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SCIENCE 

AN ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY 

VOLUME IX 

JANUARY— JUNjE 1887 



New York 
THE SCIENCE COMPANY 



Copyright, 1887, 
By THfc SCIENCE COMPANY. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX. 

TiU&^ SPECIAL AETICLES. 
/c - a - j c^ 



22 * ->*7 PA0B 

Abbe, C. William Babcock Hazen 881 

Adams, J. F. A. Ib botany a suitable study for 

young men? 116 

Agriculture in England in 1886 249 

American oriental association 479 

American society for psychical research .... 60 

Armsby, H. P. Enrichment of the soil by cultiva- 
tion of 4 enriching crope' 87 

Arro wsmith, R. Schools in Egypt .... 876 

Asymmetry 

Bain on ultimate questions of philosophy 
Ballard, H. H. History of the Agassis association . 98 
Belneld, H. H. Manual training and public educa- 
tion 878 

Bishop, S. E. The recent eruption of Mauna Loa . 206 
Boas, F. Poetry and music of some North American 

tribes 888 

The study of geography 187 

Bowen, H. C. The training of the faculties of Judg- 
ment and reasoning 68, 164 

British centenarians 98 

British commission on the depression of trade . 197 
Browning. O. The university extension movement 

at Cambridge 61 

Humanism 161,874 

Realism 561 

Carpenter, W. H. The study of language . 578 

Carr, Gr. S. Competitive examinations ... 466 

Channing, E. Aims of geographical education 48 

ChapmanJEvelyn. Siojd 869 

Clark, A. H. The American whale-fishery, 1977 - 86 . 881 

Coast tribes of British Columbia 888 

Color-blindness among railway-employees ... 41 

Commissioner Hadley's second annual report 41 

Conditional liberation of prisoners 185 

Conn, H. W. Modern biology as a branch of educa- 
tion 168 

Consanguinity and mental unsoundness . .118 

Contagious diseases 17 

Co-operation on the continent of Europe .... 895 

Criticism of Pasteur 96 

Cruelty of old customs 310 

Currents in the Bosphorus 801 

Davis, W. M. Advances in meteorology ... 589 
Dessoir, M. Hypnotism in France .541 

Discussion on arsenic-poisoning 219 

Distillery-milk report 548,579,608 

Dodge, D. K. Scandinavian studies in the United 

States 476 

Does education diminish industry? 877 

Dutton, C. E. The submerged trees of the Columbia 

River 88 

Dutton, C. E., and Hayden. E. Abstract of the 
results of the investigation of the Charleston earth- 
quake 489 

Education in Uruguay 681 

Electric railroads in this country 481 

Exploration of the antarctic regions 458 

Exploration of the Welle 285 

Explosions in coal-mines .429 

Florida geological survey 440 

French lycee . - 170 

Gardner, H. B. Comparative taxation ... 218 

GatscheVs ethnological maps of the Gulf states . 404 

Government scientific work 51 

Greek element in English 178 

Health of New York during December .... 84 

Health of New York during January .... 887 

Hitchcock, C. H. The late eruption from Kilauea . 180 

Hnffcnt, E. W. English in the preparatory schools . 474 

Ice and icebergs 384 



PAGE 



Imperial university of Japan 879 

Indiana earthquake 808 

Industrial education association . 558 

International statistical Institute 507 

Is beer-drinking injurious? 84 

Italian medical psychology 141 

J., J. Some miscalled cases of thought-transferrence 115 
Laurie, S. S. The respective functions in education, 

of primary, secondary, and university schools . 897, 468 

Lef t-handedness. — A hint for educators .... 148 

London College of preceptors 471 

Ludwig Wlese 72 

Magnetic and tidal work of the Greely arctic expedi- 
tion «... 215 

Mason, O. T- A hairy human family .... 16 

Indian cradles and head-flattening .... 617 

Synechdochioal magic 17 

The aboriginal miller 25 

The Hupa Indians: an ethnographic sketch . . 149 
Meeting of the Economic a id Historical associations 507, 527 
Mendenhall, T. C. The characteristic curves of 

composition 287 

Mindeleff/V. Origin of pueblo architecture . . 598 
Mitchell, II. Circulation of the sea through New 

York harbor 204 

Natural gas 39,250 

Naturalists' meeting at Philadelphia .... 8 

Parker, F. W., Henry, N.B., and Giffin, W. M. 

Training of teachers 564 

People of Central Africa 528 

Peter's attack on Pasteur 106 

Physical geography of Central Africa .... 521 

Political education 870 

Political geography of Central Africa . .517 

Position of Emin Pasha 505 

Prisoners of the Soudan 4 

Prohibition 105 

Prussian minister of instruction on female education . 870 

Public instruction in New York state in 1886 ... 168 

Purity of ice 40 

Real-gymnasium 875 

Richet, C. General psychology, its definition, limits, 

and method 856 

Riviera earthquake 207 

Romanes on the higher education of women . .478 

Ruby-mines of Burmah 97 

Scientific phrenology 299 

Sea-sickness 525 

Sewall, H Biology and sociology 198 

Sexton, S. Effects of explosions on the ear . 848 

Shirreff, Emily- Infant-schools and the kindergar- 
ten . 478 

Significance of geographical names 78 

Standard time and measures 7 

Stern, S. M. The natural method of teaching lan- 
guages 88 

8ystem of orthography for native names of places . 481 
Taxation of personal property in France, Germany, 

and the United States 15 

Teaching of algebra 509 

Tendency of contemporary German thought . .117 

Thomas, S. Industrial training in the public schools 
of Germany 567 

Tidal observations of the Greely expedition ... 846 

Training of teachers 71 

Vegetation of Central Africa 588 

Walker, F. A., Ham, C. H-, and Love, S- G. 
What industry! if any, can profitably be intro- 
duced into country schools 7 866 

Wey, H- D- Physical culture for criminals . 678 

When should the study of Greek be begun ? . .178 

White, J- S. The America] school of classical studies 

at Athens 854 

Youthf ulness in science • . 104 



IV 



SCIENCE,— CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX. 



BOOK EEYIEWS. 



PAG* 

Abbott's Upland and meadow 44 

Adams's Relation of the state to Industrial action . 447 

Alexander's Problems of philosophy .... 880 

Allgemeine Naturkunde 118 

Bascom's Sociology 428 

BeaTs Grasses of North America 448 

Berghaus's Atlas of physical geography .... 425 

Brown's Paleolithic man. By H. W. Hayne* ... 981 

Bryans's Caesar. By H. T. Peck 879 

Buckland's English institutions 81 

Bureau of ethnology, fourth annual report of. By F. 

Boa* 697 

Campili's Hypnotism. By W. Noyes 290 

Challenger reports 849, 596 

Chester's Catalogue of minerals. By O. H. William* . 805 

Codrington's Helanesian languages. By H. Hale . 99 

Compayrf's Elementary psychology 74 

Connecticut agricultural experiment-station, annual 

report of the 849 

Corson's Study ot Browning 78 

Crosby's Tables for the determination of common min- 
erals. By*0. H. William* 804 

Dana's Mineralogy. By G. H. William* .... 804 

Danson's Wealth of households. By W. A. Dunning . 808 

Dawson's Zoology 76 

Day's Mineral resources of the United States ... 848 
Edwards's Butterflies of North America . .198 

Edwards's Differential calculus. By T. 8. Fiske . 888 

Engelhardt's Observations astronomiques ... 508 

Fox's Water, air, and food 897 

Gates's Latin word-building'. 877 

Geology of New Jersey 595 

Gurney. Myers, and Podmore's Phantasms of the living. 

By W. James 18 

Henry, Joseph, scientific writings of 898 

Hewett's Pedagogy -579 

Hilgard'e Alkali lands 888 



PAGE 

Hilgard's Report of vitlcultural work. .... 848 

Hudson's Rotif era 598 

Hunt's Mineral physiology and physiography . 148 

Jukes-Browne's Historical geology 484 

Kennedy's Mechanics of machinery. By R. H.Thurston 501 

Leclercq's La terre des merveilles 688 

Lockyer's Chemistry of the sun 805 

Marshall's Economics of industry. By W. A. Dunning 808 

Mendenhall's Century of electricity 485 

Miller's Essentials of perspective 698 

Morse's Arrow-release 119 

Mttller's Science of language. By H. Hale ... 885 

Murray's Handbook of psychology 90 

Newberry's Earthquakes. By E. Hayden ... 18 
New York agricultural experiment-station, fifth an- 
nual report of the 849 

Payne's Science of education 74 

Pumpelly's Mining Industries of the United States . 847 

Raleigh's Elementary politics 88 

Ramsay's Selections from Tlbullus and Propertlus. By 

a. X. JreCK ......•••• 870 

Rawlins's Llvy. By H. T. Peek 379 

Remsen's Chemistry 143 

Ridgway's Nomenclature of colors 888 

Rosenkranz's Philosophy of eduoation . .174 

Schults's Diatetik des Gelstes 801 

Sedgwick and Wilson's Biology 48 

Storert Agriculture 400 

Strong's Juvenal. By H. T. Peek 868 

Supan's Commercial geography. By F. Boa* . 851 

Verrall's Aeschylus. By H. T. Peek 878 

Volk8schulwesen im preusslschen 8taate ... 75 

Wagner's Annual report on the progress of geography. 501 

Walcott's Cambrian faunas of North America . 545 

White's Pedagogy 379 

Wilbrand's Psychic blindness 488 

Winchell's Geology of Minnesota 401 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM, 1, 88, 45, 79, 101, 188, 145, 179, 801, 888, 953, 985, 807, 889, 351, 881, 406, 487, 449, 479, 506, 585, 547, 577, 601. 

Ethnological notes, 884, 441, 606. 

Exploration and travel, 387, 408, 482,459, 518, 581, 581, 604. 

GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES, 188, 158, 188, 910, 887, 858, 891, 312, 856. 

Health matters, 419, 444, 455, 481, 508, 580, 583, 605. 

LETTERS to the EDITOR, 18, 88, 56, 90, 111, 184, 156, 198, 918, 881, 868, 895, 316, 840, 863, 889, 411, 488, 460, 488, 515, 584, 559, 584, 

599, 611. 689. 
Mental science, 457, 510. 

NOTES AND NEWS, 9, 80, 59, 87. 109, 180, 158, 189, 911, 980, 861, 898, 814, 888, 858, 888, 410, 488, 459, 488, 518, 588, 558, 588, 608. 
Psychological notes, 899. 

SCIENCE Supplement, 15, 37, 61. 98, 115. 187, 161, 198, 815, 837. 869, 899, 891, 843, £65, 895, 419, 441, 463, 409, 517, 589, 561, 593, 617. 
Special correspondence: Athens letter, 408; Honolulu letter, 187; London letter, 186, 808, 889, 855, 886; New Zealand 

letter, 588 ; Pari* letter, 88, 86, 1*5, 811, 406 ; St. Petersburg letter, 107. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Africa, Central, political map of, 518 ; states of, 519 ; 

vegetation of 584 

Antarctic regions, map of 453 

Arrow-release, methods of (10 tigs.) .... 180, 191 

Asymmetry (8 flgs.) 681 

Axe, Bayanxi 615 

Barometer daring thunder-storms, 398 ; exposure . 816 

Battle-axe of the Basonge 448 

Cradles, Indian (8 plates) 618, 619 

Cretaceous rocks at 8an Marcos, Tex. .... 587 

Curves of composition (18 figs.) 837-849 

Earthquake, the Charleston (6 tigs.), 498, 493, 494, 496 ; 

the Indiana, 804 ; the Riviera 807 

Emin Bey, sketch-map showing proposed routes for 

reaching 5 

Explosions, effects of, on the ear (8 flgs.) . . 344, 345 

Gas at Oxford, 683 

Halema*uma'u (8 flgs.) 188,184,185 

Harpoon-head, Eskimo (8 flgs.) 607 

Health of New York during December, 85; during 

January 888 

Hupa Indians, ethnological collection of . . 150, 151 

Indian chair 606 

Industrial education association (4 flgs.) . 553,554,555,556 
KUauea 181 



PAGE 

Knife and dancing-implements (8 flgs.) . . 606, 607 

Mauna Loa, eruption of 806 

Miller, the aboriginal (8 plates) 86,87 

Mounds, snake-like, In Minnesota (6 flgs.) . 893,894 

Mtesa, audience-hall of 580 

Muscles in birds of taxonomic value (8 flgs.) ... 694 

New Lake, cavity once occupied by 188 

New York harbor, currents In 805 

Pastrana, Julia 38 

Pelvis of the dugong 586 

Sierra Leone tribes, masks of (8 flgs.) .... 448 

Stanley Falls 409 

Tachycineta, maxlllo-palatines of (8 flgs.) ... 461 

Testichew, Adrien J» 

Thomson's electrostatic voltmeter . . ••!**! 

Tiptoe 835,341,864,390 

Tonquin, loss of 8£* 

Trltylodon, pineal eye In *M 

Welle, explorations on the 886 

X. xanthocephalus, skulls of (9 flgs.) . .415 

Africa, Central, map of . . . opposite 517 

British Columbia, ethnological map of . opposite 888 
Gatschet's ethnological maps of the Gulf states opposite 404 



i i 



SCIENCE. 

AN ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL PUBLISHED WEEKLY. 



Vdriti sans feur. 



NEW YORK : THE SCIENCE COMPANY. 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 7, 1887. 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM. 

Students of the problems of taxation arer 
directing attention to a law imposing progressive 
taxation, lately passed in canton Vaud, Switzer- 
land, and which will come into operation with the 
beginning of the new year. The practical work- 
ing and effects of the law will be closely studied. 
The project is undoubtedly popular ; for when put 
before the people, as is necessary for the enact- 
ment of a law in Switzerland, it was passed by very 
large majorities. This new Yaudois law divides 
real property into three classes, according as it 
falls below $5,000, between $6,000 and $20,000, or 
over $20,000 in value. The proportion of tax is 
to be 1 per 1,000 for the first class, H per 1,000 for 
the second class, and 2 per 1,000 for the third class. 
Personal property falls into seven classes, the 
lowest class Being less than $5,000 in value, and 
the highest over $180,000. The rates of taxation 
on these classes are to be in the proportion of 1, 
H» 2, 2i, 8, 3}, and 4, respectively, per 1,000. 
Incomes from earnings are similarly put in seven 
classes ; but, in estimating the amount to be taxed, 
a deduction is made amounting to $80 for each 
person legally dependent on the head of the 
family for his support. A great many theories as 
to taxation will be put to test by the operation of 
this law, and its outcome will be watched with 
interest. 

The system which Fechner deduced from the 
simple experiments of Weber has had the honor 
of exciting the criticism of nearly every eminent 
physiologist and physicist in Germany at one 
time or another during its brief career. Weber 
found, that, if you could just distinguish four 
ounces from five ounces, you could change the 
ounces to pounds without causing any change in 
the recognizabitity of the difference between the 
two weights. From this, with the aid of some 
hypotheses, Mr. Fechner deduced the psychophys- 

No. 90S.— 1687. 



ical law that the sensation is proportional to the 
logarithm of the excitation. The system has 
been attacked on every side, and Fechner's last 
hope is that it will stand, because the attackers 
cannot agree upon the mode of destroying it. 
But a consensus is now forming on the mode of 
attack. Dr. Adolf Elsas, in a recent pamphlet, 
boldly upholds that the system is unscientific from 
the root ; that it does jiot follow from Weber's 
experiments except upon an unjustifiable assump- 
tion ; and that no system of psychophysics, in 
Fechner's sense, is physically, mathematically, or 
philosophically possible. It is possible to state 
briefly where the confusion came in, viz., in mis- 
taking the sensation of being different for a dif- 
ference of sensation ; but it is not possible to show 
in a few words how far-reaching the results of 
this misconception are. If a prediction is allow- 
able, the statement may be hazarded that the out- 
come of the discussion will be a recognition of a 
valuable means of gauging the discriminative 
sensibility of the senses, the avoidance of many 
current errors in experimentation, and the con- 
viction that it is as impossible to bridge the chasm 
between thought and nerve by psychophysics as by 
any other of the numerous methods that have 
been proposed. 



As we stated some time ago, the Kongo Free 
State has received a severe blow in the loss of the 
station at Stanley Pool. The official accounts of 
the affair have just reached us. It appears that the 
quarrel between Mr. Deane, an Englishman, who, 
with M. Dubois, commanded at the post, and the 
Arabs, was about a slave-girl who had sought 
refuge in the station. Notwithstanding the Arabs' 
threats, the young Englishman refused to give up 
the girl. A peace was patched up for the time 
being ; but it was only a ruse on the part of the 
Arabs. Later they made an unexpected attack, 
and were repulsed. But soon ammunition ran 
short The negro troops at the post took to their 
boats, and floated down stream to the next station 
of the association. This was commanded by Lieu- 
tenant Coquilhat. He ran up stream to the sta- 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 205 



tion in his little steamer, only to find it in posses- 
sion of the Arabs. Mr. Deane was found among 
some negroes soon after. M. Coquilhat thinks 
that the situation is quite serious ; not, perhaps, 
so much for its effect upon the immediate pros- 
pects of the Kongo Free State, as because it will 
show the natives that the whites and the Arabs 
are no longer on good terms. Then, too, it brings 
the day nearer when the inevitable conflict be- 
tween the trade association and the slavers must 
be fought out. It has also closed the route to the 
lakes via the Kongo and Tanganyika. 



But the Kongo State has still an interest in 
connection with the relieving of Emin Bey, 
referred to in another column. Mr. Grenfell 
has ascended a large tributary of the Kongo, 
which joins the main river about twenty-five 
miles south of the equator, to a point in longi- 
tude east from Greenwich of 10° 40', and in 
latitude 4.27°. Dr. Junker passed six years in 
the Niam-Niam territories. He telegraphs from 
Zanzibar that on one excursion he followed 
the Welle to longitude 22° east. These two points 
are not more than from one hundred and fifty to 
two hundred miles apart. It may be that the 
Welle, instead of being a tributary of Lake Tsad, 
is, after all, a branch of the Kongo. If this 
proves to be the case, and the river proves also to 
be navigable, the key to the Soudan may yet be 
found to be the Kongo railway and river. 



The annual report of the directors of the 
English convict-prisons, drawn up by Sir E. F. 
DuCane, is interesting, principally because of the 
valuable statistical tables appended to it. It' 
seems that the number of sentences of penal servi- 
tude passed by ordinary courts in England and 
Wales in 1885 was 1,027, a decrease of 28 per cent 
as compared with the number so sentenced in the 
previous year, which, in turn, was lower than 
any year on record, and only half the number 
sentenced to penal servitude twenty years before. 
At the date of the report, the convict-prison popu- 
lation was only 8,188, as against 11,660 in 1869. 
There is also a remarkable and gratifying decrease 
in the number of females under sentences of penal 
servitude. It is now but 821, only a little more 
than half what it was ten years ago. During the 
year the commencement of a new work for the 
war department near Chatham afforded some 
points of interest in connection with the employ- 
ment of convict-labor. The report on this reads 



as follows : "The work in question being quite in 
the open country, and distant about two miles 
from the prison at Borstal, special consideration 
was necessary before deciding that the work could 
be undertaken. Arrangements were ultimately 
entered into, which have enabled the convicts to 
be employed there with complete security. A line 
of narrow-gauge tramway has been laid down by 
the royal engineer department along the whole 
line occupied by the forts under construction, and 
this is made use of for the conveyance of the con- 
victs to and from their work. A train of railway- 
carriages, specially fitted to insure the safe cus- 
tody of the convicts, has been furnished. The 
site of the works is enclosed by a palisading ten 
feet high, with a ditch on the inner side, and wire 
entanglements on the inner side of the ditch. 
Warders and civil guards travel with the train, 
and an addition has been made to the armed 
guard at the works, where a selected officer is 
always in charge. A system of signals is estab- 
lished between the work and the prison, and an 
engine is always available in case any thing should 
be required, or to facilitate inspection by the 
superior officers of the prison all along the line." 



Sir Edmund DuCane has also something to 
say about the operation of the separate syBtem, 
which Pentonville prison was designed especially 
to carry ouL He recalls, that, when the system 
of separate confinement was decided on, grave 
doubts were expressed as to whether it could pos- 
sibly be carried out without injury to the mental 
and bodily health of the prisoners. At first the 
isolation and seclusion were very strict, and were 
imposed upon all prisoners for two years, after 
which they were removed to Australia. At first 
the apprehensions of the opponents of the separate 
system, those who had favored a system of silent 
or classified association, seemed justified ; for it 
was found that a certain class of minds became 
enfeebled and lost their balance under the regi- 
men adopted. As the result of this experience, 
the period of isolation was reduced to nine months, 
and its strictness was much modified. Since these 
changes, no evil results have followed ; and Sir Ed- 
mund DuCane writes, that, " although a complete 
moral reformation is no longer expected to be the 
usual result, the separation undoubtedly prevents 
prisoners mutually contaminating each other, good 
influences have an opportunity of acting on them, 
and it has been found of the highest advantage as 



Jamuaxt 7, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



a training and discipline preparatory to the sub- 
sequent stages of a sentence of penal servitude." 
At all events, the reform in the system of dealing 
with crime and criminals has produced such 
results that the directors find, that, instead 
of an increasing amount of crime and a swelling 
prison population, they are enabled, in spite of 
the increasing population of the country, to dimin- 
ish the number of convict establishments. 



At the last annual meeting of the British 
medical association, Dr. Shuttleworth of Lancaster 
read a paper on ' The relationship of marriages of 
consanguinity to mental unsoundness,' which has 
since been published in the Journal of mental 
science. Dr. Shuttleworth states, as evidence that 
there exists in the public mind a misgiving as to 
the propriety of such marriages, the fact that he 
is frequently asked whether any risk attends the 
marriage of cousins. Numerous contemporary 
authorities of good repute can be cited on both 
sides of the question. Dr. Shuttleworth shows 
that in early times no evil results were feared 
from the marriage of near kin, and quotes Jeremy 
Taylor to the effect that " the elder the times were, 
the more liberty there was of marrying kindred." 
In studying the history of the lower animals, it is 
found that " strict confinement to one breed, how- 
ever valuable or perfect, produces gradual deterio- 
ration." Here, then, is the special danger of con- 
sanguineous marriages, especially as it seems to be 
the case that cousin-marriages are more frequent 
among neurotic than among perfectly healthy 
stock. 



It seems that in 1871 Sir John Lubbock tried to 
insert a question as to cousin-marriages in the 
census schedules, but his proposal was rejected 
amid the scornful laughter of the house of com- 
mons as ' the idle curiosity of a speculative phi- 
losopher.' In France some attempt has been made 
to obtain information as to these marriages ; and 
H. Boudin reckons that 0.0 per cent of all the 
marriages in France are between relations, 0.88 
being between first-cousins. Other investigators 
present different returns, M. Dally contending 
that in Paris first-cousin marriages amount to 1.4 
per cent of all the marriages ; and M. Legoyt, 
chief of the statistical staff, estimates that 
throughout France first-cousin marriages form 
from 2.5 to 8 per cent of all marriages. In 1875 
Mr. George H. Darwin undertook an elaborate in- 



quiry into the subject in England, and, "by a 
series of careful mathematical procesjes, he satis- 
fied himself that in England the proportion of 
such marriages averages from 1.35 per cent in 
London to 2.25 per cent in the rural districts for 
all classes of society, rising somewhat higher in 
the higher social grades." From this basis, and 
assuming that first-cousin marriages are not ap- 
preciably inferior in fertility to non-consan- 
guineous marriages, Mr. Darwin concluded, that, 
unless we find in the idiot and lunatic asylums a 
larger proportion than the above figures would 
provide for, of children of first-cousins, then no 
evils, at least so far as mental unsoundness is con- 
cerned, can be attributed to first-cousin marriages. 
In an inquiry based on 4,808 patients, it was found 
that about 8.4 per cent of the inmates of asylums 
(5.25 per cent in Scotland) were the children of 
first-cousins. In Dr. Shuttleworth's own asylum 
at Lancaster, the record of 100 cases shows 5.1 per 
cent to be children of consanguineous marriages, 
and (included in this) 2.8 per cent of first-cousin 
marriages. The general conclusion seems to be 
that the propriety of first-cousin marriages must 
be decided for each case separately as it arises. 



Mb. Stuabt C. Cumberland of mind-reading 
fame gives a very frank and rational account of 
his doings, in the December issue of the Nine- 
teenth century. As a child, his perceptions were 
unusually keen. But his career as a mind-reader 
began only six years ago. His first attempt 
was entirely impromptu, but was as successful 
as any afterward. The gift was present; and 
future practice made it only quicker and more 
delicate, but not more certain. At first Mr. Cum- 
berland frankly confesses he was apt to imagine 
himself supernaturally endowed, but soon con- 
vinced himself that the whole thing is simply an 
ingenious and skilled interpretation of the un- 
conscious movements of the subject. ' Willing is 
either dragging or pushing,' is the mind-reader's 
formula. 'Distinct and intense apperception, 
fixed attention is incipient motion,' is the psychol- 
ogist's conclusion. 

The account of Mr. Cumberland's experiences 
with the nobility and eminence of Europe is ex- 
tremely readable ; but some notice of his general 
conclusions will be of greater interest here. The best 
subjects are among active brain-workers, states- 
men, scientists, etc., where concentration is easy 
and usual. Military men make excellent subjects ; 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX. f No. 205 



lawyers are dodgy and unsatisfactory ; musicians 
cannot fix their attention on any thing but music ; 
artists are better subjects ; clergymen are perfect 
in the drawing-room, but not in public ; physi- 
cians are good subjects when they have no theory 
about thought-reading. Yon Moltke was the best 
and M. Dumas the worst subject. Englishmen 
and Germans are perhaps the best races for sub- 
jects ; while uncivilized races, such as Chinamen 
and Indians, are bad. Mr. Cumberland's opinion 
on thought-reading without contact is well worth 
quoting in full : "Some mystically inclined people 
claim to be able to read thoughts without contact. 
For my part, I have never yet seen experiments 
of this kind successfully performed, unless there 
had been opportunities for observing some phase 
of physical indication expressed by the subject, 
or unless the operator was enabled to gather in- 
formation from suggestions unconsciously let fall 
by somebody around. I have on several occasions 
managed to accomplish tests without actual con- 
tact, but I have always been sufficiently near to 
my ' subject ' to receive from him — and to act 
upon accordingly — any impressions that he physi- 
cally might convey." 



The power is doubtless not an uncommon one, 
and is closely allied to the knack for reading 
character, which is quite common, and to the 
usual processes by which we detect lies and sus- 
picious persons, or avoid being imposed upon. 
Mr. Cumberland believes that the process might 
be of actual use in detecting criminals, and once 
succeeded in doing this himself. The operation of 
muscle-reading is a very fatiguing one, and the 
thing is apt to be overdone by amateurs. Mr. 
Cumberland's experiences are important, be- 
cause they will aid in divesting these psychic 
tricks of the mysterious character so commonly 
ascribed to them, and in directing popular thought 
into more rational and healthy channels. 



THE PRISONERS OF THE SOUDAN. 

When General Gordon fell at Khartoom, it was 
reported that an Egyptian army far up the Nile, 
commanded by Emin Bey, continued faithful to 
the khedive. Since then only vague rumors have 
reached us ; and it was generally believed that 
Emin Bey and his army had long since been over- 
come by the mahdi, his followers dispersed, and 
he himself killed. Within the last month, news 
has been received that Emin Bey is alive, and, 
though neglected and forgotten by the khedive 



and his English rulers, is still fighting under the 
Egyptian flag against the followers of the mahdi. 

About ten years ago, Emin Bey, then Dr. 
Schwitzler of Silesia in Austria, went to Egypt 
and entered the service of the khedive. He soon 
acquired the confidence of General Gordon, his 
commanding officer, and was rapidly promoted, 
and sent on several important missions into the 
southern part of Egypt. As a reward for his 
ability and suGcess, he was made Emin Bey. 
When General Gordon was sent to the Soudan, 
Emin Bey was given command of the upper Nile, 
with headquarters at Lado, near Gondokoro. 
Here he was stationed when General Gordon was 
sent the second time to the Soudan. General 
Gordon was soon after besieged in Khartoom by 
the mahdi, and his communication both with 
upper and lower Egypt cut off. Emin Bey grad- 
ually retreated with his soldiers and their families 
up the Nile, fighting as he retired, and defeating 
the mahdi in several battles, until he made a 
permanent settlement at Wadelai, on the Nile 
(not far from Lake Albert), at the extreme south- 
ern limit of Egypt. His people are negroes from 
Nubia and the Soudan. For the last two or three 
years they have supported themselves by the cul- 
tivation of the land. " All the stations are busily 
employed in agricultural work, and at each one 
considerable cotton plantations are doing well; 
this is all the more important for us, as it enables 
us, to a certain extent, to cover our nakedness. 
I have also introduced the shoemaker's art, and 
we now make our own soap," writes Emin Bey. 

Emin Bey has but two Europeans with him, — 
Dr. Junker and Captain Cassati. Dr. Junker is a 
Russian scientist, and, like his friend and former 
companion, Dr. Schweinfurth, is a distinguished 
botanist. Eight or ten years ago he went to 
Africa, and continued the explorations com- 
menced by Dr. Schweinfurth in the valley of the 
Bahr-el-Gazel, the western branch of the Nile. 
He also explored the head waters of the Welle, 
— one of the largest tributaries of the Kongo, — 
and afterwards traced the course of another large 
river, which Dr. Junker himself believed to be 
the Arouhuimi. The troops of the mahdi overran 
the country, and Dr. Junker was forced to retire. 
By great good luck he succeeded in joining Emin 
Bey, and has remained with him. The other 
European with Emin Bey is Gaetano Cassati, for- 
merly a captain in the Italian army. He left Italy 
in 1879, with several other Italians, and landed 
upon the east coast of Africa. They spent several 
years in that part of Africa which the Italians 
have explored, until his companions were killed 
and he made a prisoner. He finally escaped, and 
made his way to Emin Bey at Gondokoro. 



Jaotaby 7, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



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SCIENCE. 



IVou IX., No. 205 



At the request of Emin Bey, Dr. Junker with 
a small caravan left Wadelai for Cairo for the 
purpose of obtaining aid. Cut off from all com- 
munication down the Nile, he was compelled to 
proceed to Cairo via Zanzibar and the Indian 
Ocean. His route was south through Unyoro and 
Uganda to Lake Victoria, from there round 
the western shore of the lake to the English mis- 
sion, and then east to Zanzibar. Kabrega, the 
ruler of Unyoro, has befriended Emin Bey, sup- 
plying him with food and stores. Moranga, the 
chief of Uganda, is hostile to Europeans, and may 
be remembered as the murderer of Bishop Hann- 
ington only a year ago. When Moranga heard that 
Kabrega had assisted Emin Bey, and had received 
Dr. Junker as bis friend, he marched against 
Kabrega, and defeated him. Dr. Junker with 
great difficulty escaped, and reached the English 
mission of Msalla. 

On the 8th of October a letter was received 
from Dr. Junker, dated at Msalla, Aug. 10, 
in which he pleads for deliverance for Kabrega, 
succor for Emin Bey, and the reconquest of the 
Soudan. If Kabrega is not delivered and the 
Soudan reconquered, the prestige of Europe in 
central Africa, will, he says, be lost ; and if Emin 
Bey f alls, it will be to the eternal shame of Egypt 
and England. These are the objects of his mission 
to Europe. He signs his letter, " Your affectionate 
friend, disparu et enfin retrouvt." 

As it took Dr. Junker more than six months 
to reach the English mission, a distance of only 
three hundred and fifty miles, he must have had 
much difficulty in passing through Uganda. He 
left the mission as soon as Mb caravan was ready, 
and reached Zanzibar the 20th of December, 
and expected to arrive at Cairo on the 10th of 
January, 1887. Thus far, no attempts have been 
made, either by the English government or the 
khedive, to relieve Emin Bey ; but an expedition 
under Dr. Fischer, a Oerman naturalist who had 
spent many years on the coast, was sent out by 
geological societies of Germany, aided by the 
German government. It started from Pangani, 
on the eastern coast of Africa, about fifty or sixty 
miles north of Zanzibar, in August, 1885. It 
reached Victoria Nyanza, but, being unable to 
proceed any farther, returned to Zanzibar last 
June. 

In the early part of the present year, Dr. 
Oscar Lenz was sent out by the Austrian govern- 
ment to try to reach Emin Bey by the western 
coast of Africa. He steamed up the river Kongo 
to Stanley Falls, and left there on the 4th of April, 
intending to sail up the Kongo to Nyangwe, 
where' Stanley launched his boat in 1877 on his 
expedition across the Dark Continent. From there 



Dr. Lenz hoped to cross to Lake Tanganyika, 
thence by Lake Muta Nziga and the Albert 
Nyanza to Wadelai. This part of Africa is occu- 
pied by Mohammedans, traders in slaves and 
ivory, who bitterly oppose all explorations that 
might interfere with the elave-trade. They 
have recently seized the station of the Kongo 
Free State at Stanley Falls, and driven the 
Europeans down the river. It is therefore doubt- 
ful whether Dr. Lenz will succeed in passing 
through this country. 

Dr. Joseph Thomson, an Englishman who has 
spent several years in eastern equatorial Africa, 
and who commanded the Royal geographical so- 
ciety's expedition through Massai Land to Lake 
Victoria during 1888 and 1884, offers to head 
a party to relieve Emin Bey. He proposes to start 
from Mombassa (a port on the Indian Ocean, 4° 
north latitude, and 120 miles north of Zanzibar), 
passing north of Kilimanjaro (a high mountain 
covered with eternal snows, which Dr. Thomson 
vainly attempted to ascend, but which has been re- 
cently ascended by Mr. H. H. Johnston), through 
the country of the Massai to Kwa Sundu, on the 
north-eastern shore of Lake Victoria, thence 
through Uganda to Wadelai. 

Though this route is north of the one taken by 
Dr. Fischer, yet the general character of the coun- 
try is the same, and it is inhabited by the tribes 
of the Massai, a most warlike race. Dr. Thomson 
succeeded in crossing this territory in 1888, but 
the people are now more hostile to Europeans, 
exacting heavier tolls and higher prices for pro- 
visions, and frequently robbing and murdering 
travellers who attempt to pass through. To show 
the great change in the treatment of Euro- 
peans by the negroes, it is only necessary to con- 
trast the account given by Mr. Stanley of Uganda 
in 1875 and that given by the London Times of 
December, 1886. Mr. Stanley says, "From the 
time the voyager touches Uganda ground, he is 
as safe and free from care as though he were in 
the most civilized state in Europe. He and his 
are in the hands of Mtesa, emperor of Uganda." 
The London Times says Munga, king of Ugan- 
da, " dares to torture and massacre the converts 
of its missionaries, and an English bishop, with- 
out fear or even reproach." 

Travelling in central Africa is made by very 
slow stages. Dr. Thomson did not reach Lake 
Victoria until one year after his arrival at Zanzi- 
bar, and then he had travelled only two-thirds of 
the way to Wadelai, and that the least difficult 
part. 

It is understood that Stanley has been sum- 
moned to Europe to take command of an expedi- 
tion fitted out by the Egyptian government, un- ! 



Jajtoabt ?, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



der the advice of England, for the relief of Emin 
Bey. The Belgian, papers state that his route will 
be np the Kongo to Arouhuimi (the tributary re- 
ferred to above), which empties into the Kongo 
near the equator, some distance below Stanley 
Falls. Mr. Stanley, on his last visit to tbe Kongo, 
sailed up this river for some distance, and believed 
it to be the outlet of the Welle. From the head of 
navigation on the Arouhnimi, the route is east to 
Wadelai. Only about two hundred miles are said 
to be unexplored. The country is inhabited by 
peaceful negroes, food is easily obtained, and dif- 
ficulties are less than by the other route. 

A cable from England states that Mr. Stanley 
will sail for Zanzibar, and go directly to Albert 
Nyanza, through Massai Land ; but we may well 
doubt this information, for although Mr. Stanley, 
in crossing the Dark Continent, went by Victoria 
Nyanza, he took a route south of the one now pro- 
posed ; and he is much better acquainted with the 
Kongo route. It is possible that Mr. Stanley may sail 
to Zanzibar, remain there long enough to procure 
kroomen and porters, and sail with them to the 
Kongo, and thence up that river to the Arouhuimi. 

The need of Emin Bey for relief appears from 
his letter, dated, Dec. 31, 1885, received in England 
Oct. 28. This letter brings the only news re- 
ceived l from him in three years. He writes that 
he almost despairs of receiving succor from the 
north, for he has heard nothing from Cairo or 
England since April, 1888; that he is without 
stores and clothing ; and that his ammunition is 
nearly exhausted. With the enthusiasm of a 
scientific man, he adds that he has worked with 
ardor at the formation of a grand collection, 
chiefly zoological, including skulls of the differ- 
ent tribes of negroes and of the chimpanzee, 
skeletons of various animals and two of the Akka 
of different sexes ; and he will endeavor to com- 
plete it during his sojourn there. He promises to 
keep his post as long as possible, trusting, that, if 
Egypt still governs the Soudan, she must send re- 
lief in time. If the Soudan has been abandoned, 
he will move southward with his troops, until he 
is relieved by the government or has placed his 
people in safety. "With the exception of the hu- 
man skulls, I have saved all my collection, and will 
not abandon them until tbe last. Formerly I re- 
ceived two or three times a year letters and news- 
papers. Alast it is so no longer. I strive by 
every means to sustain my own courage and that 

1 Since this article was written, we have read another let- 
ter from Emin Bey, dated July 7, 1886, and then hie province 
ww in complete safety and order. These letters show that 
the necessaries of life are not wanting ; but how long he 
can maintain himself depends upon the strength of the 
Mohammedan army under the new mahdi on the north, 
and of the army of the negroes from Uganda on the south. 



of my people. God has certainly protected and 
sustained me hitherto, and I have confidence, 
that, with his help, all will go well in the fu- 
ture. " 

He adds, " I have secured for a collection 

of shells from Lake Albert, which I will send by 
the missionaries at Uganda, and which I hope will 
reach him safely. — Emin Bey." 



STANDARD TIME AND MEASURES. 

At the recent annual meeting of the American 
metrological society, letters were read from W. 
F. Allen, secretary of the general time conven- 
tion, and from Sandford Fleming of Ottawa, 
Canada, from which, as they contain consider- 
able information, we quote somewhat liberally 
below. 

Mr. Allen stated that he is at present engaged 
in quite an extensive correspondence with a view 
to bringing about the adoption of standard time 
by those cities which still adhere to local time. 
This movement has already resulted in success in 
two instances. In Belfast, Me., eastern time was 
adopted on Dec. 15, 1886, the clocks being set 
twenty-four minutes slow ; and in Pittsburg, 
Penn., where an ordinance was passed adopting 
eastern standard time from Jan. 1, 1887, when 
the clocks were set twenty minutes fast It is 
probable that the legislature of Maine will pass a 
law at its coming session making eastern time the 
standard for the state. Correspondence with the 
superintendents of public schools in a number of 
the cities of Ohio has developed the fact that a 
strong feeling in favor of the adoption of standard 
time exists in that state, from which favorable 
action is likely to come in the near future. The 
twenty-four o'clock scale is in use upon the Cana- 
dian Pacific railway west of Winnipeg, upon the 
Manitoba and north-western railway, and upon 
the Idaho division of the Union Pacific railway. 
It is proposed to adopt it soon on all the divisions 
of the Union Pacific railway. Under instructions 
from the general time convention, Mr. Allen is 
preparing, and will shortly issue, a circular asking 
the views of the leading railway officials on the 
subject of the general adoption of this scale for 
employees' time-tables and advertisements. 

Mr. Fleming bore especially on the benefits to be 
derived from the twenty- four hour system, which 
has been put in practice on at least two thousand 
miles of railway. For the past six months the 
railway stretching from Lake Superior through 
Canada to the Pacific coast has been operated on 
the twenty-four hour system. « * Tbe towns and vil- 
lages along the line," writes Mr. Fleming, '* have 
with great unanimity accepted the change, and 



8 



SCIENCE. 



LVol. IX., No. 205 



not a single voice has been heard in any quarter 
expressing a desire to return to the old usage. 
So satisfactory in every way has the new system 
proved, that the Canadian Pacific railway com* 
pany have decided to extend its application east- 
ward to Ontario and the valley of the St. Law- 
rence. The branch and connecting lines are 
following the same course, and I am assured 
that by the end of next year the twenty-four hour 
system will be in common use by the railways 
from Halifax in Nova Scotia to Vancouver on the 
Pacific coast. Tou are, no doubt, already aware 
that the twenty-four hour system is in use 
throughout the extensive lines of telegraph be- 
tween Great Britain, Egypt, India, South Africa, 
China, and Australia and New Zealand.' 1 

However important these changes are, they can 
only be viewed as provisional steps in the general 
unification of time throughout the world. They 
are means to an end, and the great end of the 
movement may be the universal adoption of a 
new notation of time which will be common to 
all nations. It is only step by step, and by famil- 
iarizing men's minds with the new ideas, that the 
larger reform can be accomplished. With this 
end in view, the Smithsonian institution, desiring 
to co-operate in the movement, have agreed to 
publish and circulate, in all countries where their 
reports are sent, a paper on ' Time-reckoning for 
the twentieth century.' 

" This question," continued Mr. Fleming, " has 
an educational interest ; and, such being the case, 
much could be done by appealing to the educa- 
tional institutions. Probably the most effective 
means of influencing the rising generation of this 
country would be to bring the subject under the 
notice of the public schools. If the children of 
both sexes were taught the true principles of 
time-reckoning, in a very few years their influ- 
ence would be felt, and the main obstacle in the 
way of adopting a common notation would dis- 
appear throughout this continent. I venture to 
suggest, therefore, that the society would in the 
highest degree advance the important movement 
by taking such steps as may be deemed neces- 
sary and proper, to bring the question to the no- 
tice of the superintendents of education in each 
state with the view of reaching each boy and 
girl of school age between the two oceans. If 
America takes the lead in this matter, I do not 
doubt that the other continents will follow in 
good time." 

The society would be pleased to correspond with 
any one desiring to use his influence in bringing 
about the adoption of the metric system, or who 
is interested in a common method of time-reckon- 
ing such as is indicated in Mr. Fleming's letter. 



The office of the secretary is at Columbia 
college. 

The officers for 1887 are, president, F. A. P. 
Barnard, president of Columbia college; vice- 
president, Prof. E. N. Horsford, Cambridge, Mass. 
recording secretary, Melvil Dewey, librarian Co- 
lumbia college ; corresponding secretary, Alfred 
Colin, New York ; treasurer, Prof. J. K. Bees, 
Columbia college. 



THE NATURALISTS' MEETING AT 
PHILADELPHIA. 

The meeting of the Society of naturalists held 
in Philadelphia during Christmas week was at- 
tended by about fifty members, and proved an en- 
joyable and stimulating gathering. The strict 
enforcement of the rule limiting membership to 
persons " who regularly devote a considerable 
portion of their time to the advancement of 
natural history," allows only a slow growth to the 
society, but it insures the illumination of the 
association by its members, rather than the reverse. 
Mutual acquaintance is increased ; the meetings 
become as informal as meetings may be ; and rhe 
naturalist, who has spent a good part of the year 
too much alone in his own company, finds sugges- 
tive intercourse with his fellows. The constitu- 
tional object of the society is chiefly the discussion 
of methods of investigation and instruction ; for it 
is held that the announcement of the results of 
investigation finds more fitting and sufficient op- 
portunity in local societies. But in the present 
day of special investigation there is some danger 
that the detailed description of methods, useful in 
their place, and entertaining enough to a few 
members, may still fail to hold the attention of 
the meetings as a whole; especially when, as 
too often appears, the inventive specialist has 
failed to cultivate the art of presentation. 

The day that was devoted to methods of teach- 
ing was apparently the most satisfactory to the 
gathering. H. S. Williams of Cornell spoke on 
general instruction in geology ; Davis of Harvard 
followed on instruction in geological investigation. 
In the afternoon, Far low of Harvard considered 
the lines profitable for botanical investigation in 
the United States. Martin of Johns Hopkins dis- 
cussed collegiate teaching of biology, and Whit- 
man of Milwaukee discribed the proper position 
of biological investigation in the university. All 
these papers awakened the meeting to active dis- 
cussion, and it was decided that the executive 
committee of the society should consider the ad- 
visability and means of publishing the proceed* 
ings of the day ; for it was generally agreed that 
both the papers and the discussion that they ex- 



Januabt 7, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



cited would be read with profit and encourage- 
ment by teachers far and wide. In view of the 
interest thus awakened, it was suggested that a 
day be set apart in the meeting a year hence for 
the discussion of science in the schools. During 
the session, Professors Leidy and Lesley were 
added to the list of honorary members, Professors 
Baird, Dana, and Gray having been previously 
elected to this class. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The lectures delivered by Prof. Rodolfo Lan- 
ciani, LL.D., government director of archeological 
researches at Rome, before the Lowell institute, 
Boston, are full of interesting and instructive 
matter. The lecturer, after describing the humble 
origin of Rome, and the simple matter-of-fact 
causes which led to its foundation on the Palatine 
Hill, considered the sanitary conditions of the 
district which surrounded the new town. During 
prehistoric times the whole region was volcanic 
and free from malaria, and when it ceased to be 
volcanic, then malaria began. The clearest proof 
of the virulence of malaria in Rome in the first 
century is afforded by the number of altars and 
shrines dedicated to the goddess of the fever. At 
the time of Varro there were not less than three 
temples of the fever left standing. The principal 
works of improvement successfully completed in 
ancient times for the benefit of public health and 
for checking malaria were : I. The construction 
of drains; II. The construction of aqueducts; 
III. The multiplication and paving of roads ; IV. 
The right organization of public cemeteries; V. 
The drainage and cultivation of the Campagna; 
VI. The organization of medical help. Professor 
Lanciani developed fully these points; and we 
regret, that, owing to want of space, we cannot 
follow him more minutely. The lectures are 
unique, and worthy reproduction in a permanent 
form. 

— Physicians will doubtless remember the case 
of the late Dr. Groux of Brooklyn, who had the 
power of stopping the action of the heart at pleas- 
ure. Dr. Lydston of Chicago, in a note to the 
American practitioner and news, claims to have 
the same power, and to have demonstrated it to 
members of the medical profession. 

— At a recent meeting of the Society of arts, 
Gapt. Douglas Galton, chairman of the council, 
delivered an address which was a retrospect of 
the progress made in sanitation by the English 
nation during the reign of Queen Victoria. The 
registration of births, marriages, and deaths came 
into operation in 1887, ten days after the queen's 
accession to the throne. The sanitary condition 



of the country was wretched at this time. One- 
tenth of the population of Manchester, and one- 
seventh of that of Liverpool, lived in cellars. In 
1845 a chapel in the immediate neighborhood of 
Iincoln's-Inn Fields was used as a schoolroom in 
the day-time, and a dancing-saloon at night. In 
the cellars underneath this chapel ten thousand 
bodies bad been buried in the seventeen years 
ending 1840, the burials were still continuing, 
and the old coffins were removed through a con- 
tiguous sewer to make room for new ones. In 
the rural districts the same neglect of the public 
health was also prevalent. The various acts 
which have been passed during these fifty years 
have contributed greatly to the welfare and pros- 
perity of England as a nation. In the decade 
1850-60 the annual average saving of lives in 
England and Wales from sanitary improvement 
was 7.789 ; 1860-70, it rose to 10,481 ; 1870-80, it 
was 48,448 ; and in the five years 1880-84, the 
average annual number of lives saved by sanitary 
improvements has been 102,240. 

— Mr. E. D. Preston of the U. S. coast and 
geodetic survey left last week for the Sandwich 
Islands on an important mission for that govern- 
ment. The object of his visit is the determina- 
tion of astronomical latitudes on these islands, 
fifteen stations having already been decided upon. 
The pendulum will be swung at a great elevation, 
and also at the sea-level, to determine the down- 
ward attraction of some of the principal moun- 
tains. The latitude stations will be on the follow- 
ing islands: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and 
Hawaii. The work will probably show great 
deflections of the plumb-line on all the islands, 
and the pendulum work will no doubt confirm 
previous experiments on island stations ; viz., 
that islands give an excess of gravity. The ob- 
servations will occupy about four or five months. 
A copy of all observations will be deposited in the 
coast and geodetic survey archives. The work is 
done entirely at the expense of the Hawaiian 
government, the coast survey loaning the neces- 
sary instruments. 

— Congressman Hatch, chairman of the house 
committee on agriculture, has received from Com- 
missioner Colman of the agricultural department 
a reply to the resolution offered by Mr. Swinburne 
of New York regarding the cause and extent of 
pleuro-pneumonia in cattle. The commissioner 
sets forth the difficulties met in the attempt to 
extirpate or control this disease in the present 
state of the law, and with the machinery at hand, 
and re-enforces his recommendations previously 
made for more heroic methods. The commis- 
sioner again recommends as the only measure 



10 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX, No. 905 



which will extirpate the plague, and prevent both 
the direct and indirect losses, that, wherever an 
infected herd is discovered, all exposed animals 
should be slaughtered, the premises thoroughly 
disinfected, and the owner compensated for the 
loss to which he is subjected for the protection of 
the public. He urges upon congress the necessity 
of legislation giving to the departments power to 
carry out the measures required for extirpating 
pleuro-pneumonia untrammelled by state laws or 
state authorities, and it is expected to promptly 
suppress this disease. 

— W. Stainton Moses, lately a vice-president and 
a member of the council of the English society 
for psychical research, has withdrawn from the 
society. In his letter of resignation, Mr. Moses 
says, "I have concluded, that, as a representative 
spiritualist, I could not do otherwise, considering, 
as I do, that the evidence for phenomena of the 
genuine character of which I and many others 
have satisfied ourselves beyond doubt, is not being 
properly entertained or fairly treated by the So- 
ciety for psychical research." 

— Professor Rohe of Baltimore, in a paper read 
at the last meeting of the American medical asso- 
ciation, recommended that instruction in cook- 
ery be made a part of the curriculum of the 
public schools, and .that mental philosophy or 
trigonometry should be dropped in order to make 
a place for it. In a number of schools and semi- 
naries throughout the country the art of cooking is 
taught. In Lasell seminary at Auburndale, Mass., 
it has been taught since 1877. The Boston cook- 
ing-school was started in the same year. Similar 
schools are in operation in Raleigh, N.C. ; Staun- 
ton, Va., and Washington, D.C. In London prac- 
tical lessons in cookery are given in the girls' com- 
mon schools. In Boston, Mr. Hemmenway of 
that city has succeeded in persuading the members 
of the school board to make instruction in cook- 
ery a part of the regular system of instruction. 

— Mr. J. W. Walker has discovered on the 
south side of Pine Mountain, Georgia, nearly two 
hundred feet above the famous corundum-mine, 
a site where the ancient inhabitants of that region 
manufactured their talc vessels for cooking. Evi- 
dences of the use of stone implements in the work 
are indubitable. The vessels were blocked out 
and hollowed before being broken from the ledge. 
Many of the remaining fragments are honey- 
combed by exposure for a long time. Archeolo- 
gists are familiar with similar phenomena else- 
where. Dr. Rau of the Smithsonian institution 
mentions several sites in the District of Columbia, 
and Paul Schumacher gives an elaborate account 
of the working of such quarries in southern Cali- 



fornia (Wheeler's Report on U. 8. geog. surv. 
west of 100ft merid., vii. 117-121). Dr. Abbott's 
paper in the same volume (pp. 98-116) should also 
be consulted. 

— On Nov. 10, 1886, a meeting of intercolonial 
delegates was held at the Jftoyal society's rooms, 
Sydney, for the purpose of forming an Australa- 
sian association for the advancement of science. 
The following delegates were present : — Victoria : 
Field naturalists' club of Victoria, the Rev. Dr. 
Woolls; Geological society of Australasia, and 
Historical society of Australasia, Mr. R. T. Litton ; 
Royal society of Victoria, Mr. K. L. Murray; 
Victorian institute of surveyors, Messrs. W. J. 
Conder and W. H. Nash ; Victorian engineering 
association, Professor Kernot and Mr. K. L. Mur- 
ray. Queensland : Geographical society of Aus- 
tralasia, Queensland branch, Mr. J. P. Thompson ; 
Royal society of Queensland, Mr. Henry Tryon. 
Tasmania : Mr. James Barnard. New Zealand : 
Philosophical institute of Canterbury, Mr. S. Her- 
bert Cox. New South Wales : Linnean so- 
ciety of New South Wales, Professor Stephen ; 
Royal society of New South Wales, Mr. H. C. 
Russell, Professor Liversidge, Mr. C. S. Wilkinson ; 
New South Wales zoological society, Dr. A. T. 
Holroyd ; Sydney branch of the Geographical so- 
ciety of Australasia, Sir Edward Strickland. In 

a the absence of Mr. C. RoUeston, president of tbe 
Royal society, Mr. Russell was voted to the chair. 
The first election of officers will be held in Sydney 
in March, 1888, and the first meeting of the asso- 
ciation in the first week in September, 1888. Pro- 
fessor Liversidge was appointed convener for the 
next meeting, and a hearty vote of thanks was 
accorded to that gentleman for tbe part he had 
taken towards the formation of the new associa- 
tion, general satisfaction being manifested at the 
successful result of the meeting. 

— Mrs. Thomas Say, the widow of the well- 
known naturalist who has been dead over fifty 
years, died at Lexington, Mass., on Nov. 15 last. 

— Our Vienna correspondent writes us, "I was 
recently present at the trials made with a new 
pistol invented by Mr. Marcus, a distinguished 
mechanical engineer. In this invention the use 
of a cartridge is dispensed with, the bullet itself 
being prepared with an explosive. But, in spite 
of this explosive nature of the bullet, its shape is 
not altered by the explosion. The explosion is 
initiated by a simple mechanism provided in the 
interior of the pistol. The experiments were 
made with a single-barrel pistolet (the barrel be- 
ing four centimetres long, and its caliber six mil- 
limetres). At a range of thirty paces a three- 
quarter-inch thick wooden board was pierced by 



January 7, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



11 



the ballet. Then a pistol with a simple-acting 
magazine, containing twelve bullets, was tried, 
allowing to give off forty shots per minute." 

— Baltimore is about to build a crematory mod- 
elled after that of Buffalo. 

— From the Medical and surgical reporter we 
learn, that, among the recruits recognized as un- 
fit for military service in Switzerland in 1885, 
were 66 per cent of the tobacco- workers, 67 per 
cent of the basket-makers, 60 per cent of the 
tailors, 25 per cent of the butchers, and 25 per 
cent of the stonemasons and carpenters. Of 
6,154 recruits in canton Berne, 1,833 were re- 
fused ; of these, 581 suffered from goitre, and 
162 from flat-foot. 

— The Abbe Laflamme, of the University La- 
val, Quebec, has presented a note to the Royal 
society of Canada (* Memoirs,' 1886) on the con- 
tact of the paleozoic and archean formations in 
his province. Numerous exposures were exam- 
ined, and in nearly all of them the Trenton lime- 
stone was found resting immediately on the clean, 
firm, rather smooth surface of the gneiss, without 
transitional deposits. Fragments of the crystal- 
line rocks in the stratified are seldom found. The 
limestone beds follow the irregularities of their 
foundation, mantling over the mounds, and de- 
scending into the hollows. At certain points a 
sandstone lies on the crystallines : this is regarded 
as a time-equivalent of the Trenton, owing its 
composition to local geographic control not felt 
elsewhere. The change from the Trenton lime- 
stone to the overlying Utica slates is described as 
abrupt, without traces of gradual transition. 

— The Franklin institute of Philadelphia has 
recently determined to attempt the formation of 
a state weather-service for Pennsylvania on the 
plan generally pursued by these organizations. 
The offer of the chief signal officer to furnish a 
member of the signal corps' to assist in the work 
is accepted, and the legislature is to be petitioned 
for an appropriation of three thousand dollars for 
instruments and publications. The chairman of 
the committee in charge of the matter is Mr. W. 
P. Tat ham, who should be addressed, in care of 
the Franklin institute, Philadelphia, by volunteer 
observers in Pennsylvania qualified for the work 
proposed. 

— An account of the hurricane of March 8 and 
4, 1886. over the Fiji Islands, was read at a recent 
meeting of the Royal meteorological society in 
London, by Mr. R. L. Holmes. This storm was 
the most destructive that has ever been known to 
occur in the Fiji group. The lowest barometer 
reading was 27.54 inches at Vuna, in Taviuni. 



The storm was accompanied by a great wave from 
18 to 80 feet in height, which swept over the land, 
and caused an immense amount of damage. It 
was reported that 50 vessels were wrecked, and 64 
lives lost, during this hurricane. 

— The state board of health of Pennsylvania 
has issued its first annual report. It includes re- 
ports on the pollution of the Schuylkill River, the 
sanitary condition of Harrisburg, a detailed ac- 
count of the typhoid-fever epidemic at Plymouth. 
In this famous epidemic there were 1,153 cases of 
sickness, with 114 deaths, and an expense of $97,- 
120.25. A description of the disinfection appara- 
tus employed at the municipal hospital of Phila- 
delphia is also given. 

— The ninth biennial report of the state board 
of health of California has just been issued. For 
the year ending June 30, 1885, there were 8,238 
deaths recorded in the state : 1,227 deaths occurred 
from consumption. The rate from this cause is 
but little less than that of Massachusetts. 

— The state board of health of Massachusetts 
has issued a manual containing the statutes of 
that state relating to the public health, and the 
decisions of the supreme court relating to the 
same. 

— A wood-turner of San Francisco died ten 
days after receiving an injury to the brain which 
was not discovered until several days afterward. 
While at work at his trade, a steel chisel became 
detached from a grooving-machine, and struck 
him in the head, producing a fracture of the 
bones of the nose, and severely injuring the left 
eye, so seriously as to destroy that organ and 
necessitate'its removal. After the removal of the 
eye, the surgeons found behind it a piece of steel 
three and a half inches long, one inch wide at the 
centre, and tapering to sharp points at the ends. 
One end was buried one inch and a half in the * 
brain. The velocity and force with which this 
chisel must have entered the brain may be im- 
agined when it is stated that the drum to which it 
was attached waB making twenty-three hundred 
revolutions a minute. 

— A correspondent of the Medical press writes 
from Berlin that the toxic qualities of the cholera 
bacillus have been investigated by Professor Can- 
tani of Naples. He claims that the poison may 
be due to ptomaines, to the secretions of the 
bacilli, or to the bacilli themselves. Experiments 
made on dogs lead him to incline toward the last 
theory. Pure cholera cultures in beef-tea steril- 
ized by heating to 100° C, injected into the dog's 
peritoneum, produced all the symptoms of cholera- 
poisoning; while pure beef-tea, injected in the 



12 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 205 



same manner, left the animals in perfect health. 
This certainly would demonstrate toxic qualities 
for the dead bacilli when absorbed by the living 
body. 

— Dr. McEachran, live-stock inspector for Can- 
ada, is opposed to the inoculation of cattle for 
the prevention of pleuro-pneumonia. He believes, 
that, in every country in the world where it has 
been impartially tried and reported on, the report 
has been unfavorable. He regards it as a danger- 
ous operation, and not warranted by any known 
benefits. Many die from the operation itself, and 
wherever it is practised it has to be kept up. 
Thus in Scotland, where inoculation is practised, 
there is a constant supply of the virus ; and the 
cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh are active centres 
of the disease. 

— The recently held meeting of the French 
congress of surgeons was a very notable one. M. 
Oilier of Lyons, well known for his experiments 
in bone-grafting, presided at the meeting, which 
was attended by many of the most eminent sur- 
geons of France, as well as by other men of note, 
among whom were the president of the senate and 
the rector of the university. The most interesting 
discussion was that in regard to tetanus, or, as it 
is commonly called, lockjaw. It was opened by 
M. Vaslin of Angers. He regards it as a purely 
nervous disease, and, in support of his views, nar- 
rated a case which had come under his own ob- 
servation, in which the disease was due solely to 
emotional causes, and which was cured by chloral 
and morphine. Professor Balestreri of Genoa 
concurred with M. Vaslin, and related several 
cases which he had treated, and which were suc- 
cessful. Professor Thirier of Brussels, on the 
other hand, believed tetanus to be contagious and 
of a parasitic nature. M. Mannoury of Chartres 
denied its contagiousness, and said, that, after 
conferring with a good many veterinarians, he 
was unable to learn of a single case in which the 
disease was communicated from one animal to an- 
other. Professor Verneuil of Paris is a firm be- 
liever in the contagiousness of tetanus, and thinks 
that it can be contracted by man from the horse. 
He said that humao beings are often attacked with 
tetanus when living with or near animals affected 
with the disease, and that it often follows horse- 
bites. Wounds which have in any way come in 
contact with earth or straw soiled by horses are 
more liable to be accompanied by tetanus than 
others; and the disease is most frequent among 
stable-boys, horse-dealers, and, in general, those 
whose duties bring them in contact with horses. 
Notwithstanding all these arguments, it was gen- 
erally admitted that all attempts to convey the 



disease experimentally from an affected animal 
to a healthy one had failed. M. Blanc of Bom- 
bay thought the disease to be contagious, and 
communicated sometimes through infected water. 
Interesting papers were read on bone-grafting, and 
the uniting of divided nerves by suturing. The 
author of the latter paper believed that severed 
nerves may be made to unite in a few hours. 

— The sermons and autobiography of Mark 
Pattison, late master of Lincoln college, Oxford, 
excited such general interest, that arrangements 
are making to publish a volume of selections 
from Mr. Pattison's miscellaneous writings. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

•^Correspondents are requested to be as brie/ as possible. The 
writer's name is in ail cases required a* proof of good faith. 

Polarization of resistance coils. 

In August last Professor Mendenhall, in conversa- 
tion with the writer, alluded to his observation of 
the polarization of certain resistance coils, and sug- 
gested an examination of the coils in this laboratory. 
The examination was made, and the results stated in 
remarks upon Professor Mendenhall's paper at the 
Buffalo meeting of the American association. A brief 
account may not be without interest and value. 

The idea entertained by Professor Mendenhall at 
the time seemed to be that the polarization was of a 
' statical ' nature ; the deflection obtained on connect- 
ing the coil, through which a current had been 
passed, with a galvanometer, being produced by the 
' residual charge. 1 The examination of our coils was 
undertaken with the same idea, the • condenser dis- 
charge * method being made use of, substituting the 
coil under trial for the condenser. The galvanometer 
was a 6,000 ohm astatic Thomson, by Elliott Brothers, 
its needle malTing a vibration in about ten seconds. 
A Fuller cell and Sabine discharge key were used. 
Polarization was found in every coil in the laboratory, 
except in a standard B.A. unit from Elliott Brothers. 
It was also found in a Hartmann box loaned for ex- 
amination by Messrs. Queen & Co. The effect was 
found to vary widely in different coilB in the same 
box, particularly so in a box of 100,000 units from 
Elliott's, whose 40,000 coil gave 40 degrees deflection 
against 6 or 7 degrees for any other coil in the box. 
On opening the box, it was found that the 40,000 coil 
had been heated till the paraffine had melted and 
some of it had run off, while the other coils were well 
covered, as usual in Elliott coils. The Hartmann box, 
whose coils were not paraffined, showed the effeot 
more strongly than any except the 40,000 Elliott. It 
was observed that the coil terminal connected to the 
positive pole of the battery in charging, was itself 
positive in discharging; that reversing the battery 
reversed the discharge deflection ; that the deflection 
was not momentary, as with condensers, but that it 
indicated a steady current, diminishing slowly, but 
not ceasing in some instances after eight or ten hours ; 
that when the coil was charged by battery for several 
minutes, and then the current reversed and allowed 
to flow a few minutes longer, the discharge current 
was at first due to the last charging current, but 
after a time it ceased, and was followed by another 



January 7, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



13 



discharge current due to the first charging. An ex- 
perimental coil was then made up of 1,800 ohms of 
wire having unparaffined cotton insulation. It was 
wound on a warm rainy day, and tested immediately, 
showing the strongest polarization found, driving the 
spot of light violently off the scale. The coil was 
then baked in a hot-air oven at 150° G. for an hour, 
and tested again when cool. No trace of polariza- 
tion could then be found, though the charging cur- 
rent was increased. The previous observations of 
course indicated electrolytic polarization as the dis- 
turbing cause ; and the last showed, that, in the case 
of that coil, it was electrolysis of water absorbed 
from the air by the cotton insulation. The experi- 
mental coil was then heated, and soaked well with 
pure paraffine, and drained while hot until it seemed 
to be as nearly as possible in the same condition as 
the 40,000 Elliott coil, and tested when cool. No 
trace of polarization was shown. It was then put 
aside in the instrument case to see whether it could 
still absorb water enough to polarize. Ten days 
later, just after the Buffalo meeting, the coil was 
tested again and polarized strongly. On heating it 
again, the polarization entirely disappeared. A drop 
of hydrant water placed on the coil caused polariza- 
tion to re-appear in five seconds, and in five minutes 
the effect was so strong as to drive the needle to its 
stops. 

The degree of error in measurement resulting from 
polarization was not examined, but Professor Men- 
denhall's statements show that it may be a consider- 
able quantity. 

It is obvious that unparaffined coils are. on this ac- 
count, uusuited to the best work ; also that coils well 
paraffined (as in the B.A. unit coil) or coils freshly 
baked and paraffined are free from such error. 

The paraffining of ordinary coils, even when as 
thoroughly done as by the Elliotts, is not a perma- 
nent protection, probably because of cracking of the 
mass of paraffine, allowing vapor to reach the wire 
and insulation. A test will quickly determine the 
condition of any particular coil. A box might be 
made proof against polarization by filling entirely 
the space about the freshly baked coils with pure 
paraffine , just warm enough to flow freely. Tempera- 
ture difficulties could be in part overcome by thermo- 
junctions, as in standards. Another and on some 
accounts better plan would be to mount the coils in 
an impervious box with liquid-tight joints, and fill- 
ing the interior with a petroleum oil, which may 
readily be found in market, of such quality as to 
exhibit no polarization. With such a box, there 
need be no uncertainty as to the temperature of the 
coils. Bbnj. F. Thomas. 

Columbus, O., Bee. 87. 



Atmospheric lines in the solar spectrum. 

The ingenious device recently published by Mr. 
Conner, for detecting the lines in the solar spectrum 
due to the earth's atmosphere, recalls a similar plan 
proposed by the writer some years ago. In a letter 
dated Feb. 21, 1883, 1 wrote to Professor Rowland, 
"I hope that you will try the experiment of which 
I spoke to you last summer, — forming two images of 
the sun, and photographing the spectra of the oppo- 
site limbs. A glance would serve to distinguish the 
solar from the telluric lines." An accompanying 
sketch showed that a double-image prism was to be 
placed between the slit and a lens forming an image 



of the sun upon it. This prism was to be moved 
until the two images were in contact. The east and 
west limbs were thus brought together, and the slit 
was placed at right angles to their line of junction. 
In the photograph, telluric lines should cross the 
spectrum undeviated, while solar lines would be bent 
in opposite directions where they crossed the line of 
separation of the two spectra. The advantages of 
this method over that of Mr. Conner are, first, its 
simplicity, as it is easily tried by any one who has 
a spectroscope giving a sufficient diffusion ; secondly, 
the solar lines, instead of becoming hazy, continue 
well defined. For these reasons I call attention to 
the matter, and not to detract from the credit due to 
the eminent French physicist, who has preceded me 
both in trying and publishing a solution of this very 
important problem. Edwa&d G. Piokxbino. 

Harvard coll. observ., Jan. 1, 1887. 



A brilliant meteor. 

On Jan. 3, 1887, at 5.15 p.m., I observed a meteor 
of unusual brilliancy. It started, as nearly as I could 
make out, from the constellation Ursa Minor, pos- 
sibly a little higher up, moving with a rapid rush 
and brilliant light in an easterly direction. As it 
neared the horizon, its speed apparently diminished, 
until it disappeared behind some trees. It was visi- 
ble fully thirty seconds, and, during the last part of 
its flight, appeared to float slowly downwards. A 
trail of considerable length was drawn behind, giving 
it the appearance of a large rocket. Its flight was 
unattended by any sound. B. W. Wood, Jr. 

Jamaica Plain, Mass. 



What was the rose of Sharon ? 

I notice in your issue of Dec. 31 an article on the 
rose of Sharon. Without desiring to enter into the 
discussion of this subject, I wish to refer those in- 
terested to a few words upon this subject by an emi- 
nent investigator. Speaking of that part of the 
pleistocene plain near Jaffa, bordering the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, Sir J. W. Dawson, in his recent work, on 
'Egypt and Syria,' says, " In February we found it 
gay with the beautiful crimson anemone (A. coro- 
naria), which we were quite willing to accept as the 
' rose of Sharon, 1 while a little yellowish-white iris, 
of more modest appearance, growing along with it, 
represented the * lily-of -the- valley ' of Solomon's 
song." From this would it not be reasonable to in- 
fer that this anemone is quite generally recognized 
as the ' rose of Sharon ' ? Amos W. Butleb. 

Brookville, Ind., Jan. 8, 1887. 



Electrical phenomena on a mountain. 

In confirmation of the observations of M. F. 
(Science, viii. p. 564) in relation to electrical phe- 
nomena on Lone Mountain, near Bozeman, I beg leave 
to call attention to the fact that more than twelve 
years ago Mr. Franklin Rhoda, assistant topographer, 
in his ' Beport on the topography of the San Juan 
country' (vide F. V. Hay den's Report of U.S. geolo- 
gical and geographical survey of the territories for 
the year 1874, pp. 456-458, also p. 461), gives a 
detailed and graphic account of similar electrical 
manifestations experienced by Mr. A. D. Wilson and 



11 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 805 



himself at station No. 12, on one of the peaks of the 
San Juan Mountains, in August, 1874, at an altitude 
of 13,967 feet above the level of the sea. 

An interesting and significant circumstance recorded 
by Mr. Rhoda was the fact that there was a sudden 
and instantaneous cessation of the distressing electri- 
cal manifestations whenever a stroke of lightning 
took place, to be speedily renewed by the returning 
tension of the electricity. He says, " The sharp 
points of the hundred stones about ub each emitted 
a continuous sound, while the instrument outsang 
every thing else, and, even at this high elevation, 
could be heard distinctly at the distance of fifty yards. 
The points of the angular stones being of different 
degrees of sharpness, each produced a sound peculiar 
to itself. The general effect of all was as if a heavy 
bjeeze were blowing across the mountain. The air 
was quite still, so that the wind could have played no 
part in this strange natural concert, nor was the in- 
tervention of a mythological Orpheus necessary to 
give to these trachytio stones a voice/' 

John LbCohtb. 
Berkeley, CaL, Dec 25. 



Stereoscopic vision. 

In reply to the inquiry of Mr. W. H. Pratt in the 
last issue of Science, it is necessary only to consider 
the various elements which are combined in the 
formation of a visual judgment. If an observer, 
who possesses but a single eye, looks out upon a 
landscape, the relative distance of the different ob- 
jects viewed may be roughly estimated in terms of 
some standard arbitrarily chosen, so long as they are 
not precisely aligned with his eye. The judgment 
is less accurate as the angular separation of the ob- 
jects becomes leas, and as there are fewer of them at 
moderate distances for comparison with the rest. 
Always, and usually unconsciously, he employs one 
or more of the following elements in judging the 
distance and form of each object regarded : — 

I. Near objects subtend larger visual angles than 
remote objects of equal size. 

II. Near objects are seen more distinctly than 
those that are remote. The illusion of distance 
may hence be produced by decreasing the brightness 
of the object viewed, by changing the nature of the 
medium, or by increasing the contrast between light 
and shade. 

III. Near objects that are almost aligned with 
those which are remote, often partly cover them. 
Covering objects are judged nearer than those 
covered. 

IV. Familiarity with the dimensions of known ob- 
jects when near enables us to compare them when 
remote, and thereby judge their relative distance. 

V. By moving from one stand-point to another, 
and comparing the new view with what is retained 
in memory of the previous one, parallax of motion 
thus contributes to the formation of a judgment of 
both distance and form. 

All of these elements may be imitated in pictures, 
except the last. In the examination of ordinary stereo- 
graphs they are combined with the important element 
of binocular perspective, and to such an extent that it 
is impossible to know just how much we are indebted 
to binocular perspective for the illusion of apparent 
relief. Skeleton diagrams, properly constructed, 
are hence the only means of studying stereoscopic 



vision, if this term be taken as a synonyme of binoc- 
ular vision. If Mr. Pratt will try his method with an 
outline drawing, it will fail. 

In regarding an ordinary painting, binocular vision 
is often a hinderanoe, rather than an aid, in appreci- 
ating perspective. It is at least important to cut off 
from view the objects surrounding the picture, which 
we involuntarily take into comparison with it. In 
the application of geometry to perspective, a single 
point of view (station-point) is always assumed, and 
in examining the result the observer should place a 
single eye as nearly as possible at the same station- 
point to attain the best perspective illusion. The 
other eye must be closed, if he wishes to exclude 
the interfering element of binocular vision which 
will at once be unconsciously applied to the card or 
canvas on which the picture has been made. 

It is by the observance of these precautions that 
Mr. Pratt has been able to appreciate perspective in 
the pictures examined, but true stereoscopic vision 
was excluded instead of being attained by what he 
may have supposed to be a new method. 

W. LeContb Stevxnb. 
Brooklyn, Jan. 1, 1887. 



Star ray*. 



Mr. Randolph will find the phenomenon of the 
long vertical rays or streamers proceeding from a 
strongly luminous point described and fully ex- 
plained in my little volume entitled ' Sight,' pp. 87- 
89. They are produced, not by reflection from the 
eyelashes, as he supposes, but by refraction of light 
passing through the meniscus of moisture between 
the lid and the cornea, and are therefore more dis- 
tinct when the lids are brought near together. I had 
investigated the phenomenon and ascertained its 
cause before I was aware of the very brief mention 
of it in Daguin's * Traite de physique,' vol. iv. p. 323. 

The radiating points about a star are more difficult 
to explain. They are probably due to some pecul- 
iarity in the structure of the crystalline lens. 

Joseph LeOont*. 
Berkeley, CaL, Dec. 25. 



A German sentence. 

In your current number you give an example of a 
German sentence. In Ttutonicity it can hardly com- 
pete with the following extract from an advertise- 
ment of a well-known periodical: "Als eines der 
vorzuglichsten Weihnachtsgesohenke mussen die ele- 
gant gebundenen Quartalsbande der Deutschen 
Rundschau herausgegeben von Julius Rodenberg 
Preis pro Band in elegantem, rothem Originallein- 
wandband mit Schwarz und Golddruck 8 Mark be- 
zeichnet werden." N. 

Washington, Jan. 8, 1887. 



Pleuro-pnenmonia. 

It may not be worth while to call attention to two 
slight mistakes in the printing of my communication 
on p. 631 (viii. No. 204). The 'meplis' should be 
' Mehlis,' the author of micrurus; and the 'U. S. fish 
commission ' on the first line of second column should 
be ' U. 8. entomological commission.' 

G. V. Rxlkt. 

Washington, D.C., Jan. 8, 1887. 



Calendar of Societies. 



Anthropological society, Washington. 

Dee. 21. — G. £. Dntton, Mr. Henry George's 
' Progress and poverty.* 

Engineers' club, Philadelphia. 

Dec. 18.'— Kenneth Allen, A table of thicknesses of 
plates for standpipes, with formulae, for the refer, 
ence-book; L. M. Haupt, Results of some calcula- 
tions upon the equilibrium and stability of his sys- 
tem of floating deflectors; A. H. Howland, Stand- 
pipes ; J. H. Harden, Notes upon the Chester county, 
Penn., granite. 

Society of arts, Boston. 

Dec. 23. — £. C. Pickering, Stellar photography. 

Society of natural history, Boston. 

Jan. 5. — F. W. Putnam, Explorations in the Little 
Miami valley, Ohio. 

Indiana academy of science, Indianapolis. 

Dec 29, 90. — D. S. Jordan, The dispersion of fresh- 
water fishes ; J. N. Rose, The mildews of Indiana ; 
C. R. Barns, The moss leaf ; S. Coulter, The chloro- 
phyl bands of Spirogyra ; Lillie J. Martin, Outline 
of a course in science study based on evolution ; 

Geo. H , Additions to the flora of Jefferson 

county ; J. M. Coulter, Origin of the Indiana flora ; 
£. R. Quick, Our blind mice ; A. W. Butler, Notes 
on the house-building habit of the muskrat; O. P. 
Hay, A curious habit of the red-headed woodpecker ; 
A. W. Butler, Notes on Indiana ornithology ; B. W. 
Evermann, Notes on birds observed in Carroll county, 
Ind.; O. P. Hay, The higher classification of the 
amphibia; Some reptiles and amphibians that appear 
to be rare in Indiana ; Some reptiles and amphibians 
that are to be looked for in Indiana ; Notes on the 
winter habits of Amblystoma tigrinum and A. micro- 
stoma; C. H. Eigenmann and Elizabeth G. Hughes, 
Review of Diplodon and Lagodon ; C. H. Eigenmann 
and Jennie Horning, Review of American Chaetodon- 
tidae ; O. P. Jenkins, The fishes of the Wabash and 
some of its tributaries ; D. S. Jordan, The relation 
of latitude to the number of vertebrae in fishes ; S. 
E. Meek, Elagatis pinnulatus at the eastern end of 
Long Island ; H. L. Osborn, Osphradium in Crep- 
idula; C. H. Bollman, Notes on the Acrididae of 
Bloomington, Ind., with descriptions of four new 
species; Jerome McNeill, A remarkable case of 
longevity in the longicorn beetle, Eburia quadri- 
geminata Say ; F. M. Webster, Some biological studies 
of Lixus macer Say, and L. concavus Lee ; J. Mc- 
Neill, Descriptions of four new species of myriapods 
from the United States ; C. H. Bollman, New North 
American myriapods, chiefly from Bloomington, 
Ind.; R. F. Hight, On the Thysanura; J. McNeill, 
The teaching of entomology in the high schools; 
J. L. Campbell, The geodetic survey in Indiana; T. 0. 
Mendenhall, Recent progress in seismology; J. C. 
Branner, An Indiana earthquake ; A. J. Phinney, 
Natural gas and petroleum; D. W. Dennis, The 
bearing of the Lebanon beds on evolution; J. 
T. Scovell, The geology of Vigo county, Ind.; A. 
J. Phinney, Zoantharia rugosa; V. C. Alderson, 
Town geology, what it is, and what it might be ; J. 
H. Means and J. C. Branner, Preliminary location of 
a parting in the sub-carboniferous of Monroe county, 



Ind.. W. P. Shannon, The physical geography of 
Decatur county, Ind., during the Niagara period; J. 
T. Scovell, The Niagara River ; C. R. Dryer, The 
surface geology of the Wabash-Erie divide; O. P. 
Hay, The manner of deposit of the glacial drift, and 
the formation of lakes ; J. C. Branner, The limit of 
the drift in Kentucky and Indiana ; The deep well at 
Bloomington, Ind.; Daniel Eirkwood, The zone of 
minor planets ; H. W. Wiley, Causes of variation of 
sucrose in sorghum ; P. H. Baker, The new alkaloid, 
cocaine ; A. B. Woodford, The nation, the subject- 
matter of political science. 

Engineers 9 club, St. Louis. 

Dec. 21. — Announcement of the death of Col. C. 
Shaler Smith. 

Wisconsin academy of sciences, arts, and letters. 

Dec. 28-29. — R. D. Irving, The basal conglome- 
rate of the Huronian ; R. D. Salisbury, Constitution 
of the residuary clays; T. C. Chamberlin, Glacial 
phenomena about the head of Lake Michigan ; I. M. 
Buell, Bowlder trains of Dodge, Dane, and Rook 
counties; F. B. Power, Disinfection; P. R. Hoy, 
Science and society ; W. F. Allen, The genesis of the 
town ; John Bascom, Limitations of political eoono- 
my ; J. J. Blaisdell, The methods of science. 

Publications received at Editor's Office, Dec. 90-15. 

Brinton, D. G The conception of love in some American 
languages. Philadelphia, McCaila & Sfavely,/r., 1886. 18 p. 
8°. 

Brownell, H. Handbook for school trustees in the state of 
New York. Syracuse, C. W. Bardeen y 1886. 4+^4 p. z6°. 

Comfort. G. F. Modern languages in education. Syracuse, 
N.Y., C. W. Bardeen, x886. 40 o. x6«. 

Education, circulars of information of the bureau of. ( No. x, 
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Government, x886. 78 p. 8°. 

Heberden, C. B. Euripides Medea. Parts i., ii. (Clarendon 
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York, Macmillan, 50 cents.) 

Illinois state board of health, report of proceedings of the. 
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millan, 75 centsO 

8weet, H. Second middle English primer. Extracts from 
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6+112 p. x6°. (New York, Macmillan, 50 cents.) 

Williams, G. A. Topics and references in American history, 
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FRIDAY, JANUARY 7, 1887. 

TAXATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY IN 
FRANCE, GERMANY, AND THE UNITED 
STATES. 

When Lord Roeebery was in Mr. Gladstone's 
cabinet as secretary for foreign affairs, he insti- 
tuted some investigations through his diplomatic 
and consular officers that resemble closely those 
carried on by our consuls during the past decade 
in accordance with the system inaugurated by 
Secretary Evarts. One of Lord Rosebery's in- 
vestigations had reference to the system under 
which personal property is brought into contribu- 
tion for local or national purposes, and was under- 
taken by the British ministers at Paris, Berlin, 
and Washington. The returns have recently been 
embodied in a parliamentary paper, and present 
many points of interest. In France there are 
four heads of direct taxes, — the real-property 
tax (contribution fonciire), the door-and-window 
tax, the personal-property tax (contribution per- 
eonnelle et mobiliire), and the tax on professions. 
The total amounts to be obtained from the first 
three taxes are first fixed by the budget, and are 
then divided and subdivided between the depart- 
ments, arrondis8ements f and communes, until 
finally the share of each tax-payer is decided on. 
The contribution pereonneUe et mobiliere is of two 
kinds. The first is a poll-tax of wbat is considered 
equivalent to three days of labor, and is payable 
by every Frenchman in France, and every 
foreigner of either sex who is not reputed in- 
digent, and who is in possession of his or her 
4 rights.' The minimum of this tax is 1 franc 50 
centimes, and the maximum 4 francs 50 centimes. 
The second form of personal tax is laid on all 
those liable to the poll-tax, and is proportioned to 
the letting price of the house or apartment each 
may inhabit. The assessors are the mayor of the 
commune and his adjoint or adjoints, and five 
citizens, termed repartiteur8 f named by the head 
of the arrondisaement, and changed annually. An 
elaborate system of councils provides for the 
assessment, collection, and payment of these 
taxes. Besides these main state taxes, there are 
so many centimes additionneU. These are of three 
kinds, — gbieraux, when for the exigencies of the 
state ; departementaux, when for the departmental 
administration ; cotnmunaux, when for the com- 
munal administration. A special category of cen- 



times additionnels is also provided, the returns from 
which are granted to the ministry of agriculture 
or finance for special emergencies, such as the 
abatement or return of taxation to persons or dis- 
tricts which have suffered from floods, fire, hail, 
etc. 

The tax on professions or trades (patented) is 
also a personal tax, but its amount cannot, like 
the other three, be fixed beforehand. There is an 
official scale according to which each industry or 
profession is taxed ; and the administrator of 
direct taxes determines the schedule into which 
each tax-payer shall be placed, and settles the 
droit fixe and the droit proportionnel. The droit 
fixe is based on the population and the nature of 
the trade or profession. The droit proportionnel 
is fixed according to the annual rental of the 
buildings or premises used for the exercise of the 
trade, industry, or profession. This contribution 
dee patentee is due by every Frenchman or 
foreigner who exercises a trade, industry, or pro- 
fession not included in the exceptions mads by 
law. Mr. Edgerton, who has prepared the paper 
on personal taxation in France, remarks that the 
general tendency of late changes in the scale of 
this tax has been to abate the amounts paid by 
the smaller industries, and to increase those paid 
by the larger ones. For example : in 1880 the 
fixed patentee on bankers was increased from 
1,000 to 2,000 francs. 

The return for Germany in answer to Lord 
Rosebery's circular applies to Prussia only, as no 
direct taxes are levied for the account of the im- 
perial government. But Prussia serves as a type 
of all the other German states, since their system 
and method of assessment are modelled on hers. 

In Prussia all communes not having sufficient 
independent revenue to cover their local require- 
ments may raise such necessary revenues, either 
by surtaxes (zuschldge) based on the rates of cer- 
tain specified state direct taxes, or by special sanc- 
tion from the state to impose special taxes, direct 
or indirect. The former alternative is the one 
usually chosen by such communes as have not an 
independent revenue from real property. The 
wealthiest communes dispense with these sur- 
taxes altogether, while in the poorer communes 
the surtax is as high as 800 or 400 per cent of the 
state tax. The state taxes, which serve as the 
basis of computation for these surtaxes, are : — 
(a) Personal : I. Class tax on personal net annual 
incomes under 3,000 marks ; II. Classified income 



16 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 205 



tax on annual net incomes above 3,000 marks; 
m. Trading tax. (6) On real property: IV. 
Ground tax ; V. House tax. 

Under I. were pot, in twelve classes, the in- 
comes above 420 and under 3,000 marks ; and the 
annual tax is from 3 to 72 marks, incomes under 
420 marks being exempt. 

By a law passed in 1888, all incomes under 900 
marks were exempted, and the remaining classes 
relieved from one-fourth of their tax ; the instal- 
ments due in July, August, and September of each 
year being remitted. 

Under II. are put the incomes over 3,000 
marks ; and they fall into forty classes, the tax 
ranging from 90 to 21,600 marks, the latter on an 
income from 720,000 to 780,000 marks. The pay 
of persons in the Btanding army is exempt from 
state taxation, and has only this year been made 
liable to local taxation. In assessing the com- 
munal surtaxes, only half the salary of govern- 
ment officials is taken into account. An annual 
net income is construed to be the net income de- 
rived from all descriptions of property and occu- 
pations after deducting interest paid on proved 
debts, amounts paid in other taxes, and costs of 
production. Deductions are also allowed in spe- 
cial cases where the tax-payer has a large family 
to support. The assessment of this class tax is in- 
trusted to a board composed of the president of 
the commune and of members elected by the 
communal representative body, all classes of tax- 
payers being represented as far as possible. Each 
tax-payer is duly notified of the class in which he 
is placed, and opportunity is offered him for pro- 
test or application for deduction. 

The system of assessing III., the trade tax, is 
quite complicated. Persons liable to this tax are 
distributed into classes, ranging from large trades 
down to hack men. The individual assessment is 
thus determined : each class, except the highest, 
is subdivided into four sections, and a medium 
rate is fixed for each section in each class. This 
medium rate, multiplied by the number of persons 
liable for taxation in the first three sections of each 
class in the case of towns, and in the fourth sec- 
tion in the case of a Kreis or circumscription, rep- 
resents the total annual amount of the tax for 
which the town or Kreis is liable, and which it 
has to collect for the state. If the medium rate 
falls too heavily on any members of a class, they are 
assessed less, and the rate is raised for those mem- 
bers of the same class who are better able to pay. 
Steamers pay an annual tax of 0.75 of a mark 
for every horse-power ; and carriers by land, with 
two horses and upwards, pay an annual tax of 3 
marks for each horse. 

The report on the United States is prepared by 



Mr. Helyar, second secretary of legation at Wash- 
ington, and is based on the works of Burroughs- 
and Cooley, and on some details gathered by Mr. 
E. J. Reinck of the U. S. treasury. 



A HAIRY HUMAN FAMILY. 

The superabundance of hair in certain mem- 
bers of the human family is one of the impor- 
tant problems of anthropology. Dr. Ecker named 
this phenomenon ' hypertrichosis ' (' On the pilous 
system and its anomalies,' analyzed in Revue (Tan- 
thropologie, 1880, p. 170). In Ecker's third class, 
or ( dog-men,' are included those subjects in which 
the hypertrichosis is general. In 1879 two Rus- 
sians, father and son, were exhibited in Paris, 
who were good examples of this anomaly. The 
case of Barbara Ursler, reported in 1689-66, is re- 
viewed by Dr. Ecker, with an illustration, in 
Archiv fur anthropologic, xi. 1879, p. 176 (see 
also Globus, xxxiii. 1878, Nob. 12 and 14; and 
Strieker, * Ueber die sogenannten Haavmenschen,. 
Frankfurt-a.-M.,' 1877, p. 97 ; Bernhard Ornstein, 
in Archiv fur anthropologic, xvi. pp. 505-510 ; Dr.. 
O. Fraas, Archiv, xiv. 1883, pp. 339-842 ; Mine- 
Clemence Royer, * Sur le systeme pileux,' Revue 
dC anthropologic, 1880, pp. 13-26). 

Adrien Teftichew, of the government of Kos- 
troma, Russia, mentioned above, was, at the time 
of his exhibition in Paris, fifty-five years old. It 
was from his appearance that this type received 
the name of ' dog-men.' His forehead, cheeks, 
eyelids, ears, and nose were covered with long, 
smooth hair. The neck, body, and extremities 
were covered with hair, but not so long as that 
upon the face. The son Theodore did not differ 
materially in thiB respect from his father. 

The Birman family, as described by Ecker, con- 
sisted of Schwe-Maong, thirty years old, bis 
daughter Maphoon and her two sons, — three 
generations presenting this anomaly. Moreover, 
the lower jaw of Schwe-Maong had only four in- 
cisors and the left canine ; the upper jaw, only 
four teeth ; the molars are entirely wanting, their 
place being filled by fleshy gutters on the gums. 
Even the alveolar processes are supposed to be 
absent. 

Schwe-Maong affirms that he never lost any 
teeth, and that the eruption of his permanent 
teeth did not take place until he was twenty years 
old. Maphoon also lacks canines and molars, 
whose places are supplied by the fleshy gutters 
with which she does her masticating. 

Dr. Ecker further describes the famous Mexican 
danseuse, Julie Pastrana, and a child named 
Po8sa8si, of Hufeland, described by Dr. Beverne 
in 1802. 



Jawtjaby 7, 1887-1 



SCIENCE. 



17 



It is well known that at seven months the 
human foetus is entirely covered with hair. 
These hairs traverse the skin obliquely, and con- 
tinue to increase slowly until they attain from a 
quarter to half an inch in length, when they are 
replaced by the small persistent hairs. The infant 
comes into the world covered with embryonal 
hair. The dog-men are covered with a woolly or 
silky hair, presenting embryonal characters. 
Both Ecker and his reviewer, Dr. Vars, agree that 
general hypertrichosis is simply an arrest of de- 
velopment ; that is to say, the down, instead of 
being replaced by hair, persists and continues to 
develop. 

I liad not heard of the transfer of the Birman 
family to England until I read the newspaper re- 
port recently. There is no reason to discredit the 
account, proper allowance being made for enthu- 
siastic hyperbole. O. T. Mason. 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES. 

In a paper recently read before the Philadel- 
phia county medical society, Dr. Arthur V. Meigs 
takes the ground that scarlet-fever is very much 
less contagious than is commonly supposed ; much 
less, in fact, than measles and whooping-cough ; 
and in proof of his opinion, he cites the fact, that, 
while it is the rule for measles and whooping- 
cough to affect all the children in a household, 
scarlet-fever usually limits its attack to one or 
two, even though there may be others who have 
never had the disease, and are therefore presuma- 
bly susceptible. There is one point which the au- 
thor of the paper does not, it seems to us, lay suf- 
ficient stress upon ; and that is, that, while parents 
dread scarlet-fever, they have but little fear of 
measles or whooping-cough, and, being influenced 
by that popular impression that all children must 
at some time of their lives have these latter dis- 
eases, they take no pains to isolate the sick from 
the well, as they do if the disease be scarlet-fever. 
The writer could give repeated instances where 
the most rigid isolation was practised in cases of 
measles, in which but one member of a family 
was attacked, though there were a number of 
others who were presumably susceptible. Until, 
therefore, the same scrupulous care is taken to 
separate the affected child from the unaffected in 
measles as is done in scarlet-fever, we shall hesi- 
tate to accept the conclusion that scarlet-fever is 
much less contagious than measles. This will 
probably never be done until parents are taught 
that measles is not a trivial disease, but is, in fact, 
many times a most serious one. In England the 
number of deaths in five years from measles was 
42,189 ; in Brooklyn in ten years 1,012 children 



died from this cause ; and in New York during 
the week ending Dec. 4, 42 deaths from it are re- 
corded. This takes no account of the countless 
number that are left with impaired constitutions 
and lung diseases, and who, within a very short 
time after this attack of measles, appear in the 
mortality statistics as victims to bronchitis or 
pneumonia. And the same may be said of whoop- 
ing-cough, — a disease which, in the period 187&- 
79, caused in England alone 66,780 deaths. 



SYNECHDOCHICAL MAGIC. 

All students of anthropology are familiar with 
the belief among lower peoples that what is done 
to a part of a person or to his property is done to 
him. These people all dread to have the smallest 
part of their bodies or their intimate possessions 
go from them. It has always seemed to me to 
need further explanation, a more simple and com- 
monplace solution. 

This is given in Mr. A. W. Howitt's paper in 
the August number of the Journal of the An- 
thropological institute. I quote his language : — 

" Connected with the throwing of magical sub- 
stances in an invisible form is the belief that they 
can be caused to enter the body of a victim by 
burying them in his footsteps, or even in the 
mark made in the ground by his reclining body. 
Sharp fragments of quartz, glass, bone, charcoal, 
are thus used, and rheumatic affections are fre- 
quently attributed to them. 

"Another form of this belief is seen in the 
practice of putting the jagged cone of the Casua- 
rina quad rival vis into a man's fire, so that the 
smoke may blow into his eyes and cause him to 
become blind. The idea seems to be that the 
eidolon of the cone will produce acute ophthal- 
mia. 

"A piece of hair, some of his faeces, a bone 
picked by him and dropped, a shred of his opos- 
sum rug, will suffice. • Even his saliva may be 
picked up and used for his destruction." 

The explanation of all this, which I have long 
sought, is given in the very words of one of 
Mr. Howitt's informers, who said, " You see, 
when a black fellow doctor gets hold of something 
belonging to a man and roasts it with things, and 
sings over it, the fire catches hold of the smell of 
the man [italics mine], and that settles the poor 
fellow." In other words, the smallest part of a 
man. or of any thing he has touched, will suffice 
to give the demon his scent. 

Of course, customs survive millenniums after 
the cause of their origin is forgotten, and it is 
scarcely probable that those who carefully burn 
their waste hair and nails do so to avoid giving 



18 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 805 



the witches their scent or the means of indentify- 
ing them. The savage who refuses to allow his 
picture to be taken, and the felon who objects to 
having his ' mug ' adorn the walls of Rogues's 
gallery, are not so far apart, if we can bring our 
minds to identify the devil of the former with 
the detective of the latter. O. T. Mason. 



PROFESSOR NEWBERRY ON EARTH- 
QUAKES. 

Professor Newberry's paper on earthquakes 
is, in the words of the author, "a brief review of 
what is known and believed in regard to the 
phenomena and causes of earthquakes by those 
whose opinions on this subject are most worthy 
of confidence." After defining the word * earth- 
quake,' he proceeds to give a summary of the 
facts upon which he bases his definition, carefully 
elaborating and illustrating the subject from the 
point of view of a cooling and contracting sphere, 
with a relatively thin crust, and fluid or viscous 
interior. The latter part of the essay is treated 
under the headings, 'Earthquakes and volcanoes 
as measures of the thickness of the earth's crust, ' 
and 'Flexibility of the earth's crust.' Finally, 
'Proximate causes of earthquakes' are briefly 
considered, and a short bibliography is appended. 

The definition, which is taken as the text, and 
which is really an epitome of the whole argu- 
ment, is as follows : " An earthquake is a move- 
ment caused by a shrinking from the loss of heat 
of the heated interior of the earth, and the crush- 
ing-together and displacement of the rigid exterior 
as it accommodates itself to the contracting nu- 
cleus." It is then stated that the facts upon 
which this statement is based are so numerous 
and significant that the conclusion 'is not only 
convincing, but inevitable.' Although this broad 
generalization is perhaps applicable in the case of 
most earthquakes, and the theory as to the struc- 
ture of the earth which it involves is very gener- 
ally accepted by geologists, yet, in view of the 
fact that many eminent scientific men are not 
prepared to subscribe to it at all, in either case it 
is to be regretted that the author has not adopted 
the comprehensive and more non-committal defi- 
nition given by Mallet, and substantially repeated, 
as follows by Powell (in The forum for Decem- 
ber) : " An earthquake is the passage of waves of 
elastic compression in the crust of the earth.' 1 
The very fact that different theories are to be 
found, even in the very latest utterances of emi- 
nent authorities, would seem to make it desirable 
to acknowledge that the subject is not one that 

Earthquakes. By Prof. J. 8. Niwbsbrt. New York, The 
autAor, 1886. 8°. 



can be disposed of in such an ex cathedra state- 
ment, but rather one worthy of the most pains- 
taking study, which, indeed, it is now receiving 
from the most advanced nations. The further 
statement that "earthquakes are neither novel 
nor mysterious, but are among the most common 
and simplest of terrestrial phenomena," is not 
likely to receive very wide acceptance in its en- 
tirety, and issue will certainly be taken with Pro- 
fessor Newberry as to there being any very great 
degree of unanimity in this opinion among " those 
whose opinions are most worthy of confidence." 
Similarly it must -be said that far more confi- 
dence is placed by the author in the various 
methods of calculating the depth of origin by 
means of accurate observations as to time and 
angle of emergence than seems warranted. The 
problem is so complicated by the great hetero- 
geneity of the superficial formation of the earth's 
crust, that the best observations we can make, 
give, at best, only roughly approximate results. 
Again, it is stated that the reported shortening of 
railroad-tracks in certain places near Charleston, 
" if verified and measured, would give a clew to 
the location and extent of the subterranean move- 
ments which produced the vibrations." Most 
authorities, however, will probably regard it, in 
the case of a shock disturbing so great an area, 
as an entirely secondary effect, along with the 
production of local sinks, geysers, and land-slides. 
This well arranged and condensed risumi of 
the subject, from the stand-point of a geologist of 
Professor Newberry's reputation, cannot fail to 
be read with interest by the general reader as 
well as by the special student. The only criticism 
that can he made, other than favorable, seems to- 
be that to the average reader it may leave the 
impression that the causes of all earthquakes, and 
even the nature of the earth's interior, are now so 
well understood as to leave very little room for 
difference of opinion among those best qualified 
to judge. Everett Hayden. 



