the convectional theory of cyclones, 
unless it can be shown that the example in question was sur- 
rounded by air more abnormally cooled than its own, or unless it 
is shown to have been an expiring cyclone, — one whose long cir- 
culation had so thoroughly exhausted its supply of warm, moist 
air, and so successfully warmed the surrounding air, that it had 
no further support, as Professor Ferrel has shown might some- 
times be the case. It is true that Europe might offer more ex- 
amples of self-exhausted c> clones than occur in this country, for 
they are there advancing from moister into dryer regions; but it 
is difficult to believe that so considerable a deficiency of tempera- 
ture as probably occurred in the case under consideration should 
be produced before the cyclonic motions had stopped, if they de- 
pended entirely on a convectional origin. It is not likely that so 
exceptional a case as this must be, if it is to be explained by con- 
vection, would have been the very case that Dr. Hann happened 
to choose for his studies. It is still more unlikely that both the 
cyclone and the anticyclone here referred to should have been 
exceptional members of their classes, both departing from the 
normal in a way that would contradict the convectional theory. 
As these are the first examples of their ' kind to be carefully ex- 
amined by means of regular observations at stations at so high a 
level, the probability is strongly in favor of their being ordinary, 
and not extraordinary, phenomena; and as such they did not 
possess the peculiar temperatures that the convectional theory 
would lead us to expect. Although mere probability of this kind 
does not close a case, it seems to me that it may be fairly said to 
open it. 

I do not see that there is any necessary contradiction in this 
discussion. The theories under consideration are not mutually 
exclusive. Both may be true. The liberation of latent heat from 
condensed vapor is an aid to the circalation in both cases. Cer- 
tainly there is nothing in Dr. Hann's essay to make one think 
that thunder-storms, tornadoes, and desert whirls are not convec- 
tional phenomena. It is entirely possible that true convectional 
cyclones might prevail in the tropics, while driven cyclones might 
characterize the temperate zones. A cyclone begun chiefly by one 
process might be continued chiefly by the other. Of course, this 
is hypothetical : it was not my intention last May to regard it in 
any other light. For that reason my letter closed with an u if." 
Others besides Professor Ferrel, however, understood me to have 
abandoned the older theory and taken up with the newer. I 
tried to state Dr. Hann's point of view, and I do not regret hav- 
ing stated it so fairly that it was taken for my own. That I had 
not adopted it as fully as Professor Ferrel implies, may be in- 
ferred from the close of my eighth paragraph and from the 
middle of the ninth, as well as from the ending of the letter al- 
ready referred to. But in making this explanation, I do not wish 
to be understood as not welcoming the new theory. The abnor- 
mal warmth of anticyclones had been in my mind as a difficulty 
in the way of convection, yet I had expected that cyclones would 
be found to be still warmer; and it was not until reading Dr. 
Hann's forcible statement that I perceived I had become too 
strongly settled in favor of the prevailing theory. On recognizing 
this partiality, I made all the more effort to give full and fair 
consideration to the new one. It seemed to me nothing less than 
a duty to announce the facts and Dr. Hann's interpretation of 
them in the same journal that had published my outline render- 



January 2, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



ing of the other theory some years before; and, in spite of Profes- 
sor Ferrel's letter, it still seems to me that I was right in saying 
that the oonvectional theory needs revision in the light of Dr. 
Hann's results, but by revision I do not mean abandonment. 

The incompleteness of the new theory is not a reason for being 
silent about it. It should be welcomed, if only for the reason that 
it will cause a healthful revision of previous views. The value of 
multiple working hypotheses has been so well set before our 
scientific readers, that nothing more need be said on that point. 
I will not venture to speak for Professor Ferret, but I am sure 
that practically every meteorologist in the country will profit from 
a serious re-examination of his knowledge of the theory of cy- 
clones in the light of Dr. Hann's researches. 

As to the process by which the general circulation of the at- 
mosphere shall produce cyclones and anticyclones, it is not to my 
mind necessary that this should be worked out completely before 
the suggestion of it may be profitably made. But it does not 
seem impossible that the general winds might here and there 
crowd together, owing to irregularity of flow; that, where 
crowded together, anticyclones would appear; and that, between 
the anticyclones, cyclonic whirls might be formed. It would be 
indeed a satisfaction if I could here answer all the pertinent ques- 
tions, and give all necessary explanations, about such a problem ; 
but, if we may judge by the treatment that dynamical meteorol- 
ogy has received thus far in this country, there is only one Amer- 
ican who can do that. I wish that he might consider the possi- 
bilities of some such process arising from the general circulation 
of the atmosphere as is outlined above, and, after working them 
out rigorously, state them as clearly as he has explained the gen- 
eral circulation of the atmosphere itself. Whatever truth there 
is in the convectional theory of cyclones would not be harmed by 
such an investigation, while whatever truth there may be in the 
hypothesis of driven cyclones would pretty surely be discovered 
by it. 

There is a corollary to the suggestion made by Dr. Hann, that 
may be of interest to those who seek for an explanation of our past 
glacial climates. It is generally recognized, that, if there were an 
increase in the activity of our winter cyclones, there would be an 
increase of snowfall as well; and, if this were carried far enough, 
the accumulation of snow might last over the summer. The in- 
crease of cyclonic activity would presumably accompany an in- 
crease in the general circulation of the atmosphere, if cyclones in 
our latitudes are driven by the general winds; and this would ap- 
pear in that hemisphere whose equatorial and polar contrasts of 
temperature were strengthened. Such strengthened contrasts 
might be expected in the hemisphere having its winter in aphelion, 
and particularly at times of maximum orbital eccentricity. I do 
not mean to imply that a glacial period might depend on this con- 
dition alone; yet it may be one of many whose varying combina- 
tions at times produce a glacial climate, as Crolland J. Geikieand 
many others have shown; but this particular element of the com- 
bination does not appear to have been recognized. 

W. M. Davis. 

Harrard College, Cambridge, Mass., Deo. 87. 



Moisture in Storms. 



Next to the action of heat in storms, the part that moisture 
takes in them has been greatly emphasized. The so-called "con- 
densation theory" of storms has had wider acceptance than any 
other. We may imagine a limited portion of the earth's surface 
heated up by the sun, and this more or less of a circular shape. 
There will be induced a tendency to an uprising current of heated 
air, which will continue so long as the central portion is warmer 
than the air surrounding it at the same level. This tendency, 
however, would be quickly brought to rest were it not for the 
fact that the uprising column has its moisture condensed, which 
liberates latent heat and causes the column to rise still faster. 
Here is a most remarkable fact, notwithstanding that the release 
of this moisture diminishes the total amount in the air, and the 
latent heat warms up the air, both of which causes would stop 
precipitation at once; yet we 'are taught that the force of the 
storm is increased by this process. There is another serious ob- 



jection among many. If rain occurred at the centre of the 
storm, this theory might be plausible; but since the bulk of the 
rain in this country occurs three hundred miles to the eastward 
of the centre, and over only about one-fiftieth part of the area 
covered by the storm, it requires an enormous stretch of the 
imagination to grasp the causation of our wide-extended storms 
through this condensation effect. We may add still another con- 
sideration. It is fairly well ascertained that the upper limit of 
our storms, as shown by pressure and temperature observations 
at Pike's Peak (14,184 feet), is far above four or five miles, and 
may extend to the limits of the atmosphere. Now, the bulk of 
our precipitation is formed within 6,000 feet of the earth's sur- 
face : hence it is plain that the condensation of moisture plays a 
very subordinate part in our wide-extended storms, and has 
nothing to do with their generation or maintenance. 

I do not propose to discuss at this time all the objections to this 
" condensation theory," which have been repeatedly advanced 
both in this and other journals, and which have not been answered, 
but I wish to present a recent most extraordinary abandonment 
of this theory by Dr. Hann, who stands at the head of the old 
school on the continent. I quote from a translation, by Professor 
Blanford of London, of a recent statement by Dr. Hann. Speak- 
ing against the condensation theory, he says (Nature, Nov. 6, 
1890), "These views are such as I have always enunciated (for a 
long time, indeed, without any apparent result) in opposition to the 
then prevalent theories of the local origin of barometric minima 
through the agency of condensing water-vapor (as contended by 
Mohn, Reye, Loomis, and Blanford). They now begin to make 
way and prevail. Most clearly is this seen in the case of Loomis, 
who, in the course of his own persistent study of the behavior of 
barometric minima and maxima, has been compelled by degrees 
to give up the ' condensation theory ' to which he formerly adhered 
so strongly, and to ascribe the origin as well as the progressive 
movement of cyclones to the general circulation of the atmos- 
phere." 

The importance of this utterance from such an authority can- 
not be exaggerated. While I have shown that Dr. Hann has been 
misled by his study of mountain observations, yet it seems to me 
this avowal on his part reaches out far beyond that. As I have 
just shown, the very life and existence of the old theory depend 
upon condensation of moisture. Now, if Dr. Hann, who must 
understand this fact most thoroughly, has deliberately set it aside, 
must we not conclude that it has an inherent weakness in itself to 
his mind. Those who are familiar with Loomis's work will be 
surprised to lean that he ever abandoned the condensation theory 
of storms. 

It would seem that this controversy over the condensation 
theory is rapidly culminating, and the indications point to a speedy 
downfall of that theory. It is a remarkable fact that all the ob- 
jections urged against this theory, now these many years, have 
been studiously ignored; but a few words from a recognized 
authority, even though based upon a wrong interpretation of 
facts, seem to make headway very rapidly. Surely. Hann, Davis, 
and Blanford form a most formidable front against this theory, 
and it is high time its defenders should come to its assistance ere 
it be too late. H. A. Hazen. 

Washington, Dec. 13. 

["Letters to the Editor 11 continued on p. 8.] 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



At a meeting of the Royal Botanic Society on Dec. 13, as we 
learn from Nature of Dec. 18, the secretary answered vari- 
ous questions as to the destructive action of fogs on plants. He 
said it was most felt by those tropical plants in the society's houses 
of which the natural habitat was one exposed to sunshine. Plants 
growing in forests or under tree shade did not so directly feel the 
want of light; but then, again, a London or town fog not only 
shaded the plants, but contained smoke, sulphur, and other dele- 
terious agents, which were perhaps as deadly to vegetable vitality 
as absence of light. Soft, tender-leaved plants, and aquatics, such 
as the Victoria regia, suffered more from fogs than any class of 
plants he knew. 



i8 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 4*4 



valuable when used against the fluted and other scale-insects. 
The results have been quite encouraging, and the experiments 
have already shown that in the use of these washes we have 
a valuable addition to the underground remedies. Soaps 
were made by the use of bicarbonate of soda, sal soda, and 
caustic soda, each mixed with resin. In the earlier experi- 
ments the earth was removed about the base of the vine to a 
depth of six inches and for a diameter of four feet. Ten 
gallons of the mixture were poured into each hole, and found 
to penetrate from twelve to sixteen inches or from eighteen 
to twenty-two inches from the original surface of the ground. 
Most of the insects, as also the eggs, were destroyed to a 
depth of sixteen inches. In the later experiments the holes 
were made only about two feet in diameter; and nearly if 
not quite the same results were obtained with half the 
amount, or Ave gallons of the mixture. The plan which I 
have previously adopted for. the application of insecticides to 
underground insects, of washing the mixture in with pure 
water, was tried with good success. Soon after the first 
application, five gallons of water were added, and five gallons 
more the following day. This would indicate that in the 
spring, when rains are frequent (occurring almost every day) 
in the Sonoma valley, only a small amount of the mixture 
need be applied, and the rains will do the rest, as examina- 
tion has shown that up to a certain point each application 
of water intensifies and extends the action of the original 
insecticide. The best soap was made with bicarbonate of 
soda ; but the results of that made with caustic soda are so 
little inferior, while the price is so much less, that the 
caustic soda and resin soap mixture is the one which I would 
recommend. The formula which was found preferable is as 
follows: caustic soda (77 per cent), five pounds; resin, forty 
pounds ) water to make fifty gallons. 

The soda should be dissolved over a fire in four gallons of 
water, then the .resin should be added and dissolved. After 
this, the required water can be added slowly, while boiling, 
to make the fifty gallons of the compound. To this water 
may be added at the rate of nine gallons for one, making 
five hundred gallons of the dilute compound, sufficient for 
one hundred large vines, at a cost of only eighty-four cents, 
or less than a cent a vine. 

Considering the effective way in which the ravaged vine- 
yards of France have been and are being redeemed by the 
use of resistant American stocks, and considering the efficacy 
of some of the direct remedies discovered, it is passing strange 
that no disposition has ever been made, of the premium of 
300,000 francs offered in the early history of the trouble by 
the French Government. It cannot be awarded to any one 
person, but should be distributed among those whose labors 
and discoveries resulted in the several feasible and satisfac- 
tory methods of coping with the insect. , 

Introduction of Parasites and Predaceous Species. 

The success which has attended the introduction from 
Australia of Vedalia cardinalis has been phenomenal. In- 
deed, few who have not kept in knowledge of the reports 
and the actual condition of things can appreciate the re- 
markable character of the results, not only because of the 
brief period required therefor, but because of the thorough- 
ness of the work of the little ladybird, and the moral and 
financial benefit too range-growers which has followed in 
its wake. 

The striking success of the experiment has served to fix 
attention not only of entomologists, but of fruit-growers and 
farmers, to this mode of dealing with injurious insects; and 
there is no question but that the cases in which the experi- 



ment may be more or less successfully repeated are numerous* 
Let us hope, therefore, that the moral effect will be as great 
as its practical effect in opening up means and ways in the 
future, as it should serve to remove the disposition to deride 
any expenditure having such results for its object. Many 
fears have been expressed, lest, after sweeping off the Icerya r 
the Vedalia, being so far as we now know confined to that 
species for food, should perish, and that the Icerya, preserved 
in some restricted places undiscovered by its enemy, would 
again multiply and become destructive. I firmly believe 
what I wrote in my last annual report as United States en- 
tomologist: viz.,— - 

" Wc mjy hardly hop*, however, that the last chapter in 
the story is written. On the contrary, it is more than prob- 
able, and in fact we strongly anticipate, that the Icerya will 
partially recuperate; that the Vedalia will, after its first 
victorious spread, gradually decrease for lack of food; and 
that the remnants of the fluted scale will in the interim 
multiply and spread again. This contest between the plant- 
feeder and its deadliest enemy will go on with alternate fluc- 
tuations in the supremacy of either, varying from year to 
year according to locality or conditions; but there is no rea- 
son to doubt that the Vedalia will continue substantially 
victorious, and that the power for serious harm, such as the 
Icerya has done in the past, has been forever destroyed. 
We have learned, also, that it will always be easy to secure 
new colonizations of the Vedalia where such may prove 
necessary, or even new importations should these become 
desirable." —- 

During the year I have endeavored to return the favors 
received from Australia and New Zealand by sending there 
some of the natural enemies of the codling-moth ; and from 
last accounts, though jeopardized by the action of the cus- 
tom-house authorities, the experiment promised success so 
far as a species of Raphidia from California is concerned. 
I have also endeavored to introduce some of the parasites 
which attack the Hessian-fly in Europe, and which do not 
yet occur in this country. These efforts have been made by 
correspondence; for you will be surprised to learn that the 
restrictive clause in the appropriations to the Department of 
Agriculture for entomological work, which limits travelling 
expenses to the United States, is still maintained in the face 
of the Vedalia experience, where, by the expenditure of fif- 
teen hundred dollars, many millions were saved. The 
maintenance of this restricting clause in the last appropria- 
tion bill, under these circumstances, is a travesty on legisla- 
tive wisdom, and all the more remarkable because done by 
the Senate, in opposition to the House and the recommenda- 
tions of both the secretary and assistant secretary of agricul- 
ture. 

While there is much to be done in this direction in future, 
I cannot let this occasion pass without giving a note of 
warning. Success will only come in any particular case 
when exact knowledge is first obtained, and the most thor- 
ough scientific methods are then adopted; and we cannot 
too severely condemn every thing that savors of buncombe 
and ignorance. During the year, the press of the country 
has prominently heralded the fact that a gentlemau from San 
Francisco, especially charged to study certain entomological 
matters in the East, found, while in Washington, the two- 
spotted ladybird (Coccinella bipunctala) feeding on " the 
spotted Aphis" right under the windows of the Division of 
Entomology of the Department of Agriculture, the infer- 
ence intended being that the entomologist and his assistants 
were ignorant of the circumstance. Indeed, a writer in one 
of the California papers of recent date announced this dis- 



January 9, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



"9 



covery under the sensaiioual heading " Another Good Bug. 
— The Woolly Aphis has found its Sedan." How supremely 
ridiculous this sort of thing appears to the well-informed en- 
tomologist I need not tell you, but it may be well for the 
information of the public to say (as I have not alluded to 
the matter elsewhere) that a number of different species of 
ladybirds feed upon the woolly Aphis, and that it is a rule 
with the insects of this family not to be select as to the par- 
ticular aphid they prey upon. Hippodamia convergent 
(the species referred to as the Sedan of the woolly Aphis) 
feeds, over nearly the whole extent of the United States, 
upon this particular Schizoneura, among others; and the 
fact that both the species referred to feed upon various 
Aphides is well known. That one of the species is also 
common upon the Pacific coast, and that its being carried 
there from the East is like " carrying coals to Newcastle/' 
may not, however, be so generally known. All such efforts 
as this, carried on by persons unfit, from want of any special 
knowledge, for the mission-, must invariably do harm, not 
only because of the negative results which follow, but be- 
cause of the lack of confidence in such work which they will 
engender in the minds of our legislators. 

I should not think of holding any one responsible for 
newspaper paragraphs; but in this case the party has sub- 
stantially confirmed them in statements over his own name, 
and in interviews whieh (as announced) he has himself re- 
vised. 

Method of using Bisulphide of Carbon against Grain Weevils. 

The use of bisulphide of carbon against different insects at- 
tacking stored grain has greatly increased in this country 
since I first recommended it some thirteen years ago. 1 There 
is, however, considerable diversity in the methods of using 
it; and the recommendations of some of our writers have 
•evidently been made with no sense of the fact that the fumes 
are heavier than air, and descend rather than ascend. Pro- 
fessor A. H. Church, in a recent number of the Kew Bulle- 
tin, records that he found that a pound and a half of the 
bisulphide is enough to each ton of grain. He* ad vises that 
it be applied in the following way: — 

A ball of tow is tied to a stick of such a length that it 
can reach the middle of the vessel containing the grain. 
The tow receives the charge of bisulphide, like a sponge, and 
is then at once plunged into the vessel and left there, the 
mouth of the vessel then being tightly closed. When ne- 
cessary, the stick may be withdrawn and the charge (of one 
ounce to a hundred pounds) may be renewed. 

The action of carbon bisulphide lasts, in ordinary cases, 
six weeks, after which period a fresh charge is. required. 
The bisulphide does no harm to the grain as regards its 
color, smell, or cooking properties; and the germinating 
power of most seeds is not appreciably affected, provided 
that not too much is used, nor its action continued for too 
long a period. 

The assistant director of agriculture of Burmah is reported 
to have used naphthaline instead of bisulphide in the follow- 
ing way, but I should not expect any thing like as good re- 
sults from the naphthaline as from the bisulphide. 

A hollow bamboo cylinder an inch and a half in diameter, 
-with a stick fitted into the cavity, is pushed down to the 
bottom of the bin. The stick is then withdrawn, and a few 
teaspoon fuls of naphthaline powder is poured into the bam- 
boo, which is then drawn out, leaving the naphthaline at 
the bottom of the bin. If the bins are very large, this should 

* Farmers 1 Review (Chicago), Marcb, 1879. 



be done once to every ten feet square, and the application 
should be repeated every fifteen or twenty days. 

Insecticide Machinery. 

A profitable hour might be devoted to the subject of in- 
secticide machinery, but I must content myself with a few 
words. At a trial of such machinery at the Mareil-Marly 
vineyards during the late Paris Exposition, I had an excel- 
lent opportunity of witnessing the latest advances made in 
France in this direction ; and it was extremely gratifying to 
note, that, with whatever modification of the power em- 
ployed (and many of the machines were very ingenious), all 
other forms of spraying-tip had been abandoned for vine- 
yard purposes in favor of modifications of the Riley or Cy- 
clone nozzle. The superiority for most practical purposes, 
of the portable knapsack pumps of V. Vermorel of Ville- 
franche (Rhone), France, was sufficiently evident. M. 
Vermorel has identified himself with the regeneration and 
improvement of French grape-culture in many directions, 
and is, withal, an enthusiastic student of insect-life. I spent 
a very profitable day with him last year both at the factory 
and at his home, where he has established, a virtual experi- 
ment station in the midst of a fine vineyard on American 
roots, and with every facility for various fields of investiga- 
tion, none of which are deemed more important than the 
work in entomology; for he fully realizes how much there 
is yet to learn of some of the commonest insects destructive 
to the vine, even in an old country like France. But iu no 
direction has he accomplished as much good as in his work 
with insecticide and fungicide machinery. His sprayer with 
independent pump,Jns diaphragm pump (L' Eclair), and his 
reservoir with suction and force pump, are all admirably 
adapted for the purpose they were invented for, and may be 
obtained in France at a cost of from five to seven dollars, 
which is tripled before reaching this country, thanks to our 
present tariff system. 

The Galloway Sprayer. — The last number of the Journal 
of Mycology, the serial publication of the Division of Vegeta- 
ble Pathology of the Department of Agriculture, gives full 
description, with figures, of a knapsack spraying-apparatus 
for- which the special merit claimed is cheapness. 

The combination of a suction and a force pump with knap- 
sack-reservoir has been frequently made in France, as illus- 
trated by the apparatus styled the kt Cyclone" of Vermorel; 
the Japy, Vigeroux, Nouges, and Perrin sprayers; and the 
sprayer of the society 4< L' Avenir Viticole." A number of 
pumps manufactured in this country of this style were men- 
tioned or described in the u Fourth Report of the United 
States Entomological Commission. " These, in general, are 
much inferior to the French pumps named, which are, bow- 
ever, modelled after those earlier and cruder forms. There are 
a host of other French knapsack spraying-machines, which 
differ from those mentioned by propelling the liquid by means 
either of air-pumps, diaphragm-pumps, or devices in which 
the pump is attached to the reservoir by means of a rubbfer 
hose. 

In 1888 Mr. Adam Weaber of Vineland, N. J., brought out 
the Eureka sprayer, a very serviceable knapsack pump 
modelled after the French machines. The French sprayers 
will cost, including duty, shipping, etc., from eighteen to 
twenty -five dollars ; the Weaber sprayer is sold for twenty-one 
dollars, which is but little more than the cost of manufac- 
ture; Professor Galloway's machine is sold for fourteen dol- 
lars, or from a fourth to a third less than the Weaber or the 
French sprayers. 

In the first announcement of this pump in No. 1, Vol. VL, 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 413 



—•'The Harvard Yard," an original etching by Robert R.Wise- 
man, shows the " Harvard Yard," with a good view of the group 
of older buildings. The plate is of large size. No plain prints 
of the etching are to be had for the present, at any rate, possibly 
not at all. Each remarque artist-proof is printed: on imperial 
Japan paper, and bears the signature of the artist and a remarque 
representing the seal of the university, printed in dark crimson. 
The publishers are the Frederick A. Stokes Company, 182 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. 

— Nature states that a novel whaling expedition is about to be 
undertaken by three Americans whalers, which have gone to the 
Arctic regions to winter at the mouth of the Mackenzie River. 
In order to be well supplied with food, they have taken what will 
last for two years, and they expect also to get food from the 
whalers in the summer. This is the highest point any whaler has 
reached, being a thousand miles from the North Pole. Directly 
the ice breaks after the winter, the whales come to the mouth of 
the river in great numbers to feed, and it is expected that a large 
number of them will be secured. 

— A pa^er by Mr. W. B. Mason in the " Transactions of the 
Seismological Society of Japan " deserves the attention of all who 
take special interest in seismology. It contains, according to Na- 
ture of Dec. 1 1 , a list of earthquakes recorded at telegraph-sta- 
tions in ceniral and northern Japan from Aug. 11, 1888, to Dec. 
31, 1889. Mr. Mafron, while allowing for various sources of un- 
certainty in the observations, thinks that some results may be 
deduced from what are still meagre statistics. Thus, of the 151 
earthquake* recorded in Tokio, only 89 were felt at the other 
telegraph -stations. So.ue of those which were felt at all the sta- 
tions seem to have been felt at almost exactly the same instant : 
in other words, there was no indication of a progression of the 
earthquake from point to point. 

— Borne three year? ago MM. Fremy and Verneuil, two French 
chemists, succeeded in producing rubies artificially. The crystals 
obtained. *ays Engineering, were small; and since then the in- 
ventors have been occupied with the problem of increasing the 
size of the rubies obtained. To this end considerable changes 
have been made in their methods of operating. In place of using 
pure alumina, as in their previous experiments, alumina alkalin- 
ized by potassium carbonate is used. This addition of an alkali 
does not alter the purity of the crystals obtained, while it facili- 
tates their regular formation. In their original experiments the 
operations were completed in twenty-four hours, but they have 
now succeeded in prolonging the re-action over several months, 
with the result of obtaining much larger crystals. As much as 
seven pounds weight of rubies have been obtained at a single 
operation. Even yet, however, the crystals are small, but are at 
lea>t sufficiently large to mount, which was not the case with the 
first essays of the inventors. 

— The curious idea of preserving dead bodies by galvano- 
plastic method is not new; but £fc note that a Frenchman, Dr. 
Variot, has been lately giving his attention to it (La Nature), To 
facilitate adherence of the metallic deposit, says Nature (Dec. 18), 
he paints the skin with a concentrated solution of nitrate of silver, 
and reduces this with vapors of whice phosphorus dissolved in 
sulphide of carbon, the skin bejng thus rendered dark and shiny. 
The body is then ready for the electric bath, which is served by a 
thormo-electric battery, giving a regular adherent deposit of cop- 
per if the current is properly regulated. With a layer of one- half 
to three fourths of a millimetre, the envelope is solid enough to 
resist pressure or shock. Dr. Variot further incinerates the me- 
tallic mummy, leaving holes for the escape of gases. The corpse 
disappears, and a faithful image or statue remains. 

• 

— - Mr. J. M. Coode records, in the new number of the Journal 
of the Bombay Natural History Society, the following instance of 
an exceptional method of bunting which the panther is occa- 
sionally forced to adopt. Mr. Coode was lately asked by the pa- 
tel of a village in the Amraoti district to accompany him one 
evening to a forest nursery of young bamboo shoots, to assist in 
killing a large boar which nightly visited the place and did im- 
mense damage. As stated in Nature, they waited for some time, 



when, just as it was getting dark, they heard the short guttural 
sound of a panther, and heavy footfall of some running animal. 
The noises came nearer and nearer, until a nilghai and a panther 
could be distinctly seen against the sky-line, the former being 
chased by the latter. The nilghai kept moaning, and waa evi- 
dently in an abject state of fear. The two ran round in a circle 
of about one hundred and sixty yards diameter, within thirty 
yards of where the observers were standing, and passed them 
twice, both animals making their respective noises. They then 
disappeared, but Mr. Coode has reason to believe the nilghai got 
away. 

— At the last meeting of the Physical Society (London), as 
reported in the Electrical Review of Dec. 19, Mr. Shelford Bid- 
well, F.R.S., told a great many useful facts about selenium cells 
and their behavior; and he gave several experimental illustra- 
tions, the most effective of which points to practical applications. 
Mr. Bidwell connected one of his selenium cells with a delicate 
relay, which in its turn caused a circuit to be established with an 
automatic switch and an electric lamp. So long as sufficient 
light impinged upon the selenium, the electric lamp did not 
act ; but, directly the gas (or daylight in practice) diminished to 
a certain degree, the electric lamp shone forth in its glory, and 
again became extinguished when its rival re-appeared. The 
fact of any light going out could thus be signalled to a distant 
attendant, and this would be useful in case of ships' lights 
and numerous other purposes. The effect of different colored 
glass interposed between the light and the cell revealed peculiar 
results upon the properties of the selenium, and Dr. Thompson 
suggested that one could almost imagine the near possibility of 
seeing by electricity if the effects of colors could be transmitted 
to distances in some analogous manner. 

— It is stated in the " Proceedings of the Royal Geographical 
Society " (December, 1&90) that M. Thoroddsen, the well-known 
explorer of Iceland, has returned to Reykjavik from his summer 
excursion into the district between Borgarf jord in the south and 
Gilsf jord in the north. The topography of the country as shown 
on existing maps was found to be fairly accurate. The geologi- 
cal results of the journey are more novel. The volcano situated 
at the extreme point of tbe peninsula of Snaefellenes was visited. 
It is especially interesting from the fact that clear indications 
have been found that this volcano commenced its eruptive activity 
long before the glacial epoch ; and, although no outbreak is 
known to have occurred within historical time, it is tolerably cer- 
tain that its activity continued to comparatively modern times. 
Tbe volcanoes of the district traversed have not the same direction 
as those in the south of Iceland, viz., from south- west to north- 
east, but range themselves in a semicircle round Faxe Bay, which 
is a distinctly volcanic depression. M. Thoroddsen's expedition 
was largely supported by Baron Dickson. 

— Some experiments have just been made at Annapolis by the 
United States Government with the object of testing the resist- 
ance of nickel-steel armor-plates at low temperatures. The plate 
tested, according to Engineering of Dec. 12, which had already 
received five shots under ordinary conditions, was fired at twice 
more,— once before subjecting it to a freezing mixture, and once 
afterwards. A 6-inch gun was used with a powder charge of 
44i pounds, and a Holtzer shell weighing 410 pounds, the striking 
velocity being 2,055 feet per second. The first shot struck 15 
inches from the edge of the plate, and the projectile penetrated 
till its point entered the wood backing, reaching a distance of lSj 
inches from tbe face of the plate. The shell rebounded, and was 
picked up entire at a distance of 40 feet from the plate. The 
plate showed a crack 14 inches long extending down to the left 
edge of the plate, and another horizontal crack 13 inches long, 
both of which were apparently through cracks. The plate was 
then put in a freezing mixture of ice and salt, and its temperature 
reduced to 28° F. The second shot was then fired, the conditions 
being similar in all respects to the first. The shell, however, 
broke up badly, about one half remaining on the plate, and the 
other half flying to fragments. A triangular piece of the plate, 
26 inches across the top, broke off, and was thrown 25 feet in 
front of the plate. A wide gaping crack connected the hole with 



January 2, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



one of the shot-holes previously made in the plate. Numerous 
old cracks were opened and enlarged, and other new ones made, 
the longest being 24 inches. With the exception of two cracks, 
the injury to the plate was in the neighborhood of previous frac- 
tures. The perforation of the two rounds was much the same. 

— The Swedish expedition to Spitzbergen under the leadership 
of G. Nordenskittld and Baron A. KlinkowetrSm returned in safety 
to Tromsd, as we learn from the " Proceedings of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society. 19 The party landed first of all at Horn Sound, 
whence G. Nordenskiold made his way on snow-shoes overland to 
Bel Sound ; but the deep snow prevented geological work. The 
longest stay (July 18 to Aug. 10) was made at Ice Fiord. The 
farthest point north reached was Lago, east of Hinlopen Straits. 
The passage was still quite blocked with ice, and, there being but 
small chance of being able to penetrate to the Seven Islands, the 
return voyage was commenced. On their way back, the trav- 
ellers made hydrograpbical explorations on the Norwegian 
islands. 

— Professor Bruckner of Berne, Switzerland, has recently called 
attention to the existence of climatological periods of about thirty- 
five years for the whole globe (more marked in the interior of 
continents). The years 1700, 1740, 1780, 1815, 1850, and 1880, 
says Nature of Dec. 18, appear as centres of cold, wet periods; 
while the years 1720, 1760, 1795, 1830, and 1860 are centres of 
warm, dry periods. During the warm periods the passage of 
oceanic air to the continent has been hindered, and during the 
cold it has been favored, increased rainfall occurring in the latter 
case. 

— We learn from Engineering of Dec. 12 that Mr. P. Schoop, of 
the Oerliken Electrical Works (Switzerland), with the object of 
rendering accumulators more portable, has adopted the plan of 
absorbing the electrolyte with gelatinous silica. With this ob- 
ject. Mr. Schoop adds a small quantity of sodium silicate to the 
cell. This is decomposed by the sulphuric acid, and the silica is 
liberated in the form of a translucent, firm, and elastic jelly, 
which is unattacked by sulphuric acid, or by the more powerful 
oxidizing agents which come into existence during the charging. 
The jelly but slightly increases the resistance of the cell, though 
it somewhat diminishes its capacity in watt hours. The best 
method to adopt in gelatinizing a cell is to add to three volumes 
of sulphuric acid, at a density of 1.25, one volume of sodium 
silicate at a density of 1.18, and leave the mixture to itself for 
twenty-four hours. At the end of that time the whole liquid is 
set to a jelly. In charging a cell, a small quantity of liquid rises 
to the surface of the jelly, but this disappears again during the 
discharge. 

— The French Government have had carried out for them a 
number of experiments on gun- steel at very low temperatures. 
Both hardened and unhardened specimens were subjected to a 
variety of tests at temperatures of between 75° and 100° below 
the zero of the Fahrenheit scale. The specimens were cooled, ac- 
cording to Engineering, by immersing them in a bath of solid 
carbonic-acid gas and sulphuric ether, several pounds of the gas 
being required for this purpose. The first set of tests were simply 
intended to determine the expansion of the test bars per degree ; 
and the results, though somewhat irregular, showed that the ex- 
pansion per degree decreases with the temperature. A number 
of test bars were then prepared in sets of threes, two of each set 
being used as reference bars, and tested at the temperature of the 
surrounding air, while the third was cooled down to between 75° 
and 100° below zero, and then tested, with the following results: 
both the hardened and unhardened bars had their elastic limit 
raised by about 11 per cent by being tested cold; the breaking 
load of the unhardened bars was raised about 8 per cent, and 
that of the hardened by about 6 per cent, by the cooling ; the 
•elongation of the unhardened bars was diminished 12 per cent, 
and that of the hardened ones 14 per cent; the contraction of 
area was also less in the bars tested cold. None of these changes 
are, however, permanent, as the bars completely recovered their 
original propeities on attaining the ordinary temperature of the 



air. All the above tests were made in tension in the usual way. 
For gun-steel, however, the resistance of the metal to shock is of 
more importance than its strength under a quiet tensile stress. 
A number of bars were accordingly prepared in sets of 
threes, as before, and one bar of each set was cooled down to be- 
tween 75° and 100° below zero, and tested by means of a falling 
weight, the other bars of each set being tested in the same way 
at the ordinary temperature. The experiments showed that cool- 
ing the bars much increased their brittleness. Thus, on an aver- 
age, each unhardened bar required 5.9 blows to break it when 
cooled, as against 14.6 blows for specimens tested under ordinary 
conditions. With the hardened bars, the reduction in strength 
was less, 12.57 blows being required as an average at the low tem- 
perature, and 14.4 at the ordinary temperature. As before, the 
metal regained its qualities as its temperature rose. Some further 
experiments seemed to show that metal into which a great deal of 
work had been put was less affected by a reduction in tempera- 
ture, but this requires confirmation. 

— According to the Journal de la Chambre de Commerce de 
Constantinople, the greatest electric project which has yet been 
suggested is being planned, — the construction of a line from St. 
Petersburg to Archangel. The electric current would be sup- 
plied by a series of generating stations distributed along the line. 
It is estimated that the cost, including the rolling stock, would be 
46,509 francs per kilometre. 

— Nature states that at a recent meeting of the Paris Academy of 
Medicine, M. Motais of Angers maintained that myopia, or short- 
sightedness is one of the products of civilization. An unexpected 
proof of this view was found in the condition of the eyes of wild 
beasts, such as tigers, lions, etc. M. Motais, having examined 
their eyes by means of the ophthalmoscope, discovered that animals 
captured after the age of six or eight months are, and remain, 
hypermetropic, while those who are captured earlier, or, better 
still, are born in captivity, are myopic. This short-sightedness is 
evidently induced by artificial conditions of life. 

— On Monday, Dec. 15, Mr. T. G. Pinches read a paper before 
the Royal Asiatic Society, on the newly discovered version of the 
story of the creation. He had had the good fortune, in the course 
of his investigations into the contents of the unregistered tablets 
in the British Museum, to find in one of them, brought home by 
Mr. Rassam in 1882, a still earlier version than that which the late 
Mr. George Smith had translated. It was a bilingual tablet, the 
text being Akkadian, and the gloss Assyrian ; and while the date 
of the tablet itself was, like the rest of those in Assur-bani-pal's 
library, not older probably than 650 B.C., the AMtadian text was, 
in his opinion, an exact copy of an older document, which had, 
in all probability, been put into its present shape 8000 B.C., 
or even earlier. One side, the obverse, as described in Nature, is 
devoted to the creation story : the other, the reverse, is simply an 
incantation form for the purification of the great temple tower 
E-zida, now so well known as the mound called Birs-Nimrud. 
The text might be roughly divided into three paragraphs or sec- 
tions of about ten lines each. The first describes the time when 
nothing was, neither " the glorious house of the gods," nor plants, 
nor trees, nor cities, nor houses, no, not even the abyss (Hades) 
nor Eridu {regarded by the author as Paradise). The second 
section describes the making of Paradise with its temple tower 
E-Sagila, founded within the abyss. Then was Babylon made, 
and the gods, and the land, and the heavens, and mankind. The 
third section then proclaims the creation of animals, plants, and 
trees (in that order) of the Tigris and of the Euphrates. The 
fourth records the building of cities and houses. Of all except 
the last. Merodacb, the god, eeems to be the active creator, and 
he is also to be understood as the builder, through men, of the 
cities, etc. Mr. Pinches pointed out several interesting words and 
forms occurring in this oldest form of the creation account, which 
had subsequently assumed so many diverging shapes. A discus- 
sion followed, more especially on the word "Adam," rendered, 
by Mr. Pinches " foundations" (of earth), but by Dr. Zimmern 
" living things." This was. probably the origin of the Hebrew 
word "Adam." 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 413 



SCIENCE: 



A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. 



PUBLISHED BY 



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Communications will be welcomed from any quarter. Abstracts of scientific 
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44 Exchange " column Is likewise open. 



- Vol. XVII. 



NEW YORK, January 2, 1891. 



No. 413. 



CONTENTS : 



A Curb for Tetanus and Diph- 
theria. E. H. HanMn 

Health Matters. 
Risks to Health in East Africa. . 

Notes ahd News 

Letters to the Editor. 
A New Kansas Meteorite 

F. H. Snow 
Dr. Hann's Studies on Cyclones 
and Anticyclones 

W. M. Davit 



8 



4 



Moisture in Storms 

JET. A.. Haztn 

The Subtropical Zones of High 
Barometric Prossure 

Wm. Ferrel 

Recent Investigation on the 
Causes of Cyclones and Anti- 
cyclones. H. H6lm Clayton... 

Book-Reviews. 
Handbook of Problems in Direct 
Fire 

Among the Publishers 



8 
10 

11 
12 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[Continued from p. 5.] 

The Subtropical Zones of High Barometric Pressure. 

There is an old theory, if a mere popular notion which has no 
ecientitic basis whatever may be so called, that the two zones of 
high barometric pressure, extending with a few interruptions 
around the globe, and having their maxima of pressure about the 
parallel of 85° in the northern hemisphere, and 30° in the southern, 
are caused by the crowding of the air, in its passage in the upper 
part of the atmosphere from the equatorial to the polar regions, 
into intermeridian spaces, becoming gradually narrower toward 
the poles. It is supposed that the air, as it is forced into narrower 
spaces, is turned down toward the earth's surface, and that this 
descent of the air causes increased pressure on the surface. The 
barometric pressure in both hemispheres increases from the poles, 
or at least from some high parallel, toward the equator, until the 
parallels above mentioned are reached, and then there is a small 
decrease of pressure to the equator; so that these parallels are 
simply the limits between the increasing and decreasing pressure 
gradients in going from the pole to the equator, and the culminat- 
ing parallels of the convexity of the isobaric surfaces. 

The writer's attention was first directed to this feature of these 
isobaric surfaces about thirty- five years ago, in reading Lieut. 
Maury's " Physical Geography of the Sea; " and, having no faith 
in the popular explanation, he made it a matter of study in order 
to discover the true cause. This was found in the now well-known 



law of the deflecting force of the earth's rotation, which was first 
discovered at that time. By this law the air, in moving from 
west to east in the middle and jhigher latitudes, is pressed toward 
the equator; but, in moving the contrary way in the lower lati- 
tudes, it is pressed a little toward the poles, thus causing a bulging- 
up of the isobaric surfaces with the* culminating lines between 
the two systems of easterly and westerly currents about the 
parallels of 85° or 80°. The results were published in an " Essay 
on the Winds and the Currents of the Ocean," which was subse- 
quently republished in " Professional Paper of the Signal Service," 

No. xn. 

Subsequently this whole subject was treated in a more thorough 
and mathematical manner, and the results were published in a 
memoir entitled " Motions of Fluids and Solids Relative to the 
Earth's Surface." This was afterwards republished in '< Profes- 
sional Paper of the Signal Service," No. VIH., with extensive 
notes by Professor Frank Waldo. In this memoir it was shown 
that with certain assumed values for the velocities of the easterly 
and westerly motions of the air, which were quite reasonable and 
probable from what was known of these somewhat uncertain data, 
the deflecting force of the earth's rotation would give the observed 
increase of pressure, on the one hand from the pole, and on the 
other from the equator; so that there was no room to doubt that 
the maximum pressure a little above the tropics in each hemi- 
sphere was caused by this force. A very full abstract of this 
memoir was also given in SUlimatCs Journal, January, 1861. 

Subsequently this same subject was taken up again, and treated 
in a more thorough manner and with better data, and the results 
published in "Meteorological Researches," Part I., "Coast Survey 
Report for 1875." 

The same subject was again treated by the U9e of mathematical 
processes somewhat simplified, and given in "Recent Advances 
in Meteorology," forming Part II. of the " Report of the Chief 
Signal Officer for 1885." 

Finally the whole matter was gone over again by the writer in 
a popular manner, and explained by means of various simple 
illustrations, and was given in his "Popular Treatise on the 
Winds, " etc. 

Dr. Hann, however, has not accepted the results, nor has he 
ever attempted to show that they have been deduced from errone- 
ous principles or processes, but has continued to use and uphold 
the old theory. Not only this, but he has based upon it a new 
theory with regard to the cause of the high-pressure areas of the 
middle and higher latitudes. In the Zeitschrift fur Meteorologie 
for 1879, p. 39, be first suggests that these regions of high baro- 
metric pressure may be simply the places where the upper equa- 
torial and westerly currents settle down towards the earth's sur- 
face, as in the case of the zones of high pressure at the polar 
limits of the trade-winds. His idea is. that as the upper poleward- 
moving currents in the latter are deflected down by their being 
crowded between inter meridional spaces, gradually ■ becoming 
narrower toward the poles, so, even beyond these belts of high 
pressure, there must be local hinderances. or a damming-up of 
these currents, by which they pass into descending ones toward 
the earth, and so cause the high-pressure areas. 

In the next volume of the Zeitschrift he again refers to this 
matter, and suggests that the reason why cyclones and great 
barometric disturbances are more frequent in winter than in sum- 
mer is that in winter the temperature and pressure gradients of 
the upper strata of the atmosphere, in a poleward direction, are 
greater, and hence there is a greater strength of current at this 
season of the year. 

Again, in his '* Climatology," published a few years ago, this 
same old theory is given in explanation of the subtropical zones of 
high pressure. 

Finally, in his recent memoir published by the Royal Academy 
of Sciences of Vienna, the old theory of the subtropical high- 
pressure belts is introduced, and also his new theory, deduced 
from it, of the causes of high-pressure areas; and he refers to his 
preceding papers in the Zeitschrift on these subjects. 

Although the teaching of Dr. Hann on these subjects has been 
entirely at variance with the writer's own views on the same sub- 
jects, previously published at so many different times, yet he has 



January i, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



9 



.refrained from taking any notice of it. Bat now that this last 
memoir has recently been brought to the attention of English, and 
especially of home, readers, justice to himself requires that this 
matter shall not be allowed to remain unnoticed any longer. 

The question of the cause of the high pressure in the subtropical 
zones, according to the old theory, is one of the relation between 
kinetic and potential energy ; that is, between velocity and press- 
ure. As the air of the upper part of the atmosphere moves toward 
the poles, it is supposed to become crowded and checked in its 
motion, and the kinetic energy changed to pressure. But the 
question arises as to why this takes place up to a certain latitude 
only, that of maximum pressure, and not all the way up to the 
poles; for the maximum velocities of the upper poleward-moving 
currents must be a little above* this latitude, and the converging 
of the meridians increases up to the pole. As long as kinetic 
energy is changed to pressure, this must be increased ; and so the 
greatest pressure must be at the pole, and not down at a low lati- 
tude. But it may be shown that the whole effect is so extremely 
small, that it is not worthy of any consideration practically. 

The following general expression of the relation between press- 
ure and velocity is taken from " Recent Advances in Meteorology," 
p. 194:— * 

(1) log P Q - log ^= 18401(1 + , 004r) + 360940(1 + .004r)' 

in which P is the barometric pressure in millimetres of any part 
of the air with corresponding velocity *; P equals 760 millime- 
tres, being taken as the value of P at the earth's surface, and the 
corresponding value of 8 equals * ; h is the difference of altitudes 
corresponding to P and P; and t is the temperature by the Centi- 
grade scale. If u, v, and x are the meridional, longitudinal, and 
vertical velocities respectively at any given point, we have 

(2) «• = u« + v % + a?«. 

The numerical constants in (1) are adapted to common loga- 
rithms, and the expression is strictly applicable to the case only in 
which r is constant and in which friction may be neglected. 

The first term in the second member of (1), depending upon A, 
arises from gravity. Where only small portions of air are con- 
sidered, or strata of very small depths, the part of the pressure 
depending upon A is so small in comparison with the whole at- 
mospheric pressure, that it may be neglected, and the expression 
may then be put into the following form : — 



(8) 



P ° P "~ 206(1 +.004r)* 



This is substantially the same, in different measures and nota- 
tion, as that of Kaemtz (Lehrbuch der Meteorologie, vol. i. p. 150), 
when used at the earth's surface, where p' = 760 millimetres. 

In the application of the preceding expressions it is necessary to 
know the value of 8 corresponding to JP ; but this is known in a 
few special cases only, since we do not have a complete solution 
of the dynamic problem of the general circulation, in which the 
condition of continuity and the frictions 1 conditions are taken 
accurately into account. It is also necessary to know the stream- 
lines, since P and P must be in the same stream-line. 

It is evident from the observations of the cirrus clouds at Zi-ki- 
wei (latitude 81° 12' north) that the velocity of the poleward- 
moving current of the upper part of the atmosphere at this latitude 
cannot be more than about two metres per second, or four 
miles and a half per hour (see Popular Treatise on the Winds, 
etc., p. 122). Let us now suppose that there is a perpendicular 
wall on the parallel of 35° extending all around the globe, and 
reaching up to the top of the atmosphere, and that the whole 
upper half of the atmosphere has a motion, from some cause, 
directly against this wail, with a velocity u. The current in this 
case will pass directly down to the earth's surface, where, near the 
wall, we must have sensibly s = 0. Supposing, now, that 
P Q = 760 millimetres when the whole atmosphere has no meridi- 
onal component of velocity, and that A P is the effect of the 
upper current : we get from (1), in this case, * 

(4) log (760 + A P )= log 760 + 3eo 940 ( "' + .004r) ' 

Putting u = 2, and r = 0, this gives a P„ = .0194 millimetres, 
or about .00076 of an inch of barometric pressure. The increase 



of barometric pressure in the high-pressure belt, above the 
normal pressure, is about 0.8 of an inch. So the old theory, 
even upon the extreme supposition that the whole kinetic energy 
of the upper current is converted into pressure in the high-pressure 
belt, accounts for only about the T J 7 part of the observed increase 
of pressure in this belt. When we consider, then, how small a 
part of the kinetic energy of the upper current is changed to press- 
ure, and that the most of it passes on to higher latitudes, how 
extremely small must we suppose the effect from the old theory 
to be ! 

Where there is friction, of course some of the kinetic energy is 
changed into heat, and so the pressure is accordingly diminished; 
and a little greater velocity would be required to cause the same 
increase of pressure. 

In what precedes we have supposed the kinetic energy to have 
its origin from some other source than a pressure gradient ; but in 
the interchanging motions between the equatorial and the polar 
regions, toward the pole above, and the contrary below, this is 
not the case, but the pressure must decrease from the equator to 
some middle latitude where the velocity u and kinetic energy are 
the greatest, and then increase from that to the pole, where it is 
and the pressure the greatest. The preceding formula is appli- 
cable in this case at the equator and the poles, since s = 0; and, 
putting u = 2 metres per second, we get A P = .0194 millimetres, 
as before. If we suppose P to be in the latitude where u = u, 
that is, where the velocity of the return current is the same as the 
maximum velocity u above, then, instead of u 2 in (4), we have 
u" — uj = 0, and hence we get *A P in this case equal 0; that is, 
there is no change of pressure here arising from the interchanging 
motion between the equator and the pole. The pressure, there- 
fore, i* a little greater at the equator and the poles than at the 
latitude where u is a maximum, whichjfln account of the con- 
vergency of the meridians, and the narrowing of the intermeridi- 
onal spaces, toward the poles, is between the middle latitude and 
the equator, and perhaps near the parallel of 85°. Instead, there- 
fore, of an excess of barometric pressure here of about 0.3 of an 
inch, there should be a very slight depression, if there were no 
other forces to cause this excess. And this is very evident from a 
very simple manner of considering the matter: for as long as the 
air, in moving from the equator, is acquiring increased velocity, 
there must be a descending pressure gradient ; but, as soon as there 
is a decrease of velocity, there must be an ascending gradient to 
cause it. The same is true in the lower strata of the atmosphere, 
where the air returns from the polar to the equatorial regions. 
The oscillations of the air-particles between these regions are similar 
to those of a pendulum, in which the force from both sides acts in 
the direction of the middle point. , 

With regard to the effect of descending currents, to which Dr. 
Hann ascribes the local high barometric . pressures of the middle 
and higher latitudes, already referred to, the formula (4) can be 
applied in this case also. We have only to substitute for u the 
vertical component of velocity x. This being done, we can readily 
compute what the value of x must be to give a P equal to any 
assignable value. Let us suppose it is required to find what value 
x must have to give a Pj> — 25 millimetres ; that is, an increase of 
barometric pressure of about one inch. We can, in this case, 
assume * - 0, at least in the middle of high- pressure area. The 
formula in this case gives # = 71.2 metres per second, or about 
160 miles per hour, if we put^- = in the formula. For a higher 
temperature this velocity must be greater. 

If any one is disposed to doubt this result given by the formula, 
let him take the experimental result obtained by Mr. Dines and 
others, that a velocity of about seventeen miles per hour gives a 
pressure of one pound per square foot upon a plate exposed at 
right angles to the current. But the pressure of the whole atmos- 
phere, corresponding to 80 inches of mercury, is about 2,100 
pounds. The pressure corresponding to one inch, therefore, is 70 
pounds. As the pressure is as the square of the velocity, we must 
have a?- 17xV 70 = 142 miles per hour, to give a pressure equal 
to one inch of barometric pressure. This result is less than that 
obtained theoretically, because it is well known that the experi- 
mental pressure upon a small plate is greater than the theoretical, 
on account of the effect of friction of the air which passes around 



IO 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 413 



the plate, both upon the air which is retarded and stopped in front 
of the place, and also upon that behind the plate. 

It is doubtful whether a descending current in the open air of 
more than two metres per second could be found anywhere in the 
whole atmosphere. This, we have seen, would increase the baro- 
metric pressure 0.0194 of a millimetre, a quantity which could not 
be detected by the most delicate and accurate barometer. It is 
seen, therefore, how very improbable is Dr. Hann's theory of the 
cauBe of high-pressure areas. 

Dr. Hann lays great stress upon the efficiency of the steep 
gradients of the upper part of the atmosphere, in the middle and 
higher latitudes, in producing both cyclones and high pressure 
areas. But the forces arising from these gradients are almost 
completely counteracted by the deflecting forces of the earth's 
rotation in connection with the eastwardly moving currents in 
these latitudes, the velocities of which iucrease with increase of 
altitude very nearly in the same proportion as the steepness 
of the gradients. Although the steepness of these gradients 
at high altitudes, especially in the southern hemisphere, is con- 
siderable when considered with reference to gravity simply, 
yet, if all the forces are taken into account, there is no part 
of the atmosphere in the middle latitudes where the gradients 
are smaller, the velocity of the easterly motion being such as to 
not quite counteract the force from the gradients, and to leave a 
residual force simply which is sufficient to counteract the frictional 
resistance in these high altitudes, which is very small. It would 
be just as reasonable to maintain that there is a strong tendency 
in the water of the ocean to rush toward the poles, because there 
are steep gradients, considered with reference to the earth's attrac- 
tion only, and leaving out of consideration that the centrifugal 
force arising from the earth's rotation counteracts this tendency, 
as to maintain that ^k air in these high altitudes has a strong 
tendency to rush toward the poles. Wm. Ferbkl. 

Martlnsburg, W.Va., Deo. 28. 



Recent Investigation on the Causes of Cyclones and 

Anticyclones. 

If I were required to name the man who impressed me as the 
most profound meteorological writer whom I had read, I should 
without hesitation say Professor FerreL 

The most of us are qualitative meteorologists: he may be called 
a quantitative meteorologist. Not content with mere general 
statements of causes and forces, be attempts to determine the ex- 
act value of each one, and by rigid mathematical formulae to 
determine if they are sufficient to account for the given results. 

This represents a higl^, if not the highest, development of a 
scientific mind. For this reason I would hesitate to dissent from 
Professor Ferrers conclusions more than from any writer I know ; 
but be has himself, io his recent letter to Science, severely criti- 
cised the supposed blind following of authority, and, if there were 
needed any excuse, I would give this as the reason for presenting 
the views opposed \o those of Ferrel. 

There are two methods of arriving at results. The one is by 
deduction, in which the thinker, starting from axioms, well de- 
termined constants, or general laws, works out the results which 
must follow. The other is by induction, in which the thinker 
starts from observation, or separate individual facts, and arrives 
at general laws. Both methods are necessary; and most thinkers 
of to-day will admit that no theory of natural phenomena is com- 
plete until che results of deductive reasoning correspond to the 
results of inductive reasoning, or vice versa. 

Now, Ferrel is essentially a deductive reasoner. It is necessary 
in such reasoning that the fundamentals, or physical constants 
from which one starts, should be correctly determined. In Fer- 
rers and Marvin's replies to Hazen in Science and in the American 
Meteorological Journal, I believe it has been shown that the con- 
stants forming the basis of the calculation in Ferrers condensa- 
tion theory of cyclones were satisfactorily determined. Starting 
with these, and following Espy, he has shown, that, given a 
•warmer body of air, or a rapid vertical decrease of temperature 
over a considerable area, the causes are adequate to initiate and 
maintain a cyclone. 



The question now is, do the investigations of inductive meteor- 
ologists sustain these views ? 

In order to study the results which follow rapid vertical de- 
crease of temperature in the atmosphere, Loom is " selected from 
the volumes of the published observations of the Signal Service 
(November, 1878, to January, 1875, and from January, 1877, to 
May,, 1877) all of the cases in which the temperature at Pike's 
Peak was 40° lower than at Denver." With this difference be- 
tween them, the air would theoretically be in unstable equilib- 
rium. "The number of these cases in twenty months of observa- 
tion was 848. Only 39 of these cases occurred during the seven 
winter months of observation, and they occurred most frequently 
during the months of May. . . . The facts appear to show 
that at the dates given there were seldom any extraordinary dis- 
turbances on Pike's Peak. In two cases hail was reported, in 
four cases sleet and in fifteen cases either rain or snow. These 
facts seem to indicate an occasional uprising, but it is remarkable 
that so few such cases occurred; and it will be noticed that a 
difference of temperature of at least 45° between Pike's Peak and 
Denver often continued from day to day for long periods. ... I 
think we may hence infer that dry air, even when greatly heated, 
has but little ascensional force" (Loomis's "Contributions to 
Meteorology," 18th paper, in American Journal of Arts and 
Sciences). 

Loomis also found that heavy rainfall was not necessarily pro- 
ductive of cv clones. In his sixth paper, after examining a large 
number of cases, he says, " We conclude, therefore, that great 
rainfalls do not generally continue over eight hours, and very 
rarely do they continue for twenty-four hours, either as experi- 
enced at one station, or in succession at different places." He 
arrives at the same conclusion in his seventh and seventeenth 
papers, and adds, "The forces which impart that movement to 
the air which is requisite to an abundant precipitation of vapor, 
instead of deriving increased force from a great fall of rain, 
rapidly expend themselves, and become exhausted." 

Furthermore, after examining a large number of areas of low 
barometric pressure with which there was little or no rain, he 
sajs, " There seems to be no room for doubt that barometric 
minima sometimes form with little or no rain, and continue with- 
out any considerable rain for eight hours, and sometimes for 
twenty -four hours or longer; ... so that it seems safe to 
conclude that rainfall is not essential to the formation of areas of 
low barometer, and is not the principal cause of their formation 
or of their progressive motion." 

" In order to determine the circumstances under which storms 
originate and ultimately acquire their full intensity," Loomis 
selected thirty-six cases from the Signal Service weather-maps in 
which the storm appeared to develop in the United States, and, as 
a result of a study of these, says, * ' The first stage in the develop- 
ment of each of these storms was an area several hundred miles 
in diameter, over which the height of the barometer differed but 
little from thirty inches, with an area of high barometer both 
-on the east and west sides, and at a distance of about 1,000 
miles. In the few cases in which a high barometer is not reported 
on both sides of the origin, it is because the area of observation 
is not sufficiently extended. The mean value of the barometer 
on the east side was 30.43 inches, and the mean distance 1.083 
miles; on the west side the values were 80.31 inches and 977 
miles. ... On Hoffmeyer's storm-charts we frequently find 
three areas of high barometer surrounding an area of low barom- 
eter. These areas of high barometer are regarded as one of the 
causes, and generally the most important cause, of the storm 
which succeeds. . . . Since the air presses in on all sides 
towards this area of low barometer, the area tends to assume an 
oval form, which may become sensibly circular if the winds are 
very violent, and the centrifugal force resulting from this revolv- 
ing motion causes a still further reduction of the barometer. . . . 
Rain is one of the circumstances which increases the force of a 
storm, and it invariably attends storms when they have attained 
considerable violence. . . . Some rain was invariably reported 
whenever the barometer fell below 20.4 inches, and generally 
there was some rain reported whenever the barometer fell below 
29.5 inches. I have found no storm of great violence which was 



January 2, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



11 



not accompanied by a considerable fall of rain " (Loomis's eighth 
paper). 

As early as 1876 Hinn found, from the observations on the 
alpine peaks, that the highest temperature in the upper air oc- 
curred with the highest pressure, and explained it as due to the 
dynamic beating of descending air. 

In 1886 Decbevrens showed that on the European peaks Pic du 
Midi and Puy de Dome, and on Pike's Peak in the United States, 
the lowest temperature occurred with the lowest pressure, which 
was exactly the opposite of observations at sea level. He also 
gave an example of simultaneous observations at the base and 
summit of the Puy de Dome during a low and during a high 
pressure, as shown by the barometer at both stations. At the 
base the temperature was highest with the low pressure, but at 
the summit the lowest pressure and temperature occurred together 
(American Meteorological Journal, August, 1886). 

In the American Meteorological Journal for May, 1886, Mr. 
Dewey stated that from thirty-four pairs of observations during 
the winter months of 18T2 and 1878 he found the average differ- 
ence of temperature between Burlington, Vt., and the top of 
Mount Washington to be 6.6° F. when the latter was within a 
Imndred miles of the centre of an anticyclone. The normal differ- 
ence between the two stations is 19°. In the different quadrants 
of the anticyclone he found the following differences : north. 9°; 
east, .0°; south, 4.5°; west, 12.2°; average, 9°. He found the 
average difference two degrees greater in cyclones. Hazen's re- 
salts for Mount Washington and Burlington, however, differ from 
these (American Meteorological Journal, October, 1887), so that 
further comparisons are needed. 

In a footnote to an article on the origin and development of 
storms in the American Meteorological Journal, September, 1886, 
I cited the following reasons for thinking that warmer air is not 
the essential condition of storm- f or mation : "Storms sometimes 
originate along the eastern Rocky Mountain slope when the tem- 
perature of the air is lower there than in any part of the United 
States (for an example see the Signal Service charts of Jan. 
19 and 20, 1886). and storms appear to orginate in this region as 
often in the night as in the day." 

Very recently Hann has investigated the temperature observa- 
tions at numerous stations in the Alps during the passage of sev- 
eral cyclones {Meteor ologisehe Zeitschrift, September, 1890). and 
has concluded that the temperature of the air-column as a whole 
is lower in cyclones than that of the surrounding air. Hann's in- 
vestigations may not be conclusive for reasons stated by Ferrel, 
but they certainly add a link to the chain of evidence. 

As a result of their investigations, Loomis and Hann both de- 
cided that cyclones were largely the result of mechanical causes. 
Loomis concluded that they were originated by the conflicting 
winds between two or more anticyclones, and Hann suggests that 
they are whirls originating in the upper air. 

Now, I think Ferrel. in his recent letter to Science, uninten- 
tionally did Davis an injustice by suggesting that Davis had sud- 
denly altered his opinion merely because Hann advanced these 
views. Davis has for years been the leading exponent in this 
country of the dynamical heating of the air in anticyclones, and 
during recent yea is I have several times spoken with him about 
the mechanical origin of cyclones; and, if he is now inclined to 
give these views more weight, it is because this last link in the 
chain of evidence has convinced him of the necessity of reconsid- 
ering the condensation theory. 

I have for several years been convinced that mechanical action 
had much to do with the origin and development of cyclones, and 
as working hypotheses in making weather- predictions have care- 
fully watched the following conditions as favorable for the pro- 
duction of cyclones : 1. The central region between approaching 
anticyclones. 2. The region where lower air-currents set in nearly 
opposed in direction to upper air-currents, so as to favor the pro- 
duction of a whirl. This latter condition is most frequently 
brought about in the United States when colder winds, moving 
from the north-west near the earth's surface, set in to the south 
or south-west of an area of high temperature or very high pressure, 
which give rise to upper currents moving from the south. This 
was the condition preceding tba origin of the very violent storm 



of March 12, 1888. 8. The deflection of air-currents by a long, 
tall range of mountains, such as the Rookies. I have several 
times predicted the origin of cyclones under these conditions. One 
of these was on April 19, 1883. 

I have found the following conditions favorable to the increase 
of energy in cyclones : 1 . The meeting of cyclones moving from 
nearly opposite directions; 2. The cloeing-up of a long trough of 
low pressure by the pressure increasing at both ends; 8. Cyclones, 
being mainly controlled in their movements by upper air-currents, 
are sometimes carried by these toward areas of denser air near the 
earth's surface, and under these conditions tend to increase in 
energy. Examples of violent storms, developed, as I think, by 
these mechanical methods, will be found on the following dates: 
Oct. 14, 1886; Jan. 9, 1889; and Jan. 9, 1886. 

The immense gain that would come from being able to antici- 
pate this class of storms may be inferred from the fact that not 
one of those I have mentioned in this paper was heralded by our 
Weather Service in time to be of any use, though the amount of 
damage done was enormous. 

The views I hold are, that differences of pressure result from 
differences of temperature over immense areas, as between equa- 
tor and pole, ocean and continent. This distribution of pressure 
is modified by the effect of the earth's rotation, and is continuous- 
ly varying with the changes in temperature of the air. 

The smaller cyclones and anticyclones of our weather-maps are 
partly or chiefly brought about by the mechanical action of 
counter-currents in the manner previously explained, though 
greatly modified by local differences of temperature and density 
within the cyclone: in other words, they are caused by forces 
originating outside their field of origin instead of within it, as 
supposed by Ferrel. 

General rains are chiefly the result, and not the cause, of ascend- 
ing currents of air. Differences of pressure in the upper air have 
a very important bearing on the origin and development of cy- 
clones. Well-defined areas of low pressure, accompanied by pre- 
cipitation and an inward tendency of the upper wind, occasion- 
ally exist in the upper atmosphere without being indicated by the 
barometric pressure at the earth's surface. 

I have held most of these views for several years, as will be 
found by my review of Loomis in the American Meteorological 
Journal, and by two articles in Nature on the origin of anticy- 
clones, and the cause of precipitation (Nature, vol. xxxvi. 1887, 
and vol. xxxviii. July, 1888), and have hoped to make some 
quantitative estimates of the forces and supposed causes; but I 
have not had the time, and fear I have not the ability to do so. 
, I trust Professor Ferrel will not dismiss these as vague hypoth- 
eses unworthy of notice, but will tell us (1) whether the method 
suggested by Loomis is insufficient to generate a cyclonic whirl 
according to mechanical principles; (2) whether conflicting air- 
currents can be supposed to have sufficient inertia to aid in pro- 
ducing a whirl, as, for instance, when denser air sets rapidly in- 
ward from both ends of a long trough of low pressure; and (8) 
whether such cyclones as that of Jan. 26. 1886, which originated 
near the longitude of Denver, where the temperature was lower 
than in any other part of the United States, when the observations 
on Pike's Peak showed no vertical decrease at all between the 
summit and base of the mountain, and when there was no appre- 
ciable precipitation within a thousand miles of the place of origin, 
could be explained by any reasonable assumption of a higher mean 
temperature of the air-column within the field of the cyclone. 

H. Helm Clayton. 

Blue Hill Observatory, Deo. 28. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 



Handbook of Problems in Direct Fire. By James M. Ingallb. 
New York, Wiley. 8°. $4. 

This book, which is believed to be the first of its kind ever pub- 
lished, shows the close attention now given to what maybe called 
the scientific side of modern warfare, or, rather, of preparation 
for war. It is devoted wholly to problems in gunnery involving 
the use of ordinary service charges of powder and angles of ele- 
vation for the guns not exceeding 15°, which is the definition of 



12 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 413 



" direct fire." The author of the book, Capt. Ingalla of the First 
Regiment United States Artillery, instructor of ballistics at the 
United States Artillery School, has already given to the public two 
works on the same subject, — <( Exterior Ballistics, "and " Ballistic 
Machines." This work was prepared while the author was en- 
gaged in teaching ballistics to student officers at the artillery 
school at Fort Monroe, and most of the examples are such as were 
given out from time to time to classes under his instruction, as 
exercises in ballastic formulae. It will prove to be of permanent 
value, not only to the particular branchV)f the service for which 
it was intended, but also for other branches, both regular and 
militia. The most important of the examples may be worked out 
with a very slight knowledge of mathematics, arithmetic and a 
little algrebra being sufficient for many of them. 



AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 



In LippincotVs Magazine for January, 1891, we note "The 
State of Washington," an article by Major Moses P. Handy, which 
will surprise the many who know little of this section of the coun- 
try; and "The Road Movement," an article by Lewis M. Haupt, 
C.E., which contains some suggestions for the much-needed im- 
provement of public roads. 

— Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. announce a new edition of 
Mr. Lowell's " Fable for Critics " This poem, in which all the 
prominent American authors of the period at which it was writ- 
ten are reviewed with keen appreciation mingled with good-na- 
tured banter, Mr. Lowell composed when he was under thirty 
years of age. " This jeu aVesprit" says Mr. Lowell in a prefatory 
note, " was extemporized, I may fairly say, so rapidly was it writ- 
ten, purely for my own amusement, and with no thought of pub- 
lication. I sent daily instalments of it to a friend in New York, 
the late Charles F. Briggs. He urged me to let it be printed, and 
I at last consented to its anonymous publication. The secret was 



kept till after several persons had laid claim to its authorship." 
There are twenty- six authors mentioned in the poem, and the 
.publishers have made the book more interesting by securing por- 
traits of each of these writers, taken about the time the original 
edition was published. These are reproduced in outline, and are 
inserted in the text at the point where each author is mentioned. 
A list of the authors' alluded to is also given for the first time, so 
that the surmises to which the fable has always given rise will at 
last be set at rest. 

— The first number of The Bacteriological World, edited by P. 
Paquin, M.D., Columbia, Mo., has appeared. 

— A paper on the " Echinoderms from the Northern Coast of 
Yucatan and the Harbor of Vera Cruz," by J. E. Ives, assistant 
to the curator in charge of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, is published in the " Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia," Sept. SO, 1890. The Echino- 
dermata which form the subject of this paper were collected on 
the northern coast of Yucatan and at Vera Cruz, in the spring of 
the present year, by an expedition from the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia to investigate the natural history of 
Yucatan and Mexico. The results in this department are inter- 
esting. One new genus and three new species are described, a 
little-known species is figured for the first time, the synonymy of 
this species and of some others has been studied with profitable 
results, and the majority of the species collected supply new 
localities which form connecting points between the northern and 
southern portions of the great West Indian, or eastern tropical 
American littoral fauna. The northern coast of Yucatan pos- 
sesses a sandy beach largely made up of shell fragments. The 
water off the coast is very shallow, the ten-fathom line being 
twenty miles from the shore, and the hundred-fathom line about 
one hundred and fifty miles. Three miles off the shore in the neigh- 
borhood of Pirogreso, the bottom is of a sandy character, although 



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Edited bt Professors HUXLEY, ROSCOE, and BALFOUR STEWART. 

Astronomy J. N. Lockyer. 

Botany J. D. Hooker. 

Logic W. 8. Jevons, 

Intentional Geometry W. G. Spencer. 

Pianoforte Franklin Taylor. 

Political Economy W. S. Jevons. 

Natural Resources of the U. 8 J. H. Patton. 



Introductory T. H. Huxley. 

Chemistry. H. E. Roscoe. 

Physics Balfour Stewart. 

Physical Geography A. Geikle. 

Geology A. Geikie. 

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Physiology and Hygiene. 



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January 2, 189 1.] 



SCIENCE. 



a few small corals were brought up in the dredge. Along the 
shore to the westward of Progreso is a email serpuloid reef. 

— Mesers. Ginu & Co. announce as ready "Quintue Curt i us," 
the Brat two extant books, edited for sight-reading by Dr. Harold 
N. Fowler of Phillips Exeter Academy, with an introduction on 
reading at eight by Professor James B. Greenough of Harvard 
College. This book has been preferred on account of the convic- 
tion of the editor that for practice in sight-reading some continuous 
prose narrative not readily accessible in a copiously annotated 
edition should be in the hands of tbe pupil. The notes of this 
edition are confined to translations of unusual or striking words 
and phrases, with occasional brief hints concerning syntax, the 
main object of which is to save time in the class-room. In the 
introduction, Professor Greenough shows by examples the method 
to be pursued in reading at sight, besides explaining fully his ideas 
on the subject. 

— Tbe twenty -fifth volume of the Magazine of American History 
is opened with the January number. Tbe leading illustrated 
paper for tbe month, from the pen of the editor, is entitled, "John 
Ericsson, the Builder or the 'Monitor,' " and a portrait of the invent- 
or forms the frontispiece. Tbe second article following, "The 
Blade nsburg Duelling -Ground," near Washington, written by Mil- 
ton T. Adkins, is also illustrated. The Georgia historian, Col. 
Charles C. Jones, jun., contributes a paper on "Dr. Lyman 
Hall, Governor of Georgia in 1788, and Signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence;" Hon. Charles Aldrich of Iowa writes 
of the eloquence of Andrew Johnson; Hon. James Phinney Bax- 
ter, president of the Maine Historical Society, contributes " Isaac 
Jogues, AD. 1030,*' a poem i Orrin B. Hallam gives the reader a his- 
tory of the original treasury accounting office; and we have the 
first pari, oF " Count de Fersen's Private LettefB to his Father, 
1780-1781,'* which are the observations and opinions of an officer 
under Hoc ham. beau in the French Army during the Revolutionary 



war, translated from tbe French by Hiss Georgine Holmes. 
Among the Shorter papers, "The United States Flag," by J. Madi- 
son Drake, and " Capital Punishment in 1749," by Bauman L. 
Balden, are interesting. 

— The Monist for January, 1891, a philosophical quarterly pub- 
lished by The Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, con- 
tains "The Architecture of Theories," by Charles S. Peirce; 
."Illustrative Studies in Criminal Anthropology." by Professor 
Cesare Lornbroso; "The Squaring of the Circle, the History of the 
Problem from the most Ancient Times to the Present Day," by 
Hermann Schubert; "The Criterion of Truth, a Dissertation on 
the Method of Verification," by Dr. Paul Cams; "Five Souls 
with but a Single Thought: tbe Psychology of the Star- Fish," by 
Carus Sterne; •' German Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century," 
by Professor Friedrich Jodl; " Recent French Philosophical 
Works," by Lucien Arreat; book-reviews; and contents of tbe 
philosophical periodicals of America, and Europe. 

— "The fancy took me to go to Nolo," says Mr. Percival 
Lowell, in his paper on "Noto: An Unexplored Corner of Japan;" 
and where Noto is, and how he went there, is not only tbe sub- 
ject of the opening article in the January Atlantic, but is to be 
the subject of several articles which are to follow. Cleveland 
Abbe's paper, which will command attention, suggests a new 
university course, this course to be devoted to terrestrial physics 
as a distinct department of instruction. Mr. Charles Worcester 
Clark writes about compulsory arbitration, in which be says that 
one of the most striking features of our easy-going American 
character is ready submission to the domination of our servants, 
whether it be Bridget in our kitchen, the railway in our streets, 
or Congress in tbe Capitol at Washington. Professor Royce has 
a long paper on Hegel, Adolphe Cobn writes about Boulangism, 
and Mr. Henry Charles Lea indicates tbe lesson of the Pennsyl- 
vania election. 



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[Vol. XVII. No. 413 



CALENDAR OF SOCIETIES. 
Biological Society, Washington. 

Dec. 27. — Cooper Curtice, A Preliminary 
Study of Ticks in the United States; C. Hart 
Merriam, Exhibition of a New Rabbit from 
the Snake Plains of Idaho ; W. H. Dall, On 
the Topography of Florida with Reference 
to its Bearing on Fossil Faunas ; F. A. Lucas, 
Exhibition of Young Hoatzins. 

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A ny person seeking a position for which ho is quali- 
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not. may have the ' Want' inserted under this head 
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Paper* is cordially invited to do so. 

A UNIVERSITY GRADUATE IN SCIENCE, at 
Jr\ present a junior student In medicine at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, desires a position as teacher or 
laboratory assistant. Special preparation in Zool- 
ogy, Histology, Physiology and Human Anatomy. 
Will also teach, if desired. Physics, Chemistry, Bot- 
any, Entomology, Embryology, Bacteriology and 
Sanitary Science. References and fall particulars 
on application. H. B., 20 East Jefferson St., Ann 
Arbor. Mich. 

WANTED.— A young man wishes a position as in- 
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college. Chemistry a specialty. Would like to hear 
of some position with a private or manufacturing 
chemist, in which his knowledge of chemistry would 
help him. Address E. E. TOWNE, B.A., 872 Worth- 
ington St., Springfield, Mass. 

WANTED.— An Exploring Expedition, backed by 
$15,000, will be sent into Alaska and the Brit- 
ish Northwest Territory the coming year, to be gone 
one or two seasons. A scientist or two will more 
than likely be taken along. Applications from such 
will be gladly received and carefully considered. 
To assist in making these applications the comman- 
der would say that he coi aiders a full practical 
knowledge of mineralogy and geology necessary, and 
if the applicant can add the duties of botanist, eth- 
nologist, or any other of the sciences, and photog- 
raphy, sketching, medicine and surgery, or other 
useful arts for exploring, it will add to the chances 
of ueing selected. Applicants must be physically 
perfect, and ought to be about medium age. One of 
these scientists will be the second in command of 
the party. Any credentials forwarded for consider- 
ation will be returned, if requested, after considera- 
tion. Address "ALASKA/ 1 care of Science. 

WANTED.— There being a considerable annual 
income for the purchase of books for the Mu- 
seum Reference Library of Iowa College, it is de- 
sirable to have at hand any and all circulars, speci- 
men sheets, catalogues, etc., of all works on Natural 
History in general, both foreign and ^domestic. 
Circulars of museum supplies, apparatus, etc. , etc., 
desired also. State terms. Address ERWIN H. 
BARBOUR, Box 1888, Grinnell, Iowa. 

WANTED.— A situation as Analytical Chemist is 
desired by the assistant or the late noted 
scientist, Dr. Cook, during his 15 years surrey of the 
State of New Jersey. Highest testimonials fur 
nished. Address Prof. RPWIN H. BOGARDU8, 
New Brunswick, P, O. Box 224, care Prof. F. C. 
Van Dyok. 

COULD some one inform me what the ingredients 
and origin of asphalt as used for. street-paying 
and gathered at Trinidad are? Also how gathered 
and shipped by natives, and mode of refining by the 
Warren-Scharf Co. of New York and the Barber Co. 
of Washington? O. ENIPER, 28 Ounn Block, Grand 
Rapi ds, Mich. 

Exchanges. 

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Address N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New 
York.l 

I wish to exchange Eastern Lepidoptera for those that 
I do not have, particularly those found in the South. 
Jos. F. Crandall, Hone&dale. Wayne Co., Pa. 

To exchange, 1890 Seeger and Guernsey Cyclopedia, 
containing a complete list of the manufactures and pro- 
ducts of the U. S., and address of first hands, cost $6. 
David P. Lewis, Saybrook, III. 

For exchange— Nice specimens of Unios alatus, trigo- 
nus, parvus, occidens, anadontoides gibbosus, rectus,veru- 
cosus, gracilis coccineus, ventricasus, multlplicatus and 
plicatus cornutus. Margaritana confrogosa, complanata, 
rugosa. Anadonta edeotula, decora, corpulenta, and 
about 300 of the beautiful Ana. suborbiculata. Wanted: 
Unios from all parts of the world, and sea-shells. Ad- 
dress Dr. W. S. Strode, Bernadotte, 111. 



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HOUSEHOLD HYGIENE. 

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TIME RELATIONS OF MEN- 
TAL PHENOMENA. 

By Joseph Jastrow, Professor of Psychol- 
ogy at the University of Wisconsin. 

12°. 50 cents. 
It is only within very recent years that this 
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AGRICULTURE. 

Agricultural Drainage. By J. B. Denton. 

Animal Food Resources of Different Nations. 
P. L. Simmonds. is° 

Armstrong's Agriculture. 18 

British Wild- Flowers Considered in Relation to 
Insects. By Sir John Lubbock 

Coffee and Chiccory. By P. L. Simmonds. 12 . 

Diseases of Field and Garden Crops, chiefly such 
as are caused by Fungi. By W. G. Smith. 
x6° 

Flowers, Fruits, and Leaves. By Sir John Lub- 
bock 

Flowers. The Colours of. By Grant Allen. ia° 

Fruits, Selected: Their Culture, Propagation, 
and Management in the Garden and Orchard. 
By C. Downing. ia° . 

Gardening for Ladies, and Companion to the 
Flower-Garden. By Mrs. J. C. Loudon. xa°. 

Hops : Cultivation, Commerce, and Uses. By P. 
L. Simmonds. xa° 

Horticulture, The Theory of : or. An Attempt 
to explain Gardening upon Physiological Prin- 
ciples. By J. Lindley and A. J. Downing 
ia° ..... 

Sewage Irrigation by Farmers. By R. W. Birch. 
8° 

Sewage Utilization. By B. Latham. 8° 

Useful Animals and their Products. By P. L. 
Simmonds. x6° 



Ix.ao 

x.oo 
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x.95 

•75 



x.50 

x.35 
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ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING 
CONSTRUCTION. 

Architecture, the Stepping-Stone to. By 
Thomas Mitchell. x8° 

Boiler and Water Pipes, Kitchen. By H. Grim- 
shaw. 8° 

Building Construction. By Edward J. Burrell. 



50 



xa* 



Chimneys for Furnaces, Fireplaces, and Steam* 

Boilers. By R. Armstrong, CE. 18 

Cooking Range, The. By F. Dye. xa° 

Fires in Theatres. By E. M. Shaw. xa° 

Gas Filter's Guide. By J. Eldtidge. xa° 

Hot-Water Apparatus, Fitting. By F. Dye. ia° 
Hot- Water Apparatus, Fixing. By J. Eldridge. 



12* 



Hot-Water Fitting and Steam Cooking Appa- 
ratus. By F. Dye. x6° % 

Pump Fitter's Guide. By J. Eldridge. xa° 

Strength of Beams under Transverse Loads. By 
Professor W. Allan. 18 

Ventilation of American Dwellings. By David 
Boswell Reid, M.D. 12° 1 

Ventilation of Buildings. By W. F. Butler. x8° 



.40 

.80 

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ASTRONOMY AND NAVIGATION. 

Astronomy, Lesions in Elementary. By R. A. 

Proctor. 8° 60 

Hours with a Three-Inch Telescope. By Capt. 

William Noble. 8° x.50 

Magnetism and the Deviation of the Compass, 

By John Merrifield. 18 50 

Navigation, A Treatise on, for the Use of Stu- 
dents. By John Merrifield. x*° x .50 

Student's Atlas, The. By R. A. Proctor. 8° — x .50 

CHEMISTRY. 

Chemical Lecture Notes. By Peter T. Austen. 

xa° 1. 00 

Electro-Chemical Analysis. By Edgar F. Smith. 

xa° : i*oo 

Experimental Chemistry for Junior Students. 
By J. E. Reynolds. 

Part I. Introductory 45 

Part II. Non-Metals 75 

Part III. Metals x.05 

Part IV. Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, or 

Organic Chemistry x .90 

Faraday^ Chemistry of a Candle. x«° 85 

Organic Chemistry, Introduction to the Study of. 
By Adolph Pinner. Tr. and Rev. by Peter T. 
Austen. 12 x.50 

Practical Chemistry ; the Principles of Qualita- 
tive Analysis. By William A. Tilden. 8°.... .45 

Practical Inorganic Chemistry, An Introduction 
to ; or The Principles of Analysis. By William 
Jago. 8°... 45 

Practical Organic Analysis, An Introduction to. 

By George E. R. Ellis. 8° 50 

Qualitative Analysis and Laboratory Practice, 
Manual of. By T. E. Thorpe and M. M. Pat- 
tison Muir. ia° x .95 

Qualitative Chemical Analysis, A Short Course 
in. By Professor I. M. Crafts and Professor 
Charles A. Schaeffer. ra° x .50 

Qualitative Chemical Analysis, An Elementary 

Manual of. By Maurice Perkins. xa° x.oo 

Quantitative Analysis. By H. Carrington Bol- 
ton. 8° x.50 

Quantitative Chemical Analysis. By T. E. 

Thorpe. x8 # x.50 

Tables for the Analysis of a Simple Salt for Use 

in School Laboratories. By A. Vinter. 8° 40 



EDUCATION. 

British and American Education. By Mayo W. 

Haxeltine. 39* $0.25 

Culture of the Observing Faculties. By Rev. 

Warren Burton. x6° ". 

Library, The. By A. Lang. With a Chapter on 

Modern Illustrated Books, by Austin Dobson. 

Mahaffy's Old Greek Education. 16 

Manchester Science Lectures for the People 

Overpressure in High Schools in Denmark. By 

Dr. Hertel 

Seeing and Thinking. By W. K. Clifford . . , 

Spelling Reform from an Educational Point of 

View. By J. H. Gladstone 



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• 75 
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x.oo 



50 



ELECTRICITY. 



SO 

50 
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40 
40 

SO 

75 
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50 



50 
75 



Alternate Current Machinery. By G. Kapp. 

18 .... .....\ fo.50 

Chemistry of the Secondary Batteries of Plant 4 

and Faure. By J. H. Gladstone and A. Tribe, x.oo 
Dynamic Electricity. By John Hopkinson, J. A. 

Schoolbred, and R. E. Day. 18* 

Dynamo-Electric Machines, Recent Progress in. 

By Professor Sylvanus P. Thompson. 18 . . . . 

Electric Bells. By F. C. Allsop. 12 

Electric Lighting from Central Stations. By G. 

Forbes 

Electricity, Supply of, by Local Authorities. 

By K. Hedges. 8° 

Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, A Hand-Book of 

the. By A. E. Loring. 18 

Electro- Magnets. By Th. Du Moncel. Tr. by 

C. J. Wharton 

Electro-Telegraphy. By F. S. Beecher. x6°.. 
Incandescent Electric LightiNg. A Practical 

Description of the Edison System. By L. H. 

Latimer, C. J. Field, and J. W. HowelL 18 .. 
Induction Coils : How Made and How Used. 

x8° m 

Practical Dynamo-Building for Amateurs. By 

Frederick Walker. x8° 

Tbhrkstrial Magnetism and the Magnetism of 

Iron Vessels. By Professor Fairman Rogers. 

18 

Thbrmo-Elbctricity. By A. Rust. 8° 

Wrinkles in Electric Lighting. By V. Stephens. 

ia° x.oo 

ENGINEERING. 

Actual Lateral Pressure of Earthwork, The. By 
Benjamin Baker. 18 

Arches, Theory of. By Professor W. Allan. 18 

Arches, Theory of Solid and Braced. By William 
Cain, CE. 18 

Beams and Girders. Practical Formulas for their 
Resistance. By P. H. Philbrick. 18 

Boilbr Incrustation and Corrosion. By F. J. 
Rowan. 18 

Bridge and Tunnel Centres. By John B. Mc- 
Master. CE. 18 

Bridges, On the Theory JAtd Calculation of Con- 
tinuous. By Mansfield Merriman, Ph.D. 18 

Bridges, Practical Treatise on the Properties of 
Continuous. By Charles Bender, CE. 18 . . 

Cable-Making of Suspension Bridges. By W. 
Hildenbrand, CE. 18 

Compound Engines. Tr. from the French of A. 
Mallet. 18 

Flow of Water in Open Channels, Pipes, Conduits, 
Sewers, etc.: with Tables. By P. J. Flynn, 
CE. 180... 

Foundations. By Professor Jules Gaudard, C.E. 
Tr. from the French. x8° 

Friction of Air in Mines. By J. J. Atkinson. 
x8° 

Fuel. By C. William Siemens, D.C.L.; to which 
is appended the Value of Artificial Fuel as 
compared with Coal, by John Wormald, C.E. 
18 

Gases met with in Coal-Mines. By J. J. Atkin- 
son. 18 

Hblicoidal Oblique Arches, Treatise on the 
Theory oi the Construction of. By John L. 
Culley, CE. x8° 

High Masonry Dams. By John B. McMaster, 
CE. x8° # . 

How to draw a Straight Line : A Lecture on Link- 
ages. By A. B. Kempe 

Ice-Making Machines. From the French of M. 
Le Donx. x8° 

Kinematics of Machinery. By Professor Ken- 
nedy. With an Introduction by Professor R. 
H. Thurston. 18 

Linkages ; the Different Forms and Uses of Ar- 
ticulated Links. By J. D. C De Roos. x8°.. 

Maximum Stresses in Framed Bridges. By Pro- 
fessor William Cain, CE. x8° 

Metals and their Chief Industrial Applications. 
By C. R. A. Wright 

Metals, The Fatigue of, under Repeated Strains. 
Fro n the German of Professor Ludwig Spang- 
enburgh,with a Preface by S. H. Shreve, A.M. 
18 

Plate Girder Construction. By Isami Hiroi. >8° 

Practical Designing of Retaining Walls By 
Arthur Jacob. A.B. x8° 

Proportions of Pins used in Bridges. By Charles 
Bender.CE. x8 # 

Railroad Economics; or. Notes, with Comments. 
By S. W. Robinson, C.E. i8 w 

Retaining Walls, Surcharged and Different Forms 
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Safe 1 y Valves. By Richard H. Buel, CE. x8° 

Skew Arches. By Professor E. W. Hyde, C.E. 
Illus. x8° 

Stadia Surveying. The Theory of Stadia Meas- 
urements. By Arthur Wtnslow. x8° 



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STBAM-Boiler Explosions. By Zerah Colburn. x8° 

Stham-Engine Indicator, The, and its Use. By 
W.K.LeVan. x8° 

S 1 bam Injectors. Tr. from the French of M. Leon 
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Storage Reservoirs, On the Designing and Con- 
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Testing-Machines, their History, Construction, 
and Use. By Arthur V. Abbott. 18 

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n#»rlr »R*> 

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Transmission of Power by Wire Ropes. By Al- 
bert W. Stahl, U.S.N. x8° 

Triumphs of Modern Engineering. By Henry 

Frith. x%* ; ..; 

Turbine Wheels. By Professor W. P. Trow- 
bridge. x8° 

Ventilation of Coal-Mines, The. By W. Fair- 
ley, M.E. x8° 

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E.Cain. 18 

Voussoir Arches applied to Stone Bridges, Tun- 
nels, Culverts, and Domes. By Professor 
William Cain. 18 . 

Wheels, A Practical Treatise on the Teeth of. 
By Professor S. W. Robinson. x8° 

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Leahy's The Art of Swimming in the Eton Style. 

Life History Album. By Francis Galton. 4 . . . . 

Life of Faraday. By J. H. Gladstone. 16 

Polarisation of Light. By W. Spottiswoode 

Record of Family Faculties. By Francis Galton. 

4° 

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NATURAL HISTORY. 

Colours of Flowers, On the. As Illustrated in 

the British Flora. By Grant Allen x .oo- 

Darwin, Charles. Memorial Notices reprinted 

from *' Nature." By Professor Huxley 

Degeneration. By E. Ray Lankester 

Essays Selected from Lay Sermon*, Addresses, and 

Reviews. By G. H. Huxley, LL.D 

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Origin and Metamorphoses of Insects, On the. By 

Sir John Lubbock x.oo- 

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Rennib's N-tural History of Quadrupeds. x8°... .75 
Scientific Evidences of Organic Evolution. By 

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Year with the Birds, A. By W. Warde Fowler... x.95 

SANITARY SCIENCE. 

Air We Breathe, the, and Ventilation. By Pro- 
fessor H. A. Mott. 16* 

Bad Drains, and How to Test them. By R. H. 
Reeves. ia° '. 

Dikty Dustbins and Sloppy Streets. By H. P. 
Boulnois. xa° 

Disease and Putrescent Air. By T. Rowan. 8°.. 

Drainage of Towns. By J. Phillips. 8° 

Dwelling-Houses : Their Sanitary Construction 
and Arrangements. By Professor W. H. Cor- 
field. x8° 

Fashion in Deformity. By William Henry Flower. 



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Food. The Composition, Digestibility, and Nu- 
tritive Value of. By Professor Henry A. 
Mott 

Health, The Laws of. By W. H. Cot-field. 8*.. 

Health-Science, A Manual of. By Andrew Wil- 
son. 8° 

Healthy Foundations for Houses. By Glenn 
Brown. 18 

Hints on taking a House. By H. P. Boulnois. 
x6° . 

House Drainage and Sanijaty Plumbing. By W. 
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Maternal Management of Children in Health 
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Potable Water and the Different Methods of de- 
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Sewage. Disposal of. By Maxwell and Tuke. 8°. 

Sewer Gases: Their Nature and Origin. By A. 
De Varona. x8° 

Sewerage and Sewage Utilization. By Professos. 
W.H.Corfield. 18 

Shone Sewerage System. By E. Ault. 8° 

Storage of Water. By J. B. Denton. 8° 

Ventilation, Mechanics of. By George W. Raf- 
ter, C. E. 18° 

Water and Water Supply. By Professor W. H. 
Corfield. 18 



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SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 413 




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Vol. XVH. No. 414. 



NEW YORK, Jakuaey 9, 1891. 



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THE OUTLOOK FOR APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY. 1 

Gentlemen, — You have made it tbe duty of your presiding 
officer to give an annual address, — a duty the less easy Co 
perform for a new organization than for one which has a 
history behind it. and not facilitated by my absence in Europe 
at the time of your organization. 

I had thrown together a sort of r/aumJ of the results ob- 
tained during the year in economic entomology, more par- 
ticularly by tbe entomologists of the different State stations, 
in the belief that this would be one of the most appropriate 
themes to present; but when I learned, from his circular of 
Sept. 15, that Professor Forbes intended covering substan- 
tially the same ground, and that it was expected* of him as 
one of his duties as chairman of the committee on entomol- 
ogy of the Association of Agricultural Colleges and Experi- 
ment Stations, it became evident that what I might present 
fn that direction would be substantially anticipating and 
repeating what we may expect and hope to hear from him. 
I will endeavor, therefore, to touch upon a few matters un- 
connected with station work. 

Some Results from the National Department at Washington. 

The hydrocyanic-acid gas treatment against scale-insects is 
becoming more and more common in California, and has to 
a certain extent superseded the use of washes, especially 
against the red scale (Aspidiotus aurantii). This is largely 
due to the fact that recent experiments, carried on through 
Mr. Coquillett, have resulted in a great cheapening of the 
process. The expense has been reduced to one-third, and the 
bulky machinery mentioned in my report for 1887 has been 
for thp most part dispensed with. It has also been found 
that the use of the process at night is safev and more bene- 
ficial, in that it lessens the effect of the gas upon the foliage. 

The repeated importation of scale-insects from Florida into 
California has attracted much attention. The species»con- 
cerned are principally the purple scale (Mytilaspis citricolcQ, 
the long scale (M. gloverii), and the chaff scale (Parlatoria 
pergandei\. The fact that these insects must have been 
repeatedly imported into the State in past years without 
obtaining a foothold, has been used as an argument against 
a quarantine, and a great deal of discussion on the subject 
has been had in the California papers. From my own ob- 
servations in tbe State, I am convinced, that, where the 
proper conditions of shade and moisture are obtained, there 
is no reason why these scale- insects should not obtain a foot- 
hold, but that tbey will probably die out in the hotter, dryer, 
and less shaded localities. An agent who was sent to 
Pomona to investigate certain newly planted orange-groves 
of Florida trees found, that while tbe trees were planted a 

« Address of Dr. C. V. Riley at the annual meeting of the Association of 
Economic Entomologists, Champaign, 111., Not. 11-14, 1800. 



year previously, and had been dipped, according to custom 
there, in a caustic solution, every tree examined by him bore 
a few specimens of the purple scale. The excitement on this 
subject in California bas been fostered by the claims of rival 
nurserymen engaged either in the importation of Florida 
stock or dealing in varieties grown at home, and with so 
many contrary claims from persons prejudiced by their busi- 
ness interests, it is difficult to extract the truth. A rigid 
quarantine, not absolutely prohibitive, were wisest, for 
great injustice might be worked by absolutely prohibitive 
restrictions. Careful inspection and thorough treatment, 
if they could be guaranteed, would prove an effective safe- 
guard, but it were unsafe to trust to them without rigid 
quarantine. 

I have commenced a series of experiments upon the black 
scale (Lecanium olece), a species which, ordinarily occur- 
ring upon the olive, has long damaged citrus fruits in Cali- 
fornia. The horticulturist of the Wisconsin station, Mr. E. 
S. Goff, has modified the Nlxqu pump by adding a tube, so 
that kerosene may be dramrclHm] one receptacle and a 
mixture of soap and waterfjflfnl another, thus forming a 
mechanical mixture in the aotftlf spraying. This modiflca- 



iry, I have had tried in 

10 ugh- it is too early to 

it /so little time and labor 

emulsion, that this me- 



tion, at the request of Profe 
this series of experiments, ari< 
state the results, it may be sai< 
are required in preparing a si 
chanical substitute will probably not come into general use. 
In this connection it may be observed that the formulae 
recommended by some of our most voluminous writers are- 
very misleading, and are calculated to produce only a me- 
chanical mixture more or less unstable. The use of kerosene, 
temporarily combined with water or soap suds by mechanical 
means, dates from many years back. It was a favorite 
remedy of my friend Thomas Meehan, who urged it in 1871 
in the Gfardener , 8 Monthly; it was experimented with by 
others; and I used it successfully in 1872 against an unde- 
scribed Lecanium on Austrian pine, as also against Aphides 
on the place of Mr. Julius Pitman of St. Louis, and in 1874 
and 1875 against the congregated young of the Rocky Moun- 
tain locust. But the true and stable kerosene emulsion which 
now forms one of the most satisfactory and widely used in- 
secticides, and which requires two parts of the oil to one of 
the emulsifying agent, violently churned uutil a stable, 
butter-like emulsion results, was the outgrowth of my efforts 
in tbe investigation of the cotton -wt^m, the milk having 
been first suggested in 1878 by the late Dr. W. S. Barnard 
while working at Selma, Ala., and the most satisfactory 
formula in 1880, from experiments which I had continued 
over two years by Mr. H. G. Hubbard on orange-trees. 

A locust outbreak of some interest has occurred in parts 
of Idaho and Utah, and has been investigated by Mr. Bruner, 



16 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 414 



the Nebraska agent of the division. The specie9 involved 
proved to be Camntrta peUucida, which has overrun a strip 
of country a hundred and forty miles in length by from fif- 
teen to thirty' in width, commencing at a point about thirty 
miles westward of Soldier, Idaho, and extending east as far 
as East River and Birch Creek. The people in these sections 
are quite willing to do whatever can be done to destroy these 
insects, but they need instruction. The country has been 
largely settled since the publication of the early reports of 
the United States Entomological Commission, and the new 
settlers lack experience in dealing with locusts ; for fifteen 
years make great changes in the rapidly growing West. I 
have therefore in preparation a bulletin treating of the several 
species of locusts which are responsible for these frequent 
scares, and which will include, at the same time, a summary 
of the practical portions of the earlier reports of the Entomo- 
logical Commission on Caloptenus spretns, long since out of 
print. 

The army-worm proved injurious in several localities dur- 
ing the past year, particularly in Maryland and Indiana. 
The Maryland occurrence is of considerable interest, owing 
to the fact that the preceding year was one of unusual pre- 
cipitation; and the outbreak of the insect was due rather to 
the extremely mild winter, which prompted the constant 
growth and development of the hibernating larvae 

The notices in Insect Life and the Entomologists' Monthly 
Magazine of* the damage caused by a new bark-louse to the 
gardens of Alexandria, Egypt, have attracted considerable 
attention, and Mr. J. W. Douglas has described the new 
depredator as Crossotosoma a&gyptiacum. A study of Mr. 
Douglas's description and figures has convinced me that this 
insect is an Icerya. and that its spread is greatly to be feared, 
judging from our experience with I. purchasi. Moreover, 
three additional species of this genus have been brought to 
my notice during the year, — one occurring in Mexico on 
grape-vine; another in Key West, Fla., upon roses and other 
garden plants; and the third in the Island of Montserrat, 
West Indies, upon the cocoa palm, the banana, and a species 
of Chrysophyllum. These interesting and injurious insects 
have been investigated, so far as could be done, by corre- 
spondence; and full descriptions, with figures, will be pub- 
lished in the forthcoming number of Insect Life. 

The sugar-beet industry, after a quarter of a century's 
vicissitude, has begun a substantial and permanent growth, 
•especially in Nebraska. It has been found that the crop is 
speedily attacked by insects; and Mr. Bruner, being advan- 
tageously located for work of this kind, has, during the 
past summer, paid some attention to the insect enemies of 
this crop, and has already a list of sixty-four species, most 
of them being leaf-eaters and such as are commonly found 
upon various allied succulent plants, one of the worst being 
the garden web- worm (Eurycredh rantalis). 

The Hop Phorodon. 

'One of the most interesting facts of the year has been the 
occurrence of the hop-fly (Phorodon humuli) in the extreme 
North-west, especially in Oregon and Washington, so soon 
after my note of warning as to the danger of its introduction 
to the hop-fields of that section, and the need of precaution- 
ary measures that might prevent such a calamity. The soil 
and climate of southern Oregon seem particularly adapted 
to the growth of the hop, as it is already the leading crop in 
Lane, Marion, Polk, and other counties. 

There can be no doubt about the species, because Mr. F. 
L. Washburn, the entomologist of the experiment station, 
has given it some attention; and I have also received speci- 



mens from him and from Mr. A. Todd of Eugene, Oregon, 
as also from Mr. Giles Farmin and Mr. G. M. Etratton of 
Puyallup, Wash. 

Mr. Washburn, from the fact that it has been noticed that 
hops were sometimes not so much affected in the immediate 
vicinity of plum-trees as some distance away, and from the 
further fact that some of the growers reported that they 
never saw the insect on the plum, intimates that there 
must be a different state of affairs in Oregon, so far as ibe 
life cycle of the insect is concerned, from that which pre- 
vails in the Eastern States and in Europe. Absolute and 
experimental proof of facts obtained after long and persist- 
ent investigation should never be lightly questioned. It is 
by no means a common experience that hop-plants in the 
immediate vicinity of plum-trees are not more affected than, 
or as much as, others at a distance; and this may depend on 
the direction of the wind, or on local circumstances, or on 
the variety of plum, whether wild or cultivated. I have 
examined in vain certain cultivated plum-trees for evidence 
of Phorodon, whereas I have invariably found it upon other 
varieties in the same vicinity. .Phorodon humuli, in com- 
mon with all other aphidids, preferably chooses, when mi- 
grating, certain genial days, and often fills the air, flying 
great distances. In perfectly calm weather the migrants 
settle almost everywhere; but they are easily affected by 
the least breeze, and are wafted in different directions. The 
invasion of a hop-yard may be from plum-trees miles away 
to windward. 

Phylloxera. 

The grape Phylloxera has continued to attract the attention 
not only of most European governments, but also of those 
of Australia and * ew Zealand. It continues its spread in 
France, having at last invaded the more valuable cham- 
pagne districts The last report of the Superior Phylloxera 
Commission of that country shows that about 240,000 acres 
have undergone defensive measures, submersion being em- 
ployed in 72,000, bisulphide of carbon in 145,000, and sul- 
pho carbonate of potassium in 23,000. The work is practi- 
cally at an end in such departments as Herault, Gard, and 
Gironde, where the American resistant vines have most 
effectually been used; while the wine-growers of Algeria, 
Spain, Italy, Portugal, Hungary, Austria, and Switzerland, 
are all battling against it, and are all more or less aided by 
their respective governments. 

The advent of the insect in New Zealand has been the 
cause of much writing and of much legislation there, and 
the government has been quite anxious to get the best and 
latest information on the subject There is very little that 
is available in the way of published experience in this coun- 
try, as my Missouri reports are now very difficult to obtain. 
I \vbuld repeat here in substance what 1 have recently writ- 
ten to Mr. F. D. Bell, agent general at London for New 
Zealand, because the demand for the information is continu- 
ous, and our own people are to a great extent unfamiliar 
with the facts. 

During the more than twenty years 1 struggle in Frjnce 
against the species, innumerable remedies have been pro- 
posed, most of which have proved to be absolutely valueless. 
A few measures have been devised, however, which, under 
proper conditions, give fairly satisfactory results. These 
consist in (1) methods which avoid the necessity of direct 
treatment, comprising the use of American stocks and plant- 
ing in sandy soils; (2) the employment of insecticides (bi- 
sulphide of carbon, sulpho-carbonate of potassium, and the 
kerosene emulsion); and (3) submersion. 



January 9, 1891.3 



SCIENCE. 



*7 



It was early found in the history of this Phylloxera that 
most of the cultivated varieties of American grape-vines, as 
also the wild species, resisted or were little subject to the 
attacks of the root form (radicicola) of the Phylloxera; 
although the leaf-gall form (gallicola), which in point of 
fact does little if any permanent damage, occurs in greater 
numbers on many of our wild and cultivated sorts than on 
the European grape-vines, which are all derived from the 
single species Vitis vinifera, and which are so exceedingly 
subject to the attacks of the root form. This fact was first 
noticed in France by M. Laliman of Bordeaux, and later by 
Gaston Baziile of Montpellier, and was independently 
proved on a more extended scale by ray earlier investiga- 
tions in the United States. The use of American stocks 
upon which to cultivate the susceptible European varieties 
has resulted in an enormous trade in certain American seeds 
and cuttings, and now supersedes all other methods against 
the Phylloxera. 

It was my privilege and pleasure to spend a week in Au- 
gust, 1889, among the world- renowned M6doc and Sauterne 
vineyards of the Bordeaux district in France. Here, by 
virtue of the rich alluvial soil, and the ease with which the 
chief vineyards can be submerged, the Phylloxera has made 
slower headway, and the opposition to the use of American 
resistant stocks has been greatest. Yet they have finally 
vanquished prejudice, and are, either from necessity or 
choice, rapidly coming into general use. When I say 
'• choice," I mean that even where the French vines yet do 
well, and the Phylloxera is kept in subjection by other 
means, it is found that greater vigor of growth and increase 
in healthfulness and yield of fruit result at once from the 
use of the American stocks. 

Without going into a lengthy discussion of the subject of 
wild American species, those of practical importance to the 
grape-grower are the following: V. aestivalis, V. riparia, 
and V. labrusca. 

The varieties derived from V. aestivalis are of value for 
their fruit as well as for their resistant qualities, and, being 
easily propagated from cuttings, they are very often used as 
stocks. The most important varieties are Jacquez, Herbe- 
mont, Black July, and Cunningham. 

The varieties of Vitis riparia, both wild and cultivated, 
are, on account of their special fitness, almost exclusively 
employed in Fcance as resistant stocks, for which they easily 
take first rank. The varieties used are (1) the wild forms; 
and (2) the cultivated varieties, Solonis, Clinton, and Tay- 
lor. Of the cultivated varieties, the Clinton was one of the 
first vines tried for this purpose, and has been extensively 
used with fair satisfaction. The Solonis now ranks above 
it, but is valueless for any other purpose on account of the 
acidity of its grapes. In California the Lenoir, Herbemont, 
and Elvira have been used, but late experience shows that 
the wild Riparia is most satisfactory there, as it is in 
France. 

The different varieties of Vitis labrusca are less resistant 
to the Phylloxera than those above mentioned. Certain 
varieties have, however, been grown successfully in France, 
and of these the Concord has given much the best results; 
but others, Isabella and Catawba for example, succumb there 
to the root-louse, as indeed they do in many sections of this 
country. 

Of the many valuable hybrids obtained from the American 
species of Vitis which are serviceable as stocks, the more im- 
portant are the Elvira, Noah, and Yialla. The last named, 
perhaps, of all the resistant varieties, gives the greatest per- 



centage of successful grafts, and is admirably adapted for 
grafting on cuttings. 

Early in the study of the subject it was found that the 
nature of the soil has a very marked influence on the success 
of the different stocks. The subject has been now quite fully 
investigated in France, and the latest researches are formu- 
lated by the Experimental School at Montpellier in the state- 
ment quoted below, which will be of interest as giving the 
various classes of soils, together with the American vines best 
adapted to each. 

" 1. New deep fertile soils : Riparia (tomeotous and 
glabrous), Jacquez, Solonis, Vialla, Taylor, and Cunning- 
ham. 

"2. Deep soils somewhat strong, not wet: Jacquez, 
Riparia, Solonis, Cunningham, Vialla, Taylor. 

"3. Deep soils of medium consistency, new aud not dry 
in summer: Riparia, Jacquez, Solonis, Vialla, Taylor, 
Black July. 

"4. Light pebbly soils, deep, well drained, and not too 
dry in summer: Jacquez, Riparia (wild), Taylor, Rupes- 
tris. 

(, 5. Calcareous soils, with subsoil shallow orgrauitic: So- 
lonis, Rupestris. 

"6. Argillaceous soils, white or gray: Cunningham. 

7. Argillaceous soils, deep and very wet : V. cinerea. 

8. Deep sandy fertile soils: Riparia (wild), Solonis, 
Jacquez, Cunningham, Black July, Rupestris. 

41 9. Light pebbly soils, dry and barren: Rupestris, York, 
Madeira, Riparia (wild). 

"10. Deep soils with a tufa base and salt lands: Solonis. 

44 11. Soils formed of debris of tufa, but sufficiently deep: 
Taylor. 

"12. Ferruginous soils, containing red pebbles of silica, 
deep and somewhat strong, well drained but fresh in sum- 
mer: all the varieties indicated, and in addition Herbemont, 
Clinton, Cynthiana, Marion, Concord, Herman." 

The accompanying table from the last report of the Supe- 
rior Phylloxera Commission indicates better than words 
can tell the steady growth in the use of the American 
vines : — 



u 



n 



Tears. 



1881. 
1882. 
1888. 
1884. 

issb. 

1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 



American 
Vines Covered. 


Departments. 


Acres. 




88,000 


17 


49,700 


88 


70,000 


88 


18l,U09 


84 


188,200 


84 


878,900 


m 


418,700 


88 


586,900 


48 


719.500 


44 



On the subject of direct remedies the value of the kerosene 
emulsion for this purpose has not been properly realized in 
France because of the relatively high price of petroleum in 
her grape-growing d&partements. A series of experiments 
which I made in 1883 showed conclusively its great value 
for this purpose, as it not only destroys the insect in all 
stages, but also stimulates root-growth. 

In this connection I have recently had a series of experi- 
ments made through Mr. Albert Koebele's agency, in the 
Sonoma valley, California, to ascertain the effect upon the 
Phylloxera of certain of the resin- washes which proved so 



/ 



3« 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 415 



SCIENCE: 



A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL TEE ARTS AND SCIENCES. 



PUBLISHED BY 



N. D. C. HODGES. 



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Vol. XVII. NEW YORK, January 16, 1891. 



No. 415. 



CONTENTS: 

Thx Outlook for Appldcd Ento- 
mology 29 

notks amd nsws 96 

Turn Mineral Waters of the 
Yellowstone National Park 

Walter Harvey Weed 86 
Letters to the Editor. 
Time-Measuring among Savage 



Peoples. O.T.Mason 87 



Professor Ferrel and American 

Meteorologists 

Alexander McAdie 87 
Cyclones and Areas of High 

Pressures. Wm. Ferrel. 88 

Book-Bevixws. 

* 

TyohoBrahe 40 

Introduction to the Study of 
Federal Government ..... 41 



Among thx Publishers 41 



THE MINERAL WATERS OF THE YELLOWSTONE 

NATIONAL PARK. 

The recent publication of Bulletin No. 47, of the United 
States Geological Survey, containing 1 analyses of hot-spring, 
geyser, and river waters from the Yellowstone National 
Park, is not without interest to the medical profession and 
to the public at large. 

The waters, collected by experts employed by the Geo- 
logical Survey, have been most carefully examined by Dr. 
F. A. Gooch, now professor of chemistry at Yale College, 
and Mr. J. Edward Whitfield of the survey laboratory, and 
represent the latest and best methods of water-analysis. 

The analyses of these waters are of particular interest, be- 
cause the great variety of mineral springs found in the 
Yellowstone, attracting the attention of all visitors to that 
region, suggests their use as remedial agents in the cure of 
disease. 

Aside from the well-known resorts of the Virginias, there 
are but few places in the United States where natural hot 
waters are thus utilized. The hot-springs of Arkansas have 
long been known, and many cures effected by their use, com- 
bined with the care of the attendant physicians. More re- 
cently the Spas of Las Ve'gas, N. Mex. , have been brought 



before the notice of the medical profession and the public 
generally. 

Without detracting from the merits of these justly noted 
sanitaria, it may be stated that at neither place do the waters 
present as important a combination of salts in solution as 
those of the Yellowstone Park. Indeed, with the exception 
of the hot-springs in New Zealand, no waters readily acces- 
sible are known presenting the variety and remedial con- 
stituents of the Yellowstone springs. In New Zealand the 
government, appreciating the munificent endowment which 
nature has given the country in its hot-springs, has set apart 
certain tracts as sanitary resorts ; and at the most famous 
resort, Rotorua, bath-houses and bathing-pools, with the 
usual accessories of reading-rooms and hotels, have been 
built at government expense, and are under the supervision 
of a government physician. 

From a therapeutic standpoint, the analyses of hot-spring 
waters from the Yellowstone may be grouped as calcareous, 
alkaline-si licious, acid, and sulphurous. 

Tbe former, comprising the hot water of the Mammoth 
Hot Spring, are highly charged with carbonate of lime, 
which they deposit, on exposure, in the form of travertine. 
They resemble in composition the waters of Carlsbad, as will 
be seen by a comparison of the analyses of the two waters. 

For bathing purposes they are less agreeable, and prob- 
ably less beneficial, than the alkaline waters of tbe geyser 
basins of the Yellowstone Park. 

These latter waters are generally highly charged with 
alkaline salts, — sodium chloride and sodium carbonate, to- 
gether with silica, being the chief constituents, — but there 
is generally present also a small amount t^f sodium borate, 
also sodium arseniate, the latter a most valuable thera- 
peutic agent in a variety of diseases. 

The luxury of bathing in these waters must be indulged 
in to be appreciated. Tbe extreme softness of tbe water, and 
the delightful freshness which one notices after the bath, 
render the use of the water a great pleasure. In New Zealand, 
where a water almost identical in composition, save that it 
lacks the arsenic, has been used for several years, this type 
of water has been found most beneficial in the treatment of 
gout, rheumatic troubles, and sciatica. In France tbe cura- 
tive properties of waters carrying arsenic in solution are 
fully recognized, especially for the cure of certain forms of 
nervous and skin diseases. While the Yellowstone waters 
contain a little less arsenic than those of the French springs 
at La Bourboule, there is no reason to doubt their usefulness 
for similar diseases. At present the only water of this class 
utilized for bathing purposes is that of tbe Hygeia Spring, 
supplying the baths of the hotel at the Firehole, or Lower 
Geyser Basin. 

This water carries three-tenths of a grain of sodium arsenic 
to the gallon. It has been tried by the writer, and found a 
most delightful water for bathing, but no invalids have yet 
tested its virtues. Springs of this character are, however, 
very numerous, and their waters might be easily utilized for 
bathing. 

The acid waters, carrying free hydrochloric acid, are less 
numerous in the park, but many springs of this character 
are found at the Norris Geyser Basin. The waters may be 
perfectly clear, as is the case with tbe outflow of the Echenis 
Geyser and the discharge from Green Spring, or turbid, and 
charged with more or less sulphur, as is more frequently the 
case. Such waters have achieved a considerable reputation 
in New Zealand as a tonic and alterative, particularly in 
diseases of the liver and in functional troubles of females. 



January 16, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



*7 



They also exert a powerful effect upon the body in all skin- 
diseases, but are probably less useful than the sulphurous 
waters in such cases. At present no waters of this character 
are utilized for baths, but could be readily led into suitable 
bath-bouses at the Norris Basin. This locality is indeed the 
best suited for a sanitarium of any of the geyser basins of 
the park, as all the varieties of waters occur here, save the 
calcareous. 

Sulphurous waters are very familiar, though those of the 
Yellowstone are particularly strong. The Mammoth Hot 
Spring waters, though smelling strongly of sulphur at the 
vent, possess little, if any, of that important constituent 
when led into baths, for it is all deposited about the vents 
and upon the algae growing in the waters; but excellent ex- 
amples of this type are found at the Norris Basin, as well as 
elsewhere in the park. 

Now that the roads and hotel accommodations in the park 
are so good, and the region so easily reached in Pullman 
coaches and with dining-cars, it is to be hoped that the waters 
of these springs may bring relief to many sufferers. 

Walter Harvey Weed. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

%• Correspondents are requested to bene brief as possible. The writer's name 
is in all eases required as proof of good faith. 

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character 
of the journal. 

On request % twenty copies of the number containing his communication will 
be furnished free to any correspondent. 

Time-Measuring among Savage Peoples. 

The question has arisen in the National Museum whether the 
American aborigines or any other savage peoples have any 
mechanical devices for measuring the time of day or portions of 
the day. I do not now allude to calendars, of which there are 
many, nor to observation of dawn, sunrise, a little after sunrise, 
near noon, noon, etc., based on the diurnal movement of the 
heavenly bodies, but to primitive dials and the like. I have 
heard of the Montaguai's practice of setting a staff in the snow 
and marking the shadow, and of the Pueblo habit of marking the 
path of a sun-ray across the floor, but my information is not first- 
rate. My familiarity with the African and Insular peoples is 
limited ; but it is designed to set up in the National Museum an 
elaborative series to illustrate time-keeping, and we are anxious 
to know what manner of invention should stand at the beginning 
of the series. Otis T. Mason. 

Washington, Jan. 10. 



Professor Ferrel and American Meteorologists. 

It would seem to be high time that some one having authority 
should read the riot act to a number of American meteorologists. 
The views lately advanced by Dr. Hann, that cyclones (excepting 
those of tropical regions) have their origin rather in the great gen- 
eral movements of the upper atmosphere than in the ascensional 
movement of relatively warm and 'moist air and the consequent 
vapor condensation, may or may not stand the test of a more ex- 
tensive and critical series of temperature studies than those made 
in 1889, but it is none the less incumbent upon American meteor- 
ologists to treat with proper courtesy the conscientious and life- 
long labors of a fellow-countryman; and it is but scant courtesy 
to exhibit to the world an eagerness to drag into prominence and 
accept seriously a new theory of cyclonic genesis, when such a 
theory lacks in every way extensive and careful study, and is 
really but little more than a mere possibility suggested by an 
eminent foreign meteorologist, when he found in certain tem- 
perature observations a somewhat marked difference from those 
which the accepted theory seemed to him to require. 

There may be •' thermic," and there may be dynamic, cyclones; 
hut the observations should be numerous and trustworthy before 
it is claimed that such a distinction exists, and before we seri- 



ously accept the very radical view that temperatures in cyclones 
are determined by the motions of the air. A thorough series of 
temperature determinations at different parts of the storm, as a 
mechanism, is needed, and should be offered. Especially is this 
demanded when the acceptance of the new view implies a partial 
remodelling, at least, of a theory that is of long standing, and has 
the sanction of one of the best equipped minds of the many that 
have tackled meteorological problems. Should .occasion require. 
Professor Ferrel can doubtless successfully defend the views he 
holds ; but, for the benefit of some who may not be aware of his 
methods of work, it may be not out of place to say here that 
nothing from his hand is the result of haste, but, on the contrary t 
the result of mature thought, and patient, careful, deliberate 
study of the best scientific information at his command. 

With all possible deference to Dr. Hann's eminence in matters, 
meteorological, it is to be questioned whether a series of tempera- 
ture observations at some fourteen stations, seven of which have 
an altitude of over two thousand metres, for only two storms (the 
barometric maximum of Nov. 12-24, and the minimum of Oct. 1), 
prove any thing, after all, but that it is quite possible to find tem- 
peratures higher than the normal when lower ones might be ex- 
pected. But this abnormality is but a slim support for a new 
theory, nor does it disprove the old. The air in the high area late 
in November was apparently warmer than the air in the " low " at 
the beginning of October ; but that does not prove that the mean 
temperature of the air in any and every maxima is always higher 
than the mean temperature of any and every extra-tropical minima . 
(it is conceded that the new theory will not hold for tropical storms). 
Dr. Hann claims that seven of these alpine stations have an ele- 
vation over two kilometres above sea-level. Tet it may be an 
open question if these heights give the conditions which he 
sought, more particularly if we remember that certain of the cirri 
clouds certainly have an elevation of not less than eighty kilome- 
tres, and a two-kilometre temperature observation may give but 
an uncertain indication. We can even find at surface stations 
abnormalities, that, if misinterpreted, might lead us to doubt a 
great many of our accepted views in the matter of atmospheric 
temperature. Mr. Kingston, 1 director of the Toronto Observatory 
in 1868, called attention to the fact that the twelve-year normals 
(1841-62) were not applicable to observations of later years, and, 
according to five-year normals, it was easy to show that January 
was warmer than February, etc. ; and Schott shows in a table 
how, from 1841 to 1850, February was colder than January at 
New Haven, Toronto, Philadelphia, Charleston, and Savannah, 
while from 1851 to 1860 the reverse holds true. 

It is therefore, it seems to me, only fair to insist that American 
meteorologists demand full and % most thorough evidence before 
seriously considering the question of modifying present theories; 
more particularly, too, when an unintentional but none the less 
real disposition exists in certain quarters to speak carelessly of 
Professor Ferrel and his work, and to deny him his proper place. 

Not a bad example of this carelessness appears in a translation 
by £. F. Bamber, in the Philosophical Magazine for December, 
1890, of Werner von Siemens's views on a general system of 
winds of the earth. The eminent physicist, in refuting the state- 
ment of Dr. Sprung in a recent paper in the Meteorologuehe Zeit- 
schrift, that he attempted, like Ferrel, to found on theoretical 
calculations a theory of the general system of windr ~" *he earth, 
disclaims in all modesty a sufficient proficiency in tne higher 
mathematics to do this, but then immediately adds, it appears to 
us somewhat illogically, that he "considers this method alto- 
gether inappropriate.' 1 He therefore repudiates the charge that 
44 he sought, like Ferrel, to demonstrate by means of calculation 
an original state of atmospheric motion in order to afterwards 
base his further speculations thereon." * There is no intentional 
intimation here, we take it, that Ferrers views are based on a 
supposition more or less hasty and uncertain, and there is there- 
fore little occasion for the rejoinder that any such intimation in- 
dicates a lack of familiarity with Fen-el's work; but it ought 
to be felt and recognized, especially by American meteorologists, 
that experimental fact rests at the bottom of every natural law 

* See Schott's Tables, p. 109. 

* Sitzungsberiohte d. K. Preuse. Akad. d. Wise, ra Berlin, 1890. 



38 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XVII. No, 41$ 



discussed by Ferrel, that in every case the latest and most accu- 
rately determined physical constants are used, and that the theo- 
retical deductions, while simply offered as such to be tested, are 
strictly the results of mathematical analyses. If in time these 
appear inadequate, the measure of praise for the man and his 
work may be diminished, but only in proportion as it is remem- 
bered that meteorological data and laws were in a condition more 
or le.es chaotic when he took up his labor of developing these into 
a consistent harmonious science. 

Alexander McAdie. 

Washington, D.C., Jan. 9. 



Cyclones and Areas of High Pressure. 

I had supposed that Professor Davis would give some explana- 
tion of the argument against the condensation theory of cyclones 
deduced from the comparisons of the temperatures in cyclones 
with those in high* pressure areas. He commences with a citation 
from my book, in which I state that the high pressures in the 
north-west sides of cyclones in the higher latitudes in winter are 
caused mostly by their lower temperatures, and consequently 
greater densities. He thinks the high pressure over the Alps in 
November, 1889, is a typical case of all such high-pressure areas. 
While I do not so regard it, yet, for the sake of brevity, I will 
here concede it, and consider merely this supposed typical case. 
Over the Alps, during the last five of the fourteen days of the ex- 
istence of this high pressure, the temperature on the summits of 
^the Alps was found to be several degrees warmer than the normal 
temperature of the season. There are no observations to show 
how high this abnormal temperature extended, but I am willing 
to admit that it may have extended up to a considerable altitude. 
Professor Davis, because this temperature is found to be above the 
normal a few degrees, maintains that the descent of the air is not 
due to its being heavier than the surrounding air, thus assuming 
that the surrounding temperatures at a distance at the time are 
the same as the normal temperature, notwithstanding the well- 
known great and long-continued departures from the normals 
which frequently occur over large areas of the country. But it 
is not necessary that this body of heated air in high-pressure areas 
should have a temperature lower than the surrounding tempera- 
tures even; for if the great vertical extent of air above 
it has a temperature only one or two degrees lower than 
the surrounding temperatures on the eame levels, which gives 
rise to a descending current, the air below, if it even has a 
little higher temperature than the surroundings, cannot rise 
up through the descending current, but must be forced down- 
ward. But suppose it were clearly established that the air in a 
high-pressure area extending hundreds of miles had a lower tem- 
perature than the surroundings even, and not merely the normal 
of the season : how is the greater pressure and the descent of the 
air to be accounted for? Professor Davis has never hinted 
at a probable explanation merely. The deduction, there- 
fore, from a few surface observations merely in a very limited 
region, that the air over a large area, and extending to the top of 
the atmosphere, is warmer than the surrounding air at a great 
distance in all directions, especially where these few observations 
are found to give a temperature above the normal merely, and not 
above the surrounding temperatures at the same levels, should be 
received with great caution ; for, if there were even a well-established 
theory to account for the descent of the air under these circum- 
stances, these observations could scarcely be regarded as having 
any weight in confirmation of such a theory. 

In what precedes I have gone upon the assumption that a lower 
temperature is the only cause of the descent of the air in high- 
pressure areas. While I regard this as adequate to account for 
it, I have never said or thought that it is the only cause, but 
simply the principal cause. I think there are other causes, espe- 
cially in the origin of these high-pressure areas, which, for our 
present purpose, it is not necessary to discuss here. 

Professor Davis says, "Records of temperature made on high 
mountain-peaks furnish the best means of testing the convectional 
theory of cyclones, for, even if all other tests were successfully 
borne, failure under this test would be fatal to the theory.' 1 By 



" convectional theory of cyclones" I understand him to mean the 
condensation theory, which requires the air in the ascending cur- 
rent to be warmer and lighter than that of the surroundings at 
the same levels. Now, this theory can neither be established nor 
overthrown by any such tests. Cyclones are usually several hun- 
dred, sometimes a thousand and more, miles in diameter; and to 
prove that the air over so large an area up to the top of the at- 
mosphere, or at least up to high altitudes, has a higher or a lower 
temperature than its surroundings, would require numerous sta- 
tions of observation at many different levels, not only over this 
large area, but also all around this area at great distances. The 
condensation theory requires that the temperature of the air in a 
cyclone must be greater, in a general way, than that of the sur- 
rounding air; but this does not mean that there are no places 
within the cyclone, especially on the earth's surface, with lower 
temperatures than those of many places outside. In the theoreti- 
cal treatment of a cyclone we have necessarily to assume certain 
regular conditions of uniform temperature at the same distances 
in all directions; but I have always been careful to explain that 
such conditions are never found in nature, but generally only 
rough approximations. In a large cyclone there is a great differ- 
ence between the north and south sides, due to difference of lati- 
tude, which is taken into account in the general motions of the 
atmosphere, and so must be excluded in the treatment of the cy- 
clones, and the differences of temperature only with reference to 
corresponding temperatures outside of the cyclone on the same 
latitudes must be considered. Besides, the temperatures vary all 
around the cyclone, not only on account of difference of latitude, 
but likewise from various abnormal causes. It must be expected, 
therefore, in comparing inside temperatures with the surrounding 
ones, especially surface temperatures, that there would be numer- 
ous cases in which those within would be found lower than many 
of those in the surroundings. The theory only requires that there 
shall be a predominance of higher temperatures in the interior. 
Besides, the conditions of a cyclone need not extend down to the 
surface at all, and, in fact, mere surface conditions generally have 
little or nothing to do with a cyclone. If the necessary conditions 
exist at altitudes only considerably above the earth's surface, the 
air is thrown into a great whirl or gyration, which relieves the air 
below of a part of the pressure upon it, and increases the pressure 
round about; so that this air tends to rise up, just as the water 
does in a suction-pump, and the surrounding air flows in to take 
its place; and in flowing in it assumes a gyratory motion, not 
only from the deflecting force of the earth's rotation, but likewise 
from the action of the air above by means of friction, so that it is 
brought into the general vertical and gyratory circulation. But 
suppose that it could be shown that the air in a cyclone is mostly 
or entirely of a lower temperature than the surrounding air at all 
altitudes, and yet ascends, as it always does: how is this strange 
phenomenon to be accounted for when there is no force, either 
real or imaginary, to cause it to ascend ? 

Professor Davis thinks that the snow-fall on the Alps at the 
time of the cyclone of Oct. 1, 1889, had little effect in lowering 
the temperature, on account of the wind ; but this is one of the 
causes which Dr. Hann gave, a few years ago, of the lower sur- 
face temperatures in cyclones. The air, in being forced- up the 
mountains on the windward side, is expanded and cooled below 
the temperature of the air generally on the same level. Another 
reason which he assigned was, that as the lowest pressure above 
lags behind that below, as was shown by Loomis, and first ex- 
plained, I think, by Dr. Hann, the cold north- westerly winds set in 
above rather before the lowest pressure-point is passed. The real 
centre of the cyclone above is not that of lowest pressure. 

I admit that it is not strictly logical to assume that two theo- 
ries, or two kinds of forces, may not be such as to give the same 
effects, especially where nothing is known of the nature or man- 
ner of application of the one kind ; but still this is extremely im- 
probable. As the general motions of the atmosphere, cyclones, 
and tornadoes, are all very much alike, consisting of gyra- 
tions around a centre,— and it is admitted that in the first and 
last the air rises where it is warmest and lightest and because this 
is so, and that this is even the case with cyclones in the lower 
latitudes, — we should hesitate in making an exception in the case 



January 16, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



39 



of cyclones in the higher latitudes, because a few surface obser- 
vations merely Of temperature, which, as has been shown I think, 
should have no weight, seem to indicate that the complete condi- 
tions of a cyclone, upon the condensation theory, do not exist. 

Mr. Clayton, in his communication, sets out in a very com 
mendable way by discarding mere authority in scientific ques- 
tions. He, however, proceeds to give two columns of citations 
from different authorities. But the most of this is entirely 
proper; for we have to depend more or less upon authority for 
observational data, and it is only where the decision of a question 
depends merely upon the use and application of scientific princi- 
ples that mere authority should be discarded. All observations, 
however, should be well considered and weighed, especially where 
they seem to conflict with well-established scientific principles. I 
have been familiar with all of Loomis's meteorological papers, 
and I do not call to mind any cases in which his results deduced 
directly from observation Beamed to be in conflict with any theo- 
ries which I have advocated, but of course there are some things 
which I cannot satisfactorily explain. I have always made nu- 
merous quotations from Loomis's papers in confirmation of my 
theories It is a little singular, however, that Mr. Clayton should 
cite some of the same things against me. From some of Loomis's 
theoretical deductions, from the observations I dissent. 

With regaid to the comparisons of observations at Denver and 
Pike's Peak, both merely surface observations at a long distance 
apart, in order to show whether the air is in a state of stable or 
unstable equilibrium over an area hundreds of miles in diameter, 
it is not necessary for me to add any thing more to what I have 
already stated on that subject. These cases were mostly in the 
summer season, when mountain-peaks are cooler than the sur- 
rounding air at a distance, and when lowland stations are abnor- 
mally heated, and the vertical temperature gradient, for some 
distance from the surface, large. If the lower temperatures had 
been taken a little above the surface, and compared with one 
vertically above it, no unstable state, probably would have been 
indicated when, as is stated, no extraordinary disturbances 
occurred. The reason why most of these cases of unstable, and 
approximately unstable, states occurred in May, I have explained 
in my book. Whether heated dry air has much ascensional force 
depends upon the state of the air. In the stable state it can only 
ascend until it becomes cooled down to the temperature of the 
surrounding air at a distance on the same levels. In the unstable 
state, the higher it ascends, the warmer it becomes relatively to 
the surrounding air ; and so, of course, it rushes up with great 
violence until the stable state is again restored. 

The fact which Loomis has established, and which is a matter 
of common observation, that very heavy rains do not continue 
very long, is very reasonable ; for the more rapidly the store of 
energy in the uncondensed vapor is spent, the sooner, of course, 
must the store of energy become exhausted. 

I have been at great pains to show that the unstable state, 
which gives rise to cyclones and tornadoes, may be induced in 
perfectly dry air ; and I have cited Loomis in conformation of 
this, when he shows that cyclones of moderate barometric de- 
pression in the centre, and without any violence, do exist. But 
Mr. Clayton brings in the same thing against the condensation 
theory, under the impression, I suppose, that, because I call the 
theory of cyclones the condensation theory in deference to Espy, 
I consider vapor and its condensation entirely indispensable. The 
vapor is a very essential part, and without it cyclones would, no 
doubt, be of much less frequent occurrence, and would have little 
violence. Loomis has shown that when there are cyclones in dry 
weather, with little or no rain, the depressions are small. These 
take place mostly in the summer season, when the air over a 
large area becomes much heated ; and although the ascent of air 
over this region is not sufficient to give rise to much rain, or even 
cloudiness perhaps, yet it is sufficient to cause haziness in the 
atmosphere, in which state the heat energy is absorbed directly 
from the sun's rays, instead of getting it indirectly from conden- 
sation after it has been absorbed in evaporation. Mr. Clayton 
cites a number of authorities to show that there is a body of warm 
air, a little above the earth's surface, in areas of high pressure, and 
that the vertical temperature gradient here is small, much less 



often than in cyclones. I have never denied this. It is simply 
storming a camp in which I am not to be found. More than six 
years ago, in " Recent Advances in Meteorology," I gave seven 
cases of this sort, one in which detailed observations were given to 
show that the vertical temperature gradient may become inverted. 
The same is Riven in my recent work. 

Mr. Clayton thinks that Dr. Hann's recent investigations of 
cyclones in the Alps should add a link to the chain of evidence 
that the temperature of the air-column as a whole is lower in 
cyclones than in the surrounding air ; but, if this is even admit- 
ted, where are the other links? So far as I can see, they all seem 
to be " missing links." He also gives his views with regard to 
various other things, which is well enough if they are- not in- 
tended as arguments, and they do not seem to be. But still it is 
of much more importance to know what he can prove and 
establish than to know what he thinks. He thinks that mechani- 
cal action has much to do with the origin of storms ; but what 
this means, I am unable to say. The mere origin of a cyclone, 
although of importance, is of little importance in comparison 
with the great question of where the energy comes from to sup- 
port the cyclone after it has been originated. 

Finally, Mr. Clayton proposes three questions for my answer. 
* To the first and second I answer emphatically, " No." If Mr. 
Clayton thinks that a cyclone can originate and be maintained in 
this way, let him show in what way. But let him remember that 
he is not to commence with his high areas and his troughs, for 
this is not a normal condition of the atmosphere, but let him first 
account for these, and then proceed to show how the air in flow- 
ing into his trough is thrown into a gyration; and as the air in this 
area of gyration, according to the new theory, is heavier than the 
surrounding air, and at the same time rises up, let him especially 
show where the energy comes from to support the gyration and 
force up the heavier air in the interior. I do not say that in 
such a case there would not be a certain very small amount 
of gyratory movement produced by the flowing of the air 
into the trough while it was being filled up, as it would be at 
once if there were no restraining force to keep the air from the 
high pressures on each side from rushing in. But such high- 
pressure areas continue often a long time, and do not fill up the 
troughs ; and the question is, what maintains them ? I have fully 
explained all this at various times upon my^principles, and I now 
leave it to him to explain upon his. I commence with a normal 
state of air without high-pressure areas and troughs of low press- 
ure, and show how the unstable state is induced, how from this 
the cyclone originates, and how the gyrations cause a wave of 
high pressure all around, and, where there are two cyclones, how 
the ridge of high pressure between is caused. The low-pressure 
between two cyclones, together with other irregularities of press- 
ure, permanent or otherwise, in some rare cases, gives a very 
oblong low-pressure area, or trough. Mr. Clayton proceeds in 
the reverse order, and commences with the high pressures without 
first accounting for them, which he makes a basis of his whole 
process. The world is supported upon the shoulders of Atlas, and 
Atlas upon the back of a tortoise ; but the question still arises, 
upon what does the tortoise stand? Let Mr. Clayton first show 
upon what his tortoise stands. 

With regard to Mr. Clayton's last question, I know nothing 
with regard to the circumstances of the cyclone to which he refers. 
It was in the winter, when surface temperatures are very low, 
and vertical temperature gradients small, and even reversed some- 
times near the earth's surface. This, however, does not affect the 
gradient, estimated from a little distance above the earth ; but I 
have said so much with regard to the inadequacy of a few surface 
observations at the bottom of the great ocean of atmosphere to 
prove that the air, or no part of it above, is not warmer than the 
surrounding air, all of which is just as pertinent in this case, 
that certainly nothing more can be required. As I have said be- 
fore, the mere surface condition may have little or nothing to do 
with a cyclone. But suppose I cannot explain it, as Mr. Clayton 
seems to think, " upon the assumption Of a? higher mean tem- 
perature of the air-column within the field of the cyclone :" how 
does he explain it upon the assumption of a lower mean temper- 
ature and heavier air-column ? He proposes his question with an 



- .v» •••. 



; 3. 



"TAtx 



4o 



[Vol. XVII. • No. 415 



air which would indicate that he had completely explained the 
phenomenon upon his theory, whereas there has never been even 
an attempt made to explain any thing by it. 

The law of gravitation, suggested by the fall of an apple, was 
withheld by Newton for a number of years, because, on account 
of incorrect data, it was not confirmed by observation. With the 
reserve and caution characteristic of a true philosopher, he 
thought it should be fully tried and tested first. But now we 
have a theory thrust upon us for our assent which has not 
been developed, and applied in the explanation of a single 
phenomenon in the local disturbances of the atmosphere; and 
yet I am censured for thinking that there has been entirely 
too much haste in the matter, and that it should first have been 
shown that it will at least account for a few of the observed 
atmospheric phenomena. Let the advocates of this theory, if it 
can be so called, take up the matter now, and show that it ac- 
counts for the phenomena as well as, or better than, the conden- 
sation theory. Let them give me a chance to look into the 
workings of this new theory. Wm. Fkrrel. 

Martinsburg, W. Va., Jan. 10. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 



Tytho Brake : a Picture of Scientific Life and Work in the 
Sixteenth Century. By J. L. E. Dreter. Edinburgh, Adam 
& Charles Black. 8°. (New York, Macmillan, $3.60.) 

This is a work of much value to students of the history of 
science. Tycho Brahe holds a prominent place in the annals of 
astronomy ; and he was, moreover, a member of the Danish 
nobility and a man of considerable means, with a wide circle of 
acquaintances and many opportunities for travel. Hence his life 
was more dramatic and fuller of incident than the lives of 
scientific men usually are ; and Professor Dreyer has here related 
it in an interesting way. The book is well written, with great 



care in collecting and sifting the facts, and with an evident desire 
to be just to all parties. The early life and studies of Tycho are 
described somewhat briefly ; but a full account is given of fafs 
early attempts at astronomical observation and of the endowments 
given him by King Frederick II. to enable him to pursue his 
chosen work. The Island of Hveen, which was assigned him to 
hold during the king's pleasure, became the scene of his most im- 
portant discoveries ; and the income it afforded, together with 
certain other revenues placed at his disposal by his royal friend 
and patron, enabled him to hire assistants and to prosecute his 
work vigorously for many years. But after the death of Fred- 
erick the authorities were lees favorable to Tycho ; so that at last 
his endowments were taken from him, and he left Denmark for 
a new field of labor under the German emperor at Prague. Pro- 
fessor Dreyer gives a very good description of the Island of Hveen, 
and the facilities available there for astronomical work, and then 
endeavors to explain how aod why Tycho Brahe lost his position 
there, — a misfortune due quite as much to Tycho's own faults 
as to the disfavor of the authorities. His new station at Prague 
is also well described ; and one of the most interesting passages 
, in the book is that relating the meeting of the veteran Tycho with 
the young Kepler, an event of such significance in the develop- 
ment of science. Indeed, this meeting was the most important 
result of Tycho's residence at Prague, which was soon terminated 
by bis death in his fifty-fifth year. 

Of Tycho Brahe's scientific achievements, Professor Dreyer 
gives a full and detailed account. He was an observer rather 
than a thinker, and his biographer thinks that his observations 
could hardly have been surpassed in accuracy but for the inven- 
tion of the telescope. The instruments he employed, many of 
which were devised by him, are described with some minuteness, 
and the importance of his observations as a basis for the theories 
of Kepler and Newton is clearly shown. Tycho's most important 
labors, in Professor Dreyer's opinion, were those relating to the 



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January 16, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



41 



movements of the moon and the planets, his catalogue 6T a 
thousand stars, and his observations of comets, which were the 
means of refuting Aristotle's opinion that these bodies belonged 
to our atmosphere. Considerable space is devoted to Tycho's 
work in astrology, to which he gave much attention, and in 
which his faith, though not as enthusiastic as that of some men, 
was never abandoned. Altogether, Professor Dreyer's work is 
worthy of its theme, and will hold an honorable place among 
biographies of scientific men. 

Introduction to the Study of Federal Government. By Albert 
Bushnbll Hart. (Harvard Historical Monographs, No. 2). 
Boston, Ginn. 8°. $1 net. 

We noticed the first of these monographs a short time since, 
and we are now glad to receive the second. It is only an intro- 
ductory work, forming a pamphlet of two hundred pages, and the 
author tells us in his preface that it is to be followed in due time 
by an extended treatise on the same subject ; yet it is of real value 
in itself. Professor Hart opens his work with a discussion of the 
nature of federation and of the various types of federal govern- 
ment that are known in history, — a discussion that shows a clear 
view of the questions involved, and considerable power of phil- 
osophic thought. He next proceeds to a brief but very clear ac- 
count of the ancient and medieval confederations from the first 
conception of the federal idea among the Greeks to the Holy 
Roman Empire, then gives a description of the four great existing 
federations, — those of the United States, Switzerland, Germany, 
and Canada, — and closes with a short chapter on the Latin- 
American federations, in which he has no great confidence The 
monograph is written in a good style, and shows throughout not 
only a careful study of the facts, but also the fruits of thought 
and meditation, which are not always found in American historical 
writings. Besides the text of the work, there is a long and 
elaborate appendix, containing a conspectus of the four chief ex- 



isting federations mentioned above, arranged in parallel form, and 
giving the provisions of each of the four constitutions on every 
important point. This appendix thus presents a large amount of 
information in a form convenient for reference ; and there is also 
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Altogether, the pamphlet is a creditable one ; and historical 
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[Vol. XVII. No. 415 



CALENDAR OF SOCIETIES. 
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structor in the sciences in some school or 
college. Chemistry a specialty. Would like to hear 
of some position with a private or manufacturing 
chemist, in which his knowledge of chemistry would 
help him. Address E. E. TOWNE, B.A., 272 worth 
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income for the purchase of books for the Mu- 
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■ ■■■■ — !■■■■ y. ■ - ■ ■—!■■■■ ■, ,. ■ . 

COULD some one inform me what the Ingredients 
and origin of asphalt as used for street-paying 
and gathered at Trinidad are f Also how gathered 
and shipped by natives, and mode of refining by the 
Warren-Scharf Co. of New York and the Barber Co. 
of Washington? G. ENIPER, 28 Gunn Block, Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

Exchanges. 

("Free of charge to all, if of satisfactory character. 
Address N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New 
York.l • 

1 would like lo exchange first six vols. Roscoe and 
Schorleminer's Chemistry, and Vols. II. and III. of "Ed- 
ucation " for American Naturalist for 188$ and 1800, or 
works (D Zudlogy. C. Dwight Matsh, Kipon College, 
Ripon, Wis. 

I have a go d supply of Eastern Coleoptera which I 
wish to exchange for specie* not in my collection. Mel- 
andryidal and Oedemendal especially desired. Joe C. 
Thompson, Rosebank P. O., Box 73, S. I. 

I wish to exchange Eastern Lepid-ptera for those that 
I do not have, particularly those foand in the South. 
Jos. F. Crandall, Honetdale. Wayne Co., Fa. 

To exchange, 1800 Seeger and Guernsey Cyclopedia, 
containing a complete list of the manufactu e* and pro- 
ducts of the U. S. t and address of first hands, cost $6. 
David F. Lewis, Saybrook, 111. 

For exchange— Nice specimens of Unios alatus, trigo- 
nu%, parvus, occidens, anadontoides gibbosus, rectus, veru- 
cosut , gracilis coccineus, ventricasus, multiphcatus and 
plicatus cornutus. Margantana confrogosa, tomplanata, 
rugosa. Anadonta ed en tula, decora^ corpulenta, and 
about 300 of the beautiful Ana. suborbiculata. Wanted: 
Unios from all parts of the world, and sea-shells. Ad- 
dress Dr. W. S. Strode, Beraadotte, 111. 



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THE MEDICAL PRESS ON KOCH'S CURE. 

The Epidemic of Kochism. 

The fact that the new and untried method of Koch pro- 
duced an immediate and world-wide sensation is perhaps not 
to be wondered at, but it furnishes nevertheless a very inter- 
esting study. What might, for present purposes, be called 
the epidemic of Kochism, first appeared in Berlin at the time 
of the International Congress, but remained local and dor- 
mant for about three months, when it suddenly spread with 
increasing force and great rapidity; taking roughly the same 
course as the epidemic of influenza a year ago. It appeared 
in America, however, before it did in France, perhaps owing 
to the more positive and far-reaching ubiquity of our press. 
It has only lately begun to be felt in the far East and South. 
It is yet too early to say how long it will last, but it shows 
signs of waning in Germany. A well-marked feature of the 
epidemic is a sudden revival when the first consignments of 
" Kochine " reach a given locality. Members of the medical 
profession are generally attacked a little later than the laity, 
and ofteu escape altogether, except when brought into the 
vicinity of newly arrived Kochine. Kochism produces cer- 
tain typical symptoms in members of the medical profession 
who are unfortunate enough to be afflicted with the malady, 
but our study is limited to the laity, and in fact to one class 
of sufferers. The effects of the epidemic on the laity differ, 
and show marked characteristics in different classes, especially 
among newspaper reporters, members of phthisical families, 
and irregular practitioners, among whom, by careful search, 
may be found symptoms which are respectively ludicrous, 
pathetic, and disreputable. — Boston Medical and Surgical 
Journal, Jan. 15, 1891. 

The Koch Remedy for Tuberculosis. 

It is now about two months since Koch made the announce- 
ment of his "remedy" for tuberculosis, and it may be said 
to have had a fair opportunity to show what i^would ac- 
complish. Of course, there has not been time toSp^ujes 
without possibility of recurrence, — years might not sumro 
for this, — but there has been plenty of time to show if it 
could produce improvement of steadily progressive character, 
and furnish ground for hope that eventually some form of 
tuberculosis would be, in a fair sense of the term, cured 
through its influence upon the human economy. Unfortu- 
nately, after all, it is impossible to say that the lymph can 
be relied upon for any of the purposes indicated by Koch in 
his first announcement. It is not a trustworthy means of 
diagnosis, nor a reliable remedy for any form of tuberculosis; 
while experience has demonstrated that it is dangerous when 
used either for diagnosis or for treatment. Professor Virchow, 
who has been making investigations on the lymph treatment, 



last week asserted, after twenty-one post-mortem examina- 
tions of patients who had died after injection, that the Koch 
method is not what had been hoped or claimed for it, and 
that there can be no permanent benefit from it to the patient. 
The tubercle bacilli, he says, are not killed by the lymph, but 
are only driven out to take lodgement elsewhere. Thus, 
according to his theory, tuberculous affections, while they 
may disappear from one part of the body, break out in other 
places in as discouraging a form as ever. To this we may 
add that the phenomena of certain cases, in which it has been 
asserted that unsuspected tuberculosis of the lungs had been 
revealed by treatment with the lymph, warrant the belief 
that the lymph may set up a tuberculous process in persons, 
entirely free from disease. — Medical and Surgical Reporter, 
Jan. 17, 1891. 

Virchow and Koch. 

There is probably no one living whose opinions are listened 
to with the same respect as are those of Virchow, who has 
been so correctly called the " father of modern pathology." 
The statements of this eminent man are also particularly in- 
teresting when they concern the new method of treating 
tuberculosis, and become stijl more important when they 
seem in any way opposed to the almost ecstatic reports of the 
physicians who have used the mystic liquid in Germany and 
elsewhere. The statements of Virchow, which are published 
in the Extra attached to this number of the Medical News, 
show that a possibility exists of a sad curtailment of our 
hopes for the relief of the " white plague," and emphasize 
the fact, that, do what we will, the mortality must go on 
unimpeded to a very great extent. — Medical News, Jan. 
17, 1891. 

The Lymph and its Re-actions. 

The publication of Professor Koch regarding the compo- 
sition of the lymph, considering the great expectations which 
have been aroused concerning it, is rather disappointing 
than otherwise. Aside from the mention of the ingredients 
contained in the fluid, we are in little, if any, better condi- 
tion as to the possibility of its production in our own labora* 
taJM^an we were before. Still the information, as far as 
i^^ixsPt W *U a( ^ mucn interest to the study of the results 
of lymph treatment in their relations to the supposed causes 
of their production : in other words, we are so much the better 
enabled to think for ourselves, and so much the more en- 
couraged to work in accumulating data by which the new 
theory must stand or fall. We are making enough progress 
in the latter direction to take courage accordingly, and hope 
for the best in the direction of eventually settling many of 
the mooted points of a startling revolutionary doctrine. 

Much of the interest of our investigations has centred upon 
the value of the re-actions, general and local, as diagnostic 
of tuberculosis in various parts of the body. Although the 



44 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 41 & 



re-actionary phenomena have been quite uniform, they have 
proved to he far from absolutely so. 

Then as to the supposed mode of action of the lymph in 
destroying tuberculous tissue, or scattering the bacilli, there 
is opportunity for much difference in opinion. The doctrine 
of specific action is losing rather than gaining ground in the 
light of present clinical experience here and abroad. For- 
tunately, the autopsies have been few, and pathological op- 
portunities have been limited. So far, there have been few 
lesions peculiar and striking enough to show any direct re- 
lations of cause and effect in the use of the remedy. Many 
observers have noted no changes whatever in tuberculous 
joints opened by surgical operation after the lymph has done 
its re-actionary work, while others have described degenera- 
tive changes which may or may not have existed before the 
inoculation' treatment was commenced. The examinations 
of lung lesions have shpwn equally various conditions from 
that of limited areas of injection around decomposing tuber- 
cular masses, as usually seen in cases under ordinary treat- 
ment, to that of extensive infiltration of neighboring tissue. 
The latter phenomena have been described also in con- 
nection with tubercular diseases of the larynx, where suffo- 
cation has been thereby threatened, and particularly in cases 
of lupus, in which the turgidity of surrounding parts has 
been almost the rule, and has been associated with incrusta- 
tion of the surface. 

While such effects confirm the predictions of Professor 
Koch regarding local re-actions, and encourage further 
study, we have as yet made no notable progress in ultimately 
curing tuberculosis, or in proving that the lymph acts differ- 
ently from any other substance containing an active albu- 
minoid substance capable of producing systemic poisoning 
with local manifestations. Theorizing on this basis, it would 
be legitimate to assume that any organic poison similar to 
that which the lymph contains would attack most strongly 
a weakened body, such as we find in tuberculous patients. 
The parts invaded by a degenerative disease, and necessarily 
most lacking in vitality, would be the first to be affected. 
As a consequence, strong re-actions might easily occur in 
the shape of increased local congestions and infiltrations, 
with the usual attendant phenomena of a!n augmented gen- 
eral febrile disturbance. ' From such a standpoint it may not 
be difficult to understand how the tuberculous tissue as such 
might be killed independently of any elective action of the 
lymph. 

At best, we must admit that the simple destruction of the 
diseased tissue, even if such can always be assured, is but a 
part of a very complex process of cure for tuberculous dis- 
ease. Something more is required than mere injections and 
resulting re-actions. 

While we may congratulate ourselves that we have even 
progressed thus far, we have scarcely taken more than a first 
step. Much more difficult tasks are the safe eliminaJJMiprf 
the rapid local decomposition occasioned by the lympB^md 
the subsequent reparation of the invaded parts. Already we 
are told that in cases of tuberculous joints and glands relief 
can be obtained ultimately by surgical measures only. 

What becomes of the bacilli which are not directly 
affected by the lymph treatment is a question of considera- 
ble importance. The statement of Virchow, that when they 
are routed they are scattered in adjoining sound tissue, is 
doubtless backed by a careful and intelligent study of post- 
mortem appearances. Until, however, more definite facts 
than those already offered are given, it will be well to sus- 
pend judgment. — Medical Record* Jan. 17, 1891. 



TREES IN LONDON. 

From a sanitary point of view, it is generally held that trees are 
useful, though some maintain that near houses they are often 
harmful from their shutting out sunlight. Whatever may be the 
relative value of different views put forward, observations made 
within the last few years seem to establish the fact that within a 
five- mile circle from Charing Cross the amount of foliage is de- 
creasing. Many of the main roads leading out of London have 
been planted with trees, and, largely through the influence of the 
Metropolitan Public Gardens Association, many open spaces havs 
been beautified by foliage. But while the number of trees placed 
on public ground is increasing, both the number, and, through very 
close lopping, the siz6, of trees on private ground, are decreasing; 
and the gains are far outbalanced by the losses. 

The losses may be grouped under two heads : — 

1. The cutting down of trees completely. This is mostly due to 
clearances for building; and within the five-mile circle the de- 
struction of 4 trees in pasture-lands is small, compared with the 
breaking-up of gardens. In many parts houses standing in from 
one to two acres of ground are demolished for rows, or closely 
packed semi-detached villas, and the gardens are destroyed to 
make way for them. Recent changes in the Heme Hill district 
are a good typical example of this. Where three years ago there 
were around country houses grounds rich with timber and fruit 
trees, are now roads closely built on either side, with a few square 
yards of front that might be effectively treated with tiles and 
small pattern " carpet bedding," but are not large enough for trees* 
Instances of this kind might be quoted from many districts around 
London. Again, the older roads of villas, that had some twenty- 
five to forty feet of garden between the front door and the gate, 
with more at the back, are in all parts little by little being bought 
up to make streets which have their frontage flush with the pave- 
ment, or a depth of some three to four feet, at the, most, railed 
off. The miles of plain fronted brick terraces built from seventy 
to one hundred years ago are (probably as the leases* run out) 
being replaced by rows with their front doors leading directly 
from the pavement. Architecturally there may be an improve- 
ment; but the gardens, which average about thirty feet in length, 
are lost. Front gardens are gradually disappearing from London, 
and with them go the trees that used to make the public ways so 
cbangefully pleasant from bright spring to rich tinted autumn. 

2. In districts where gardens remain, there is a large increase 
in the cutting-down and close lopping of trees. It is difficult to 
assign the cause for this; but whatever the explanation, the fact 
remains that the trees, instead of being annually pruned, are sud- 
denly lopped, till, in hundreds of cases, they are reduced to a 
trunk and a foot or two, or a few inches, of branch-stumps. Few 
trees grow symmetrically except when isolated, and even then 
prevailing winds have their influence; and in towns rows of build- 
ings have an effect similar to copses and hill contours in protec- 
tion. And in many cases around London there may be seen trees 
so carefully tended from year to year that they but little overhang 
flower-beds, grow well above the pavement, and yet do not look 
unnaturally distorted. 

Many fine elms and spreading poplars and acacias may be seen, 
their trunks covered with ivy. or other creepers, and the lower 
branchea^arefully removed, so that sunlight falls on the small 
gapdef^and the lower rooms have light. It would seem that 
want of management while trees are young is one of the causes of 
ignorant lopping being resorted to; and another, that forest-trees 
have been planted where fine-leaved and small- habit trees would 
have been more appropriate. 

It can be easily observed that the increasing number of public 
trees are periodically attended to, while private trees are disap- 
pearing piecemeal, or being entirely swept away. London has, in 
the last few years, gained in planted open places ; but the acreage 
does not equal the small lawns, grass-plots, shrubs, and trees lost. 



A general exhibition of the Kingdom of Bohemia is to be 
held this year at Prague, this being the centennial jubilee of the 
first trades exhibition on the continent at Prague, in 1791. The 
exhibition will last from May until the 15th of October, 1891. 



January 23, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



45 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

%• Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name 
is in all oases required as proof of good faith. 

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character 
of the journal. 

On request, twenty copies of the number containing his communication will 
be furnished free to any correspondent. 

The Flight of Birds. 

One would suppose that there could be little difference of 
opinion in regard to such fundamental principles of avian flight 
as the direction in which the down- stroke of the wings is deliv- 
ered, and the relative positions to a horizontal plane of the anterior 
and posterior margins of the wings during this and the up-stroke. 
Nevertheless the other day I was completely astounded at some 
ideas expressed in " Animal Locomotion ; or, Walking, Swimming, 
and Flying," by G. Bell Pettigrew, M.D., F.R S., F.R S.E., 
F.R.C.P.E., and connected with several other scientific and edu- 
cational institutions (International Scientific Series, 1888). 

Never having happened to see any review or remarks upon this 
remarkable work, I am in ignorance of how it has been received 
by the scientific world. To me it appears so completely illogical 
in parts, that I cannot refrain from presenting these remarks ; so 
that, if I be as completely mistaken as to me appears to be this 
author, some one may kindly put me aright, that my ignorance 
of some fundamental points of aerostatics and animal mechanism 
may not vitiate my further observations in this line. It is with 
considerable diffidence that I venture to advance my opinion 
against that of one who has spent some twenty years upon the 
subject, and who, judging by the position that he occupies, cer- 
tainly should be capable of coming to satisfactory conclusions on 
the subject; but my utter inability, after considerable study of 
the matter, to admit the possibility of what is given as the main 
principle of avian flight, induces me to bring the matter for- 
ward. 

I will put the case in the author's own words, here as elsewhere, 
with his Italics (p. 197): " Reasons why the effective stroke should 
be delivered downwards and forwards. — The wings of all birds, 
whatever their form, act by alternately presenting oblique and 
comparatively non-oblique surfaces to the air, — the mere exten- 
sion of the pinion, as has been shown, causing the primary, sec- 
ondary, and tertiary feathers to roll down till they make an angle 
of 80° or so with the horizon, in order to prepare it for giving the 
effective stroke, which is delivered with great rapidity and energy, 
in a downward and forward direction." My first impression was 
that such a movement would drive the bird upwards and back- 
wards, and subsequent study of the subject only makes me the 
more positive of this. Theoretically I believe that any body sus- 
pended in a fluid medium will tend to move in a direction opposite 
to that in which the medium is forced by the members of that 
body. Take a wing of a bird and vibrate it rapidly, as its move- 
ments are described by Dr. Pettigrew, before the flame of a candle, 
and we shall find that the flame is driven downward and for- 
ward. 

On p. 95 we are told, " In the water the wing, when most effec- 
tive, strikes downwards and backwards, and acts as an auxiliary 
of the foot ; whereas in the air it strikes downwards and forwards." 
I fail to see why a movement that produces locomotion in one 
direction in water should be reversed in the air to produce locomo- 
tion in the same direction ; and my mystification is incret&ed when 
I read on p. 108, " Flight may also be produced by a very oblique 
and almost horizontal stroke of the wing, as in some insects, e.g., 
the wasp, blue-bottle, and other flies," for here I am left in 
doubt whether opposite directions of applying the wing produce 
the same direction of locomotion, or 'whether I am to believe that 
an * k almost horizontal stroke of the wing" forwards produces a 
forward movement of the body. For the present I am inclined to 
believe neither the one nor the other. Again, on p. 204, in the 
explanation of Fig. 107, we read, " The Red-headed Pochard 
(Fuligula ferina, Linn.) in the act of dropping upon the water; 
the head and body being inclined upwards and forwards, the feet 
expanded, and the wings delivering vigorous short strokes in a 
downward and forward direction. — Original." The questions 
presented to my mind by this are these : " Does the duck really 
wish to increase its speed just before alighting upon the water, or 



does the fact of the^strokes being 'vigorous short strokes' diamet- 
rically change their effect on the body from what would be pro- 
duced by leisurely short strokes or vigorous long strokes?" I 
imagine that if the bird were in its right mind it would wish to 
check its course, — in other words, to give an upward and back- 
ward impulse to its body before coming in contact with the water, — 
and I should approve of its giving downward and forward strokes 
to its wings in order to accomplish this end. 

Many other of Dr. Pettigrew's illustrations, both pictorial and 
verbal, also do violence to my ideas without convincing m# : in 
fact, I seem to see exactly the opposite in them to what he has 
found. For instance : in Figs. 53 and 54, illustrating the action 
of the wing, the hinder edge of the wing must be below the 
anterior on the up-stroke and above it on the down-stroke, which 
is exactly the reverse of what he tells us occurs in flight. On pp. 
156 and 157 we read, " It is a condition of natural wings; and of 




PIG. 1 (PIG. 81 IN ORIGINAL). 

artificial wings constructed on the principle Of living wings, that 
when forcibly elevated and depressed, even in a strictly vertical 
direction, they inevitably dart forward. This is well shown in 
Fig. 81. If, for example, the wing is suddenly depressed in a 
vertical direction, as represented at a 6, it at once darts down- 
wards and forwards in a curve to c, thus converting the vertical 
down-stroke into a down oblique forward stroke. If, again, the 
wing be suddenly elevated in a strictly vertical direction, as at 
c d, the wing as certainly darts upwards and forwards in a curve 
to e, thus converting the vertical up-stroke into an upward oblique 
forward stroke. The same thing happens when the wing is de- 
pressed from e to/, and elevated from g to h." Admitted. But 
the posterior margin of the wing must be elevated during this 
movement, or one of two things must take place. If this margin 
be depressed, the wing will move in a contrary direction; i.e., 
backwards and downwards. If this does not take place, then 
force must be used which will cause an appreciable upward and 




* i 



PIG. 2 (PIG. 110 IN ORIGINAL). 

backward recoil to the band moving the wing. In the same way 
the posterior margin of the wing will be lower than the anterior 
instead of above it, as the author states, during the upward stroke 
of the wing. Also I had imagined that the buoyancy and pro- 
gression of a bird depended on the resistance that the wing en- 
countered. If it be allowed to move in the plane of least re- 
sistance, it will move forward while the body remains stationary; 
whereas if not allowed to move forward, or forced slightly back- 
ward, then, and only then, can a forward impulse be given to the 
body. I might cite my personal observations of the movements 
of the wings of flying birds against the observations of Dr. Petti- 
grew ; but in that case he would have in his favor the longer 
length of time during which his observations have taken place. 