PHANTASMS OF THE LIVING. 

This is a most extraordinary work, — fourteen 

hundred large and closely printed pages by men 

of the rarest intellectual qualifications, for the 

purpose of setting on its legs again a belief which 

the common consent of the 'enlightened' has 

long ago relegated to the rubbish -heap of old 

wives' tales. In any reputable department of 

science the qualities displayed in these volumes 

would be reckoned superlatively good. Untiring 

zeal in collecting facts, and patience in seeking to 

Phantasms qf ths living. By Edmund Gurnet, Frbdkbic 
W. H. MYXB8, and Frank Podmobb. 9 rolfl. London, THZ5- 
ner, 1896. 8°. 



Januaby 7, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



19 



make them accurate ; learning, of the solidest 
sort, in discussing them ; in theorizing,' subtlety 
and originality, and, above all, fairness, for the 
work absolutely reeks with candor, — this com- 
bination of characters is assuredly not found in 
every bit of so-called scientific research that is 
published in our day. 

The book hardly admits of detailed criticism, 
so much depends on the minutiae of the special 
cases reported : so I will give a broad sketch of 
its contents. The title, ' Phantasms of the living,' 
expresses a theory on which the recorded facts are 
strong, but of which the latter are of course inde- 
pendent. The /facts' are instances of what are 
commonly called 'apparitions.' Collected for the 
Society of psychical research, their sifting and cata- 
loguing is a laborious piece of work which has a 
substantive value, whatever their definitive expla- 
nation may prove to be. Very roughly speaking, 
there are reported in the book about seven hun- 
dred cases of sensorial phantasms which seem 
vaguely or closely connected with some distant 
contemporaneous event. The event, in about 
one-half of the cases, was some one's death. In 
addition to these cases, Mr. Gurney has collected 
about six hundred of hallucinations seemingly ir- 
relevant to any actual event, and thus has cer- 
tainly a wider material to work upon than any 
one who has yet studied the subject of phantasms. 
Of course, the rationalistic way of interpreting the 
coincidence of so large a number with a death or 
other event, is to call it chance. Such a large 
number of 'veridical' phantasms occurring by 
chance would, however, imply an enormous total 
number of miscellaneous phantasms occurring all 
the while in the community. Mr. Gurney finds 
(to take the visual cases alone) that among 5,706 
persons, interrogated at random, only 23 visual 
hallucinations had occurred in the last twelve 
years. And combining by the calculus of proba- 
bilities such data as the population drawn upon 
for the coincidence-cases, the adult population of 
the country, the number of deaths in the country 
within twelve years, etc., he comes to the conclu- 
sion that the odds against the chance occurrence 
of as many first-hand and well-attested veridical 
visual phantasms as his collection embraces, is as 
a trillion of trillions of trillions to 1. Of course, 
the data are extremely rough ; and, in particular, 
the census of phantasms occurring at large in the 
community ought to be much wider than it is. 
But the veridical phantasms have, furthermore, 
many peculiarities. They are more apt to be 
visual than auditory. Casual hallucinations are 
oftener auditory. The person appearing is almost 
always recognized ; not so in casual hallucina- 
tions. They tend to coincide with a particular 



form of outward event, viz., death. These and 
other features seem to make of them a natural 
# group of phenomena. 

The next best rationalistic explanation of them 
is that they are fictions, wilful or innocent ; and 
that Messrs. Gurney, Myers, and Podmore are vic- 
tims, partly of the tendency to hoax, but mainly 
of the false memories and mythopoietic instincts 
of mankind. These possibilities do not escape our 
authors, but receive ample consideration at their 
hands. Nothing, in fact, is more striking than 
the zeal with which they cross-examine the wit- 
nesses ; nothing more admirable than the labor 
they spend in testing the accuracy of the stories, 
so far as can be done by ransacking old newspa- 
pers for obituaries and the like. If a story con- 
tains a fire burning in a grate — presto the Green- 
wich records are searched to see whether the 
thermometer warranted a fire on that day ; if it 
contains a medical practitioner, the medical regis- 
ter is consulted to make sure he is correct ; etc. 
But obviously a hoax might keep all such acces- 
sories true, and a story true as to the main point 
might have grown false as to dates and accesso- 
ries. It therefore comes back essentially to the 
investigator's instinct, or nose, as one might call 
it, for good and bad evidence. A born dupe will 
go astray, with every precaution ; a born judge 
will keep the path, with few. Saturday reviewers 
will dispose of the work in the simplest possible 
way by treating the authors as born dupes. ' Sci- 
entists ' who prefer offhand methods will do the 
same. Other readers will be baffled, many con- 
vinced. The present writer finds that some of 
the cases accounted strong by the authors strike 
him in the reading as weak, while scruples shown 
by them in other cases seem to him fanciful. 
This is the pivot of the whole matter ; for I sup- 
pose the improbability of the phantasms being 
veridical by chance, will, if the stories are true, 
be felt by every one. Meanwhile it must be re- 
membered, that, so far as expertness in judging 
of truth comes from training, no reader can pos- 
sibly be as expert as the authors. The way to be- 
come expert in a matter is to get lots of experience 
of that particular matter. Neither a specialist in 
nervous diseases, nor a criminal lawyer, will be 
expert in dealing with these stories until he has had 
Messrs. Gurney's, Myers's, and Podmore's special 
education. Then his pathology, or his familiarity 
with false evidence, may also serve him in good 
stead. But in him, or in them, ' gumption ' will, 
after all, be the basis of superiority. How much 
of it the authors have, the future alone can decide. 

One argument against the value of the evidence 
they rely on is drawn from the history of witch- 
craft. Nowhere, it is said (as by Mr. Lecky in his 



20 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 205 



'Rationalism'), is better-attested evidence for 
facts ; yet the evidence is now utterly discredited, 
and the facts, then apparently so plenty, occur no 
more. Mr. Gurney considers this objection, and 
comes to an extremely interesting result. After 
" careful search through about 260 books on the 
, subject (including the principal ones of the six- 
teenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries) and 
a large number of contemporary records of trials," 
he affirms that the 'only facts of witchcraft for 
which there is any good evidence whatever are 
those neuropathic phenomena (trance, anaesthesia, 
hysteria, 'suggestion,' etc.) which, so far from 
being now discredited, are more than ever ascer- 
tained; while the marvels like conveyance 
through the air, transformation into animals, etc., 
do not rest on a single first-hand statement made 
by a person not ' possessed ' or under torture. 

The authors' theory of veridical phantasms is 
that they are caused by thought-transferrence. 
The ghost theory and the ' astral-form ' theory are 
criticised as unsatisfactory (ghosts of clothes, phan- 
tasms not seen by all present, etc.). Thought- 
transferrence has been once for all established as 
a vera causa. Why not assume that even the im- 
pressions announcing death were made during the 
last moments of the dying person's life ? 

Where the apparition is to several witnesses, 
this explanation has to be much strained ; and, 
in spite of Messrs. Myers's and Gurney's ingenuity, 
I can hardly feel as if they had made out a very 
plausible case. But any theory helps the analysis 
of facts ; and I do not understand that Messrs. 
Gurney and Myers hold their telepathic explanation 
to have at present much more than this provision- 
al sort of importance. 

I have given my impression of the ability of the 
work. My impression of its success is this : the 
authors have placed a matter which, previous to 
them, had been handled so loosely as not to com- 
pel the attention of scientific minds, in a position 
which makes inattention impossible. They have 
established a presumption, to say the least, which 
it will need further statistical research either to 
undo or to confirm. They have at the same time 
made further statistical research easy ; for their 
volumes will certainly stimulate the immediate 
registration and publication, on a large scale, of 
cases of hallucinations (both veridical and casual) 
which but for them would have been kept private. 
The next twenty-five years will then probably de- 
cide the question. Either a flood of confirmatory 
phenomena, caught in the act, will pour in, in 
consequence of their work ; or it will not pour in 
— and then we shall legitimately enough explain 
the stories here preserved as mixtures of odd co- 
incidence with fiction. In the one case Messrs. 



Gurney and Myers will have made an epoch in 
science, and will take rank among the immortals 
as the first effective prophets of a doctrine whose 
ineffectual prophets have been many. In the 
other case they will have made as great a wreck 
and misuse of noble faculties as the sun is often 
called to look down upon. The prudent by- 
stander will be in no haste to prophesy ; or, if he 
prophesy, he will hedge. I may be lacking in 
prudence ; but I feel that I ought to describe the 
total effect left at present by the book on ray 
mind. It is a strong suspicion that its authors 
will prove to be on the winning side. It will sur- 
prise me after this if neither 'telepathy' nor 
'veridical hallucinations' are among the beliefs 
which the future tends to confirm. 

William James. 



MURRAY'S HANDBOOK OF PSYCHOLOGY. 

Dr. Murray has written an excellent elemen- 
tary text-book for students of psychology. In the 
present state of that science, it is difficult to pre- 
sent its doctrines in a form suitable for didactic 
purposes. It is often necessary for the author to 
leave untouched certain important questions, the 
settlement of which is only possible by a contro- 
versial excursion into the department of meta- 
physics. 

Dr. Murray's book is not a treatise on physio- 
logical psychology, although the conclusions of 
physiologists seem to be familiar to him. He has 
occupied himself chiefly with what is called 
' subjective psychology,' — a field which must be 
traversed before one can enter upon the more 
positive science of the relation of psychical to 
nervous states. He treats of psychology and its 
method, gives a full and satisfactory account of 
sensation, analyzing the knowledge given by the 
various senses, and noticing the subject of general 
or organic sensations. This is followed by an 
account of association and its laws, and a short 
chapter on comparison. These subjects constitute 
what he describes as ' general psychology.' 

' Special psychology ' has to do with ' cognitions, 
feelings, and volitions,' — a threefold division, 
corresponding to the classical partition of * intel- 
lect, feeling, and will.' Under the head of 
' cognitions ' we find an account of perceptions, 
generalization, reasoning, idealization, illusory 
cognitions, and a chapter on the general nature 
of knowledge, which discusses ' self -conscious- 
ness, time, space, substance, and cause ' from the 
psychological rather than the metaphysical point 
of view. After an introduction treating of the 
nature of pleasure and pain and the expression 

A handbook of psychology. By J. Clark Murray. 
Loudon, Gardner, 1886. 



Jaitoart 7, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



21 



and classification of the feelings, are chapters on 
the feelings of sense, feelings originating in asso- 
ciation, feelings for self and for others, feelings 
originating in comparison, intellectual feelings, 
and f eelings of action. Four chapters are devoted 
to volition, the last treating briefly of the free- 
dom of the will. 

As we said above, the book is an excellent one, 
and few serious sins of commission can be charged 
against it. We question somewhat the advisa- 
bility of the abrupt divorce of perception and 
sensation as kinds of mental conditions. Mr. 
Sully, in his * Outlines of psychology,' agrees 
with the author in his separation of these 
states or actions. It seems to us that a sensation 
is nothing more than a nervous stimulus un- 
less it is perceived. Perception is the perception 
of a sensation, and nothing more. When we 
pass beyond the perception of sensations to a 
knowledge, say, of objects, we may explain that 
knowledge either by the association of the per- 
ceptions, or by the union of the perceptions in the 
act of conception. For this reason we believe that 
those who, with Sir William Hamilton, use the 
term 'sense-perception,' use an awkward term, 
but one which is scientifically accurate. 
- The author's treatment of the process of rep- 
resentation is one of the most unsatisfactory parts 
of the book. His account of association is not 
sufficient to give information about all that we 
call popularly 'memory.' We also fail to find 
any chapters on reflex action or on the highly im- 
portant subject of unconscious mental modifica- 
tions. On the other hand, Dr. Murray's simple 
and interesting account of illusory cognitions de- 
serves high commendation, and his classification 
of the feelings seems to us to be both natural and 
scientific. 

The author (p. 28, et seq.) appears to view with 
but little favor the results of investigation in the 
department of psychophysics. We have no space 
to discuss the question how far his caution or 
scepticism is justified. On both sides of the At- 
lantic this branch of psychology is enjoying a 
very extraordinary share of attention, and sugges- 
tive and interesting results have been reached. 
We are inclined to regard these investigations as 
of less importance than those engaged in them are 
disposed to attach to them, and we confess that 
we await with some expectancy results commen- 
surate with the amount of labor expended in 
gathering the statistics which form so prominent 
a part of the periodical literature on philosophy. 

Dr. Murray's closing chapter on the freedom of 
volition, we regard as perhaps the least scientific 
part of his book. His doctrine is suggested in the 
sentence, "The very nature of volition, therefore, 



would be contradicted by a description of it in 
terms which brought it under the category of 
causality " (p. 417). 

The book, however, is admirably adapted for 
teaching the elements of psychology to classes in 
schools and colleges. 



TWO VALUABLE PRIMERS OF POLITICS. 

It has been said that greater ability is needed 
to develop and elucidate fundamental principles 
than to deduce from them an elaborate set of con- 
clusions. This is doubtless true ; and for that 
reason most primers, whether of literature, his- 
tory, science, or politics, are failures, in that they 
are the work of well-meaning but insufficiently 
and narrowly informed students. That leading 
specialists can use their talents to good purpose in 
writing primers, and thus bring their influence 
directly to bear on the generation in process of 
education, has been amply demonstrated by Pro- 
fessors Huxley, Roscoe, Balfour Stewart, Geikie, 
Michael Foster, Jevons, and others. The two 
little books to which we have reference in the head- 
ing of this notice rank, with the works of the au- 
thors just mentioned, as primers that are worth 
something. They have something in common, in 
that they are written primarily for English read- 
ers by an English woman' and an English man 
respectively. There the resemblance ceases. Misa 
Buckland's primer * is a summary of existing Eng- 
lish institutions, and we are free to say that we 
have never seen them more clearly, more con- 
cisely, and more accurately pictured. Miss 
Buckland draws to a large extent from the books- 
in the * English citizen ' series on particular insti- 
tutions and phases of English politics, but the com- 
pleteness and articulation of this little book are 
peculiarly her own. She treats of the constitution 
in general, of the sovereign, parliament, the house 
of lords, the house of commons, the privy coun- 
cil, the national budget, the English church, edu- 
cation in England, local government, and so on. 
The careful reader will obtain from the book a 
very thorough knowledge of the workings of Eng- 
lish governmental institutions ; and it is just such 
a book as a teacher should use for a few weeks 
with a class that has completed the study of Eng- 
lish history, in order to enable the pupils to follow 
and discuss intelligently current English politics. 
We do not recall an inexact or wrong statement 
in the book, considered simply as an exposition. 
On p. 84 is an obvious misprint, £71,000 being 
given as the amount of the annual allowance to 
the Queen's family. The correct sum is £171,000, 
and it is so stated by Miss Buckland on p. 9. 

i Our national institution* : a short •ketch for schools. By 
Anna Buckland. London, JfocmtUan, 1888. 16°. 



22 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX , No. 205 



As Miss Buckland's primer is* one of political 
exposition, so Mr. Raleigh's * is one of philosophi- 
cal exposition, and it rises to a very high plane 
indeed. For obvious reasons the author's illus- 
trations are drawn principally from English his- 
tory and English institutions ; but as society and 
civilization are not national, but international, 
Mr. Raleigh's able volume should attract much 
attention and find numerous readers in this coun- 
try. In his preface the author states that most 
controversies would end before they begin if the 
disputants would only define the terms that they 
use. The pages that follow are an attempt to de- 
fine and make explicit the terms used in political 
argument. As the author himself allows, his book 
will stimulate rather than satisfy inquiry ; and for 
just that reason it is capable of becoming, in the 
hands of a competent teacher of civics or politics, 
an invaluable text-book. It is eminently impar- 
tial, and for that reason might in some parts mys- 
tify rather than satisfy the beginner ; but, properly 
interpreted, it can be made of the greatest service. 
The author begins by summarizing (the whole book 
only contains 163 small pages) the principles 
which lie at the basis of society and civilization ; 
then he examines modern society and the modern 
state, and passes to elections, party government, 
economic terms and principles, the functions of the 
state, and propositions looking to reform. Lack of 
space forbids our quoting as much as we should 
wish from Mr. Raleigh's compact volume, but to 
a few salient points we must call particular atten- 
tion. He enforces, from many points of view, the 
position that no abstract theory of government, 
nor any radical law, can give the prosperity and 
satisfaction demanded by certain theorists who 
call for revolution and reform. "The cardinal 
error of revolutionary politicians is this, that they 
assume the possibility of breaking away from 
custom and tradition. They look on institutions 
as if they were purely artificial, and therefore 
alterable at pleasure. In point of fact, institu- 
tions are rooted in the natures of men who are 
accustomed to them. If all our laws were de- 
stroyed in a day, our habits and ways of thinking 
would remain, and out of these a new set of laws, 
not very unlike the old, would soon be developed. 
If we desire great changes, we must not put our 
trust in revolution: we must work steadily at 
those reforms which seem most likely to improve 
our habits and ways of thinking" (p. 127). And 
in connection with this subject, reform, there is 
this timely warning given: "When social re- 
formers put forward schemes by which the strain 
of competition would be lessened, we must exam- 

i Elementary politic*. By Thomas Ralbigh. London, 
Oxford univ. pr„ 188ft. 16°. 



ine their proposals carefully, to find out whether 
they do not involve an appeal to the selfishness of 
the weak, which is just as dangerous in its way 
as the selfishness of the strong " (p.* 97). Mr. 
Raleigh's remarks about speculation (p. 99), the 
effect of state help (p. 180), and his summary of 
how far state interference can safely go (pp. 150 and 
157), are as scientific in form as they are satis- 
factory in contents. We most unreservedly com- 
mend the book as a clear, strong, and healthy 
primer of politics, and heartily wish that it 
could be studied and appreciated in every high 
school and by every citizen of the United States. 



A santtaby convention under the auspices of 
the Michigan state board of health was held at 
Big Rapids, Nov. 18 and 19, 1886. Dr. Stoddard 
read a paper on the injuries of e very-day drug- 
taking. It partly came from mothers dosing 
babies with soothing-sirup, paregoric, worm-loz- 
enges, etc. The remedy was to educate the 
people in the injurious effects of drugs. Dr. 
Inglis of Detroit closed his remarks on alcohol as 
a medicine by saying that he should like to pro- 
duce the continually accumulating evidence of 
the positive harm caused by such indiscriminate 
use of all kinds of alcoholic drinks, bitters, and 
tonics, and that physicians should let alcoholic 
liquor be the last, and not the first, remedy in the 
treatment of disease. Professor Ferris of the In- 
dustrial school read a paper on hygiene of schools, 
dwelling upon the lack of ventilation in the schools 
of Big Rapids, in several the air-space for each 
pupil not exceeding two hundred cubic feet. 
Papers were read on Pasteur and preventive medi- 
cine, public-health laws, and the prevention of 
communicable diseases. 

— Intubation of the larynx, which has been in- 
troduced recently as a substitute for tracheotomy in 
cases of diphtheria and croup, is coming into gen- 
eral favor with medical practitioners. The credit 
of its introduction is due to Dr. O'Dwyer, a New 
York physician. Already one hundred and sixty- 
five cases have been reported in which it has been 
practised, with twenty-eight and one-half per 
cent of recoveries. The introduction of the tube 
into the larynx is a very simple operation, and 
requires no anaesthetic nor trained assistants. In- 
asmuch as no cutting operation is required, as in 
tracheotomy, there is no difficulty in persuading 
parents to consent to the intubation of their chil- 
dren, when the more formidable operation of 
tracheotomy would not be permitted. This per- 
centage of recoveries will doubtless be much in- 
creased as physicians become more accustomed 
to the method. 



SCIENCE. 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 14, 1887. 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM. 
The danger of long-range weather-prediction, 
even of the cautious kind lately indulged in by Dr. 
Hinrichs, is forcibly illustrated in the statements 
given in the advance proof of the Iowa bulletin 
for December. The month is described as very 
cold, fair, and dry, the mean temperature of the 
air being more than seven degrees below the nor- 
mal. Only once in the past sixteen years has 
Iowa had a colder December (1876). This is not 
a satisfactory verification of the statement made 
a month ago : " The probability is very high that 
the winter now begun will be a mild one in Iowa 
and the north-west." Apparently as a comment 
on this discordance, Dr. Hinrichs says, " January 
will, it seems, also run decidedly below normal. 
February may be markedly above normal, and 
contribute greatly to reduce the severity of the 
winter [a possibility very much to be desired]. 
During the forty years preceding 1888, there 
never have been more than two consecutive cold 
winters in Iowa ; namely, those of 1856 and 1867. 
Beginning with 1888, we have now had four 
severe winters in unbroken succession, and these 
winters have not been followed by a month of 
severe weather this winter. This is entirely with- 
out precedent, and of very serious import to the 
people of Iowa." That seems to be the difficulty : 
the weather cares too little for precedent. 



The holiday edition of the Age of 8teel de- 
serves attention because of the number and inter- 
est of the economic articles it contains. In fact, 
it seems more like an economic than a technical 
journal. It is somewhat of a novelty, too, to find 
that the economics are thoroughly practical, the 
theoretical and speculative element occupying a 
very subordinate place. M. Godin, the founder 
of the Familistere, tells again briefly the well- 
known story of that institution. At the end of his 
article, the philanthropist grows confidential, and 
points out the principal obstacle with which his 
foundation has to contend. That obstacle is, as 
might have been suspected, nothing less than 
human nature itself. And it has happened in this 

No.909.— 1%7. 



way. The association has made large profits, 
which have been published every year. A knowl- 
edge of the detailed operations of the concern is 
accessible to the public. Just here the difficulty 
presented itself. 

In the language of M. Godin, " instead of study- 
ing them [the annual balance-sheet, and so forth] 
for the purpose of imitating us by organizing 
labor, this is the way the filibusters in industry 
have argued : they have said to themselves, * The 
Association of the Familistere pays actually about 
1,800,000 francs ($360,000) in wages. If we estab- 
lish a similar industry, copy its products, and pay 
60 per cent less to our operatives than the Society 
of the Familistere pays theirs, we shall realize 
profits amounting to nearly a million more than 
it ; so that it cannot compete with us, except it 
lowers wages, — a thing it cannot do, since its 
operatives are associates in its industry : thus we 
can beat them in the market.' These arguments 
have been carried out in practice, so that the 
Association of the Familistere has to-day to com- 
pete with establishments that let down wages 
to their lowest point, and, by these means, prac- 
tise a deplorable competition, which push the 
wage-workers to strike and misery." These 
* wrongs of egoism,' as M. Godin calls them, are 
the very things that idealists and reformers of all 
ages have had to contend against ; and, the fact 
that they are certain to recur is the neglected fac- 
tor in the calculations of so many of the social re- 
formers of our own generation. 



FBOFrr-SHABiNa is also the subject of several 
articles in the same journal. Prof. J. B. Clark of 
Smith college, and Frank A. Flower, commis- 
sioner of labor for the state of Wisconsin, write 
favoring profit-sharing ; but the testimony of two 
large concerns — the Crane Brothers manufac- 
turing company of Chicago, and the H. O. Nelson 
manufacturing company of St. Louis — is of more 
importance and value than any hypothetical argu- 
ments can possibly be. Mr. Crane says that his 
company has tried with much success the plan of 
permitting the employees to buy stock in propor- 
tion to their yearly salary, but, as in many cases 
the workmen are not prepared to buy the amount 



24 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 205 



apportioned to them, the plan has been adopted 
of allotting the stock to them, they enjoying the 
benefits of it less interest. To this plan, as to any 
other scheme of profit-sharing, the objection is 
raised that in bad times it passes into loss-sharing, 
and this is not what the employees want or will 
submit to. In view of this, Mr. Crane believes 
that a surplus fund should be established, from 
which dividends are to be paid during years of 
depression, when there is no profit from which to 
pay them. 



Mr. Nelson bears similar testimony to the 
working of profit-sharing in bis company. In 
March last, the company issued a circular estab- 
lishing profit-sharing. After allowing seven per 
cent interest on actual capital invested, the 
remainder is to be divided equally upon the 
total amount of wages paid and capital em- 
ployed. The employees will this year receive 
about two-fifths of the net profits. The books 
have not yet been closed for the year, nor the 
dividend declared, but there is ample evidence of 
the success of the experiment. At the conclusion 
of the firm's present fiscal year, the scheme is to 
be elaborated somewhat. Ten per cent of the 
profits is to be set aside as a provident fund for 
sick and disabled members and the families of 
deceased ones, ten per cent as a surplus fund to 
cover losing years, should such occur, and two 
per cent as a library fund, the company paying 
interest on any unused portions of such funds. 
The allotments are also to be so apportioned that 
a premium is offered for continuous service and 
the saving of dividends. Evidence such as this 
from the sphere of practical business should be 
of great help to economists in developing their 
theories. 



The items appropriated by the house for the 
support of the U. S. coast survey during the next 
fiscal year are the same as those at first recom- 
mended by the house last year, and far under the 
estimates. If the senate should agree to the 
penurious policy of the house, a large reduction 
in the personnel of the service must ensue, and 
its utility would be sadly impaired. We cannot 
believe the senate will agree to the recommenda- 
tions of the house in this important matter. The 
coast survey is doing good work, which should be 
encouraged by congress, and liberal appropriations 
should be made for its proper support. 



IS BEER-DRINKING INJURIOUS t 
We have before us a direct and unqualified 
challenge to the prohibitionists in the form of a 
pamphlet on * The effects of beer upon those who 
make and drink it,' by G. Tbomann (New York, 
U S. brewers' assoe. t 1886). The writer boldly 
presents the following propositions. 1. Brewers 
drink more beer, and drink it more constantly , 
than any other class of people. 2. The rate of 
deaths among brewers is lower by forty per cent 
than the average death-rate among the urban 
population of the groups of ages corresponding 
with those to which brewery- workmen belong. 
3. The health of brewers is unusually good : dis- 
eases of the kidneys and liver occur rarely among 
them. 4. On an average, brewers live longer, 
and preserve their physical energies better, than 
the average workmen of the United States. The 
writer claims that beer is a perfectly wholesome 
drink, and, in support of this claim, refers to in- 
vestigations made in Belgium, France, Holland, 
and Switzerland. He quotes also from the report 
made by a sanitary commission appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln to examine the camps of the Union 
army and their sanitary condition. In examining 
the condition of regiments in which malt-liquors 
were freely used, the commission found not only 
that beer is a healthy beverage, but that it pos- 
sesses hygienic qualities which recommend its use 
for the prevention of certain diseases. Mr. Tho- 
mann states, that, wherever the effects of the use 
of beer upon the human body have been examined 
methodically by competent physicians, it was 
found, to use the words of Dr, Jules Rochard of 
the Academic de medecine of Paris, " that beer is 
a very healthy beverage, which helps digestion, 
quenches thirst, and furnishes an amount of as- 
similable substances much greater than that con- 
tained in any other beverage." 

The charge is often made that American beer is 
composed of so many poisonous ingredients that it 
is thereby rendered unfit for consumption ; that, 
while pure beer may be harmless, such beer as is 
supplied by brewers at the present time in this 
country is positively injurious. This is met with 
a reference to the report of the New York state 
board of health, in which it is stated that an analy- 
sis of four hundred and seventy-six samples of 
malt-liquors had been made, and that they were 
all found perfectly pure and wholesome, and to 
contain neither hop-substitutes nor any deleteri- 
ous substances whatever. 

The most interesting portion of Mr. Thomann's 
pamphlet is that which deals with the statistics of 
the physicians under whose professional care the 
men employed in the breweries are placed. About 
five years ago the brewers of New York, Brook- 



Jahuabt 14, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



25 



lyn, Newark, and the neighboring towns and vil- 
lages, established a benevolent bureau for the re- 
lief of their sick and disabled employees. Physi- 
cians are appointed, whose duty it is to attend the 
sick members of the bureau, and a record is kept 
of all cases of sickness and death which occur. 
The number of deaths which took place among 
960 brewery workmen in five years was 86, — an 
average of 7.2 per annum, or a death-rate per 
1,000 of 7.5. The United States census gives the 
rate per 1,000 of the urban population of the same 
ages, as 12.5; or, in other words, the risks in- 
curred in insuring the lives of habitual beer- 
drinkers are less by forty per cent than the ordi- 
nary risks of such transactions. The death-rate 
per 1,000 in the regular army of the United States 
in 1885 was 10.9 ; so that, even as compared with 
the soldier in peace time, we find that the brewery 
workmen have a great advantage in point of low 
rate of mortality. 

Mr. Thomann gives us a number of interesting 
facts connected with the breweries and the work- 
men engaged therein. In every brewery is a room, 
called the ( Sternenwirth,' in which beer is con- 
stantly on tap, to be used by every one at pleas- 
ure and without cost. Every one drinks as much 
beer as he thirsts for, without asking, or being 
asked any questions as to his right to do so. The 
average daily consumption of malt-liquors for 
each individual is 25.73 glasses, or about ten 
pints. In the statistics which are given we find 
that a considerable number of the men consume 
forty and fifty glasses a day, and two are reported 
as drinking, on an average, seventy glasses daily. 
With a view to ascertaining, in the most reliable 
manner possible, the effects of the use of malt- 
liquors, the physicians of the benevolent bureau 
examined one thousand of the brewery workmen 
as to general state of health, condition of liver, 
condition of kidneys, and condition of heart. In 
addition to this, they weighed and measured each 
man, and tested his strength by the dynamome- 
ter. These examinations showed that there were, in 
all, twenty-five men whose physical condition was 
in some respect defective ; and the remaining nine 
hundred and seventy-five enjoyed exceptionally 
good health, and were of splendid physique. 
There were 800 men who had been engaged in 
brewing from five to ten years, 189 from ten to 
fifteen, 122 from fifteen to twenty, and 46 more 
than twenty-five years. One special case referred 
to is that of a man fifty-six years of age, uninter- 
ruptedly at work in breweries during thirty-two 
years, who drank beer throughout this time at the 
rate of fifty glasses per day, yet has never been 
sick, and to-day is perfectly healthy, vigorous, and 
active. 



The statistics are, to say the least, very surpris- 
ing, and, unless refuted, will result in modifying 
to a considerable degree the generally accepted 
views of the influence of malt-liquors on the 
health of those who drink them habitually. Mr. 
Thomann has boldly thrown down the gauntlet, 
and we shall watch with interest to see who will 
take it up. 

THE ABORIGINAL MILLER. 

Doubtless it has occurred to many archeolo- 
gists that the stone arrow-heads, knife-blades, 
pestles, axes, etc., in their collections are exam- 
ples of but a small part of the articles once used 
by prehistoric peoples, the more perishable articles 
of wood, hide, or bone having long since disap- 
peared. A study of the present arts of savage 
life — the surest safeguard in speculating about 
the arts of ancient times —proves this view to be 
correct, for the number and variety of imple- 
ments of animal and vegetal origin now used in 
the camps of savage tribes greatly exceed those 
of stone. In the present article the implements 
of the aboriginal miller are introduced in illustra- 
tion of what has been said above. 

The tribes from which the illustrations are 
drawn are, the Hupa, of northern California (1), 
from the collection of Lieut. P. H. Ray, U.S.A. ; 
the Pima and the Tuma stock, around the mouth 
of the Colorado River (2), from the collections of 
Edward Palmer ; the tribes formerly east of the 
Mississippi (8) ; and the Utes of the great interior 
basin (4), from the collections of Major Powell 
and other officers ; with glimpses of the Sioux 
and the Pueblo miller. It must be remembered 
that the active agent in all the varied operations of 
milling, among the savage tribes, — as well as of 
tanning, shoemaking, tailoring, weaving, the 
manufacture of pottery, and other peaceful in- 
dustries, — is always a woman. 

In describing the illustrations, I shall first refer 
to the sketches in plate 1. The Hupa, like all 
other primitive millers, has to gather the grist be- 
fore she grinds it. For this purpose she uses a 
light but strong carrying-basket (fig. 5), made 
with warp of osier, and weft of the same material 
split and twined. A soft buckskin strap surrounds 
the basket, and passes around her forehead, which 
is protected by an ingenious pad (fig. 7). Her 
basket being filled with acorns, she trudges to her 
camp, and deposits them in a granary of closely 
woven, twined basketry (fig. 6). Her mill is both 
novel and ingenious, consisting of a pestle, a hop- 
per, a mortar-stone, and a receiving basket-tray 
(fig. 9). The pestle is like its congeners all the 
world over ; and the hopper has no bottom, its 
lower margin merely resting upon the mortar- 



SCIENCE. 



/Zirr,., 




<W 




■gggg— » -■fe-i— ----.- 



Janvabt 14, 1687.] 



SCIENCE, 




28 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 206 



stone, to which it may or may not be united by 
means of pitch. Acorns are poured into this and 
hulled, and afterward reduced to meal. Id those 
instances where the hopper is not fastened to the 
stone, the hulls remain above, and the powdered 
acorns sift down into the basket-tray. Water-tight 
baskets for ' stone-boiling * mush and for other cu- 
linary operations are made by this tribe. The 
mush- paddle of wood (fig. 1), the ladles of horn 
(figs. 2, 3), and the small stone paint-mortar (fig. 
4), must not be overlooked. 

The Pima or Cocopa miller (2) has for her out- 
fit a carrying-net. a bean-crusher, a trough-mortar, 
a granary, and a 4 metate,' besides a great variety 
of pottery, which the Hupa does not make. It 
may be mentioned here that none of the great 
Tinne stock, to which the Kutchin, Athapascan, 
Apache, and Navajo belong, seem to have made 
pottery at any time. The bean-crusher (fig. 10) is 
a cone of coarse strong wattling set in the ground. 
It is carried to the bean-trees, and in it the pods 
are broken up by means of a long wooden pestle 
(fig. 12), so that the miller can get a heavier load 
into her net. In other words, her • first process ' 
is crushing the pods in the field. The carrying- 
net of these tribes is most ingenious, consisting of 
four frame-sticks, a hooped rim, and a net woven 
in a very curious and difficult stitch. Besides the 
net, there is a back-pad made of palm-leaf, a 
padded head-band, and a forked rest-stick, which 
the harvester-miller uses as a cane when carrying 
her load. The gathered beans are stored in bee- 
hive granaries (fig. 16) of various patterns, made 
of straw sewed in a continuous coil by means of 
tough bark. The ' second process ' is the reduc- 
tion of the broken pods to coarse meal in a wooden 
trough or mortar (fig. 13). The last process is 
that of the ' metate,* or mealing-slab (fig. 15). The 
jars for holding the meal (fig. 14) are cream-col- 
ored, decorated in black. In summer the miller 
works in an open shed (fig. 17), but in cooler 
weather she transfers the scene of her operations 
to a mud-covered, wattled hut (fig. 18). 

Let us now turn to plate 2. In the eastern 
part of the United States are found multitudes of 
well-wrought pestles, such as those shown in fig. 
3 ; but there is a scarcity of good mortars from 
the same section. This scarcity can be accounted 
for by the fact that the mortars were perishable, 
being made of wood. It must not be forgotten 
that this is the region of maize (fig. 2) and hominy, 
and until very recently the hominy-logs or wooden 
mortars (fig. 4) survived on our southern planta- 
tions. Even at the present day it would not be 
difficult to find them in use in the more remote 
regions. Mr. Schoolcraft gives an illustration 
(fig. 4), showing how the ingenious miller has in- 



voked the elasticity of a limb to lighten her task, 
and it would be interesting to know whether the 
miller or the bowyer was the first to make use of 
this labor-saving device. 

The Sioux Indians formerly dried buffalo meat 
until it could be reduced to meal or pemmican. 
The outfit of the Sioux miller then consisted of a 
bowl made of the toughest dried rawhide, and a 
maul (fig. 1). The stone head of this maul was 
bound to the slender wooden handle by means of 
a hood of rawhide, put on green and allowed to 
shrink. The Ute miller, living in the deserts of 
the great interior basin, has to utilize every kind 
of seed that wilt sustain life. Her set of tools in- 
cludes a conical carrying-basket (figs. 8, 10), a 
gathering- wand (fig. 9), a fanning and roasting 
tray (fig. 7), and a ' metate/ or mealing slab (fig. 
11). These mealing-slabs (figs. 11, 12, 13) are 
common in tropical and sub-tropical America. 
The conical basket is closely woven, with a buck- 
skin bottom, and has a soft head-band for the 
millers forehead. The gathering- wand is an open- 
work, spoon-shaped frame of twine basketry, and 
is used for beating seeds into the carry ing-basket, 
as shown in fig. 8. The fanning and roasting tray 
is shallow, and shaped like a cream-skimmer. It 
is used to separate chaff from seeds, or to parch 
the seeds, which are put into the tray with a hot 
stone, and the whole deftly shaken together. The 
parched seeds are afterwards reduced to powder 
on the mealing-stone. 

There is scarcely a tribe or people that does not 
invoke the services of the miller in some manner. 
Many tribes use a greater variety of stone imple- 
ments than do those mentioned, and all tribes 
have their own separate devices for gathering, 
storing, and grinding provisions. Take the wood 
and other perishable substances away from these 
millers' outfits, and we have left an archeological 
cabinet. In a general and cautious way, add 
these articles and attachments of animal and 
vegetal origin to your collection of ancient mill- 
ing-tools, and you will have a comprehensive 
notion of the milling methods in the olden 
times. O. T. Mason. 



PARIS LETTER. 
Two of the many posts formerly held by the 
eminent zoologist Henri Milne-Edwards were re- 
cently filled by elections at the Academy of 
sciences and the Sorbonne. Milne-Ed wards's suc- 
cessor in the former institution is M. Sappey, 
who was recently removed from his professorship 
in the medical school on account of his age. M. 
Sappev's principal competitor was M. Ranvier, the 
well-known histologic who, it must be conceded, 
ranks higher as a scientist than his more fortunate 



January U, 1687.] 



SCIENCE. 



29 



opponent ; bat, as M. Ranvier is a much younger 
man, be can afford to wait a little for another op- 
portunity, and it is not likely that he will have to 
wait long. M. Sappey has always worked hard 
and honestly, preferring the laborious life of the 
scientist to that of the physician or surgeon. The 
competitors for Milne-Ed wards's professorship in 
the Sorbonne -were Prof. Yves Delage and M. 
Perrier, professor in the Museum of natural his- 
tory. M. Delage, who was elected to the vacant 
professorship, is a very able young zoologist. 

M. Charbonnel-Salle has been appointed profes- 
sor of zoology in Besancpn. M. Duchartre's suc- 
cessor as professor of botany will probably be 
M. G. Bonnier, the son-in-law of M. van Toeghem, 
the able botanist of the Museum of natural his- 
tory. This relationship is really the only reason 
for his election, a9 he has made no good personal 
investigations to speak for him. The comments 
and criticisms on the future professor's abilities 
and talents are most unfavorable. 

Paul Bert's successor will most likely be M. 
Dastre, a good worker and a learned man, who 
was for many years the assistant of M. Bert. His 
researches concerning vasomotor nerves are much 
valued. Professor Chauveau of Lyons has been 
appointed to the Museum of natural history in the 
place of M. Bouley, who died some time ago. He 
is a thorough physiologist, and has done much 
good work, especially on microbes and the physi- 
ology of the circulatory system. His appointment 
is highly approved, but it is regretted that he did 
not compete for the professorship left vacant by 
the death of Paul Bert. Some interesting elec- 
tions will soon take place in the Academy of 
sciences to fill the seats of MM. Bert and Robin. 
Professor Ranvier will most likely be elected to 
Robin's place. For the other there will be two 
-principal competitors, — Germain See and Charles 
Rochet. The latter gentleman has many chances, 
and his election would meet with general ap- 
proval. 

At a recent meeting of the Societe de biologie, 
MM. Fontan and Segard read an interesting paper 
on the applications of suggestion to therapeutics. 
The writers have collected a hundred cases in 
which they have availed themselves of the possi- 
bility of putting their patients into an hypnotic 
state, to suggest a partial or entire cure. Their 
conclusion is, that suggestion may be of great 
value in cases where disorders of the motor or 
sensory powers exist, or even where there are 
anatomical disorders affecting the circulatory or 
secretory systems, such as follow upon trauma- 
tisms or upon general diseases, such as rheumatic 
diathesis and others. They have employed hyp- 
notic suggestion in cases of traumatic arthritis, 



cerebral shock, urethritis, dyspepsia, and acute 
rheumatism, with good results, in most cases 
having been able to effect a complete cure in from 
three to six sittings. It may be added that none 
of the patients were at all hysterical. From a 
perusal of the observations quoted by the gentle- 
men named, it would seem that the influence of 
the mind on the body is greater and deeper than 
has hitherto been imagined. The way in which 
MM. Fontan and Segard operate is very simple. 
The subject is put into an hypnotic trance (only 
three per cent of the patients are refractory to this 
part of the process), and is told, for instance, that 
his knee (in a case of hydarthrosis or arthritis) 
will work easily and without pain, or that (in a 
case of dyspepsia) the most indigestible foods will 
be easily digested. Generally the cures have been 
effected in a progressive manner, the disappear- 
ance of one symptom being suggested at the first 
sitting, that of some other at the next, and so on. 

A paper on skin-grafting from the frog to man 
was read at another recent meeting of the same 
society by Dr. Dubousquet-Laborderie. The ex- 
periment was tried in the case of a man whose 
feet had been burned by molten iron. On one of 
the wounds Dr. Dubousquet put four grafts of 
human skin ; on the other, four grafts from the 
skin of a frog. All of them took firm hold on 
the wounds. The frog-skin grafts retained their 
peculiar color a few days, afterwards changing 
to the color of the human skin. The healing 
process progressed rapidly, owing in part to the 
strict antiseptic precautions taken. 

Merlatti, the rival of Succi, has successfully 
completed his forty-days* fasting experiment, 
though the medical committee appointed to watch 
the proceedings were of opinion many times that 
the experiment ought to be abandoned, owing to 
alarming symptoms. Merlatti, however, was de- 
termined to persevere, declaring that nothing 
would induce him to eat a morsel of food before 
the appointed time. He is naturally a hearty 
eater, and had prepared himself for his long fast 
by devouring a whole roast goose. When he 
ended his fast the other day, his stomach, so 
long accustomed to entire rest, refused at first 
to retain food. Succi continues his experiment 
with entire success. These experiments, as well 
as others of the same nature, are all very well, 
but in none of them has sufficient proof been 
afforded that fair play prevailed from beginning 
to end. One doubtful or suspicious member in a 
committee is sufficient to render valueless the 
whole experiment. There is also the possible 
dishonesty of the fasters themselves, and it may 
be remarked that in no experiment of the kind 
hitherto performed has fraud been impossible. 



30 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 206 



A man who walks about the streets, and who 
receives crowds of visitors daily, may, by the 
aid of an intelligent friend, obtain food in spite 
of the strictest surveillance. On the other hand, 
in these experiments more attention ought to be 
given to variations in weight, hourly as well as 
daily, and also to the excretion of urea. If these 
points were carefully studied, interesting and 
useful facts could be learned, and a better control 
of the patient secured. Of course, these experi- 
ments of Succi and Merlatti have brought for- 
ward numerous imitators, and many Italians may 
be met here who profess to be able to fast three, 
four, or even six months. Some, like Succi, pre- 
tend to possess a marvellous liquor ; others, like 
Merlatti, do not. There is one faster in Brussels, 
another in London, a third in Algiers, while 
others flock in to Paris from different towns; 
and the daily papers publish a great number of 
anecdotes of persons of all descriptions and ages 
and colors who have lived longer or shorter 
periods of time without taking a morsel of food. 
But these stories are not much believed in. Many 
comments have been drawn forth from medical 
quarters by the fasting experiments mentioned, 
M. Bemheim of Nancy offering the ingenious 
suggestion that they may be accounted for on 
a theory of * auto-suggestion.' 

A work of much interest was begun some time 
ago in Cairo, — that of disinterring the Sphinx of 
Giseh. According to the latest reports, about 
one-third of the sand in which it is embedded has 
already been removed. The fore-paws and the 
right side have been partially brought to view. 
The paws were not hewn in the stone, as the rest 
had been, but were built up of bricks, owing, no 
doubt, to the less solid nature of that part of the 
stone in which they would otherwise have been 
carved. Viewed from above, the disinterred 
part seems inharmonious, but a judgment as to 
the general effect cannot be formed until the 
sand is entirely removed. It may then prove to 
be of less harmonious proportions than such 
monuments generally are ; and in that case, as 
M. Maspero thinks, it must be ascribed to an age 
more remote than that of the pyramids. 

The conseil general of the department of the 
Seine decided at a recent meeting that it would 
be necessary to create a laboratory for the study 
of contagious diseases of animals. This is for the 
special purpose of preventing diseased meat from 
being introduced and sold in Paris. 

A curious lawsuit is pending before the court 
of justice of Paris. It is especially curious on 
account of the facts upon which it is based, the 
pretended discovery of a method of extracting 
considerable amounts of gold from buhr-stone, 



a eiliceous stone of tertiary formation, very 
abundant in the neighborhood of Paris. One 
chemist has declared, that, by the aid of this new 
method, from three to two hundred and forty 
grams of gold may be extracted from each ton of 
stone. Another says he has found as high as five 
hundred grams per ton, besides silver and other 
metals. On the other hand, civil engineers say 
they have not found an atom of the precious 
metal in the stone. Three hundred dollars in 
gold would certainly seem a pretty good yield for 
that sort of rock ; but the whole thing seems 
chimerical yet, and the people who have invested 
their money in the business say it does not pay at 
all. They do not believe in the method now, and 
have begun suit against the inventor to recover the 
coined gold he extracted from them. 

Professor Lepine of Lyons has published in the 
Semaine mMicale a paper on the physiological 
action of a newly discovered antipyretic or anti- 
febrile, studied by MM. Cahn and Hepp of Stras- 
burg a short time ago. This antifebrile does not 
affect the healthy organism when given in a fifty- 
centigram dose. If a greater quantity is given 
(double or treble the dose mentioned), there may 
be present some cephalalgia, with cyanosis. W ben 
given to feverish patients, it abates the fever in a 
marked manner. It must be given at the highest 
point of the daily rise of fever, or, better, an 
hour before, in case the precise moment is known 
beforehand. The dose of fifty centigrams is the 
one usually preferred. The patient derives great 
benefit, the body temperature remaining nor- 
mal or low, the heart pulsating with the same or 
increased energy, with a general feeling of well- 
being present. Some very remarkable cures have 
been effected in cases of typhoid and malarial 
fever. Professor Lepine speaks very highly of the 
antifebrile in cases of feber dorsalis as an agent to 
be used when neuralgic pains — so very rebel- 
lious and troublesome to the patient — are present. 
One or two fifty-centigram doses are enough in 
most cases, and the pains disappear in about half 
an hour. This fact, a useful one to know, had 
not been heretofore noticed. V. 

Paris, Dec 90. 

NOTES AND NEWS. 

The administration of General Hasan as chief 
signal officer is to be credited with the organiza- 
tion and encouragement of our system of state 
weather-services, which is rapidly extending in 
all parts of the country. This work is especially 
in charge of Lieutenant Dunwoody, and local ser- 
vices are now established in Louisiana, Alabama, 
Nebraska, Mississippi, Georgia, Minnesota, Ohio 
(by legislative enactment, making an appropri- 



Jahuabt 14, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



31 



at ion of two thousand dollars per annum to equip 
and sustain it), Indiana, Tennessee, Iowa, Illi- 
nois, Missouri, New Jersey, Michigan, Kansas, 
and New England (under the auspices of a meteor- 
ological society). North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Pennsylvania, and Arkansas are in the process of 
organizing them. Dr. C. W. Dabney, jun., has 
been appointed director of the North Carolina, 
with headquarters at Raleigh ; and the first num- 
ber of his Weather-review for December last prom- 
ises a successful service. Already a hundred and 
sixty-five towns and stations are informed of the 
daily weather-predictions, by special messages re- 
peated from Raleigh ; and at thirty-two of these 
points flag-signals of the new pattern are now dis- 
played for public information. By combination 
of telegraph and post-office service, the announce- 
ment of cold-waves will be made very general. 
Local observation will also be attended to, and 
twenty- nine stations were to be equipped ready 
for record by the first of the year, besides eleven 
signal-service stations in and near the state. No 
funds are as yet appropriated by the state for 
cost of instruments. 

— The report of Dr. Willis G. Tucker, analyst 
of drugs to the state board of health of New 
York, contains much that is of interest to the 
public, dealing as it does with the drugs which 
are daily prescribed by physicians in the treat- 
ment of disease. The total number of samples 
collected and examined was 194, of which 49.2 
per cent were found to be of good quality ; that is, 
to conform to the requirements of the U. S. phar- 
macopoeia ; 29.2 per cent of fair quality falling not 
far below these requirements, and 19.1 per cent of 
inferior quality, some of them being entirely fic- 
titious. The cream-of -tartar which was purchased 
at the drug-stores showed 96.24 percent of purity, 
while that from the groceries was but 87.48 per 
cent, and one sample only 79.81 per cent. In ad- 
dition to these, eight others were purchased at 
groceries and purported to be cream-of -tartar, but 
were, in fact, either grossly adulterated or entirely 
fictitious, being made up of acid phosphate of 
lime, starch, and sulphate of lime. Dr. Tuck- 
ex's advice would seem to be, that, when pure 
cream-of -tartar is wanted, it should be obtained 
from the drug-store, and not the grocery. The 
vinegar sold at the groceries also comes in for 
condemnation. Dr. Tucker says that an article so 
largely used in the preparation of food ought to 
be both free from adulteration, and of good 
strength as well ; but the results of the examina- 
tions so far made, show that here, as elsewhere, 
wide differences in quality exist. The addition of 
mineral acids is very uncommon ; but much vin- 



egar is sold which has been plentifully watered, 
and the greater part of that sold as cider-vinegar 
is a so-called white-wine vinegar colored by cara- 
mel, with perhaps some cider- vinegar added to 
give flavor. 85.2 per cent of the samples exam- 
ined came below the legal requirement. The 
standard required is " not less than four and one- 
half per cent by weight of absolute acetic acid in 
all vinegars." Only 14.8 per cent of the samples 
tested contained the required amount, the highest 
percentage being 6.2, and the lowest 1.8, the 
average being 4 per cent. 

— The crown and flint glasses of the great ob- 
jective of the Lick observatory arrived safely at 
the summit of Mount Hamilton on Monday, Dec. 
27. 

— Since printing the article in last week's 
Science on 'The prisoners of the Soudan,' we 
learn by papers from Europe that Mr. Stanley 
offered his services to the English government to 
command an expedition to be sent to the relief of 
Emin Bey ; that this offer was accepted, the ex- 
penses, estimated at $150,000, to be defrayed by 
the English and Egyptian governments. Mr. 
Stanley, immediately upon his arrival in Eng- 
land, after conferring with the English govern- 
ment, went to Brussels to obtain permission of 
the king of Belgium, as the head of the Kongo 
Free State, to undertake this expedition. Mr. 
Stanley goes directly to Zanzibar, thence to the 
south end of Tanganyika, and thence all the way 
by boats to Wadelai. The Belgium papers say 
that this is a much longer and more dangerous 
route than the one by the Kongo and the Arou- 
huimi. 

— The American railroad journal and Van Nob- 
tran&s engineering magazine have been consoli- 
dated, now appearing as the Railroad and engi- 
neering journal y under the editorial management 
of M. N. Forney. The new monthly is devoted to 
the discussion of engineering and mechanical 
topics, with special reference to railroad con- 
struction and operation. The January number 
is well illustrated, and contains a good table of 
contents. 

— The following are the recent assignments in 
the personnel of the coast-survey service. Asst 
J. D. Baylor has left for Cedar Keys, Fla., to 
establish magnetic stations between that place 
and Washington, some seven or eight in number. 
He will finish the work about April 1. Asst. O. H. 
Titman and Mr. Henry G. Turner as aid have 
taken up the primary triangulation work from 
Alabama towards Mobile ; Asst J. B. Weir, Sub- 
Asst McGrath, and Mr. W. D. Fairfield have left 
Washington to take up the transcontinental geo- 



32 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No.' 206 



detic levels ; and Asst. F. W. Peril ins will organ- 
ize his party about Jan. 15 for work on the south 
coast of Louisiana. All parties on the Pacific 
coast are out of the field, except those parties 
engaged in the reeurvey of San Francisco Bay 
and vicinity. Early in April Assistant Pratt will 
take up the recognizance of the west coast of 
Washington Territory from Cape Flattery to 
Gray's Harbor, a very important work. The 
steamer Bache has arrived at Key West prepara- 
tory to entering upon field-work on the west 
coast of Florida. 

— The Cosmos club of Washington held its first 
regular meeting for this year in its new club- 
house last Monday evening. The following offi- 
cers were elected : president, Dr. John S. Billings ; 
vice-president, Dr. John S. Yarrow; secretary, 
T. M. Chatard ; treasurer, William Bruff ; house 
committee. Mr. J. B. Marcou, Dr. John F. Head, 
and Mr. William Poindexter ; library committee, 
Dr. S. M. Burnett, Dr. Newton S. Bates, and Mr. 
Joseph C. Hornblower. The proposition to in- 
crease the membership was postponed to a special 
meeting to be held Jan. 31. 

— Governor McEnery of Louisiana has issued a 
call for an interstate convention in the interest of 
stock-raising, dairying, fruit-growing, and general 
agriculture, to be held at Lake Charles, La., on 
the 23d, 23d, and 24th of February, 1887. 

— A curious affection exists among the horses 
of north-western Texas known as ' grass-staggers.' 
It is caused by their eating the ' loco- weed,' and 
the affected animals are said to be ' locoed.' At 
first they lose flesh, and then become weak and 
staggering, and finally crazy. The Indians be- 
lieve that an insect is the cause of the disease ; but 
Dr. Carhart of Texas, in a letter to the Medical 
record, says that he has examined the weed, but 
can find no insect life upon it. 

— A remarkable specimen was presented some 
years ago by the curator of the British museum to 
the Zoological society of London. It was the 
body of a chicken whose beak and feet closely 
resembled those of a parrot. Several such in- 
stances occurred in the same poultry-yard, and 
were attributed by the owner to the fact that one 
of the bens had been frightened by a parrot. 
Many instances of deformity are on record in the 
human species, which are popularly attributed to 
maternal impressions received during the forma- 
tive period. The number of these is so great as 
to have led physicians and others to look upon 
such results as something more than mere coinci- 
dences. In a recent paper read before the ortho- 
pedic section of the New York academy of medi- 



cine, Dr. T. L. Stedman discusses the influence of 
maternal impressions in the etiology of congenital 
deformities, and produces evidence which seems to 
indicate that there are laws in development which 
are as yet but partially understood, and which, 
when thoroughly investigated, may explain these 
remarkable instances to which we have alluded, 
and of which Dr. Stedman gives many striking 
examples. 

— The presence in New York City of a number 
of cases of beriberi, or kak-ke, has re-awakened 
medical interest in this peculiar disease. The pa- 
tients came from San Francisco by vessel, and 
three of them were taken to Bellevue hospital. 
Two of these died. On the voyage, most of the 
crew were affected with the disease, and some of 
them fatally. This affection prevails in Japan, 
India, South and Central America, and in the 
islands of the Gulf, and is technically considered 
to be a multiple neuritis, or an inflammatory 
condition of the nerves. As a rule, the spinal 
nerves alone are implicated, but occasionally 
the cranial nerves as well. It has been demon- 
strated with a great degree of probability by 
Cornelissen and Sugenoya that beri-beri is an 
infectious disease, the specific cause being a mi- 
cro-organism resembling the bacillus of anthrax, 
which is found in the blood, muscles, and nerves. 
In the cases at Bellevue the nature of the disease 
was not recognized at a sufficiently early stage to 
enable the physicians to study the microbes, or to 
make any cultures of them. 

— We are familiar in the east with tumbler- 
pigeons, and in the Central States there are curi- 
ous beetles, that, from their habit of rolling along 
little balls of clay, have received the popular 
name ' tumble-bugs ; ' but it is upon the plains of 
the west that one of our common weeds is so 
modified by its environment, and forms habits so 
novel, that it loses its eastern name, and is known 
as ' tumble-weed.' According to C. E. Bessey 
(Botanical gazette, xi. p. 41), "upon the plains 
and prairies of the west our common weed Ama~ 
rardus albus grows into a compact plant, whose 
stout, curving branches give it an approximately 
spherical form. The autumn winds break the 
main stem near the ground, and the upper part 
goes rolling and tumbling before the wind, often 
for miles. This is an excellent illustration of the 
effect of climate on the physical development of 
the plant-body, as in the east the species is a 
straggling herb, remaining rooted long after its 
death at the close of the season. Dr. Newberry 
has told us that it is also known as the 'ghost- 
plant' in allusion to the same habit, bunches flit- 
ting along by night producing a peculiarly weird 



Jaitoabt 14, 1807.] 



SCIENCE. 



appearance. It is doubtless very efficient in the 
distribution of the seeds, and accounts for the 
wide dissemination of the species on the plains. 
Professor Bessey notes a similar habit in Baptutia 
tinctoria on Martha's Vineyard, Mass., and Pani- 
cum capitlare might also be cited as another 
example.™ 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



coarse, like that of the adult; and cases are known 
where the larger part of the body has remained 
through life covered with a thick coat of strong hair, 
due. in reality, to an enormously Urge mother's 
mark. A similar condition is found in the coarser 
and more busby growth of the beard from long-con- 
tinued neuralgia or nerve-irritation. 

Yet another point of interest is the undoubted 



Atmospheric lines in the solar spectrum. 

Eioosx me ; but in Professor Pickering's note on 
p. 13 of Science for Jan. 7, have not the types twice 
made him change M. Corau'a name to ' Mr. Conner '? 
If so, you best know whether the misprint be worth 
your correcting, though it was a very natural one for 
the printer to make. James Edwahd Olives. 

lthaca, N.T., Jan, a. 



A hairy human family. 

The abnormal growth of hair, that has been not 
rarely observed since antiquity in individuals of 
different races of mankind, presents various points of 
interest other than anthropological ones. As Pro- 
fessor Mason has stated {Science, ii. No. 205), its 
recently recognized cause is the persistence of the 
prenaial downy hair, ' lanugo ' as it is called, and its 
rich growth through life; or rather, to speak more 
accurately, the non-development of the hair-follicles 
to adapt them to the growth of normal hair. This 
persistence of the embryonal covering is most strik- 
ingly shown, as a normal condition, in the ostrich 
(Batitae), Apteryx, and penguin, where the hair- 
follicles, or, what is anatomically the same, the 
feather-follicles, produce through lifetbe soft downy 
plumage of the chick only. This loss of the foetal 
hair, which takes place with the general exfoliation 
of the cuticle during the first year of life, is not 
characteristic of man, but occurs in many other, 
though not all, mammals. Wiederaheim (Vergl. 
Mat., 31) sees in this lanugo, and its abnormal de- 
velopment in the 'hair-men,' a probable evidence of 
an abundant covering of hair at some early period of 
man's ancestry. 

The extent to which this abnormal growth of the 
downy hair may reach will be better appreciated 
from the picture, here given, of Teftichew (or Testi- 
chew), the elder Russian 'dog-man.' than can be 
from any description. The 'animal' or dog-like ap- 
pearance in this case is more striking than in any 
other of which I have seen illustrations, though the 
Amrts family of the sixteenth century presented a 
very similar aspect. In this family, the father, son, 
and daughter were all covered, according to the paint- 
ings and descriptions now extant, over the entire 
body with long hair, with the exception of a space 
below the eyes. 

In the notable case of Julia Pastrana of Mexico, a 
most repulsive-looking person in her picture, the 
hair of the head, forehead, aud face, was coarse like 
ordinary hair, and her cheeks and nose were nearly 
bare. She died in 1860, in giving birth to a son, 
who early showed similar hairiness on head and face. 
The prenatal hair is not necessarily soft and downy. 
Psthological conditions will cause it in places to be 



tendency to heredity which these abnormal cases 
show. Thrice has the anomaly been known to be de- 
veloped in the second generation; and once, the 
Birman family, in the third generation. On the 
other hand, the precisely opposite condition, that of 
absolute hairlesaness from prenatal causes, not a few 
cases of which have been observed among different 



34 



'SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 206 



races, shows the same tendency to heredity. Like- 
wise, supernumerary fingers, toes, teeth, and breasts 
in both male and female, and the presence of a short 
tail, are all undoubtedly capable of hereditary trans- 
mission. 

The thinly haired African, or the hirsute Tas- 
manian, as also the great variations in the pilosity of 
the civilized races, present questions more within 
the province of the anthropologist ; bearded females 
and beardless males, that of the physiologist, or, 
possibly, of the suffragist. S. w. Wxllibtoic. 

New Haven, Conn., Jan. 8. 



existence, a distinct standing army, and that this fort 
was occupied by such army only for the purpose of 
protecting the community living in the rich valleys 
to the southward against the hordes invading them 
from the north. Cleveland Abbs. 

Washington, Jan. 12. 



Fort Ancient, Warren county, O. 

Following the letter of Mr. Gyrus Thomas in 
Science, No. 201, if Fort Ancient be of as late date as 
he there suggests, an explanation of its uses r and of 
the fact that the debris which usually marks the site 
of prehistoric Tillages is entirely wanting in and 
about the work, may possibly be found in the 
river-valley both above and below the fort. The 
Little Miami valley is, for twelve or fifteen miles 
north of Fort Ancient, very rich in the remains 
either of the mound-builders or Indians, or both if 
they be distinct races. Upon the bluffs and in the 
surrounding high lands are numerous mounds, many 
of them of considerable size. 

In almost every gravel-pocket which has ever been 
opened on the river-hills have been found human 
bones. In several places in the valley are burial- 
grounds, often of many acres, where the interments 
were as regularly ordered and as closely crowded as 
in a modern military cemetery. Pottery, celts, pipes, 
etc., are frequently found with these remains. On a 
high bluff about eight miles above Fort Ancient is 
said to be the site of an ancient village of consider- 
able extent, marked by an accumulation of broken 
and charred bones, mussel-shells, pottery, etc., vary- 
ing in thickness from twelve to twenty inches. There 
are many reasons for believing that the valley for 
many miles above the fort was not only densely peo- 
pled, but that these people were permanent resi- 
dents. 

Recent 'finds 1 of copper and other implements 
about the town of Morrow, eight miles below Fort 
Ancient, give weight to the supposition that the river- 
valley was peopled in that direction also, and that 
the work in question served as a refuge or fortress, 
situated near the centre of a populous and powerful 
community. I merely make the suggestion that the 
numerous remains hereabout may have some relation 
to the origin and purposes of Fort Ancient. 

Chas. A. Hough. 
Wayneeville, O., Jan. 10. 

The remarks by Professor Thomas in Science for 
Dec. 10, 1886, remind me that in the spring of 1870 
I made a rapid inspection of Fort Ancient, walking 
completely around its circumference. My sketch 
shows several corrections and additions to Dr. Locke's 
map as published by Squier and Davis, notably the 
long stone steps leading down to the water's edge. 
My original map is now in the archives of the Ohio 
historical society in Cincinnati. A general account 
of my visit was published at the time in the Cincin- 
nati Commercial. 

It seems to me plausible, that, if this was not a 
fortified town, then, in the organization of the mound- 
nation, there may have been, in the latter days of its 



Star rays and the corona. 

Mr. Randolph's communication a few weeks ago 
escaped my attention at the time of its appearanoe. 
The difficulties to which he refers may be due partly 
to the structure of the human eye. Dr. LeConte has 
resolved that relating to the phenomenon of long 
rays or streamers appearing around an electric light, 
due to refraction rather than reflection at the ex- 
terior surface of the cornea next the eyelid. The 
appearance of short rays around a star, Mr. Randolph 
will find explained in Helmholtz's ' Popular scientific 
lectures, 1 pp. 217-219, and an instructive diagram in 
the same author's 'Physiological optics,' French 
edition, p. 34, or German edition, p. 24. 

Telescope lenses have been made greatly superior 
to the human eye as an optical instrument. What- 
ever may be the final explanation of the solar corona, 
the number of chances is almost infinite that it will 
not be referred to defects in the structure of tele- 
scope lenses and tubes. W. LeC. Stevens. 

Brooklyn, Jan. 7. 

To authors of text-books on physics. 

Recently, in examining students for admission to 
college, the writer was again reminded of a small, 
but, as far as his observation goes, universal error in 
text-books on physics. It is stated that " the velo- 
city of sound varies as the square root of the elas- 
ticity divided by the density." In illustration, it is 
usually stated that the velocity in air is about 1,000 
feet, in water about 4,000, and in iron about 8,000. 
The first two are perfectly elastic, and the second is 
the more dense : hence, by the rule, the velocity in 
water should be less than in air. Iron is less elastic 
and more dense than either of the others, and hence, 
by the rule, the velocity should be least. The rule 
will be correct if for ' elasticity ' we read * co-efficient 
of elasticity,' which may be defined as the force 
which would double the length of a bar, or compress 
a liquid or gas to half of its volume. I. O. Baxeb. 

Champaign, I1L, Jan. 8. 



The swindling geologist. 

The swindling geologist was this week in Spring- 
field, Mass., where he passed himself off as Capt. C. 
E. Dutton. I cannot learn that he succeeded in vic- 
timizing any one except the hotel-keeper of the house 
where he stopped, owing to the fact that he was 
early exposed by the commanding officer of the 
armory, who luckily happened to know Captain 
Dutton. 

He later inflicted himself on me, playing the deaf- 
mute, calling himself Ivan C. Vassile of the Russian 
museum, and offering to sell me odd volumes of 
Hall's 'Geology of New York state.' Suspecting 
that they were stolen, I declined to buy. 

He is a square-faced, smooth-shaven, licrht-com- 
plexioned fellow, of rather short stature, and wore a 
white felt hat and an army cape. His names and 
clothes, however, would perhaps hardly serve to 



Januabt 14, 1887.] 



SCIENCE, 



35 



identify him, as be probably baa a variety of both. 
He claimed to be on his way to Albany. 

Perhaps if he can be exposed all along the line, he 
may soon be rendered harmless. F. W. Staxbnsb. 

Westfleld, Mass., Jan. 8. 



The West Indian seal. 

Mr. Henry L. Ward, a son of Prof. Henry A. 
Ward of Bochester, N.Y., has recently returned 
from a special trip to the Gulf of Mexico in search of 
the little-known West Indian seal, Monachus tropi- 
calis, bringing with him a good series of skins and 
skeletons, including those of both sexes and a suck- 
ling. Professor Ward, who has been on the alert for 
several years for this, until recently, almost mythical 
species, on learning of the probable locality of a 
small colony of them, promptly organized, with his 
usual energy in such matters, an expedition to pro- 
cure specimens, in which enterprise he was joined by 
Mr. Fernando Ferrari-Perez, naturalist of the Mexi- 
can geographical and exploring commission, who, 
with Mr. Ward, procured a schooner at Gampeachy 
for a trip to the three little keys north-west of Yuca- 
tan known as The Triangles (Los Triangulos). Ow- 
ing to bad weather, they had but three days at the 
keys, but their efforts were well rewarded; and the 
West Indian seal is now in a fair way to be soon rep- 
resented in several of our leading museums. The 
only specimens hitherto known to be extant in col- 
lections are the one recently acquired by the U. S. 
national museum (see Science, iii. 752), and the im- 
perfect skin without skull presented many years ago 
by Mr. P. H. Gosse to the British museum. So little 
was known of the species until recently, that even its 
generic relations were in doubt, its reference to the 
genus Monachus having been regarded as provis- 
ional. 

The material obtained by Mr. Ward, at much risk 
and expense, having been kindly placed in my hands 
for description, I am able to throw some further light 
upon this interesting species. Its cranial as well as 
external characters snow it to be unquestionably ref- 
erable to the genus Monachus. The color of the 
animal proves to vary much with age. The young 
are at first wholly intense black, remaining of this 
color doubtless during their first year. As they be- 
come older, the color changes to lighter ; the dorsal 
surface becomes grayish black, through a slight gray 
tipping to the black hairs, shading on the sides of 
the body into the yellowish white of the ventral sur- 
face. The front and sides of the muzzle, and the 
edges of the lower lip, become yellowish brown ; the 
whiskers change from black or blackish to yellowish 
white, a few only of the shorter ones remaining 
dark, either wholly or only at the base. In the 
younger *u imftl« the whiskers are not only much 
darker than in the adult, but much longer and 
heavier. 

The skull is depressed, broad, and heavy. In 
general proportions it differs from that of Phoca 
vitulina in the longer, more sloping, and much 
broader ante-orbital portion, and the much greater 
thickness of the inter-orbital region, and the auditory 
bullae are less swollen and relatively much smaller. 
The dentition is very heavy, the length of the largest 
molars being 16 mm., with a breadth of 10 mm. The 
molars are crowded, set somewhat obliquely to the 
axis of the jaw ; the second, third, and fourth have 
one small accessory cusp before, and two behind, the 
larger or principal one. These are well marked in 



the younger or middle-aged specimens, but become 
worn and even wholly obliterated in old age. Gray's 
description of the dentition of the Mediterranean 
species (M. albiventer) applies in every particular to 
that of the present species. 

The nails of the fore-feet are large and strong, the 
largest being from three-fourths of an inch to an inch 
in length ; those of the hind-feet are rudimentary, 
being reduced to minute horny points, scarcely vis- 
ible except on close examination. 

The flat skin of the full-grown male measures about 
seven feet in a straight line from the end of the nose 
to the point of the tail, the free portion of which 
latter has a length of three inches. The adult female 
has a length of about six feet. 

Mr. Ward obtained a young one only a few days 
old, and found nearly ripe foetuses in several of the 
females taken. This would indicate that the young 
are born in December. 

The Triangles are about a hundred and fifty miles 
from the Alacrane Beefs, where the species was 
found in abundance by Dampier about two hundred 
years ago. Small colonies doubtless still exist on the 
uninhabited reefs and keys of the Gulf of Mexico 
and Caribbean Sea. It has been met with off the 
coasts of Cuba and Jamaica, and has been reported 
as an occasional visitor to the Bahamas and the 
Florida Keys. 

Mr. Ward calls my attention to the fact that Co- 
lumbus not only met with it in the West Indian 
waters, but that his sailors killed these seals for food, 
nearly four hundred years ago. It is therefore a 
remarkable fact that the first discovered American 
seal should be the latest one to become known satis- 
factorily to science. 

The present notice is preliminary to a more elabo- 
rate account of the species now in preparation, which 
will be illustrated with plates of its osteologies! and 
external characters. The American museum of nat- 
ural history of this city has secured skins of an adult 
male, an adult female, and a young example, and 
a fine adult male skeleton, which will soon be mount- 
ed for exhibition. J. A. Aujen. 

New York, Jan. 6. 



Early forms of writing. 

Your remarks (Science* viii. No. 202) on Dr. Brin- 
ton's paper relating to the early modes of writing 
must form my excuse for this note. 

I have made some discoveries, since the publica- 
tion of my 'Notes on certain Maya and Mexican 
manuscripts/ which seem to confirm Dr. Brinton's 
opinion that the mode of writing which he designates 
the * ikonomatic system ' was practised to some ex- 
tent by the Maya scribes, — a fact I had noticed 
previous to seeing his paper. For example : I find 
on plate xvii. of the Codex Troano the name of a 
bird (Kuchj in Maya) designated by a compound 
hieroglyph consisting of two parts, one of which is 
Landa's letter-character Ku, the other the symbol for 
the cardinal point west, or Chikin (according to 
Bosny). The name of another bird (the quetzal or 
Kukuiiz) is denoted simply by a duplication of 
Landa's Ku. A few other characters formed in the 
same way have been discovered. But, so far as de- 
termined, most of the characters are symbolic, where 
the object intended is designated by a single char- 
acteristic, the head being the part or feature usually 
selected to represent persons and animals. For ex- 




36 



SCIENCE. 



IVOL. I 



ample : a human head with one or two curls of hair 
signifies a female; deities, as shown by Schellhas, 
are represented by the head with the peculiar fea- 
tures found in their figures. The bird above men- 
tioned (Kuch) is generally represented by a head, 
with certain lines about the eye, used in the complete 
figure to indicate the species. An idol is denoted by 
the character a head, which Dr. Schellhas errone- 
ously supposes to be the symbol for a certain deity. 
The symbol for game quadrupeds is a rabbit's head 
mounted on the Kan or corn symbol ; that for game- 
birds, a turkey's head on the corn symbol ; etc. 

Inanimate objects are usually denoted by con- 
ventional symbols having as the chief idea some 
characteristic of the thing represented. For in- 
stance : the symbol for house, or hut, found in all 
the codices, has as its chief characteristics broken 
lines indicating the thatching, and perpendicular 
lines suggesting the posts. 

I have determined the signification of one charac- 
ter in which color plays a part. This is the symbol 
for Ekchuah, the god of pedlers or travelling mer- 
chants. This is a basin-shaped character, indicating 
the half of a calabash (Chu, in Maya), surrounded by 
a heavy shading of black (Ek y in Maya). It is found 
accompanying the black deity in the Troano Codex. 

A few of the written characters are truly phonetic, 
but my scant knowledge of the Maya language ren- 
ders progress in this branch of the subject slow. 
That there are no true letter-characters, as supposed 
by Landa, must be conceded. I may add, in closing, 
that I have discovered in the Cortesian Codex the 
origin of this author's ' A. 1 It is the symbol used to 
denote the turtle (Aac), the conventional representa- 
tion of the head of this reptile, and is in no sense 
phonetic. 

A paper explaining these and other discoveries has 
been prepared for the bureau annual, and is now in 
the hands of the printer. Ctbus Thomas. 

YoungBville, Penn., Jan. 10. 



On the coloration of mammals. 

I desire to call attention to the arrangements of 
the color-marks on the skin of mammals, and to at- 
tempt to show that some of them are correlated to 
the distribution of nerves and to the positions of the 
muscle-masses of the body. 

The white stripe on the side of the trunk in Tamias 
is the region of distribution of the superficial branches 
of the intercostal nerves and those nerves in serial 
homology with them. 

The white patches on the muzzle of the tiger an- 
swer to the distribution of the infra-orbital nerves. 

The single black stripe on the withers of Eqnus 
taeniopus lies near the centre of the region of the 
scapula. In the tiger the abdominal stripes are in the 
same series with those on the flank. In the locality 
last named they range over the muscles and the 
depressions between them without regard to the 
anatomical conformation of the parts. On the an- 
terior extremity it is quite different. In the lioness 
the depression between the radial extensor mass and 
the flexor mass is marked at the distal end of the 
region with a longitudinal black stripe which is about 
one-fifth the length of the fore-arm. The skin over the 
extensors of the carpus is marked by a number of 
spots, and that over the flexor mass by a few trans- 
verse bars. The contrast between the two divisions 
of the fore-arm is decided. 



In both the lioness and the tiger the c» 
and the gular region are separated by d 
coloration. Two oblique stripes are see 
the cervical mass. The depressions t 
acromio-cephalic and the brachialis anti 
are marked by black stripes. 

The general distribution of the spots 
on the skin over the scapula, and the muscl 
inserted into it and over the extensor a 
anterior extremity, form a separate group 
of the rest of the trunk. 

The line of the malar bone of the tig< 
guished by a broad, irregular bar. A m 
one lies vertically over the masseter muse 

In addition to the above, it is found thi 
kles and folds in one animal answer t 
manent skin- bands or pigment-lines in an 
dorsi-facial folds of Phacochoerus are 
positions as the pigment-lines in the 2 
bands on the trunk of the nine-banded ar 
the homologues of the transient folds of e 
the instantaneous photographs of the h 
the time when the limbs of the same aid 
nearest point one to the other. 

The medio-dorsal stripe which is so oft 
in mammals is probably a sequence of 
deep-lying cause which determines the 1 
type of the vertebrate form. 

The disposition for the neck, wither?, 
terior limb to be more hairy than is the rt 
the trunk, is probably associated with tl 
tion of the marks on the anterior extrt 
better marked than are those on the post 
fore-limb has connections with the head 
with the dorsum as far back as the ori 
latissimus dorsi. In the bison the shaf 
corresponds quite accurately to the prox: 
the fore-limb and its extrinsic muscles. 

A mammal, in leaving the ground, fron 
limbs hunches up the withers in a conspi. 
ner. This region is more thickly haire 
brightly colored in many bats than is the „* tne 

trunk. Now, in the bat the shoulders and neck are 
permanently hunched, for the fore-limbs are scarcely 
at all used for support. Harrison Ax*uar. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 4. 



Butterflies in southern Connecticut. 

During the summer and autumn of 1884 and 1886, 
I was collecting butterflies in southern Connecticut 
In the first season I found Pyrameis cardui very 
abundant, P. huntera comparatively rare, while of 
P. atlanta I saw only two specimens, both of which I 
secured. The next summer, on" precisely the same 
ground and in the same time, I took all I wanted of 
P. atlanta, only two of the huntera, while I did not 
see a single specimen of P. cardui. I should be glad 
if some one would explain this. I do not imagine 
my collections could have been extensive enough to 
seriously affect the abundance of any of the species 
in the locality. 

I might also say, that, of a large number of speci- 
mens of Argynnis idalia taken in the two seasons, a 
very great majority were females ; and of the males, 
not one was in a perfect condition, most of them 
being badly torn and much faded. This would seem 
to indicate that they appeared before the females. 

„ L. K. Johnson. 

Evauston, III, Jan. a 




IENCE.-SUPPLEMENT 



', JANUARY 14, 1887. 

■ 

CHMENT OF THE SOIL BY 
VATION OF 'ENRICHING 

cation almost as old as agricul- 
much older than the earliest lit- 
ture, — that certain crops appear 
ertility of the soil upon which 
or, to state the case more accu- 
a favorable influence upon the 
ceeding crop. Red clover is the 
of such a crop; and the use of 
neans of renovating poor or ex- 
30-extensive with improved agri- 
:rops 9 on the contrary, have an 
ad are denominated exhausting, 
he cereals. 

facts just recounted are suffi- 
rn, their cause or causes are by 
made out. The first attempts at 
rally assumed that the exhaust- 
>re from the soil than the enrich- 
lat amounts to the same thing, 
re the medium of conveying ma- 
atmosphere to the soil. The en- 
riching <^~ r re also supposed to improve the 
soil by facilitating the direct acquisition of mate- 
rial by the soil from the air, accomplishing this by 
shading the soil, by the mechanical action of their 
roots, and also, in case of root-crops, for exam- 
ple, by the tillage necessary for their cultivation. 

Thaer and his school, to whom we owe these 
attempts at explanation, considered the humus of 
the soil to be the real food of the plants, and the 
mineral matters to be unessential, and naturally 
found support for their hypotheses in the great 
increase in the organic matter or humus of the 
soil consequent upon the growth of such a crop as 
clover, for example. As the progress of investi- 
gation brought about a better understanding of 
the laws of vegetable nutrition and the sources of 
plant-food, these views as to the action of enrich- 
ing crops were gradually modified ; but they con- 
tinued, and still continue, to follow the general 
lines laid down by Thaer. We now know that 
the plant obtains from the soil its mineral ingredi- 
ents and its nitrogen, while the bulk of its 'or- 
ganic' matter is assimilated by its leaves. It is 
plainly impossible that a crop should enrich the 
soil in mineral matters. All crops enrich the soil 



in carbon to some extent, since their roots and 
stubble remain in the soil; but this carbon ap- 
pears to be of no direct use to the plant. There 
remains only the nitrogen, and the modern theo- 
ries of the action of enriching crop9 are based on 
the belief that they somehow increase the store of 
nitrogen in the soil. Indeed, if we substitute ni- 
trogen for humus in Thaer's hypotheses, we have 
very nearly the views of recent authors. 

Before proceeding to discuss these views, how- 
ever, it will be well to inquire whether this sup- 
posed enrichment of the soil is a fact. The bene- 
fits of a judicious rotation of crops are undoubted, 
but they are susceptible of a variety of explana- 
tions. A crop like clover, for example, may pro- 
mote the growth of a succeeding grain-crop in a 
variety of ways, having no relation to the stock of 
nitrogen in the soil. Only careful scientific ex- 
periments can decide whether such crops actually 
enrich the soil in nitrogen. Unfortunately, but 
few experiments upon this subject have as yet 
been made, and some of those reported are of 
doubtful value. Considerable interest, therefore, 
attaches to the experiments made by Strecker in 
the year 1883-84 at Gdttingen, an account of 
which has recently been published, 1 along with a 
very complete review of the literature of the sub- 
ject. 

Strecker experimented upon plants and soils in 
pots, lupines serving to represent the legumes, and 
oats the cereals. But one of the vegetation ex- 
periments of 1888 succeeded ; viz., one with lu- 
pines in unmanured sand. From the data given, 
it appears that the soil and roots remaining in the 
pot contained only about 40 per cent of the ni- 
trogen originally present in the sand, or introduced 
in the seed or in the rain to which the pote were 
exposed. On the other hand, the amount thus re- 
moved from the soil was only about 89 per cent of 
the total quantity found in the aerial portions of 
the plants : the remaining 61 per cent, therefore, 
must either have been assimilated directly from 
the atmosphere or been absorbed from it by the 
soil. Six pots without plants were al*o exposed 
during the summer ; and these showed, without 
exception, a considerable loss of nitrogen, which, 
as there was no drainage from the pots, must 
have passed off into the air. Two of the pots 
contained unmanured sand with 0.0015 per cent 
of nitrogen ; and the variations in these were evi- 
dently within the limits of analytical error and of 

1 Journ. /. landw., xxxiv. 1. 



38 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 206 



no significance. The other four pots contained 
the same sand manured with bone-dust, and these 
showed an unmistakable loss of nitrogen. This loss, 
of course, was from the manure rather than from 
the soil, and it seems probable that it was due to 
the loss of nitrogen in the free state during decay 
which has been shown to occur by Beiset, Lawes 
and Gilbert, Kdnig and Kieson, Dietzell, Morgen, 
and others, including the writer. At the same 
time, these results show that this loss may take 
place under the circumstances in which organic 
matter exists in the soil or in the added manure. 
Strecker observed that the loss was less when the 
soil was stirred on the surface than when undis- 
turbed, and greater in the sun than in the shade. 
He explains the former fact by the hypothesis 
that the loosened soil absorbed ammonia from the 
air more freely than the compact one, and thus 
made good part of the loss just noted. 

The experiments of 1884 were made partly in 
glass pots, and partly in zinc boxes. Both stood 
under cover, protected from both rain and dew. 
Some were filled with sand, and some with gar- 
den-soil. As before, lupines and oats were used 
as experimental plants, and pots were also left 
without plants for the purpose of observing the 
loss of nitrogen noted in the previous year's ex- 
periments. 

Strecker's principal conclusions from his results 
were as follows : — 

1. A naked soil exhales during the summer 
considerable quantities of nitrogen. The loss is 
greater from compact than from stirred soil. 
The results of the experiments of 1884 upon this 
point were of the same character as those of 1883 ; 
that is, the results in the sand alone are of no 
significance, while those in the manured sand 
show in reality a loss of nitrogen by the manure. 
In addition to this, however, one of the pots with 
garden-soil showed an unmistakable loss of ni- 
trogen. 

2. If the soil is occupied by oats or lupines, this 
loss of nitrogen is diminished. Some loss was 
still observed in most cases; but when lupines 
were grown in unmanured sand, the results, cal- 
culated on the basis of the minimum percentage 
of nitrogen originally found in the sand, showed a 
gain of nitrogen by the soil and roots. An un- 
mistakable increase of the nitrogen of soil and 
plant over that of soil and seed was noted in 
several of these trials in unmanured sand. 

8. In all cases in which the soil was tolerably 
rich in nitrogen, less nitrogen was found in it 
after the growth of a crop and the removal of the 
aerial portions than was present at the beginning 
of the experiment : in other words, there was no 
enrichment of the soil. 



4. No essential difference was observed between 
lupines and oats. Both drew their supply of ni- 
trogen from the soil, and, in most if not all cases, 
left it poorer than they found it. 

It will be seen that Strecker's experiments give 
little countenance to any hypothesis of a gain of 
nitrogen from the atmosphere. In this respect 
they differ from the results reported by Atwater. a 

The latter experimented upon peas grown in 
sand and watered with a solution of plant-food, 
and found in nearly every case much more ni- 
trogen in soil and plant than was supplied in seed 
and nutritive solution. His results, however, do 
not bear directly upon the question under discus- 
sion, because he removed the whole plant, in- 
cluding the roots, from the soil, and determined 
only the total nitrogen in roots and tops and the 
residual nitrogen of the soil. It would seem, 
however, that, if plants can gain so large a pro- 
portion (up to 50 per cent) of their nitrogen from 
the air as they did in these experiments, they 
might very well enrich the soil in nitrogen through 
their roots and stubble. Strecker's experiments 
are very interesting as regards the relations of 
soil and plant to the nitrogen supplies of the 
atmosphere, but they are entirely inadequate to 
explain the functions of 'enriching crops' in agri- 
culture. Pot experiments, while they permit any 
exchange of nitrogen between crop and atmos- 
phere to be accurately observed, practically as- 
sume that the soil ends at the depth of ten or 
twelve inches, and take no account of the subsoil 
as a source of nitrogen. They thus ignore a 
factor of great importance, and one which affects 
the question in two distinct ways. In the first 
place, large amounts of nitrates may escape into 
the subsoil with the drainage- water. I have dis- 
cussed in an earlier article (Science, iii. No. 48), 
the results of experiments by Lawes and Gilbert 
and by Deherain, bearing on this subject, and 
have shown that the deep-rooting leguminosae, 
which have a long growing-season, have an im- 
portant function in arresting these nitrates, and 
storing them up in an insoluble form, to be set 
free again gradually for the use of a succeeding 
crop. According to Lawes and Gilbert, it is at 
least probable that the roots of clover in some 
way serve to convey the nitric ferment into the 
subsoil (which is naturally nearly destitute of it), 
and thus indirectly convert the insoluble nitrogen 
compounds there present into nitrates, which they 
then proceed to assimilate. 

In the second place, it would appear that clover 
and similar deep-rooting plants may bring up 
nitrogen from the subsoil and deposit it in their 
upper roots and stubble. While the soil as a 

1 Amer. chem.journ. y vi 885. 



r 



Jaitvabt 14, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



39 



whole is not enriched by this process, the surface 
soil is, and this concentration of nitrogen in a 
smaller soil area may greatly facilitate the growth 
of a succeeding shallow-rooting and quick-grow- 
ing crop. Drechsler ' has attempted to show that 
such an enrichment of the surface soil is impos- 
sible. He argues, that, since the roots develop 
chiefly where they find food, if they find their 
supply of nitrogen chiefly in the subsoil, they will 
develop chiefly there, and consequently will not 
enrich the surface soil. It is not difficult to 
show, however, that- this reasoning is fallacious. 
It is no more difficult to conceive that nitrogen 
should be transferred from the subsoil roots to 
the surface-soil roots, if the latter found an 
abundant supply of mineral matters at hand, 
than it is to conceive that both nitrogen and 
ash ingredients may be transferred from the 
roots to the aerial parts of the plant, provided 
the latter find a sufficient supply of carbon di- 
oxide. Let us suppose the surface soil to be 
absolutely destitute of nitrogen to the depth of 
six inches, and that the nitrogen of the seed is 
sufficient to supply the growth of a root down 
into the nitrogen-bearing layers below. A plant 
would certainly grow under such conditions ; and, 
when the crop was harvested, its stubble and what 
roots it had formed in the upper six inches of the 
soil would contain nitrogen, and the surface soil 
would be enriched to just this extent at the ex- 
pense of the subsoil. 

It would appear, then, that such an enrichment 
of the surface soil is possible. But few experi- 
ments calculated to demonstrate its actual occur- 
rence have been made. The problem is not an 
easy one. It is difficult to take samples of a soil 
which shall be truly average samples; and the 
percentage differences are so small that they 
may easily be hidden by an error in sampling. 
Analyses by Deherain and by Lawes and Gilbert, 
however, appear to show that such a gain does 
take place. 

Finally, the relative power of different plants 
to assimilate nitrogen has an important bearing on 
this question. Wagner has rendered it probable 
that leguminous plants are able to assimilate 
freely the comparatively insoluble nitrogen of 
the soil, while the cereals require their nitrogen 
in an easily soluble form. If this is true, one of 
the functions of enriching crops may be assumed to 
be to gather the nitrogen of the soil which is un- 
available to other crops, concentrate it in its roots 
and stubble, and yield it up again by decay to the 
following crop. 

On the whole, it does not seem difficult to ac- 
count for the effects of enriching crops without 
1 Journ. f. landw, xxxt 80. 



supposing that they draw materially from the ni- 
trogen of the air, while not excluding the possi- 
bility of their so doing. Whether our agriculture 
is flourishing, as Lawes and Gilbert maintain, at 
the expense of the accumulated nitrogen of past 
centuries, or whether there are processes by which 
free nitrogen is brought into combination again in 
quantities sufficient to balance the evolution of 
free nitrogen which we know to be continually 
going on, is as yet an unsettled question. 

H. P. Abmsbt. 



NATURAL QAS. 



A lecture on the subject of natural gas was 
delivered at the Franklin institute on Saturday 
evening, Dec. 18 last, by Mr. Charles A. Ash- 
burner, geologist in charge of the State geological 
survey. The lecturer stated that natural gas was 
by no means a recent discovery. Even its utiliza- 
tion for the purposes of the mechanic arts had 
been successfully attempted in China, where, by 
pipes of bamboo, it had been conveyed from nat- 
ural wells to suitable furnaces, where, by means 
of terra-cotta burners, it was consumed. In the 
confines of Persia, in the south of France, and in 
our own western states, burning-springs bad long 
been known. When Lafayette visited this coun- 
try in 1821, the inn in the town of Fredonia, N. Y., 
was illuminated in his honor by gas procured 
from a neighboring well. It is, however, only 
within recent years that natural gas has arisen to 
any importance in its bearing on the mechanic 
arts. At present the great iron and glass works 
of Pittsburg and of other places are supplied with 
natural gas as their only fuel, and millions of 
cubic feet are yearly consumed in Pittsburg and 
similarly situated cities. 

Of the origin of natural gas there seems to be 
no reasonable doubt. It arises from the decompo- 
sition of forms of animal or vegetable life embed- 
ded in the rocks in suitable situations. The gas 
is not believed to be generated continuously, but 
merely to be stored in porous or cavernous rocks 
overlaid by impervious strata. When these col- 
lections are tapped, the gas is set free, but a new 
supply is not being formed to take its place. The 
position at which the gas is found is very vari- 
able, depending upon the force of gravity and 
upon the position of the porous layer in which the 
gas is confined. The lecturer entered into an ac- 
curate description of the localities in which the 
gas was found, and gave the reasons why it was 
hopeless, from geological grounds, to look for nat- 
ural gas east of the Alleghenies. The region in 
which the gas is found is practically embraced in 
that portion of Pennsylvania west of the Alle- 



40 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No 206 



gheny Mountains, and extending a very short dis- 
tance into Ohio, New York, and West Virginia, 
and it is also stated to have been found in a very 
limited extent in Illinois and Kansas. 

The most important economic locality is that in 
the immediate vicinity of Pittsburg, which sup- 
plies that city with the fuel for the vast iron and 
glass works and for numerous private dwellings. 
There are 6 natural gas companies in that city, 
managing 107 wells, and supplying the gas 
through over 500 miles of pipe, of which 232 
miles are situated in the city proper. The total 
area of pipe leading into Pittsburg is given as 
1,846,608 square inches, and the total capacity of 
the lines is estimated at over 250,000,000 cubic 
feet of gas per day. The largest company is the 
Philadelphia natural gas company, which supplies 
over 400 manufactories and over 7.000 dwellings 
with the entire amount of fuel consumed. The 
composition of natural gas varies greatly, both in 
specimens from different wells and in those from 
the same well at different times. In general 
terms, it can be described as a mixture of hydro- 
gen, nitrogen, and marsh-gas, with occasionally 
higher carbon compounds. It burns with a nearly 
colorless flame, and gives off no odor or delete- 
rious matter. 

In speaking of the use of natural gas for do- 
mestic purposes, Mr. Ashburner pointed out the 
great advantages which a gaseous fuel has over a 
solid one like coal, and stated his belief that the 
greatest of the advantages of the discovery of 
natural gas was that it had proven the great 
economy and practical utility of such fuel. A 
thousand cubic feet of gas was calculated to equal 
in heating capacity 55 pounds of coal. He stated 
that the use of natural gas for domestic purposes 
would not have been possible without the inven- 
tions of Mr. Westinghouse of Pittsburg, two of 
whose inventions the lecturer illustrated. One of 
these inventions was intended to prevent leakage 
from gas-pipes, and to locate leaks accurately 
when they occurred. The leaking gas is conveyed 
to the nearest lamp-post and there consumed. 
Another invention was a most ingenious pressure 
regulator, which not only regulates the pressure 
at which the gas is supplied to the burners, re- 
gardless of the pressure in the mains, but, in the 
event of the pressure in the mains dropping to 
zero, automatically shuts off all gas from the 
house ; nor is it possible to turn the gas on again, 
without violence to the regulator, until every 
source of escape of gas larger than a pin-hole leak 
has first been corrected. A model of the regula- 
tor was exhibited. The lecture was illustrated by 
drawings and maps and by a small working model 
of a well-boring apparatus. 



In answer to inquiries, the lecturer stated that 
the source of natural gas was certainly capable of 
exhaustion, but that he did not think there was 
any imminent danger of such a calamity. The 
sources of supply would certainly last many 
years; and he believed, that, before they would 
give out, a method of producing an artificial gas 
would be invented which would perfectly sup- 
plant the present natural gas. The cost of natural 
gas could not tie compared with our coal-gas, for 
the reason that the natural gas was not sold by 
meter. The consumer makes a yearly contract 
with the company to supply him with light or 
fuel, or both, at certain rates. A house contain- 
ing twelve rooms costs, to heat and light, from 
$70 to $90 a year. The use of the gas is most 
satisfactory ; for, by means of an automatic regu- 
lator, every room of a house may be kept at a 
temperature not varying two degrees, regardless 
of the condition of the outside temperature or the 
pressure on the mains. Defects and troubles were 
met with from lack of understanding bow to 
properly regulate the supply or the combustion. 

In reply to the question as to whether he 
thought it wise for the city of Philadelphia to 
lease the gas-works for a term of years, Mr. Ash- 
burner replied, that, as a business-man, he would 
say that any scheme for supplying the ordinary 
form of coal-gas was, at the present time, ex- 
tremely uncertain as a business venture. He 
believed that a very short time would demon- 
strate that there was a method of generating a 
fuel gas which would totally supplant all present 
modes of heating, and that electricity had already 
solved the problem of illumination. We were in 
a transition stage with regard to both heating and 
light, and for these reasons, and from this stand- 
point, he would regard any movement as un- 
desirable at this time. 



PURITY OF ICE, 

The state board of health of New York has 
recently published a report on the purity of ice 
from Onondaga Lake, the Erie canal at Syracuse, 
and Cazenovia Lake, being the ice-supply of Syra- 
cuse. The local board of health regarded that cut 
from Onondaga Lake as being detrimental to 
health. Into this lake discharges the creek of the 
same name ; and into the creek is discharged the 
sewage of the city of Syracuse, which amounts 
to five millions of gallons daily. At the time the 
inspection of this lake was made, there was a 
margin of from one to four feet wide of black, 
putrefying organic matter along the shores. The 
analyses of the ice from this lake showed that it 
contained probably from ten to twelve per cent 



January 14, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



41 



of the sewage impurities dissolved in the same 
quantity of unfrozen water of the lake. This ice 
also showed the presence of bacteria in great 
abundance, retarded somewhat in their growth 
by the ice, but not destroyed by it. It is perhaps 
needless to say that this ice was pronounced to- 
tally unfit for any purposes where it is liable to 
come in contact with food or drink. The ice 
from the Erie canal was also condemned, while 
there was not sufficient evidence to warrant a 
condemnation of that from Cazenovia Lake. The 
report, valuable for what has already been men- 
tioned, is still more so by reason of the numerous 
references to instances in which impure ice has 
been the cause of dysentery and other diseases. 
The earliest of these was that at Rye Beach, 
N.H., reported by Dr. A. H. Nichols of Boston 
in 1875, in which there broke out among the 
guests of a large hotel at that place an epidemic 
of gastro-enteritis, caused by impure ice from a 
filthy pond. Another instance of sickness caused 
by impure ice, referred to in the report, is that of 
an epidemic of dysentery which occurred in 1879 
at Washington, Conn., investigated by Dr. Brown 
of that place and by Dr. Raymond of Brooklyn. 
The ice had been gathered from a pond which 
had been used as a wallowing-ground by the pigs. 
Other instances are quoted of the injurious effects 
of impure ice upon the public health, and suffi- 
cient evidence given to show, that, in the process 
of freezing, water does not purify itself. Tlje re- 
port, taken as a whole, is a very valuable contri- 
bution to this subject, and a complete refutation 
of the old idea that all ice must of necessity be 
pure. 



COLOR-BLINDNESS AMONG RAILWAY 

EMPLOYEES. 

Dr. B. Jot Jeffries, at the last meeting of the 
American ophthalmological society, called atten- 
tion to the total failure on the part of the Massa- 
chusetts authorities to enforce the law passed in 
that state in 1881, by which railroad companies 
are prohibited from employing persons who are 
color-blind, or whose sight is defective, in posi- 
tions requiring them to distinguish form or color 
signals, unless such persons have been certified 
by some competent person employed and paid 
by the company as not disqualified for such posi- 
tions by color-blindness or other defective sight. 
A penalty of a hundred dollars is affixed for each 
violation of the act. In reference to the enforce- 
ment of the law, Dr. Jeffries says that "it is 
practically as dead a letter as the liquor laws." 
Numerous cases are cited which have come under 
the care of the speaker in which the law has been 



grossly violated. In one case a brakeman who 
had been on a road three years had been tested as 
to his vision by the train-despatcher, who had 
asked him how many knobs there were on an ad- 
jacent telegraph-pole, telling him his vision was 
as good as any one on the road. Another instance 
of the manner in which the law is violated was 
that of a gateman who applied to Dr. Jeffries for 
a certificate for blindness contracted in the army, 
in order that he might obtain a pension from the 
government. Although this man was so blind 
from atrophy of the optic nerve that he groped 
his way into the doctor 8 office, yet he was on 
duty as a gateman at an important railroad-cross- 
ing, having a certificate from the examiner of the 
railroad company " that he is not disqualified by 
defective sight.'* The man himself acknowledged 
that he was completely blind in the sun, and 
could not see people at his crossing. A number 
of instances are given where engineers and con- 
ductors were employed by railroad companies, 
although they were completely color-blind. Some- 
thing of the same negligence seems to exist in the 
licensing of pilots. One pilot who could not 
recognize a colored side-light held in the sun six 
feet before his face was examined by a marine 
hospital surgeon, and reported as partially color- 
blind. This enabled him to be further examined 
by the local inspectors, who passed him by their 
tests, and the man has a full license. In com- 
menting on this case. Dr. Jeffries well asks, "How 
many more are there?" The matter is one of 
such grave importance, involving as it does the 
life and limb of every traveller by land and sea, 
that the Ophthalmological society could be of no 
greater benefit to their fellow -beings than in 
calling the attention of the authorities to these 
gross violations of the statute, and protesting 
against their continuance. 