To draw the discussion to a close, which, if I am in the wrong, 
has sufficiently exposed my ignorance, I will call attention to Fig. 
116. On p. 281 we read, " Instead of the two wings forming one 



4 6 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 4»6 



cone, the base of which is directed forwards, each wing of itself 
forms two cones, the bases of which are directed backwards and 
outwards, as shown at Fig. 116. In this figure the action of the 
wing is compared to the sculling of an oar, to which it bears con- 
siderable resemblance. 1 The one cone, tub., that with its base 
directed outwards, is represented at x b d. This cone corresponds 
to the area mapped out by the tip of the wing in the process of 
Elevating. The second cone, viz., that with its base directed back- 
wards, is represented atqpn. This cone corresponds to toe area 
mapped out by the posterior margin of the wing in the process of 
propelling. The two cones are produced in virtue of the wing 
rotating on its root and along its anterior margins as it ascends 
and descends (Fig. 80, p. 149; Fig. 88, p. 168). The present figure 
(116) shows the double twisting action of the wing, the tip de- 
scribing the figure of 8 indicated abefghdijkl; the pos- 
terior margins describing the figure of 8 indicated at p r n." 
We readily see that the cone xbdis formed by the downward or 

* elevating stroke, the wing passing from a b to x 8 and cd. It is 
an elevating power both because of the direct lifting-power of the 
wing from abtoxs, and because of the action of the two wings 
on the wedge or cone of air formed by the line e d and its corre- 
spondent of the opposite side. In this case the wing is in each of 
its positions extended on the lines ab t xs, and c d. But I can't 
as readily explain the cone qp n. That this transverse section of 
the wing does not run parallel to the lines op, qr, and tn n if its 
edge be turned downward on the down-stroke and upward on the 
up-stroke, is evident. The down-stroke is the propelling one. Let us 
see how it produces the cone. I have added the line 1 2 to the figure 
to represent the position of a transverse section of the wing during 

• its downward course. As we have been told that the primaries, sec- 
ondaries, etc., roll down into this position upon the wing being ex- 
tended, and as the wing is extended nearly at or upon the commence- 
ment of the down-stroke, we find that the plane of this section cuts 
the line op at an angle of about 60°, the line q r at an angle of 
aoout 80°, and only becomes parallel to win. Then here, as else- 
where, I have shown, we have very opposite causes producing the 
same effect. Now, let us see wliat really would be the result of 
this. We are told that the wing works upon compressed air, that 
"it produces a whirlwind of its own upon which it acts," etc. 
Let qp n represent, then, the cone of compressed air. The wing 
1 2, cutting into this cone at the angle which it does, will of ne- 
cessity be forced backwards towards the base p rn r instead of 
gliding along op, as it would were its posterior margins elevated 
so that its plane lay in the direction op. The same state of 
affairs, only reversed, would take place during the upward stroke 
vof the wing. 

In this discussion I have considered the wing as having a flat 
Surface. That it is somewhat screw-shaped, i.e., twisted upon its 
axis, does not altar, so far as I can see, any of the principles here 
involved. It appears to me that during all of the discussion of 
flight Dr. Pettigrew has entirely failed to distinguish the difference 
between an active and a passive organ. In the inclination of the 
wings he has reasoned as though the air was acting on the wings 
instead of the opposite state of affairs, which occurs in active 
flight, where the wings act upon the air. 

There are numerous other points in aerial, aqueous, and terres- 
trial locomotion where I cannot help thinking that our author has 
erred ; but, as none of them involve such fundamental principles 
as have here been discussed, I will not now allude to them. 

Hbnbt L. Wabd. 

Tacubaya, D.P., Mex., Deo. 80, 1890. 



The American Idea of Architecture . 

The statement in a recent issue of the Record and Guide, that 
the dominant conditions of American architecture " are not those 
that make for the greatest beauty, or for the highest health, or 
for charm, but for the largest return in cash," is a most alarming 
indication of the estimation in which architecture is held in this 
country. Coming from so eminent a source, it carries additional 
weight, and shows very clearly that even those who by profession 

*♦ » In sculling, strictly speaking, It is the upper surface of the oar which la 
most effective, whereas in flying it is the under." 



are nominally responsible for all that is great or good, poor or 
indifferent, in the important art of architecture, have given up 
hope of elevating it to the broader platform which it occupied in 
past times; and surely, if the doctors have admitted the patient 
incurable, it is obviously unwise for an outsider to maintain the 
contrary. 

This utterance of the Record and Guide is an admission from 
exalted quarters that in architecture all considerations must be 
sunk save those of dollars and cents. It shows, what indeed, may 
be gathered any day in a brief walk through almost any street of 
our chief cities, that the idea, of art quality, of utility, of the 
natural effects of the environment, and many similar causes whose 
influence is to be traced in all the good architecture of previous 
periods, are quite wanting in the art of the present day and gen- 
eration. It is an indication of indifference to every thing but cost, 
of measuring art values and art qualities by the price per square 
inch, or, which is much the same thing, by the revenue per square 
foot, — most necessary to keep in mind, but altogether improper 
in judging of architectural merits. The point to be remembered 
is not the falseness of this criterion, not its absurdity, but the 
candid admission by an undisputed authority that it is the cardinal 
principle in American architecture, and that it is useless to con- 
tend against it. And, indeed, it might well be so; for if this idea 
has become firmly rooted in the minds of those who are concerned 
with architecture, who are erecting buildings as well as designing 
them, it is impossible to look for any better results than we have 
already obtained. 

There is not only a popular misconception that architecture is a 
matter of cost, but also that it is concerned chiefly with the ex- 
teriors of buildings, and is not a science of plan, convenience, use, 
and similar influences. It is not the least surprising that a people 
who view their architecture through the medium of price should 
believe that the whole of it should be visible to the world at large 
in the exterior of their structures. That the American public is 
prone to judge of architecture by external aesthetic qualities is 
quite evident from the recent exhibition of the Architectural 
League in New York. This body is composed of the leading 
architects in the city, and its work is naturally the product of the 
best architectural culture in the country. Its annual exhibitions 
are looked upon by that section of the public interested in the 
serious treatment of architectural ideas as authoritative indica- 
tions of whatever progress may have been made in American 
architecture during each year. Certainly the personnel of this 
society, and' the names of those who send their work to its exhi- 
bitions, are sufficient justification for the estimation in which it is 
held. The exhibition that has just closed cannot be viewed as at 
all satisfactory to the public it was designed to instruct ; and this, 
not because the work shown was of an inferior quality, not be- 
cause it was lacking in firm, intelligent treatment, or was deficient 
in ideas, but because the drawings consisted solely of exteriors 
and picturesque effects. 

It is not in the least critical of the work shown, to remark, that, 
in confining itself to these aspects of architecture, this important 
body of American architects has given its formal sanction to the 
idea that if a building looks well, all has been done that is need- 
ful to make it good architecture. On no other grounds does it 
appear possible to explain the predominance of exteriors in this 
collection. It is to be admitted that the artistic treatment of 
exteriors is one of the most important problems the architect has 
to deal with ; but it is only one, and architecture has to do with 
many. It is not unreasonable to insist that it is quite as important 
to cover a given area well as to erect a fagade that extends up- 
wards into space for any desired distance. There is, Jjowever, a 
widely extended opinion that architecture is a matter of outaides, 
and is not at all of what is within. The outlook for American 
architecture is, in truth, discouraging when such a view receives 
the official support of an eminent body of architects. 

It is not to be supposed that so advanced a journal as the 
Record and Guide should be backward in presenting the same idea. 
In a late issue it gave a review of the work done on the west side 
of New York, the seat of the most active building operations in 
the metropolis, in which, out of sixty-four illustrations, forty-nine 
were of exleriors, twelve bits of interiors, and three plans. It 



January 23, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



47 



would seem to be indisputable, then, that the American people 
are satisfied with their buildings if the outeides are good-looking. 
The structures illustrated in the Record and Guide include private 
residences, apartment-houses, hotels, warehouses, and churches, 
any one of which must have required some ingenuity in arrange- 
ment of plan, and have had some interesting constructive details, 
but they are carefully hidden from those who should be interested 
in these essential portions of architecture. 

These indications of the tendency of American architecture 
show very clearly where the error is. The needs of the public are 
heeded in almost every phase of modern life and thought. The 
manufacturer and the shop-keeper, not less than the editor and 
the artist, are continually on the lookout for what the public 
wants, and hasten to supply them as soon as manifested. The 
public evidently want only exteriors in architecture. Plans, use, 
environment, and other matters which were once pre-eminent in 
the art, are now at a discount. Until the popular mind frees itself 
from such erroneous ideas, it will be impossible for the arc to make 
any progress. It is well to remember that the general public which 
is satisfied with such things is more to blame for their continuance 
than the architects who prepare the designs ; but it is a serious 
retrogression when the architects join the popular movement, and 
give their assent and support to it by catering to its most objec- 
tionable features. Bake Ferbbe. 

School of Architecture, University of Pennsylvania, Jan. 8. 



Cyclones and Anticyclones. 



It seems to me that the discussion in regard to the origin of 
cyclones and anticyclones that has been in progress in Science and 
other journals for several months past opens up a question that 
has so long been regarded as settled, that it seems impossible to look 
upon it as being in doubt. It is, in short, as to whether gravitation 
is the chief cause of movements of the air. Barometric observa- 
tions have directed attention so forcibly to the relative weights of 
columns of air in storm-centres and elsewhere, that it has been 
assumed as a matter of course that the pressure gradients thus 
made manifest are the occasion of the horizontal movement ap- 
parent as wind. If this be the true explanation, in order that 
such horizontal movement may continue, it is necessary that there 
be a corresponding vertical movement, and that it be sustained by 
adequate renewal of the buoyancy of the air in the proper locali- 
ties. This renewal of buoyancy can only be accomplished, so far 
as our knowledge at present extends, by heating. But now we 
are informed as a matter of fact that the air at anticyclonic 
centres descends in spite of its being warmer at an elevation, and 
in like manner above cyclonic centres fails to descend, although 
colder than at the surface of the earth. This certainly opens up 
the entire question as to whether there is ascensional movement 
at storm-centres commensurate with the extent and velocity of 
the winds blowing horizontally, and supposed to be due to an in- 
draught ; or, in other words, whether gravitation really plays the 
part that has been tacitly assigned to it, or whether it must be 
relegated to a subordinate position. Personally I am very glad 
indeed that a discussion having such bearings has come up at this 
particular juncture, because it has increased very decidedly my 
interest in following certain clews that look promising in regard 
to the effects of variations of the earth's magnetic condition as a 
whole. M. A. Veedeb. 

Lyons, N.Y., Jan. 6. 



Dr. Hann and the Condensation Theory of Storms. 

The time has not yet come for a review of the various discus- 
sions upon this subject that have been published during the past 
four years. I doubt if there has ever been a better illustration, in 
the history of meteorology, of the absolute necessity there exists 
of appealing to observations in order to establish intricate theories, 
than the recent discussions on the reversal of temperature in our 
storms and •' highs," which is but another way of putting the 
problem before us. In this very line Professor Davis says (Science, 
Jan. 2), " Records of temperature made on high mountain-peaks 
furnish the best means of testing the convectional theory of 
cyclones ; for, even if all other tests were successfully borne, failure 



under this test would be fatal to the theory. 9 * This statement of 
the case should be received with a little caution, however, because 
the presence of the mountain must be a modifying cause, and 
oftentimes there are cases in which some part of the storm, or 
high, has its action below the mountain-peaks (I have found this 
true especially at Pike's Peak) ; but the larger commotions of the 
atmosphere may be profitably studied at such points. 

In carrying out my studies on this problem, I have invariably 
sought for help from the original records, which are now so abun- 
dant at Mount Washington, Pike's Peak, and at many high sta- 
tions in Europe, and I have massed thousands of observations 
bearing on the question. The first publication of these studies 
was in the American Meteorological Journal of August, 1886, in 
which I showed that the temperature observations at the base and 
summit of Pic du Midi, in France, indicated a decided rise at both 
points on the approach of a storm. In October of the following 
year I showed by the observations at Mount Washington that in 
both storms and highs there was the same fluctuation at the sum- . 
mit as on the base, and that the mean temperature of the air-col- 
umn was ten to twelve degrees higher in storms, and the same 
amount lower in highs, than before or after the centre had passed. 

It seems to me that the crucial test in Dr. Hann's recent work, 
which nas attracted so much attention, must be the records at 
the mountain stations, and I believe that this will be insisted on 
by Dr. Hann himself as strongly as by any one. In fact, Dr. 
Hann has based all his work on his interpretation of the records. 



S ffi y n 



it is if *7 If 



Oct 



•fxo* 



-to 




*-/o 



TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS, 1889. 
Sonnblick, fall curve ; Salzburg, dotted curve. 

It seems to me that he has given altogether too much weight to a. 
few isolated cases, while he has ignored hundreds of cases which 
disprove his propositions. I have already shown in this journal 
for Sept. 5, 1890, that the evidence at Sonnblick is different only 
in degree from that in this country, and I have there explained 
how the peculiar results in the remarkable high of barometer, 1889 
(which, in fact, was the only one in three years exhibiting such 
discordances from the usual law), might be accounted for. I 
have now made a special study of the storm of Oct. 1, 1889, which 
Dr. Hann advanced as favoring his view, that the temperature in 
a storm falls as we rise in its centre, and at some height is lower 
than that of the surrounding region. The results of this investi- 
gation so remarkably corroborate my position, that I present a 
copy of the curves in order that others may see the exact state of 
the case. 

These curves are constructed as follows. The lower or full 
curve represents the temperature observation for each day at 
Sonnblick, 8,095 metres (10,154 feet), at 9 p.m., at which time very 
nearly the mean for the twenty-four hours occurs; and the upper 
or dotted curve shows the temperature at precisely the same time 
at Salzburg, just north of Sonnblick, at a height of 48? metres (1,484 
feet). I have given the curves from Sept. 18 to Oct. 5, including 
the storm of the 1st. It will be seen that there is a most remarka- 
ble accordance between these curves; almost every bending at the 
base is faithfully reproduced at the summit; and, if any thing, 
there is generally a greater fluctuation on the mountain than on 
the plain. This is not all, however. Examining the very date 
under discussion, Oct. 1, we find that at Sonnblick the tempera- 
ture began rising on Sept. 29, and in twenty-four hours had risen 



48 



/ 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 416 



4.2° C. (7.8° F.) ; in the next twenty-four hoars it fell 1.4° (2.6° F.), 
and then fell 8.2° (5.8° F.), or a fall of 8.3° F. in forty-eight hours. 
It seems to me that no more positive disproof of Dr. Hann's posi- 
' tion could be found than these very observations which have given 
rise to so much discussion. Here is the temperature higher in the 
centre of a storm than before and after it, both at base and sum- 
mit, exactly in accordance with theory, and directly opposed to 
Dr. Hann's position. 

Dr. Hann has tried to fortify his position by stating the fact 
that in this storm the average temperature was 4° C. below the 
thirty-years' normal, and this temperature was lower than that in 
a high nearly two months later. As I showed in this journal for 
June 6, 1890, '• the temperature in a vertical direction in a storm 
is not fixed, but may be ten degrees, or even more, lower than 
the average, and yet be many degrees above that of the surround- 
ing region. That the temperature in an October storm was lower 
than in a November high area is not in any wise remarkable." This 
position is exactly the one taken more recently by Professor Ferrel 
(Science, Dec. 19) ; so that we see that on all accounts Dr. Hann's 
position is entirely untenable, and his disproof of the condensa- 
tion theory, if it amounts to any thing, is a direct proof in its 
favor, as shown by the records. H. A. Hazen. 

Washington, Jan. 7. 



The Practicability of transporting the Negro back to Africa. 

A little more than a year ago there appeared in the columns 
of The Open Court of Chicago some very excellent articles upon 
the question as to the methods we should adopt in handling our 
African population in the future. There were two sides taken in 
the premises,— those in favor of making the attempt to assimilate 
this mighty host of millions of negroes we now have in our midst; 
and those in favor of sending him back to the land of his ancestors. 
In the opinion of the present writer, the most able of all these 
articles came from the pen of Professor Cope, and in the main we 
completely coincide with the views that that far-seeing thinker 
puts forth. • 

Professor Cope's reasons for returning the African to Africa 
are most cogent indeed, and are stated in a philosophic and mas- 
terly manner. He lifts himself far above the state of the case as seen 
by the short-sighted party politician, or the sentimental hopes of the 
idealist or philanthropist, and, calling history and science to his 
■aid, shows moat conclusively that we incur a great danger in 
quietly submitting to the continued presence of this race of people 
among us. It is not my object here to enlarge upon his ably 
stated argument, for he has shown with marked precision and 
strength the dangers of hybridization of the white and black races 
in this country, and the constantly disturbing element the negro is 
in our national organization. By far the greatest danger, how- 
ever, comes from the mixture of the two races ; and that such is 
now going on, one has to but study the population of a city like 
Washington to appreciate. 

It is to be most devoutly hoped that in the very near future the 
pressing necessity of taking early action in this matter will be 
fully recognized; and, when such comes to be the case, the prac- 
tical question will surely arise as to the best ways and means of 
accomplishing the transfer. Little has been written upon this 
point as yet, though we all know that the proper exercise of 
ability, of energy, and the use of sufficient money, will effect it. It 
seems to me that the first steps that should be taken are those of 
an organization of an extensive American expedition to Africa, to 
primarily report upon the best available areas for colonization, 
taking conditions of climate and for future improvement into con- 
sideration. Such an expedition would have many decided advan- 
tages; for, in addition to making a well-organized initial move for 
the removal of the negro to his proper home, it would give 
America an opportunity to reap the national benefits that flow 
from such exploration, — credit of a nature that we now stand 
greatly in need of, as our last African expedition was practically 
a puerile failure. Finally, it would give scientific employment to 
several of the huge and expensive battle- ships we are now con- 
structing, and for which there is no other especial employment in 
these days of peace, beyond an exhibition of power. 



The next step should be in the direction of constructing a suffi- 
cient number of comfortable and commodious steamers by means 
of which the transfer could be made; and upon their completion, 
the necessary national legislation should be promptly enacted that 
would efficiently result in the removal of every negro in this 
country to those parts of the African continent selected for them. 
The settlement for such personal properties as the comparatively 
few negroes could justly lay claim to in the United States could 
be easily settled. It would not create a circumstance aside 
similar financial problems that we have most promptly and satis- 
factorily solved in former times. 

We do not need the negro vote; we do not need his labor; and, 
least of all, do we need the injection of his lowly blood into our 
veins. On the other hand, " Darkest Africa'* can well stand, and 
with the greatest benefit, the introduction into her fertile valleys 
and upon her fair hillsides, of the very material she most requires 
to inaugurate her development; that is, several millions of the 
descendants of her people, which, for a century and a half, have 
enjoyed the tuition of the most highly civilized race upon the face 
of the globe. R. W. Shufeldt. 

Takoma, D.C., Jan. 2. 

["Letters to Editor" continued on p. 60.] 

NOTES AND NEWS. 

An exhibition at Orolier Club. 29 East 32d Street, New York, 
of books on alchemy and early chemistry belonging to Dr. H. C. 
Bolton, is announced to close Monday, Jan 26 ; open afternoons 
from two to six o'clock. 

* — Dr. Don Jose Nicolas Gutierrez, founder of the Cuban Academy 
of Medical, Physical, and Natural Sciences at Havana, died Dec. 
31, 1890, at the age of ninety. The rector of the university, and 
Professor Poey of the same, still live, — one at the age of ninety, 
the other ninety-one. 

— Owing to their greatly increased trade in New York, George 
L. Eoglish & Co., mineralogists, have leased rooms at 733 and 735 
Broadway (within three doors of their former location), in which 
they have more space than heretofore in their Philadelphia and 
New York stores combined. The consolidation of the two stores, 
and the formal transfer of the business, were made on Jan. 1. 
Mr. Ntven, a member of the firm, started Dec. 13 on another col- 
lecting-trip to the South-west and Mexico. 

— The question has been asked, " Does the weather of Kansas 
divide itself into seven-year wet and dry periods?*' Another 
question that has been asked, and it is an important one too, is, 
4 'Is the rainfall of Kansas increasing?" And it is the object of 
a paper by E. C. Murphy, C.E., Kansas University, Lawrence, 
Kan., to answer these questions as correctly as the rainfall rec- 
ords of the State will permit, in which he concludes from the 
record of the observations thus far taken, that the law of seven- 
year wet and dry periods does hold in Kansas, and also that the 
rainfall is steadily increasing in Kansas. 

— The next meeting of the American Branch of the Society for 
Psychical Research will be held at the Association Hall, corner of 
Berkeley and Boylston Streets, Boston, Mass.. on Tuesday, Jan. 27, 
at 8 P.M. The following papers will be read: " Report of Some 
Recent Experiments in Automatic Writing," by T. Barkworth, to 
be read by the secretary ; " Report of Some Sittings with Mrs. 
Piper in America," by R. Hodgson. No admittance except by 
ticket. Extra tickets may be obtained by members or associates 
on application to the secretary, Richard Hodgson, 5 Boylston 
Place, Boston, Mass. 

— Staff-Commander J. G. Boulton, R.N., who has, since the 
autumn of 1888, been engaged in a hy orographic survey of the 
Georgian Bay, during the past season completed a large propor- 
tion of the work yet remaining to be done, being that part of the 
east coast from Indian Islands to Moose Deer Point, and including 
the important harbor and approaches of Parry Sound. The part 
not yet completed comprises the south-east extremity of the bay, 
lying south-eastward of a line joining Moose Deer Point and Point 
Rich, of which the most important portion is Matchedash Bay. Two 
charts have just been issued by the British Admiralty, covering 
the work done by Capt. Boulton in 1889. One of these embraces 



January 23, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



49 



the coast from Collins Inlet to McCoy Islands, including the har- 
bors of French River, Byng Inlet, and Point au Baril. In conse- 
quence of the shoal water, low land, and innumerable islands in 
this sheet, navigation is very difficult, and the extremely broken 
character of the coast line shows the immense quantity of work 
involved in making a thorough survey of this district. The sec- 
ond chart referred to shows St. Joseph's Channel north of St. 
Joseph Island, and will be of great use to American as well as 
Canadian shipping. It includes the western limit of Capt. Boul- 
ton's work, the west extremity of the sheet connecting with the 
American Coast Survey charts. 

— At the meeting of the French Academy on Dec. 8, as we 
learn from Nature of Jan. 1, 1891, M. Mascart presented a work 
by Gen. A. de Tillo on the distribution of atmospheric pressure in 
the Russian Empire and Asia from 1886 to 1885. The work con- 
sists of an atlas of 69 charts, and a discussion of the monthly and 
annual values, as well as of the variability ot pressure, and the 
relations existing between the variations of pressure and those of 
temperature at 136 stations. The highest pressure quoted is 31.68 
inches (reduced to sea-level), in December, 1877, at Barnaoul; and 
this is stated to be the highest reading on record. But in the 
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society for July, 
1887, Mr*. C. Hardin* quoted, on the authority of Professor Loomis, 
a reading of 81.72 inches on Dec. 16, 1877, at Semipatalinsk. In 
Nature, vol. xxxv. p. 344, Mr. Blanford quoted the lowest read- 
ing on record at any land station, viz., 27.12 (reduced to English 
•standards) 1 , which occurred on Sept. 22, 1885, on the coast of Orissa. 
These readings give a difference of 4.6 inches, probably the max- 
imum range of the barometer ever observed at the earth's surface. 

— A microscopical study by Herr Schultz, of the skin of toads 
and salamanders, has yielded some interesting results. As stated 
in Nature, there are two kinds of glands, — mucus and poison 
glands. The former are numerous over the whole body ; while 
the latter are on the back of body and limbs, and there are groups 
in the ear-region behind the eye, and in the salamander at the 
angle of the jaw. The mucus-glands are spherical, have a clear, 
glassy appearance, and contain mucus-cells and mucus : the 
poison-glands, which are in regular strips on the salamander, are 
oval, much larger, and have a dark, granular look, from strongly 
refractive drops of poison, a good re-agent for which is copper- 
nsematoxylin. The poisonous elements are from epithelial cells 
lining the glands. The mncus-glands are for moistening the skin ; 
and the liquid has no special smell, nor a bitter or acid taste. 
The poison-glands are, of course, protective ; and the corrosive 
juice is discharged differently in toads and salamanders, on stim- 
ulating electrically. In the latter it is spirted out in a fine jet, 
sometimes more than a foot in length ; whereas in the toad, after 
longer action of the current, it exudes sparingly in drops. The 
physiological action of the poison has lately been studied by some 
Frenchmen. There is no reason, according to Herr Schultz, for 
supposing that the mucus-glands sometimes become poisonous. 

— At a meeting of the Biological Club of Columbus, O., Jan, 5, 
Professor Lazenby gave a report of the twenty-fourth annual 
meeting of the Ohio State Horticultural Society, recently held at 
Zanesville, saying that the principal interest seemed to centre in 
three subjects,— new varieties of fruits; the use of fungicides; 
and cross-fertilization, especially between the peach and cherry. 
It was the decision of fruit-growers present that for 'them the 
older, standard varieties are still much better than many of those 
of only recent advent in the horticultural world. For the para- 
sitic fungi, which do such great injury to many of our fruit-trees 
and vines, it was recommended to spray with a solution of sul- 
phate of copper and ammonia. All the difference in a fruit-crop 
between success and failure may be seen by comparing those or- 
chards and vineyards which have been sprayed with those which 
have not. For cross -fertilization it may be said that the experi- 
ment of crossing the peach and cherry was successful in eleven 
instances last spring at the Ohio State University. Mr. W. C. 
Werner next spoke of the varieties of the beautiful little ever- 
green, much used for hedges, the arbor- vilse {Tliuyla occidentalis). 
Mr. C. P. Sigerfoos described two Indian graves recently opened 
in a gravel pit near the western extension of Lane Avenue at 



North Columbus. These graves were in a cultivated field situated 
on a promontory near the Olentangy River at the new bridge just 
above the college farm. One contained the skeleton of a man 
about twenty-five years of age, and the other that of a woman of 
about sixty years. Each had evidently been buried in a sitting 
posture; and tbe hand of the man was supported toward the 
mouth with a mussel-shell near it, as though it had been intended 
to serve as a drinking-vessel for the entombed individual on his 
journey to the land of the Great Spirit. The bottom of this grave 
was at least seven feet beneath the surface of the ground, so the 
head was covered by about three feet of soil. For about one foot 
under the skeleton was found disturbed gravel and dirt, and be- 
neath this was yet two or three. inches of ashes and cinders. The 
charcoal, one piece being two and one-half feet long, showed that 
there had been a fire which was smothered by tbe material thrown 
over it. The woman's grave showed no evidences of fire beneath 
it, although such were found above in the form of cinders mixed 
with the material with which the grave was filled. No relics 
whatever were found excepting some pieces of pottery in each . 
grave. 

— In a report to the British Foreign Office, recently published, 
Col. Stewart, the British consul-general at Tabreez, calls attention 
to the curious system of lakes in that region, situated at a great 
elevation above the sea-level. According to Nature of Jan. 8, 
these are the lake of Urumia, situated 4,100 feet above the sea, 
Lake Van, and the Guektcha lake. Lake Van is in Turkish 
territory, and the Guektcha lake in Russian territory, though 
both are near the bottom of the Persian province of Azarbaijan, 
in which is situated the lake of Urumia, the largest and most im- 
portant. It is 84 miles long and 24 miles broad, and is probably 
the saltest piece of water on earth, being much Salter than the 
Dead Sea. The water contains nearly 22 per cent of salt. Its 
northern coasts are incrusted with a border of salt glittering white 
in tbe sun. It is said that no living thing can survive in it, but 
a very small species of jelly-fish does exist in its waters. Many 
streams pour down from the Kurdish Mountains, which border 
Turkey, and render the country between them and the lake of 
Urumia very green and fertile. This part of the country looks 
more like India than Persia, but the climate is severe in winter. 
The whole country being situated from 4,000 feet to 5,000 feet 
above ocean-level, the snowfall in winter is great. At night in 
winter the thermometer falls frequently below zero of Fahrenheit, 
but in the day-time it rises considerably, generally reaching 28° 
or 80°, and this with a bright sun over head. Many people are 
frozen to death on the 'roads in winter while crossing the various 
passes. The winter climate may be compared to that of Canada, 
but the summer approaches that of northern India. 

— The wren is generally supposed to be a gentle little bird, yet 
on occasion it seems capable of displaying any thing but an amia- 
ble temper. In the Selborne Society's magazine, Mr. Aubrey Ed- 
wards gives from his note-book the following account (quoted in 
Nature of Jan. 1) of what he calls •• a disgraceful scene" between 
two male wrens: " April 15, 1880. — I have just been watching two 
golden-crested wrens fighting. They first attracted my attention 
by getting up from the ground almost under my feet, and enga- 
ging again and falling to the ground. Then rising again, one 
chased the other into a yew-tree near, where I had a good close 
view of them as they challenged each other, ruffling their feath- 
ers, shaking their bodies, singing and dancing about with crests 
erected, the sun shining on the orange-colored crests, — such a 
pretty sight! After they had been talking big at each other for 
some minutes, the hen arrived on the scene, and a desperate fight 
ensued, the two cocks falling to the ground in fierce embrace, 
rolling over each other occasionally, but for the most part lying 
still on the ground with their claws buried in each other's feathers 
for about a minute. The hen was close by them on the ground, 
moving about, and looking very much concerned at the affray. 
Her pale-yellow crest contrasted notably with the rich orange of 
the males. After getting up, renewing the combat in a currant- 
bush, falling again, and struggling on the ground, they rose and 
had a chase round the yew-trees, the hen following to see the fun, 
and presently went off and were lost to view." 



5o 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 416 



SCIENCE: 



A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS Aim SCIENCES. 



PUBLISHED BY 



N. D. C. HODGES. 



47 Lafayztti Placb/Niw York. 



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Communications will be welcomed from any quarter. Abstracts of scientific 
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Attention is called to the "Wants" column. All are invited to use it in 
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" Exchange " column is likewise open. 



Vol. XVII. NEW YORK, Januaby 28, 1891. 



No. 416. 



CONTENTS : 



Tbs Medical Press oh Koch's 

Cube 48 

Trees in Londok 44 

Notes ahd News 48 

Editorial 60 

The Academic and Engineering 
Departments of Cornell. 

Letters to the Editor. 
The Flight of Birds 

Henry L. Ward 45 
The American Idea of Architec- 
ture. Barr fenree 48 

Cyclones and Antioyolones 

M. A. Veeder 47 
Dr. Hann and the Condensation 
Theory of Storms. H.A.Htuen 47 



The Practicability of transport- 
ing the Negro back to Africa 

R. W. Shufeldt 
The Skeleton In Armor 

Henry W. Haynee 
Meteorology and Mathematics 

Franz A. Velschotc 
The Education of the Deaf 

B. JEngelsman 

Book-Reviews. 



48 



60 



61 



61 



The Science of Fairy Tales 51 

Educational Review 68 

The Pedagogical Seminary 68 

The Future of Science 58 

Among the Publishers 58 



The New York Evening Post published, in its issue of Jan. 9, a 
letter from Cornell University which has a singular tone, and 
makes most remarkable statements. It asserts that some of the 
ablest professors in the literary branches of the university are 
proposing to resign, because, as they state, they are unable to see 
that progress in their own departments which has for some years 
past distinguished the technical schools of the university. It is 
said, that, although the academic departments have been continu- 
ally strengthened by the addition of new departments and of able 
men to the staff of professors and instructors, these departments 
still fall behind the others in their rate of growth. This state of 
things is attributed to the fact that the price of tuition has been 
increased, though it is not stated why this increase should affect 
their departments more than others. In all institutions of learn- 
ing the cost of the technical instruction has been from the first, 
both to the institution and to the student, greater than purely 
literary instruction; and the flocking of students into them, in 
spite of this disadvantage, is as observable in other colleges as in 
that from which this curious complaint comes. The real state of the 
case is, we are confident, that the establishment of technical edu- 
cation meets the need and fulfils the desires of a very large pro- 
portion of young men who have no inclination to defer going into 
business Tor the purpose of getting an education of the older sort, 
— a mistake, we think, — but who are keen enough to see that 
certain branches of business must be most successfully pursued by 



those who have had the professional preliminary training, not 
education in the usual sense of that term, which is required to 
give the novice a good hold upon its principles and practice. The 
profession of engineering, for example, has become a learned pro- 
fession; and the graduates of these professional schools are more 
carefully and remorselessly sorted out from the great mass than 
are those who desire to enter either of the older, so-called learned 
professions. Engineering schools often graduate not more than 
one-third their entering classes. It is not at all likely that acute 
and learned professors are proposing to leave any such good posi- 
tions as are held at Cornell, or other great universities, on this ac- 
count. The fact is, that the state of things noted is perfectly 
natural and proper; and the result is, that every professor of 
ability and ambition takes advantage of his good fortune in hav- 
ing smaller classes to prosecute his studies and his researches, and 
thus to teach the world, as well as his own students, both better 
and more widely. Any such positions vacated in any of our col- 
leges will be gladly taken by brighter men who seek just this 

opportunity. 

I ^ 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[Continued from p. 48.] 

The Skeleton in Armor. 

Professor Anderson was correct in saying that the skeleton, 
immortalized by Longfellow, was discovered at Fall River, Mass., 
in 1831 ; and not in 1887, as Mr. Beauchamp states on p. 26 of 
your last number (Jan. 9, 1891). 

The actual date of the discovery was April 26, 1881, and the 
earliest account of it was published in The American Magazine, 
vol. iii. p. 484 (August, 1887). This was copied into Barber's " His- 
torical Collections for Massachusetts," p. 128; and from that 
source Col. Stone transferred it to his " Life of Brant." This may 
account for Mr. Watson's having omitted Stone from his list of 
authorities. Subsequently, in 1889, several other skeletons were 
discovered in about the same locality, near the boundary-line be- 
tween Fall River and Tiverton, R.I., accompanied by precisely 
similar objects as the first. The original skeleton, which had 
been preserved in the Museum of the Troy Athenaeum (" Troy "" 
was the old name of Fall River), was destroyed by a fire about 
the year 1848. Some of the relics discovered with the skeletons 
disinterred in 1889 are now to be seen at the Redwood Library 
in Newport. These different discoveries of similar interments, 
some years apart, have occasioned the confusion of dates. 

A few years ago a skeleton was discovered at Centreville, on 
Cape Cod, with a brass breastplate precisely like the one origi- 
nally found in 1881. This is described by Henry E. Chase in the 
" Smithsonian Report," 1888, p. 902. 

It is worth noticing, that besides the " flat, triangular arrow- 
heads of sheet copper" to which Mr. Beauchamp refers as having 
been recently found in the Iroquois district of New York, similar 
in shape to those made of brass disinterred with the skeleton in 
1881, like objects, also made of sheet brass, have not infrequently- 
been met with in other localities (see Abbott's Primit ive Industry, 
p. 420; Jones's Antiquities of the Southern Indians, p. 251; Re- 
ports of the Peabody Museum, ii. p. 782, iii. pp. 85, 195; Report* 
of Long' Island Historical Society (1878-81), p. 40; Smithsonian, 
Report, 1888, p. 901). 

We learn whence the Indians procured the brass of which 
these arrow-heads were fabricated, from the account given in 
Underbill's " History of the Peqtfod War " {Collections of Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society [3d series], vol. vi. p. 17), who tells us 
that a Dutch trader was prevented from bartering with the Pe- 
quods on the ground that they were to be supplied in part with 
" kettles, or the like, which make their arrow-heads." Sir Fer- 
dinando Gorges, earlier than this, had complained about " disor- 
derly persons," who sold the savages *• arrow-heads and other 
arms" (" Description of New England, "noid. p. 70). 

The earliest notices of the Indians often speak of their arrows- 
as being headed with brass. This was the case with those "taken 
up" and sent to England in the first encounter of the Pilgrims. 



January 23, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



5* 



with them (Moubt'b Relation, p. 65 [Dexter's edition] ). William 
Wood (New England's Prospect, part ii. chap. xvii. p. 101) speaks 
of them as made of this material: so does the Rev. Francis Hig- 
ginson ("New England's Plantation,-' in Young's Chronicles of 
Massachusetts, p. 257). 

Undoubtedly the Indians found it easier to out up brass kettles 
for this purpose than to pound out with their stone hammers 
pieces of native copper. This they were in the habit of doing, 
according to Brereton (" Brief and True Relation of the Discovery 
of the North Part of Virginia," in Collections of Massachusetts 
Historical Society [8d series], vol. viii. p. 91). 

Henhy W. Haynes. 

Boston, Jan. 18. 

Meteorology and* Mathematics. 

At a time when the tide of meteorological controversy in your 
columns runs high and the general outcry is for revision of the 
old theories, — all apparently because Dr. Hann last spring made 
some erroneous deductions from observations in the Alps, which 
has not convinced anybody (vide Hazen), — you may permit me to 
add my small share to the general conflagration, out of the ashes 
of which the true Phoenix may some day be expected to rise in all 
its glory. 

What I here wish to sacrifice on the altar of truth is the so-called 
mathematical treatment of the circulation of the atmosphere; and 
I take occasion from a letter by William Ferrel in your issue of 
Jan. 2, wherein the writer complains that Dr. Hann has never 
attempted to show that his results have been deduced from erro- 
neous principles or processes. I 

I am not aware that any mathematician has ever attempted to 
show, on rational mechanical principles, what would be the motion 
of a body of air moving over the surface of a rotating globe, — 
not over the free and empty surface, but on the bottom of the air 
universally enveloping and rotating with this globe, being part 
and parcel of this air itself, — but I think it can be shown, by 
looking ever so little into the true nature of this subject, that the 
problem is far more complicated than Professor Ferrel seems to 
imagine. 

As the speed wherewith places at different latitudes on the 
earth's surface rotate differ in proportion to their distances from 
the axis, so it is concluded by Ferrel and others that a particle of 
air is deflected towards the east when moving towards the poles, 
and towards the west when moving towards the equator. 

In proportion, however, as the speed of rotation of the particle 
of air changes while it moves from latitude to latitude, so also the 
centrifugal force to which it is exposed changes; and therefore, 
if a change in the former should have the effect of deflecting a 
current of surface air laterally, so also the effect of the latter must 
be to deflect the current in a vertical direction. The result hereof 
is that all pole-bound currents should appear as upper currents, 
and the surface wind should always be directed more or less 
towards the equator, and never in the opposite direction. This, 
however, does not agree with observations. There is a continuous 
current of surface air round the border of any anticyclone, while 
in strict consequence of Professor Ferrel's theory we should only 
expect to find this current round one-half the circumference of the 
high pressure, the other half being deflected into an upper cur- 
rent. 

According to the way the writer was taught applied mathe- 
matics (a discipline, by the way, incomparably more difficult to 
master than mathematics itself), it is not admissible to pick out 
one of the forces acting upon a body in motion, and ignore an- 
other of equal importance, simply because it does not suit our pur- 
poses. 

In a paper, " On the Cause of Trade- Winds," read before the 
American Society of Civil Engineers Dec. 18, 1889 (see " Trans- 
actions," vol. xxiii. August, 1890), the writer allowed himself to 
suggest how the gyratory motion of the surface air might be ac- 
counted for independently of a supposed effect of the earth's rota- 
tion, which theory, as we have just seen, doesn't bear closer 
inspection; and one of America's most eminent engineers, Mr. 
Charles Macdonald, got up at the meeting, and declared the ex- 
planation given the only rational one he had ever heard, and well 



worth the most careful study. I therefore beg to call the reader's 
attention to the contents of this paper; and, by comparing my 
diagrams with the isobaric charts over the North Atlantic for the 
autumn of 1889, he may see the reason why Dr. Hann found the 
temperature of the anticyclonic air in the Alps so exceptionally 
high. Franz A. Velschow, C.E. 

Brooklyn, Jan. 7. 

The Education of the Deaf. 

Spoken language is the product of the mind enjoined with the 
enjoyment of all the senses. Its acquisition is facilitated through 
the sense of hearing, but the latter is not indispensable to it; and 
to its reproduction by the deaf (without its musical intonation) a 
normal throat and mouth are requisite. Dr. Gillett says, " This 
[intelligence] the deaf-mute has perfectly " (Science, Dec. 26, p. 
.855). As most of the deaf possess these requirements, the ques- 
tion that now arises is this: u Is it expedient to invent an artifi- 
cial sign-language, which of course presupposes articulate speech, 
in order to impart the latter to the deaf?" Emphatically, no. 
The oral schools now in existence in this country prove this fact 
beyond the shadow of a doubt. One of Dr. Gillett's objections is 
this: "For, while he [the deaf] may utter distinct articulate 
sounds for others to receive, he cannot receive them himself, and 
is consequently thrown back upon the visible movements of the 
superficial parts of the organs of voice, which are chiefly the lips " 
(Science, Dec. 26, p. 857). The deaf will read from the lips- 
mouth readily when spoken to without voice, that is, mutely; 
and it is a phenomenon that they are enabled to recognize even 
the distinction between being addressed audibly and mutely. 
They will often converse mutely with each oth$r in the school- 
room, when desirous of not being overheard by their teacher. 
Lately one of my patients happened to be a Chinaman. On in- 
quiring of him what he uses at his meals, — a fork rind a knife, or 
chop-sticks, — he said that at home he uses the latter, but when 
eating at a restaurant he uses the former. Early education and 
impressions are lasting. The same is applicable to those mutes 
who are educated by the combined system, where an artificial 
sign-language forms the basis of instruction. When a mute edu- 
cated by that system meets a deaf-mute who was taught by the 
oral system, the former will naturally address the latter by signs. 
To start the conversation, the first question perhaps will be, «' Do 
you know Mr. P— t ? " The sign for " Mr. P— t " is this: closing 
the thumb and all the fingers except the forefinger, with which 
he taps himself at the temple. The other repeats the sign for 
" P — t," shakes his bead, and indicates by expressions that he 
does not know what this sign means; then the former spells with 
his fingers the words *'P— t, teacher;" and such conversations 
may occur so often that the one learns the meaning of signs from 
the other. The deaf educated by the oral system become so am- 
bitious that they make efforts when in a small circle of society, by 
constant watchfulness, to follow the connection of the conversation, 
and try to hide their infirmity. They are even ashamed to use signs. 
I would gladly go extensively into the details of Dr. Gillett's article 
on the education of the deaf, but the pressure of professional du- 
ties will not permit me to devote the time necessary. I would 
like, though, to direct Dr. Gillett's attention to Hon. Gardiner G. 
Hubbard's article in Science of Dec. 19, to which I have to make 
the one exception only, that the first oral school in this country 
was established in this city, and was in operation in the fall of 
1864 at No. 427 (old number 415) Eighth Avenue, consisting of two 
boarding and three day pupils. B. Engelskan. 

New York, Jan. 8. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 



The Science of Fairy Tales. By Edwin Sidney Hartland. 
New York, Scribner & Welford. 12°. $1.25. 

This volume is the latest issue in the Contemporary Science 
Series, and may be described as an attempt to group and classify 
the various stories of Celtic and Teutonic origin relating to elves 
and fairies, with illustrations from the stories of other nations. 
Mr. Hartland opens his work with a fe *r remarks on savage ideas, 



52 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XVII. No. 416 



especially on the subject of spirits, and then proceeds to relate a 
large number of the tales, grouping them so far as possible, and 
aiming particularly to show how similar they are ail the world 
over. The first class of stories dealt with are those that relate bow 
human mid wives are often snatched away and taken to fairyland 
to assist at the birth of fairy children. Then come the stories of 
changelings and babies stolen by the fairies, followed by tales of 
other robberies by the fairy-folk, as well as of robberies perpe- 
trated or attempted by mortals against the fairies. Stories of men 
being put to sleep for years and even centuries, as in the case of 
Rip Van Winkle, occupy a considerable space, and the list is com- 
pleted by two chapters on the swan maidens. 

Thus the greater part of the book is taken up with the tales 
themselves, and we are rather disappointed at the meagre at- 
tempts to explain them. A few discussions appear here and there, 
and a brief concluding chapter sums up the author's theories, so 
far as he has any theories to offer ; but one cannot help feeling as 
he closes the book that the " science of fairy-tales " is as yet 
hardly entitled to that name. Mr. Hartlaod has indeed mar- 
shalled a great body of facts on his chosen theme, and his book is 
written in a style that will make it attractive to all that are in- 
terested in its subject. But it must be remembered that facts are 
not science, — they are only the materials of science, — and that 
the real aim of the scientist is to explain the facts. Mr. Hartland 
shows very clearly that folk-tales bear a similar character every- 
where, and that they must therefore be attributed to certain in- 
tellectual and moral characteristics common to all tribes of men ; 
but what those characteristics are be does not even inquire. He 
ascribes the origin of the tales to the primitive belief in spirits, — 
but that is merely using the genus to account for the species,— 
and gives no real explanation at all. It is evident that the most 
difficult work connected with the subject is yet to be done; but 
meanwhile those who wish for a large and well -arranged collec- 
tion of the facts will find it in the book before us. 

Educational Review. Vol. I. No. 1. January, 1891. Ed. by 
Nicholas Murray Butler, m. New York, Henry Holt & 
Co. 8°. \ $3 a year ; 85 cents a number. 

T?ie Pedagogical Seminary. Vol. I. No. 1. January, 1891. Ed. 
by G. Stanley Hall. Worcester, Mass., J. H. Orpha. 8°. 
$4 a year; $1.50 a number. 

We have had in this country for many years a number of edu- 
cational periodicals, but they have been of inferior character, and 
some of them practically worthless. There is room, therefore, for 
a new and better one ; and the general interest now manifested in 
educational matters makes the present an opportune time for 
starting such a work. Two journals of the kind have now appeared 
in magazine form, one from a private publishing-house, the other 
from Clark University ; and even a slight examination will show 
that they are superior to any thing of the sort that we have had in 
America hitherto. Whether and how far they will supply the 
existing need cannot be determined from the contents of the first 
numbers ; but these give evidence of thought as well as of reading, 
and show that the editors of both are in earnest in their new un- 
dertakings. They are, however, quite different in character, and 
we shall therefore consider them separately. 

The Educational Review opens with a number of essays ; then 
follow brief discussions, editorial and otherwise; next comes a 
series of book-notices; and, last of all, a few extracts from foreign 
periodicals. Most of the articles are fairly well written, though 
none have any special merit of style, and some contain suggestions 
and criticisms of real interest. The book-reviews are similar to 
those that appear in the best newspapers, and will doubtless prove 
an attractive feature of the magazine. The notes and discussions 
present some good points, but one or two of those in the editorial 
department are marred by too much dogmatism. The least suc- 
cessful papers are the essays, not one of which is really satisfac- 
tory, their brevity being inconsistent with a proper treatment of 
their respective subjects, while most of them have the air of having 
been written to order. President Oilman writes on •' The Shorten- 
ing of the* College Curriculum," intimating his opinion that it can 
perfectly well be shortened, but without suggesting any thing very 
definite. William T. Harris contributes a strangely narrow and 



shallow article on " Fruitful lines of Investigation in Psychology, 1 ' 
and also a book-review of similar tenor. We hope that these arti- 
cles are not a sample of the way the Review will treat philosophical 
themes '* Is there a Science of Education?" by Josiah Royce, is 
the first of a series of articles, and contains little besides vague 
generalities; but the author promises in future numbers to treat 
some more definite aspects of his subject. Superintendent Andrew 
S. Draper discusses " The limits of State Control in Education,' 1 
and makes some suggestive remarks; but his paper is far too brief 
for a proper treatment of its theme. The last of the essays is by 
Charles de Garmo, on " The Herbartian School of Pedagogics," 
and bids fair, when completed, to give a good synopsis of Her- 
bart's views; though whether these views are of much value ad- 
mits Of question. On the whole, the Educational Review bids fair 
to be useful ; but we hope to* find the essays in future numbers 
more elaborate and thorough. 

The Pedagogical Seminary consists in the main of notes on the 
educational systems and theories of other countries. It opens 
with an editorial on the aim and purpose of the Seminary, fol- 
lowed by a paper, also from the editor, on " Educational Reforms ; " 
while the rest of the number is mainly devoted to the study of 
recent changes in the schools and universities of foreign countries, 
and of foreign discussions on educational topics. The editor and 
his associates seem to desire and anticipate great changes and 
reforms in our own educational system, especially in its higher 
departments; but they leave us in great uncertainty as to what 
specific changes they wish for. However, they have here collected 
a mass of information which can hardly fail to be useful to edu- 
cators, and which may .suggest beneficial reforms in our schools. 
One cannot help asking, though, why President Hall and his 
associates have started this little publication of their own, when 
the Educational Review would have served them well as a medium 
for addressing the public. As the Seminary is to be published 
only three times a year, it will not contain a great deal of matter, 
and its fusion wfth the Review would seem to be easy as well as 
desirable. But however published, and from whatever source 
they may come, real contributions to our educational literature 
are certain to be welcome. 

The Future of Science. By Ernest Renan. Boston, Roberts. 
8°. $2.50. 

This book is not just what its title would lead us to expect. It 
contains very little about physical science, and nothing whatever 
about its future:, on the contrary it relates almost exclusively to 
the sciences of mind and society, and the future of religion. M. 
Renan takes the ground that the highest degree of intellectual 
culture is to understand humanity, and this work is written from 
that point of view. It is not a new work, however, but was 
composed forty years ago, when the author was young; and it has 
many of the characteristics that we should expect to find in a 
work coming from such a source. It is written in the author's 
usual diffuse and rambling style, and with rather more than his 
usual flippancy ; and the views it expresses are those with which 
readers of his other books are familiar. 

M. Renan starts with the assumption that " there is no such 
thing as the supernatural," and consequently that every thing that 
has hitherto been called religion is destined to pass away. *' The 
religion of the future," he says, "will be pure humanism." 
God is 4< the category of the ideal." "In the future the word 
( morality ' will not be the proper word. ... I prefer to substi- 
tute the word * sdstheticism. 1 " In short, to lead an intellectual 
life and pursue the scientific and artistic ideals is the only religion 
that is now left to us. Such is the opinion of M. Renan, which he 
reiterates without the least suspicion that he may be mistaken. 
Moreover, it appears that he himself, even at the age of twenty- 
five, had already reached perfection ; for he says. "I, as a man of 
culture, do not find any evil in myself, and I am impelled spon- 
taneously towards what seems to me the most noble. If all 
others had as much culture as myself, they would all, like myself, 
be incapable of doing an evil act " (p. 888). 

But our readers must not suppose that the book contains nothing 
better than the above-quoted passages. On the contrary, when 
the author leaves the question of the future religion, and talks 



•♦ 



January 23, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



53 



about history and philology, the importance of criticism, and the 
need of educating the masses, he says much t)hat is interesting 
and valuable. The necessity of examining and criticising traditional 
▼iews is strongly emphasized, and the great value of philology as 
an instrument of such criticism is clearly shown. The history of 
religions is mentioned as one of the most important subjects of 
investigation; and it appears that the author had, even at that 
early age, projected his work on the origins of Christianity. 
Plutocracy is declared to be the main cause of cjur slow intellectual 
development; yet wealth is recognized as essential to culture, and 
endowments for investigators are advocated. The finest passage 
in the book is that in which the author pleads for the intellectual 
culture and elevation of the masses, .which he deems perfectly 
feasible ; but in his preface, which was written quite recently, he 
intimates that on this point, as on some others, he had been too 
optimistic. On the whole, though the book contains some excel- 
lent passages and useful suggestions, it will not add to the world's 
knowledge nor to the author's reputation. 



AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 



Another proof that American scientific work is appreciated 
abroad is shown by the translation, by Dr. Victor von Richter of 
the University of Breslau, of a handbook of electro-chemical 
analysis, recently issued in Philadelphia by Professor Edgar F. 
Smith of the University of Pennsylvania. 

— Mr. F. G. Barry has sold his monthly magazine, College and 
School, to Louis Lombard of Utica, N.Y. The next number will 
appear Feb. 15, entitled The Louis Lombard. 

— P. Blakiston, Son, & Co., Philadelphia, have just issued a 
second edition of " Diseases of the Digestive Organs in Children,' 1 
by Louis Starr, M.D., and of "Water Analysis for Sanitary Pur- 
poses," by Drs. Leffmann and Beam, both containing new material 
and many additional illustrations. They have also just ready 
"Gynaecology," being No. 7 of their compend for medical stu- 
dents. 

' — J. Scott Keltie, librarian of the Royal Geographical Society, 
London, will have an article, " About Africa," in the February 
Scribner, with the London African Exhibition for a text. A rare 
portrait of Livingstone, taken in 1860, will be the frontispiece of 
that issue, and the article will contain several portraits (never be 
fore # engraved) of African explorers, from the private collection of 
John Murray, Esq., the London publisher. 

— Sir Edwin Arnold, describing a Japanese dinner, says, in the 
February Scribner, ,"You are at last surrounded by twenty or 
thirty dishes, like a ship in harbor by a fleet of boats; and the 
best of a Japanese dinner is, that, after flitting like a butterfly 
from flower to flower of the culinary parterre, you cannot only 
come back to any thing that has originally pleased, but leave off 
to smoke and chat, and then commence again, if you like, at the 
very beginning. When everybody has had enough, particularly 
of sake, the substantial part of the repast has still to arrive, for 
the Japanese. The last sake bottle is removed and gohan is 
brought, the honorable, great white tub with hot, boiled rice. 
Along with it re-appears fresh tea; and each native guest will 
consume two bowls of rice, and then another, amply saturated 
with tea." 

— The February Ghautauquan will contain, among other articles, 
"British India," by R. S. Dix; " England after the Norman Con- 
quest," Part H., by Sarah Orne Jewett ; " The English Towns," II., 
by Augustus I. Jessopp, D.D. ; "A Peasant Striker of the Fourteenth 
Century," by Charles M. Andrews; " The Constitution of Japan," 
by William Elliot Griffis; " Studies in Astronomy," V., by Garrett 
P. Servise; " The National Academy of Sciences," by Marcus Ben- 
jamin; "The Relation of the Family to Social Science," by John 
Habberton; "France in Tunis," by Edmond Plauchut; and 
"New England and Emigration," by Edward Everett Hale. 

—The Westminster Review for January (Leonard Scott Publi- 
cation Company, New York) opens with a paper on " Patriotism 
and Chastity," by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, for which recent events 
in Irish politics furnish a text. A paper on "A Privileged Pro- 



fession *' points out the advantage nursing offers to women. An 
exhaustive article on "The Decline of Marriage" deals with the 
relations between marriage and culture, and presents some con- 
clusions that will attract wide attention. R. Seymour Long 
writes on the "Continuity of Parties in English History," and 
Frederick Dolman on "Hereditary Peers and Practical Politics." 
An essay on " The Social and Political Life of the Empire in the 
Fourth and Fifth Centur^," recalls the early days of this ancient 
though ever young review. In the department of " Contemporary 
literature/' books are reviewed in science, philosophy and theol- 
ogy, sociology, history and biography, and belles lettres. The 
number closes with its usual review of current English politics. 

— Mr. Theodore Roosevelt has written for the Historic Towns 
Series, which Professor Freeman edits, and which the Longmans 
publish, the volume on "New York," to appear at once. Mr. 
Roosevelt shows incidentally that the admixture of races now to 
be seen in the city is no new thing, as the population was quite as 
heterogeneous in the beginning, and has been much the same at 
every stage of New York's growth. 

— In The Atlantic Monthly for February, 1891, Professor Royce's 
second "Philosopher of the Paradoxical" is Schopenhauer. He 
treats Schopenhauer's place in the world of thought. Mr. Percival 
Lowell's " Noto" is continued, and the traveller at last arrives at 
the turning-point, but not the end, of his journey. Alice Morse 
Earle has a paper on " The New England Meeting-House," which 
is full of curious bits of information. Mr. Alpheus Hyatt writes 
on "The Next Stage in the Development of Public Parks," in 
which he advocates the allowance of space for a collection of liv- 
ing animals grouped for the uses of the student. William Everett 
has an article on " The French Spoliation Claims;" and Theodore 
Roosevelt, in «• An Object-Lesson in Civil-Service Reform," tells 
about the work of the National Civil Service Commission for the 
last year, and its success in gaining a large number of applicants 
from the Southern States to enter the civil-service examinations. 

— Messrs. E. & F. N. Spon (New York) announce an illustrated 
descriptive catalogue of their scientific publications relating to 
civil and mechanical engineering, arts, trades, and manufactures, 
which they will send on application; also a " Handbook for Me- 
chanical Engineers," by Henry Adams; "The Municipal Build- 
ings, Glasgow," by William Young, architect, with twenty collo- 
type illustrations by Bedford, Lemere, & Co. ; " Practical Electrical 
Notes and Definitions," for the use of engineering students and 
practical men, by W. Perren Maycock, together with the rules and 
regulations to be observed in electrical installation work, as issued 
by the Phoenix Fire Office and the Institution of Electrical En- 
gineers (second edition, revised and enlarged) ; " Tables to find the 
Working Speed of Cables; comprising also Data as to Diameter, 
Capacity, and Copper Resistance of all Cores," by Arthur Dear- 
love (these tables have been computed from formulas which have 
for some time been used by Messrs. Clark, Forde, and Taylor, and 
are based on the mean results recently obtained in the commercial 
working of long cables); "Light Railways as a Practical Means of 
Exploration," by E. R. Salwey, in which the author s desire is to 
bring prominently forward the suitability of narrow-gauge rail- 
ways as an inexpensive and economical means by which countries 
already explored may. be rapidly civilized, and their known re- 
sources developed; and "Surveying and Levelling Instruments 
Theoretically and Practically Described," by William F. Stanley. 

— In the Fortnightly Review for January (Leonard Scott Publi- 
cation Company, New York) A. Mounteney Jephson makes a new 
contribution to African literature in an article on " The Truth 
about Stanley and Emin Pacha/' in which he refutes some 
charges brought against Mr. Stanley. Ernest M. Bowden writes on 
"Scientific Sins." E. B. Lanin, whose papers on Russia have 
been a strong feature in the Fortnightly in the past year, describes 
the country and people of Finland. Edward Delille presents 
some reminiscences of literary evenings in Paris, entitled " * Che* 
Pousset:' a Literary Evening." James D. Bourchier describes a 
voyage on the Black Sea with Prince Ferdinand, with accounts of 
Bulgarians and strange sights. Sir George Baden Powell writes 
on " The Canadian People," and considers the possibility of Can- 



54 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 416 



ada's ultimate absorption in the United States. Frederic Harri- 
son has a brief paper on " The Irish Leadership; " and Irish af- 
fairs receive farther consideration in an article by the Hon. 
Auberon Herbert, entitled '* ' The Rake's Progress ' in Irish Poli- 
tics." 

— The next number of the " Publications of the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science " will contain an inter- 
esting article on "The Idea of Sovereignty," by Professor Ritchie 
of Oxford. It is specially flattering to Americans that so eminent 
an authority plants himself squarely on the doctrine of the sover- 
eignty of the people, — an idea first advanced in modern times by 
American jurists. It is another evidence of how rapidly Ameri- 
can political ideas are permeating and leavening European thought. 
Professor Ritchie is evidently a careful student of American con- 
stitutional development, and the academy is doing valuable work 
in introducing such authors to our American public. 

— The Nineteenth Century for January, published by the Leon- 
ard Scott Publication Company, New. York, begins the new year 
with a paper by the Duke of Argyll, entitled ' ' Professor Huxley 
on the War-Path," in which the author takes the professor to task 
for some of his theological criticisms. Lieut. -Gen. Sir William F. 
Drummond writes on "Home Rule for the Navy," which, while 
especially a suggestion for the English Navy, is not without value 
to those interested in our own system. Lieut. W. G. Stairs con- 
tributes some leaves from his African diary, entitled " Shut up in 
the African Forest," relating some thrilling adventures and expe- 
riences while waiting for Stanley. H.> Arthur Kennedy writes on 
•• Velasquez and his King," with special reference to Philip and 
his encouragement of art. David F. Schloss discusses the merits 
of the Jew as a workman. Viscount Lymington presents some 
questions of forestry in an article on " Vert and Venery." The 
Earl of Meath describes labor colonies in Germany, with notes on 
a very interesting phase of social economy. Dr. George C. Kings- 



bury has an article on " Hypnotism, Crime, and the Doctors " deal- 
ing with some questions of professional ethics. Norman Pearson 
writes on " Animal Immortality; " and the number closes with a 
brief paper by Edward Dicey, on " The Rival Coalitions." 

— Sir Morell Mackenzie contributes a review of Dr. Koch's 
" Treatment of Tuberculosis" to the Contemporary Review for 
January (Leonard Scott Publication Company, New York). The 
author points out the real merit of the discovery, and shows how 
erroneous it is to call it the " consumption cure." Professor 
Bryce's address before the Brooklyn Institute, on "An Age of 
Discontent," is also printed in this number. Frank H. Hill writes 
on " Home Rule and Home Rulers ; " and politics are further con- 
sidered in a paper by L. J. Jennings, entitled " Behind the Scenes 
in Parliament." R. Boeworth Smith discusses Englishmen in 
Africa, and what they have done there. Julia Wedgwood de- 
scribes the revival of Euripides at Cambridge. The Rev. H. W. 
Clarke writes on " Public Landed Endowments of the Church." 
R. Anderson discusses morality by act of Parliament; and Profes- 
sor J. Agar Beet, the certainties of Christianity. 

— The next number of tfye "Annals of the American Academy" 
will contain an article by Professor Ashley of Toronto which 
will prove of special interest to all students of social economy. 
It is well known that Henry George, and the labor agitators and 
pessimists in general, delight in representing the condition of the 
workingman to-day as a sad one, to which he ha* been brought 
by the despotism of the better-situated classes. They refer with 
feeling to the ideal state of the English laborer in the fourteenth 
century, and contrast it with his present down-trodden condition. 
Professor Ashley deals this theory a ponderous blow, for he shows 
that the English laborer of that time was practically a slave, with 
no rights which his lord was bound to respect, and that, so far 
from his condition growing worse in the eyes of the law, it has 
steadily become better since that time. 



Publications received at Editor's Office, Jan. ia-17. 

Amatbur Electrician. Vol. I. No. 1. m. Ravens- 
wood, 111., Amateur Electrician Co. 16 p. 8°. f 1 
per year. 

Color in the School Boom. A Manual for Teachers. 
Springfield. Mass., Milton Bradley Co. 12°. 

Educational Review. Vol. 1. No. 1. January, 1891. 
Ed. by Nicholas Murray Butler, Ph.D. m. New 
York, Holt. 104 p. 8°. $8 peryear. 

Hartlard, E. 8. The Science of Fairy Tales. New 
York, Soribner ft Welf ord. 87* p. 12°. $1.85. 

Harvard University Catalogue. 1890-91. Cam- 
bridge, Mass., The University. 444 p. 18°. 

Hyatt, A., and Arms, J. M. Guides for Soienoe- 
Teaohlng. No. VIII. Insecta. Boston, Heath. 
800 1); 16°. 91. 

Ladd, G. T. Outlines of Physiological Psychology. 
New York, Soribner. 505 p. 8°. $2. 

Missouri Botanical Garden. St. Louis, State. 165 
p. 8°. 

North Dakota, First Annual Report of the Commis- 
sioner of Insurance of the State of. 1800. Bis- 
marck. State. 448 p. 8°. 

Norton, C. L. A Handbook of Florida. New York, 
Longmans, Green, & Co. 880 p. 15°. f 1.25. 

Ohio, First Annual Report of the Geological Surrey 
of. Columbus, State, 1890. 888 p. Maps. 8°. 

Pedagogical Seminary, The Vol. I. No. 1. Jan- 
uary, 1891. Ed. by G. Stanley Hall, Ph.D. tri-m. 
Worcester, Mass., J. H. Orpha. 118 p. 8*. $4 
per year. 

Rxnan, E. The Future of Science. Boston, Rob- 
erts. 491 p. 8°. $8.50. 

Stonr, A. Good Roads : How they can be had in 
Rhode Island. Salem, Mass., Salem Press Pub. 
Co. 88 p. 8°. 

U. 8. Board on Geographic Names. Bulletin No. 1. 
Issued December 81, 1890. Washington, Smith- 
son. Inst. 18 p. 8°. 

U. 8. Natal Observatory, Report of the Superin- 
tendent of the, for the year ending 1890, June 80. 
Washington, Government. 108 p. 8°. 



OF WHAT USE IS THAT PLANT? 

You can find the answer in 

SMITH'S "DICTIONARY OF 
ECONOMIC PLANTS." 

Sent postaid on receipt of $2.80. Publish- 
er's price, $8.50. 

SCIENCE BOOK AGENCY, 

47 Lafayette Place, New York 



A SYSTEM OF 

EASY LETTERING. 

By J, Hi, CROMWELL, Ph.B. 

Twenty- six different forms of Alphabets. The 
space to be lettered is divided into squares, and 
with these as a guide the different letters are drawn 
and inked. Price, 60 cents, postpaid. 

L & F. N. SPON, 12 Cortlandt Street, New York. 
HEAVED AND HELL. 

416 pages, paper cover. 

DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM. 



pages, paper cover, by EMANUEL SWEDEN- 
BOKG. Mailed prepaid for 14 cts). each Cor both 
for 25 cts.) by the American Swedenborg P. and P. 
Society, SO Cooper Union, New York. 

TO AUTHORS. 



Correspondence is solicited with par- 
ties seeking publishers for scientific 

books. 
Among those for whom we are now 

publishing are A. Melville Bell, Mary 

Taylor Bissell, M.D., Daniel G. Brin- 

ton, M.D., C. F. Cox, O. W. Hamble- 

ton, M.D., H. A. Hazen, Appleton 

Morgan, S. H. Scudder, Cyrus Thomas. 

N. D. C. HODGES, 

Publisher of Scienee, 
47 Lafayette Place, New York. 



Speech Reading and Articulation 

Teaching. 

By A. MELVILLE BELL. 

Price, 25 Cents. 

a 

Practical Instructions in the Art of Reading 
Speech from the Mouth ; and in the Art of 
Teaching Articulation to the Deaf. 

[This Work— written at the suggestion of Miss 
Sarah Fuller, Principal of the Horace Mann School 
for the Deaf, Boston, Mass —is, so far as known, the 
first Treatise published on "Speech Reading."] 

From Principal* of Institutions for the Domf. 

" Admirable in its conciseness, clearness and free- 
dom from technicality." 

" The simplicity and perfection of this little book. 

• • • 

" Full of exact and helpful observations." 

41 A Tory interesting and valuable work." 

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SCIENCE. 



55 



— D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, will at once add to their series of 
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introduction and English notes by F. M. Warren, Ph.D., associate 
in modern languages in the Johns Hopkins Uniyereity. This edi- 
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reading in mind. 

— Dr. Daniel G. Brinton of Philadelphia has now in press a 
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and Ethnographic Description of the Native Tribes of North and 
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— The Scientific Publishing Company, New York, announce 
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— Sister Rose Gertrude, the young woman. about whose work 
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induced to reply to the charges made against her for renouncing 
her work. Her article, the first from her pen, is to be published 
in The Ladies 1 Home Journal for February, and will contain a 
full explanation of what she has accomplished among the lepers, 
and why she was obliged to forsake her work. Ae a sort of sup- 
plementary chapter to his "Looking Backward," Mr. Edward 
Bellamy has written an article for the same issue, under the title 
of " Women in the Year 3000," in which the famous nationalist 



will sketch woman, marriage, courtship, etc., as they will be re- 
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have an article giving some vocal helps and musical hints to girls 
and women with musical aspirations. 

— Messrs. Ginn & Co. announce " Sketch of the Philosophy of 
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aims, as its preface explains, to point out the connection between 
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subject, as well as to the excellent and extended treatises upon it 
and the numerous compilations that have recently appeared. It 
is believed that it will interest the general reader (it can be read 
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— The good results which sometimes follow the combination of 
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marks by George R. Cathcart of the American Book Company, to 
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SCIENCE 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 30, 1891. 



DEAF-MUTES: THEIR INTERMARRIAGE AND 

OFFSPRING. 

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell says (Science, Dec. 26, 
1890), " I cannot agree with Dr. Gillett that it is not a very 
great calamity to have a deaf and dumb child." I never 
made that statement, and shall not make it now. - What I 
have said is, that what was once a calamity is now; to those 
deaf persons who improve the privileges and opportunities 
they enjoy under our civilization, reduced to a very serious 
inconvenience. Dr. Bell says, "The deaf themselves surely 
will not indorse it." I am glad to say, and I hope Dr. Bell 
will be glad to know, that some very intelligent deaf persons 
whom I have the pleasure of knowing, and some others 
whom I have never seen, do indorse it in letters to me since 
its publication. One gentleman whom I never saw writes 
me, " I have read your article in Science, Dec. 26. Allow 
me, as a man deaf, to express my most hearty approval of 
all you protest against for ever holding up the deaf as victims 
of a terrible misfortune, and objects of commiseration and 
charity. As I read the article, so intensely do I sympathize 
with every word, that I could scarcely refrain from dancing 
around the room with delight." Another, whom lam proud 
to number among my former pupils, a man filling an hon- 
orable and important station in life, who has for many years 
been battling with the world and- well maintaining his 
family, writes, "Now, my dear doctor, I want to thank you 
for your very able article in Science, Dec. 26. The whole 
mute population is under everlasting gratitude to you for 
the noble and able stand you have taken." A lady (married) 
writes, **I have read your article on the intermarriage of 
the deaf with deep interest. May the Lord inspire you more 
and more to plead the cause of the deaf, and show you in a 
way that will counteract the plausible reasoning of other 
learned men, who think they know just what is proper for 
us, and would legislate us into marriage with hearing per- 
sons, and rob us of more domestic happiness than their 
theories would secure us in a thousand years, if we could 
live to that age." Another gentleman, writing me with 
reference to my article, says, " I cannot look upon my deaf- 
ness as a serious calamity or a grave misfortune; and I dare 
say that an older, better, and more experienced person than 
I — my dear, noble mother— 'will share my sentiments thus 
expressed. She may have thought it a great calamity when 
I became deaf in infancy, but she would not say so to-day." 
I could give others of similar import, but these will suffice 
to show that there is manly, self-reliant spirit in many of 
the deaf to a greater degree than some may have credited 
them with. I did not expect that any whose capital mainly 
consists of " grave misfortune" to work upon the sympathy 
of others, and many who have been educated to view them- 
selves as specially unfortunate, would at once coincide with 
my view. I suppose that some think, as it seems Dr. Bell 
does, that most if not all of the deaf will cling to the idea, 
•'lam a poor unfortunate deaf-mute; somebody will take 
care of me " I fancy that I have had more experience along 



the line of urging the deaf to self-reliance than some who 
write very glibly about " a very great calamity" and *'a 
grave misfortune." If Dr. Gallaudet and Dr. Bell would 
get down from their high horses, and labor for a few years 
in daily intercourse with all classes and grades of deaf-mutes, 
possibly they might have a better appreciation of some diffi- 
culties encountered by the workers among the dull as well as 
the bright. * 

With reference to "the calamity of having a deaf and 
dumb child," having so often heard the tale of sorrow (un- 
necessary, as I believe, but nevertheless real) of parents, I 
do not wish to speak further than to say that with Gen. 
Benjamin F. Butler declaring the deaf-mute is only half a 
man ; President Edward M. Gallaudet proclaiming deafness, 
always in spite of school and college education, a grave mis- 
fortune ; and J)r. Alexander Graham Bell understood to be 
advocating measures looking to the elimination of the deaf 
from society, — it is no wonder that the iron enters the soul 
of the parent of such a child, and that he is filled with dis- 
appointment, and (I blush to write it) sometimes, as I have 
known, with shame. That deafness is primarily a calamity, 
I distinctly asserted in my article in Science, Oct. 31 ; but I 
am' happy to know that educational skill and energy in the 
evening of the nineteenth century is abreast with human 
progress in other lines, and has immensely mitigated the 
misfortunes flesh is heir to, so that we are not obliged to hold 
on to the nomenclature of a by-gone age when we speak of 
the deaf, any more than we are to repudiate the railroad,, 
the telegraph, the telephone, and cling to the old stage-coach 
and post-boy. No one can contemplate the present state of 
society without feelings of pride and gratification on many 
accounts, but to my mind there is no more powerful exponent 
of the advanced civilization of this age than is found in its 
educational and humanitarian measures. The education of 
the deaf is by no means the least of these. Indeed, it may 
well lay claim to the pre-eminence. Out of it have come 
some of the best methods of teaching that have been ingrafted 
upon the public-school system. It was the first of all the 
great humanitarian enterprises, and opened the way in the 
hearts of the people for that philanthropy that has reached 
the insane, the blind, the feeble-minded, and, it is hoped, will 
soon reach the epileptic. No one can too highly appreciate 
the change in the condition of the deaf. Others may think 
differently, and accordingly estimate their work. They are 
welcome to all the comfort resulting from their view, but I 
thus estimate my work. It is poor comfort to a parent to 
be told, that, after all that can possibly be done for his deaf 
child, his misfortune will be a grave misfortune still. De- 
liver me from further lacerating the heart already torn. 
It suits me far better to send a beam of hope and light into 
a family already invaded by foreboding, than gloom and 
despondency. 

There is at this writing before me a letter from the mother 
of two deaf persons, now well settled in life, in which she 
says to the daughter, speaking of their early childhood and 
their deafness, "I thought it was an awful calamity, but I 
do not think so now; but, as Dr. Gillett says, in many cases 
I believe it has proved a blessing." This mother knows 



$8 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 417 



whereof she affirms, for she has other children, now also in 
adult life, who hear. I sometimes wonder what must he the 
feelings of a refined, sensitive nature as he sees his class so 
unjustly represented, as if doomed to perpetual childhood, 
or as one without whom the world would he better off. I 
imagine him soliloquizing, " What kind of a being am I ? 
The Scripture speaks of persons 'of whom the world was not 
worthy;' but mine is a class of persons whom some seem to 
deem unworthy to live, and Providence has made a mistake 
in giving us existence, and I will immediately set to work 
to help Providence do better hereafter. " When criminals 
and paupers are exterminated, it will be time enough to take 
in hand honest people who are handicapped by mere physical 
defects. I would gladly, if I could, say to every parent that 
a deaf child in a family may be as cunning and lovely, and 
as much "a thing of beauty and a joy forever," if he is 
properly trained and treated, as the child who hears. Super- 
intendents are often consulted as to the care of deaf children. 
Let them be careful not to make of such a consultation a 
quasi-coroner's inquest. 

Dr. G-allaudet says the deaf will not allow me to compare 
their misfortune with baldness. If I have done the deaf any 
discourtesy by the allusion, which was not a comparison of 
the extent of their inconvenience, but was merely a citation 
tf a class of persons who have a physical defect, I am will- 
ing to make due apology. Far be it from me to speak dis- 
respectfully of the bald, whom I have held in the highest 
reverence since, when a child, I heard the story of the 
naughty boys, the bald-headed man, and the bears. I appre- 
hended, when I made the allusion, that I should hear the 
growl of bears, but I did not expect that the first one would 
come prancing out of the office of a college president. Dr. 
Bell is disturbed by the qualification <4 in fly-time." lam 
willing to withdraw the " in fly-time," and leave the state- 
ment without qualification; for I believe that more suffering 
has resulted from insufficient head-covering in the way of 
catarrh, resulting in phthisis, pneumonia, la grippe, etc., 
than from deafness. Dr. Bell counts the cost of the deaf- 
mute to society; but what immense outlay has ensued from 
the above diseases in the way of medical attendance and 
supplies, and nursing, to say nothing of disorganized families, 
mourning and funeral expenses ! Would that some scientist 
would organize a crusade against the intermarriage of the 
bald, for baldness is surely hereditary. A bald variety of 
the human race would be dreadful. 

There is another fruitful field of benevolence open to an 
apostle of altruism. Carious teeth are an hereditary physi- 
cal defect that has cost many times more suffering and finan- 
cial outlay than deafness. Let some one anxious for the 
comfort of future generations expend a little energy here. 
I see no reason why, among the many sufferers from various 
physical defects, the deaf alone should be restricted in the 
exercise of preference in the most sacred of all human rela- 
tions — the marriage relation — either by legal enactment or 
public opinion, which has almost the force of law. It is 
gratifying to know that Dr. Bell now distinctly avows that 
neither " he nor any one else proposes to inflict this cruelty " 
of legal enactment. I believe he never did ; but the trend of 
much he has said has been in that (direction, and his inter- 
viewers have been singularly unfortunate in misapprehend- 
ing him. Others have advocated it, and have fortified their 
position by quoting statements of Dr. Bell. Dr. Bell has the 
•fender, sympathetic heart of a humane man, and a sincere 
interest in the deaf, and would not intentionally wound one 
of them ; but I am persuaded that he has caused pain that he 



little thought of, both to the deaf and to their relatives and 
friends. 

Many years before Dr. Bell appeared on the arena of deaf- 
mute work there was in the minds of many people a preju- 
dice against the marriage of parties in whom the liability 
to produce deaf offspring existed, Thirty-two years ago, 
being with a party of deaf-mutes in an important city of 
northern Illinois, I remember a prominent gentleman in 
active business inveighing against such persons. In vain I 
endeavored to show him the mistake <5f his view. Within 
the last year the same gentleman and his wife have visited 
me with reference to receiving as a pupil his grandson, who 
is now one of my pupils. Comment is unnecessary. Twenty 
years ago a gentleman {sic), overlooking a company of my 
pupils, after asking a number of questions, said, " Every one 
of their parents ought to be in the penitentiary." Such sen- 
timents are the result of intellectual confusion. Would it 
not be better for scientific men who have correct information 
to enlighten rather than confuse the public ? 

Dr. Gallaudet and Dr. Bell object to my u wholesale en- 
couragement of the intermarriage of the deaf;" one advising 
the marriage of the deaf with hearing persons as the ideal 
marriage, and the other of the congenital with the non-con- 
genital deaf. If I have done this, I have found no reason 
to regret it, for there have been within my observation more 
deaf offspring from each of the last two classes than from 
the intermarriage of the congeni tally deaf. My advice to 
them is to contract marriage just as others do, with whomso- 
ever they find that compatibility that insures a happy mar- 
riage, as a truly felicitous union is not chiefly dependent on 
physical conditions, insisting only that they be sure of a 
competence which will insure comfort. I think the most 
important caution for them is to beware of undue haste. 
One of their inalienable rights, as of others, is the pursuit of 
happiness ; and I know of no better way of its pursuit than 
in a congenial conjugal relation. I should expect, as Dr. 
Bell does, a larger percentage of deaf births from deaf 
parentage than exists in society at large ; but this is not be- 
cause the parents are deaf, but because they belong to fam- 
ilies in which the tendency to deafness inheres, other mem- 
bers of which are as likely to have deaf offspring as the deaf 
themselves, and who in fact do more frequently have such 
children, as is shown by the far greater number of other 
relationships to the deaf than of parent and child. If it is 
improper for the deaf to marry, it is as much so for their 
relatives to enter wedlock. In the year 1886 I made a com- 
putation of the deaf relationships to my then present and 
former pupils, numbering 1,886, which showed, that, while 
thirteen of them had deaf parents (the parents of only one 
were congenital ly deaf), there were 1,209 other relationships, 
as brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc. 