COMMISSIONER HADLEYS SECOND AN- 
NUAL REPORT. 

Professor Richmond M. Smith, writing in the 
Political science quarterly & tew months ago, said, 
in his article examining the various state labor 
bureaus and their methods, that "the business of 
collecting statistics successfully is one which re- 
quires a great deal of experience, besides knowl- 
edge and administrative ability, on the part of 
the chief," and for the lack of that experience he 
found the reports of most of the chiefs defective 
both in method and in results. When Professor 
Hadley of Yale college was appointed, two years 
ago, chief of the Connecticut bureau of labor 
statistics, it was foreseen that statistics collected 
by one of his ability and experience in handling 



42 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 206 



economic questions would be of unusual value. 
The report, which has just been laid before the 
Connecticut legislature, amply justifies the ex- 
pectations entertained concerning it. Guided both 
by the judgment of the chief and a special resolu- 
tion of the general assembly, the investigations 
undertaken by the bureau during the past year 
were restricted to a few topics, and then made as 
thorough and searching as possible. 

The specific questions under consideration were 
weekly payment and child-labor; and Professor 
Hadley's report concerning them may be divided 
into three parts. The first is a bare summary of 
results, possibly intended for such legislators as 
lack either the time or the inclination to study 
the tables of statistics for themselves. The second 
part is made up of two essays, — on labor legis- 
lation and its enforcement, and on the credit 
system. The third part consists of the tables of 
statistics, with a brief explanation of them. 

In taking up the subject of weekly payment, 
Professor Hadley first determined the facts as they 
are. He found, that, of the factory operatives in 
Connecticut, a little less than two-fifths are paid 
weekly, a little more than two-fifths monthly, and 
about one-fifth fortnightly. Aside from salaried 
persons, it is found that something more than three- 
sevenths of the hands are paid by the piece, the 
remainder by the day. The percentage of those 
paid by piece-work is much greater among the 
female than among the male operatives. No con- 
nection is found to exist between payment by the 
piece and weekly payments. The concerns that 
have not adopted a system of weekly payments 
offer various explanations of their action. Some 
make no change from their custom of monthly 
payments because they find no demand for any 
change; others believe weekly payments to be 
impracticable; still others believe weekly pay- 
ments to be a bad thing for the operatives them- 
selves. 

Of the 70,000 hands specified in the report, 
20,000 are women, and about 3,000 are children. 
The number of children really employed, Professor 
Hadley believes to be greater than shown by the 
figures. With the children, monthly payment is 
most frequent. It is an interesting fact, too, that 
the larger the factory, the greater is the percent- 
age of women employed. The number of children 
reported, on the other hand, is greatest in mills 
employing between one hundred and two hundred 
hands. The employment of women reaches the 
largest proportions in the manufacture of wear- 
ing-apparel ; that of children, in textile industry, 
where the percentage averages about nine. The 
children are principally occupied in tending 
machinery. The returns as to the wages of these 



children show a scale of wages running from 
about a dollar a day (paid to hands over eighteen 
years of age) to thirty-five cents a day (paid to the 
youngest hands). 

Of 65,637 hands, about five per cent are em- 
ployed 64 hours or less per week, twenty-two per -* 
cent from 54 to 59 hours, over fifty-six per cent 
from 591 to 60 hours, while sixteen per cent have 
an average working-day of more than 10 hours. 
The longer hours prevail generally in the textile 
industries, though barbers reported the longest 
hours of all, — 92 hours weekly. The cigar- 
makers, the only trade in which the eight-hoar 
system was carried into effect, show a decided 
reduction in this respect. In concluding this 
portion of his report, Professor Hadley says : — 

" We thus reach the conclusion that monthly 
payments, long hours, and child-labor go hand in 
hand. This fact is in one sense precisely what 
might have been expected ; yet the results are so 
noticeable that they will bear repeating. First, 
practically none of the weekly payment mills 
have a normal working-day of over ten hours. 
Second, leaving out cases of fortnightly or mixed 
payment, a minority of men, a majority of women, 
and a two-thirds majority of children, are paid 
monthly. Third, less than one-eighth of the 
men, but more than one-fifth of the women, and 
more than one-third of the children, are employed 
regularly over ten hours a day. Fourth, the coun- 
ties and industries which show the largest propor- 
tion of weekly payment, show the smallest pro- 
portions of women and children employed, and 
vice versa" 

Now, these three things, — child-labor, long 
hours, monthly payments, — when found co-ex- 
isting, indicate a society on a low industrial level. 
Any one of them may be, in exceptional cases, 
necessary ; but the three in conjunction indicate 
an evil which the state is justified in attempting 
to remedy by legislation. The discussion which 
follows as to the practical difficulties of labor legis- 
lation and the proper attitudes of labor organiza- 
tions toward the law, is in every way commend- 
able, and we regret that lack of space forbids our 
reproducing the most important portions of it. 
One or two extracts must suffice. 

"To make a law worth any thing at all, some- 
body must be willing to incur the hardship and 
odium, and, if need be, actual danger, in order 
that its provisions may be carried out. If a body 
of workmen demand legislation, and then, either 
through apathy or timidity, are not prepared to 
support the officer of the law in its execution, 
they are simply encouraging sham legislation. 
It is perfectly easy for a legislator to vote for a 
law which will satisfy the demands of extremists 



January 14, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



43 



and not accomplish its objects. Tbe more extreme 
the character of the measure, the surer it is of 
non-enforcement. " 

"If organized labor takes a fair legal chance 
f for prosecuting the grievances of individuals, it 
simply gires those individuals a fair chance be- 
fore the law ; if organized labor does not prose- 
cute such grievances, it gives the employers an 
immunity from interference at present, but at the 
risk of almost revolutionary consequences in the 
future. 

"There is nothing to prevent the knights of 
labor, or a trades-union, from being incorporated 
under the law of the state of Connecticut at 
present Though not generally understood, this 
is a fact." 

"Such legislation may help in raising the 
standard of the community. But let it be clearly 
understood that it is a rough process, and not a 
smooth one ; that it frequently bears hardest 
where we should wish to see it bear least ; and 
that it is hopeless to attempt to enforce it, until 
those whom it is designed to benefit — or, at 
least, a large part of them — have risen high 
enough to reap the benefit, and are sufficiently 
convinced of those benefits to use their own per- 
sonal efforts for its enforcement." 

The last portion of the report which we can 
mention is that which deals with the credit sys- 
tem. Professor Hadley discusses in order the 
practicability and the desirability of weekly pay- 
ments and the best means of securing their en- 
forcement. To most of his argument we give 
our hearty assent, though we think even more 
weight should be given to the objections to week- 
ly payments advanced by certain manufacturers, 
who submit, that, from the very character of their 
work, its product cannot be properly estimated 
and paid for every week. We are glad, too, to 
see that Professor Hadley appreciates the fact 
that for the best employees weekly payments 
would be useless, and for the worst they would 
be worse than useless. The average workman is 
the one to be benefited by them. The report 
summarizes this discussion thus : — 

" 1°. The system of cash payment is a real ad- 
vantage to the workman. 2°. The difficulties of 
weekly payment are not so great as is commonly 
supposed. 8°. But there nevertheless remain a 
sufficient number of cases to which a weekly 
payment law could not well be applied, to 
constitute a serious reason against making the 
system compulsory. 4°. The same general result 
could be reached more surely from another direc- 
tion, by abolishing the factorizing process. This 
would necessitate a system of cash payments as a 
rule, and the exceptions to it would regulate 



themselves in such a manner as to involve less 
difficulty. 5°. We therefore recommend that the 
legislature pass a law exempting the wages of all 
mechanics, journeymen, or laborers, from attach- 
ment for debt ; with such additional legislation as 
may be necessary to prevent its effects from being 
evaded by the systematic assignment of wages on 
usurious terms." 

With reports such as this of Commissioner 
Hadley, and those of Carroll D. Wright of the 
national and Massachusetts bureaus, before us, we 
can conscientiously commend the sagacity of Dr. 
En gel, one of the most eminent statisticians in 
Germany, and late chief of the Royal statistical 
bureau of Prussia, when he said that his ambition 
would be satisfied if he could accomplish in Ger- 
many the same work that was being done by some 
of the American statistical bureaus. 



8ED0WICK AND WILSON'S BIOLOGY. 

The old and thoroughly vicious notion that 
*' the power of repeating a classification of ani- 
mals with appropriate definitions has any thing to 
do with genuine knowledge, " is slowly disappear- 
ing before the advance of a rational method of 
teaching biology ; namely, that of bringing the 
student face to face with the objects of his study. 
Much of this reform is due to Huxley and Martin's 
' Elementary biology,' which appeared some ten 
years ago. in the book before us two of Profes- 
sor Martin's former pupils undertake to elaborate 
and improve his plan of instruction, intending it 
to serve as a factor in general education or as 
"a basis for future studies in general biology, 
botany, zoology, or medicine." 

After a general introduction, and chapters on 
the composition of living organisms, on proto- 
plasm (which contains several pages on organic 
chemistry), and on the cell, then follow the long 
and very careful accounts of the bracken-fern and 
earth-worm, the typical examples selected of 
vegetable and animal life. The anatomical, physi- 
ological, and embryological aspects of the sub- 
ject are (for an elementary work) treated with un- 
usual fulness of detail. The authors have done 
wisely in not following Huxley and Martin's order 
of treatment, which begins with the unicellular 
organisms. This is the logical order, but it is 
beset with practical difficulties. As a matter of 
fact, most teachers will agree that beginners take 
most interest in, and succeed best with, forms 
which they are accustomed to see around them. 
The structure and functions of microscopic forms 
are really much more difficult for the beginner to 

General biology. By William T. Sedgwick and Edmund 
B. Wilson. Fart 1. : Introductory. New York, Bolt, 1888. 8* 



44 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. tt* 



grasp than those of the higher animals and plants. 
On the other hand, if too differentiated types he 
selected, the mass of detail becomes somewhat 
embarrassing. One may doubt, however, whether 
the earth-worm is the best selection that might be 
made, on account of its small size and the rather 
skilful dissecting it requires. To those who do 
not accept the annelid origin of the vertebrates, 
its supposed central position and clear relation to 
the animals above it are not so apparent. 

A novel and most valuable feature of this book 
is the attention devoted to physiology and embry- 
ology. This method of treatment will no doubt 
prove most attractive and stimulating to the 
student, as well as give him a much more just 
and adequate conception of the subject than is 
possible from anatomical methods alone. 

As a whole, the work is excellently done, and the 
points to which one may wish to take exception 
are of minor importance. There is not quite 
enough distinction between fact and inference. 
For instance : while few naturalists reject the 
theory of evolution, it seems hardly in place in an 
elementary text-book. Huxley's example, in re- 
spect to matters of theory, is a good one. Then, 
too, the amount of physics and chemistry is some- 
what unnecessary : if the student knows the ele- 
ments of these sciences, it is superfluous ; if not, 
it is insufficient. But these slight criticisms not- 
withstanding, we can sincerely congratulate the 
authors upon their work, and cordially commend 
it as a very valuable aid to teachers. 

The publisher's share of the book is excellent as 
to print and paper, but the execution of the illus- 
trations is not all that could be wished. Unfor- 
tunately this is a complaint that must very fre- 
quently be made of American scientific books. 



ABBOTT'S UPLAND AND MEADOW. 

The author of ' Upland and meadow,' Dr. C. C. 
Abbott, tells us the secret of his success on the very 
first page. To him every half-acre is an inex- 
haustible zoological garden, every creature is 
companionable, amusing or instructive or both, 
and thus no ramble can be lonely, nor even the 
shortest walk through the tamest region uninter- 
esting or uninstructive. But, like many other 
secrets, this is of little use to any except those 
fortunately to the manner born. 

The relation between the author and his (gener- 
ally feathered or furry) friends is not merely one of 
companionship, but of good-fellowship, comrade- 
ship. There is a sympathy between them. He 
continually tries to put himself in feeling in their 

Upland and meadow : a Poaetquieeingt chronicle. By 
Chablks C. Abbott, M.D. New York, Harper, 1886. 12<\ 



place, not only by his kindness, but by the prac- 
tical jokes which he plays upon them (see pp. 
76-79 and 209) and his keen enjoyment when 
they use the opportunity to laugh at him. The 
questions which he answers, and the experiments 
which he tries, are those which would occur to no 
mere anatomist or pure systematise but onlv to 
one to whom all nature is in a certain sense akin, 
and who desires an inside view of it. And this, 
combined with a keen sense of the humorous and 
a command of a simple style and plain English, 
constitutes the great charm of the book. 

We cannot but feel, however, that what he 
sees in the birds is often a reflection of his own 
keen humor; that he often transfers to their 
minds trains of thought which really exist only 
in his own ; and that, while his observation may 
be entirely correct, his inferences from them are 
those of a warm friend rather than of an impartial 
judge. But one is disposed to pardon the author 
for this, especially while reading his pages. 

The book is throughout a study of animal life, 
not of dead animals. It is a plea for the study of 
life-histories, of the habits, instincts, feelings, and 
thoughts of the common animals. It is a book 
which would encourage boys to observe, and give 
the young naturalist an introduction to a field for 
work unfortunately too sadly neglected by the 
present generation of scientific men. Why should 
not every one have a ' Poaetquissings Creek 9 ? 
Every one knows of similar streams, with their 
uplands and meadows teeming with a life of which 
we know practically nothing. It is hard to see 
how any one can read the bright and attractive 
pages of this book without making a firm resolve 
to observe more widely and carefully than he ever 
has before; and a book which will make boys 
and girls, and men and women, more observing 
is certainly doing the very best educational work. 
If love to being in general is the essence of virtue, 
we shall all certainly be the better for reading it. 
But the scientific man will also find in it much 
useful information, and many valuable observa- 
tions of the occurrence and habits of some of our 
less known and studied animals. 



According to the Lancet, a new anaesthetic 
has been discovered in Australia. It is called 
drumine, and is obtained from the Euphorbia 
Drummondii. It is local in its action, and has 
certain advantages over cocaine, which is now so 
extensively employed for local anaesthesia. Its 
effects are as yet not sufficiently understood to 
warrant the acceptation of all that is claimed for 
it ; but it will doubtless be investigated further, 
and its efficacy and value be more thoroughly 
established. 



SCIENCE. 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 21, 1887. 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM. 

The American library association is not 
satisfied with the present apportionment of the 
public documents. A special committee, headed 
by Librarian Samuel S. Green of Worcester, Mass., 
has addressed a communication to the senate com- 
mittee on printing, enclosing the draught of a reso- 
lution, which, if favorably acted upon, will satisfy 
their wants. The resolution provides that " the 
public printer shall deliver to the Interior depart- 
ment a sufficient number of copies of the Congres- 
Honed record (bound), ' statutes-at-large,' and of 
every other government publication, not already 
supplied for this purpose, printed at the govern- 
ment printing-office, including the publications of 
all bureaus and offices of the government, except- 
ing bills, resolutions, documents printed for the 
special use of committees of congress, and circu- 
lars designed not for communicating information 
to the public, but for use within the several execu- 
tive departments and offices of the government, 
to enable said department to supply a copy to every 
depository of public documents designated accord- 
ing to law." The association also believes it 
would be well if copies of some of the public docu- 
ments of greatest interest could be sent to such 
public libraries, not depositories, as have more 
than a minimum number of volumes, — say, 5,000 
or 10,000. It is urged that the expense need not 
be large, for fewer than five hundred copies would 
be needed, and there would be no charge for com- 
position, but only for paper, binding, and press- 
work. There is a great deal of force in this sug- 
gestion, and we should be glad to see it receive 
legislative sanction. Every year our public docu- 
ments become more valuable, and a larger number 
of them are of general importance. The reading 
public should have free access to these volumes at 
convenient centres of population, and the plan of 
the library association would accomplish this. 



cerning the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 
It is of most general interest to know what sala- 
ries celebrated professors receive, how much lec- 
turing they are required to do, and how many 
hearers they have. On all of these heads the re- 
turn is very full and explicit. At Oxford Canon 
Driver, regius professor of Hebrew, gave in 1885 
a hundred and five lectures to classes of from fifty 
to sixty students. His salary is £1,500. Pro- 
fessor Bryce of the chair of civil law delivered 
twenty ordinary and two public lectures. No 
record was -kept of the attendance. Professor 
Bryce's salary is £435. Professor Sylvester, Savil- 
ian professor of geometry, gave forty lectures to 
fourteen students. His salary is £700. Prof. E. 
B. Tylor, the anthropologist, receives £200, and 
lectures eighteen times to about twenty-five hear- 
ers. Prof. Benjamin Jowett, the Hellenist, re- 
ceives £500 per annum, and did not lecture in 
1885, as he was vice-chancellor of the university. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce had only from three to sixteen 
hearers for his lectures on comparative philol- 
ogy. He receives £800. The professor of moral 
philosophy, William Wallace, receives £400 a 
year, and has from forty-eight to seventy students 
at his twenty-eight lectures. Professor Freeman 
keeps no record of the number of his hearers. 
His salary is £700, and he gives forty-two lectures 
during the academic year. 



A oreat mass of detail of much interest to the 
students of university organization and work is 
contained in a recent parliamentary return con- 
No. 307.-1837. 



At Cambridge things are not very much differ- 
ent, but we may cite a few examples for the sake 
of comparison. Canon Westcott, professor of 
divinity, has a salary of about £800. He gave in 
1885 sixty-six lectures, and his audience varied 
from ten to three hundred and fifty. Professor 
Stokes, of the chair of mathematics, receives £470, 
and delivers forty lectures to about eight students. 
The Knightsbridge professor of moral philosophy, 
Henry Sidgwick, has £700, and delivered eighty- 
seven lectures to from four to twenty hearers. 
Professor Darwin, of the chair of experimental 
philosophy, gave forty lectures, and had eighteen 
students. His salary is £580. The professor of 
modern history, J. R. Seeley, has an income of 
£871, and gave one lecture a week for two terms, 
averaging ninety hearers. He had, in addition, 
sixty ladies who were preparing for the university 



46 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou IX., No. 807 



examinations. Prof. Arthur Cayley only mus- 
tered two hearers to his twenty lectures. His 
salary is £471. Michael Foster, professor of 
physiology, has a salary of £800, and gives three 
lectures a week to about one hundred and sixty 
students. 



These are simply a few figures selected at ran- 
dom, but they furnish food for reflection on more 
than one point. We find the salaries in almost 
every case to be sufficient to furnish a fair 
living, and in some instances generous. But the 
number of lectures falls considerably below that 
which it is usual for a professor to give in this 
country, and the classes are smaller. But it 
is just these conditions that afford time and ops 
portunity for original scientific research and liter- 
ary activity. It is just here that the continental 
universities, and in an almost if not quite equal 
degree Oxford and Cambridge, have a great 
and manifest advantage even over our largest 
and best-endowed universities. We compel our 
professors to teach and lecture so much, that 
they cannot write as often and as wisely as their 
abilities would justify them in doing. The ques- 
tion, 'Why do you not write something?' which 
is so often put to the already overworked pro- 
fessor, is peculiarly galling. He wants to write 
something, and feels that he can do it well ; but 
the demands of his routine forbid. Even bis 
vacation season must be wholly spent in regaining 
strength and vigor for the next year's work. To 
a certain extent we are in this matter victims of 
circumstances. Just at present no escape is per- 
haps possible. 

But. in some few instances at least, where finan- 
cial conditions permit a better state of things, pub- 
lic opinion and governing boards are to blame. 
They value a professor according to the number 
of lectures he delivers and the number of students 
he attracts. They fail to perceive that scientific 
research is the peculiar duty, and should be the 
peculiar privilege, of the university professor. 
Oxford and Cambridge professors do more original 
work than our professors, simply because they 
are given the time for it. To work an effective 
reform in this matter will take some time. Our 
universities must not only accumulate resources, 
but public opinion and boards of trustees must 
be educated to see that a professor is not being 
permitted to do his full duty if he is compelled to 
teach from ten to fifteen hours per week. 



Numerous state teachers' associations held 
their annual meetings during the leisure period 
afforded them by the time-honored two- weeks 
Christmas vacation. It is almost invidious to 
single out any one of the number for special com- 
ment ; but the meeting of the New Jersey teachers 
at Trenton was so large and enthusiastic, that 
some notice should be taken of the great growth 
of the idea that teaching is a profession that is 
observable in that state. New Jersey teachers 
have long borne an enviable reputation for ear- 
nestness and ability, but the development of the 
professional idea among them is of comparatively 
recent date. The successful establishment of a 
state reading-circle, which now numbers nearly 
two thousand members, is evidence of the gratify- 
ing pr ogress that has been made ; and the attend- 
ance at Trenton this year was such as to convince 
the most sceptical that great good was being done. 
As the result of the general acknowledgment that 
teaching is a profession, we naturally expect to see 
a sense of the homogeneity of all branches of 
teaching arrived at. Every detail should interest 
all, for it is a part of the one whole. The Trenton 
meeting afforded abundant evidence that this fact 
was appreciated. The programme, though long 
and varied, commanded attention and interest 
throughout Papers were read or addresses given 
on musical education, penmanship, the education 
of the deaf and dumb, the status of the common 
school, character-building, the Delsarte method of 
expression, and the scientific treatment of educa- 
tion. Varied as these topics were, both in subject 
and in manner of treatment, they had a unity of 
thought and purpose, and, what is quite as im- 
portant, the audience of teachers appreciated the 
fact. Meetings such as this was are an incalcula- 
ble help to the earnest teacher, and we are glad 
that they have taken their place as an essential 
element in our educational organisation. 



Aecheological studies have taken a new start 
at Harvard. At the quarter millennial celebration 
last November, one of the foreign delegates who 
was honored with the highest degree was Profes- 
sor Lanciani of Rome, the director of the govern- 
ment explorations in the ' eternal city.' Immedi- 
ately after the celebration be began, in Sanders 
theatre, a series of eleven lectures on Roman 
archeology, which were very well attended, 
though the same course was given at the same 
time before the Lowell institute, in the neighbor- 
ing city of Boston. This course was scarcely 



Jakuaby 81, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



47 



closed, when it was annoanoed that Dr. Wald- 
stein, who delivered a lecture a fortnight ago on 
scientific methods in archeology, was to give a 
course next March ; and now Prof. A. L. Froth- 
ingham, recently of Johns Hopkins and now of 
Princeton, is delivering a series of five lectures on 
Assyrian archeology. While so much activity has 
thus been shown in the different fields of classical 
archeology, prehistoric archeology has been more 
fully recognized in the appointment last week of 
Mr. F. W. Putnam, the curator of the Peabody 
museum, well known for his careful researches in 
American mounds and other remains, to the Pea- 
body professorship of American archeology and 
ethnology. 

Professor Caldrrwood's short paper in the 
New Princeton review, on the present status of 
philosophy in Britain, is exceedingly clear and 
satisfactory. And, coming from a man who has 
taken so active a part in the philosophical con- 
troversies of the last quarter of a century, it is 
rather surprisingly judicial in tone. Professor 
Galderwood starts with Hume, and briefly shows 
the course the reaction against him has taken in 
Great Britain, France, and Germany. He outlines 
the rise of the experiential philosophy in Great 
Britain, and indicates its present points of weak- 
ness. He also shows why Slant and Hegel have 
found so large a following among English stu- 
dents of philosophy, but claims that in Great 
Britain, as in Germany, Hegelianism has lost its 
grip, and that there is a marked return to Kant 
for the purposes of further exposition and criti- 
cism. The outlook for the future, Professor Calder- 
wood views optimistically. We are to be tied 
down neither to bare experientialism nor to unin- 
telligible rationalism. The British philosophy is to 
draw what is best and truest from both schools in 
the formulation of a philosophy of certainty. 
"The thought of the nation is in a transition 
stage, preparing for a new advance ; and, when 
this comes, it promises to be the fruit of all that 
is best in German and British thought, and in its 
nature a further clear advance toward a philoso- 
phy of human knowledge, — a philosophy of 
certainty." 



by the appointment of persons without any ex- 
perience in teaching or training for it, and very 
many of whom hare no intention of teaching 
permanently. This is a great evil, and, as things 
are at present, cannot be adequately corrected, 
though mitigation seems possible. The proper 
remedy would be to hold in reserve a certain num- 
ber of persons of normal-school training, who 
could be at once appointed to such vacancies as 
they might occur. The objection to this plan 
would be the expense attendant upon it, and the 
uncertainty as to just how many vacancies would 
occur annually. The expense would be some- 
thing, to be sure ; but it would be the cheapest way 
of saving thousands of school-children of tender 
age from the disturbing influence of 'quack' 
teachers. And a table of statistics kept for a 
few years would give an average annual number 
of vacancies that would be sufficiently accurate 
for all practical purposes. Even at some expense 
and trouble, this evil of foisting unfit and un- 
trained teachers upon the schools should be speed- 
ily done away with. 



In ma annual rbfort to the New York state 
legislature, Superintendent Draper states that be- 
tween three and four thousand public-school 
teachers drop out every year, and that the large 
majority of the vacancies thus created are filled 



One chaffer in Professor Payne's 'Contribu- 
tions to the science of education,' which we no- 
tice in another column; has excited a great deal 
of angry criticism in some of the school- journals. 
That chapter is the one in which Professor Payne 
pays his compliments to the maxim, 'Proceed 
from the known to the unknown,' and denomi- 
nates it a piece of educational cant which is ac- 
cepted because it saves the trouble of thinking. 
Some of Professor Payne's critics have been firm 
but mild, while others have worked themselves 
into a great state of excitement, and have saluted 
his chapter as a voice from mediaeval darkness, 
and classed him as a pedagogical and psychologi- 
cal ignoramus. We are disposed to think that 
Professor Payne is partially right, but, on the 
whole, wrong. His contention that deflnitude is 
a late and not an early step in the elaboration of 
knowledge is well founded, but it does not logi- 
cally follow that on that account progress is from 
the unknown to the known. If it were so, we 
should have no starting-point. The process of ac- 
quiring knowledge would be the addition of an 
indefinite number of zeros. Instruction must 
arouse some answering chord in the pupil's mind, 
and, so far at least, the subject of the instruction 
must be known, and not unknown. But that this 
fact will not bear all the interpretations so often 
put upon it, is also true. In any event, Professor 



48 



SCIENCE. 



(Vol. lX. f No. 207 



Payne need not be personally denounced for hold- 
ing an opinion at variance with that of some other 
educators. 



Messrs. Gurnet and Myers have replied, in 
the January issue of the Journal of the Society 
for psychical research, to the criticisms made 
upon the literary committee, of which they are 
the executive officers, by certain members of the 
society. These criticisms were based upon the 
fact that the literary committee had not officially 
examined certain evidence for the so-called * phys- 
ical phenomena* of spiritualism. In reply, the 
secretaries state that they had to begin some- 
where, and that two good reasons existed for 
selecting, as the first subject for consideration, the 
phenomena known as cases of ' spontaneous telep- 
athy,' the discussion of which is so large a part 
of their lately published book, ' Phantasms of the 
living.' The first reason was that these phenomena 
seemed to connect themselves in a natural way 
with the results of experimental thought-trans- 
ferrence, the investigation of which had been 
undertaken even before the formation of the so- 
ciety. The second reason was that a very large 
proportion of the answers received by the com- 
mittee in response to their public appeal for evi- 
dence of psychical phenomena dealt with cases of 
spontaneous telepathy. So, that this subject 
should come first in the work of the committee 
was perfectly natural. 



The secretaries further urge that it is not to be 
forgotten that the evidence in the cases of ' physi- 
cal phenomena' of spiritualism is distinguished 
from the evidence in the case of spontaneous 
telepathy, automatic writing, mesmerism, and so 
forth, by some radical differences. In the first 
place, the alleged phenomena have been, for the 
most part, observed in the presence of professional 
mediums, persons having a pecuniary interest in 
their production. The evidence has no longer to 
do with the validity of perceptions, but with the 
validity of inferences, with the correctness of the 
interpretation of subjective impressions. Fur- 
thermore, this evidence differs in form from that 
in the other topics dealt with by the committee. 
It does not consist of records sent in manuscript 
to the committee, and previously known but to a 
few persons ; but most of it has already been 
published in periodicals and in books. Much of 
the evidence, too, is offered by persons of no 
training in the kind of observation required, and 



of no special aptitude in the arrangement of testa. 
On all of these grounds the literary committee 
feels that the sifting and criticism of this evi- 
dence is a task beyond their normal functions, 
and state that a special committee is forming to 
which all such evidence is to be referred for in- 
vestigation and report. 



We are thoroughly pleased to learn, that, 
at the recent meeting of the Massachusetts state 
teachers' association, the peddling of text-books 
and school-journals was prohibited. The am- 
bitious agents of school publishers and journalists 
have infested state and county association meet- 
ings so often in the past, that they thought them- 
selves perfectly secure in the enjoyment of their 
privileges. But some firm hand has put a stop to 
the practice in Massachusetts, and we trust the 
example will be generally followed. Legitimate 
advertising is commendable, and an agent is to be 
praised rather than blamed for his assiduity. But 
the publishers of text-books and school-journals 
have carried the thing so far that they interfere 
largely with the regular work of a teachers' asso- 
ciation meeting. It is not the use of the privilege, 
but its abuse, that we decry ; and we want to see 
plenty of imitators of the independent stand 
taken in Massachusetts. 



THE AIMS OF GEOGRAPHICAL ED V CATION. 

Mention all the names of places In the world derived 
from Julias Caesar or Augustus Caesar. 

Where are the following rivers: Plsuerga, Sakarla, 
Guadalete, Jaion, Mulde 7 

All you know of the following: Machaeha, PUmo, 
Schebulos, Crivoscla, Baseos, Mancikert, Taxhen, Ctteaux, 
Meloria, Zutphen. 

The highest peaks of the Karakorum range. 

The number of universities In Prussia. 

Why are the tops of mountains continually covered with 
snow (tic) T 

Name the length and breadth of the streams of lava 
which issued from the Skaptar Jokul in the eruption of 
1788. 

The above table, taken from Professor Raven- 
stein's lecture before the Royal geographical 
society, 1 is very probably a combination of the 
more atrocious questions on several examination- 
papers. It none the less will serve as a text for 
our paper; and this because it fairly represents 
the ideas of certain so-called 'teachers of geog- 
raphy ' as to the limits of the science they were 
attempting to teach. To them geography simply 
meant the cramming into a child's mind so many 
isolated facts, so many heights of .mountains, bo 
many lengths of rivers, so manv names of places, 

1 Royal geographical society y report of the proceeding* of 
the society in reference to the improvement of geographical 
education. London, Murray, 1886. 



Jaitoart 81, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



49 



most of them of no possible importance to the 
student. Indeed, so far and wide has this erro- 
neous idea of geography spread, that there are 
books actually made for the purpose of teaching 
this sort of thing. For instance : there is a com- 
piler who has been known to assert, and to assert 
with pride, that, by the use of his book, one might 
learn the names of seventeen thousand places in 
the course of a few years. Just as though there 
were any object in one's turning one's self into a 
walking gazetteer, when gazetteers in plenty 
could be found on the shelves of a neighboring 
library ! In fact, one is irresistibly reminded of 
the paragraph in the introduction to Mrs. Green's 
'Short geography of the British Islands,' the in- 
troduction being the work of the brilliant writer, 
though inaccurate historian, the lamented J. R. 
Green. He says : — 

" No drearier task can be set for the worst of 
criminals than that of studying a set of geograph- 
ical text-books, such as the children in our schools 
are doomed to do. Pages of ' tables,' — ' tables ' 
of heights and 'tables' of areas, 'tables' of 
mountains and ' tables ' of tablelands, ' tables ' of 
numerals, which look like arithmetical problems, 
but are really statements of population, — these, 
arranged in an alphabetical order or disorder, form 
the only breaks in the chaotic mass of what are 
amusingly styled ' geographical facts,' but which 
turn out to be simply names, — names of rivers 
and names of hills, names of countries and names 
of towns, — a mass rarely brought into grammati- 
cal shape by the needful verbs and substantives, 
and dotted over with isolated phrases about 
mining here and cotton-spinning there, which 
pass for industrial geography. Books such as 
these, if books they must be called, are simply 
appeals to the memory: they are handbooks of 
mnemonics, but they are in no sense handbooks 
of geography." 

This, of course, applies more particularly to 
British geographical text-books. But, so far as 
the present writer can see, the same remarks are 
applicable to many of our most popular (with the 
teachers) text-books. That this is so, is no reflec- 
tion on the teachers : it is the fault of their early 
education. And for this our college and normal 
school authorities are more especially responsible. 
The evidence that improvement in such respects 
must come from the university downwards seems 
to be irresistible. Nor should the publishers be 
blamed. If they could see the evidence of the 
demand for better school-books, — books that were 
not miniature gazetteers, — they would undoubt- 
edly supply it. I remember only a year ago taking 
a set of the best and most popular school-maps 
made in Germany to a well-known and enterpris- 



ing publisher of text-books. I suggested that per- 
haps some arrangement could be made with the 
German publisher by which the maps could be 
adapted to the use of English-speaking scholars. 
The gentleman very frankly replied that he could 
not sell a set of the maps, even if the names 
were in English. He added, that our people 
wanted maps colored differently ; that is, so as to 
obscure the physical features. A short time after- 
wards the same publisher brought out a set of 
maps of the United States with little angles 
marked on them so that the scholars could draw 
the state lines with accuracy, as though that was 
the end of geographical education. But it was 
not his fault. His business was to supply the de- 
mand, not to get out good maps. 

If the learning of seventeen thousand names ' in 
a few years,' or the ' bounding ' of countless states, 
or the making of maps that will look well on ex- 
hibition, is not the end of geographical teaching, 
what is the use of teaching it at all ? What is the 
aim of geographical education ? 

In the first place, geography, properly studied, 
gives one a clear and accurate knowledge of the 
physical conformation of the earth's surface. This 
is physical geography, and should be studied first. 
But this is not the mere learning of ' tables of 
heights,' etc. It is something entirely different. 
One may have a very good knowledge of the 
formation of the earth, and yet be densely igno- 
rant of the height of the Karakorum range. And, 
as a genera] rule, the less of such stuff crammed 
into a child's head, the more physical geography 
he will know. He should rather be taught to 
observe phenomena. It is true that such knowl- 
edge is hard to get at on examination ; but that is 
not so much the fault of the knowledge as of the 
examination. Then the flora and fauna of each 
region of the earth's surface should be properly 
associated in a child's mind. In this connection, 
it may be said that nothing is less calculated to 
convey this knowledge than the ideal or ' model 
landscapes ' too often to be found in our school- 
rooms. Geography aims also to teach the influ- 
ence of geographic factors upon the development 
of the human race. This influence is frequently 
exaggerated. But the working-out of such prob- 
lems, even on insufficient data, must have a stim- 
ulating effect upon the mind. It may be said that 
the teaching of the distribution of the flora be- 
longs rather to botany. So undoubtedly any de- 
tailed study of the various floras does belong to 
botany. But a knowledge sufficient to enable one 
to assign to any given region its appropriate 
plant-life, and to trace the influence of that floral 
environment on man, is surely within the domain 
of geography. 



50 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX.. No. 207 



As one of the most important aims of the real 
teacher of history is to instruct his pupils in the 
use and making of historical works, so in geog- 
raphy one of the most important things is the 
teaching of the use and construction of maps. 
And it may be said, that to the student of history 
or of geography, to the traveller or military com- 
mander, the ability to read a map is next in im- 
portance to the ability to read a book. And it is 
something not easily acquired. It may be said 
that there can be no difficulty in distinguishing a 
river from a mountain. And very likely there is 
none; but such knowledge is no more map-reading 
than the distinguishing a from x is book-reading. 
Nor is map-making cartography. To some minds 
the two seem inseparable ; and the student is re- 
quired to draw a map with the nicety of a prac- 
tised cartographer, under the pretence that he is 
learning geography. He is doing nothing of the 
kind. The ability to go out of doors and make a 
good working sketch of the surroundings of one's 
own school-house is of more value, geographi- 
cally speaking, than the ability to construct, from 
sketches and details of survey, a map of Cape 
Cod with all the accuracy of a Swiss cartographer. 
No one confounds the art of writing and that of 
printing. Then why should he confound the de- 
scribing geographical features with geographical 
symbols and reproducing the same with the great- 
est accuracy for permanent use ? Geography is 
not cartography, nor is it topography, although 
both these elements combine in geography. Prop- 
erly taught, map-drawing is the best guide to 
map-reading. 

To sum up the aims of geographical education, 
or perhaps I should say its only aim, is to make 
men understand what is going on around them, — 
to converse intelligently upon the present crisis 
in Bulgaria, or the economic changes which will 
be wrought by the Panama canal, if it is ever 
opened ; to travel abroad with some degree of 
satisfaction to one's self, and to one's readers if one 
writes a book ; to read with interest and apprecia- 
tion articles on campaigns, like those now appear- 
ing in the Century. For what information can a 
map, accurately drawn with contour-lines or 
hachures, convey to a man who does not know 
what those symbols mean? And, finally, the stu- 
dent of modern history who is not familiar with the 
geographical features of western Europe can gain 
only a very dim idea of what the everlasting 
changes of boundary really mean. The marked 
difference between the books now being produced 
by French, English, and American travellers, on 
the one hand, and German explorers, on the other, 
is too great to escape attention. That difference 
is due entirely to the fact that in school and uni- 



versity the German is taught, in the first place, to 
see, and, in the second place, to understand what 
he does see. This power (for such knowledge is 
power) is fast pushing the German to the foremost 
place in war, in commerce, and in exploration. If 
he could also be taught to relate in clear and simple 
language what he thus has learned, it would be a 
positive gain to mankind. 

EDWARD GHAKNINa. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR P8YCHICAL 

RESEARCH. 

The society held its annual meeting at the 
rooms of the Boston society of natural history on 
Jan. 11. The auditorium was crowded, it having 
been announced that there would be shown some 
'apparent though t-transferrence ' and some 
muscle-reading. 

The t hough t-transferrence was performed by 
Dr. Minot, with the assistance of Mr. C. B. Cory, 
and was designed to show the character of the 
dangers arising from fraud introduced into ex- 
periments on mind-reading, similar to some of 
the experiments made by the committees of the 
English society for psychical research. The audi- 
ence were at first not informed of the ultimate 
purpose of the experiments, and were for the 
most part entirely deceived, although many were 
suspicious. Several persons took a card, and, 
having fastened their attention upon the card, 
they approached Dr. Minot, who proceeded to 
draw it upon the blackboard without having seen 
the card. There were two failures, one of which 
was partial only, and two successes. Later in the 
evening Dr. Minot explained that the experiments 
were fraudulent, and had depended upon Mr. 
Cory's skill in card-forcing, so that the persons 
had not really chosen their cards, but had taken 
them from Mr. Cory. It had been arranged in 
what order the cards should be given, so that 
every one was known to the mind-reader, and bis 
failure-drawings were intentional blinds. The 
signals used to indicate what person was coming 
were also described. Dr. Minot then added a few 
words, which made clear the lesson intended ; 
namely, that in many of the English experiments, 
which offer the only evidence worth heeding, of 
thought- trans ferrence, there existed evident op- 
portunities for fraud, and that therefore the experi- 
ments in question are inconclusive. He expressed 
his unwillingness to believe in thought-transfer- 
rence in consequence of the evidence yet pre- 
sented, and his hope that the amusing demonstra- 
tion made by Mr. Cory and himself would serve 
the serious and grateful purpose of emphasizing 
the dangers of credulity in these matters. 



Jahuart 21, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



51 



Entirely straightforward were the very admir- 
able performances in muscle-reading by Mr. 
Charles EL Montague, a gentleman who, in the 
course of a few weeks' practice, has acquired an 
extreme skill. He first repeated a mock murder, 
similar to the repetition recently achieved by 
Bishop and noticed in our columns (Science, viii. 
p. 506). He then accomplished another feat, that 
of reconstituting a tableau, which had been ar- 
ranged by Prof. W. T. Sedgwick while Mr. Mon- 
tague was out of the room. When he returned, 
he took hold of Professor Sedgwick's hand, and 
quickly found the persons and objects, and placed 
them in the proper positions quite exactly. All 
of this was done by muscle-reading ; and, in reply 
to a question from one of the audience, Mr. Mon- 
tague said that mind-reading had nothing to do 
with his obtaining the requisite information from 
the subject. 

The various committees made brief reports of 
progress, that of the committee on apparitions 
being the most interesting, several remarkable 
cases being read by Professor Royce, who closed 
his suggestive remarks by stating that the com- 
mittee was desirous of accumulating a much more 
extensive material. 

The chairman, Dr. Bowditcb, called attention 
to the fact that the society, in order to employ a 
qualified secretary and meet the expenses of its 
work, requires at least two thousand dollars, about 
half of which has already been raised. Under 
these circumstances, the council had regarded it 
as safe to engage the service of Mr. Hodgson, 
who had agreed to come. Mr. Hodgson is well 
known by his thorough exposure of the Indian 
theosophical society and the frauds of Madame 
Blavatsky. The society has hitherto been at a 
disadvantage, because its leading members have 
been so pressed by professional duties that they 
have been able to give very little time to tbe 
active work of the committees. But, if the funds 
which the society asks for are secured, it will be 
enabled to prosecute its various researches into 
psychic phenomena with activity as well as zeal. 

An appeal to all those interested in the objects 
of tbe society to help contribute to the balance of 
the required sum has been issued by the council, 
Henry P. Bowditch, Charles B. Cory, George S. 
Fullerton, Edward G. Gardiner, E. H. Hall, G. 
8tanley Hall, Charles C. Jackson, Joseph Jastrow, 
William James, Charles S. Minot, Simon New- 
comb, E. C. Pickering, W. H. Pickering, James 
M. Peirce, Josiah Royce, Minot J. Savage, Samuel 
H. Scudder, Coleman Sellers, R. Pearsall Smith, 
William Watson. Subscriptions should be sent to 
C. C. Jackson, 24 Congress Street, Boston. 
We trust that the society will expand its scope, 



and turn to the solution of some of those problems 
of psychology which press on every side for solu- 
tion. We are therefore glad to learn that a com- 
mittee on experimental psychology haB been 
appointed. 



GOVERNMENT SCIENTIFIC WORK. 

The work upon the report of the Charleston 
earthquake, to be made by Captain Dutton of the 
17. S. geological survey, is progressing rapidly. 
The data collected are very voluminous, and of a 
character which is quite as satisfactory as could 
reasonably be expected. The number of separate 
reports, amounting to about twenty-five hundred, 
have been card-catalogued, and the plotting for 
isoseismals has begun. The data are less satis- 
factory than could be wished, although a few re- 
ports of the time of the passage of the earth- 
quake shock in various parts of the country will 
be sufficiently accurate to determine the velocity 
of propagation of the earth-wave, and with a 
much smaller probability of error than in any 
other earthquakes previously reported. The final 
computations have not as yet been made, but 
sufficient is known to indicate with certainty a 
velocity somewhat in excess of three miles per 
second. The data relating to the epi central locali- 
ties and their immediate neighborhood are quite 
full, and it is expected they will prove instructive 
and suggestive. Captain Dutton is reluctant to 
speak very decisively about the final results, be- 
lieving that any very specific statements would, 
for the present, be premature. 

Prof. Raphael Pumpelly, chief of the division of 
archean geology, who has been on the temporary 
roll of the U. S. geological survey, has been 
placed on the permanent roll, in consequence of 
the resignation of Mr. F. V. Hayden. 

Tbe question of successorsbip to General Ha- 
zen is being discussed. Captain Greely is most 
likely to succeed to the position of chief signal 
officer. He will at least remain at the head of 
tbe service temporarily, until arrangements are 
perfected for separating the weather-bureau from 
military control, and establishing it permanently 
under a civil branch of the government. General 
Hazen was quite opposed to any such transfer, 
but changed his mind about six months ago. This 
leaves the matter now open ; and, as no officer of 
high rank would be affected by the change, it will 
probably be made. None of the officers of the 
service would offer any opposition to the move- 
ment. 

Another important step has been taken in the 
permanent exposition project in Washington, the 
select committee of the senate having reported in 



52 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 207 



favor of commemorating the centennial of the 
constitution at Washington in 1889. The com- 
mittee has not reported upon the manner of the 
proposed celebration, and also in regard to the 
quadri-centennial of 1802 ; but the action now 
taken furnishes sufficient assurance that the entire 
programme as contemplated by the board of pro- 
motion, and including its exposition features, will 
receive the indorsement of congress. 

The department of agriculture estimates of area, 
product, and value, of corn, wheat, and oats for 
permanent record, are completed. The corn-crop, 
in round numbers, aggregates 1,665,000,000 bush- 
els, grown on 75,000,000 acres of land, and has a 
farm value of $610,000,000. The yield is 22 
bushels to the acre, or 4£ bushels less than last 
year. There is an increase of area of over 8 per 
cent, and a decrease in product of 14 per cent ; 
while the average price has increased 12 per cent, 
or from 82.8 to 86.6 cents per bushel. The aggre- 
gate product of wheat is 457,000,000 bushels from 
an area of nearly 87,000,000 acres, having a farm 
value of $814,000,000. The average value is 68.7 
cents per bushel, against 77.1 for the previous 
crop, and 64.5 cents for the great crop of 1884. 
This is 85 per cent reduction from the average 
value between 1870 and 1880. The product of 
oats is 624,000,000 bushels, 5,000,000 less than last 
year, from an average of over 28,000,000 acres, 
producing a value of $186,000,000. The average 
yield is 26.4 bushels against 27.6 last year. The 
average value is 29.8 cents per bushel ; last year, 
28.5 cents. 

An effort is being made in Washington to secure 
the hall of the house of representatives for the 
opening session of the ninth triennial meeting of 
the International medical congress on the 5th of 
next September, About two thousand delegates 
are expected, including some three hundred from 
Europe. After the opening meeting the congress 
will be divided into seventeen sections, meeting in 
the different balls of the city. 

An invitation has been received at the depart- 
ment of state, asking the government to appoint 
a delegate or delegates to the Fourth international 
prison congress, to meet at St. Petersburg in the 
year 1890. The President transmitted a message 
to congress on this subject last week, favoring the 
appointment of delegates, and they will probably 
soon be named. 

The following bulletins of the U. S. geological 
survey are now in the hands of the printer: 
'Physical properties of iron carburets,' Barus 
and Strouhal ; ' Subsidence of small particles of 
insoluble solids in liquid,' Barus ; * Types of Lara- 
mie flora,' L. F. Ward ; ' Peridotite of Elliott 
county, Ky.,' J. S. Diller; 'The upper benches 



and deltas of the glacial Lake Agassiz,' Warren 
Upham ; ' Fossil faunas upper Devonian Genesee 
section,' H. S. Williams ; * Report of work done 
in chemical division U. S. geological survey dur- 
ing fiscal year 1885-86,' F. W. Clarke ; « On the 
tertiary and cretaceous strata of the Tuscaloosa, 
Totnbigbee, and Alabama rivers,' E. A. Smith 
and L. C. Johnson ; * Historical sketches of gen- 
eral work in Texas,' R. C. Hill ; < Nature and ori- 
gin of phosphates of lime,'R. A. F. Penrose, jun.; 
'Bibliography of American Crustacea,' A. W. 
Vogdes. 

NOTES AND NEWS. 

The literature of spiritualism has recently been 
increased by an historical sketch of the subject by 
Dr. Paul Oibier (' Le spiritisme,' etc., Paris, 1887). 
The author is not a spiritualist, and takes great 
pains to state his disbelief in the supernatural 
in big letters. As a further guaranty of the 
scientific spirit which prompts his inquiry, he 
appends a list of his contributions to medical 
science. For the most part, Dr. Gibier con- 
tents himself with the rdle of historian. He 
gives a rapid sketch of the spiritual theories from 
the ancient Hindoos down to the researches of 
Crookes and Zollner. His account of the mod- 
ern developments in this strange field is quite 
convenient and readable. An outsider would 
hardly credit the statement that in Paris (by no 
means a stronghold of spiritualism) there are not 
less than 100,000 spiritualists. The statistics 
of the periodical literature of spiritualism is also 
astonishing : 18 such periodicals are in French, 
27 in English, 86 in Spanish, 5 in German, 
8 in Portuguese, 1 in Russian, 2 in Italian. Be- 
sides, a 'Franco-Spanish journal is published at 
Buenos Ay res, and a Franco-Dutch at Ostend. 
While the main portion of the work is histori- 
cal, a few chapters are devoted to the account 
of seances mainly with the famous slate- 
writing medium, Slade. These have convinced 
the author that there are genuine facts in these 
phenomena which spiritualistic hypothesis, as well 
as current scientific knowledge, is unable to ex- 
plain. More research is necessary before the final 
verdict can be given, and it is cowardly for science 
to refuse to study all such facts, and seek their 
explanation. 

— The Indiana state teachers' association began 
its annual meeting in Indianapolis Dec. 28, extend- 
ing its sessions through the two succeeding days. 
The high school section, and country and village 
school section, held the sessions on the 28th, and on 
the other days the association held meetings as a 
whole. A number of papers were presented in 



Jaitoaky 21, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



53 



general session, each supposed to be applicable to 
the needs of the common schools of Indiana. The 
following papers were read before the high school 
section : * Mathematics as a factor in mind-develop- 
ment,' by J. A. Camagey ; * Limitations in peda- 
gogical psychology,' by J. R. Hart ; ' Psychology 
in its relation to English literature,' by A. M. 
Huycke ; ' Some observations on teaching Latin 
in the high school,' by George W. Hafford ; and 
'Zoology in the high school,' by Prof. O. P. 
Jenkins. 

— The Medical news contains an interesting 
statement of the books, pamphlets, etc., in the 
principal medical libraries of the country. It i9 
as follows : — 



Library of surgeou-general's office 

Library of College of physicians of Phils* . . 
Library of New York academy of medicine. 

Boston medical library 

Library of the New York hospital 

Library of the Pennsylvania hospital 



Vol- 
umes. 

76,700 
84,294 
30,000 
16,374 
15,860 
15,000 



Pam- 
phlets. 



106,600 
16,026 
12,000 
18,364 



— The Bell and Lancaster systems of education, 
or at least so much of them as relates to the 
employment of monitors or pupil teachers, have 
been considered dead. But the London Journal 
of education announces that the Bradford (Eng- 
land) school board has adopted a plan according to 
which pupil teachers are retained, but on the half- 
time system, and they are placed during the second 
half of the time in a central class for instruction 
under skilled teachers. If pupil teachers are to 
be retained at all. some such basis as this is the 

only one on which it should be done. 
• 

— Prof. John W. Burgess of Columbia college 
is to deliver a course of ten lectures at Andover 
theological seminary during the spring, on ' The 
influence of the church in modern European 
history.' 

— Afrikanische nachrichten is the title of a new 
monthly, which is published at the press of the 
geographical institute in Weimar. It is devoted 
to the extension of information concerning Africa, 
and will pay especial attention to German inter- 
ests in that continent. 

— The emigration at the German seaports and 
Antwerp amounted, during the first six months of 
1886, to 39,477 persons. For the same period in 
1881 it was 126,189 ; in 1882, 117,801 ; in 1883, 
94,145 ; in 1884, 90,801 ; in 1885, 68,345. 

— An excellent idea may be obtained of what 
subjects are of greatest contemporary interest to 
the leading universities abroad by an inspection of 
the list of lecture-subjects announced. For the 



Hilary term at Oxford, for example, the follow- 
ing are some of the courses announced by the 
leading professors : Professor Bryce announces a 
course on some leading principles and maxims of 
Roman law, with illustrations from the Digest ; 
Professor Dicey, on the law of contract, and on 
succession to real and personal property ; Profes- 
sor Burdon-Sanderson, on the physiology of the 
nervous system ; Professor Sylvester, on surfaces 
of the second order ; Professor Jowett, on the his- 
tory of Greek philosophy from Thales to Socrates ; 
Professor Nettleship, on the history of Latin lit- 
erature from the earliest times to the end of 
the second century B.C. ; Professor Wallace, 
on moral psychology, and on the relations of 
ethics and aesthetics in German philosophy from 
Kant to Schopenhauer ; Professor Fowler, on the 
Aristotelian logic, on the methods of the various 
sciences, and on the principles of legal and histori- 
cal evidence ; Prof. Bonamy Price, on free trade 
and fair trade ; Professor Palgrave, on the sculp- 
turesque and pictorial styles in ancient and 
modern poetry. 

— Mr. Bardeen of Syracuse announces for sale 
an uncut copy of the * Orbis pictus ' of Comenius. 
Only one other copy is known to be in America. 

— Prof. Max Muller is to lecture at Oxford 
during the present term on the Vedas. 

— We learn from the Athenaeum that Professor 
Bain is about to publish a new and enlarged edi- 
tion of his ' Rhetoric and composition/ In this 
edition the author proposes to omit a number of 
the topics comprised in the existing work, and to 
bestow a greatly expanded treatment upon points 
selected on account of their importance as well 
as their suitability to pupils of a certain standing. 
In part i. the subjects are, order of words, num- 
ber of words, the sentence, the paragraph, figures 
of speech, and intellectual qualities of style. 
The second part, which will speedily follow, is 
exclusively devoted to the emotional qualities of 
style, and is meant to be an introduction to the 
higher criticism of poetical literature. The first 
part will be accompanied by a small volume en- 
titled ' On teaching English,' which is partly con- 
troversial and partly didactic. It discusses the 
various methods of English teaching at present 
in use, and exemplifies the rhetorical method in 
a series of select lessons. It also handles at some 
length the vexed question of the definition of 
poetry. 

— Captain Gore of the royal engineers is to 
construct the new map of Afghanistan from the 
surveys, reconnaissances, and explorations made 
by the Afghan boundary commission. 



54 



SCIENCE. 



LVol. IX., No. 207 



— The healing-springs of Bosnia and Herzego- 
vina seem destined to occupy a prominent place 
among the health-resorts of the world. Professor 
Lad wig of Vienna, in the course of an official 
journey recently, discovered over fifty medicinal 
springs. The best are those at Banjaluka, 
Serajewo, and Dolnja-Tuzla. 

— According to the newest and best maps of 
New Guinea, that region, including the small 
island lying near its coast, has an area of not less 
than 795,228 square kilometres. Of this territory, 
890,660 square kilometres are under Dutch protec- 
tion, 226,468 under English, and 179,200 under 
German. 

— During the holidays a meeting was held at 
University college, Toronto, to organize a modern- 
language association for the Province of Ontario. 

— Modern-language notes announces that Pro- 
fessor Crane of Cornell university is preparing an 
extensive work on the great mediaeval collections 
of Latin stories, their sources and imitations in 
the modern languages. A large part of the 
material has been taken from unedited manu- 
scripts in the British museum and National library 
at Paris, or from early printed books. Among 
the former class are the exempla or illustrative 
stories contained in the sermons of Jacques de 
Vitry, bishop of Acre and the historian of the 
Crusades. Although these stories are of the 
greatest value for the question of the diffusion of 
popular tales, they have never before been edited. 
Professor Crane's work, which is entitled * Mediae- 
val story-books and stories/ will cover the entire 
range of mediaeval Latin fiction, including conies 
devots, fables, apologues, historical anecdotes, 
jestf, etc.. and will be valuable not only to the 
student of comparative literature and folk-lore, 
but also to those interested in mediaeval culture 
and history. 

— In order to aid the law-students in the study 
of the year-books and other legal documents in 
Norman French, the trustees of Columbia college 
have provided a lecturer on Norman French for 
the law-school. 

— The December issue of the Johns Hopkins 
university circulars contains the report of Prof. 
W. K. Brooks on the Zoological work of the 
university since 1878, and also a series of papers 
on the work of the marine laboratory during the 
past summer. 

— From time to time the English papers pub- 
lish reports as to the health of Mr. Herbert Spencer. 
It is now said to be improving. 

— The Athenaeum announces that the second 
volume of Professor Pfleiderer's * Philosophy of 



religion,' now in the press, will include not only 
many corrections and additions by the author, but 
also some new matter on the English philosophers 
of the present day. 

—The present series of free public lectures at 
Columbia college, which it is hoped will become 
a permanent institution, was opened on Saturday, 
Jan. 8, by William Henry Bishop, who spoke on 
•Characters and dialect in fiction.' Last Satur- 
dav Mr. E. A. Nadal lectured on ' Recollections 

m 

of the south.' Tickets for these lectures are 
issued because of the limited capacity of the lec- 
ture-hall, but they may be obtained free of charge 
by addressing the registrar, Columbia college. 

— Those who have followed the Irish question 
in British politics, and who have read Mr. Glad- 
stone's * History of an idea,' will be interested in 
the presentation of the opposite view by Lord 
Brabourne. This was first printed in Blackwood's 
magazine, but is now issued separately. 

— In the January number of the Andover re- 
view, Prof. George H. Palmer of Harvard defends 
his view of the elective system against its critics, 
and closes the discussion on that subject which 
has been going on in the columns of the review 
for a year past. 

— 1,800,000 francs have been subscribed to 
establish the Pasteur institute in Paris. Some 
of the largest contributions have been received 
from English brewers, as a token of their ap- 
preciation of Pasteur's work in connection with 
fermentation. 

— The New York cremation society, which 
has its crematorium at Fresh Pond, Leng Island, 
has incinerated eighty-four bodies during the 
past year. 

— M. Peyraud considers one of the best means 
of determining the death of an individual to be 
cauterization by Vienna paste. If the eschar 
forms slowly, and is of a yellow color or transpar- 
ent, death may be positively delared, while, if it 
is red, brown, or black, life still exists. 

— The following officers were elected at the an- 
nual meeting of the Appalachian mountain club 
in Boston, Jan. 12 : president, Prof. Alpheus Hy- 
att of Cambridge ; vice-president, Robert C. Pit- 
man of Newton ; recording secretary, Rosewell B. 
Lawrence; treasurer, Gardner M. Jones. Com- 
mittees : on natural history, George Dimmock of 
Cambridge ; on topography, Prof. E. E. Burton ; 
on art, Charles W. Sanderson; on explorations, 
Frank O. Carpenter ; on improvements, Isaac T. 
Chubbuck. Trustees, Professor William H. Niles 
of Cambridge, Augustus E. Scott of Lexington, 



January 21, ltfb7.] 



SCIENCE. 



55 



Charles W. Kennard. It was also voted that the 
admission-fee be hereafter five dollars. 

— Since our last issue two men have died who 
have been prominently connected with the science 
of America. The one was Gen. W. B. Hazen, the 
head of the U.S. signal service, and the other 
Prof. E. L. Youmans, to whom Americans owe a 
debt for his successful labors in rendering avail- 
able to them much of the best scientific thought 
of the time. 

— As is usual, the Athenaeum prints in its first 
January number a series of essays on the conti- 
nental literature for the past year. The article on 
French literature is by Gabriel Sarrazin, and con- 
tains incidentally a savage denunciation of M. 
Zola. The article on Germany, from the pen of 
Hofrath Zimmermann, is as interesting as usual. 
Arminras Vambery writes of Hungarian litera- 
ture, and R. Bonghi of that of Italy. 

— The Woman's jourfial has been emphasizing 
the well-known fact that female teachers greatly 
preponderate in this country. To so great an ex- 
tent is this true, that, in respect of elementary 
schools, those cities are the exceptions in which 
male teachers are employed, save as principals, or 
teachers of some special branch, say, German, 
lairing the ten cities of Baltimore, Boston, Brook- 
lyn, Chicago. Cincinnati, New Orleans, New York, 
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and St. Louis to- 
gether, there are 12,719 public-school teachers, of 
whom 11,540 are women. The average percentage 
of male teachers in these cities is 9. 

— The entrance of Sir Henry Roscoe upon a 
political career necessitates the giVing-up of his 
chair at Owens college, Manchester. Mr. H. B. 
Dixon of Trinity college, Oxford, has been called 
to succeed him. 

— The Educational times says that " the friends 
of education have much reason for rejoicing in 
the fact that a large number of the memorials 
which are to render her majesty's jubilee memor- 
able will take an educational form. Technical 
schools, colleges, and endowments of professor- 
ships will be, in many cases, the visible signs by 
which contemporary English loyalty will be evi- 
denced to unborn generations." 

—According to the Journal of education, the 
modern Greeks are, in one respect at least, aiming 
as high as the ancient Greeks : they are begin- 
ning to conquer the world — the world, at any rate, 
of the east — by culture. A correspondent of the 
Journal dee dtbats gives some account, in this con- 
nection, of the great advance which higher educa- 
tion in Greece has made of recent years. There 



are 88 gymnasia in the kingdom, 200 secondary 
schools, and 1,717 primary schools. These are ail 
public. Among the private educational establish- 
ments, the first place must be given to the Society 
for the higher education of women, in connection 
with which a lycee for girls was established a few 
years ago, with a staff of 76 teachers and 1,476 
pupils. Greeks send their girls there from all 
parts of the east. Education is very liberally en- 
dowed in Greece; and the sums which Greeks 
settled in foreign countries send home for this 
purpose are very large. One result, of course, is 
that the Greeks are almost entirely in possession 
of the learned professions in Turkey. Illiteracy, 
too, is rare in the kingdom : in the most out-of- 
the-way hill countries you will see little scholars 
reading their Plutarch's ' Lives.' 

— The Standard typograph company, whose 
typograph was described and illustrated in Science 
for Sept. 17, 1886, have published a little pamphlet 
calling attention to recent improvements in their 
machine. By the use of ' slugs/ or strips of metal, 
instead of a single sheet, the lines of type-impres- 
sions may be spaced or ' leaded ' any desirable dis- 
tance apart, in the same manner as ordinary type. 
The use of what is known as 'self -spacing' type, 
that is, type whose width of face is a certain de- 
terminate multiple of an established unit, removes 
some, though not all, of the difficulty in ' justify- 
ing' or spacing uniformly between the words. 
These two points are decided improvements ; but 
the specimens of work given in the pamphlet show 
that many of the defects and imperfections pre- 
viously mentioned in Science still remain. 

— In lecturing before the Society of natural 
history at Berlin, Professor Strieker has employed 
with much success an electric lamp of 4,000 can- 
dle-power for the projection of microscopic sec- 
tions upon a screen, employing a magnifying 
power of six to eight thousand diameters. It is 
stated that the definition obtained is very satis- 
factory. 

— In a letter to a London newspaper, Sir 
Edward Watkins advocates a system of experi- 
mental boring, by the British government, with 
a view to discovering natural gas in England. 
The many advantages derived from the use of 
such gas at Pittsburg and elsewhere in Pennsyl- 
vania are stated as incentives to the undertaking 
of such work by the government. 

— A new type of submarine torpedo-boat is be- 
ing experimented with at the West India docks, 
London, England. The peculiar feature of the 
boat is the means adopted to secure immersion or 
flotation, which consists in increasing or reducing 



56 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 207 



her displacement by projecting or withdrawing 
telescopic chambers in her sides, instead of pump- 
ing water into or out of ballast tanks, the method 
usually followed in similar boats. The boat is 
spindle-shaped, 60 feet long and 8 feet in diameter 
amidships, built of {-inch steel, and is propelled 
by an electric motor of 46 horse-power, current 
being furnished by storage batteries. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

U'Corretpondentt are requested to be at brief a* possible. The 
writer'* name tain all case* required at proof of good faith. 

Popular science. 

It is often very popular indeed. Here is an article 
on the voices of animals by Detler yon Geyern (who- 
ever he is), from Ueber Land und Meer, translated for 
the Popular science monthly, January, 1887, written in 
the good old traditional vein, quoting what anybody 
has said on the subject in a wonder-mongering way, 
as if every thing said and written must be true. 
And Herr von Geyern himself says, " Fish can pro- 
duce no sound in water, because air is lacking 
as a medium to propagate the waves of sound; 
and yet we incline to the belief that water itself may 
admit of forming some* kind of sound-waves which 
the fish may be capable of exciting, and which will be 
experienced and comprehended by other fish ;" and 
he adds, " As far as we are concerned, of course, fish 
will remain mute," etc. — as if between fifty and a 
hundred species of fish are not known to make 
sounds, many of which have been described and ex- 
plained by naturalists ; and as if water and every 
other elastic medium were not well known as propa- 
gators of sound, often better than air, — a fact familiar 
to boys, who hold their heads under water, while 
bathing, to hear the loud sound made by the striking- 
together of two stones under water in the hands of a 
companion at a little distance. H. W. P. 

Grinnell, Io., Jan. 14 



The natural method of language-teaching. 

I read with much pleasure the recent article of 
Professor Carpenter on the natural method of teach- 
ing languages. Such articles are in the direct inter- 
est of truth, and therefore of science ; for the more 
the claims and achievements of the teachers of these 
methods are scrutinized, the more evident their 
weakness becomes. Every intelligent teacher knows 
that there is little if any thing really new in any of 
these methods, and every good teacher of languages 
has employed several, if not all, of their varieties and 
sub-varieties, each of which is superior to the others 
in the opinion of their self-styled inventors. We are 
safe in assuming that the natural method of learning 
a foreign language is at least as old as the time of 
Gain, for it is both probable that he learned the 
language of the people of Nod, and that he used 
neither grammar nor dictionary. 

I believe, that, in the main, great improvements 
have been made recently in the teaching of lan- 
guages, but not greater than, or even so great as, in 
the natural and physical sciences, as they are com- 
monly called. For some reason the teachers of the 
last two have either been more modest in proclaim- 



ing their progress, or they have been more generally 
aware that they are only employing methods that the 
best teachers in these departments, as in all others, 
have been using to a greater or less extent ever since 
the birth of science. 

Several years ago I took considerable pains to exam- 
ine, both at first-hand and at second-hand, the claims 
of several of the most widely known teachers of 
natural methods as applied to foreign languages. I 
then made some statements that agree almost verbatim 
with those made by Professor Carpenter. In spite of 
the well-established fact of e very-day experience, 
that the adult is able to retrace but very imperfectly 
the psychological experiences of his early years, we 
are told that all persons, no matter how old, should, 
if desirous of learning a foreign language, proceed 
exactly in the same way that they learned their 
mother-tongue. This is the inductive method run 
riot, while experience and generalization count for 
nothing. To me the best refutation of the claims 
of most teachers of natural methods lies in the fact, 
that, while professing to be able to teach us to 
" read, write, and speak their vernacular correctly in 
an incredibly short time," I have not yet found one 
or heard of one who spoke English more than pass- 
ably, even after years of practice. Shall we say, 
' Physician, heal thyself ' ? or shall we excuse their 
shortcomings for the reason that ' physicians never 
take their own prescriptions • ? Chas. W. Supeb. 
Athens, O., Jan. 16. 



Stereoscopic vision. 

The letters in the last two numbers of Science (ix. 
Nos. 204, 205) in relation to stereoscopic vision lead 
me to ask if any of your readers have ever tried the 
experiment of viewing a stereoscopic picture with the 
naked eye, and, by changing the focal distance, or 
visual angle of the eyes, so adjusting them, while 
looking at the picture, or, more properly, the two 
pictures, that the full stereoscopic effect is produced, 
and all parts of the picture stand out distinct, and in 
as bold relief as when seen through the two glasses. 
The first effect of the ohange of the visual angle, 
from the paper on which the pictures are imprinted 
to a more distant range of vision, is to double the 
number of the pictures, four now coming into view, 
The two inner ones overlap more or less, and slide 
over each other to right and left, as the visual angle 
undergoes alteration, until finally, when the proper 
adjustment is reached, the two pictures coincide in 
all their parts, coalescing, as it were, like two drops 
of water or two globules of quicksilver when they 
meet and run together. And now there are three 
pictures in view, and the eyes may be turned about 
from one point to another, and any part or particu- 
lar object in the picture minutely inspected in any 
one of the three copies. The central picture is the 
most clear and distinct, being held in view by both 
eyes, while the two outer ones are respectively visi- 
ble to only one eye. W. W. Anderson, M.D. 
Stateburg, 8.C., Jan. 18. 



An electric ball of fire. 

In the summer of 1881 it was my good fortune to 
observe some electrical phenomena in the way of 
' globular lightning, 1 which differ, I think, in some 
respects, from any other case on record. It consisted 
of a ball of fire which rolled down an iron water- 



January 31, 1887.) 



SCIENCE. 



57 



pipe, which pipe enters the room at a height of about 
ten feet, and, passing downward/ ends in a faucet over 
a zinc-lined sink, the sink being connected by a pipe 
with the ground. The ball of fire was about an inch 
and a half in diameter, of a semi-transparent bluish 
color, giving a feeble light, which first appeared at 
the top of the pipe, and rolled down it at a nearly 
uniform velocity of six or eight feet per second, and, 
upon reaching the faucet, fell into the sink with a 
report about as loud as the discharge of a gun-cap. 
We at once examined the sink, but found no trace 
of any thing. But, as we stood watching the pipe, the 
same phenomenon was twice repeated, mftViTig three 
discharges in the course of ten minutes. 

This occurring, as it did, five years and a half ago, 
I am unable to give as accurate an account as I 
might wish. There were twelve or fifteen persons in 
the room at the time, some of whom I have since 
seen, and all agree. In regard to the location, it was 
in the Sunset Hill house on Sugar Hill, in the White 
Mountains, about seventeen hundred feet above the 
sea. The pipe which supplies water to the house 
comes from a spring on the mountain-side, and, pass- 
ing up through the wall, leads to a reservoir on the 
roof of the kitchen. 

The pipe on which the globular lightning was seen 
is a branch of this main pipe. On its way to the 
upper story — starting from a height of about ten 
feet, it comes out of the wall, and passes downward 
at an angle of about 30° with the vertical, ending in 
a brass faucet over the sink. The pipe was of 
wrought iron, covered inside and out with a coating 
of coal-tar to prevent rusting. 

The phenomena described occurred during a heavy 
thunder-storm, and, so far as I can learn, nothing of 
the kind had ever happened there before, nor has it 
even been repeated. N. G. Wabdwell. 

Hartford, Jan. 10. 

The genesis of the diamond. 

In an interesting communication under this title, 
Prof. H. Garvill Lewis gives in No. 193 of Science 
an apparently satisfactory theory of the structure and 
origin of the diamond-bearing necks of South Africa 
and of the genesis of the gem in that region. The 
discovery of undecomposed peridotite as the original 
form of the puzzling blue ground confirms the suspi- 
cion long entertained by my friend, Prof. Henri 
Goraix, and myself, that very slight analogies, if any, 
exist between the South African and Brazilian dia- 
mond-fields, in the latter of which we have, as we 
think, traced the diamond to its original matrix. 
Communications on the subject will be found in the 
American journal of science for February and July, 
1882, by myself, and in papers by Professor Goraix 
in the Comptes rendus de Facademie des sciences and 
Bulletin de la SocUte gtologique de France of 1884. 

The main points of these papers may be briefly sum- 
marized as follows. The diamond region about the 
city of Diamantina, in the province of Minas-Geraes 
(the oldest and best-known diamond-field of Brazil), 
consists geologically of very ancient and profoundly 
disturbed metamorphosed strata, which may be di- 
vided into three groups : 1°, wholly crystalline 
rocks, gneiss, mica-schists, etc. ; 2°, less perfectly 
crystalline rocks, unctuous schists, quartzites (itacol- 
umites), iron ores (itabirites), and limestones ; and, 
3°, quartzites. The first two groups form the nucleus 
of the mountainous diamond-bearing region, No. 2 



greatly predominating over No. 1. No. 3, which in 
hand specimens (and often in the field as well) can 
only with difficulty be distinguished from the 
quartzite of group 2, with which it has up to the 
present been very generally confounded, lies in 
undulating folds over the upturned edges of Nob. 
1 and 2, and at times passes to a conglomerate 
including fragments of both the older groups. 
The geological age of these groups is undeter- 
mined, but the newest of them can scarcely be 
younger than the Silurian, and, if not older, belongs 
more probably to the earlier, than to the later part 
of that age. The eruptive rocks thus far recognized 
in the diamond district are granites, diabases, gab- 
bros, and serpentinous rocks, which very probably 
were originally peridotites. It sjiould be remarked, 
however, that the latter are apparently far less 
abundant than in the region farther south in the 
same mountain-range, in which diamonds are only 
found rarely, or, over large areas, not at all. 

The greater part of the diamond-washing, being in 
river-alluviums or in gravel-deposits on the uplands, 
gives no clew as to which of the three groups or of 
the associated eruptions may have furnished the 
gems. A few of the upland gravel-deposits ai$ evi- 
dently decomposed but undisturbed conglomerates 
belonging to group 3. The famous Grao Mogol 
locality described by Helmreichen, Claussen, and 
Heusser and Clary, where diamonds are found em- 
bedded in a hard quartzite with a conglomeritic 
character, belongs also, in my opinion, to this group ; 
the diamond entering, like the other elements, as a 
rolled pebble. Professor Goraix, however, who has 
had the advantage of a personal examination of the lo- 
cality, refers the diamantiferous rock to the quartzites 
of group 2, and admits the possibility of the genesis of 
the gem in situ*, though he does not insist very strongly 
on this point. The difficulty I have often experi- 
enced in distinguishing the quartzites of the two 
groups one from the other, even when they are in 
juxtaposition in the same section (as I believe Profes- 
sor Goraix admits them to be at Grao Mogol), leads 
me to the apparent presumptuousness of maintaining 
my opinion against that of so acute and conscien- 
tious an observer. 

At a single locality, Sao Joao da Chapada, the 
miners have penetrated deeply the decomposed but un- 
disturbed schists of group 2, extracting the diamond 
from a decomposed vein-rock from which Professor 
Goraix took out, with his own hands and with all 
possible precaution against error, several of the pre- 
cious stones, after I had expressed to him the opinion 
that it was the veritable matrix of the diamond. 
Three veins of somewhat different character have 
been recognized. One is of quartz with plates of 
specular iron, to which the diamantiferous barso 
(clay) adheres. This last is an earthy mass rich in 
iron, which gives, on washing, an abundance of 
microscopic tourmaline. This last circumstance, 
with the abundance of iron, suggests a comparison 
with the peculiar auriferous veins of quartz, pyrites, 
and tourmaline of the vicinity of Ouro Preto in 
the same geological horizon, and in very similar 
conditions. The other veins are without quartz, 
and consist of a lithomarge-like clay charged 
with oxides of iron and manganese, which, as 
Professor Goraix states, bear a strong resemblance, 
both in composition and geological occurrence, to 
the topaz and euclase bearing viens of the vicinity 
of Ouro Preto. These veins are coincident with the 



58 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 207 



bedding, or nearly so. Besides quartz and tourma- 
line, they carry iron and titanium minerals (magne- 
tite, hematite, rutile, and anatase), amorphous 
chloro-phosphates of some of the rarer elements 
(cerium, lanthanum, didymium, etc.), and, almost 
certainly, euclase. 

The observations at this place exclude completely 
the idea of peridotite or other eruptive rocks. The 
diamond at Sao Joao da Chapada, and presumably at 
other Brazilian localities, is a vein mineral, and the 
conditions of its genesis (unless we admit the hypoth- 
esis of a subsequent deposition of carbon, which is 
uncalled for by any of the observations thus far 
made) must have been such as were favorable to the 
segregation of iron and titanium oxides, phosphates 
of rare elements, and certain silicates, such as tour- 
maline and presumably topaz and euclase. The 
hypothesis of a genesis through the reaction of erup- 
tive masses on carbonaceous schists is here as inad- 
missible as would be that of a vein formation for the 
South African mines. If the origin of the carbon is 
to be sought in the rocks traversed by the eruptive 
or vein masses containing it, it is not without 
interest to mention that the schists of the veins 
in which the Sao Joao mine is excavated frequently 
contain graphite, though at that particular locality 
they are too much decomposed to enable one to 
determine whether it occurs there or not. It may be 
stated, that, in the other diamantiferous regions of 
Bahia, group 2 occurs either at the mines or in suffi- 
cient proximity to have furnished the diamonds. 
In the Bahia fields the precious Btones appear to 
have come mainly from a conglomerate which, as it 
lies in the prolongation of the same range, is pre- 
sumably identical with group 3 above described, and, 
like it, rests on a base of unctuous schists, itacolumite 
and itabirite. The Goyaz fields and those of Bagagen 
in western Minas seem to be similar to those of 
Diamantina, though perhaps lacking the upper 
quartzite. To the west of Diamantina, in the San 
Francisco valley, diamonds are washed from the 
<Ubris of a conglomerate presumably of upper 
Silurian or Devonian age, but containing pebbles 
of the Diamantina rooks. In the province of Parana 
the immediate origin is in a Devonian conglomerate, 
and this is also apparently the case with the diaman- 
tiferous placers of the province of Matto Grosso. 

The Brazilian and African diamond-fields thus in- 
dicate two very distinct modes of occurrence and 
genesis for the gem, — one as a vein mineral accom- 
panying oxides, silicates, and phosphates; the other 
as an accessory element in an eruptive rock. In the 
last number of the Bulletin de la SocitU gtologigue 
de France, M. Ghaper presents a third mode of oc- 
currence as the result of his observations in an 
Indian diamond-field. He satisfied himself that the 
gem occurs there, along with sapphires and rubies, 
in a decomposed pegmatite, having taken out two 
diamonds, two sapphires, and three rubies from an 
excavation made in that material. The circumstance 
that all these stones were found during the prelimi- 
nary work with pick and shovel, whereas nothing was 
found in the washing, would, notwithstanding M. 
Chaper's confidence that no deception was prac- 
tised, seem to the practical diamond-miner to 
be extremely suggestive of salting very in- 
artistically done. The occurrence of remnants 
of a sedimentary formation of a conglomeritic 
character in the neighborhood of the old washing 
examined suggests another explanation for the occur- 



rence of the gem in placers resting on a bottom of 

granitic rocks. ObvxxJjB A. Dkrby. 

Museum nadonal, Rio de Janeiro, 
Decs. 16. 



A German sentence. 

Will you allow me a brief reference to a remark of 
one of your contributors ? * M.' quotes the follow- 
ing German sentence by ' one of the most distin- 
guished German zoologists : ' — 

" Man darf fur wahrscheinlich halten, dass die so 
sehr wechselnde Gestalt und Ausbildung der * Tast- 
borsten,' nach der Art des Thieres und den K&rper- 
gegenden, noch bestrmmten Nebenzwecken zu dienen 
hat, ohne dass wir uns davon Rechenachaft zu gebon 
vermdgen." 

In the original quotation the commas after ' Tast- 
borsten' and before 'noch,' etc., are omitted. ' M.* 
quotes this as a sample of sentences which prove 
that German scientific writers despise the * French 
qualities of grace and lucidity.' 

He goes further than this. He is quite convinced 
that the scientific men in Germany show an ' absence 
of the literary sense,' though he admits there are 
some exceptions. 

It seems to me that if ' M.' wished to furnish a 
proof for his assertion, he ought to have chosen a 
different sentence. Evidently every thing depends 
upon the reader for whom the sentence was intended. 
If the author wrote for children, his sentence was 
objectionable ; but, if he wrote for educated persons, 
the sentence must be pronounced just as clear, lucid, 
and elegant in German as any similar sentence might 
be in French. ' M.' assumes to judge of the literary 
qualifications of people who use a language with 
which he himself is less familiar than he is with 
French and English; a language, moreover, which 
greatly differs in its laws of construction from French 
and English. Supposing he should apply his French 
or English standard to a similar Latin sentence by 
one of the recognized masters of Latin style, would 
the difficulty of understanding its meaning justify a 
person who is not perfectly at home in that language 
to condemn the form of the sentence ? 

It seems to me * M.'s ' reasoning is the reverse of 
'scientific.' It looks very much like 'jumping at 
conclusions.' ' M.' goes further than this. He re- 
marks on the lack of German inventiveness. But do 
the Germans lack inventors? They are inferior to 
the Americans in invention of labor-saving machinery, 
because they have not hitherto felt the need of it as 
much as Americans in their thinly peopled country. 

But let us ask who invented watches, lithography, 
the original hand-press for printing, and the later 
revolving press, for the first time used in printing 
the London Times, which created a new era in news- 
paper printing ? Who has a greater claim to the in- 
vention of the electric telegraph than Gauss of 
GOttingen, or Steinheil of Munohen? Where are 
there more practical inventors than Krupp and the 
men that have made his steel-works famous all over 
the world ? And how about Siemens (the two elder 
brothers), Halske, Schaefer, Budenberg, Gruson, 
and scores of others ? Germany, so long disunited, 
could not afford a patent law like our own until 
quite recently : hence many of her inventors went 
to England, France, and some to this country. 

There is some truth in * M.'s ' remark about the bad 
style of many German scientific writers, but I ven- 
ture the assertion that the number of really fine 



January SI, 1687.] 



SCIENCE. 



59 



writers on science in Germany is as great as that of 
any other nation. I believe the following names, to 
which scores of others conld be added, will bear out 
my statement: Georg Forster (the companion of 
Cook), A. yon Humboldt, Liebig, Moleschott, Carl 
Vogt, Schleiden, Peschel, Helmholtz, Otto Ule (of 
Halle), Bossmaessler, Haeckel, Preyer, etc. Who is 
to be the judge as to a good German style, those 
who know the language as foreigners, or those who 
know it as natives ? What would become of scientific 
criticism, if people may ridicule with impunity what- 
ever differs from the standard to which they are ac- 
customed? How does 'M.' suppose a rather long 
and involved English sentence, though correctly 
formed and considered elegant, sounds to a German 
who translates it literally? In a recent issue of 
Science (Jan. 7) another German sentence is quoted; 
and this, too, is neither a bad nor an obscure one, 
although it is not claimed that an advertisement — 
and such the sentence is — may be taken as a model 
of a lucid and graceful style. The number of poor 
writers in German is not great, in spite of all that 
has been written on the subject. The number of 
finished writers of peculiar excellence is probably 
as great in Germany as in France, England, or the 
United States. C. A. Eoobbt. 

Iowa City, Io., Jan. 7. 

The West Indian seal. 

Since the publication of my article on this species 
in the last number of Science (ix. 35), Mr. F. W. 
True of the TJ. S. national museum has kindly called 
my attention to a paper on this subject by himself 
and Mr. F. A. Lucas, in the Smithsonian report for 
1884 (part ii. pp. 331-335, plates i.-iii.), recently 
distributed, which I had not at that time seen. In this 
paper the species is positively referred to the genus 
Monachus, and the cranial characters are described 
and figured. The specimen forming the basis of this 
paper is the one presented to the U. S. national mu- 
seum by Professor Poey, as stated in Science, iii. 
752. This was a skin, containing the skull, of the 
specimen taken near Havana in 1883. The specimen 
is described as "a female, . . . apparently adult, 
though not aged.*' The description of the size and 
color, and the figures of the skull, however, show it 
to have been quite young, not more than two-thirds 
grown, and probably in its second year, the skull- 
sutures being still open, while in the adult, as in other 
seals, those of the cranium proper are wholly ob- 
literated. 

On the assumption that their specimen was adult, 
Messrs. True and Lucas believe that " the West In- 
dian seal must be considerably smaller than M. albi- 
venter" of the Mediterranean. The specimens ob- 
tained by Mr. Ward show that there is practically no 
difference in size or color between specimens of cor- 
responding ages of the two species of subtropical seals. 
Many of the discrepancies in the proportions of the 
skull in the two forms, alluded to by True and Lucas, 
are clearly due, in large part at least, to the immatur- 
ity of their specimen of M. tropicalis. My largest 
male skulls even slightly exceed the measurements 
given by Cuvier for the Mediterranean species. I 
find the length of my adult male skeleton, measured 
along the curvature of its axis, to be seven and a half 
feet ; measured in a straight line, seven and one-tenth 
feet, or 85 inches. The length of the stuffed skin of 
* the Havana specimen, as given by True and Lucas, 



is only 53 inches. In view, however, of the widely 
separated habitats of the two forms, there is every 
probability of their specific distinctness, and ade- 
quate material doubtless would reveal numerous minor 
structural differences. 

As compared with other species of the family Pho- 
oidae, the skeleton of M. tropicalis presents notable 
peculiarities, particularly in the form of the scapula, 
the pelvis, the proportions of the limb-bones, etc., 
as well as in the low position of the mandibular con- 
dyle, referred to by True and Lucas. The scapula, 
for example, is remarkably short and broad, the 
length to the breadth being as 16 to 28, both the ante- 
rior and posterior borders being greatly developed. 
The acromion process is well marked; but the spine 
is low and short, forming little more than a well- 
marked ridge, in comparison with its usual develop- 
ment in other phocids. The pelvis is remarkably 
short and broad : the thyroid foramina are fully half 
as broad as long. The femur is very short and 
thick, not longer than in Phoca vitulina, notwith- 
standing the much greater size of the animal, the 
same being true likewise of the pelvis. Through- 
out the skeleton the proportion of parts is rather 
exceptional, the fore-limbs being much more 
developed, relatively to the hind-limbs, than in the 
seals generally. As I stated in 1870 (Bull. mus. comp. 
zool.y ii. No. 1, p. 30), Monachus much more nearly 
approaches the Otariidae than does any other genus 
of the Phocidae, through its skeletal proportions and 
peculiarities. The animal is in form very robust. 
The bones are thick and heavy, with the apophyses 
of the vertebrae strongly developed. Further details, 
however, must await the appearance of my illus- 
trated memoir on this species, now in preparation for 
early publication in the Bulletin of the American 
museum of natural history. 

To Messrs. True and Lucas is due the credit of first 
making known, in their paper above cited, the cranial 
characters of the West Indian seal, and of confirm- 
ing its reference to the genus Monachus ; and I much 
regret not having seen their valuable contribution 
when I penned my former notice of the species. 
While the ' Report 1 containing their paper bears date 
1 1885,' it appears not to have been generally distrib- 
uted till some time in December, 1886. 

J. A. Allen. 
New York, Jan. 14. 

On hybrid dogs. 

If my memory serves me correctly, I think it was 
Dr. Ooues who pointed out the fact somewhere, in 
one of his works, that he had personally known of 
cases of fertile crosses having taken place between 
the coyote (Canis latrans) and that species of 
semi-domesticated dog found with nearly all the 
Indian tribes of this country. His instances were 
cited, however, I believe, for the Sioux camps of the 
Indian agencies of certain parts of Dakota. 

Now, a year ago there came under my observation 
here an interesting case of this kind, the occurrence 
having taken place at Zufii, in south-western New 
Mexico. Zufiian Indians have many varieties of 
wolfish-looking dogs at their pueblo, while coyotes 
are always found prowling about on the surrounding 
prairies. Such circumstances as these, granting that 
these animals will cross, are as favorable as any we 
could imagine ; for the pueblo, with the ends of its 
streets leading in the majority of instances directly 
out upon the prairie, affords the opportunity, not 



60 



SCLEITCE. 



LVol. IX., No 307 



only for the doge to run out upon it at night, but 
the coyotes, long since accustomed to the sight of 
the pueblo and all that is in it, to approach with less 
suspicion than they would even about an Indian 
camp. Moreover, some of these Zufiian dogs have 
very much the appearance and behavior of the 
coyotes themselves, and quite as much cunning in 
some instances. Among the rarer varieties of the 
former we sometimes find a sheep-dog of apparently 
the same breed of animal often seen in certain parts 
of the eastern states. I refer to the black-and-tan 
variety, with the shaggy coat, and the tan-spots, one 
over each eye. The trader at Zufli, an observing 
and intelligent Englishman, has long owned one of 
this latter kind, — a bitch of excellent qualities, — 
and it is from this gentleman that I came into pos- 
session of the following account. He tells me that a 
little over three and a half years ago, the oppor- 
tunity was afforded him to become personally cog- 
nizant of the fact that this shepherd-dog bitch of his 
was lined by a large male coyote x>ne evening just 
beyond the limits of the pueblo. In due time she 
gave birth to four male pups, that looked curiously 
like young coyote's from the hour they were 
born. When I came to Wingate here, all four 
of these dogs were fully grown, and were owned 
by different parties at the garrison, and I had ex- 
cellent opportunities to study them. They all 
very much resembled each other, and the entire 
progeny are the very exemplification of what we 
might easily imagine the offspring of such a parent- 
age would be. Taking any one* of them as an 
example, it is to be noted that the animal has a 
form somewhat heavier than a coyote, and yet 
more slender and agile than a shepherd-dog. As 
we would naturally expect, its pelage is rather long 
and shaggy, with a handsome flag to its tail. In 
color it is a fine stone gray, inclining to blackish on 
the flanks and sides ; the spots are absent from over 
the eyes. The ears have more of the form of the 
coyote's than they have of the ears of the mother ; 
while the fore part of the face, and the muzzle, more 
nearly approach that of a shepherd-dog. One of the 
most interesting features of it all is to hear one of 
them bark ; for those who may be familiar with the 
despicable howl of the prairie-wolf can here have the 
opportunity to fully appreciate how much that kind 
of music can be improved by being semi-modified by 
such crossing in stock. The yelp becomes softened, 
and the more intelligent expressions of the bark are 
introduced, though in the present case these seem 
to be about equally divided in the voices of these 
hybrids. 

When out of the garrison, I have observed much 
in their behavior that reminds me of the coyote, 
more than it does of the dog. They run and trot 
like a coyote ; and when off at a distance they have 
a way of standing sidewise as motionless as a statue, 
and regarding you ; while at such times they keep 
their two fore-limbs together, as well as the hinder 
ones. Such a position is very commonly assumed by 
the prairie-wolf, and may be said to be a direct 
lateral view of the animal, with its face looking to- 
wards you. 

Space will not permit me to enter upon the many 
little interesting traits of these animals, which plain- 
ly are due to the crossing of the parent stock, and 
have been inherited by the issue. 

It is my present aim to purchase one of these 
animals, if possible, with the view of securing its 



skeleton, more especially its skull. This latter 
would undoubtedly make an interesting thing to 
compare with Huxley's valuable work on the skulls 
of the Canidae. I have collected a fine series of the 
skulls of the coyotes, and have them in my possession 
at the present writing. B. W. Shotldt. 

Fort Wingate, N. Mex., Jan. 11. 



To authors of text-books on physics. 

The definition of the coefficient of elasticity, 
given by Professor Baker on p. 34 of the current vol- 
ume, is vitally defective because the unit of section 
is omitted. It reads, t( The coefficient of elasticity 
may be defined as the force which would double the 
length of a bar.*' According to this, if the section 
of one bar were twice that of another, all other 
things being equal, the coefficient of elasticity of 
the former would be double that of the latter, which 
is not true. A student might further object that 
solids cannot be elongated to double their length, 
nor liquids be compressed to half their volume, or, 
if they could, the coefficient would not remain con- 
stant during the operation. Strictly speaking, the 
coefficient of elasticity is a rate, and may be de- 
fined as the rate of change of the stress per unit of 
section to that of the elongation per unit of length. 
This is true for the incipient elongation due to an 
incipient stress. If it be assumed that the section 
of the bar remains uniform and the elasticity remains 
perfect during the elongation, then it will be true 
that the coefficient of elasticity equals the force 
which would double the length of a bar whose oross- 
section is unity. DxVolson Wood. 

Hoboken, N.J., Jan. 16. 



H. Allyne Nicholson. 

In answer to a letter of condolence written in con- 
sequence of the press despatches announcing the 
death of Prof. H. Allyne Nicholson, Dr. O. A. White 
has received a letter from Professor Nicholson him- 
self, saying that he is not dead, but alive and well. 

If the above has not been announced, it may be of 

interest to the readers of Science. 

Edw. J. Nolah. 
Philadelphia, Jan. 17. 



Abbott's Greek reader. 

I like the freshness and independence of your 
critical comments. But you object to the publishers 
of Abbott's ' Greek reader ' binding the notes sepa- 
rately from the text. ' Much ' may be ' lost in con- 
venience, 1 as you say, but some of the best instruct- 
ors in the classics object to notes in the classroom, 
in the hands of the student. They are entirely too 
convenient, a great hinderance to the best mental 
discipline, and a temptation to neglect thorough 
preparation beforehand. £. T. Jxffebs. 

Lincoln univ., Chester co., Penn., 
Dec. 89. 



Advertising for professors. 

Science and education for Dec. 24, on' p. 65, 
speaks of advertising for professors. 

The University of Mississippi recently advertised. 
There were five vacancies and five hundred and 
twenty-seven applications ! M. W. Eastom. 



SCI E N CE -Supplement. 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 21, 1887. 



THE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION MOVEMENT 

AT CAMBRIDGE. 

The university extension movement was begun 
at Cambridge about fifteen years ago. It occurred 
to some energetic men, especially to Professors 
Stuart and Sidgwick, that the university should 
attempt to influence the education of the country 
not only by examinations, but by direct teaching. 
It was thought that young men were sent out 
every year by alma mater for whom there was no 
place in the teaching system of the university it- 
self, but who might find a field of activity in the 
great towns of England. The system has grown 
up from very small beginnings. At first a private 
enterprise, it shortly became part of the univer- 
sity organization, and it is now a recognized de- 
partment of university work. During the last 
six years the growth has been very marked. In 
1880 there were thirteen centres, in 1885 there 
were thirty -six. In 1880 thirty-seven courses of 
lectures were delivered ; in 1885, eighty courses. 
The attendance at lectures, which in 1880 was 
4,300, rose in 1885 to 8,500. The movement has 
spread all over England. The miners of North- 
umberland form a numerous and intelligent audi- 
ence. There is a centre at Torquay and a centre 
at Portsmouth, but, as might be expected in Eng- 
land, the northern centres far outnumber the 
southern. London is the seat of a separate 
management under the joint government of the 
two universities, which extends its ramifications 
into the suburbs. Hitherto the teaching has been 
scattered over the country without any definite 
order or arrangement. Each centre has chosen 
that subject which seemed to suit it best. There 
have been examinations with classes and marks of 
distinction, and a certificate has been given by 
the vice-chancellor of the university, but there 
has been no systematic and continuous arrange- 
ment of teaching analogous to that which exists' 
in the university itself. This want will now be 
supplied. The university has determined that at- 
tendance at certain courses of lectures, tested by 
examinations and marked by a certificate, shall 
take the place of a certain amount of residence 
at Hie university. When this scheme is put into 
working order, we shall have a system of academ- 
ical teaching extending over the whole country, 



and directly connected with university degrees. 
No more efficient means can be found of connect- 
ing the old English universities, which have too 
often been considered as hot-beds of clericalism 
and toryi8m, with the growing life of the nation, 
especially in the most democratic districts. 

Let us now see how the system practically 
works. A town wishes to establish a course of 
extension lectures. The first business is to elect a 
committee, and to raise the necessary funds. The 
session extends from September to April, and oc- 
cupies two courses of three months each, either 
of which may be taken separately. The lecturer 
is paid forty-five pounds for twelve weeks, the 
last week in each term being devoted to examina- 
tions. When it is found that funds can be pro- 
vided either by subscriptions or by the sale of 
tickets, communications are opened with Gam- 
bridge. If the town is situated in the neighbor- 
hood of other towns which have previously 
established coursed, matters can be arranged on a 
more economical basis. The university informs 
the town what lecturers it has at its disposal, and 
what courses they are able to give: the town 
determines what kind of lectures it desires to re- 
ceive. The subjects vary very much. The 
northern miners are keen for instruction in 
science : suburban ladies prefer the literature and 
art of mediaeval Italy or Germany. The lecturer 
belongs to one of two classes : he is either a man 
who has taken up this occupation as a profession, 
whose reputation is well known, and who occu- 
pies a position not inferior to that of a recognized 
university teacher, or he may be a young man 
who has just taken his degree, a senior wrangler, 
a senior classic, or a senior historian, who looks 
upon the occupation of university extension lec- 
turing as one of the best openings available for 
an ambitious and successful career. 

The first duty of a lecturer is to prepare his 
syllabus. It was laid down at the commencement 
of the scheme that every lecturer must, before he 
begins his work, write an elaborate syllabus, 
partly as a guaranty that his lectures are really 
good and thorough, but chiefly as an aid to his 
class in threading a difficult and unfamiliar sub- 
ject. Two of these syllabuses lie before me, both 
by lecturers beginning their work. The first 
course, by a senior wrangler, is on work and 
energy : it consists of twelve lectures. The first, 
being introductory, is on the study of natural 
science, on its results, its methods, and the various 



62 



SCIENCE. 



LVol. IX., No. 207 



manners of discovering scientific truths. The 
second lecture is on the laws of motion, including 
a popular exposition of Newton's three laws. The 
third lecture is devoted to the examination of 
work, energy, and gravitation. In the fourth 
lecture certain simple machines are described, — 
the pendulum, the different kinds of lever, and 
the water-wheel. The next lecture deals with the 
nature of heat, and the sixth with the more 
elaborate theories of Mayer and Joule. The 
seventh lecture deals with light and sound, the 
eighth with chemical energy, the ninth and tenth 
with electricity and magnetism. The eleventh 
lecture is devoted to the conservation of energy 
and the manner in which it is transformed from 
one shape into another. The last lecture treats of 
the dispersion of energy, and concludes with an 
account of the sun. 

It may be thought that this course is somewhat 
too extensive and ambitious, and its practical suc- 
cess remains to be proved by the examination ; 
but no one can deny that it forms a brilliant at- 
tempt to deal in a single view with the main 
truths of physics. 

The second course is of an entirely different 
character : it treats of the origin and early history 
of the English colonies in North America. Like 
the former, it consists of twelve lectures. The 
first lecture is devoted to ancient and modern 
systems of colonization, the Greek, the Roman, 
and the systems of modern states. The second 
lecture treats of the early voyages and settlements 
in America from Christopher Columbus down to 
the foundation of Quebec. Then follows the 
colonization and early history of Virginia, the 
colonization of New England, of Maryland, of 
the two Carolinas and Georgia; next come the 
Quaker colonies of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and 
Delaware. In the eighth lecture we have reached 
the subject of the early colonial wars of France 
and England, from King William's war in 1689- 
97 down to the conspiracy of Pontiac in 1768. 
The condition of America in 1768 is then dealt 
with, with a sketch of each colony from the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century up to that 
time. The tenth lecture treats of the war of in- 
dependence ; the eleventh, of the American con- 
stitution ; and the twelfth and last, of the history 
of modern Canada down to the present day. 

These syllabuses are printed in little pamphlets, 
and the chief criticism to be made upon them is 
that they are often somewhat too long and elabo- 
rate. Where so much is printed for a course, 
there is less room for detailed exposition. This, 
however, is a fault on the right side, which ex- 
perience will prevent. 

The lectures are given once a week, and last 



an hour. The hour which precedes or follows 
the lecture is taken up with what is known as 
'the class.' In this the formal method of the 
lecture is abandoned, discussion of difficult points 
is invited, questions are put to the lecturer on any 
thing that appears obscure, or the lecturer gives 
additional details and illustrations. The class is 
open to all who attend the lectures, but in a series 
of years this is generally found not to exceed one- 
half. At the end of each lecture in the syllabus 
will be found three or four questions which are to 
be answered by the students at home ; and help is 
freely given in the little pamphlet, as to the line 
to be taken in answering the questions, and the 
books to be used. These exercises are purely 
voluntary : the answers are sent to the lecturer, 
who returns them with corrections before the 
following lecture. The number of those doing 
papers is not more than one-third of those who 
attend the class, or one-sixth of those who attend 
the lectures. Finally, at the end of each term, 
an examination is held, conducted, not by the 
lecturer, but by independent examiners appoint- 
ed by the university. The numbers examined 
form about one-fourth of the class, or one-eighth 
of the whole attendance at lectures. In connec- 
tion with each course of three months, certificates 
are granted on the double basis of the lecturer s 
report of the weekly exercises and the examiner's 
report of the final examination. In this way is 
tested not only the capacity of getting up a sub- 
ject and passing an examination, but the con- 
tinuous effort of steady work throughout«the term. 
It is very interesting to consider what classes of 
people are reached by the university extension 
lectures. Although the movement was first de- 
vised for adults, yet the lectures have been gener- 
ally frequented by schools, and especially by girls' 
schools. They are useful in cases where a compe- 
tent visiting lecturer cannot be obtained. Much 
more accessible to these influences are young peo- 
ple who have left school, and have not yet settled 
in life. This is the golden age for education, cor- 
responding to the time spent at college by those 
who can afford it. From these classes, if from 
any, must be drawn the affiliated students whom 
the extension movement will link with the uni- 
versity. If the lectures are delivered at night, 
they are usually attended by clerks and shop peo- 
ple, who are at work in the day. 

However, the most interesting field of work 
which the movement has yet found has been the 
artisans, and among these are pie-eminent the 
miners of Northumberland. Mr. Roberts, the 
organizing secretary, writes, after a fortnight's 
visitation to Northumberland, "I wish I could 
adequately describe the impression this fortnight's 



Jahtjabt 31, 1887.] 



SCIENCE* 



63 



work made upon me. The sturdy intelligence of 
the pitmen, their determined earnestness, the ap- 
preciative and responsive way in which they 
listened, the downright straightforwardness of 
their speech, — all these it is impossible fully to 
express. I am persuaded that in the Northum- 
berland and Durham districts the pitmen are ripe 
for a scheme that will bring higher education and 
culture within their reach." The northern popu- 
lation is eager for knowledge, and travels long 
distances to seek it, in all kinds of weather, over 
the roughest of roads. Some persons here walked 
regularly six miles to hear the lectures. At New- 
castle some travelled as much as ten miles to hear 
the lectures. Two pitmen, brothers, attended a 
course regularly from a distance of five miles: 
they went there by train, but were compelled to 
walk home. This they did for three months on 
dark nights, over wretchedly bad roads, and in 
all kinds of weather. One miner writes in grati- 
tude, " I deeply deplore the last thirty-four yean 
of my life. Being buried in the mines since I was 
nine years of age, and taught to look jealously on 
science as being antagonistic to religion, I little 
thought what pleasures of thought and contem- 
plation I lost ; I have, however, broken loose from 
my fetters, and am proceeding onwards." It is 
sad to think that this energy and hunger for 
learning should be cramped by inability to pay 
for it. Working-men can seldom afford more 
than one shilling or one shilling sixpence for a 
course, yet at two shillings a ticket it would take 
an attendance of seven hundred to make the lec- 
tures pay. Besides, the cost of the ticket is not 
the only tax on the artisan. Text-books must be 
bought, weekly papers posted to the lecturer, while 
wages are lost by attendance at the evening 
classes. The whole system requires a solid pecun- 
iary basis to make it permanent; and that, up 
to the present moment, has not been forthcoming. 
Although much has been done, we may hope for 
much larger developments in the future. A staff 
of thoroughly trained lecturers should grow up, 
who will make this occupation the work of their 
lives. The courses of instruction will be more 
systematic, and will be spread regularly over a 
number of years. In some cases the lectures will 
crystallize, as they have already done, into local 
colleges or small universities ; in others they will 
remain in a more fluid state. Whatever may be 
the result of the movement, there is no doubt that 
the problem has been solved of bringing the high- 
est university education within the reach of the 
lowest classes who are capable of receiving it. 
Such a movement may be less necessary in coun- 
tries where education is more democratic, and 
where no class has been left out ; but in England, 



where the higher education, like every thing else, 
is organized mainly for the privileged classes, such 
an enterprise is an incalculable boon. 

Some few years ago, on a summer afternoon, a 
body of artisans were watching our Cambridge 
undergraduates amusing themselves on the river 
which flows by the backs of the colleges. Their 
conversation was overheard by a passer-by, and it 
was discovered that they were under the impres- 
sion that all Cambridge undergraduates were sons 
of noblemen, and that no one could live at the 
university under a thousand pounds a year. 
This was the exaggeration of ignorance, but let 
us hope that the extension movement will in 
another generation render all such misunderstand- 
ings impossible. Osgab Browning. 



THE TRAINING OF THE FACULTIES OF 
JUDGMENT AND REASONING. 1 

I am going to endeavor to show, as far as I 
have the power to do so, how the psychological 
and logical principles which relate to judgment 
and reasoning may be applied to the treatment of 
our ordinary school subjects, — what our methods 
of teaching should be, if we desire those methods 
to be framed in accordance with the laws and 
suggestions of mental science. I must refer you 
to Mr. Sully's indispensable ' Teacher's handbook 
of psychology,' for the discussion and full exposi- 
tion of the psychological principles. But also, I 
shall begin by running over the chief points which 
require our attention, before I attempt to sketch 
my lessons, so that you may have the principles 
on which I work freshly in your minds. My 
desire, as you know, is not to up*et or change this 
or that method of teaching this or that subject, 
but to bring the precepts and laws of psychology 
to bear directly on the actual practice of the class- 
room. In what I have got to say on the logical 
side of the matter, I am largely indebted to Mr. 
Jevons, to whose excellent and suggestive little 
book, ' Elementary lessons in logic,' I must refer 
you. And let me say here that I think every 
teacher ought to own the book, and to make a 
point of mastering especially the last ten lessons. 

To judge is to connect two notions, two repre- 
sentations or mental images of what has been 
perceived; and the outward expression of this 
act is a statement. in words, or a proposition. 
Thus, if we have acquired the general notions or 
concepts, say, of hardness and heaviness, we may 
connect either or both with any particular thing 
or class of things, or with any other notion. We 
may say, * This ground is hard,' or, ' This table is 

1 From the Journal of education, a paper read before 
the Education society, Oct 85, 1886. 



64 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou IX., No. 307 



heavy,' or, connecting two concepts, * It is wise to 
be merry.' It does not matter how we have ac- 
quired the information, or by what mental process 
we have reached the assertion : we may say, using 
direct observation, 'This boy is tall,' or, making 
an inference, ' There win soon be another general 
election ; ' in either case we have given expression 
to a judgment. Of course, if we merely echo 
somebody else's statements, we give expression to 
his judgments, but we do not perform acts of 
judgment of our own, — a fact which young and 
old, in and out of school, are always forgetting. 
The work of connecting the two notions or mental 
images must be our own before we can be con- 
sidered to have performed an act of judgment. 
The connection may be wrong or unwarrantable, 
but the formation of it will none the less consti- 
tute what we here define as judging ; that is, if it 
be made with a certain amount of belief in the 
reality of the connection. If there be no such 
belief, we shall not consider the statement as the 
expression of a judgment. Our statements may 
either be affirmative or negative ; about individu- 
als or about classes, i.e., what are called 'singu- 
lar' or 'universal' judgments, as, for example, 
4 This boy loves exercise,' ' Boys are fond of ac- 
tion.' In the case of negative judgments, we 
may suppose some one to have originally asserted 
a connection between two notions ; and the mind 
has then to decide whether the assertion be true 
or not true (untrue). If it decides in the latter 
sense, the judgment will be a denial, not an affir- 
mation, of the connection between the notions. We 
may, however, sometimes turn the judgment into 
the affirmative form, as thus: if we deny that 
'this bag is heavy,' we say, 'This bag is not 
heavy,' i.e., 'This bag is light.' But this is as- 
suming that there is no alternative to ' heavy ' but 
' light,' while we may easily conceive of a state 
which could not be described either as the one or the 
other. If there be several alternatives, still more 
must the statement remain negative. I cannot 
transpose, without changing the subject of which 
I speak, such a statement as ' This leaf is not 
green.' This is, however, rather a matter of 
logic than of psychology. 

There is another point on which it will be of 
more importance to touch, — the relation of con- 
ception to judgment. We have seen that in the 
former there is a process of combining. The con- 
cept ' metal ' is formed by mentally grouping to- 
gether a certain number of qualities or properties, 
grouping them so as to make one complex mental 
image or representation. As Mr. Sully says, 
" The mind here comprehends the several quali- 
ties as together comprising one thing or sub- 
stance. In judgment, on the other hand, we dis- 



tinctly set forth two representations as two, keep- 
ing them apart from one another, while at the same 
time we connect them with one another. We think 
of certain objects or qualities as distinct, and at 
the same time explicitly view them as related." 
Thus, in affirming that 'iron is a metal/ we 
think of the quality of being a metal as some- 
thing apart from the iron, something new which 
we assert to belong to it. In fact, we have here 
the same distinction as we have in grammar be- 
tween the name with the attributes of the subject, 
and the predicate. To express a judgment, we 
must make use of a predicate, or give some new 
information about that of which we are speaking : 
in the case of a concept, we have merely the gen- 
eral notion, simple or complex, corresponding to 
the name and its attendant describing adjectives, 
or to the name alone. We must bear in mind, 
however, that many, if not all, concepts are 
formed by a succession of judgments. Every ad- 
dition to our knowledge of the properties or 
qualities which correspond to a general term takes 
the form of a judgment. The very bringing of 
things together on the ground of their likeness, or 
the separating of them because of their dissimi- 
larity, is a judgment ; while, in its turn, the fuller 
concept becomes an element in our later and 
more precise judgments. 

Like every thing else, our judgment will have 
various degrees of perfection and imperfection. 
The most important quality of a judgment is 
clearness ; the next, accuracy ; while promptness, 
stability, and independence are all of considerable 
value. By a clear judgment we mean one in 
which the concepts or representations are distinct, 
and the relations between them distinctly under- 
stood. The judgment, ' Poetry is a criticism of 
life,' will be just so clear, and no more, as the 
concepts 'poetry,' 'criticism,' and 'life' are dis- 
tinct, and as the mind clearly discerns the rela- 
tion between ' poetry ' and ' criticism of life ' 
which is implied in the assertion, — how it is 
equivalent to certain verbally unlike statements, 
but incompatible with others. It is easy to see 
that want of proper observation is one of the com- 
monest sources of indefiniteness. If the observa- 
tion has been faulty, the concepts or representa- 
tions will be faulty, and so will be our apprehension 
of the relation of the notions we wish to connect. 
Memory may play us false by recalling imper- 
fect images, or by recalling them with all the life 
and reality of the relations between them de- 
parted ; or feeling may come in, paralyzing our 
powers of discrimination, and misdirecting our 
decisions. We must not omit to note, moreover, 
the tendency that most of us have, and which is 
particularly strong in children, to accept the judg- 



Jakvabt 21, 1887.] 



JSVIEJS/CK 



65 



ments of others, though we do not apprehend or 
realize the meaning of what is asserted, and are 
somewhat hazy as to what the assertion concerns. 
We teachers are very liable to produce vagueness 
and confusion in this way. We impose our judg- 
ments on our pupils ; we are contented with their 
ready assurance that * they see ; ' we rush on from 
step to step, and then are astonished to find how 
hazy and muddled* the children's views are. 
Teachers have even been known to grow quite 
impatient with the children on this account, re- 
senting delay, and setting all the confusion down 
to a wilful perversity on the child's own part. 
The other qualities wbich characterize sound 
and serviceable judgments need no particular re- 
mark here. 

Many of our judgments are arrived at immedi- 
ately or intuitively, such as, ' This fire is warm,' 
'I saw my friend last week.' These are called 
' intuitive ' judgments. But, on the other hand, 
it is plain that many of our assertions are reached 
by a process of reasoning or inference. Just as 
we connect two concepts or representations to 
form a judgment, so we may connect two or more 
judgments to form another judgment in advance 
of these. Thus, from the assertions that 'all 
metals are elements ' and ' iron is a metal,' we 
may derive the judgment that 'iron is an ele- 
ment ; ' or we may infer that * all material bodies 
• have weight,' because we have found that this 
and many other material bodies have weight. 
The resulting judgment we term a • conclusion,' 
and the judgments from which it is derived 
'premises.* To reason, then, is to pass from 
a certain judgment or judgments to a new 
one. This implies that we recognize the relation 
between the new and the old judgments ; that we 
apprehend the connecting link or similarity be- 
tween them. Reasoning is, in fact, as Mr. Sully 
observes, " only a higher and more complex pro- 
cess of assimilation, identification, or classing." 
From mere difference we can infer nothing. If 
x and y are both equal to z, we can infer that 
x=zy; but if x and y are both greater or less than 
*, we cannot from these facts infer any thing as 
to the relation between x and y. Again : in our 
reasoning the premises and the conclusion may 
both be particular. A boy may have noticed 
that on several occasions when the wind was in 
the east his master was cross, and he may infer, 
that, the wind being in the east to-day, his master 
will be cross. Or the premises may both, or one 
of them, be general, and the conclusion be either 
general or particular ; as when we reason, that 
oxygen being a material body, and all material 
bodies having weight, therefore oxygen must 
have weight ; or that all gases have weight, 



because all gases are material bodies. The 
former is called implicit, the latter explicit, 
reasoning. But the distinction is not of great value 
to the logician, because we do, as a matter of fact, 
in implicit reasoning, tacitly assume a general 
premise : the boy in our example, consciously or 
unconsciously, assumes that all east winds make 
his master cross. There is another distinction, how- 
ever, which applies to reasoning,, and which will 
he of great use to us. We may either argue up to a 
general truth from premises which are particular, 
or at least less general ; or we may apply this gen- 
eral truth to cases which are less general or particu- 
lar. Thus, having found that gold and silver and 
copper, etc., are all elements, we may arrive at 
the conclusion that all metals are elements ; or, 
seeing that all birds die, and all fishes die, etc., 
we may infer that all animals die. On the other 
hand, from the general truth that all the radii of 
a «rircle are equal, we may infer that two particu- 
lar straight lines, AB and AC, being the radii of 
the same circle, are equal to one another. In the 
former case, our reasoning is said to be inductive ; 
in the latter, deductive. 

The chief point to notice in induction is, that in 
general our conclusion goes beyond what our 
premises give us the right of asserting as actually 
true. We can never, therefore, be certain, in such 
cases, of arriving at absolute truth, but only at a 
greater or less degree of probability. When we 
assert that all planets move round the sun in the 
same direction, the ' all ' includes more cases than 
are mentioned in the premises, — more cases than 
we have observed. Further experience may prove 
that some of our general conclusions are wrong. 
This has been the case with the emission theory of 
light, which has now been abandoned for the 
wave theory. Or, to quote a simpler case, Mr. 
Jevons mentions that Format maintained that 

1+2? always represents a prime number for all 
values of x; and so it does, till the product 
reaches the large number 4,294,967,297, which is 
divisible by 641. This danger should be a warn- 
ing to us in our use of inductive reasoning with 
children at school. We are all of us, young and 
old, far too much given to generalizing 1 from too 
few particulars, and to asserting that what has 
happened in a certain number of particular cases 

» It will be well to note, In order to avoid confusion, how 
Inductive reasoning, which is a kind of generalization, 
differs from the generalisation of Judgment In each case 
we trace out a similarity among a number of different 
things. In Judgment, we do so in things viewed as single 
and apart, in order to connect with one or all offthem a gen- 
eral notion applicable to them all: in induction, it is the 
relations of things to one another to which we attend, and 
we seek to establish some connection between these rela- 
tions, and thus to arrive at some wider relations between 
the things themselves. 



66 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 307 



will alwayB happen in all like cases. This is a 
habit, or a tendency, not to be encouraged, but to 
be corrected. The experience of children can 
never be very great, — never sufficient for a very 
wide generalization : and to allow them to draw 
conclusions from insufficient experience, however 
right our wider experience may have shown that 
conclusion to be, is to allow them to form a very 
bad habit indeed. Are we, then, to exclude in- 
ductive reasoning from the schoolroom ? By no 
means. Inductions vary almost infinitely in 
their degrees of generalization, from the narrow 
inductions with which children themselves spon- 
taneously begin, such as * flies die/ to the 
law of gravitation. Let us follow nature's 
hint, and restrict our pupils' work at first to 
the narrower kinds. We shall then be fairly 
safe, especially if we are careful, as we should be, 
to afford the young inquirer every possible oppor- 
tunity of testing and correcting his conclusions. 
I need scarcely point out here that the inductions 
of mathematics will be at first even more useful 
to us than those of physical science. In mathe- 
matics the premises are so carefully restricted, 
and the applications of the conclusions so strictly 
narrowed, that within their assigned bounds our 
inductions are absolutely true ; so much so, that 
Mill refused to regard them as real inductions at 
all. Moreover, we can test them exhaustively, — 
I will not say exkaustingly, — and so make per- 
fectly clear their truth and value. In grammar 
also, especially in that of the mother-tongue, the 
inductions are simple and easily made, and the 
means for testing their accuracy are always ready 
to hand. Again, the way in which children earli- 
est show their curiosity is in seeking for causes. 
They have a strong tendency to look upon every 
thing as having a cause and a purpose. Here, 
then, is another valuable hint of nature as to the 
kind of work we should choose. Many easy ex- 
ercises of the kind we require are to be obtained 
from among the simpler phenomena of nature, or 
from mathematics, and even history. The dis- 
covery of causes is, however, often a very difficult 
process, and always implies a method of proced- 
ure. For a discussion and exposition of this, I 
must refer you to two excellent chapters in Mr. 
Jevons's little book (chapters xxviii. and xxix). 
For convenience sake, I shall quote here Mill's can- 
ons which bear on this matter, and which are to 
be found in the chapters referred to. The first is 
the rule for the method of agreement: "If two 
or more instances of the phenomenon under in- 
vestigation have only one circumstance in com- 
mon, the circumstance in which alone all the 
instances agree is the cause (or effect) of the 
given phenomenon;" or, more briefly, the sole 



invariable antecedent of a phenomenon is prob- 
ably its cause. The next refers to the method of 
difference. It runs : " If an instance in which 
the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and 
an instance in which it does not occur, have 
every circumstance in common save one, that one 
occurring only in the former, the circumstance 
in which alone the two instances differ is the 
effect or the cause, or an indispensable part of 
the cause, of the phenomenon." l As Mr. Jevons 
remarks, this is essentially the great method of 
experiment, and its utility mainly depends upon 
the precaution of only varying one circumstance 
at a time, all other circumstances being main- 
tained just as they were. Thomson and Tait re- 
mark (Natural philosophy, vol. i. p. 807), " In all 
cases when a particular agent or cause is to be 
studied, experiments should be arranged in such 
a way as to lead, if possible, to results depending 
on it alone ; or, if this cannot be done, they should 
be arranged in such a way as to increase the ef- 
fects due to the cause to be studied till these so 
far exceed the unavoidable concomitants that the 
latter may be considered as only disturbing, not 
essentially modifying, the effects of the principal 
agent." The next canon refers to a joint method 
of agreement and difference : "If two or more 
instances in which the phenomenon occurs have 
only one circumstance in common, while two or 
more instances in which it does not occur have 
nothing in common save the absence of that cir- 
cumstance, the circumstance in which alone the 
two sets of instances (always or invariably) differ 
is the effect, or the cause, or an indispensable part 
of the cause, of the phenomenon." The next 
canon relates to what may be called the method 
of concomitant variations : " Whatever phenom- 
enon varies in any manner, whenever another 
phenomenon varies in some particular manner, is 
either a cause or an effect of that phenomenon, or 
is connected with it through some fact of causa- 
tion." Lastly, I will quote the canon relating to 
what Mill called the method of residues: "Sub- 
duct from any phenomenon such part as is known 
by previous inductions to be the effect of certain 
antecedents, and the residue of the phenomenon 
is the effect of the remaining antecedents." Those 
who desire more than Mr. Jevons gives, may find 
it in Mill's ' System of logic ' (book iii. chapters 8, 
9, 10). 

i So, when we are trying experiments on condensation, 
— of steam, for instance, — we And that a plate held in the 
steam condenses some of it. What causes this? Perhaps 
the coldness of the plate's surface. Well, then, let us heat 
the plate and try : result, no condensation. Let us make 
the plate very cold by placing it for a little while In the 
freeslng mixture. What Is the result nowT Increased 
condensation. Probably, then, cold produces condensation. 
And so on, through a number of other experiments. 



Jahuabt 31, 1807 ] 



SCIENCE, 



67 



By the processes I have described above, the 
child reaches a large number of general or uni- 
versal judgments. To these are added all the 
general statements made to him by others in the 
coarse of instruction. Tbese he can now apply to 
the explanation of particular or less general cases, 
as has been already shown; that is, he can 
make use of deduction. The logical forms of this 
kind of reasoning are: •'All soldiers have to 
fight; John is a soldier, therefore John has to 
fight;" or, "No mistakes deserve praise; this 
is a mistake, therefore this does not deserve 
praise." But though this is the logical, it is 
seldom if ever the psychological order of in- 
ference. As Mr. Sully points out, " in some 
cases the conclusion first presents itself to the 
mind, and the other judgments rise into distinct 
consciousness later ; and in other cases the mind 
does not at any stage distinctly represent more 
than one of the two truths making up the prem- 
1808." Again: besides starting with a general 
truth and seeking to make applications of it, we 
may also start with some particular statement or 
fact, and then seek among the general truths al- 
ready acquired for that under which it may be 
brought. In our language work we may have an 
instance of a noun in the genitive, and we seek to 
find what! rule for the genitive will explain our 
instance. Or in our geometry work we may have 
a theorem given us to prove: we assume it to be 
true, and then seek to attach it to some known 
and already proved theorem, and then, finally, 
reverse our work to produce the proof required. 
This last is the usual way in which children ex- 
plain things to themselves and others. " Why 
am I blamed for having done this ? Because what 
I did was called, or was, cruel, and acts called 
cruel deserve blame," is the clear statement of the 
reasoning which, more or less confusedly, will 
pass through the mind of a child. In connection 
with this, we should note the method by which 
all our greatest discoveries concerning the laws of 
nature have been made. The examination of a 
certain number of particular cases suggests a 
general principle (or more than one) under which 
they may be brought. We assume the general 
principle to be true, and deduce the results for 
several particular instances. We then compare 
these results with the results of actual observation 
in the same cases. If the latter confirm the 
former, we accept the general principle as true — 
at any rate, for the time being ; if they do not, we 
either modify our assumption or try another. It 
was in this way that Newton and Faraday, and 
numberless others, worked, and that all men of 
science are now working. It was in this way 
that the great theory of the conservation of energy 



was discovered, and which was verified so ad- 
mirably by Mr. Joule's experiments. In this, as 
in nearly all our complex reasoning, you will ob- 
serve that induction and deduction are mixed ; 
the former suggesting general truths, and the 
latter deriving conclusions from them. Both 
tbese two kinds of reasoning are liable, of course, 
to error. Both depend on observation, reproduc- 
tion, imagination ; both are processes based on 
the detection of similarity. If these are faulty, 
our conclusions will be fallacies. Especially in 
the case of deduction is a mistaken idea of simi- 
larity, or the want of discrimination, a fruitful 
source of error ; the ambiguity, or want of clear- 
ness, in the terms employed being also most fre- 
quently a great cause of our going astray. 
Attention as regards all that is employed in our 
argument, and concentration as regards the 
special object of our search, will also be necessary 
parts of our outfit. 

As Mr. Sully has pointed out, the powers of 
judging and reasoning show themselves later than 
the power of conception. At quite an early age, 
children will form rudimentary notions of things, 
and will even go as far as the formation of im- 
plicit judgments ; but they will not yet be able to 
form explicit judgments. The order of develop- 
ment appears to be as follows : 1°. Implicit judg- 
ments. — the results of observation and memory, 
involving no inference ; 2°. Explicit judgments, 
involving inference, about individual things, con- 
sisting of statements about actual facts then 
present ; 3°. Judgments concerning striking at- 
tributes, later with reasons ; 4°. Judgments in- 
volving consciousness of alternatives, introdu- 
cing * no' and ' not : ' 5°. Judgments concerning 
classes, the predicates becoming gradually more 
general and more abstract; 6°. The curbing of 
exaggerations and mis-statements, — less tendency 
to treat fancies as realities, — criticism of the 
statements of others, or increase of independence. 
The development of reasoning follows very simi- 
lar stages : 1°. Reasoning from particulars to 
particulars ; 2°. Then seeking for causes, with the 
familiar ' why ; ' 3°. Deductive reasoning, consist- 
ing of the application of simple rules to simple 
particular cases, then to cases requiring a more 
intimate understanding of the rule, then the ap- 
plication of rules less simple ; 4°. Somewhat later 
will come inductive reasoning, with ever-increas- 
ing power of abstraction; 5°. Lastly, complex 
reasoning and chains of demonstration. 

For convenience, let me recapitulate the points 
on which clear judgment and clear reasoning de- 
pend. Clear judgments depend on clear concep- 
tions and representations, and on the clear under- 
standing of the connection stated and the terms 



68 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. EX., No. 807 



employed, and also on keeping the emotions under 
due control. Judgments should be clear, accurate, 
prompt, stable, independent. Clear and sound 
reasoning depends on clear and sound judgments ; 
on the clear understanding of the relations be- 
tween judgments and the terms employed ; and 
on clear attention and imagination (involving dis- 
crimination), which keep vividly present the rela- 
tions of the ideas and the objects with which we 
are concerned. Fallacies arise mainly from mis- 
taken ideas of identity or similarity. 

Here I should like to quote the whole of Mr. 
Sully's section on the training of the powers of 
judgment and reasoning, the subject is so difficult, 
and what he says is so clear and sound. Children, 
as we know, delight in exaggeration : nothing is 
so attractive to them as vividness and picturesque- 
ness of statement. Their fancies are active. Their 
curiosity, except as to what directly helps fancy, 
is fluctuating and easily satisfied. The anthropo- 
morphic nature of many of their views about 
nature is startling to those who have forgotten 
their own childood. To step in, and seek to re- 
press and change and destroy all this, is to act in 
distinct opposition to the teaching of nature, — a 
proceeding which some teachers already recognize 
as ill-advised and unsafe. Surely a teacher who 
would destroy a child's delight in fairyland, or its 
happy belief that its pet dog understood every 
thing said to it, and the like unjustifiable ideas, 
would deserve a punishment but little less than 
that of old inflicted on traitors. Again : unless 
the child himself forms the judgments and does 
the reasoning, there is no exercise of his faculties, 
and therefore no development. But his experi- 
ence is very small, and his conclusions can seldom 
be justifiable, even when correct. It cannot be 
right to encourage him to generalize from insuffi- 
cient data, and to reason without clear discrimina- 
tion. In the face of these difficulties, I should 
advise that we be not in too great a hurry to give 
a systematic training to the reasoning faculty. 
The eleventh or twelfth year would be quite early 
enough, I think, to begin. Meanwhile there is 
much work to be done in exercising the senses, 
attention, memory, imagination, and conception ; 
while the exercise of judgment, which the later 
stages of this work will introduce, will be quite 
enough, at first, for our needs. By all means, let 
us encourage the child's curiosity by affording 
him the means of feeding and satisfying it. If 
rightly treated, it will grow by what it feeds 
upon. When the child cannot, of himself, attain 
to the knowledge requisite, let us, using a wise 
discretion, give him an explanation such as he can 
understand. In this way we shall not interfere 
with his fancies, though they, in some cases, when 



too vagrant and emotional, must be gently 
checked. Difference in the temperament of chil- 
dren should make a difference in their treatment. 
" But " — and here Mr. Sully speaks — " the train- 
ing of the reasoning powers includes more than 
the answering of the spontaneous questionings of 
children. The learners must be questioned, in their 
turn, as to the causes of what happens about them. 
A child cannot be too soon familiarized with the 
truth that every thing has its cause and its explana- 
tion. The mother, or teacher, should aim at fixing 
a habit o/ inquiry in the young mind, by repeatedly 
directing his attention to occurrences, and encour- 
aging him to find out how they take place. He 
must be induced to go back to his past experiences, 
to search for analogies, in order to explain the 
new event. The systematic training of the 
reasoning-powers must aim at avoiding the errors 
incident to the processes of induction and deduc- 
tion. Thus, children must be warned against 
hasty induction, against taking a mere accidental 
accompaniment for a condition or cause, against 
overlooking this plurality of causes. This sys- 
tematic guidance of the child's inductive processes 
will be much better carried on by one who bas 
studied the rules of inductive logic. In like man- 
ner the teacher should seek to direct the young 
reasoner in drawing conclusions from principles, 
by pointing out to him the limits of a rule, by 
helping him to distinguish between cases that do, 
and those that do not, fall under it, and by famil- 
iarizing him with the dangers that lurk in ambig- 
uous language ; and here some of the rules of 
deductive logic will be found useful." Finally, 
the best subject-matter on which to exercise the 
child at first will be that connected with common 
every-day knowledge. Speaking broadly, physi- 
cal science will best supply us with inductive ex- 
ercises, and mathematics with deductive exer- 
cises. In gome subjects of the former, such as 
botany, chemistry, and physiology, his work will 
be almost wholly inductive : in some of the 
latter, such as arithmetic and algebra, his work 
will be almost wholly deductive. 

H. COUQTHOFB BOWSN. 



THE NATURAL METHOD OF TEACHING 

LANGUAGES, 

The article on "The ' natural method' of lan- 
guage-teaching," in Science and education for Dec 
24, closes with the remark that conservatism is 
not always to be decried, and all innovation is not 
necessarily good. This thought is so correct that 
nobody could justly object to it ; and, if all other 
observations made by the opponents of the natural 
method be of equal soundness, the cause of this 



jAnxrABT 21, 1887. J 



SCIENCE. 



69 



much -discussed method would not seem to be as 
good as its friends might desire. What evokes, 
however, the reader's doubt at first, is the high 
praise lavished upon the old method, with its two 
mighty cornerstones, — the grammar - book and 
dictionary. One will naturally ask, If the old and 
long-established method is really as efficient as its 
defenders would have us believe, why is it. then, 
that discontent could arise against it, spreading to 
the great dimensions of to-day? Why is it that 
just the graduates of our colleges, who have had 
the full benefit of the blessings of the old method, 
speak frequently, with a very significant smile, of 
their knowledge of modern languages acquired in 
their alma mater t Why is it that men of high 
standing are protesting against that mode of 
studying which is in vogue in so many of our 
colleges and schools? 1 And why is it that the 
old method, being so strong and good as is claimed, 
could be shaken in its very foundation to such a 
degree that one of its warmest defenders writes 
but lately, 9 "It is evident to me that the old 
grammatical method cannot survive the assault of 
the natural method " ? 

On the other hand, if the principles of the 
natural method be as wrong as is said by some of 
the opponents, it would seem strange that scholars 
and teachers like Whitney, Thacher, and Hadley 
of Yale should have permitted their sons to be 
taught by the founder of the method ; that a man 
like Prof. Dr. Daniel Sanders declares himself for 
the method ; * that men throughout the country, 
prominent in their vocation, are favoring the 
natural method ; * and that an educational jour- 
nal which is not friendly inclined towards the 
method should have recently been forced to admit 
that '* the subject is now attracting great atten- 
tion in the secondary and higher schools." • 

These discussions in educational and other pa- 
pers furnish occasionally very interesting reading, 
and recall to one's mind a well-known story about 

» D. C. Oilman, president of Johns Hopkins university, 
writes thus to one of the advocates of the natural method, 
Aug. 15, 1878 : " Many years ago Mr. George Ticknor, while 
professor of modern languages in Harvard, declared, that, 
although Americans spent as long a time as Germans in 
acquiring a liberal education, the results in this country 
were far inferior to those secured abroad. Other recent 
writers have illustrated the same point, and have shown 
how much our deficiencies as an educated people have 
been due to bad methods of teaching both ancient and 
modern languages." 

* See The academy of December, 1886, p. 889. 

* Referring to a certain set of readers prepared for the 
natural method, the celebrated German grammarian and 
lexicographer says to the writer of these lines, in a letter 
dated March 8, 1888, that the method followed therein has 
his full approval ("dass die darin befolgte Lehrwelse 
meinen vollen Beif all flndet "). 

* See The natural method, No. 6, voL'lL, January edition. 
3 See The academy of November, p. 801. 



three professors who were given the task to write 
the natural history of the camel. None of them 
had seen the animal, but they set to work at once 
in the following way : the first one retired to his 
charming study, and, trusting to his vivid imagi- 
nation, wrote a history as he thought it ought to 
be ; the second one was busy in the libraries, and, 
out of all the material collected from books written 
since the time of Julius Caesar, he gave a natural 
history of the camel ; the third one alone had de- 
parted to the country, where he could see a camel 
and learn something about it, so that his report 
might be true to the facts. If it so happens that 
the reader of the discussions referred to is familiar 
with the working of the natural method, it will 
be hard to convince him that all who are passing 
judgment against it could ever have tried the 
method practically and earnestly, or could even 
have seen a complete course given. 

The question has been raised, * Is the natural 
method a method at all?' If it be correct that 
the term 'method' signifies ' a series of means 
purporting to lead to some desired end,' then the 
question must be answered in the affirmative. All 
the rules of the method pertain either to matter 
or to the individual. 

First, it is required that one should proceed in 
the/ treatment of the language and in the treat- 
ment of the laws of language ; i.e., grammar, in 
accordance with that method, which, ever since 
Bacon's time, has been the acknowledged method 
for true study, — the inductive method. 

Second, it is required that the treatment of mat- 
ter after the inductive method should vary as the 
individuals who are taught vary in age, character, 
ability, and preparation. 

To fulfil these requirements to the best advan- 
tage, it was found necessary to establish the gen- 
eral rule that the language which is to be taught 
must serve exclusively as means of communica- 
tion between teacher and learner. 

There is nothing especially new in either of 
these requirements ; in fact, one or the other of 
them has been successfully employed at various 
periods by different methods : but the united 
application of them has been first attempted by 
the natural method : and it is this united applica- 
tion that causes revolution in language-teaching. 
It is needless to repeat here that the credit of the 
innovation is due to Prof. Gottlieb Heness of New 
Haven, Conn. The special training in the princi- 
ples of Pestalozzi, which he received in the Lehrer 
Seminar, 1 and peculiar experiences in the teach- 
ing of children, had led him to those conclu- 
sions with which we are now acquainted. To 

1 A German institution In which young men are prepared 
who intend to teach in the public schools. 



70 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 807 



assume, however, that his method is merely a 
method for children, because some of his first 
experiments through which he arrived at certain 
principles were made in children's classes, is as 
erroneous as to believe the perusal of the various 
readers give an insight into the real character of 
the natural method. Let us now t»ee if the method 
is capable, in certain measure, of satisfying the 
demands of the ideal method which the writer of 
the article in Science and education has outlined. 
The rational method, as he chooses to term the 
wished-for ideal method, " would take, wherever 
it find them, all pedagogical methods of un- 
doubted value, and incorporate them in its in- 
struction.'' This condition, I doubt not in the 
least, the nttural method fulfils well. The writer 
himself says com plain ingly in his article, " Since 
they [that is, the claims of the most enthusiastic 
votaries of the natural method] were first formu- 
lated, the details of the system have grown by a 
not unnatural accretion, until they include a great 
mass of pedagogical material, some of which is 
about as much the especial property of the natural 
method as spectrum analysis is an individual pre- 
rogative of the pupils of Helm hoi tz. From one 
point of view, this is, perhaps, not to be depre- 
cated ; for, through the active proselytizing of its 
disciples, sound pedagogical principles have ob- 
tained a currency and found their way where 
otherwise they might not so easily have pene- 
trated." 

Then the rational method " would, above 
all, use the language taught at every possible 
opportunity, and make its practical acquisition 
the one end in view." Ever since the natural 
method has been brought to light, its advocates 
have preached and practised the rule of using the 
language taught at every possible opportunity ; and 
some teachers have, in fact, acquired such a skill 
in using the language taught that they never will 
use any other while teaching ; nor do they lose 
any more time while explaining or giving defini- 
tions than a teacher of the old method would by 
using English. 

Third, according to a rational method, "the 
grammar and dictionary are effete in modern- 
language instruction if they are (aught for them- 
selves alone." I believe no one has as yet re- 
proached the natural method for having ever 
taught grammar and dictionary * for themselves 
alone.' 

Fourth, a rational method would give the good 
advice, " Regard them [dictionary and grammar] 
as they should be regarded, as auxiliaries, and 
employ them in that way." During more than 
twenty years the advocates of the natural method 
have been teaching constantly this doctrine, which 



their opponents explained in their own way. ac- 
cusing the method of neglecting the teaching of 
grammar, while the criticism justly should have 
been directed against the untborough, unsysto- 
matical, go-as-you-please way of certain teachers 
they bad met with. But, if they had been pres- 
ent for a single hour in a class conducted by the 
founder of the method, they would have had the 
opportunity of seeing grammar taught syste- 
matically, after the inductive method ; and had 
they asked the question, " Why are the words 
'without dictionary and grammar' printed on 
the titlepages of your books and pamphlets ?'* 
tbey would have received his answer : "If yon 
call this [referring to his teaching the principles 
of the construction of the language] grammar, 
you are at liberty to tell the world that I teach 
grammar." And, indeed, critics should know 
this, once and forever : the natural method not 
only teaches grammar, but teaches it more thor- 
oughly than possibly could be done by the old 
method. 1 

Fifth, the rational method " would have ex- 
tracts furnished at the outset with a special vocab- 
ulary which would be learned." Almost every 
one of the many readers published already for the 
natural method gives a large supply of such ex- 
tracts ; and they are in some of the best of these 
readers so selected and arranged that the words 
must necessarily impress themselves on the stu- 
dent's mind without an> memorizing at all. 

Sixth, " later on " the rational method '* would 
inculcate the use of the dictionary." The natural 
method is always ready to comply with this de- 
mand, though it must respectfully decline to take 
a text-book of grammar as a ' cornerstone ;' and, 
in this view, it has on its side the opinions of 
learned men of various times. 9 

A great deal has been said of late about the 

1 See 'Apian for twenty-eight lessons for the class in 
French,' or i Program of October, 1886,' both published by 
Stern's School of languages of New York City. 

a « One can learn the grammar from the language, and 
not the language from the grammar."— Johann Gottfried 
von Hbrder. 

Prof. Rudolph HUdebrand, editor of the great German 
dictionary begun by Grimm, says in * Vom deutschen Sprach- 
unterricht in der Schule,' " Der Lehrer des Deutschen sollte 
nichts lehren was die Schiller selbst aus sich flnden k5n- 
nen." 

"One should begin with the spoken language with 
sentences, and from the audible language one should pro- 
ceed to written language. Reading must be considered as 
the centra of language-teaching, and in connection with it 
grammar must be taught Inductively : the learner must be 
guided so as to find for himself the laws of language." — In- 
ternationale Zeitschrift fiir aUgemeine Sprachwiteenschaft, 
band 1L heft 1 (Leipsig). 

"The language is not to be learned from the grammar, 
but from and through the language." — Schradbr, vtt, p. 241. 

"The grammar must not precede, but follow." — Graf 
von Pfbil, in Wie ternt man einefrtmde Sprache, p. 31. 



Jahuakt 21, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



71 



name * the natural method,' and of the success 
being doe to that name. For those who lay so 
much stress on the name, it will be interesting 
to learn that neither the founder of the method, 
nor some of the most prominent exponents, had 
any thing to do with the giving of the name. One 
of Harvard's learned professors has done the 
method the honor to christen it ; and a research 
after the true motives for selecting just that 
name, with all its meanings, is certainly a worthy 
subject for investigation. But to attribute the 
popularity of the method solely or mostly to its 
name, seems hardly to be reasonable. To my 
judgment, it is the truth of the method, the 
zeal and energy of its followers, and the much- 
felt need of better methods in general, which 
explain the conquering power of the natural 
method. Sigmon M. Stern. 



THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 1 

The profound significance of the teacher's pro- 
fession is not yet properly recognized. Many men, 
of considerable intelligence even, think that school 
education covers too narrow a field of life to have 
facts and principles capable of constituting a 
science, and that teachers of common schools are 
but day-laborers, having no professional standing, 
and hence needing no professional training. On this 
account, our normal schools will have many trials 
to meet, and many difficulties to overcome, before 
reaching the position towards wbicb they are 
struggling. 

As yet. our advanced high schools and colleges 
do not supply these schools with a sufficient num- 
ber of students whose thorough literary attain- 
ments warrant a more exclusively professional 
course of studies. In fact, our normal schools are 
necessitated to do this preparatory academic work 
themselves. In this way they render themselves 
liable to the charge of being only academies with 
a quasi-professional annex. 

We have all along very much regretted the 
necessity of directing so much attention to the 
academic training of the students in these schools, 
and have carefully studied how to keep the purely 
professional element from being too much neg- 
lected, without, at the same time, sacrificing the 
thorough literary instruction required. 

The large supply of teachers required for the 
educational work of the state, and the very low 
average of salaries given for educational labor, 
make it almost impossible to lengthen very much 
the present term of study. Some, with great 
earnestness, have advocated the addition of an- 

1 From toe annual report of EL E. Hlgbee, superln end- 
ent of public Instruction of the state of Pennsylvania. 



other year. In due time this will come, and be 
of immense account in enlarging the sphere of 
professional studies, and giving opportunity for 
more definite and continuous model practice, 
which, when rightly conducted, is of so much 
value. 

The literary instruction may have been given 
in harmony with the best principles which the 
present philosophy of school education is able to 
give, and in such form as to bring into view the 
very best methods which either the science or 
art of teaching furnishes. We are not calling 
this in question at all ; but we must keep in mind 
that the students, at the very outset, are back- 
ward in their literary studies, and have but little 
knowledge of psychology. Hence they are forced 
to make every exertion in preparing for their 
daily class-work, and must be, of necessity, far 
more anxious about the matter of what is taught 
than about the manner or method of teaching it. 
They fear to spend any more time in the model 
school than is absolutely required by law. They 
make the minimum here the maximum, if they 
can. In addition to this, being subject at the 
close of the course to a rigid state examination, 
covering all the academic studies pursued, they, 
with their professors, are tempted to sacrifice all 
efforts towards enlarging the course of profes- 
sional studies through fear of the issue of the 
final examination-test. 

Although the course of studies as now arranged 
is not very satisfactory to us, and will need, in 
our judgment, some important changes, yet we 
have felt constrained to approve it on account of 
our great anxiety that the graduating year should 
be given more fully to the work of professional 
training, taking up the whole history and science 
of school-teaching, and illustrating in detail the 
psychological ground of every method by a greatly 
enlarged course of practice in the model school. 
Such practice, in our judgment, is very essential. 
Indeed, it sustains the same relation to the normal- 
school studies as a moot-court does to a law-school. 
Here theory finds verification ; here principles pass 
into direct conscious application ; here science 
makes its transition to art; here the furnished 
scholar learns to handle with vigor his whole 
armor, as a page when he became a belted knight 
and entered the tourney. The teacher needs 
scholarship, of course, but he needs something 
more : he must have knowledge, and, at the same 
time, thoroughly master the art of imparting it. 
To this end our normal schools were established ; 
in this direction they steadily tend. In the above 
plan, however, no one thought for a moment of 
not holding with firm grasp the essential truth 
that professional knowledge cannot exclude schol- 



72 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 807 



arship. Evidently, he who knows not the subject 
to be taught can never be a master of the method 
of teaching it. 

It is plain that all our teachers cannot have the 
benefit of a professional training in our state nor- 
mal schools. The number is too great for us to 
expect this. It is important, therefore, that they 
use every opportunity within their reach to ad- 
vance their professional zeal and skill. Well-con- 
ducted teachers' institutes are exceedingly valua- 
ble for this purpose ; indeed, in our judgment, 
indispensable. It is not out of place here to men- 
tion in brief some of the benefits derived from 
these institutes. Teachers, especially in our coun- 
try districts, are much isolated. They need the 
inspiration gained from association. Engrossed 
with their daily routine of labor, and deprived of 
all chance of any frequent consultation with oth- 
ers of their own vocation, their work is in danger 
of becoming a monotonous task, lacking all in- 
citement to that professional zeal which prompts 
to new exertion and sweetens every toil. These 
yearly conventions serve, in a great measure, to 
keep up the esprit de corps, and to give rest and 
recreation so much needed and so valuable, while 
each teacher feels the support of, and enjoys com- 
munion with, the profession at large. Again, by 
means of the pointed instruction of experienced 
educators, many difficulties are removed, better 
methods suggested, troubling mistakes corrected, 
N false tendencies thwarted, and new inspiration 
aroused. Through valuable lectures and addresses, 
educational interest is awakened, and the warm 
sympathy of large communities gained in behalf of 
the schools. Parents and teachers and directors 
come face to face, and the duties and responsibili- 
ties of each are more clearly understood. It would 
be a fatal mistake not to encourage these institutes 
in every possible way. 



LUDWIQ WIESE. 



In his review of Wiese's Lebenserinnerurigen 
u. Amtserfahrungen, published in the Berliner 
phUologische wochenschrift, Professor Paulsen pays 
a warm tribute to Wiese's character and pedago- 
gical work. He describes Wiese's life as that of 
a healthy, strong, enthusiastic, frank, and self- 
confident personality, and calls his life a rich and 
happy one in the true sense of the Aristotelian 
definition. Wiese was born at Herford in 1806, 
and from 1826 to 1829 studied theology and philol- 
ogy at the University of Berlin. His activity as a 
teacher began in the Friedrich-Wilhelms gymna- 
sium, and in 1881 he was called as con-rector to 
the gymnasium at Clausthal. In 1837 he accepted 
an appointment at the celebrated Joachimthal- 



isches Gymnasium, and worked there until he 
appointed to an office in the ministry of education 
in 1852. Wiese's early teaching pointed out for 
him the demands of sound methods of instruc- 
tion. He himself says, "The perception that the 
majority of the pupils understood the rules as laid 
down only with much difficulty, suggested to me 
to begin with the demonstration of an example, 
letting them discover the rule for themselves 
from it. Such examples as commended them- 
selves as suitable for this process I brought to- 
gether as Normalsatze, and, having dictated them 
to the pupils, caused them to be learned by heart ; 
which was done willingly and easily. The result 
was surprising, and the written themes soon 
showed a pleasing correctness. It was the begin- 
ning of a grammar invented from examples.'' 
While a teacher at the Joachimthalisches Gym- 
nasium, Wiese made a journey to Italy and one 
to England. The letters which he wrote home 
to a friend about the English educational estab- 
lishments were published as 'German letters 
about English education.' In 1852 he was in- 
trusted by Minister von Raumer with the super- 
vision of the secondary school organization of 
Prussia, and for twenty-three years he held this 
office under four successive ministers of educa- 
tion. In 1875 the governmental policy of Kultur- 
kampf brought about bis resignation. The two 
aims of Wiese's official life were, first, the con- 
fining the curricula of the gymnasia within proper 
bounds; and, secondly, the restoration to the 
gymnasia of the former Christian character. Pro- 
fessor Paulsen's estimate of Wiese's influence is 
kindly but cautious, and it probably well repre- 
sents the esteem in which the veteran educator is 
held in his native land. 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GEOGRAPHICAL 

NAMES. 

The importance of geographical names in con- 
nection with the teaching of history and philology 
is almost entirely overlooked by teachers. These 
subjects acquire an added interest if linked to- 
gether in this way, and details are better retained 
in the memory if provided with these associations. 
The following account of the word 'Donau' is 
translated from the Zeitschrift fur das realschul- 
toesen, and serves as an example of how history, 
geography, and philology may be connected in 
teaching. The points of contact, and the lines in 
which they can be developed, are apparent. 

The Greeks (Herodotus, ii. 88) applied the name 
* Donau ' (Greek, * Istroe ; ' Roman form, ' Ister ' 
or 'Hister') to the entire stream, and used it 
almost exclusively, though their later authors 




Jahuabx 31, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



73 



also knew of the the Celtic name, 'Danuvius,' 
which had become known to the Romans. {The 
Greeks learned the name 'Istros' from the 
Thracians, and applied it as the general name for 
the river, from the point where the stream issued 
from the mountains as far as the Thracians occu- 
pied its banks. Yet it does not follow necessarily 
that the name ' Istros ' is of Thracian origin, as it 
may have been used still earlier by the ancient 
niyrians who inhabited that country. It is trace- 
able, probably, to the Aryan root sru (• to flow '), 
from which is also derived the name ' Strymon.' 

' Danubius ' or * Danuvius ' is the Latinized form 
of the Slavic name, from which don is derived, 
and which in composition becomes dan. An- 
ciently this Latinized name was only used for 
the middle part of the stream. The Slavic root 
don (• water, river ') appears in the names of many 
other rivers : for example. Don, Dwina, Dniester, 
Dnieper, and so forth. In the ' Nibelungenlied ' 
the Donau is called Tuonowe, that is, the river 
Tuon. To the name ' Don ' the German aha, aa 
(' river'), is added, and in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries the forms Dunaw, Tonaw, Donaw, 
first appear. 



THE STUDY OF BROWNING. 

There can be no question that the picking- 
apart process to which, under the exigencies of 
instruction in grammar and parsing, Milton and 
Shakspeare, Addison and Macaulay, are alike sub- 
jected, is an evil. It may or may not be a neces- 
sary evil: if it is, its effect should be subse- 
quently counteracted as far as possible ; if it is 
not, it should be done away witb. The pupil who 
is always on the lookout for inverted sentences, 
modifying clauses, and auxiliary verbs, cannot 
appreciate the literary beauty of an author ; and 
so it seems to us that the elementary details of 
grammar and the exercises for parsing might 
profitably be based on something less lasting and 
beautiful than the classics of the language. These 
details to which we have reference must undoubt- 
edly be mastered ; but could they not be mastered 
from current literature, reserving the classics for 
models of style and diction, and for the cultiva- 
tion of a refined literary taste and a sound literary 
judgment? 

If this dissection of the classics is a necessary 
evil, then great care should he taken to follow it 
up in the higher grades with the reading of a se- 
ries of authors, such as Chaucer, Spenser, Shak- 
speare, Milton, Hooker, Addison, Steele, Burke, 
Macaulay, Tennyson, Browning, and their fel- 

An introduction to the etudp of Robert Brotening's poetry. 
By Hibam COHOX, LLD. Boston, Heath, 1886. 18°. 



lows, not with a view to parsing them correctly, 
but with the endeavor to understand and appre- 
ciate them. Professor Corson has given us a book 
on his hero, which would serve excellently for the 
purpose we have indicated. 

Mr. Browning has bis critics, but few poets have 
been favored during their lifetime with so numer- 
ous and energetic a body of devoted students and 
admirers as he has, both in this country and in 
England. Of these, Professor Corson is among 
the most enthusiastic; and his personal work, 
and the interest excited by his lectures, have led 
to the formation of many of the Browning clubs 
now at work throughout the United States. In 
the present work, he has given students of Eng- 
lish literature an example of what we referred to 
above as the real end to be gained by the study of 
a great poet or prose writer. We do not want 
to parse 'Paracelsus,' • Andrea del Sarto,' and 
1 Rabbi Ben Ezra,' but we want to read them to 
discover the thoughts they convey and the feelings 
they portray : in other words, we want to study 
them as literature ; and this is precisely what Pro- 
fessor Corson's book helps us to do. His admira- 
tion for Browning is well-nigh unbounded. For 
example : he says, " Robert Browning is in him- 
self the completest fulfilment of this equipoise of 
the intellectual and the spiritual, possessing each 
in an exalted degree ; and his poetry is an empha- 
sized expression of his own personality, and a 
prophecy of the ultimate results of Christian civ- 
ilization" (p. 81). "It was never truer of any 
author than it is true of Browning, that Le style 
e'esf VJiomme ; and Browning's style is an expres- 
sion of the panther-restlessness and panther-spring 
of his impassioned intellect. The musing spirit 
of a Wordsworth or a Tennyson he partakes not 
of" (p. 75). The criticism so often made, that 
Browning's style is involved and obscure, Profes- 
sor Corson notices, and attempts to answer. He 
says that a truly original writer like Browning 
is always difficult to the uninitiated, and that the 
poet's favorite art-form is also somewhat of an ob- 
stacle to the beginner. This art-form is, of course, 
the ' dramatic or psychologic monologue,' which 
differs from the soliloquy, as Professor Johnson 
(quoted by the author in a footnote, p. 85) has 
pointed out, in supposing the presence of a silent 
second person to whom the arguments of the 
speaker are addressed. In addition to these 
characteristics and to his peculiar collocations of 
words, Professor Corson finds four peculiarities of 
Browning's diction which are by some readers 
held to render him obscure. These are, 1°, the 
suppression of the relative, whether nominative, 
accusative, or dative ; 2°, the use of the infinitive 
without the preposition to in cases not warranted 



74 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 207 



by present usage ; 8°, the use of tbe simple form 
of the past subjunctive derived from the Anglo- 
Saxon inflectional form and identical with that of 
the past indicative, instead of the modern analytic 
form ; 4° ,the use of the dative or indirect object 
without to or far. But Professor Corson hesitates 
to condemn even these : he thinks that " they of- 
ten impart a crispnees to the expressions in which 
they occur" (p. 81). At all events, they render 
Browning's thoughts less accessible to the general 
reader than they might otherwise be. Professor 
Corson's essays on the idea of personality, and of 
art as an intermediate agency of personality in 
Browning, on Browning's obscurity and his verse, 
and his analytic arguments of the poems that are 
appended, are very suggestive, and will repay not 
only reading, but study. 

COMPAYRE'S ELEMENTARY PSYCHOLOGY. 

M. CoMPAYKfi is ro well known to students of 
pedagogy, and Professor Payne's translation of his 
< History of pedagogy ' has bad so favorable a re- 
ception in this country, that his present book on 
psychology, and that on ethics, promised in March, 
will attract considerable attention. 

In the little book now before us, the author, 
with the skill and lucidity of a true Frenchman, 
sketches the main topics of elementary psychology. 
M. Compayre begins by expounding in a few brief 
paragraphs the character and utility of psychol- 
ogy, and its relations to ethics, pedagogics, his- 
tory, grammar, and literature. In speaking of 
the method of psychology, he mentions the dis- 
tinction, so generally overlooked, between the sci- 
entific study of psychology and the elementary 
teaching of it. M. Compayre remarks that we do 
not confuse an historian and a teacher of history, 
and complains that authors of text-books of psy- 
chology should preserve a similar distinction in 
their science (p. 11). 

In touching on the relations of psychological to 
physiological facts, he finds three points of differ- 
ence between them (pp. 32, 88). First, the two 
categories of phenomena are not known in the 
same way. Second, the ph>eiological phenomena 
are material movements: the psychological phe- 
nomena are something else than material move- 
ments. Third, the two sets of phenomena are in 
a certain sense independent of each other. 

Then, accepting tbe usual classification of men- 
tal phenomena into those of knowledge, feeling, 
and will, M. Compayre enters upon the discussion 
of each. We can best represent his positions by 
quoting some brief passages dealing with contro- 
verted points in psychology : " De plus en plus. 

Notions ile'mentaires de psychologic. Par Gabriel Com- 
PATrA. Paris, Delaploue, 1887. 16°. 



le mot ame est devenu synonyme de principe 
spiritual, qui sent, qui pense et qui vent** 
(p. 89) ; "La sensibilite, sous toutes see 
formes, peut 6tre definie la faculU deprou- 
ver du plaisir et de la peine, et par conse- 
quent d aimer et de hair " (p. 55) ; " Ces principes 
constituent ce qu'ou appelle la raieon, c'eet-a-dire 
tout ce qui est inne a Intelligence, par opposi- 
tion & V experience, c'est-A-dire a tout ce qui est 
acquis " (p. 74) ; •' La raison, au sens psycholo- 
gique, est rensemble des notions et dee verites 
qui ne derivent ni de l'experience ni des oorobi- 
naisonsde l'experience " (p. 189); "Les verites de 
la raison sont innees en ce sens qu'elles preexist- 
ent a l'experience comme autant de dispositions 
naturelles ; mais l'experience est necessaire pour 
les developper et les determiner" (p. 191). 

The value of the work as an elementary 
text-book is enhanced by the brief resumes given 
of each chapter, and by a lexicon of proper 
names and technical terms used in the book. 
Should the book be translated into English, as we 
understand is contemplated, it would be a decided 
addition to our elementary works on psychology. 



PAYNES CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 
SCIENCE OF EDUCATION. 

Professor Payne's volume of essays might, 
we suppose, following Max Mailer's precedent, be 
entitled ' Chips from a Michigan workshop.' They 
are very plainly the results of the thinking done 
by the author on the educational problems sug- 
gested by his daily work. The first question we 
are tempted to ask is, Will they do any good ? It 
must be remembered that a volume of this sort 
reaches a class of readers who are already more 
or less imbued with the author's views. It comes 
to them as a word of cheer and encouragement. 
But we should like to hear that Professor Payne's 
essays were reaching the indolent, untrained 
teacher, who believes that general information — 
and not too much of that — is the only prepara- 
tion necessary for the teacher ; and the loquacious 
and sarcastic sceptic, who has no trouble at all in 
proving — to his own satisfaction — the theorem 
that there is and can be no such thing as a science 
of education. We do not mean to say that Pro- 
fessor Payne's book would thoroughly arouse and 
convert such readers, for it is a trifle heavy, and 
conspicuously lacking in a certain attractiveness 
in style and arrangement that goes far to make a 
book successful ; but it certainly would open up 
unknown regions to them, and stimulate further 
thought and inquiry. With the question, Is there , 

Contributions to the science of education. By William 
H. Payne, A.M. New York, Harper* 1886. 18°. 



Jaxvamt 21, 1887 ] 



SCIENCE. 



75 



a science of pedagogics ? the author grapples at 
the outset ; and while he reaches an affirmative 
answer, which we believe to be the proper one, he 
does so in a ponderous and not very direct man- 
ner. The following chapters, some of the titles 
of which are * The science of education, its na- 
ture, its method, and some of its problems,' * Con- 
tribution to the science of education values,' 
4 The mode of educational progress,' * The potency 
of ideas and ideals,' * Lessons from the history of 
education,' 'The secularization of the school,' 
* Teaching as a trade and as a profession,' ' Edu- 
cation as a university study,' * The institute and 
the reading-circle,' offer us excellent samples of 
what the scope of pedagogics is ; for its points of 
tangency with psychology, ethics, and history, as 
well as the fact that it includes both theory and 
practice, are all indicated. Professor Payne 
says so much and on so many subjects, that we 
can best give an idea of his thought and method 
of treatment by letting him speak for himself. 
For example : in protesting against the erection 
of infant psychology, and therefore infant educa- 
tion, into a science apart, he says : — 

" I am very far from denying that there are 
differences between a child's mind and a man's 
mind ; but I insist that these are differences in 
degree or power, and not in constitution. It is 
freely admitted that these differences in power 
should be observed and heeded, and that mothers 
and nurses may do some real service by their reg- 
istration of the phenomena of infant life. What 
I protest against is the present tendency to exag- 
gerate these differences, and to assume that the 
child's education must be considered quite apart, 
as though he were a being sui generis. I venture 
to express the belief that one of the most serious 
errors in primary teaching arises from an exagger- 
ated notion of the differences between child mind 
and mature mind. Some observed difference fur- 
nishes the devoted enthusiast with a clew ; and 
then this clew is followed up so persistently, and 
so far, that one section of the child's mind is 
aroused to preternatural activity, while another 
section lies unused and torpid. It is observed, for 
example, that the sense activities predominate in 
childhood. The teacher lays hold of this clew, 
and there is such a persistent and copious feeding 
of the senses, that the physical section of the 
child's mind becomes abnormally active, and the 
intellectual section as abnormally inactive. It 
would seem to me a great gain if there were to 
be a return towards the older conception that the 
child and the man are essentially one, and that 
for infancy, childhood, and youth, there should 
be considerable sameness in instruction " (p. 19). 

•• The accomplished teacher should be a man of 



science in the sense that the accomplished physi- 
cian is a man of science. I am persuaded that 
the motive which most attracts minds of the 
higher order into certain vocations is the oppor- 
tunity for the free exercise of tact, talent, inge- 
nuity, invention, discovery, and all the resources 
of a well-stored and well-disciplined mind. Minds 
of the better order love to take chances, to run 
risks, to anticipate the new, and to compass by 
sagacity some victory over danger and difficulty. 
To all such minds, the possibility of achievement 
is an inspiring motive of the highest order" 
(p. 291). 

" The manifest tendency of the times is towards 
the secularization of the school. The modern 
state has become an educator, and relegates reli- 
gious instruction to the family and the church" 
(p. 216). 

Lack of space forbids our quoting further, but 
we recommend Professor Payne's book to all who 
can appreciate earnest thought on educational 
subjects. 



DAS V0LKSSCHULWE8EN IM PREUSS- 
1SCHEN STAATE. 

If the three large volumes of the compilation 
of Schneider and von Bremen, of which the first 
is before us, are provided with a good index, they 
will be invaluable for the student of the Prussian 
educational system and its development. If the 
index should be wanting, or not thoroughly made, 
the immense amount of material contained in the 
volumes will be effectually buried. The first vol- 
ume is a large octavo of nearly a thousand pages, 
and contains the official regulations regarding " die 
Stellung der Behdrden und Beamten, die Ausbil- 
dung und die Stellung dee Lehrers ; " and it is safe 
to say, basing the assertion on such an examina- 
tion as we have made of the book, that not a sin- 
gle point is left untouched. The second volume 
will treat of " die Organisation und Verwaltung 
der Schulgemeinde; " and the third, of " die Schul- 
pflicht, der Privatunterricht, die Schulzucht, der 
Unterricht in den verschiedenen Volksschulen." 
Our information about the secondary schools and 
universities of Germany is usually more full and 
explicit than that concerning the popular schools ; 
but, with this work of reference at hand, we need 
no longer be in ignorance of the minutest detail 
concerning the latter. It must be borne in mind, 
too, that the official organ of the ministry of pub- 
lic instruction in Prussia, the Centralbiatt fUr die 
geaammte Unterrichtsverwaltung im Preuaaeny is in 

Dew Volktschultcfen im preuuuehen Stoote, in Syttema- 
tischer ZutammemteUung der Oeaetze und Verordnungen, 
etc Complied by Dr. K. Schneider und C. von Bremen. 
Berlin, Hertx, 1888. 8°. 



76 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 207 



ite twenty-seventh year of publication, and that 
it is difficult, if not impossible, to procure the 
earlier volumes. The present work, by reason of 
its having used the material of the CentralMatt, 
serves as a substitute for the first twenty-six vol- 
umes of the latter, and is therefore especially to 
he recommended to libraries which have not a set 
of the CentraMatL 

The school-laws are here codified according to 
their place in the system, and not chronologically, 
which is an undoubted gain, especially to the for- 
eign reader ; and, as the dates of the various laws 
are always appended, nothing is lost by the change. 
As is the case with most compilations of this 
character, we are obliged to read a great deal that 
we care nothing about in order to reach the data 
of which we may be in search. But we should be 
willing to put up even with German prolixity and 
minuteness in order to gain so indispensable a 
work of reference as this is. 



cessible," it is not likely to become a valuable help 
to the specialist. 

The illustrations are in most cases badly ex- 
ecuted and sometimes misleading. 



DAWSON'S ZOOLOGY. 

One dislikes to severely criticise a book bearing 
on its titlepage such a widely and justly honored 
name as that of Sir J. W. Dawson, and yet it is 
difficult to see what good purpose is to be served 
by this work. The author sets forth his object as, 
" to furnish to students, collectors, and summer 
tourists in Canada, an outline of the classification 
of the animal kingdom, with examples taken, as 
far as possible, from species found in this coun- 
try." From the footnote on p. 6, it would also 
seem that it is intended as a text-book. Eighteen 
small pages are devoted to a consideration of the 
animal tissues and functions, twelve more to the 
subject of classification in general, and the re- 
mainder of the book to ' descriptive zoology/ As 
may be inferred, the account of the tissues, etc., 
is very inadequate ; and such a statement as that 
protoplasm is albumen (p. 6.) does not tend to 
give confidence in the accuracy of the work. 
There is not a satisfactory account given of the 
structure of any single animal or group : the 
most important thing to be learned of an animal 
would seem to be its name, and the name and defi- 
nition of the group to which it belongs. Nor are 
the views of classification, in some cases, such as 
will find general acceptance among naturalists. 

As a text-book, this work will not, we fear, 
prove satisfactory ; the amateur will not find it 
easy to identify his collections by its aid ; and, 
while there may be in it "many facts derived 
from original observation, and not otherwise ac- 

Handbook of Modlogy. By Sir J. W. Dawson. Montreal, 
D*w*mBro$. t 1898. 



Dr. Washington Matthews, surgeon in the 
U. 8. army, has made a valuable contribution on 
the causes which are at work in carrying off the 
Indians of our country. One of the most impor- 
tant of these he finds to be consumption. From 
the census of 1880 we learn, that, while the death- 
rate among Europeans is 17.74 per thousand, and 
that among Africans 17.28, the rate among the In- 
dians is no less than 28.6. In diarrhoea! diseases 
the Indian death-rate is not greatly in excess of 
that of the other classes. Measles gives a mortal- 
ity of 61.78 per thousand. But it is under the 
head of consumption that the difference between 
the Indians and the blacks is most conspicuous ; 
the rate among the former being 286 as compared 
with 186 among the latter, while among the whites 
it is but 166 in the thousand. Dr. Matthews finds, 
that, where the Indians have been longest under 
civilizing influences, the consumption-rate is the 
highest; meaning by the term 'consumption- 
rate ' the number of deaths from consumption in 
a thousand deaths from all known causes. Thus 
the rate among reservation Indians in Nevada is 
45; in Dakota, 200; in Michigan, 888; and in 
New York, 625. The evidence appears to show 
that consumption increases among Indians under 
the influence of civilization, — i.e., under a com- 
pulsory endeavor to accustom themselves to the 
, food and the habits of an alien and more advanced 
race, — and that climate is no calculable factor of 
this increase. It is a general supposition on the 
frontier that it is change of diet which is the most 
potent remote cause of consumption among the 
Indians. Dr. Matthews says he once knew of a 
previously healthy Indian camp of about two 
thousand people, where, in one winter, when the 
buffalo left their country, and they subsisted on 
flour and bacon furnished by the government, the 
majority were attacked by scurvy, and about sev- 
enty died of the disease. It is, however, also as- 
certained that the consumption-rate is high at 
agencies where the supply of beef is liberal, and, 
as has already been said, especially high among 
the Indians of New York and Michigan, whose 
diet is by no means a restricted one. It is evident 
that the true explanation for this remarkable pre- 
disposition of the red-man to pulmonary tubercu- 
losis has not yet been given, and that a fruitful 
field is open to those whose qualifications and 
tastes lead them into such investigations as 
these. 



Jakuabt 31, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



77 



Contents of foreign educational periodicals. 

P&dagogisches archiv, Dec. 8. — Bericht fiber die 
abteilung fur natnrwissenacbaftlichen onterricht auf 
der 69. Versammlung deutacher natnrfoncher and 
&rzte in Berlin, 1886. — Die neueren phUologischen 
beatrebungen der Franzoeen, Dr. L. Schmidt. — 
Konstitnirende versammluDg sur begrunduog eines 
' Deutachen einbeitsscbulvereins ' eu Hannover, Dr. 
L. Viereck. — Beurteilungen, anseigen, u.i.w. 

Zeitschrift fUr schul - geographic, December. — 
Daa geographiache museum am Mariafailfer Gymna- 
sium in Wien. — Ein tellurium mit elliptiacher erd- 
babn und ein neues planetarium, Dr. Adolf Dronke. 

— Der geograpbische leitfaden. — Beitrag in einer 
morpbologie dee Koemoa, H. Habenicht. — Der Mit- 
telrhein nnd aein Vnlcangebiet. — Notiien, u.i.w. 

Canada educational monthly, January. — Notes 
upon habits, Prof.M.Macvicar. — Annual convocation 
of Queen's university, N. F. Dupuis. — Prose poems. 

— Tbe curriculum of a French lycee, W. H. Fraser. 

— Notes for teachers. — Correspondence, etc. 
Educational times, January. — On matter and 

force : nomenclature and methods of elementary dy- 
namics. — Meeting of the Council of the college of 
preceptors — Education in India. — University and 
college intelligence. — Educational progress of the 
past half* century. — Changes in the head- master- 
ships of the great public schools during the past 
year. — Rugby under Dr. Jex- Blake. — The Harvard 
celebration. — Report of the teachers' training syn- 
dicate at Cambridge. — Reviews, notices, etc. 
Journal of education, January. — Occasional notes. 

— English literature in public schools. — The con- 
ference of head masters. — Dr. Jowett on Boswell's 
'Johnson.' — Reviews. — Women and culture, Mrs. 
William Grey. — A fair field and no favor. — Corre- 
spondence. — The teachers' guild of Great Britain 
and Ireland. — Notices of books. — Foreign notes. — 
Schools and universities. — Our translation prise. — 
The training of the faculties of judgment and reason- 
ing (concluded). — Education in Australia (concluded). 

— Geographical exhibition and conference at Brad- 
ford. 



Educational articles in miscellaneous periodicals. 

Bert's science in politics. Madame Adam. Con- 
temporary review, January. 

Contemporary philosophy in France. Unsigned. New 
Princeton review, January. 

Delegation franchise auz Etats-Unis ; notes de voy- 
age. Charles Bigot. Revue politique et littcraire, 
Dec. 11 and 18. 

Earthquakes. Archibald Geikie. Oood words, Janu- 
ary. 

Education intellectuelle, 1'. Paul Lafitte. Revue 
politique et Htteraire, Dec. 18. 

Evolution of language. Unsigned. Knowledge, 
January. 

Faculty de medecine de Paris en 1886-86, la. M. 
Beclard. Revue eeientifique, Dec. 18. 

Geologic et la geographic, la. M. Charles Velain. 
Revue scientifique, Dec. 18. 

How I was educated. James B. Angell. Forum, 
January. 

Industrial education in America. W. Odell. Nature, 
Dec. 2. 



[A notice of the government document on this sub- 
ject, prepared by Mr. J. E. Clarke.] 
Lowell on education. Unsigned. New Princeton 

review, January. 
Lower education of women, the. Helen M'Kerlie. 

Contemporary review, January. 
Mathematical tripos, the. J.W. L. Glaisher. Nature, 

Dec. 2. 
Origin of comets and meteors. Richard A. Proctor. 

Knowledge, January. 
Origines de la Bible, les. Ernest Renan. Revue des 

deux Monde*, Dec. 1. 
Origines de la chimie, les : metaux et mineraux de 

l'antique Chaldee. M. Berthelot. Revue scien- 

Hflque, Dec. 11. 
Peril alcoolique, le. J. S. Morand. NouveUe revue, 

Dec. 15. 
Possible limitations of the elective system, II. Prof. 

George H. Palmer. Andover review, January. 
[This article closes the discussion as to the extent 

and merits of the elective system, introduced by 

Professor Palmer a year ago.] 
Present position of philosophy in Britain, the. Henry 

Calderwood. New Princeton review, January. 
Religion in the public schools. Archibald Alexander 

Hodge. New Princeton review, January. 
Science in Norway. Unsigned. Nature, Dec. 9. 
Science notes. W. Mattieu Williams. Gentleman's 

magazine, January. 
Travail psychique et la force chimiqoe, le. Charles 

Richet. Revue scientifique, Dec. 18. 
Ueber die Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung u. deren an- 

wendung auf die statistik. W. Lexis. Jahr- 

oucher fUr NationaldJoonomie u. Statistik, Nov. 

18. 
University education in the United States. Charles 

E. Adams. Contemporary review, January. 

Publications received at Editor's Office, Jan. 10-15. 

Andrews, T. Effect of temperature on the strength of railway 

axles. London, Inst. civ. eng. 33 p. xa°. 
Barrows, Isabel C., *d. Proceedings of the national conference 

of charities and correction, at the thirteenth annual session 

held in St. Paul, Minn.. July 15-91, 1886. Boston, G. H. 

Ellis. ta+457P. 8°. 
Bblrose, Louis, Jr. To the poet-laureate. Washington, Bren- 

tano. 4 p. 1 6°. 
Brifpault, F. Constantinople water-works. London, Inst. civ. 

eng. xx p. xa°. 
Clark, J. S. A practical rhetoric for instruction in English 

composition and revision in colleges and intermediate schools. 

New York, Holt. 381 p. xa°. 
Cowan, D. The Carron iron works. Scotland. London, Inst. 

civ. eng. 15 p. xa°. 
Ends, M. am. Formulas for the weights of girder bridges. 

London. Inst. civ. eng. 8 p. ia°. 
FdRSTSR, M. von. Compressed gun cotton for military use. Tr. 

by J. P. Wisser, with introduction on modern gun cotton. 

New York, Van Nostrand. 164 p. 34°. 50 cents. 
Gruembwald, J. R. Description of the viaduct over the river 

Retiro. London, Inst. civ. eng. 4 p. xa°. 
Hunter, G. M. Locomotive engine- ana carriage-sheds as used 

on the Caledonian railway. London, Inst. civ. eng. 13 p. 

ia°. 
King, M. Harvard and its surroundings. 7th ed. Boston, 

Rand Avery company, xoa p. 16 . 
Martin and Wetzlbr. The electric motor and its applications. 

New York, Johnston. ao8 p. f°. $3. 
Massachusetts fish and game commissioners, report of, for year 

ending Dec. 31, x886. (Pub. doc. No. 35.) Boston, State. 

91 p. 8°. 
Philbrick, P. H. Beams and girders. New York, Van Nostrand. 

x 59 P* *4°« so cents. 
Schwatka, F. Report of a military reconnaissance in Alaska, 

made in 1883. Washington, Government, tax p. 8*. 
Secular thought. Vol. i. No. 1. Toronto, Charles Watts. $«. 
U. S. naval academy, Annapolis, Md., annual register of, 1885-86. 

Washington, Government. 70 p. 8°. 



78 



SCIENCE. 



[Voi.. IX., No. 907 



U. S. natal advisory board* report of, on mild steel. Washington , 

Government. 2x6 p. 8°. 
— — department. Annual report of the hydrographer to the 

bureau of navigation for the year ending June 30, 1886. 

Washington, Government. 51 p. 8°. 
U. S. sbnatb. Report of the select committee on ordnance and 

war ships, with appendix. Washington, Government. 51a p. 

8°. 
Whitnby, W. D. Practical French grammar. New York, Holt. 

44a p. il°. 



Calendar of Societies. 



Philosophical society, Washington. 

Jan. 15. — G. K. Gilbert, The graphic method in 
research ; G. D. Walcott, Geologic age of the lowest 
formation of Emmons's Taconic system; H. A. 
Hazen, The sky glows of 1883 ; H. A. Hazen, Lunar 
atmospheric tides. 

Jan. 22. — F. W. Clarke, Present status of miner- 
alogy; B. T. Hill, The topography and geology of 
the cross timbers of Texas. 

Chemical society, Washington. 

Jan. 13, election of officers for 1887. — President, 
Prof. £. I. Fristoe; vice-presidents, Prof. F. W. 
Olarke and Dr. J. H. Kidder ; treasurer, Prof. Wil- 
liam H. Seaman ; secretary, Dr. A. C. Peale ; mem- 
bers at large of executive committee, Mr. Edgar 
Richards, Prof. H. W. Wiley, Mr. J. 8. Diller, Prof. 
Thomas Robinson. 

W. H. Seaman, Models of molecular structure. 

Biological society, Washington. 

Jan. 22. — G. Brown Goode, The beginnings of 
natural history in America : the third century. 

Natural science association, Staten Island. 

Jan. 8. — Mr. Gratacap, Drift fossils of Staten Is- 
land ; W. T. Davis, Short account of two interesting 
insects from the island. 

Torrey botanical club, New York. 

Jan. 11. — Dr. Britton, Ourtis's latest fascicle of 
southern plants; H. H. Beesby, Botanical notes 
from South America. 

Annual meeting, election of officers. — President, 
Dr. J. S. Newberry ; vice-president, Thomas Hogg ; 
treasurer, F. J. H. Merrill; recording secretary, 
Arthur Hollick; corresponding secretary. Miss H. 
0. Gaskin ; curator, Miss M. 0. Steele ; librarian, 
Dr. N. L. Britton ; editor, Elizabeth G. Britton ; as- 
sociate editors, F. J. H. Merrill, Jos. Schrenk, H. H. 
Beesby, G. H. Kain. 

Connecticut academy of arts and sciences. 

Jan. 19. — J. W. Fewkes, Is the vast mass of 
oceanic water, between the surface and bottom, bar- 
ren of life, or occupied by a peculiar fauna? 

New England meteorological society, Boston. 

Jan. 18. — G. L. Goodale, Some supposed relations 
between forests and atmospheric ozone ; F. V. Pike, 
Comparisons of rain-gauges at Newburyport; W. 
M. Davis, Winter temperatures about Mount Wash- 
ington. 

Society of arts, Boston. 

Jan. 20. — Edward Burgess, The evolution of the 
modern yacht. 

Society of natural history, Boston. 
Jan. 19. — J. S. Kingsley, Arthropod development. 



Advertised Books of Reference. 

THE STANDARD NATURAL HISTORY. By all the 
leading American scientists. Edited by J- S. Kingsley, Ph.D. 
Vol. I. Lower Invertebrates. Vol. II. Crustacea and Insects. 
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pages. Imp. 8vo, cloth, $36.00 ; half morocco, $48.00. S. E. 
Cassino A Co. (Bradlee Whidden), Publishers, Boston. 

THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE EASTERN UNITED 
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a map of the territory represented. Large i2mo. Cloth. $9.00. 
J. B. Lippincott Company, Pubs., Philadelphia. 

LIPPINCOTT'S BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. A 
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Imperial 8vo. 3550 pages* Sheep. $12.00. J. B. Lippincott 
Company, Pubs., Philadelphia. 

MANUAL OF THE BOTANY OF THE ROCKY 
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Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor A Co., Pubs., New York. 

STRUCTURAL BOTANY ; or. Organography on the basis 
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and a Glossary of Botanical terms. Gray (Harvard), 8vo», 454 pp. 
$2.30. Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor A Co., Pubs. New York. 

INSTRUCTION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF 
ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. By Dr. Eugen Husaak. 
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INSECTS INJURIOUS TO FRUITS. By Prof. William 
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WILSON. — AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGY; or, The 
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ANNALS OF MATHEMATICS. Edited by Ormond Stone 
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SCIENCE ECONOMIC DISCUSSION. A controversy be- 
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economy regarding their main points of difference, by Henry C. 
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Simon Newcomb, Simon N. Patten, Edwin R. A. Scugman, 
Richmond M. Smith, and Frank W. Taussig. iamo. Paper, 
50 cts. Science Company, Pubs.. New York. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL BOTANY : I. Outlines of the Histology 

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MAMMALS OF THE ADIRONDACKS. By Dr. C. Hart 
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York. 



SCIENCE. 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 28, 1887. 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM. 

The death of General Hazen, chief signal offi- 
oer of the army, marks the close of the second 
period of the development of our weather-bureau. 
During the ten years from 1870 to 1880, while the 
bureau was under the direction of its first chief, 
General Myer, the labor expended upon it was 
given in greatest part to its organization. Sta- 
tions had to be selected and their instrumental 
outfit determined ; the time and kind of obser- 
vations had to be decided upon, and observers in- 
structed in their duties ; the methods of reduc- 
tion of data to practical form for use on a weather- 
map had to be adapted to the needs of a larger 
area than was ever before brought under the con- 
trol of a single weather-office. Apart from the 
almost exclusively military constitution of the 
service during these years, its most marked char, 
acteristics in contrast with the European weather- 
services were the large sums of public money de- 
voted to its support, the system of tridaily obser- 
vations, and the absolute control exercised over 
all telegraphic lines in the collection of reports, in 
virtue of the law of 1866. Its maps were thus 
prepared more frequently and more promptly than 
weather-maps are abroad, and were admired all 
over the world. 



General Hazen took charge of a highly devel- 
oped service, and turned his efforts in two direc- 
tions that to most persons appeared quite contra- 
dictory. He insisted on the need of military or. 
ganization, and at the same time introduced 
numerous and important improvements that had 
nothing military about them. But during his 
administration, public discussion was frequently 
turned to the advisability of 'civilizing* the 
weather-bureau, for its work was not as successful 
as was desired. A committee of the National 
academy of sciences reported in favor of the 
change, the then secretary of war urged it, and 
a joint congressional com mission recommended it, 
three members of the commission advising a grad- 
ual, and three an immediate, transfer from mili- 

No. 106—1887. 



tary to civil authority. Popular opinion very gen- 
erally supported these recommendations, and the 
chief objections to them came from the military 
element of the service itself. All the official dec- 
larations of the service maintained to the last that 
a military organization was essential to success in 
weather-prediction. It might be forcibly con- 
tended, on the basis of published statements in 
the annual reports, that the service had for its first 
object the availability of its entire force in case of 
war, were it not that its whole public work refuted 
this theory. The real work of the service is the 
announcement of the approach and force of storms 
throughout the United States for the benefit of ag- 
riculture and commerce in time of peace. 



The people at large have taken a great interest 
in the government weather-bureau, and desire to 
see its work continued and its predictions improved. 
They would be glad to see an extension of scien- 
tific study in its offices, for on such study all its 
chances of better success depend. The opening 
of the third period in its history will therefore be 
watched with the deepest interest. The needs of 
the service must be thoroughly and deliberately 
considered. Immediate action, resulting in the 
appointment either of a military chief or of a civil 
director, would be deprecated on all sides, for the 
interests involved are too great to be endangered 
by hasty decision. Moreover, there is a very gen- 
eral desire, on the part of meteorologists and of 
scientists generally throughout the country, that 
they should at least he heard in the matter before 
decision is reached, so that whatever plan of future 
organization is adopted shall be based on full and 
open discussion. Deliberate action and authorized 
opportunity for consideration of scientific as well 
as of military methods are therefore of the first 
importance. It should be the earnest effort of all 
who have watched the development of the signal 
service thus far to seoure these guaranties of its 
further progress. 

Mr. Atkinson's second article in the Century 
magazine, on ' The relative strength and weak- 
ness of nations/ is just as interesting as the first, 
to which we called particular attention at the 



80 



SCIENCE. 



[Tol. EX., No. 308 



time of its appearance. In the present paper Mr. 
Atkinson considers the sources of the weakness 
of nations governed by dynasties, and presents 
some conclusions that must sound strange enough 
to the adherents of the ' blood and iron ' policy. 
The writer also indorses Professor Seeley's con- 
clusion that nearly all the European wars of re- 
cent times have originated in the desire of one 
nation to dominate a continent, or part of a con- 
tinent, in order to build up colonies the commerce 
of which might be controlled by the mother- 
country. Mr. Atkinson points out that the funda- 
mental fallacy here is economic, and consists in 
regarding commerce as a sort of war in which 
what one nation gains, others must lose. It was 
the international jealousy arising from pursuance 
of this policy that gave us for a mere song the 
vast territory embraced in the Louisiana purchase. 
This war-waging policy has resulted in the raising 
of funds by mortgaging the future through the 
medium of a national debt ; and this, says Mr. 
Atkinson, has now become the chief source of 
the weakness of nations. He shows that the 
same century that has seen the European national 
debts increase from $2,600,000,000 to over $22,000,- 
000,000 has also seen Spain, Portugal, Austria, 
and Greece become bankrupt, and Russia with- 
out credit. 



Large as our national debt seems, and is when 
compared with our financial history previous to 
the rebellion, it is small in comparison with the 
national debts of Europe. Indeed, as Mr. Atkin- 
son says, when at its highest point in 1865, it was 
$84 per capita, an average which is equalled by 
the debts of the commercial and manufacturing 
states of Europe to-day. And while we have, 
omitting Alaska, 82.7 acres per head of population, 
Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Holland, 
and Belgium have only 2.8 acres per capita. On 
the other hand, while our national debt is only 78 
cents per acre, that of the above-mentioned coun- 
tries is $80.06 per acre. The force under arms in 
those countries, omitting the reserves, is at the ratio 
of one man to each two hundred acres, and the an- 
nual tax for his support averages $1.10 per acre. 
With us the ratio is one man to fifty-one thousand 
acres, and the annual tax for his support and 
for all other military purposes is something over 
three cents per acre. The war-waging countries 
have obtained, however, one advantage over us, 
which is probably due to the extent and perfection 



of their military systems ; and that is, that while 
it takes $1,600 a year to sustain each man in the 
army and navy of the United States, — including 
the cost of ships, fortifications, navy-yards, and 
so forth, — the continental nations do it for $238 
per man. 

Mr. Atkinson next proceeds to establish a com- 
parison between the product per capita of European 
countries and that of the United States, at its 
measure in money. In this problem he takes the 
known factors to be the relative rate of wages 
paid in the countries considered, the relative 
amount of national taxation per capita, and the 
assumption that the value of the per capita annual 
product of the United States is two hundred dol- 
lars' worth. From these data Mr. Atkinson figures 
out the value of the product per capita of other 
countries by adding to the original elements of 
cost — the sum of the current rates of wages and 
the per capita taxes — from five to fifteen per 
cent as the corresponding profit. As a specific 
example of this computation, we have the follow- 
ing : " Assuming that one person sustains two 
others in France as well as in this country, we 
know first that the average wages in France are 
not more than sixty per cent the rate of wages in 
this country. We also know that national taxes 
are eighteen dollars per head in France, and less 
than five dollars here. We need, therefore, only 
to establish the rate of profit which will induce 
the employment of capital in the arts which can 
be established in France, in order to reach an ap- 
proximate estimate of the average value of the 
product of each person employed in productive 
industry." Then, taking any group of skilled 
artisans in this country who earn two dollars a 
day, each supporting two other persons, the final 
value of the product of one such workman, fol- 
lowing the method above outlined, would be six 
hundred and sixty dollars, divided into, profits, 
sixty dollars; taxes, fifteen dollars; net wages, 
five hundred and eighty-five dollars. The gross 
value of the French workman's product, similarly 
computed, is found to be four hundred and four- 
teen dollars, of which fifty-four dollars is diverted 
for taxes, and fifty-four dollars for profits. 



Many of the other statistics and conclusions are 
of equal interest with the above, but we have not 
space to quote them all. For example : if the 
"product per capita of the United States may 



Jakvaby 28, 1887.] 



SCIENCE, 



81 



be valued at two hundred dollars' worth, that 
of England, with its income from foreign invest- 
ments added, may not exceed one hundred and 
seventy-five dollars' worth ; that of Great Britain 
and Ireland combined may be assumed not to ex- 
ceed one hundred and fifty dollars' worth ; that of 
France as not exceeding one hundred and twenty 
dollars' worth ; that of Germany as not exceeding 
one hundred dollars' worth ; that of Italy as not ex- 
ceeding eighty dollars' worth ; such being substan- 
tially the ratios which the average rates of wages, 
with the per capita national taxation added, bear 
to each other, and to the wages and taxes of the 
United States, with corresponding pro6t9 added 
in each case." Again : at the ratio which the 
national taxes now bear to product in the United 
States, the actual work required to sustain all the 
functions of the national government, directly or 
indirectly, is that of 500,000 men ; whereas, if our 
ratio were that of England^ the labor of 1,848,000 
men would be required ; if it were that of France, 
Germany, or Italy, the labor required would be 
thai of 8,000,000, 2,400,000, or 2,950,000 respec- 
tively. Mr. Atkinson's final conclusions are full 
of interest and importance, and merit close atten- 
tion and study. 

In the issue of this journal for Jan. 7 will be 
found a formidable list of papers read before the 
Indiana academy of sciences at its last meeting 
on Dec. 29 and 80, 1886. An examination of the 
titles, together with the well-known scientific 
reputation of some of the authors, proves that 
there is a good deal of vitality in science in Indi- 
ana at the present time. Not many states west of 
the Allegbanies can boast of a more vigorous 
scientific society than this : indeed, the line might 
be drawn farther east without including one. The 
Indiana academy, although enrolling more than 
one hundred members, most of whom are actively 
interested in scientific work, was organized only 
a year ago. It doubtless owes its existence to the 
enthusiasm of the secretary of a village society of 
natural history, Mr. Amos W. Butler of Brookville, 
who, in the summer of 1885, assumed the labor 
and expense of the issue of circulars, appointing a 
meeting at the capital of the state on Dec. 27 of 
that year, and making all preliminary arrange- 
ments. With such men as Kirkwood, Jordon, 
Coulter, Owen, etc., as a nucleus, the academy 
was at once clothed with a dignity and character 
which drew to it nearly all in the state who were 
engaged or interested in scientific research. The 



second meeting, held a few weeks ago, was largely 
attended, the membership was greatly increased, 
and the society appears to be starting upon a career 
of usefulness, which it is hoped may be a long one. 



As might be expected, the natural history 
sciences have by far the largest number of votaries 
among its members at present. This is the result 
of example and environment ; but mathematics, 
physics, astronomy, chemistry, etc., already have 
their representatives in the state, and will not be 
found slow to claim their share of the yearly pro- 
gramme. The great danger to which the academy 
is exposed is the possible loss of interest after the 
novelty of the thing has worn away. Let it not 
be in a hurry to increase its membership, and 
particularly let it be slow to follow the example of 
so many young societies in breaking up into a 
half-dozen or more ' sections,' none strong enough 
to stand alone, while all might do well together. 
The greatest good which such a society can do is 
to be found in the inspiration which it affords 
young men who attend its meetings and breathe 
its atmosphere. A society similar to the Indiana 
academy, well directed and full of vigor, in every 
state of the union, would be of incalculable bene- 
fit to the science of the country. 



According to Professor Baibd's annual re- 
port, the work of the Smithsonian institution dur- 
ing the past year has been carried on effectively 
but quietly, and without any incidents of special 
importance. The routine work seems to have in- 
creased largely, for the system of international 
exchanges now requires the constant labor of nine 
persons, while that of two formerly sufficed ; and 
the correspondence, which also used to need but 
two persons to attend to it satisfactorily, now 
needs five. The urgent necessity for additional 
room for the government collections, and a con- 
gressional appropriation for its provision, are em- 
phasized by Professor Baird, who says that a new 
museum building, equal in size to the present one, 
would scarcely furnish the needed accommoda- 
tions, so rapid is the increase of the government 
collections. The lack of explorations during the 
past year is ascribed to lack of means to under- 
take any thing of magnitude. The publications 
of the year are commented on, and some inter- 
esting statistics given as to the working of the 
system of international exchanges. During the 



82 



SCIENCE. 



[You IX., Na 206 



past fiscal year there were 764 boxes of foreign 
transmissions, 14,496 parcels of domestic ex- 
changes, and 143 boxes of government exchanges 
handled by the institution. Over two hundred 
thousand persons visited the Smithsonian institu- 
tion and the national museum during the year. 



Much difficulty has been experienced in ac- 
counting for the occurrence of cases of contagious 
diseases, when, so far as could be ascertained, 
no exposure to any pre-existing case had occurred. 
These instances have been regarded by some as 
evidence of the possibility of their originating 
spontaneously. M. Verneuil has suggested a 
theory which, if true, would account for such 
anomalies. The microbes of disease, according 
to this view, remain in the skin and other portions 
of the body in a state of quiescence, and may 
continue thus inactive for years. By some means, 
as yet inexplicable, these microbes are aroused to 
a condition of activity, reproduce themselves in 
great numbers, and set out on their deadly mis- 
sion. It is, in the absence of evidence to the 
contrary, much more reasonable to suppose, that, 
in the obscure cases in which exposure has not 
been recognized, such exposure has actually oc- 
curred, than to adopt a theory like this, which 
has not the slightest basis for its existence. If all 
oases which cannot be traced to their source were 
to be explained in this way, it would be the rule 
rather than the exception. A physician who had 
had large experience in an English small-pox 
hospital delared that not one case in twenty was 
capable of being referred to any known source 
of infection, the disease being ascribed by the 
patient to cold, fatigue, or some other innocent 
circumstance. The instance referred to by Sir 
Thomas Watson, in bis essay on ' The abolition of 
zymotic disease,' should be a constant reminder 
to those who would refer the appearance of these 
diseases to a spontaneous origin. In 1829 a pris- 
oner in Millbank penitentiary was attacked with 
small-pox, under such circumstances that it was 
thought no possible exposure could have taken 
place, and for thirty years the case was quoted as 
proof of the possible spontaneous origin of small- 
pox. In 1860 the fact for the first time became 
known that the physician of the penitentiary had 
come directly from a case of confluent small-pox 
in a neighboring town to the prisoner's cell, and 
had undoubtedly been the carrier of the disease. 



THE SUBMERGED TREES OF THE COLUM- 
BIA RIVER. 

The attention of many tourists who have trav- 
ersed the magnificent valley of the Columbia River 
through the Cascades, has been called to two 
phenomena which have excited their interest. 
One is the occurrence of submerged trees in the 
bed of the river : the other is the slow lateral 
creeping of the road bed and track of the Oregon 
railway and navigation company. During the 
last summer I had an opportunity to make a brief 
study of these two subjects, and, as they are 
likely to prove of increasing interest, it may be 
worth while to recite the results of the examina- 
tion. 

The Columbia enters the Cascade barrier three 
or four miles below the Dalles. The platform of 
that range here has a width of eighty miles. From 
the Dalles to the Cascade Locks, a distance of over 
fifty miles, the Columbia flows as a broad, deep, 
quiet stream, with a sluggish current at low water. 
Its course resembles that of the Hudson through 
the highlands ; and this fact is at once suggestive, 
because the passage of rivers through mountain- 
ranges is generally swift, and broken by many 
rapids. If it is otherwise, there is almost cer- 
tainly an interesting reason for it. The Cascade 
Locks are situated almost exactly on the axis of 
the Cascade range. Here is a cataract which has 
always been an insurmountable obstacle to navi- 
gation ; for, within a distance of a few hundred 
yards, the river makes a descent of about thirty 
feet. The government is now building a short 
canal with large locks, to enable steamboats from 
below to reach the still waters above. Beginning 
at a point about a mile and a half above the cata- 
ract, the traveller, as he sails up the river, ob- 
serves many old stubs protruding from the water 
and from the sand-hanks, laid bare during the low 
stages of the river. They are seen for a distanoe 
of thirty miles, recurring at frequent intervals, 
here clustered thiokly together like the piles of an 
old wharf whose superstructure has decayed and 
vanished, there with wide intervals between them. 
During high water these tree-trunks are entirely 
submerged. An examination of the wood serves 
to identify them with the living species of fir 
which form the forests upon the mountains and 
cliffs round about. 

These submerged trees, together with the long 
still reach of water above, at once suggest that 
an obstacle has been placed athwart the stream, 
forming a dam which converted the river- valley 
above it into a long narrow lake, and that the ris- 
ing water submerged an old forest of which these 
trees are the vestiges. Indeed, this is the only 
explanation which suggests itself. It is strongly 



Jajtoaky 88. 18S7.J 



SCIENCE. 



83 



corroborated by many other circumstances which 
need not be enlarged upon here. No geologist 
who has visited the locality has ever doubted, so 
far as I know, that this is, in general form, the 
true explanation. The only question which arises 
is about the nature of the obstacle which has 
dammed the river. Dr. Newberry, who visited 
the place in 1865 in connection with the Pacific 
railroad surveys, suggested that it might be due 
to the slipping of the bank of the river into mid- 
stream at the Cascades, thus throwing the current 
upon the southern bank. This idea has diffused 
itself among the people of the neighborhood, and 
is frequently spoken of as the vera causa. In 
support of this view, reference is frequently made 
to the second fact : viz., the slow lateral creeping 
of the railroad-track on the southern bank of the 
river. 

Desiring to see these phenomena, which seemed 
to promise much instruction, I made a visit to 
the place, and devoted a couple of days to their 
examination. As regards the creeping of the 
railroad-track, the explanation is patent as soon as 
the spot is visited. The place is situated on the 
south bank, about a mile below the cataract. The 
materials which are creeping are felspathic sands, 
deposited by the river itself in irregular strata, 
and now undergoing rapid decomposition and 
kaolinization. The products of decomposition be- 
come a smooth slimy clay ; and having a rather 
steep front toward the river, which is here a swift 
and powerful torrent, the slope of the bank is a 
little too steep for stability. The materials, being 
of a somewhat unctuous character, flow easily 
with a slow glacier-like motion. The phenomenon, 
however, is a local one, limited to a stretch of 
only a few hundred yards, and does not occur 
anywhere else in the neighborhood, so far as I am 
aware. The bed-rock beneath it is disclosed, and 
there is no indication that it participates at all in 
the motion : on the contrary, the indications are 
verj plain that it does not. It also became evi- 
dent, that, whatever might be the origin of the 
obstruction which has backed up the Columbia 
River for nearly fifty miles, this particular phe- 
nomenon has had nothing whatever to do with it ; 
though possibly it may be, and probably is, a re- 
mote consequence of the obstruction. It certainly 
is not the cause. 