I am sorry that Dr. Bell (Science, Dec. 26) considers this 
question from the low plane of mercenary considerations. 
u Two hundred dollars a head " seems to him a terrible out- 
lay for the deaf, while the per capita for hearing per- 
sons is but twenty dollars per annum. There is a glaring 
fallacy in this comparison. The two hundred dollars 
charged to the deaf pays for his entire instruction and sup- 
port, which is done for his heat ing fellows in the home, the 
church, the school, the mart, the shop, the social circle, the 
lecture, and on the play-ground. Will Dr. Bell say that all 
this costs the hearing youth only twenty dollars a year f I 
trow not. If he thinks it will, let him ask some patrons- of 
Vassar, Wellesley, the Pennsylvania Training School, or 
Mount Vernon Seminary, near his home, or any other re- 



January 30, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



59 



gpeetable academy where youth are entertained and edu- 
cated, and this illusion will soon be dispelled. Why one 
who insists that the deaf are laboring under a " very great 
calamity " should so unfairly misrepresent their case seems 
to " unreflective minds " incomprehensible. It is no answer 
to say that all the hearing lad receives is paid for by his 
friends, while the public pays for what the deaf receive, 
since the accumulations of the rich are all received from the 
public; so that whether' paid for directly by the public, or 
through the circuition of private intermediaries, it all comes 
out of the public. 

Dr. Bell's figuring in the same number of Science is a 
most surprising feat of mathematical gymnastics. I should 
be sorry to think that all of his calculations and conclusions 
were as baseless as this. Quoting my statement toat " not 
two per cent of the deaf are children of deaf parents," he 
immediately proceeds to speak of " Dr. Gillett's two per 
cent," and represents me as affirming what I explicitly 
denied. He might as well have figured on five or ten or 
twenty per cent, so far as any thing I have said is con- 
cerned, and would have evolved a much more imposing 
Jack o' lantern. Having a false premise, his calculations 
are worthless even if amusing. Unfortunately, many per- 
sons seeing them over his great name will be deceived by 
them. 

I have never named any percentage of deaf offspring 
from deaf parentage. I do not know what it is. My ob- 
servation is too limited. I doubt if any one knows. But I 
am quite sure that the marriage of a few congenital deaf- 
mutes " with one another " is not going to inoculate the 
whole world with the " very great calamity " of deafness. 
If he deserts the question as a practical one, and treats it 
merely as an interesting question of scientific inquiry upon 
heredity, I have comparatively little interest in it. It inter- 
ests me chiefly as a practical question. As such I have 
given it some attention for a number of years. I can only 
study it in the light of the facts I have, which are almost 
wholly among my own pupils. I think it quite probable 
that different conclusions would be arrived at from the study 
of pupils in other institutions, and that probably they would 
agree in no two or three groups of deaf-mutes, or of pupils 
of the same institution in different decades and quarter-cen- 
turies, owing to the prevalence of different diseases that 
cause deafness, and the variance in their virulence at differ- 
ent times. 

Dr. Bell repeats my interrogatory, " Shut out from church 
privileges, as preaching of the Word, prayer-meetings, 
socials, receptions, lectures, concerts, parties, what remains 
to them of all that makes life pleasurable to us?" The 
question is easy of answer. There is open to them a world 
of beauty and grandeur, full of fragrance and loveliness, the 
treasures of literature and art, which they may appreciate 
as highly, and enjoy as intensely, as those who hear. 

* * Sermons in stones, 
Books in running brooks, 
And good in every thing." 

There are many needy and distressed to whom they can 
minister, receiving therefrom the highest satisfaction known 
to mortal man. Most of that which makes life noble and 
worth living is still attainable to them, if they improve their 
opportunities. 

I regret that my knowledge of the past school-life of my 
pupils is not more complete than it is, and also that in my 
earlier experience I did not secure more exact statistics. 



Sometimes it is extremely difficult to obtain the precise in- 
formation desired. Occasionally positive refusals to give it 
are encountered. The vital statistics gathered at institutions 
for the deaf are usually taken from an educational stand- 
point, and consequently some deaf children who lost hearing 
very young are classed and recorded as congenitally deaf. 
For educational purposes this classification is very well ; but 
for biological and anthropological study such statistics are 
defective, and cause confusion. For the study of heredity 
they are misleading. I am persuaded that we are far from 
having an accurate knowledge of some of the primal causes 
of deafness. One quite prolific cause has been entirely over- 
looked, owing to the delicacy of the subject, and the diffi- 
culty of acquiring correct information in such cases. It 
could be appropriately discussed in a medical journal, but 
in a popular periodical its consideration may not be accept- 
able. 

The cause to which I refer is psychological, and the 
mode of its operation is obscure. Just how mind or spirit 
operates on matter we do not know, but the, fact is undenia- 
ble. I am quite positive, from knowledge obtained during 
a long period of years, that prenatal impressions are respon- 
sible for many cases of deafness which have been attributed 
to other causes, including heredity and family predisposition. 
Within my observation there have been more, cases of deaf- 
ness from this cause than of deaf offspring from deaf parent- 
age * 

Dr Bell inquires with reference to certain statistics I pub- 
lished five years ago. I am bound to admit, that, while at 
the time I thought them approximately correct, I have since 
gained additional information that somewhat changes con- 
clusions from theirstudy. I have had 2,158 pupils, of whom 
1,580 have been discharged from the institution. No doubt 
a considerable number of these have contracted marriages 
of which I have not received information, but I have learned 
of the marriage of 378 of them. They were parties to 233 
marriages. 

Thirty-three married hearing partners. Of these, seven 
were congenitally deaf. Of thirty-two of these thirty-three 
couples, all the children could hear. Of one of these couples, 
the mother being congenitally deaf, two children could hear 
and two were born deaf. 

Of thirteen couples, both parties were congenitally deaf. 
Of twelve of these couples, all the children could hear. Of 
one of these couples, two children could hear and one was 
born deaf. 

Of fifty-one couples, one party was congenitally deaf, and 
one was adventitiously deaf. Of these fifty-one couples, one 
couple had one hearing and* four adventitiously deaf chil- 
dren ; one couple had one hearing and one adventitiously 
deaf child ; three couples had one congenitally deaf child ; 
one couple had two congenitally deaf children. 

Of twenty-five couples, both parties were adventitiously 
deaf. Of twenty-three of these couples, all the children 
could hear ; of one of these couples, one child could hear 
and one is congenitally deaf ; of one of these couples, four 
children hear and one is adventitiously deaf. 

But I have had other pupils whose parents, though deaf, 
were educated elsewhere. Two sisters born deaf were chil- 
dren of a deaf father and hearing mother. Two brothers — 
one congenitally and one adventitiously deaf — were the 
children of deaf parents ; but whether the parents were con- 
genitally or adventitiously deaf, I have been unable to learn. 
One boy was adventitiously deaf whose father was deaf, but 
of whose mother I have no information. 



6o 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 417 



The foregoing may be tabulated as follows : — 



Parents. 



Offspring. 



Congenitally 



1 

Both parents congenitally deaf 

One parent congenitally and one adven- 
titiously deaf 

One parent adventitiously deaf, one 
hearing 

Both parents adventitiously deaf 

One parent hearing and one congenitally 
deaf 

Both parents deaf, but whether congeni- 
tally or non-congenitally unknown . 

Father deaf, but whether congenitally 
unknown, but of mother no knowl- 
edge 



Adventitious- 



Deaf. 


iy 

Deaf. 


1 




5 


5 


1 2 
1 


1 


2 




1 1 


1 


1 

1 

1 


1 



Applying the above to the classification recommended by 
Dr Bell and approved by Dr. Gallaudet (Science, Nov. 28, 
1890. p. 295), while it is difficult to decide as to which class 
some of them should be assigned, I should say that it appears 
as follows: in Class 1, two; in Class 2, twelve; in Class 3, 
five; and in Class 4, one. 

Let the reader consider the above table, which comprises 
twenty deaf-mutes, three of whom were never among my 
pupils (thus leaving seventeen), and remember that it shows 
the deaf parentage of 2,158 deaf-mutes, and observe that only 
one of them is the child of parents both of whom were con- 
genitally deaf, that ten are the children of parents one con- 
genitally and on4 adventitiously deaf, and two the children 
of one hearing -and one congenitally deaf parent, and ask 
who is advising the promotion of "a deaf variety of the 
human race." It is not the subscriber. I find no two per 
cent in this. 

" Master, who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he 
was born" deaf? 4< Jesus answered. Neither has this man 
sinned nor his parents." PHILIP G. GlLLBTT. 



INDI !N PRESERVES.^ 

The demand for Indian preserves and jams has greatly increased 
during the past few years. In India, preserves and jellies are 
made of the pear, quince, mango, tamarind, date, banana, guava, 
and other fruits. In Singapore, pineapples are preserved whole; 
and in the Bahamas the manufacture is also carried on, on a large 
scale, to the extent of nearly 1.000,000 cans annually. Each can 
of fruit, before the sirup is added, weigh9 two pounds. From 12,- 
000 to 14,000 can be filled in a day; and 25,000 pines are usually 
consumed daily during the season. In Singapore much enterprise 
has been shown in preserving tropical fruits. There are two or 
three firms who deal largely in them. 

The Indian preserves were formerly much in request. Thus, in 
the thirteenth century the most renowned preserve was a paste 
made of candied ginger. Among other fruits, etc., preserved in 
their natural state, in sirup, crystallized with sugar, or made into 
jelly, are the pineapple, bread-fruit, ginger, jack-fruit, the papaw, 
mangosteen, pomeloe, guava, and nutmeg. Although in flavor 
and preparation these preserves may not equal those of Europe, 
they make an agreeable change. 

The pineapple is one of the best of tropical fruits, although it is 
produced of a superior quality by European cultivators. Its 
sweet and acid flavor, and pleasant aroma, make it sought after 
by consumers of all classes. One house in Singapore ships about 
70,000 tine of this fruit. Pineapple marmalade (thought by some 

1 From the Journal of the Society of Arts, London. 



to be the most delicious preserve in the world) might also be sold 
at ten cents per pound in London. 

There are two species of guava fruit. — the red guava ; and the 
white, or Peruvian, guava. Both make excellent sweetmeat paste 
or jelly, which is very pleasant and nutritious, from its superior 
power of assimilation with the gastric juice, and perfect develop- 
ment of saccharine. 

It is said that a hundred different preserves could be made from 
a judicious blending of the fruits of the East and West Indies and 
South America. 

The jamun (Syzygium jambolanum), a sort of long, dark purple 
plum the size of a large date, makes excellent preserves, and has 
exactly the flavor of black-currant jelly, to simulate. which large 
quantities are sent from India to England. It is also used for 
flavoring other jams. 

The fruits of Inocarpus edulis are preserved in the Indian Archi- 
pelago. A sweet conserve is made in India of the fruits of 
Terminalia Chebula. Another is made of the fruits of Phyllan- 
thus distichus, at Birbhum in Bengal. The acid calyces of 
the rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are converted into an excellent 
jelly, which would be highly appreciated in England, if once in- 
troduced. Jam and jelly are made in Canada from the fruit of 
Shepherdia argentea. 

The fruit of Spondias, not unlike a cherry, is made into jelly. 
The scarlet fruit of the quandong (Fusanus acuminatum), the size 
of a small peach, makes an excellent preserve for tarts in Aus- 
tralia. 

The tamarind plum (Dialium indum) of Java has a pod filled 
with a delicate, agreeable pulp, much less acid than the tamarind. 
The golden drupes of Spondias cytherea % or dulcis % a native of the 
Society Islands, are compared, for flavor and fragrance, to the 
pineapple. The large acid fruits of the kai apple (Aberia caffra) 
of Natal can be converted into a good preserve of the red-currant 
jelly class. The fruit of Cornea speciosa is delicious : it is called 
" mangaba" by the Brazilians, and when ripe is brought in great 
quantities to Pernambuco for sale. 

The fruit of the goumi, of Japan (Elcegnus edulis). makes ex- 
cellent preserves, fruit sirups, and tart*. The berries of Pyrus 
aucuparia and of P. bactata are made into comfits, conserves, 
and compdtes. The fruits of Astrocarpum ayri, of Brazil, are 
made into an excellent preserve, which is much esteemed in that 
country. 

The fruit of the Chinese quince (Diospyros amara) is converted 
into sweetmeats, of which the Chinese are exceedingly fond. 

The bread-fruit, in sirup or crystallized, may please native 
palates, but it is not likely to find favor in Europe, being flavor- 
less, and more of a food-substance than a fruit. 

Preserved ginger is popular in England, but is not much es- 
teemed on the continent. The Spaniards eat raw ginger in the 
morning, to give them an appetite ; and it is used at table 
fresh or candied. Among sailors it is considered antiscorbutic. 
Tbe quantity of preserved ginger imported ranges annually 
from 1,500 to 2,500 hundredweight, value about $17,500 to 
$21,500. It forms the bulk of the succades received from the 
Chinese Empire, 18,000 to 20,000 hundredweight coming from 
Hong-Kong. Some ginger is also received from India. The 
mode of preparing it in the East is as follows : The racemes are 
steeped in vats of water for four days, changing the water once. 
After being taken out, spread on a table, and well pricked or 
pierced with bodkins, they are boiled in a copper caldron. They 
are then steeped for two days and nights in a vat with a mixture 
of water and rice-flour. After this they are washed, with a 
solution of shell lime in a trough, then boiled with an equal weight 
of sugar, and a little white Of egg is added to clarify. The ginger, 
candied or dried in sugar, is shipped in small squares of zinc. 
That preserved in sirup is sent out in jars of glazed porcelain of 
six and three pounds, and packed in cases of six jars. The 
quality called " mandarin " is put up in barrels. 

The papaw (Carica papaya) is a fleshy, pulpy fruit, of an 
orange color, sweet and refreshing, which is eaten as the melon 
is in Europe. This fruit, however, in sirup or crystallized, has 
very much the taste of a turnip. 

The mangosteen is a fruit about the size of a mandarin orange, 



January 30, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



6r 



of a sweet flavor, accompanied with a slight acidity, and an odor 
resembling the raspberry. It is the produce of Oarcinia man- 
gostana, and is one of the most delicious and famous of the fruits 
of the Indian Archipelago, ranking with the pineapple. Presents 
of baskets of it aoe sent from Singapore to India and China. It 
is a pleasant fruit, with a delicate but characteristic flavor, partak- 
ing of the strawberry, grape, pineapple, and peach. The happy 
mixture of tart and sweet in the pulp renders it no less salutary 
than pleasant ; and it is the only fruit which sick people are 
allowed to eat Without scruple. In Cochin China they sell at from 
a dollar to a dollar and a quarter the* hundred. 

The pomalo ( Citrus decumana) is a large . fruit of the orange 
family, with an acid flavor, frequently bitter. The pulp and thick 
rind, crystallized with sugar, are eatable, but lose much of their 
natural flavor. It it better known as the shaddock, and the fruit 
will exceptionally attain a weight of twenty pounds. 

The mammea apple (Mammea Americana) is abundant in the 
West Indies. The pulp is of a sweet aromatic smell, and of a 
peculiar yet delicious flavor. It is sometimes sliced, and eaten 
with sugar or wine, and also makes a very good jam by being pre- 
served in sugar. Another tropical fruit, the Mammea sapota, is 
known as American marmalade, from the similarity of the flavor 
of the pulp to the marmalade made from quinces. 

The succulent fruits of Cicca disticha have an acid, sweet flavor, 
and are eaten cooked or made into preserve. 

The green, fleshy, gratefully acid fruits of Averrhoa bilimbe and 
A. carambola are preserved, and used for tarts and for flavoring 
various dishes. 

Au excellent preserve is made from the sweet peel and acid 
pulp of the comquat or kumquat {Citrus japonica), a curious, small, 
nutmeg-shaped orange in China and Japan. 

The red berries of Carissa carandas furnish a well-known 
substitute for red-currant jelly, in India and China. 

The Peruvian cherimoyer (Anona cherimolia) is a highly 
esteemed succulent fruit, of a most luscious flavor, containing a 
soft, sweet mucilage resembling strawberries and credm. It is 
often called the " queen of fruits." 

The mango, the mangosteen, the custard-apple, and the durian 
are known by repute only to the people of this country; but, 
while they might easily be frozen and brought here in admirable 
condition,— dishes fit for the gods, — no attempt is made to utilize 
these luscious fruits of India in their fresh state, nor is very much 
done in preserving them. 

The durian (Durio zibethinus), although it has a strong offensive 
smell, is eaten greedily by the Burmese, and as many as 40,000 
are annually sent to Upper Burmab. 

The mango (Mangifera indica) is the best fruit in India, as 
highly valued as the peach with v us, and forms a considerable 
portion of the food of large classes of the native inhabitants. The 
varieties cultivated are about as numerous as are those of the 
apple. An Indian gentleman has made colored illustrations of 
more than two hundred varieties of this fruit. The quality is 
difficult to judge of from external appearance. There are large 
and small, elongated and abbreviated, bright orange-colored and 
green. They vary much in taste, some being of the flavor of 
honey, some of pineapple, some of orange, while others have dis- 
tinct flavors of their own. A good mango should be as little 
stringy as possible, and should not have too much of the turpen- 
tine flavor towards where it is attached to the foot-stalk : a mod- 
erately aromatic savor there is by no means objectionable. v 

The young unripe fruits are largely consumed in India in tarts, 
etc., and mango-fool there takes the place of gooseberry-fool. 
The half- ripe fruits are also made into a marmalade which re- 
sembles much that of apples. 

So large is the consumption of this fruit in India, that wagon- 
loads, bringing collectively twenty tons of the fruit, have entered 
the Island of Bombay in a single day. The fruit of the finest 
mangoes have a rich, sweet-perfumed flavor, accompanied by a 
grateful acidity. 

The thick juice is by the natives of India squeezed out, spread 
on plates, and allowed to dry, in order to form the thin cakes 
known as amsatta. The green fruit is sliced and cooked in curry ; 
is made into pickle with salt, mustard, oil, and chillies ; and also 



into preserves and jams by being boiled and cooked in sirup. 
Some varieties of mango have fruits as big as an infant's head, 
ovate, with a golden skin, speckled with carmine, and a green- 
gage flavor. 

The finest varieties of this almost unequalled fruit seem to thrive 
in Jamaica, where it was introduced about a century ago as well 
as in Bombay. It is the popular fruit there with the negroes. 

The Siam mango is a tolerable kind, which sometimes grows to 
one pound weight. The egg- mango is a small, yellow kind, with 
too much of the turpentine-flavor, and too acidulous to be much 
prized. The horse-mango is a very coarse fruit of unpleasant 
odor, much eaten by the lower classes, and producing cholera, 
diarrhoea, and dysentery. The Bombay mango, termed " Parsee," 
is known for its lusciousness and delicacy of flavor, the absence Of 
fibre, firmness of flesh, thinness of skin, and small size of the stone. 
It must, however, be admitted that on tasting this delicious fruit 
for the first time, a slight turpentine flavor is experienced. 

A raw guava, or even a raw mango, may not be, to every 
Englishman's palate, a satisfactory exchange for a mellow pear or 
a juicy peach, but preserved mango and guava jelly are things by 
no means to be despised. Some of these preserved foreign fruits 
are delicacies only to be obtained at some of the best West-end 
houses, at prices too high for ordinary consumers; but if large 
quantities were sent into the market, and the prices consequently 
lowered, the demand would become greater, and the sale more 
profitable, and would probably lead to the introduction of new 
articles, to the mutual benefit both of ourselves and the growers 
an i preservers of the fruits. 

Mango jam is prepared by boiling the mango in sirup, after re- 
moving the skins and stones, and the sour juice squeezed out by 
the free use of forks, and soaking in fresh water. Two pounds of 
mango to one ponnd of sugar is the proportion in which it is pre- 
pared. 

Bilimbi jam is made by removing nearly three-fourths of the 
juice of the fruits of Averthoa bilimbi, and soaking in water, 
squeezing the fruit and boiling them in sirup. Nelli jam, from 
the fruit of PhyUanthus embdica, is made in the same manner, 
proportion of fruit and sugar same as mango. 

From Natal there have been shown at the various exhibitions 
amatungula jam. the produce of the fruit of Arduina grandiflora, 
sometimes called the Natal plum. This jam is firm, nearly like 
that of the quince, and has a rough acid flavor, but is a curious 
and agreeable preserve. , 

The gooseberry jelly from there is the produce of Phy salts 
pubesccns. It is pleasantly sharp, without having the rough, 
metal-like acid of the amatungula. The guava jelly has the 
full taste of the West-Indian preserve. The pineapple jam 
has the rich, almost too luscious taste for which the Natal pines 
are famed. The loquat is a very sweet and fine preserve, slightly 
resembling quince marmalade, but with less pronounced individual 
flavor. The fruit is very delicious in its unpreserved ripe state, 
having the flavor of an apple grafted upon the flesh of the melting 
peach, with large apple-pips taking the place of the stone, and 
ripening in massive bunches. Like the peach, the fruit is almost 
too delicate for a preserve. Its most refined and exquisite qualities 
do not survive the bath of boiling sugar. The rosella is the pre- 
served fruits or calyces of the Hibiscus sabdariffa, which makes a 
most estimable substitute for red-currant jelly, particularly 
relished in hot climates. The grenadilla, the purple fruit of a 
passion-flower (Passiflora edulis), is almost without a rival for 
delicate fragrance and perfume, has a sweetish acid taste, and 
makes an excellent preserve. The St. Helena peach resembles, 
in the preserved state, a very excellent yellow plum. The shad- 
dock marmalade might also be spoken of as a worthy substitute for 
the Seville orange marmalade. 



Nature says that the Russian painter Krilof is painting the 
portraits of typical representatives of the various races included 
in the Russian Empire. In carrying out his purpose, he has under- 
taken many long journeys ; and he has now a small gallery which 
ought to be of considerable value from -an anthropological as well 
as from an artistic point of view. 



62 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XVII. No. 417 



SCIENCE: 



A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 

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A BOSTON -'ZOO."' 

It is a little, strange tbat a zoological garden should be so 
rare a sight in our country, or, if found, should be so poorly 
equipped, when there is hardly a European city of any size 
without one, which is invariably a centre of attraction for 
all American visitors. We often hear the inquiry, " Why 4 
cannot we, too, have a * zoo ' ? " and- we all know that such 
a garden in Boston has long been talked of. Indeed, it has 
been seriously studied for a number of years by our nat- 
uralists ; but a brief consideration will show that to found 
and sustain an establishment of the first class, modelled on 
the best in Europe, would involve an expense very much 
greater than there, simply from the fact that in no place in 
Europe where a flourishing and extensive garden exists, are 
the winters nearly so long or so severe, nor are they accom- 
panied by such abrupt terminations, as here : our winters, 
in short, would entail a vastly increased expense to keep 
tropical creatures in health, and presentable to the visitor. 

But this is by no means the only difficulty we labor under 
in Boston : for twot things are absolutely essential to an 
undertaking of this sort, — first,, sufficient space; and, 
second, its accessibility to the public. Now, where are we 
to look for an unencumbered spot of ground sufficiently ex- 
tensive for these purposes reasonably near the heart of our 
city? 

The acreage of the gardens in Europe ranges from about 
half a dozen to half a hundred acres, but hardly one of 
them has room enough for its animals. The Zoological 
Garden of London, the best and most successful of all, is 
very crowded, and does not appear to cover more than thirty- 
five acres, so far as can be told by measurement from a map. 
Forty acres — somewhat less than Boston Common — is the 
least we ought to count on here; but we have barely saved 
for ourselves on the outskirts of the city room for public 
parks. 

The "scientific" and the " practical " man are often set in 
antithesis. Will you kindly give your attention for a few 
minutes while I endeavor to show that they may also be 
named synthetically, by pointing out how the scientific men 

1 Remarks made at a meeting of the Thursday Club, Boston, Jan. 15, by 
Samuel H. Scudder. 



try to answer a practical question and resolve practical diffi- 
culties ? 

We who have had this matter before us have been on the 
watch for opportunities long enough to see an immense 
growth in our city and a rapid occupation of our suburbs. 
We have seen one spot after another which we had looked 
upon with envious eyes fall into the hands of the land 
speculator, until the chances seemed to grow less as the needs 
appeared greater. But our opportunity at last came with the 
establishment of the Park Commission, without whose 
hearty support we should be silent to-night. 

The only piece of ground under the control of the park 
commissioners large enough to have a portion of it s*t apart 
for a general zoological garden is Franklin Park in the 
Jamaica Plain district: but there are two insuperable ob- 
jections to the use of this cite, — first, that it contains no 
sufficient body of running water for the needs of aquatic 
animals ; and, second, that the segregation of a sufficient 
territory would absolutely prevent the use of this large section- 
as a country park, one of the most important of the designs- 
of the commissioners, and not elsewhere attainable. The 
only possible escape from this dilemma is one which, while it 
certainly involves an additional expense, brings with it com- 
pensating advantages. It is the division of the proposed 
Natural History Gardens into separated sections. The dis- 
advantages of this plan are the extra expense of fencing, 
and of gate-keepers and superintendence, and that we should 
have to go to widely distant points to see all that there is to> 
be seen. The advantages are the better selection of sites for 
special groups of animals, and the import aut fact that some 
one of the exhibits would be easily accessible to every in- 
habitant of the city. 

For the purposes of a natural-history garden, — we use this* 
word as more correct than the more limited but more usual 
one of zoological garden, — animals and plants may be 
divided into those inhabiting the salt water or dependent 
upon it for means of sustenance, those inhabiting the fresh 
water or so dependent, and land animals properly speaking. 
All air animals would find food and shelter within or upon* 
one or other of these media, and therefore we need not con- 
sider them as a group apart. One grand factor in life here 
presents itself, by taking advantage of which we may im- 
press it upon every visitor to our gardens by compelling 
him, if he would learn all we offer, to pass at some expense 
of time and labor from one of our exhibits to another. It 
is our first essay in teaching one of the fundamental facts of 
nature. 

The sympathetic concurrence of the park commissioners 
enables us to carry out, it has indeed originated, this idea, 
since they offer us three separate tracts, — one upon the sea- 
shore, one which includes a pond of moderate extent and 
the valley of a small stream, and the third a very attractive 
bit of rocky woodland and glade. Not one of these spots i» 
all that could be desired for the purposes in view, but they 
are the very best the park commissioners have to offer; they 
are the best unoccupied grounds left about Boston; and they 
cover the two requisites mentioned at the start, — suitable 
room and sufficient for all reasonable purposes, within easy 
reach of the people. 

Observe for a moment their position on this map of Bos- 
ton. The Marine Garden, or Marine Aquarium, as we call 
it, will be situated at that point where Boston stretches its 
farthest hand to the sea, in the so-called Marine Park, al- 
ready in its half- finished state thronged by thousands, espe- 
cially in the summer, and which is more easily reached than 



January 30, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



63 



> 

most of us imagine by the horse-car, soon, no doubt, to be 
supplanted by the electric railway. 

Diametrically opposite, in the near suburbs, is Jamaica 
Pond. The park grounds almost touch its northern margin ; 
and separated from it only by the highway and the steep 
banks on either side is Ward's Pond, well known to skaters, 
and the head waters of a stream with the uninviting name 
of Muddy River. It is close to the heart of Brook line, Boyl- 
ston, and Jamaica Plain, and here it is proposed to plant the 
Fresh Water Aquarium. 

Also near to Jamaica Plain, and barely at the outer edge 
of the multiplying streets and thickly settled districts, on the 
city side of Franklin Park, reached from the heart of the 
city itself by two lines of electric cars and one line of steam- 
cars, hardly more than across the road from one of Boston's 
crowded resorts for pleasure, is the third reservation, the 
largest tract of all. known as the Long Crouch Woods, des- 
tined for the display of land animals. 

But now we meet one of the necessary limitations already 
alluded to. Marine and fresh- water animals are usually ex- 
hibited in series of aquaria and tanks in buildings, which 
manifestly need but little space. Land animals, on the con- 
trary, especially the larger sort, require a great deal of room; 
and just here comes in the question of the housing and 
proper exhibition of tropical beasts. We do not wish to 
show them in cages, as in a stranded circus. Whatever is 
exhibited should be shown in circumstances and amid sur- 
roundings as nearly natural as possible, and cleanliness is 
an important condition. 

Now, the space at command at this end of Franklin Park 
— about twenty acres — will in noway permit (he suitable 
and satisfactory display of the numerous hordes of tropical 
animals; and the enormous expense attendant upon their 
winter housing in such a climate as ours altogether forbids 
such an undertaking now; our people are not yet eager 
enough for such shows to give them financial support; it may 
be that by and by we shall find that our present plan has 
outgrown our most sanguine expectations, and be able to 
secure some cheap waste land not far removed (say the salt 
marshes north or south of Boston), on which such a general 
garden could be built up by slow degrees. Such a scheme 
we may leave to those who come after us. For us, we must 
dismiss such fond dreams as immediately chimerical, and 
ask ourselves what we may have, what limits we should 
assign ourselves and yet be satisfied. 

When we remember that not one in ten thousand, perhaps 
not one in fifty thousand, of our city people (not only here 
in Boston, but anywhere), has ever seen or is in any way 
familiar with the greater part of the animals and plants that 
are indigenous to the soil on which he was born and bred ; 
when we further notice, what I believe is the fact, that not 
a single collection of living animals in the world has ever 
been made, either separately or in connection with a larger 
display, to show the native animals of the region where they 
are exhibited, although natural -history museums of dead 
nature very often offer this attraction, — we see at once that 
we have here an opportunity of setting an example to the 
world, sure to be followed, to the gain of general education 
everywhere. The advantages and the interest of such an ex- 
hibition are plain ; more than that, these creatures are the 
very ones which need least protection and expense, so that 
the plan is doubly feasible. The only question is, How wide 
a scope shall we give to the term " indigenous " ? What 
territory shall we draw upon ? This we may well leave to 
future experiment, but we should wish at least to show the 



animals and plants of a zone across our continent within the 
latitude of New England. The New England indigenes 
would then always form the bulk of the collection, and we 
should have in fact, as well as in name, a New England 
garden. This fact, this name, would have its value and its 
significance; and elephants and giraffes, camels and tigers, 
would not be expected, and the travelling menagerie and the 
Fall of Babylon be deprived of no monopoly. 

The garden thus becomes educational : it teaches as a 
whole the lesson of our surroundings; it impresses the fact 
that the range of animals is circumscribed within definite 
areas, however large. It should teach more: it should 
give some hint, at least, of a wider outlook; it should show 
how, as we pass beyond the range of our own indigenes, 
these are replaced by others; it should hint how far we need 
to go to find this out and the nature of the change. Side by 
side, then, with our native animals, if we would enlarge the 
horizon, must we show their kin, even if we go beyond the 
seas. Such a collection must be limited, to be most instruc- 
tive. It is now the aim, in the best museums of natural his- 
tory conducted for educational purposes, to concentrate the 
attention Upon relatively few objects, rather than confuse 
the mind with the bountiful prodigality of nature. Side by 
side with our black and grisly bears we might show the 
brown bear of Europe and the polar bear, and stop there ; as 
a companion to the opossum, we should look to the home of 
the marsupials and choose the kangaroo — no need of more; 
for our larger variety of smaller quadrupeds, our squirrels, 
moles, mice, and bats, and we may also say for our horned 
ruminants and our cats, pot even so much extra-limital 
material would be necessary : so that, though some of the miss- 
ing types should also find a place, such as a sloth, an orni- 
thorhynchus, or a monkey, the draught on tropical animals 
would be exceedingly small, and need not be felt as a matter 
of concern. 

I have instanced here only a few among the quadrupeds. 
There is no need of enlarging: the story would be the same 
with the birds, reptiles, and other animals. Such a collec- 
tion would be of unique interest and attraction ; its installa- 
tion in Long Crouch Woods would be all that could be de- 
sired ; and it would be easy to add such features to the gar- 
den as would make it equally attractive at all seasons. Thus 
it is not impossible that special exhibits might be made of 
birds of passage, during the period of their migrations. A 
winter garden under glass has been suggested, which might 
well become one of the chief resorts of the people by day or 
evening, where in a temperate atmosphere, with a varied and 
soft foliage everywhere, they would find pleasure and profit 
in looking at flowers and birds, fountains and brooks, and 
in learning the habits of curious strange creatures at their 
play. 

If I have dwelt on this division of the Natural History 
Gardens longer than I should, it has been mainly to show 
how the very limitations to which the scheme is subject 
have been made to serve a useful purpose. It is not possible, 
however, that this part of the plan should be brought to suc- 
cessful issue at once. The division of the gardens allows 
the opening of one section at a time, — a very important con- 
sideration, — and this section, as certainly the most expen- 
sive, will of course come later. Let us, then, pass for a 
brief time to the neighboring department, that of the Fresh 
Water Aquarium at Ward's Pond. 

The spot is a sheltered one, protected by encircling hills, 
most favorable for our purpose. Here will be relegated not 
only the animals and plants inhabiting fresh water, but 



64 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 417 



also those which live in or upon its bank*; and as the space 
here seems to be ample, — the ground covers about fourteen 
acres, — expense would be the only limit; so that, should the 
returns warrant, we may eventually include not a few sub- 
tropical or even tropical animals. The stream will be so 
turned as to run in winding channels through pond-like en- 
largements, much increasing the opportunity for the out- 
door display of. water-fowl and beast. Here will find their 
place fish- hatcheries where the processes of growth may be 
observed, and insectaries in which the changes which many 
creatures undergo in passing from an aquatic to an aerial 
life will be readily seen. So other significant transforma- 
tions may be observed in displays which will show how readily 
certain brine shrimps may change their actual structure to 
become in a few generations fresh- water shrimps, and illus- 
trate the rarely considered fact that all fresh-water organ- 
isms are modified descendants either of marine, or, by retro- 
grade movement, of terrestrial, animals or plants. The 
broad relations of our three realms of life will thus be in- 
dicated. Here, too, will be fine opportunities for the growth 
of water-plants, both of the temperate zones and of the 
tropics; for, with proper care, even the wonderful Victoria 
regia can be grown in full beauty. 

Many of these things will be seen, of course, under cover, 
where, in the inclement season, all creatures which live 
beneath the surface of the water must be housed. Houses 
must also be fitted for the protection as well as display of all 
foreign creatures, so that in winter and summer alike this 
section of the garden shall have its full share of attractions. 

But the place of highest interest and usefulness is that 
which we wish first to undertake, the Marine Aquarium at 
Oity Point, — greatest, because of the larger variety of form, 
of structure, and of color among marine animals ; because, 
too, some of the most beautiful and most surprising of these 
creatures are inhabitants of our own seas, but are almost 
wholly unknown except to naturalists. When the display 
of the animals of our own waters in all their vivid coloring, 
lovely or grotesque form, and varied action, is ready, thou- 
sands will marvel at the revelation of a new world of their 
own of which they have not dreamed. 

The ground here allotted, covering about eight acres, will 
be ready for occupation the coming summer, and will have 
as its chief attraction a building for aquaria, so arranged 
that almost the only light which enters the halls will be that 
which passes through the aquaria; and we may thus watch 
the creatures much as if we were ourselves beneath the sea, 
without those features which might make such a position 
disagreeable. The first room to visit, however, would be 
one devoted to an exposition of the relations of animals and 
plants to their surroundings, such as would give a clew to 
much we should afterwards see which would be otherwise 
obscure. Not only would the differences between the great 
groups of animals and plants be made clear by proper prep- 
arations and other exhibits, but a distinct effort would here 
be made to show what definite relations the structure of 
animals bears to their immediate surroundings and to their 
habits, and how animals are provided with the means' to do 
the precise work they have to perform, for work is a con- 
dition of being. The changes that have taken place in the 
structure of certain descendants of air-breathing land ani- 
mals, such as whales, in order to fit them for marine life, 
would be illustrated, and other fundamental laws of organic 
modification would be made clear by aids known to the ex- 
pert. A similar introduction would be offered in the other 
sections of the gardens, modified to suit the immediate 



situation and multiply the illustration, so that the full value 
of each exhibit might be attainable on the spot. 

In the general exhibition-rooms the individual aquaria are 
like the cases in a museum : their position or their contents 
may be altered /.or shifted at will to illustrate this or that 
feature. But it is probable that geographical data will 
always have a large influence on the juxtaposition and dis- 
tribution of the- inhabitants of the tanks, first, because it is 
possible and desirable to have many sorts — widely differing 
sorts of animals which do not come into collision — in a 
single vessel, but also because of the importance which rel- 
ative depth in the ocean, as well as latitude and longitude, 
has upon marine life. Our own marine fauna and flora 
would be displayed by itself in special series of aquaria; 
while, as every desirable range of temperature would be 
possible in the different tanks by simply heating or chilling 
the inflow, or, by convection, the water in the vessel itself, 
tropical and arctic animals, once obtained, could be kept 
throughout the year. 

Outside in the grounds large and small salt-water basins 
are planned, within which it is hoped to confine and exhibit 
some of our smaller cetaceans, porpoises, dolphins, etc., as 
also seals ; while upon their shores and islands water-fowl 
and other creatures would disport themselves. It may even 
be practicable by some device to create, in a basin of smaller 
extent, an artificial tide, with high water at noon and at 
midnight by the clock, so that the intertidal animals may 
find their place, the nimble " peep" scamper in flocks along 
the beach (their wings clipped, of course), while the margins 
shall represent at intervals a rocky and a sandy shore. This 
bit of marine life transplanted to our homes need not end 
here: we should reproduce also the vegetation of the im- 
mediate coast ; even the beach-grass of New England may 
find its corner and give its lesson, offering shelter and con- 
genial home to the maritime locust, whose complete protec- 
tion through its colorational resemblance to the sand it dwells 
upon would give to every one who sought it out a practical 
lesson in one of Nature's most hidden laws, — the impor- 
tance of disguise and mimicry. 

The finest existing zoological garden is controlled by a 
strictly scientific association, — the Zoological Society of 
London. It remains to be seen whether our Society of Nat- 
ural History cannot accomplish in America a similar work. 
We may not be able to rival our transatlantic brethren in the 
extent of our menagerie, — here we are handicapped by the 
lack of colonial possessions, — but the wide extent of our 
country gives us altogether the advantage in a display of 
native animals ; and, if we rightly seize the opportunity be- 
fore us, we may have a series of gardens second in edu- 
cational value and in public interest to none in the world. 



MEN WHO ARE WORKING WITH, KOCH. 

Professor Karl Frabnkel, whose highly important experi- 
ments with a view to conferring immunity against diphtheria 
are now one of the chief topics of discussion in the medical 
world, is a pupil of Robert Koch. According to the Lancet, he 
passed bis final examination as a physician in 1885, was appointed 
assistant in the Hygienic Institute, Berlin, on fts establishment, 
and soen became Koch's first assistant there. In 1837 he estab- 
lished himself as private lecturer in Berlin University. About 
a year ago he was appointed professor of hygiene at Konigs- 
berg. He became generally known in medical circles by the pub- 
lication of his <4 Elements of Bacteriology," in 1886. This book 
has appeared in a third edition, and has the reputation of being 
the best of its kind. The most important of Fraenkel's special in- 



January 30, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



65 



vestigations are those of bacterial poisons, which he made in com- 
mon with Ludwig Brieger. They led to 'the discovery of 
toxalbumin. and to that above mentioned. His other discoveries 
are those concerning the bacterial contents of ice, the cultivation 
of bacteria which thrive without air, the occurrence of micro- 
organisms in the various layers of the soil. etc. 

Dr. Kitasato. a Japanese by birth, has lived in Germany for 
five year*, and has occupied himself almost all the time with 
bacteriological studies in the Hygienic Institute. The biology of 
the cholera bacillus has been the theme of many^ of his researches. 
He has investigated its behavior in milk and in iceces, and its re- 
lations to other pathogenic and n on -pathogenic bacteria in 
nutritive solutions. He has also gone deeply into the study of the 
tetanus germs, and has now published the results of bis investi- 
gations in his article on immunity. One of his chief discoveries 
is that of the musk fungus. 

Dr. Ernst Ben ring, who has shown, in conjunction with Dr. 
Kitasato. how immunity against diphtheria and tetanus is conferred 
on animals, is an army surgeon, and has been working as an as- 
sistant for about a year and a half past in the Hygienic Institute. 
Among his first studies after he became a surgeon, ten years ago, 
was the manner in which antiseptic remedies for wounds, es- 
pecially iodoform, act, and he made a special study of the symp- 
toms of iodoform poisoning. He afterward tested the antiseptic 
value of silver solutions, creohne, and other chemicals. Cadav- 
erine, the etiology of anthrax, and the immunity of rats, are 
also amoug the themes to which he has devoted special attention, 
but diphtheria has recently been bis exclusive study. 



HEALTH MATTERS. 

Action of Living Blood on Bacteria. 

Professor Bonome has recorded the results of his researches on 
the following points : whether physiological alterations in the blood 
play any part in modifying its destructive action on bacteria ; 
whether it is possible to produce alterations in the composition of 
the blood of such a nature that the normal inimical action against 
bacteria may be altered ; and whether it is possible to derive any 
reliable data that will throw light on the subject of immunity. As 
a result of his experiments, he comes to the conclusion that sta- 
phylococci introduced directly into the blood are destroyed in 
from ten to twenty- 6 ve minutes, more rapidly in the blood of 
young rabbits than in older animals of the same species (British 
Medical Journal). He then, by injecting the poison obtained 
from the pus of an old empyema or a chronic abscess in small 
quantities into healthy rabbits, proved that the bacteria-destroying 
activity of the blood is increased, the organisms used being; 
staphylococcus aureus, albus, and citreus. He holds, however, 
that the introduction of such poison does not appear to exert any 
influence upon the similar activity of the fixed tissues. Poison 
from acute pus obtained in a similar manner appears to exert not 
the slightest influence on the destructive action of the blood ; 
while, owing to its effect upon the tissue-elements, it diminishes 
their power of destroying such organisms as the staphylococci 
above mentioned. Similar poison from pyogenic staphylococcus 
culture does not increase this destructive power of the blood 
against the above-mentioned organisms ; and any immunity that 
is produced depends, not on the rapidity and certainty with 
which the blood destroys the organisms introduced into its 
stream, but rather upon a greater resistance which the tissue- 
elements exert against the bacteria poison, when they have 
become accustomed to the action of the poison by remaining in 
contact with the metabolic products of the same bacteria*. He 
also gives experiments to show that water injected into the veins 
can diminish this destructive activity of the blood to a certain ex- 
tent, but never completely ; for although the animals so injected, 
and control animals, died about the same time, those in winch 
water had ( been injected usually showed small pur u lea t deposits 
ip the kidneys and myocardium, and more or less fatty degener- 
ation of the epithelium of the kidneys : so that he considers, that, 
in addition to this slight diminution in the destructive activity 
of the blood, there is some alteration of the protoplasm of the 



cells, probably due to the absence of salts and the cutting-off of 
the full oxygen supply by the presence of water, by which their 
resistance is considerably diminished in certain areas, and owing 
to which they are more readily attacked by the injected staphy- 
lococci. 

Amount of Sugar in Blood in Disease. 

Dr. N. P. Trtnkler recently read, before the Kharkoff Medical 
Society, a paper on the " Diagnostic Significance of the Quantity 
of Sugar and Reducing Substances in the Blood, 1 ' in which he de- 
tailed a number of observations he had carried out on patients' in 
Professor Grube's surgical clinic, the majority of whom were suf- 
fering from cancer ( The Lancet). The blood of some, as described 
in the Medical Record of Jan. 8, was taken for examination dur- 
ing an operation, that of the rest being only obtained after death. 
The examination was in all cases made by means of two processes, 
— that of Feb ling and Soxhlet, and that of Knapp (Knapp's solu- 
tion consists of cyanide of mercury dissolved in caustic alkali), — 
the mean of the two results being taken. He found that the 
blood during life always contains less sugar than after death, and 
that that of persons suffering from cancer contains a larger pro- 
portion of sugar and reducing substances than that of healthy 
persons, or of persons suffering from other diseases. Affections of 
internal organs appeared to be accompanied by a greater percen- 
tage of sugar in the blood than diseases of the skin or of external 
parts. The degree of emaciation produced by cancer did not 
seem to have any direct effect upon the quantity of sugar in the 
blood. There did not seem to be any real correspondence between 
the amounts of sugar and other reducing substances : the sugar 
was much more constant in its amount, the quantity of the other 
reducing substances being liable to very considerable variations. 
In the observations made on various diseased conditions, the fol- 
lowing were the amounts of sugar found : cancer, 0.1678 per 
cent to 0.2037 per cent; typhoid-fever, 0.0050 per cent; pneumonia, 
0.0948 percent; dysentery, 0.0888 per cent; organic diseases of the 
heart, 0.0787 per cent; peritonitis, 0.701 per cent ; 'phthisis, 0.0058 
per cent; syphilis, 0.0553 per cent; nephritis, 0.0489 per cent; 
hematuria, 0.0375 per cent. 

A Surgical Use for Ants- 
Ants have very powerful jaws, considering the size of their 
bodies, and therefore their method of fighting is by biting. 
They will bite one another, and hold on with a wonderful grip of 
the jaws, even after their legs have been bitten off by other ants. 
Sometimes six or eight ants will be clinging with a death-grip to 
one another, making a peculiar spectacle, some with a leg gone, 
and some with half the body gone. One singular fact is, as we 
learn from the Medical Record, that the grip of an ant's jaw is re- 
tained even after the body has been bitten off and nothing but the 
head remains. This knowledge is possessed by a certain tribe of 
Indians in Brazil, who put the ants to a very peculiar use. When 
an Indian gets a gash cut in his hand, instead of having his hand 
sewed together, as physicians do in this country, he procures five 
or six large black ants, and, holding their heads near the gash, 
they bring their jaws together in biting the flesh, and thus pull 
the two sides of the gash together. Then the Indian pinches off 
the bodies of the ants, and leaves their heads clinging to the gash, 
which is held together until the gash is perfectly healed. 

The Cradle of Influenza. 

Professor Tessier, of the medical faculty of Lyons, has returned 
from Russia, whither he was sent last March to take evidence 
upon the course of influenza there, and the various conditions of 
its evolution. He found, according to the Medical Record, that 
influenza is a growth of Russian soil, and, when not a raging 
malady, is a smouldering one. Tbe way the people live in winter, 
locked up in heated bouses; the flatness of the soil, ite consequent 
bad drainage, and universally sodden condition when the April 
thaw begins; the filthinees of the farm yards, the village streets, 
and the rivers, which become suddenly swollen, and on falling 
leave a putrid mud behind, — all conduce to make influenza 
endemic. Its microbe is, in fact, to be found in this mud. Dr. 
Tessier calls it a strepto bacillus. What is peculiar in this dis- 



66 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 41 7 



ease is the allianoe with this bacillus of pneumococcus, which also 
lives in Russian marshes, river-mud. and village pools. 

Hunger and Infection. 

It is a well-known fact, says the Medical Press, that hunger 
predisposes to certain diseases, but it has been reserved to two 
Turin doctors to demonstrate the increased liability experimentally. 
Their observations were carried out with the virus of bacillus 
anthrax on pigeons,— a disease to which these birds are, under 
ordinary circumstances, refractory. They found, however, that 
six days' total deprivation of food rendered the birds amenable to 
the virus, on condition that food was still withheld. If, however, 
food was given at the same time as the virus, then they still suc- 
cessfully resisted infection. Further, when starvation was con- 
tinued for two days after the inoculation, and food then given, the 
development* of the disease, though not prevented, ran a slower 
course. Lastly, the virus proved capable of infecting birds well 
fed up to the date of inoculation, but starved subsequently. The 
line of investigation is evidently one which admits of further 
research, but the moral is obvious. 



at both ends, he says, "I do not say that in such a case there 
would not be a certain very small amount or gyratory movement 
produced by the air flowing into the trough while it was filling 
up, as it would be at once if there were no restraining force to 
keep the air from the high pressure on each side from rushing 



in. 



»» 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



•*• Correspondents are requested to be a* brief as possible. The writer* s name 
it in all cases required as proof of good faith. 

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character 
of the journal. 

On request, twenty copies of the number containing his communication will 
be furnished free to any correspondent. 

Cyclones and Areas of High Pressure. 

Ik his communication to /Science of Jan. 16, Professor Ferrel 
speaks of my storming a camp in which he was not to be found. 
This I cannot consider entirely wasted effort, since it has enabled 
me. to more exactly formulate the position which he does occupy. 
I, however, do not like the simile, for I am sure I can speak for 
.Professor Davis when I say that we are not enemies trying to 
knock down, undermine, or even disparage Professor Ferrers 
work ; neither are we partisans whose duty, as Mr. Mc Adie ap- 
pears to think, is to look with special favor upon views promul- 
gated by our own country men, and with corresponding disfavor 
upon views of foreigners. We are merely scientific men, trying, 
with the best knowledge we can command, to determine the truth 
about a matter which certainly admits of a difference of opinion. 
I did not set out with the ambitious task of stating a new theory 
which was to stand out as a rival to the life-work of Espy and 
Ferrel, but merely to quote certain facts which to me indicate 
that the present theory of cyclones as commonly understood needs 
modification. As a result of my reading and continuous observa- 
tion of weather-maps, I frequently frame new hypotheses to en- 
able me to more closely follow and anticipate the phenomena that 
are presented to me. Some of these I stated in my last communi- 
cation, rather hoping that the criticism of Professor Ferret's well- 
stored mind would enable me to gain more light on them. 

Had not Ferrel so warmly espoused the condensation theory, I 
should not have thought this an essential part of his own. Is it 
not Espy*8 theory, rather than FerreFs, that needs reconsideration? 
FerrePs work has been in showing the effect of the earth's rota- 
tion on atmospheric currents, and, it seems to me, is unassailable. 
He has shown more convincingly than any other writer the pos- 
sibility of the existence of dynamic gradients as distinguished 
from thermic gradients; and we find Teisserenc DeBort calculat- 
ing by Ferret's formula how much of each cyclone is to be at- 
tributed to thermic and how much to dynamic gradients, and 
even going so far as to show that cyclones may exist in which 
there is only a dynamic gradient, the thermic gradient having dis- 
appeared. In his la9t article in Science, Professor Ferrel, in 
speaking of low temperature as a cause of high-pressure areas, 
says, * 4 While I regard this as adequate to account for it, I have 
never said or thought that it is the only cause, but simply the 
principal cause. I think there are other causes, especially in the 
origin of these high-pressure areas." 

In speaking of the case referred to by me of a long trough of 
low pressure becoming nearly circular by the increase of pressure 

/ 



But Professor Ferrel will say these are only secondary effects, 
and there must be an originating and sustaining force behind 
them. This he finds in differences of temperature in adjacent 
bodies of air. even admitting that cyclones of moderate power 
may exist without precipitation. 

I do not think any one who has entered into this discussion, 
unless it be Professor Hazen, has doubted that differences of tem- 
perature resulting from solar energy is the ultimate power from 
which all cyclonic and anticyclonic phenomena are derived. I 
stated as clearly as I could, in my last article, that differences of 
temperature between pole and equator, ocean and continent, 
were, in my opinion, the ultimate cause of differences of pressure 
over large areas, and indirectly the cause of the smaller cj clones 
and anticyclones of our weather-maps. I have just read my 
statements over, and do not see how I could have made them any 
clearer, though Professor Ferrel apparently failed to understand 
them, and quotes for my benefit the fable of a tortoise standing 
on nothing and supporting the world. 

Loomis believed that areas of high pressure, which be placed as 
the antecedent phenomena in the development of cyclones, were 
mainly the result of low temperature. Hann finds in the tem- 
perature gradient between equator and pole the force which 
originates and maintains cyclones. 

As I understand it, then, the point at issue is as follows : Fer- 
rel maintains that the essential condition for the development and 
continuance of a cyclone is a higher temperature within the field 
of the cyclone than in the surrounding air. Loomis and Hann, 
while not denying that cyclones may thus originate, conclude, as 
a result of the study of observational data, that cyclones also 
exist as secondary whirls resulting from atmospheric motions 
originating outside the area of the cyclone. The cyclones thus 
originated probably bear some analogy to the small whirls often 
seen in the current of a river. 

I have little doubt that Ferrel's explanation of the general cir- 
culation of the winds is the correct one, and it is possible that the 
views of cyclone generation advanced by Loomis and Hann will 
need modification ; but I believe that the observational data are 
sufficient to warrant the conclusion that the condensation theory 
needs modification. 

Professor Ferrel appears to think that it is scarcely justifiable 
to advance a new hypothesis until it is certain that the older theory 
is inadequate. I cannot think, however, that this is the method 
by which science has been advanced. There was a time when 
the wave theory of light was less probable than the emission the- 
ory elaborated by the mathematical genius of Newton ; and, if 
the less probable theory had not been thought over and discussed, 
the present position of optics could never have been reached. 
There was a time when the fluid theory of electricity was much 
more probable than any other; and, had not investigators sought 
other hypotheses which would explain the phenomena equally as 
well, or better, progress would have been greatly retarded. 

Many other examples might be given, but these will suffice to 
show why I prefer the method of multiple hypothesis advocated 
by President Chamberlin to the method of not considering but 
one hypothesis or theory until 'it is absolutely certain that it is 
wrong. 

If we only had some method of determining the air temperature 
at each successive height, it would be possible to calculate in any 
area of high pressure exactly how much of the high pressure was 
due to temperature, and how much was due to dynamic or other 
causes. There are certain limiting values, however, which obser- 
vation and well-known physical laws render it safe to assume the 
mean temperature of any air-column will not depart greatly from: 
1st, It is improbable that the decrease of temperature with height 
can ever be much or any greater than the adiabatic rate when 
the air above would be potentially heavier than the air below; 2d., 
It is improbable that the mean temperature of the air-column up 



January 30, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



67 



to 5,000 metres will be higher than the temperature observed at 
the earth's surface. 

Taking the average decrease of temperature with height found 
from the observations on Pike's Peak and Mount Washington, and 
using the temperature and pressure recorded at stations on the 
daily weather-chart, I have, by Koppen's method, calculated the 
pressure at the height of 5.000 metres above a large number of 
areas of high pressure, and drawn isobars for this height. These 
show that above the larger number of winter anticyclones on our 
Western plains the pressure is lower than on the same latitude 
farther east. Even if we make the extreme assumption that there 
is no decrease of temperature above these anticyclones up to 5,000 
metres, some of the cases will still show a lower pressure at this 
height than on the same latitude on each side. In these cases 
there seems no escape from the conclusion that the pressure at the 
earth's surface is due chiefly or entirely to the low temperature of 
the air. But there are other cases of anticyclones over these plains 
in the summer-time, and of anticyclones on our seacoast in win- 
ter, in which the temperature is as high as, or higher than, near 
the earth's surface within the anticyclones as on the same latitude 
farther west. In these cases it is sometimes difficult to get a 
lower pressure in the upper air above them, even though we 
assume the adiabatic rate of cooling. Moreover* I know that 
these high pressures on rare occasions extend up even to the cir- 
rus region, for I have observed cirrus-clouds moviug out from 
them toward the west in their south-west quadrant as the surface 
wind does near the earth. I. am hence led to believe that there 
are two classes of anticyclones, — one due chiefly or entirely to low 
temperature, and the other due chiefly or entirely to dynamic 
causes. It seems to me probable that the same is true of cyclones. 

H. Helm Clayton. 

Blue Hill Observatory, Jan. 22. 



Questions of Npmenclature. 



Professor C. S. Sargent, author of the " Silva of North 
America, 91 says, in the first volume of that work, " I have adopted 
the method which imposes upon a plant the oldest generic name 
applied to it by Linnaeus in the first edition of the * Genera Plan- 
tarum,' published in 1787, or by any subsequent author, and the 
oldest specific name used by Linnaeus in the first 'edition of 
* Species Plantarum,' published in 1753, or by any subsequent 
author, without regard to the fact that such a specific name may 
have been associated at first with a generic name improperly 
employed." 

To secure stability in nomenclature, it is obvious that the 
method adopted by Professor Sargent is the one which should uni- 
versally be adopted by botanists. Other questions relating to 
botanical nomenclature are not so well settled as might be desired, 
and a few of these may be briefly stated, with the writer's present 
views concerning them. 

The first in importance, perhaps, is the use of the names of 
forma at first described as varieties of other species, and later 
raised to specific rank, or vice versa. It would seem that the 
varietal name as first used should be adopted for the specific name 
when raised to specific rank, though many botanists have felt at 
liberty to rechristen them at pleasure. A varietal or subspecific 
name would, if this rule were followed, receive precedence over 
later names. Professor E. L. Greene, in " West American Oaks,'* 
has adopted the name Quercus Palmer i Engelm. in preference to 
Q. Dunnii Kell., although first published as a species under the 
latter name, Q. Palmeri having first been published as a sub- 
species by Dr. Engelmann, and later as a species. One is led to 
infer by Professor Greene's remarks, that, had Q. Palmeri been 
published as a variety instead of as a subspecies, he would have 
adopted Kellogg's name for the species, though why such a dis- 
tinction is made is not very evident. 

Bentham, in fact, held that the earliest published name, whether 
applied as a specific or varietal, belonged inalienably to that in- 
dividual form, whether subsequently redescribed and raised to 
specific, or degraded to varietal rank. 

"Once a syhonyme always a synonyme," is a rule which I be- 
lieve obtains among zoologists in general, and should, if tenable 



with them, be adopted by botanists as well. This would necessi- 
tate some important changes if adopted ; and as an instance may 
be noted the genus Washingtonia, now in use for our Calif omian 
fan-palms, a synonyme of Sequoia, having been unfortunately 
applied to our Calif omian giant before its application by Wend* 
land to our palm, i 

If the facts permitted, some enterprising botanist might see fit 
to reinstate the coniferous genus, in which case the genus of 
palms would of necessity have to be renamed. Still, it seems like 
creating needless synonymy in this case to rechristen Wendland's 
genus, though strict adherence to the rule would render it imper- 
ative. 

Uniformity in the method of citing the authors of species is 
another desideratum in botanical nomenclature. The most ex- 
plicit custom is that adopted in general by zoologists, — the en- 
closing in parentheses the name of the author of the species or 
variety, where originally given wrong rank, or referred to a 
genus incorrectly. While this is often cumbersome, yet it greatly 
facilitates subsequent work beyond question, and is preferable to 
the citing of the name of the author who has referred the plant in 
question to a different genus, or considered it as of different rank. 
The existing confusion in the manner of citations renders it im- 
possible for a writer to do strict justice to the founders of species, 
unless he is favored with access to large botanical libraries, and 
blessed with abundant leisure for consulting original descriptions. 
The author of the species (or variety), it seems to the writer, is 
the one to be cited (if the system of double citation is discarded as 
inconvenient) in preference to the authority for its transference 
from one genus to another. 

Another point upon which botanists are' not fully agreed is the 
citation of names adopted in manuscripts or herbaria, and receiv- 
ing earliest publication by others than their authors. It is the 
custom in America (and a sensible custom it is) to cite the real 
author's name, even when first described and published by another 
author (unless published by that author as of his own authorship). 
Thus, Nuttall is credited with the authorship of many genera and 
species first described by Torrey & Gray in the ** Synoptical 
Flora," or by DeCandolle or others elsewhere. 

It is now generally conceded that an author, after publishing a 
name, has no longer any right to substitute another name there- 
for in subsequent publications, even though the first name he 
finds to be a misnomer. This right, claimed by many of the older 
botanists of a past generation, is no longer contended for. It is 
also an open question as to how far published names may be 
changed or corrected by their own or subsequent authors. 

A common California^ cactus is published by Prince Salm in 
"Cactece Horto Dyckensi," p. 91, as Mamtilaria Ooodrichii 
Scheer, named in honor of Mr. Goodrich. Professor Sereno 
Watson informs me that Seemann says in the " Botany of the 
♦Herald'" that it was a " Mr. J. Goodridge, surgeon," whom the 
plant was intended to commemorate in its name as its discoverer. 
The name, therefore, has been written M. Goodridgii by many 
subsequent authors. Gray {Botanical Gazette, ix. 58) inadvert- 
ently publishes Antirrhinum Nivenianum, and repeats this spell- 
ing on the following page. This was collected by Rev. J. C. 
Nevin, and it is obviously proper to write A. Nevinanum, as the 
former spelling was mere inadvertence or a typographical error. 
But in the instance of MamiUaria Ooodrichii, as originally written 
there is less cause for change, since the man may not have been 
clear in his own mind as to the correct spelling of his name,— 
like Shakspeare, spelling it differently at different times. 

C. R. Oroutt. 

San Diego, Gal., Jan. SO. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 



Inorganic Chemistry. By William Jago. London and New 
York, Longmans. 12°. $1.50. 

This text-book is intended to meet certain conditions of science- 
teaching prevalent in Great Britain, due to the work going on 
under the auspices of the Science and Art Department. It is a 
more advanced book than the author's " Elementary Text-Book " 
on the same subject, issued some time ago. The supervision of 



68 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 417 



the English science 1 teaching by the Science and Art Department 
is to a considerable extent that of an examining board, so that 
the book before us appears to be written with the purpose of sup- 
plying a most condensed array of facts. As each substance is 
taken up, we are told of its occurrence, mode of preparation, 
properties, industrial applications, and composition. The author 
is evidently thoroughly practical by nature, and does not devote 
much space to the interesting theoretical discussions in chemistry, 
which would seem to give the study its chief disciplinary value, 
before he proceeds to the detailing of the facts. But let all teach- 
ers interested examine the book, that they may at least know the 
methods pursued by some of their co-workers abroad. 



AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 



The contents of the Magazine of American* History for Feb- 
ruary cover a wide field of subjects. The features of the geolo- 
gist and geographer, Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, appear in 
the frontispiece, accompanied by a sketch of his career in scien- 
tific discovery. The contribution of Hon. John Jay, LL.D., 
entitled " The Demand for Education in American History," is 
the longest and most important article of the number. Mr. Jay 
says, " Our great authorities on history- teaching are agreed that 
rightly to understand, appreciate, and defend American institu- 
tions, the true plan is to know their origin and their history." 
The third paper, by Rev. D. F. Lamson, presents an account of 
the emigration from New England to New Brunswick in 1768. 
The fourth paper is an illustrated account of the antiquity of car- 
riages, by Emanuel Spencer. The article which follows is also 
illustrated, being the story of Sir Walter Raleigh's settlements on 
Roanoke Island, called by its author, Dr. Stephen B. Weeks, 
11 An Historical Survival." Rev. R. T. Cross writes of early ex- 
plorations in Louisiana; H. E. Green contributes a description of 
" The Pickering Manuscripts " in Boston; and "The French 



Army in the Revolution," translated from the French by Miss 
Georgine Holmes, is concluded from the January number. 

— Mr. Greenough White has issued through the press of Ginn 
& Co. a pamphlet on " The Philosophy of American Literature," 
in which he endeavors to show that our literature is a native 
growth, and not a mere offshoot o£ that of England. In our 
opinion, the attempt is a failure. Mr. White gives a brief but 
excellent sketch of American literature, exhibiting its chief char- 
acteristics in the various periods, as he conceives them, very 
clearly ; but he fails entirely to discover any real originality, or 
any thing distinctively American in thought or sentiment. Stu- 
dents of the subject will doubtless like to read Mr. White's work; 
but we think it will make few converts to the author's view. 
For our part, we can find little in our native literature but a reflex 
of European ideas ; and we doubt if there is now extant a single 
work by an American writer that will be read except for histori- 
cal purposes in the twentieth century. 

— Readers of " Robert Elsmere " will be glad, to hear that the 
address delivered by Mrs. Humphry Ward at the opening of Uni- 
versity Hall has been reprinted in pamphlet form by Macmillan & 
Co. The special religious aims of University Hall are set forth 
in the pamphlet, in which mention is also made of the beginning 
of class- teaching under the guidance of Dr. Martineau. The same 
firm announce for early publication " The Life of the Right Hon. 
Arthur McMurrough Kavanagh," who was remarkable, having 
been born without arms or leg?, notwithstanding which he sat in 
Parliament for many years, and yachted, hunted, and shot, carry- 
ing on the ordinary pursuits of a country gentleman and landlord. 

— In an article entitled " An American Kew," in LippincoWs 
Magazine for February, 1891, Julian Hawthorne advocates the 
establishment in America of botanical gardens akin to the Kew 
Gardens in England. "When American naturalists," says Mr. 
Hawthorne, "have been furnished with a place where they can 



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From Principals of Institutions for the Deaf. 

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January 30, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



study new plants and determine their qualities and usee under 
cultivation, investigate the animal and insect pests or the vegeta- 
ble kingdom that have injured and still menace local plantations, 
devise means to aid in providing the growing population of the 
continent with good things to eat and plenty of them, prosecute 
inquiries into the medicinal virtues of herbs, and, in a word, can- 
vass the whole possibilities for good of the world of plants, we 
may expect to see our country enter upon a scene of prosperity 
not unworthy of our hopes and promises." This is an idea that 
deserves to meet with encouragement, and it is to be hoped that 
its suggestion will lead to its fulfilment. Charles Howard Shinn, 
in an article entitled '* West of tbe Sierras," gives an excellent idea 
of tbe rapid growth and development of the State of California, 
■as well as of its climatic advantages, the beauty of its scenery, 
tbe productiveness of its soil, etc. Mr, Sbinn's descriptions of 
the winter resorts of California will have a particular interest at 
this season. 

— The "Handbook of Florida," by Charles Ledyard Norton, 
just issued by Longmans, Green. & Co., New Tork, will certainly 
prove useful to tourists and intending settlers. The book is 
illustrated by forty-nine maps and plans, especial attention being 
given to county maps showing lines of railway. It is claimed 
that these last have never before been published together in such 



— The Farmers' Alliance or Delaware has invited Professor 
Edmund J. James, president of tbe American Academy of Politi- 
cal and Social Science, to address the State convention at Wil- 
mington on the subject of " Our System of Taxation in its Rela- 
tion to tbe Farming Classes." The farmers wish to know espe- 
cially whether any State has solved tbe problem of relieving the 
farming classes of tbe burdens which rest upon them. It will be 
interesting to learn what a theoretical student of taxation has to 
say upon this subject, and whether he will give the farmers much 



satisfaction. Would it not be a desirtfble thing for tbe govern- 
ment to call for a report upon our financial system from some of 
the expert students of taxation in the country, and try to find out 
whether the scholars have any thing valuable to say on this sub- 
ject which is vexing everybody just now ? 

— The Shakespeare Society of New York, 81 Park Row, New 
York City, announces a four-text edition of " Hamlet," present 
ing a parallelization of the three versions of that play, which ap- 
peared in 1608, 1004, and 1623, exactly reproducing the archaic 
typography and characteristics of the same, verb. lit. et punct., 
accompanied by a translation of the German version performed 
in Dresden in 1636, and supposed to have been brought into Ger- 
many from London by English actors in 1608, and which throws 
a curious historical light upon the actual stage rending of the 
tragedy as presented by the London actors. The project of a four- 
text " Hamlet " was a favorite with tbe New Shakespeare Society 
of London, which, as long ago as 1874, promised one, but suc- 
cumbed to tbe typographical difficulties of the work, and finally 
abandoned the project. The New York Shakespeare Society be- 
lieves it has surmounted those difficulties, and undertakes to fur- 
nish its subscribers, in or about the Tall of 1891, with the four 
texts, — a volume in folio, about 16x 10, printed on laid paper, de 
luxe, in the best style of The Riverside Press, about 200 pages, 
and bound in boards, parchment back, Bankside or Roxburge 
style. One hundred and fifty copies only are to be printed from 
tbe types, and band-numbered under the society's direction. 

— In Otding for February, 1891, we note "Cycling in Mid- 
Atlantic," by OsbertH. Howartb; -Rowing at Ox ford," by Charles 
H. Mellen; "Tbe Art of Daguerre." by Clarence B. Moore; 
" Tarpon- fishing in Florida," by J. M. Murphy; *'■ The Poodle." 
by E. H. Morris; " Ioe-Fisbing in the Seaof Azoff," by C. A. P. 
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object is therefore threefold: 1. An illustcatlon of 
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[Vol. XVII. No. 418 



CALENDAR OF SOCIETIES. 

Philosophical Society, Washington. 

Jan. 31. — C V. Riley, Bacteriology in 
Applied Entomology ; H. W. Turner, On an 
Extinct Lake of Pleistocene Times in the 
Sierra Nevada, California; W. J. McGee, The 
Flood Plains of Rivers. 

Women's Anthropological Society of 
America, Washington. 

Jan. 8L — Miss L. M. Dame, The iJeroic 
Age. 

Natural Science Association 6i Staten 

Island. 

Jan. 10. — Arthur Hollick, Additions to 
the Flora of the Island. 

Boston Society of Natural History. 

Feb. 4. — G. H. Barton, The Hawaiian 
Islands, their Natural History and Inhabit- 
ants (illustrated with a stereoptioon) ; J. H. 
Emerton, Exhibition of a New Model of 
Oahu lately made by him for the Museum of 
the Society. 

Royal Meteorological Society, London. 

Dec. 21, 1890, Annual Meeting.— Dr. Tripe 
read the report of the council. Among the 
investigations carried on by the society are 
the following: the organization of a large 
number of meteorological stations, the ob- 
servations from which are examined and 
reduced by the staff, and printed in the 
Meteorological Record; the regular inspec- 
tion of these stations by the assistant secre- 
tary ; the collection and discussion of pheno- 
logical observations; and an inquiry into the 
thunder-storms of 1888 and 1889. An exhi- 
bition of instruments is held annually in 
March. During the year a complete cata- 
logue of the library, extending to 222 pages, 
has been compiled and published. 

Ordinary Meeting. — R. H. Scott, Note on 
a Peculiar Development of Cirrus Cloud ob- 
served in Southern Switzerland; W. F. 
Badgley, Some Remarks on Dew. These 
are notes on observations which were made 
to discover whether all dew is deposited 
from the air, or if some also comes from the 
earth and plants, and also what quantity is 
formed during the year. The conclusions 
which the author deduces from his observa- 
tions are (1) that the earth always exhales 
water- vapor by night, and probably a greater 
quantity by day; (2) that the quantity of 
water- vapor given off by the earth is always 
considerable, and that any variation in the 
quantity is mainly due to the season of the 
year; (8) that the greater part of the dew 
comes from the earth- vapor; and (4) that 
plants exhale water- vapor, and do not exude 
moisture. The total quantity of dew collected 
on the author's grass-plates in the year was 
1.6147 inches. 

POPULAR MANUAL OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND 
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UNIVERSITY GRADUATE IN SCIENCE, at 
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Exchanges. 

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Address N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New 
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For exchange — Fossil leaves from the Laramie beds of 
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vin, State School of Mines, Golden, CoL 

For Sale or Exchange — All forms and species of Cana- 
dian birds, mammals, insects, reptiles, fish or other nat- 
ural history specimens. First class specimens only sup- 
plied. G. E. Atkinson, 639 Spadina Ave.. Totonto, Can. 

1 would like to exchange first six vols. Roscoe and 
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ucation " for American Naturalist for x88g and 1890, or 
works on Zoology. C. Dwight Marsh, Ripon College, 
Ripon, Wis. 

I have a good supply of Eastern Coleoptera which I 
wish to exchange for species not in my collection. Mel- 
andryidae and Oedemeridae especially desired. Joe C. 
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I wish to exchange Eastern Lepideptera tor those that 
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To exchange, 1890 Seeger and Guernsey Cyclopedia, 
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ducts of the U. S., and address of first hands, cost 16. 
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ti 



SCIENCE 



NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 6, 1891. 



THE STUDY OF INDIAN LANGUAGES. 

As the number of those interested in the study of Indian 
languages increases, the need of a complete classification of 
Indian languages and dialects becomes more and more ap- 
parent. The investigations necessary to such a classification 
were begun many years ago by the Bureau of Ethnology, 
and from time to time field investigations have been con- 
ducted with especial reference to it Sufficient progress has 
been made to permit the publication of a classification of all 
Indian languages in the territory north of Mexico, together 
with a map displaying the area occupied by the several 
families. 

The classification is primarily based upon an examination 
of the linguistic material relating to the subject. Mr. James 
C. Pilling has been engaged in the preparation of the bibli- 
ography of this literature, and several volumes of the 
bibliography have already been published. The literature 
itself is classified by him as far as possible in compliance 
with this scheme. Secondarily the classification is based on a 
large body of linguistic material now in the archives of the 
bureau, which also received notice in Mr. Pil ling's 4< Bibli- 
ography." 

Mr. H. W. Henshaw is engaged on the tribal synonymy, 
and a large volume on this subject is approaching comple- 
tion. The tribal synonymy is also based upon this classi- 
fication. The classification itself is the work of the Director 
of the bureau. 

It will of course be understood that such a classification 
must be* purely tentative, and that it will require modifi- 
cation as new material is acquired by students, and as 
present views in regard to the relationship of existing 
families may be changed by further study. All the material 
relating to the classification will appear in the seventh 
annual report of the bureau, now in the hands of the printer. 

The subject is deemed of sufficient interest and importance 
to warrant the present publication of the principles upon 
which the classification has been based, and of the rules 
which have guided in the selection of family names, to- 
gether with a list of the families. 

The languages spoken by the pre-Columbian tribes of 
North America were many and diverse. Into the regions 
occupied by these tribes, travellers, traders, and missionaries 
have penetrated in advance of civilization, and civilization 
itself has marched across the continent at a rapid rate. 
Under these conditions, the languages of the various tribes 
have received much study. Many extensive works have 
been published, embracing grammars and dictionaries ; but 
a far greater number of minor vocabularies have been col- 
lected, and very many have been published. In addition to 
these, the Bible, in whole or in part, and various religious 
books and school-books, have been translated into Indian 
tongues, to be used for purposes of instruction, and news- 
papers have been published in the Indian languages. Alto- 
gether the literature in these languages, together with the 
literature relating to it, is of vast extent. While the 



materials seem thus to be abundant, the student of Indian 
languages finds the subject to be one of great magnitude, 
difficulties arising from the following conditions: — 

1. A great number of linguistic stocks or families is dis- 
covered. 

2. The boundaries between the different stocks of lan- 
guages are not immediately apparent, from, the fact that 
many tribes of diverse stocks have had more or less associ- 
ation, and to some extent linguistic materials- have been 
borrowed, and thus have passed out of the exclusive posses- 
sion of cognate peoples. 

3. Where many peoples, each few in number, are thrown 
together, an intertribal language is developed. To a large 
extent this is gesture speech; but to a limited extent useful 
and important words are adopted by various tribes, and out 
of this material an intertribal "jargon" is established. 
Travellers and all others, who do not thoroughly study a 
language, are far more likely to acquire this jargon speech 
than the real speech of the people ; and the teudeucy to 
base relationship upon such jargons has led to confusion. 

4. This tendency to the establishment of an intertribal 
jargon was greatly accelerated on the advent of the white 
man, for thereby many tribes were pushed from their 
ancestral homes, and tribes were mixed with tribes. As a 
result, new relations and new industries, especially of t'ade, 
were established, and the new associations of tribe with tribe 
and of the Indians with Europeans led very often to the de- 
velopment of quite elaborate jargon languages. All of these 
have a tendency to complicate the study of the Indian 
tongues by comparative methods. 

The difficulties inherent in the study of languages, to- 
gether with the imperfect material and the complicating con- 
ditions that have arisen by the spread of civilization over 
the country, combine to make the problem one not readily 
resolved. 

In view of the amount of material on hand, the compara- 
tive study of the languages of North America has been 
strangely neglected, though perhaps this is explained by 
reason of the difficulties which have been pointed out. And 
the attempts which have been made to classify them has 
given rise to much confusion, for the following reasons: 
first, later authors have not properly recognized the work of 
earlier laborers in the field; second, the attempt has more 
frequently been made to establish an ethnic classification 
than a linguistic classification, and linguistic characteristics 
have been confused with biotic peculiarities, arts, habits, 
customs, and other human activities, so that often radical 
differences of language have been ignored, and slight differ- 
ences have been held to be of primary value. 

The attempts at a classification of these languages and 
also at a classification of races have led to the development 
of a complex, mixed, and inconsistent synonymy, which 
must first be unravelled and a selection of standard names 
made therefrom, according to fixed principles. 

It is manifest that until proper rules are recognized by 
scholars the establishment of a determinate nomenclature is 
impossible. It will therefore be well to set forth the rules 
that have here been adopted, together with brief reasons for 



72 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XVII. No. 418 



the same, with the hope that they will commend themselves 
to the judgment of other persons engaged in researches re- 
lating to the languages of North America. 

A fixed nomenclature in biology has been found not only 
to be advantageous, but to be a prerequisite to progress in 
research, as the vast multiplicity of facts, still ever accumu- 
lating, would otherwise overwhelm the scholar. In phil- 
ological classification, fixity of nomenclature is of corre- 
sponding importance ; and while the analogies between 
linguistic and bio tic classification are quite limited, many of 
the principles of nomenclature which biologists have adopted 
having no application in philology, still, in some important 
particulars the requirements of all scientific classifications 
are alike, and, though many of the nomenclatural points met 
with in biology will not occur in philology, some of them 
do occur, and may be governed by the same rules. 

Perhaps an ideal nomenclature in biology may sometimes be 
established, as attempts have been made to establish such a 
system in chemistry ; and perhaps such an ideal system may 
eventually be established in philology. Be that as it may, 
the time has not yet come even for its suggestion. What is 
now needed are rules of some kind leading scholars to use 
the same terms for the same things ; and it would seem to 
matter little in the case of linguistic stocks what the nomen- 
clature is, provided it becomes denotive and universal. 

In treating of the languages of North America, it has 
been suggested that the names adopted should be the names 
by which the people recognize themselves; but this is a rule 
of impossible application, for, where the branches of a stock 
diverge very greatly, no common name for the people can 
be found. Again, it has been suggested that names which 
are to go permanently into science should be simple and 
euphonic. This also is of impossible application, for sim- 
plicity and euphony are largely questions of personal taste; 
and he who has studied many languages loses speedily his 
idiosyncrasies of likes and dislikes, and learns that words 
foreign to his vocabulary are not necessarily barbaric. 

Biologists have decided that he who first distinctly charac- 
terizes and names a species or other group shall thereby 
cause the name thus used to become permanently affixed, 
but under certain conditions adapted to a growing science 
which is continually revising its classification. This law of 
priority may well be adopted by philologists. 

By the application of the law of priority it will occasion- 
ally happen that a name must be taken which is not wholly 
unobjectionable, or which could be much improved; but, if 
names may be modified for any reason, the extent of change 
that may be wrought in this manner is unlimited, and such 
modifications would ultimately become equivalent to the 
introduction of new names, and a fixed nomenclature would 
thereby be overthrown. The rule of priority has therefore 
been adopted. 

Permanent biologic nomenclature dates from the time of 
Linnaeus, simply because this great naturalist established 
the binominal system and placed scientific classification upon 
a sound and enduring basis. As Linnaeus is to be regarded 
as the founder of biologic classification, so Gallatin may be 
considered the founder of systematic philology relating to 
the North American Indians. Before his time much lin- 
guistic work had been accomplished; and scholars owe a 
lasting debt of gratitude to Barton, Adelung, Pickering, and 
others. But Gallatin's work marks an era in American lin- 
guistic science from the fact that he so thoroughly intro- 
duced comparative methods, and because he circumscribed 
the boundaries of many families, so that a large part of his 



work remains and is still to be considered sound. There is 
no safe resting-place anterior to Gallatin, because no scholar 
prior to his time had. properly adopted comparative methods 
of research, and because no scholar was privileged to work 
with so large a body of material. It must further be said 
of Gallatin that he had a very clear conception of the task 
he was performing, and brought to it both learning and 
wisdom. m Gallatin's work has therefore been taken as the 
starting-point, back of which we may not go in the historic 
consideration of the systematic philology of North America. 
The point of departure, therefore, is the year 1836, when 
Gallatin's " Synopsis of Indian Tribes' 1 appeared in Vol. 
II. of the "Transactions of the American Antiquarian 
Society." 

It is believed that a name should be simply a denotive 
word, and that no advantage can accrue from a descriptive 
or connotive title. It is therefore desirable to have the 
names as simple as possible, consistent with other and more 
important considerations. For this reason it has been found 
impracticable to recognize as family names designations 
based on several distinct terms, such as descriptive phrases, 
and words compounded from, two or more geographic names. 
Such phrases and compound words have been rejected. 

There are many linguistic families in North America, and 
in a number of them there are many tribes speaking diverse 
languages. It is important, therefore, that some form 
should be given to the family name by which it may be dis- 
tinguished from the name of a single tribe or language. In 
many cases some one language within a stock has been taken 
as the type, and its name given to the entire family; so that 
the name of a language and that of the stock to which it 
belongs are the same. This is inconvenient, and leads to 
confusion. For such reasons it has been decided to give 
each family name the termination " an " or " ian." 

Conforming to the principles thus enunciated, the follow- 
ing rules have been formulated : — 

1. The law of priority relating to the nomenclature of the 
systematic philology of the North American tribes s^all not 
extend to authors whose works are of date anterior to the 
year 1836. 

2. The name originally given by the founder of a linguis- 
tic group to designate it as a family or stock of languages 
shall be permanently retained to the exclusion of all 
others. 

3. No family name shall be recognized if composed of 
more than one word. 

4. A family name, once established, shall not be cancelled 
in any subsequent division of the group, but shall be retained 
in a restricted sense for one of its constituent portions. 

5. Family names shall be distinguished as such by the 
termination " an " or " ian." 

6. No name shall be accepted for a linguistic family un- 
less used to designate a tribe or group of tribes as a linguis- 
tic stock. 

7. No family name shall be accepted unless there is given 
the habitat of the tribe or tribes to which it is applied. 

8. The original orthography of a name shall be rigidly 
preserved, except as provided for in Rule 3, and unless a 
typographical error is evident. 

The terms " family " and <4 stock " are here applied inter- 
changeably to a group of languages that are supposed to be 
cognate. 

A single language is called a stock or family when it is 
not found to be cognate with any other language. Lan- 
guages are said to be cognate when such relations between 



February 6, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



73 



\ 



them are found that they are supposed to have descended 
from a common ancestral speech. 

"The evidence of cognation is derived exclusively from the 
vocabulary. Grammatic similarities are not supposed to 
furnish evidence of cognation, but to be pheuomena, in part 
relating to stage of culture, and in part adventitious. It must 
be remembered that extreme peculiarities of grammar, like the 
vocalic mutations of the Hebrew or the monosyllabic separa- 
tion of the Chinese, have not been discovered among Indian 
tongues. It therefore becomes necessary, in the classification 
of Indian languages into families, to neglect grammatic struc- 
ture, and to consider lexical elements only. But this state- 
ment must be clearly understood. It is postulated that in 
the growth of languages new words are formed by combina- 
tion, and that these new words change by attrition to secure 
economy of utterance, and also by assimilation (analogy) 
for economy of thought. In the comparison of languages 
for the purposes of systematic philology it often becomes 
necessary to dismember compounded words for. the purpose 
of comparing the more primitive forms thus obtained. The 
paradigmatic words considered in grammatic treatises may 
often be the very words which should be dissected to discover 
in their elements primary affinities; but the comparison is 
still lexic, not grammatic. 

A lexic comparison is between vocal elements : a gram- 
matic comparison is between grammatic methods, such, for 
example, as gender systems. The classes yn. to which things 
are relegated by distinction of gender may be animate aud 
inanimate, and the animate may subsequently be divided 
into male and female, and these two classes may ultimately 
absorb, in part at least, inanimate things. The growth of a 
system of genders may take another course. The animate 
and inanimate may be subdivided into the standing, the sit- 
ting, and the lying, or into the moving, the erect, and the 
reclined ; or, still further, the superposed classification may 
be based upon the supposed constitution of things, as the 
fleshy, the woody, the rocky, the earthy, the watery. Thus 
the number of genders may increase, while farther on in the 
history of a language the genders may decrease so as almost 
to disappear. All of these characteristics are in part adven- 
titious ; but to a large extent the gender is a phenomenon of 
growth, indicating the stage to which the language has 
attained. A proper case system may not have been 
established in a language by the fixing of case particles, or, 
having been established, it may change by the increase or 
diminution of the number of cases. A tense system also has 
a beginning, a growth, and a decadence. A mode system 
is variable in the various stages of the history of a language. 
In like manner a pronominal system undergoes changes. 
Particles may be prefixed, infixed, or affixed in compounded 
words, and which one of these methods will finally prevail 
can be determined only in the later stage of growth. All of 
these things are held to belong to the grammar of a language, 
and to be grammatic methods distinct from lexic elements. 

With terms thus defined, languages are supposed to be 
cognate when fundamental similarities are discovered in 
their lexic elements. When the members of a family of 
languages are to be classed in subdivisions and the history 
of such languages investigated, grammatic characteristics 
become of primary importance. The words of a language 
change by the methods described, but the fundamental 
elements or roots are more enduring. Grammatic methods 
also change, perhaps even more rapidly than words; and 
the changes may go on to such an extent that primitive 
methods are entirely lost, there being no radical grammatic 



elements to be preserved. Grammatic structure is but a 
phase or accident of growth, and not a primordial element 
of language. The roots of a language are its most perma- 
nent characteristics; and while the words which are formed 
from them may change so as to obscure their elements, or in 
some cases even to lose them, it seems that they are never 
lost from all, but can be recovered in large part. The gram- 
matic structure or plan of a language is forever changing, 
and in this respect the language may become entirely trans- 
formed. 

Below is a list of the fifty-eight families, alphabetically 
arranged, with a general statement of the habitat of each. 
Most of the names contained in the list need 'no. explanation, 
as they are familiar to linguistic students, having appeared 
years ago in the writings of Gallatin, Latham, Prichard, 
Scouler, Turner, and others. Several of the names are new. 
Thus, the name "Chumashan" is applied to the group of 
languages hitherto generally known under the term u Santa 
Barbara," and includes the dialects formerly spoken at the 
several missions along the Santa Barbara Channel, California, 
and is derived from the name of the Santa Rosa Island tribe. 
This language is now spoken by a score or more of Indians. 

The Esselenian family applies to the language of a tribe, 
possibly a small group of tribes, on and south of Monterey 
Bay. Until recently the language has been supposed to be- 
long to the Moquelumnan family, but is now believed to 
represent a distinct group. The family name is derived, 
from the name of the Esselen tribe. The language is now 
practically extinct, but a short vocabulary was collected by 
Mr. Henshaw in 1888. 

The Yanan family includes one language only, that of the 
tribe called by Powers, Gatschet, and others, " Nozi " or 
" Noces." The word means " people " in their own language. 

List of Families. 

Adaizan. — On Red River, Texas. 

Algonquian. — Of the North Atlantic seaboard, and west 
through the Northern States, Lake region, and Canada, 
to the Rocky Mountains. 

Athapascan. — Of the interior of British America; isolated 
communities on the Columbia River, Oregon, Califor- 
nia, Arizona, and New Mexico. 

Attacapan. — Area on Texas coast. 

Beothukan. — Portion of Newfoundland. 

Caddoan. — Of northern Nebraska, western Arkansas, south- 
ern Indian Territory, western Louisiana, and northern 
Texas. 

Chimakuan. — Of part of the southern shore of Puget Sound. 

Chimarikan. — On New and Trinity Rivers, northern Cali- 
fornia. 

Chimmesyan. — The region of Nasse and Skeena Rivers, 
west coast British Columbia. 

Chinookan. — Banks of the Columbia River as far up as the 
Dalles. 

Chitimachan. — About Lake Barataria, southern Louisiana* 

Chumashan. — Coast of California from about the 34th 
parallel to a little north of the 35th. 

Coahuiltecan. — Of south-western Texas and north-eastern 
Mexico. 

Copehan. — West of the Sacramento as far north as Mount 
Shasta, California. 

Costanoan. — Coast of California from the Golden Gate 
south to Monterey Bay. 

Eskimauan. — East and west coasts of Greenland; coast of 
Labrador as far south as Hamilton Inlet; and the Arc- 



74 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 418 



tic coast westward, including part of the shore of 
Hudson Bay, to western Alaska, including the Aleutian 
Islands. 

Esselenian. — Coast of California from Monterey Bay to 
Santa Lucia Mountain. 

Iroquoian. — The St. Lawrence River region north of Lake 
Erie, northern Pennsylvania, State of New York, the 
lower Susquehanna in Pennsylvania and Maryland, 
north-eastern North Carolina, south-western West Vir- 
ginia, western North Carolina, and most of Kentucky 
and Tennessee. 

Kalapooian. — Valley of the Willamette River, Oregon. 

Karankawan. — Texas coast around Matagorda Bay. 

Keresan. — Upper Rio Grande, and on the Jemez and San 
Jose" Rivers, New Mexico. 

Kiowan. — Upper Arkansas and Purgatory Rivers, Colorado. 

Kitunahan. — Cootenay River region, mostly in British Co- 
lumbia. 

Koluschan. — North-west coast from 55° to 60° north lati- 
tude. 

Kulanapan. — Russian River region, and California coast 
from Bodega Head north to about latitude 39° 30'. 

Kusan. — Coast of middle Oregon, Coos Bay and River, and 
at mouth of Coquille River, Oregon. 

Lutuamian. — Region of Klamath Lakes and Sprague River, 
Oregon. 

Mariposan. — • Interior of California, east of the Coast Range, 
and south of Tulare Lake, in a narrow strip to below Tu- 

» 

lare Lake, north as far as the Fresno River. 

Moquelumnan. — Interior of California, bounded on the 
north by the Cosumnes River, on the south by the 
Fresno, on the east by the Sierras, and on the west by 
the San Joaquin ; an area north of San Francisco and 
San Pablo Bays as far as Bodega Head and the head 
waters of Russian River. 

Muskhogean. — The Gulf States from the Savannah River 
and the Atlantic west to the Mississippi, and from the 
Gulf to the Tennessee River. 

Natchesan. — On St. Catherine Creek, near the site of the 
present city of Natches. 

Palaihnihan. — Drainage of Pit River in north-eastern Cali- 
fornia. 

Piman. — On the Gila River about 160 miles from its mouth, 
and on the San Pedro, in Arizona, and in Mexico on 
the Gulf of California. 

Pujunan. — California; east bank of the Sacramento about 
100 miles from its mouth, north to Pit River, eastward 
nearly to the borders of the State. 

Quoratean. — Lower Klamath River, Oregon, from Happy 
Camp to the junction of the Trinity and Salmon River 
valley. 

Salinan. — Region around the San Antonio and San Miguel 
missions, California. 

Salishan. — North-western part of Washington, including 
Puget Sound, eastern Vancouver Island to about mid- 
way its length ; coast of British Columbia to Bute In 
let ; and the region of Bentinck Arm and Dean Inlet. 

Sastean. — Middle Klamath River, northern California. 

Shahaptian. — Upper Columbia River, and its tributaries 
in northern Oregon and Idaho and southern Washing- 
ton. 

Shoshonean. — Occupying generally the Great Interior Basin 
of the United States, as far east as the Plains, and 
reaching the Pacific in Los Angeles, San Bernardino, 
and San Diego Counties, California. 



Siouan.— The Dakotas, parts of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, 
Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, Indian Territory, 
with isolated colonies in Alabama (Biloxi), the Caroli- 
nas (Catawba), and borders of Virginia and North Caro- 
lina {Tutelo). 

Skittagetan. — Queen Charlotte Islands, Forrester Island, 
and south-eastern part of Prince of Wales Island. 

Takilman. — Oregon coast about the lower Rogue River. 

Tanoan. — Rio Grande and tributary valleys, from about 30° 
to about 36° 30'. 

Timuquanan. — Florida. 

Tonikan.— Lower Yazoo River, Mississippi. 

Tonka wan. — Western and south-western parts of Texas. 

Uchean. — Lower Savannah River and perhaps the South 
Carolina coast. 

Waiilatpuan. — Lower Walla Walla River, Oregon, and 
about Mounts Hood and Jefferson. 

Wakashan. — West coast of Vancouver Island, and north- 
west tip of Washington. 

Washoan. — Eastern base of the Sierras, south of Reno, 
Nevada, to the lower end of Carson valley. 

Weitepekan.— Lower Klamath River, Oregon, from the 
mouth of the Trinity. 

Wishoskan. — Coast of California from just below the mouth 
of Eel River to a little north of Mad River. 

Yakonan. — Along the lower Yaquina, Alsea, Siuslaw, and 
Uropqua Rivers, Oregon. 

Yanan. — Chiefly in the southern part of Shasta County, 
California. 

Yukian. — Round valley, California, and west to the coast. 

Yuman. — Lower California; the Colorado from its mouth 
to Cataract Creek, the Gila and tributaries as far east 
as the Tonto Basin, Arizona. 

Zufiian. — A small area on Zufii River, western New Mexico. 

J. W. Powell. 

NOTES AND NEWS. 

The director of the central dispensary at Bagdad has sent to 
La Nature a specimen of an edible substance which fell during an 
abundant shower in the neighborhood of Merdin and IJiarbekir 
(Turkey in Asia) in August, 1890. The rain which accompanied 
the substance fell over a surface of about ten kilometres in cir- 
cumference. The inhabitants collected the " manna," and made 
it into bread, which is said to have been very good, and to have 
been easily digested. The specimen sent to La Nature is composed 
of small spherules, according to Nature of Jan. 15. Yellowish on 
the outside, it is white within. Botanists who have examined it 
say that it belongs to the. family of lichens known as Lecanora 
esculenta. According to Decaisne, this lichen, which has been 
found in Algeria, is most frequently met with on the most arid 
mountains of Tartary, where it lies among pebbles from which it 
can be distinguished only by experienced observers. It is also 
found in the desert of the Kirghizes. The traveller Parrot brought 
to Europe specimens of a quantity which had fallen in several 
districts of Persia at the beginning of 1828. He was assured that 
the ground was covered with the substance to the height of two 
decimetres, that animals ate it eagerly, and that it was collected 
oy the people. 

— Mr. William Warren supplies some information to Engineer- 
ing regarding his work in the search for seams of coal in Tonquin, 
which, as the result of the late wars there, is now part of the 
French territory. The coal, of which there is an extensive field, 
will add greatly to the importance of the territorial acquisition to 
the French in view of its importance as a coaling station, and will 
afford a further evidence of the varying fortunes of politicians, 
as M. Ferry, rising from the obloquy into which he fell as a result 
of the public disapproval of the continuance of the campaign, will 
now find favor and commendation for foresight The seams of 



February 6, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



75 



coal have been known for something like half a century. They 
crop out all round the bases of lowish hills which fringe the shores of 
the Gulf of Tonquin. One of the seams is 152 feet thick, of almost 
solid coal. It is a semi-anthracite of very fine quality, having 
about 87 per cent of fixed carbon, and from 7 to 12+ per cent of 
volatile matter, from 2 to 3 per cent ash, free from pyrites, and of 
course quite smokeless. A steamer named " Fatshan," of fourteen 
knots speed, has been tried with 300 tons of the coal. The re- 
sults were very satisfactory, the vessel steaming well at a fully 
maintained speed, with almost the same consumption as in the 
case of Cardiff coal. The discovery is a serious one for the Jap- 
anese coal industry, as Hong-Kong formerly took about 50,000 
tons monthly. The Japan coal has 28 to 27 per cent of ash, 
against 2 to 3 per cent in the Tonquin coal. The gain in decreased 
consumption is enhanced by reason of the increased cargo space 
available, or, in other cases, in allowing the vessels to keep the 
sea for a longer time. 

— The lion is eaten by some African races, but its flesh is held 
in small esteem. The Zulus find carrion so much to their liking, 
that, according to the late Bishop Colenso, they apply to food 
peopled by large colonies of larvee the expressive word " uborni," 
signifying in their uncouth jargon " great happiness.' 1 David 
Livingstone, that keen and accurate observer, reminds us that 
the aboriginal Australians and Hottentots prefer the intestines of 
animals. "It is curious," he says, "that this is the part which 
animals always begin with, and it is the first choice of our men." 
On this point it may be well to remind the civilized reader that 
the woodcock and the red mullet, or sea woodcock, are both 
eaten and relished without undergoing all the cleaning pro- 
cesses which most animals used for food among us generally ex- 
perience to fit them for the table ; so that our aversion to the en- 
trails of animals is not absolute, but only one of degree. The 
hippopotamus is a favorite dish with some Africans when they 
can get this unwieldy and formidable river monster, and when 
young its flesh is good and palatable, but with advancing years it 
becomes coarse and unpleasant. The Abyssinians, the amiable 
people to whom, according to the Italian prime minister, his 
countrymen proposed to teach wisdom and humanity, find the 
rhinoceros to their taste : so they do the elephant, which is also 
eaten in Sumatra. Dr. Livingstone describes the elephant's foot 
as delicious, and his praises will be echoed by many travellers in 
lands where that sagacious monster still lingers in rapidly decreas- 
ing numbers. "We had the foot," wrote the doctor, "cooked 
for breakfast next morning, and found it delicious. It is a whitish 
mass, slightly gelatinous, and sweet like marrow. A long march 
to prevent biliousness is a wise precaution after a meal of ele- 
phant's foot. Elephant's tongue and trunk are also good, and, 
after long simmering, much resemble the hump of a buffalo and 
the tongue of an ox ; but all the other trieat is tough, and, from 
its peculiar flavor, only to be eaten by a hungry man." 

— The London Times for Jan. 19 contains some interesting in- 
formation about the manuscript of Aristotle recently discovered 
in Egypt, and now in the British Museum. It is described as a 
constitutional history of Athens, and as one of a collection of 
constitutions which Aristotle accumulated, describing various 
ancient states, and numbering 158. The treatise in its present 
form contains 63 chapters of the size of those in Thucydides; but 
the first chapter is missing, and a few at the end mutilated. It is 
written on three papyrus rolls, and on what is called the verso, or 
back, side; the recto being occupied with the record of the bailiff's 
receipts and expenditures on a private estate in Egypt, dated 
month by month in the eleventh year of Vespasian, about A.D. 
79. Thi9 record, which shows some of the peculiarities of writing 
found in the treatise itself, tends strongly to confirm the genu- 
ineness of the manuscript, which is further proved by the fact, 
that, of 91 passages in ancient writers known or believed to be 
•quoted from this work, 78 are in this manuscript, and the others 
may reasonably be referred to those parts that are lost. Of the 
63 chapters, 41 relate the constitutional changes in the Athenian 
state from the time of Cylon in 632 B.C., to the restoration of the 
democracy in B.C. 403, while the remaining chapters describe the 
duties of the various magistrates. It is said that the work will 



not alter our general views of Greek history, but supplies many 
new details, and fixes many dates that were heretofore uncertain. 
One of the most important items thus revealed to us is the fact that 
Themistocies took a leading part in the overthrow of the Areopa- 
gus, he being a member of that body at the time. The text of 
the work has been printed, and will shortly be published, with 
introduction and notes by F. G. Kenyon, an assistant at the mu- 
seum in the department of manuscripts; and it will also be issued 
in facsimile. The finding of this work, together with some dis- 
coveries of less importance previously made in Egypt, give 
ground for hope that other classical works, including some of 
the lost lyric and dramatic poetry, may yet be recovered. 

— Capt. de Place of Paris has invented an instrument for de- 
tecting flaws in metal castings and forgings, which is called the 
" sciseophone." According to the London Times, the apparatus 
consists of a small pneumatic tapper worked by the hand, and 
with which the piece of steel or iron to be tested is tapped all 
over. Connected with the tapper is a telephone with a micro- 
phone interposed in the circuit. Two operators are required. — 
one to apply the tapper, and the other to listen through the tele- 
phone to the sounds produced. These operators are in separate 
apartments, so that the direct sounds of the taps may not disturb 
the listener, whose province it is to detect flaws. The two, how- 
ever, are in electrical communication, so that the instant the 
listener hears a false sound he can signal to his colleague to mark 
the metal at the point of the last tap. In practice the listener sits 
with tbe telephone to his ear, and so long as the taps are normal 
he does nothing. Directly a false sound (which is very distinct 
from the normal sound) is heard, he at once signals for the spot 
to be marked. By this means he is able not only to detect a flaw, 
but to localize it. Under the auspices of the South eastern Rail- 
way Company, a demonstration of the sciseophone was given by 
Capt. de Place, at the Charing Cross Hotel, in the presence of 
several members of the Ordnance Committee and other govern- 
ment officiate. Mr. Stirling, the company's locomotive superin- 
tendent, had previously had several samples of steel, wrought iron, 
and cast iron prepared with hidden flaws known only to himself. 
The first sample tested by Capt. de Place he pronounced to be bad 
metal throughout, which Mr. Stirling stated he knew it to be. 
Other samples were tesSed, and the flaws localized by means of the 
apparatus. On some of the bars of wrought and cast iron being 
broken, the internal flaws, the localities of which were known to 
Mr. Stirling by his private mark, were found to have been cor- 
rectly localized by Capt. de Place. On the other hand, some bars 
were broken at points where the apparatus indicated a flaw, but 
where the metal proved to be perfectly sound; so that the appa- 
ratus is not yet quite trustworthy. 

— Dr. William Crookes delivered his presidential address before 
the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, on Thursday, 
Jan. 15, taking as his subject "Electricity in transitu: from 
Plenum to Vacuum." In his introductory remarks, as we learn from 
Nature, he explained that he was about to treat electricity, not so 
much as an end in itself, but rather as a tool, by whose judicious 
use we may gain some addition to our scanty knowledge of the 
atoms and molecules of matter, and of the forms of energy which 
by their mutual re-actions constitute the universe as it is manifest 
to our five senses. Explaining what he meant in characterizing 
electricity as a tool, he said, that, when working as a chemist in 
the laboratory, he found the induction spark often of great ser- 
vice in discriminating one element from another, also in indicating 
the presence of hitherto unknown elements in other bodies in 
quantity far too minute to be recognizable by any other means. In 
this way chemists have discovered thallium, gallium, germanium, 
and numerous other elements. On the other hand, in the exami- 
nation of electrical re-actions in high vacua, various rare chemical 
elements become in turn tests for recognizing the intensity and 
character of electric energy. Electricity, positive and negative, 
effect respectively different movements and luminosities: hence 
the behavior of the substances upon which electricity acts may 
indicate with which of these two kinds we have to deal. In other 
physical researches both electricity and chemistry come into play 
simply as means of exploration. 



.76 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 4>8 



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HEREDITARY DEAFNESS. — A STUDY. 

The American Asylum is the oldest school for deaf-mutes 
in the United' States. Its history covers three-quarters of a 
century. It has had under instruction, including those now 
in school, 2,459 pupils, a number exceeded by that of but 
one other school in this country. There have been nearly 
six hundred marriages, in which one or both of those mak- 
ing the marriage contract were once pupils in the school, 
and the offspring of these marriages number over eight hun- 
dred children. The records of the school have been care- 
fully preserved, and from these and much personal inquiry 
we have been able to gather some facts which will be inter- 
esting at this time, when the question of hereditary deafness 
is receiving so much public attention. It will be seen at 
a glance that the field is a favorable one for the study of 
this subject, and, though not broad enough to warrant the 
drawing of general conclusions therefrom, the facts are valu- 
able pointers, and may serve as one of the studies, which, 
when collated, will give sufficient data to work out a general 
law. 

That there is a tendency to deafness in the offspring of 
congenitally deaf parents, there can be no doubt. Nor can 
it be doubted that this tendency is comparatively slight in 
the offspring of parents both of whom are adventitiously 
deaf. But let the facts speak for themselves. They are be- 
lieved to be reliable so far as they go; but it is quite proba- 
ble that in some of the families included in the following 
table other children may have been born since the dates at 
which the facts were reported. The general proportion, 
however, in all probability, would not be affected by such 
additions. In this table, c. = congenitally deaf; ad. = ad- 
ventitiously deaf; h. = bearing; u. =age at which deafness 
occurred unknown. 

When we consider how heavy a handicap congenital deaf- 
ness is, it is appalling to think that 31 per cent of the off- 
spring of the congenitally deaf may be born deaf. But I 
believe that this proportion is far above that of the general 



average of such cases throughout the country. I believe 
that there are causes at work in New England, not in oper- 
ation to any thing like the same extent in other parts of the 
country, which will account for no inconsiderable part of 
the large percentage of congenital deafness in the offspring 
of congenitally deaf parents in that section. 

Facts gathered from the Records of the American Asylum at 

Hartford, Conn. 





Number of Marriages. 


Children Congenitally 
Deaf. 


Children Adventitiously | 
Deaf. 


• 
© 

u 

•O • 

i— 1 

3 

* 
a 

H 


1 
Children whether Deaf 
or Hearing unknown. 


Whole Number of Chil- 
dren. 


Percentage of Children 
Congenitally Deaf. 


Husband, c; wife, c.. 


62 


48 




88 


15 


151 


81.7ft 


Husband, c; wife, ad.. 


87 


5 


1 


74 


7 


87 


5.74 


Husband, ad.; wife, c. . 


51 


17 




102 


5 


124 


18 70 


Husband, ad.; wife, ad. 


66 


4 




129 


6 


189 


8.87 


Husband, h.; wife, c. . . 


16 


12 




52 


2 


66 


18.18 


Husband, b.; wife, ad.. 


5 






16 


2 


18 




Husband, h.; wife, u... 


1 






4 




4 




Husband, c; wife, h. .. 


26 


9 




58 


5 


72 


i?.sa 


Husband, ad.; wife, h . 


6 






18 




13 




Husband, ad.; wife, u.. 


28 






43 


8 


51 


• 


Husband, u.; wife, u. . . 


2 






4 


2 


8 




Husband, c; wife, u . . 


27 


9 




58 


4 


71 


12.67 


Husband, u.; wife, h... 


1 






4 




4 




Husband, u.; wife, c. . . 


2 
8i 






4 


1 


5 




Sterile 


288 








• 


■ 




• 






690 


104 


1 


649 


57 


811 


12.82- 



i Three families are reported with several hearing children in each. 

Of the fifty-two families in which both parents are con- 
genitally deaf, twenty-three have congenitally deaf children. 

Of the thirty-seven families in which the husbands are 
congenitally deaf and the wives adventitiously deaf, two- 
have deaf children, — four in one family, and one in the 
other. 

Of the fifty-one families in which the fathers were adven- 
titiously deaf and the mothers congenitally deaf, seven pro- 
duced deaf children, and nine of the congenitally deaf chil- 
dren come from two families: 

There are fifty-five families in which both parents are 
adventitiously deaf, and from these have sprung four con- 
genitally deaf children, — one in each of four families. 

Four of the sixteen families in which the husbands hear 
and the wives are congenitally deaf have deaf children. 

In five families out of the twenty-six in which the hus- 
bands are congenitally deaf and the wives hear, there are 
children born deaf. 

Six of the twenty-seven families in which the husbands- 
were congenitally deaf and the state of the hearing of the 
wives is unknown produced congenitally deaf children. 

Of the twenty-six families in which both parents are deaf 
and have congenitally deaf children, there are five families 
in which one of the parents has one deaf parent, seventeen 
families in which both parents have deaf relatives of the 
same generation, four in which one parent has deaf relatives 



February 6, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



77 



of the same generation, and five in which neither parent has 
deaf relatives of the same generation. 

Of the twenty-six families in which both parents are con- 
genially deaf and have hearing children only, there is none 
in which either parent has a deaf parent, so far as reported, 
twelve families in which both parents have deaf relatives of 
the same generation, eleven families in which one parent 
has deaf relatives of the same generation, and three families 
in which neither parent has deaf relatives of the same gen- 
eration. 

It will be noticed in the table given above that nearly 
one-balf of the marriages are without issue, so far as we 
have been able to learn. It is probable that in some 
cases there have been children of whom we have received no 
account. In other cases the marriages are of recent date. 
But making due allowance for all these, the proportion of 
sterile marriages is still very large, much exceeding that in 
the general population. It is a serious question whether 
nature alone is responsible for this barrenness. 

Job Williams. 



THE RELATION BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND ECO- 
NOMIC ENTOMOLOGY. 1 

The subject of this address is not of the kind usually 
chosen for similar occasions, but is of none the less interest 
and importance. It is one, also, that is in full harmony 
with the genius of this society, which is the recognition of 
the pre eminenqe of what is called the philosophy of science. 
Another reason makes it of especial immediate importance 
to us. Economic entomology is upon the verge of an era 
of great advancement. The establishment of the agricultural 
experiment stations have added to its ranks more young men 
of scientific training and ability, perhaps, than have ever en- 
gaged in this line of investigation. If economic entomology 
is but a phase of scientific entomology, then we want to put 
forth especial efforts to assimilate this young blood in our 
ranks: if, on the other hand, they are different and distinct, 
the difference will become more and more apparent as eco- 
nomic entomology develops, and we should define our posi- 
tion as on the side of pure science. 

I believe that the pure sciences are distinct from the eco 
nomic sciences; that this is the primary division of science. 
We seem to be prone, in this utilitarian age, to try to find 
excuse for the pursuit of pure science by holding up the 
possibility of applying our discoveries for economic ends. 
Let us recognize, and not act as though we were ashamed of, 
the fact that the sole aim of the student of pure science is 
the discovery of truth, catering to human wants being 
entirely out of his province. 

It may be said, that, laying aside this matter of sentiment, 
the human wants are supplied through the discoveries of 
science, and that this is simply the application of science for 
economic purposes, or, to put it a little stronger, that eco- 
nomics are but applied sciences. Such a statement comes from 
the conception that facts are, or in some way become, the 
peculiar property of a science. This is not the case, however 
Perhaps, if we could see all the intimate relations sciences 
have to each other, we should say that every fact belongs to 
every science ; at any rate, we could scarcely name a fact 
which when closely viewed has not more than one bearing. 
An example of the far-reaching character of a fact is that of 
the origin of species through evolution. When Darwin es- 

« 

1 Annual address or the retiring president of the Cambridge Entomological 
Club, Charles W. Wood wort d, Fayetteville, Ark., at Its meeting, Jan. 9, 1891 
(from Psyche). 



tablished the truth of this fact, it soon came to be recognized 
that this basal fact of evolution was a fundamental principle 
of almost every other science which had occupied the at- 
tention of man. For economic purposes it is the facts which 
are appropriated, and in the same way that the biologist ap- 
propriates the facts discovered by the chemist. Economic 
sciences no more become departments or applications of other 
sciences by using some of the same facts than biology be- 
comes a department or application of chemistry. 

It may be further contended that in the cases cited above , 
we have to do with real sciences, but that the so-called eco- 
nomic sciences have no right to the title of science, that 
they are essentially different. This will lead us to a con- 
sideration of what a science is. We have just seen that it 
does not consist of a body of facts peculiar to itself ; but, on 
the other hand, it is evident that facts are closely connected 
with it, that it depends indeed on a set of facts, and, further, 
that these facts have some definite relation to each other and 
are susceptible of a rational classification. This classification 
is not the science, as it cannot express nearly all the relation- 
ships, but these relationships do constitute the science. Any 
one science does not comprehend all the bearings of any fact, 
but only such as have a relation to that one subject. The 
science of entomology, for example, consists of the relation- 
ship of the facts to insects. The relation of the same facts 
to the subject of plant-diseases belongs to another science. 
When the subject is economic, the production of honey, the 
feeding of stock, or the like, are there any grounds upon 
which we can refuse it the title of science ? 

The economic sciences are all infantile, many perhaps not 
yet even conceived of by man. They are the only true 
foundation to the useful arts. Agriculture is a science, 
though hidden by a mass of misconception and empiricism. 
It must make its advances by the same methods that have- , 
made the pure sciences what they are. A clear conception 
of the object and structure of the science and experimentation 
with all the conditions under control are essential. Eco- 
nomic entomology as generally understood is chiefly a de- 
partment of agriculture, but includes much heterogeneous 
material. To be a scientifically rational term, it must, like 
some of the genera of the older naturalists, be restricted. I 
can in no better way .show the difference between it and 
scientific entomology than to indicate the parts of economic 
entomology, and show where they belong among the eco- 
nomic sciences. 

Insects of economic importance may be grouped into six cat- 
egories: first, those directly injurious to man, which properly 
forms a department of medicine; second, those attacking the 
domestic animals, a part of veterinary medicine; third, those 
injuring cultivated plants, which includes by far the major part 
of the injurious insects, and to which the term 4 * economic en- 
tomology " should be ^restricted (it is only a part, and per- 
haps not a natural part, of the science which deals with the 
diseases of cultivated plants) ; fourth, those which destroy 
other property (in this category are the insects attacking furs, 
woollen goods, etc., and the* food-stuffs, which belong to 
domestic economy and at the same time to commerce ; 
library insects belong to library economy, and so on) ; 
fifth, those directly beneficial to man, which includes the 
bee, the silk-worm, etc., — industries which form one of the 
primary divisions of agriculture; sixth, those indirectly 
beneficial to man by destroying the injurious insects (these 
insects, of course, belong to the sciences that consider the in- 
sects which are their victims). 

Finally, to recapitulate, scientific entomology is a depart- 



78 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 418 



meat of biology ; economic entomology, of agriculture. 
They have all the difference 'between them that there is be- 
tween a pure science and an economic science. Cau we as 
a society include them both ? I think we should not. On 
the other hand, the economic entomologists are nearly all 
at the same time scientific entomologists. These we can and 
do welcome. 



AFRICAN AND AMERICAN. 



At a meeting of the Canadian Institute, Toronto, Jan. 24, Mr. 
D. R. Keys, M.A., read, on behalf of Mr. A. F. Chamberlain, 
M.A., fellow in Clark University, Worcester, Mass., a valuable 
and interesting paper entitled " African and American: the Con- 
tact of the Negro and the Indian. 1 ' He said that the history of 
the negro on the continent of America has been studied from va- 
rious points of view, but in every case with regard to his contact 
with the white race. It must therefore be a new as well as an 
interesting inquiry, when we endeavor to find out what has been 
the effect of the contact of the foreign African with the native 
American stocks. Such an investigation must extend its lines of 
research into questions of physiology, psychology, philology, soci- 
ology, and mythology. 

The writer took up the history of the African negro in America 
in connection with the various Indian tribes with whom he has 
come into contact. He referred to the baseless theories of pre- 
Columbian negro races in America, citing several of these in 
illustration. He then took up the question ethnographically, be- 
ginning with Canada* The chief contact between African and 
American in Canada appears to have taken place on one of the 
Iroquois reservations near Brantford. A few instances have been 
noticed elsewhere in the various provinces, but they do not appear 
to have been very numerous. In New England, especially in 
Massachusetts, considerable miscegenation appears to have taken 
place, and in some instances it would appear that the Indians 
were bettered by the admixture of negro blood which they re- 
ceived. The law which held that children of Indian women were 
born free appears to have favored the taking of Indian wives by 
negroes. 

On Long Island the Montauk and Shinnacook Indians have a 
large infusion of African blood, dating from the times of slavery 
in the Northern States. The discovery made by Dr. Brinton, that 
certain words (numerals) stated by the missionary Pyrlaeus to be 
Nanticoke Indian were really African (probably obtained from 
some runaway slave or half-breed), was referred to. In Virginia 
some little contact of the two races has* occurred, and some of the 
free negroes on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake peninsula 
show evident traces of Indian blood. The State of Florida was 
for a long time the home of the Seminoles, who. like the Chero- 
kees, held negroes in slavery. One of their chiefs was said, in 
1835, to have had no fewer than one hundred negroes. Here 
considerable miscegenation has taken place, although the authori- 
ties on the subject seem to differ considerably on questions of 
fact. In the Indian Territory, to which Cherokees, Seminoles, 
and other Indian tribes of the Atlantic region have been removed, 
further contact has occurred, and the study of the relations of the 
Indian and negro in the Indian Territory, when viewed from a 
sociological standpoint, are of great interest to the student of his- 
tory and ethnography. The negro is regarded in a different light 
by different tribes of American aborigines. After mentioning a 
few isolated instances of contact in other parts of the United 
States, the writer proceeded to discuss the relations of African and 
Indian mythology, coming to about the same conclusion as Pro- 
fessor T. Crane, that the Indian has probably borrowed more from 
the negro than has the negro from the Indian. The paper con- 
cluded with calling the attention of the members of the institute 
to the necessity of obtaining with all possible speed information 
regarding (1) the results of the intermarriage of Indian and ne- 
gro, the physiology of the offspring of such unions; (2) the social 
status of the negro among the various Indian tribes, the Indian 
as a slaveholder; (3) the influence of Indian upon negro and of 
negro upon Indian mythology. 



DEPOPULATION OF FRANCE.* 

It is somewhat startling to find that the depopulation of France 
is becoming a common subject of discussion among the savants 
of that country. The phrase is perhaps somewhat stronger than 
the circumstances of phe case warrant, the fact being that the 
population of France is simply stationary. Still it is a striking 
and significant circumstance, that, while the population of all 
the other great European nations is steadily and rapidly advan- 
cing, that of France remains at a standstill. On economic grounds, 
this arrest of increase in number might seem not altogether an 
unmixed evil, inasmuch as it should tend to diminish over-com- 
petition, and to ease the already excessive struggle for existence 
among the lower classes ; but an impression widely prevails, that, 
given a fairly normal and healthy social condition, a growth of 
population is a natural result, and that a stationary or declining 
population is an index of some grave disorder of the body politic. 
We cannot adequately discuss this large and difficult question, 
but our French neighbors evidently think that something is amiss, 
and are looking around for the cause and for its remedy. Prob- 
ably the causes are numerous and complex. Social habits may 
account for a good deal. The French custom of subdividing land 
and of providing a dowry for girls offers an obvious motive for 
keeping down the number of children. Where, as in the west of 
Ireland, the peasantry have a cheap food-supply, and are con- 
stitutionally averse to thrift, large families are the rule ; but in 
France thrift is a virtue carried almost to excess, and the obli- 
gation of the parents to provide for each new accession to 
the family is clearly recognized. Moral causes have been 
supposed to play a large part in the arrest of the population of 
France, and we are far from underestimating their importance ; 
but this is a difficult and delicate problem, on which it would be 
rash to dogmatize without the most ample evidence. 

While some of the causes of the phenomenon under discussion 
may be obscure and remote, others lie under our eyes, and can- 
not be too carefully scrutinized or too frankly acknowledged. In 
a recent address before the Academie de Medecine, Dr. Brouardel 
drew attention to the abnormal mortality from small-pox and 
typhoid -fever which prevails in France. He points out that 
while Germany loses only 110 persons per annum from small- 
pox, France actually loses 14,000. Dr. Brouardel attributes this 
astounding difference to the rigid way in which vaccination is en- 
forced in Germany, and to the carelessness of his own country- 
men in this matter. Statistics show that in 1865, when vacci- 
nation was not obligatory in Prussia, the mortality was 27 per 100,- 
000 inhabitants. After vaccination was enforced, the mortality 
fell in 1874 to 8 60 per 100.000, and in 1886 to 0.049. At the 
present time the mortality from this cause in France is 43 per 
100,000. We make a present of these figures of Dr. Brouardel to 
the Royal Commission on Vaccination. 

As regards typhoid -fever, the deaths due to this disease in 
France amount to 28,000 per annum. Dr. Brouardel gives a 
great variety of statistics to show that the liability to typhoid is 
in direct proportion to the imperfections in the water-supply, and 
that, in proportion as a sufficient supply of pure water is provided, 
typhoid abates. Thus, at Vienna the typhoid mortality was 200 
per 100,000 while the inhabitants drank surface, hence often pol- 
luted, water; but this mortality fell to 10 per 100,000 on a 
thoroughly good supply being obtained. At Angouleme the in- 
troduction of a new supply of pure water reduced the number of 
cases of typhoid in the proportion of 0.063 to 18. At Amiens, 
among the military population, the typhoid mortality fell from 
111 per 10,000 to 7 when a pure supply of water was secured by 
artesian wells. At Rerines the inhabitants formerly drank from 
contaminated wells, with the result that typhoid- fever was always 
endemic. The introduction of pure water reduced the deaths 
from typhoid among the military population from 43 per 10,000 
to 2. Investigations carried out at Besancon, Tours, Carcassonne, 
Paris, and Bordeaux entirely corroborate the above striking 
figures. Typhoid-fever is responsible for the death of 1 soldier 
in 335 in France, or 298 per 100,000, and this in time of peace. 
In war its ravages are even far greater. Thus the expeditionary 

1 From the London Lancet, Deo. SO, 1890. 



February 6, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



79 



corps to Tunis in 1881, consisting of 20,000 men, had 4,500 cases 
of typhoid, with 884 deaths. 

Dr. Brouardel concludes by affirming that if vaccination and 
re-vaccination were rendered obligatory in France, and if the 
towns were everywhere supplied with pure water, the country 
would save from 25,000 to 80,000 lives annually, and these, for 
the most part, of young persons of marriageable age. He there- 
fore proposes to the academy to adopt the following conclusions : 
" that the sanitary law in preparation ought to render vaccination 
obligatory ; it ought to furnish sufficient authority to the muni- 
cipalities, or in their default the prefect or the government, to 
secure the public health against the dangers which result from 
using polluted water." • 

In the discussion which followed Dr. Brouardel's communi- 
cation many important points were elicited. One speaker drew 
attention to the evils which arose from cheap lodging-houses. 
Another insisted upon the superiority of supplying pure water to 
any methods of filtration. At Angoul&ne filtration was tried with 
some advantage, but the provision of a pure supply proved much 
more successful. 

We may learn something from the anxieties of our neighbors. 
If the outcry against compulsory vaccination now prevailing in 
some quarters in this country should unhappily effect any slacken- 
ing in our vigilance in this matter, we shall surely pay the pen- 
alty in a heavier mortality from one of the most loathsome of 
diseases. The example of Germany in this matter is admirable, 
and cannot be too widely known or too carefully followed. The 
provision of an absolutely pure supply of water to our large cities 
is a much more difficult problem than the thorough enforcement 
of vaccination, but it is at least the ideal towards which our efforts 
must be directed. It is an immense gain to know positively both 
the source of danger and the means of averting it, and we must 
never rest content so long as an acknowledged source of disease, 
misery, and national weakness is permitted to exist in our 
midst. 

ME AT-PRESERV ATION. 

Db. Hans Beu points out that nearly all the newer methods of 
preparing preserved meats have had to give way before the older 
methods of boiling, drying, salting, and smoking, which, along 
with freezing, preserve the taste and digestibility of meats better 
than any of the chemical methods that 'have more recently been 
recommended. As stated in the British Medical Journal, all 
these old methods hinder decomposition, and keep meats eatable 
for a longer or shorter period. Cold acts by preventing putrefac- 
tive changes in meat, #° to 4° C, with good ventilation, prevent- 
ing the development of most organisms. Boiling, with subse- 
quent exclusion of air, is, of course, good, but can only be carried 
out in large establishments and under specially favorable condi- 
tions. Drying gets rid of the water, without which micro-organ- 
isms cannot develop; but, although there is no loss of albuminoid 
or salts when this method is used, the taste is somewhat impaired. 
Salt also acts by removing water, but it also removes the extrac- 
tives, and interferes with the delicate flavor of both meat and fish. 
Smoke acts partly by drying, the heat at which it is generated 
rendering this necessary, but partly, also, by the action of the 
small quantities of the antifermentative constituents, such as cre- 
osote, carbolic acid, and even volatile oils, which appear to have 
a direct action on the vitality of putrefactive organisms. 

The author agrees with Forster, that salt has little or no effect 
upon most pathogenic organisms, but it undoubtedly interferes 
with the development of the cholera bacillus and of anthrax ba- 
cillus that contains no spores, and probably, also, of some of the 
non-pathogenic but putrefactive forms. 

As the result of his experiments on a very large number of 
food- materials, such as ham, bacon, pork, various kinds of sau- 
sages, and fish, Beu comes to the conclusion that most meats are 
salted not only to preserve the taste, but also to withdraw a large 
proportion of the water from flesh; that smoking also withdraws 
a considerable quantity of water, that it hides the salty taste, and 
that, being able to penetrate dried flesh, it is better able to exert 
its antiputrefactive action than on fresh meat. Baited lean flesh, 
exposed to the action of smoke at from 22° to 25° C. for forty- 



eight hours, no longer contained liquefying organisms, which had 
been present in considerable numbers before the smoking opera- 
tion was commenced, but non-liquefying organisms disappeared 
only on the ninth day of smoking. Salt bacon salted for ten days, 
and then exposed to the action of smoke for forty -eight hours, 
also showed no liquefying organisms with a fragment from near 
the centre taken with the most strict precautions, and broken up 
in liquid gelatine, which was afterwards allowed to solidify. All 
non-liquefying organisms had disappeared on the seventh day of 
smoking. Bacon salted for five weeks contained no organisms after 
seven days* smoking. Fresh unsalted meat contained both kinds 
after six days of smoking, and sausage also contained both at the 
end of twelve days ; this being exactly in accordance with what 
would be expected from the large amount of water that it contained, 
from the nature of the meat used, and from the many manipula- 
tive processes through which it has to go before the smoking is 
commenced. Fish may be preserved for a short time by smoking 
only, but it could not be kept permanently. Hams and larger 
sausages require a longer period of smoking than do similar 
smaller articles of diet. 



THE MAHOGANY TRADE OF HONDURAS.* 

The Republic of Honduras, as well as the territory known as 
British Honduras, have long been celebrated for their forests of 
mahogany and other fine-grained woods. Belize, the capital of 
the British possessions in Central America, now a city of con- * 
siderable commercial importance, owes, says the United States 
consul at Ruatan, its origin and wealth to the mahogany- cutters. 
During the first half of the present century, princely fortunes were 
quickly accumulated in the business ; but, since iron and steel 
have taken the place of wood in the construction of vessels, the 
mahogany trade has decreased to a notable extent, although it is 
still large and profitable. The mahogany cuttings of British Hon* 
duras require at present more capital to carry them on than 
formerly. The expense and difficulty of getting out the wood has 
greatly increased, as but comparatively few trees can now be 
found near to the banks of rivers and streams of sufficient depth 
of water to float the logs to the coast. In Spanish Honduras, and 
especially within the limits of the consular district of Ruatan, 
there are still forests abounding in mahogany and other precious 
woods, where foreign industry and capital might be safely and 
profitably employed. 

The following is the system employed in manipulating the 
mahogany and in felling the trees, and in hewing, hauling, raft- 
ing, and embarking the logs in Honduras. Having selected and 
secured a suitable locality, and arranged with one of the export- 
ing-houses of Belize to advance the means in provisions and 
money to carry on the works, the mahogany-cutter hires his gang 
of laborers for the season. Nearly all labor contracts are made 
during the Christmas holidays, as the gangs from the mahogany- 
works all congregate in Belize at that period. The men are hired 
for a year, at wages varying from twelve to twenty dollars a 
month. They generally receive six months' wages in advance, 
one-half of which is paid in goods from the house which furnishes 
the capital. The cash received by the laborers is mostly wasted 
in dissipation before they leave the city. Early in January the 
works are commenced. Camps, or " banks " as they are called, 
are organized at convenient places on the margin of some river in 
the district to be worked. Temporary houses, thatched with 
palm-leaves, are erected for the laborers, and a substantial build- 
ing for the store aad dwelling of the overseer. The workmen are 
divided into gangs, and a captain appointed over each gang, 
whose principal duty is to give each man his daily task, and see 
that the same is properly done. 

All work in mahogany-cutting is done by tasks. The best 
laborers are out at daybreak, and generally finish their task be- 
fore eleven o'clock. The rest of the day can be spent in fishing, 
hunting, collecting India-rubber and sarsaparilla, or in working up 
mahogany into dories, paddles, bowls, etc., for all of which a 
ready market is found. The mahogany- tree hunter is the best 
paid and the most important laborer in the service. Upon 

1 From the Journal of the Society of Arts, London. 



8o 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 418 



his skill and activity largely depends the success, of the season. 
Mahogany-trees do not grow in clumps and clusters, but are 
scattered promiscuously through the forests, and hidden in a dense 
growth of underbrush, vines, and creepers. It requires a skilful 
and experienced woodsman to find them. No one can make any 
progress in a tropical forest without the aid of a macheU^ or heavy 
bush-knife. He has to cut his way step by step. The mahogany 
is one of the largest and tallest of trees. The hunter seeks the 
highest ground, climbs to the top of the highest tree, and surveys 
the surrounding country. His practised eye detects the mahogany 
by its peculiar foliage. He counts the trees within the scope of 
his vision, notes directions and distances, then descends and cuts a 
narrow trail to each tree, which he carefully marks, especially, if 
there is a rival hunter in the vicinity. The axe-men follow the 
hunter, and after them go the sawyers and hewers. 

To fell a mahogany- tree is one day's task for two men. On ac- 
count of the wide spurs which project from the trunk at its base, 
scaffolds have to be erected and the tree cut of! above the spurs, 
which leaves a stump from ten to fifteen feet high. While the 
work of felling and hewing is in progress, other gangs are em- 
ployed in making roads and bridges, over which the logs are to be 
hauled to the river. One wide truck pass, as it is called, is made 
through the centre of the district occupied by the works, and 
branch roads are opened from the main avenue to each tree. 

The trucks employed are clumsy and antiquated contrivances. 
The wheels are of solid wood, made by sawing off the end of a 
log and fitting iron boxes in the centre. The oxen which draw 
these trucks are fed on the leaves and twigs of the bread nut tree, 
which gives them more strength and power of endurance than 
any other obtainable food. Mahogany-trees give each from two 
to five logs ten to eighteen feet long, and from twenty to forty - 
four inches in diameter after being hewed. The trucking is done 
in the dry season, and the logs collected on the tynk of the river, 
and made ready for the floods, which occur on the largest rivers 
in June and July, and on all in October and November. The logs 
are turned adrift loose, and caught by booms. Indians and Caribs 
follow the logs down the river to release those which are caught 
by fallen trees or other obstacles in the river. 

The manufacturing process consists in sawing off the log-ends 
which have beeen bruised and splintered by rocks in the transit 
down the river, and in re-lining and re-hewing the logs by skilful 
workmen, who give them a smooth and even surface. The logs 
are then measured, rolled back into the water at the mouth of the 
river, and made into rafts to be taken to the vessel, which is 
anchored outside the bar. The building of sloops and small 
schooners for the coasting trade is an important industry in the 
island. The frames of such vessels are made of mahogany, Santa 
Maria, and other native woods of well-tested durability, and proof 
against the ravages of worms, which abound in the waters. 

At present the only woods exported from Honduras are mahog- 
any and cedar wood, although the forests abound in other 
varieties, which Consul Burchard states are quite as useful and 
ornamental, and which must eventually become known in foreign 
markets, and open " new and inviting fields for industry and 
trade." ^_ 

CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

The fifth annual meeting of the Canadian Society of Civil En- 
gineers was held in Montreal on Jan. 15, when Col. Sir Casimir 
Gzowski, A.D.C., was re-elected president for the third time. In 
consequence of ill health he was unable to deliver the usual set 
address, but in a short speech he congratulated the society upon 
the continued and steady progress which it was making, stating 
that it already occupied a position which its sister society in the 
United States had not reached in the first decade of its exist- 
ence. 

The total number on the list now includes 633 members, asso- 
ciates, and students, and many original papers of engineering 
value have already been printed. It was also announced that the 
president had endowed a silver medal to be awarded annually for 
the best paper submitted during the year, provided such paper 
shall be adjudged of sufficient merit as a contribution to the 
literature of the profession of civil engineering. The first of these 



medals has been awarded to Mr. E. Vautelet for his paper on 
"Bridge Strains." 

During the past year the society has moved from the rooms 
generously lent by the ^University of McGill College to more com- 
modious quarters specially fitted up for their accommodation, and 
centrally located on St. Catherines Street, near the Windsor 
Hotel. 

The principal papers discussed by the society during the past 
year are the following: " The Screening of Soft Coal," by J. S. 
McLennan; "The Manufacture of Natural Cement," by M. J. 
Butler; "Columns," by C. F. .Find lay; "Irrigation in British 
Columbia," by E. Mohun; "The Sault Ste. Marie Bridge," by G. 
H. Massy; "Generation and Distribution of Electricity for Light 
and Power," by A. J. Lawson; "Developments in Telegraphy, 
by D. H. Keeley; " Errors of Levels and Levelling," Parts 1 and 
2, by Professor C. H. McLeod. 



»? 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



•«* Correspondents are requested to be a* brief as possible. The writer's name 
is in all cases required as proof of good faith. 

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character 
of the journal. 

On request* twenty copies of the number containing his communication will 
be furnished free to any correspondent. 

Rain Formation. 

It will probably be readily admitted that one of the most com- 
plex problems in meteorology is the explanation of the condensa- 
tion of vapor into visible drops. Cloud has been formed in a 
receiver by cooling saturated air very rapidly, but it is doubtful 
whether actual raindrops have been formed artificially. One of 
the most serious difficulties encountered in studying the problem 
has been the fact that our observations have been made mostly 
several thousand feet below the point of formation of the rain- 
drop. Observations on mountain tops have shown a great in- 
crease in precipitation above that at the base ; for example, the 
rainfall on Mount Washington (6,279 feet) is double that at Port- 
land, Me., though the latter station is on the seacoast. In Sep- 
tember, 1880, the precipitation was 15.23 inches and 3.20 inches, 
and for the year ending June 30, 1880, 97.10 inches and 45.02 
inches, at the two stations respectively. An explanation of this 
apparent anomaly might aid in solving the general problem before 
us. 

It has been held by some that the rocks and earth at the top of 
the mountain are colder than the air which blows over it, and for 
this reason there is the greater condensation at the summit; but 
it has been proved that the rocks on Mouqf Washington are sev- 
eral degrees warmer than the air, so that this explanation will 
not hold. • Others have thought that warm saturated air, as it is 
forced up the side of the mountain, is very much cooled by ex- 
pansion, and this cooling produces the increased precipitation. 
This does not hold, however, in the case of Mount Washington, 
because the top rises up like a sharp cone, and the increased rain- 
fall covers an area many times greater than can possibly be af- 
fected in this way. I think it will be admitted that a large share 
of the precipitation on our mountains is formed within a few hun- 
dred feet of the top, in a vertical direction. If so, it would 
seem that we have here a most excellent opportunity for studying 
this problem. 

There have been published recently, by Harvard College, a com- 
plete set of the observations made by the Signal Office at Pike's 
Peak (14*,184 feet), from 1874 to June. 1888, and these are now in 
a most convenient form for study. It has occurred to me that a 
valuable addition to our knowledge of the conditions under which 
precipitation occurs might be made by studying the connection, 
if any existed, between the temperature fluctuations and precipi- 
tation at this elevated point. The usual view is, that a column 
of saturated air in which moisture is forming into drops or snow- 
fiakeB is warmer than the air all about at the same level, and for 
this reason it has a tendency upward. We may put this in an- 
other form: if we pass into a column of air in which rain is fall' 
ing, we shall find the temperature steadily increasing from the 
circumference to the centre; or, if we take the second interpreta- 
tion just given for the increased rainfall at the summit of a 



February 6, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



81 



mountain, a warm saturated air is continually rushing up the side 
of the mountain, and the temperature must necessarily rise as 
long as the rain is formed. 

I have projected in curves all the temperature observations at 
Pike's Peak for the hundred and thirty-six months during which 
at least .75 of an inch of rain fell. There were thirty-eight 
months, in all, in each of which less than that amount fell. A 
very slight diurnal range was eliminated in the manner already 
indicated many times. Then the precipitation for each eight 
hours was placed upon the curve of temperature, and the condi- 
tion of the temperature and precipitation was taken out under 
three heads, — first with rising, second with stationary, third with 
falling, temperature. The results for each month are given in 
the following table: — 

Pike's Peak Precipitation and Temperature, 



January.... 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October.... 
November. 
December . 



Tempbratuhb. 



Rising. 



Total 
Inches. 



Year 



3.88 

8.22 

6.C4 

18.84 

14.68 

7.11 

17.48 

10.88 

4.48 

4.41 

429 

8i09 



Per 
Cent. 



91.60 



18 
17 
17 
25 
27 
27 
28 
19 
20 
24 
17 
17 



Stationary. 



Total 
Inches. 



22 



4.06 

4.92 

6.17 

16.17 

20.11 

6.58 

16.05 

15.82 

5.87 

4 68 

6.88 

8.11 

109.81 



Per 
Cent. 



20 
27 
20 
29 

87 

25 
26 
28 
24 
26 
27 
17 



Falling. 


Total 
; Inches. 


Per 
Cent. 


13 40 


64 


1 10.27 


56 


1 19.81 


68 


26.18 


46 


I 19.98 

i 


86 


19.66 


48 


28.49 


46 



29.19 
12.69 
9.09 
14.84 
12.26 



27 



207.81 



58 

56 
60 
56 
66 



51 



No one can be more surprised .than the present writer at this 
extraordinary result, so contrary to all preconceived theories. 
We find that on the average more than half the rain occurs with 
a falling temperature. It seems probable, however, that in gen- 
eral the rain is independent of the temperature. While it might 
be thought that a falling temperature in a saturated air would 
tend to produce precipitation, yet such is by no means the fact. 
There are many cases in which a fall of from ten to fifteen de- 
grees Fahrenheit has occurred in a saturated air without any cor- 
responding rainfall. Whatever may be thought of these facts, 
there is one point that is certainly made perfectly clear in this 
discussion, and that is that the temperature in a column of air in 
which rain is falling is not higher than that of the surrounding 
region. 

It is probable that some will think there is a contradiction be- 
tween the results here presented and those given several times 
before, especially in this journal for Sept. 5, 1890, but I think 
this is only a seeming contradiction. While the great bulk of the 
rain in the eastern part of the country occurs with a rising tem- 
perature at the earth's surface, yet I have shown, that, during the 
passage of storms and high areas, the temperature in the upper 
air changes several hours earlier than at the earth (in the case of 
Mount Washington five to ten hours earlier) ; so that there may 
easily be a falling temperature where the rain is formed. Several 
months of observations at Mount Washington have shown prac- 
tically the same result as at Pike's Peak. 

For several years I have contended that there is absolutely no 
proof of an ascending current in the centre of our storms, or even 
where rain is falling. It seems as though the present discussion 
must be regarded as a culminating point, and a perfectly satisfac- 
tory disproof of such ascending current. H. A. Hazen. 

Washington, Jan. 26. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 

Socialism New and Old, By William Graham. (International 
Scientific Series.) New York, Apple ton. 12°. 

This is an interesting work. It is written in a more attractive 
style than that of most economic treatise?, and bears the marks 
of study and thought as well as of a philanthropic spirit. It opens 
with a statement of what socialism is, its various forms being 
recognized and defined, with special attention to what is now the 
leading form of it, that known as collectivism, or nationalism, 
according to which the State is to be the owner of all the instru- 
ments of production, while private property in other things is to 
remain undisturbed. The author then sketches the history of 
socialism with special reference to the evolution of the contem- 
porary forms of it, and showing the various contributions of 
Rousseau, St. Simon. Marx, and others to the doctrine as it is to- 
day. He then goes into an elaborate discussion and criticism of 
the proposed socialistic or collectivist state, pointing out the re- 
spects in which it would be sure to fail, as well as others in which 
its success would be very doubtful. The main objection he 
makes, and one that he rightly deems insurmountable, is the im- 
possibility of determining the relative rates of wages of the differ* 
ent classes of workers in the socialistic state. He has no difficulty 
in showing that equality of payment would be impracticable, 
since the more skilful workmen and the abler managers could not 
be induced to put forth their best efforts* except for relatively 
higher pay; while, on the other hand, there is no possible way to 
determine how much higher the pay ought in justice to be. 
Other objections, such as the impossibility of applying the collec- 
tivist scheme to foreign trade, the lack of personal liberty under a 
socialistic regime, and the difficulty of providing for intellectual 
workers, are also emphasised ; and the conclusion is that the at- 
tempt to introduce the system " would bring chaos, and * con- 
fusion worse confounded, 9 until human nature rose in revolt, 
against the impossible thing." 

But while Mr. Graham is no collectivist, he maintains that the 
condition of the laboring classes can be bettered, and ought to be 
bettered, and that the Slate ought to do it ; yet he seems at a loss 
with regard to the means. He has some chapters on 4i practicable 
socialism," in which be advocates several measures of a more or 
less socialistic character, such as State loans to co-operative 
societies, allotments of land to laborers, and purchase of city lands 
by the municipalities, all more or less objectionable, and, as it 
seems to us, promising but little real benefit to the. poor. Mr. 
Graham, in short, is more successful as a critic of socialism than 
as a constructive social reformer; the most useful suggestion he 
makes being that of giving all classes the means of getting a good 
education in order to equalize opportunities, — a suggestion, how- 
ever that is not new. In his last chapter he discusses the sup- 
posed present tendency toward socialism, expressing the opinion 
that such tendency is overrated, and that counter tendencies are 
at work which will nullify the socialistic movement. Altogether, 
Mr. Graham has given us a useful discussion, and one that de- 
serves to be read by all who are interested in the subject. 



AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 



Henby Holt & Co. have just ready "Told After Supper," a 
series of brief burlesque ghost-stories by Jerome K. Jerome. 
Although represented as told in good faith by their narrators, the 
reader is sometimes let into a hint of realistic explanation which 
gives the touch of good-natured satire characteristic of the author. 

— Benjamin R. Tucker, Boston, has just ready " Church and 
State," a new volume of essays on social problems, by Count Leo 
Tolstoi, translated directly from Tolstofs manuscript. It was 
written several years ago, but has thus far been kept in manu- 
script. 

— Roberts Brothers will publish Feb. 10 the following: "Petrarch, 
his Life and Works," by May Alden Ward (author of a similar 
work on Dante), a clear and well- written sketch, in which the 
subject is considered as the precursor of the Renaissance, and as 
one of the great triumvirate that created the Italian language and 
inaugurated its literature; and a volume entitled "Power through 



82 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 418 



Repose," by Annie Payson Call, who treats of such subjects as 
training for rest, rest in sleep, the body's guidance, training of 
the mind, etc. 

— MacmiHan & Co. announce an edition of Lock's well-known 
" Arithmetic," revised and adapted for the use of American schools 
by Professor C. A. Scott of Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. 

— The Stefanite aluminum process aims at introducing alumi- 
num into iron, either in the blast-furnace, the cupola, or the pud- 
dling-furnace. Daring the process of manufacture, the liberation 
of the aluminum from its ores goes on concurrently with the 
manufacture or melting of the iron, the newly formed metal be- 
ing instantly alloyed with the iron. It is well known that a 
minute percentage of aluminum has the effect of lowering the 
melting-point of iron and steel, rendering it extremely fluid, so 
that it can be run with great facility without blow- holes. The 
cost of the process has hitherto rendered its adoption very 
slow, in spite of the great economies which have been ef- 
fected by the various electric and electrolytic processes for the 
production of aluminum. It is with the intention of reducing 
this cost that the Stefanite process is being introduced. It is not 
in actual operation in this country, the trials which have already 
been made having been conducted in Germany. As communi- 
cated to Engineering, the method of operation consists in the ad- 
dition to the iron ore in the blast- furnace, or to the pig in the 
cupola, of emery and alum, either in powder or made up into 
briquettes. It is stated that the re-action of the alum on the em- 
ery gives rise to vapors of metallic aluminum, which instantly 
alloy themselves with the iron, imparting to it the improved 
qualities which have hitherto been gained by the addition of alu- 
minum or ferro-aluminum in the ladle or the crucible. The sub- 
sequent blowing does not volatilize the aluminum which descends 
with the iron. When the materials are added in the pudd ling- 
furnace, the bars, we are informed, can be hardened and tem- 



pered like steel, while their tensile strength is increased. The 
invention is in the hands of Mr. Thompson Freeman, of 2 Victoria 
Mansions, Westminster, London, England. 

— " Nature's Wonder Workers" is the title of some short life- 
histories in the insect world, by Kate R. Lovell, which the Cassell 
Publishing Company have ready. In this book the author's aim 
is to interest the reader in what are called the " useless insects." 

— '« Supposed Tendencies to Socialism " is the title of the article 
that will open the March Popular Science Monthly. It is by Pro- 
fessor William Graham of Belfast, who gives his reasons for ex- 
pecting a progressive improvement in the state of society, but no 
Budden social transformation. " Iron- Working with Machine- 
Tools " will be the special topic of an article in the American In- 
dustries Series. * This division of the series is to conclude with 
an account of the steel-manufacture. In the tariff discussions of 
recent years, sisal has been one of the articles most frequently 
mentioned. How it is produced and what it looks like may be 
learned from the illustrated article on "Cultivation of Sisal in 
the Bahamas," by Dr. John I. Northrop. One of several articles 
announced for the same number of the Popular Science Monthly 
is an explanation of Dr. Koch's method of treating consumption, 
by Dr. G. A. Heron, a London physician, and a friend of the dis- 
coverer. An explanation of the real nature of Voodoo, traces of 
which are found among the negroes in our Sou then States, with 
a description of the strange and wiM ceremonies connected with 
it, will also appear in this number. The writer, Hon. Major A. 
B. Ellis, is an officer in the British Army. 

— "Bibliotheca Polytechnica," a directory of technical liter- 
ature, is a classified catalogue of all books, annuals, and journal* 
published in America, England, France, and Germany, including 
their relation to legislation, hygiene, and daily life. It is edited 
by Fritz von Szczepanski. The first-annual issue of this new in- 
ternational index to the progress of technical science has appeared 



Publications received at Editor's Office, 
Jan. 19-31. 

Bardkbn, C. W. Effect of the College Preparatory 
High School upon Attendance and Scholarship 
in the Lower Grades Syracuse, N. Y., Bardeen. 
5 p. 8°. 

Birkbaum, Max, Prof. Koch's Method to cure Tuber- 
culosis popularly treated by. Tr. by Dr. Pr. 
Brendecke. Milwaukee, Wis., H. A. Haferkorn. 
106 p. 12°. 

Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac, 1891. Brooklyn, 
Daily Eagle Pr. 290 p. 8°. 26 cents. 

Graham, W. Socialism New and Old. New York, 
Appleton. 416 p. 12°. 

Harris, W. T. Hegel's Logic. Chicago, Griggs. 
408 p. 16°. Si 60. 

Hewitt, W. Elementary Science Lessons. Stand- 
ard I. London and New York, Longmans, Green, 
ft Co. 115 p. 16°. 50 cents. 

Hetdknfeldt, S., Jr. The Unison of the Conscious 
Force. New York, J. J. Little, Pr. 105 p. 8°. 

Hoogewkrff, J. A. Magnetic Observations at the 
United States Naval Observatory, 1888 and 1889. 
Washington, Government. 100 p 4°. 

Ikqersoll, R. G. Liberty in Literature. Testi- 
monial to Walt Whitman. New York, Truth 
Seeker Co. 77 p. 12° 50 cents. 

Lrffmann, H.,and Beam, W. Examination of Water 
for Sanitary and Technical Purposes. 2d ed. 
Philadelphia, Blakiston. 180 p. U°. 

Lodge, G., ed. Plato Gorgias. Boston, Ginn. 806 p. 
18°. $1.7*. 

Marine Biological Laboratory of Wood's Holl, Bio- 
logical Leotures delivered at the, in the Summer 
Session of 1890. Boston, Ginn. 250 p. 12°. 

Maxwell, W. H. Examinations as Tests for Pro- 
motion. Syracuse, N. Y., Bardeen. 11 p. 8°. 

Michioah, Laws of the State of, relating to the Pub- 
lic Health, in Force in the Year 1890. Lansing, 
State. 175 p. 8°. 

Missouri, Biennial Message of Gov. David R. Fran- 
cis to the Thirty-sixth General Assembly of the 
State of. Jefferson City, State. 42 p. 8°. 

New York Institution for the Blind. Fifty-fifth An- 
nual Report of the Managers of the, for the Year 
ending Sept. 80, 1890. Albany, State. 77 p. 8°. 

Pennsylvania Oral School for the Deaf, Soranton, 
Fifth Report of the, for the Years 1888-89, 1889- 
90. Soranton. F. F. Schoen, pr. 27 p. 8°. 

RoHt, G. H. Text-Book of Hygiene. 2d ed. Phila- 
delphia and London, F. A. Davis. 421 p. 8°. 
$2.60. 

Sarin, H. Organisation and System vs. Originality 
and Individuality on the Part of Teacher and 
Pupil. Syracuse, N. Y., Bardeen. 9 p. 8°. 

Scbibnkr's Magazine, Comics from. New York, 
Sorlbner. 8°. 10 cents. 

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SJoppy Street!. By Hi P. 
ByT.'Rowaa."sV 



Diuhuii of lowii. By J. Phi 

Dwslling- Houses : Their Sanitary construe nor 
and Arrangements. By Professor W. H. Cor- 
field. it' 

Fashion in Deformity. By William Henry Flower. 

Food. The ' Composition. Digeiiibiiity' and 'Nu- 
tritive Value of. By Professor Henry A. 



Ha 
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By W. H. Corneld. 1°.. 
inualof. By Andrew Wil- 


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Brown. 18° 

Hikvs on taking 


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Hooss Drainage 


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Wants. 



A at /rrlM tttMag a fietitit* /»■- »*/£* Mr U ,tutli- 
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nit at con. t/ l, moIUA" tk**»U(Uf if tit "it- 

ai/fcAanielrr of hi, affliealian. A,y ficon ,„ki« K 

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w, 



ANTED.--' young man In college would like ■ 

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ntlflc work, particularly Orlnthclogy. either an 

an instructor or tutor, or in making collections or 

accompanying tome aoleutiflo expedition. Can jrlve 

good references. Address HUBERT L. CLARK. 



Hathemntlca, Latin. Book-keeping, and the English 
branches. Can atTS highest references Address H. 
W. MABTHENS, flUOS Broad St., Pittsburgh. Pa. 



T 1 7 A.\TKD.-A situation In a scientific house by m 
VV graduate ot the solentino department of the 
Jersey City High School as Geologist, Mineralogist 
or as assistant teacher In Physics or assistant to a 
chemist. Best of references. E. W. PERRY, 68a 
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VlfArlTED.— By a 

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Able occupation. Content with 
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W. L. S., Science- Office. 



bersof Congress from New York. These portraits 

to oomplete the list of portraits of the New York 
delegation In Congress at tbe time of Washington') 
inauguration. 



W 4 i 



WANTED- An Entomologist to accompany a 
camping party of boys during July nest. 
Address, stating experience and salary expected, 
ALBERT L. ABEY, Free Academy, Rochester, N.Y. 

W~~ ANTED 
expert 
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application. Address E. E. BOtJUE. Agr. Expert 
meet Station. Columbus, O. 

W~~ ANTED— Employment or partisTemployinent 
as naturalist collector for all Ornithological, 
Entomological or Zoological specimens First class 
Canadian references supplied. Would be willing to 
work la Canada or any part of America as desired. 
Salary or commission. G E. ATKINSON, BSD Spa- 



A UNIVERSITY GRADUATE IN SCIENCE, . 
J~\- present a junior student In medicine at the Ut 
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laboratory assistant. Special preparation In Zoc 
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WiUalsoteecn.lt desired. Physics, Chemistry, Bot 
any, Entomology, Embryology, Bacteriology and 



Exchanges. 

e of charge to all, II of satisfsc 
1 N. D. C. Hodges, l7 Lafayt 



■ r exchange-PosF 
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ucation" for AmerkanNaiuralisi for .HEoa.id iBwi.nr 
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1 have a good supply of Eastern Coleoptcra which 1 
wish to eichange for species not in my collection. Mel' 
andryidac and Oedemeridae especially desired. Joe C. 
Thompson, Rosebank P. O.. Boa 73. S. I. 

I wish to exchange Eastern Lrfidfflrra for those that 
I do not hare, particularly those found in the South. 
Jos. F. Crandall, Honesdale. Wayne Co.. Pa. 

To exchange, 1800 Sccger snd Guernsey Cyclopedia, 

ductt'Tibe 3T and" address* ™f*n™"r£n'ds,*™r P sc. 
David R. Lewis, Saybrook, IIL 



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SCIENCE 



NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 18, 1891. 



AFRICAN AND AMERICAN: THE CONTACT OF 

NEGRO AND INDIAN. 1 

The history of the negro on the continent of America has 
been studied from various points of view, but in every in- 
stance with regard alone to his contact with the white race. 
It must be, therefore, a new, as well as an interesting, in- 
quiry, when we endeavor to ascertain what has been the 
effect of the contact of the foreign African with the native 
American stocks. Such an investigation, to be of great 
scienti6c value, in the highest sense, must extend its lines 
of research into questions of physical anthropology, philol- 
ogy, mythology, sociology, and lay before us the facts which 
alone can be of use. So little attention has been paid to our 
subject, in all its branches, that it is to be feared that very 
much of great importance can never be ascertained ; but it is 
the object of this essay to indicate what we already know, 
and to point out some questions concerning which, with the 
exercise of proper care, valuable data may even yet be ob- 
tained. 

It is believed that the first African negro was introduced 
to the West Indies between the years 1501 and 1503; and 
since that time, according to Professor N. S. Shaler,* there 
have been brought across the Atlantic not more than " three 
million souls, of whom the greater part were doubtless taken 
to the West Indies and Brazil." Professor Shaler goes on to 
say, " It seems tolerably certain that into the region north 
of the Gulf of Mexico not more than half ft million were im- 
ported. We are even more at a loss to ascertain the present 
number of negroes in these continents: in fact, this point is 
probably indeterminable, for the reason that the African blood 
has commingled with that of the European settlers and the 
aborigines in an incalculable manner. Counting as negroes, 
however, all who share in the proportion of more than one- 
half the African blood, there are probably not less than 
thirty million people who may be regarded as of this race 
between Canada and Patagonia." Such being the case, the 
importance of the question included in the programme of 
investigation of the Congres des American is tes — " Penetra- 
tion des races africaines en Amerique, et specialement dans 
l'Ame'rique du Sud " — becomes apparent, and no insignifi- 
cant part of it is concerned with the relations of the African 
and the native American. 

It was said that we start with 1503 or thereabouts. Of 
course, some imaginative minds have discovered negroes in 
America at a period long antedating this; but such is theory, 
not fact What the curious sculptured faces in Central 
American ruins signify, we cannot at present determine. 
Enthusiastic missionaries have spoken of negroes in Labra- 
dor,* and Peter Martyr (third decade) tells of negroes taken 
prisoners in the battle between the Spaniards and Quaragua 
in 1513. He states, 4 " About two days 7 journey distant from 

1 Paper read before the Canadian Institute, Toronto, Jan. 24, 1891, by A. F. 
Chamberlain, M.A., fellow in anthropology in Clark University, Worcester, 
Mass. 

* " The African Element in America " (The Arena, vol. ii. p. 666). 

* Chablbvoix, Hist, et Descript. gen6rale de la Nouvelle Prance, 1744, 
pp. 17, 18. 

4 lB.YDfa, Spanish Voyages of Discovery (Lovell's Library, No. 801), p. 120. 



Quaragua is a region inhabited only by black Moors sailed 
thither out of Ethiopia, to rob, and that by shipwreck, or 
some other chance, they were driven to these mountains." 
Washington Irving thinks that Martyr was retailing the 
" mere rumor of the day," and, as other historians do not 
refer to the subject, considers that the belief *' must have 
arisen from some misrepresentation, and is not entitled to 
credit." Fontaine says; 1 " Nunez, in coasting along the 
shores of the Gulf of Darien, discovered a colony of woolly- 
headed black people, who had settled among the copper- 
colored inhabitants of the mainland." This colony, too, 
must be relegated to the land of fiction and romance. Nor 
is it the only instance of the kind. Dr. A. R. Wallace 
states that the Juris of the Rio Negro, who are " pure, 
straight-haired Indians," are down in some maps as "Juries, 
curly-haired negroes." And not a little misconception has 
been caused by such broad statements as that of Col. Galindo :* 
"The Carib is identical in outward appearance with the 
African negro." 

Having thus cleared the way a little, let us take up the 
consideration of our subject ethnographically. We may 
begin with Canada. Although the Maroon settlement in 
Nova Scotia, near Halifax, existed for a number of years 
(before the removal to Sierra Leone), and remnants of it are 
still to be found there, there appear to be no records extant 
attesting contact with the Indian aborigines. Mr. J. C. 
Hamilton, M.A., LL.B., of Toronto, who has devoted much 
time to the study of the " African in Canada," is the writer's 
authority for the statement that on one of the Iroquois res- 
ervations in Ontario considerable intermixture with the 
negro had taken place. 4 This opinion is confirmed by 
Odjidjatekba, an intelligent Mohawk of Brantford, who 
states that the Tuscarora reserve near that city is the one in 
question. It has often been asserted that the celebrated 
Joseph Brant was a slave-holder; but this has been denied 
by his friends, who assert that he merely gave shelter to 
refugee negroes, who were rather in the relation of depend- 
ents than of slaves. One frequently comes across pas- 
sages like the following:* "Some Mohawk Indians and a 
negro of Brant's ; " and some such state of affairs would be 
necessary to account for the present admixture of negro 
blood. Mr. Hamilton also informed the writer that Mr. 
George H. Anderson of Toronto, a United States pensioner,, 
and a native of Maryland, claims that his mother's mother- 
was a full-blooded Indian. There is also a case of negro- 
Indian intermixture reported from British Columbia. 

In New England, especially in Massachusetts, considerable- 
intermingling of African and Indian appears to have oc- 
curred. The earliest mention of negro slaves in the Bay 
State is in 1633, and a very curious entry it is. Wood ' tells; 

> How the World was Peopled, p. 168. 

* A Narrative of Travels on the Amazon, etc. (new ed., London, 1889), p. 
856. 

* Journal of the Royal Geographioal Society, vol. ill. 1884, p. 291. 

* See " The African in Canada " (Proceedings of the .American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, vol. xxxviii., 1889, pp. 864-870); " The Maroons 
of Jamaica and Nora Scotia " (Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, 8d se- 
ries, vol. Til. 1890, pp. 860-269); also Transactions of the Canadian Institute, 
toI. i. (1890-01), p. 107. 

* Zeisberger'8 Diary (Ed. Bliss, 1885), p. 816, under date of June, 1798. 

* New England Prospect (1684), p. 77, oited in Williams's History of the 
Negro Race in America, 1888, vol. i. p. 178. 



86 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII: No 419 



of some Indians who were alarmed at a negro whom they 
met in the depths of the forest, and " were worse scared 
than hurt, who seeing a blackamore in the top of a tree, 
looking out for his way which he had lost, surmised he was 
Abamacho or the devil, deeming all devils that are blacker 
than themselves, and being near to the plantation, they 
posted to the English, and entreated them to conjure the 
devil to his own place, who finding him to be a poor wan- 
dering blackamore, conducted him to his master." It is pre- 
sumable that there were negro slaves in Massachusetts be- 
fore 1633, and from time to time contact of Indian and negro 
must have taken place. That the intermarriage of Indian 
women with negroes was prevalent to a considerable extent 
in this State seems probable from Williams's l remarks upon 
the decision of Chief Justice Parker: " that the issue of the 
marriage of a slave husband and a free wife were free." 

" This decision is strengthened by the statement of Ken- 
dall * in reference to the widespread desire of negro slaves 
to secure free Indian wives in order to insure the freedom of 
their children. He says, * While slavery was supposed to be 
maintainable by law in Massachusetts, there was a particular 
temptation to negroes for taking Indian wives, the children 
of Indian women being acknowledged to be free.'" 

Professor Shaler, in his interesting article " Science and 
the African Problem," * thus expresses himself regarding the 
question in New England: "It is frequently asserted that 
the remnants of' the New England Indians as well as of 
other Indian tribes have been extensively mixed with Afri- 
can blood. It is likely that in New England, at least, this 
opinion is well founded, though it is doubtful if the mixture 
is as great as is commonly assumed to have been the case. 
The dark color of these Indians, which leads many to suppose 
that they may have a large inheritance of negro blood, is 
probably in many cases the native hue of the Indian race. 
The moral and physical result of this blending of two ex- 
tremely diverse bloods is a matter of the utmost interest. It 
may be studied to great advantage in the New England In- 
diana, for among them there has been little in the way of 
•civil or social proscription to affect the result" 

In a subsequent essay, 4 Professor Shaler remarks, " I have 
•been unable definitely to trace the existence in this section 
of any descendants of the blacks who were then there in the 
last century, save perhaps in the case of a few who have 
•become commingled with the remnants of the Indians of 
Gay Head and Marshpee. If such there be, they are very 
few in number." 

In the first volume of the " Massachusetts Historical Society 
Collections" * there is a brief account of the Indians of Martha's 
Vineyard : u In the year 1763 there were remaining in Dukes 
x County 313 Indians, 86 of whom were in Edgartown, 39 in 
Tilbury, and 188 in Chilmack. About that period they be- 
gan to intermarry with negroes, in consequence of which 
the mixed race has increased in numbers, and improved in 
temperance and industry. At present there are of pure In- 
dians and of the mixed race about 440 persons, 70 of whom 
live on Chappaquiddick (not more than one-third pure), 
about 25 at Sanchechecantacket (not more than one-third 
pure), about 40 at Christiantown in the north part of Tis- 
bury, toward the sound (about one-half pure), about 24 at 
Nashonohkamuck (about three-quarters pure), and about 276 
at Gay Head (of which about one-fourth are pure). In this 

* History of the Negro Raoe la America, vol. L p. 180. 

* Travels, rol. 11. p. 170. 

* Atlanta Monthly, rol lxvi. 1800, p. 40, ool. 1. 
« The Arena, rol. 11. p. 686. 

* Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 1st series, vol. i. p. 806. 



account unmixed negroes are not reckoned." This infor- 
mation is given upon the authority of " Capt. Jerningham 
and Benj. Basset, Esq." 