In looking upon the north bank for indications 
of a slide which could have precipitated any ob- 
struction across the channel, I was unable to find 
any. On the contrary, the more carefully the 
ground was studied, the more difficult it seemed 
to reconcile this supposition with the facts ; for 
there is no steep elevated ground, from which an 
obstructing mass could have slidden, nearer than 



three miles* The river- valley is here very wide, 
and north of the river lies its ancient flood-plain, 
which consists of ancient lavas and conglomerates 
in heavy masses, planed to an approximate rough 
level, with patches of river-gravel and sands scat- 
tered over it. The study of this old flood-plain 
disclosed facts which seemed to furnish a much 
more satisfactory solution of the problem. 

Beginning at a point about a mile above tbe 
cataract, this flood-plain is seen to ascend as we 
go down stream. If the proper stand-points are 
selected, this slope in the wrong direction is con- 
spicuous to the unaided eye. But we need not 
rely upon such a means of verifying the fact, for 
the relation of the river, as it now runs, to the 
older flood-plain, tells the story with emphasis. A 
mile above the rapid the old flood-plain is no more 
than thirty feet above the water ; a mile below 
the rapid it is about two hundred feet above it ; 
while tbe fall of the river itself in that interval 
is not more than forty feet. The inference seems 
decisive. There has been an uplift of the entire 
platform athwart the river- valley in the shape of 
a very flat anticlinal arch. The width or span of 
this arch is about five and a half miles, and the 
eastern branch of the flexure is steeper than the 
western. The displacement is not recent in a 
historical sense, but it is probably post-glacial. 

The effects of such an obstacle would be mani- 
fold. Not only would it dam the river, but it 
would set up below the cataract an action which 
it is important to consider. A great river, thus 
obstructed, at once attacks the obstacle with im- 
mense power. And the more pronounced the 
obstacle, the more vigorous the attack. The Co- 
lumbia has already cut through it a low, inner 
gorge somewhat similar to that of the Niagara 
River below the falls. The rapid at the locks is 
steadily receding, and, if no further displacement 
occurs, it will probably require not more than a 
century or two for the river to have cleared a pas- 
sage deep enough to drain the slack-water reach 
above. The work of cutting a passage through 
the obstruction five and a half miles in length is 
nearly complete. That the dam was once higher 
than now, is also to be inferred. Year by year it 
is getting lower. The effect of the obstacle upon 
the slack water above it is also plain. The flow 
of the water being retarded, it drops its sediment, 
and tbe river-bed is gradually built up. Thus the 
trees which grew along the flood-plain before the 
upheaval were not only submerged, but were 
buried in sand and gravel. When the dam was 
higher, they were more deeply buried than now. 
As the dam is gradually cut down, the trees are 
slowly exhumed again. But it is well known 
that trees submerged in fresh water and buried 



84 



SCIEITCE. 



[Vol. EX., No. 208 



in silt; may last for thousands of years. Only 
when brought into the open air again does the 
process of decay go on with ordinary rapidity. 

It is no light thing for any observer to feel 
obliged to differ from Dr. Newberry concerning 
the interpretation of facts in the field. It has 
been my fortune during the last three yean to 
traverse regions previously trodden by him in 
New Mexico, Arizona, California, and Oregon, 
and I have left them with a profound admiration 
for the sagacity and the wonderful accuracy, 
rapidity, and penetration with which he mastered 
the facto. This, I believe, is the only instance in 
which I have been led to a conclusion differing 
in any important respect from his. 

C. E. Dutton. 



cember, 1886, was an unusually cold month as 
compared with the corresponding month for ten 
years past. The amount of rainfall was 2.79 
inches, including 10$ inches of snow, 5J of which 
fell in one day, the 5th. During December of 

1885, snow fell on but one day, and then in such 
small quantity as to make its measurement im- 
possible. In the previous year, 10| inches of 
snow fell in December, and in 1884 the amount 
was 22| inches. The average December rainfall 
for the ten years commencing 1877 was 3.37 
inches. 

The following tables are of interest as showing- 
the total mortality during the year ending Dec. 31, 

1886, as compared with 1885 : — 

* Deaths in New York for 1885 and 1886. 



THE HEALTH OF NEW YORK DURING 

DECEMBER. 

The department of health of the city of New 
York estimated that the population of the city 
on Dec. 1 was 1,457,856, or nearly one and one- 
half millions of inhabitants. Of this number, 
3,502 died during the month. This latter state- 
ment is not strictly accurate, as in it no account 
is taken of the natural increase in the population, 
which, over and above those who die during the 
month, is not far from 3,300, or more than 100 
each day. As compared with November, there 
were 426 more deaths in December. The greatest 
mortality on any one day was on the 6th, when 
144 persons died. The deaths due to diarrhoeal 
disease were but 65, the smallest number since 
the month of April. Of children under five 
years of age, there were 1,531 deaths, 241 more than 
in the preceding month. Consumption caused 
478 deaths, a slight increase over November ; diph- 
theria, 218 deaths, 30 more than in the previous 
month ; and scarlet-fever, 23 deaths, the identical 
number of deaths which the November records 
charge to that disease. As will be seen by a 
glance at the chart, measles figured very promi- 
nently among the mortality factors, causing 271 
deaths, or more than scarlet-fever and diphtheria 
together. During the month of November there 
were 166 deaths due to measles. 

The highest temperature of the month was 55° 
F., on the 24th at 10 p.m. This is not so high by 
five degrees as the corresponding month in 1878, 
which was the lowest maximum for the decade ; 
the average for the ten years being 66.2° F. The 
minimum reached by the mercury was 13° F., on 
the 5th at 6 a.m., and again on the 17th at 8 a.m. 
During no December since 1877 has the ther- 
mometer been so low, while the average for the 
decade is 20.8° F. It will thus be seen that De- 



Under 5 

Zymotic , 

Scarlatina 

Measles 

Diphtheria 

Typhoid 

Diarrhoeal 

Phthisis pulmonalis 

Total 




1886. 
DEATHS FROM 



Scarlatina. 



Measles. 



£,£ 



49 



48 



2 



49 



8 



< 






49 44 



10 



17 



d 

"9 



86 






85 



58 



% 



3 

(A 

< 



15 



i 

a 3 

GO'O 



11 



86 21 



o 

ft 



18 83 

i 



48 16K271 



a 



Scarlet-fever caused fewer deaths in the former 
than in the latter, while diphtheria and typhoid- 
fever have been more fatal. Measles has of late 
excited a good deal of public alarm, and justly 
so, as shown by the table. While in January it 
caused but 5 deaths, decreasing to 2 in Feb- 
ruary, and not notably increasing until the sum- 
mer, when November set in, the mortality suddenly 
rose to 166, and continued its upward course in 
December, carrying off 271 persons. The total 
mortality of the year was less than in 1885, but 
more than one-third of it took place in the month 
of December, and more than two-thirds in the 
two months of November and December. Con- 
sumption (phthisis pulmonalis) is, as usual, at the 
head of the column of the causes of death. The 
researches of Koch and others, which have 



Jamjary 88, 1887.] SCIENCE. 



86 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. SOS 



cleared up many obscure points in the causation 
of this disease, have not as yet shown us how to 
materially reduce the number of victims who are 
annually claimed by it. That more than five 
thousand persons annually die in a single city 
from one disease is a sad commentary on sanitary 
science, and yet the best of minds are at work to 
solve the problem of the measures which must be 
adopted to diminish its ravages. That three 
thousand and more individuals, mostly children, 
died from diarrhoea! diseases, does not surprise 
one who is familiar with the interne heat of our 
midsummer ; and in great measure this is largely 
beyond control. It is true, something may be 
done to reduce this mortality by visiting the poor 
sick and prescribing for them, and by giving them 
opportunities to breathe the fresh air of the 
country and the sea ; but, when all has been done 
that can be, diarrhoeal diseases will still carry off 
the little ones by the hundreds and thousands, if 
the temperature and the humidity are favorable 
for their development. Diphtheria, which was 
unknown in New York until the year 1852, caused 
1,727 deaths in 1886,. and has, ever since its ap- 
pearance, figured prominently in the mortality 
returns, its origin unknown, and its treatment not 
understood even by the best of physicians, — a 
disease dreaded by the laity and the profession 
alike in all parts of the world where it has ob- 
tained a home. It should, however, be constantly 
borne in mind, that although this class of disease 
cannot be eradicated, still, if all restraint were re- 
moved, their mortality would probably increase 
tenfold. In view of this, the department of health, 
whose function it is to keep watch of the locali- 
ties in which these diseases do most abound, should 
receive the beat ty co-operation of every member of 
the community, and be furnished by the authori- 
ties with ample means to carry on its beneficial 
work. 



PARIS LETTER. 



At yesterday's meeting of the Academy of medi- 
cine, Professor Grancher read a paper on the case 
of the man Re veil lac, who died of hydrophobia af- 
ter preventive inoculation, in which he corrected 
some erroneous statements made by Professor Pe- 
ter at a previous meeting [see p. 96]. It appears 
that Reveillac submitted to only nineteen opera- 
tions instead of thirty-six, as had been stated, and 
the treatment was much milder than in more seri- 
ous cases. Moreover, tbe first information received 
at tbe Pasteur laboratory, of the unfortunate man's 
death, was from M. Peter's paper at the academy. 

According to Professor Beclard, dean of the 
medical school, there are at present 108 women 



studying medicine in Paris. Of these, 83 are Rus- 
sian, while only 7 are nativ*-s of France. The to- 
tal number of female students would be much 
larger were it not for tbe necessarily stringent 
rules as to admission. Two women are among 
the present competitors for posts as assistants in 
the hospitals, of whom one, Miss Klumke, will 
doubtless succeed, much to the discomfiture of her 
male competitors. She is one of Vulpian's stu- 
dents, and has already published many interesting 
memoirs on neurological subjects. 

Telephonic communication between Paris and 
Brussels will shortly be established ; recent experi- 
ments between those cities, with wires of bronze 
instead of iron, having given excellent results. 
The distance is 880 kilometres, and the same wires 
will be used for both telegraphic and telephonic 
purposes, as it has been demonstrated that one 
wire can be used successfully for the sitnultane- 
eous transmission of both kinds of despatches. 

At a recent meeting of tbe Biological society, 
M. Laborde, director of the physiological labora- 
tory of the medical school, read a paper on the 
use of water in farting experiments. It is known 
that Succi and Merlatti drank water freely during 
their long fasts, and the public was divided in 
opinion as to the effects of the water. M. La- 
borde has ascertained by experimental tests that 
water is of great value in sustaining life during 
prolonged fasts. Two dogs, in good health, of the 
same age and breed, each weighing 154 kilo- 
grams, were selected, one of which was entirely 
deprived of both food and drink, the other being 
given only a litre of water daily. Dog No. 1, that 
deprived of both food and water, died on the 
twentieth day, after having lost 7i kilograms in 
weight. The other dog was well and lively on the 
fortieth day, though it had lost nearly 8 kilograms. 
It would undoubtedly have been able to live still 
longer on its water diet ; but after its 40-day fast 
it was treated to a good meal, when, without ap- 
parent ill effects, it disposed of 1,200 grams of 
soup and 1- kilogram of meat. The dog is now 
doing well. 

Two or three new books deserve notice. One 
is a translation, by Dr. H. de Varigny, of Preyer's 
* Die Seele des Kindes,' a very interesting work, 
dealing with its subject in an entirely new and 
thoroughly scientific manner. Mr. Preyer is by 
training a physiologist, and has made a great 
many interesting physiological observations con- 
cerning children. It may be remarked that a 
French translation of another book of his, ' The 
physiology of tbe embryo,' to which the first-men- 
tioned work is in many respects a sequel, will 
soon be brought out by the same publisher, F. 
A lean. Preyer's books are very valuable, and it 



Janttaby 28, 1»67.] 



SCIENCE. 



87 



must be said that he was the first to study in so 
scientific and severe a manner, and with such 
persevering patience, the subject treated of in 
' Die Seele dee Kindes.' 

A book on animal magnetism, by MM. Binet 
and Fere, has recently appeared. It is really a 
book on hypnotism, as most phenomena ascribed 
to animal magnetism are of an hypnotic nature. 
The book is a good one. After some preliminary 
chapters devoted to the experiments of Mesmer 
and others, the authors speak of modern hypno- 
tism, of the different methods of inducing hypnotic 
sleep, and of the symptoms and degrees of this 
sleep. They then give a theory of hypnotic sug- 
gestion, with a long review of the phenomena pro- 
duced under its influence. A specially good 
chapter treats of the therapeutic and pedagogic 
applications of hypnotic suggestion. The book 
treats the subject fairly and fully, and will prove 
useful. Another new book, on hygienic dietetics, 
is from the pen of Prof. G. See. It begins with 
an exhibit of the comparative nutritive powers of 
different foods and a physiological study of the 
alimentary process. The rest of the book is de- 
voted to the practical treatment of diseases by a 
judicious choice of foods. M. See is well informed 
upon the subject, and his book is consequently 
valuable, although it does not contain much origi- 
nal matter. V. 

Parts, Jan. 18. 

NOTES AND NEWS. 
The first annual convention of the Society 
for the prevention of the adulteration of foods, 
drugs, and medicines met in Washington last 
week. The object of this society is the establish- 
ment of a certain fixed standard for every article 
of food, drink, and medicine, with the require- 
ment that all articles not up to the standard shall 
be so marked by a label. About one hundred 
and twenty-five delegates were present from all 
parts of the country. Mr. H. Wharton Amber- 
ling of Philadelphia was elected president, and 
Mr. Elisha Winter, secretary. The president read 
his annual address, in which he spoke of the want 
of proper legislation on the subject of adulterated 
food, the sale of which, he claimed, produced 
nearly all the cases of kidney-trouble in the 
land. 

— The secretary of the treasury has transmitted 
to congress the estimates of deficiencies in appro- 
priations for salaries and expenses of the National 
board of health during the present fiscal year, 
amounting to $7,500. In a letter accompanying 
the estimates, the secretary of the board earnestly 
urges the importance of making the appropriation 
requested, but says, in case it is deemed unde- 



sirable to continue the work which has for its ob- 
ject the preservation and improvement of the 
health of the people, the laws devolving such 
duties upon the board should be repealed/ 

— The fine, large, gold medal given to General 
Grant for distinguished services in the Mexican 
war, now at the national museum, is bogus, hav- 
ing a specific gravity of only seven instead of 
sixteen. 

— A memorial has been presented to congress, 
signed by prominent literary and scientific men 
and representatives of several historial societies, 
setting forth the great value and importance of a 
full and accurate digest and catalogue of the nu- 
merous documents found in public and private 
archives of Europe relating to the early history of 
the United States, and especially to the treaty of 
Paris in 1768, and the treaty of peace between the 
United States and Great Britain in 1788. Most ef 
these documents are unknown to the American 
student, and but few of them have ever been 
copied, owing to their inaccessibility. Mr. Ben- 
jamin Franklin Stevens of London has, after many 
years 9 labor, prepared a descriptive catalogue of 
over 95,000 separate papers found in the archives 
of different European countries. The secretary 
of state recommends to congress the purchase of 
this descriptive catalogue, and adds, " Without its 
favorable action, not only will the completion of 
the work be doubtful if not impossible, but the 
fragment now prepared would probably remain 
practically valueless." Mr. Stevens, in a letter to. 
the secretary of state, says that the work has be- 
come too great for any individual to undertake 
alone, unless a man of wealth, and that when 
complete the index will probably comprise 150,000 
documents, and fill 20,000 royal octavo printed 
pages. 

— Lieutenant Pillsbury, commanding the Blake, 
has started south for the season's work, and will 
run several lines of current observations from 
Cuba to Yucatan, and from Cuba to Florida Reef, 
and thence northward to San Antonia. This is 
a continuation of the work of last year, which 
was so successful. The connection between the 
velocity of the Gulf Stream and the advent of the 
tidal wave on our coast has been accurately deter- 
mined, and the credit for this important discovery 
is due to Lieutenant Pillsbury. Appendix No. 13 
to the coast-survey report, ' On the harmonic analy- 
sis of the tides at Governor's Island, New York 
harbor,' by William Ferrel, shows the results of 
tidal observations. The report states that the 
tides at Governor's Island and at Sandy Hook are 
very similar. The epochs at Governor's Island 
are somewhat greater, and the tides are thus 



88 



SCIENCE. 



[Vox. IX., No. 208 



* 

twenty -nine minutes later, than at Sandy Hook. 
The tides are not affected by waves coming 
through Hell Gate from the tides in the Sound 
above. *The results of Mr. Ferrers analysis show 
that it is not necessary to make separate tide-pre- 
dictions for both Sandy Hook and Governor's 
Island, since the latter may be obtained from the 
former by simply adding twenty-nine minutes to 
the times. Other important appendices to the 
coast-survey report for 1885 are, * The geograph- 
ical distribution and secular variation of the mag- 
netic dip and intensity in the United States/ C. A. 
Sohott ; <A plea for a light on St. George's Bank,' 
Henry Mitchell ; ' On geodetic reconnaissance,' 
C. O. Boutelle ; ' Note on a device for abbreviat- 
ing time-reductions/ C. S. Peirce. 

— The coast-survey steamer Patterson, which 
has been laid up since last October at the Mare 
Island navy-yard, is being overhauled and painted, 
to return to survey work on the Alaska coast early 
in the coming spring. 

— Lieut. William H. Emory, who commanded 
the Bear on the Greely relief expedition, has been 
ordered to the Thetis, and will shortly sail for 
Alaska. He will investigate the seal-fisheries, 
and has received special instructions regarding 
the boundary-line between Alaska and the British 
possessions. 

— The will of the late Isaac Lea was admitted 
to probate Jan. 22. The document is a volumi- 
nous one, and contains twenty codicils. The will 
bears date of execution May 26, 1878, and the final 
codicil July 30, 1885. The petition, which was 
filed by the executor with the document, places 
the value of the estate left by the decedent at 
about three hundred thousand dollars. He be- 
queathed his collection of fresh-water shells, ma- 
rine and land shells, minerals, fossils, and geologi- 
cal specimens to the Academy of natural sciences 
of Philadelphia ; but in a codicil dated Feb. 28, 
1880, he says, "I revoke that part of my will 
which gives to the Academy of natural sciences 
at Philadelphia my collection of natural history, 
and I give them all to the national museum at 
Washington, D.C., on condition that the national 
museum shall devote a room exclusively for the 
Unionida, Stremopatida, Physaida, Paludinaida, 
Pulmonifera, and others, the Unionida to be put 
in the exact order in which tr;j now are, with 
their labels as I have placed them ; the whole to 
be called ' The Isaac Lea collection ; ' the Musco- 
vite collection to be placed in this room likewise." 
A codicil executed on Oct. 1, 1884, reads, "Be- 
lieving it important to the early history of the de- 
velopment of the fluviatile and terrestrial Mollusca 
of the United States to have some of my corre- 



spondence published, as well, also, some other sub- 
jects, I desire my executors to devote a thousand 
dollars to the object, provided they may agree with 
me in that opinion." 

— A recent bulletin of the New England meteoro- 
logical society states that the records of a meteor 
seen from many points in New England on the 
evening of September 6 were submitted to Prof. 
H. A. Newton of Yale college, who reported as 
follows : the meteor had an altitude of about 90 
miles when first visible, over latitude 44° 15', 
longitude 78° 8' ; and an altitude of 25 miles 
when it disappeared, over latitude 48° 20' , longi- 
tude 71°. One of its explosions occurred near the 
middle of the path, the other near the end. The 
meteor was going away from the sun, having had 
a perihelion distance of about three-quarters of the 
earth-orbit radius. An extract is added from one 
of Professor Newton's earlier papers. The altitudes 
of 78 meteors observed on Nov. 18-14, 1868. were 
calculated as follows : mean altitude at first ap- 
pearance, 96.2 miles ; at disappearance, 60.8 miles ; 
at middle path, 78.5 miles. Twenty-nine of these 
meteors became visible at greater height than a 
hundred miles, and seven disappeared before de- 
scending to this height For 89 meteors observed 
on Aug. 10-11, 1863, the corresponding mean alti- 
tudes are 69.9, 56.0, and 62. 9 miles (Amer.journ. sc., 
xi., 1865). It is desired that observers should report 
the position of bright meteors, noting their paths 
among the stars with as much accuracy and detail 
as possible. The drift of the trail left by the 
meteor should be closely observed, as it indicates 
the direction of upper winds. The simple record 
that a meteor was seen is of very little value alone. 

— The use of salicylic acid has become so preva- 
lent to prevent fermentation in food-products, that 
a committee of the Academic de meclecine has had 
the matter under consideration, and, in a report 
recently made on the subject, says, •' It being well 
established by medical observation that feeble and 
prolonged daily doses of salicylic acid and its 
derivatives can cause considerable trouble to the 
health of certain persons who are sensitive to those 
forms of drugs, particularly old people and in 
those whose venal or digestive functions are no 
longer in perfect order, therefore the addition of 
the salicylates to liquid and solid aliments will 
not be permitted." 

— The agricultural appropriation bill reported 
last week from the committee on agriculture car- 
ries the following amounts for the support of this 
service during the next year: experiments with 
southern cane, $82,000; experiments in silk-cul- 
ture, $15,000 ; slaughtering cattle, $100,000 ; cat- 
tle quarantine, $20,000. The total amount reoom- 




January 88, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



89 



mended in the bill is $568,780. The committee 
also recommend that the statistician of the depart- 
ment he sent to Europe to attend the international 
agricultural convention, and that $15,000 be ap- 
propriated therefor. 

— The report of Mr. J. R. Dodge, statistician 
of the U. S. agricultural department, on the sugar- 
production of the world, contains some interesting 
data. According to the figures presented, the 
amount of beet-root sugar produced in the season 
of 1886-87 exceeds the cane-sugar by 162,000 
metric tons, thus showing that more than half the 
sugar used in commerce is extracted from the 
beet. The manufacture of beet-sugar is entirely 
a European industry. Mr. Dodge states that its 
success in Europe is largely due to the ' beet-stock ' 
plan, where each shareholder in the stock of a 
beet-sugar factory is required to furnish so many 
beets per share. The farmers are therefore, in 
reality, the manufacturers, and, since they obtain 
the pro6ts of the manufacture, they are the most 
interested in raising good beets at a nominal price. 
The total consumption of sugar in thi9 country in 
1885 was 1.245,574 tons, of which only 40,000 tons 
(or about three per cent) were produced here. 
There is only one beet-sugar factory in this coun- 
try, and that is in California, which produces 
sugar at five cents per pound, and has to com- 
pete with free sugar from the Sandwich Islands. 
The report further states that our sugar-consump- 
tion amounts to about one-fourth of all the sugar 
reported from the countries of principal produc- 
tion, and that within twenty-five years more than 
2,000,000 tons will be required, almost sufficient to 
swallow up the present production of beet-sugar, 
or the whole of the present cane-sugar of com- 
merce. The report concludes as follows : •• At a 
time when labor is in excess of demand, and corn 
and wheat and cotton, and other old staples of a 
primitive agriculture, exceed the wants of domes- 
tic and foreign markets, we scour the world for 
food-products costing more than $200,000,000 per 
annum, the larger portion of which should be pro- 
duced in the United States. This primitive and 
unenterprising situation must be surmounted by 
a more skilful, scientific, and inventive agricul- 
ture. 

— The first number of the Centratblatt fUr 
bacteriologie und parasUenkunde, edited by Dr. 
Oscar Uhlworm of Cassel, is announced for the 
beginning of the present year. Professor Leuck- 
art of Leipzig, and Dr. Loeffler of Berlin, are 
associated with Dr. Uhlworm. At the urgent 
request of the editor, Dr. George M. Sternberg, 
U.S. A., has consented to act as a collaborator in 
the United States. As its title implies, this pub- 



lication is to be devoted to bacteriology in all its 
branches and to animal parasites which affect 
man, the lower animals, and plants. The editor 
is especially desirous of securing all original 
American papers relating to this field of investiga- 
tion, whether recording experimental work or im- 
provements in technique. Authors of such papers 
are kindly requested to send reprints to Dr. Stern- 
berg, in care of Johns Hopkins university, Balti- 
more, Md. 

— The new chemical laboratory of the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska was dedicated Jan. 14. 

— GatitarcTs medical journal states that Dr. 
Valentine Mott had been making a series of pre- 
ventive inoculations in the case of two sons and 
an office-boy of Dr. Foster of Yazoo county, Miss., 
who were bitten by a rabid dog in November. 
The process has been completed, and the children 
are all in good condition. 

— Small-pox, which has been so notably absent 
from New York City, has now made its appear- 
ance there, eighteen cases having been reported 
during the week ending Jan. 22, of which two 
were fatal. 651 cases of measles with 86 deaths, 
and 130 cases of diphtheria with 88 deaths, are re- 
ported for the same period. 

— Three new comets are announced. The first 
was discovered by Thome, Dr. Gould's successor 
at the Cordoba observatory in South America, on 
Jan. 18, in the constellation Grus. The despatch 
states that it resembles the great southern comet 
of 1880, and is likely to become a brilliant object. 
The second comet was discovered by Brooks on 
Jan. 22, in the constellation Draco, and in this 
latitude is now visible, with the help of a tele- 
scope, throughout the night. The third was dis- 
covered by Barnard on Jan. 28, and is in Vul- 
pecula ; it is also telescopic, setting in the early 
evening. 

— Dr. F. V. Hayden, formerly director of the 
U.S. geological -and geographical survey of the 
territories, has resigned from the position that he 
has held for several years in the present UJ3. 
geological survey. 

— Indianapolis, Ind., has been considerably ex- 
cited of late over an instance of remarkable pres- 
ervation of the human body after death. A lady 
died in that city some thirty years ago, and her 
body, incased in an iron coffin, was placed in a 
vault. A recent examination showed that the 
body was in a wonderful state of preservation. 
The Indiana pharmacist says that even tbe color 
of her eyes, a deep blue, could be recognized. Tbe 
hair had grown to a length of two feet. It was 
supposed by the sexton to have turned to stone, 



90 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No 808 



but farther investigation showed it to have become 
changed into that peculiar substance known as 
adipocere. Adipocere (adeps, « fat,' and cera, 
* wax ') has somewhat the appearance and con- 
sistence of cheese, and is a. com pound of oleic and 
margaric acids with an alkali. It has usually 
been formed in bodies that are buried in the earth, 
and moisture has been supposed to be essential in 
its formation. In the instance just referred to, the 
body was in a dry vault. There seems to be no fixed 
time necessary for this change to take place. One 
instance is reported of an infant which had been 
but three months in a cesspool, in which adipocere 
had formed, while in other cases years seem to 
have been necessary. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

*S Correspondent* are requested to be as brief at possible. The 
writer** nave is in alt cases required as proof of good faith. 

National prosperity. 

In Mr. Atkinson's paper in the January Century 
there are some uses made of statistics which seem to 
a layman at least a little queer. 

He gives us a table of enormous percentages to 
show how greatly the United States have increased in 
productiveness and wealth. 

Since 1865 we are told the yield of hay has in- 
creased 106 per cent; of cotton, 194 per cent; of 
grain, i.e., wheat, corn, oats, barley, rye, and buck- 
wheat, 256 per cent ; railway mileage, 280 per cent ; 
insurance against fire, 310 per cent ; output of pig- 
iron, 386 per cent; and population, 69 per cent. 
The ratios are seemingly wonderful, but in some 
cases very deceptive, most so in cotton. In 1865 the 
number of bales was 2,228,951. and in 1885, 6,550,215, 
a gain in twenty years of 194 per cent. Will it be 
surprising to be told that the gain is not 194 per 
cent, but only 22 per cent ? Here it is. 

In 1860 the number of bales recorded was 5,387,- 
052, on which the gain in 1885 is but 22 per cent. 
Why does the statistician take the phenomenally low 
year of 1865, which was behind 1850 even? We have 
merely regained the position of 1860, and advanced 
22 per cent. 

And as to increase, the gain from 1850 to 1860 with 
slave-labor was 118 per cent, in ten years, — an average 
of 11 A per cent per year, which, compared with the 
free-labor rate, 9 r 7 ff per cent per year, shows that the 
increased production under free labor is somewhat of 
a myth. At the slave-labor rate of increase, the twenty 
years from 1865 to 1885 would have culminated in a 
•rop of 7,489,275 bales. In what, pray, does the 
superiority of free labor make itself manifest? 

Population, we are told, has increased 69 per cent 
since 1865 ; from 1860 to 1870 the increase was 23 per 
cent, 2^ per cent per year; from 1870 to 1880 it was 
30 per cent, or 3 per cent per year; from 1880 to 
1885 we find a gain of 14 per cent, or 2} per cent per 
year. 

Now, from 1850 to 1860 the increase was 36 per cent, 
or 3 A per cent per year, a higher rate than that of any 
decade since then. Had we increased from 1865 to 
1885 at the rate of the decade before the war, we 
should now number over 61,000,000 instead of 56,- 
975,000. 



256 per cent, we are told, has our grain-crop in- 
creased from 1865 to 1885. The grain-crop of 1865 
was over 100,000,000 bushels less than that of 1860. 
By decades we find that the increase between the 
years 1860 and 1870 was 32 per cent; 1870 to 1880, 
50 per cent; and from 1880 to 1885, 23 per cent, or 
3 A P 6 * C6nt » & P eT cent, and 4A per cent per yesr 
respectively. The gain from 1850 to 1860 was 43 per 
cent, or 4^ per cent per year ; and if we calculate 
from 1860 to 1885 at the same rate. 43 per cent per 
decade, we find due us a crop of 3,060,428,664 bushels 
as against 3,014,063,984 ; and the marvellous gain of 
256 per cent over 1865 appears less than was to he 
expected from what we were doing before the war. 
The hay-crop of 1882 would have amounted to about 
600,000 tons more, if it had been the result of an in- 
crease as from 1850 to 1860. Since 1882 the hay- 
crop jumped from 38,000,000 tons to 48,000,000 in 
two years, a truly phenomenal increase. 

Bail way mileage has increased 280 per cent since 
1865 ; but, if we are to talk of per cents, let this gain 
of twenty years be compared with 217 per cent, ten 
years' gain from 1850 to 1860. In miles the gain has 
been from 1850 to 1860,21,500 ; 1860 to 1870, 22.400; 
1870 to 1880, 40,700 ; 1880 to 1885, 32,000. 

It would be of interest to see if the net income has 
increased pro rata. 

For progress in wealth we are shown a table of 
fire-insurance risks, and an increase therein of 310 
per cent since 1865. Why not take the assessed 
value of all real and personal property ? This was, 
in 1850, $7,000,000,000; in 1860, $13,000,000,000; 
and in 1880, $17,000,000,000. Of course, there is an 
increase since 1865, but in per cent it does not com- 
pare with that from 1850 to 1860. 

As to pig-iron and its 386 per cent increase since 
1865, it will take a pretty stiff-necked protectionist 
to understand how, under the conditions of its pro- 
duction, it stands for 386 per cent increase of wealth 
to the people who have to use it and pay for it. 

And now, if, to make the showing a little mora 
comprehensive, we look at the number of acres of 
improved land, we find that it increased 44 per cent 
from 1850 to 1860, 16 per cent from 1860 to 1870, 
and fifty per cent from 1870 to 1880, — an average of 
3} per cent per year, — very close to the increase in 
population. The value of agricultural implements in- 
creases, from 1850 to 1860, 62 per cent ; 1860 to 1870, 
37 per cent ; 1870 to 1880, 2 per cent ; annual aver- 
age, 4 per cent. 

Rice production has fallen from 215.000,000 
pounds in 1850 to 110,000.000 in 1880. Tobacco, 
which gave an increase of 117 per cent from 1850 to 
1860. and in 1860 had 434,000,000 pounds, has bat 
472,000,000 in 1880. 

Irish potatoes increase 69 per cent, 29 per cent, 
18 per cent, respectively for the three decades, or the 
average of 3 fa per cent per year. 

Sweet-potatoes fall from 38,000,000 bushels in 
1850 to 33,000,000 in 1880. Cheese, also, whioh was 
at 105,000,000 pounds in 1850, is in 1880 only 27,- 
000,000 pounds. Butter rises 46 per cent, 12 per 
cent, and 21 per cent through the three decades, an 
average of 2.6 per cent per year. live-stock gains 
100 per cent from 1850 to 1860, 40 per cent from 1860 
to 1870, and falls off 6 per cent between 1870 and 
1880, an average rate of increase of 4) per cent. 

And while our public debt has been decreased by 
$876,970,833 between 1865 and 1880, we find on 
hand in 1880 a state, county, and town debt of 



Jajhjaby 28, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



91 



$1,066,406,208, which seems to show that the rev- 
enue which went to reduce the national debt has 
been diverted to local improvements, and has be- 
come a wealth-producing power. 

Comparing, now, the average increase by decades 
since 1850, we find population at about 30 per cent 
per decade ; hay, except for 1883 and 1884, 36 per 
cent ; cotton, 40 per cent ; grain, 42 per cent; rail- 
way mileage, 115 per cent ; improved land, 37 per 
cent; agricultural implements, 40 per cent: Irish 
potatoes, 38 per cent; butter, 26 per cent; live- 
stock, 47 per cent; ass e ss e d valuation, 40 per 
cent; while rice, sweet-potatoes, and cheese have 
decreased 50 per cent, 14 per cent, 74 per cent, 
tobacco is as in 1860, and our debts have simply 
changed form. This statement of average increases 
per decade shows how closely together the various 
values have kept for thirty-five years. The great ad- 
vance since 1865 has now about brought us up to the 
place we should expect had the war not interrupted 
our development. Production has advanced only a 
little faster than population, and this is probably due 
to improved implements, improved methods, greater 
demand, and more facilities for handling the crops, 
i.e., railways. G. H. Leete. 

New York, Jan. ». 



Professor Newberry on earthquakes. 

In his notice of my article on earthquakes, in 
Sctence of Jan. 7, Mr. Everett Hayden intimates that 
I am not warranted in my statements in reference to 
the cause of earthquakes and the condition of the in- 
terior of the earth, citing the diversity of opinion 
which is on record, and the authority of great names 
opposed to me, as a reason why I should exhibit 
greater modesty. 

I am sorry that I cannot see the matter from Mr. 
Hayden's stand-point. If he has any facts or argu- 
ments to offer which militate against the statements 
I have made, I shall be most happy to consider 
them, and I shall be convinced by them if they are 
convincing ; but, without facts or new arguments, 
we may well be spared the appeal to authority. A 
blind deference to the utterances of great men has 
done geology much harm. 8ir William Thomson 
has no more sincere admirer than myself, both for 
his genius and his nobility of character ; and yet I 
do not hesitate to say, that by his unwarranted state- 
ments in regard to the condition of the interior of the 
earth, a matter in which his mathematical genius and 
learning give him no fitness to speak authoritatively, 
he has seriously retarded the progress of geological 
knowledge. From the phenomena of the tides and 
the precession of the equinoxes, he has inferred and 
asserted that the figure of the earth is as inflexible 
as though it were composed of glass or steel. There 
is, however, a doubt in the minds of many physicists 
whether the tides and the precession of the equinoxes 
afford such delicate and quantitative tests of the 
constancy of the earth's figure as to warrant these 
conclusions. Hennesy and Delaunay have shown 
that the argument from the precession of the equi- 
noxes, at least, is weak ; but, even if the fact of the 
constancy of the earth's figure be conceded, the in- 
ference that it is because of a rigidity of the earth's 
material equal to that of glass or steel, is certainly 
unwarranted. The argument proves too much : we 
all know that the materials composing the earth's 



mass are not as rigid as steel. The facts connected 
with earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain-chains, and 
the oscillations of the level of coasts, which I briefly 
cited in my article, show conclusively that the earth 
is not an unyielding solid ; and I have suggested 
that the want of homogeneity in the materials com- 
posing it, — partly solid, partly viscous, partly fluid, 
— under varying conditions of pressure, may neu- 
tralize the tendency to distortion from the changing 
attractions of the sun and moon. The facts cited by 
geologists as disproving the absolute rigidity of the 
earth are unquestionable, and their arguments are 
cumulative and unanswerable. Hence astronomers 
must find some other explanation of the constancy 
of the figure of the earth — if that be proved — than 
a solid interior. 

I am only exercising my inalienable right, am de- 
fending my hearth and home, when I protest against 
the invasion of our field of research by masters 
in other departments of science, however gifted, 
who, with imperfect knowledge, hurry to conclusions 
incompatible with those which geologists have 
reached by lifelong study. That Sir William Thom- 
son did not give to the geological mots due considera- 
tion when he uttered his dictum, is shown in his 
original paper read before the Geological society of 
Glasgow in 1879. Here in advocating the theory 
that the earth is solid, and that the solidification 
began at the centre, the result of the cooling and 
sinking of an external crust, he states that most sub- 
stances are denser when cooled to solidification than 
when fused. In a footnote to p. 40 of the volume of 
the Transactions of the geological society of Glas- 
gow which contains Sir William Thomson's address, 
is given a report of later experiments made to test 
this question by Mr. Joseph Whitley of Leeds, Eng- 
land, who found that iron, copper, brass, whinstone, 
and granite, the only materials he tested, were all 
less dense when solid than liquid. 

This is not the only instance where men of de- 
served eminence in their own departments of science, 
without taking pains to inform themselves in regard 
to the facts of geology, have sought to teach geolo- 

S'sts lessons which they have not themselves fully 
urned. 

Sir Robert Ball, astronomer royal of Ireland, an 
able and distinguished man, whose merits have been 
suitably recognized in the office he holds, and the 
title conferred upon him, in his eloquent address 
entitled ' Glimpses through the corridors of time,' 
has proposed a theory, which, if accepted, would 
not only revolutionize all geological history, but 
would discredit the teachings of the most eminent 
geologists. In the circumstances, I have felt called 
upon to protest against this invasion of our domain, 
and have shown that the geological record affords 
conclusive evidence against this theory. 

SoMendelieff, one of the most eminent of chemists, 
has proclaimed the inorganic origin of the Pennsyl- 
vania petroleum from an inferred absence of organic 
matter from which it could be generated. Here, 
also, I have ventured to show that a better knowl- 
edge of the geological structure of western Pennsyl- 
vania would have revealed to him the true source of 
the petroleum in enormous underlying organic de- 
posits, and would have prevented the promulgation 
of a geological heresy. 

Those only are capable of intelligently discussing 
and deciding these difficult problems in geology, who, 
with special tastes and abilities, have devoted lives 



92 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 208 



to their study. And I respectfully submit that no 
one should accept the geological generalizations of 
ehemists, astronomers, and physicists until their 
utterances have been approved and accepted by those 
whom we recognize as the ablest and most authorita- 
tive expounders of our science. As regards origin 
of earthquakes and the condition of the interior of 
the earth, as well as the other questions I have men- 
tioned, I must decline to retract the opinions I have 
advanced until they shall be met with new facts or 
better arguments than any yet offered. 

J. S. Newbebbt. 
New York, Jan. 14. 



A card to American geologists. 

A meeting of the American committee of the In- 
ternational congress of geologists will be held in 
Albany from April 6 to April 9, 1887. 

The object of this meeting is to perfect a scheme 
embodying the thoughts of American geologists on 
the questions of classification, nomenclature, colora- 
tion, etc., entering into the system of unification of 
geological science, which is the object of the Inter- 
national congress. 

In order that the committee may represent the 
views of all geologists in the United States, it hereby 
invites from all, their individual opinions on any 
subjects likely to arise in the congress. Those who 
will meet the American committee in Albany are 
requested to send to the undersigned a note of the 
topic or topics they propose to treat, and the time 
which they will require. In cases where it is not 
convenient for them to go to Albany, they are 
requested to forward a statement of their views to 
the undersigned in writing before April 1, for pres- 
entation to the committee. 

For information as to the kind of questions to be 
discussed, attention is called to the * Report of the 
American committee,' published last spring, in which 
the debates in the third session of the International 
congress are reported. 

The following are the sub-committees of the 
American committee: archean, Hunt, Hitchcock, 
Winchell, Pumpelly; lower paleozoic, Hall, Winchell, 
Lesley ; upper paleozoic, Hall, Lesley, Newberry, 
8tevenson, Williams; mesozoic, Newberry, Cook, 
Cope, Powell ; cainozoic (marine), Smith, Newberry ; 
cainozoic (interior), Cope ; quaternary, recent, arche- 
ology, Powell, Winchell, Cook. 

Febsifob Fbazeb, Secretary. 
Philadelphia, Jan. 28. 



Loco-weed. 



In your note on the ' loco-weed,' on p. 32 of Science 
for Jan. 14, reference is made to the belief of the 
Tw rKima that an insect is the cause of the disease sup- 
posed to be produced in horses and cattle by eating 
this weed. In western Kansas there are two plants 
called ' loco ' by the ranchmen. These are Oxytropis 
lamberti, Pursh, and Astragalus mollissimus, Torr. 
Specimens of the latter plant were brought to me a 
few days ago, whose lower stems were abundantly 
occupied by a stalk-boring insect larva. These in- 
sects are believed, not by Indians but by a certain 
physician, to be the cause of the ' loco * disease in 
horses by producing ' bote.' Moreover, this physician 
has frequently seen the horse bot-fly deposit its eggs 



upon the leaves of the Astragalus Henceforth let 
elementary entomology be added to the courses of 
study in our medical schools. 

I may add, that Prof. L. £. Sayre, of the depart- 
ment of pharmacy of the University of Kansas, is 
making an exhaustive study of the ' loco ' problem. 

Francis H. Snow. 
Lawrence, Kan., Jan. 16. 



Spiders and the electric light. 

Some disadvantage or evil appears to be attendant 
upon every invention, and the electric light is not an 
exception in this respect. In this city they have 
been placed in positions with a view of illuminating 
the buildings, notably the treasury, and a fine and 
striking effect is produced. At the same time, a 
species of spider has discovered that game is plenti- 
ful in their vicinity, and that he can ply his craft 
both day and night. In consequence, their webs are 
so thick and numerous that portions of the archi- 
tectural ornamentation are no longer visible, and 
when torn down by the wind, or when they fall from 
decay, the refuse gives a dingy and dirty appearance 
to every thing it comes in contact with. Not only 
this, but these adventurers take possession of the 
portion of the ceiling of any room which receives the 
illumination. 

It would be of interest to know whether this 
spider is confined to a certain latitude, and at what 
seasons of the year or temperature we can indulge in 
our illumination. G. Thompson. 

Washington, D.C., Jan. 94. 



A pineal eye in the mesozoic Mammalia. 

Among the large number of mesozoic genera which 
have been determined by Owen, Marsh, and others, 
only one genus has any considerable portion of the 
skull preserved. This is Tritylodon, a comparatively 
large animal from the upper triassic of South Africa, 
described and figured by Professor Owen in the 
Quarterly journal of the Geological society in 1884. 
In describing the cranium, he writes (p. 146), " A 
short anterior divarication [of the parietals] bounds 
a small vacuity exposing matrix which has filled the 
cerebral cavity ; which vacuity is completed anteri- 
orly by a similar divarication of the mid and hind 
angles of the frontal bones, the mid suture of which 
is unobliterated. The above vacuity, v, if natural, 
represents a fontanelle, or it may be interpreted as a 
pineal or parietal foramen ; it may, however, be due 
to posthumous injury." 

Now that the meaning of the pineal gland has been 
made clear, this observation is of very great interest 
and importance. Tritylodon is one of a large and 
widely spread group of mammals, represented by 
Triglyphus, from the triassic bone-bed near Stutt- 
gart ; Bolodon, from the English Purbeck (Jurassic) ; 
Allodon, from the American upper Jurassic; and 
Polymastodon, from the American lowest eocene, or 
4 Puerco.' From the large size of the parietal fora- 
men in Tritylodon, which greatly exceeds that of any 
of the recent lizards in relative diameter, and com- 
pares with that of the labyrinthodonts and saurians, 
we may safely infer that the primitive Mammalia, of 
this family at least, had a pineal eye of some func- 
tional size and value. Hxnby F. Osbobh. 

Princeton, K. J., Jan. 94. 



SCIENCE.-Supplement. 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 28, 1887. 



HISTORY OF THE AOASSIZ ASSOCIATION. 1 

As we begin the publication of a magazine de- 
Toted to the interests of the Agassiz association, 
it would teem to be necessary to rehearse to the 
large circle of acquaintances we now meet for 
the first time our history and our hopes. 

Asking the indulgence, therefore, of our mem- 
bers, to whom the facts are already familiar, we 
will condense from addresses delivered in Phila- 
delphia and Davenport as succinct an account as 
possible of the history and aims of our society. 

The first hint that ever came to us of the forma- 
tion of a society for the study of nature is found 
in one of Jacob Abbott's famous Rollo books, — 
'Rollo's museum.' Published more than thirty 
years ago, that little black volume is still as good 
a guide as any known to me, to put into the 
hands of young persona who wish to organize 
themselves into a society. It was a half- 
conscious recollection of the pleasure I derived 
from reading this book when a child, that led me 
more than ten years ago to propose a similar 
society to the pupils in the Lenox high school. 

The proposition was received with enthusiasm. 
Nearly half the school joined the society, which 
was first called. I. believe, the Lenox high school 
scientific society. Our work was extremely sim- 
ple. One boy kept a daily record of the tempera- 
ture as indicated by a somewhat questionable 
thermometer ; one kept the record of the weather, 
which was quite laconic, being something like 
this, "Monday pleasant, Tuesday rain, Wednes- 
day cloudy, Thursday hot, Friday pleasant, Satur- 
day rain," Then we began collecting specimens. 
I remember one boy collected buds from twenty 
or thirty different kinds of trees. He got them all 
on the same day, and, by comparing them, learned 
something about the times of leaf development. 

One expedition was made to study the sections 
of trees that had been cut down. We wished to 
find whether the heart is always in the middle of 
the tree or not. We found it always nearest the 
coldest and windiest quarter. " Ye see, the wind 
blows the wood away from the heart," a con- 
templative rustic explained : thus unconsciously 
illustrating the tendency of untenable theory to 
follow in the wake of observed phenomena. With 
1 From the first number of TK* 8wi— Cron. 



these and other simple observations our little 
society busied itself, and prospered for several 
years. At one time there were on my desk about 
a hundred cocoons of curious form. One of the 
boys had found what he called * pea-pods growing 
on a lilac-bush,' and brought these cocoons all 
gathered from one tree. Each was enclosed in a 
lilac-leaf curiously folded around it. At that time 
I had never seen a cocoon yield up its imprisoned 
life. One day our school was visited by Mr. 
George Walton, one of the Massachusetts board 
of education. It so happened that while he was 
listening to some recitation or other, I noticed 
one of the pea-pods acting in a strange manner. 
It rolled over of its own accord. 

I quietly picked it up and handed it to Mr. 
Walton without a word. While he held it in his 
hand, there emerged one of those beautiful crea- 
tures known as Attacus promethea. It hung 
down from the dry cocoon by its fore-legs, and 
slowly expanded its wonderful wings. None of 
us had seen the bursting of a chrysalis before, and 
we were all deeply interested and delighted. We 
then told him of our little society, and showed our 
other treasures. He urged us to tell our plans to 
friends about us, and to show them our speci- 
mens. So, at a convention of teachers that met 
soon after, I gave a short account of the matter, 
and, opening a satchel, covered the table with 
specimens which had been gathered and prepared 
by the children. The thing seemed to them so 
pleasant and so simple and easy to do, that at 
the close of the meeting no less than fifty teachers 
crowded around the table to examine the bugs 
and butterflies, the stones and woods, flowers, 
ferns, and grasses, and to ask all sorts of questions. 
Several similar and corresponding societies were 
formed. 

About the same time there appeared in the 
New England journal of education a short article 
by Count Pourtales (a former pupil of Professor 
Agassiz) on the subject of school scientific societies. 
From this article we first learned of the Swiss 
societies of like nature, and of the boys and girls 
who wear badges of green fir and go together 
for frequent field and forest excursions. Thus 
gradually grew the thought of extending to others 
what had proved so pleasant to ourselves ; and as 
the St. Nicholas magazine had organized, and for 
a time maintained, a society called * The bird-de- 
fenders,' it was natural to apply to that magazine 
for space in which to print an invitation to 



94 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 208 



all who might be interested to join us in our 
work. This request was granted, and the in- 
vitation appeared six years ago, and was widely 
accepted. 

The word * association ' was chosen instead of 
4 society ' from an impression, perhaps not entire- 
ly well founded, that that word could be taken to 
mean * a union of societies,' just as society means 
' a union of individuals.' And our first plan was 
to have these local societies entirely independent 
of one another, except in the general name and in 
the purpose of studying nature. At that time no 
conventions were thought of, assemblies were not 
in mind, courses of study had not been contem- 
plated, a badge was not designed, nor had we 
supposed it possible that thorough scientific work 
could be systematically done by many of the chap- 
ters, if at all. 

We chose the name 4 Agassiz ' because it was 
then uppermost in mind. His then recent death 
was fresh in the hearts of the nation ; and his birth 
in Switzerland, where a similar organization was 
said to exist, rendered it especially appropriate. 
The choice was wiser than we knew. No one 
can read Mrs. Agassiz's life of her husband with- 
out feeling that no name could better stimulate us 
to faithful work. 

Having thus selected the name, a letter was 
sent to Prof. Alexander Agassiz, asking per- 
mission publicly to adopt it. Professor Agassiz 
replied that he cordially assents that this very 
pleasant and useful plan for children be called the 
Agassiz association, and that we have his hearty 
good wishes for its success. 

The societies that joined us during the first year 
or two of our existence, when our plans were still 
uncertain and our methods comparatively crude, 
retain in many cases the notion that the Agassiz 
association to-day is the same loose organization 
it was at first, — au aggregation of local societies 
united only in name, allowed to drift hither and 
thither without direction or assistance. But the 
necessity for careful supervision and guidance has 
grown more and more apparent. We have been 
constantly besieged with requests for ' systematic 
courses of study,' elaborate plans of work, per- 
sonal counsel and advice. Courses of study have 
accordingly been added, plans of work sketched, 
and a regular system of reports established. The 
conditions of admission have been defined, and, 
in short, more business-like methods adopted, un- 
til we now resemble rather an extended school 
with numerous classes than an ordinary society. 

What, then, is the Agassiz association as it ap- 
pears to-day ? And what claims has it upon the 
interest of the public? It is a union of 986 local 
societies, each numbering from 4 to 120 members, 



of all ages from 4 to 84. Our total membership 
is above ten thousand. We are distributed in all 
the states and territories with very few excep- 
tions, and have strong branch societies and active 
members in Canada, England, Ireland, Scotland, 
Chili, Japan, and Persia. 

The 086 local societies are known as ' chapters.' 
They take their names from the towns where they 
are established, and are further distinguished by 
the letters of the alphabet. Thus the first chap- 
ter established here was called New York (A) ; 
the second, New York (B) ; and so on. 

I may mention four different sorts of chapters. 
First, f am ily chapters. The parents and children of 
a single family unite for joint study and research. 
Chapters of this sort are especially desirable, and 
prove almost uniformly permanent. Chapters of 
another sort are found in schools. There are 
many teachers able and willing to give their 
strength and time, beyond the exacting require- 
ments of their contracts, to the encouragement 
and assistance of their pupils. Under the foster- 
ing care of such men and women, the happiest re- 
sults have been accomplished. Not the least im- 
portant result is seen in the pleasant personal rela- 
tions thus established between teacher and pupil. 
Chapters of a third kind are organized and con- 
ducted entirely by young persons. A company of 
girls or boys meet together, and decide to form a 
branch of the A. A. They elect their officers, 
draft their rules and by-laws, engage their 
rooms, build their cabinets, make their collec- 
tions, prosecute their studies ; and, if I needed to 
awaken interest or arouse enthusiasm, I should 
have only to show what our girls and boys have 
done even when unaided and alone. They have 
made lists of all the flowers that grow about them, 
and of all the birds that fly over their heads. 
They have published papers, started museums, 
founded libraries. In doing this they have mas- 
tered the laws of parliamentary debate; have 
learned to observe with accuracy, to write with 
fluency, to speak with power ; and, after working 
thus for a few years, many of them have pushed 
themselves into schools and colleges and labora- 
tories of the highest grade, and are now complet- 
ing their self-appointed preparation for lives of 
commanding intelligence and cheerful service. 
Finally I will mention chapters of adults. In in- 
creasing numbers, men and women of mature 
years, feeling the need of that scientific training 
which the schools of their childhood failed to 
give, are organizing societies, joining their influ- 
ence to our association, and receiving in return 
the benefits coming from united endeavor and 
from enthusiastic devotion to a common cause. 
But, excellent as the work of all these chapters is, 



Jaitoaby 28, I8b7.] 



SCIENCE. 



95 



we have found some needed work beyond their in- 
dividual attainment. A general convention, for 
example, could hardly be received and cared for 
by a single chapter ; nor could a wide range of lo- 
cal observations be properly collated and discussed 
by the inhabitants of a single town. It has there- 
fore been deemed wise to bring about the union 
of all the chapters of a city or a state into more 
extended organizations than the single chapter. 
These confederations of chapters are called ' as- 
semblies ; ' the two most prominent at present be- 
ing the Philadelphia assembly, and the State 
assembly of Iowa. 

Embracing all the little chapters, binding into 
one the larger and more powerful assemblies, and 
making room also for individuals when chapters 
cannot well be formed, is our Agassiz association. 
There are 986 chapters, about 6 actual and 40 po- 
tential assemblies, but only one association. And 
the influence and prosperity of each assembly can 
be increased and perpetuated by spreading every- 
where we go a knowledge of our local work not 
only, and of our local organization, but also, and 
even with more emphasis, a knowledge of our en- 
tire association, with its broader membership and 
its farther-reaching aims. 

Our association is not by any means great or 
powerful. As yet it is young, it is ignorant, it is 
weak. We have no occasion for vain-glory. Yet, 
on the other hand, while we have no excuse for 
vanity, neither need we feel vexation of spirit. 
Our purposes are good, our methods right. In 
spite of our feebleness, in the face of our igno- 
rance, critics have been indulgent, and we have 
been more encouraged and praised for what we 
have tried to do than derided for our failures or 
censured for our faults. Scientific men of highest 
repute, men like Ramsay of England, and men 
like Agassiz, Hyatt, Winchell, Remsen, Gould, 
Oilman, and Scudder of America, have extended 
to us the hand of recognition. 

The press has almost always been indulgent; 
and, although we have often exposed ourselves to 
fair attacks of satire, our real desire to do honest 
work has somehow turned the most caustic pen to 
kindness. 

In speaking of our helpers, I should be unjust 
if I failed to mention with renewed gratitude and 
honor the large number of scientists who have 
voluntarily devoted their valuable time to the 
cheerful and patient assistance of our needs. More 
than fifty gentlemen representing all departments 
of science hold themselves always ready to an- 
swer the questions that puzzle us. Thanks to 
their benevolence, the boy who lives in the re- 
motest and smallest village can send his bit of 
stone or his curious beetle to one of these men, 



and learn its name and history, and, better still, 
be taught how he may best study by himself its 
structure and its history. Some of these profes- 
sors have even volunteered to conduct courses of 
study in various branches. We have had courses in 
botany, entomology, and mineralogy. The course 
in mineralogy recently finished by Professor Crosby 
of Boston has been especially successful. One 
hundred and forty-four chapters or individuals 
took this course, and completed it not only to our 
satisfaction, but to our surprise and delight. 

It seems at first thought difficult, if not impos- 
sible, to suggest any general principle of study that 
can apply to the whole association, for it is com- 
posed of elements so diverse. 

We are of all ages, of varying capacities and 
differing desires, living in places widely distant 
and strangely different. Some of us pick our vio- 
lets in June, others in January. 

But there is a common ground on which all 
stand, — love for nature, and desire to learn. And 
there is^one principle that underlies and deter- 
mines the methods of our study. It is this : Na- 
ture must be studied from her own book. 

While, therefore,, we do not undervalue the 
printed records of others' work, and while we 
ever recognize in printed books and papers neces- 
sary and cherished guides, yet we believe that our 
first business is to meet Nature face to face. There- 
fore we leave the confines of the library and 
school, and go out under the open sky, — into the 
forest, and along the stream. 

Forgetting theory and useless wrangling, it is 
our purpose to see things as they are, and to re- 
cord them as we see them. It is the business of 
the Agassiz association to live for the truth. 

Many of those who first joined our ranks are 
growing out of childhood into manhood and wo- 
manhood. Many adult chapters, too, are forming ; 
and perhaps to-day one-quarter of our total mem- 
bership may be over twenty years of age. What 
can we do for this increasing class ? In the first 
place, we can give them the opportunity to help 
the younger, even as they themselves have been 
helped while young. It is to them, the scientists 
of the future, that we must soon look for special 
help, instruction, and guidance. Meanwhile we 
need them still among us to encourage us by then- 
example, and to aid us by their work. And we 
want to help them too. We must provide higher 
courses of study, — discover the beet books for 
students more advanced, and help those who need 
it to secure the best instruction. I was greatly 
pleased this summer, while resting by the sea, to 
find in the laboratory at Annisquam, among the 
twenty-five earnest workers who were bending 
day after day, and night after night, over the 



96 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 386 



dissecting-table and the microscope, do less than 
seven men and women who either are or have 
been members of the Agassiz association. Here 
is the moral of it : youthful observation of na- 
ture, wisely directed, grows into manly and 
womanly consecration to science. 

Now, one thing our association ought to do in 
the near future is to secure control of one or more 
tables in this and other thoroughly equipped lab- 
oratories, and place them year by year freely at 
the disposal of such of our number as may show 
themselves worthy. May, we not in time hope to 
establish here and there laboratories of our own, 
manned by our own professon? 

We wish also to establish courses of study with 
greater regularity, and of wider range. I should 
like to see a yearly correspondence course in each 
of the branches of natural science, conducted by 
the best teachers of America. I should wish these 
courses, specimens included, to be absolutely free ; 
and I should wish the men who give them well 
paid for their time and work. 

At present, as we depend entirely upon volun- 
teers, our courses, though frequent, are rather 
desultory, and accompanied with some slight ex- 
pense for specimens and printing. To do all we 
hope to do will cost much money, and the money 
must be raised. The Agassiz association must be 
endowed, and the money will come, as time and 
devoted labor have long since come. There are 
plenty of wealthy men and women ready to give 
money as soon as we can prove that it can be given 
safely, worthily, and well. Now, here we have a 
school of more than ten thousand pupils, confined 
to no one city, no one state, no one denomination. 
We have a corps of fifty volunteer instructors. We 
need no expensive buildings. And if we find that 
in order to meet the needs of our maturing mem- 
bership we need a fund of ten or twenty or fifty 
thousand dollars, whose income shall be applied to 
giving worthy young men and women a chance 
to work under competent instruction, I have faith 
to believe that some man will be found deep 
enough in pocket, and broad enough in heart, to 
endow the Agassiz association as he might a 
collegiate chair or a private school. Let each 
chapter and each member be like Diogenes, ever 
peering about with lighted lantern to find this 
man. 

But we need not wait for that. There is enough 
we can do unaided ; and, indeed, I am inclined to 
think that labor voluntarily expended by boys and 
girls in building their own cabinets, and by girls 
in decorating and caring for their assembly-rooms, 
is the cause of the truest satisfaction and enjoy- 
ment, and is also productive of the greatest inter- 
est in the weightier matters of scientific study. 



Tou can see most clearly through a microscope 
that you have worked and waited for. 

If the endowment ought to come, it will come in 
due time ; but in the mean while let each continue 
to do his best where he happens to be. The waj to 
help the whole association is to give your best at- 
tention to your individual work. Let the little 
ones gather their pebbles and their flowers. Let 
the elder look more closely into the structure and 
the habits of bird, or beast, or plant. Let us all 
be always living for the truth, and striving to 
read in every leaf of Nature's book her lesson of 
faith, her lesson of hope, her lesson of love. 

Admirably has one of our Iowa chapters united 
science and humanity. Organized as a society of 
scientific workers, it has made itself also a band 
of mercy. It has proved, that, although the eye 
of Science is keen, her heart need not be cold, and 
that her hand, however cunning, may yet be kind. 
Two kindred spirits were Agassiz and Audubon ; 
and very many who, with us, have enrolled them- 
selves under the name * Agassiz,' have also joined 
the Audubon society, while many others are 
learning — regarding birds not only, but every liv- 
ing thing — never needlessly to hurt or to destroy. 

But Agassiz was not only merciful : he was de- 
vout. Before opening his famous school at Peni- 
kese, he bowed bis head in silent prayer ; and, as 
the ocean-breeze gently lifted his whitening locks, 
every head was bowed with reverence, and it 
seemed as though the Spirit of God were there. 
We therefore beg our members, as they walk 
through this fair garden of the Lord (and this 
thought I echo from the lips of Dr. Parkhunt), 
not to let the beauty of the creation hide from 
them the face of the Creator. We do not believe 
that faith is inconsistent with intelligence, hope 
at variance with knowledge, or love opposed to 
science. "The garden of the Lord should not 
conceal the Lord of the garden." Let us study 
with the eye not only, but with the heart ; and 
may we all be lifted to a sweet consciousness of 
Nature's ministrations, the beauty of her handi- 
work, the music of her singing, and the tender- 
ness of her love. Harlan H. Ballard. 



A CRITICI8M OF PASTEUR. 

At the meeting of the Paris academy of medi- 
cine, Jan. 4, Professor Peter, the well-known an- 
tagonist of Pasteur's theory, read a paper concern- 
ing a case of death by hydrophobia after preven- 
tive inoculations. 

It seems that a cart-driver by the name of Re- 
veillac was bitten in the finger some time since by 
a mad dog. Twenty-four hours after the accident 
the wound was cauterized ; and the next day, 1 61- 



Jakuast 88, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



97 



lowing the advice of some friends, the man went 
to Pasteur to be submitted to his treatment ac- 
cording to the new method, which was explained 
in a recent * Paris letter 9 to Science. Matters 
prog resse d favorably till the 12th of December 
(the accident was early in November). On that 
day Reveillac felt pain, at first slight and after- 
wards more severe, in the points where the inocu- 
lations had been made, while no pain was felt in 
the bitten finger, tliis important point was testi- 
fied to by the patient himself and by the persons 
who lived with him, and it has been corroborated 
after careful investigation. 

Following this pain were other symptoms, 
prominent among which was a general feeling of 
restlessness and great weakness. The weakness 
was so great, even on the first day, that the 
patient, on being advised to visit Pasteur and ask 
for relief, answered that he wished to, but felt 
utterly unable to do so. The second day the weak- 
ness increased, and the patient could hardly eat. 
He died on the 10th of December. During the 
last two days of the illness, the attending physi- 
cians witnessed symptoms in the throat of an im- 
possibility of swallowing liquids. There were no 
convulsions, but only weakness and paralysis. 

Professor Peter called attention to the facts, 
first, that the premonitory pain was not in the 
finger where the original poison had entered, but 
at the points where the inoculations had been 
made ; second, that the other symptoms had not 
been those of common rabies, but of experimental 
hydrophobia. Instead of convulsions, paralysis 
was the principal symptom. 

A discussion followed the reading of the paper, 
and the objections were made that it was by no 
means certain that Reveillac had died from rabies, 
that paralytic rabies is very rare among men, and 
that many symptoms of that disease were wanting. 
Professor Peter's criticism is, however, interesting, 
and is likely to attract attention. It is unfortu- 
nate, however, that we have no certain proof that 
Reveillac died from the inoculations. If care had 
been taken to inoculate animals from the tissues 
likely to be most affected in the patient, we should 
have had a better basis for deciding on the merits 
of the case. 



THE RUBY-MINE8 OF BURMAH. 

Fob some time past a considerable share of 
European political and military interest has 
centred in south-eastern Asia. The fact that in at 
least one of the countries of that region, Burmah, 
precious stones are reputed to be found in great 
qua ntit i e s , will attract attention of a different 
order. In view of the report that British troops 



were about to take possession of the Burmese 
ruby-mines, a correspondent of the London Times 
has furnished that journal with a description of 
them and an estimate of their probable value. 

It seems that most of our information concern- 
ing these mines comes in a more or less amended 
form, from the account of Tavernier, — informa- 
tion of two hundred years ago, to be sure, but 
still the basis of all subsequent accounts. He 
describes the place where the rubies are obtained 
as "a mountain twelve days' journey or there- 
abouts from Siren (i.e., Siriam) towards the north- 
east, and it is called Capelan (i.e., Kyat-pyen). It 
is the mine whence is obtained the greatest quan- 
tity of rubies, spinelles, or mothers of rubies, yel- 
low topazes, blue and white sapphires, hyacinths, 
amethysts, and other stones of different colours. 
. . . Siren is the name of the city where the King 
of Pegu resides, and Ava is the port of the king- 
dom. From Ava to Siren you ascend the river in 
large flat boats, and it is a voyage of about six- 
teen days. Tou cannot travel by land on account 
of the forests, which abound with lions, tigers, 
and elephants. It is one of the poorest countries 
in the world : nothing comes from it but rubies, 
and even they are not so abundant as is generally 
believed, seeing that the value does not exceed 
100,000 crowns per annum. Among the multi- 
tude of these stones you would find it difficult to 
meet with one of good quality, weighing three or 
four carats, because the king does not allow any 
to be removed till they have been seen by him, and 
he retains all the good ones which he finds among 
them." 

Two other authorities, men who have visited 
these mines during this century, are Father 
D'Amato, who saw the mines about 1880, and a 
Mr. Bredemeyer, who was in charge of mines in 
the vicinity about 1868. 

Father D'Amato's account is that Kyat-pyen is 
situated about seventy miles to the north-east of 
Mandalay. The gem-gravel occurring there was 
reached by pits of from twenty to thirty feet in 
depth ; but extensive working, owing to the in- 
flux of water, was impossible with the primitive 
methods followed by the miners. Besides rubies, 
sapphires, topaz, and oriental emeralds were also 
found, and spinelles were abundant. All stones 
above a certain weight became the property of 
the king, provided they were not stolen and 
smuggled away. Facilities for this were, how- 
ever, afforded by the visits paid to the mines an- 
nually by merchants from China and Tartary. 

Still more recent visitors to Mandalay have 
found that the majority of the rubies found are 
less than a quarter of a carat in weight, and the 
larger ones are generally flawed. Sapphires, 



98 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 908 



though rare, are occasionally found of from nine 
to thirteen carats in weight and without flaw. 
The revenue from these mines, which has been a 
royal monopoly, amounted in 1856 to about fifteen 
thousand pounds sterling annually. 

As to the benefits to accrue to the new owners, 
the Times correspondent is sceptical. He says 
that to sanguine minds the prospect may appear 
tempting, and it may be thought that with proper 
mining appliances, and under British manage- 
ment, these mines might be made to yield a rich 
return. It may prove to be so, but " experience 
in India and Ceylon under more favorable cir- 
cumstances of position does not justify that con- 
clusion. " 



BRITISH CENTENARIANS. 

The British medical association assigned to one 
of its committees the task of inquiring into the 
medical history of the very aged. In answer to 
their widely distributed circulars, they have re- 
ceived a large number of records ; and, of these, 
fifty-two cases refer to persons claiming the age 
of one hundred years or over. The detailed tables 
with regard to these fifty-two centenarians are 
published by Professor Humphrey, F.R.8., in a 
supplement to the British medical journal (Dec. 
11 and 25, 1886). It is not meant to be implied 
that all these cases are beyond question : in only 
eleven cases (two males and nine females) was the 
age confirmed by baptismal or other records ; and 
in the rest of the cases one can safely say that 
they were very, very old. It is satisfactory to find 
that in these tables the well-known pride of lon- 
gevity and love of exaggeration have not induced 
any one to claim so high an age as 110 : 108 and 
106 are the highest ages recorded. 

Thirty-six of these fifty-two are women : this ex- 
cess undoubtedly indicates that females are more 
apt to reach these extreme ages than men ; but it 
also indicates that females are more apt to lay claim 
to extreme longevity, and the- ratio of 86 to 16 must 
be discounted accordingly. The average age of 
females, as well as of males, is slightly over 103 
years ; 11 were single (of these, 10 were females), 
5 were married, and 86 widowed. The average 
age of marriage for the men was 81 years; 
for the women, 25 years. The average dura- 
tion of married life for the former was over 54 
years ; for the latter, over 88 years. The aver- 
age number of children was about six : only one 
male and one female had no children. The cente- 
narian has a tendency to be among the first-born 
children : in thirty-eight returns his average posi- 
tion is about the second or third child, and in 
twelve cases is he the first (and in two of these the * 
only) child. Only 8 of 49 spent their lives in afflu- 



ence ; 28 were in comfortable circumstances, and 
18 were poor. The returns of their past condition 
show a remarkable unanimity as regards their 
health : they are a robust race, and spare as op- 
posed to stout They are not subject to ailmento, 
as a rule, and show some remarkable cases of re- 
covery in old age. One had epilepsy from 17 to 
70 years ; another an abscess connected with the 
spine, a stiff knee from injury at 50, and other 
troubles ; a third had acute bronchitis at 95 ; and 
a fourth, paralysis at 90. 

The qualities most frequently mentioned in 
these life-histories are a good family history ; a 
well-made frame of average stature ; an equable 
development of all the organs, including espe- 
cially a good digestion, ready sleep, keen but not 
large appetite ; retention of the hair and teeth ; 
and little use of stimulants. Their habits, on the 
whole, show them to be, as a class, early risers, 
great out-door exercisers, and moderate in all in- 
dulgences. 

The average height of the males is 5 feet 81 
inches, and their weight 188 pounds; of the 
females, 5 feet 8 inches, and their weight 129 
pounds. Twenty-two report good hearing, and 
34 good sight. Of 85, 28 use glasses, and 4 of the 
other 7 probably could not read. Fourteen de- 
scribe themselves as placid in disposition, 8 as 
irritable, 11 as energetic, 8 as placid and energetic, 
and 5 as irritable and energetic. Of 46, 29 are 
reported as possessing average intelligence, 5 have 
low and 11 high intellects. The memory for re- 
cent events is good in 26, bad in 6, and moderate 
in 7. Similar figures for the memory for past 
events are 89, 4, and 4, showing the greater 
tenacity of early associations. One "remem- 
bers and will quote a great deal of the Bible;*' 
another could " repeat about one hundred Psalms 
correctly." Of 45, 7 smoked much, of which 4 
were women. The average time of going to 
bed was 9 o'clock, and of rising 8 o'clock. 
The average chest girth in inspiration was 86} 
inches in the men, nearly 81 inches for the 
women ; in expiration, 86fr inches and 80 inches. 
The slight differences indicate a weakening of the 
respiratory activity. The average pulse is 75, and 
the respiration 24, per minute. Of 42, 24 had no 
teeth ; among 87 cases, there were 144 teeth, of 
which 68 were in the upper jaw (19 incisors, 8 
canines, and 86 molars), and 81 in the lower jaw 
(28 incisors, 18 canines, and 45 molars). Evidences 
of debility are, of course, not rare : they occur in 
half the cases, and are connected with the heart 
in two cases, with the heart and lungs in 8, heart 
and urinary organs in 8, with the lungs in 2, with 
the brain in 8, brain and urinary organs in 1, 
urinary in 4. 



Jaitoabt 28, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



99 



Dr. Humphrey concludes his comments upon 
these cases with the hopeful consideration that the 
result of the investigation is found to be that " the 
means most suited for prolonging life . . . are the 
means best calculated to turn it to good account 
and to make it happy." 



THE MELANESIAN RACES AND LAN- 
GUAGES. 

Some of the most perplexing problems of eth- 
nology are encountered in Oceanica. As is well 
known, this vast island world, stretching east- 
ward from south-eastern Asia far into the Pacific 
ocean, is commonly divided into five geographical 
provinces, — Malaisia, or the East Indian archi- 
pelago, extending from the Straits of Malacca to 
New Guinea ; Melanesia, comprising New Guinea 
and the groups east of it to the Fiji Islands; 
Polynesia, including the islands of the southern 
and eastern Pacific, from New Zealand to the 
Hawaiian group ; Micronesia, the range of small 
islands in the North Pacific, east of the Philippines; 
and Australasia, comprising Australia and Tas- 
mania. The tribes that inhabit these various 
regions differ in all the traits which are supposed 
to indicate distinction of race. The Malays are 
short, with light-brown complexion, straight black 
hair, and small Siamese features. The Polynesians 
are tall, of cjear yellow hue, with wavy black 
hair, and handsome, almost European counte- 
nances. Of the swarthy Melanesians, some, like 
the Papuans, are tall, with prominent, aquiline 
features, and frizzled locks; others, like the 
Negritos and Samangs, are short, with woolly or 
tufted hair. The Australians are black or red- 
dish brown, with negroid features and wavy or 
crispy hair ; while south of them the now extinct 
Taamanians had similar features and complexion, 
with completely woolly hair. The question to 
oe decided is, Do all these tribes belong to one 
race, or to two, or to many? Ethnologists of 
the highest ability and attainments — Crawford, 
Pritchard, Huxley, Wallace, Lesson, Yon der 
Gabelentz, Winchell, and many others — have 
taken part in the discussion, and we seem as far 
from a definite conclusion as ever. 

The latest and perhaps the most valuable con- 
tribution yet made to the evidence on this subject 
is the comprehensive and profound work of the 
Rev. Dr. Codrington on the Melanesian languages. 
The materials for the work were gathered during 
many years of missionary labor s»pent chiefly on 
Norfolk Island, in the Melanesian mission-school 

The Melanesian languages. By R. H. CODRINGTON. Oxford, 
Clarendon pr. % 885. 8°. (New York, MacmiUan.) 



of the Anglican church. Australasia is not in- 
cluded within the scope of the work, and New 
Guinea is only noticed in some incidental allu- 
sions ; but all the groups lying east of that island, 
and extending from New Ireland southward to 
New Caledonia, and eastward to Rotuma and 
the limits of Polynesia, are illustrated by it. 
No lees than thirty-four languages and dialects 
are carefully described, and are compared with 
one another and with the idioms of Melanesia and 
Polynesia, as well as with the language of Mada- 
gascar, which, as is well known, belongs to the 
Malayo- Polynesian family. Dr. Codrington is an 
Oxford scholar, versed in classical studies, and 
familiar with the methods and results of philologi- 
cal research. To a student of linguistic science it 
is no small pleasure to peruse a work in which the 
laws of the science, as they have been wrought out 
by the ablest minds in the study of the Indo-Eu- 
ropean and Semitic tongues, are applied with a 
happily illuminating effect to the languages of 
these barbarous tribes. 

The first result is to raise considerably our opin- 
ion of the quality of the languages, and our esti- 
mate of the intellect of those who speak them. 
The author finds these idioms remarkably copi- 
ous. Of this fact he gives an interesting illustra- 
tion from his own experience with one of them, — 
that of the island of Mota, of which many of the 
pupils in the Norfolk Island school were natives. 
"After some twelve years' acquaintance with the 
language, talking, teaching, and translating," he 
writes, "and after having acquired, more or less 
correctly, a considerable vocabulary of Mota 
words, I began to buy words that I did not know 
at the rate of a shilling a hundred from the schol- 
ars at Norfolk Island. I left off when lists of three 
thousand words unknown to me had come in. It 
is certain that elder natives Jiving at Mota use 
many words hardly known to those who have 
gone away from their own island as boys, and 
that the boys had by no means exhausted their 
stock. I calculate, therefore, that there were 
probably as many words still to come as would 
bring up my vocabulary to at least six thousand 
words. Of these, many, of course, are compound 
and derivative ; but they are distinct words. This 
concerns a small island, with less than a thousand 
inhabitants, with whom European intercourse 
began within the memory of living men.'* This 
fulness, it should he added, is not merely in names 
of objects and actions. Purely abstract terms are 
common, and are formed by a system of deriva- 
tion as clear and regular as that of the Greek or 
the Sanscrit. Thus from toga (< to abide ') we have 
togara ('behavior') and togava ('station'). No- 
nom (' to think ') yields nonomia (* thought ') ; and 



J 00 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 208 



tape (' to love ') has for its noun tapeva (< love '). 
As Dr. Codrington remarks, " the presence of ab- 
stract words like these, among people of whom it 
is said ' that they are unable to conceive an ab- 
stract idea,' is worthy of notice." 

A no less important result brought out by this 
work is the clear proof it presents that all these 
languages are nearly allied, and that they all be- 
long to the Malayo-Polyneaian family. Of this 
fact, no one who examines the excellent compara- 
tive grammar and the extensive vocabularies given 
in this volume can entertain a doubt. The ques- 
tion at once arises, How shall we explain this sin- 
gular connection of speech between tribes so widely 
different in physical traits? 

Three explanations have been offered. The first 
supposes that all these islands were originally oc- 
cupied by one race, — a yellow or light-brown 
people, with straight hair, — and that the differ- 
ences have been caused, in the course of ages, by 
the slow effects of climate and other natural in- 
fluences. In this view, Oceanica would be a 
microcosm, repeating within its limits the ethno- 
logical phases which the world at large has dis- 
played on a wider scale. A second theory is that 
which is favored by Dr. Codrington, and main- 
tained by him with much force of argument and 
many illustrative facts. He supposes that the whole 
archipelago was at first occupied by a dark- 
skinned and woolly-haired people, originally is- 
suing from Asia, and speaking the primitive 
language from which all these Malayo-Polyneaian 
dialects are derived. At a later day, a light- 
complexioned race, allied to the Siamese and other 
nations of south-eastern Asia, entered the islands 
by slow and gradual migration, took wives from 
among the Melanesians, adopted their language, 
and finally, by their inherent and superior vigor, 
displaced them entirely in many of the islands, 
and partially in others. This ingenious theory 
would explain why only one family of languages 
exists throughout the Melanesian region, if such 
were the case. It collapses, however, in the 
presence of some important facts which the 
learned author has not- sufficiently considered. 
One of these facts is the ascertained existence in 
New Quinea of several languages radically dis- 
tinct from those of the Malayan stock. Dr. Cod- 
rington himself remarks that three New Guinea 
vocabularies, furnished to him by Mr. McFarlane 
of the London mission society, contained no words 
that he knew; that is, no words of Malaisian 
origin. These were from south-eastern New 
Quinea, opposite the Australian coast. In the 
north- western part of the island, the German 
missionaries have studied the language of Mafor, 
near the Bay of Dorey, and have translated por- 



tions of the scriptures into it. A careful analysis 
of this language is given by Prof. F. Mailer in his 
comprehensive work, * Elements of linguistic 
science 9 (Qruruiris8derSprachun89enschaf(y. Many 
words in it, as he points out, are derived from the 
Malay ; but these are clearly modern additions, 
several of them being actually of Arabic origin. 
The grammar and the mass of the vocabulary are 
peculiar. Professor Muller's conclusion is, that 
the Malay-speaking Melanesians are a mixed race, 
derived from a mingling of yellow Malaisiana 
with an aboriginal black race. This theory, in a 
certain way, accords with that of Dr. Codrington ; 
but it differs from it in supposing that the Ma- 
layo-Polyneeian language belonged originally, not 
to the black, but to the yellow race. 

For this conclusion there is evidence which 
seems, on philological grounds, to be decisive. 
The vocabularies show that the Malaisian words 
which appear in the Melanesian dialects are usu- 
ally corrupted, distorted, and abridged, having 
undergone the same fate which the Latin words 
experienced in the pronunciation of the Celts and 
Iberians of Gaul, when these barbarians adopted the 
speech of their Roman conquerors. Thus, the Malai- 
sian apt or afi ( ( fire ') becomes in various Melane- 
sian dialects av, ev, eu, iei ; ika (' fish ') dwindles to 
Hft 60* te > aw or fua (' fruit ') is transformed into 
vua, hue, we, wi, oi ; ielinga (' the ear') assumes 
the various forms of teliga, tikga, dole, horoi, kuii, 
taia. Similar contractions and cor/uptions per- 
vade the entire vocabulary. It is clearly as im- 
possible to hold that the fuller Malaisian words 
are derived from these briefer forms as it would ■ 
be to suppose that the Latin factum, pater, canis, 
and ocvlus had their originals in the French fait, 
phre, chien, and ceil. 

There can be little doubt that the view of Pro- 
fessor Muller is the correct one, and that the 
Melanesians of whom Dr. Codrington treats are a 
people of mixed origin, deriving their language 
mainly from the Malayan race, and their physical 
traits, in varying proportions, partly from that 
race, and partly from a negroid race, which is 
still found, nearly if not quite unmixed, in many 
parts of New Guinea. It is but just to say that 
the author puts forth his own theory merely as a 
suggestion, and does not allow it to influence in 
any manner his treatment of his subject. Noth- 
ing could be more satisfactory than the general 
method of his work, its lucid style, its precision 
and completeness. Several good maps afford use- 
ful aid to the student. The volume must be 
ranked among the best of the many valuable ac- 
quisitions which ethnological science owes to mis- 
sionary zeal and scholarship. 

H. Hals. 



SCIENCE. 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1887. 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM. 

The annual reports of President Eliot of 
Harvard always contain suggestive reading for 
those who are interested in the advance and im- 
provement of teaching, as well as in teaching 
itself. The constant effort to seek out and put 
into practice better methods of instruction, or 
methods more in keeping with the needs of the 
time, has been pre-eminently a characteristic of 
the present administration at Harvard. This was 
well pointed out by President Angell of Michigan 
in his after-dinner speech at the Harvard celebra- 
tion last November. He alluded to the debt that 
all American colleges owe to the old university 
for the bold spirit of experiment that has led to 
the recognition of the difference in value between 
the traditional, customary, and conventional meth- 
ods, inherited from previous generations, and the 
new, fresh, original methods, that contribute 
their share to the advance of the age. Any thing, 
he said, rather than stagnation in educational 
matters. Certainly there is no stagnation at 
Harvard, and the many changes of the last fifteen 
years seem only to prepare the way for more. 



One of the present concerns of the college is 
naturally to secure good teaching for those who 
may desire to take entrance examinations in sci- 
ence instead of in one of the classics. It is well, 
therefore, to note President Eliot's attitude on 
this question. He says, " A serious difficulty in 
the way of getting science well taught in second- 
ary schools has been the lack of teachers who 
knew any thing of inductive reasoning and ex- 
perimental methods." One reason of this is that 
"good school methods of teaching the sciences 
have not yet been elaborated and demonstrated, 
and it is the first duty of university departments of 
science to remove at least this obstacle to the intro- 
duction of science into schools. . . . Science can 
never be put on the right footing at the university, 
so long as it is practically excluded from secondary 
schools, or is admitted only to be taught in a 
positively harmful way." This brings to the 
front as important a matter as has lately been 

Na SOS— 1887. 



considered in the development of collegiate study, 
and young men may well consider the opportunity 
that it will open for them. For the next twenty 
years, the preparatory schools will show a growth 
on the side of science-teaching, the like of which 
has not been seen in this country, and really good 
teachers of chemistry and physics will be in in- 
creasing demand. It will be a fortunate university 
that shall supply the most of these teachers. 



An interesting paragraph of the report relates 
to the " list of publications of Harvard university 
and its officers, 1880-1885." "In this list, about 
three-quarters of the 1,818 entries relate to science, 
including in that term medioine. Very inaccu- 
rate estimates of the relative activity in literary and 
scientific publications of some leading American 
universities having of late years obtained cur- 
rency, and perhaps credit, through the public 
press, it is permissible to remark in the interests 
of truth, that it would be discreditable indeed to 
Harvard university — old and well-equipped as it 
is— if any other American institution could ap- 
proach it in the range and volume of its «mnim i 
literary and scientific publications." The excess 
of scientific publications over literary would be 
much reduced if pages instead of titles were 
counted ; for in science a larger number of brief 
monographs on limited topics can be found tha n 
there is any equivalent for in literature. 



During the last twenty years, while scientific 
studies were finding their place in the college 
elective lists, the Lawrence scientific school, once 
a leader among its fellows, has been steadily losing 
in number of scholars, and hence in influence. 
For some years past it has suffered seriously, 
simply from being overshadowed by the growing 
college across the street. Some have thought that 
this meant a discouragement to science-teaching 
at Cambridge, but the very reverse is the case. 
When the school was founded, the college was 
narrow, and saw no propriety in allowing a wide 
variety of study to its undergraduates. There 
was no advanced teaching in physical or natural 
science in the college till 1871, and ambitious 
students of these subjects in the earlier years had 



J 02 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. *» 



to go to the Lawrence school for them, if they 
came to Cambridge at all. Now the same class of 
students undoubtedly goes to the college, attrac- 
tive in so many ways, for its lines of study have 
been extended to include nearly every thing at 
first found only in the scientific school, in accord- 
ance with what is vaguely termed the ' spirit of 
the age ; ' but it should be recognized that this 
spirit has been strongly guided by just such insti- 
tutions as the Lawrence school, whose graduates 
include a large number of prominent and influ- 
ential men. If success is to be measured by the 
share taken in the labor of bringing neglected 
studies into their proper position, the liberality of 
Abbott Lawrence and James Lawrence has been 
successful even beyond their hopes. 



In view of these altered relations, President 
Eliot recommends that the separate organization 
of the Lawrence scientific school should be dis- 
continued ; that the college faculty should be in- 
trusted with the function of recommending to the 
governing boards candidates for the degree of 
bachelor of science ; and that the academic coun- 
cil of the university should recommend candidates 
for the graduate degree of civil engineer, the un- 
derlying degree being either A.B. or S.B. The 
Lawrences would still be commemorated in the 
names of certain professorships, although no 
longer attached to a separately organized school. 
The first of these recommendations will, it is to 
be hoped, commend itself to the authorities con- 
cerned ; for the separate existence of the school is 
not sufficiently encouraged by its present circum- 
stances, and is not likely to be by any thing 
visible in the future. The third recommendation 
is not of a kind to provoke unfavorable action. 
It is to the second recommendation that the most 
interested discussion will turn. If it result in 
uniting bachelors of science with bachelors of 
arts in one body of alumni, the preliminary ex- 
aminations and the undergraduate courses of study 
being equivalent, it will be one of the great steps 
in the advancement of scientific education at 
Harvard college. 



What mat be called the official autobiography 
of the knights of labor is contained in an article 
by Carroll D. Wright in the current number of 
the Quarterly journal of economics. To be sure, 
Mr. Wright is not a member of the order ; and 
we have bad other accounts of its genesis before, 



notably that detailed one published in the large 
work on the labor-question, edited by Mr. George 
E. McNeill. But we learn from a footnote that 
Mr. Wright's article was submitted, previous to 
publication, to several officers and members of 
the order, and was by them pronounced correct 
in all statements of fact. It is this that gives the 
sketch what we have called its official character. 
Mr. Wright begins by stating that two fundamental 
ideas underlie all labor organizations, some choos- 
ing one, and some the other. The first of these 
ideas is that of the association of all men of like 
employment, and on it the mediaeval guilds and 
the modern trades-unions were founded. The 
second idea is of broader scope, and takes no ac- 
count of particular vocations. It seeks to organize 
all laborers into a single association, and is of 
later growth than the idea underlying the guilds 
and trades-unions. On it the celebrated Inter- 
national was founded, and the no less celebrated 
knights of labor take it as their starting-point. 
This second idea is both unsound in theory, and 
is every day proving itself pernicious in practice. 
It calls for the division of society at large into 
classes, and arrays the one against the other. As 
a matter of fact, no such cleavage of society is 
possible on any but the most superficial reasoning. 
In this country, where we recognize no aristocracy 
of birth, and where the industrial organization is 
democratic to the last degree, the attempt to so di- 
vide society is especially foolish and short-sighted. 
Though it may create uneasiness and disturbance 
for the time being, it is in the end certain to fail. 
If by any chance the advocates of the idea in ques- 
tion should succeed in their endeavor to create in- 
dustrial classes and to array them against each other, 
the very first conflict would scatter their house of 
cards in every direction. It would require a very 
great turning-back of the wheels of progress to 
make it possible for the American idea of indi- 
vidual liberty and personal responsibility to be 
overcome by the ancient and discarded idea of 
corporate action and corporate responsibility. 



With the various stages in the development of 
the knights of labor we are already fairly famil- 
iar, but Mr. Wright puts the facts again before us 
in a very clear and connected way. We learn 
how the personal character and history of Uriah 
S. Stephens, the founder of the order, impressed 
themselves upon its early organization, and how 
the order straggled along from its inception in 



FlBSUAXT 4, 1887.] 



SCIENCE, 



103 



Philadelphia on Thanksgiving day, 1869, until 
the general assembly at Detroit in 1881 freed it 
from many of the restrictions placed upon it by 
Mr. Stephens, and made it so popular with certain 
sections of the people that since that time its 
growth has been phenomenal in the history of 
labor organizations. Mr. Stephens's controlling 
ideas seem to have been two, — first, that surplus 
labor always keeps wages down (it does not seem 
to have occurred to him that improving the qual- 
ity of labor will cause wages to rise) ; and, sec- 
ond, that nothing can remedy this evil but a 
purely and deeply secret organization, based upon 
a plan that shall teach, or rather inculcate, or- 
ganization, and at the same time educate its mem- 
bership to one set of ideas ultimately subversive of 
the present wages system. The history of the 
knights of labor themselves, and the action of the 
general assembly at Detroit, are sufficient com- 
ments on this second principle. The order grew 
slowly at first, and, as time passed, the district, 
and finally the general assembly, were evolved to 
perfect and unify the organization of the local 
assembly. The first district assembly was organ- 
ized in 1878, and the first general assembly met 
on New Year's day, 1878, at Reading. Mr. Wright 
notices the various general assembly meetings at 
Reading, St. Louis, Chicago, Pittsburg, Detroit, 
New York, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Hamilton, 
Cleveland (a special meeting), and Richmond, 
and characterizes briefly the action taken at each. 
As to the strength of the order, he cites Mr. 
Powderly's testimony before the congressional 
committee in May, 1886, that it then num- 
bered 500,000 members. At the time of the Rich- 
mond meeting last October, there were one hun- 
dred and sixty district assemblies and about nine 
thousand local assemblies. The total membership 
was then about 780,000. Mr. Wright believes 
that it is to-day about one million. 



Mr. Wright mixes very little criticism or com- 
ment with his recital of facts, and we trust it is 
only because he wishes to avoid any appearance 
of discourtesy to those who have materially 
assisted him in collating his data. For, as to the 
attitude of sound and enlightened public opinion 
towards the knights of labor, there can be but one 
opinion. That there was a wide-spread sympathy 
with the organization and its aims at one time 
cannot be denied ; and it is just as incontestable 
that this sympathy has been turned into disap- 



pointment and disgust by the excesses of the 
various organizations, and the abuse they have 
made of their power. Without this sympathy 
and the support of public opinion, no great move- 
ment, labor or other, can be carried to a successful 
consummation. The spectacle of half a million 
or even a million men arrogating to themselves 
the title and privileges of laborers to the exclu- 
sion of the other sixteen or seventeen millions of 
wage-earners in the country, is ludicrous enough ; 
but it becomes supremely so when this small 
minority endeavors to prevent any of the majority 
from obtaining such employment as the latter may 
desire, at such wages as they are willing to accept. 
It is this general principle, quite as much as the 
various excesses that have been committed, that 
has disgusted thoughtful men with the whole 
movement. The cowardice of political leaders, 
and the miscalled philanthropy of various mem- 
bers of the community, have permitted things 
which, without them, no organization would have 
thought of undertaking, much less of prosecut- 
ing successfully. 



There is no subject which has -for the sani- 
tarian more interest than that connected with the 
great mortality among the young children of our 
large cities. And as the principal factor in this 
mortality is represented by the term ' summer 
diarrhoea,' it is to diseases of this nature that 
especial attention is devoted by those who have at 
heart the welfare of the young. Thirty-five hun- 
dred persons succumbed to this class of diseases 
during the past year in New York City alone, more 
than half of the number in the two months of 
July and August. To diminish this mortality is 
a task worthy of the best efforts of the philanthro- 
pist ; and every contribution to this end, however 
insignificant, should be gladly welcomed, and 
made, so far as it can be, the basis for action. 
Dr. L. Emmett Holt of New York, in a paper 
recently read before the New York academy of 
medicine, has made a very valuable addition to 
our knowledge of the causes at work in the pro- 
duction of summer diarrhoea, and to the methods 
for its treatment. After a full discussion of these 
points, he presents the following conclusions : 1. 
Summer diarrhoea is not to be regarded as a 
disease depending upon a single morbific agent ; 
2. The remote causes are many, and include heat, 
mode of feeding, surroundings, dentition, and 
many other factors ; 8. The immediate cause is 



104 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 209 



the putrefactive changes which take place in the 
stomach and bowels in food not digested, which 
changes are often begun outside the body ; 4. 
These products may act as systemic poisons, or 
the particles may cause local irritation and inflam- 
mation of the intestine. In the treatment of the 
affection, Dr. Holt believes that antiseptics are of 
great value, especially napbthalin and the salts of 
salicylic acid. 



Thebe seems to be a disposition, on the part 
of congress, to transfer the signal service bureau 
to the new department of agriculture and labor. 
General Sheridan approves this plan, and says, 
that, as a school of instruction, the bureau is not 
needed in the army, and would prove rather an 
encumbrance than an advantage : while, so far 
as its meteorological observations are concerned, 
these relate wholly to the interests of agriculture 
and commerce, and should be under the direction 
of some civil branch officer of the government. 

Prof. William James of Harvard has a very 
clear description of the laws of habit, in the cur- 
rent issue of the Topular science monthly, that is 
at once scientific and philosophical. The old- 
fashioned literary treatment of habits is as far 
removed as possible from the point of view and 
method of Professor James. He shows us that 
'habit' is a term of very wide application, and 
that the phenomena of habit in living beings are 
due to the plasticity — which means the posses- 
sion of a structure weak enough to yield to an in- 
fluence, but strong enough not to yield all at once 
— of the organic materials of which their bodies 
are composed. Thus a full account of habits im- 
plies some reference to physics as well as to physi- 
ology and psychology. Tracing briefly, then, the 
physiological and psychological side of habits, 
Professor James passes to the ethical and peda- 
gogical considerations which concern them. He 
calls habit the ' fly-wheel of society, its most pre- 
cious conservative agent,* and claims that " it is 
well for the world that in most of us, by the age 
of thirty, the character has set like plaster, and 
will never soften again.*' 

The decade between twenty and thirty is found 
to be the critical one in the formation of intel- 
lectual and professional habits, while the period of 
life before twenty is the most important for the 
fixing of personal habits. From this it follows 



easily that by education we must seek " to make 
automatic and habitual, as early as possible, as 
many useful actions as we can," and, conversely, 
to prevent the dropping into injurious habits. Pro- 
fessor James shows how unconsciously habits of 
mind are formed through the process of our daily 
routine, until some day we awake to the fact thai 
we have acquired peculiar power or skill in some 
direction. The constant preaching of this truth 
would infuse new hope and ambition into many 
desponding workers. 



The excitement and alarm which prevailed 
in this country last year and the previous one, in 
anticipation of cholera, have entirely subsided, 
and yet perhaps the danger of its appearance is as 
great to-day as it has been at any time in the past 
three years. Although frequent reference to its 
presence in Europe has been made in the daily 
press, its ravages have not been described as fully 
as the facts warrant. At Budapest there have 
been 1,329 cases with 586 deaths; at Fiume, 260 
cases and 161 deaths ; at Trieste, 896 cases and 
567 deaths. In Japan during 1886 there were 
158,980 cases, of which 100,492 were fatal. In 
Yokohama alone the cases numbered 8,021, and 
the deaths 2,278. In South America, cholera 
still exists at Montevideo and Mendoza ; the U.S. 
consul, under date of Jan. 19, reporting that it 
has been officially declared at the former place. 
The disease still exists at Buenos Ayres, though it 
is said to be diminishing and of a less virulent 
form than heretofore. The presence of cholera 
on the west coast of South America, which has 
been announced by the press, still lacks official 
confirmation. 



Y0UTHFULNES8 IN SCIENCE. 

Eveby college instructor knows only too well 
how the more active-minded students are eager to 
grapple with the mightiest subjects, all in the un- 
tested pride of developing intelligence. Their 
themes are, ' The progress of democracy,' * The 
comparison of French and English literature,' 
« Solar energy,' 'The Darwinian theory,' *Tbe 
origin of mind ; ' in short, all the vastest problems, 
such as a lifetime is inadequate for. Most of us 
can gather from our personal recollections some 
examples of the foible. Touth does not know its 
measure. Only maturity, and not always even 
maturity, realizes how tiny and feeble is the force 
of the individual when it turns to attack the 
world problems, which stand more mysteriously 




February 4, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



10.1 



and longer than the sphinx to perplex and baffle 
humanity. The adolescent mind is confident ; for 
it has never been beaten, since it has never been 
engaged in any real fighting. It proudly believes 
in its own success, and is but too apt to look 
disdainfully on great thinkers, because they left 
more to be thought. It glories in generalizations, 
and Is gladly indifferent to the harassing details 
and preliminaries, with which, if it continues ac- 
tive, it will afterwards be chiefly and sensibly oc- 
cupied. 

The young man is often a would-be revolution- 
ist. He is surprised that older and wiser and 
better men are so benighted. Let us not be mis- 
understood. The young man we are characteriz- 
ing is the one in whom the faults his years are 
prone to are strongly accented. We have no in- 
tention of wholesale condemnation towards a class 
to which we have belonged, and therefore may be 
supposed to think of respectfully. If the unfor- 
tunate individual or type we are discussing betakes 
himself to science, he may do useful and praise- 
worthy work, but he is pretty sure to injure its 
meritorious part by adjuncts of misshapen gen- 
eralization, and of criticisms very bad in taste and 
unjust in substance. His pages show a saddening 
spectacle of overgrown self-confidence, betrayed 
by the tone of expression, by the ill-repressed 
laudation of his own theories, and the bad-man- 
nered fault-finding with others, perhaps merely 
because their observations, without which the 
young man could have done nothing, were not 
exhaustive of the field. Next follows pitiless 
criticism ; the pedestal of flimsy logic is dashed 
away ; the victim falls from his eminence. The 
specious argumentation is reft, and the man's 
ignorance is exposed nakedly. Last comes the 
cruel abasement, all^tbe worse to bear because it 
is the public sequel of elation. And still the 
young man must be grateful if the late lesson can 
be learned by bis aching and repentant mind. 
Would that the fire of the soul always purified, 
and never consumed ! * 



PROHIBITION. 



Interference with the voluntary' actions of 
people is to be deprecated, except when such 
actions trespass on the rights of other members of 
the community. 

A chemical factory, emitting noisome fumes, 
must not be established in the midst of a town or 
city, or measures must be enforced against it to 
prevent the contamination of the surrounding air ; 
a boiler-factory, with its din of rivet-hammering, 
most not be suffered to disturb the peace of aresi- 
neighborhood ; a gunpowder-factory must 



not be allowed to endanger other properties by its 
proximity ; a graveyard must be kept away from 
centres of living population. These interferences 
with the voluntary actions of factory and grave- 
yard owners are justified by the fact that the 
interdicted operations are trespasses on the rights, 
because baneful to the health or comfort, of the 
community. 