In Belknap's •' Answer to Judge Tucker's Queries " it is 
stated, 1 "Some negroes are incorporated^ and their breed 
mixed with the Indians of Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard, 
and the Indians are said to be meliorated by the mixture." 

In Volume III. of the second series, under date of 1802, * we 
find an account of the Indians of Marshpee: " The inhabit- 
ants of Marshpee are denominated Indians, but very few of 
the pure race are left. There are negroes, mulattoes, and 
Germans. Their numbers have often been taken, and have 
not varied much during the past twenty years. At present 
there are about 80 houses and 380 souls." According to an 
exact census taken in 1808, the Indians, negroes, and mulat- 
toes in Marshpee numbered 357. 

In the " History of New Bedford (1858)," $y Daniel Rick- 
etsou, there is (pp. 253-262) an account of Paul Cuffee, 
whose mother was ''an Indian woman named Ruth Moses." 
Cuffee was born on Cuttyhunk, one of the Elizabeth Islands, 
in 1759, and died on his farm at Westport in 1817. His father 
was a native of Africa, and Cuffee is described as (< a man 
of noble personal appearance, tall, portly and dignified in his 
bearing. His complexion was not dark, and his hair was 
straight " (p. 225). At the age of twenty-five Cuffee 
married a member of his mother's tribe. He was a man of 
considerable attainments, being a sailor as well as a farmer. 

Robert Rantoul, sen., in a paper read before the Beverly 
Lyceum in April, 1833/ says of the negroes, "Pome are in- 
corporated with the Indians of Cape Cod and Martha's Vine- 
yard, and the Indians are said to be improved by the mix- 
ture." He also states 4 regarding the 6,001 " persons other 
than white," returned by the United States census of 1790 as 
resident in Massachusetts (with Maine), that it is supposed 
the blacks were upwards of 4,000; and of the remaining 
2,000 many were a mixed breed between Indians and blacks." 

Of the Gay Head Indians, a recent visitor, Mr. W. H. 
Clark/ says, " The Indian reservations present much of in- 
terest. The Gay Head Indians, who, since the days of the 
early settlement of the country, have been friendly to the 
white men, are an industrious and cleanly people. Although 
one observes much that betokens the Indian type, the ad- 
mixture of negro and white blood has materially changed 
them. A few years ago the Indians were admitted to citi- 
zenship, and one of their tribe was elected to the General 
Assembly of Massachusetts. The women far surpass the 
men in intelligence and thrift. The Indians earn a liveli- 
hood by agriculture, fishing, and as caterers to the tourists 
who visit Gay Head. Their little restaurants are scrupu- 
lously clean and very inviting places, where simple but good 
meals can be obtained. The number now on the reservation 
is not far from one hundred and fifty. Many, however, 
have .sought homes for themselves elsewhere." An interest- 
ing point in connection with the history of the Indian and 
negro in Massachusetts is the deportation of the Pequots to 
the Bermudas * after their utter defeat in the disastrous war 
which closed in 1638. We must also notice the importation 
of negroes from Barbadoes in exchange for Indians. T 

> Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 1st Miles, rol. ir. p. 806 
(of. 2d series, vol. ili. p. 12). 
» Vol. ili. 1815, p. 4. 

* Printed in part in Historical Collections of Essex Institute, rol. xxrr. pp. 
81-108. 

* Loo. oit., p. W. 

• Johns Hopkins University Circulars, No. 84, December, 1890, p. 88. 

• Williams, History of the Negro Race in America, rol. L. pp. 178, 174 ; Ds 
Forest, History of the Indians of Connecticut (1868;, pp. 117-160. 

T Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 1st series, rol. i. p. 806. 



February 13, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



87 



With regard to the other New England States, we do not at 
present possess many data. In De Forest's " History of the 
Indians of Connecticut," we find the following notices: — 

''A few of this clan [the Mil ford hand of the Paugusset 
or Wepawaug Indians] still [1849] live on about ten acres of 
land at Turkey Hill. The family name is Hafcchett ; they are 
mixed with negro blood ; and they are all poor, degraded 
and miserable " (p. 356). "The tribe [the Golden Hill 
Paugussets] now [circa 1850] numbers two squaws, who live 
in an irregular connection with negroes, and six half-breed 
children, all of whom are grown up but one. They are in- 
temperate, but have been of about the same number for 
many years. Their family name is Sherman " (p. 357). 

44 In 1832 the Groton Pequots numbered about forty per- 
sons of both sexes and all ages. They were considerably 
mixed with white and negro blood, but still possessed a feel- 
ing of clanship, and still preserved their ancient hatred for 
the Mohegans" (p. 443). ( 

Of the Indians in Led yard who are idle and given to 
drink, it is said (p. 445), " None of the pure Pequot race are 
left, all being mixed with Indians of other tribes or with 
whites and negroes. One little girl among them has blue 
eyes and light hair, and her skin is fairer than that of the 
majority of white persons. There is no such thing as regu- 
lar marriage amongst them. In numbers they do not in- 
crease, and, if any thing, diminish. The community, like 
all of the same kind in the State, is noted for its wandering 
propensities, some or other of its members being almost con- 
tinually on the stroll around Ledyard and the neighboring 
townships. From a fellow-feeling, therefore, they are ex- 
tremely hospitable to all vagabonds, receiving without 
hesitation all that come to them, whether white, mulatto, or 
negro." 

When we arrive at Long Island, we reach another point 
of miscegenation. Speaking of East-Hampton Town, Mr. 
William Wallace Tooker says, 1 " In regard to the degen- 
erated remnant of the [Moutauk] tribe uow residing within 
the limits of the township, recognized by their characteristic 
aboriginal features, mixe£ with negro, we would say that 
they have no knowledge of their native language, traditions, 
or customs, all have been lost or forgotten, years ago." Of 
the Shinnacooks, Professor A. S. Gatschet remarks,* 4< The 
Shinnacook Indians are a tribe living on the southern shore 
of Long Island, New York State, where they have a reserva- 
tion upon a peninsula projecting into Shinnacook Bay. 
There are 150 individuals now going under this name, but 
they are nearly all mixed with negro blood, dating from the 
times of slavery in the Northern States." 

Proceeding along the Atlantic coast southward, we reach 
the region of the Chesapeake before we again meet with defi- 
nite traces of negro-Indian intermixture. A very interesting 
discovery of Dr. Brin ton's * belongs here. In a manuscript 
of Pyrlaeus, the missionary to the Mokawks, dating from 
1780, are given the numerals 1-10 in a language styled 
"Nanticoke." Dr. Brinton, noticing the un-American and 
non-Algonquian aspect of these words, was led to the conclu- 
sion that "Pyrlaeus . . . had met a runaway slave among 
the Nanticokes, and through him, or through some half-Indian 
half-negro, bad obtained a vocabulary of some African dialect." 

1 Indian PI ace- Name 8 In East-Hampton Town, with their Probable Signifi- 
cations (8ag Harbor, 1889), p. iv. 

* American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, November, 1889, p. 890. 

* "On Certain Supposed Nantiooke Words shown to be African " (American 
Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, 1887, pp. 890-854, especially 862). In the table 
given above there have been added for further comparison the Mallnke nu- 
merals as given by Dr. Tautin in the Revue de Linguistique et de Philologie 
Comparee, vol. xz. (1887), p. 141. 



The correctness of this conclusion is seen at a* glance from 
the comparative table of the pseudo-Nanticoke and the Man- 
dingo of Muller given by Dr. Brinton : — 





Psbudo- 


Mandinoo 


Malinkk 


English. 


Nantiookb. 


(Muller). 


(Tautut). 


One 


Killi 


Kilin 


Kili 


Two 


Filli 


Fnla 


Fula (Fillo, Soninkt) 


Three 


Sapo 


Sabba 


Saba 


Four 


Nano 


Nani 


Nani 


Five 


Turo ' 


Dulu, Lulu 


Loulou, Doulou 


Six 


Woro 


Woro 


Ouoro, Ouaro 


Seven 


Wollango 


Worong-wula 


Ouloufiga 


Eight 


Secki 


Segai 


Seghi, Saghi 


Nine 


Collengo 


Konanta 


Kononto 


Ten 


Ta 


Tang 


Tafi 



This curious fact that Dr. Brinton has brought to light 
may perhaps be paralleled by others yet to be discovered in 
the future, when the whole history of the origin of the vari- 
ous tribes of African immigrants into America comes to be 
written. 

With regard to Virginia, we have the evidence of Peter 
Kalm, 1 as follows: " In the year 1620, some negroes were 
brought to North America in a Dutch ship, and in Virginia 
they bought twenty of them. These are said to have been 
the first that came hither. When the Indians, who were 
then more numerous in the country than at present, saw 
these black people for the first time, they thought they were 
a true breed of devils, and therefore they called them Manitto 
for a great while, the word in their language signifying not 
only ( god,' but also 'devil.' . . . But since that time they have 
entertained less disagreeable notions of the negroes, for at 
present many live among them, and they even sometimes 
intermarry, as I myself have seen." 

Thomas Jefferson, iq. his " Notes on the State of Virginia,"* 
says of the Mattapony Indians of that State, " There remains 
of the Mattaponies three or four men only, and have more 
negro than Indian blood in them." 

Mr. G. A. Townsend* observes, concerning the Indians 
of the Chesapeake Peninsula, "In this [Dorchester] county, 
at Indian Creek, some of the last Indians of the peninsula 
struck their wigwams towards the close of the last century, 
and there are now no full-blooded aborigines on the Eastern 
shore, although many of the free-born negroes show Indian 
traces." 

Enslavement of negroes by Indians (especially Cherokees) 
appears to have taken place in several of the South Atlantic 
States, and it is not unlikely that considerable miscegenation 
there occurred. Mr. McDonald Furman, 4 in a note, on 
"Negro Slavery among the South Carolina Indians," notes 
the mention, in the South Carolina Gfazette, in the year 
1748, of a " negro fellow " who had been sold by his former 
master to the Pedee Indians, from whom he was afterwards 
taken by the Catawbas ; and in endeavoring to escape from 
the latter he was lost in the woods. This fact is of value in 
connection with the discovery of Dr. Brinton, referred to 
above. 

In Hancock County, Tenn., there are to be found a pecul- 
iar people, who formerly resided in North Carolina. Ac- 
cording to Dr. Burnett, 5 the current belief regarding them is 
that " they were a mixture of the white, Iudian, and negro; " 
but nothing certain appears to be known about them. They 

» In Pinkerton, vol. xlil. p. 602. 
' Ed. Philadelphia, 1825, p. 180. 
« Soribner's Magazine, 1871-72, p. 518. 

* American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, vol. xii. p. 177: see also Wkst„ 
Status of the Negro in Virginia during the Colonial Period (1890), p. 88. 

* See "A Note on the Melungeens " (American Anthropologist, vol. ii. pp» 
847-849). 



88 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 419 



bear the curiotts name of " Melungeons," which, Dr. Burnett 
suggests, is a corruption of the French melange (" mixed "). 

Figuring prominently as holders of negro slaves, we find 
the Seminoles of Florida. To cite a single instance : we 
learn that Mick-e- no-pah, a chief of the Seminoles, who took 
part in the war of 1835, and whose portrait was painted by 
Catlin, owned no fewer than one hundred negroes, and 
raised large crops of corn and cotton. From Cohen 1 we 
gather the following additional information : "The Hop 
governor ' has two wives, one a very pretty squaw, and the 
other a half-breed negress. She is the ugliest of all women, 
and recalls the image of Bombie of the Frizzled Head in 
Paulding's Koning's works." 

William Kennedy, in his " History of Texas," * says regard- 
ing the enslavement of negroes by these Indians, "The 
possession of negroes, by rendering the Indians idle and de- 
pendent on slave-labor, has confirmed the defects of their 
character. The Seminole negroes mostly live separate from 
their masters, and manage their cattle and crops as they 
please, giving them a share of the produce. Williams, in 
his account of Florida, mentions the existence of a law 
among the Seminoles prohibiting individuals from selling 
their negroes to white people, any attempt to evade which 
has always raised great commotions amongst them. The 
State of Georgia claimed $250,000 of the Creek Indians for 
runaway slaves. Under cover of these claims, says Wil- 
liams, many negroes have been removed from their Indian 
owners by force or fraud. The slaves prefer the com- 
paratively indolent life of the Indian settlements to the sugar 
and cotton fields of the planter, and the Indian slave-holders 
are quite satisfied if they are enabled to live without special 
toil." In the account of Major Long's expedition,* we read, 
concerning the Cherokee settlement at Rocky Bayou, u Our 
host, a Metiff chief known as Tom Graves, and his wife of 
aboriginal race, were at table with us, and several slaves of 
African descent were in waiting. The Cherokees are said to 
treat their slaves with much lenity." 

Marcy * informs us that " within the past few years the 
Comanches have, for what reason I could not learn, taken 
an inveterate dislike to the negroes, and have massacred 
several small parties of these who attempted to escape from 
the Seminoles and cross the plains for the purpose of joining 
Wild Cat upon the Rio Grande." That the ill feeling was 
not always upon the side of the Indians, we see from Zeis- 
berger's "Diary" (vol. ii. p. 142), where we learn that two 
negroes who went from Detroit through the bush killed five 
Wyandottes whom they came across there. 

A mass of information regarding the Seminoles of Florida 
is to be found in the excellent report of the Rev. Clay 
McCauley, 5 to the Bureau of Ethnology. From this we 
learn that at that time there were among these Indians three 
negroes and seven persons of mixed race, distributed as fol- 
lows: • at Big Cypress settlement, one male of mixed race be- 
tween five and ten years of age, and one black female over 
twenty ; at Fish-Eating Creek, one male of mixed race under 
five years of age, one between ten and fifteen, one over 
twenty, one female of mixed race over twenty, and one 

1 " Notes of Florida " (see Report of Smithsonian Institution, 1886, Part 
U. p. 215). 

* William Kknnkdy, Texas, The Rise, Progress, and Prospects of the Re- 
public of Texas (London, 1841), vol. i. p. 860. 

1 An Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, 
etc., compiled by Ed. James (1823), vol. 11. p. 287. 

4 Maboy and MoClbllan, Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana (1858), 
p. 101. 

* " The Seminole Indians of Florida " (Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau 
of Ethnology, 1888-44, Washington, 1887, pp. 459-581). 

* Loo. cit., p. 478. 



black female over twenty ; at Catfish Lake, one male and 
one female of mixed race over twenty years of age, and one 
black female over twenty. At the Cow Creek and Miami 
River settlements there appear to be neither negroes nor 
half-breeds. As regards sex, the numbers are, mixed, fe- 
males two, males five ; black, females three, males none. 
The only half-breeds are " children of Indian fathers byne- 
resses who have been adopted into the tribe; for, according 
to Mr. McCauley, the birth of a white half-breed would be 
followed by the death of the Indian mother at the hands of 
her own people. 11 Mr. McCauley states that he found noth- 
ing to indicate that slavery exists among the Seminoles, 
" the n egresses living apparently on terms of perfect equal- 
ity." l He further expresses the opinion, t4 The Florida 
Seminoles, I think, rather offered a place of refuge for fugi- 
tive bondsmen, and gradually made them members of their 
tribe." 1 An interesting account is given of Me-Le, a half- 
l^reed Seminole, "son of an Indian, Ho-laq-to mik-ko, by a 
negress, adopted into the tribe when a child." It is stated 
that he favors the white man's ways, and is progressive. 
Particularly noticeable was " his uncropped head of luxuri- 
ant, curly hair," an exception to the " singular cut of hair 
peculiar to the Seminole men." 1 He notes also at the Big 
Cypress Swamp a small half-breed whose " brilliant wool 
was twisted into many little sharp cones, which stuck out 
over his head like so many spikes on an ancient battle-club." * 
The only exception to the usual hair-dressing of females of 
the tribe was found in the manner " in which Ci-ha-ne, a 
negress, had disposed of her long crisp tresses. Hers was a 
veritable Medusa head. A score or more of dangling snaky 
plaits, hanging down over her black face and shoulders, 
gave her a most repulsive appearance." ' 

Another article dealing with the Seminoles of Florida is 
that of Mr. Kirk Munroe, 4 in a recent number of Scribner > 8 
Magazine, From it we learn, that, "should a Seminole 
maiden unwisely bestow her affections upon any man out- 
side her tribe, her life would be forfeited." Mr. Munroe 
states that " there are no half-breeds among the Florida 
Seminoles," ° but notes, however, a, case in which a Seminole 
" took as his wife a comely negro woman, who was captured 
by the Indians during the Seminole war; but their children 
are so far from being regarded as equals by other members 
of the tribe, that no full-blooded Indian will break bread with 
them. There are two young men in % this family ; and, 
should a young full-blood of their own age visit their camp, 
he will eat with the father, but the young half-breeds must 
wait until he is through." * Mr. Munroe states also that he 
took particular pains to discover whether the statement that 
" the Florida Seminoles were more than half of negro blood " 
were true or not, but failed to obtain any evidence in sup- 
port of such an assertion. He further adds, " I have never 
seen a slave, nor yet a free negro, in any of the camps that 
I visited, and I have passed weeks at a time in company 
with these Indians."* 

Mr. Munroe asked a young Seminole about the negroes, 
with the following result : "he looked at me steadily for a 
moment, without answering, and then holding up one 
finger, then a second, a third, and a fourth, he said, ' iste- 
hatke ' (* white-man '), ' iste-chatte ' ( c red-man '), * epah ' 

» " The Seminole Indians of Florida " (Fifth Anuual Report of the Bureau 
of Ethnology, 1888-84, Washington, 1887, p. 586). 

* Loo. cit., p. 490. 
1 Loc. cit., p. 487. 

* Kirk Munrok, "A Forgotten Remnant " (Soribner's Magazine, vol. yil. 
1890, pp. 808-817). 

• Loo. cit., p. 806 

• Loo. cit., p. 807 



February 13, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



89 



(' dog '), with a decided emphasis, and ' iste-lustee ' (' black- 
man '). There was certainly no need to question him further 
upon the subject." l 

Amongst several of the Indian tribes now resident in the 
Indian Territory, negro slavery existed ; but many adoptions 
have taken place, although the question does not even now 
appear to be quite settled. Mr. George A. Reynolds states, * 
41 When the war ended, they [Seminoles] were destitute, and 
scattered /rom the Bed River to Kansas. Again they sought 
the protection of the government. They formed new 
treaties ; they complied with all the conditions imposed upon 
them ; they adopted their former slaves, and made them 
citizens of their country, with equal rights in the soil and 
annuities. Their negroes hold office and sit in their coun- 
cils." Mr. L. N. Robinson,* writing in August, 1869, calls 
attention to the failure of the Choctaw and Chickasaw 
nations to provide for the adoption (within the time speci- 
fied) of " persons of African descent residing amongst them," 
as required by a section of the treaty of 1866, and points out 
that certain " difficulties in the Creek nation are to some ex- 
tent attributable to the presence of the black element, and 
the agitation of questions growing out of their presence and 
participation in tribal affairs." He further remarks, " Under 
the Cherokee treaty, the separation of families, parent and 
child, husband and wife, is as complete, as cruel, and in- 
human, as was ever the case worked under the system of 
slavery. The situation of the blacks within the Indian 
tribes taken as a class is a reproach to our boasted civil- 
ization and love of justice, which is inexcusable so long as 
the plan of colonization remains untried." 

From the report for 1869, 4 we learn that " one peculiar 
difference exists between negro and Indian in the Five 
Nations [i.e., Cherokee, etc.]; i.e., intermarriage with Indian 
gives a United States citizen, male or female, rights, but in- 
termarriage with negro does not." Some interesting infor- 
mation is contained in the report of Mr. Robert Owen to the 
commissioner of Indian affairs in 1888,* regarding the ab- 
origines resident in the Indian territory. He says, "There 
are many negroes, former slaves to Indians ; and among 
the Creeks is some negro miscegenation, though much exag- 
gerated in reports on that subject. There are numbers of 
adopted citizens, — whites, other Indians, and negroes." In 
the Cherokee nation it appears that the 2,400 negroes, along 
with the other adopted citizens, have been denied the right 
to participation in public annuities. Among the Choc taws, 
negroes have been adopted and " given a pro rata of schools, 
t right of suffrage, and citizenship, as provided by treaty." 
Similar is the condition of the negroes of the Creek nation. 
Of the blacks among the Chickasaws, Mr. Owen says, 
" They are still in the forlorn status, as stated in my last re- 
port. The Chickasaws are firmly resolved never to receive 
them. It is the palpable duty of the government to remove 
them." 

In the Bermudas some miscegenation has taken place. 
About 1616 we find it recorded that a vessel arrived there 
which " brought with her also one Indian and a negro (the 
first these islands ever had)." After the utter defeat of the 
Indians in the Pequot war, numbers of them were trans- 
ported to the Bermudas from Massachusetts, and amalga- 

1 Kirk Munroe, " A Forgotten Remnant " (Scribner's Magazine, vol. ril. 
1890, p. 807). 

* Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1809 (Washington, 1870), p. 417. 
» Ibid., p. 899. 

* See p. 188; also Smithsonian Report, 1886, part ii. part v. p. 225. 

* Fifty-seventh Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1888, p. 181. 

* Sir J. H. Lbfrot, The History of the Bermudas or Summer Islands (ed. 
for Hakluyt Society, 1882), p. 84. 



mation of these with the negroes has to a certain extent 
occurred. Professor H. C Bolton, in an interesting article 
on the Bermudian negroes, in the Journal of American 
Folk Lore, 1 makes the following statement : " The colored 
population of Bermuda have, in general, attained a higher 
stage of development, and made greater progress in civil- 
ization, than their kindred in the southern United States. 
This is probably due in part to close contact (not amalga- 
mation) with their Anglo-Saxon masters on these isolated 
islands, and in part to the admixture of Indian blood in 
their ancestors. Between the years 1630 and 1660 many negro 
and Indian slaves were brought into the British colony, — 
the negroes from Africa and the West Indies, and a large 
number of red-skins from Massachusetts, prisoners taken in 
the Pequot and King Philip's wars. Many of the colored 
people show in their physiognomy the influence of the Indian 
type. Moreover, slavery was abolished in 1834, Bermuda 
being the first colony to advocate immediate rather than 
gradual emancipation; but the importation of negroes from 
Africa had ceased long before, so the type resulting from 
the mixed races continued to dominate. The faces of many 
of the dark-skinned natives are really fine ; their lips being 
thinner, noses sharper, cheek-bones less obtrusive, and their 
facial angle larger, than those of most negroes in the South- 
ern States." 

In Neill's " History of Minnesota,"* there is the follow- 
ing interesting passage, the facts to which it relates belong- 
ing to the year 1819 : " Three miles above the mouth of the 
St. Louis River they came to an Ojebwa village of 14 lodges. 
Among the residents were the children of an African by the 
name of Bungo, the servant of a British officer who once 
commanded at Mackinaw. Their hair was curled and skin 
glossy, and their features altogether African." 

A subject to which some attention has recently been de- 
voted is the relation of the folk-lore of the negro to that of 
the Indian. This has been discussed at considerable length 
by Professor T. F. Crane, in his excellent review of " Uncle 
Remus," 3 and we need but to cite his conclusion : " We are 
now prepared to consider briefly these stories, which are 
substantially the same in Brazil and in the Southern States. 
That the negroes of the United States obtained these stories 
from the South American Indians is an hypothesis no one 
would think of maintaining; but that the Indians heard 
these stories from the African slaves in Brazil, and that the 
latter, as well as those who were formerly slaves in the 
United States, brought these stories with them from Africa, 
is, we think, beyond a doubt, the explanation of the resem- 
blances we have noted." Besides u Uncle Remus," Jones's, 4 
and Gordon's and Page's, 5 contributions to negro literature 
may be studied to advantage. It is possible that a few of 
tl^e negro stories were borrowed by the blacks from the red 
men. Such was the opinion of Major Powell. 6 Mr. James 
Mooney says of certain myths of the Cherokees, 1 " They re- 
semble the * Uncle Remus ' stories, which I yet hope to 
prove are of Indian origin." 

In the present paper no attempt has been made to exhaust 
the subject. South America and the West Indies have been 
left untouched. To make the study of the contact of the 

» Vol. iii. p. 222. 

* B. D. Null, History of Minnesota (Philadelphia, 1858), p. 822. 

1 " Plantation Folk-Lore " (Popular Science Monthly, vol. xviii. 1881, pp. 
824-838) ; see also C. F. Hartty Amazonian Tortoise Myths (1875) ; Herbert 
Smith, Brazil, The Amazons, and The Coast ; and the other literature cited by 
Professor Crane. 

* Negro Myths of the Oeorgia Coast, 1888. 

6 Befo ' de War. Echoes in Negro Dialect, 1888. 

* J. C. Harris, Uncle Remus, Preface, p. 4. 

7 Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. i. p. 106. 



9Q 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 419 



African and the American as complete as possible, it is 
highly desirable that attention should be paid to the obtain- 
ing of information regarding (1) the results of the intermar- 
riage of Indian and negro, the physiology of the offspring of 
such unions; (2) the social status of the negro among the 
various Indian tribes, the Indian as a slave-holder, the 
opinion the negro has of the Indian; (8) the influence of 
the Indian upon negro, and of the negro upon Indian, 
mythology and folk-lore. 

While there seems little probability of data existing, to 
any great extent, regarding the linguistic relations of the 
Indian and the negro, it is reasonable to expect that much 
relating to their physical anthropology, their social condi- 
tions, and their folk-lore, may yet be made known. 



HEALTH MATTERS. 

Bone Grafting. 

Mr. A. G. Miller, in the Lancet for Sept. 20, reports the history 
of a case in which he used decalcified-bone chips successfully to 
fill up a large cavity in the head of the tibia. In the New York 
Medical Journal it is stated that a piece of the rib of an ox was 
used, being first scraped and then decalcified in a weak solution 
of hydrochloric acid. After cleansing by pressure, it was placed 
for forty-eight hours in a carbolic- acid solution, one to twenty, 
then removed, and cut into small pieces. During the scraping-out 
of the cavity in the knee, preparatory to the grafting, a number 
of small pieces of bone were removed. These were plaeed in a 
solution of boric acid for use later in the operation. The cavity 
was then stuffed with the decalcified-bone shavings, the pieces of 
fresh bone being added last. The cavity thus filled was about two 
inches in diameter. Granulation and healing took place rapidly : 
the only pieces of bone that became necrosed were from the 
patient's own body. Mr. Miller is convinced, from his observation 
of this case, that the healing of large bone cavities, the result of 
injury or disease, is greatly facilitated by stuffing them with de- 
calcified-bone chips; that these are superior to fresh bone; and 
that fresh bone not only is of no use, but actually hinders the 
process of granulation. 

Recent Saving of Life in Michigan. 

In a carefully prepared paper read before the Sanitary Conven- 
tion at Vicksburg, the proceedings of which are published, Dr. 
Baker gave official statistics and evidence, which he summarized 
as follows : — 

"The record of the great saving of human life and health in 
Michigan in recent years is one to which, it seems to me, the State 
and local boards of health in Michigan can justly 'point with 
pride.' It is a record of the saving of over one hundred lives per 
year from small-pox, four hundred lives per year saved from death 
by scarlet-fever, and nearly six hundred lives per year saved from 
death by diphtheria, — an aggregate of eleven hundred lives per 
year, or three lives per day, eaved from these three diseases. This 
is a record which we ask to have examined, and which we are 
willipg to have compared with that of the man who ' made two 
blades of grass grow where only one grew before. 1 " 

To relieve an Overworked Brain. 

A Swiss doctor says that many persons who extend their mental 
work well into the night, who during the evening follow atten- 
tively the programme of a theatre or concert, or who engage 
evenings in the proceedings of societies or clubs, are awaked in 
the morning or in the night with headache (The Sanitary In- 
spector). He is particular to say that he does not refer to that 
headache which our Teutonic brethren designate Kdtzenjammen, 
that follows certain convivial indulgences. This headache affects 
many persons who are quite well otherwise, and is due in part to 
the previous excessive work of the brain, whereby an abnormal 
flow of blood to that organ is caused, in part to other causes, for 
example, too great heat of rooms, contamination of the air with 



carbonic acid, exhalations from human bodies, and tobacco- 
smoke. 

For a long while the doctor was himself a sufferer from head- 
ache of this kind, but of late years has wholly protected himself 
from it by simple means. When he is obliged to continue his 
brain work into the evening, or to be out late nights in rooms not 
well ventilated, instead of going directly to bed, he takes a brisk 
walk for half an hour or an hour. While taking this tramp he 
stops now and then and practises lung gymnastics by breathing 
in and out deeoly a few times. When he then goes to bed, he 
sleeps soundly. Notwithstanding the shortening of the hours of 
sleep, he awakes with no trace of headache. There exists a clear 
and well-known physiological reason why this treatment should 
be effective. 

NOTES AND NEWS. 

The Lecture Association of the University of Pennsylvania 
announces a special course of illustrated public lectures by Mr. 
Barr Ferree of New York, on Feb. 12, 17, and 19, on "The In- 
fluence of Christianity on the Development of Architecture/' 
These lectures, which will be three in number, will treat of (1) the 
basilica, the formative period of Christian architecture; (2) the 
cathedral, tbe perfected form of Christian architecture; and (8) 
the monastic orders, the greatest Christian builders. 

— The Snow-Shoe Section of the Appalachian Mountain Club, 
Boston, has arranged a winter excursion to Waterville, N.H., to 
which members of the club and their friends are invited. The 
main party will leave Boston, Monday, Feb. 16, by the nine o'clock 
train from the Lowell Station. Others will leave Boston Thursday 
evening, spend the night at Plymouth, and join the party at 
Waterville Friday morning. The return will be on Monday or 
Tuesday, Feb. 23 or 24. The expense will not exceed $15. Com- 
fortable rooms with stoves will be provided. 

— It is announced in the January "Proceedings of the Royal 
Geographical Society " that a competent observer, Mr. J. T. Bent, 
the explorer of Phoenician remains in the Bahrein Islands, has 
decided on undertaking an expedition to the mysterious ruins of 
Zimbabye or Zimbaoe, in Mashonaland, and other remains in the 
interior of South Africa, with the object of thoroughly examining 
the structures and the country in their neighborhood. The expe- 
dition has the active co-operation of the British East Africa Com- 
pany and the Royal Geographical Society, and will be well 
equipped for geographical as well as archaeological survey. It 
was to leave England at the end of last month. 

— Mr. Robert Athelston Marr has resigned his position as 
assistant in the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, to ac- 
cept the professorship of civil engineering in the Virginia Military 
Institute. Mr. Marr was born in Tennessee in 1856, was gradu- 
ated at the Virginia Military Institute, entered the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey in 1378, and since then has served with distinc- 
tion in the triangulation and astronomical parties both on this 
coast and in California and Alaska. The coast survey service has 
lost an energetic and capable officer, and, while his colleagues 
will miss him, they wish him every success in his new duties. 
The vacancy caused by Mr. Marr's resignation has been filled by 
the promotion of Sub- Assistant Isaac Winston to the grade of 
assistant. Mr. Winston has for several years past had charge of 
one of the geodetic levelling parries of the survey. 

— Among recent appointments of Johns Hopkins men, we note 
that of Felix Lengfeld (fellow 1887-88, Ph.D. 1888) as professor 
of chemistry and assaying in the South Dakota School of Mines; 
C. W. Erail Miller (A.B. 1882, fellow 1883-85, Ph.D. 1886) as 
professor of languages, Walther College, St. Louis, Mo. ; Augustus 
T. Murray (fellow 1887-88, Ph.D. 1890) as Professor of Greek, 
Colorado College; Charles L. Smith (fellow 1887-88, Ph.D. 1889, 
instructor 1889-91) as professor of history, William Jewell College, 
Missouri; Edward L. Stevenson (graduate student 1887-88) as 
instructor in history, Rutgers College; Amos G. Warner (fellow 
1886-87, Ph.D. 1888) as general superintendent of charities in the 
District of Columbia, as provided by the recent congressional 
appropriation for the district; and William K. Williams (Ph.D. 



February 13, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



91 



1889) as superintendent of classification and distribution in the 
Newberry Library, Chicago. Albert Sbaw (Ph.D. 1884) has be- 
come the American editor of the Review of Reviews. 

— M. Em. Deschamps transmitted from Mahe, on the Malabar 
coast, some interesting information respecting the Veddas, de- 
scendants of the first- known inhabitants of Ceylon. He says, 
according to the " Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society," 
that they are probably tbe "Yakkas," or " demons," of whom the 
ancient works and legends speak, — an appellation derived from 
their demoniacal cult, and which was- probably changed by the 
first conquerors of the island into that of u Veddas" (" hunters "). 
They inhabit a belt of forests lying on tbe eastern confines of the 

: central province. As a race, they are rapidly disappearing, and 
now number only two hundred or three hundred. Their villages 
lie several miles apart, and consist of one or two huts, formed of 
the branches and bark of trees. Some, when the rains come on, 
find shelter in the rocks, and have received the name of "Galla- 
Veddas." Their weapons, consisting of bow, arrows, and hatchet, 
are their principal goods. They are great hunters. The Veddas 
never speak unless absolutely obliged, and Mo not know how to 
laugh. Their manner of speech is brusque, and their language is 
very poor, being deficient in whole series of words, i.e.. trees, 
plants, colors, etc. Although living in the midst of a population 
which is at once poly gam us and polyandrous, they remain monog- 
amists. The baptism of children is the only ceremony to which 
they attach great importance. They have no chief or social 
organization. Their religion consists in fear of the demons, of 
which the jungle is supposed to be full. The dead are now buried 
in the forest. Not long ago it was the practice to simply abandon 
the corpses. The Vedda never betrays any sentiments: anger 
astonishes, and laughter exasperates him. Dancing is his favorite 
occupation. Doctors and medicines are unknown. The people 
meet to dance away the devil of a sick man. The men are rather 
small, strongly built; their lower limbs badly made, and not well 
proportioned; hair black and coarse; ejes black and sparkling, 
with a fierce look; forehead straight and broad; nose broad; the 
general appearance of tbe countenance not disagreeable ; their body 
is maroon in color, and is repulsively dirty. The women are 
small, and possess few of tbe attractions of their sex. Their cloth- 
ing, like that of the men, is of the scantiest. 

— At a meeting of the Geographical Society of Paris held on 
Nov. 7, 1890, M. Cbolet, the administrator of Brazzaville, gave 
some account of his recent ascent of the Sangha, an important and 
hitherto practically unexplored tributary of the Kongo. The 
Sangha enters the Kongo at Bonga, a French station between the 
embouchures of the Alima and Mobangi. The " Proceedings of 
the Royal Geographical Society " (Jan.) states that the traveller, 
who was accompanied by M. Pot tier, quitted Brazzaville in the 
little steamer " Ballay " on the 19th of February, and on the 80th 
of March commenced their voyage up the Sangha. The river 
varies in breadth from 1,000 yards to a mile and a half. Its 
course is encumbered with islands and sand-banks, the latter, when 
the waters are low, swarming with hippopotamuses. In the lower 
course the river-banks are low and marshy. The villages lie far 
from the stream, and are inhabited by tbe Afurus, a commercial 
people, who bring ivory from the Upper Sangha down to Bonga. 
The middle course is inhabited by the Busindes, whose villages' 
are situated on the banks, which are more elevated here. The 
upper part of the river, up to the point reached by the party, is 
inhabited by the Bassangas, a rich and powerful tribe, whose vil- 
lages are built on islands. At tbe village of Uoso the Sangha 
receives an important affluent, the N'goko. and itself takes the 
name of Masa. The latter arm is over 2,000 yards broad, but the 
sand-ban ks prevented an ascent being made for any considerable 
distance. The N'goko has, on the other hand, a narrow bed, never 
exceeding in breadth 220 yards. High wooded mountains lie on 
both sides of the stream. Elephants abound in this region. The 
people live at a distance from the river. A few miles above Uoso 
the N'goko receives a tributary, the Mangango (100 yards broad), 
and changes its name to Monba. Beyond this point tbe country 
seems quite uninhabited. Navigation becoming difficult and pro- 
visions failing, the return voyage was commenced on the 15th of 



May, and Bonga was reached on the feist of May. The natives 
were friendly after their first fears had been overcome. They 
have no relations with the people of the Mobangi, and are not 
cannibals. Judging by their weapons, language, and dances, they 
seem to resemble the Pahuins and the Ud umbos. The country is 
rich in ivory. India-rubber was also found. t 

— It is with much pleasure that Science reprints the following 
extract from the Congressional Record of Feb. 6, 1891, on the con- 
sideration of the 8undry Civil Appropriation Bill in Committee of 
the Whole House, Feb. 5, 1891 : " Mr. Cannon. Mr. Chairman,— I 
desire, if I can have the attention of the gentleman from Texas 
[Mr. Sayers], to state that the next eleven pages of this bill cover 
items of appropriation for the Coast Survey. They are about the 
same as in the current year, with the exception of an increase of 
about $18,000 for printing charts, etc., found to be absolutely 
necessary. Last year and this year the Committee on Appropria- 
tions gave a most exhaustive examination of this service, and I 
believe the committee is unanimously of the opinion that it is 
conducted in as economical, praiseworthy, and profitable a man- 
ner for the benefit of the government as any part of the public 
service; and that substantially, if not literally, we have given the 
amount that is estimated for. For tbe purpose of saving time, I 
ask the committee, with the approval of the gentleman from 
Texas, that we may pass over the Coast-Survey items." Such a 
speech is seldom made concerning a bureau of one of our depart- 
ments, on the floor of our legislative halls ; and it must be very 
gratifying to the superintendent, and to his subordinates, who 
several years ago felt that they were subjected to much criticism 
which was unjust. Recognition of this character serves to stimu- 
late the zeal of those engaged in scientific pursuits as well as in 
other walks of life. 

— The El Diario, July 8, of Buenos Ayres announces the return 
of M. Storm's expedition from the Pilcomayo, after an absence of 
over five months. Like other expeditions into this region, as 
quoted in the January " Proceedings of the Royal Geographical 
Society," the party encountered great difficulties, but escaped 
without loss of life. The river was navigated in the steamer for 
a long distance, and numerous obstacles were surmounted, but at 
last the leaders, with a few men, had to take to their canoes. Not- 
withstanding the hostility of the Indians, the party pushed on to 
the Bolivian frontier, and explored a large part of this little-known 
region. They have brought back important zoological and botani- 
cal collections. There seems to be no doubt that the western arm 
of tbe river is the true Pilcomayo. 

— Further news of Capt. Page's unfortunate expedition up the 
Pilcomayo has been received by the Royal Geographical Society, 
London, in a letter from Mr. J. Graham Kerr, one of the English 
members of the party, who wrote from latitude 24° 58', longitude 
58° 40', on the 4th of October last. He says that the expedition 
started with provisions for six months, and that they had then 
been* nine months on the way, and were in a starving condition. 
Fortunately, however, they had been able to kill a good many 
deer. The relief party of twenty soldiers, sent up by the govern- 
ment, arrived on Oct. 4. The river Pilcomayo, he says, at that 
season is a mere brook, a few feet wide and only a few inches 
deep. Even in the season of higher water, when they ascended 
it, navigation was very difficult, owing to the shallowness and 
the numerous snags and tree-trunks that encumbered the passage. 
In April they resorted to the laborious method of constructing 
dams below the steamer, and waiting till the water rose to a 
sufficient height to move ahead for a short distance. They 
reached the position from which Mr. Kerr wrote, on June 14. 
Capt. Page died on his way down to obtain succor with three men 
in the only remaining boat. The remainder of tbe party, left to 
their own resources, were in daily fear of an attack from the 
hostile Indians of tbe Chaco; but, though watched continually, 
they received only one visit from them, on Sept. 18, and that 
passed off in a friendly manner. At the time of writing, prepa- 
rations were being made for retreat down the river in tbe boat 
which brought up the relief party. If the boat should prove use- 
less, they intended to burn it and march to the Paraguay, a 
journey of two months or thereabouts. 



92 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XVII. No. 419 



SCIENCE: 



A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 



PUBLISHED BY 



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Communications will be welcomed from any quarter. Abstracts of scientific 
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returned to the authors only when the requisite amount of postage accom- 
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Attention is called to the "Wants" column. All are invited to use it in 
soliciting information or seeking new positions. The name and address' of 
applicants should be given in full, so that answers will go direct to them. The 
" Exchange " oolumn is likewise open. 

BROWN ROT IN GRAPES. 

In a bulletin soon to be issued by the Ohio Experiment Station, 
Dr. C. M. Weed gives the following account of the downy mildew, 
or brown rot, of grapes : — 

For many years the vineyardists of the great fruit belt in northern 
Ohio along the southern shore of Lake Erie have been troubled by 
a disease affecting the foliage and fruit of the grape, called 
"downy mildew," or "brown rot." At times this disease has 
ruined nearly the entire crop, and has threatened to destroy the 
vineyard industry over a large area. Fortunately, however, this 
disaster has been averted by the discovery of a method by which 
the disease can be largely or entirely prevented at comparatively 
slight expense. 

The downy mildew, or brown rot, of grapes is a fungous disease; 
that is, it is a diseased condition of the foliage or fruit, due to the 
presence of a fungus. This fungus is a minute parasitic plant 
that develops at the expense of the tissues of the grape, thus caus- 
ing blighting of the leaf, and decay of the fruit. It is distributed 
over nearly the entire eastern half of the United States, and oc- 
curs upon both the wild and cultivated varieties of grapes. It 
probably lived upon the former before the introduction of the 
latter. It attacks ail the green parts of the vine, including the 
young shoots, as well as the leaves and berries, and, like other 
fungi, reproduces by means of spores, — minute bodies correspond- 
ing in function to the seeds of flowering plants. 

When one of these spores fall9 upon a leaf where there is 
sufficient moisture, it germinates by sending out a little tube, — 
something as a kernel of corn in moist soil sends out its germinat- 
ing radicle, — and this tube penetrates the epidermis, or skin, of 
the leaf. Once inside, the tube continues to grow, pushing about 
between the cells of the leaf, and forming what is called the 
mycelium or vegetative portion of the fungus, which may be 
likened to the roots of higher plants. As there is little nourish- 
ment to be obtained between the celU, this mycelium develops 
minute processes, which push through the cell walls and absorb 
the contents. 

After this mycelium has developed in the leaf for some time, it 
is ready to produce its spores. Consequently it sends out through 
the breathing-pores, or stomata, of the leaf, its fruiting branches. 
These bear upon their tips small oval bodies, which are the spores. 
The " mildew," which is visible to the naked eye, is composed of 
these fruiting branches and their spores. It only develops under 
certain atmospheric conditions, so that the mycelium may exist 
in the affected parts of the vine for some time before this out- 
ward manifestation of its presence occurs. This is the reason 



that a vineyard may apparently be "struck" with mildew in a 
single night. 

Besides the spores above described, which are produced during 
the summer season, and consequently are called summer spores, 
there is developed in the fall a different class of spores by which 
the fungus passes through the winter. Hence these latter are 
called the winter spores. 

A knowledge of the method of development of the fungus 
makes it evident that it cannot be reached after it has penetrated 
its host. Consequently remedial treatment must be limited to 
destroying the spores, and preventing their ingress to the tissues 
of the plant. The experience of the last few years has shown that 
this can be successfully accomplished by spraying the vines with 
dilute solutions of certain salts of copper, particularly sulphate of 
copper, or blue vitriol. 

Experiments with these copper compounds as preventives 
of the several fungous diseases of the grape have been in 
progress in France for a number of years, and have been attended 
with remarkably successful results. The subject was taken up in 
America about the middle of the last decade, and wonderful 
progress has since been made. The Ohio station feels largely in- 
debted to the United States Department of Agriculture for the 
results obtained, especially to Messrs. Scribner, and Galloway, who 
have had the work in charge. In Ohio the first experiments 
were apparently made by Mr. George M. High, of Ottawa County, 
who for the last five years has tested the remedies thoroughly, 
and has triumphed over the unprogressive growers who were con- 
tent to let the disease destroy their crops rather than try any new- 
fangled methods of checking it. 



THE NAME "AMERICA." 



At the eighth international congress of Americanists, which 
was held in Paris from Oct. 14 to Oct. 20, 1890, only a certain 
number of the questions treated were of interest from a geograph- 
ical point of view. Among these may be mentioned the discussion 
on the origin of the name " America," which was opened by M. 
Jules Marcou, who asserted, as we learn from the '• Proceedings 
of the Royal Geographical Society," London, that the name 
44 America '* was derived from a range of mountains in Central 
America, which, in the language of the natives, is called "Amer- 
ique;" and that Vespucci never bore the Christian name of 
44 Amerigo," because this latter is not a saint's name in the Italian 
calendar; and, further, that he changed his name •« Alberico" to 
• 4 Amerigo " for the first time after the name by which the New 
World is now commonly known began to be used, in order to cause 
it to be believed that the continent was so named in his honor. 
But M. Govi proved two years ago that the name " Alberico " is 
in the Florentine language identical with " Amerigo; " and that 
Vespucci, before the year 1500, sometimes subscribed himself 
44 Amerigo " appears from a letter recently discovered among the 
archives of the Duke of Gonzaga at Mantua. This point was cor- 
roborated by the Spanish- Americanist, De la Espada, from letters 
and pamphlets preserved in the Archiv de las Indias at Seville, in 
which Vespucci sometimes calls himself " Alberico," and some- 
times 44 Amerigo." En passant, the Spanish savant mentioned 
the interesting fact that the first of the so-called 44 quatuor navi- 
gationes " was not made by Vespucci at all. 

M. Hamy adduced a further interesting proof of the incorrect- 
ness of M. Marcou Y contention, in the shape of a map of the 
world prepared in the year 1490 by the cartographer Vallescu of 
Mallorca, on the back of which is a note to the effect that the 
map was bought in at an auction by the merchant Amerigo Ves- 
pucci for 120 gold ducats. Further, the general secretary of the 
congress, M. Pector, pointed out, that, according to a communication 
received from the president of Nicaragua, the range of mountains in 
question is not called " Amerique " at all, but " Amerisque." After 
this very thorough discussion of the question, it is to be hoped 
that the accusations against Vespucci and Hylacomylus may not 
be heard of again. An important contribution to the cartography 
of America was furnished by the paper read by M. Marcel upon 
two globes discovered by him, which date back probably from the 
year 1513. 



February 13, 189 1.] 



SCIENCE, 



93 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS OF NANSEN'S JOURNEY ACROSS 

GREENLAND. 

Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, at a meeting of the Geographical 
Society of Berlin, Nov. 8, 1890, read a paper on his journey across 
Greenland, with special reference to the scientific results of the 
same. By this expedition it is shown (" Proceedings of the Royal 
Geographical Society," London) that the whole of Greenland south 
of about 75 Q north latitude is covered by an immense unbroken 
coating of inland ice. How far this covering extends over northern 
Greenland is not yet accurately known. That it must go beyond 75° 
is evident from the mighty glaciers which project into the sea along 
the whole of the west coast of Greenland. Of these, the immense 
glacier at Upernivik shows a movement of as much as 99 feet in 
24 hours. Such glaciers must of necessity be fed by an unbroken 
ice-covering in the interior, because otherwise they would not 
have sufficient material for their enormous production. Although 
under 80° north latitude there are large glaciers, like the Hum- 
boldt glacier, still the latter appears to have no important motion; 
and, inasmuch as Grinnell Land also is not completely covered 
with ice, it is quite possible that the extreme north of Greenland, 
in consequence of the atmospheric precipitation being too insig- 
nificant, is no longer wholly overlaid with this ice-covering. 

The highest point reached by the expedition exceeded 8,915 
feet, and lies about 112 miles from the east coast and 168 miles 
from the west coast. But the highest part of the ice does not lie 
so near to the east coast as might appear from the foregoing: for, 
in the first place, the route of the expedition was not at right 
angles to the coast, but inclined to the longitudinal axis of the 
country, the direction being first north-west and then west-south- 
west ; and, secondly, the land in the interior rises from the south 
to the north. Consequently the highest point of the ice lies, in 
fact, nearer the middle of the country than would appear from 
the route. The periphery of the ice-covering corresponds pretty 
much to the segment of a circle of about 0,450 miles diameter. 
The Jensen journey into the interior gives a circular periphery 
with a tad i us of 5,560 miles; and NordenskiOld's journey, one 
with a radius of 14,530 miles. It follows that the upper side of 
the inland ice forms a remarkably regular cylindrical surface 
from one coast to the other, although the radii of this cylinder 
increase cousiderably from south to north. The underlying land 
is certainly, as the numerous fiords prove, just as mountainous as 
Norway. But the fact that the surface of the ice is so regular is 
due to the pressure of the plastic ice- masses, and the surface of 
the ice reaches its highest level just where the resistance to this 
force is greatest. The watershed of the underlying land lies 
nearer to the east coast than to the west ; then the resistance to 
the pressure of the masses of ice will also be greater on this side 
than on the west coast, and the high ridges of the ice-covering 
will also be found to lie between the middle axis of Greenland 
and the water-divide of the land buried beneath the ice. 

The thickness of the Greenland ice, Nansen estimates at from 
5,000 to 6,000 feet over the valleys of the underlying land. The 
pressure of a glacier 6,000 feet high upon its base would amount 
to at least 160 atmospheres : the ice-masses must therefore exercise 
a strong moulding influence upon the land. The inland ice at a 
short distance from the coast is composed of fine dry snow, on 
the top of which the sun in summer only is powerful enough to 
form a thin melting crust. The ice-poles six feet long could be 
driven into these masses without striking firm ice. 

The daily variation in the temperature amounted, in the month 
of September, to from 36° to 45° F. The annual variation must 
be enormous. The moisture of the air is very great : with few 
exceptions, it amounted to between 90 and 100 per cent. The 
number of days of atmospheric precipitation is also large. Of the 
forty days occupied by the expedition in crossing the ice, four 
were rainy, snow fell on eleven, and hail on one. Inasmuch as 
there is now no melting of the ice in the interior of Greenland, 
and evaporation also is almost nil, the chief factor in preventing 
the further increase of the ice- masses, apart from the great part 
which is played by the movement of the ice-masses in the direc- 
tion of the coast, is apparently to be found in the " terrestrial 
heat." Given the mean annual temperature_on the surface of the 



inland ice at — 22 F., and the geo-thermic scale of depth of the 
ice at about 55i feet per 1° F., the temperature of the ice would, 
even at 3,000 feet, stand at melting-point. In any case, an active 
melting process goes on at the bottom of the ice, and rivers pour 
forth into the sea from under the ice in winter as well as in sum- 
mer. Nansen himself had the opportunity of observing this 
during the most rigorous winter. These streams, which must flow 
under the enormous pressure of the ice-masses, are powerful 
eroding agents. The formation of the " asar " in Sweden, and of 
the "kames" in Scotland, England, and Ireland, are apparently 
to be accounted for in this way. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

*** Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name 
is in all cases required as proof of good faith. 

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character 
of the journal. 

On request, twenty copies of the number containing his communication will 
be furnished free to any correspondent. 

What caused the Obliquity of the Ecliptic. 

It is difficult to bring the mind to believe that there ever was a 
time when there were no seasons, — spring, summer, autumn, and 
winter, — as now. In attempting to account for natural phenom- 
ena, we have nearly always assumed that the axis of the earth 
was orignally inclined to the plane of the ecliptic at an angle of 
23}°, as we now find it, and of course we in consequence have 
formed in our minds the idea of the annual recurrence of the 
seasons through all geological time; but the eli/ni nation of the 
seasons from the early history of the earth has been forced upon 
us by the accumulation of facts from the geological record. 
There is abundant evidence to prove the existence of tropical or 
sub-tropical animals and plants in Arctic latitudes as late as the 
tertiary. In Professor Dana's " Manual of Geology " (third edi- 
tion, p. 352) that author says, " If we draw any conclusion from 
the facts, it must be that the temperature of the Arctic zone dif- 
fered little from that of Europe and America. Through the 
whole hemisphere, and we may say world, there was a genial at- 
mosphere for one uniform type of vegetables, and there were 
genial waters for corals and brachiopods." Scarcely any one 
now, who is conversant with the facts, will deny that the early 
history of the earth was marked with a uniform, or nearly uni- 
form, temperature, in all latitudes, prior to and including most 
of the tertiary. The main difference of opinion existing now 
among scientific men is how to account for such uniform, world 
climate. 

So of the glacial period. Every one admits that the great array 
of facts justifies the conclusion that the poles of the earth were, 
since the tertiary, covered with great ice caps or sheets several 
thousand feet thick, and reaching down to the 40th parallel of 
latitude, constituting the great glacial epoch. There is a wide 
divergence of opinion, however, as to the origin or cause of this 
glacial cold. Mr. Croll, in his " Climate and Time, 1 ' has formu- 
lated a theory, derived from the secular changes in the eccen- 
tricity of the earth's orbit, through which he finds a place for the 
glacial period; but this theory, if true, must provide for alterna- 
tion of warm and cold periods at the poles throughout all 
geological time. Professor James Geikie of Scotland, in his 
" Great Ice Age/' indorses this theory, and attempts to find evi- 
dences of former glacial action, not only in the tertiary, but also 
in mesozoic and paleozoic times. But the weight of the evidence 
seems to be against this theory, and Mr. Geikie himself admits 
that much of his •• evidence " is " not very convincing." 

The best and most satisfactory explanation of the warm and 
cold periods at the poles has been made by Professor C. B. War- 
ring, iu a paper read by him before the New York Academy of 
Science, and published in the Popular Science Monthly for July, 
1886. This paper merits a much more extended notice than it 
has apparently received, for its author has very strongly fortified 
his several propositions. Briefly, his argument is this: The exist- 
ence of tropical vegetables in Arctic latitudes cannot be supported 
upon the theory of a warm temperature only. Light was as 
necessary as heat; and this light must* also "have been "uniform 



94 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 419 



and unbroken by long periods of darkness, for, if there had been 
a long night of four months in every year, as now, it would have 
been fatal to all plants, and even many or most of the animals. 
Therefore, down to nearly the close of the tertiary, the axis of the 
earth was perpendicular to the ecliptic, and the daya and nights 
were every where and always equal. The temperature was kept 
up by means of the carbonic acid and aqueous vapor in the 
atmosphere, which formed a sort of "double blanket," and served 
to retain the beat radiated from the sun. After a long period the 
carbonic acid was most of it taken up from the atmosphere to 
form our coal-beds, peat, petroleum, graphite, etc. This process 
was followed by a thinning of the retaining cover. The heat 
from the sun was not all retained, but was lost again by escaping 
into stellar space. " Holes in the blanket" appeared at the poles, 
ice and snow began to accumulate there, and eventually the gla- 
cial epoch was inaugurated. Furthermore, he shows, that, ac- 
according to the nebular hypothesis, the axes of the earth and 
moon ought to have been, in their normal condition, parallel with 
each other, and both perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic; 
but instead, the earth's axis is inclined 234°, while the moon's axis 
is practically perpendicular, it being inclined only 1° 30'. The 
change, therefore, was with that of the earth, and was effected since 
the moon's separation from the earth. ' * In view of all these facts, " 
he says, " it seems most probable that in that blank interval the gla- 
cial epoch, or more largely between the end of the mioceneand the 
beginning of the Cham plain, that movement occurred which gave 
the earth seasons, unequal days and nights, and greatly enlarged 
its limits of inhabitability. . . . When the axis became oblique, 
more solar heat fell within the polar circle, those regions became 
warmer, and the glacial epoch departed. If these conditions — 
a perpendicular axis and high uplifts — could be to-day restored, 
the atmosphere remaining as it is, the glacial epoch would re- 
turn." 

i 

It is the purpose of the present article to emphasize the reasons 
for believing the direction of the earth's axis was changed about 
the time stated above, and also to suggest the probable cause of 
the change. In order to do this more intelligently, we must take a 
more comprehensive view of the glacial epoch and all its attend- 
ant phenomena than is usually found in any one or many of the 
text-books, or papers, reports, and lectures, upon the subject. Of 
all the geological changes and revolutions in the earth, out of 
which has been evolved the present world of animal and plant 
life, the glacial epoch is certainly the most unique, and full of 
interest to the scientific observer. What caused the glacial cold 
has been the constant inquiry, but never answered, ever since it 
was first proposed some forty or fifty years ago. Why should 
corals live in security in Spitzbergen, and the red- woods of Cali- 
fornia and the cypress-trees of the southern United States flourish 
in the north of Greenland as late as tertiary times, where now are 
the almost constant rigors of an Arctic winter? What caused the 
recession of the glaciers, and why may we not have a recurrence 
of them ? What influence, if any, did the polar ice-caps exert 
upon tho ocean-level and ocean-currents? Were the ice-cap9 
equal in magnitude; and, if not, what effects, if any, followed 
such inequality, from the attraction of the sun and moon upon 
the mass of the earth, thus abnormally distributed ? These ques- 
tions and kindred ones must be considered before we are prepared 
to comprehend the full significance and consequences of the gla- 
cial epoch. 

It seems incredible that a great ice-cap, several thousand feet 
thick, should accumulate, and remain throughout the summer, in 
the temperate zones, if the ecliptic were as oblique in those times 
as now. The sun on the 21st of June would be nearly perpendic- 
ular to the southern limit of the glacier, and would certainly exert 
a powerful influence in preventing its formation or accumulation 
south of the northern limits of Minnesota. On the other hand, 
however, if we place the sun continuously perpendicular at the 
equator, the temperate zone would be characterized by continual 
spring weather similar to that occurring in April at the present 
time. * In such case we may readily conclude that the precipita- 
tions of snow might be greater than that melted by the slanting 
rays of the vernal sun, and hence might continue to increase, and 
form a glacier of ice. 



It appears that the priar ice caps in glacial times extended as 
far as the 40th parallel of latitude from either pole; in some places 
the north glacier in the United States extended as far south as the 
89th, and even to the 88th parallel; and in South America Profes- 
sor Agassi z found evidences of glacial action as far north as the 
87th parallel. Mr. D. Forbes informed Mr. Darwin that he had 
seen ice -worn rocks and scratched stones at about 12,000 feet 
height, between 13° and 30° soutji latitude. There seems also 
some evidence of glacial action in the south-east corner of Aus- 
tralia. In northern Asia, owing to the great extent of land sur- 
face, it may be reasonably inferred that the southern limit of the 
glacier was much beyond that in the United States. The moun- 
tain-ranges in both hemispheres doubtless were covered with a 
much greater accumulation of snow and ice than they are at 
present, extending at that time to within the tropics, and perhaps 
to the equator. But from the whole record, we may safely as- 
sume 40° as the average limit of each, the southern being the 
more widely extended of the two. There are many evidences 
that these ice-sheets were not confined to the land, but that they 
crossed gulfs, seas, and even oceans. Professor H. Carvill Lewis, 
in a lecture published in the Journal of the Franklin Institute for 
April, 1883, says, " It probably also filled the bed of the Atlantic 
with ice far south of Greenland, the edge of the glacier reaching 
from New Foundland to southern Ireland in a concave line ; " and 
Professor Geikie says the German Ocean was entirely filled with 
ice. Similar evidence has been found as to the antarctic glacier. 
We have therefore two magnificent circular polar ice-caps, each 
of them nearly 7,000 miles in diameter, and the two covering 
about 61,0^0,000 square miles of the earth's surface, leaving a zone 
of non-glaciated surface at the equator of about 139,000,000 square 
miles; so that, at the culmination of the glacial epoch, nearly 
one- third of the earth's surface was covered with ice. 

If, now, we could ascertain the thickness bf these great glaciers, 
we could easily estimate the amount of the earth's mass taken up 
in the form of aqueous vapor, transferred to the polar areas, and 
there deposited in the form of snow and ice. While admitting 
the incompleteness of the record, the weight of the evidence at 
present is to the effect that the antarctic glacier was much 
larger than the arctic. Upon general reasoning, this ought to 
have been true ; for three- fourths of the land surface of the earth 
are in the northern hemisphere, and the amount of water surface 
in the southern and northern hemispheres respectively is in the 
ratio of 85 to 60 In the southern hemisphere, therefore, there 
ought to have been a greater amount of evaporation ; and, in the 
absence of any known air-currents to carry this evaporation to 
the north of the equator, there would necessarily be a greater 
amount of precipitation in the southern hemisphere, and conse- 
quently a greater accumulation of ice. That such was the fact in 
glacial times, seems to be indicated by what is conceded to be 
an imperfect record. Professor Dana, in his '• Manual of Ge- 
ology,*' estimates the thickness of the northern glacier in America 
to have been 11,500 feet on the watershed of Canada. Pro- 
fessor Le Conte, in his "Elements of Geology," says, "The 
archaean region of Canada seems to have been . . . covered 
with a general ice mantle 8,000 to 6,000 feet thick ; " and Pro- 
fessor James Geikie says the Scandinavian ice-sheet "could 
hardly have been less than 6,000 or 7,000 feet thick." As Nor- 
way extends nearly to the 73d parallel of north latitude, it is not 
probable that the northern glacier exceeded two miles in thickness 
at its greatest height. Professor Le Conte says, " Greenland is ap- 
parently entirely covered with an immense sheet of ice, several 
thousand feet thick, which moves slowly seaward, and enters the 
ocean through immense fiords. Judging from the immense bar- 
rier of icebergs found by Qapt. Wilkes on its coast, the antarctic 
continent is probably even more thickly covered with ice than 
Greenland." Sir James Clark Ross reports having sailed for 
several hundred miles along a perpendicular wall of ice 180 to 200 
feet high in the antarctic continent, and found only one place 
where the top of the ice could be seen from the mast-head of his 
ship; and Capts. Cook and Wilkes both confirm the report of a 
large ice-sheet in that part of the world. Professor Croll, in 
"Climate and Time," estimates, from all the data at hand, that 
the thickness of the southern ice-cap at its greatest height is not 



February 



i" 



j> 



1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



95 



less than twelve miles. It is not probable that the antarctic glacier 
was much, if any, higher than this in glacial times; for it will be 
readily understood, that, after the glaciation bad proceeded so far 
as to place the south pole in the midst of a vast ice plain, the in- 
coming clouds from the surrounding oceans would deposit most 
of their moisture before reaching the centre, and the glacier 
would be built up at or near its circumference. Hence we 
should expect to find the glacier, instead of thinning gradually 
from twelve miles at the centre to nothing at its outward edges, 
would present more the appearance of a great section of a hollow 
sphere of nearly uniform thickness, laid over the earth at the 
pole. 

Further confirmation of this view is found in the fact that the 
southern hemisphere has a cooler mean annual temperature than 
the northern. Mr. Croll says this is due to the constant trans- 
ferrence of heat to the north by means of ocean- currents, nearly 
all the great currents originating south of the equator ; while Sir 
Charles Lyell thinks the true cause lies in the fact of the smaller 
extent of land surface in the south. It is also true that from 
March 20 to Sept. 22 — the duration of the sun's northern decli- 
nation — there are 186 days, while from the autumnal to the 
vernal equinox there are only 179 days : the northern summer is 
therefore seven days longer than the southern summer, and the 
southern winter is that much longer than the northern. If this 
inequality in the length of the summer and winter in the two 
hemispheres had its origin during the glacial epoch, it would at 
least have the effect of melting the ice in the north more rapidly 
than in the southern hemisphere ; and, if it existed before glacial 
times, the effect would have been to accelerate the growth *of 
the southern ice-cap more rapidly than that of the northern. 

At the culmination of the glacial epoch, therefore, we may as- 
sume that the northern glacier was of an average thickness of 1 
mile, and in extent about 25,000,000 square miles, making 25,- 
000,000 cubic miles of ice; that the area covered by the southern 
glacier was about 80,000,000 square miles, and 5 miles of average 
thickness, making 150,000,000 cubic miles of ice; and the two ex- 
tending over more than one- fourth of the earth's surface, and 
aggregating 175,000,000 cubic miles of ice. These two gigantic 
*• fossils" would be equal in size to about one-thirtieth part of 
the bulk of the moon, and would represent an amount of evapo- 
ration from the water surface of the earth sufficient to lower the 
sea-level more than 5,000 feet, or about one mile. 

Now, I submit that the attraction of the sun and moon upon 
this mass of ice would, if continued for a long time, be sufficient 
to effect some change in the direction of the earth's axis. Just 
how much that change would be, I have not determined ; but 
that there would be some change seems to be evident from the 
bare statement of the proposition. When we consider that this 
matter has been removed to the poles from the equatorial regions, 
the inequality of distribution of the earth's mass would be 
greatly augmented. The action and re-action of the sun and 
moon and the planets on the protuberant mass of matter about 
the equator produce what is called " nutation," and the procession 
of the equinoxes. Now, this mass being equally distributed 
around the earth like a ring at the equator, only the nutation, or 
nodding, of the axis is produced. But in the case of the antarctic 
ice- caps the result of the attraction would be somewhat different; 
for, this being largely at one side or at the pole, and the mean at- 
traction of the moon being in the plane of the ecliptic, its ten- 
dency would be to draw the mass towards the ecliptic — so far, 
at least, until an equilibrium should be found. 

That the relative magnitudes of the two polar ice-sheets should 
always remain the same, would hardly be presumed. The sinking 
of the ice to the bottom of the Northern Atlantic would necessarily 
cut off the Gulf Stream, and prevent its further progress north- 
ward, if it existed in preglacial times. Even if the ice extended 
only a few hundred feet below the surface, it would materially 
interfere with that current, since it is a broad shallow stream, 
flowing upon the top of the ocean. Similar conditions in the 
southern ocean might have aided the causes already named in 
effecting a change or changes in the relative sizes of the two great 
glaciers. During such changes, therefore, if any existed, oscil- 
of the earth's axis may have occurred before it became 



fixed as at present. We should therefore expect to find pauses in 
the recession, and perhaps a re-advance, of the northern glacier; 
and such we do actually find from an examination of the great 
Kettle Moraine in the northern United States, and of the rein- 
deer epoch in Europe. 

As already stated, the ocean-level would be very materially 
lowered. Thus we can account, in part at least, for the land 
elevations in high latitudes, to which all geologists resort for a 
partial explanation of glacial phenomena. True, this lowering of 
the level would be co-extensive with the entire ocean surface ; and 
the old shore-lines would be found, if discovered at all, below the 
present water-level. But, as Professor Dana says, " elevations 
of landVdo not leave accessible records like subsidences. " One of 
the strongest evidences of land elevation is the existence of nu- 
merous extensive fiords, which Professor Dana says are " valleys of 
erosion," and which Professor Le Conte calls '* half -submerged 
glacial valleys." But, as the ice did not exist at sea-level in low 
latitudes, these fiords are not found there as fossil remains to 
mark the degree of elevation. But we know that England was 
united to the continent of Europe by dry land, that the Mediter- 
ranean sea was an interlocked fresh-water lake, that the delta of 
the Mississippi was at least 400 feet higher than it is at present, 
and that many of the islands of the Pacific Ocean were at a higher 
level. Professor Winchell, in his "Pre- Adamites," says that 
probably the now sunken continent of Lemuria, in the Indian 
Ocean, was dry land during the glacial period, as were also some 
of the Malay Islands and others. Professor Le Conte says, '* The 
boldness of the whole Pacific coast, especially in high latitudes, 
indicates a previous more elevated condition of the land surface 
[during the quaternary] than now exists; " and Mr. Darwin thinks 
that " at this period of extreme cold the climate under the equator 
at the level of the sea was about the same with that now felt 
there at the height of six or seven thousand feet." 

Moreover, if this inequality in the amount of the accumulation 
at the two poles existed as intimated, it would be sufficient to 
remove the centre of gravity of the earth a little to the southward 
of its former position. This would be followed by a greater flow 
of water from the north polar regions; and here we would have 
another cause of land elevation in high northern latitudes, since 
lowering the water-level is equivalent to an elevation of the land. 
While there may have been local elevations and subsidences of 
the land surface in high latitudes during the glacial and Cham- 
plain periods, there seems to be strong reason for believing that ' 
the growth and decay of the two great ice-barriers added materi- 
ally to such changes of level by alternately lowering and elevat- 
ing the general ocean surface. This lowering of the sea-level 
might be taken into account in considering the question of the 
geographical distribution of plants and animals ; but it is not my 
design to pursue that branch of the subject here. 

The suggestion here made, that the large accumulation of the 
earth's mass at the south pole was one of the contributive causes 
of the change in the direction of the earth's axis, is but a corol- 
lary to Dr. Warring's statement, that " between the end of the 
miocene and the beginning of the Champlain, that movement 
occurred which gave the earth seasons, unequal days and nights, 
and greatly enlarged its limits of inhabitability." 

T. A. Bereman. 
Mount Pleasant, Xo., Feb. 5. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 



Hegel's Logic : a Critical Exposition. By William T. Habbis. 
Chicago, 8. C. Griggs & Co. 16°. $1.50. 

What Hegel calls logic is what other folks call metaphysic; 
and Mr. Harris has here undertaken to tell us what, as he under- 
stands it, Hegel's metaphysic is. We say " as he understands it ; " 
for it is notorious that Hegel's disciples have not been agreed as 
to what his philosophy really is, some giving it a pantheistic or 
atheistic interpretation, while others, like Mr. Harris, think it a 
perfect philosophical basis for Christianity. This disagreement is 
partly due to the obscurity of Hegel's style, which makes it im- 
possible in some cases to understand him, and his disciples ha via 
in this respect followed the bad example of their master. The 



9 6 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 419 



following passage, for instance, in Mr. Harris's work, can hardly 
be called intelligible: "In the category of ground, or substrate, 
says Hegel, ' the simple identity of essence is in immediate unity 
with its absolute negativity.' That is to say: Reflection posits 
identity and non-identity by relating to itself; its return is a aelf- 
repulsion " (p. 838). If our readers can find a meaning in that, 
they will do better than we can. 

As regards method and doctrine, the great blunder of Hegel, 
as of some other Germans, consists in mistaking mere abstrac- 
tions of thought for concrete realities, and this blunder is the 
source of most of their peculiar doctrines. Moreover, the claim 
put forth by Hegel and his followers, that their philosophy is all 
deduced from pure thought, without any elements derived from 
experience, is not in accordance with the facts. The idea of 
thought itself is derived from experience, and so is that denoted 
by the word "pure." Then the ideas of being, quantity, quality, 
relation, and others, which are essential data in Hegel's system, 
are obviously got by experience; and t(ius the claim that his 
philosophy is independent of experience cannot be allowed. 
Happily, the Hegelian philosophy is already dead in the land of 
its birth, and is rapidly dying elsewhere ; and the feeble attempts 
of certain Americans to galvanize it into life again are foredoomed 
to failure. , 



AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 



The word "croup" carries such terror with it, and is applied to 
so many conditions in infancy, that Dr. W. L. Carr's exhaustive 
article on " Croup as a Symptom in Different Diseases," in the 
February number of Babyhood, will be read with interest by 
thousands of young mothers. A hardly less important topic is 
treated by Dr. William H. Flint in his article on t( The Causes of 
Foul Breath in Childhood," which points out clearly the origin of 
that annoying condition, and will be found of practical value. 



" A Short Talk about Ears," by Dr. W. K. Butler, is another 
leading medical article. In a lighter vein are contributions on 
such subjects as '•Spoiling a Child," "Baby's Memory," "Nursery 
Methods in Vienna," etc. 

— •• Across East African Glaciers " is the title Dr. Meyer has 
given to his account of the first ascent of Mount Kilima Njaro, 
one of the most important events of recent African exploration. 
It will be published immediately in this country by Longmans, 
Green, & Co. 

— We have received from the Open Court Publishing Company 
of Chicago a pamphlet by Alfred Binet, u On Double Conscious- 
ness," consisting of articles reprinted from the Open Court. The 
introductory chapter is on the study of experimental psychology 
in France, in which the author points oat that the school to which 
he himself belongs have devoted themselves in the main to path- 
ological psychology, or the study of the mind in abnormal states. 
He then takes up the various phenomena observed of late years 
which appear to him to show that there may be in a given indi- 
vidual a double consciousness, or, as he sometimes expresses it, a 
double personality. In support of this view, he recounts a num- 
ber of curious experiments ; but the reasoning by which he de- 
duces from them his theory of double personality seems to us very- 
incautious and inconclusive. In particular, he constantly con- 
founds personality with consciousness,— a mistake that could not 
be made by any person trained in philosophy. M. Binet's experi- 
ments will interest those engaged in similar researches, but his 
theories should be accepted with great caution. 

— Mr. Charles F. Cox read a paper before the American Folk- 
Lore Society in November last on " Faith-Healing in the Sixteenth 
and Seventeenth Centuries," which, has now been issued as a 
pamphlet from the De Vinne Press, New York. The object of 
the paper is to delineate some of the older forms of what is now 
known as " Christian science," which were far more extravagant 



Publications received at Editor's Office, » 
Feb. a-7. 

Langlkt, E. M., and Phillips, W. S. The Harpur 
Euclid. London, Rivingtona. 515 p. 12°. (New- 
York. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.50.) 

Roadways and Maintenance, and Road Laws. Es- 
says by various authors. Philadelphia, Univ. of 
Penn. Pr. 819 p. 8". 

Talmaob, J. E. Domestic Science. Salt Lake City, 
Juvenile Instructor Pr. 881 p. 12°. 

U. S. Marine-Hospital Service, Annual Report of 
the Supervising Surgeon-General of the^jor the 
year 1890. Washington, Government. 887 p. 8°. 

Whiting, H. A Short Course of Experiments in 
Physical Measurement. Part II. Cambridge, 
John Wilson & Son. 588 p. 8°. 

Whitman, J. M. Constructive Steam Engineering: 
Embracing Engines, Pumps and Boilers, and 
their Accessories and Appendages. New York, 
Wiley. 900 p. 8°. flO. 

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HANDBOOK OF METEOROLOGICAL TABLES. 

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SCIENCE. 



97 



than the form now prevalent. The author begins by remarking 
that "there is no absolutely new form that superstition can assume. 
It long ago passed its highest point of evolution, so that species of 
this genus do not now originate. Such varieties as occasionally 
seem to arise anew and flourish for a while are merely re-appear- 
ances of the ancient stock, greatly weakened in character and 
with a decidedly reversionary tendency." He then goes on to 
explain more particularly some of the magical remedies of earlier 
times. such as " sympathetic ointments," laying-on of hands, etc., 
quoting extensively from writers who believed in them as to their 
wonderful efficacy. The prevalence of the belief in magical cures 
is attributed largely to the influence of Paracelsus, who taught 
that " imagination is the cause of many diseases; faith is the cure 
for all." The passages quoted from Paracelsus and others can 
hardly be read without astonishment, mingled with something 
like disgust ; and we may well rejoice with Dr. Cox that " the dark 
days of centuries past can never return, and that science has 
gained a supremacy which can never be lost." 

— A very successful tableau entertainment was recently given 
in New York, the subjects being taken from illustrations in the 
current magazines. The idea is a simple one, and if the subjects 
are well chosen it can be made very interesting. The Century 
Company has prepared a list of suitable pictures with suggestions 
for any one who wishes to get up the entertainment. They will 
send it free on request. 

— The course of four lectures on the electro-magnet, delivered 
before the Society of Arts, London, in February of 1800, by Silvanus 
P. Thompson, has been published in book form by the W. J. 
Johnston Company of this city. The volume is published with 
the direct sanction of the author, who has carefully revised the 
text; and it is the only authorized American edition. It will of 
necessity take its place as a standard work in the growing litera- 
ture of electrical science, containing, as it does, in compact form, 



every thing of value on the subject, from the earliest experiments 
of Sturgeon in 1825, down to the present day. The volume con- 
tains a full theoretical and practical account of the properties and 
peculiarities of the electro-magnet, together with complete in- 
structions for designing magnets for any specific purpose. It is 
illustrated with 75 engravings, and has a very full index. 

— D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, induced by the success of the 
Wright's " Nature Readers " for supplementary reading, will soon 
add to the series a " Fourth Reader." This fourth book will take 
up the following subjects: Section I., earth-building; Section II., 
the solar system ; Section III. will treat of the fauna of the world 
up to the age of man, various discoveries of their remains will be 
noted, and the interesting^ studies of fossils and geologic forma- 
tions will be detailed ; Section IV. will treat of those families of 
living creatures that have their closest affinities with the long- 
vanished fauna; Section V. will discuss certain of the reptilian 
family; Section VI. will introduce the mammals of sea and air. 
The object throughout the book will be not so much to cram 
the pupil with ideas as to teach how to study and how to 
observe. 

— Volumes II. and III. of " Open Sesame," edited by Mrs. B. 
W. Bellamy and Mrs. M. W. Goodwin, have been published by 
Qinn & Co., completing a useful and valuable series, the first vol- 
ume of which was mentioned in these columns nearly a year ago. 
Volume II. is intended for boys and girls between the ages of ten 
and fourteen, and aims, like Volume I., to at once stimulate and 
feed the memory, the collection of prose and poetry being well 
calculated to make children ••learn to love, and love to learn" 
good literature. The same remarks will apply with equal force 
to Volume in. , though the selections in it are intended for chil- 
dren of older growth. The series may be considered a standard 
collection of poetry and prose for purposes of recitation or refer- 
ence. 



Dyspepsia 

Horsford's Acid Pfiosphate. 

In dyspepsia the stomach 
fails to assimilate the food. The 
Acid Phosphate assists the 
weakened stomach, making the 
process of digestion natural and 
easy. 

Dr. B. S. McComb, Philadelphia, says: 
* * Used it in nervous dyspepsia, with suc- 



cess.' 7 

Dr. W. S. Lsonabd. Hinsdale, N. H., 
says: 

' ' The best remedy for dyspepsia that ha 
ever come under my notice." 

Dr. T. H. Andrews, Jefferson Medical 
College, Philadelphia, says: 

" A wonderful remedy which gave me 
most gratifying results in the worst forms of 
dyspepsia 1 * 

Descriptive pamphlet free. 

Rumford Chemical Works, Providence, R. I. 



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9 8 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 419 



A NEW MONTHLY 

THE INTERNATIONAL 

JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY AND 
NATURAL SCIENCE. 

THE JOURNAL OF THE 

POSTAL MICROSCOPICAL AID WESLEY 
HATURALISTS' SOCIETIES. 

Edited by ALFRED ALLEN and Rev. 
WILLIAM 8PIER8. 

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an experiment, the annual subscription 
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manently by an enlarged constituency. 
We trust, therefore, that our subscrib 
ers will not only continue to give us 
their support, but that they will also 
make spirited efforts to obtain the sup- 
port of others. An increase in the 
number of subscribers would enable us 
to introduce still further improvements. 



CONTENTS OF JANUARY NUMBER : 

To Oar Readers. 
Presidential Address 

Steps in our Knowledge of the Organic 
World. 
The Mountain Sphinx. 

Appendicular, with its •• Hans/ 1 Illustrated. 
Koch's Bemedy for Tuberculosis. 
Aspect of the Heavens — January. 
Half -an- Hour at the Microscope, with Mr. 
Tuffen West. 

Foraminifera from Atlantic Soundings. 

Skin of Echinus. 

Lingual Ribbon of Cyolostoma elegans. 
Correspondence . 
Queries. 

Sale and Exchange Column. 
Reviews. 

The Wesley Naturalists' Society. 
Two Lithographic Plates. 

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RACES AND PEOPLES. 

By DANIEL G. BRINTON, M.D. 

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"We strongly recommend /Dr. Brlnton's * Races 
and Peoples ' to both beginners and scholars. We 
are not aware of any other recent work on the 
science of which it treats in the English language/'' 
— Asiatic Quarterly. 

"His book is an excellent one, and we can heartily 
recommend it as an Introductory manual of ethnol- 
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SCIENCE 



NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 20, 1891. 



THE ETRUSCAN-PELASGIAN PROBLEM. 1 

In the wavering twilight of the dawn of history a myste- 
rious people is dimly discerned, occupying the peninsula of 
Greece, — the Pelasgians ; and another, seen somewhat 
more clearly, owning or controlling the central districts of 
Italy, — the Etruscans. 

Erudition has been exhausted with arguments as to the re- 
lationship of these peoples to others better known. Vol- 
umes have been written to prove them Aryans, Turanians, 
Semites, Egyptians, Iberians, Celts, and what not ? 

To both is assigned a singular degree of culture, and this 
with such certainty that we cannot deny that the mighty 
walls of Tiryns and Fiesole, the delicate gold- work from the 
tombs of Cbiusi, and the exquisite alabasters from the cem- 
eteries of Vol terra, remain to us as achievements in art and 
architecture before which any thing accomplished in the 
same direction by Greek or Roman holds the second place. 