Is there any similar justification for the pro- 
hibition of the manufacture or sale of alcoholic 
liquors ? 

We know that use is very apt to degenerate into 
abuse of such commodities ; and we know that 
more than half of the immorality that afflicts 
society, and of the crime that fills our prisons, is 
directly traceable to the abuse of alcoholic liquors. 
We know also that the heaviest portion of the 
burdens on tax-payers — the cost of protective, 
detective, judicial, reformatory, and punitive es- 
tablishments — is largely owing to the same cause. 
Everybody admits, therefore, that society would 
be justified in doing whatever is requisite to pro- 
tect itself from the gigantic evils which spring 
from the liquor traffic. 

Here, however, the policy now widely advo- 
cated diverges from the line of justifiable inter- 
ference. Prohibition of manufacture or sale is 
not the proper protective policy. This interferes 
with the voluntary action equally of those who 
innocently use as of those who criminally abuse. 
No notice need be taken of the bigot theory, that 
innocent use of alcoholic liquors is impossible. 
Let us grant a place in the world for every thing 
to be found in it, and for every production of 
man's hands. Use and abuse are possible for all 
things. 

What, then, is the proper line of social action? 

Society does not, and can not, prevent the play- 
ing of games of chance by those who choose to 
waste their time and means in such demoralizing 
pursuits ; but society does interfere with the busi- 
ness of the gambler, the card-sharper, the lottery- 
ticket seller, etc. Society does not seek to stop, 
by futile prohibitory measures, the prevalence of 
other forms of ' social evil,' but society does pre- 
vent the flaunting of immorality before the public 
eye, and the use of the streets for its advertising 
purposes. 

So in reference to the liquor traffic. No attempt 
need be made, or should be made, to interfere with 
manufacture or sale ; but the most absolute pro- 
hibition should be laid on the business of selling 
liquor 'to be drunk on the premises.' Saloons 
and bar-rooms are evil, and only evil, and that 
continually. 

If a man wants beer or brandy, let him buy it 
as he does beef or bread, and by due measure of 



106 



SCIENCE. 



{Vou DL, No. 20» 



pint or gallon, as he does solid provisions by ounce 
or pound. And let his purchases of liquor be de- 
livered at his home, as openly as his meat and 
vegetables are. What would be thought of the 
man who should pack his fill of beefsteak and 
oysters within his own waistcoat, and leave his 
family to dine, as best they could, on bare pota- 
toes? If the beer is good for the husband, a 
little of it would be equally good for the wife? 

No articles of consumption are so tampered with 
by deleterious adulterations as the staples of the 
bar-room. No articles are sold at such a dispro- 
portion between the wholesale cost and the retail 
price. Nothing measured by the yard or weighed 
by the pound is so vague in quantity as the saloon 
' glass.' People sneak behind the lattice-screen, 
and submit to the extortionate dishonesty for the 
sake of the privacy of their selfish indulgence. 
In the higher order of such places the patrons are 
further attracted by objects of luxury and sen- 
suality. Gas, gilding, mirrors, statuary, and 
paintings are lavished on the surroundings. The 
wretched tippler's home is, of course, dull in 
comparison with this brilliant vestibule to the 
temple of vice. 

Prohibition and local option are the measures 
most widely recommended for the cure of the 
drink-habit. But the true remedy has not been 
thought of by the advocates of these worse than 
ineffective panaceas. The social curse can only 
be stopped by stopping the liquor-supply at the 
point where alone it is capable of legislative con- 
trol. Shut the saloons. Allow no liquor to be 
sold anywhere to be drunk on the premises. 
This is the grand summary of a grand revolu- 
tion. 

This • prohibition' leaves to every man the 
due exercise of his personal freedom : it prohibits 
only the manufacture of drunkards, paupers, 
tramps, and criminals. 

The spiders who fatten on the weak frequenters 
of their glittering nets of doom would have to 
turn to other employments. They would not be 
the liquor-sellers of the future. These would be of 
the class of ordinary honest tradesmen who put a 
fair price per definite quantity on a definite quality 
of their wares. Purchasers would be protected 
as to quality by certified inspection, and as to 
quantity by the compulsory use of measures in 
selling. Cut away by these provisions, the source 
of dishonest profits from the business of the bar- 
room, and even the proprietors of such establish- 
ments would speedily relinquish the traffic. 

Prohibition of the use of alcoholic liquors has 
never succeeded — never can succeed ; for it is a 
tyranny from which every independent mind re- 
volts. If a man will play the fool with his brains 



and his means, society cannot stop him ; bat it 
ought not through its licensed agents to facilitate 
the process. It should, moreover, provide an easy 
means of family protection from the consequences 
of drunkenness. Legislation can accomplish this, 
and nothing more would be necessary. 

To stop the sale of alcoholic liquors for con- 
sumption on the premises would inconvenience 
nobody. Phials of any capacity might be obtained 
for use at home. And the gilding and glitter of 
the saloon might still be available to render attrac- 
tive the tea-room, coffee-room, and reading-room, 
where families as well as individuals might resort 

for the cup * which cheers but not inebriates.* 

B. 



PETER'S ATTACK ON PASTEUR. 

The discussion in the Paris academy of medi- 
cine, which originated in Professor Peter's recent 
paper on death by hydrophobia after preventive 
inoculation, was concluded at the last meeting 
(Jan. 18). Professor Peter spoke again upon the 
subject, but in much milder language, and his re- 
marks may be summarized as follows : — 

When death takes place after preventive inocu- 
lation, the defenders of Pasteurism recur to an 
alibi or to extenuating circumstances instead of 
confessing the truth. For instance, they argue 
that death was due to some other cause, such as 
uraemia, meningitis, or albuminuria, but not to 
hydrophobia. In other cases they admit that hy- 
drophobia is the cause of death, but they explain 
it by stating that the patient did not apply for 
treatment until it was too late. M. Peter does 
not accept these excuses, and bluntly says, that, 
if patients die after having submitted to preven- 
tive inoculation, their death is due to the inocula- 
tion, entirely ignoring the effects of the rabid ani- 
mal's bite. Pasteur's method, according to M. 
Peter, is an ingenious one ; but it should not be 
applied to man, especially the more recent method 
of intensive inoculation. The old method, he ad- 
mits, is harmless though useless ; the new meth- 
od, he claims, is harmful, even murderous. To it 
and not to the bites of the rabid animals, he at- 
tributes the recent death of patients with hydro- 
phobic symptoms, after preventive inoculation. 

M. Brouardel, in a short matter-of-fact address, 
said that M. Peter's arguments were utterly illog- 
ical, and concluded by giving the statistics of re- 
sults already achieved at Odessa, as follows : out 
of 101 cases treated by the ordinary method, there 
were 7 deaths ; out of 85 cases treated by the 
mixed method, 1 death ; out of 140 cases treated 
by the intensive method, not one death. This dis- 
posed of the charge that the latter method is mur- 



r~' 



4, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



107 



deroue. M. Vulpian stated that out of 186 cases 
of bites inflicted in the face by animals known to 
be rabid, treated by the ordinary method, there 
were 10 deaths ; oat of 60 similar cases treated 
by the intensive method, no deaths. As to the 
-charge that the method is useless, that is refuted 
by statistics already familiar to those interested 
in the subject. 

M. Vulpian spoke at some length on the possibil- 
ity of encountering the paralytic form of hydro- 
phobia in man under ordinary conditions, men- 
tioning some cases which prove that it does 
sometimes exist where the person bitten by rabid 
animals has not been subjected to preventive in- 
oculation. 

The discussion is ended for the present, but it 
will doubtless begin again at some future time. 
Though M. Peter was somewhat moderate in his 
remarks at the last meeting of the academy, he 
does not seem to possess the spirit of scientific 
-criticism, perceiving neither the weight of the 
arguments advanced in opposition to his assertions 
nor the fallacy of some of his own. 

As M. Pasteur has been accused, though wrong- 
fully, of concealing the results of his treatment, it 
has been decided to publish statistics monthly, 
instead of quarterly as heretofore. They will 
appear in the Annate* de I 9 institut Pasteur, which 
will be published under the direction of M. Du- 
olaux. 



ST. PETERSBURG LETTER. 
The geographical event of the season is the 
return of Potanin, who is expected here in time 
to attend the annual meeting of the Russian geo- 
graphical society this month. A large map of the 
route travelled by him is being prepared by Colonel 
Bolachew, the military cartographer. The pre- 
vious travels of Potanin were especially note- 
worthy on account of his ethnological and anthro- 
pological studies ; but the chief importance of the 
expedition from which he now returns lies in the 
geographical studies made by him in the higher 
parts of Asia, not only because he has visited 
regions heretofore untrodden by civilized man, 
but also because of the accuracy of his observa- 
tions in those regions. The latitude and longitude 
of sixty different points have been ascertained, 
and the barometrical observations of the expedi- 
tion will permit of a tolerably accurate determina- 
tion of heights. There were 4,600 versts of 
accurate survey made, and this in the parts least 
known, while in the more thickly settled regions 
approximate surveys only were found possible. 
Hie co-operation as topographer of Skassi, who 
accompanied Severtzow on many of his travels, 
contributed much to these results. The travellers 



were exceedingly well received by the Chinese 
authorities, who furnished them with guides and 
all necessary information. The most important 
work was done on the journey from Koko-Nor 
directly north to Kiachta by way of the Gobi 
desert. The river Ersin-Gdl was followed over a 
great part of its course to the point where it falls 
into Lake Soyok-Norinto. Farther northward 
four ranges of mountains were found. 

The second in importance of the Russian scien- 
tific expeditions of the past year was the so-called 
Chan-Tengri expedition, headed by Ignatiew, who 
visited the glaciers of that mountain. The results 
of the expedition are not yet made public. He 
travelled through the Muzart pass, and found it to 
be as difficult of access as it was generally believed 
to be. The botanist Erasnow took a more easterly 
road, and, traversing the Bedel pass, went to 
Utsch-Turfan. Much is to be expected from the 
latest work of this young naturalist, if we may 
judge by what he has already accomplished. 

The secretary of the Geographical society, A. 
W. Grigofiew, recently attempted to visit the 
Solovetz Islands in the White Sea, desiring to 
make observations on the depth and temperature 
of the waters there, but, as he could find no ship 
to transport him thither, did not succeed in reach- 
ing the islands. He made an excursion, however, 
to the waterfalls of Kiwatsch and Por-Porog, 
from Petrozavodsk on Lake Onega. The position 
of the latter waterfall, as well as of its river, is 
not shown on any map as yet. There is a great 
lack of astronomically determined points and of 
accurate surveys in that part of Russia, and there 
is but little hope of any thing being accomplished 
there at present by the military surveyors. It 
would be a good field for private enterprise, as the 
region may be easily reached from St. Petersburg 
by means of the steamers plying on Lakes 
Ladoga and Onega. It is a picturesque country, 
with numerous lakes and waterfalls, and affords 
excellent salmon and trout fishing. 

Some new data on the topography of the coun- 
try between Vologda and Archangel were obtained 
during the past summer by Kusnezow. The 
greatest elevation on the watershed between the 
Volga and the Dwina was found to be 766 feet. 
Thus the topographical work of Russia is slowly 
advancing. 

The Geographical society has under considera- 
tion some short practical instructions to explorers, 
the main point aimed at being to draw their at- 
tention to the alleged gradual drying-up of the 
inland waters of the Asiatic continent. It has 
already been mentioned that Jadrinzew, on com- 
paring last-century maps with those of recent 
years, finds that the lakes of the Baraba steppe, 



108 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. SO* 



such as Tschany, for instance, have shrank to half 
their former dimensions. On personal examina- 
tion of those lakes, he found many traces of a 
recent decrease in their waters. Russia has so 
many lakes, that the study of their physical geog- 
raphy is especially important. 

The pendulum ordered last year has been 
brought from Hamburg to St. Petersburg by Pro- 
fessor Lenz. It has been carefully tested, and 
Professor Bredichin, the astronomer, will make 
determinations of gravity with it next summer in 
the vicinity of Moscow. 

Among the recent changes in the personnel of 
the Geographical society, the following may be 
mentioned : General Stebnitzky has been chosen 
president of the mathematical section, and Prof. 
W. Lamanskyof the ethnographical section. The 
former is known by his excellent geodetical work 
in the Caucasus and the eastern part of Asia Mi- 
nor, and also by his works on local attraction. 
The latter gentleman is one of our most eminent 
Slavists. 

The eclipse of Aug. 19 will be visible over a 
great extent of Russian territory. The question 
as to the best methods of its observation, which 
was discussed last spring by the Physico-chemical 
society, is now being considered by the Meteoro- 
logical commission of the Geographical society, 
which will occupy itself mainly with observations 
on pressure and temperature during the eclipse. 
It has not been decided what expeditions will be 
equipped for the purpose, and only two points of 
observation have as yet been determined upon. 
One or two astronomers will be stationed on the 
estate of General Maiewsky, in the district of Tver, 
where an astronomical observatory is established ; 
and Professor Bredichin, with two English friends, 
will take observations on his estate in the govern- 
ment of Kostroma. It is not as yet known whether 
or not the Pulkowa observatory will send out a 
party. The visibility of the eclipse on land will 
be unusually great ; and the country west of Lake 
Baikal, where the totality will be seen, is tolerably 
well settled ; and to Tomsk, at least, the railroad 
and steamboat communications are good. The 
time of the year is favorable, and the hour, 7 
a.m., is such that the morning fogs will have 
been dissipated. 

The question as to the new chair of geography 
in the Russian universities is under discussion. 
The universities of Moscow, Kharkow, Kasan, 
and Odessa have already sent their opinions to 
the ministry of public instruction, that of St. Pe- 
tersburg is still considering the subject, while 
Prof. A. Woeikof has been sent to different coun- 
tries of Europe on a scientific mission in connec- 
tion with the matter. 



The Academy of sciences has recently elected to 
membership two chemists and a mathematician. 
The former, Professor Beketow, of Khartow, and 
Professor Beilstein of the Technological institute 
of St Petersburg, are well known abroad ; the 
latter, Dr. Maroow, of St Petersburg, is a young 
man of great talent, who occupied the chair of 
Professor Tschebischew after the latter left the 
university. 

Among recent scientific publications may be 
mentioned that of M. A. Rykatschew on the freez- 
ing and opening of rivers and lakes in Russia. 
The author, with the assistance of three naval 
officers, — Kowalsky, Maliarewsky, and Fileniua, 
— has collected a great quantity of material which 
he has used in a very able manner. For the dates 
of opening of the rivers, lakes, etc., he has availed 
himself of observations at 907 different points, 
and, for those of their freezing, 690 points. Some 
of these observations extended over long periods, 
those relating to the Neva at St Petersburg, 
Vistula at Warsaw, Dwina at Archangel, Angara 
at Irkutsk, DOna at Riga, and Kuro at Storkflro, 
reaching back over a hundred years ; the Onega 
at Onega, Bielaya at Ufa. Volga at Saratov, Obi at 
Barnaul, Sookhona at Ustiug-Weliki, Sysola at 
Ust-Sysolsk, and Yenisei at Yeniseisk, more than 
eighty years. The following table shows the num- 
ber of available observations as to time of opening 
and freezing at the points mentioned during the 
number of years given in the first column : — 





Opening. 


Freezing. 


80 yean or more 

60 to 79 yean. 

80 •* 49 " 

90 " 89 " 

10 •• 19 " 

Less than 10 years. 


18 

14 

89 

186 

941 

464 


11 

10 

80 

119 

989 

408 



In the book under consideration the observa- 
tions for each year are given separately. The re- 
sults are also graphically shown by three charts or 
diagrams, — one for the date of opening, one for 
that of freezing, and one for the number of days 
the rivers are frozen. As might be expected, 
there is nearly always a retardation ; that is, the 
rivers do not freeze over until some days after the 
temperature has fallen below 0°, and do not open 
until some days after it has risen above 0°. This 
retardation is greater for large rivers than for 
small ones. The explanation of this difference 
is, that a longer time is required to chill a large 
body of water than a smaller one ; and, on the 
other hand, the melting of the snow, and the 
consequent snow-water, sooner affects the ice of 
a small river than that of a larger one. But 



Fubuabt 4, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



10» 



when once begun, the thawing and breaking-up 
of the ice on a huge river proceed more rapidly 
than on a smaller one. This retardation is 
greater on the Volga than on any other river in 
Russia. On the major part of its middle and 
lower coarse it remains unfrozen for more than 
thirty days after the temperature has fallen 
below 0°, and it does not open in the spring 
until at least fifteen days after the temperature 
rises to that point. 

To-day, at the yearly meeting of the Academy 
of sciences, a commemorative gold medal was 
presented to Gen. N. M. Prjevalaky. O. E. 

St. PeteiBbiir*, Jan. 10. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



At the last meeting of the board of regents, two 
assistant secretaries were appointed to aid the sec- 
retary in the work of the Smithsonian institution. 
Prof. S. P. Langley of Alleghany City, Penn., was 
appointed as assistant secretary in charge of ex- 
changes, publications, and the library ; and Prof. 
G. Brown Goode, as assistant secretary in charge 
of the national museum. 

— The Cincinnati society of natural history pre- 
sents an unusually attractive course of free popu- 
lar scientific lectures the present season. This is 
the sixth course, and the subjects are as follows : 
1 Climate, plant-life, and consumption,' Dr. W. A. 
Dun ; • Deep-sea explorations,' Joseph F. James ; 
'The moon,' J. G. Porter; 'The retreat of the 
ice and the evolution of Lake Erie,' E. W. 
Claypole ; ' The U. S. fish commission,' Her- 
bert Jenney ; « Forestry,' R. H. Warder ; * Sun- 
spots,' Amos R. Wells; 'Gas as a fuel,' N. 
W. Lord ; * Glaciers and earthquakes,' J. W. 
Hall; * Primeval man,' E. D. Cope; ( Bird- 
life,' F. W. Langdon. The first lecture was given 
on Jan. 14, and the others follow at intervals of 
one week. The society is unusually active this 
year, and is in a prosperous condition. A lyceum 
for young people has been inaugurated, and ninety 
names are now enrolled. The object is to interest 
children in the study of natural history, and there 
is every reason to believe the plan will succeed. 
In addition to these, a course of lectures on physi- 
ology, by Dr. C. E. Caldwell, to the school-teach- 
ers, is being given. Sixty have been enrolled, and 
each lecture has been well attended. 

— The recent election in the California academy 
of sciences held in San Francisco resulted in the 
election of the following officers : president, H. 
W. Harkness ; first vice-president, H. H. Behr ; 
second vice-president, G. Hewston ; corresponding 
secretary, H. Ferrer : recording secretary, Charles 



G. Yale ; treasurer, JohnDalber ; librarian, Carlo* 
Troyer ; director of the museum, J. C. Cooper ; 
trustees, Charles S. Crocker, T. P. Madden, J. M* 
McDonald, E. L. G. Steele, S. W. Holladay, Dr. 
Hayes, and E. J. Molera. Prof. George Davidson,, 
who had been president of the academy for fifteen 
years, was not re-elected. By the will of the late- 
James lick, the academy will receive two hundred 
thousand dollars, a portion of which will be de- 
voted to the erection of a new building. 



— Consul Bissinger, at Beirut, in a recent re- 
port to the department of state, says that the pre- 
liminary and experimental borings in the extensive 
oil regions on the littoral of the Red Sea are beings 
pushed forward with unabated vigor by the Egyp- 
tian government. An efficient staff of geologists,, 
mining engineers, and other experts from the- 
United States, Great Britain, and Belgium, are- 
busily at work, ably seconded by experienced 
assistants from the American and Russian oil- 
fields. Improved machinery and mechanical ap- 
pliances of every description have recently been 
landed at the newly constructed harbor situated 
about two miles north-north-east of the petroleum- 
wells. These wells are pools of a black-looking?, 
bitumen-like substance, which emit an unmistak- 
able odor, and scent the desert air for miles, 
around. The whole district, from Gemsah in the* 
south to over twenty miles north of Djebel Teyt, 
presents every indication of the presence of oil ; 
and when it is remembered that oil was • struck *" 
at a moderate depth at the first boring, and a 
' flowing well ' was produced at a greater depth at 
a subsequent boring, there is every reason, it is 
claimed by those having devoted much time and 
thought to the subject, to believe that the fields, 
contain petroleum deposits in such abundance as 
to fully justify the immense expenditures ven- 
tured in the elaborate preliminary operations by 
the Egyptian government. A more recent report 
announces that well No. 1, at Gemsah, is now 
spouting pure, heavy petroleum at a depth of 125- 
feet. 

— The house library committee has made a 
favorable report on the resolution providing for a 
joint committee of five senators and eight mem- 
bers to consider the expediency of holding, in 
1892, an international exhibition of the industries, 
and products of all nations, to be held at Wash- 
ington in 1892, to commemorate the four hun- 
dredth anniversary of the discovery of America. 

— An amendment will be added to the sun- 
dry civil bill in the senate, constituting the secre- 
tary of state, the secretary of the Smithsonian 
institution, and the librarian of congress, a oom- 



110 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 209 



mission to report to congress the character and 
value of the historical and other manuscripts he- 
longing to the government, and what method and 
policy should be pursued in regard to editing 
them. 

— The Yellowstone park bill was passed by the 
senate last week. It defines the park boundaries, 
places it under the exclusive jurisdiction of the 
United States, and sets the territory apart as a 
public park and pleasure-ground for the benefit 
of the people. The secretary of the interior is 
authorized to make rules for the management and 
-care of the park, and provision is made for a 
detail of troops to protect its beauties. All hunt- 
ing of wild animals or birds, except animals dan- 
gerous to human life, fishing with nets or traps, 
is prohibited, and violations are punished by fine 
and imprisonment. The President is to appoint a 
commissioner, who is to reside in the park, and 
act as a justice of the peace in placing offenders 
within the jurisdiction of a district court.. 

— <J)ne of the most complete and most valuable 
collections of Indian folk-lore yet published is the 
volume of ' Indian traditions of north-western 
Canada' (Traditions Jndiennes du Canada Nord- 
tcest), which has just appeared in the series of 
" Les literatures poptdaires de toutes les nations 9 
<Paris, Maissonneuve Freres et Ch. Leclerc). The 
author, the Rev. Emile Petitot, who was for 
twenty years a missionary among the tribes of the 
far north, is well known to scholars by his excel- 
lent comparative grammar and dictionary of the 
Dend-Dindjie dialects, and by many other useful 
works on the philology and ethnography of north- 
ern America. The present collection is chiefly 
devoted to the legends and traditions of the far- 
spread Athabascan tribes — styled Dene-Dind jie by 
the author — occupying the vast region between 
the Eskimo of the northern coasts and the Algon- 
quin and Dakota tribes of the Red River and Sas- 
katchewan countries on the south. The stories 
are given in the bald simplicity of a literal version, 
with no attempt at literary garnishing, — a fact 
made clear by the addition, in some cases, of the 
original, with an interlinear translation. Even in 
this rude guise, evidence of no small imaginative 
power is frequently apparent. What is chiefly 
remarkable is that (with a very few exceptions) 
these Athabascan legends differ totally, in their 
incidents and their mythology, from the folk-tales 
of their neighbors, — the Eskimo on the one side, 
and the Algonquin and Dakota tribes on the other. 
The exceptions are in a few of the stories of the 
more southern tribes, which differ widely from 
the rest, and are clearly borrowed from the Algon- 
quin Crees. This distinct character of the Atha- 



bascan legends confirms the fact, which has been 
noticed by Major Powell and other careful ob- 
servers, that the Indians of each linguistic family 
have their own special mythology, different from 
all others, — a fact certainly of great and far- 
reaching importance in ethnological science. 1L 
Petitot has some fanciful theories about a connec- 
tion between the Indians and the ten tribes of 
Israel, and also — what seems rather inconsistent 
— about the reference of some of the legends to the 
glacial era, the change in the earth's axis, and 
other primeval events. As in the case of that 
learned and estimable but somewhat visionary 
writer, the late Abbe Brassenr de Bourbourg, — 
of whom our author much reminds us, — readers 
can accept the valuable facts which he honestly 
gives them, without troubling themselves about 
his peculiar hypotheses. 

— Following the monograph on * Co-operation 
in a western city,' by Albert Shaw, Ph.D., the 
American economic association announces the 
publication of a history of ' Co-operation in New 
England,' by 'Edward W. Bemis, Ph.D., to be 
issued Feb. 5. Dr. Bemis has made a study- of 
co-operation, and this work will be a guide for 
co-operators, and contain many facts to interest 
the student of the labor problem. Copies may be 
had of Dr. Richard T. Ely, secretary, Johns Hop- 
kins university, Baltimore, Md. 

— Mr. G. W. Hill of the Nautical almanac 
office, Washington, was awarded the gold medal 
of the Royal astronomical society, at the Decem- 
ber meeting, for his laborious and masterly re- 
searches upon the ' Lunar theory.' 

— The Royal society of New South Wales offers 
its medal and a money prize for the best commu- 
nication (provided it be of sufficient merit) con- 
taining the results of original research or ob- 
servation upon each of the following subjects : — 
Series vi. (to be sent in not later than May 1, 
1887) : No. 20, ' On the silver-ore deposits of New 
South Wales,' the society's medal and £25 ; No. 
21, 4 Origin and mode of occurrence of gold-bear- 
ing veins and of the associated minerals,* the 
society's medal and £26; No. 22, 'Influence of 
the Australian climate in producing modifications 
of diseases,' the society's medal and £25 : No. 38, 
'On the Infusoria peculiar to Australia,' the 
society's medal and £25. Series vii. (to be sent in 
not later than May 1, 1888) : No. 24, ' Anatomy 
and life-history of the Echidna and Platypus,' the 
society's medal and £25 ; No. 25, * Anatomy and 
life-history of Mollusca peculiar to Australia,' the 
society's medal and £25 ; No. 26, ' The chemical 
composition of the products from the so-called 
kerosene shale of New South Wales,' the society's 



4, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



Ill 



medal and £.'5. Series viii. (to be sent in not 
later than May 1, 1889) : No. 27, ' On the chemis- 
try of the Australian gams and resins/ the society's 
medal and £25 ; No. 28, ' On the aborigines of 
Australia,' the society's medal and £26 ; No. 29, 
'On the iron-ore deposits of New South Wales, ' 
the society's medal and £25 ; No. 80, « List of the 
marine fauna of Port Jackson, with descriptive 
notes as to habits, distribution, etc.,' the society's 
medal and £35. The competition is in no way 
confined to members of the society, nor to resi- 
dents in Australia, but is open to all without re- 
striction. No award will be made for a mere 
compilation, however meritorious in its way : the 
communication, to be successful, must be either 
wholly or in part the result of original observa- 
tion or research on the part of the contributor. 

— The annual report of the director of the 
Harvard observatory, which was presented to 
the visiting committtee on Dec. 7, has just been 
printed as a part of the report of the president of 
the university. Professor Pickering is to be con- 
gratulated upon the highly satisfactory financial 
basis on which the observatory is at length placed, 
through the munificence of the late Robert Treat 
Paine. About half of the Paine bequest, or $164,- 
198, is now available ; and the endowment of the 
observatory, which was $164,000 in 1875, and 
$227,000 in 1885, has now risen to $898,046. A 
share of the increased funds must be applied, for 
the present, to needed repairs, and to the publica- 
tion of observations already made. The 15-inch 
equatorial is to have a new mounting, and Pro- 
fessor Pickering hopes that at no distant day 
means may be found for replacing the observatory 
building by one better adapted to the requirements 
of modern astronomy. The report details the 
work of the various instruments, particular at- 
tention being given to the subject of photometry, 
as in past years. The most important new work 
of the observatory is in the field of stellar pho- 
tography. For this investigation Mrs. Draper has 
lent the 11-inch photographic lens employed by 
her husband, the late Dr. Henry Draper, at his ob- 
servatory on the Hudson, and has provided means 
for its new mounting, as well as for the prosecu- 
tion of the researches to which it is to be devoted. 
We regret to note the resignation of Professor 
Rogers, the first assistant for the past fifteen 
years, and the observatory suffers a second loss 
in the resignation from its staff off Mr. S. C. 
Chandler, jun. 

— During the past week the U. S. fish commis- 
sion made the following distribution of Cali- 
fornia trout in the localities given : 800 yearling 
trout were placed in Swinks Lake, near Scottsboro, 



Ala.; 175 yearling in Sauters Creek, Ala.; 175 two- 
year-old in Paint Creek, Ala.; 175 yearling in 
Bear Creek, near Benton, Ala.; 75 yearling and 
100 two-year-old in Flint River, near Brownsboro, 
Ala.; 175 one-year-old in Crow Creek, Ala.; 175 
two-year-old^ in Lookout Creek, near Rising Fawn, 
Ga.; 178 two-year-old in the South Fork of the 
Chickamauga River, near Chattanooga, Tenn. 
The next distribution of trout will be made during 
the coming week, and will cover the states of 
Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. 

— It has been settled that the gift of President 
White's valuable historical library to Cornell uni- 
versity is to be followed by the erection of a large 
library building by the college authorities. 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

•S Correspondents ore requeued to be a* brief as possible. The 
writer'* name is in ait cases required as proof of good faith. 

Sources of nitrogen assimilated by growing 

' plants. 

In my address before section O at Buffalo last 
August, I gave a resume of the investigations made 
up to that time in respeot of the sources of nitrogen 
consumed by plants. The general conclusions of 
this paper were given in the abstract of the address, 
which appeared m Science. Since that time two im- 
portant investigations have been published, and I 
feel that I ought to add an abstract of these as a sup- 
plement to the one you made. 

Atwater (Amer. chem. journ., viii. Nos. 5 and 6) 
has shown, in two papers recently published, that in 
many cases there is a loss of nitrogen in germinating 
plants : in other words, nitrogen that may be present 
in a nitrified form, or in a form easily nitrified, may 
escape assimilation by being set free by the denitri- 
fying ferment described by Oayon and Dupetit and 
Springer. The importance of this fact seems to have 
been overlooked by most investigators, and the inti- 
mate relation it has to all studies of nitrogen-assimi- 
lation will not be denied by any one. Generally it 
has been assumed, that, if plants show an amount of 
assimilated nitrogen equal to that in the seed and 
food supplied, it is a proof that no free nitrogen has 
been consumed, either directly or indirectly. But 
if it should be established that much assimilable 
nitrogen in the seed or food may be lost, then the 
above assumption cannot be true. As a contribution 
to the study of this interesting problem, Atwater's 
papers are worthy of careful consideration. 

Hellriegel(ZHt. d. Ver.f. d. RVbenzucker-Industrie, 
November, 1886) has lately published a paper in 
which he shows that an active nitrifying ferment 
may prepare unassimilable nitrogen for plant-food. 
While the Gramineae appear to possess little capa- 
bility of being nourished by the nitrogen that can 
be derived from the atmosphere, the Papillionaceae 
possess this power to a remarkable extent. To a 
sterilized earth free of nitrogen was added a few 
cubic centimetres of an aqueous extract of earth 
taken from a field where peas were in active growth. 
Peas were sprouted in pots of nitrogen-free and 
sterilized earth, and continued to grow until the 
nitrogen-supply of the seed was exhausted. They 
all then passed into a state of starvation. To some 



112 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. *» 



of these pots the earth-extract mentioned above was 
added. In a few days the plants took on a new 
growth, totally out of proportion to what could have 
oeen caused by the minute quantity of combined 
nitrogen contained in the extract. The plants in the 
pots not receiving this remained in a dying condi- 
tion. The micro-organisms in the case just men- 
tioned inhabit a small bulb which appears on the 
roots of the plant, and in this laboratory the trans- 
formation of the nitrogen appears to take place. 

These later investigations lend emphasis to the 
statement I made in my Buffalo address: " These 
views of chemists so distinguished, based as they are 
on a series of experiments, extended and laborious, 
even if not above criticism, must command our most 
serious attention. They expressly admit the possi- 
bility of the use of the free nitrogen of the atmos- 
phere, but are careful not to literally affirm it. 1 ' 

H. W. Wiley. 
Washington, Jan. 28. 



Halos seen at Denver. 

On the afternoon of Friday, Jan. 7, and in the 
evening, there was a brilliant display of halos, etc., 
at Denver. I have been told that it began at about 
1 p.m., but I did not see it until 2.30 p.m. At that 
time the sky was of a milky hue, from the presence 
of the ice-clouds. The parhelio circle, passing 
through the sun, parallel to the horizon, could be 
traced entirely around the sky, except in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the sun : parts of it were at times 
temporarily obscured by small, swiftly passing 
clouds. The two principal parhelia, 22° distant 
from the sun, were very bright, and secondary par- 
helia were seen at a distance of 120°. The halo of 
22° radius, encircling the sun, was incomplete. In 
the zenith was a faint circle of red light about 20° in 
diameter. The quadrant nearest the sun was ex- 
panded into a magnificent lune 2° wide at the broad- 
est place : it displayed the prismatic colors from red 
to violet, the red border being toward the sun. As 
the sun descended toward the west, the lune grew 
narrower and longer, being only 1° broad at 3.90 
p.m. During the next ten minutes, clouds rising 
from the western horizon obscured the sun, and 
with it the parhelio circle. The lune was visible for 
a short time after the sun had disappeared, but at 
3.40 p.m. it too had vanished. By looking toward 
the west during the display, the ice-crystals near the 
earth's surface were plainly visible, and had the 
form of slender needles. 

In the evening the sky seemed clear, and the moon, 
lacking two days of being full, shone brightly. The 
paraselenic circle was complete, and beautifully con- 
trasted with the dark sky. It was l£° broad oppo- 
site the moon, and grew narrower as it approached 
that luminary. It could be traced almost up to the 
moon's disk. At 8 p.m. the halo of 22° radius about 
the moon was very distinct: at the highest and 
lowest points there were rudimentary tangent arcs, 
and a consequent increase of brilliancy at those 
points. The paraselenae were not at the intersection 
of the halo with the paraselenic cirole, but on the 
latter about 3° or 4° outside of the halo. The inner 
edge of the halo was a red circle, but the outer edge 
was an ill-defined ellipse, the major axis of which 
stretched between the two paraselenae, while its minor 
axis coincided with the vertical diameter of the red 
cirole. The space between the inner and outer edges 



was filled with milky light. At 8.30 p.m. the par- 
aselenae had disappeared. Secondary paraselenae 
were seen at distances of 120° from the moon. At 9 
p.m. a bright arc having a uniform breadth of 3°, 
and exhibiting prismatic colors, was seen in the south- 
east, being a portion of a circle of about 40° radius,, 
in the centre of which lay the moon. It passed 
through the triangle of conspicuous stars ( ft, c, * ) 
in Canis Major. At 9.30 p.m. all the circles except 
this one had vanished, and at 10.30 it too had gone. 
I have been told that after midnight the entire sys- 
tem of circles re-appeared. There was no lune in 
the zenith before midnight, or after, as far as I have 
been able to learn. It was possible to see the ice- 
crystals floating down by looking toward the moon. 
I regret that I had no instruments for making accu- 
rate measurements of the angular distances which I 
estimated. H. A. Howb. 

Denver university, Jan, 98. 



Consumption among Indians. 

In Science for Jan. 21 (p. 76) reference is made to 
a supposition that " it is change of diet which is the 
most potent remote cause of consumption among 
the Indians." Another cause, in my opinion, is 
change of dress. Before he came under the influence 
of civilization, the Indian was not clothed in gar- 
ments that would interfere with the free action of 
the pores of the skih. If a live rabbit be dipped in a 
solution of glue, so as to cover its body with a coat- 
ing impervious to air, it is surprising how quickly 
the frequency of the respiratory movements increases, 
showing that the work of the lungs is increased by 
depriving the skin of free access to. the air. 

The process of civilization has a somewhat similar 
effect upon the Indian, though to a less degree. One 
of the first lessons in the effort to civilize him teaches 
him to envelop himself in clothing of a kind that 
tends to impede and impair the normal action of the 
skin, the pores of which are organs of excretion, —a 
mechanism by which morbid and waste material may 
be thrown out of the system. Deprived of the as- 
sistance afforded under previous conditions by the 
skin, the work of the lungs is greatly increased, ren- 
dering them peculiarly susceptible to bronchitis and 
pneumonia, — ailments which are commonly the fore- 
runners of consumption. If we accept the theory of 
Koch, they make the lungs a suitable habitation for 
the bacillus tuberculosis. 

If we study the pre-tubercular history of man, we 
find his clothing in those times far different from 
what it is to-day, when the percentage of death from 
consumption reaches so high a figure. 

The fact that the mortality from consumption 
among the Indians immediately after they come 
under the influence of our civilization is so much 
greater than among the whites proves the truth of 
what I have advanced. We have had our liability to 
consumption from overworked lungs tempered by 
hundreds of generations of ancestors habituated to 
the use of clothing, so that our risk is much less. 

The facts underlying these views are, 1°, the 
lungs are not the only organs of respiration; 2°, 
they are important excretory organs, and, like the 
kidneys or liver, they may be overworked; 3°, the 
skin, in its natural condition, as an organ of respira- 
tion and excretion, is a most important adjunct of 
the lungs. Hal. O. Wtmav. 

Detroit, Mich., Jan. tt. 



Fbbbuart 4, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



113 



A plea for civilian control of the U. S. weather- 
bureau. 

A recent discussion of the value of the signal-ser- 
vice weather-predictions was begun in the Boston 
Transcript by a letter from a Boston lawyer. A por- 
tion of the letter is here given : — 

11 To the editor of the Transcript. It would seem 
that it is time to call for a termination of the farce of 
publishing the official weather-prognostications, at 
least so far as the neighborhood of Boston is con- 
cerned. Whoever is in the habit of looking in the 
morning paper to find what weather is promised for 
the day most have been much impressed of late with 
the faonlty for getting it all wrong, which the Wash- 
ington bureau appears to possess. [Here follows a 
whole list of notable failures within a month.] In 
-conclusion, I will only ask whether a ' weather-bureau ' 
which produces such failures as these is worth the 
cost of its maintenance ? It may claim, indeed, that 
it has sometimes prophesied right, but a man in a 
dark oloset could not possibly have guessed always 
wrong." 

A number of letters followed this from different per- 
sons, all of which agreed in regard to the inefficiency 
of the signal-service predictions ; and this, I think, 
voices the general sentiment of the New England 
people. I had so frequently heard people last year, 
when they were speaking of the signal-service pre- 
dictions, say, ' Anybody could guess at the weather,' 
that the question presented itself, Why was it, that, in 
face of the fact that the official bulletins claimed eighty 
or even ninety per cent of successful verification, 
the average New Englander had arrived at the con- 
clusion that the signal service merely guessed at the 
weather ? It occurred to me that the popular meas- 
ure of success was not what per cent some arbitrary 
method of verification gave, but rather how much 
better were the predictions than those which could 
be made by people ordinarily without instruments of 
any kind? 

In order to test this, I had Frank Brown, an intel- 
ligent steward of Blue Hill observatory, make weather- 
predictions at sunset for the following twenty-four 
hours on each day from last March to July inclusive. 
These predictions I recorded when made, and care- 
fully verified them in accordance with the rules 
given by the signal service to voluntary observers 
for verifying the signal-service predictions. I then 
-compared his predictions with those of the signal 
aernce, verified in the same manner, and I found 
that each month he obtained from three to ten per 
-cent higher success than the signal service. 

In order not to confine the test to one person alone, 
I asked Mr. and Mrs. Davenport, intelligent persons 
living near Blue Hill, but who claimed to know noth- 
ing about the science of meteorology, to make 
weather-predictions during the month of June. 
These predictions were made at sunset for the twen- 
ty-four hours beginning at midnight, and were based 
on the appearance of the sky alone without any in- 
struments. These predictions were received and 
recorded when made, and the end of the month 
showed that the predictions of each, though slightly 
different, were eighty per cent verified, while the 
signal-service predictions during the same time were 
only seventy-seven per cent verified. 

These results clearly show why many people do 
not regard the signal-service predictions as of 
value. 



It would occupy too much space to attempt to show 
why the signal-service method of verification makes 
them appear to gain such high success : suffice it to 
say that many of the cases which, according to the 
rules adopted, must be recorded as successful, are 
most glaring failures. 

During the last few months I have endeavored to 
ascertain the causes of the many failures in New 
England of the signal-service 'indications;' and I 
find in the position of New England between the 
lakes on one side, and the ocean on the other, I 
think, a fruitful cause of the failures of the signal 
service. We find from local observations here in 
Boston, that, when a storm approaching from the 
west passes over, the sky begins to clear almost im- 
mediately after the passage of the line of minimum 
pressure. But on a synoptic chart it is frequently 
found, that even though the centre of least pressure 
is off on the ocean, it is raining or snowing at certain 
lake stations, such as Marquette, Oswego, etc.; and 
the explanation is apparent, for the circulation of 
the wind is such as to drive the air across the great 
lakes to these stations, where it arrives laden with 
moisture and ready for precipitation. The signal 
service, ignoring all local influences, and basing weir 
predictions on the eastward movement of weather- 
changes, predict over and over again rain or snow 
for New England, which, under such conditions, sel- 
dom arrives. 

Again : an area of high pressure, approaching New 
England from over the Lakes, may be attended by 
fair weather; but immediately it arrives over the 
Gulf Stream, and begins to force air on the land 
from the north-east or east, rain begins ; and numer- 
ous failures of the signal service can, I think, be 
traced to this cause. 

I have not confined my studies of the signal-ser- 
vice predictions to New England, but have closely 
watched them over other parts of the country ; and 
I have become convinced that the predictions are 
based almost entirely on the eastward movements of 
weather-changes, with but little regard to local influ- 
ence, or to the facts elicited by the splendid re- 
searches during the last ten years of Looxnis, Van 
Bebber, and a host of others. In other words, the 
science of weather-predicting in the United States 
has not advanced a step since the days of Joseph 
Henry and Espy. This, I believe, has largely if not 
entirely resulted from the military control of the 
weather-bureau. Conventional routine, and action 
without questioning, is a necessary part of military 
training, and it has produced its fruits in a blind 
following of a few rules and a consequent want of 
advance in military weather-predictions. Not only 
does the military organization fail to give the best 
results which might at present be obtained, but I be- 
lieve it is immensely detrimental to the advance of 
meteorology to a higher and more scientific position. 
In Europe the men in charge of the weather-services 
are scientific men, who not only do their present 
work well, but, sustained and enthused by their 
work, are investigating the difficult problems which 
present themselves, and thus pushing meteorology to 
a higher and more scientific stand-point. 

Nor do I think the detriment of the military organi- 
zation ends with the predicting department. I have 
known personally a number of bright young men, 
intensely interested, and trained in science and sci- 
entific methods, who were kept out of the signal 
service on account of the military organization. 



SCIENCE. 



These men were aware of their ability to earn an 
ample sustenance in the world, anil did not care te 
release their liberty and undergo whatever indigni 
tiea might be cast upon them in a military organiza- 
tion. Twice recently intelligent sergeants of the 
signal corps hare said to me that " for the salaries 
paid to our observers we could obtain some of the 
moat intelligent men in our city : whereas we now 
have to put np with much less effective work." One 
of these told me of an assistant in his office who, on 
a very clear night, recorded the Milky Way as thin 
clouds moving slowly from the west. Of course, 
snch men in the signal office as fear that they would 
lose their position by the transfer of the bureau to 
civilian control are bitterly opposed to the change, 
and several have given me this very reason for op- 
poeing the transfer. 

That this communication may, in the present 
crisis, do something toward influencing the change 
to civilian control, which I believe ao much needed, 
is my earnest hope. H. Him Clayton. 

Bine HIU meteor, obeerr.. 



The pineal eye in Tritylodon. 
The accompanying cat represents the top of the 
skull of the remarkable mamm al Tritylodon Owen. 
It is reduced to two-thirds natural size, the genua 
being much larger than any other hitherto known 
from the mesozoio period. In the interval between 
the parietala and frontala, pa and fr, ia seen the 
parietal foramen, pf, which has exactly the same 
position and relations as in the lizard genua 
Spbenodon. In my communication to Science, Jan. 



28, I spoke of this foramen which lodged the 
pineal eye " as greatly exceeding that of any of the 
recent lizards in relative diameter." I find, upon 
examining the Spbenodon skull, that this is a slight 
exaggeration, and for tbe words * relative diameter ' 
should be substituted 'actual diameter.' Even with 
this limitation, the fact is of remarkable interest, 
and adds to the rapidly accumulating evidence for 
the reptilian ancestry of the mammals. 

Bmi F. Ohborh. 
a, Pen. 1. 



Simple qualitative teat for artificial batter. 

Professor Seheffer (Pharm, Rundtch., 1886, iv. 
248) has proposed the following test for distinguish - 
ing between genuine and artificial butter : a mixture 
is made containing 40 volumes of rectified amyl- 
aloohol and 00 volumes ether of .720 specific gravity 
at 10°. Oue gram of butter-fat is dissolved in 3cc 
of this mixture at 26-28°. On ths other hand, 1 

Km lard require* 16cc. of the solvent, 1 gram tal- 
SOcc., and 1 gram stearin 550cc. For the experi- 
ment take a test-tube of 12cc. capacity, and place ia 
it 1 gram fat, add See. of the fusel oil-ether mixture. 
After tightly corking the tune, put it in a water bath 
of 18", and with frequent shaking bring the temper- 
ature to 38". Jf the butter is pure, tbe solution be- 
comes perfectly clear at this temperature. If not 
clear, more of the solution can be run in out of ft bu- 
rette, and the additional quantity required will be- 
some indication of the quantity or quality of the 
adulterant which has been used. 

According to Seheffer, mixtures of pure butter and 
lard gave tbe following data : — 



Butter. 


Lard. 


Quantity of mlxtar* 


J " 
.1 " 
.6 " 


.8 " 
.9 " 


LOoo. 

4.8" 
B.T" 



A trial of this method has shown that it is 
of Riving valuable qualitative indications as i 
purity of the sample under examination. I believe 
it is the best simple test, capable of general applies. 
tion. which has been proposed. I have adopted a 
simpler method of getting sensibly constant weisjbta 
than the one recommended above. The buttera or 
substitutes to be examined are molted and filtered in 
the usual way to remove salt, water, etc A lec 
pipette is used to measure out the fat, which will be> 
sensibly .9 of a gram. All the graduated apparatus 
necessary for this test is, therefore, a Ice. and Hoc. 

The theory of the test is, that tri-stearin ia loan 
soluble in the amyl-ether mixture than tbe other but- 
ter-fats, and that the fate used as butter- substitute* 
contain more of this enbstance than pure butter. 
The test is chiefly valuable for its simplicity nod 
wide application. H. W. WlLST. 



German constructions. 

I should like to ask your correspondent, Mr. Eg- 

gert, if be supposes there exists any other language 

admitting of so horrible a construction as the pla- 

cing- together of six pronouns in immediate contact T 

"Odu derdu mlondea lob soslrtlloh Uebet" 

It is true that German writers of to-day show » 
material gain in clearness over most of those who 
wrote a hundred years ago, and this is doubtless 
owing to the increased familiarity of educated Ger- 
mans with the shorter sentences and less parenthetic 
forms of construction used in English and French. 

M. CU*R Lba. 

PMIadelphla, Jon. ST. 



SCIENCE.-Supplement. 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1887. 

SOME MISCALLED CASES OF THOUGHT- 
TBAN8FERRENCE. 

Such is the title of an article in The national 
review (January, 1887), by Ada Heather-Bigg and 
Marian L. Hat chard. This article deserves to he 
read by every one interested in the subject, and 
especially by the members of the English society 
for psychic research. This society takes the posi- 
tion, that, having ruled out fraud and collusion, 
and still finding a larger ratio of successes than 
chance would allow, the only thing left is telep- 
athy ; and this is forthwith raised to the dignity 
of a new and omnipotent power explaining all the 
mysterious occurrences in hypnotism, in 'phan- 
tasms of the living,' in deathbed and other pre- 
sentiments, and the like. The true logical conclu- 
sion is, that, such a thing as telepathy being so 
utterly opposed to the accumulated scientific 
knowledge of centuries, the probability of finding 
other sufficient modes of explaining the phenom- 
ena in question is extremely great : in other word?, 
the inference is, not that telepathy is a fact, but 
that the modes of explanation thus far considered 
do not form a set of exhaustive alternatives. 

This is the rational position taken by the writers 
of this article ; and one might say of this, as they do 
of a similar point, that " it is a striking proof of 
the blinding effect of preconceived opinion on 
even careful investigators, that such cautious and 
candid inquirers as Messrs. Barrett, Gurney, and 
Myers should have failed to perceive this." 

The notion of thought-transferrence was doubt- 
less suggested by the commonplace and yet very 
impressive incident of two persons simultaneously 
expressing the same thought. 1 But knowing, as 
we do, how closely alike are our modern educa- 
tion and interests, the wonder is, rather, that these 
coincidences are not more frequent and startling. 
This process is termed * similar brain-functioning ' 
in the above article ; and the reason why its im- 
portance is apt to be overlooked is because " so 
much of our mental activity goes on sub-con- 
sciously. Thus the resembling results are forced 
upon our notice, while the resembling processes 
get overlooked." 

» Children are very much Impressed by such coincidences, 
and the writer remembers distinctly how in snch cases the 
two children concerned would observe the strictest silence, 
and, locking their little Angers together, would make a wish 
which was believed sure to come true. 



G. H. Lewes tells a story in point. Walking in 
the country with a friend, he heard the sound of 
horses' hoofs behind them, and, when the riders 
passed by, at once remarked that he was con- 
vinced that the riders were two women and a 
man, which they really were. His companion de- 
clared be had formed the same conjecture (evi- 
dently thought-transferrence, says the Psychic 
research society). Mr. Lewes puzzled over the 
matter, but could not think of a characteristic 
distinguishing the sound of a horsewoman from 
that of a horseman. As, however, it is a fact that 
men trot and women canter, the two different 
sounds had unconsciously registered themselves 
in the brains of himself and his friend. 

This shows that (as must occur daily) "two 
persons may tend to function similarly in response 
to certain stimuli, yet neither of them be aware 
of the tendency ; " and it is just such phenomena 
that get utilized by the telepathists. 

Guessing a number is a very popular mode of 
studying thought-transferrence; and, when the 
correct guesses are more frequent than the action 
of chance would predict, the hypothesis of telep- 
athy is thought to be favored. " From this con- 
clusion we emphatically dissent, on the ground 
that an appreciable percentage of the successes 
must be put down' to the credit of similar but in- 
dependent brain-functioning. For it is a fact, ad- 
mitting of easy verification, that the ordinary 
human mind (provided, always, that it be sub- 
jected to no other biassing influence beyond that 
involved in the verbal framing of the necessary 
questions) tends to select particular numbers in 
preference to others : " in other words, these 
writers have independently discovered the ' num- 
ber-habit' which Dr. C. S. Minot has so ably dis- 
cussed in the Proceedings of the American society 
for psychic research. This discovery was brought 
about by noticing that quite constantly an undue 
number of successes occurred at the beginning of 
many sets of number-guessings. The explanation 
is, that at first the sceptic regards the whole pro- 
cess as nonsensical, thinks of the first number 
that pops into his head, that is, he follows his 
number-habit ; but later, wondering at the suc- 
cesses, he suspects something, and adopts a more 
arbitrary mode of selection ; whereupon the suc- 
cesses are less frequent. 

They verified this supposition by simple experi- 
ments ; and, to avoid the telepathist's objection 
that perhaps the tendency to choose particular 



116 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX.. No 20D 



numbers was ' transferred, 1 twenty or thirty 
friends were asked to put prescribed questions 
and tabulate the results. The results obtained 
were entirely con6rmatory of the so-called num- 
ber-habit, and "it is clear that this varying pre- 
dilection for different numbers materially vitiates 
all reasoning based on the assumption that we 
shall indifferently choose any number." Not 
only are particular numbers favored, but there 
are decided tendencies to select numbers on 
certain principles : here, again, the results first 
reached by Dr. Minot are corroborated. For ex- 
ample : in 1,120 trials in which multiples of ten 
would have been selected 100 times by the action 
of chance, they were actually selected 307 times. 
When persons were asked to choose a number (no 
limits being set), it was found, that, in 172 trials, 
84 chose numbers under 20 ; and 59 of these, num- 
bers under 10. Yet, if you set 1,000 as the limit 
unconsciously implied by each person, numbers 
under 20 would occur only 3.26, and under 10 only 
1.54 times. Again : when limits were set to the 
numbers to be thought of, there was a strong dis- 
position to avoid early numbers, and select those 
near the farthest limits. The table recording the 
result of tho numbers persons are most likely to 
choose is very suggestive, and should be com- 
pared with the tables given in Dr. Minot's report. 

In short, as was recognized long ago by some 
psychologists and writers on probabilities, the 
human mind is not calculated to act like a die-box 
or a raffling- wheel, and to have numbers chosen is 
a different thing from having them drawn. In 
fact, it is possible to suggest a certain kind of 
number-preference by the framing of the question. 
When the question read, ' Choose a number con- 
taining three figures,' the digit 3 occurred more 
than twice as often as it should have done by the 
action of chance. Of course, this phenomenon is 
not con6ned to numbers : guessing letters of the 
alphabet, names of people and towns, and the 
like, would be very apt to be unusually successful 
by reason of independent similar brain-function- 
ing. In choosing letters, three tendencies are ob- 
served : 1°, to choose A, B, and C (of 172 people, 
37 chose A, 31 B, and 14 C); 2°, to choose one's 
own initial (this was done 27 times in 172 cases) ; 
3°, to choose Z (12 times in 172 cases). 

The arguments in favor of supersensory thought- 
transference would apply as well to the common 
simultaneous discovery of new points in science 
by widely separated observers, or even to the 
similarity in customs of unrelated savage tribes 
(which Mr. Ty lor so interestingly describes and so 
rationally explains), as to the number-coincidences 
of the usual « telepathic ' experiments. The same 
causes that led to the development of the decimal 



system, or to the selection of certain numbers as 
sacred or ill-omened, are still active in creating 
the preference for certain numbers which is so 
easily overlooked. Experiments taking this factor 
into account can be devised, and, when the results 
still leave a residue of unexplained phenomena, 
it is time enough to begin to consider the remote 
possibility of real telepathy. J. J. 



IS BOTANY A SUITABLE STUDY FOR 
YOUNG MENt 1 

An idea seems to exist in the minds of some 
young men that botany is not a manly study ; 
that it is merely one of the ornamental branches, 
suitable enough for young ladies and effeminate 
youths, but not adapted for able-bodied and vigor- 
ous-brained young men who wish to make the 
best use of their powers. I wish to show that 
this idea is wholly unfounded, but that, on the 
contrary, botany ought to be ranked as one of the 
most useful and most manly of studies, and an 
important, if not an indispensable, part of a 
well-rounded education. In support of this view, 
these four good and cogent reasons can be ad- 
duced : — 

1. The study of botany is an admirable mental 
discipline. Any education is defective which in- 
cludes no training in the scientific method of 
study ; that is, in developing the powers of care- 
ful, minute observation and comparison in some 
department of nature. By this means is acquired 
the habit of investigation, or the seeking-out of 
nature's mysteries by the use of one's own senses, 
instead of trusting wholly to the observations of 
others. This method of study may be learned 
through any branch of science ; but botany pre- 
sents this advantage, that it can be pursued with 
less inconvenience and less expense than any 
other. The mental training which botany affords 
is very thorough. The detaik of plant-structure 
are infinite, and essential peculiarities are often so 
hidden as to be recognized only by the most mi- 
nute investigation. This involves the use of the 
microscope, which every educated man ought to 
understand, since it reveals to the eye a newly 
discovered and wonderful world, — a world of 
which our grandfathers had but the faintest 
glimpses, but which is scarcely inferior in interest 
to that larger world which the unaided eye can 
see. After this training of the powers of per- 
ception and comparison, comes the process of 
generalization, whereby the laws of vegetable life 
are determined from the study of plant forms and 
modes of growth. Thus is acquired the habit of 

1 From the first number of The 8wiu Cross. 



February 4, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



117 



inductive reasoning, or the supporting of every 
general proposition upon a solid foundation of 
positive, indisputable fact. 

Learning the names of plants is but the begin- 
ning of the study of botany. It is like learning 
the names of our companions or schoolmates be- 
fore we become really acquainted with them. 
After we have learned to tell plants apart and to 
call tbem by name, we have presented for study 
such problems as the laws governing their dis- 
tribution, the relation between the florae of dif- 
ferent continents, and the relation of variety to 
species, which introduces the subject of Darwin- 
ism. The study of botany also includes the fossil 
plants, and, by enabling us to trace the vegetable 
kingdom from its first appearance upon the earth 
through all the varying conditions of the geologic 
ages, opens those tremendous scientific questions 
as to the birth and infancy of this world of ours 
which we now see in its maturity, and as to what 
it will become in its old age. These researches 
afford not only the amplest mental training, but 
abundant occupation for the longest life. 

2. The study of botany promotes physical devel- 
opment. The botanical student must be a walker; 
and bis frequent tramps harden his muscles, and 
strengthen his frame. He must strike off across 
the fields, penetrate the woods to their secret 
depths, scramble through swamps, and climb the 
hills. The fact that he walks with an earnest 
purpose gives a zest to these rambles ; and he 
comes home proud and happy from his successful 
search for botanical treasures, with a keen appetite 
and an invigorated body and mind. He has en- 
joyed himself more thoroughly, and gained more 
substantial benefit, than those who have devoted 
the same time to the bat, the racket, or the bi- 
cycle. In his vacations the young botanist can 
toughen himself by making long and delightful 
excursions, living all summer in the open air, and 
may even have opportunities for joining govern- 
ment exploring parties, and enjoying the active 
out-of-door life full of adventure and useful ex- 
perience. 

3. The study of botany is of great practical 
utility. It is an essential preparation for several 
important pursuits. The physician and pharma- 
cist need to have a practical knowledge of those 
plants which are used as medicines ; and, if this 
knowledge is not acquired in early life, the oppor- 
tunity never afterward presents itself. For the 
protection of our rapidly dwindling forests, the 
services of many skilled foresters will soon be 
required; and the forester must be a practical 
botanist. So must also the horticulturist, whether 
professional or amateur. For the most accom- 
plished botanists, who desire to make this their 



life-work, there will always be places as instruct- 
ors in our many colleges. 

4. The study of botany is a source of lifelong 
happiness. Whatever may be one's station or 
pursuit in life, it is a great thing to have an in- 
tellectual hobby, which will afford agreeable and 
elevating occupation in all leisure hours. Botany 
is one of the best of hobbies. It can be studied 
out of doors from early spring till the snow falls : 
and even in winter there is plenty to be done in 
the analysis of dried specimens and the care of 
the herbarium. The botanist lives in the fresh 
air and sunshine ; and when he leaves the world 
behind, and seeks, amid the solitudes of Nature, 
to penetrate her wondrous mysteries, he feels the 
quickeningB of a higher life. A taste for botany 
wonderfully enhances the pleasures of travel, and 
also gives happiness and content to him who stays 
at home. It is equally efficacious in preventing 
the ennui of wealth and the anxieties of poverty. 
If one's surroundings are uncongenial, and life 
proves full of cares and disappointments, it is a 
great solace to be able to say with Aurora Leigh, 

" I was not therefore sad, 
My soul was singing at a work apart." 

For these reasons it is obvious that the study of 
botany is peculiarly rich in those elements which 
conduce to a vigorous mind and body and a 
robust character. It is therefore pre-eminently 
a manly 6tudy, and an invaluable part of a young 
man's education. The student may rest assured 
that the time and effort devoted to it are well 
spent ; for the result will be to make him a wiser, 
stronger, more useful, and happier man. 

J. F. A. Adams, M.D. 



THE TENDENCY OF CONTEMPORARY 
GERMAN THODOHT. 

Robert Zimmermann, writing of contemporary 
German literature in the Athenaeum, expresses the 
following opinion as to the philosophic tendency 
in Germany : — 

" Scientific men, particularly physiologists and 
anthropologists, whose problems involuntarily 
touch on the domain of philosophy, and in par- 
ticular of psychology, are yielding to a spiritual- 
istic impulse that attracts them beyond the limits 
of the material. The science of man, according 
to the opinion prevalent among naturalists, is a 
chapter in zoology. The ' Entwicklungsgeschichte 
des menschlichen Geistes, 1 by Gustav Hauffe, of 
which the first part previously published contains 
' Anthropology/ traces back the essence of man's 
nature to an absolute and indissoluble union of the 
corporeal with the psychic element, the spiritual 
soul with the material body, — a method that re- 



118 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No 209 



minds us of Hegel, who had incorporated anthro- 
pology as the first chapter of his theory of the sub- 
jective intellect, that is, according to his use of lan- 
guage, of psychology, an arrangement in which he 
was followed by his school. Dubois Reymond's 
thoughtful and well-expressed * Akadetnische Re- 
den * reveal the irresistible need of something be 
yond this material world in their acknowledgment 
of ' world riddles ' and of psychic phenomena as ac- 
companiments of physical processes. The physicist 
£. Mach's clear-sighted ' Beitrage zur Analyse der 
Empfindungen ' keep within the limits of • psycho- 
physics,' without throwing any doubt on the ex- 
istence of the psychical. However, the collected 
essays of W. Wundt, who was bred a physiologist, 
prove that even an investigator who starts from 
purely empirical causes feels the need not only of 
philosophy, but also of the special branches that 
have always been included under this head, psy- 
chology, logic, ethics; while even metaphysic, 
though fallen into contempt, is asserting itself 
again, however much the aim of this new induc- 
tive science may differ from the old speculative 
one that bore the name." 



CONSANGUINITY AND MENTAL UN- 
SOUNDNESS. 

The question of the effects of consanguinity is 
one of those vexed problems on which much evi- 
dence has been collected pro and con. The ob- 
servations have been made by careful observers ; 
and the most probable explanation of the diversity 
cf the results reached, is that other circumstances 
have in some cases cancelled the bad effects 
of too close interbreeding, and in other cases 
brought them into prominence. A very fair con- 
sideration of the problem is given by Dr. G. E. 
Shuttleworth, in the Journal of mental science for 
October, 1886. 

The common misgiving as to the propriety of 
cousin-marriages is of rather recent origin. In 
ancient times marriages of near kin were not for- 
bidden; the first prohibition of tbem is in the 
fourth century A.D. The Church soon came to 
cast its odium on marriages even of the seventh 
degree of relationship, and the fees for removal of 
such objections by dispensation were an important 
source of revenue. This has undoubtedly influ- 
enced popular opinion on the question. 

From the physician's point of view, the evidence 
from the animal world is important. Here there 
is almost a consensus, that, while the effect of 
' in-and-in breeding' is to intensify points, in the 
long-run it is opposed to vigor of constitution. It 
is to be remembered that every breeder takes care 
to exclude any animals with any known morbid 



tendency, while, on the contrary, in the genus 
Homo, as Dr. Clauston remarks, there seems to be 
"a special tendency for members of neurotic fam- 
ilies to intermarry." The result of this will be 
that in some portions of the population the off- 
spring of such marriages will show the evil results 
of it to an unusual extent. And thus we find, 
that in rural and especially in mountainous dis- 
tricts, where the population is small and fixed, 
the comparative amount of idiocy is greater than 
elsewhere. Statistical information is inadequate 
on the subject : the motion to include it in the 
census returns of England was rejected "amidst 
the scornful laughter of the house, on the ground 
that the idle curiosity of speculative philosophers 
was not to be gratified." In France the returns 
have given rise to various estimates (varying from 
t^ to 21 or 8 per cent) of the frequency of con- 
sanguineous marriages. Mr. G. H. Darwin came 
to the conclusion that in London 1} per cent 
of all marriages were between first-cousins, in 
urban districts 2 per cent, and in rural districts 
2} per cent. 

If, now, we ascertain the ratio of idiots and In- 
sane patients that are the offspring of such mar- 
riages to the total number of patients in the asy- 
lums, we will have some means of estimating the 
results of consanguinity. From quite an ex- 
tended series of records, it is concluded that the 
ratio just referred to in the idiot-asylums is from 
8 to 5 pec cent : hence "first-cousin marriages, at 
any rate, are to some extent favorable to the pro- 
duction of idiot children." But this conclusion 
must be tempered by the consideration that in a 
large number of such cases of idiocy and imbe- 
cility other causes for this condition are present ; 
and this consideration leads Dr. A. Mitchell to the 
opinion that "under favorable conditions of life 
the apparent ill effects of consanguineous mar- 
riages were frequently almost nil, while, if the 
children were ill fed, badly housed and clothed, 
the evil might become very marked." From 
such facts and figures we may conclude that first- 
cousin marriages should, as a rule, be discouraged ; 
but that, if a close scrutiny reveals no heritable 
weakness, neurotic or otherwise, the banns need 
not invariably be forbidden: 



ALLQEMEINE NATURKUNDE. 

In the production of elaborate works on natural 
science for the general scientific reader or student, 
the Germans are facile princeps. Besides bearing 
evidences of thoroughness and general accuracy, 
such works usually present a homogeneity and 

AUgemeine naturkundt. Leipzig, BibltofT&phisohae tn- 
■tltut. 8°. (New York, Westermann.) 



Fkbbuabt 4, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



119 



completeness rarely attained in English ones of a 
similar class. To vivacity of expression and the 
more purely literary embellishments or literary 
condiments, they rarely make pretensions ; and 
yet he who has read in the original the writings 
of such authors as Haeckel will readily concede 
that the German style may be not a whit less 
charming, less simple, and less interesting than 
the French or English, while at the same time 
combining, what is often such a fatal defect in 
many French works on general natural science, a 
rigid regard for scientific truthfulness. Button 
made many book naturalists, but he has much 
to answer for in the self-sufficient complacency 
and inexactness of many of the French naturalists 
who have succeeded him. It is a rare talent that 
can excel in attractive literary exposition, and yet 
command the respect of the critical scientific 
naturalist. 

At least measurably successful as furnishing 
interesting and instructive reading for the non- 
scientific intelligent reader, and as an exhaustive 
storehouse of information for the general student, 
is the AUgemeine na&urkunde, a work, of its kind, 
which, for fulness of treatment, richness and 
wealth of illustration, and, witbal, general read- 
ableness, has rarely if ever had its equal. The 
work will be completed in nine large octavo 
volumes, of which four are now issued, and will 
contain over three thousand engravings on wood, 
— for the greater part original, — one hundred 
and twenty colored plates, and twenty maps. 
The series really is composed of four separate 
works, which might find their places on the book- 
shelves of the geologist, botanist, anthropologist, 
and anatomist, dealing with man, individually 
and in general, plant-life, and geology in its 
widest sense. It is intended as a continuation of 
Brehm's ' Tierleben,' a work well known in itself, 
as well as from the numerous engravings bor- 
rowed from it in the recent English and American 
natural history works of a similar kind. 

The published volume of the two papers on ' Erd- 
geschichte,' by Neumayr, deals witkgeneral physi- 
cal, dynamical, and stratigraphic geology. ' Der 
Mensch,' by J. Ranke, treats of the embryology, 
development, anatomy, physiology, psychology, 
and zoological relations of man, and is followed 
by three volumes on ' Volkerkunde ' by Ratzel. 
This latter part is especially full and interesting, 
and is richly illustrated by engravings, maps, and 
colored plates. Finally, the remaining two vol- 
umes, * Pflanzenleben,' by Maxilaun, are to contain 
a general exposition of plant-life, structural, 
physiological, systematical, and economical, with 
forty colored plates. 

The four volumes now published — 'Mensch,' 



' Erdgeschichte,' and 'Volkerkunde' (two vol- 
umes) — fully bear out the promises of the pub- 
lishers. The numerous engravings, colored plates, 
and the typography are excellent ; the descriptive 
matter readable, and for the most part interesting, 
and scientific. The style varies, of course, with 
the different authors, that of Professor Ranke 
being less clear and terse than that of either Pro- 
fessor Ratzel or Professor Neumayr. From the 
perusal of what has already appeared, the writer 
has found generally but little discussion of hy- 
potheses, and, wherever critically examined, full 
and latest results of modern research. Of the 
general reliability of the work, the authors' repu- 
tations will afford sufficient evidence. 



METHODS OF ARROW-RELEASE. 

This substantial pamphlet, reprinted from the 
Bulletin of the Essex institute, October- December, 
1886, is a noteworthy example of the thorough 
methods of modern archeological research. Pro- 
fessor Morse has laid under contribution not only 
narratives of travellers and explorers among the 
existing savage races, but all available records, 
graphic and other, of ancient times, to illustrate 
the manner of using the bow and arrow. This 
remarkable invention, as the late Lewis H. Mor- 
gan, in his well-known work on 'Ancient society,' 
has shown, did not make its appearance until 
mankind was well advanced in the savage state 
towards barbarism ; and it has survived to the 
present time among primitive peoples as the 
principal weapon of warfare and the chase. It 
is reasonable, therefore, to hope with our author 
that interesting results in tracing the affinities of 
ancient races may be derived from the minute 
study of the different ways in which it has been 
employed. 

Professor Morse's attention was first directed to 
the subject by observing that his method of shoot- 
ing was quite different from that of a Japanese 
friend : "In the English practice, the bow must 
be grasped with the firmness of a smith's vice ; in 
the Japanese, on the contrary, it is held as lightly 
as possible ; in both cases, however, it is held 
vertically, but in the English method the arrow 
rests on the left of the bow, while in the Japanese 
it is placed on the right. In the English practice 
a guard of leather must be worn on the inner and 
lower portion of the arm to receive the impact 
of the string; in the Japanese no arm-guard 
is required. ... In the English method the 
string is drawn with the tips of the first three fin- 
gers, the arrow being lightly held between the 

Ancient and modern method* of arrow-rebate. By Bd- 
waxd 8. Hobsb. Salem, BuIL Bkmx inst. 8°. 



1 



120 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol.. IX., No. 209 



first and second, the release being effected by 
simply straightening the fingers ; in the Japanese 
the string is drawn back by the bent thumb, the 
forefinger aiding in holding the thumb down on 
the string." 

Thus set upon inquiry, he has discovered that 
there are, or have been, five different methods in 
vogue in the use of the bow and arrow. The 
simplest consists in "grasping the arrow between 
the end of the straightened thumb and the first 
and second joints of the bent forefinger. . . .With 
a light bow, such a release is the simplest and 
best ; and it makes but little difference upon 
which side of the bow the arrow rests, provided 
the bow is held vertically. This release, however, 
prevents the drawing of a stiff bow, unless one 
possesses enormous strength in the fingers." He 
calls this the ( primary release ' 





Figb. 1 and 2. — Primary rklrase. 

It appears to have been the method used by the 
natives of this country, when first discovered, 
according to William Wood's quaint description : 
" For their shooting they be most desperate marks- 
men for a point blancke object . . . they can 
smite the swift-running Hinde and the nimble- 
winged Pigeon without a standing pause or left- 
eyed blinking ; they draw their Arrowes between 
the fore finger and the thumbe ; their bowes be 
quick, but not very strong, not killing above six 
or seven score" (New England's prospect, part ii. 
chap, xiv., Prince soc. ed., p. 07). Several of the 
American tribes still practise this method of re- 
lease, and our readers have doubtless seen Indian 
boys shooting in this manner. This is also the 
habit followed by the Ainos, the primitive inhab- 
itants of Japan. 

The second manner of release " consists in grasp- 
ing the arrow with the straightened thumb and 



bent forefinger, while the ends of the second and 
third fingers are brought to bear on the string to 
assist in drawing." This is an advance upon the 
first through the h lp afforded by the other fin- 





FI08. 8 AMD 4. — 8RCONDABT RKI.liflE. 

gers in drawing the string. This is designated as 
the 'secondary release,' and is stated to be the 
method employed by the Zufiis, the semi-civilized 
Pueblo tribe, living in the north-western jpart of 
New Mexico. 





Figs. 5 and 6. — Tertiary rslkasb. 

The third method, which be styles the * tertiary 
release,' "differs in the position of the forefinger, 



Febrcabt 4, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



121 



which, instead of being bent and pressed against 
the arrow, is nearly straight, its tip, as well as the 
tip of the second and sometimes that of the third 
finger, engaging the string." This is the kind of 

release practised by most of the western tribes of 
this country. 

• " In holding the bow horizontally, the release- 
hand is held with the palm uppermost, the 
arrow, of course, resting on the bow, . . . but 
necessities arising, as in shooting in a forest, or 
shooting side by side with others closely ap- 
pressed, the bow was required to be held vertical- 
ly. In thus turning the bow-hand in the only 





FIGS. 7 -AND 8. — MEDITERRANEAN RELEASE. 

way it could be turned conveniently, the arrow 
would be brought to the left of the bow vertical. 
. . . In the primary and secondary releases, 
however, it makes but little difference on which 
side the arrow is placed ; and some tribes, using 
the bow vertical, place the arrow to the right, and 
this is probably a quicker way of adjusting the 
arrow when shooting rapidly." 

Professor Morse next considers a form of re- 
lease "which by documentary evidence has been 
in vogue among the Mediterranean nations for 
centuries. It is the oldest release of which we 
have any knowledge. It is practised to-day by all 
modern English, French, and American archers, 
and is the one practised by European archers of 
the middle ages. It consists in drawing the string 
back with the tips of the first, second, and third 
fingers, the balls of the fingers clinging to the 
string, with the terminal joints of the fingers 
slightly flexed. The arrow is lightly held be- 
tween the first and second fingers, the thumb 
straight and inactive." 



Since it has been practised by the Mediter- 
ranean nations from early historic times, he very 
appropriately calls it the ( Mediterranean release.' 

" This is unquestionably an advance on the oth- 
ers thus far described, as it enables the drawing 
of a stiffer bow, and is exceedingly delicate and 
smooth at the instant of loosing the arrow." It 
is quite remarkable that this method of release is 
practised by the Eskimo; which circumstance tends 
to confirm Prof. Boyd Dawkins's theory that this 
people is the direct representative of the cave- 
dwellers of southern France. The Eskimo are the 
only people known to Professor Morse, who have 
designed a distinct form of arrow for this method 
of release. 

Finally Professor Morse proceeds to examine 
an entirely independent release, having no relation 
to the others. " In this the string is drawn by the 
flexed thumb bent over the string, the end of the 
forefinger assisting in holding the thumb in this 
position. The arrow is held at the junction of the 
thumb and forefinger, the base of the finger press- 
ing the arrow against the bow. For this reason 
the arrow is always placed to the right of the bow 
vertical. This release is characteristic of the 
Asiatic races, such as the Manchu, Chinese, Kore- 




Fios. 9 and 10. — Mongolian release. 

an, Japanese, Turk, and doubtless other cognate 
peoples." 

As it is practised almost exclusively by Mongo- 
lian nations, he calls it the * Mongolian release/ 

In this release the thumb has to be protected by 



122 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No 209 



some kind of a guard, which is generally a thick 
ring. " The releases vary in their efficiency and 
strength. The two strongest and perhaps equally 
powerful ones are the Mediterranean and Mongo- 
lian ; and it is interesting to note the fact that the 
two great divisions of the human family who can 
claim a history, and who have been dominant in 
the affairs of mankind, are the Mediterranean na- 
tions and the Mongolians. For three or four thou- 
sand years, at least, each stock has had its peculiar 
arrow-release, and this has persisted through all 
the mutations of time to the present day. Lan- 
guage, manners, customs, religions, have in the 
course of centuries widely separated these two 
great divisions into nations. Side by side they 
have lived ; devasting wars and wars of conquest 
have marked their contact ; and yet the apparent- 
ly trivial and simple act of releasing the arrow 
from the bow has remained unchanged. At the 
present moment the European and Asiatic archer, 
shooting now only for sport, practise each the re- 
lease which characterized their remote ancestors." 

We wish it were in our power to follow our 
author through his detailed investigations of the 
peculiarities in the use of the bow he has dis- 
covered in his truly marvellous study of the an- 
cient monuments ; but that is impossible. In a 
classified list he has given, under the heads of 
' recent ' and ' ancient,' all the tribes and nations 
who have practised the five different kinds of re- 
lease described, and he concludes by begging for 
further information : — 

44 Travellers and explorers ought also not only 
to observe the simple fact that such and such peo- 
ple use bows and arrows, but they should accu- 
rately record, 1°, the attitude of the shaft-hand ; 
2°, whether the bow is held vertically or hori- 
zontally ; 8°, whether the arrow is to the right or 
to the left of the bow vertical ; and, 4°, whether ex- 
tra arrows are held in the bow-hand or shaft-hand. 
The method of bracing the bow is of importance 
also. . . . Particularly does he desire to learn the. 
release as practised by the Yeddahs of Ceylon, the 
Hill tribes of India, the tribes of Africa, South 
America, and especially the Fuegans. Indeed, 
any information regarding the methods of arrow- 
release in any part of the world will be accept- 
able." 

In answer to his inquiry, we venture the sug- 
gestion whether it is not possible that the so-called 
• pierced tablets,' which are described and figured 
by Professor Rau (Archeological collection of the 
Smithsonian institution, p. 88) and other writers, 
and which have given rise to so much discussion 
among American antiquaries, may not have been 
guards worn to protect the wrist against the recoil 
of the bow string. H. W. H. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

One welcomes an old friend more cordially than 
a new ; so that when Mr. Edwards, after some 
hesitation, starts a third series of his renowned 
and incomparable illustrations of our native but- 
terflies, begun twenty years ago, we are ready to 
render the full meed of praise for his unwearied 
energy, the success of his breeding experiments, 
and the more than liberal, almost profuse illustra- 
tion with which they are published. When we 
know, in addition, that he has parted with a con- 
siderable portion of his unique collection to obtain 
means wherewith to launch this new series, we 
can only hope he will find a public properly ap- 
preciative of such zeal and sacrifice. 

This first number is a reminiscence of the past. 
Two of the three plates represent hitherto un- 
figured species of that wonderfully prolific boreal 
genuB 4rgynni8, one from Assiniboia, and the 
other from Utah and Arizona, with brief merely 
descriptive text — which remind us especially of 
his first series, where nearly seventy figures of 
this genus were given. The remaining plate gives 
not only the butterfly with its variations, but also 
all the earlier stages of our Californian species of 
Megonostoma (or, as Mr. Edwards prefers to class 
it, Colias), with many enlarged figutesof minor 
details, accompanied by a tolerably full account 
of the insect — which recalls the more definitely 
biological character of the second series. To ob- 
tain the earlier stages, eggs were sent from Cali- 
fornia to West Virginia, and the caterpillars raised 
on an Amorpha, previously sent, in Mr. Edwards's 
garden. 

The text is not so full or interesting as the later 
parts of the last series ; but to say that the same 
care as before has been taken with the illustra- 
tions, whether in faithfulness of delineation to the 
last detail, or in truthfulness of coloring with an 
absence of all gaudiness, is quite enough. Noth- 
ing has ever surpassed them ; they are a perfect 
model for such work. The same artists have been 
connected with the work almost from the first ; 
and though the chief artist, Mrs. Peart, can no 
longer undertake the lithography with her own 
hand, they receive her careful supervision. 

We can only congratulate naturalists on Mr. 
Edwards's determination to continue publishing 
on the same 6cale as before, and beg to remind 
them, that, but for this liberality, we should 
hardly have advanced in knowledge of the life- 
histories of our butterflies beyond what we knew 
when Boisduval and LeConte published their little 
octavo — a half-century ago. 

The butterflies qf North America. By W. H. Ed warm. 
Third series. Parti. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 4*. 



SCIENCE. 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1887. 

COMMENT AND CRITICISM. 

The authorities of the Johns Hopkins universi- 
ty have always held, and rightly, that the true uni- 
versity must not only afford ample opportunities 
for original research in library and in labora- 
tory, but that it must also afford opportunity for 
the publication of the results of such research. 
As a result of this policy, the publication of the 
American journal of mathematics, the American 
chemical journal, the American journal of philol- 
ogy, the Studies from the biological laboratory, 
and the Studies in historical and political science, 
has been successively and successfully undertaken. 
The announcement is now made that this formid- 
able list is to be extended by the addition of an 
American journal of psychology, under the editor- 
ship of Prof. G. Stanley Hall. The journal is to 
be published quarterly, and the fiwt number will 
appear at an early date. The scope of the journal 
is to be as wide as that of psychology itself, 
though we infer from the announcement, that the 
major portion of the space will be devoted to the 
results of investigation in psycho-physics, psycho- 
genesis, and to the physiological side of mental 
science in general It is purposed also to repro- 
duce entire valuable articles from other journals, 
when they are not readily accessible in their origi- 
nal form. The journal will, it seems to us, find a 
field awaiting it ; for the Revue phUosophique 
and the PhUosophische monatshefte, together with 
their continental contemporaries, are hardly read 
in this country at all ; and their columns seldom, 
if ever, print an article by an American scholar. 
Mind, to be sure, has been very generous of late 
in its allotment of space to American authors, 
but it has a very limited circulation in this 
country. To appeal, first of all, to American 
readers and students of mental science, and to 
embody the latest results of American research, 
should be the particular aims of the new journal. 



estry is now issued. A region like middle and 
southern California, on the borderland between 
sufficient and insufficient rainfall, where irrigation 
is essentia] to agriculture, must care for its 
streams, and must therefore care for the forests 
where they rise. By this it is not intended to 
assert that forests exercise any control over the 
amount of rainfall, and it is a satisfaction to see 
that this popular fallacy receives no very direct 
support in the report under consideration : but as 
regulators of discharge by streams, the importance 
of the relation between forests and rainfall cannot 
be questioned; and in a state like California, 
where the forests are peculiarly limited to the 
higher, rough, non-arable lands, whence the 
streams flow down to the farms below, the pres- 
ervation of a fair share of the trees is a prime 
necessity. In the southern part of the state the 
balance of conditions is so delicate, that the for- 
ests merely survive, but have no recuperative 
power. If destroyed, they do not spring up again, 
but leave the surface barren. It is in such dis- 
tricts that much damage has already been done, 
not only in defacing the hill country, but in in- 
creasing the irregularity of stream-flow. The 
rain runs off from a bare hillside in a violent 
flood, carrying soil and gravel with it, and leav- 
ing no store of moisture in the ground to supply 
springs in the dry season. The forestry board and 
the school of forestry, inaugurated at Los Angeles 
in the University of southern California, have 
therefore a large work before them, that must be- 
come of much value to the state. 



In California, if anywhere, forestry should 
claim proper attention from the state ; and, ap- 
parently on the principle of better late than never, 
the first biennial report of the State board of f or- 

No. 210— 1987. 



In the Nineteenth century for January, Mr. 
George J. Romanes replies to the critics of his 
paper, read some time ago before the Linnaean 
society, on • Physiological selection, — an addi- 
tional suggestion on the origin of species.' He 
says that the first mistake his critics made, was in 
treating his idea as a fully elaborated theory, in- 
stead of, as was intended by Mr. Romanes, a mere 
suggestion or working hypothesis. He quietly 
adds that the study of his critics* arguments only 
makes him think more highly of his suggestion. 
Mr. Romanes' hypothesis of physiological selec- 
tion sets out with an attempt to prove, that, con- 



124 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 210 



sidered as a theory of the origin of species, the 
theory of natural selection is inadequate. The 
evidence going to make up this proof falls under 
three heads : first, the inutility to species of a 
larger proportional number of their specific char- 
acters ; second, the general fact of sterility be- 
tween allied species, which it is admitted cannot 
be explained by natural selection, and therefore 
has hitherto never been explained; and, third, 
the swamping influence, even upon useful varia- 
tions* of free intercrossing with the parent form. 
Because of these facts, Mr. Romanes asserts that 
the theory of natural selection is not a theory of 
the origin of species at all, but a theory of the 
cumulative development of adaptations. Physi- 
ological selection or < segregation of the fit,' on 
the other hand, Mr. Romanes brings forward as a 
theory o/ the origin of species. After briefly ex- 
plaining what is meant by physiological selection, 
— which he does in a way too compact to be 
abridged, and too long to be quoted, — Mr. Ro- 
manes turns to his critics, and deals with the 
objections which they have advanced. Two of 
them — Messrs. A. R. Wallace and Seebohm — are 
referred to by name, and Mr. Romanes' criticism 
of them is very interesting reading. He ascribes 
the objections of both of these gentlemen to a 
misunderstanding of what physiological selection 
really means, and deals with the whole subject 
in so comprehensive and yet detailed a way, that 
we may be sure a reply will be provoked from 
such of the critics as deem themselves misrepre- 
sented or unfairly used in the present article. 



The current work of the U. S fish commis- 
sion at its various stations shows gratifying results 
in hatching young fish. At Washington, 5,000,- 
000 white-fish eggs are now being hatched, the 
fry to be sent to Lake Erie. Small lots of Sal- 
monidae are also being hatched there, principally 
for the purpose of illustrating the different meth- 
ods of fish-culture. At Northville and Alpina, 
Mich., 126,000,000 white-fish eggs were collected 
during the fall, of which 26,000,000 have been dis- 
tributed to the state commissioners, for hatching 
and planting, and about 100,000,000 have been re- 
served to be hatched at the Northville station, the 
fry to be placed in the ocean and the great lakes. 
The station at Wood's Holl has been actively en- 
gaged in collecting, hatching, and distributing the 
eggs of cod-fish, of which 26,000,000 have been 
hatched and planted in Vineyard Sound and other 



adjacent waters. It is probable the total produc- 
tion of the season will exceed 100,000,000 cod-fish 
when eggs are obtained from the Ipswich-Bay 
school. At Wytheville, Va., the collecting of 
California trout eggs is now in full progress, over 
100,000 eggs having been obtained, of which fifty 
per cent will be distributed in lots of 5,000 and 
10,000 to the different state commissions, the bal- 
ance to be hatched and reared at the station, and 
distributed as yearling fish to the streams of the 
Appalachian region in Pennsylvania, Virginia, 
West Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, and Ten- 



The derate in the senate on the appropriations 
for the support of the coast survey during the 
next fiscal year shows the appreciation by that 
body of the importance of making appropriations 
sufficient to carry on the service effectively. The 
house pared the items down in a parsimonious 
spirit, and with a false idea of economy, without 
consulting the coast survey officials, or the treas- 
ury department, or the needs of the service. The 
senate appropriations committee addressed a letter 
to the secretary of the treasury, inquiring if the 
estimates as submitted by the superintendent of 
the coast survey were satisfactory to that depart- 
ment. The secretary replied that the estimates as 
submitted were entirely satisfactory, and fully 
sustained the superintendent of the coast survey. 
He also submitted an interesting and instructive 
communication from Mr. Thorn, showing the rea- 
sons for each item of expenditure and the present 
condition of the service, which we have not room 
to print. The secretary closed his letter with the 
following observation : " From these communica- 
tions it appears that the estimates made provis- 
ion for the efficient and economical prosecution of 
the survey during the ensuing year ; it also ap- 
pears that the provision made by the house bill 
will not secure such results: consequently the 
arrangement there made is not satisfactory to 
this department." 



The explanation given by the investigators ot 
the Plymouth epidemic of the origin of that epi- 
demic has by some been regarded as unsatisfac- 
tory, because it required the acceptance of the 
theory that typhoid-fever germs con Id retain vi- 
tality after being exposed to the intense cold 
which prevails in that latitude during the winter. 
Dr. J. 8. Billings, U.S.A., has been experimenting 
on this point, and gives the results of his expert- 



I 



Fkbruabt 11, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



125 



meats to the Sanitary engineer. On Jan. 10, 1887, 
five cubic centimetres of sterilized water in a test- 
tube were inoculated with typhoid bacillus, and 
exposed to the outer air during the following 
night at a temperature of 10° F. It was found 
solidly frozen during the morning. Jan. 11, this 
frozen mass was thawed, and from it there were 
inoculated one agar and three gelatine tubes. On 
Jan. 18 there was a decided typical development 
of the typhoid bacillus in the agar tube and in 
two of the gelatine tubes. He says that evidently 
the vitality of the typhoid bacillus is not destroyed 
by freezing. 



One of the methods by which infectious dis- 
eases may find an entrance into a country is ex- 
emplified in the history of the introduction of 
cholera into thn Argentine Republic. On Nov. 1 
of last year, the Italian ship Perseo arrived at 
Buenos Ayres from Genoa. During the voyage 
nearly a score of persons had died of cholera on 
the ship. The ambassador of the Argentine gov- 
ernment in Italy was a passenger on the ship, and, 
in the anxiety of the ship's commander to permit 
him to land without detention, all sanitary rules 
seem to have been overlooked. The disease was 
not confined to Buenos Ayres, but was also con- 
veyed by the same ship to Bosario, some two hun- 
dred miles farther, where there were at one time 
from twenty-five to fifty deaths daily. The dis- 
ease still exists in both cities, but is very much 
less prevalent than formerly. 



THE CONDITIONAL LIBERATION OF 

PRISONERS. 

The advances making in prison science, — or 
penology, as some are fond of calling it, — in this 
country are easily discerned. Not only do the an- 
nual meetings of the national prison congress at- 
tract wider attention and attract larger audi- 
ences, but there is a growing thoroughness and 
method in the current discussions on prison topics 
that stamps them as scientific. The reading pub- 
lic at large, moreover, take an interest in these 
subjects, for they appeal to them on many ac- 
counts, — ethical, economic, and philanthropic. 

In the International record of charities and cor- 
rection has appeared a paper by the editor of that 
journal, which was read by him before the re- 
cent meeting of the prison congress at Atlanta, 
and which not only typifies the scientific method 
of treating prison questions, but shows its applica- 
tion to a particularly interesting subject. Mr. 
Wines discusses, in the article in question, con- 



ditional liberation, or the paroling of prisoners. 
He points out both the close relation and the dis- 
tinction between the so-called indeterminate 
sentence and the conditional discharge of a con- 
victed criminal under parole, and says, that, 
while in Europe the tendency has been toward 
conditional liberation under sentences which are 
of fixed duration, in the United States we incline 
to an indefinite sentence. On both continents 
the first experiments in conditional liberation 
have been made with juvenile offenders. As 
early as 1824 the charter of the New York house 
of refuge contained the germ of the theory of an 
indefinite sentence, and sixteen years later a law 
was passed by the legislature of the same state fore- 
shadowing the principle of conditional liberation ; 
but both acts referred only to offenders in their 
minority. 

From the early experience of France, Mr. Wines 
adduces some significant statistics. In 1882 pro- 
vision was made that prisoners discharged from 
la petite Roquette, the Paris prison for juvenile 
offenders, might be intrusted to a special society, 
which was authorized to apprentice them and 
watch over their conduct. The effect of this step 
was to cause a decrease in a few years of the per- 
centage of juvenile recidivists from seventy-five 
to seven per cent. It was then proposed by an 
eminent judge that the plan which had proved so 
successful with juveniles be made applicable to 
adult criminals, but it is only very recently that 
this was done. 

With respect to adults, the English, in their 
' ticket-of -leave ' system, were the first to try con- 
ditional liberation. Until 1858 this ticket-of-leave 
provision only applied to convicts shipped to 
Australia, but in that year it was extended to 
include convicts incarcerated on English soil. In 
more recent years the value of the system of con- 
ditional liberation has been more widely appre- 
ciated. It was adopted by the grand duchy of 
Oldenburg and the kingdom of Saxony in 1862, 
and its success in Saxony was such that it was 
embodied in the criminal code of the German em- 
pire, which took effect in 1871. In 1868 it was 
adopted by a Swiss canton, and in the following 
year by Servia. Denmark put it in application in 
1878, as did the Swiss canton Neuchatel. Croatia, 
and cantons Vaud and Unterwalden, followed, as 
did the Netherlands in 1881, and France in 1885. 
In 1882 Japan adopted it, and it is a portion of 
the criminal codes under discussion in Austria, 
Italy, and Portugal. The first recognition of the 
principle of conditional liberation in the legisla- 
tures of the United States was in 1868, when the 
state of New York established the Elmira reforma- 
tory. 



126 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 210 



The objection that a parole is a pardon, and 
must be granted under the laws and conditions 
governing pardons, Mr. Wines notices at some 
length. He holds that a parole is not a pardon, 
for the reason that when a convict is pardoned his 
liability under the law ceases; but when he is 
paroled, and until his conditional release merges 
into one that is absolute, he is Btill in the custody 
of the law and under sentence. This being an im- 
portant point, Mr. Wines discusses it in detail. 
He shows, that, if a parole is unconstitutional, so 
is the time allowance now made in almost every 
state in the union to the convict, for good be- 
havior while in confinement ; and adds that " the 
history of the discussion of the indeterminate 
sentence, both at home and abroad, shows that 
until this legal, quasi constitutional objection to it 
is disposed of, no progress can be made in the 
way of securing a candid and careful consideration 
of its practical advantages." 

Passing from the legal to the practical side of 
the question, Mr. Wines claims, that, not only the 
a priori argument, but the results of its practical 
workings, are entirely in favor of the system of 
conditional liberation. Applied in any prison, it 
affects both officers and convicts. The foimer 
have a new responsibility thrown upon them, that 
of " judging at what moment each convict com- 
mitted to their care is fitted for the test of charac- 
ter outside of the prison enclosure ;" while the 
latter, finding his hope and his desire of personal 
freedom called upon, becomes an efficient and 
willing co-operator in his own amendment. " The 
system wakens in the breast of every prisoner 
who is not sunk in intellectual or moral inbecility, 
the sense of individual responsibility, and stimu- 
lates it to the highest degree of activity which lie 
is capable of sustaining." The system is also 
recommended to students of criminal jurispru- 
dence, because of the benefits it will confer upon 
society at large. It lessens the suffering of the 
family and friends of the criminal, and it dimin- 
ishes the expense required for his maintenance. 
It is at once a thorough and the only practicable 
means of testing the prisoner's reformation in 
prison. 

Mr. Wines does not overlook nor pass by the 
practical difficulties which are urged against the 
adoption of the system he is advocating. He con- 
siders them in turn. The first of them is " the igno- 
rance and apathy of the public with reference to 
every phase of the question of prison discipline." 
As this has stood in the way of many important 
reforms before now, and has always had to yield 
in the end, Mr. Wines declines to give it any seri- 
ous attention. It will cure itself. To the objec- 
tion that a prisoner is naturally a hypocrite, and 



that therefore no correct judgment can be formed 
as to his improved character, it is answered, 
" How does this apply to the system of conditional 
liberation any more than to the good-behavior 
laws now so common ?" In the United States, 
concerted action on the part of the various states 
would be necessary, in order to operate the system 
effectually. No special watching of the paroled 
convict is desirable, and the writer quotes prison- 
director Sichart of Wurtemberg, to the effect that 
police surveillance is undesirable ; for the paroled 
prisoner should not be subjected to unnecessary 
mortification. What he requires is protection 
against any hinderance which may exist to his 
honorable success ; and in no event should sur- 
veillance of any description be continued longer 
than the circumstances of each case seem to re- 
quire. 

Mr. Wines then develops his ideas as to the 
classes of convicts to whom the privilege of con- 
ditional liberation should be granted, tbo stage of 
imprisonment at which a parole should be granted, 
and the authority to whom the discretionary 
power of granting the parole should be entrusted. 
Statistics are quoted showing, that, of 1,695 
paroled prisoners in Bavaria, only 59 relapsed ; of 
782 in Wurtemberg, only 8 relapsed ; and of 288 
in Saxony, only 6 relapsed. The statistics on 
this point gathered from the experience of the 
New York state reformatory at £lmira, are already 
known to our readers. 



LONDON LETTER, 



The character of the Friday-evening lectures at 
the Royal institution (the scene of the labors of 
Davy and Faraday) is probably well known to most 
readers of Science. The. after-Christmas series 
was opened by Sir William Thomson, who dis- 
coursed to a brilliant audience upon the probable 
origin, extent, and duration of the sun's heat. 
Adopting, apparently unreservedly, Helmholtz's 
theory of its origin being due to the shrinkage of 
its mass, owing to- gravitation, he pointed out that 
gravity was 274 times as great at the sun (at present) 
as at the earth, and how different, therefore, solar 
physics were from terrestrial. The mystery of 
the relation between gravitation and the other 
properties of matter had hitherto proved insoluble. 
A body falling through only forty-five kilometres 
on to the sun's surface, would develop more 
energy than any known chemical combinations, 
and hence he relegated such combinations to the 
domain of the determining influences of merely 
incidental change. . Much time was devoted to 
calculations of solar .energy from the point of 
view of the 'mechanical equivalent of heat.' 



FlBMJABY 11, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



127 



Tbe amount of solar shrinkage was probably 
about 0.01 per cent of his diameter in 2,000 years. 
Fifteen million years ago the sun was probably 
four times its present diameter, and in another 
twenty million, its density will equal that of lead, 
and the activity of solar radiation will probably 
greatly diminish. At present it was about 75,000 
horse-power per square metre. Looking back, 
although biology demanded more time, the study 
of dead matter would give twenty million years 
as a maximum past limit, and ten million years as 
a maximum future limit, of the heat received at 
present by the earth from the sun. Tbe speaker 
created some amusement, towards the end of his 
discourse, by admitting that ' However, after all, 
we know nothing whatever about it ! * 

Tbe Prince of Wales has just been elected an 
honorary member (probably the first British one) 
of the Tiinnaean society, which has hitherto been 
somewhat chary of bestowing its ' parchments 
sealed with wax.' This famous society was 
founded in 1788, and is the owner and custodian 
of the library, manuscripts, and herbarium of the 
illustrious Linnaeus, who died in 1778. These 
were originally bought from bis family for about 
$5,500, by Dr. James Edward Smith, who founded, 
and was first president of, the Linnaean society, 
which has comprised in its roll all the most dis- 
tinguished naturalists of the day, and may be con- 
sidered to be a select club of scientists. 

The ' Christian evidence society ' aims at counter- 
acting the atheistic spirit which is alleged to be 
spreading among the masses in London. Latterly, 
its purely theological meetings and lectures have 
been frequently supplemented by lectures on scien- 
tific subjects delivered by men of well-known 
scientific position. In the west end of London, 
daring the present month, the presidents of the 
Royal and of the Linnaean societies (Dr. Stokes 
and Mr. Carru there) will take part in such a 
course, the former taking for his subject, ' Is tbe 
demand for demonstrative evidence in religion 
reasonable ? ' Dr. J. H. Gladstone and Mr. W. 
Lant Carpenter also take part in this course. 