Nor were the Etruscans, at least, an illiterate people, or 
negligent of the holy duty of setting down in permanent 
records the great and good deeds of the departed. They 
were indeed " most careful chief in that." Of the something 
more than six thousand inscriptions in their tongue and 
alphabet which we already have in hand, five-sixths of them 
are epitaphs or mortuary comments. 

Yet with all this store of material, with many inscriptions 
bilingual, — Etruscan and Latin. — and with numerous 
descriptions in classic writers, we do not know, beyond per- 
ad venture, the meaning of a single word in the Etruscan 
language. What a fine field, therefore, for learned specu- 
lations I 

Several such are before us. Dr. Hesse! meyer, already 
favorably known from an earlier archaeological study, " Die 
Ursprtlnge der Stadt Pergamos" (1885), offers his solution of 
the problem by identifying the Etruscans and Pelasgians as 
members of the same linguistic family, which family he very 
positively decides belonged neither to the Indo-Germanic 
(Aryan), nor Semitic nor Turanian, branches of the human 
species. Further than this negative position, he will not ad- 
vance, and denies the possibility of so doing, with our present 
knowledge. His identification of the Pelasgians with the 
Etruscans rests chiefly on the famous " inscription of 
Lemnos," — an inscribed slab found on that island, undoubt- 
edly Etruscan in origin, and dating from the sixth century 
B.C. Furthermore, a number of proper names, especially 
in the Ionian dialect of Greek, point, he contends, to an ad- 
mixture of the language in early days with another of 
Etruscan character. 

The most original part of Hesselmeyer's study is his tra- 
cing the migrations of the Pelasgo-Etruscans. The trend he 
finds was certainly from west to east, and from the seacoast 
toward the interior. Their colonies reached the shores of 

» Dr. Ellis Hxssslmeyeb, Die Pelasgerfrage undihre Lttsbarkeit (Tflbin- 
gen t 1S90); Dr. Saphus Buoob. Btrusoao and Armenian Researches in Com 
parative Language (Christiania, 1890); Dr. D. O. Brihton, Etruscan and Libyan 
Names. A Comparative Study (Philadelphia, 1890); Sir Patrick Cowjuhoun 
and H. B. Wassa Pacha, " The Pelasgl and tneir Modern Descendants," 1891 
(Asiatic Quarterly Review). 



Asia Minor at a very early day, and their stations there led 
some of the Greek historians to believe the original home of 
the "Tyrrhenians" (as they were also called) was some- 
where to the east. As Karl Otfried Mtlller has abundantly 
shown in his classical work, "Die Etrusker," the Etruscans 
themselves repudiated any such origin, and by their most 
ancient traditions claimed to have reached Italian soil by 
sea, from the south. 

Although the leading German authorities wholly disregard 
this venerable legend, and insist that the ancestors of the 
Etruscans came across the Alps from some land to the north, 
an American scholar has recently insisted not less vigorously 
that the old legend is true, aud has boldly connected it with 
a previously unthought-of origin of the Etruscans. As the 
result of his travels in ancient Numidia, now the French 
colony of Algiers, and ancient Etruria. the modern Tuscany, 
Dr. D. G. Brinton has developed the theory that the Etrus- 
cans were originally a Numidian or Libyan colony, allied in 
language to the ancestors of the modern Kabyles or Berbers, 
— a race who, at the dawn of history , occupied the whole 
of North Africa, from the Nile valley to the Atlantic 
Ocean. 

His arguments, if not especially weighty on any one point, 
make amends by their diversity. They include the physical 
character, in reference to which he makes both Etruscans 
and Berbers tall and blond, to the confusion of our ordi- 
nary notions of. hoth these peoples; their traditions; their 
political institutions; their culture; and, finally, their lan- 
guage. To the last named he gives particular attention,, 
availing himself of the little-known Numidian inscriptions 
in the " tifinagh " alphabet, dating from about 200 B.C. 
Perhaps the most striking of his identifications is his inter- 
pretation of the Etruscan name of Servius Tuliius, — ** Mas- 
tarna." This appears to be clearly Numidian, and to mean 
4 * great conqueror. " 

Although Dr. C. Pauli of Leipzig, without doubt the most 
eminent " Etruscologist " now living, has entirely aban- 
doned ' the Aryan or Indo-Germanic relationship of the 
Etruscan language, yet in the last year this effete hypothesis 
has again been advanced, with new arguments. Dr. Bugge, 
a learned Norwegian, has developed a suggestion offered 
thirty years ago by the late Dr. Robert Ellis of London, that 
the Etruscan was an Armenian dialect ; and the odd combi- 
nation of the president of the Royal Society of Literature, 
Sir Patrick Colquhoun, and the Turkish governor-general of 
the Li ban us, Pasco Wassa Pacha, have appeared jointly in 
favor of identifying the Pelasgians with the Illyrians, the 
ancestors of the modern Albanians, who are also a member 
of the Aryan, or, as Penka prefers to call it, the " Aryac " 
family. 

From the agreeable variety of these various learned solu- 
tions of the problem, all coming out within a twelve-month, 
it is quite evident that there is abundant chance yet for the 
learned to sharpen their wits on this much-vexed question. 



Dr. Doremus has recently found, according to The Engineering 
and Mining Journal of Feb. 7, that sodium' fluoride and other 
fluorides can be used with advantage for softening hard waters. 






ioo 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 420 



HEALTH MATTERS. 

An Industrial Use of Microbes. 

Dr. NeIlson of Norway says that the Norwegian fisher-folk 
have for more than five hundred years used pathogenic bacteria 
in catching whales. A few miles from the town of Bergen there 
is a narrow inlet of the sea, into the mouth of which whales make 
their way every season. As related in the Sanitary Inspector, 
when a whale is discovered in this place, the alarm is given, and 
the fishermen put out in their boats, drive the whale farther up 
the narrow bay, and stretch a net across the mouth of the inlet. 
Through this the monster could easily break, but he does not. 
Then they proceed to capture him and bring him to land. The 
animal, however, is twenty or thirty f&t long and very strong, 
and with their primitive implements alone this cannot be done. 
They therefore inoculate the whale with the poison of an infec- 
tious disease, and only after he is weakened as the result of the 
disease do tHey try to kill him. After the whale has been en- 
closed, the bowmen put out, and, when he comes to the surface to 
breathe, they shoot infected arrows into him and withdraw. 
After twenty- four or thirty-six hours the whale becomes less 
lively in his movements, and comes to the surface often to breathe. 
'Then the real battle begins, and, after driving ten or twelve har- 
ipoons into the whale, the fishermen are able to land him. An 
examination of the places where the arrows were shot into the 
whale shows, in the immediate vicinity of some of them, a hem- 
orrhagic infiltration of the muscular tissue, resembling very 
much the disease of land-animals called " sympathetic anthrax/' 
The internal organs are normal. Once only Dr. Neilson found a 
bacillus in the blood-vessels of the spleen. Around the poisoned 
wounds vast numbers of a bacillus are found closely resembling 
that of sympathetic anthrax. When the arrows are pulled out of 
the wounds, many of these bacilli cling to them, and thus render . 
them effective as • ' death-arrows " when further used. And thus 
the catching of whales goes on year after year, and has gone on 
for five hundred years. Dr. Neilson inclines to the opinion that 
the infection is the same as that of sympathetic anthrax, and 
hopes that later investigations may clear up the point. 

Cocoanut-Water as a Culture-Fluid. 

Dr. George M. Sternberg, writing in the Medical News of Sept. 
13, 1890, say 8 that he has used the juice of the unripe cocoanut 
as a culture-fluid, and found it very satisfactory. The idea oc- 
curred to him during a visit to Cuba that this fluid might be a 
useful culture- medium for bacteria, and upon making the experi- 
ment it was found that various species grew in it most luxuri- 
antly. As it is contained in a germ-proof receptacle, no steriliza- 
tion of the fluid is required when it is transferred with proper 
precautions to sterilized test-tubes, or is drawn directly from the 
nut into the little flask, with a long and slender neck, which is 
used for fluid-cultures. In these it may be preserved indefinitely, 
remaining perfectly transparent and ready for use. Heating the 
fluid causes a slight precipitate. In the investigations which 
have been made in Havana during the past two years, this fluid 
was used very extensively, and it was found a great convenience 
to have a sterile culture-fluid always at hand, ready for use at a 
moment's notice. Moreover, it has certain special advantages for 
the study of the physiological characters of various bacteria, 
and for the differentiation of species. It contains in solution 
about four per cent of glucose, in addition to vegetable albumen 
and salts, which alone would make it a useful nutrient medium. 
Certain micro-organisms multiply in it without appropriating the 
glucose, while others split this up, producing an abundant evolu- 
tion of carbonic acid, and giving to the fluid a very acid re-action. 
As obtained from the nut, it has a slightly acid re-action, which 
makes it unsuitable as a culture-medium for certain pathogenic 
bacteria, but when desired it is a simple matter to neutralize it. 
For a large number of species of bacteria, and for the saccharomy- 
cctcs, it constitutes a very favorable medium. 

Micro-Organisms in Great Cities. 

Professor Tarnier, in a course of lectures in 1890, referred to 
M. Miquel's researclies on tne relative abundance of micro-organ- 



isms in different places (The British Medical Journal). One to 
the oubic metre of air is the proportion at the top of a high moun- 
tain. It is stated in the Medical Record of Feb. 7 that in the Pare 
de Montsouris, in the south of Paris, M. Miquel found 400 micro- 
organisms to the cubic metre of air, while in the Rue de Rivoli 
the proportion was 8,480. In a new room in the Rue Censier he 
found 4,500 to the cubic metre; more, that is to say, than in the 
centre of Paris in the open air. In a room in the Rue Monge he 
counted 86,000, in the H6tel Dieu 40,000, and in the Pitie, an older , 
hospital, 819,000, micro-organisms to the cubic metre. At the 
Observatory, Montsouris, 660,000 microbes were found in a gram 
(15 grains) of dust ; in the room in the Rue Monge the amount 
was 2,100,000. In the hospitals the proportion was so high, that 
counting the number of microbes in a whole gram of dust was 
found to be impossible. The dust is the great conveyer of micro- 
organisms. A 2 A.M., when a city is most quiet, the fewest germs 
are to be found in the air; at 8 a.m. the industry of domestic ser- 
vants and dustmen has already made the air teem with germs ; 
at 2 p.m. the proportion *has again greatly fallen; at 7 p.m. it is 
once more high, for many bouses are being " tidied up ; " besides 
sundry kitchen operations are unhygienic. Thus the "small 
hours," unfavorable in many respects to patients hovering between 
life and death, are the least, septic of the twenty-four. The day 
proportions indicate that household duties cause more septic dif- 
fusion than is excited by traffic and industry. 

The Milk of the Egyptian Buffalo. 

According to the researches of Messrs. Rappel and Richmond, 
of the Khedival Laboratory, Cairo, the milk of the Egyptian 
buffalo, or gamoose (Bos bvbalus), presents several characteristics 
distinguishing it from that of the cow, which may well be re- 
membered by medical men who have to treat patients, especially 
infants, in Egypt or in other countries where this animal is com- 
mon. The amount of fat, as we learn from the Lancet of Aug. 
23, 1890. was found to be a good deal larger than in cow's milk, 
the percentage in the specimens examined varying from 5. 15 to 
7.35. The sugar, which appeared to be a hitherto undescribed 
variety, differing from milk-sugar, was also found to be of larger 
amount than that in cow's milk, the average percentage being 
5.41. It is suggested that this sugar should be called tewfikose. 
The fat, too, was found to differ from* that of cow's milk, con- 
taining minute quantities of sulphur and phosphorus, and yielding 
four times as much caproic acid as butyric acid, whereas in cow's 
milk the quantity of caproic acid is only double that of butyric 
acid. The milk was also found to contain a small quantity of 
citric acid. 

The Chemistry of the Tubercle Bacillus. 

At the clinic of Professor Nothnagel a very interesting investi- 
gation on the chemical composition of the tubercle bacillus, says 
the Lancet, has been carried out by Dr. Hammerschlag, who bad 
commenced his studies on the bacillus at Professor Nencki's 
chemical laboratory at Berne. Two analyses of two different 
culture series were made. The cultures were 0.2 to 3 months 
old, and 7.5 and 2.2 grams moist bacteria were obtained for the 
analyses. They contained between 88.7 and 83.1 per cent water, 
between 28.2 and 26.2 per cent substances soluble in alcohol and 
ether; i.e., lecithin, fats, and a poisonous substance which, in- 
jected subcutaneously into guinea-pigs, produced clonic spasms of 
the muscles, acceleration of pulse and respiration, and finally 
general convulsions and the death of the animal from twelve to 
fifty-one hours after the injection. The residue which remained 
after the extraction with ether and alcohol contained an albumi- 
noid body and cellulose: therefore the tubercle bacilli seem to 
differ from other bacteria by the high percentage of substances 
soluble in alcohol and ether, as they contain between 26 and 28 
per cent, while bacterium termo contains only 7.3; Friedlander's 
diplococcus only 1.7, and the bacillus anthracis only 7.8 per cent. 
It has been found that the presence of carbohydrates and glyce- 
rine is necessary for the growth of the bacilli, and that albumens 
alone are not sufficient as nourishing media for the tubercle bacil- 
lus, which differs thereby from the other bacteria. By experi- 
ments on rabbits, it was proved that a poisonous albuminoid body 



• • * 









February 20, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



101 



is formed in the cultures by the bacilli, which (the dose used 
varied between 0.2 and 0.4 of a gram) produced, a few hours after 
the injection, a rise of temperature amounting to 1° or 2° C, 
lasting for one or two days, without any other effect even after 
repeated injections. The glycerine bouillon cultures lost their 
virulence on being kept for eight months at a temperature of 89° 
C, but they retained their vital activity. In experiments made 
on animals with such cultures of eight months' standing, only 
negative results were observed with regard to the production of 
immunity in animals by such cultures; and Hammerschlag, Falk, 
and Charrin have failed to produce a protective inoculation. 

Physical and Chemical Changes in the Blood in Disease. 

Dr. Sciolla of Genoa, at the Congress of the Italian Society of 
Internal Medicine, reported some interesting experimental re- 
rearches on physico-chemical changes of the blood in different 
morbid conditions. He stated, according to the Lancet, that the 
density of the blood diminishes during acute febrile states and the 
first stages of convalescence, increasing afterward with greater or 
less rapidity according to the nature of the disease. The same 
thing is always observable in the density of blood-serum, with 
this difference, that it begins to increase as soon as there is any 
improvement in the condition of the patient; sometimes, indeed, 
a short time previously. The density of the serum is increased in 
malaria, while that of the blood is diminished. Tuberculous 
affections, unaccompanied by serious alterations of the blood, only 
slightly modify the density of blood-serum and blood. The den- 
sities of blood-serum and blood are both diminished in catarrhal 
jaundice, probably owing to defective assimilation of food. The 
density of the blood is almost normal, while that of the serum is 
increased, in cirrhosis of the liver and in cancer of the gall-blad- 
der. The densities of blood and serum are not sensibly dimin- 
ished in benign forms of diabetes. The greatest diminution in 
the density of the blood is observable in diseases accompanied by 
grave morbid changes of the blood. Tbe most striking examples 
were those seen in three fatal cases of pneumonia. Dr. Sciolla 
also observed the chemical modifications of the blood in pneu- 
monia, typhoid-fever, malaria, anaemia, and in leucaemia. About 
the fourth or fifth day of croupous pneumonia there is a marked 
diminution in the albuminoid substances of the blood, especially 
the globulin. The extractive matters increase during the febrile 
period. In convalescence the quantity of albuminoids, especially 
of the globulin, and also that of the serin, increased. The dry 
residue of the blood is not much diminished during the first stage 
of the disease, but it so during tbe second stage, and continues 
less until convalescence. In typhoid-fever the albumens of the 
blood diminish progressively (unless the diarrhoea is excessive), 
and this diminution occurs at the expense of the serin. The ex- 
tractive matters gradually diminish during the whole of the 
febrile period, and even during the early stage of convalescence. 
In malarial fevers the amount of the albuminoids in the blood- 
serum (especially the serin, and in a less-degree the globulin) and 
the dry residue of tbe blood diminish rapidly, while the dry 
residue of the serum and the extractive matters of the serum 
increase with the duration of the fever, — the former in a slight 
degree, the latter enormously. In chloro-anaemia the albumens 
of the serum (especially the globulin) and the dry residue of the 
blood diminish, while the dry residue of the serum increases. In 
leucaemia tbe amount of dry residue of the serum is very high, 
and tbe albuminoids of the serum are also above the normal, the 
serin being especially increased. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The expedition which is to be sent in the spring to the west 
coast of Greenland, by the committee of the Karl Ritter Endow- 
ment, is likely to be one of considerable importance. The chief 
of the expedition, as we learn from Nature of Feb. 5, will be Dr. 
E. von Drygalski; Dr. O. Baschin will accompany it, defraying 
his own charges; and there will be a third scientific expert, who 
has not yet been selected. Dr. von Drygalski proposes to establish 
a station near the Umanackfjord, in about 70° 80 ' north latitude, 
where Dr. Baschin will carry out a continuous series of meteoro- 



logical observations, and from which he can make long or short 
excursions inland to study the interior ice. It is expected that 
the party will remain in Greenland about a year. 

— Two Frenchmen, Dr. Besson and Pere Tulazac, have suc- 
ceeded in making the first ascent to the summit of Ambondrombo, 
dreaded by the Betsileos as sacred, or tabu. They, however, 
found five Betsileos willing to accompany them to the top. 
According to the January " Proceedings of tbe Royal Geographical 
Society," the party started from Amboasary, the nearest village 
to the mountain, and reached the summit in seven hours. Axes 
and knives had frequently to be used to clear the way. The 
mountain is rugged and wooded, reaching a height of 6,234 feet. 
The party had to cross many ravines during the ascent. 

— From Dorsetshire, England, a singular instance of starlings 
being eaten by rooks is reported (Nature, Feb. 5). It seems that 
during the very severe weather there this winter, a flock of star- 
lings was observed on a farm at West Stafford, near Dorchester, 
followed by a number of rooks in bot pursuit. The larger birds 
soon came up with their prey, and quickly despatched them, and, 
after stripping them of their feathers, devoured them then and 
there. When the scene of the occurrence was inspected just 
afterwards, the ground was found to be strewn with their 
feathers, but beyond these not a vestige of tbe starlings could 
be discovered. It seems that the rooks, from sheer hunger, must 
have been driven to this extremity, owing to the scarcity of other 
kinds of food. 

— A method of repairing incandescent lamps, the invention of 
a M. Pauthonier, is described in a recent number of UElectricien. 
The lamp to be repaired is first taken to a glass-blower, as quoted 
in Engineering of Feb. 6, who pierces a hole in the bulb sufficient- 
ly large to allow of the old filament being taken out and a new 
one inserted. From the hands of this workman tbe lamp passes 
to a second, who cuts off the ends of tbe broken filament and 
removes it, taking care, however, at the same time to leave about 
one millimetre of the filament at each of the platinum electrodes; 
and it is to these short lengths of the old filament that the new 
one is welded. This is done by filling the bulb with a liquid 
hydrocarbon, after which the new filament, which has been 
previously standardized, is introduced. One end of the filament 
is then pressed against the fragment of the old one already re- 
ferred to, and a current passed through the joint. The hydro* 
carbon is decomposed, and a deposit of solid carbon occurs round 
the joint, and securely fastens the new filament in place. The 
other end of the filament is joined to the other electrode in the 
same way. The next process is the bleaching of the glass, which 
is so thoroughly done that the glass of the repaired lamps is said 
to be more brilliant and transparent than that of perfectly new 
ones. The repaired lamps are said to last quite as long as new 
ones, to which they are in no respect inferior. The process is 
said to be peculiarly adapted to the repair of lamps of the " Sun- 
beam " type. 

— To stimulate the collection of photographs to be used in 
showing the need of improved roads in the United States, the 
Connecticut division joins the New York division of the League 
of American Wheelmen in offering three prizes aggregating $100, 
as follows : one prize of $50 for the best collection of not less 
than three photographs, one prize of $30 for the second best 
collection of not less than three photographs, one prize of $20 
for the third best collection of not less than three photographs. 
There are wanted photographs showing the common spectacle 
of the farmer's team and wagon, hub- deep and knee-deep in tbe 
muddy road ; photographs showing rough, rutty, and muddy 
roads in their worst condition ; photographs showing the every- 
day break-down caused by rough or muddy roads or steep grades; 
photographs showing smooth, hard surfaced roads and (if possible) 
teams hauling loads over tbe same ; and other pictures illustrat- 
ing the goodness of good roads and tbe badness of bad roads. 
The prizes will be awarded before May 15, 1891. Further infor- 
mation will be furnished on application to either Isaac B. Potter, 
278 Potter Building, New York, N.Y., or Charles L. Burdett, 
Hartford, Conn. 



t02 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. XVII. No. 420 



— According to the latest observations which Dr. Finsterwalder 
has published, as stated in The Scottish Geographical Magazine 
for February, the region occupied by advancing glaciers is ex- 
tending from west to east, and l?as lately crossed the limits of the 
eastern Alps. The glaciers in this region have been receding dur- 
ing the fast thirty years, but now there is undeniable proof that 
those of the Ortler group, at any rate, are in a state of progres- 
sion. 

— Assistant E. D. Preston of the United States Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey will soon go to the Hawaiian Islands for the purpose 
of making a series of latitude observations, to be used in con- 
nection with others to be made by several of the countries who 
are connected with the International Geodetic Association. The 
question of a change in the position of the earth's axis has led to 
some special refinements in the method of observing astronomical 
latitudes. Whatever may be the cause of the supposed motion of 
the pole, whether it results from the shifting of volumes of the 
atmosphere or water above the surface, or the movement of 
liquid or semi-liquid masses within the earth's crust, the quantity 
to be measured is so small that it is necessary to reduce the un- 
certainty of the determination to a very few feet. The obser- 
vations at Honolulu soon to be taken up simultaneously by the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and the International 
Geodetic Association of Europe will decide whether the variation 
is a purely local one or whether there is a real change in the 
position of the axis of rotation. Observations made last year in 
Europe, and also in this country by Professor' Comstock at 
Madison, Wis., seem to indicate that there is an interference be- 
tween the motions of the axis of rotation and the axis of inertia, 
producing a maximum every year in the mean motion, and a 
larger maximum at the end of five years. In Europe the minimum 
of 1890 was 0.20" smaller than the minimum of 1880. Besides, 
the Greenwich observations of latitude for the last sixty years 
show there is a long period of inequality of at least this length. 
In order to bring out these small changes, the following pre- 
cautions will be taken in the execution of the work : no zenith 
distances greater than 30° will be used, and differences of zenith 
distances shall not be more than YX ; stars will be chosen so that 
any error in the value of the micrometer-screw will be eliminated, 
and |he preference will be given to stars whose proper motions 
are well known ; the barometer and thermometer will be read in 
order to note atmospheric changes. The Coast and Geodetic 
Survey representative, Mr. Preston, will also avail himself of the 
opportunity to make magnetic and gravity observations at a 
number of points on the islands, including one station on the 
summit of Mauna Kea at an elevation of 14,000 feet. Some 
meteorological observations will probably be made as well. The 
following instruments will be taken : a zenith telescope for the 
regular international latitude work, a meridian telescope (or com- 
bination instrument) for time and latitude observations at the 
pendulum stations, and a theodolite-magnetometer and dip circle 
for magnetic observations. The pendulums for the gravity obser- 
vations will be of a new pattern, very portable, and will be 
observed by means of an elegant method of coincidences devised 
by Professor Mendenhall. 

— The monthly report for January of Arthur Winslow, State 
geologist of Missouri, states that only such field-work has been 
done as was necessary to complete those divisions of work which 
were included among the operations of the past season. Thus, in 
Jackson County some little field-work was done to complete the 
examination of the clay and building-stone industries of the 
western counties; and in Randolph, Howard, and Lafayette Coun- 
ties instrumental levelling was done in order to determine the 
altitudes of various coal-beds. But the bulk of the work during 
the past month has been in the office, where the members of the 
survey are engaged in plotting the results of surveys made during 
the past summer and autumn. In addition, they have been busy 
correcting the proof of Bulletin No. 3, and in preparing the manu- 
script of the biennial report and of Bulletin No. 4 for the printer. 
Bulletins Nos. 2 and 3 have been printed, and about a thousand 
copies of each have been distributed. Bulletin No. 2 is a bibliog- 
raphy of the geology of Missouri, the manuscript of which was 



prepared and donated to the survey by Mr. F. A. Sampson of 
Sedalia. It is a valuable work of reference, and will be of great 
use to all who are interested in the geology of Missouri and her 
minerals. Bulletin No. 8 contains papers on the clay, stone, lime, 
and sand industries of St. Louis City and County, and on the 
mineral waters of Johnson, St. Clair, Henry, and Benton Counties. 
These papers contain a mass of facts concerning the subjects to 
which they relate, in addition to statistics of production. They 
are, however, provisional publications ; and the results of analyses 
and tests now in progress, together with other matter not yet 
ready for presentation, are reserved for the final report on these 
special subjects, which it is hoped will be prepared this year. In 
the laboratory, analyses of clays and mineral waters have been 
prosecuted, and 186 determinations have been made. In addition, 
a number of substances sent in by various citizens of the State 
have been determined and reported upon. • 

— The third annual meeting of the Association of American 
Anatomists was held Dec. 29 and 30, 1890, in the anatomical lec- 
ture-room of the Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. It was 
presided over by Dr. F, D. Weisse, second vice-president, and Dr. 
Thomas Dwight acted as secretary pro tern. Papers were read 
as follows: "Corrosion Preparations," by Dr. S. J. Mixter; 
"Studies on the Spine," by Dr. Dwight; "A Comparison of the 
Fibrine Filaments of Blood-Lymph in Mammalia and Amphibia," 
by Professor 8. H. Gage; "The Semi-Lunar Bone," by Professor 
Shepherd; "The Structure of Protoplasm and Mitosis," by Dr. 
Carl Heitzmann ; " The homology of the Cerebrospinal Arachnoid 
with the Other Serous Membranes," by Professor F. W. Langdon; 
"The Occlusion of the Rbinocsele (Olfactory Ventricle) in the 
Dog," by Mr. P. A. Fish ; and three papers—" The Relations of 
the Olfactory to the Cerebral Portion of the Brain," •• The Brains 
of a Cat and of a Sheep lacking the Callosum," '* Q wen's Nomen- 
clature of the Brain, with Suggestions based Thereon " — by Pro- 
fessor B. G. Wilder. With one exception, the papers were illus- 
trated by specimens, photographs, or diagrams, and all were fully 
discussed. The committee on anatomical nomenclature (Pro- 
fessors Leidy, Harrison Allen, Frank Baker, Thomas Dwight, 
T. B. Stowell, and B. G. Wilder) were authorized to publish as 
their second report '• such general and specific recommendations 
as may be unanimously agreed upon by them. v The following 
were elected members : Dr. W. W. Dana of Portland, Me. ; Dr. 
John C. Munro of Boston, Mass. ; Mr. Pierre A. Fish of Ithaca, 
N.Y. The next meeting will be held at Washington, D.C., in 
September, 1891, at or about the time of meeting of the Congress 
of American Physicians and Surgeons. 'The officiers for that 
meeting are as follows : president, Joseph Leidy ; vice-presidents, 
Frank Baker, F. D. Weisse; secretary and treasurer, D. S. Lamb; 
executive committee, Harrison Allen, Thomas Dwight, and B. 
G. Wilder. 

— It is reported, says The Engineering and Mining Journal, that 
an organization is in progress of formation at Youngstown, O., 
which will be one of the strongest in iron circles in the United 
States, representing an investment of $7,785,000. The body will 
be known as the Mahoning & Shenango Valley Iron Manu- 
facturers* Association, and includes the iron manufacturers of 
both valleys. These concerns include twenty- two furnace stacks, 
thirteen rolling-mills, one pipe- works, and one wash-metal plant. 
The output of pig iron is 1,200 tons annually and 450,000 tons of 
finished iron, while the number of men em ployed will exceed 2,000. 
It is the first time in the history of the iron business in eastern 
Ohio and western Pennsylvania that the iron manufacturers have 
been united. 

— M. H. Coudreau has completed the first part of the mission 
of exploration in the basin of the river Oyapock, Guiana, with 
which he was intrusted by the French Government. The travel- 
ler, when among the mountains of Emerillons, between the Inipi 
and the Appronague, was abandoned by his guides. This misfor- 
tune, which occurred in January, 1890, caused the loss of much 
valuable time, so that the work of exploration had to be under- 
taken during the rainy season. The results of this winter cam- 
paign are. as fotlows (* 4 Proceedings of the Royal Geographical 
Society," Jan.) : The seven chief affluents of the Oyapock, which 



February 20, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



103 



drain the whole of the south east of the country, were surveyed 
on the scale 1:100,000: five out of the seven were ascended by the 
traveller up to their sources. His surveys include about 480 miles 
of quite unexplored country, besides 235 miles of new work on the 
Oyapock. Two of these tributaries carried him right into the 
heart of the Tumuc Humac Range, where he was able to study 
the native languages. He has collected twenty-five hundred 
words of the Oyampi language. The whole of the south-east 
region abounds in marshes, and presents a desolate picture.* On 
all sides are the ruins of Indian villages. 8 mall- pox and dysen- 
tery, and a steady emigration to the south-west of the country, 
are rapidly thinning the population ; so that a generation hence, 
M. Coudreau says, the south east will be practically uninhabited. 
The Creoles may, however, be attracted to this region on account 
of its auriferous character, but it will not be easily exploited 
owing to the numerous falls in the rivers. In July last the 
travellers was about to start upon the second portion of bis work. 
He intended to navigate the Oyapock to its source, cross the 
Tumuc Humac Mountains to the southern side, and visit the 
Indians living near the sources of th6 Tapanahony by a new route. 
Thence he will reach the Itany, descend the Aoua, and return 
across the whole central part of French Guiana. This central 
journey will occupy eight months. 

— A course of five lectures on the ethnology of modern Europe, 
by Dr. D. G. Brinton, was begun Monday afternoon, Feb. 16, at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The subjects 
of the different lectures are as follows : 1. *' The Predecessors of 
Modern European Nations;" 2. "The Romance and Hellenic 
Nations (France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, etc.);" 8. "The 
Teutonic Nations (Germans, Danes, Swedes, English, etc., — Celtic 
Remnants);" 4. "The Slavonic Nations (Russians, Poles, etc.);'' 
5. " The Allophyllic Peoples (Basques, Finns, Hungarians, Turks, 
etc.)." These lectures are free, and tickets may be obtained of 
the secretary of the academy, Dr. E. J. Nolan. 

— In a communication to the French Physical Society, M. 
Cailletet has described a method of connecting a metal tube or 
stop-cock to a vessel of glass or porcelain so that the joint shall 
be tight even under high pressures. As described in Engineering, 
the process is simple, and consists in first coating the glass or 
porcelain vessel with a very thin layer of platinum at the part 
where the connection is to be made. This may be done by paint- 
ing the glass, after slightly warming it, with a neutralized solution 
of platinic chloride mixed with the essential oil of camomile. 
The layer of oil and platinic chloride is then slowly heated till the 
last traces of oil have been expelled, and the temperature is then 
raised to a dark-red heat. The chloride is thus reduced, and the 
platinum deposited as a bright metallic mirror on the surface of 
the glass. On this layer of platinum a second layer of copper is 
deposited by electrolysis, and the metal stop-cock or tube can 
then be soldered by means of tin to this copper ring. M. Cailletet 
states that he has found these joints to remain tight under a press- 
ure of 300 atmospheres. 

— A theory attempting to explain the nature of the relationship 
between the optical activity of many substances in solution, and 
the hemihedrism of their crystalline forms, is advanced by Dr. 
Fock, the author of the new work on chemical crystallography, 
in Beriehte, and quoted in Nature of Feb. 5. It is certainly a 
most significant fact that all those substances whose solutions are 
capable of rotating the plane of polarization of light, and whose 
crystalline forms have been thoroughly investigated, are found to 
form hemihedral crystals ; that is to say, crystals some of whose 
faces have been suppressed, and whose two ends are therefore 
differently developed. Moreover, in those cases where both the 
right rotatory and left rotatory varieties of the same chemical 
compound have been isolated and examined, as in the case of 
dextro- and laevc-tartaric acid, the hemihedral crystals are found 
to be complementary to each other, the faces undeveloped upon 
the one being present upon the other, so that the one is generally 
as the mirror-image of the other. Several ingenious attempts to 
account for the wonderful geometrical arrangement of the 
molecules in a crystal have been made of recent years by Bravais, 
Mallard, and others, who developed the " Raumgitter " theory , 



and by Sohncke, who showed that all possible crystallographical 
forms could be referred to systems of points ; yet it has been found 
neCessary by these crystallographers to assume a polarity of the 
molecule itself in order to fully explain the phenomenon of hemi- 
hedrism. This conclusion is, moreover, borne out by the more re- 
cent work of Lehmann upon his so-called " liquid crystals." It is, 
indeed, evident that hemihedral crystals owe their hemihedrism to 
a differentiation of the various parts of the molecules themselves 
in space. Dr. Fock assumes, for the purpose of connecting this 
fact with the optical rotation of the dissolved crystals, the 
tetrahedral form for the element carbon, in the most recent con- 
ventional sense employed by Wislicenus, Van't Hoff, Victor Meyer, 
and other exponents of the new *' stereo- chemistry." The axis 
of polarity of a molecule containing an asymmetric carbon 
atom, will, of course, be determined by its centre of gravity and 
the heaviest " corner" of the tetrahedron; and Dr. Fock shows 
that rotation of the molecule will be most easy round this axis, 
and in the direction, right or left, determined by the relative 
weights of the atoms or groups disposed at the other three 
" corners." He further shows, that, if we consider any direction 
of vision through the solution, we must practically consider two 
positions of the molecules, in both of which the axis of rotation is 
parallel with our line of sight, and in one of which the apex 
of the tetrahedron is turned towards us, and in the other is di- 
rected away from us and the other three corners presented to 
us. As the molecules are, of course, in rapid motion, we must 
consider all other positions as balancing each other, and being re- 
solved eventually into these two directions. It is then easy to 
see, as it is now accepted from Fizeau's work that the movement 
of molecules is capable of influencing the direction of light-waves, 
that there must be two oppositely moving circularly polarized 
rays produced. Now, it is generally supposed that the rotation of 
liquids is really due to the division of the light into two circularly 
and oppositely polarized rays, one of which, however, is stronger 
than the other, and determines the apparent optical activity. Dr. 
Fock completes his theory by showing the probability that there 
would be just this difference in the amount of rotation of the 
light in the two cases of the differently disposed molecules, those 
with their ' ( apices " turned towards the direction of incidence of 
the light affecting it to a different extent ' from those whose 
•' bases " were the first to receive it. The theory is well worth 
following out in the original memoir, many confirmations of it 
being adduced from other properties of hemihedral crystals. 

— Sefior Felipe Poey, the renowned Cuban philosopher and 
naturalist, is dead. He was born in Havana, May 26, 1799, and 
studied law in Madrid, where he was implicated in a political con- 
spiracy, and from whence he fled to Paris. There he published in 
1828 " La Centurie des Lepidop teres," and helped to found the 
French Entomological Society. He returned to Havana after the 
revolution of 1830, was commissioned in 1887 to organize a 
museum of natural history, and became one of its directors. 
Soon afterwards he was appointed professor of natural history in 
the University of Havana. In 1840 he published a school geog- 
raphy of the Island of Cuba, and in 1842 a more extensive work 
on the same subject, and a " Qeografia Universal." In 1864 he 
published " Memorias Sobre la Historia Natural de la Isla de Cuba," 
with Spanish, French, and Latin text. In 1865 he started a 
monthly periodical entitled Repertorio Fisico- Natural de la Isla 
de Cuba, in which he described upward of two hundred and thirty 
new species of fishes, as well as the ciguatera, or jaundice, caused 
by eating certain Cuban fishes. He also published some remark- 
able poems. He was a member of the Smithsonian Institution, 
and a corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences. 

— Some time ago M. Berthelot, judging from a text of the 
eleventh century, formed the opinion that the word "bronze" 
was derived from "Brundusium," or Brindisi. We learn from 
Nature of Jan. 29 that this view has been confirmed by the dis- 
covery of a passage in a document of the time of Charlemagne, 
where reference is made to the " composition of Brundusium ; " 
copper, two parts ; lead, one part ; tin, one part. It would appear 
that at Brundusium* bronze was in ancient times manufactured on 
a great scale. 



104 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 420 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN DOCTRINE OF SOULS. 1 

In the second of two interesting papers on the manners, cus- 
toms, superstitions, and religions of South African tribes (Journal 
of the Anthropological Institute, vol. xiz. No. 3, and vol. xx. No. 
2), the Rev. James Macdonald, who has had ample opportunities 
of studying the subject, has a good deal to say about the doctrine 
of souls which prevails among the aborigines of South Africa. It 
is extremely difficult, he explains, to discover what the people 
really believe about the spirit- world, so many and varied are the 
traditions relating to it. There are, however, certain outstanding 
facts common to all ; and of these Mr. Macdonald gives a clear 
and instructive account. 

All human beings are supposed to have souls, but their souls are 
not believed to be entirely confined to the body. A man's soul 
may, it is thought, occupy the roof of his hut; and, if he changes 
his residence, his soul does so at the same time. Mr. Macdonald 
takes this to be a loose and indefinite way of expressing " the be- 
lief that a man's spirit may have influence at a distance from the 
place where he is himself at any time." The people often use the 
word 4i zitunzela," from u izitunzi " ("shadows "), to express their 
ideas of human spirits and the unseen world generally; and this 
is " the nearest description that can be obtained." A man is con- 
stantly attended by the shadows or spirits of his ancestors as well 
as his own, but the spirit of one who dies without speaking to his 
children shortly before death never visits his descendants except 
for purposes of evil. In such cases magicians or priests offer 
costly sacrifices to prevent misfortune and death. 

Great importance is attached to dreams or visions, which are 
supposed to be due to spirit influence. When the same dream 
comes more than once, the dreamer consults the magicians, who 
profess to receive revelations through dreams. If the dreamer 
has seen "a departed relative," the magician eays, "He is 
hungry." Then a beast is killed; the blood is collected, and 
placed in a vessel at the side of the hut farthest from the door ; 
the liver is hung up in the hut, and must not be eaten until all 
the flesh of the animal has been used. The " essence " of the 
food is " withdrawn" by the spirit during the night, and after a 
specified time all may be eaten except the portions which the 
magician orders to be burned. 

Ancestor- worship is not only professed by the South African 
tribes, but « 4 they actually regulate their conduct by it." 8ays 
Mr. Macdonald, — 

" If a man has a narrow escape from accident and death, he 
says, ' My father's soul saved me,' and he offers a sacrifice of 

1 From Nature. 



thanksgiving accordingly. In cases of sickness, propitiatory 
sacrifices are offered to remove the displeasure of the ancestors, 
and secure a return of their favor. Should any one neglect a 
national custom in the conduct of 'his affairs, he must offer sacri- 
fice to avert calamity as the consequence of his neglect. When 
offering propitiatory sacrifices, the form of prayer used by the 
priest is, 'Ye who are above, accept our offering and remove 
our trouble.' In freewill offerings, as in escape from danger, or 
at the ripening oC crops, the prayer takes the following form : 
* Ye who are above, accept the food we have provided for you, 
smell our offering now burning, and grant us prosperity and 
peace ' " 

Animals are not supposed to have souls, neither are inanimate 
objects ; but spirits may reside in inanimate objects, and their 
presence has an influence on many customs and habits. A strik- 
ing example of such influence was afforded during the rebellion 
of 1879, when Umhlonhlo, after the murder of the British Resident, 
was one day marching in a leisurely manner across country with 
his whole army. The forenoon was hot, and not a cloud was to 
be seen. Presently the magicians noticed on the horizon a 
peculiarly shaped cloud. "It rose rapidly in one mass, and 
4 rolled upon itself.' Its movements were intently watched till it 
approached the zenith and passed over the sun. This was an evil 
omen. For some unknown cause the spirits were mortally 
offended, and had come over the army in shadow at noonday. In 
grief and sorrow their backs were turned upon their children, and 
the result of this would be certain defeat and disaster. There was, 
however, no immediate danger. That morning's scouts had re- 
ported that there were no troops within many miles of their line 
of march, and they could repair to some sacred place to offer 
sacrifices and make atonement. While they were discussing which 
place to repair to for this purpose, the van of a small column of 
cavalry appeared unexpectedly over a rising ground. Dismay . 
struck into every heart. The war minister urged his men to form 
into order of battle. No one answered his summons. He did hia 
best to organize an orderly retreat, but in vain. Not a blow was 
struck, and every man took to his heels, making for the nearest 
hiding-place in mountain or forest. That army never re-assembled. 
Black-hearted fear utterly demoralized it." 

Water or river spirits play a great part in South African 
mythology. They inhabit deep pools where there are strong eddies 
and undercurrents. They are dwarfs, and are of a malignant dis- 
position, which they display by greedily seizing on any one who 
comes within their reach. They are, of course, greatly feared; 
and the popular dread of them is shown in a way which has been 
known in many different parts of the world. Mr. Macdonald 
gives the following example : — 

"Some years ago a number of Gcaleka girls were, on a fine 
summer day, bathing in the Bashee. One of them got beyond 
her depth, and began to struggle in the water, and cry for help. 
Her companions promptly raised the alarm, and two men working 
close by ran down to the water's edge. She was still struggling 
feebly, but to the onlookers it was a clear case of being ' called ' 
by the river, and they made no attempt to save her. The body 
was recovered by the magicians the same day, when it was found 
she had been drowned in less than five feet of water. All this 
came to the ears of 0. G. H. Bell. Esq., the English Resident; and 
he cited the parties, magicians and all, to appear before him in 
court. The two men not only admitted that they could have 
waded to the spot where they saw her struggling, but also said 
the water would not be * more than breast deep.' They had made 
no effort to save her, as it would be ' improper and dangerous to* 
interfere when one is called by the river.' Mr. Bell tried to argue 
them out of such absurd notions, but to little purpose, and finally 
came to the conclusion that ' Fix months hard ' might be more 
effectual in eradicating superstition than all bis philosophy, and 
six months hard it accordingly was." 

Mr. Macdonald says there is no periodical process of purging or 
driving away spirits. Without the presence and aid of magicians* 
ordinary people dare not interfere with these mysterious powers,, 
however malignant and destructive they may become. Although 
a man is guarded by the spirits of bis ancestors, they do not pro- 
tect him from demons or from wizards and witches. A certain 



February 20, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



105 



measure of protection can, however, it is supposed, be obtained by 
the use of charms provided by magicians. On one occasion, when 
war was being carried on with England, the magicians gave the 
soldiers a charm against English bullets. It was the blue flower 
of a species of rhododendron. " Those who carried this talisman 
rushed forward against columns of infantry without a shadow of 
fear or hesitation; and only when men began to bite the dust in 
all directions did the nature of the delusion break upon the army, 
and panic ensue." 

DEAF-MUTE INSTRUCTION.! 

The Sundry Civil Bill grants $52,500 to the Columbia Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb, an increase of $5,000 over former ap- 
propriations. 

President Gallaudet says, " The object of this increase is to en- 
able the directors to enlarge the facilities afforded in the institution 
for normal instruction. For many years the graduates of our 
collegiate department have been in demand as teachers of the 
deaf in the primary schools of the several States. The demand 
for such teachers has far outgrown our limited supply; and as 
no normal school for the training of teachers of the deaf exists in 
this country, while several are sustained in Europe, it has been 
thought extremely desirable that the advantages for normal in- 
struction existing in this institution to a limited degree should be 
increased/' 

In accordance with your suggestion, I submit herewith a brief 
statement of my reasons for opposing this grant, and trust you 
will allow me a hearing before your committee : — 

1. The proposed normal department is a new departure, which 
will probably lead to largely increased appropriations in the future, 
diverting public money to an object foreign to the purposes for 
which the institution was established. 

2. Such a training-school for teachers, supported by the National 
Government, will interfere with that healthy competition which 
now exists between rival methods of instructing the deaf. 

3. In the Columbia Institution a foreign language (the sign- 
language) is used as the medium of instruction, whereas the rival 
methods employ the English language alone for this purpose. 

4. The graduates of the collegiate department are, of course, 
deaf. The institution, therefore, proposes to train deaf persons 
to teach the deaf. This is a backward step, detrimental to the 
best interests of the deaf, and subversive of the very object for 
which the collegiate department exists. 

5. Great efforts are now made to teach deaf children to speak; 
and articulation teachers are employed in all important schools 
for the deaf, with the exception of the collegiate department of 
the Columbia Institution. 

6. The president of the Columbia Institution has stated that 
lack of funds alone prevents the employment of special articula- 
tion teachers in the National College. The increased apropria- 
tion of $5,000 now asked for would, if applied to this purpose, 
not only enable the collegiate department to employ ordinary 
teachers of articulation, but also a professor of elocution, who 
could carry up articulation work to the highest point of perfection 
attainable by the deaf. 

7. I would gladly support an application for $5,000, to be ex- 
pended for the employment of articulation teachers and a professor 
of elocution in the collegiate department of the institution, but I 
would strongly oppose an application for the purposes set forth by 
President Gallaudet. 



REPORT OF PROGRESS IN SPECTRUM WORK." 

During the past year or two a great deal of work has been done 
in the photography of the spectra of elements and the identifica- 
tion of the lines in the solar spectrum, which it will take a long 
time to work up, ready for publication : hence I have thought 
that a short account of what has been done up to the present 
time might be of interest to workers in the subject. In the prosecu- 

1 Open letter of Alexander Graham Bell to Hon. William B. Allison, chair* 
man of the Senate Committee on Appropriations, dated at Washington, D.O., 
Feb. 11. 1891. 

■ From Johns Hopkins University Circulars. 



tion of the work, financial assistance has been received from the 
Rumford Fund of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
as well as from the fund given by Miss Bruce to the Harvard 
Astronomical Observatory for the promotion of research in astro- 
nomical physics, and the advanced state of the work is due to 
such assistance. 
The work may be summed up under the following heads : — 

1. The spectra of all known elements, with the exception of a 
few gaseous ones, or those too rare to be yet obtained, have been 
photographed in connection with the solar spectrum, from the 
extreme ultra-violet down to the D line, and eye-observations 
have been made on many to the limit of the solar spectrum. 

2. A measuring-engine has been constructed with a screw to fit 
the above photographs, which, being taken with the concave 
grating, are all normal spectra and to the same scale. This en- 
gine measures wave-lengths direct, so that no multiplication is 
necessary, but only a slight correction to get figures correct to 
! J^j of a division of Angstrom. 

3. A table of standard wave-lengths of the impurities in the 
carbons, extending to wave-length 2000, has been constructed to 
measure wave-lengths beyond the limits of the solar spectrum. 

4. Maps of the spectra of some of the elements have been drawn 
on a large scale, ready for publication. 

5. The greater part of the lines in the map of the solar spec- 
trum have been identified, and the substance producing them 
noted. 

6. The following rough arrangement of the solar elements has 
been constructed entirely according to my own observations, 
although, of course, most of them have been given by others : 
according to intensity, calcium, iron, hydrogen, sodium, nickel,, 
magnesium, cobalt, silicon, aluminum, titanium, chromium, 
manganese, strontium, vanadium, barium, carbon, scandium, 
yttrium, zirconium, molybdenum, lanthanum, niobium, palla- 
dium, neodymium, copper, zinc, cadmium, cerium, glucinum, 
germanium, rhodium, silver, tin, lead, erbium, potassium; ac- 
cording to number, iron (2000 or more), nickel, titanium, manga- 
nese, chromium, cobalt, carbon (200 or more), vanadium, zir- 
conium, cerium, calcium (75 or more), scandium, neodymium, 
lanthanum, yttrium, niobium, molybdenum, palladium, magne- 
sium (20 or, more), sodium (11), silicon, strontium, barium, 
aluminum (4), cadmium, rhodium, erbium, zinc, copper (2), silver 
(2)* glucinum (2), germanium, tin, lead (1), potassium (1) ; doubt- 
ful elements, iridium, osmium, platinum, rutheqium, tantalum, 
thorium, tungsten, uranium ; not in the solar spectrum, antimony, 
arsenic, bismuth, boron, nitrogen (vacuum tube), caesium, gold, 
indium, mercury, phosphorus, rubidium, selenium, sulphur, 
thallium, praeseodymium ; substances not yet tried, bromine, 
chlorine, iodine, fluorine, oxygen, tellurium, gallium, hoimium, 
thulium, terbium, etc. 

These lists are to be accepted as preliminary only, especially the 
order in the first portion. However, being made with such a 
powerful instrument and with such care in the determination of 
impurities, they must still have a weight superior to most others 
published. 

I do not know which are the new ones, but call attention to 
silicon, vanadium, scandium, yttrium, zirconium, glucinum, ger- 
manium, and erbium, as being possibly new. 

Silicon has lines on my map at wave-lengths 3905.7, 4103.1, 
5708.7, 5772.3, and 6048.7. That at 3905.7 is the largest and most 
certain. That at 4103. 1 is also claimed by manganese. 

The substances under '* not in the solar spectrum " are often 
placed there because the elements have few strong lines or none 
at all in the limit of the solar spectrum when the arc spectrum, 
which I have used, is employed. Thus boron has only two strong 
lines at 2497. Again, the lines of bismuth are all compound, and 
so too diffuse to appear in the solar spectrum. Indeed, some good 
reason generally appears for their absence from the solar spectrum* 
Of course, this is little evidence of their absence from the sun itself. 

Indeed, were the whole earth heated to the temperature of the 
sun, its spectrum would probably resemble that of the sun very 
closely. 

With the high dispersion here used, the " basic lines " of Lock- 
yer are widely broken up, and cease to exist. Indeed, it would 



io6 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 420 



be difficult to prove any thing except accidental coincidences 
among the lines of the different elements. Accurate investigation 
generally reveals some slight difference of wave-length or a com- 
mon impurity., 

Furthermore, the strength of the lines in the solar spectrum is 
generally very nearly the same as that in the electric arc, with 
only a few exceptions, as, for instance, calcium. The cases 
mentioned by Lockyer are generally those where he mistakes 
groups of lines for single lines, or even mistakes the character of 
the line entirely. Altogether there seems to be very little evidence 
of the breaking-up of the elements in the sun, as far as my experi- 
ments go. 

Even after comparing the solar spectrum with all known ele- 
ments, there are still many important lines not accounted for. 
Some of these I have accounted for by silicon, and there are 
probably many more. Of all known substances, this is the most 
difficult to bring out the lines in the visible spectrum, although it 
Jias a fine ultra-violet one. Possibly iron may account for many 
more, and all the elements at a higher temperature might develop 
more. Then, again, very rare elements, like scandium, vanadium, 
etc., when they have a strong spectrum, may cause strong solar 
lines, and thus we may look for new and even rare elements to 
account for very many more.' Indeed, I find many lines ac- 
counted for by the rare elements in gadolinite, samarskite, and 
fergusonite other than yttrium, erbium, scandium, praeseodymium, 
neodymium, lanthanum, and cerium, which I cannot identify 
yet, and which may be without a name. For this reason, and to 
discover rare elements, I intend finally to try unknown minerals, 
as my process gives me an easy method of detecting any new 
substance or analyzing minerals however many elments they may 
contain. 

The research is much indebted to the faithful and careful work 
of Mr. L. E. Jewell, who has acted as my assistant for several 
years. Preliminary publications of results will be made in the 
University Circulars. 

Among the latest results I may mention the spectroscopic sepa- 
ration of yttrium into three components, and the actual separa- 
tion into two. Henry A. Rowland. 



DUTCH BORNEO. 



Little is known of the interior of the Island of Borneo, and 
therefore the information supplied by Heer S. W. Tromp in the 
Tijdschrift van het Kon. Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genoot., 
Deel vii. No. 4, though incomplete, is very acceptable. In 1885 
he steamed up the Mahakam River to Muvara-Pahu, a village 
about 190 miles from the sea. Near the coast the land is flat, and 
is being laid out in rice-fields. It would also, in Heer Tromp's 
opinion, be suitable for the cultivation of sugar-cane. Farther up 
the river, hilly country is entered, covered with a layer of yel- 
lowish-red soil, of little value for agriculture. After eight hours* 
steaming from Samarinda, Heer Tromp passed the mouth of the 
Sebulu River, and two hours and a half later reached Naga- 
Beulur. Here the hills, which extend from Pelarang (a short 
distance below Samarinda), suddenly terminate, and the river 
emerges through a narrow channel from a level tract, stretching 
northwards probably to the frontier of Berau, which was for-, 
jnerly the bed of a large lake. Even now this depression is 
not entirely filled up. Meres and morasses of large area lie on 
either side of the Mahakam, and when the water is high, that is, 
during the greater part of the year, a large proportion of the 
country is submerged. The district of the Upper Mahakam is 
inhabited by a tribe of Dyaks, known as Bahau-Dyaks in Eutei, 
and elsewhere as Pari-Dyaks. Their number is estimated at 4,500. 
Formerly they were notorious bead-hunters, and were much 
dreaded in the Baritu valley, but of late greater security has been 
established by the interference of the Sultan of Kutei. 

The development of the country, however, has not been accel- 
erated thereby, for, with the festivals held on the bringing-home 
of heads, has also disappeared the stimulus to industry. Large 
sums were formerly expended in gala-dresses for the women, of 
silk adorned with beads; and tobacco and rice were provided in 
1 From the Soottish. Geographical Magazine for February, 1891. 



abundance. Moreover, the Buginese dealers, as they have circu- 
lated more freely through the country, have introduced hazard 
and cock-fighting, with the most disastrous consequences. The 
steamer in which Heer Tromp travelled was unable to ascend the 
river beyond Muvara-Pahu, but he himself advanced some dis- 
tance farther in a rowing-boat. As far as Juhalang the river is 
easily navigable; but beyond, the current is too strong, except 
when the water is abnormally low, and at Kapala-kiham a series 
of waterfalls practically limits the navigation. 

Hence the difficulty of extending Dutch rule into Upper Kutei. 
Indeed, communication with Sarawak along the Seliku, one of 
the mosc important abluents of the Mahakam, which rises in the 
Batu-Tibang opposite the sources of one of the tributaries of the 
Batang-Rejang, seems to be more feasible than with the Lower 
Mebakam. It is also possible to reach the Upper Kayan by the 
Boh River, which enters the Mahakam above the first fall; but it 
necessitates a journey of eight days on the river, and three over 
uneven and stony country to the highest navigable 4 point of the 
Laya, a tributary of the Kayan. In the last-mentioned river an 
obstruction is said to exist even more formidable than the falls on 
the Mahakam. This remote country is inhabited by a number of 
Dyak tribes, which, as well as the Bahau-Dyaks of the Malakam, 
the Kenyas of the Upper Kayan, and others, had their home 
originally near the sources of Kayan. Since such insurmountable 
obstacles to communication exist on the routes already discussed, 
Heer Tromp turns his attention to the Kapuas River on the west. 
He passes over the lower course of the river up to Bunut with 
only a few cursory remarks, as it has been already described by 
Professor Veth in his Borneo's Westerafdeeling. The town of 
Bunut, at the mouth of a tributary of the same name, is the 
capital of the last Malayan kingdom. 

Several affluents enter the main stream before the next town of 
any importance, Putus-Sibow, is reached. Here the Dyaks carry 
on a considerable trade with the Malay dealers, bartering the 
products of their forests against copper utensils, salt, tobacco, 
linen, crockery, etc. In 1888 Heer Tromp ascended this river, 
the Kapuas, in a steamer as far as the mouth of the Mendalam, a 
distance of 400 miles from the sea. It will be seen at once that it 
possesses a great advantage over the Mahakam, on which naviga- 
tion is possible only for a distance of 250 miles. 

Moreover, the Mendalam can be ascended by steamer, and Heer 
Tromp continued his journey in a boat up the Kapuas itself as 
far as Lunsa. Hajji Ac h met, a native clerk, ascended the Bongan 
River, which enters the Kapuas at Lunsa, and its affluent the 
Bulet, to a point whence, he heard, the Seputan, a tributary of 
the Kaso, which flows into the Mahakam, could be reached in a 
day's march. This appears probable, for nowhere in this country 
are elevations of any great height to be seen. The Taman-Dyaks, 
who dwell on the Upper Kapuas, are more civilized than the 
Bahaus or the Kayans. Their women wear tasteful sarongs 
ornamented with beads and shells, and do not tattoo themselves, 
like the Kayan women. 



EDUCATION IN GERMANY. 1 

The resolutions arrived at by the Conference on School Reform 
in Berlin may be summed up as follows : — 

(1) Only two kinds of high schools are to survive, — gymnasia 
and non-Latin or non-classical schools (oberrealschulen and hdhere 
burgerschulen). A common lower school for gymnasia and non- 
Latin schools, so warmly advocated by many, is considered un- 
desirable. The change from the one school to the other will be 
facilitated in every possible manner. 

(2) The over-pressure, which is 'one of the most crying evils at 
the present time, is to be greatly reduced. A diminution of the 
hours devoted to Latin and Greek is considered possible, without 
any risk to the supremacy of classics. The Latin essay is to be 
abolished, as well as the Greek translation, in the written exami- 
nation for remove into the prima. German is to become the chief 
subject of instruction. Contemporary history is to be more 
thoroughly studied, without, however, adding to the hours as- 
signed to history. 

1 From the London Journal of Education. 



February 20, 1891.] 



SCIENCE, 



107 



(3) Especial stress is laid on tbe fact that home tasks are not to 
be increased ; that the bulk of the work should be performed in 
school ; and that, with this object in view, an alteration in the 
present method of teaching is absolutely necessary. 

(4) For the teacher, more thorough pedagogic education and a 
higher social status are insisted on.' 

(5) Teachers should not be specialists, but form masters, and 
should realize their responsibility for tbe physical as well as the 
intellectual development of their pupils. Greater attention should 
be paid to the health of the boys, and to the demands of hygiene 
in tbe schools. 

(6) The final school examination (which serves as entrance ex- 
amination to the university) should be regarded as the "remove " 
examination out of the oberprima, and consequently should be 
restricted to work done in this class. The Latin essayMs hence^ 
forth to be abolished, and the examination in other respects made 
considerably easier. 

In order to meet the probable growing demand for hohere 
burgerschulen and realschulen, the conference passed a number 
of resolutions, the most important of which were that gymnasia 
or realgymnasia, where only a small proportion of the pupils pass 
into tbe upper classes, should be turned into realschulen ; that in 
towns where there are several gymnasia or realgymnasia, if 
possible, one of these should be turned into a realschule. In tbe 
establishment of new schools, preference is to be given to real- 
schulen, but at the same time the interests of the minority of the 
inhabitants of small towns without gymnasia are to be considered 
by having Latin instruction given where desired in the three 
lowest classes, so that pupils who are intended for a gymnasium 
may be prepared for it without leaving their homes at too early 
an age. 

The salaries of the teachers in the realschulen are to be on the 
8a me scale as those in the gymnasia. 

It is thought likely that the demand for realschulen will in- 
crease, now that a leaving-certificate from a realschule qualifies 
for all the lower government posts, and for the one year's military 
service. There is to be a special examination for this privilege in 
the gymnasia at the end of the year in the unter secunda. 

Another reform is the putting of gymnasia and realschulen on 
an equal footing with regard to the right of study for all degrees 
in the university and technical high schools (these are of the 
nature of technico scientific universities). The only condition for 
realschule students is the completion of their leaving-certificate by 
certificates of their proficiency in classics, while gymnasium stu- 
dents must obtain certificates of proficiency in drawing and mathe- 
matics. Moreover, the school authorities have the right to excuse 
good pupils from the gymnasium or realschule this supplemen- 
tary examination; also every candidate who has passed the final 
examination of a nine-class high-school shall -be admitted to all 
state examinations, if, during his term of study, he passes the 
necessary special examination which he has omitted during his 
school career. It is these reforms which are really the most im- 
portant, for they make it possible to carry out the proposed changes 
without injuring the interests of many classes. 

The committee for the carrying-out of the reforms resolved upon 
in the conference held its first meeting in Berlin on Jan. 6. The 
committee consists of Geheimrath Hinzpeter as chairman; Dr. 
Schrador, curator of the Halle University, as vice-chairman ; Dr. 
Fiedler of Breslau; Dr. Graf of Elberfeld; Dr. Kropatscheck of 
Berlin; Dr. Schlee, director of the Bealgymnasium of Altona; and 
Dr. Uhlhorn of Hannover. The members of the Council for Educa- 
tion are not on the reform committee, but several of them are ap- 
pointed to draw up the report. The committee agreed as to the 
reforms necessary for raising the social standing of the teacher, 
and on the conditions for the right to one year's military service. 
The next general meeting is to be held in February, and mean- 
while the work of reform is to be furthered by private consulta- 
tions. 

Reforms have already been initiated in Wurtemburg gymnasia. 
They are divided into ten classes, of which Class I. is the lowest. 
The chief alteration is that Latin is to be begun in Class II. in- 
stead of Class I., in which the average age is eight. In the low- 
est class the time is to be spent in mastering reading, writing, and 



the elements of arithmetic; also Greek is to be begun in the fifth' 
instead of tbe fourth, the average age of which is eleven. Then 
the time devoted to classics is to be curtailed in all classes, so that 
from the second to the sixth not more than ten hours, from the 
seventh to the tenth not more than eight hours, are given to 
classics in the week. This means a reduction from 102 hours to 
82 hours in all the classes reckoned together. The number of 
school-hours Is not to be diminished, but the time saved is to be 
given to other subjects. German is to have 28 hours as against 
26, French 18 instead of 16, mathematics 89 instead of 87, physi- 
ography 16 instead of 10, and obligatory drawing in Classes IV. 
to VI. 7 hours, whereas before no time was devoted to this sub- 
ject. 

The chief feature of the reform programme is the emphasis laid 
on making grammar the handmaid of literature, on mastering 
the text, and gaining a knowledge of grammar by study of it 
rather than making grammar an aim in itself. The official pub- 
lications point out tbe fact that these alterations are compara- 
tively insignificant, and that the Wurtemberg educational author- 
ities consider the time not yet ripe for extensive reforms, more 
especially as the resolutions passed by the Berlin School Confer- 
ence really tend to make the gymnasia of Prussia more nearly 
resemble those of Wurtemburg. For instance : the gymnasium 
in Wurtemberg has no Latin essay, and the division of secondary 
schools into gymnasia and non-clas3icaI realschulen is already 
carried out. » 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

*** Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name 
is in all cases required as proof of good faith. 

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character 
of the journal. 

On request, twenty copies of the number containing his communication will 
be furnished free to any correspondent. 

Discovery of Fish-Remains in Lower Silurian Rocks. 

At a meeting of the Biological Society of Washington on Feb. 
7, 1891, Mr. Charles D. Walcott of the United States Geological 
Survey announced the discovery of vertebrate life in the Lower 
Silurian (Ordovician) strata. He stated that " the remains were 
found in a sandstone resting on the pre-paleozoic rocks of the 
eastern front of the Rocky Mountains, near Canon City, Col. 
They consist of an immense number of separate plates of placo- 
ganoid fishes and many fragments of the calcified covering of the 
notochord, of a form provisionally referred to the Ela&mdbranchii. 
The accompanying invertebrate fauna has the facies of the 
Trenton fauna of New York* and the Mississippi valley. It ex- 
tends upward into the superjacent limestone and at an horizon 
180 feet above the fish-beds. Seventeen out of thirty- three species 
that have been distinguished are identical with species occurring 
in the Trenton limestone of Wisconsin and New York. 

" Great interest centres about this discovery from the fact that 
we now have some of the ancestors of the great group of placoderm 
fishes which appear so suddenly at the close of the Upper Silurian 
and in the lower portion of the Devonian groups. It also carries 
the vertebrate fauna far back into the Silurian, and indicates that 
the differentiation between tbe invertebrate and vertebrate types 
probably occurred in Cambrian time/' 

Mr. Walcott is preparing a full description of the stratigrapbic 
section, mode of occurrence, and character of the invertebrate and 
vertebrate faunas, for presentation at the meeting of the Geological 
Society of America in August, 1801. L. A. 

Washington, Feb. 10. 

Was Lake Iroquois an Arm of the Sea ? 

In Science recently Professor Davis stated several reasons lead- 
ing to the belief that the Iroquois beach was formed by a lake 
instead of being formed by the sea, as held by Professor Spencer. 
It is possible that both theories are partly right, and that there 
was once a lake overflowing the divide at Rome, while later the 
basin of Lake Ontario or its eastern portion was occupied by the 
sea. It is not my present purpose to enter into a general discus- 
sion of tbe question, but to call attention to a class of deposits 



io8 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 420 



which appear Dot to have heretofore been described in connection 
with this question. 

For instance: in the town of Schroeppel, Oswego County, N.Y., 
and extending across the Oneida River (outlet of Oneida Lake) 
for several miles into Clay, Onondaga County, there is a plain of 
much rolled and rounded bowlderets, cobbles, pebbles, gravel, and 
sand. Many of the stones, especially the larger ones, are com- 
posed of crystalline rocks from Canada. In the miu>t of the plain 
are numerous depressions, some of them containing one hundred 
acres or more. The deeper depressions are occupied by lakes 
without visible outlets, usually bordered by steep banks of sand 
or gravel up to seventy-five feet high. The smaller hollows pre- 
sent the well-known phenomenon of kettle- holes surrounded by 
reticulated kames, some of which are shown by excavations to 
have an anticlinal stratification. The coarser material is more 
abundant toward the north, and the sediments become finer in 
composition as we go south and south-eastward. At the same 
time the hollows become shallower, and the deposit expands some- 
what in fan shape. Many of the shallower hollows contain 
swamps, once* ponds, now peated over or filled with humus and 
silt oftea containing fresh-water shells. The plains of sand and 
gravel are bordered by broad plains of clay or silt. Some of the 
clays contain fresh-water shells ; but my observations were made 
some years ago, and are not detailed enough to determine whether 
any of the foesiliferons clays are contemporaneous with the sand 
and gravel plains. Spme of them are plainly later. 

In Maine I have had opportunity to study scores of the deltas 
dropped by glacial rivers near where they entered the sea at a 
time it stood above its present level. They present the same 
proofs of a gradual stopping of the currents as are shown in the 
plain above described. The coarser fragments were first dropped 
as the rivers entered still water, and the assortment proceeded as 
their rate became slower, until at last the finest clay and rock- 
flour settled on the bottom of the water. The plain at the Oneida 
River has substantially the same structure as the deposits which I 
have described in Maine as deltas of glacial sediments : 1 therefore 
regard the plain as having been deposited by glacial rivers in still 
water in front of the ice. but not far from the ice- front. The 
assortment is more systematic, and takes place within less distance 
than is found in the frontal plain deposited in front of the ice on 
land sloping away from the glacier. This I regard as proof that 
the slopes of the land at that place were northward in glacial 
time, as they are at present. According to this interpretation, 
certain conclusions follow: 1. At a certain time the central part 
of the basin of Lake Ontario was still occupied by land-ice. which 
extended south to near the present Oneida River ; 2. At this time 
south of the ice-front there was a body of open water, which at 
this place was fifteen or more miles wide; 3. The broad and deep 
sheets of gravel, sand, and clay which now cover the site of this 
open water are composed chiefly of the sediments of glacial rivers 
pouring from the north into still water, and dropping their burden. 

If it be claimed that these sediments represent a sheet of glacial 
till which was eroded by the waves and re-deposited as aqueous 
sediment, then the material should grow finer as we go north- 
ward away from the Iroquois beach, whereas at the Oneida River 
we have the opposite arrangement. If it be claimed that these 
sediments were the result of wave-erosion of the solid rock, we 
have a right to demand that the system of beach-cliffs adequate 
to furnish so great a mass shall be pointed out to us. There are 
hundreds of square miles covered with sediments which in many 
places are known to be eighty or a hundred feet thick. The 
small amount of wave-erosion required to form the beach is in 
remarkable contrast with the scarp of erosion required by this 
theory. Moreover, any erosion hypothesis must assume a much 
greater erosion of the till than even the Atlantic was able to 
accomplish on the const of Maine during its elevation in late gla- 
cial and post-glacial time. And if we suppose this drift to have 
its origin in any form of floating ice, how shall we account for the 
deep kettle-holes and reticulated ridges, or for the attrition which 
rounded the cobbles and bowlderets in tracts extending at right 
angles to the beach, or for the horizontal assortment of the sedi- 
ments, they growing finer as we go south ? I see no admissible 
theory except that above stated. 



It would appear that any hypothesis of the marine origin of the 
Iroquois beach must concede that the central part of the basin of 
Lake Ontario was still covered by land-ice at the time when a 
body of water ten to thirty miles broad lay to the south of the 
ice-front. Into this body of water great glacial rivers flowed, so 
that it was practically a body of fresh water, even if at sea-level. 

In addition to the delta plain above described, there are in the 
region other deposits that are probably glacial sediments, but I 
have not examined the country lying east of the plain in question 
so systematically as to be certain. If a line of frontal deltas can 
be traced eastward and westward, it will enable us to map the 
ice-front of that period. The relation of such a series to the 
Iroquois beach, especially in the country situated north and 
north-east of Watertown, would greatly help to decide the ques- 
tion whether the body of water that lay south of the ice was a 
lake or an arm of the sea. G. H. Stone. 

Colorado Springs, Col., Feb. 6. 



Rain-Formation. 



In vour issue of Feb. 6 Professor Hazen has produced a table 
whereby it is intended to show that "on an average more than 
half the rain at Pike's Peak occurs with a falling temperature ; " 
and from subsequent remarks in his letter it appears that the 
professor hereby means to say that the surface air grew gradually 
colder while this rain was falling, at which, to him, extraordinary 
result he expresses his surprise. 

To an ordinary individual it may not seem surprising if rainfall 
should have the effect of lowering the temperature of the surface- 
air, when it is considered that the raindrops descend from colder 
upper regions, and in all probability generally first appear as 
snow-flakes, and also, though not so much, that the clouds pre- 
vent the sun from keeping up the temperature of the surface-air; 
but I shall allow myself to point out that whether the downpour 
has the effect of changing the temperature of the surface-air or 
not, cannot possibly be ascertained from observations at Pike's 
Peak or any other isolated station. 

Let us take the case before us of rain having fallen at Pike's 
Peak for ten hours with a falling thermometer, and that the 
wind was blowing during that time at a rate of about twenty 
miles an hour. The surface-air which during the ten hours passes 
the station at Pike's Peak will then represent a body of air two 
hundred miles long ; and when the rain set in it may have been 
located on lower land. The eleven readings of the thermometer 
give us, therefore, the temperature of air-bodies located at dis- 
tances of twenty miles from one another, and taken, not all at the 
same moment, but at eleven different hours; and I should feel 
obliged to Professor Hazen if he would explain how it is possible 
to deduce from these readings whether the surface-air as such 
grew colder or warmer during the fail of rain. 

It is probably from drawing inferences of this nature that the 
professor arrives at such apparent anomalies as when he makes 
the following amazing statement: "While it might be thought 
that a falling temperature in a saturated air would tend to pro- 
duce rainfall, such is by no means the fact. There are many 
cases in which a fall of from ten to fifteen degrees of Fahrenheit 
has occurred in saturated air witBout any corresponding rainfall." 
Here is really no anomaly. The air which passed the place of 
observation was all saturated, and the air which came first had a 
temperature ten to fifteen degrees higher than the temperature of 
the air which afterwards passed by ; but Professor Hazen infers 
that it was the same air he was examining all the time, and con- 
sequently wonders why it wouldn't rain when saturated air "got 
chilled." Franz A. Vedschow, C.E. 

Brooklyn, N.T., Feb. 18. 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 

Social Diseases and Worse Remedies. By T. H. Huxley. New 
York, Macmillan. 16°. 30 cents. 

This pamphlet contains a series of letters published a few weeks 
since in the London Times, criticising quite severely the scheme 
for relieving poverty devised by Mr. Booth, the " general" of the 
Salvation Army. In his first letter Mr. Huxley condemned the 



February 20, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



IO9 



scheme, partly because of its socialistic character, but mainly be- 
cause in his opinion the Salvation Army was liable to degenerate 
into "a mere engine of fanatical intolerance and personal am- 
bition." The publication of this letter, however, brought him a 
large amount of new information, some of it coming from persons 
that had been officers of the Salvation Army, and all tending to 
show that his apprehensions were amply justified. It appears 
that the officers are all under obligation, like the Jesuits, to 
" ' obey, without questioning or gainsaying, the orders from 
headquarters;' " and it further appears from evidence that has not 
been questioned that large sums of money and other property 
originally contributed by the public have been ' ' handed over to 
Mr. Booth and his heirs and assigns." This property is ostensibly 
held in trust, but Mr. Huxley shows that there is no legal 
obligation to that effect. He also criticises some of Mr. Booth's 
social theories, remarking that ' ( with thrift and self-respect de- 
nounced as sin, with the suffering of starving men referred to the 
sins of the capitalist, the Gospel according to Mr. Booth may save 
souls, but it will hardly save society." 

The result is, that Mr. Booth's schemes are unqualifiedly con- 
demned, while at the same time the author of the letters shows 
that he realizes the misery of the poor, and the danger it threatens 
to society, as fully as any one. Indeed, he seems to us to exag- 
gerate the social danger, remarking that " unless this remediable 
misery is effectually dealt with, the hordes of vice and pauperism 
will destroy modern civilization as effectually as uncivilized tribes 
of another kind destroyed the great social organization which 
preceded ours." He also reprints an essay published in a maga- 
zine in 1888, in which he takes a very pessimistic view of the 
problem of poverty ; but the only remedy he proposes is technical 
education, which to our mind is altogether inadequate. The 
whole pamphlet, however, is very interesting, and should be read 
by every one who is concerned for the welfare of the laboring 
poor. 

AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 

The American Academy of Political and Social Science will 
shortly issue a translation of Professor Meitzen's work on sta- 
tistics. English literature on this subject is so meagre, that every 
one interested either in its theoretical or practical aspects will be 
glad to learn of this accession to our stock of scientific material. 
Dr. R. P. Falkner of the University of Pennsylvania has made 
the translation. 

— " Therapeutic Sarcognomy: a New Science of Soul, Brain, 
and Body," is the title of a forthcoming work from the house of 
the J. G. Cupples Company, Boston. The author is Professor J. 
R. Buchanan. 

— In the Illustrated American for the week ending Feb. 21 
there are illustrations of some of the treasures, in the way of old 
books and bric-a-brac, that are contained in the collection of Mr. 
Bray ton Ives, about to be sold. 

— " Liberty in Literature " is the title of a small volume, well 
printed and neatly bound, recently published by the Truth-Seeker 
Company of this city. It is an address delivered by Robert G. 
Ingersoll at Horticultural Hall, Philadelphia, on Oct. 21, 1890, on 
the occasion of a testimonial to Walt Whitman. A portrait of 
the aged "good gray poet " illustrates the volume. 

— N. D. C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place, New York, has now in 
press a work by Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, entitled "The American 
Race : a Linguistic Classification and Ethnographic Description of 
the Native Tribes of North and South America." It is the first 
attempt ever made to classify all the Indian tribes by their lan- 

. guages, and it also treats of their customs, religions, physical 
traits, arts, antiquities, and traditions. The work comprises the 
results of several years of study in this special field. 

. — Professor Morey of Rochester University, the author of 
" Roman Law," has submitted a paper to the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science on* " The Genesis of our Written 
Constitutions," which will shortly be issued by that body. He 
attempts to show, that, so far from Mr. Gladstone's famous words 
relating to the origin of the Constitution of the United States 



being true, that instrument was a legitimate development of the 
Constitution of the Colonies then existing, which in their turn had 
grown out of the charters of the old trading-companies. 

— " The Harpur Euclid," just published by Rivington of London, 
and Longmans, Green, & Co., of New York, is an edition of 
Euclid's " Elements " revised in accordance with the reports of the 
Cambridge Board of Mathematical Studies and the Oxford Board of 
the Faculty of Natural Science. It is the joint production of 
Edwarcl M. Langley, M.A., and W. Seys Phillips, M.A. The 
work is intended to be strictly a school edition of Euclid. While 
retaining his sequence of propositions, and basing their proofs en- 
tirely on his axioms, the editors have not scrupled to replace some 
of his demonstrations by easier ones, and to discard whatever they 
considered superfluous or unnecessary. A good feature of the 
miscellaneous exercises given in the volume is that they are 
taken from widely different sources ; some being original, others 
taken from examination-papers, and still others being well-known 
theorems or problems given by most writers on the same subject, 

— The late work of Henry M. Howe (son of Julia Ward Howe) on 
<( The Metallurgy of Steel" has met with pronounced success. 
It has been warmly commended by many of the scientific journals 
of Europe. We quote some of their opinions : " This work prom- 
ises to become a classic. With a lucid style it combines thorough 
comprehension of the subject and a wise conciseness," says the 
Colliery Guardian, London. Other authoritative opinions are as 
follows : "It is not only the most beautiful book ever published 
about steel, but certainly, also, the most complete and profound " 
{Revue Unv6erselle des Mines, liege, Belgium). " We^ fully in- 
dorse and recommend it to the German metallurgists as one of 
the most important contributions in modern times to the sidero- 
metallurgial science " (Berg-und Huettenmaennische Zeitung, Ber- 
lin, Germany). " This stately quarto is the most exhaustive yet 
written on the subject" (Professor Ledebar, Freiberg, Germany), 
" It is so easily and so far in advance of any thing that has ever 
been published on iron, that it marks an epoch in the literature of 
the subject" (Professor Drown, Institute of Technology, Boston). 

— In the Atlantic for March, in an autobiographic fragment en- 
titled "My Schooling," we are told of James Fweman Clarke's 
early educational training. "The State University in America," 
by George E. Howard, advocates the establishment of universities 
in each State, which shall be universities in something more than 
name, and the relegation of the many colleges of insufficient 
means to a grade intermediate between the school and the uni- 
versity. A paper on " The Speaker as Premier," by Albert Bush- 
nell Hart, is a timely consideration of a question which has been 
much before the public of late. Mr. Lowell continues his articles 
on travel in Japan. Perhaps the most valuable contribution to 
the number is Francis Parkman's first paper on the " Capture of 
Louisbourg by the New England Militia, " an historical study of 
much importance, and with an incidental sketch of theWentworth 
House, at New Castle, Maine, which is very charming. Miss 
Agnes Repplier, in an amusing and thoughtful paper called 
"Pleasure: A Heresy," appeals, not for more cultivation in life, 
but for a recognized habit of enjoyment. The article is full of 
good-natured banter at the expense of the self-consciously cultiva- 
ted persons, who demand from both literature and art, not pleasure, 
but some serious moral purpose. 

— Mark Brickell Kerr, topographer of the National Geographic 
Society's expedition to Mount St. Elias in the summer of 1890, will 
describe the adventures and discoveries of that exploration in the 
March Scribner. The results of his study of glaciers are especially 
valuable, as well as the determination of a new measurement for 
the altitude of this famous Alaskan mountain. Samuel Parsons, 
jun., superintendent of parks for New York City, who has done 
so much to beautify the public fountains with rare water-lilies, 
papyrus, and lotus, will describe the practical means of ornament- 
ing ponds and lakes in the same number. This article will espe- 
cially interest people with small places in the country, having 
natural streams and ponds upon them. 

— In The Chautauguan for March, 1891, we note the following 
contributions: "The Intellectual Development of the English 



no 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No 420 



People," by Edward A. Freeman; "England after the Norman 
Conquest," Part III., by Sarah Orne Jewett; "The English 
Towns," IIL, by Augustus I. Jessopp, D.D. ; "The United States 
of the Pacific, M by Fred. Perry Powers; "Coxcomb and Co- 
quette in Tudor Times," by James A. Harrison, LL.-D. ; "Social 
Reform and the Socialists," by Robert Ellis Thompson, D.D. ; 
"Studies in Astronomy," VI., by Garrett P. Sernss; "Singa- 
pore," by Rev. W. F. Oldham, D.D. ; " Dr. Koch and Consump- 
tion," by J. P. Hassler, M.D.; "Politics and Politicians," by 
Judge Frederick G. Gedney; "The Story of the Opium Curse in 
India," by Bishop John F. Hurst, LL.D. ; " The Woman's World 
of London," by Elizabeth Robbing Pennell; "How Marriage 
affects a Woman's Property," by Lelia Robinson Saw telle, LL.B. ; 
and "To What Kingdom does Woman belong?" by Kate C. 
Bushnell, M.D. 