On Jan. 17 a notice was issued by the post-office 
cancelling all previous notices as to delay in the 
telegraph service owing to the break- down oc- 
casioned by the storm of Dec. 26. For the week 
ending Jan. 15, the number of messages was 803,- 
000, as against 786,000 for the corresponding week 
of last year, notwithstanding the fact that senders 
were warned as to probable delay. The depart- 
ment has been able to have this good record while 
tbe wires were down, mainly through the free use 
of the Wheatstone automatic fast-speed transmit- 
ter, which for a long time has been doing 700 
words per minute (850 in each direction, the line 



being duplexed) over one wire between Newcastle 
and London, about 800 miles. Every effort was 
made to get messages through, no matter how 
circuitous the route. Some messages reached 
London from Paris via New York. Jn the angry 
controversy which has been raging on overhead 
versus underground lines, the following state- 
ments have been put forward on authority : Tbe 
English poet-office has 20,000 miles of underground 
lines, as against 22,000 in Germany. The cost of 
an underground wire is £850 per mile, and of 
every additional wire, £15, as against £85 and £10 
respectively for overhead wires. Underground 
wires diminish the speed of signalling from 25 
to 75 per cent over long distances. The cost of 
renewal and maintenance is about the same in 
both cases. 

The present year is the jubilee of the queen's 
accession to the throne. There is considerable 
fear that tbe proposal for an ' Imperial institute,' 
as a commemoration thereof, will not be ade- 
quately supported, and, in scientific circles, much 
feeling exists at the scanty recognition of science 
in the constitution of the committee (nominated by 
the Prince of Wales) which framed the scheme, 
and, a fortiori, in tbe scheme itself. 

An interesting history of the ' Science and art 
department' has just been issued, showing its 
growth during the last fifty years, and the encour- 
agement given by the state in this way to instruc- 
tion in science and art. Its headquarters are in 
South Kensington, which is in connection with 
about 1,500 scientific schools all over the United 
Kingdom. Twenty-five distinct branches of sci- 
ence are taught, and the annual grant for its 
maintenance approaches half a million pounds 
sterling. This is mainly distributed on the results 
of the May examinations, held at the end of the 
winter's teaching. In connection with this are 
the scholarships due to Sir Joseph Whit worth's 
contribution of £8,000 per year, given in 1868. 

W. 

London, Jan. 88. 



HONOLULU LETTER. 
Mr. E. D. Preston of the U. S. geodetic sur- 
vey has just arrived and begun work under tem- 
porary engagement with the Hawaiian govern- 
ment survey. His task is to establish a normal or 
standard latitude for this group. The latitude of 
several points has already been carefully deter- 
mined, — two such in 1888 by Mr. Preston in con- 
nection with pendulum observations, and some 
others by the British observers of the transit of 
Venus. Since full geodetic results have been ob- 
tained by inter-island triangulation, serious dis- 
crepancies are found to exist between these and 



128 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 210 



the astronomical determinations of latitude, rising 
as high as forty-five seconds of latitude in the rel- 
ative positions of stations on neighboring islands. 
The study of these discrepancies shows them to be 
due to local deflections of the vertical in conse- 
quence of the powerful attraction of our great 
mountain-masses. The error produced appears to 
be greater than in any other part of the world in 
proportion to the extent of the geodetic work. A 
discrepancy in longitude of sixty seconds is found 
to exist between Kaflua and Honolulu, 150 miles 
distant. These longitudes were determined by 
the British transit expedition, transporting twelve 
chronometers three round trips between the sta- 
tions. The mountains of these islands rise above 
the sea from 4,000 to 14,000 feet. But being sur- 
rounded by a depth of ocean of, say, 25,000 feet, the 
masses are really from 80,000 to 40,000 feet high, 
fully accounting for the extraordinary deflection 
of the vertical. Twelve stations have been selected 
whose positions are precisely determined , and w bich 
lie on opposite sides of their respective islands. 
Mr. Preston will occupy each one, so as to secure 
at least one hundred observations of pairs of stars. 
It is believed that a study and comparison of the 
discrepancies between the latitudes obtained will 
enable a standard latitude to be determined for the 
whole group, very closely approximating to the 
true latitude. 

No precise determination of longitude can pos- 
sibly be obtained until there is cable communica- 
tion between Honolulu and the continent. It now 
seems probable that such communication will soon 
be established. Mr. Preston's work will then be 
available in corrections to determine a standard 
longitude as well as latitude for this group. When 
these corrections for the latitude and longitude 
are applied to the transit of Venus station at 
Honolulu, it seems not unlikely that better re- 
sults may be obtained from the work done by the 
British transit expedition. 

A panorama of the caldera of Kilauea goes to- 
day to the United States for public exhibition. It 
is an accurate representation of the great enclos- 
ure, and of the interior active lakes, as seen at the 
period of culminating action shortly before the 
periodical collapse which took place last year. 
The work is by an eminent artist, Jules Tavernier, 
who is particularly successful in vivid representa- 
tion of incandescent lava. The whole is lifelike 
and realistic. Although startling, it possesses a 
high scientific value, far beyond a mere popular- 
izing of the subject. 

Since the collapse, the lava has re-appeared in 
force, and is slowly rising in the lakes, already 
presenting brilliant exhibitions. After a period of 
the highest activity, the lakes suddenly sank out 



of sight, leaving deep pits, the bottoms of which 

were 700 feet lower than the previous level of 

liquid lava. The surveyor-general embraced the 

opportunity for a precise survey of Kilauea and 

its branch craters, which has been completed. It 

will probably be several years before any thing 

like the recent high level of lava is again attained. 

A remarkable phenomenon still proceeding has 

been the uplifting from the bottom of the pit, as 

if by colossal jack-screws, of a veritable mountain 

island of lava more than 500 feet in diameter and 

150 feet high, around which the liquid lava flows. 

This permanent island has already risen some 800 

feet within seven months. The best facilities are 

now given for access to the crater, involving five 

days' absence from Honolulu, at the cost of fifty 

dollars, covering all transportation, hotel fare, and 

guides, with two days at the crater. K. 

Honolulu, Jan. 18. 



GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 
Asia. 

Dr. A. Bunge and Baron E. Toll have retained 
form their journey to the New Siberian Islands. 
They have made valuable collections and observa- 
tions on the five islands of this group, which of 
late became so famous by the hazardous boat 
journey of the Jeannette crew. The results of this, 
the first scientific expedition to these islands, will 
be of great interest. 

There are new reports on Potanin s expedition 
to southern Mongolia. His return was announced 
in the St. Petersburg letter of last issue. Potanin 
left the district of Koko-Nor on June 85, 1886, 
crossed the desert of Gobi on a previously un- 
known route from south to north, and discovered 
four parallel chains of mountains, which form the 
south-eastern continuation of the Altai system. 
The journal of the Imperial Russian geographical 
society contains a report on his last explorations 
in the district of Koko-Nor. He explored that 
part of the Nan-shan mountains which separates 
the country drained by the Hoang-ho from the 
plains of southern Mongolia. It is composed of 
three mountain ranges, with passes 12,800 feet in 
height, and intermediate valleys at an elevation of 
10,000 feet. On his way north he fell in with the 
Jegurs, a tribe hitherto unknown. Potanin sur- 
veyed the whole country he traveled over, and 
determined the position of seven places by astro- 
nomical observations. His companion, the natu- 
ralist BeressowBki, will stay near Kiachta until 
next winter in order to complete his collections. 

Mr. E. Michaelis, in Nature of Dec. 16, states 
that traces of the ice-period are found in the 
southern parts of the Altai Mountains. Farther 



Tmhnmby 11, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



129 



south, on the northern declivity of the ranges 
Jarbagatay and Saoor, which form the southern 
limits of the basin of the Irtish, large deposits of 
bowlders are found. They consist of granitic 
rocks, which have been, carried by the ice from 
the crest of the mountains to a distance of about 
ten miles, the layer having a direction from south 
to north. The range of Saoor attains a height 
of about 12,500 feet above the level of the sea. At 
the present period snow always lies on its highest 
parts, but no glaciers are found. 

According to Nikolsky, Lake Balkash is drying 
up at the rate of one metre in fourteen or fifteen 
years. Its southern portion, called Ala-Kul, is 
being transformed into a salt-pan similar to Kara 
Bugas, the well-known bay on the east side of the 
Caspian Sea. As the evaporation is very rapid in 
those regions, and the bays have no tributaries, 
the loss of water is replaced by the salt water of 
the lake rushing through the narrow entrance into 
the bay, the water of which having become con- 
centrated, the salt is continually being precipi- 
tated at its bottom. Some other lakes of West 
Siberia and the Aralo-Caspian region are also dry- 
ing up. Jadrienzew, by comparing the extent of 
the Lakes Suny, Abyshkan, Moloki, and Cbany, 
in the governments of Tobolsk and Tomsk, as 
represented in maps of 1784, 1818-20, 1850-60, and 
1880, proves that they are desiccating at a rapid 
rate. Lake Abyshkan measured 580 square miles 
at the beginning of this century, while only three 
amall ponds of one and a half miles in width re- 
main. The same process is going on throughout 
West Siberia. 

According to the Novoe Vremya, the trading 
caravan lately despatched by the Central Asian 
commercial company Koudrine has passed through 
Kashgar and entered Thibet. This company is 
likely to play an important part in Central Asia. 
It has established permanent agencies at Merv 
and Askabad, and in the Persian cities of Kutchan 
and Mesbed, and now it proposes to do the like in 
Thibet. It has received from the Ameer of Bok- 
hara a large tract of land on the banks of the 
Amu-daria, near the Chard jui station of the 
Transcaspian railway, for the cultivation of cotton. 
In the Transcaspian there seems to be a great dis- 
trict suitable for cotton-growing, and there is a 
general opinion among the commercial classes of 
Russia that the development of this industry 
ought to be steadily encouraged by the govern- 
ment. 

Africa. 

Further news has been received from Dr. Oscar 
Lens, dated Kibonge, April 30, Nyangwe, May 19, 
and Kasonge, June 1. Lenz left Stanley Falls on 
March 30 in canoes supplied by the famous Ara- 



bian trader, Tippo-Tip, who sent several Zanzi- 
bari soldiers with him, and gave him about twenty 
negroes for oarsmen. At the cataracts they had 
to hire natives, as the work was too hard for the 
small company. Having left Stanley Falls, they 
passed through a dreary country, the banks of the 
river being low and covered with thick forests. 
On account of high water they had great difficulty 
in finding places for camping. Lenz found many 
of the native villages mentioned by Stanley de- 
serted, as the natives had settled farther inland to 
escape the attacks of the Arabs. He met Zanzi- 
bari soldiers belonging to Tippo-Tip's troops in 
most of the villages, who gave him some trouble 
by trying to tax him. It took the small caravan 
seven days to pass the cataracts of Wamanga, 
having several times* to transport their bulky 
canoes over marshy, bush-covered ground. On 
April 15 they reached Kibonge, which is largely 
inhabited by Arabs and Zanzibaris. It is named 
after the chief who established the village nine 
years ago. He came from Nyangwe, and is inde- 
pendent of Tippo-Tip. The village is very exten- 
sive, and is composed of a great number of 
ranches, with gardens and fields. Its situation, 
however, is very unhealthy, as it is built on the 
low banks of the Kongo, and large lagoons and 
swamps surround it. As the district is very suit- 
able for rice culture, the Arabs have cleared the 
land, and grow considerable quantities of rice. 
Lenz considers these fields far more extensive and 
numerous than those in West Africa. He left 
Kibonge in company with several Arabian traders, 
who were going to Tippo-Tip's station, Riba-Riba. 
A few days' journey above Kibonge they heard the 
sounds of the war-drums of the natives, and pre- 
pared for defence in case of an attack. Wherever 
the Arabs have settled, the negroes have fled into 
the woods, and when they have a chance of attack- 
ing the intruders with safety they do so, and the 
Arabs are in constant fear of their poisoned ar- 
rows. The feeling of uneasiness did not subside 
until they had reached the friendly tribes near 
Riba-Riba. The latter place derives its name also 
from its chief, a Nyangwe negro. The river be- 
tween Nyangwe, and Riba-Riba, and Kibonge is 
frequented by travelling parties going from one 
place to another in pursuit of their trade. They 
extend their journeys far up the tributaries of the 
Kongo, as far south as Urua, south-west of the 
Tanganyika. Nyangwe is built on a hill about 
a hundred feet above the Kongo. It consists of a 
number of houses surrounded by gardens. The 
inhabitants are rich Arabian merchants and Zan- 
zibaris and natives who are in their employ. 
Some houses are well built of sun-dried bricks 
and have fine piazzas. Kasonge, the headquarter* 



130 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 310 



of Tippo-Tip, is far more important than Nyan- 
gwe, being the place where caravans to Lake Tan- 
ganyika are fitted out. Tippo-Tip, whom Lens 
had left at Stanley Falls, arrived atKasonge about 
the time of Lenz's arrival, and as he was going to 
Zanzibar, Lenz feared that he would not be able 
to get a sufficient number of men for his caravan. 
Later telegraphic news informs us that Lenz was 
compelled to abandon his intention of reaching Dr. 
Junker and Emin Pacha (Dr. Schnitzler), and a 
short time ago the cable informed us of his arrival 
at Zanzibar. He has crossed the continent from 
the mouth of the Kongo to Zanzibar in less than 
eighteen months. 

Lenz's remarks on the Arabian trade with Ur- 
ua are of interest when compared with the views 
Captain Cameron expressed at the London institu- 
tion, on Jan. 11, 1887. While Lenz emphasizes 
the difficulty the Kongo Free State and other Eu- 
ropean powers will encounter by Tippo-Tip's pow- 
erful influence in Kasonge and Urua, Cameron 
thinks that, by following the Lomami, the London 
missionary society's agents and the officers of the 
Kongo Free State would soon reach this country, 
and he expresses great hopes of their being able to 
do away with the horrors of the slave trade which 
prevails there owing to the Portuguese and Arabs. 

Lieutenant Webster, late commander of the 
station of Stanley Falls, proposes to explore the 
district between Adamaua and Kameroon. This 
is the region which Robert Flegel tried to enter 
from the upper Benue\ Here the unknown area 
almost extends to the coast, and the obstacles 
arising from the hostility of the native tribes 
have hitherto prevented all explorers from enter- 
ing the continent. 

The Italian traveller, A. Franzoj, has deter- 
mined to abandon his intention of crossing the 
Somal country, on account of the unsettled state 
of affairs in that district. He will go to Zanzibar, 
and proposes to follow Thomson and Fischer's 
route through the Massai district. 

Dr. K. Juhlke, of the German Ea6t-African 
company, was murdered in Kismayu in the be- 
ginning of December, After having purchased 
Usagara and the neighboring countries in 1884, 
be added to the possessions of the company, in 
June and July, 1885, the district as far north as 
the Kilimanjaro, and, on his last expedition, that 
from Vitu to the mouth of the Tuba. 

Captain Bouvier, member of the joint commis- 
sion of France and the Kongo Free State for de- 
termining the boundary line of the possessions of 
both states up to longitude 17° E., has made a sur- 
vey of his routes, which, it is hoped, will be a 
great advance in our knowledge of the geography 
of the Kongo River. His observations show that 



Stanley Pool is far smaller than it was supposed 
to be, and that the positions of many places and 
rivers require changing. 

Henry M. Stanley left Suez on Feb. 6, on the 
steamer Navarino, for Zanzibar direct. 

The German East-African company has been 
converted into a corporation by a committee of 
the founders, merchants, and financiers. The 
board of directors will hereafter consist of twenty- 
seven members, three of whom are to be nomi- 
nated by Prince Bismarck. The capital is to be 
raised to 5,000,000 marks by a further issue of 

shares. 

America, 



Dr. P. Ehrenreich and K. von Steinen 
from Hamburg last week for Brazil. They intend 
to explore the southern tributaries of the Ama- 
zon. 

Oceans. 

At a meeting of the Paris Academy of sciences 
on Jan. 10, a report was given of experiments 
made by the Prince of Monaco to determine the 
direction of the North Atlantic currents. Of 109 
floats thrown overboard 800 miles north-west of 
the Azores, in 1886, 14 have been recovered, show- 
ing a general south-easterly direction and a mean 
velocity of 8.88 miles per 24 hours. Of the 510 
floats thrown overboard in 1886, much nearer the 
French coast, 9 have been recovered, showing 
nearly the same direction, with velocities of from 
5.80 to 6.45 miles.— Nature, Jan. 20. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The plans of the Johns Hopkins university 
have always had reference to the establishment of 
a faculty of medicine whenever the Johns Hop- 
kins hospital should be completed. The buildings 
are nearly ready to be occupied, and arrangements 
will be perfected for instruction in surgery and 
medicine. Meanwhile, courses preliminary to the 
study of medicine, especially in physics, chemis- 
try, and biology, with the modern languages, are 
provided in the philosophical faculty. The nucle- 
us of the medical faculty, as now constituted, in- 
cludes the presidentrof the university, a professor 
of pathology, a professor of physiology, a profes- 
sor of chemistry, a lecturer upon hygiene, and an 
associate in pathology. 

— During the past year the Institute of social 
science of New York has held twenty meetings, at 
which were presented and discussed the following 
papers : ' The logical method of studying sociolo- 
gy,' Mr. Parke Godwin ; ' An introduction to so- 
cial science,' T. B. Wakeman, Esq.; 'Principles 
that should control the interference of the state in 



Fubuabt 11, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



131 



industries/ Dr. H. C. Adams ; ' The fiscal problem 
of all nations,' Prof. J. C. Zachos ; * ' Neglected 
factors in social reform/ Rev. Dr. A. H. Bradford ; 
< English socialism, especially co-operation, and 
the Christian socialistic movement,' Dr. E. R. A. 
Seligman ; « Heredity and opportunity,' Dr. Lester 
F. Ward ; < Criticism of 8eligman's paper,' Mr. 
Edward King ; ' The land question as presented by 
Mr. Henry George,' Professor Molina ; Discussion 
of Dr. Adams's paper of April 8 ; * Karl Marx's 
theory of value,' Mr. Ewald Langerfeld ; Discus- 
sion continued of Dr. Ward's paper of June 10 ; 
1 The demands of labor,' Mr. Edward King ; « Free 
competition vs. state socialism,' Mr. Justus O. 
Woods ; * The moral aspect of the economic ques- 
tion,' Prof. Thomas Davidson ; « A practical view 
of protection,' Mr. Robert P. Porter; 'The basic 
law of ownership/ Mr. Edward G. Clark ; * The 
cause and cure of crime/ Mr. W. M. F. Round ; 
1 The economic heresies of Mr. Henry George/ Mr. 
George Gunton. The papers generally were very 
meritorious, and several of them were published 
in the leading periodicals and journals, and others 
in pamphlet form. The institute has thus aided 
in elucidating social topics which are commanding 
so general and pressing public attention. One 
member of the institute has successfully organized 
two popular classes for the systematic study of 
social economics, and others are being formed. 
Three or more of the members are preparing books 
on this subject for publication. Those who have 
followed carefully the papers and their discussion 
bear emphatic testimony to their usefulness. It 
is worthy of remark that the result of the discus- 
sions has been favorable to conservative opinion, 
and proves that healthful social progress will 
come through a more general and better under- 
standing of the principles underlying social eco- 
nomics. The discussion of the papers has taken 
sometimes too much the form of debates, in which 
the contention seemed rather for victory than 
truth. Disputants have not always confined them- 
selves to the topic discussed, but have disputed 
with each other points not involved in the 
papers. 

— Strenuous efforts are being made to induce 
the legislature of the state of New York to enact 
the amendments to the present tenement-house 
law of the city of New York, which were pre- 
pared by the tenement-house commission of 1886. 
The act provides that every tenement shall have a 
dry cellar, good drainage, ample water-supply, 
and a janitor ; owner's name to be registered ; a 
semi-annual inspection by the board of health, 
and an annual report ; free winter baths ; electric 
lights in tenement district ; and cutting through 
Uonard Street to open up the Mulberry Street 



'bend/ Petitions are now being circulated in be- 
half of this law. The citizens of Brooklyn are also 
moving in the matter of tenement-house reform, 
the law in that city being practically the same as 
it was twenty years ago, and the tenement-houses 
lacking many of the improvements which are to 
be found in New York. The amended ordinances 
which were forwarded to the common council of 
Brooklyn nearly two years ago still remain un- 
acted upon, and efforts are now being made to 
have them adopted by that body. For this pur- 
pose a meeting has been called by the commissioner 
of health, of builders, architects, physicians, and 
philanthropists, to consider and revise these or- 
dinances before their final adoption. 

— Mr. H. C. Russell, government astronomer 
for New South Wales, and late president of the 
Royal society of that colony, gave an account in 
his last presidential address of certain oscillations, 
or Seiches, as the Swiss call them, in the waters of 
Lake George (New South Wales), as determined 
by the record of an automatic evaporation gauge. 
The lake is about eighteen miles long, five wide, 
and fifteen or twenty feet deep : its oscillations 
have an amplitude of from two to six inche*, and 
are of two periods ; the longer being two hours 
and eleven minutes, the shorter one hour and 
twelve minutes. In most cases the motion is con- 
nected with the passage of thunder-storms ; but at 
other times it seemed to arise from the repeated 
and well-timed impulses of a less apparent force. 
For example : on one occasion, when the lake was 
very quiet, the water suddenly rose an inch, and 
fell again within thirty minutes ; then it rose an 
inch and a half, and fell two inches in three-quar- 
ters of an hour ; next it rose two inches, and fell 
three and a half inches in an hour ; finally it rose 
three and three-quarters inches in forty minutes, 
and so started a series of pulsations which settled 
down to two- hour intervals, and lasted twenty 
hours. 

— The Society of arts, England, offers two gold 
and four silver medals for the best motors suitable 
for electric-light installations, to be competed for 
in London next May or June. The motors will be 
divided into two classes, — those in which the 
working agent is produced (steam and gas en- 
gines), and those in which the working agent 
must be supplied (steam, gas, and hydraulic en- 
gines). 

. 

— The following is a copy of a note found by 
Mr. J. C. McClure on the south side of Nantucket, 
Jan. 39, 1887 : "This bottle was thrown overboard 
from schooner Emma L. Cottingham, July 20, 1886, 
in latitude 41° 08' north, longitude 69° 08' west. 
Any person finding this will confer a favor by 



132 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. MO 



sending this to the hydrographic office at Wash- 
ington, D.C., stating when and where found." 
The note was signed " J. L. Somers, schr. Emma 
L. Cottingham, of Somers Point, "N.J." 

— Three more sheets of the topographical atlas 
of New Jerpey are issued, making thirteen out of 
the seventeen for the whole state. The new sheets 
are named after their chief places, Trenton, Mount 
Holly, and Camden. The remaining sheets will 
probably be completed in 1888. 

— The report of Lieut. William H. Schurtze, 
TJ.S N., on his official trip to Russia to distribute 
the testimonials of the government to the subjects 
of Russia who extended aid to the survivors of 
the Jeannette exploring expedition, was presented 
to congress last week. The report is quite long, 
and records in detail the movements of the lieu- 
tenant and the results of his observations. Ac- 
companying the report are copies of two charts 
the existence of which Lieutenant Schurtze be- 
lieves have been forgotten outside of Russia. He 
says, in view of the general interest taken in any- 
thing pertaining to the Jeannette expedition, it 
seems that these charts are worthy of special con- 
sideration, because they relate directly to two 
regions most prominent in the history of the ex- 
pedition, namely. Bennett Island and the Lena 
Delta, North Siberia. 

— The U. S. coast and geodetic survey report 
for 1885 — Appendix No. 10 — contains a paper 
by Charles O. fioutelle, who gives practical sug- 
gestions for geodetic reconnaissance, such as he 
derives from his long experience in field-work. 
His information on the selection of base-lines and 
stations for triangulation will be useful for topog- 
raphers. 

— In 1882 small-pox was very prevalent in 
New York, there having been 708 cases with 259 
deaths. In 1888, only 26 cases and 12 deaths oc- 
curred ; in 1884, 5 cases and no deaths ; in 1885, 
105 cases and 26 deaths ; and in 1886, 109 cases 
and 81 deaths. During the week ending Jan. 29 of 
the present year, there were 28 cases, of which 8 
proved fatal. 

— The health commissioner of Denver, Col., re- 
ports that in 1886 there were 195 deaths from con- 
sumption in that city, only five of which origi- 
nated in the state of Colorado. 

— The U. S. geological survey is engaged in 
the preparation of a detailed topographical map 
of the vicinity of Washington, Alexandria, and 
contiguous parts of Maryland and Virginia. It 
is intended to show the elevation by contours at 
twenty-five feet intervals, showing the curvature 
of the earth as it rises from the sea-level The 



Colder, 7 days. 



Stationary temperature, 
IS days. 



f- 



Local rain, 11 days. 



existing coast-survey work in this neighborhood 
will be incorporated in the new map. This will 
be the first authentic topographical map, on a 
trigonometric basis, of the District of Columbia 
and its surroundings. The coast-survey steamer 
Hassler arrived at the Mare Island navy yard last 
week, and will soon go north to the Alaska coast 
and resume work in that vicinity. 

— Dr. Hinrichs has lately published a compari- 
son of the weather-predictions of the signal service 
for last August, as indicated by flag-signals hoisted 
at Iowa City, with the weather occurring in the 
period for which the predictions were made, get- 
ting the following results : — 

Prediction*. Fact*. 

"8 days, average difference from 

preceding noon, 8*.8 colder. 
4 days, average difference, 4°.0 
warmer. 

days, average difference, S*.6 
colder. 

days, average difference, 4°.8 
warmer. 
8 days, average difference, 8*.6 
I colder. 

Warmer, 8 days. { 4 days, average difference, r»8 

I warmer. 

[1 day, no change. 

PS days, no rain. 
. 4 days, rain not measurable. 
*| 8 days, rain barely measurable. 
l> days, appreciable rain. 
C% days, appreciable rain. 

vmii. •«*«,*,. «ih. m J 1 day, violent thunderstorm, wttb 
Fair weather, 80 days....-; neavy wmd Kaa y^ ( 0tben 

(. not mentioned). 
Dr. Hinrichs concludes that it is exceedingly 
unfavorable to the people's confidence in the flag- 
display of the signal service, when ite fair-weather 
flag is beaten by storm and ram, and when its 
rain-flag flutters lustily and dryly in a hazy, 
balmy atmosphere of summer. 

— A valuable Algonquin French lexicon (Lex- 
ique de la lanque Algonquine) by the distinguished 
philologist, the Rev. J. A. Cuoq, has lately been 
published (Montreal, J. Chapleau et File). The 
Algonquin, as the name is here used, is the lan- 
guage of that tribe of Indians who formerly pos- 
sessed the country about Montreal, and of whom 
some bands still remain in the neighborhood of 
that city. Their speech has a special importance, 
both scientific and historical. As in the case of 
the author's Iroquois lexicon, there are interesting 
notes, linguistic and ethnological, on almost every 
page. The volume lacks the French-Algonquin 
part. It is to be hoped that the industrious author 
will hereafter supply thi9 deficiency, as well as 
the similar lack which detracts from the useful- 
ness of his excellent Iroquois lexicon. 

— Prof. Max MOller's volume on * The science 
of thought/ on which he has been engaged at 
intervals for several years, will soon be published. 
The author is occupied in it with the origin of 



FnaoABT 11, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



133 



speech, which in his view, as in that of the 
Greeks, is identical with thought. A contribution 
of this sort to metaphysical science, from a writer 
who is at once a profound philologist, an able 
annotator of Kant, and the master of a moet 
lucid and happy English style, will be expected 
with general interest. 

— 'Harvard and its surroundings' (Boston, 
Band Avery Co., 1886), of which the seventh 
edition has just been issued, is designed to take 
the place of an intelligent companion to the visi- 
tor in his walk through Harvard and its vicinity, 
giving brief yet sufficiently definite descriptions 
of every place visited, with passing allusions to 
its leading historical and biographical associa- 
tions, and devoting the larger proportion of space 
to the specially noteworthy objects. 

— The Athenaeum prints the following : " The 
bibliography of learned societies is being enriched 
by a couple of useful publications now coming out 
in sections,— « Die Wissenschaftlichen Vereine und 
Qesellschaften Deutschlands im 19 Jahrhundert,' 
by Dr, Joannes Mfiller ; and the ' Bibliographic 
des Travaux Scientifiques et Arcbeologiques pub- 
lies par lee Societes Sa van tee de la France,' pub- 
lished under the auspices of the minister of public 
instruction. Now, Mr. A. P. C. Griffin, of the 
Boston public library, proposes to issue by sub- 
scription .a ' Bibliography of American historical 
societies.' " 

— We learn from the Athenaeum that three 
important libraries of deceased professors have 
lately been sold in Berlin, —that of Professor 
Scberer, which was bought for 28,000 marks by 
an American university ; that of the historian 
Waitz, which fetched 16,000 marks ; and that of 
Professor Mullenboff, which has been purchased 
for the new Germanische Seminar of the Univer- 
sity of Berlin. Scherer's library is reported to 
have been one of the finest private collections in 
Germany. 

— Eleiber of St. Petersburg has lately computed, 
in the Meteorologische Zeitschrift, the half-yearly 
variations of atmospheric pressure in the two 
hemispheres, taking January and July for the 
months of extreme conditions. He finds the 
mean pressure for the whole earth 759.20 mm. 
This result is necessarily the same for the extreme 
months, and the agreement of the author's figures 
serves as a check on his work. The mean press- 
ure of the northern hemisphere is 760.81, vary- 
ing from 761.80 in January to 758.82 in July : for 
the southern hemisphere, the figures are 758.09, 
756.60, and 759.58. The mean pressure in the 
northern hemisphere thus exceeds that in the 
southern by 2.22. In July, when the northern 



atmosphere is expanded and flows off to southern 
latitudes, the average northern excels is reversed 
to a slight deficiency of 0.76; but in January, 
when the cold of the land hemisphere is extreme, 
it accumulates more air than usual, and its excess 
rises to 5.20. It may therefore be said that a mass 
of air, equivalent to that which would give a 
pressure of 5.96 over a hemisphere, is periodically 
transferred from one side of the equator to the 
other. 

— The report of the U. S. geological survey on 
the mineral resources of the United States for 
1885 contains some interesting statistics. The 
total mineral product is valued at $428,521,856, an 
increase of $15,806,608 over 1884. Among seventy 
mineral substances cited, coal is the most impor- 
tant, showing a total value of $159,019,596. An 
increase is shown in the production of coke, nat- 
ural gas, gold, silver, copper, zinc, quicksilver, 
nickel, aluminum, lime, salt, cement, phosphate 
rock, manganese, and cobalt oxide, while the pro- 
duction of coal, petroleum, pig-iron, lead, precious 
stones, and mineral waters decreased. From the 
present outlook, says the report, it is probable 
that the total output of 1886 will prove much 
greater than that of 1885, and even larger than 
the prosperous year of 1882. 

— A very* valuable contribution to the study of 
cerebral localization is made by Dr. Henry Hun 
in the American journal of the medical sciences 
for January, 1887. The article records seven un- 
usually interesting cases in which the symptoms 
were observed during life, and the lesions of the 
brain carefully examined after death. The results 
corroborate many of the current views on locali- 
zation, and in a few points carry the process 
further than was possible before. 

— The year 1886 has added eleven new aster- 
oids to the list, which now numbers 264. Seven of 
the strangers were discovered by Dr. J. Palisa of 
Vienna, who has found no less than fifty-seven 
in all, while three were discovered by Dr. Peters 
of Clinton, who is now credited with forty-six. 
No. 258, Tyche, was found by Dr. R. Luther of 
Dttsseldorf. No. 254 has been named Augusta ; 
255, Oppavia ; 257, Silesia ; 259, 260, 261, Aletheia, 
Huberta, and Prymno, respectively. The remain- 
ing four are still unnamed. 

— The duplex principle has been successfully 
adapted to the Phelps system of inductive teleg- 
raphy, so that messages may be sent to and from 
moving trains in the ordinary manner without 
interfering with the transmission of messages by 
induction. With this improvement, a single line 
is all that is required for both train and ordinary 
telegraphy. 



134 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou IX. , No. 210 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

German constructions. 

I disagree toto coelo with niy learned fellow-citizen 
as to what he is pleased to call ' horrible construe- 
tion' in German, but believe, on the contrary, that 
for one whose ear is trained to it the sentences of 
qualification are as clear as an assemblage of short 
phrases, and ever so mnch more powerful. As an 
example of the involved style (seldom if ever used 
by the best German writers and speakers, by the way), 
take this : — 

Dem, der den, der die, das Verbot enthaltende 
Tafel abgerissen hat, anzeigt, wird hierdurch eine 
Belohnung zugesichert. 

This is tough for the anti-Teuton, but it says in 
eighteen words and ninety-five letters what cannot 
be literally translated into English in less than nine- 
teen words and one hundred and four letters. 

Pebstfob Fbazjbb. 
Philadelphia, Feb. & 

Inertia-force. 

Will you allow me to draw attention to one point 
in Dr. E. H. Hall's recently published pamphlet on 
' Elementary ideas, definitions, and laws in dynam- 
ics,' which he seems to me to have treated with less 
success than he has the other points raised ? 

On p. 6 Dr. Hall says, " We have spoken some- 
times of the force which is applied to a body to 
change its motion, and sometimes of the resistance 
or counter-force with which the body meets the 
applied force. Each is necessary to the other. We 
could not exert force upon a body if the body offered 
no resistance. On the other hand, resistance would 
be impossible if there were no applied force to be 
met. We shall call the counter-force, which a body 
in virtue of its inertia exerts to meet a force applied, 
the inertia-force" On what body this counter-force 
is supposed to be exerted is not at once clear. At 
first it seemed to me to be the body by which the 
applied force was exerted, the applied force and the 
counter-force being thus the opposite aspects of the 
same stress. And this seemed especially probable 
from the fact that on p. 24 the third law of motion 
(which of course applies only to the two opposite 
aspects of one stress; is cited to prove the equality 
of the applied force (there treated as. doing work) 
and the counter-force (there called a resisting force). 
But the following quotations show that this is 
not Dr. Hall's meaning : "The force, or resistance, 
exerted by a body varies greatly with the conditions 
of the experiment, being sometimes large, sometimes 
small, according to the following general law : 
When the ball's motion is changed slowly, it offers a 
slight resistance, — a small force suffices; when a 
considerable change is to be effected in a short time, 
we encounter a large resistance, — a great force is 
required " (p. 5) ; and, " There is no change of mo- 
tion, and hence no inertia-force is developed " (pp. 
6 and 7). The counter-force may thus become zero, 
though the stress still act ; and hence it cannot be 
one aspect of that stress. The following quotation, 
however, seems to settle the matter : "If one of the 
opposing applied forces is greater than the other, 
the greater will prevail, and a change of motion 
will occur, occasioning an inertia-force, which will 
work with the smaller applied force against the 
greater" (p. 7). The inertia-force, therefore, is 
supposed to act on the body by which it is exerted. 



The magnitude of this inertia-force is determined, 
according to Dr. Hall (see above quotation from p. 
5), by the magnitudes of the forces applied to the 
body ; and the following quotation — " The working 
force and the resisting force must also be equal " 
(p. 24) — shows that just sufficient inertia-force is 
called into play in any case to satisfy the conditions 
of equilibrium. 

Now, this sounds very like the old notion of cen- 
trifugal force. It was formerly held that a body 
moving with uniform speed in a circular path was 
acted upon not only by a force directed towards the 
centre of the path, and applied, say, by means of a 
string, but also by an equal force directed from the 
centre, called the centrifugal force, and exerted on 
the body by the body itself, which was accordingly 
considered to be in equilibrium. Dr. Hall's inertia- 
force is thus just a generalization of the old notion 
of centrifugal force. 

Although Dr. Hall thus proposes to re-introduce 
what seems to be an old error, the only evidence he 
brings forward for his inertia-force is the assertion 
contained in the first of the above quotations, that, 
of the applied and inertia-forces, each is necessary to 
the other. Tet he does not leave us without means 
of judging of his theory of the 'resistance' which 
bodies offer to applied forces; for according to 
his own account of this inertia-force, as shown above, 
it both acts on, and is exerted by, the same body. 
Now, on p. 18 he admits that "every force implies 
an action between two bodies." Hence the supposed 
inertia-force cannot be a force at all. And again, as 
we have seen above, according to Dr. Hall's own ac- 
count, all bodies must be acted upon by equilibrat- 
ing systems of forces, if this inertia-force be taken 
into account ; and therefore, if this inertia-force be a 
force, a body's motion may be changing though it 
satisfy the conditions of equilibrium. 

Apparently Dr. Hall has been led to postulate this 
inertia-force, because, 1°, he holds that a body re- 
sists an applied force (he even takes this to be a fact 
given in consciousness, for he says, p. 3, " One feels 
that the hand is pulling, that it encounters a resist- 
ance, which is offered in some way by the ball at the 
other end of the string " ) ; and, 2°, he cannot under- 
stand a force as being resisted in any other way than 
by the exertion of an opposing force. I agree with 
him that the term ( resistance ' should in dynamics 
be restricted to the opposition of forces. But the 
manifest consequence is, that a body ought not to be 
said to resist a force, and that Maxwell's queries, 
quoted by Dr. Hall (p. 32)— " Is it a fact that mat- 
ter has any power, either innate or acquired, of re- 
sisting external influences? Does not every force 
which acts upon a body always produce exactly 
that change in the motion of the body by which its 
value as a force is reckoned ? " — are to be answered, 
as Maxwell evidently intended them to be answered, 
the former in the negative, the latter in the affirma- 
tive, though some of his own definitions may be 
thereby shown to be worded in a faulty manner. 

I hope I have not misrepresented Dr. Hall's posi- 
tion. I have read his pamphlet carefully several 
times, and can get only one meaning out of it. Were 
I reviewing the pamphlet, I would find many points 
to praise ; and I draw attention to the above apparent 
error only because the excellence of the pamphlet 
generally is likely to cause it to take root and spread. 

Dr. Hall, in his appendix, quotes a passage from 
Minchin's 'Uniplaner kinematics' which seems to 



Fsmotabt 11, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



135 



show that he has high authority for his inertia-force. 
But that Newton's vis insita or vis inertia* is quite a 
different thing from Hall's inertia-force, will be evi- 
dent from the following quotations: "Haeo" [vis 
insita] " semper proportionalis est suo corpori, 
neque differt quicquam ab inertia massae, nisi in 
modo conoipiendi " (Newton's Principia, comment on 
def. Ill) ; and " Inertia and inertia-force must be 
carefully distinguished" (Hall's pamphlet, p. 6). 
Minchin's * force of inertia ' is just D'Alembert's 
' effective force,' and is not a force at all, but simply 
the name given to the product of the mass of a parti- 
cle into its acceleration. J. G. MacGregob. 
Halifax, Jan. 81. 



An Ohio mound. 

In company with five young men from the public 
school of this place, on Saturday, Oct. 10, 1886, I 
assisted in the exploration of a mound, located in 
the northern part of Van Buren township, Shelby 
county, O., an account of which may be of interest 
to antiquarians. 

Twenty-five years ago the mound was ten feet 
high, and twenty feet in diameter at its base. It was 
opened at that time by a Mr. Bobinson, the owner of 
the farm, and a neighbor, but nothing was discov- 
ered by them beyond the fact that it contained a de- 
posit of the fragments of bones, ashes, and red 
earth. A more careful examination, however, made 
by digging a trench four feet wide through it from 
east to west, revealed the fact that it was not only a 
place of deposit for dead bodies, but a place where 
human bodies were consumed by fire. A large por- 
tion of the interior of the mound is composed of 
calcined bones. Many of these bones, since their 
calcination, have been filled by carbonate of lime, 
and are now as hard and heavy as stone. There 
were, no donbt, a few copper implements or orna- 
ments deposited with the bodies, as the bones are all 
highly colored with the salts of that metal. A care- 
ful examination, however, failed to discover speci- 
mens of the metal. A quantity of mica, sufficient to 
give the cUbri9 a glittering appearance, was found 
diffused through the entire mass. Deposits of red 
clay were found in different portions of the mound, 
of a deeper red than the red color produced by the 
action of fire. 

One curious feature of the contents of the mound 
was the large number of balls found, varying from a 
half-inch to two inches in diameter. They have all 
been burned, and are of about the hardness of soft- 
burned bricks. The only relics found were a few 
small fragments of pottery and a green slate tablet 
three inches long, pierced by a hole at one end. 

C. W. Williamson. 
New Bremen, O., Feb. 8. 



A method of labelling museum specimens. 

The task of so labelling a collection of rocks, min- 
erals, or similar objects, that their identity can in 
none but the most extreme cases be lost, is no light 
one. A common method now employed consists in 
painting a small area upon the object, which serves 
as a background upon which the serial number is 
again painted in a different color. Although the re- 
sults thus obtained are lasting, the method is too 
laborious. Another common method consists in 
writing the requisite data with pen or pencil upon a 



slip of paper, which is then gummed to the speci- 
men. This is, however, worthy only of universal 
condemnation. 

After several years' experience in dealing with rook 
collections, I have adopted the plan given below, 
which is but a modification of that first mentioned. 
Its advantages are, ease and rapidity in application, 
legibility, and durability of results. The method, 
then, is briefly this : take common lead paint, of any 
desired color, and mix with ordinary varnish and a 
very little turpentine instead of oil. Apply with a 
brush over an area sufficiently large to accommodate 
the catalogue number, or whatever data it may be 
desired to put upon it. This quickly dries, giving a 
smooth, glossy surface. With very vesicular rocks, 
as some of the recent lavas, it is often best to even 
the surface by means of a little plaster-of -Paris, ap- 
plied with a knife-point, before painting the stripe. 
Then take tube paints, — I use Winsor & Newton's 
lamp-black, — mix thin with turpentine, and with 
this and a common steel pen write- the number on 
the surface prepared as above. If the paint is just 
the right consistency, — and this can be learned only 
by experience, — the numbers can be written almost 
as rapidly as with a pencil on paper. Both paints 
had best be mixed in watch-glasses, or some shallow 
vessel that can be readily cleansed, as they are, of 
course, useless after once having become hard and 
gummy. 

On colorless crystals, such as quartz, the number 
can, perhaps, be best written with a marking-dia- 
mond. On smooth dressed specimens, as polished 
marble, the numbers can be written with pen and 
paint without the first stripe. On account, however, 
of the great diversity in color and texture of materi- 
als, I have found it best to adopt a uniform system 
for all, — a light-blue base with figures in black. 
Any other sufficiently contrasting colors will, of 
course, do as well. Gxoboe P. Merrill. 

U.S. naL mo&, Feb. 6. 



Fish parasites in Meleagrinae. 

The occurrence of parasites or commensals in the 
pearl-oysters or mother-of-pearl shells has been 
known for a long time. Several years ago (1874), 
Professor Putnam of Cambridge described, in the 
Proceedings of the Boston society of natural history, 
Fierasfer dubius, a small fish common to both coasts 
of Central America, which sometimes inhabits holo- 
thurians on the Atlantio, and pearl-oysters on the 
Pacific side ; and he referred to a specimen of the 
pearl-oyster in the Museum of comparative zoology, 
in which a Fierasfer is embedded in the nacreous 
substance of the shell. 

In June last Dr. Gunther, at a meeting of the 
Zoological society (London), exhibited a similar 
specimen. 

About a year ago, while examining certain material 
belonging to the Mexican geographical commission, 
I detected probably the same species enclosed in 
nacre in a pearl-oyster valve from the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, and two, if not three, instances of another 
species of fish, apparently an Oligocottus (in the 
opinion of Dr. Bean), similarly enclosed. The oc- 
currence of a crustacean, the pea-crab (Pinnotheres), 
under the same conditions, in a pearl-oyster shell 
from Australia, was made known to the Zoological 
society last April by Dr. Woodward. The forthcom- 
ing report of the national museum will contain a 



136 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 210 



more ample description with figures of these interest- property insured against loss by fire, they represent 

ing parasites or commensals. the progress of the million in the means of common 

Robt. E. C. Stsabns. welfare rather than of the millionnaire in personal 

U. 8. naL mue., Washington, Feb. 2. wealth; and that they give testimony to the benefi- 

cent law of progress from poverty. 

National prosperity. Edwabd Atxxnbox. 

My attention has been called to the comments of n, . . 

Mr C. H. Leete upon my January article in the Youthfulnes. in .cience. 

Century magazine. Mr. Leete objects to making the 

year 1865 a basis for the comparison of progress. Your artice upon * Youthfulness in science * (Set- 

The details of each year were given, and he could ence, ix. No. 209; illnstrates a most radical defect in 

choose for himself any year in the series from which our educational system. It does not seem to be the 

to date progress. Perhaps it may be interesting to chief purpose to incite the student to weigh evidence 

submit the enclosed more ample table, showing prog- and secure accurate knowledge, prizing above every 

ress from 1870 up to the present date. In respect to thing the ability to form correct judgments in regard 

cotton, the ante-war crops are given as well as the to the significance of observed facts. It is not even 

post-war crops. The gain subsequent to the war, as assumed that he can have any other feeling in his 

compared to the twenty-one years previous to the studies than a selfish desire for personal renown or 

war, has been much greater than before, for the advancement, respect for or love of truth and knowl- 

reason that for every cent per pound added to the edge for their own sake being entirely out of the 

price of cotton under the slave system, $100 was case. Instead of being taught to profit by criticism, 

Per centum of gain in population, production, wealth, and savings, "1870 to 1885, and on some items to 1886. 

To 

1885, population 48 ^—— — 

44 production of grain 85 —■—^^^^^^ M 

" consumption of cotton 86 ^— — — — — 

" consumption of wool 88 ^^^^^^^^^— ■ 

" production of hay 100 ■^^ ^■^^^^■—^^^^^ 

" deposits in savings banks of Massachusetts 108 — " ^ ^^— — 

" production of cotton 108 ^— »^ ^^^^^—^— ^ 

1886, deposits In sayings banks of Massachusetts. 115 -^— ■ ^ ^^^— 

1885, production of iron 143 ^ — 

44 Insurance of property against loss by Are 160 w^m^^^^^mi^^^^^^^^—i—mm—mmm^^ 

44 miles of railroad 168 — -^ ^— 

1886, miles of railroad l»«ii"i^^ii""ii™i""«i^*^^""" 

44 production of Iron. 200 «™ii^^^™i^^""i™"^"""" 



added to the price of an able-bodied slave. The 
planters could not buy labor fast enough to keep up 
with the demand. This principle was completely 
stated in De Bow's review, and it was one of the 
causes which induced the extreme pro-slavery men 
of the south to attempt to re-open the slave-trade be- 
fore the war. 

Mr. Leete calls attention to the retardation in the 
gain of population since the war as compared to the 
previous period from 1850 to 1860. It does not re- 
quire much thought to comprehend the reason of 
that retardation. 

Mr. Leete asks why progress and wealth may not 
be predicated on the assessed value of real and per- 
sonal property. I have endeavored to prove progress 
in the accumulation of capital without including land. 
People do not insure land against loss by fire, only 
property of- other kinds. Moreover, the census 
figures of the past upon these points are all rubbish, 
as every expert of the census well knows. 

It strikes me that Mr. Leete makes a good example 
of the common saying about statistics, — that one 
can twist the figures, if he chooses, so as to prove 
any thing that he desires to prove. No one compre- 
hends this better than the man who is accustomed to 
compile statistics. The value of statistics depends 
wholly upon the motive with which they have been 
gathered, the purpose for which they have been com- 
piled, and an exact regard to truth. 

In considering these relative gains, it will be ob- 
served that they represent a constant gain in the 
means of subsistence over population; that, with 
the exception of the increase in personal wealth, 
which is indicated by the increase in the amount of 



he is led to dread it. Moreover, he finds that his 
educators, instead of admitting frankly that to err is 
human, and that all alike must learn to profit by 
their mistakes, are apparently most concerned in 
seeking to maintain a reputation for infallibility by 
contributing nothing whatever to the advancement 
of knowledge. It is not strange that progress is 
slow where such a spirit prevails. 

M. A. Vxedxr. 
Lyons, N.Y., Feb. 5. 



Germ of hydrophobia. 

I have not observed in your columns a reference 
to what appears to be an exceedingly important com- 
munication by Professor Fol, of Geneva, to the Swiss 
natural history society, with regard to the bacillus 
of rabie*, which he claims to have isolated. 

According to the Biologisches centralblatt (Bee. 
51). Professor Fol finds that turpentine (even water 
which has been shaken up with turpentine) acts as 
an effective germicide when added to pure cultures 
of this bacillus, and that it is even more effectual 
than a one per cent solution of corrosive sublimate. 
He considers, consequently, that turpentine might be 
used as a substitute for the actual cautery in the 
treatment of recent bites, especially in places such as 
the face, where the cautery would produce great dis- 
figurement. No suggestions are made as to applica- 
tion, but if experiments on animals should justify 
Professor FoPs view, it would be desirable to give it 
as wide publicity as possible. 

B. Ramsay Wright. 
Univers. colL, Toronto, Fen. 8. 



SCI E N CE.-Supplement. 



\ 



N 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1887. 



THE STUDY OF GEOGRAPHY. 

It is a remarkable fact, that, in tbe recent 
literature of geography, researches on the method 
and limits of that science occupy a prominent 
place. Almost every distinguished geographer 
bas felt tbe necessity of expressing his views on 
its aim and scope, and of defending it from being 
disintegrated and swallowed up by geology, bot- 
any, history, and other sciences treating on sub- 
jects similar to or identical with those of geogra- 
phy. If the representatives of a science as young 
as geography spend a great part of their time in 
discussions of this kind, though the material for 
investigations is still unlimited ; if they /eel com- 
pelled to defend their field of research against 
assaults of their fellow-workers and outsiders, — 
the reason for this fact must be looked for in a 
deep discrepancy between their fundamental views 
of science and those of their adversaries. 

Formerly, when the greater part of the earth's 
surface was undiscovered, and European vessels 
sailed only over their well-known routes from 
continent to continent, careful not to stray from 
the old path and fearing the dangers of unknown 
regions, the mere thought of these vast territories 
which had never been sighted by a European 
could fill the mind of geographers with ardent 
longing for extended, knowledge ; with the desire 
of unveiling the secrets of regions enlivened by 
imagination with figures of unknown animals 
and peoples. But the more completely the out- 
lines of continents and islands became known, 
the stronger grew the desire to understand the 
phenomena of the newly discovered regions by 
comparing them with those of one's own country. 
Instead of merely extending their study over new 
areas, scientists began to be absorbed in examin- 
ing the phenomena more intently, and comparing 
them with the results of observations already 
made. Thus Humboldt's admirable works and 
Earl Bitter's comparative geography arose out of 
tbe rapidly extending knowledge of the earth. 

The fact that the rapid disclosure of the most 
remote parts of the globe coincided with the not 
less rapid development of physical sciences has 
had great influence upon the development of 
geography ; for while the circle of phenomena 
became wider every day, the idea became preva- 
i %it that a single phenomenon is not of great avail, 



but that it is the aim of science to deduce laws ^ 
from phenomena; and the wider their scope, 
the more valuable they are considered. The 
descriptive sciences were deemed inferior in value * 
to researches which had hitherto been outside their 
range. Instead of systematical botany and zoology, 
biology became the favorite study ; theoretical 
philosophy was supplanted by experimental psy- 
chology; and, by the same process, geography 
was disintegrated into geology, meteorology, etc. 

Ever since, these sciences have been rapidly de- 
veloped, but geography itself has for a long time 
been almost overshadowed by its growing chil- 
dren. However, we do not think they can fill its 
place, and wish to prove that its neglect cannot 
be remedied by the attentive cultivation of those 
sciences separately. 

Those accustomed to value a study according to • 
the scope of the laws found by means of it are not 
content with researches on phenomena such as are 
the object of geography. They consider them 
from a physical stand-point, and find them to be 
physical, meteorological, or ethnological ; and, 
after having explained them by means of physi- 
cal, physiological, or psychological laws, have 
finished their work. It is very instructive to con- 
sider thoroughly their definition of geography. 
They declare that the domain of this science com- 
prises neither magnetical and meteorological nor 
geological phenomena and processes. They gen- 
erously grant it the study of the distribution of 
animals and plants, as far as physiologists and 
evolutionists will permit ; but all agree that an- 
thropo-geography — the life of man as far as it 
depends on the country he lives in — is the true 
domain of geography. 

It is not difficult to discover the principle on 
which this segregation is founded. Physical phe- ^ 
nomena are subject to physical laws which are 
known, or which will assuredly be found by the 
methods used in discovering those that are known. 
Physiological, and, to a still higher degree, psy- 
chological, laws are not so well known as to allow 
their being treated in the same way as physical 
laws. The conditions of the phenomena are gen- 
erally so complicated, that, even if the most gen- 
eral laws were known, a strict conclusion cannot 
easily be drawn. But were those auxiliary sciences 
just as far developed as physics, no doubt the 
same scientists who at tbe present time concede 
them willingly to geography would not hesitate 
to claim them for physiology and psychology. It 



138 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. MO 



J 



J 



y 



is evident that there is no middle way : geogra- 
phy must either be maintained in its full extent or 
it must be given up altogether. 

As soon as we agree that the purpose of every 
science is accomplished when the laws which 
govern its phenomena are discovered, we must 
admit that the subject of geography is distributed 
among a great number of sciences ; if, however, 
we would maintain its independence, we must 
prove that there exists another object for science 
besides the deduction of laws from phenomena. 
And it is our opinion that there is another ob- 
ject, — the thorough understanding of phenomena. 
Thus we find that the contest between geographers 
and their adversaries is identical with the old con- 
troversy between historical and physical methods. 
One party claims that the ideal aim of science 
ought to be the discovery of general laws; the 
other maintains that it is the investigation of phe- 
nomena themselves. 

It is easily understood, therefore, why in geog- 
raphy the contest between these views is particu- 
larly lively. Here naturalists and historians meet 
in a common field of work. A great number of 
modern geographers have been educated as his- 
torians, and they must try to come to an agree- 
ment with the naturalists, who, in turn, must 
learn to accommodate their views to those of the 
historians. It is evident that an answer to this 
fundamental question on the value of historical 
and physical science can only be found by a me- 
thodical investigation of their relation to each 
other. 

All agree that the establishment of facts is the 
foundation and starting-point of science. The 
physicist compares a series of similar facts, from 
which he isolates the general phenomenon which 
is common to all of them. Henceforth the single 
facts become less important to him, as he lays 
stress on the general law alone. On the other 
hand, the facts are the object which is of impor- 
tance and interest to the historian. An example 
will explain our meaning more satisfactorily than 
a theoretical discussion. 

When Newton studied the motion of the planets, 
the distribution of those celestial bodies in space 
and time were the means, not the object, of bis 
researches. His problem was the action of two 
bodies upon each other, and thus he found the 
law of gravitation. On the other hand, Kant and 
Laplace, in studying the solar system, asked the 
question, Why is every one of the bodies consti- 
tuting the solar system in the place it occupies? 
They took the law as granted, and applied it to 
the phenomena from which it had been deduced, 
in order to study the history of the solar system. 
Newton's work was at an end as soon as he had 



found the law of gravitation, which law was the 
preliminary condition of Kant's work. 

Here is another example : according to Buckle's 
conception, historical facts must be considered 
as being caused by physiological and psychological 
laws. Accordingly, he does not describe men and 
their actions as arising from their own character 
and the events influencing their life, but calls our 
attention to the laws governing the history of 
mankind. The object of the historians is a dif- 
ferent one. They are absorbed in the study of the 
facts, and dwell admiringly on the character of 
their heroes. They take the most lively interest in 
the persons and nations they treat of, but are un- 
willing to consider them as subject to stringent 
laws. 

We believe that the physical conception is no- 
where else expressed as clearly as in Comte's sys- 
tem of sciences. Setting aside astronomy, which 
has been placed rather arbitrarily between mathe- 
matics and physics, all his sciences have the one 
aim, to deduce laws from phenomena. The single 
phenomenon itself is insignificant : it is only val- 
uable because it is an emanation of a law, and 
serves to find new laws or to corroborate old ones. 
To this system of sciences Humboldt's 'Cosmos 9 
is opposed in its principle. Cosmography, as we 
may call this science, considers every phenomenon y 
as worthy of being studied for its own sake. Its 
mere existence entitles it to a full share of our 
attention ; and the knowledge of its existence and 
evolution in space and time fully satisfies the stu- 
dent, without regard to the laws which it corrob- 
orates or which may be deduced from it. 

Physicists will acknowledge that the study of 
the history of many phenomena is a work of sci- 
entific value. Nobody doubts the importance of 
Kant's researches on the solar system ; nobody 
derogates from that of investigations upon the 
evolution of organisms. However, there is an- 
other class of phenomena the study of which is ^ 
not considered of equal value, and among them 
are the geographical ones. In considering the 
geography of a country, it seems that the geolo- 
gical, meteorological, and anthropo-geographical 
phenomena form an incidental conglomerate, hav- 
ing no natural tie or relation to one another, 
while, for instance, the evolutionist's subject of 
study forms a natural unity. We may be allowed 
to say that the naturalist demands an objective 
connection between the phenomena he studies, 
which the geographical phenomena seem to lack. 
Their connection seems to be subjective, origi- 
nating in the mind of the observer. 

Accordingly there are two principal questions 
which must be answered : first, the one referring 
to the opposition between physicists and cosmog- 



Fkbbuaby 11, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



139 



raphers, i.e., Is the study of phenomena for their 
v own sake equal in value to the deduction of laws ? 
second, Is the study of a series of phenomena 
having a merely subjective connection equal in 
value to researches on the history of those form- 
ing an objective unity ? 

We shall first treat on the difference of opinion 
between physicists and cosmographers. The two 
parties are strongly opposed to each other ; and it 
is a hard task to value justly the arguments of op- 
ponents whose method of thinking and way of 
feeling are entirely opposed to one's own. An 
unbiassed judgment cannot be formed without 
severe mental struggles which destroy convictions 
that were considered immovable, and had become 
dear to us. But those struggles lead to the 
grander conviction that both parties, though in a 
permanent state of conflict, aspire to the same 
J end, — to find the eternal truth. 

The origin of every science we find in two dif- 
ferent desires of the human mind, — its aesthetic 
wants, and the feelings, which are the sources of 
the two branches of science. It was an early de- 
sire of developing mankind to arrange systemati- 
cally the phenomena seen by the observer in over- 
whelming number, and thus to put the confused 
impressions in order. This desire must be con- 
\ sidered an emanation of the aesthetical disposition, 
which is offended by confusion and want of clear- 
ness. When occupied in satisfying this desire, 
the regularity of the processes and phenomena 
would attain a far greater importance than the 
4 single phenomenon, which is only considered im- 
portant as being a specimen of the class to which 
it belongs. The clearer all the phenomena are 
arranged, the better will the aesthetic desire be 
satisfied, and, for that reason, the most general 
laws and ideas are considered the most valuable 
results of science. 

From this point of view, the philosophical ideas 
of Epicurus are very interesting, as they may be 
considered the extreme opinion to which this 
aesthetical desire can lead if the pleasure one en- 
joys in arranging phenomena in a clear system is 
the only incentive. He considered any explanation 
of a phenomenon sufficient, provided it be natural. 
It does not matter, he taught, if an hypothesis is 
true, but all probable explanations are of the 
same value, and the choice between them is quite 
insignificant. We believe this opinion is called 
to a new life by a number of modern scientists, 
i.e., by those who try to construct the evolution of 
organisms in details which, at the present time at 
least, can neither be proved nor refuted. If, for 
instance, Mailer describes the history of the evolu- 
tion of flowers, he gives only a probable way of 
development, without any better proof than that 



it seems to be the simplest and therefore the 
most probable. But this construction of a prob- 
able hypothesis as to the origin of these phenom- 
ena gives a satisfaction to our aesthetical desire 
to bring the confusion of forms and species into a 
system. But it should be borne in mind that a 
theory must be true, and that its truth is the 
standard by which its value is measured. There- 
fore naturalists are always engaged in examining 
the truth of their theories by applying them to new 
phenomena, and in these researches those phe- 
nomena are the most important which seem to . 
be opposed to the theories. As soon as the ques- 
tion whether the theory is applicable to the class 
of phenomena is solved, the whole class is of 
little further interest to the investigator. 

While physical science arises from the logical ^ 
and aesthetical demands of the human mind, cos- 
mography has its source in the personal feeling of 
man towards the world, towards the phenomena 
surrounding him. We may call this an * affective ' 
impulse, in contrast to the aesthetic impulse. 
Goethe has expressed this idea with admirable 
clearness : " It seems to me that every phenome- 
non, every fact, itself is the really interesting ob- 
ject. Whoever explains it, or connects it with 
other events, usually only amuses himself or makes 
sport of us, as, for instance, the naturalist or his- 
torian. But a single action or event is interest- 
ing, not because it is explainable, but because it is 
true" (Unterhaltungen deutscher Ausgewanderten). 

The mere occurrence of an event claims the ^ 
full attention of our mind, because we are affected 
by it, and it is studied without any regard to its 
place in a system. This continuous impulse is the 
important counterbalance against the one-sided- 
ness of a science arisen from merely aesthetic im- 
pulses. As the truth of every phenomenon causes 
us to study it, a true history of its evolution alone 
can satisfy the investigator's mind, and it is for 
this reason that Epicurus's probable or possible ex- 
planation is not at all satisfactory for science, but 
that every approach to truth is considered a prog- 
ress by far superior to the most elaborate system 
which may give proof of a subtile mind and 
scrupulous thought, but claims to be only one 
among many possible systems. 

Naturalists will not deny the importance of 
every phenomenon, but do not consider it worthy 
of study for its own sake. It is only a proof or a 
refutation of their laws, systems, and hypotheses 
(as they are deduced from true phenomena), which 
they feel obliged to bring as near the truth as pos- 
sible. The deductions, however, are their main 
interest ; and the reward of the indefatigable stu- 
dent is to review, from the summit of his most 
general deductions, the vast field of phenomena. 



140 



SCIENCE. 



[Voi*. IX., No. 210 



Joyfully he sees that every process and every phe- 
nomenon which seem to the stranger an irregular 
and incomprehensible conglomerate is a link of a 
long chain. Losing sight of the single facts, he 
sees only the beautiful order of the world. 

The cosmographer, on the other hand, holds to 
the phenomenon which is the object of his study, 
may it occupy a high or a low rank in the system 
of physical sciences, and lovingly tries to pene- 
trate into its secrets until every feature is plain 
and clear. This occupation with the object of his 
affection affords him a delight not inferior to that 
which the physicist enjoys in his systematical 
arrangement of the world. 

Our inquiry leads us to the conclusion that it is 
in vain to search for an answer to the question, 
Which of the two methods is of a higher value ? 
as each originates in a different desire of the human 
mind. An answer can only be subjective, being 
a confession of the answerer as to which is dearer 
to him, — bis personal feeling towards the phe- 
nomena surrounding him, or bis inclination for 
abstractions ; whether he prefers to recognize the 
individuality in the totality, or the totality in the 
individuality. 

Let us now turn to the discussion of the second 
point. We have seen that physicists are inclined 
to acknowledge the value of a certain class of cos- 
mographical studies. It is the characteristic 
quality of those phenomena that they are the re- 
sult of the action of incidental causes upon one 
group of forces, or upon the elements of phe- 
nomena. The physicist does not study the whole 
phenomenon as it represents itself to the human 
mind, but resolves it into its elements, which he 
investigates separately. The investigation of the 
history of these elements of phenomena leads to 
a systematical arrangement, which gives to the 
aesthetical desire as much satisfaction as the for- 
mulation of laws. The end which evolutional and 
astronomical researches tend to is the best proof 
of this fact. A study of groups of phenomena, 
which seem to be connected only in the mind of 
the observer, and admit of being resolved into 
their elements, cannot lead to a similar result, and 
is therefore considered of inferior value. However, 
we have tried to prove that the source of cosmo- 
graphical researches is an affective one. If this be 
right, we cannot distinguish between complex and 
simple phenomena, as the physicist tries to do, and 
neglect their subjective unity, — the connection in 
which they appear to the mind of the observer. 
The whole phenomenon, and not its elements, is the 
object of the cosmographer's study. Thus the 
physiognomy of a country is of no interest to the 
physicist, while it is important to the cosmog- 
rapher. 



From the stand-point we occupy, a discussion 
as to the value of these researches is of just as lit- 
tle avail as that on the value of the two branches 
of science, for the judgment will be founded on 
the mental disposition of the judge, and be only a 
confession as to which impulse predominates, the 
aesthetic or the affective. However, one fact 
appears from our inquiry : cosmography is closely 
related to (he arts, as the way in which the mind is 
affected by phenomena forms an important branch 
of the study. It therefore requires a different 
treatment from that of the physical sciences. 

We will apply these results to the study of 
geography. Its objects are, the phenomena caused 
by the distribution of land and water, by the 
vertical forms of the earth's surface, and by the 
mutual influence of the earth and its inhabitants 
upon each other. 

What does the physicist do with this object of 
study ? He selects a single element out of phe- 
nomena which are observed at a certain point of 
the earth's surface, and compares it with another 
one found at another place. He continues in this 
way searching for similar phenomena, and loses 
sight altogether of the spot from which he started. 
Thus he becomes the founder of the sciences into 
which geography has gradually been resolved, as 
his studies are either directed to geological phe- 
nomena alone, or to meteorological, botanical, or 
whatever it may be. The most general deductions 
which can be reached in the pursuit of these studies 
still have a close connection with the single ob- 
ject, as they cannot be carried farther than to the 
most general geographical ideas, as mountain- 
ranges, running water, oceans, etc. The most 
general results of his investigations will therefore 
be a general history of the earth's surface. If he 
bring these results into a system, he acts, as it 
seems to us, against the cosmographical character 
of the science. For instance, a system of all pos- 
sible actions of water as forming the earth's sur- 
face seems to us of little value, except from a 
practical stand-point as being useful in studying 
the geological history of a district or of the 
earth's surface. Therefore these systems must be 
considered as important auxiliary sciences, but 
they are not geography itself. Their value is 
founded only on their applicability to the study 
of geography. The invention of geographical 
systems, so far as they do not serve this purpose, 
must be considered as useless, and classifications 
must be made only as far as geographical phe- 
nomena of a similar kind must be explained by 
different causes. 

But there is another branch of geography be- 
sides this, equal to it in value, — the physiognomy 
of the earth. It cannot afford a satisfactory ob- 




FlBBCABT 11, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



141 



ject of study to the physicist, as its unity is a 
merely subjective one; and the geographer, in 
treating these subjects, approaches the domain of 
art, as the results of his study principally affect 
the feeling, and therefore must be described in an 
artistic way in order to satisfy the feeling in which 
it originated. 

Our consideration leads us to the conclusion 
that geography is part of cosmography, and has 
its source in the affective impulse, in the desire 
to understand the phenomena and history of a 
country or of the whole earth, the home of man- 
kind. It depends upon the inclination of the 
scientist towards physical or cosmographies! 
method, whether he studies the history of the 
whole earth, or whether he prefers to learn that 
of a single country. From our point of view, the 
discussion whether geology or meteorology be- 
longs to geography is of* little importance, and 
we are willing to call all scientists geographers 
who study the phenomena of the earth's surface. 
We give geology no preference over the other 
branches of science, as many modern scientists 
are inclined to do. The study of the earth's 
surface implies geological researches as well as 
meteorological, ethnological, and others, as none 
of them cover the scope of geography, to delineate 
the picture of the earth's surface. 

Many are the sciences that must help to reach 
this end ; many are the studies and researches that 
must be pursued to add new figures to the incom- 
plete picture ; but every step that brings us nearer 
the end gives ampler satisfaction to the impulse 
which induces us to devote our time and work to 
this study, gratifying the love for the country we 
inhabit, and the nature that surrounds us* 

Franz Boas. 



ITALIAN MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY. 

The study of the nervous system in health and 
disease has been assiduously cultivated in Italy 
for many years. The peculiar environment and 
volatile characteristics of the race may have been 
influential in drawing attention to the study of 
insanity. 

Italian alienists have taken a deep interest in 
the psychological aspects of their specialty ; and 
their main review, the Rivista sperimentale di 
freniatria, has been thriving for many years. A 
brief notice of a few of the articles contained in 
the last volume will serve to indicate some of the 
directions in which work is being carried on. 

A frequent contributor to this review was the 
physiologist Buccola, who died last year. He has 
published a volume in the International scientific 
series which is devoted to an account of the ex- 



perimental study of the time of psychic processes, 
and which merits an English translation. One of 
his latest researches is embodied in a long article 
in this review on the electric reaction of the acous- 
tic nerve in the insane. If you place one of the 
poles in the external auditory chamber, and the 
other on the neck or the hand, besides causing 
slight pain, muscular contractions, etc., a distinct 
sound will be heard on closing the circuit if the 
negative pole is in contact with the ear, and on 
opening the circuit if it is the positive pole. This 
for the healthy ear. But in the insane this formula 
is sometimes reversed, and suffers irregularities. 
The examination of the auditory apparatus is thus 
of diagnostic value, especially in cases of auditory 
hallucinations. In almost all such cases the hear- 
ing is thus shown to be diseased, and in a few 
cases stimulation of the auditory nerve caused the 
hallucinations to appear. 

Two observers, Tambroni and Algeri, contribute 
to this study of the psychic diagnosis of insanity 
an account of experiments upon the reaction times 
of the insane. After some preliminary training, 
the patient was subjected to eight tests of forty 
observations each. An observation consisted, 1°, 
in measuring the time necessary for the patient 
to feel the contact of a point ; 2°, the time to per- 
ceive whether a single point or a pair of points 
2.2mm. apart was drawn across the tip of his right 
forefinger. The paranoic patient reacts more 
quickly than the normal man ; and in this is im- 
plied not only that he feels sooner, but knows 
what he feels more rapidly : it is a psychic hyper- 
aesthesia. In all other forms of insanity the time 
of a simple reaction and of a distinction is length- 
ened when the normal time is .183 of a second ; 
the time of the paranoic type is .174 of a second ; 
of the maniacal, .312; of the demented, .344; of 
the epileptic, .362 ; of the melancholic (in whom 
all mental life is sluggish and monotonous), .374. 
Four persons of each type were examined. It 
takes slightly longer to perceive a double than a 
single point. 

A very careful study on the effect of repetition 
of simple acts, that is, of practice, upon the time 
it takes to perform them, is rendered by Guic- 
ciardi and Cionini. They take as their basis three 
well-known laws regarding practice ; viz., 1°, 
that it makes repetition easier (and quicker) ; 2°, 
that it does so at first more rapidly than later on ; 
and, 3°, that a limit to this process is slowly 
reached. The original part of their work consists 
in showing that practice has greater abbreviating 
power in complicated than in simple acts. A 
simple touch reaction by the effect of 250 repeti- 
tions was shortened .018 of a second ; the time for 
perceiving that but a single point was touching 



142 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 210 



the skin, by .121 of a second ; that two points 
were touching, by .194 of a second. The time 
necessary for uniting three letters was shortened 
by 1.956 seconds in 600 repetitions. In associat- 
ing abstract words, there was a difference of 
nearly five seconds between the longest and the 
shortest time. r 



MINERAL PHYSIOLOGY AND PHYSIOG- 
RAPHY. 

This book is a collection of essays which their 
author has published during the past few years in 
the proceedings of several learned societies, espe- 
cially in the Transactions of the Royal society of 
Canada. The preface states that they were all 
written with a predetermined plan, which their 
presentation in this connected form for the first 
time fully realizes. The work will furnish a val- 
uable addition to every geological library. There 
is apparent in it an astonishing amount of learn- 
ing and painstaking research, in spite of the fact 
that the views of others are not infrequently pre- 
sented in a partial or one-sided manner ; the au- 
thor's conclusions also are well worthy of study, 
although many of them will hardly be received 
by geologists as final. 

It would be impossible, in a brief review, to do 
justice to a single one of the essays, to say noth- 
ing of the collection of them before us. The first 
two serve as a general introduction and attempt 
to show the relations of the natural sciences to 
each other and to geology. Then are considered 
in succession the chemistry of the earth's atmos- 
phere ; the origin and decay of the crystalline 
rocks ; a natural system in mineralogy ; a history 
of pre-Cambrian rocks and serpentines ; and, 
finally, the Taconic question. 

The most interesting and novel portion of the 
work is contained in chapters v. and vi., which set 
forth the author's remarkable views regarding the 
origin of the crystalline schists. These, as he 
states, are purely Nep tunic or Wernerian. The 
former hypotheses relating to the Archean rocks 
are reviewed and classified as, 1°, endoplutonic ; 
2°, exoplutonic; 8°, metamorphic ; 4°, metaso- 
matic ; 5°, chaotic ; 6°, thermochaotic. None of 
these are regarded as satisfactory ; and a seventh, 
so called 'crenitic' theory is therefore advanced. 
According to this, the globe has solidified regu- 
larly from its centre outward, its last layer being 
a basic, quartzless rock, not unlike dolerite in 
composition. This mass was fissured and ren- 

1 It is not quite clear whether these differences refer to 
the extreme limits of a single experiment, or to the extreme 
differences of the average of each set of fifty observations. 

Mineral physiology and physiography. By T. Stbrbt 
Bumt. Boston, Cassino. 8°. 



dered .porous by 'refrigeration and crystalliza- 
tion ' (!) and upon it were precipitated the waters, 
till then held in the atmosphere. 1 hese were set 
in circulation by the heat from below, and under 
high temperature and pressure they leached out 
the more acid, alkaline silicates from the basic 
substratum below, and deposited them in thick 
layers at the surface, like the products of thermal 
springs (hence the term * crenitic/ from xp^vj?, * a 
fountain *). The chemistry of this process is sup- 
posed to resemble that whereby quartz, orthoclase, 
and the zeolitic minerals are occasionally deposited 
in cavities of basic eruptive rocks. By such cre- 
nitic action, in the author's opinion, all the 
banded, pre-Cambrian rocks were formed. These 
were, moreover, of such a thickness as to bury 
the original basic substratum too deeply for any 
subsequent upheavals to expose it at the earth's 
surface. The crenitic hypothesis is also supposed 
to offer "for the first time a reasonable and ten- 
able explanation of the universal corrugation of 
the oldest crystalline strata,*' in the removal of 
such a Jarge quantity of matter from the underly- 
ing basic layer. Through theee crumpled crenitic 
rocks (Archean granites, gneisses, and schists) 
came intrusions of a basic magma derived from 
the underlying or original stratum, while the 
upper or transition pre-Cambrian rocks, as the 
author calls them with Werner, are regarded as 
derived from the subaerial decay of the two types 
of primary origin. 

The objections which at once suggest them- 
selves to this remarkable theory of the origin of 
the crystalline rocks are far too many to be even 
mentioned here. The leaching-out of a layer, ' at 
least many miles in thickness,' of quartz and pot- 
ash-felspar, from a basic substratum, requires suf- 
ficient draughts on the imagination ; while, even 
in case this be assumed as possible," it is still more 
difficult to conceive how the waters could circu- 
late through this compact overlying layer which 
they were depositing, with sufficient freedom to 
increase it to anywhere near the thickness which 
the hypothesis requires. 

No one will deny that any single one of the 
numerous theories hitherto proposed, fails to satis- 
factorily account for all the phenomena exhibited 
by the so-called crystalline rocks ; nor is it at all 
probable that any theory ever will accomplish 
this. There is doubtless some element of truth 
in all the theories, and the only way to explain the 
diversity of Archean geology would seem to be by 
the assumption of an equal diversity in the causes 
which produced it. The dogma that many differ- 
ent agencies may not have acted at the same time 
in the formation of the pre-Cambrian rocks, is as 
dangerous as the other, that the same agency may 



FlBRCABT 11, 1887.] 



SCIENCE, 



Urn 



143 



not have acted at different times, — one that car- 
ries with it the fallacious conclusion that the 
lithological character of a rock is any reliable in- 
dication of its geological age. 

Chapter viii., entitled 'A natural system in 
mineralogy,' suggests a new basis of mineralogi- 
cal classification, and illustrates it in a new classi- 
fication of the silicates. These are divided into 
throe main groups, according as their bases are in 
the protoxide state (protosilicates), in both the 
protoxide and sesquioxide states (protopersilicates), . 
or wholly in the sesquioxide state (persilicates). 
These groups are further divided into various 
tribes according to principles which cannot be 
explained in this place. Whatever may be the 
chemical merits of this system, it would appear to 
do serious violence to the crystallographic rela- 
tionships of certain minerals, as may be seen in the 
wide separation of the members of the pyroxene 
and amphibole groups. 

The three remaining essays are of an historical 
character, and contain a vast amount of informa- 
tion regarding the views which have been held on 
tbe subject of crystalline rocks. The first of these 
is a summary of the writer's report E of the 
8econd geological survey of Pennsylvania, on the 
pre-Cambrian rocks in America and Europe. The 
second deals with the geological history of the 
serpentines, and develops the writer's idea that 
all serpentines are of aqueous origin, being of the 
nature of chemical precipitates. The chemical 
origin of a small and long-since buried bed of a 
serpentine* like deposit occurring in tbe Onondaga 
salt-group at Syracuse, N.Y., and of tbe magne- 
sian silicates (sepiolites) of the Paris baein, to- 
gether with certain reactions which are found to 
take place between the carbonates of lime and 
magnesia and free silica in heated solutions, are 
adduced as a proof that aU serpentine is of chemi- 
cal origin. There seems here to be a very partial 
and one-aided statement of the best authorities on 
this subject, for the origin of serpentine by the 
hydration of eruptive chrysolitic rocks will surely 
be disputed to-day by no one who has carefully 
and impartially looked into the matter. Though 
there may be truth in both hypotheses, there is 
more evidence in favor of the latter ; so that here, 
again, the danger of accounting for all rocks of 
similar character by one set of causes becomes 
apparent. 

The final essay is devoted to an elaborate review 
of the Taconic question and a statement of the 
writer's opinion that the Taconic of Emmons is a 
formation of the transition class, which uncon- 
formably underlies the Cambrian, and is separated 
from it by a great interval of time which includes 

tbe Keweenian period. 



Throughout, the book is interesting, — almost 
fascinating, — but nevertheless full of danger to 
any one who accepts it implicitly as a guide, or 
to the beginner who is not able to estimate it in 
comparison with the work of others. 



REMSEWS ELEMENTS OF CHEMISTRY. 

In the preface to his * Elements of chemistry,' 
Professor Remsen states his opinion, that if a 
course in chemistry "does not to some ex- 
tent help the pupil to think as well as to see, to 
reason as well as to observe, it does not deserve 
to be called rational." An essential part of his 
plan in this elementary course is the performance 
of experiments by the pupil, who is then to be 
questioned by the teacher concerning the results of 
the experiments, and the conclusions to be drawn 
from them. Appropriate questions are given in 
the book in connection with the description of 
each experiment, and a quite extensive list of 
questions and problems (not numerical) is append- 
ed at the end of the work. A number of experi- 
ments, with questions, illustrative of chemical 
change in general, are given at the outset, before 
even the names of the elements, or the distinction 
between elements and compounds, is imparted. 
The atomic theory and that of valence are treated 
briefly and clearly, special care being taken to 
prevent the too common confusion of facts and 
hypotheses in the young student's mind. A great 
deal of attention is devoted to subjects which 
are likely to interest the pupil by reason of their 
practical importance or their relation to his daily 
life. Such are the manufacture of soap and 
paper, fermentation, bread-making, the working 
of iron, and the impurities of water. In these as 
well as in other subjects tbe endeavor seems to 
have been made to introduce all of the most re- 
cent discoveries and advances which are suitable 
to an elementary treatise. Examples are the 
water-gas process, the liquefaction of the 'per- 
manent' gases, the electrical furnace, celluloid, 
cocaine, and artificial alizarin. 

About one-ninth of the volume is devoted to a 
description of some of the compounds of carbon. 
The relations between the principal classes of 
these bodies are pointed out, but no attempt is 
made to teach the structural formulae of the 
more complex compounds. 



The U.S. consul at Palermo, Mr. Philip Car- 
roll, has forwarded to the state department a 
translation of a pamphlet issued by Prof. E. 
Albanese, president of the sanitary council of 

The element* of chemistry. By Ika Bjembbn. New York, 

Holt. ia°. 



144 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 310 



Palermo. In this pamphlet he says that typhoid 
and scarlet fevers, diphtheria, small-pox, and 
cholera seem to have made their abode in Italy. 
The country remains unprovided with sanitary 
laws; and the government, lacking etiological 
and hygienic knowledge, makes provision only 
when any disease appears, and nearly always in 
consonance with the impression of the moment, 
issuing confusing or conflicting decrees and un- 
reasonable instructions, which are nearly always 
useless. Then the cholera has its sway, and cities 
are terror-stricken. The sanitary authorities of 
the kingdom, the superior sanitary council, the 
minister of the interior, prefects and mayors, fre- 
quently provide contradictory measures, issuing 
regulations of no efficacy in preventing the spread 
of infectious diseases. During the last twenty- 
six years, in which Italy has been free, the govern- 
ment has never occupied itself with public health. 
In Sicily, Napoletano, Puglie, and Abruzzo, ani- 
mals dwell in the same rooms with the people who 
own them. The pamphlet of Professor Albaoese 
clearly demonstrates that sanitary matters in Italy 
are about as bad as they can be, and that, unless 
remedies are soon applied, there is nothing in the 
list of epidemic diseases which may not be looked 
for in the near future. He recommends that the 
government should at once assemble a commission 
composed of the most eminent hygieuists and 
practical physicians, with a view to projecting a 
re-organization of sanitary systems. 

— No. v. of part iv. of the eleventh volume of 
the 'Memoirs of the American academy of arts and 
sciences ' contains the first instalment of a ' cata- 
logue of 180 polar stars for the epoch 1875.0.' The 
joint authors are Prof. William A. Rogers and 
Miss Anna Winlock ; and to the latter the credit 
of the execution of the work, according to Pro- 
fessor Rogers's plans, is due. The computations 
involved are very laborious, and one must admire 
the zeal and patience with which Miss Winlock 
has carried them through. The catalogue is based 
upon all observations of the stars from 1860 to 
1886, and therefore a large number of reductions 
to the epoch 1875.0 had to be performed. For 
polar stars these reductions are quite tedious, be- 
cause terms of higher orders cannot be neglected. 
It was therefore decided to discuss the various 
methods of reduction, and to find out the limita- 
tions of the. approximations employed. The star 
Groom bridge 1 119 was chosen for this purpose, it 
being one degree from the pole, and the computa- 
tions are given in externa. The conclusions 
reached as to the availability of the different 
methods cannot be explained here, but are of 
much interest to astronomers. The authors have 



made a really valuable contribution to the litera- 
ture of the subject. Among other things, the 
catalogue, when completed, will con tain yearly 
ephemerides of all of its stars within three degrees 
of the pole, and data for the reduction of the dif- 
ferent catalogues employed to the system of the 
Astronomische Geseltechaft. 

— Dr Lombard has re-investigated the question 
as to whether or not the upward movement of the 
leg, when the patellar tendon under the knee is 
struck, is a reflex act. The main argument 
against its being so is that the act requires only 
.03 to .04 of a second, while the reflex act requires 
.11. The chief point in favor of its reflex origin 
is that the vigor of the reaction depends on the 
integrity and health of the spinal cord. The ex- 
planation that the phenomenon is direct muscle- 
effect, but that the spinal cord must send down 
a shower of reflexes or keep up a healthy tonus to 
have the act result, is very unsatisfactory. Dr. 
Lombard found that the act follows after the same 
interval, when the muscle is electrically stimu- 
lated or the tendon struck, but that the interval is 
much longer (four times as long) when a reflex 
contraction is excited by rubbing the skin. Hence 
it is argued that the phenomenon is a direct mus- 
cular stimulation, and occurs too quickly to be of 
a reflex nature. In one case an after-jerk, fol- 
lowing at an interval that suggested a reflex 
origin, was recorded ; but this compound nature 
of the response, though carefully looked for, was 
not again observed. The explanation of the rela- 
tion of the knee-jerk to the spinal cord cannot 
yet be given. 

— George Fleming, LL.D., principal veterinary 
surgeon of the British army, regards as untrue 
the generally accepted theory that small-pox in 
man, and cow-pox, are one and the same disease. 
One of the best authorities quoted in support of 
the theory was the late Mr. Ceely, who reported 
that he had succeeded in producing cow-pox by 
inoculating a cow with small-pox matter. Dr. 
Fleming believes that Mr. Ceely was misled in 
this experiment, and that what he really used was 
vaccine, and not the virus of small-pox. His ex- 
periment was subsequently repeated on twelve 
heifers by Dr. Klein under Mr. Ceely 's supervis- 
ion, and, though small-pox matter was inserted 
abundantly into the incisions, cow-pox was not 
developed in any of the animals. Similar experi- 
ments have been performed in France and Italy, 
and the results have all been the same as those in 
England. Dr. Fleming holds that all these ex- 
periments go to show that the two diseases are 
not identical, nor can cow-pox be produced by 
inoculation with small-pox virus. 



SCIENCE. 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1887. 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM. 

By those who bead aright the signs of the 
times, it is seen that important advances in edu- 
cation are destined to be made in the not very 
distant future. And those advances are not to be, 
as some have been in the past, wholly or partly 
destructive. For a true philosophy of progress, a 
destructive advance does not exist. The present 
is rooted in the past, and the future will draw its 
nourishment from the present. Any change or 
development is conditioned by that which is 
changed and developed. We cannot destroy pres- 
ent conditions if we will. We may alter, amend, 
or counteract them, but their annihilation is pos- 
sible neither in thought nor fact. Therefore it is 
that those educational reformers who would 
sweep away all that now exists, before they begin 
their work of construction, are harmful agitators. 
They raise a demand that they cannot supply. 
They waste time, and thought, and money. The 
true educational progress is going to be more sci- 
entific, more philosophic, than this. It will take 
things as it finds them, and mould them to its 
purpose. It is no sign of sound educational think- 
ing to join the senseless clamor for the sweeping- 
away of Greek, or philosophy, or every thing 
else that cannot be at once coined into dollars and 
cents. Utility is never going to be the test of the 
true education. The true progress will suffer no 
such lowering of its ideal. It will keep before it, 
as its aim, the development of man, and the whole 
man, as man. But it will ask whether we have 

not overlooked some of man's faculties. It will 

* 

inquire with what reason we have in the past 
instituted a feudal system among the human 
powers, which relegates some of them to an un- 
dignified servitude, and gives to others all the 
honor and esteem. Have we not overstepped the 
limits of science in this respect ? 



Locke called the senses the 'windows of the 
soul,' but we have, to a great extent, closed or 
defaced those windows, without reflecting that by 
so doing we were denying to the soul some of its 

N* «11 -1887. 



possibilities of development. Some senses we have 
neglected entirely, others we have educated only 
in part. The eye is taught to read, and the hand 
to write, but neither is taught to draw, or to 
mould and fashion. Many of the refinements of 
the sense of touch are also entirely passed over. 
To remedy these, and similar omissions in our 
education, not destruction but construction is 
necessary. Keep what we have that is good, but re- 
arrange it, that the elements hitherto neglected may 
find a place in the scheme. The education that 
will do this, is the new education, but it is sadly 
in need of a name. Words merely stand for 
ideas, to be sure, but sometimes a word adds to the 
definiteness of the idea it represents. 'Manual train- 
ing ' will not do, for that conveys the idea of teach- 
ing a trade. The new education will not do this. 
'Industrial education' will not do, though a mean- 
ing, not explicitly conveyed by the words, may 
be read into the phrase. Yet this means ambi- 
guity, and ambiguity means loss of force and 
directness. A name is wanted, but it must, to be 
satisfactory, stand for the idea we have outlined. 
It must not mean the training of the hand and eye 
alone, but the training of the mind through the 
hand and eye. And it must not exclude the older 
instruction, which is excellent as far as it goes, 
but which does not go far enough. It is this — the 
old plus the new — which we mean by the new 
education. 

The recent article in the Contemporary review 
on university education in the United States, by 
President Charles Kendall Adams of Cornell, is a 
very clear and succinct account of the progress of 
thought on university subjects in this country 
during the past half century. It should be par- 
ticularly welcome to those European students of 
educational science who desire to understand the 
development of educational thought in this coun- 
try. President Adams shows very clearly that 
the establishment of our scientific and technical 
schools, the founding of parallel courses, as at 
Cornell and Michigan universities, and the build- 
ing-up of the elective system, as at Harvard, were 
all the outcome of the same desire, — to satisfy 
the increasingly critical demands as to higher 
education. President Adams sustains President 



146 



SCIENCE. 



(Vou IX., No. Ml 



Eliot in all the latter's recent controversies respect- 
ing his favorite elective system, and seems to 
show himself quite as favorably disposed toward 
the elective system, pure and simple, as toward 
the scheme of parallel courses, to the development 
of which he has hitherto given so much thought. 
The article will shed a flood of light upon the edu- 
cational discussions in this country as they appear 
to foreign readers, and it will set some facts even 
more clearly before our own countrymen. 

What teachkbs should bead, is an interesting 
question, and one about which there is more or 
less misconception. Some persons seem to think, 
that, because teachers are teachers, they cease to 
be men and women. At least this is the inference 
which we feel justified in drawing from much 
that is written and said on this subject. Lists of 
books that it is desirable that teachers should 
read, are drawn up, but in nine cases out of ten 
they contain none but professional works. This is 
undesirable, for a variety of reasons. In the first 
place, it narrows the teacher's view, confines his 
sympathies, and aids in the development of notions 
and methods best denominated as 'cranky.' 
Then, too, pedagogic literature is not a thing to 
be indiscriminately recommended to teachers. 
It needs severe critical revision, before all the 
harmful and time-wasting elements in it are elim- 
inated. Rosenkranz points out, in his ' Philosophy 
of education/ that the treatises on education 
abound more in shallowness than any other litera- 
ture. Short-sightedness and arrogance, he says, 
find in educational literature a most congenial at- 
mosphere, and uncritical methods and declamatory 
bombast flourish there as nowhere else. All this 
must be recognized and guarded against ; and from 
what we see of current educational literature, 
periodical and otherwise, it is not yet recognized 
and guarded against sufficiently. An inconceiv- 
able amount of nonsense is talked and written 
about education. Dr. William T. Harris, in a re- 
cent note on this subject of reading for teachers, 
very sensibly urges a course of reading for teach- 
ers that will secure general culture, and furnish 
new inspiration in the task of instruction. Dr. 
Harris mentions a number of books as suitable for 
this purpose, and, though neither complete nor 
satisfactory, it serves well enough to emphasize 
the fact that teachers retain their humanity, and 
by how much the more they cultivate and broaden 
it, by so much do they increase the value and 
efficiency of their teaching-powers. 



Dr. Withers-Moore's address on the subject 
of the higher education of women, delivered before 
the British medical association, has raised a great 
storm of indignation among the advocates of 
women's higher education, both in Engl a n d and 
in this country. We have, from time to time, 
called attention to various phases of the argument 
as it has proceeded. Mrs. William Grey, in a 
paper read recently before the ladies' council of 
education, at Leeds, is the last participant in the 
controversy. She passes by Dr. Withers-Moare'a 
argument, with the remark that no time need be 
wasted in ' flogging a dead horse,' and criticises at 
some length the statement of Dr. B. Ward Rich- 
ardson, that, "there is nothing in women's con- 
stitution, physical, moral, or mental, to prevent 
their competing successfully with men in any 
field of labor whatsoever, provided they will x*xg 
the. price far it." This price Dr. Richardson had 
asserted to be the loss of grace and beauty, and the 
renunciation of all the joys of home and family,, 
especially motherhood. Mrs. Grey admits that 
marriage so severely handicaps a woman that 
there is little if any chance of her reaching the 
top of the professional tree. She claims, however, 
that Dr. Richardson's arguments, in common with 
those of nearly all writers and speakers opposed 
to the ' claims of women,' are vitiated by the fact 
that they apply, not to women as a sex, but only 
to that small minority whose circumstances per- 
mit them to choose between work and idleness, — 
" between going into the battle of life, or sitting at 
home at ease, while it is fought for them by- 
others." 

This minority is so small that Mrs. Grey pre. 
fere to regard it as constituting the exceptions to 
the universal rule that women, as a sex, take, if 
anything, more than their fair share in the hard 
work of the world, while fulfilling at the same 
time their special function of motherhood. She 
quotes some instances from her experiences in 
Italy, and becomes indignant at the idea that the 
strain upon a woman's physical powers unfits her 
for her peculiar functions as a mother. "The 
hollowness of the talk about woman's work, and 
what they have or have not strength for/' says 
Mrs. Grey, "is made manifest the moment we 
look outside drawing-rooms to the real facts of 
woman's life as a whole." It might be suggested t 
in reply to this argument, that it is precisely this 
class of women, whom Mrs. Grey treats as excep- 
tions to the general rule, that the higher education 



Fkbbuabt 18, 1887.1 



SCIENCE. 



147 



reaches. It certainly cannot reach women as a 
sex any more than it now reaches men as a sex. 
It may be that the claspes of women, the majority 
who work hard and the minority who lead a life 
of relative ease, have become so far distinct that 
the same argument will not apply to both. If so, 
considerations drawn from the study of the class 
which the higher education is not expected to 
reach, become no longer pertinent when applied 
to the class of women who will, if any, receive 
the benefits of the proposed training. There is, 
unquestionably, much hasty and impulsive ex- 
pression of opinion on this important question, 
but may it not also be true that there is some 
loose thinking concerning it ? 



the evolution of life, the relation of soul and body, 
the nature of atoms and of force, and the concep- 
tions of space and time. Science shows us that 
all knowledge proceeds from faith, — the assump- 
tion of premises in which the investigator be- 
lieves." 



The eleventh annual report of President 
Oilman to the trustees of the Johns Hopkins uni- 
versity is largely a retrospect of what the uni- 
versity has accomplished during the decade of its 
existence. Much that the president says, he has 
told us before, or it has been embodied in the uni- 
versity publications. The aim of the collegiate 
instruction is defined to be, "the training of the 
mind and character to habits of fidelity, attention, 
perserverance, memory, and judgment,'* and in 
pursuance of that aim, the well-known group 
system has been put in operation, so as *' to secure 
a positive amount of regulation with a certain 
amount of freedom.*' During the decade, fellow- 
ships have been bestowed upon one hundred and 
thirty-four individuals, and to this fellowship sys- 
tem President Gil man ascribes — and with reason 
— much of the success of the university. By far 
the major number of these fellowships have been 
bestowed upon students of science, — biology, 
chemistry, mathematics, physics, geology, and 
engineering having had seventy-eight fellows, 
while all the languages, together with historical 
science and philosophy, have had but fifty-six 
allotted to them. In apparatus, library, and pub- 
lications, the university is well supplied, though 
much remains to be done in all these directions. 
President Gilman also has something to say re- 
garding the effect of scientific advance on the 
moral and spiritual nature of man. He expresses 
the conviction that " man's consciousness of his 
own personality, with its freedom and responsi- 
bility, bis belief in a Father Almighty, his hopes 
of a life to come, his recognition of a moral law 
and of the authority of an inward monitor, will 
stand firm, whatever discoveries may be made of 



An interesting feature of the report is the selec- 
tion made by President Gilman from papers sub- 
mitted to him by the several heads of departments, 
summarizing the work performed by each, and the 
theory on which the department has been organ- 
ized. Of the classical instruction, Professor Gil- 
dersleeve writes : " In organizing the classical de- 
partment, the importance of both sides, the 
scientific and the literary, was carefully consid- 
ered. Without scientific study, the cultivation of 
the literary sense is apt to degenerate into finical 
aeethetici8m ; kept apart from the large and 
liberal appreciation of antique life in all its 
aspects, the scientific study of the classic languages 
divorces itself from sympathy with tradition, and 
relinquishes its surest hold on the world of culture, 
on which the structure of the university must rest. 
... AH university students should work in com- 
mon. The leader should assign no work that is 
without its lesson to the most experienced student, 
or without its stimulus to the merest novice. . . . 
The history of the last ten years shows that the 
steadfast adherence to these lines of work has won 
for the university an influence that manifests 
itself far beyond the domain which it now occu- 
pies, and which it has been persistently extend- 
ing.*' The work in history and political science is 
adapted to the needs of three classes of students, 
the undergraduates, the undergraduates who want 
to give special attention to historical studies, and 
the graduate students. Professor Remsen's idea 
has been, that it is better " to train thoroughly a 
small number of chemists than to make a large 
number of mere analysts," And in a similar way 
other professors outline their scheme of work. 
Thus, President Gilman has brought together, 
not merely data of interest to the friends of Johns 
Hopkins university, but expressions of opinion 
from eminent men as to how higher instruction 
in their several specialties can best be organized. 

Some educational journals, in taking notice, 
as we did, of the action of the authorities of a state 
teachers' association in mitigating the text-book 
and school-journal peddling nuisance at a recent 
meeting, are disposed to blame the authorities for 



148 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 211 



having taken an unjustifiable step. We are dis- 
posed to believe that these papers must have been 
among those whose activity was curtailed at the 
meeting in question. One of them, for example, 
naively inquires whether it is "a worse crime to 
exhibit and explain a book at an educational gath- 
ering than to show the use of a plow at an agri- 
cultural fair." We would point out that this 
analogy is fallacious. The end and aim 'of an 
agricultural fair is to see and examine all the new 
agricultural implements and products, and the 
demonstration of the virtues of a certain plow is 
precisely what the spectators have come to see. 
An educational gathering, on the contrary, is not 
called together once a year, or once in six months, 
to examine and compare books and papers, but to 
study and discuss, under the guidance and leader- 
ship of appointed speakers, questions pertaining 
to the theory and practice of the teacher's profes- 
sion. If an exhibit of text-books and school- jour- 
nals can be arranged so as not to interfere with 
the proper carrying out of the object of the meet- 
ing, let it be done. Such an exhibit can do little 
harm, and may do much good. But the repre- 
sentatives of publishing houses do not always stop 
here. They make themselves a good deal of a 
nuisance, and interfere with the work of the asso- 
ciation. We fancy that it was this feature of the 
exhibit that was objected to in Massachusetts, and 
we heartily commend those in charge of the ar- 
rangements for the meeting, for putting a stop to 
it. 



LEFT-HANDEDNESS. — A HINT FOR EDU- 
CATORS. 