— C. W. Bardeen of Syracuse sends us a small pamphlet enti- 
tled " Tjedemann's Record of Infant Life." - It is from the French 
translation of a German work, with a commentary interwoven by 
M. Micbelan, the English version being by Bernard Perez. The 
original author, who lived about a century ago, records in this 
work his observations of his own son in the first two years of his 
life, noting down many points that will be interesting to those 
who are engaged in similar researches. The phenomena of child- 
life, as thus recorded by him, differ in many respects from those 
noticed by Darwin and other recent observers,— a fact which 



shows that caution is necessary in generalizing from such obser- 
vations ; but we cannot enter into particulars here. Mr. Bardeen 
also sends us three papers read before the National Educational 
Association at St. Paul in July last. One is by himself, on the 
" Effeot of the College Preparatory High School upon Attendance 
and Scholarship in the Lower Grades," in which he takes the 
ground that the maintenance of a classical course in the public 
high schools helps to raise the whole tone of the school, and is 
therefore useful even to those who take the English course. He 
does not quite make clear, however, how the requisite classical 
scholarship can be secured without beginning the course before 
the usual age for entering the high school. Another of the pa- 
pers is by W. H. Maxwell, on " Examinations as Tests for Pro- 
motion," in which he repeats the well-worn arguments in, favor 
of examinations, but without offering any thing new, and 
showing, as it seems to us, an insufficient sense of the abuses to 
which examinations are apt to lead. Mr. Henry Sabin, State 
superintendent of Iowa, treats of " Organization and System vs. 
Originality and Individuality," taking strong- ground against the 
mechanical system of teaching and school organization now so 
much in vogue as injurious to both teacher and pupil. All the 
papers have merit; but we cannot help thinking that the authors 
might have done better if they had taken a little more pains. 

— J. B Lippincott Company announce as in press "The Design 
of Structures : A Practical Treatise on the Building of Bridges, 



Publications received at Editor's Office, 
Feb. 9-14. 

Agricultural Experiment Station. Ithaca, N. Y. 
Third Annual Report of the, 1890. Ithaca, Cor- 
nell Univ. 187 p. 8°. 

Electric Railways and Systems in Operation, 
Maps of the United States, showing the Central 
Station Plants and. Boston, Thomson-Houston 
Electric Co. 110 p. f°. 

Harvard CoLLEOZ,Annals of the Astronomical Ob- 
servatory of. vol. XXVII. The Draper Cata- 
logue of Stellar Spectra photographed with the 
8-lnch Bache Telescope as a Part of the Henry 
Draper Memorial. Cambridge, John Wilson « 
Son. 888p. 4°. 

Hiorns, A. H. Mixed Metals or Metallic Alloys. 
London and New York, Maomillan. 884 p. 16°. 
$1.50. 

Huxley, T. H. Social Diseases and Worse Reme- 
dies. London and New York, Macmillan. 128 p. 
16°. 80 oents. 

Pickering, E. C. Forty-fifth Annual Report of 
the Director of the Astronomical Observatory 
of Harvard College for the Year ending Oct. 81, 
1890. Cambridge, Harvard Univ. IS p. 8°. 

PiCrauNQ, E. C, and Wendell, O. C. Annals of 
the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard Col- 
lege. Vol. XXIII. Part I. Discussion of Obser- 
vations made with the Meridian Photometer 
during the Years 1882-88. Cambridge, John 
Wilson A Son. 186 p. 4°. 

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Forness, Ph.D., LL.D. 
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[Vol. XVII. No. 421 



CALENDAR OF SOCIETIES. 
Neyr York Academy of Sciences. 

Feb. 88, — J. A. Allen, Recent Work in 
North American Mammalogy. 

Election of Officers. — President, John S. 
Newberry; flret vice-president, Oliver P. 
Hubbard; second vice-president, J. A. Allen; 
corresponding secretary, Thomas L. Casey ; 
recording secretary, H. Carrington Bolton; 
treasurer, Henry Dudley; librarian, John I. 
Northrop; councillors, N. L. Britton, Charles 
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SCIENCE 



NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 27, 1891. 



SUGGESTION IN INFANCY. 1 

The rise of hypnotism in late years has opened the way 
to an entirely new method of mental study. The doctrine 
of pure reflexes was before largely physiological, and only 
pathological cases could he cited in evidence of a mechanism 
in certain forms of consciousness as well as out of it ; and 
even pathological cases of extreme sensitiveness to casual 
suggestion from the environment or from other men did not 
receive the interpretation which the phenomena of hypnotic 
suggestion are now making possible, i.e., that suggestion 
by idea, or through consciousness, must be recognized as as 
fundamental a kind of motor stimulus as the direct exci- 
tation of a sense-organ : in other words, that nervous re- 
flexes work directly through states of consciousness ; that 
the latter are integral portions of these reflexes ; and, further, 
that a large part of our mental life is made up of a mass 
of such ideo motor reflexes^ which are normally in a state 
of subconscious inhibition. 

Without discussing the nature of the hypnotic state, nor 
venturing to pass judgment in this connection upon the 
question whether the suggestion theory is sufficient to ex- 
plain all the facts, we may yet isolate the aspect spoken of 
above, and discuss its general bearings. Of course, the 
Question at once occurs, is the normal life a life to any 
degree of ideo-motor or suggestive re-actions, or is the 
hypnotic sleep in this aspect of it quite an artificial thing ? 
Further, if such suggestion is normal or typical in the men- 
tal life, what is the nature of the inhibition by which it is 
kept under ? Leaving this second question altogether un- 
answered for the present, it has occurred to me to observe 
my child ' during her first year to see if light could be 
thrown upon the first inquiry above. If it be true that ideo- 
motor suggestion is a normal thing, then early child-life 
should present the most striking analogies to the hypnotic 
state in this essential respect. This is a field that has 
hitherto, as far as I know, been almost untouched by 
psychologists. 

Observation of reactions clearly due to suggestion in my 
child, either under natural conditions or by experiment, 
lead me to distinguish the following kinds of suggestion, 
mentioned in tke order of their appearance in child-life: — 

f Physiological 

a ) Sensorimotor 

Suggestion < , ^liberati™ 

I shall proceed by first describing the class of phenomena 
designated, and then the evidence, small or great, which my 
observations afford in each case. 

1. Physiological Suggestion. — By "suggestion" ordi- 
narily is understood ideal or ideo-motor suggestion, — the 

1 For the general fact* and interesting treatment of tbe morements of 
Infanta, aee Prayer's Senses and Will, part ii. 
* Called hereafter simply H. 



origination from without of a motor re-action by producing 
in consciousness the state which is ordinarily antecedent to 
that re-action. But observation of an infant for the first 
month or six weeks of its life leads to the conviction that its 
life is mainly physiological. The vacancy of consciousness 
as regards any thing not immediately given as sensation, 
principally pleasure and pain, precludes the possibility of 
ideal suggestion as such. The infant at this age has no 
ideas in the sense of distinct memory-images. Conscious 
states are affective. Accordingly, when the re-actions which 
are purely reflex, and certain random impulsive movements, 
are excluded, we seem to exhaust the contents of conscious- 
ness. 

Yet even at this remarkably early stage H. was found to 
be in a degree receptive of suggestion — suggestion conveyed 
by repeated stimulation under uniform conditions. In the 
first place, the suggestions of sleep began to tell upon her 
before the end of the second month. Her nurse put her to 
sleep by laying her face-down and patting gently upon the 
end of her spine. This position soon became itself not only 
suggestive to the child of sleep, but sometimes necessary to 
sleep, even when she was laid across the nurse's lap in what 
seemed to be an uncomfortable position. 

This illustrates what I mean by physiological suggestion. 
It is the law of physiological habit as it borders on the con- 
scious. No doubt some such effect would be produced by 
pure hab^t apart from consciousness; but, consciousness be- 
ing present, its nascent indefinite states may be supposed to 
have a quality of suggestiveness, which indicates the degree 
of fixedness of the habit. Yet the fact of such a coloring of 
consciousness in connection with the growth of physiological 
habit is important more as a transition to more evident sug- 
gestion. 

The same kind of phenomena appear also in adult life. 
Positions given to the limbs of a sleeper lead to movements 
ordinarily associated with these positions. The sleeper de- 
fends himself, withdraws himself from cold, etc. All sec- 
ondary automatic re-actions may be classed here, the sensa- 
tions coming from one re-action (in, say, walking) being 
suggestions to the next movement unconsciously acted upon. 
The state of consciousness at any stage, if present at all, 
must be similar to the baby's in the case above, — a mere 
internal glimmering, whose reproduction, however brought 
about, re enforces its appropriate re-action. 

The most we can say of such physiological suggestion is, 
that, when the conscious state is present, the re-action is sub- 
sequently abbreviated and facilitated ; but whether abbrevia- 
tion is due entirely to habit, and the consciousness is only a 
result of such abbreviation, not its cause, we are unable to 
say. 

The physiological process involved, and its relation to 
consciousness, may be brought out by a diagram ; but, in 
order that it and those which follow may be easily under- 
stood, it may be well to present the motor square, as we 



*M 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 421 



may call it (Fig. 1), which contains all the elements of the 
phenomena of suggestion, and of which the. special diagrams 
below are modifications. 

Each corner indicates a physiological process with or with- 
out consciousness, as follows: sg = suggestion (sensory); 
mp = seat of motor process; mt = movement of muscle; 
mc = consciousness of movement. The sides of the square 
are connections between the seats of these processes. A 
cross (X) in any corner indicates that the brain process 
alone is intended at that seat; a circle (0), that consciousness 
at that seat is intended. 

The stimulus sg (Fig. 2) starts the motor process mp: it 
leads to movement, mt, which is reported to consciousness, 




FIG. 1.— MOTOR SQUARE. 

inc. The line between ag and mc is broken, because at this 
stage in infancy associations are just beginning to be formed 
between a feeling of muscular movement and its stimulating 
sensation. 

2. Sensori-Motor Suggestion. — These cases of suggestion 
may be classed somewhat in this way: — 

(a) Various Sleep Suggestions. — From the first month 
on, there was a deepening of the hold upon her of the early 
method of inducing sleep. The nurse, in the mean time, 
added two nursery rhymes. Thus position, pats, and rhyme 
sounds were the suggesting stimuli. Not until the third 
month, however, was there any difference noticed, when the 
«ame suggestions came from other persons. I myself 
learned, during the fourth month, to put her to sleep, and 




FIG. 2. -PHYSIOLOGICAL 8UGGE8TION. 

learned with great difficulty, though pursuing the nurse's 
method as nearly as possible. Here, therefore, was a sleep 
suggestion from the personality of the nurse, — her peculiar 
voice, touch, etc. At this time I assumed exclusive charge 
of putting H. to sleep in order to observe the phenomena 
more closely. For a month or six weeks I made regular 
improvement, reducing the time required from three-quarters 
of an hour to half an hour, finding it easier at night than at 
mid-day. This indicated that darkness had already become 
an additional sleep suggestion, probably because it shut out 
the whole class of sensations from sight, thus reducing the 
attention to stimuli which were monotonous. I found by 
accident, in this connection, the remarkable fact that a single 
flash of bright light would often put H. immediately to sleep 



when all other processes were futile. In her fifth month I 
despaired one evening, after nearly an hour's vain effort, and 
lighted the gas at a brilliant flash unintentionally. She 
closed her eyes by the usual reflex, and did not open them 
again, sleeping soundly and long. I afterwards resorted to 
this method on several occasions, carefully shielding her 
eyes from the direct light-rays, and it generally, but not 
always, succeeded. I would like to know if this experience is 
shared by nurses or other parents. In the following month 
(sixth) I reduced the time required (day or night) to about 
a quarter of an hour, on an average. In this, way I found 
it possible to send her off to sleep at any hour of the night 
that she might wake and cry out. 

I then determined to omit the patting and endeavor to 
bring on sleep by singing only. The time was at first 
lengthened, then greatly shortened. I now found it possible 
(sixth to seventh month) to put her to sleep, when she waked 
in the dark, by a simple refrain repeated monotonously two 
or three times. In the mean time she was developing active 
attention, and resisted all endeavors of her nurse and mother 
(who had been separated from her through illness) very stub- 
bornly for hours, while she would go to sleep for myself, 
even when most restless, in from fifteen to thirty minutes. 
This result required sometimes firm holding-down of the in- 
fant and a determined expression of countenance. 

At the end of the year, this treatment being regular, she 
would voluntarily throw herself in the old position at a 
single word from me, and go to sleep, if patted alone uni- 
formly, in from four to ten minutes. This continues to 
the present (sixteenth month); even when she is so rest- 
less that her nurse is unable to keep her from gaining her 
feet, and when she screams if forced by her to lie down. 
The sight only of myself makes her entirely quiet ; and in, 
say, five minutes, rarely more, she is sound asleep. I found 
it of service, when she was teething and in pain, to be able 
thus to give her quiet, healthful sleep. 

This illustrates, I think, as conclusively as could be de- 
sired, the passage of purely physiological over into sensory 
suggestion ; and this is all that I case, in this connection, 
to emphasize. The explanation, as I believe, throws light 
upon the theory of the rise of volition; but that aspect of it 
may be left for future discussion. 

(o) Food and Clothing Suggestion. — H. gave unmistak- 
able signs of response to the sight of her food-bottle as early, 
at least, as the fourth month, probably a fortnight earlier. 
The re-actions were a kind of general ' movement toward the 
bottle, especially with the hands, a brightening of the face, 
and crowing sounds. It is curious that the rubber on the 
bottle seemed to be the point of identification, the bottle 
being generally not responded to when the rubber was re- 
, moved. The sight of the bottle, also, was suggestive much 
earlier than the touch of it with her hands. 

She began to show a vague sense of the use of her articles 
of clothing about the fifth month, responding at the proper 
time, when being clothed, by ducking her head, extending 
her hand or withdrawing it. About this time she also 
showed signs of joy at the appearance of her mittens, hood, 
and cloak, before going out. 

(c) Suggestions of Personality.— It was a poet, no doubt, 
who first informed us that the infant inherits a peculiar 
sensibility for its mother's face, — a readiness to answer it 



February 27, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



*i5 



with a smile. This is all poetic fancy. When the child 
does begin to show partiality for mother or nurse, it is he- 
cause the kind treatment it has already experienced in con- 
nection with the face has already brought out the same 
smile before ; the mother's face, that is, grows to suggest the 
smile. At first it is not the face alone, but the personality, 
the presence, to which the child responds; and of more 
special suggestion, the voice is first effectual, then touch (as 
in sleep above), and then sight. Such suggestions are 
among the most important of infancy, serving as important 
elements in the growth of the consciousness of self and of 
external reality; but such considerations are not pertinent 
to the present connection. Without delaying longer on this 
class of suggestions, the question occurs, are we not here 
simply observing cases of the association of ideas f I think 
we are warranted in answering, "No!" most emphatically, 
for the reason that it is not an associated idea that is brought 
up. It is a muscular movement that is produced, without 
the production of an idea of that movement. Can we say 
that the sleep suggestions first bring up an idea or image of 
the sleep condition, or that the bottle brings up an idea of 
the movements of grasping, or even of the sweet taste ? No, 
the case is more direct. The energy of stimulation passes 
over into the motor re-action through the medium of the 




FIG. 8.— 8EN8ORT-MOTOR SUGGESTION. 

conscious state. Further, as will appear clearer below, it 
is not an association plus a suggestion, or an association 
plus an association, as current doctrines of motor-stimu- 
lation would lead us to expect. We cannot say that 
pleasure or pain always intervenes between the present state 
of consciousness and the motor re-action; i.e., mother's face, 
pleasure recalled, expression of pleasure, or present bottle, 
sweet taste, movements to reach. I believe all this is quite, 
artificial and unnatural, — a point to which the remainder 
of this paper will put in clear relief. 

The explanation is as before for physiological suggestion, 
except that the re-action begins with a conscious process (O) 
at eg (Fig. 8), and the child is getting associations between 
eg and me. 

3. Deliberative Suggestion. — By "deliberative sugges- 
tion" I mean a state of mind in which such co-ordinate 
stimuli meet, affront, oppose, further, one another. Yet I 
do not mean "deliberation" in the full-blown volitional 
sense; but suggestion that appears deliberative, while still 
inside the re-active consciousness. It lacks self-conscious- 
ness, self-decision, self in any form. The last three months 
of the child's (H.'s) first year are, I think, clearly given over 
to this kind of consciousness. Motor stimulations have 
multiplied, the emotional life is budding forth in a variety of 
-premising traits, the material of conscious character is pres- 
ent; but the "ribs" of mental structure may still be seen 



through, re-active couples, response answering to appeal in a 
complex but yet mechanical way. 

As an illustration of what I mean, I may record the fol- 
lowing case of deliberative suggestion from EL's thirteenth 
month : it was more instructive to me than whole books 
would be on the theory of the conflict of impulses. When 
about eight months old, H. formed a peculiar habit of sud- 
denly scratching the face of her nurse or mother with her 
nails. It became fixed in her memory, probably because of 
the unusual facial expression of pain, reproof, etc., which 
followed it, until the close proximity of any one's face was , 
a strong suggestion to her to give it a violent scratch. In 
order to break up this habit, I began to punish her by taking 
the hand with which she scratched at once, and snapping 
her fingers with my own first-finger hard enough to be pain- 
ful. For about four weeks this seemed to have no effect, 
probably . because I only saw her a small portion of the 
time, and only then did she suffer the punishment. But I 
then observed, and those who were with her most reported, 
that she only scratched once at a time, and grew very solemn 
and quiet for some moments afterwards, as if thinking 
deeply. And soon after, this climax was reached : she would 
scratch once impulsively, be punished, and weep profusely, 
then become as grave as a deacon, looking me in the face. I 
would then deliberately put my cheek very close to her, and 
she would sit gazing at it in u deep thought " for two or even 
three minutes, hardly moving a muscle the whole time, 
and then either suddenly scratch and be punished again, or 
turn to something (noise or object, watch-chain, etc.) near 
by. Having scratched, she began to cry in anticipation of 
the punishment. Gradually the scratching became more 
rare. She seldom yielded to the temptation after being 
punished, and so the habit entirely disappeared. I may add 
that her mother and myself endeavored to induce a different 
re-action by taking the child's other hand and gently strok- 
ing the face which she had scratched. This movement in 
time replaced the other completely, and now the soft strok- 
ing has become one 'of her most spontaneous expressions of 
affection. 

Now, the interpretation is this, in terms of the foregoing 
pages: the first act of scratching was probably accidental, 
one of the spontaneous re-actions or physiological suggestions 
so* common with an infant's hands; it passed, by reason of 
its peculiar associations, into a sensorimotor re-action when- 
ever the presence of a face acted as suggestion, — so far, a 
strong direct stimulus to the motor centres. Then came the 
pain,— a stimulus, both direct and associative, to the inhibition 
of the foregoing. For a time the former was too strong; 
then there followed an apparent balance between the two; 
and finally the pain overcame the suggestion, and the re- 
action was permanently inhibited. The stroking re-action 
gained all the strength of violent and intense association 
with the elements of this mental conflict, and was thus soon 
fixed and permanent 

Taking this as a typical case of " deliberative suggestion," 
— and I could instance many others, less clear, from H.'s 
life-history, — my point is twofold : there is nothing here that 
requires will, meaning by " will 9 ' a new influence due to 
active consciousness (if we do call it will, we simply apply 
& different term to phenomena which in their simplicity we 
call by other names) ; and, second, suggestion is as original 



u6 



' SCIENCE 



[Vol. XVII. No. 421 



a motor stimulus as pleasure and pain. Sere they are in 
direct conflict. Can we say that H. balanced the pleasure 
of scratching and the pain of punishment, and decided the 
case on this egoistic basis f And, if suggestion be an origi- 
nal stimulus, why may it not Ije an altruistic suggestion, — 
my pain and your pleasure as well as your pain and my 
pleasure ? 

There are two (or more) suggestions, sg and sg' (Fig. 
4), each either sensory or ideal. They arouse a motor 
process which is the union of two processes (rop and mp'). 
In the instance above, the scratch suggestion mp controls, 
gives the re-action mt and its consciousness mc. 

4. Imitative Suggestion. — For a long period after the 
child has learned to use all his senses, and after his memory 
is well developed, he lacks entirely the instinct of imitation. 
I have been quite unable in H.'s case to confirm the results 
of Preyer, who attributes imitation to his child at the age of 
three to four months. I experimented again and again, and 
in a great variety of ways, but failed to get any thing like a 
decisive case of imitation till the eighth month ; that is, till 
after the will was clearly beginning to show itself. During 
this period, however, H.'s consciousness was a rich field of 
suggestive re-actions of the other classes. There were, earli- 
er, a few instances of apparent imitations of movements of 
opening and closing the hands, but they turned out to be 




FIG. 4. — DELIB K RATIVE SUGGESTION. 

accidental. I think it likely that observers are often de- 
ceived as respects imitation, taking happy coincidences for 
true instances ; yet it is possible that H. was peculiar in re- 
gard to this. 

When the imitative impulse does come, it comes in ear- 
nest. For many months after its rise it may be called, 
perhaps, the controlling impulse, apart from the ordinary 
life processes. As a phenomenon, it is too familiar to need 
description. Its importance in the growth of the child's 
mind is largely in connection with the development of Ian* 
guage and of muscular movement. 

As a factor in motor development, — the aspect now before 
us, — the phenomena are plain enough, and may be divided 
into two general classes, called simple imitation and persist- 
ent imitation. 1 By simple imitation I mean to characterize 
re-actions in which the movement does not really imitate, but 
is the best the child can do. He does not try to improve by 
making a second attempt. This is evidently a case of simple 
sensori-motor suggestion on the physiological side, and is 
peculiar psychologically only because of the more or less 
remote approximation the re-action has to the stimulating 

» Preyer's distinction between "spontaneous" and "deliberate" imitation, 
Senses and Will, p. 208. He is wrong, I think, in making both classes volun- 
tary. The contrary is proved for spontaneous Imitation by the fact that 
many elements of facial expression are never acquired by blind children. 
We could hardly say that facial expression was a voluntary acquisition, how- 
ever gradually It may have been acquired. 



movement. If this were all that imitations are worth, we 
might omit their further treatment. 

But in persistent imitation we have a very different phe- 
nomenon, — a phenomenon which marks the transition, as I 
conceive, from suggestion to will, — from the re-active to 
the voluntary consciousness. Such imitation is necessary, 
I think, as a stimulus to the tentative voluntary use of 
the muscles. Professor Bain's theory that all voluntary 
movements are led up to by accidental spontaneous re-actions 
which result in pleasure or pain, will not hold water for an 
instant in the presence of the phenomena of imitation. Bap- 
pose H. endeavoring in the crudest fashion to put a rubber 
on the end of a pencil, after seeing me do it, — one of her 
earliest imitations. What a chaos of ineffective movements ! 
But after repeated efforts she gets nearer and nearer it, till 
at last, with daily object-lessons from me, she accomplishes 
it. Here, simply by imitation, one of the most valuable 
combinations for future manual manipulation is acquired. 
Suppose there had been no impulse to do what she saw me 
do, no motor force in the simple idea of the rubber on the 
pencil: what happy combination of Mr. Bain's spontaneous 
movements would have produced this result, and how long 
would it have taken the child if she had waited for ex- 
periences actually pleasurable and painful to build up this 
motor combination ? 

In cases of imitation there is no chance for association as 
such. The movements imitated are new as combinations. 
It is probable, it is true, that various ideas of former move- 
ments are brought up, and that the child has the conscious- 
ness of general motor capacity, resting, in the first place, 
upon spontaneous impulsive reactions; but on this insuffi- 
cient associational basis he strikes out into the deepest water 
of untried experience. For this reason, as was said above, 
I believe that persistent imitation comes only after there is 
will; meaning by " will," at this stage of it, that this con- 
sciousness of motor capacity is not held down to actual 
memories of past re-actions, but becomes generalized mentally 
and motorly beyond its legitimate physiological data. Phys- 
iologically, we would expect that the brain energy released 
by a new stimulus (pencil-rubber combination) would pass 
off by the motor channels already fixed by spontaneou, 
reflex, and associated re-actions; i.e., that the child would 
be content with a motor re-action of any kind. But not so. 
It is not content until it produces a new re-action of a par- 
ticular kind, and we must suppose that in consequence of 
each effort of the child the physical basis is in some way 
modified, in so far violating strict nervous association, until 
the one re-action imitated is performed. 

The peculiarity of persistent imitative suggestion, accord- 
ingly, is that it involves will, and yet is not a voluntary 
motor re-action. The muscular movements in putting on the 
rubber is not the child's pictured end: the idea of the rubber 
on the pencil is her end. Nor is she conscious of the motor 
re-action as a means to that end. It is probable that the 
muscular movements figure in her consciousness, if, at all, 
only in the vaguest and most undefined associative way. 1 
They represent simply the nervous channel into which the 
eye-stimulus empties itself. 

Further, the re-action at which imitative suggestion aims 
is one which will reproduce the stimulating impression, and 

» Bee Piueybr, Senses and Will, p. 854. 



February 27, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



117 



so perpetuate itself. When a child strikes the combination 
required, he is never tired of working it. H. found endless 
delight in putting the rubber on and off again, each act be- 
ing a new stimulus to the eye. This is specially noticeable 
in children's early efforts at speech. They re-act all wrong 
when they first attack a new word, but gradually get it 
moderately well, and then sound it over and over in endless 
monotony. The essential thing, then, in imitation, over and 
above simple ideo-motor suggestion, is that the stimulus 
starts a nervous process which tends to reproduce both the 
stimulus and the process again. From the physiological 
side, we have a circular activity, — sensor, motor; sensor, 
motor; and from the psychological side we have a similar 
circle, — reality, image, movement; reality, image, move- 
ment. 

The square to the left (Fig. 5) is the first act of imitation ; 
the movement (mt) now stimulates (dotted line) the eye 
again («(/'), giving the second square, which by its move 
ment {mt') furnishes yet another stimulus (dotted line with 
arrow); and so on. The element of will makes slight 
changes in this diagram, but they may be omitted in this 
connection. 

With the foregoing descriptions in mind, we may gather 
up the facts of suggestion. Particular statements of the 




FIG. 5. -PERSISTENT IMITATION. 

principle from the side of the nervous system are as fol- 
lows : — 

Physiological suggestion is the tendency of a reflex or 
secondary-automatic process to get itself associated with and 
influenced by other sensory or ideal processes. Perhaps the 
plainest case of it on a large scale is seen in the decay of in- 
stincts wHen no longer suited to the animal's needs and 
environment. 

Sensorimotor suggestion is the tendency of all nervous 
re-actions to become secondary-automatic and reflex, seen in 
simple imitation and the passage of the voluntary into the 
involuntary. 

Deliberative suggestion is the tendency of different com- 
peting sensor processes to merge in a single motor re-action, 
illustrating the principles of nervous summation and 
arrest. 

Persistent imitative suggestion is the tendency of a 
sensor process to maintain itself by such an adaptation 
of its re actions that they become in turn new stimula- 
tions. 

And from the side of consciousness, suggestion in general 
is the tendency of a sensory or ideal state to be followed by 
a motor state. 

Whether any simpler formulation of these partial state- 
ments may be reached, is a question which may be delayed 
until we have looked more closely at the voluntary life. 

J. Mark Baldwin. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Besides the hides of the alligator, of which fifty thousand or 
sixty thousand are annually utilized in the United States, there 
are other commercial products obtained. The teeth, which are 
round, white, and conical, and as long as two joints of an 
average finger, are mounted with gold or silver, and used for 
jewelry, trinkets, and for teething babies to play with. They 
are also carved into a variety of forms, such as whistles, but- 
tons, and cane-handles. This industry is carried on principally 
in Florida. Among the Chinese druggists, as stated in the Journal 
of the Society 6/ Arts, London, there is a great demand for alli- 
gators* teeth, which are said to be powdered, and administered as 
a remedy. As much as a dollar apiece is paid by them for fine 
teeth. All the teeth of the alligator are of the class of conical 
tusks, with no cutting or grinding apparatus; and hence the 
animal is forced to feed chiefly on carrion, which is ready prepared 
for his digestion. Other commercial products of the alligator are 
the oil and musk pods. The tail of an alligator of twelve feet in 
length, on boiling, furnishes from fifty to seventy pints of excel- 
lent oil, which, in Brazil, is used for lighting and in medicine. 
The oil has been recommended for the cure of quite a variety of 
diseases. It has a high reputation among the swampers as a 
remedy for rheumatism, being given both inwardly and outwardly. 
The crocodiles and alligators possess four musk-glands, — two 
situated in the groin; and two in the throat, a little in advance of 
the fore- lege. Sir Samuel Baker says they are much prized by 
the Arab women, who wear them strung like beads upon a 
necklace. 

— A series of explorations of great interest have, during the 
past two years, been carried out by two French travellers, MM. 
Catat and Maistre, in little-known regions of the island of 
Madagascar. The results accomplished by these travellers were 
described by M. Grandidier, the well-known authorijty on Mada- 
gascar, at a recent meeting of the Geographical Society of Paris, an 
account of which is given in the " Proceedings of the Royal 
Geographical Society " for February. In the summer of 1889 the 
" Radama I." route from the capital to Tamatave was explored, 
with the result that it was found to be not so short or so practi- 
cable as the ordinary route. The travellers discovered a marshy 
zone called Didy, similar to the great lacustrine plain of Antsi- 
hanaka, lying between the central mountains and the coast 
range. Two days were occupied in crossing this hitherto un- 
known marsh, which gives rise to the river Ivondrona, one of the 
principal streams of the eastern part of the island. The travellers 
then proceeded to the bay of Antongil, with the intention of cross- 
ing the island along the 16th parallel; but M. Maistre was attacked 
by fever, and returned to Antananarivo, not, however, by the 
usual route, but through the province of Antsihanaka, which he 
found to be placed too far eastwards on recent maps. M. Catat, 
meanwhile, crossed the island from the east, and reached the west 
coast at Majonga. He found that the great central mountain 
mass does not extend, as hitherto supposed, to the 16th parallel; 
and that the great plains of secondary formation, with their 
characteristic vegetation of twisted and stunted Bourbon palms 
and other special trees, occupy here more than two- thirds of the 
country. The elevated zones of the eastern slope of the coast 
range are covered with forests, which belong to the first belt of 
forests running through the whole length of the island ; but M. 
Catat found no trace in this region of the second belt, parallel to 
the first, which clothes the slopes of the central mountains be- 
tween Ikongo and Antsihanaka. M. Catat returned from Majonga 
to the capital, up the valley of the Ikopa. The two explorers sub- 
sequently visited together the south of the island, where they 
discovered the sources of the Omlahy, which discharges itself into 
the Bay of St. Augustine, also those of the rivers Manambovo and 
Mandrary, and of one of the head streams of the Mananara, and 
were thus able to determine the watershed of the principal streams 
of this southern region. They returned from Fort Dauphin along 
the south-east coast to the mouth of the Mananara, which they 
ascended as far as Ivohibe, and surveyed the hitherto unknown 
course of this important river. Their collections will, it is stated, 
prove to be of much interest to anthropologists and naturalists. 



•l 



118 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 421 



SCIENCE: 



A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 



PUBLISHED BY 



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American Zoologists will certainly be glad to hear that the 
Zoological Station at Naples is once more open to them. Through 
the liberality of Major Alex. Henry Davis of New York a table 
has been secured until January, 1892, and now awaits its occu- 
pancy by some American investigator. Major Davis became in- 
terested in the matter while in Naples last January, and paid for 
a table during the current year in addition to promising his sup- 
port and influence toward making the arrangement permanent. 
The United States has been represented at the Naples Station but 
twice since its foundation, although a score of American workers 
have enjoyed its privileges within that time. Williams College 
held a table for two years, and the University of Pennsylvania 
for one. Naturally the undertaking proved too expensive, and of 
too little value to any one institution to warrant the permanent 
maintenance of a table ; and during the past six years only such 
Americans have been able to work there as have enjoyed the 
personal courtesy of the director. Professor Anton Dohrn, or as 
have been temporarily occupying tables of some European state. 
Last year two American workers were at the station, dependent 
upon the sufferance of German hospitality for their places, and 
had the very doubtful pleasure of seeing every civilized nation 
present in its representatives except their own. Now that the 
United States no longer occupies the anomalous position of being 
the richest and most prosperous nation of the world, and yet the 
one most indifferent to this grand international undertaking, 
American workers may hope to see the matter taken up by the 
national authorities or in some other definite way that will assure 
its permanency. 

Alexander Winchell, LL.D., of the University of Michigan, 
died at Ann Arbor. Feb. 19. Professor Winchell was born at 
North East, N.T., on the 81st of December, 1824, and graduated 
at Wesleyan University in 1847. The following year he became a 
teacher of natural science at Amenia Seminary in New York 
State, but only remained one year, removing in 1849 to Alabama, 
where he continued his work as a teacher in connection with 
several institutions. In 1854 he became professor of physics and 
civil engineering in the University of Michigan, but a year later 
he naturally gravitated to the professorship of geology and natural 
science, retaining the position until 1872. In 1859 he was ap- 
pointed by the State authorities director of the Geological Survey, 
and pushed the work energetically until the outbreak of the war 
arrested its further progress. He was again connected with the 
survey in 1869, when it was resumed, but resigned two years later. 
From 1866 to 1869 he also held the corresponding chair in con- 
nection with the Kentucky University. In 1878 he left the Uni- 



versity of Michigan to accept the chancellorship of Syracuse 
University, but held the place only one year, retiring to accept 
the professorship of geology, zoology, and botany; and again 
from 1875 to 1878 he did double duty, filling the same department 
in Vanderbilt University in connection with his duties at Syracuse. 
About this time he contributed a series of articles to the Northern 
Christian Advocate, published in Auburn, N.Y., in which he de- 
fended a belief in the existence of a pre- Adamite race, and also 
intimated his concurrence in the theory of evolution. For these 
views, deemed unsound by the authorities of Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity, he was called upon to resign his professorship, but refused,, 
and his lectureship was abolished. Quite a prolonged and bitter 
controversy was the result, and he fell into much disfavor among 
many of his fellowship in the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 
1879 Professor Wincbell was called to the chair of geology and 
paleontology in the University of Michigan, which he retained 
until his death. Among his works are many official reports and a 
number of books on evolution, and extensive contributions to 
scientific periodicals. His bibliography includes about two hun- 
dred titles. 



THE ZIMBABYE AND OTHER RUINS IN MASHONA- 

LAND. 

The following information regarding these famous ruins was 
received from Mr. E. A. Maund by the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety, London, which he obtained from Mr. Phillips, in correction 
and amplification of the remarks made by him at the meeting of 
the society on the 24th of November, 1890. 1 

Mr. Phillips was all over that part of the country in 1866, and 
was with Mr. Hartley the year after, and saw many old gold- 
diggings near the hill which then first got its name of Hartley 
Hill. In 1868 he and Mr. West beach crossed the Hanyani and 
went down the Mazoe. In October, 1871. he was hunting at the 
junction of the Ingwesi and Lundi Rivers, when a letter was 
brought to him from Herr Mauch. It was not signed, but the 
writer reminded him of an adventure they had had together with 
five lions on the Mahal apsi, so that he might identify him. Mauch 
said be was living with a man named Renders (not Kinders), and 
was in a bad plight, having been robbed of every thing except 
his papers and gun. He begged him not to bring a Matabele 
with him, as they were living among the Mashonas. Phillips, 
went and found Mauch and Adam Renders, an American, living 
on the top of a kopje, a few miles south-west of the ruins of 
Zimbabye. It was a pretty place. A waterfall coming down 
from the ridges above fell into a pan by the hut, in which it dis- 
appeared, to qome out again in a gushing fountain several hun- 
dred feet below, a cave of refuge being close by, *with water 
flowing through it, to which they and their Maahona hosts could 
fly, and barricade themselves in with a bowlder of rock, when 
Matabele raiding parties were afoot. Mauch told him of some 
ruins in the neighborhood, and next day the party went to see 
them. 

It was really Renders who first discovered these ruins, three 
years before Mauch saw them, though Mauch and Baines first 
published them to the world, and they only described what the 
old Portuguese writers quoted by Mr. Maund talked of hundreds 
of years ago. Mauch, on their arrival at the Zimbabye ruins,, 
asked what they thought of them. He. (Phillips) confessed he was* 
not greatly impressed, as they were exactly like several others he 
had seen in other parts of the country. There were the same 
zigzag patterns, and the mortarless walls of small hewn stones. 

Shortly before, when hunting in the mountains to the west of 
Zimbabye, be had come upon a regular line of such ruins, one of 
which must have been a very large place. It had three distinct 
gateways in the outer wall, which were at least thirty feet thick 
at the base; and an immense iron wood tree, that would have 
taken hundreds of years to grow, had grown through a crevice in 
the wall and rent it asunder. On the side of a gateway were vast 
heaps of ashes, with occasional potsherds about, the only evidence 
of the old inhabitants. 

1 Proceeding* of the Royal Geographical Society, January, 1891, p. 90. 



February 27, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



119 



He had found the same kind of ruins all over the country, very 
frequently on the summit of difficult kopjes. Those at Tati and 
Impakwe are good examples; but the most perfect, perhaps, of all 
lies north-west of Tati The tower there is about sixty feet in 
length and breadth, and eighty feet high ; the walls about fifteen 
feet thick ; and it is entered by a passage winding spirally to the 
top, which is so arranged as to be commanded by archers from 
the interior all the way, and is so narrow that it admits of the 
passage of one person only at a time. 



DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN MARINE ENGINEERING. 1 

The development of modern marine engineering in the United 
States may fairly be said to have begun with the construction of 
the engines of the steamship " George W, Clyde," by William 
Cramp & Sons, in 1871, which were the pioneer two crank com- 
pound engines in America. Prior to this our engineers and ma- 
chinists had brought the simple engine to its zenith of possible 
development, but with the advent of the compound engine that 
era ceased to be of interest except in the historical sense. 

The discovery of the principle of expansion, and the theory of 
the compound engine based upon it, long antedate their practical 
application. The earliest works on steam engineering contain 
evidences of knowledge of the principle, and foreshadow the ap- 
plication of expansion; but the compound engine as^a practical 
fact is only about twenty-four years old in England, and about 
twenty years old in the United States. Its success as a fuel 
economizer at once dominated the construction of simple engines, 
and all other American ship-builders were compelled to follow 
Cramp's lead. 

From the " George W. Clyde," in 1871, to Mr. Jay Gould's cele- 
brated steam-yacht " Atalanta," in 1882, a period of eleven years, 
the development of the compound engine was steadily pushed to 
its climax of air-tight fire-room, forced draught, and the highest 
boiler-pressure consistent with economy in double expansion. 
This limit was reached in the '» Atalanta; " and during the inter- 
vening period Messrs. Cramp & Sons had built about 70,000 regis- 
tered tons of iron steam shipping, besides a number of yachts 
and other small crafts. 

The era of double expansion terminated in 1885, with the con- 
struction of the steam-yacht " Peerless," which was equipped with 
the first triple expansion engines built in the United States. 

This remarkable little ship was built by Cramp & Sons on their 
own account, at a cost approximating $100,000, simply as a prac- 
tical experiment in the direction of the advance from two to 
three expansions of working steam. The result of the experiment 
left no room for argument as to the efficacy of the new system ; 
and, though a few merchant ships were afterwards built by them 
with ordinary compound engines, they were merely duplicates of 
earlier vessels, and none but triple expansion engines were ever 
afterward designed or recommended by that firm. 

In the " Peerless, " as an experimental ship, Messrs. Cramp & 
Sons went to what has since been recognized as the upper limit 
of economical boiler-pressure for the purposes of triple ex- 
pansion, which was 155 pounds. The registered tonnage of the 
44 Peerless " was 228 only, but her engines developed about 1,060 
indicated horse- power, giving her a speed of 17£ knots, which 
made her the fastest steam-yacht of ber time and class. 

From the " Peerless " in 1885 to the •« Vesuvius' 1 in 1889 was a 
period marked by tremendous progress. In the latter vessel a 
power of 4,440 horses was developed in 258 tons weight of ma- 
chinery, and applied to the propulsion of about 005 tons of dis- 
placement, the result being a speed of 21.65 knots an hour. 

During this period Messrs. Cramp & Sons also built the hori- 
zontal triple expansion engines of the " Newark," (< Philadelphia/' 
" Baltimore," and " Yorktown," United States men-of-war, to- 
gether with about 56,000 horse-power of triple expansion machinery 
for merchant vessels, a compound oscillating engine for the Ston- 
ingtori Steamship Line steamer « * Connecticut " (with cylinders 56 
inches and 104 inches respectively, and 11 feet stroke), — the 
largest engine of that type ever built, and carrying 110 pounds of 
steam-pressure,— together with several heavy compound pumping- 

» From The Orank. 



engines for water-works, ranging in, capacity from 10,000,000 to 
20,000,000 gallons per day. 

Advantage was taken of this school of development by the Navy 
Department, and Chief Engineer George W. Melville was stationed 
at the ship-yard of Cramp & 8ons as inspector of machinery. 
While serving as such, Mr. Melville designed the engines of the 
cruiser " San Francisco," and laid broad and deep the foundation 
of that knowledge of marine engineering which, since his promo- 
tion to the chiefship of the Bureau of Steam Engineering, has 
found expression in a group of machinery designs aggregating 
over 150,000 horse- power, all of which are now in various stages 
of construction, and classed by all competent critics at home and 
abroad as representing advanced types of marine engineering in 
every sense. 

The latest of Messrs. Cramp & Sons' engines brought to trial 
are those of the United States cruiser "Newark," which are of the 
horizontal, direct-acting, three-cylinder type. They weigh, in- 
cluding water in the boilers, 761 tons, and developed, on four 
hours' trial, 8,660 indicated horse-power, or 11.64 horse-power to 
the ton of weight, which exceeds any other performance of that 
type of machinery. 

At the present time this concern has in the course of construc- 
tion the machinery for two 10,000-ton battle-ships, one armored 
cruiser of 8,100 tons, and one protected cruiser of 7,800 tons, em- 
bracing, in all, eleven engines of approximately 60,000 indicated 
horse-power, of which three are to be placed in the latter vessel 
to drive triple screws, and designed to produce a speed of 21 
knots. 

It is quite generally conceded that, in the production of these 
colossal machines, the limit of size and weight of boilers of the 
cylindrical or tubular type has been reached ; those for the ar- 
mored cruiser "New York" having a diameter of 15.0 feet, re- 
quiring a shell plate thickness of 1.82 inches, and weighing 70 
tons each when ready for installation on board ship. 

The machinery plans for the 8,200-ton armored cruiser, and the 
7,800- ton protected cruiser, present several interesting novelties. 
The first named is to bejpowered with four engines, two working 
on each shaft, and provided with means of disconnection so as to 
cruise under half power under ordinary circumstances. These 
four engines are installed in separate water-tight compartments. 
The power is 4,500 each, or 18,000 collectively, and is expected to- 
produce a speed of twenty knots. 

In the 7,800-ton protected cruiser there are to be three engines, 
on three shafts. Two of the engines, driving the port and star- 
board shafts, are placed in the usual manner on twin screw ves- 
sels. The third, driving the central shaft, is placed abaft the other 
two, each having its own compartment. 

These are to be among the most powerful machines ever built,, 
having 7,000 indicated horse-power each, or 21,000 collectively, 
and are to produce a speed of twenty-one knots. 



SUBMARINE GUNS. 



» 



C. S. Bushnell of New Haven, vice-president of the Ericsson 
Coast Defence Company, which has just had the old " Destroyer 
taken out of the Brooklyn Navy Yard and hauled up on 8impson 1 s 
dry dock at South Brooklyn for repairs, says, in the New York 
Times, in regard to the fittdng-up of the vessel for the trial of a 
newly invented gun, — 

"On the * Destroyer' the late Capt. Ericsson and C. H. Dela- 
mater spent $150,000. The vessel is 120 feet long, and is sub- 
stantially constructed, though now in great need of repairs. Our 
company has a capital of $250,000. We are fitting up the vessel 
for the purpose of testing a gun that will fire under water. Now, 
with the heavy nettings which the big war-vessels have for the 
protection of themselves against torpedoes, the ordinary projectiles 
are almost useless. 

44 But with the gun that is to be tested on the ( Destroyer' we 
can make a projectile penetrate any of the nettings that are now 
in use.* We are to use a sixteen-inch gun. That which we will 
experiment with is being constructed at Bethlehem, Penn., and 
is about half done. It is to be 85 feet in length. The projectile 
is to be 25 feet long, and to throw it a charge of twenty-five 



120 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No 421 



pounds of powder will be used. The shell will contain from 800 
to 400 pounds of nitroglycerine, enough to blow up any vessel 
afloat if struck right. The muzzle of the gun will protrude for 
ten feet under water, and the projectile will be carried from 750 
to 1,000 feet. The projectile will extend eight feet beyond the 
muzzle of the gun before firing. We intend to try the gun for 
the first time at Newport next July, having obtained from Con- 
gress an appropriation for making the tests. 

4 'With a few such vessels as the 'Destroyer' will be when 
equipped with our gun, the armed fleets of the world could be 
swept out of existence. * 1 believe that this invention will revolu- 
tionize naval gunnery throughout the world. One of our shells 
can be sent right through the netting and into the side of a vessel, 
where a torpedo could not penetrate. Commodore Folger of the 
Ordnance Department has written a letter to me. saying that he 
has prepared a heavy steel netting for a target, upon which our 
gun can be tested. Later we shall buy an old hulk and blow it 
up with one of our percussion shells, to show the efficacy of the 
new gun. 

14 1 think that if the test proves satisfactory the government will 
arm some of the naval vessels with it. For the price that one of 
our big new ships would cost we could build and arm five of the 
smaller ships, which would be able to sink the best navy afloat. 
If the nations should arm their navies with these guns, it would so 
enhance their destructive power that the powers would not dare 
to go to war with each other. Since ships have been armed with 
the Hotchkiss rapid-firing guns, there has not been a naval battle. 
In a sea fight these guns would cause terrible havoc. Vessels of the 
4 Destroyer ' type are to be heavily armored, so that they can ap- 
proach any vessel without being injured. These vessels will be 
only a foot out of the water, and that part will be armored, so very 
little will be exposed to an enemy's guns. One of these vessels, 
made to steam at great speed, can be made very effective." 

Mr. Bushnell was associated with Ericsson in the construction 
of the "Monitor." 



HEALTH MATTERS. 

African Arrow Poison. 

The poisons used by the natives of Africa to render fatal the 
wounds made with their arrows, as described by Mr. Stanley in 
his recent work on Africa, are, when fresh, of most extraordinary 
power. Faintness, palpitation of the heart, nausea, pallor, and 
beads of perspiration break out over the body with extraordinary 
promptness, and deatb ensues. One man is said to have died within 
one minute from a mere pin-hole puncture in the right arm and 
right breast ; another man died within an hour and aquarter after 
being shot ; a woman died during the time that she was carried a 
distance of a hundred paces; others died in varying spaces of 
time up to a hundred hours. The activity of the poison seemed 
to depend on its freshness. The treatment adopted, as we learn 
from the Medical and Surgical Reporter, was to administer an 
emetic, to suck the wound, syringe it, and inject a strong solution 
of carbonate of ammonia. This car bonate-of -ammonia injection 
seems to have proved a wonderful antidote, if it could be adminis- 
tered promptly enough. One of the poisons with which the 
weapons are smeared is a dark substance like pitch. According 
to the native women, it is prepared from a local species of arum. 
Its smell when fresh recalls the old blister plaster. It is strong 
enough to kill elephants. This poison is not permitted to be pre- 
pared in the village. It is manufactured and smeared on the 
arrows in the bush. These results of the African arrow poison 
are quite remarkable ; but it would be interesting to know if they 
owe any thing to fear and its effects, or if similar results can be 
obtained by inoculating the lower animals. 

Inoculation of Dog Serum as a Remedy for Tuberculosis. 

In a series of communications made in the course of the last 
two years to the Societe de Biologie, MM. Hericourt and Richet 
have given the results obtained by the injection of the blood of an 
animal refractory to tuberculosis, such as the dog, into the 
economy of one susceptible to the onslaughts of the bacillus. They 
have demonstrated experimentally, according to the Lancet, that 
such a proceeding exerts a retarding influence on the evolution 



of tuberculosis artificially communicated, without, however, stop- 
ping it altogether. With a view of intensifying these partially 
protective properties of oanine blood, they inoculated the dog with 
a large dose of very active tuberculous matter, and one month 
later (the animal having lost flesh, and exhibiting manifest signs 
of ill health) injected into the peritoneal cavity of three rabbits 
seventy cubic centimetres of the dog's blood. A week later these 
rabbits were, with three other test-rabbits, inoculated with strong 
tuberculous virus, with the result that in twenty-five days two of 
the latter bad succumbed, the rest surviving. Their ultimate fate 
is not recorded. Encouraged by these results, MM. Hericourt 
and Richet have extended the application of their method to 
tuberculous human beings, employing the serum only, and select- 
ing the interscapular region as the seat of inoculation. M. Richet 
reports (Soci6te de Biologie, Jan. 24) that four phthisical men 
have, since the early part of December, 1890, been subjected to 
this novel treatment. The results obtained seem to warrant the 
assumption that the introduction of the serum of dog's blood into 
the human economy counteracts, to some extent at least, the 
noxious influence of Koch's bacillus. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



%• Correspondents are requested to be a* brief as possible. The writer's name 
is in all oases required as proof of good faith. 

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character 
of the journal. 

On request, twenty copies of the number containing his communication wUl 
be furnished free to any correspondent. 

Can One see the Blood-Corpuscles in his own Eyes ? 

To some this may seem an idle question, — an absurdity ; but 
when we remember that the sensitive layer of the retina is on 
the back side, and that there are blood-vessels in front of it, it 
may not seem so improbable. Nevertheless, the ease with which 
it may really be done is quite surprising. 

If the eyes are turned toward a dimly lighted blank space, and 
adjusted to see distant objects, or as when we " gaze on vacancy," 
there will appear flitting across the illuminated area small bright 
spots. They will seem ,to flash into vision, pass over a few de- 
grees, usually in a curved path, then suddenly disappear. The 
circumstances found favorable for observing this phenomenon are 
to look toward the sky or a snowy surface on a cloudy day, or on 
a brighter day with the eyes nearly closed. Seldom more than a 
dozen of these luminous points may be seen at once, and usually 
not more than two or three distinctly. < 

They may be easily distinguished from the tear-drops trickling 
over the front of the eye, which are often visible at nearly the 
same time, by their being of uniform size, and moving rapidly in 
different directions; while the tears are of variable size, like rain- 
drops on a window-pane, and move slowly downward, or by the 
motion of the eyelids upward. 

They are not to be confounded with muacce volitantes, which 
are of variable shape, size, and color, and, besides, slow of motion, 
and not so quickly disappearing. 

That these minute bodies are really red corpuscles floating 
through the retinal capillaries, is indicated by the following 
f acts : — 

1. They move in definite paths. Having noted one, another 
will be seen to pass exactly the same path in from half a second 
to two seconds. 

2. They always move in the same direction in the same path, 
never back and forth* 

8. They are of uniform size, and appear to be of a yellowish 
color. 

4. By comparing them with objects of known size at known 
distances, they have been approximately estimated to correspond 
in size to red corpuscles. Accurate measurements seem im- 
practicable from the nature of the case. 

The reason that they are visible while the capillaries in which 
they float are not, is easily explained by the familiar principle that 
we become insensible to that which is constantly present, and are 
specially impressed by that which is transient or novel. The 
familiar experiment of Parkin je shows us that the capillaries 
may become visible when light comes from a novel direction, so 



February 27, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



121 



as Co throw their shadows on a new portion of the rod-and-oone 
layer. From the nature of the case, the corpuscles cannot be 
rendered invisible, like the capillaries. 

The phenomena described above were first observed by the 
writer a dozen years ago; and, though it is probable that others 
have observed the same, consultation with persons and books 
that would be likely to furnish the information of such knowledge 
have shown that these facts are either unknown, or at least not 
generally known. That the facts here published may be observed 
by any one seems proved by the fact that they have been corrob- 
orated by almost every one who has made the attempt under the 
writer's direction. J. £. Todd. 

. Tabor College, Tabor, Io., Feb. 16. 



Classification of American Languages. 

In your issue of Feb. 6 appears an article by Major J. W. Pow- 
ell, chief of the Bureau of Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, on the study of what he calls " Indian " languages, with a 
list of families in the United States. 

This article contains statements so much at variance with the 
leading authorities in linguistic science, that they should not be 
allowed to pass in silence. 

In the first place, the ferin " Indian languages," applied to those 
spoken by the native tribes of this continent, is a misnomer based 
on an ancient blunder, and has been repudiated by all modern ' 
writers of weight. The so-called •' Indians" are the '* American 
race," and their languages are " American languages," by the 
common consent of ethnographers. Is the Bureau of Ethnology 
a sanctuary for the preservation of exploded errors, that it throws 
its influence into the scale to perpetuate this discarded blunder? 

Much of the article alluded to is devoted to explaining and de- 
fending the nomenclature adopted by the bureau. In several < 
points it requires still further defence. The arbitrary assumption 
of the date 1386, anterior to which the 44 law of priority" is 
decreed not to hold good, is not justified by the reasons given. 

The dictum that "no family name shall be recognized if com- 
posed of more than one word," is not merely arbitrary, but has 
nothing in its favor and much against it. Frequently a class- 
name compounded of two words is particularly useful, as convey- 
ing a much wider idea than a single word. This is. fully recog- 
nized by the best linguists of the day. Thus, Friedrich Muller 
employs the terms * 4 Indo- Germanic," " Ural- Altaic,'* etc. The 
reasons assigned for rejecting such compounds are quite inade- 
quate, and contrary to the practice of the highest authorities. 

The adoption of the termination an or ian to denote families or 
stocks of languages is not original with our Bureau of Ethnology, 
though the article might lead the reader Xo suppose it a new de- 
vice. Some writers adopted it long before the bureau was organ- 
ized, but the plan did not meet with general approval. The 
cacophony of such words as " Eskimauan," "Muskhogean," etc., 
in Major Powell's list is apparent to every one who has not had 
the advantage of that training by the bureau to which he refers 
with pride as destroying all sense of euphony. 

But the portion of the article in question which will most com- 
pletely "knock the wind" out of those old-fogy linguists in 
Europe, and those in our own country who have been reared on 
Aryan and Semitic tongues, is Major Powell's declaration tfiat 
" gram ma tic similarities are not supposed to furnish evidence of 
cognation;" that in his classification grammatic structure has 
been neglected, and lexical elements only considered. 

Now, if it were said that in most instances we are obliged to 
depend on lexical elements because the grammatic structure has 
not been ascertained, the position would be sound and in accord 
with the recognized principles of the science of language; but to 
place the words of a tongue above its grammar in instituting 
comparisons is a feat of such daring or of such ignorance, that it 
requires a man long accustomed to frontier life to venture it. If 
there is any one principle in modern linguistics which we may 
look upon as thoroughly established, it is that the grammatic 
framework of a language is incomparably more stable than its 
lexicon. If there has ever been an instance where a language of 
agglutination has changed into one of inflection, it is not recorded 



" in the books." It is precisely the grammar which is the perma- 
nent part of a language, and not its vocabulary. Modern Turkish 
has borrowed three- fourths of its words from Arabic, Greek, Per- 
sian, etc. ; but its grammar remains almost precisely that of the 
pure stock, the Yakut of the delta of the Lena. This principle is 
as true of American tongues as of others, and the evidence of it 
has been abundantly set forth by Friedrich Muller and Lucien 
Adam. D. G. Brthton, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Peim., Feb. 80. 



The Food of Mole's. 



It is stated in the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" that moles are 
entirely carnivorous, are exceedingly rapacious, and will die if 
left longer than eight or ten hours without food. I recently kept 
a living mole for a time to study its habits. I shut it in a venti- 
lated wooden box, giving it a tin lid full of water, and some 
grains of corn. It drank the water, refused the corn, and, while 
kept strictly in the dark, was quiet. After twelve hours' ca ptivity 
I offered it boiled rice, which it refused. After sixteen hours' 
fasting, it ate bread and milk, though not freely. When I had 
had it twenty hours, I gave it cracked oats, soaked well in milk, 
but uncooked. This it ate ravenously. I then released it in the, 
room, and it travelled about, seeking a place to burrow, and made 
itself troublesome tearing at the carpet and upholstery. I threw 
down a large thick woollen mitten, which it speedily found and 
entered, thrusting its head into the thumb. If undisturbed, it 
would hide in this way for hours, the light and warmth of the 
room seeming greatly to annoy it. It lived in the mitten for 
three days, coming out to eat oats soaked in milk, but refusing 
cooked oats. It was given one small meal of raw meat. At the 
end of four days it was killed, being apparently in a healthy con- 
dition, and not having lost any flesh. 

Julia McNaib Wright. 

Fulton, Mo., Feb. 80. 



Cold and Warm Waves. 



Two rival theories have been propounded recently regarding 
the origin of the waves or masses of cold air which appear to 
traverse the country toward the east. One of these finds the 
source of cold in the upper regions of the atmosphere, and consid- 
ers that the cold air above mixes with that below, and thus 
gradually approaches the earth's surface. Those supporting the 
other theory, however, deny that any considerable cold can be 
brought down in this way, because the compression to which the 
air would be subjected would heat it, but they claim that the cold 
is due to the radiation of heat through the very clear sky which 
is a well-nigh invariable accompaniment. Without expecting to 
establish the exact truth in this matter, it has yet seemed a sub- 
ject of much importance ; and it may be well, at this stage in the 
discussion, to set forth a few facts that may be of use in the final 
solution of the problem. 

Those who have been making forecasts of the weather have 
recognized for more than a dozen years three great classes of 
temperature falls: 1. Those which come with the advance of areas 
of high pressure; 2. Those which follow immediately in the rear 
of great storms independently of any high area ; 8. Those which 
occur under a combination of these two causes. It should be 
noted that the first two classes do not invariably occur even when 
the conditions seem favorable, and great care is needed in exam- 
ining other conditions, which, though apparently remote, may 
yet become exceedingly important factors in the development of 
the cold wave. The occurrence of the cold is independent of the 
wind, though the extent of the wave is markedly dependent on 
the rapidity of its advance, and a rapid motion has a tendency to 
increase the wind. Some have thought that the wind brings the 
cold; but this cannot be the case, for often there is no wind, or at 
least it rarely attains fifteen miles per hour, while the cold wave 
advances at double that velocity. One of the essential conditions 
needed for a cold wave is an elimination of the moisture in the 
air, and this removal of moisture is oftentimes very remarkable. 
In one case three fourths of this moisture was removed in 110 



122 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 421 



minutes. This action may precede the fall in temperature by 
several hours, or the two may be very near each other, but it is 
very rarely that the diminution of moisture does not take place 
with sufficient rapidity to prevent the formation of fog from the 
lowering of temperature to the dew-point. The cause of this 
marked drying it is not easy to find ; but it is not due to a drying 
wind along the earth's surface, though it may be due, in part, to 
a settling of dry air from above. 

What causes the cold wave f The simplest explanation would 
be that the air radiates its beat to the abnormally clear sky ; but 
such radiation from the air, it is generally recognized, would 
produce a very slight cooling. That this cooling is slight can 
often be determined when no cold wave is in progress. It is a 
significant fact that the cold wave strikes the high mountain 
summits before it does the base ; for example, it has been shown 
that the temperature change at Mount Washington (6,279 feet) 
occurs from five to ten hours earlier than at the base. The 
same effect has been noted at Pike's Peak (14,184 feet), and there 
is no reason to doubt that it may be due to changes in the upper 
atmosphere many miles above our highest mountains. Does the 
cold air sink by gravity? The most serious objection to this view 
is that such action would seem to call for a displacement of the 
warm air beneath, or an admixture of the cold and warm air, at 
a much more rapid rate than can be accepted. The objection 
that such action would warm up the air from compression does 
not seem to be well taken. Certainly the appearance of the tem- 
perature fluctuation, which is precisely the same below as above, 
at Mount Washington, for example, shows no marked heating at 
the base. If we increase the density of air by pressure from out- 
side, it would undoubtedly be warmed, but it is plain that air 
could not descend by gravity into other air (whether by displace- 
ment or admixture) unless it were denser than that below, and in 
such case the natural expansion would tend to slightly cool the 
air. Some have advanced such an idea in accounting for increased 
cold in the outskirts of an expanding cold wave, but it is very 
evident that such an effect would be well-nigh inappreciable. 
There is one fact that seems to show a tendency to a settlement 
of the upper air, in that the removal of the moisture occurs before 
the fall in temperature. This would seem to corroborate the 
view that the cool, dry air from above is slightly heated at first 
by contact with the lower air, and possibly by compression, and 
hence the drying process may anticipate the great cooling, though, 
according to my belief, such action is not at all needed to dry the 
air. 

Both of these causes are concerned in some degree in our cold 
waves, but they do not seem to account for all the facts. What- 
ever the ultimate cause may prove to be, it is unquestionably re- 
lated in a marked degree to the removal of moisture from the air; 
and until we can satisfactorily explain that, we cannot hope to 
explain the other. The intensity and extent of the cold wave are 
dependent upon the rapidity of the advance of this drying con- 
dition; and it is safe to say that this advance, whether in the 
front of a high-pressure area or in the rear of an area of low press- 
ure, is entirely independent of the motion of a mass of air. The 
best proof of this is to be found in the fact that the high area, 
storm, and drying condition all advance at thirty, forty, or more 
miles per hour, while the air moves at less than half that velocity. 
This brings us to the most important deduction to be made from 
this discussion. If there is no horizontal transfer of air in our 
cold waves, we may conclude that there is none in "our warm 
waves. I am well aware that this proposition, already fully set 
forth in the Scientific American for Nov. 1$ of last year, will call 
forth most serious opposition, as it strikes at the very heart of 
present theories of storm-generation. If the sun heats a limited 
portion of the earth's surface, and thus starts up an ascending 
column of warm, moist air, then our storms may be due to the 
forward motion of this column of ascending air which rotates at 
the same time that it advances ; but, if there is no motion of air- 
particles in our storms, this theory falls to the ground. There 
have been set forth from time to time most serious objections to 
the ordinary theories, but it seems to me none have had the 
weight of this one here presented. This rise in temperature 
occurs in the upper air before it does at the earth, and is due, in 



part, to a condition of the atmosphere which seems to intercept 
the heat of the sun. This condition is exactly contrary to that in 
a cold wave, and is brought about by a marked aggregation of 
moisture in our storms. This aggregation seems to take place fsr 
above our highest mountains. 
We may conclude as follows : — 

1. High-pressure areas and storms (or low-pressure areas) are 
conditions brought about by some effect other than the abstraction 
or addition of heat. Possibly they are produced by some form of 
electric energy, and are transported or transferred through the air 
without tbe motion of air-particles. 

2. A portion of the cold in our cold waves is due to radiation, 
and another portion to the cold of the upper atmosphere, while 
possibly a larger portion cannot yet be accounted for. 

8. A portion of the heat in our storms is due to a peculiar con- 
dition of the atmosphere which intercepts the heat of the sun, and 
this heat gradually works down from" the upper atmosphere to the 
earth. H. A. Hazbn. 

Washington, D.C., Feb. 88. 



The Instruction of the Deaf. 



I do not desire to take part in the discussion now going on in 
Science concerning the comparative excellence of the various 
methods of instructing the deaf. The truth with respect to these 
methods has recently been happily expressed by Miss Yale, the 
able principal of one of our best oral schools (" Twenty-third An- 
nual Report of tbe Clarke Institution for Deaf -Mutes, » 1890, p. 15): 
" Each system claims for itself distinctive merits and special 
adaptation. The justice of these claims is now generally con- 
ceded by tbe great body of those engaged in teaching the deaf." 

I wish merely to correct an erroneous statement in Dr. Alexan- 
der Graham Bell's open letter to the Hon. William B. Allison, 
published in tbe last number of Science, with respect to the Co- 
lumbia Institution for the Deaf, with which I have been connected 
for twenty-five years. Dr. Bell says, "8. In the Columbia Insti- 
tution a foreign language (the sign-language) is used as the 
medium of instruction, whereas the rival methods employ the 
English language alone for this purpose. " 

In the Columbia Institution the sign-language is not used as 
the medium of instruction. In some classes it is used as a medium 
of instruction, being employed to communicate with deaf chil- 
dren at the beginning of their course, when they have no other 
means of communication whatever, and to promote their mental 
development, with respect to which Dr. Bell himself has said 
(•• Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of Principals of Schools 
for tbe Deaf," 1884, p. 195), "In regard to mental development* 
undoubtedly nothing could reach the mind of a child like the 
language of signs;" it is also used, but very sparingly, in tbe 
earlier part of the course of instruction in connection with the 
English language, to explain and illustrate the meaning of words, 
where otherwise the explanation could not be given at all ; and it 
is used throughout the whole course for public lectures and devo- 
tional exercises, no means of using the English language having 
yet been discovered which will satisfactorily take its place for 
this purpose. 

Under all other circumstances — and these comprise tbe great 
part of the teaching given in tbe institution — the English language 
is the medium of instruction. There are classes in both the Ken- 
dall School and the National College — the two departments of the 
Columbia Institution — in which the English language is the only 
medium of instruction. I do not think that any of the schools 
following "rival methods" use the English language as a medium 
of instruction more than the Columbia Institution does. 

Edward Allen Fay. 

National Deaf-Mute College, Kendall Green, 
Washington, D.C., Feb. 28. 



P. Blakiston, Son, & Co., Philadelphia, will publish in March 
" A New Systematic Work on Surgery," by C. W. Mansell Moul- 
lin, surgeon to the London Hospital. They have also nearly ready 
11 Plain Talks on Electricity and Batteries," for medical men, by 
Dr. Horatio R. Bigelow. 



February 27, 1891.] 



SCIENCE. 



I2J 



BOOK-REVIEWS. 

Pet rarch : A Sketch of his Life and Works. By May Alden 
Ward. Boston, Roberts Bros. 12°. $1.25. 

A well-weitten biography of Petrarch in English is a good 
book to have; and Miss Ward, we think, has here supplied it. 
Her work is of moderate dimensions, yet it gives all the infor- 
mation about Petrarch that English readers are likely to need, and 
it is written in a plain yet easy and flowing style. It recounts 
the main events of the hero's life, his travels, his many friend- 
ships, his multifarious occupations, and his popularity, while at 
the same time keeping always in view the intelfectual work for 
which posterity honors him/ His personal character is made 
known to us by his letters and other works, and especially by 
his • 4 Letter to Posterity," which is really an autobiography ; and 
as thus revealed to our view he appears as an extraordinarily 
active, agreeable, and popular, but somewhat vain man, imbued 
with an intense passion for antiquity and for the political unifica- 
tion of Italy. Miss Ward, while evincing much admiration for 
Petrarch's sonnets, thinks, nevertheless, that his real life-work — 
44 one of far more importance and far wider influence than any of 
his writings, whether Latin or Italian — was the opening of the 
gates of antiquity to the modern world." This seems to us per- 
fectly just. Sonnets, we apprehend, have little interest for 
intellectual men at the present day, and will have still less in the 
years to come; but the men who led the way in reviewing the 
Greco-Roman civilization can never cease to be important in the 
history of human progress. That Petrarch was one of the fore- 
most of these as well as one of the earliest, is what gives him his 
chief claim on our gratitude; and all who are interested in the 
story of that great awakening will find muoh pleasant reading 
and food for reflection in Miss Ward's little book. 



AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. 

The observations made at the Blue Hill Meteorological Obser- 
vatory, and the investigations of the New England Meteorological 
Society, are now published in the " Annals of the Harvard College 
Astronomical Observatory.*' The Blue Hill observations for 1889 
include the continuation of the tabular records of previous years, 
with monthly and annual summaries of hourly values, with an 
introduction by Mr. Rotch. The record is discussed and published 
with exceptional fulness. The cloud observations carried on by 
Mr. Clayton are published in detail; and present a mass of fact 
from whose reduction we shall expect to see very interesting and 
novel results. Considering that cloud-movement is much more 
steady than the movement of surface wind, it is singular that in- 
strumental means, such as are here employed for determining the 
direction and relative velocity of cloud-drift, have not been more 
generally introduced. They might at least be introduced at a 
number of signal-service stations in different parts of the country, 
in order to test the possibility of their use in storm prediction; for 
the methods of weather forecasting now in use cannot be regarded 
as satisfactory. A feature of the Blue Hill station is the relative 
small and irregular diurnal variation of the various weather 
elements : even the mean hourly temperature ranged only from 
48° to 52.5°. The wind velocity, cloudiness, and rainfall are 
almost independent of the time of day. All these factors are, 
however, well known to be dependent closely on the position of 
passing cyclonic storms; and if referred to these controlling dis- 
turbances, instead of to the relatively unimportant changes from 
day to night, the natural variations of wind, cloud, and rain 
would undoubtedly stand forth in their true distinctness. 

— The " Ninth Annual Report of the Director of the United 
States Geological Survey " is of somewhat less size than its two- 
volume predecessor, but is fully up to the average of the earlier 
seven volumes. Besides the administrative reports of the first 
two hundred pages, it contains an account of the Charleston earth- 
quake of 1886, by Capt. C. E. Dutton ; the geology of Cape Ann, 
by Professor N. S. Shaler; an explanation of the formation of 
travertine and silicious sinter in the hot-springs of the Yellow- 
stone National Park, by W. EL Weed; and an essay on the 
geology and physiography of parts of Colorado, Utah, and 



Wyoming, by Dr. C. A. White. Capt. Dutton's report is full 
of interest. The accounts of the earthquake and its effects, as 
presented in his memoir, will at once become the standard classic 
for this country, and the illustrations of damaged buildings will 
furnish material for all the new geographies and geologies for many 
years to come. The depth of the earthquake focus is placed at 
twelve miles, with a probable error of two miles. The velocity of the 
wave is determined to be about three miles a second, decidedly 
greater than has been found in other shocks; but, as the deter- 
mination is based on good observations, the author is disposed to 
give it great weight, and to discard earlier results. Mr. Weed's 
essay on the travertine and silicious deposits of the hot- springs of 
the Yellowstone Park brings to light a process heretofore little 
suspected. The terraced formations of the springs are found to 
have been formed in great part by the agency of a low form of 
algous vegetation. He concludes that the plant life of the Mam- 
moth Hot Springs causes the deposition of travertine, and is a 
very important agent in the formation of such deposits; that the 
vegetation of the hot alkaline waters of the geyser basins elimi- 
nates silica from the water by its vital growth, and produces de- 
posits of silicious sinter; and that the thickness and extent of 
such deposits prove the importance of such vegetation as a geo- 
logical agent. 

— John Wiley, one of the oldest publishers in the United 
States, and, well known among scientific men as the founder and 
head of the publishing-house of John Wiley & Sons, which has 
brought out so many engineering and scientific books in this 
country, died at his home in East Orange, Feb. 21 . Mr. Wiley was 
born in Flatbush, L.I., Oct. 4, 1808, but his parents removed 
shortly after to New York. At seventeen he entered his father's 
store, the firm then being Wiley, Lane, & Co. Later, upon the 
death of his father, he succeeded to the business, G. P. Putnam 
being his partner at the time. Charles Wiley, his son, was ad- 
mitted to the firm about forty years ago; and later William H. 
Wiley, well known among engineers, was also admitted, the firm 
name being changed to John Wiley & Sons. For nearly fifty 
years the office was in the old Mercantile Library building, 
recently demolished. Mr. Wiley was married in 1838 to Elizabeth 
S. Osgood. They had five children, — three sons and two daugh- 
ters. Mr. Wiley was one of the original founders of the Church 
of the Puritans, this city, of which the Rev. Dr. Cheever was the 
pastor for so many years. He was an active member of the Ameri- 
can Home Missionary Society, and for many years its president. 
He was also an active member of the Congregational Union of 
New York. He removed to East Orange in 1851 . 

— Q. P. Putnam's Sons have in preparation "The Life and 
Writings of George Mason of Virginia," in the Early Statesmen 
Series; " Chapters on Banking,' 1 by Professor Dunbar of Harvard, 
and "The Industrial and Commercial Supremacy of England," by 
the late Thorold Rogers, in the Economic Monographs; and 
" Drinking- Water and Ice-Supplies," in Dr. Prudden's Health 
Manuals. 

— The long-delayed Monograph I. of the Geological Survey on 
Lake Bonneville, an extinct lake of the Utah basin, by G. K. 
Gilbert, is at last published. The general character of the history 
of this ancient lake was given by the same author a number of 
years ago in the " Second Annual Report " of the survey ; and in 
a later report there was an essay by him on the topographic 
features of lake shores, now reprinted, with little change, as con- 
stituting an element in the discussion of the Utah basin. As 
now presented, the entire essay is a model of elaborate and delib- 
erate discussion. Taking the present monograph with the one on 
Lahontan by Russell, who was associated with Gilbert in the 
study of the Great Basin, it may be safely said that no other area 
of interior drainage in the world has received so complete an ex- 
amination, nor has yielded results of such wide importance. The 
sensitiveness of interior lakes to variations in the relation of rainfall 
to evaporation renders them of the highest value as indicators of 
climatic changes in the past. With this point in mind, the inter- 
pretation of their deposits discloses the existence of two moist 
periods, with an interval of dryness; and these are correlated 
with the two glacial and the single interglacial epoch, not only by 



124 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 421 



inference, bat by the direct association of morainic deposits with 
the lake beds. The volcanic manifestations daring and after the 
existence of the lakes, and the faults occurring in the shore de- 
posits, add interesting complications to this remarkable region. 

— Professor J. C. Smock, lately appointed chief of the New 
Jersey Geological Survey, where he some time ago served as 
assistant under the late director, Professor Cook, has prepared a 
report on the building-stones of New York, issued in the second 
volume of the bulletins of the University of the State of New 
York, where Professor Smock has been engaged as economic geol- 
ogist of the State Museum for several years past. Reference is 
made to previous works of the kind, such as Julien's " Report on 
the Building-Stones of New York " in the Tenth Census, Merrill's 
" Building and Ornamental Stones in the United States National 
Museum, '' the author's quarry list in a previous bulletin, and 
others. The bulletin contains an introductory statement of the 
classification adopted: namely, crystalline rocks, embracing gran- 
ites and gneisses, trap rocks, and limestones and marbles; second, 
f ragmen tal rocks, including sandstones, conglomerates, and slates. 
The limestones and sandstones are further arranged according to 
the geological formations from which they are obtained. A 
hundred pages are then given to a recital of the localities of 
quarries throughout the State. The uses, tests, and durability of 
the different kinds of stones occupy as many more pages. Under 
the first of these headings, we find a list of stones used in the more 



important buildings all over the State. A map is given at the 
end of the volume, with the names of quarry districts underlined 
in red. 

— The first geological survey of Ohio was undertaken in 1886, 
and continued for two years. The work then lapsed until 1869, 
when it was begun again with greater vigor. Professor Newberry 
being in charge; and under his direction and that of his successor, 
Professor Edward Orton, numerous reports were issued down to 
1888. Owing to the reckless and irregular method of distributing 
these volumes, complete sets are not often found, although 
editions of 20,000 of certain volumes were printed. In 1889 a 
third organization of the survey was made, and it is now regarded 
as a continuous official department of the State. ' Professor Orton 
is still in charge. The first annual report under these new con- 
ditions is just issued. It gives a brief review of the previous sur- 
veys, from which the above notes are taken ; a general sketch of 
the results of the previous surveys, with corrections of certain 
earlier statements in the light of recent explorations ; and a large 
amount of material concerning the natural gas and oil, which 
have attracted so much attention during the past six years. The 
extraordinary abundance of the natural gas is only equalled by 
the reckless manner in which it has been wasted. It is already 
decreasing, and, in Professor Orton's opinion, should be reserved 
chiefly for domestic uses. An excellent review of the theories 
accounting for the occurrence of oil and gas is given. This report 



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Coues, E. "A woman in the Case" ("The Biogen 
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Graham, R. H. Geometry of Position. London and 
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Greenottoh, J. B., ed. Llvy. Books I. and II. 
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Lincoln, D. F. Hygienic Physiology. Boston, Ginn. 
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Mason, L. W., and Vbaeik. G. A., jun. The New 
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8HOKMAKER, J. V. Heredity, Health and Personal 
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fa distributed gratia by the members of the General Assembly of 
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— The " Investigations of the New England Meteorological 
Society" for 1880, includes, besides the usual tabular summaries, 
three essays on " Weather- Types in New England," " The Sea- 
Breeze on the New England Coast," as observed in 1887, and the 
" Characteristics of the New England Climate." The greater part 
of these are contributed by the director, Professor W. M. Davis of 
Harvard College, and Professor W. Upton of Brown University. 
The essay on weather types opens a line of writing that might be 
taken up to advantage in other Stale weather services, where some 
addition to the monotony of the annual tabular reports would be 
refreshing. The studj of the sea-breeze is baaed on the reports of 
about a hundred volunteer observers on and near the eastern coast 
of Hasaachnsette. from Newburyport to Plymouth. The irregu- 
larity of the occurrence of the breeze is so great that it does not 
appear a hopeful subject for further study. Professor Upton 



summarizes the climate of New England under the following 
headings: changeable and unsettled weather; great ranges of 
temperature, both daily and annual; variation of seasons from, 
year to year ; equable distribution of temperature ; and variety of 
local features from the low southern coast to the mountainous 
northern interior, 

— In Lippincott's Magazine for March, 1891. the first instal- 
ment of "Some Familiar Letters by Horace Greeley" form an 
interesting feature. This is a series of letters written by Horace 
Greeley to an intimate friend, and covers the period immediately 
preceding and during his political campaign. These letters are 
expected to remove many unfounded prejudices. Another of the 
series of "Round-Robin Talks" appears in this number. Among 
the guesls are Paul B. Du Chaillu, George W. Childs, T. P. Gill, 
M.P., George Parsons Latbrop, Julian Hawthorne, and others. 
The piece de resistance of this instalment is the story told by Paul 
Du Chaillu of his discovery of the gorilla in the wilds of Africa, 



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126 



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[Vol. XVII. No. 421 



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legwi satisfies him that we have in the Bark Record 
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kees. He thinks the mounds enable us to trace back 
their line of migration even beyond their residence 
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object is therefore threefold: 1. An illustration of 
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41 A valuable contribution to the question, * Who 
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Ninth Ysab. 
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11 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. XVII. No. 422 



CALENDAR OF SOCIETIES. 

Women's Anthropological Society of 
America, Washington. 

Feb. 28. — Alice C. Fletcher, Races in 
Africa. 

Philosophical Society, Washington. 

Feb. 28.— T. C. Mendenhall, Exhibition 
and Description of New Pendulum Appara- 
tus; A. C. True, The Status and Tendencies 
of the Agricultural Experiment Stations ; 
George P. Merrill, The World's Nickel- 
Supply; Edward Goodfellow, Biographical 
Notice of the Late Capt. C. O. Boutelle. 

New York Academy of Sciences. 
March 2.— J. K. Rees, Remarks on the 
Reduction of Rutherford Star Plates; H 
Jacoby, On the Calculation of Star Places 
for Zenith Telescope Observations; John 
Tatlock, Jun., An Index to Copernicus, an 
International Journal of Astronomy. 

Natural Science Association of Staten 

Island. 

Feb. 14.— L. P. Gratacap, The Turbid 
water of the Staten Island Water-Supply 
Company; W. T. Davis showed specimens 
of Linden-trees (Tilia Americana), and read 
a memorandum in connection with them ; 
Mr. Davis also contributed entomological 
notes; Mrs. N. L. Britton, Barbula papu- 
losa, Muell., as an Addition to the List of 
Staten Island Mosses published last July ; 
Dr. N. L. Britton showed leaves of silver- 
maple infested by a black fungoid growth, 
which was determined by Mr. J. B. Ellis 
to beRhytisma acerinum (Pers.)Fr.; Joseph 
C. Thompson noted the capture, last De- 
cember, of Hydrocanthus irricolor and 
HydrophUu8 nimbatus in a pond, under 
four inches of ice; apiece of Helderberg 
limestone, collected by Mr. Arthur Hollick 
from the drift on Fort Hill, was shown by 
Mr. Gratacap. 

Boston Society of Natural History. 

March 4. — W. M. Davis, Illustration of 
the Faulted Monoclinal Structure and Topo- 
graphic Development of the Triassic Forma- 
tion of Connecticut by a Working Model ; 
N. S. Shaler, Antiquity of the Glacial 
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