Dr. Daniel Wilson, president of the Royal 
society of Canada, has lately contributed a paper 
to the Proceedings of that society on the subject 
of left-handedness, to which he has managed to 
give an unexpected and very practical interest, 
affecting all who have children or who are con- 
cerned in their education. The author had written 
previously on this subject, but not with such full 
and effective treatment. He reviews the various 
causes to which the general preference of the 
right hand has been ascribed, and also those to 
which the occasional cases of left-handedness are 
attributed, and finds them mostly unsatisfactory. 
He shows clearly that the preferential use of the 
right hand is not to be ascribed entirely to early 
training. On the contrary, in many instances, 
where parents have tied up the left hand of a 
child to overcome the persistent preference for its 
use, the attempt has proved futile. He concludes 



that the general practice is probably due to the 
superior development of the left lobe of the brain, 
which, as is well known, is connected with the 
right side of the body. This vietv, as he shows, 
was originally suggested by the eminent anato- 
mist, Professor Gratiolet. The author adopts and 
maintains it with much force, and adds the cor- 
relative view that '• left-handedness is due to an 
exceptional development of the right hemisphere 
of the brain." 

A careful review of the evidence gives strong 
reason for believing that what is now the cause 
of the preference for the right hand was original- 
ly an effect. Neither the apes nor any others of 
the lower animals show a similar inclination for 
the special use of the right limbs. It is a purely 
human attribute, and probably arose gradually 
from the use, by the earliest races of men, of the 
right arm in fighting, while the left arm was 
reserved to cover the left side of the body, where 
wounds, as their experience showed, were most 
dangerous. Those who neglected this precaution 
would be most likely to be killed ; and hence, in 
the lapse of time, the natural survival would 
make the human race, in general, ' right-handed, 9 
with occasional reversions, of course, by * ata- 
vism,' to the left-handed, or, more properly, the 
ambi-dextrous condition. The more frequent and 
energetic use of the right limbs would, of course, 
react upon the brain, and bring about the excessive 
development of the left lobe, such as now gener- 
ally obtains. 

The conclusions from this course of reasoning 
are very important. Through the effect of the ir- 
regular and abnormal development which has de- 
scended to us from our bellicose ancestors, one 
lobe of our brains and one side of our bodies are 
left in a neglected and weakened condition. The 
evidence which Dr. Wilson produces of the in- 
jury resulting from this cause is very striking. 
In the majority of cases the defect, though it can- 
not be wholly overcome, may be in great part 
cured by early training, which will strengthen 
at once both the body and the mind. " When- 
ever," he writes, "the early and persistent culti- 
vation of the full use of both hands has been ac- 
complished, the result is greater efficiency, with- 
out any corresponding awkwardness or defect 
In certain arts and professions, both hands are 
necessarily called into play. The skilful surgeon 
finds an enormous advantage in being able to 
transfer his instrument from one hand to the 
other. The dentist has to multiply instruments 
to make up for the lack of such acquired power. 
The fencer who can transfer his weapon to the 
left hand, places his adversary at a disadvantage. 
The lumberer finds it indispensable, in the opera- 



FzmrcABr 18, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



149 



tions of his woodcraft, to learn to chop timber right 
and left handed ; and the carpenter may be fre- 
quently seen using the saw and hammer in either 
hand, and thereby not only resting bis arm, but 
greatly facilitating bis work. In all the fine arts 
the mastery of both hands is advantageous. The 
sculptor, the carver, the draughtsman, the en- 
graver and cameo-cutter, each has recourse at 
times to the left hand for special manipulative 
dexterity; the pianist depends little less on the 
left band than on the right ; and as for the organ- 
ist, with the numerous pedals and stops of the 
modern grand organ, a quadrumanous musician 
would still find reason to envy the ampler scope 
which a Briareus could command." That all 
this is true is abundantly shown by the numerous 
examples cited by the author, — from the greatest 
of artists, the left-handed Lionardo da Vinci, to 
the distinguished ex-president of the American 
scientific association, Prof. Edward F. Morse, and 
(we may add) to Dr. Wilson himself, both of 
whom are known to be accomplished draughts- 
men with this too-neglected hand. In view of 
these facts, it is evident that few more important 
subjects can be offered for the consideration of 
educators than that which is presented in this 
impressive essay. 



THE HUP A INDIANS: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC 

SKETCH. 

One who has charge of a museum is frequently 
told, •• I should be delighted to help you if I only 
knew what you want." In the former articles of 
this illustrated series special arts have been elabo- 
rated in order to explain the completeness desired 
in anthropotechnic collections. The present paper 
appeals to the traveller, the missionary, the army 
or navy officer or private, and shows what any 
one of them may do at his leisure. 

Since his expedition to Point Barrow, Lieutenant 
Bay, U.S.A., has been stationed at Fort Gaston, in 
north-west California, on the lower Trinity River. 
Here is the Hupa reservation, and here dwell what 
are called the Hupa Indians, — bands known by 
various names, but; nearly all belonging to the 
Pacific coast branch of the great Athabascan 
stock, represented by the Kulchin and Tinne on 
the north, and by the Apache and Navajo on the 
south. Before these aborigines were terrorized by 
the white miners and fishermen, they were, in the 
language of Stephen Powers, the Romans of Cali- 
fornia. Although they have been calmed down 
to the normal stagnation of a government reserva- 
tion, there remains a great deal of the old art and 
civilization among them. They are really in the 
neolithic age, and may tell us much about the way 



in which Frenchmen of the Robenhausien epoch 
lived. 

If we commence by saying that their mountain 
homes are in the midst of giant redwoods, that 
their streams are the resorts of the salmon, that 
around them grow the materials for the finest 
textiles and clothing, the story of their daily life 
is blocked out. 

The Hupa lives in a puncheon or slab house (see 
accompanying plate, 1, 2), and paddles his canoe 
of redwood in the fish-prolific waters of the Trinity 
and Klamath. By means of elkhorn wedges and 
neatly polished, bell-shaped hammers, he is able to 
reduce the largest tree to any desired form of 
slab, which he smooths and shapes with adzes, 
formerly flint-bladed, now edged with steel. He 
also cleansed himself in a sweat-house, sat on a 
humble chair (4), slept like an oriental on a pillow 
of wood (5), and nursed his baby in the prettiest 
of willow cradles (8). His mush he cooked in a 
water-tight grass basket (6) by means of hot stones 
(7), baked his bread in rude soapstone pans (9), 
and served his roasted salmon in a wicker tray (8). 
Since the U. S. fish-hatching station has been 
planted not far off, he gently scoops around the 
wharf in rude citizen's dress; but formerly he 
made a barbed harpoon from the leg-bone of the 
deer (10) and rawhide, and therewith landed the 
wildest salmon. 

Neither ancient nor modern savage could sur- 
pass him in chipping jasper and obsidian. His 
lames de sQex, whether fur-wrapped (18), hafted 
in wood (14), or on a long pole for fishing (15), are 
justly the admiration of the world. His finest 
weapons, however, were his bows and arrows (16). 
The bow is of yew or cedar, and so deftly backed 
with a mixture of shredded deer-sinew and fish- 
glue that the uninitiated mistake the backing for 
a tough bark. His arrow consists of the following 
parts : shaft of willow or other soft wood ; fore- 
shaft of hard wood, inserted in the pith of the 
shaft and seized with sinew ; head of jasper or 
obsidian, untanged, and lashed with sinew ; and 
the feather often laid on spirally. Add a pretty 
quiver of otter, fox, or wolverine skin, and the 
artillery is complete. 

The Hupa women are among tbe most refined 
and delicate tanners, embroiderers, and basket- 
weavers in the world. A cloak of deerskin (19), 
fringed and decked with colored grass, or a skirt 
of pine-nuts, etc., is a most graceful drapery. 

The Hupa has a kind of money (17) made by 
wrapping snake-skin or maiden-hair fern bark 
around long dentalium shells (17). He also cuts 
out disks from the clam or olive shells. The 
former money he keeps in a curious pocket-book 
of elkhorn hollowed out and wrapped with buck- 



152 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 211 



skin : the latter he strings on a thong and rube 
down on sandstone, like a Marquesas-islander. 
Feathers, however, are his greatest pride, and 
gandy plumes of the woodpecker's crest, the duck's 
neck, and the blue-jay's plumage, are held at fab- 
ulous prices (22). 

His music he draws from the whistle of bone, 
the rattle, and the drum ; in his dances he carries 
a queer wand of basketry in bis hand (21) ; some- 
times he wears a * spritsail yard ' in the septum of 
his nose (20) ; he crushes vermin in his head with 
a spatula of elkhorn (18) ; and, finally, he has a 
fashion of putting very sharp pins of elkhorn in 
his hair (18a) to pierce the hand of the adversary. 

Lieutenant Ray's collection is accompanied with 
an excellent descriptive catalogue, making his work 
for the national museum worthy of imitation. It 
has also the additional merit of explaining almost 
an equal number of nice old specimens that have 
been waiting forty years for an interpreter. 

O. T. Mason. 



GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

Europe. 

The Russian government is planning an ethno- 
graphical survey of Russian Poland. This prov- 
ince has hitherto been much neglected by Russian 
scientists, and is, according to Professor Petri, not 
even included in the great * Geographical statis- 
tical lexicon of the Russian empire.' 

The construction of two canals in southern 
Russia is projected. The Duke of Leucbtenberg 
proposes to pierce the isthmus of Perekop. This 
canal would shorten the distance between Odessa 
and the harbors of the Gulf of Azov. The second 
project is far more important. The Russian gov- 
ernment intends to connect the Don and the Volga 
by a canal, and the country between the rivers is 
being surveyed for the purpose. Thus, a water- 
way between the Caspian and Black seas will 
be established, and a new outlet opened to the 
produce of Asia. The project is a very old one, 
having been attempted by Peter the Great in 1696. 

At the meeting of the Geographical society of 
Paris, Jan. 7, the Count of Saint-Saud gave a re- 
port on his surveys in the Pyrenees. Large tracts 
of these mountains are still little known, and 
Saint-Saud's researches will be a valuable contribu- 
tion to our knowledge of the topography of that 
district. He discovered a mountain 9,600 feet in 
height, and corrected the position of some other 

pCRKp. 

Feddersen, during his travels in southern Ice- 
land, found the remains of large trees, which 
prove that forests formerly existed on that island. 
Dr. Labonne, who crossed Iceland from south to 



north last summer, makes a similar statement. 
He found some remains of willows and birches 
about sixteen feet below the surface, embedded 
in the silicious deposits of the Geyser. These 
facts prove the correctness of the old ' Sagas,* 
which refer to forests in Iceland. 

Asia. 

P. Lombard, missionary in Siam, publishes, in 

the Missions catholiques, a map of the Menam, 

on which all settlements situated on the banks of 

that river are marked. The new information 

contained in this map is important, as Lombard 

has lived a long time in Siam, and has acquired a 

thorough knowledge of the geography of that 

country. 

Africa. 

Junker's exploration of the Welle makes its 
identity with the Obangi very probable. He 
crossed the river six times, and followed its course 
as far as latitude 8° 18' 10*, and longitude 22° 47' 
40*. He found it to run east and west, with no 
part of it farther north than latitude 4°. The 
abundance of ivory found on the islands of this, 
river is said to surpass that of any other part of 
Africa. Notwithstanding these new discoveries 
in this part of Africa, our knowledge of its hydrog- 
raphy is still very imperfect, and the exploration 
of the watershed between the Sbari and Kongo 
still forms one of the most important problems of 
researches in Africa. 

Captain Coquilhat, who visited Stanley Falls 
after the Arabs had taken possession of it. de- 
scribes the moral impression which the loss of the 
station has made upon the natives, as follows : 
" The natives admire the persistent resistance of 
the whites. The losses of the Arabs, which 
amounted to sixty, while we lost only two men, 
made a great impression upon the negroes. They 
have seen and felt that the white man is not an 
ally of the Arab, and that they will find a sup- 
port in him against their oppression. The manner 
in which the natives protected and saved Mr. 
Deane, the chief of the station at Stanley Falls* 
proves that they detest the Arabs, and that they 
desire to be governed by whites." However* 
these views seem to be somewhat sanguine. The 
loss of Stanley Falls is a serious affair to the asso- 
ciation, and shows how little established its power 
is. It would be in vain to expect support from 
the natives, who consider both whites and Arabs 
intruders in their country. 

The Kongo association is planning two expedi- 
tions; one, to determine the best route for the 
proposed railroad ; the other, to explore the Kongo 
and its tributaries. The latter will be composed 
of geologists, agriculturists, and commercial 




Fmbbcabt 18, 1887. J 



SCIENCE. 



155 



agents. Mr. Delcommune, who spent ten years at 
the factories and stations on the Kongo, will prob- 
ably be its leader. 

The announcement of Dr. Holub's death is de- 
nied by the latest telegraphic news. Holub left 
Austria a few months ago, with his wife and a 
few servants, to explore the country north of the 
Zambezi, and some weeks ago news was received 
that a European was murdered thereabout. It 
seems that this report gave rise to the rumor of 
Holub's death. 

America. 

The Geographical society of the City of Mexico 
announces its intention of resuming the publica- 
tion of its journal, which was discontinued in 
1882. 

Dr. R. Bell's report on the Alert expedition to 
Hudson Bay, which is contained in tbe last ' An- 
nual report of the geological survey of Canada,' 
shows how little is known of those countries. As 
the object of the expedition was the relief of the 
meteorological stations in Hudson Strait and Bay, 
Bell had no opportunity of leaving the ship for 
any length of time. However, his observations 
are the only ones we have referring to this vast 
district, and as he has carefully availed himself of 
every chance the movements of the ship gave him, 
he offers a great deal of new material. The author, 
who is thoroughly acquainted with the Hudson 
Bay Basin, through his extensive travels and 
numerous researches, gives a general sketch of the 
distribution of strata in Hudson Bay, and makes 
it probable that the whole of this vast basin is 
composed of flat-lying paleozoic strata. His 
observations lead him to the conclusion that dur- 
ing the glacial period an enormous glacier filled 
Hudson Strait, and flowed east towards the Atlan- 
tic Ocean. A southern branch seems to have come 
from Ungava Bay. It is very desirable that a 
geographical expedition to Hudson Bay be organ- 
ized, as the coast is only known in its general out- 
lines, and no scientist has ever set his foot on the 
greater part of these districts. Since Fox's jour- 
ney to Fox Channel, only a few whalers have en- 
tered this strait ; and the coasts, which are within 
easy reach from our harbors, and are of consider- 
able importance on account of the whale, walrus, 
and seal fisheries, have never been explored. 

Australasia. 

The New-Guinea company's steamer Ottilie has 
ascended Augusta River, in the German part of 
New Guinea. It was found navigable for a con- 
siderable distance. Having sailed three days, the 
water was found to be too shallow to continue the 
journey in the steamer, which drew eleven feet of 
water. Tbe party ascended the river two and a 



half days farther in a steam launch, and returned 
only on account of the want of provisions. Meas- 
uring on a straight line, their farthest point was. 
166 nautical miles distant from the mouth of the 
river, and 74 miles from the north shore of the- 
island. The existence of a navigable river of this 
size will be important for the development of the 
colony. 

NOTES AND NEWS. 
The fourth annual catalogue of the Chicago- 
manual training school is very encouraging. Al- 
though the regular school exercises were only be- 
gun in February, 1884, the total number of pupils 
enrolled is now 190. The course is a three years* 
one, and embraces instruction in mathematics, 
science, language, drawing, and shop-work, dur- 
ing the entire period. The requisites for admis- 
sion are, that the candidate be at least fourteen 
years of age, and be able to pass a satisfactory ex- 
amination in reading, spelling, writing, geography, 
English composition, and arithmetic. The school 
has a well-equipped wood-room, foundry, forge- 
room, and machine-shop, and ample apparatus for 
teaching the various subjects in which instruction 
is given. Under the efficient direction of Dr. Bel- 
field, the successful future of this institution is 
assured. 

— Perhaps no university chair in the world haa 
had such a succession of distinguished occupants, 
as has the Smith professorship of the French and 
Spanish languages and belles-lettres at Harvard. 
The professorship was established seventy years 
ago, and George Ticknor held it for nineteen years. 
His successor was Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,, 
who held it for eighteen years ; and James Russell 
Lowell, who has just resigned, held it for thirty- 
one years. 

— In an account in Modern language notes for 
February, Mr. Calvin Thomas says that of the 17ft 
names of those in attendance at the recent conven- 
tion of the Modern language association at Balti- 
more, seventy per cent appeared to be English or 
American, and twenty per cent were obviously 
German. Of the total number in attendance, 
seventy-eight were teachers engaged in modern 
language work, and of this last number, sixty-five 
were engaged at colleges and universities. These 
sixty-five came from eighteen different states, as 
follows : from Maryland, 11 ; Massachusetts, 8 ; 
Pennsylvania, 8 ; Virginia, 6 : Ohio, 4 ; South Car- 
olina, 4 ; New Jersey, 4 ; New York, 8 ; Rhode 
Island, 8 ; Connecticut, 8 ; Indiana, 8 ; Michigan, 
2 ; Kentucky, Louisiana, Delaware, Illinois, Ten- 
nessee, and Nebraska, each 1. These figures 
afford at least a rough criterion as to how far the 



154 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou IX., No. an 



association has come to be truly representative of 
America. 

— Professor Conrad of Halle has an article in 
the Attgemeine zeitung of Jan. 4, criticising the 
system of giving stipends to students, which now 
prevails at the German universities. 

— Nature prints an account of a meeting, lately 
held, of the Association for promoting a teaching 
university for London, at which the second report 
of a sub-committee on the subject was received. 
At a meeting held in December, 1885, the commit- 
tee were instructed to open communications with 
the governing bodies of the University of Lon- 
don, University college, King's college, the Royal 
college of physicians of London, the Royal col- 
lege of surgeons of England, and the various 
medical schools of London, as well as with the 
council of legal education, for the purpose of pro- 
moting the objects of the association on the basis 
of that report. The committee have been in- 
formed by the senate of the University of London, 
and by the councils of University college and 
King's college, that committees of those bodies 
had been appointed to consider the objects and 
proposals of the association. The council of 
King's college have adopted a resolution to the 
-effect that " the council, while reserving their 
opinion as to the details of the scheme laid before 
them by your committee, approve generally of 
the objects which the association has in view." 
The subject having been brought before the coun- 
cil of University college, they adopted a resolu- 
tion to the following effect : " That this council 
do express a general approval of the objects of 
the association, which are as follows: 1°, the 
organization of university teaching in and for 
London, in the form of a teaching university, with 
faculties of arts, science, medicine, and lawB ; 2°, 
the association of university examination with 
university teaching, and direction of both by the 
same authorities ; 3°, the conferring of a sub- 
stantive voice in the government of the univer- 
sity upon those engaged in the work of university 
teaching and examination ; 4°, existing institu- 
tions in London, of university rank, not to be 
abolished or ignored, but to be taken as the bases 
or component parts of the university, and either 
partially or completely incorporated, with the 
minimum of internal change ; 5°, an alliance to 
be established between the university and the 
professional corporations, the council of legal 
education as representing the Inns of Court, and 
the Royal colleges of physicians and of surgeons of 
London." A conference between the deputation 
of the committee named in that behalf and the 
committee of the senate of the University of 



London was held on Nov. 28 at the University of 
London ; and, at the conclusion of a long and im- 
portant discussion, the vice-chancellor gave to the 
deputation the assurance that the general disposi- 
tion of those present was to move in the direction 
indicated by the association. Various other insti- 
tutions have virtually expressed approval of the 
object of the association, and, while awaiting some 
further communication from the senate of the Uni- 
versity of London, which it is understood will be 
made, either to them, or in an independent way 
to the university teachers of London, the com- 
mittee propose to take steps for bringing to the 
notice of her Majesty's government the need 
which exists for the co-operation of the govern- 
ment in order to promote university teaching in 
London. 

— Professor Hunt of Princeton has in course of 
preparation a book entitled « English prose and 
prose writers,' which will be published in the 
spring. It is intended to be a text-book for ad- 
vanced instruction in English prose style. 

— It is reported by the Athenaeum that, on the 
advice of Dr. W. Wright of Cambridge, and 
Prof. D. H. Muller of Vienna, the Oriental con- 
gress at Stockholm, and also the adjudication of 
the King of Sweden's two prize essays, are put off 
to 1890. 

— The Athenaeum is authority for the statement 
that the Prince of Wales has undertaken, at an 
early date, to open the new buildings of the Col- 
lege of preceptors in Bloomsbury Square, recently 
erected at a cost of over £16,000. The council 
hopes, in its new quarters, to carry on with 
increased efficiency the manifold work of the in- 
stitution, the importance of which may be 
measured by the fact that more than fifteen 
thousand pupils, representing nearly four thou- 
sand schools, were examined by the college during 
the past twelve months. The council also pro- 
poses to start a fund for the purpose of establish- 
ing a training college, or of promoting some other 
scheme for the training of teachers ; and in the 
mean time it is intended to set apart £800 a year, 
to be awarded in the shape of scholarships for in- 
tending teachere. 

— The paper on * The mutual relations of the 
colleges and academies' read before the con- 
vention of the University of the state of New 
York, in July last, by Professor Hewett of Cor- 
nell university, has been issued in pamphlet form. 

— The returns from the University of Berlin 
this winter show an unexampled activity. The 
total number of students is 5,857, the largest 
ever reached at a German university. Of these, 




Fkbbuaby 18, 1887.] 



scieiwm;. 



155 



2t ^J?*?"™ 1 *** 1 « the faculty of theol- 
o^y, 1,383 m the faculty of law, 1,397 in the 
facility of medicine, and 1,984 in the faculty of 
philosophy : 4,063 of the students are from Rus- 
sia; while the rest of Germany furnishes 740. 
The foreign students number 881, the Russians 
coming first with 198, America following with 
149. In the faculty of philosophy are 715 students 

T^t^ mUafii t 8 ° d m from ^-gymnasia. 
The total number of instructors is now 388, in- 
eluding 16 in theology, 33 in law, 103 in medicine, 
and 147 id philosophy. 

tJ^n" 811, ^ h ° has receiv «i a flattering call 

chaSof^rhT 7 ° f / ienDa ' WiU not ,ea ^ W 
cuair of the history of art at Bonn. 

Qf7 . The / tac * fc acience ««»% edited by Rev. 
Stephen Bowers, is to be issued as a bulletin o 
Ventura society of natural history in the 

SSS^ 1 publi8hed quarter * or « «-*i 

!..■"?• L - 1 Greene ' who has made a name for 

and^ 2" <StU ? ie9 ° f tb ^tanyof Californ£ 
and parts adjacent/ has been lately appointed a 
professor in the University of California 

--The March number of the Popular science 
f^Uhly will contain a portrait of thf JateProTE 

WumT • D8 ' en *? ved on «**! by Schlecht. The 
likeness is considered remarkably vivid, while 
the execution of the work is much superior to 
ordinary book-plates. ^ 

j- Henry Hemphill, the renowned brick-laver 
aadconchologist, haa presented a colleZn 71 

JEST?" ° f 8heUS t0 the **» »V «** 
of natural history. A few years ago he gave the 

State normal school a series of oversight hundred 
mollusks^Hected by himself in the west pSS 
* 'United States, which was bv far the best 
Pnbhc collection on the coast. * 



collet £*^! nd ?? PTeS * **■ of ^^ ^ 

SJ^^J* 1169 Dew vo,ume « *"■ re- 
ceotiy appeared. Professor Sweet's ■ Second mid- 

of a V™ ? lddle Engli8h P rimer >' a *<* consists 

witt r?* ? 8eIeCti ° nS fr0m Cba »<* r > together 
ohl« *?? « ramma «ca> outline and a key to 

tttSTT^ ^-Sloman's edition of 

*i^Z2T* vr Ilent as » e,e " 

HeberdL^' * t he WOT8t that can ■» *** of 

% of wS b S Within ite b0rders 14 * to ^s, in 
*Xw* ? fagyar Clement P red ominates, in 

Si iF"** ^ M the Slavic ' in 6 th * *o«*ia. 
™> and in one each the Servian and Bulgarian 



Thirteen towns are not marked by the distinct 
preponderance of any nationality. 

— The population of Africa is estimated at two 
hundred millions, of whom forty per cent are 
negroes, and forty per cent Hottentots and Bush- 
men. 

— The educational bureau, or museum, and the 
• pedagogical library that Superintendent Draper 

is building up in conection with his department at 
Albany, deserve encouragement. The collections 
will not only be valuable in themselves, but they 
should be the source of inspiration and suggestion 
to numbers of teachers. 

— The geological survey is receiving data daily 
concerning the recent earthquake of Feb. 6 in south- 
ern Indiana, Illinois, a small portion of Kentucky, 
and east central Missouri. The only accurate 
time-observation was that made at Terre Haute, 
Ind., by Prof. T. C. Mendenhall, who gives the 
time as 4:15:06 a.m„ Feb. 6. The newspaper re- 
ports indicate an area of about 75,000 square miles 
in the states just given. The greatest intensity 
was in aouth-western Indiana and south-eastern 
Illinois. Efforts are being made to obtain the 
accurate boundary of the area covered, by means 
of circulars sent out by the geological survey. 

— Mr. Carlisle Terry, one of the most efficient 
officers of the coast survey, who has been in . 
charge of the magnetic observatory at Los Angeles, 
has been compelled, on account of ill health, to 
retire temporarily from the service, and has been 
ordered to his home at Columbus, Ga. The results 
of Mr. Terry's thorough work have been most im- 
portant, and his services will be greatly missed. 

— Among the reported discoveries for the pre- 
vention of rabies is that of Dr. Fernandez of Bar- 
celona, who claims that a dog that has been bitten 
by a viper never has rabies, and cannot become 
rabid when inoculated. He has inoculated dogs 
with viper's poison, and he holds that under no 
circumstances will they ever become rabid. 

— An automatic collecting or toll-taking device, 
to be attached to telephones at public or pay 
stations, has been invented. The mechanism in 
the telephone-box is so arranged tfcat the telephone 
will not operate until a coin of a certain size and 
weight, dropped into a slit in the front, acts upon 
a switch-lever, thereby making electrical connec- 
tion between the transmitter and the line wire. 
The act of hanging the receiving-telephone, after 
use, in the place provided for it, drops the coin 
into a till and releases the switch-lever, thereby 
breaking the electrical connection and * setting the 
trap ' for the next user. 



156 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX. , No. 211 



— Captain Gates of the ship L. Schapp has re- 
ported to the U. S. hydrographic office that on 
April 19, when off Cape Horn, on a voyage from 
San Francisco to Liverpool, the temperature of 
the water suddenly rose from 42° to 44°. Judging 
from this that the vessel was too close inshore, he 
hauled off three points, and, after standing on this 
course for four hours, the temperature fell to 42°. 
The captain stated that on a previous voyage he 
had noticed this warm belt, and judges that it 
does not extend more than ten miles offshore. He 
believes he would have gone ashore if be bad con- 
tinued on bis first course half an hour longer. He 
had not seen tbe sun for twelve days. 

— The longest completed tunnel in the world is 
at Schemnitz in Hungary. It is 10.27 miles in 
length, with a cross-section of 9 feet 10 inches by 
5 feet 8 inches, and is used for drainage purposes. 
The new Croton aqueduct tunnel, now in course 
of excavation near this city, will be much the 
longest tunnel in the world. When completed, it 
will be nearly 30 miles long, with a section much 
larger than that of the Schemnitz tunnel, being 
about 16 feet in diameter. Twenty-two mileB have 
already been excavated. 

— The International statistical institute will 
hold a meeting in Rome early in April. 



n 



there are twenty thousand secondary teachers in 
the United States " was a forced admission, but 
have never so regarded it. 

The Editob of The Acadi 
Syracuse, N.Y., Jan. 22. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOB. 

*S Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The 
writer's name is in all cases required as proof of good faith. 

The natural method of teaching languages. 

Will you permit me to call attention to two mis- 
statements in Mr. Stern's article on ' The natural 
method of teaching languages,' which appears in 
Science of Jan. 21 ? On p. 69 he says, " Why is it 
that the old method . . . could be shaken in its very 
foundation to such a degree that one of its warmest 
defenders writes but lately, * It is evident to me that 
the old grammatical method cannot survive the as- 
sault of the natural method ' ? " The writer referred 
to as 'one of the warmest defenders' of the old 
method has been conspicuous and outspoken in dis- 
carding 'the old method,' both in theory and prac- 
tice, for many years, and, had his name been quoted, 
the absurdity of the above would have been at once 
apparent. 

Farther on, Mr. Stern says, " It would seem 
strange . . . that an educational journal which is 
not friendly [nic] inclined towards the method should 
have recently been forced to admit that ' the subject 
is now attracting great attention in the secondary 
and higher schools.' " The expression ' foroed to ad- 
mit ' is misleading. Possibly it was intended to be 
so. It would be interesting to learn the exact nature 
of the forcing. By the same token it might be 
claimed that any statement of fact is a forced admis- 
sion. It was simply given as an excuse for intro- 
ducing the matter as the subject of Interchange, 
Perhaps Mr. Stern would claim that our statement that 



The submerged trees of the Columbia River. 

The phenomena which Gapt. C. E. Dutton has so 
well described under the above heading in No. 208 
of Science were observed by me in the autumn of 
1870, when, in the course of preparations for a topo- 
graphical and geological survey of Mount Bainier, I 
made a trip from Portland to the Dalles and back, 
and later, on my return from Mount Rainier via the 
Dalles to Portland, during the month of November 
of the same year. The submerged trees excited my 
vivid interest during these trips up and down 
the river; and during an enforced stay at the 
Cascades on one of these occasions, I made some 
investigations in the vicinity, which, with In- 
formation I obtained from old Hudson Bay- 
trappers and Indians, suggested to me an ex. 
planation of the backing-up of the river different 
from that offered by Captain Dutton. This explana- 
tion, which was embodied in a somewhat popular 
address delivered by me before the American geo- 
graphical society in New Tork on March 13, 1887 
(Bulletin No. 4, session 1876-77, p. 11), I venture to 
repeat here, for the reason that Captain Dutton as- 
sures me that he had not known of my publication 
on the subject, and that the explanation had not 
been suggested to him at the time of his investiga- 
tions. It is briefly this : — 

1. The valley of the Columbia Biver at the Cas- 
cades is a cut, considerably broader than the actual 
stream-bed, through over 3,000 feet of beds of basalt 
and basaltic breccia, which here form the. axis of 
the Cascade range, and which rest on a loosely ag- 
gregated bed of conglomerate carrying leaf-remain* 
and trunks of trees, sometimes petrified, sometimes 
merely carbonized, apparently of miocene age. This 
bed of conglomerate is seen to outcrop about at the 
river-level at the foot of the Cascades : therefore in 
its cutting-down or corrasion the Columbia Biver had 
already reached this conglomerate bed below the 
falls, and above was within thirty feet of it. 

2. The river at the Cascades is a narrow boil- 
ing stream, rushing down over immense broken 
masses of basalt, and between steeply cut banks of 
basalt ; which banks are, if I recollect rightly, some- 
what higher than the broad forest-covered stretches 
of the valley which extend on either side of the 
stream to the base of the steep bounding cliffs. In 
this stretch on the north bank I observed an old 
stream-bed filled with rounded pebbles, through 
which at least a part of the stream once ran. 

3. The Indian tradition above referred to says that 
there once existed a natural ^bridge at the Cascades, 
and that the ancestors of the present tribes (prob- 
ably at no very distant period) used to cross the river 
here dry-shod. The form of the banks at the head 
of the stream lends probability to the truth of this 
tradition, for they appear like the rude abutments 
of such a bridge, which had been left after its 
destruction. 

4. The submerged stumps of trees which line ir- 
regularly the banks of the river above the Cascades 
are of the same species, and generally about the same 
size, as the older of those which clothe the steep 



r 



FnauABT 18, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



157 



slopes of the valley on either side from the water- 
line upwards. Their submergence is evidently, 
therefore, a matter of quite recent date, even histori- 
cally speaking. 

Prom the above facts and traditions I reconstructed 
the history of the formation of the cascades, the 
damming and backing up of the stream above, and 
the consequent submergence and killing of the trees 
which grew immediately along its bank, as follows : — 
. At the time when the general cutting of the Co- 
lumbia valley had reached about the level of the pres- 
ent flood-plain at the Cascades, through some crack 
or other natural opening its waters found a passage 
into the underlying conglomerate bed, which, being 
permeable, allowed a passage of this water down 
stream to a point in the bed itself where it outcropped 
at or above the level of the lower part of the 
stream. Such a passage, once established, would be 
rapidly enlarged by the force of suoh an overlying 
mass of water as the Columbia River ; and to those 
familiar with the corrading force of water, as shown 
in the stream-action of western rivers, it must readi- 
ly be apparent that it would soon, become large 
enough to take in the whole stream ; that thus for a 
certain distance the whole Columbia would run 
underground, like the so-called ' Lost Rivers,' which 
are still found under the basalt flows of the Snake 
River plains. Thus would have been formed the 
natural bridge spoken of by the Indians. Moreover, 
by this lowering of its bed at this point, the bed of 
the river above would have been correspondingly 
lowered, and tree-growth would have gradually ex- 
tended down to the water's edge, as it does at pres- 
ent 

Meantime the corrasion of this underground 
stream would gradually wear away the supports of 
the overhanging sheet of basalt, until at length they 
became inadequate to hold it up; and when they 
fell, the underground passage would have been sud- 
denly filled, the river dammed up to the present 
level, and the stream also backed up so as to cover 
the roots of and thereby kill the trees along the lower 
part of its banks. Such is essentially the present 
condition of the stream: for the broken masses of 
the basalt which form the present stream-bed at the 
Cascades resist the wearing-away of the water better 
than did the conglomerate, and the river above the 
Cascades still stands at a higher level than it did be- 
fore the falling-in of the basalt bridge. 

I must admit the possibility that an actual survey 
of the region about the Cascades might disclose facts 
that would make the above explanation inadmissible, 
since it is founded on a very hasty and superficial 
examination. In spite of the fact of Captain But- 
ton's later and possibly more thorough examination 
than my own (for I have not been there since 1870), 
I am not quite willing to yield my theory in favor of 
his, for the reason that his theory involves what 
seems to me a geological improbability, — one which, 
in my experience at least, has not been supported by 
any observed facts. This is, that an earth movement 
—for such the flat anticlinal arch he assumes to ac- 
count for the raising of the old flood-plain below the 
Cascades involves — could have proceeded more 
rapidly than the corrasion of as large a stream as the 
Columbia, so as to actually dam it up, and then have 
conveniently stopped, so as to allow corrasion to 
gain its former ascendency over the earth-movement. 

S. F. Emmons. 
Washington, Feb. & 



A carnivorous antelope. 

A few months ago, while visiting a friend on a 
cattle-ranch in the San Andreas Mountains of south- 
ern New Mexica, I saw what to me seemed a most 
abnormal habit. My friend had a young antelope six 
or seven months old, which he had captured when 
very young, and kept as a pet about the ranch. This 
animal is, by the way, very tame, following its mas- 
ter about without onoe offering to join its fellows, 
which often come in sight of the house. When 
offered pieces of raw beef, it will eat the meat with 
evident relish, and in preference to vegetable food. 
I have seen it eat piece after piece until it has dis- 
pose^ of half a pound or more, then it would walk to 
the corn-crib and eat corn as a sort of dessert. It 
also eats bread, cooked potato, and sweet-potato 
both raw and cooked. Ralph S. Tabs. 

Cambridge, Feb. 14. 

Language-teaching. 

The important subject of the teaching of modern 
languages having been discussed in the columns of 
Science, and no definite plans having been offered by 
either of the writers discussing it, perhaps the origi- 
nal and independent views of a practical teacher will 
not be unwelcome. 

It is obvious that a complete knowledge of a lan- 
guage consists, 1°, in having full command over the 
bodily organs through which it is either received or 
communicated to others, — viz, the vocal organs, 
ears, and eyes, — so as to be able to utter any sound 
like a native, to understand all that he says, and to 
read any book aloud in the proper manner ; 2°, in 
mastering those fundamental rules of grammar — in- 
cluding those of the verbs — indispensable in order 
to speak and write correctly ; 3°, in the possession of 
a fund of words and idiomatic forms for the expres- 
sion of ideas ; and, 4°, in the power of using these 
words and forms according to the special genius of 
the language studied. 

Sounds of the human voice are the vibrations of 
an expired current of air, produced by the vocal 
organs, which (in the case of the Frenoh pronuncia- 
tion) are, for the formation of every sound, in a fixed 
and determined position. In my book on pronunci- 
ation, ' French orthoepy,' I have indicated the rela- 
tive positions of the vocal muscles for every French 
articulation and vowel. The learner is trained, by 
means of different vocal exercises, to use the instru- 
ment of speech in exactly the same manner as the 
natives ; and, employing the same means, he must 
necessarily obtain the same result. These gymnas- 
tics of the voice are accomplished in a few short 
hours, and are an indispensable preliminary exer- 
cise before commencing the study proper of the 
language. 

Teaching a language without the few fundamental 
rules that regulate it, including those of the verbs, is 
depriving the student of a most valuable aid and 
guide ; while making grammar the all-important sub- 
ject, especially in the beginning, is to create a con- 
fusion in his mind, and to impede his progress. I 
have taken a middle course; and in my grammar will 
be found, in a concise form, only those general rules 
without which nobody can either speak or write 
properly. My grammatical exercises have been 
framed with the view of initiating the learner into 
the idioms and construction of the language. To 
avoid those disconnected and commonplace phrases 



158 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No>- 811 



generally found in French grammars, I have treated, 
in each of those exercises, one special subject. 

I have mode a synoptic table of thirteen lines, by 
which all verbs, regular or irregular, are conjugated, 
thus saving the student the monotony and annoyance 
of studying the verbs from memory by a new com- 
bination and arrangement. The student is thereby 
saved loss of time in writing endless conjugations of 
verbs. 

To make attractive and instructive a study which 
is too often wearisome and sterile, I have given, in 
the third volume of my series, a vocabulary, divided 
into chapters, each containing an interesting outline 
of stories bearing on a special subject, and compris- 
ing a list of the most useful and important words of 
the language in daily use. Thus a natural chain of 
ideas is formed, easily remembered, and which can 
be made the subject of a conversation and composi- 
tion, the student gaining in this way a thorough 
knowledge of the practical framework of the lan- 
guage. As soon as the student knows a few words 
of the vocabulary, these outlines are made the sub- 
jects of conversations between teacher and pupils, 
and, later on, between the pupils themselves. They 
are also employed in the form of narratives, by join- 
ing them together; and, by degrees, they are en- 
larged upon more and more. The fourth volume of 
my series, ' The modern French method/ comprises 
a series of words, idioms, and proverbs, forming 
skeleton narratives of travel, incident, and scenes, — 
romantic, dramatic, and oomic, — all fitted to elevate 
the mind and inspire noble thoughts : there are 
also sketches in geography, biography, and history 
to be used in conversation and composition. By the 
study of this work, the learner acquires the frame- 
work, words, and idioms for literary style ; and as 
every word, idiom, and proverb is properly located, 
the student will comprehend all their bearings by 
the context, and will know how to use them in their 
full meaning. A vast number of idiomatic questions 
are put upon the above-mentioned outline, and the 
answers are furnished by the student from the skele- 
ton, or framework, upon which he enlarges at will. In 
order that the learner should acquire self-reliance, and 
be able to express himself freely on literary subjects, 
and should get an elegant style of his own, he sets 
down in narrative form each lesson previously 
treated conversationally, by which means he can 
give free play to his imaginative faculties. 

The pupil, being constantly imbued with French 
ifleas, and accustomed to look at things from a French 
point of view, adapts himself to them, and neces- 
sarily expands his mental vision : and as a great 
number of the subjects he treats of arouse his moral 
sensibility, and are fitted to excite in his heart tender 
compassion, brotherly love, demotion to his fellows, 
and self-denial, his moral capacities must be, as a 
matter of course, enlarged. This method is easy 
and simple, interesting, natural, and practical ; and 
it relieves the student from much irksome and monot- 
onous labor. It trains the ear to the apprehension 
of the spoken language, and, by a systematic train- 
ing of the vocal organs, gives to the speaker a 
faultless Parisian pronunciation. The pupil is 
presented with a vocabulary so constructed that all 
the words, idioms, and proverbs form an intelligible 
outline of scenes and sketches, which the mind grasps 
and retains, while bringing out fully their individ- 
ual and conventional meanings. The pictures are 
made so vivid and obvious, and the words are so 



suggestive, that the memory is greatly assisted, and 
the aquirement of a stock of words becomes a mere 
pastime. These words are fixed in the mind of the 
student by frequent and pleasant repetition, and tiros 
memory is cultivated without straining; while, by 
means of idiomatic questions, educing appropriate an- 
swers, the learner is made acquainted with the peculiar 
genius of the French language. No English is either 
written or uttered during the course. The pupil finds 
in the book ample Tfag Hnh explanations, and is never 
left in the dark ; yet by degrees he becomes accus- 
tomed to think in French. 

Joseph D. Gatt,t,art>. 
New York, Feb. 11. 

Inertia-force. 

In Science of Feb. 11 Professor MacGregor has 
very courteously criticised my use of the idea which 
I have Bought to express by the term 'inertia- 
force ' in a pamphlet recently published. Professor 
MacGregor misunderstands me, however — or I mis- 
understand him. He quotes from my pamphlet the 
following passage : •' It one of the opposing applied 
forces is greater than the other, the greater will pre- 
vail, and a change of motion will occur, occasioning 
an inertia-force, which will work with the smaller 
applied force against the greater," and then says, 
" The inertia-force, therefore, is supposed to act on 
the body by which it is exerted." 

I am at a loss to understand how Professor Mac- 
Gregor makes this inference from the passage he 
quotes. I meant that the inertia- force works (* acts ' 
would be a better word) with the smaller applied 
force against the agent which exerts the greater 
force. Take this example : a train is being started 
by a locomotive. The forces applied to the train are 
the pull of the locomotive, and the smaller, opposing, 
force of friction. The pull of the locomotive pre- 
vails, but in prevailing it must deal not only with the 
resistance due to friction, but with the reaction 
(which also I call resistance) due to the inertia of the 
train. The friction resistance would be nearly the 
same whether the acceleration of the train were 
great or small ; but the resistance due to inertia, the 
inertia-resistance , or inertia-force, would be always 
proportional to the acceleration. 

The term * centrifugal force, 1 although I do not 
like it, does not excite in me the horror which Pro- 
fessor MacGregor evidently thinks it should occa- 
sion. I certainly should not say that a ball b winging 
in a circle at the end of a string connecting it with 
the centre of the circle is acted on by ' a force di- 
rected from the centre,' but I certainly should say 
that the ball acts upon the string with ' a force 
directed from the centre,' — a proposition which 
seems to me so plainly true that I think all difference 
of opinion as to its truth must arise from different 
interpretations of the word * force ' 

I suspect that Professor MacGregor and I do in- 
terpret that word somewhat differently. The fol- 
lowing quotation from Maxwell's 'Matter and mo- 
tion,' p. 78, seems to me to express my view with 
sufficient accuracy : — 

" As soon as we have formed for ourselves the 
idea of a stress, such as the tension of a rope or the 
pressure between two bodies, and have recognised 
its double aspect as it affects the two portions of 
matter between which it acts, the third law of mo- 
tion is seen to be equivalent to the statement that all 
force is of the nature of stress, that. stress exists 



Fdbimbt 18, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



159 



only between two portions of matter, and that its 
effects on these portions of matter (measured by the 
momentum generated in a given time) are equal and 
opposite. The stress is measured numerically by the 
force exerted on either of the two portion* of matter" 
(the italics are mine). 

In making this quotation, as in making other 
quotations from the same authority in my pamphlet, 
I appeal from Maxwell the critic to Maxwell the au- 
thor. The passage just quoted meets so many of the 
points raised by Professor MacGregor, that I shall 
trench upon your space no further now, except to 
thank Professor MacGregor for his general commen- 
dation of my pamphlet, and to say that I made my 
quotation from Minchin, not to suport my use of the 
term ' inertia force,' but because of its recognition 
of what Minchin there calls the 'kick' of a body 
1 against change of motion. 1 E. H. Hall. 

Cambridge, Maes., Feb. 18. 



German constructions. 

Permit me a few words apropos of the various let- 
ters called forth by my remarks about German scien- 
tific writings. To Mr. Eggert, who found fault with 
me so abundantly, there was no possibility of reply, 
as his motives were emotional, and criticism has 
nothing to take from emotion except sympathy to un- 
derstand. Mr. Eggert wrote, " ' M' assumes to judge 
of the literary qualifications of people who use a 
language with which he himself is less familiar than 
he is with French and English." I regret that he 
made this erroneous statement. But experience has 
shown, that, when people express opinions on sub- 
jects they know nothing about, they are not unapt to 
make serious mistakes, and so Mr. Eggert has blun- 
dered about my knowledge of languages. 

In regard to Mr. Lea's sentence with the six pronouns 
in execrable succession : is it much worse than the 
following sample of what is * grammatically good 
English? — " He said that that that that that man 
used was incorrect." 

Mr. Frazer gives a sentence, which he kindly ad- 
mits to be obscure, although it follows upon the ex- 
pression of bis admiration of the lucidity of that kind 
of emboUement phraseology. He admires even this 
sentence, Dem, der den, der die, das Verbot enthalt- 
ende Tafel abgerissen hat, anzeigt, wird hierdurch 
eine Belohnung zugesichert, — " because it says in 
eighteen words and ninety-five letters what cannot 
[ticf] be literally translated into English in less than 
nineteen words and one hundred and four letters. 1 ' 
A very small difference! Suppose one exclaims 
'tram' 'Pferdebahnwagen,' — one word and four 
letters, and one word and fifteen letters ; or * wood- 
master ' and ' Holzversorgungsinspector.' In Aus- 
tria the full title of the official is kaiserlich-kOniglich- 
8taat8eisenbahnholzversorgungsinspector. Such petty 
comparisons are, of course, only jeux-d* esprit, and 
have little argumentative value. 

To return : the English of Mr. Frazer's perspica- 
cious phrase might be ; in strictly literal translation : 
"A reward is hereby promised to whomever tells 
who removed the warning sign," — thirteen words 
and sixty-two letters; or if we put, as would be 
natural in English, * notice' instead of * warning 
sign,' twelve words and fifty-seven letters. There is 
some difficulty, as there is no exact equivalent for 
Verbot. In English, ' die das Verbot enthaltende 
Tafel ' might well be * notice to trespassers,' or some- 



thing of the kind. It would be interesting to known 
what Mr. Frazer's lengthy translation was: it can 
hardly have been any thing but a ludicrous render- 
ing of word for word, and not real English at all, 
either in spirit or construction. The example will 
serve my purpose: German permits very lengthy 
and involved sentences, — I think of my friend, a 
distinguished professor, who rejoiced that the twelfth 
part of a work on mineralogy had come ; it com- 
pleted, he said, the first volume, and he hoped to 
find the verb in the second ! — a mere droll exagger- 
ation. But what must be the possibilities of a lan- 
guage when such a joke about it makes one laugh ? 
The gist of the whole matter is, that a great many 
German writers do display the bad possibilities of 
their tongue ; and when Mr. Frazer says that the best 
writers seldom or never use the involved sentences, 
he makes an implication about the good and medio- 
cre writers which shows that he agrees in reality 
with the general opinion that German authors have 
too frequently a faulty and obscure style. I com- 
mend to his notice Matthew Arnold's criticisms on 
the Germans, or Bivarol's. M. 

Boston, Feb. 10. 



On certain electrical phenomena. 

At one time it was very hard for me to believe, in- 
deed, that any person living possessed such a power 
as being able to shuffle across the carpet of a room, 
and light the gas as it issued from the jet of the 
burner, by simply touching it with the tip of the 
finger. I have at present, however, two friends, at 
least, among my acquaintances, who seem to be ca- 
pable of performing this feat at all times, and under 
any circumstances. Now, I find similar phenomena 
exhibited to a very high degree in my own person, 
at Fort Wingate here. This point is over 6,000 feet 
above sea-level ; the only water in the neighborhood 
is a small pond — a puddle, really — and a few insig- 
nificant springs. The air is usually clear, and highly 
rarified ; indeed, all the conditions seem to be favor- 
able to the exhibition of electrical appearances. 

Only the other day, while pacing my room, passing, 
as I did so, each time, over a large woollen Navajo 
blanket that lay spread out on the floor, a circum- 
stance arose which called upon me to touch the cast- 
iron urn that ornamented the top of* a small wood- 
stove in the apartment, and which had a fire in it at 
the time. Before the tip of my index finger touched 
it, by a distance of fully a centimetre, there was 
displayed in the intervening space a brilliant elec- 
tric flash, accompanied by a report that could be 
distinctly heard in the adjoining room above ordi- 
nary conversation. The experiment was repeated 
three or four times, but the display became more and 
more feeble with each trial ; it regained its original 
force, however, after I paced across the blanket 
on the floor a few times. Additional experimenta- 
tion went to show that this electrical discharge was 
considerably greater from the tip of the index finger 
than from any of the others of the hand, and grad- 
ually diminished in regular order as we proceeded to 
the little finger ; and, further, it seemed in my case, 
more evident in the left index rather than in the 
right one. When all ten finger-tips were drawn to- 
gether and then brought up to within a centimetre's 
distance of this stove-urn, the flash and report ap- 
peared no greater than it did from the index finger 
alone. 



160 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. DL, No. 311 



At times, apparently depending upon the meteoro- 
logical conditions, my entire system seems to become 
thoroughly charged with this animal electricity, and 
most small objects crackle and snap as I handle 
them, leaving, as night draws near, an uncomfort- 
able, aching sensation in my arm, and extending 
more or less down my side. During these same 
times, should my wife take any small object from my 
hand (as a draughting-pen, or the sponge-glass upon 
which such a pen is cleansed) an electrical report 
follows the contact, that can be distinctly heard 
throughout a large room. On the other hand, I had 
occasion to examine an injury of the back in a young 
mulatto girl of about fifteen years of age, a few days 
•ago, when, with my right hand resting upon her 
shoulder, and my left making the required examina- 
tion, there instantly followed for me a sense of the 
most profound relief, as if it were that all the elec- 
tricity in my system had been completely withdrawn 
by the act. This girl, during a stay of nearly three 
years at Fort Wingate, has never been conscious of 
■any electrical phenomena associated with herself, 
similar to those which I have experienced. Previous 
to coming here, I had resided about a year in Wash- 
ington, where I had never observed such exhibitions, 
so far as my own person was concerned, and they 
•only gradually developed at this place. 

I write a great deal, sometimes six and eight hours 
consecutively, and I find the only kind of pen-holder 
**■ that I can use with comfort is a rubber one, and even 
then the constant passage of the electricity is exceed- 
ingly exhausting during the most of the time. Late 
the other evening, having written about eight hours 
•during the day, I threw myself upon a thick, woolen 
Navajo blanket which covered an iron-frame bed in 
my study. I was tired and nervous, and having lain 
there about half an hour I arose suddenly, and, being 
a little dazed and drowsy, I seized hold of the iron 
frame of the bed to steady myself : the act was fol- 
lowed by an electrical shook that nearly threw me to 
the floor, but it was not accompanied by any audible 
report. B. W. Shttfbldt. 

Fort Wingate, New Mexico, Feb. & 



Osteological notes. 

In passing through the exhibition-rooms of the 
Museum of comparative zoology not long since, my 
attention was called to the fact that the skeleton of 
the Bison bonasus presented a rudimentary second 
metacarpal, while the Bison americanus at its side 
exhibited the customary fifth metacarpal; in other 
words; that the single splint-bone which was present on 
each skeleton occupied exactly opposite positions, 
that of the American bison being on the outer, while 
that of the auroch was on the inner side of the limb. 
This singular difference I at once attributed to care- 
lessness in the mounting of the preparation, without 
giving the matter further thought. The subject, 
however, being again incidentally brought up, I 
thought it worthy of investigation. 

Close examination of the parts in question showed 
•satisfactorily that they occupied their normal posi- 
tion, that the diarthrodial facet for the articulation of 
the osseous stylet was behind and to the inside of 
the superior extremity of the principal metacarpal, 
•and that there was no corresponding facet upon the 
outside of the same bone. 

In the ruminating sections of the artiodactyla, as 
is well known, the second and fifth metacarpals are 



always reduced to mere representatives of their prox- 
imal extremities, and in some cases are entirely ab- 
sent, as in the giraffe, prong-buck, and in some of the 
antelopes, as well as in the camels. In the Cerridae 
the three phalanges of the second and fifth digits 
are present, articulated to the distal ends of their 
respective metacarpals, which gradually taper to a 
point upwards. In some species, in addition, a small 
fraction of the proximal extremity of the fifth meta- 
carpal is found. In the wapiti (Cervus canadensis) 
the styliform rudiments of the proximal extremities 
of both splint-bones are present. In the Bovinae, 
as a general rule, it is the rudimentary proximal end 
of the fifth metacarpal that is exhibited. In looking 
over the collection of skeletons of Bison americanus 
in the museum, I found no exception to this condi- 
tion. In the skeletons of Bos taurus, however, 
although the rule held the same, there were excep- 
tions. In one case the rudimentary proximal ends 
of both second and fifth metacarpals were equally de- 
veloped. In several others the stylet of the second 
was present, but relatively very diminutive. In 
others, in place of a distinct rudimentary ossicle, 
there was an ossific deposit upon the canon- 
bone, simulating by its shape and position the 
undeveloped proximal end of the second metacarpal. 

The only other skeleton of Bison bonasus in this 
country, to my knowledge, is in the possession of the 
Smithsonian institution. In answer to my inquiries, 
Mr. True, the curator, kindly wrote as follows : " I 
have examined the skeleton of Biflon bonasus, and 
find that the metacarpals of the second and fifth 
digits are developed about equally at the proximal 
end. The largest rudiment is 55 mm. long : this is 
on the outside of the right leg. On the left leg, how- 
ever, the larger rudiment is the inner one." 

Upon the skeleton in the Cambridge museum the 
rudimentary metacarpals of the second digit are 
both equally developed, and measure 67 nun. in 
length, while there is not a trace of the fifth. 

Owen, who is the only written authority upon the 
anatomy of the European bison, says in his * Anatomy 
of vertebrates, 1 "In the bison the bones of the 
spurious hoofs consist, in each, of the middle and 
distal phalanges; and there is a styliform repre- 
sentative of the proximal end of their respective 
metacarpals articulated in the fore-foot, one to the 
connate trapezoid, the other to the unciform and 
cuneiform bones." 

The modifications which prevail in the construc- 
tion and number of the digits of the Ungulata are 
in many points of view extremely interesting. The 
above data are too fragmentary upon which to draw 
conclusions, but possibly they have their value. 

D. D. SLADB, M.D. 
Cambridge, Mass., Feb. 7. 



Respiration and pulse-rate of foreign residents. 

I should be pleased to learn from your subscribers, 
born in England or upon the continent of Europe, 
whether they have observed any variation in the 
respiration and pulse-rate since becoming oitiaens of 
the United States. The reports, to be of any scien- 
tific value, should contain full statement of any 
change in occupation or manner of life, as well as 
difference of latitude and elevation above the sea, 
and the effect of such variation upon the general 
health. Edwabd T. Nkubon. 

Delaware, O., Feb. 9. 



SCIENCE -Supplement. 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1887. 



ASPECTS OF EDUCATION. 
I. — Humanism. 

Since the revival of learning, secondary educa- 
tion in Europe has passed through three phases, 
which may be conveniently called humanism, 
realism, and naturalism. The first is grounded 
upon the study of language, and especially of the 
two dead languages, Greek and Latin. The second 
is based upon the study of things instead of words, 
the education of the mind through the eye and the 
hand. Closely connected with this, is the study 
of those things which may be of direct influence 
upon and direct importance to life. The third is 
not, in the first instance, study at all. It is an at- 
tempt to build up the whole nature of the man ; 
to educate, first his body, then his character, and 
lastly his mind. All theories of education which 
have taken a practical form during the last three 
handred years may be ranged under one or other 
of these three heads. Modern education, as we 
know it, is an unconscious, but not the less a 
real, compromise between the three ends. If we 
consider each separately, we shall be in the best 
position to understand the system to which they 
have given rise. 

It is important to remember that the reforma- 
tion in Europe happened at the time when the 
best European intellects were directed towards the 
study of the classics. This was not a mere coinci- 
dence. The revival of learning, as it is called, 
that is, the closer and more intimate acquaintance 
with Greek and Latin texts, which had before 
been known through translations and paraphrases, 
was in itself the principal cause of a reformation. 
The critical spirit thus engendered, the dissatisfac- 
tion aroused with the teaching of the old religion, 
the revolt against the schoolmen, were also effi- 
cient in bringing about the reformation. The 
education of the middle ages was encyclopedic, 
in aim if not in reality. The seven-years course 
of study — trivium and quadrivium — was in- 
tended to comprise every thing that a man need 
know. Grammar taught the whole science of 
words, dialectics furnished a scholar with the 
whole armor of argument, rhetoric invested him 
not only with eloquence in speech but with the 
more graceful gifts of poetry and imagination. 
The science of music, the science of numbers, the 



power of measuring the earth and the heavens* 
furnished out the completely educated man. 
Hand-books of the middle ages intended for students 
cover the whole ground of human knowledge* 
The • Tresor * of Brunetto Latini, the master of Dante* 
is divided into three books; the first book into 
five parts, the last two into two parts each. The 
first book speaks of the origin of all things. After 
this comes philosophy, divided into its two com- 
ponent parts of theory and practice. Theory has 
three great divisions, — theology, the knowledge of 
God ; physics, the knowledge of the world ; and 
mathematics, the knowledge of the four sciences 
which form the quadrivium. Practice has also 
three divisions, — ethics, to teach us how to govern 
ourselves ; economics, to teach us how to govern 
our family and our belongings ; and politics, the 
highest of all sciences and the most noble of hu- 
man occupations, which teaches us to govern 
towns, kingdoms, and nations, in both peace and 
war. As a prelude to these nobler sciences stand 
the preliminary arts of grammar, dialectics, and 
rhetoric. 

It is true that before the reformation this noble 
plan of education had become narrowed and for- 
malized. The church had pressed all knowledge 
into its service, and no form of knowledge was 
highly valued which did not contribute to the ser- 
vice of the church. The methods of teaching 
became corrupted : memory was substituted for 
thought. There was a striking contrast between 
the high aims of the best part of the middle ages 
and the scanty attainments of its decadence : but 
the shell was still there, and as long as that re- 
mained, life might be poured into it. 

The renaissance swept away this effort as a 
dream. Scholars brought face to face with Virgil 
and Horace, with Cicero and Plato, were so won 
by the charm of a new and marvellous language, 
that all their strength was spent in explaining and 
appreciating it. The literary results of the renais- 
sance were twofold. On the one hand, it aroused 
the pure enjoyment of literary form and expres- 
sion ; on the other, by stimulating a more exact 
scholarship and a more minute philosophy, it 
urged on the human mind to inquiry and to rebel- 
lion. 

Just as the stream of this revival was in full 
flood, the reformation came, and separated the 
culture of Protestants from that of the old church. 
We do not sufficiently realize what a wrench this 
was. We are so accustomed to regard Protestant- 



J 62 



SCIENCE. 



|Vou IX . No. 211 



ism as a stimulus to independence and originality of 
thought, that we do not consider what a loss was 
at first suffered by the breach with the old reli- 
gion. The whole culture of the middle ages was 
intimately connected with the church. If we 
take Dante as an example, who was steeped in all 
the knowledge of his time, we find that, in every 
thing be wrote, the ecclesiastical aspect is as 
prominent as the poetical. There is no moment 
when he has not an equal right to stand among 
the doctors of theology and with the poets of Par- 
nassus. Those who broke with the church of 
Rome had to create a culture of their own, and 
the culture which they created was naturally that 
which then prevailed in the church which they 
were leaving. 

It was this that gave Melancbthon his importance 
in the reformation, and that earned for him the 
name of the ' teacher of Germany.' He was by 
nature an exact scholar. He was well read in 
both Greek and Latin. He may have intended to 
fill up the other divisions of learning, but both his 
taste and his powers led him to confine himself to 
those departments in which he excelled. He said 
to his school-boys, ' Whatever you wish to learn, 
learn grammar first.' He recommended the study 
of Cicero, Livy, Virgil, Ovid, and Quintilian, and 
among Greek writers, Homer, Herodotus, Demos- 
thenes, and Lucian. He recommended the writ- 
ing of Latin letters and Latin verses, with Latin 
speeches and themes for the more advanced stu- 
dents. 

Melanchthon might have intended, if life lasted, 
to deal successively with other branches of the 
mediaeval curriculum, but his own tastes and the 
success of his first efforts determined his whole 
career. He made the study of language in all its 
branches current coin for Protestants, but here he 
stopped. 

Whatever may have been the influence of Me- 
lanchthon on Protestant schools, there is no doubt 
that they received their form from John Sturm 
of Strasburg, who was rector of Strasburg high 
school for forty-five years, from 1538 to 1588. We 
find his name in the pages of Ascham, and it is 
very probable that his plan of study formed the 
model on which the new college of Westminster 
was organized, but his influence extended not only 
to England but to all Protestant countries. He 
was a politician as well as a school-master ; and 
was in constant correspondence with the leaders 
of the Protestant party all over Europe. His great 
powers were devoted to an elaborate plan for 
teaching the Latin language, in all its extent and 
in its fullest elegance, to school-boys. We have a 
complete account of the organization of his school, 
and there is this remarkable fact about it, — the 



boys were not only made to proceed from step to 
step towards final excellence, but they were 
strictly prohibited from taking more than one 
step at a time. In the examinations which were 
held at the close of each year, it was not only a 
crime to have omitted to learn the set subjects for 
that period, but it was as great a crime to have 
learned more than had been set Not only was 
the human mind tied and bound within the limits 
of a curriculum, but individual minds were pro- 
hibited from outstepping the limits of that curri- 
culum in any particular. Sturm must be regarded, 
more than any one else, as the creator for Protest- 
ants of the classical system of English public- 
school education as it is remembered by many 
who are still living. In this system, boys began 
to learn the Latin grammar before they learned 
English grammar; they were set to do Latin 
verses before they could write Latin prose. The 
Latin taught was not the masculine language of 
Lucretius and Caesar, but the ornate and artificial 
diction of Horace and Virgil, and, above all, of 
Cicero. There is no doubt that this system, nar- 
row and faulty as it was, gave a good education, 
so long as people believed in it. To know Horace 
and Virgil by heart became the first duty of an 
English gentleman. Speeches in parliament were 
considered incomplete if they did not contain at 
least one Latin quotation. A false quantity was 
held to be a greater crime than a slip in logical 
argument. Cicero not only influenced the educa- 
tion of English statesmen, but had no inconsider- 
able effect upon their conduct. The vanity of 
self-inspection, the continual reference to what is 
dignified and becoming, coupled with a high- 
minded devotion to duty and a strong if some- 
what romantic patriotism, distinguished English 
statesmen in the eighteenth century as much as 
they distinguished the great orator of Rome. 

There is, indeed, much to be said for humanis- 
tic training as a discipline of the mind. It is true 
that it deals only with words, and its highest 
efforts are, to decide what expression is absolutely 
best under certain circumstances. It is no light 
thing to render an English sentence, ornate and 
idiomatic, into a Latin sentence which exactlv 
represents its meaning and which is equally ornate 
and idiomatic. It is difficult to analyze the subtle 
tact by which a scholar decides a particular reading 
in a particular passage to be right and all other 
readings to be wrong, or by which he determines 
one Latin or Greek verse to be so decidedly superior 
to another, that their comparative merit admits of 
no argument or hesitation. Anj number of com- 
petently trained scholars would agree together in 
a matter of this kind, and yet it is entirely beyond 
argument that not one of them, if cross-examined 



February 18, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



163 



in a witness-box, could give reasons for his judg- 
ment which would satisfy a jury. The question 
is determined by the most delicate weighing of 
probabilities, by a subtle tact similar to that by 
which the most complicated operation of an artifi- 
cer is carried on. Is not this the very process 
which we have to apply to the most difficult prob- 
lems of life? The organon of mathematical 
reasoning is a far clumsier and blunter instrument 
than the organon by which humanistic difficulties 
are decided, while the organon of scientific rea- 
soning is clumsier and blunter still. Mathematics 
deals for the most part with things which can be 
accurately apprehended by the mind. It aims, 
more than anything else, at exactness, and 
although in its higher branches it admits hypoth- 
eses of probability, yet its principal object is cer- 
tainty. Science goes farther than this ; it not 
only admits certainty of apprehension, but it 
claims that it should touch, see, and handle the 
matters with which it deals. Few results can 
stand this coarse analysis. If biology and chem- 
istry refuse to acknowledge any truth which can- 
not be demonstrated to the senses, they put out of 
their reach those truths which are the most im- 
portant to know, and which can be arrived at by 
probability alone. If methematics admits of de- 
monstation which shall give a clear proof to any 
one who asks it, it removes from its sphere those 
judgments which rest upon the trained instinct 
of experts, and which can only be made clear to 
one who has undergone a similar training. 

Regarded from this point of view, humanism 
was no bad preparation for active life or for de- 
votion to any other study. It had the advantage 
of being small in compass, and of limits which 
were easily ascertained. Devotion to humanistic 
studies, properly understood, did not exclude ap- 
plication to other studies which might be con- 
sidered more grave and important. William Pitt, 
chancellor of the exchequer at twenty-two, prime 
minister at twenty-four, was a first-rate humanist, 
as he was an excellent mathematician ; but this 
did not prevent him from being an admirable 
orator, a close reasoner, a profound student of 
history and politics, and a political economist far 
in advance of his time. Much as we may regret 
that education in Protestant countries, especially 
in England, Holland, and Sweden, was narrowed 
by the humanistic tendency, we must not refuse 
to give that training all the credit which it de- 
serves. Oscar Browning. 



Of 250 railway employees examined in Buda- 
pest by Lichtenberg, 86.8 per cent were found to 
have impaired hearing, — a result which is cer- 
tainly startling. 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION IN NEW YORK 
STATE IN 1886. 

The advance sheets of the annual report of the 
superintendent of public instruction of New York 
state, Andrew S. Draper, while not containing the 
full tables of statistics and the appendices that 
will accompany the full report, enable us to judge 
of the work of the past year. 

The aggregate amount of money expended by 
the department during the year was $18,896,- 
884.08, and it covers the expenses of supervision, 
of normal schools, teachers' institutes, Indian 
schools, and institutions for the deaf, dumb, and 
blind. It does not include the expenses of those 
parts of the school system that come immediately 
under the supervision of the regents of the uni- 
versity. The total number of teachers employed 
was 81,825, of whom 25,878 were females. The 
average annual salary of teachers was $701.81 in 
the cities, and $261.66 in the towns. The num- 
ber of children of school age — between 5 and 21 
years — was 1,785,078. The number who attended 
the public schools at some time during the year 
was 1,027,767 ; the average daily attendance was 
625,818. The whole number instructed in the 
common schools, normal school, academies, col- 
leges, private schools, and law and medical schools, 
was 1,212,827. The average number of weeks 
taught was, in the cities, 89.7, in the towns ; 88.6. 

From the data collected, it seems that fifty-nine 
per cent of the school population attended the 
public schools at some time during the year, 
against sixty-nine per cent in 1870. At first 
sight this number seems very small, but its small- 
ness is apparent rather than real ; for all persons 
between the ages of five and twenty-one are 
. reckoned as of school age, and it is therefore pos- 
sible for a boy to be returned as not attending 
school who has been fifteen years a pupil. 
Furthermore, it must be recollected that among 
the forty-one per cent of non-attending children 
are reckoned all these who attend private schools 
and academies ; and in a state like New York, 
which contains a very large urban population, 
the number of pupils in private schools and 
academies will be very large : so the figures as to 
school attendance cited above, and which first 
meet the eye in reading the report, are mislead- 
ing. In another paragraph, however, Superin- 
tendent Draper makes the direct statement that 
the number of pupils in the public schools, pri- 
vate schools, and academies, at some time during 
the year, was sixty-eight per cent of the school 
population. 

Mr. Draper finds that the compulsory-education 
act of 1874 has not only been ineffectual, but that 
in its present form it is hardly capable of being 



164 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. til 



made to operate successfully. He says that < ' school 
trustees elected to supervise the schools, and serv- 
ing without any compensation, naturally object 
to being turned into constables and police officers 
for the purpose of apprehending delinquent chil- 
dren or the children of delinquent parents. More- 
over, the schools are full. In most of the cities, 
the accomodations are taxed to the utmost. Any 
effectual execution of the law would at onoe cre- 
ate the necessity for additional buildings in every 
city of the state. But, notwithstanding these 
considerations, the problem cannot safely -be 
treated with indifference by the state." 

The normal-school work in the state seems to 
be in excellent condition. There are nine normal 
schools, employing 128 teachers, and having a 
total enrolment of 5,608. While these schools are 
in good bands, and doing excellent work, yet 
they are inadequate, for as now operated they do 
not' fill one in ten of the vacancies occurring in the 
ranks of the thirty thousand common-school 
teachers of the state. The superintendent urges 
that the normal schools might accomplish larger 
results should they spend less time in foundation 
work, and confine themselves to special training 
and practice. Moreover, some scheme should be 
devised to bring the normal schools to a substan- 
tial uniformity, instead of leaving them so sub- 
ject to local demands and influences as they now 
are. 

After treating of the various other subjects 
that have come under bis supervision, Mr. Draper 
concludes his report with some general observa- 
tions and suggestions of more than local or state 
application. He inquires whether, since the state 
of New York is now spending $14,000,000 annual- 
ly in support of its public school system, it would 
not be a good idea to spend a few thousand dol- 
lars, once in a while, in determining how to spend 
this vast sum to the best advantage. " Is our 
education as practical as it might be? Do we 
reach all the children we ought ? In our ardor 
over the high schools, which nine-tentbs of our 
children never reach, have we not neglected the 
low schools ? Is there not too much French, and 
German, and Latin, and Greek, and too little 
spelling, and writing, and mental arithmetic, and 
English grammar being taught ? Have we been 
as ambitious of progress in the lower grades as in 
the advanced ? Are not our courses of study too 
complex ? Are we not undertaking to do more 
than we are doing well? Is not the examina- 
tion business being overdone? Are we not cram- 
ming with fads, which will soon be forgotten, in 
order to pass examinations, rather than instilling 
principles which will endure ? Is not our educa- 
tion running on the line of intellectuality alone ? 



Are we educating the whole man ? Are we not 
giving up moral training more than we ought, be- 
cause of the danger of trenching upon sectarian- 
ism ? Is there no way of adhering to the one, and 
avoiding the other? Are we doing what we 
might in the way of physical culure ? Ought not 
the state to do something at least to encourage in- 
dustrial schools? Would we not secure better 
schools in the country if the township was the unit 
of government rather than the present school 
district ? Does not the present arrangement help 
the well-to-do and leave the poor to get along as 
best they may ? Should not the law which fixes 
five and twenty-one years as the limits of school 
age be changed to six and sixteen years? Is it 
not time to forbid the diversion of library moneys 
from their legitimate uses, or to provide that they 
may be expended for school apparatus instead of 
teachers' wages? Is our system of apportioning 
public moneys the wisest and the best? Is there 
no way of specially aiding the small, remote, and 
poor districts? Do our different classes of educa- 
tional work supplement each other and fit to- 
gether so as to make a symmetrical and complete 
system, and do they co-operate as they might and 
ought ? " 

As Mr. Draper adds, these are Bve questions, 
and appeal to educators the world over. To an- 
swer them, he makes the suggestive recommenda- 
tion that a council of say thirty eminent educa- 
tors, representing college, normal school, high 
school, and common school alike, be called, to 
meet at Albany to discuss these questions and 
make such recommendations and suggestions 
concerning them as it sees fit. In New Jersey, 
a state council of this sort is in process of organ- 
ization, in pursuance of President Meleney's 
recommendation, made to the state teachers at 
their annual association meeting in Trenton last 
December ; but there, it is unofficial, the first move 
having been made by the teachers. If it is wisely 
constituted, it should become an educational fac- 
tor of great force in the state ; and if Superin- 
tendent Draper's plan is carried into effect. New 
York state will have a similar body of representa- 
tive advisers on educational subjects. 



THE TRAINING OF THE FACULTIES OF 
JUDGMENT AND REASONING. 1 — II. 

I now proceed to show how some of our school 
subjects may be employed in the systematic train- 
ing of the judgment and the reasoning powers. 1 
Bhall follow, as nearly as possible, the order laid 
down in the previous article. 

The lessons which I have described under these 

i From the Journal of education, a paper read before the 
Education society, Oct. 95, 188*. 



February 18, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



165 



heads, when illustrating the training of the faculty 
of conception, will serve admirably for exercising 
the child in forming implicit and explicit judg- 
ments, and in making statements concerning the 
striking attributes of things. For material ob- 
jects, chalk, salt, coal, and the common metals 
will afford us numerous lessons ; and so will the 
series of inquiries into the nature, properties, and 
action of water, so admirably described in Hux- 
teys 'Introductory science primer.' For form, 
we may use the regular solids, surfaces, and lines ; 
while botany and natural history will provide an 
inexhaustible supply of lessons on life. ! The main 
thing will be to make sure that the child states, 
in clear, unambiguous language (which he under- 
stands), only such facts as he has really observed. 
Classification will inevitably introduce the forma- 
tion of judgments, and definition will involve the 
patting of them into words. 9 But better, at this 
stage, than classification or definition, will be a 
simple narrative, given by the child, of what he 
has seen in the above lessons, or of what has hap- 
pened to him during the past week or on some 
specially marked occasion. 

Later, propositions may be presented to the 
child for acceptance or rejection, those being the 
best which c*n readily be shown to be true or 
false. Perhaps the easiest of such propositions will 
concern number and magnitude. For number, 
the simplest problems of arithmetic are ready to 
hand : even such as the old catch, * which would 
you rather have, six dozen dozen, or half a dozen 
dozen?' will be useful. For magnitude, we may 
take such a problem as the arranging of a number 
of fractions in the order of their value, or a com- 
parison of incomes derived from investments in 
different stocks, every step in the proofs being 
clearly indicated and explained. If we desire to 
be more concrete, we may choose such a problem 
as the finding of the shortest distance between two 
points,—* placing the two points on the blackboard 
and letting a piece of string hang in a loop be- 
tween them, showing how it projects beyond them 
when pulled straight ; and then beginning with 
it straight, and showing how its ends must ap- 
proach one another in order to allow the string 
to hang in a loop ; and so on through the many 
simple problems of practical geometry. But the 

1 See the admirable list of lessons under the heads of 
'Form and space: Material and force: Life and organic 
products,' given by Dr. Wormell, in his paper on 'The 
teaching of elementary science,' in the Educational Umt* y 
March, 1886. 

' By classification and definition, I, of course, do not mean 
here the complete, full-grown acts of the adult, but the imper- 
fect gradually-growing acts of the child. We are too often 
given to ignoring that there must be a growth and progress 
In these processes as in every thing else which a child him- 
*lfdoes. 



opportunities for exercising judgments are -too 
numerous to need particular mention. Let us 
only bear in mind the order of their difficulty, and 
very soon introduce reasoning side by side with 
them. 

At an early stage, you will remember, the child 
is to be encouraged to search for causes. Here, 
again, a wide field lies before us. The only diffi- 
culty is what to choose. Again, our only guide is 
the order of nature and simplicity. The reason 
why fire burns the hand, or why a book, when let 
go, falls, is difficult and complicated. But it is 
simple to discover why, if I divide a sheet of paper 
into four equal parts and take three of them, I 
get the same amount as when I divide it into eight 
equal parts and take six of them. At a much 
more advanced stage, we may attempt to find the 
reason why, if a number is divisible by nine, the 
sum of its digits is also divisible by nine ; while 
aH the simpler theorems of abstract geometry 
will supply the young inquirer with numberless 
examples fairly within his power — the theorems 
being put in the form of questions (why is a cer- 
tain fact true? or, is it true or not true?). The 
main difficulties about causes lie in there being 
more than one of them at a time at work, and in. 
their being hard to find. At first, therefore, the 
cases we choose should involve only single causes, 
and those very evident. Later we may proceed 
to such lessons as those on the forms of water, in 
Huxley's 'Introductory primer,' which I have 
already referred to, and which introduce more 
than one cause, — change of temperature and 
change of pressure, for instance, in the cases ox 
evaporation and condensation. But even here we 
may make things much simpler by taking one 
agent at a time and noting its effect, instead of 
seeking for all the causes of some phenomenon. 
So we may note the effect of beat and of cold on 
water separately, the nature of steam, the ef- 
fect of sudden change of density on moist air in 
the bell of an air-pump. A most interesting lesson 
may be given by gathering from our pupils, and 
discussing, all the instances we can of the disap- 
pearance of water — apparently into the air: 
clothes hung up to dry, wet pavements after a 
shower, water in a kettle boiled away, etc., etc. 
Again, the re-appearance of moisture from the air : 
the cold plate held over the steam from the spout of 
a kettle, the moisture on the outside of a glass of 
iced-water, dew when the sky is clear and the 
night fine, the washing-house, etc., etc. Then, 
the experiment with moist air in the bell of the 
air-pump, — the formation of the cloud due to the 
sudden lessening of pressure, the cloud depositing 
its moisture on the glass, and so on. We note the 
frequent, if not unvarying, concomitant in each 



166 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 211 



case, assume it as a cause, make further experi- 
ments on this assumption, in the way described in 
the ' method of experiment,' given above. 

Causes may also be dealt with in our history 
lessons in numberless ways,— especially when the 
children are encouraged to bring their practical 
knowledge of modern things to bear on things of 
the past. The causes of the English settlement 
in Britain, of the invasions of the Norsemen and 
Danes, can be made fairly clear by the light of 
modern emigration and immigration. Why the 
English chose John for king, and their fellow-sub- 
jects on the continent (at least some of them) 
chose Arthur, will not be difficult for the children 
to discover ; while, starting from our modern ag- 
ricultural troubles, we may attempt a more elab- 
orate chain of reasoning and accumulation of 
causes in explanation of the peasant revolt in the 
latter part of the fourteenth century. I do not 
think it will be needful for me to go into detail, 
— the demands of the peasants, the actual occur- 
rences of the rebellion, and the events which im- 
mediately preceded and followed it, will suggest 
sufficient causes to the teacher and his pupils, and 
into these, investigation may then be made. Nor 
need I point out how strikingly suggestive of an 
explanation recent events have been, — distress of 
a general character, agricultural distress and dis- 
agreements, political discontent,. the introduction 
of the element of rowdyism, socialism, wanton 
destruction of property by the regular London 
mob . even the guardians of order appear to have 
been as paralyzed and useless in this town of Lon- 
don on the one occasion as on the other. The 
analogy is strikingly complete. But we must be 
careful. Analogies are dangerous things, and are 
wont to carry us too far, and to make us read into 
a case evidence not really there. They should sug- 
gest the direction and nature of our inquiries, 
rather than be taken as in themselves sufficient 
explanations. But, after all, the great thing in 
work of this kind is to choose our subject-matter 
from common every -day events and things, or to 
bring what we choose at once into as close a rela- 
tion as is possible with every -day experience and 
modern doings ; moreover, we need not exhaust, 
or attempt to exhaust, all the causes for our phe- 
nomena. Provided that the children are made 
and kept keenly aware that there are other causes 
besides those we are considering, we shall do no 
harm in confining ourselves to the most promi- 
nent. 

In the work we have been describing, we shall 
gradually have advanced from individuals to 
classes, — the statements at which we have been 
arriving will have contained predicates more and 
more general, and more and more abstract. Now 



we may begin to check and correct misstate- 
ments, to curb exaggerations, and to encourage 
the child to make more marked distinction be- 
tween fancy and reality. We may begin some 
simple deduction, consisting of the application of 
some simple general principles, or general conclu- 
sions, to the explanation and solution of particular 
cases. Arithmetic and algebra — and, later, some 
of our language work — will be found of great 
assistance here. We could hardly begin with 
any thing better, perhaps, than the deduction of 
the rules for the multiplication and division of 
vulgar fractions from the general principles that 
regulate the nature of a vulgar fraction, and from 
the general principles of multiplication and divis- 
ion. 

The ways of doing this are numerous, and 
familiar to every one : we, of course, generally be- 
gin by establishing the rules referring to those 
changes in the form of a fraction which do not 
affect its value, and in making clear the fact that 
the numerator and denominator of a fraction may 
be treated as the dividend and divisor of a sum in 
division ; or, to put it concisely, such an expres- 
sion as | of 1 is the same as i of 2. But whatever 
plan we adopt, of this we should take the great- 
est care, — that our reasoning is strictly and hon- 
estly deductive, and that its wording and its cogency 
are both thoroughly understood and appreciated 
by our pupijs. This, however, is just the very 
thing that teachers, as a rule, will not take the 
trouble to do. They are in too great a hurry to 
get to the working of sums, — the mechanical 
manipulation of figures or symbols. This they 
seem to look upon as the great end of arithmetic 
work : and, when their pupils have applied a rule, 
never clearly understood, to some hundred per- 
fectly mechanical examples, the teacher will 
lead them on with the utmost complacency to an- 
other mechanical exercise. Shall I be exaggerat- 
ing if I say that more than half the teachers of 
arithmetic to children are unable to explain clearly 
to any one, when the time for explanation comes, 
the principles of , say short division? Not because 
the matter is abstruse and difficult, but because 
they have never thought it necessary to under- 
stand those principles. 

The principles of the method of deduction, 
however, will come out more clearly in some of 
the problems of algebra, — such as the theory of 
indices, — and in simple propositions of theoretical 
geometry. It is lamentable how seldom one gets 
so easy a piece of reasoning as the theory of in- 
dices clearly and correctly set forth by pupils whom 
no diabolic complication of quantities and signs 
and brackets can dismay. They can manipulate 
almost any thing ; they can reason out nothing. 



TmvAS* 18, 188?.] 



SCIENCE. 



167 



The former is good enough in its way ; but to 
omit the reasoning is, to my mind, to omit the 
most valuable part of the training. The text- 
books are, in a measure, to blame for this. We 
want the stages of the work more clearly marked, 
— the first assumption with regard to a', a*, etc. ; 
the more advanced assumption with regard to a", 
with the involved assumption that n is a positive 
integer ; the first deductions as to the results of 
a* x a m f and a • -s- a m ; the desirability of extend- 
ing our notation, and introducing indices of any 
value ; the necessity for a further assumption ; our 
right to assume that a m x a" shall equal a mn + for 
all values of m and n ; the results of this assump- 
tion when applied to explain the meaning of a n 
when n is zero, negative, and fractional. All 
these should be clearly marked, and clearly dis- 
cussed; and, so treated, I know of no piece of 
elementary deduction more invigorating and sat- 
isfactory to the young learner. In geometry we 
usually fare better, — at least, in the text-books 
the reasoning is well linked and clearly set forth. 
The deductions are simple, and they have this 
great advantage, that they can be immediately 
put to use and be made to produce further de- 
ductions, while their value in practical work can 
be constantly exhibited. All this gives the child 
a sense of increased ability, progress, life. — which 
is so fascinating to him, and to all of us. It 
dispels the depressing feeling of futility which 
spoils so much of our work, and makes the school- 
room a tread-mill. But even in geometry the 
nature of the reasoning, and its limitations, are 
rarely sufficiently brought home to the learner. 
He is allowed to go on without an idea of how 
much, or how little, he has proved. How many, 
for instance, can explain why the induction of 
Euclid, i. 4, is a general truth, not limited to the 
case of the two particular triangles? Again, in 
language, analysis and parsing may afford excel- 
lent examples of the application of general prin- 
ciples to the explanation of particular cases, as 
may the correction of sentences in which the 
grammar or arrangement is faulty. But then we 
must be careful not to introduce distinctions 
which the language itself has never observed, or 
has long ago discarded. (The new Eton Latin 
grammar is a terrible sinner in this respect, with 
its aorist. and its array of tenses in the infinitive.) 
And we must abandon all such rubbish as that 
'the second of two nouns is put in the genitive.' 
As to how the grammar of the mother-tongue* 
or of any other tongue, may be built up induc- 
tively, I need say nothing here. I have already 
more than once enlarged on the topic. Those 
who are still inquisitive as to my views and plans 
will find them fully set forth in my * English 



grammar for beginners ' * and my ' First lessons 
in French.' 

Our next stage consists of the criticism of the 
statements of others, complex reasoning, and 
chains of demonstration. With regard to the two 
last, I have already somewhat anticipated myself, 
in what I have said about geometry and algebra. 
With regard to the first, I cannot do better than 
recommend exercises in the logical conversion of 
propositions and immediate inference. The rules 
are simple, and can be readily understood. They 
will be found, clearly set forth, in Mr. Jevons's 
little book, lesson x. From these we may pass to 
exercises in the detection of logical and material 
fallacies, which will be found both entertaining 
and highly useful. Mr. Jevons gives all the help 
that will be needed in lessons xx. and xxi., and 
likewise supplies us with many excellent examples 
— which may be supplemented from the well- 
chosen examples in Dr. Ray's hand-book of * De- 
ductive logic * (published by Messrs. Macmillan & 
Co.). Those which touch upon the personal ex- 
perience of the learner will be the best. With re- 
gard to algebra and geometry, I will merely add 
that I think the first lessons in each should be 
much more carefully treated than is usually the 
case. In beginning algebra, we pass from the 
particular instances and particular symbols of 
arithmetic to general cases of number and general 
symbols ; and we should be at the pains of making 
quite clear the nature of the change, the enlarge- 
ment of limits, and the practical value of the new 
treatment. All this is far too much hurried over, 
as a rule ; and an excellent opportunity for exer- 
cising the reasoning powers, and for what is even 
more important, exciting the curiosity of the pu- 
pils and displaying the practical utility of the 
work about to be attempted, is lost. As professor 
De Morgan pointed out, there is much to be learned 

from contrasting the proofs of - g — + — 2 ~ = <*> 

or of (a + b) (a — b) = a 8 — b*. with similar propo- 
sitions in arithmetic ; while the early introduction 
of problems involving simple equations-is far more 
valuable and stimulating to the beginner than all 
the clearing of brackets, and simplifying of frac- 
tions and the rest, with which he is usually in- 
dulged. The corresponding work in geometry is 
the passing from the particular cares and in- 
ductions of practical, to the deductions and 
general truths of theoretical work. We should 
dwell upon the limitations of our earlier work ; 
the reasons why a practical proof, such as that in 

i In especial, I would refer to the carefully graded lessons 
by means of which I arrive at the definitions of the parts of 
speech, and to the lessons which show how, by induction, we 
may, and should, arrive at the rules relating to the order of 
words in a sentence, and to the use of stops. 



168 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No 211 



Euclid, i. 4, holds generally, while we need some- 
thing more than practical experiment to prove, say, 
that vertically opposite angles are equal, or that 
the three angles of any triangle are always together 
equal to two right angles. The need for proofs 
that are generally true may be brought out very 
clearly in such a matter as the consideration of the 
best practical methods for measuring plane sur- 
faces, or some other similar work. In any case, 
let us bring home to the learner the need for more 
general proofs, and the nature of the method 
adopted for obtaining them ; while, all through our 
geometrical work, let us keep in mind how refresh- 
ing it is to be allowed to see and appreciate the bear- 
ing of theory on practice, — the practical utility of 
the results cf our theoretical work. Once again, 
what better means can we have for exercising pu- 
pils in mixed inductive and deductive reasoning 
than political economy? We may begin with a 
story from Miss Martineau's collection, — or, to be 
more precise, we may take 'The shipwrecked 
sailors,* from Mrs. Fawcett's 'Tales in political 
economy,' and . work up to the question as to 
whether luxurious expenditure and waste are good 
for trade, or to the great problem of demand and 
supply, and the price of commodities, — making 
deductions from the principles at which we arrive, 
and testing them by comparison with the results 
of practical experience. 

I will conclude by reminding you, that, for pure 
induction, you will generally have to rely on the 
physical sciences, — of which botany, energetics 
(if I may use the word), and chemistry will be 
the best for school purposes ; while, for deduction, 
the whole field of mathematics lies before you. I 
may add that you will find an excellent model 
lesson in induction on the * pile-driving machine ' 
in Professor Payne's ' Lectures on education.' In 
mathematics, perhaps the best and simplest ex- 
ample of induction suitable to beginners is the 
well-known * binomial theorem ' for positive in- 
tegral indices. H. Courthofe Bo wen. 

MODERN BIOLOO Y AS A BRANCH OF 

EDUCATION. 

A glance at our higher educational institutions 
to-day shows a tendency toward an increase in 
the importance of biological science. Everywhere 
biology is being separated as a distinct depart- 
ment, and at least one school is founded for the ex- 
press purpose of pursuing this study. An in- 
creasing stress is being placed upon this science as 
a part of a liberal education, and its number of 
students is growing rapidly. We wish, in a few 
words, to show why this is so, and to give the 
grounds upon which biology is every year de- 
manding more recognition. 



Biology is sometimes called a new science. This 
is not because the subject-matter treated of is 
new, nor because living nature is a new subject 
for study, but rather because the method of study 
has so changed in the last twenty-five years that 
the study of life appears under an entirely new 
aspect. As material for a descriptive science, 
animals and plants have been studied for cen- 
turies, but biology as a dynamical science is of 
comparatively recent growth. Modern biology is 
neither zoology nor botany, though it of course 
includes the study of both animals and plants. 
The terms * zoology ' and ' botany ' usually convey 
to the mind the idea of long names and tedious de- 
scriptions, with an overwhelming abundance of 
uninteresting details, and the student well asks 
what is their value to him. If biology offered to 
its students to-day no more than a description of 
animals and plants, it would be well questioned 
whether it should in justice demand any greater 
attention than has been allotted to zoology and 
botany for fifty years past. But scientific teach- 
ers are beginning to see that the learning of names 
and descriptions should bear about the same rela- 
tion to biology that the learning of dates bears to 
history. Some dates must be learned in studying 
history, and some names and descriptions must be 
learned in studying biology ; but the former does 
not constitute history, nor the latter biology. The 
rapid extension of observation on vital phenomena, 
and the more careful thought thereon, have been 
teaching scientists to comprise large groups of 
facts under general forms, and thus to deduce 
general laws regulating life. It is the study of 
these principles which is coming more and more 
to constitute the science of biology. The enor- 
mous multiplication of species is making zoology 
and botany unwieldy subjects to be treated in any 
general way. Classifications have, by reason of 
recent discoveries, grown so intricate and compli- 
cated that they can no longer be taught to the 
general student with any degree of satisfaction. 
But this very increase in discovery is adding to 
science new laws, is rendering intelligible the 
older ones, so that the material for the study of 
biology, as separate from zoology and botany, 
is becoming more abundant. Biology is thus 
rapidly freeing itself from the dry bones of de- 
tailed classification, and becoming of more and 
more interest and significance to the general stu- 
dent. Biology is growing to be more the study of 
life-principles as illustrated by animals and plants ; 
is becoming, therefore, more a study of life, and 
not so much as it has been a study of living things. 
It is biology with some such scope as indicated 
above, that is now claiming to be recognized as a 
necessary part of a liberal education. Education 



^IBRUABY 18, 1887.] 



SCIEJSCJ£. 



169 



has three primary objects : 1°, it should give men- 
tal training ; 2°, it should give a certain amount 
of practical knowledge ; 3°, it should place the 
student in such contact with philosophical thought 
that he may be able to understand the trend of 
thought at the present time. The new science of 
dynamical biology claims attention as assisting in 
the accomplishment of all three of these objects. 

The value of biology as a means of mental dis- 
cipline is chiefly in exercising the powers of obser- 
vation. No course in this study is in any way 
complete without an accompanying course in labor- 
atory work, though the amount of such work 
may be Sometimes very small. There is nothing 
better adapted to teach the student to use his eyes 
accurately than a course in laboratory work upon 
living things, including microscopic study, dissec- 
tion, and analysis. The value of this sort of edu- 
cation is, indeed, too plain to require more than a 
notice. 

There is undoubtedly a growing demand in this 
country that studies should have a practical 
value ; and for any new study to force its way 
into wide acceptance, it must be able to show that 
it has some direct utility. Now, biology is by no 
means a 4 bread-and-butter ' study, unless, per- 
chance, it be to those who aim to teach it. But 
it doe9 give the student knowledge in those direc- 
tions which Spencer calls the essentials of educa- 
tion, and which are too often neglected. It 
teaches bim to be a good animal. Aside from its 
value as a preliminary medical training, biology 
gives an education which every one needs. There is 
hardly a discovery of the century which bids fair 
to produce more influence upon the human race 
than the germ theory of disease. This discovery 
is rapidly modifying methods of dealing with 
contagious diseases ; and it is an injustice to the 
student to send him into the world without a 
knowledge of these general facts, the significance 
of sanitary precautions, and the methods of avoid- 
ing diseaee. But aside from such facts, it is 
hardly possible to overestimate the value to every 
one of a study of the laws of life. The student 
learns that he, too, is an animal, and under the 
influence of the same laws which be finds else- 
where, and comes slowly to realize the meaning of 
many of these laws with a vividness whibh can be 
produced in no other way. He learns of the effect 
of surroundings upon the growth of living things, 
and that animals are largely what circumstances 
make them. He gains a strong impression of the 
lasting effects of habits, sees that nothing is too 
small to be without its influence. He is brought 
face to face with the degrading effects of para- 
sitism in all its forms ; sees that inactivity is uni- 
versal! y followed by degradation, and that only 



active animals can rise in nature : learns that 
luxury is always the precursor of degradation, 
while adversity, if it be not so great as to destroy, 
is sure to exalt the animals under its influence. 
All of these factors, together with the physio- 
logical laws which he must obey, and hundreds of 
others of smaller import, are or should be forced 
upon a student who has taken a good course in 
biology : and these facts, though not teaching men 
to earn a living, do teach them to make better use 
of their lives. 

But, after all, the chief reason why biology is 
obtaining a greater recognition as a necessary 
branch of education, is none of these, but rather 
because of its relations to philosophical thought. 
Modern biology represents to us a final step of the 
belief in the universality of law. A comprehension 
of its import is therefore necessary to one who 
wishes to keep abreast of modern thought. From 
the time when the curiosity of early man was 
aroused concerning nature around him, he has 
been constantly asking for causes. At first the 
only sort of causality of which he had any con- 
ception was that of personality, and he therefore 
conceived that behind every phenomenon of na- 
ture there was a personality. The explanation of 
causes was thus polytheism. Slowly and irregu- 
larly there arose from this belief the nobler con- 
ception of monotheism. But all through the 
past centuries the Ood of monotheism was 
regarded as forming no part of nature proper, but 
as holding aloof from it, and interfering now 
and then to perform miracles. Indeed, even to- 
day we find not a few who still retain this con- 
ception, and scarcely see any room for God ex- 
cept to explain mysteries. But these mysteries 
have been disappearing. Little by little did more 
extended observations show that nature acts with 
uniformity, and there thus arose, vaguely at first 
but more clearly afterwards, the idea of natural 
law. Since the time of Newton's discovery of the 
first grand law of nature, there has been inaugu- 
rated a new method of research. Science, as we 
now understand the term, has arisen, and has been 
trying to reduce the varied phenomena of nature 
to an order, to discover the laws regulating them, 
and to investigate the former mysteries of nature, 
and explain them by the simple application of dis- 
covered law. One after another have the various 
realms of nature been studied, and one after an- 
other have they been comprehended under the 
universal reign of law. Nature's mysteries have 
been constantly uncovered and rendered intelli- 
gible. The thunder is no longer a bolt thrown by 
an angry deity, nor is the north wind the breath 
of an avenging god ; but each falls in with the 
general order of nature, and is explained by the 



170 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 211 



action of known laws and forces. Until within 
very recent times, however, it has not been 
imagined that the phenomena of life could be 
brought under the same laws which regulate the 
inorganic world. Life eeems so different from 
all that is not living that it has been regarded as 
standing by itself. It is, withal, so mysterious 
that it has at all times been regarded as a direct 
instance of almighty power, and living things 
have been looked upon as miracles concerning 
which it was almost sacrilege to question. 

Modern dynamical biology owes its existence to 
the attempt to apply to the organic world the same 
course of investigation which has been successful 
elsewhere ; nay, indeed, to apply to life the same 
chemical and physical laws which govern the in- 
organic world. The first great step was taken in 
this direction by Darwin when he tried to show 
that species were not to be considered as special 
creations, but as having had a natural rrigin. 
Zoology and botany, as they had been studied be- 
fore, were simply statical sciences, merely study- 
ing and classifying facte as they were found. 
Modern biology is a dynamical science, in that it 
attempts to explain the facts of life. All vital 
phenomena have been attacked with this purpose in 
view, and biologists are now strenuously trying to 
come to some explanation of the fundamental 
fact of life itself by the application of chemical 
and physical laws. 

It is plain enough that such study and such 
conclusions are of great significance to the 
thoughts and beliefs of every one. It is not 
strange that these conclusions, removing as they 
do so many miracles from nature, should be re- 
garded by many as conflicting with all theistic be- 
lief, for we are all inclined to think a fact is un- 
derstood when it is comprised under any law. 
But it is equally evident that more careful thought 
shows that, even accepting these conclusions of 
biology, we are by no means able to say we have 
fathomed life, for we do not understand the rea- 
son for the existence of any single chemical or 
physical law. But whatever be the conclusion 
which may be reached as to the ability of biolo- 
gists to explain life-principles, or as to the signifi- 
cance of the explanation when reached, it is cer- 
tainly a necessity for any one who wishes to com- 
prehend the thought of the times to get acquainted 
more or less intimately with these attempts of the 
new scieuce. The students who go out from our 
higher schools are to take a stand among the fore- 
most thinkers. Indeed, they are, it is hoped, to 
advance the thought of the world. Whether they 
be theologians, philosophers, scientists, or teach- 
ers, it is necessary for them to realize the mean- 
ing of the application of dynamics to life : they 



should understand the positions held by advanced 
biologists, and know at least the sort of arguments 
used to support these positions. In this fact, then, 
lies the essential reason for the growing impor- 
tance of this study. As a branch for special 
study, biology has its own fascination and defence. 
But as fast as it becomes freed from the burden of 
detail, and becomes a study of life-principles, just 
so fast will it become recognized as a necessary 
part of the education of the general student 

H. W. Conn. 



THE bRENCH LYCEE. - 

While much of the educational inspiration of 
the day is drawn from Germany, it must be borne 
in mind that France is actively engaged in think- 
ing out the great problems which are of common 
interest to all nations. We hear much of the 
'gymnasium 1 and i realschu1e,' but not so much 
of the ' lycee.' This word should call to our 
minds as definite and accurate an idea as the word 

* gymnasium' does. The material for such an 
idea is contained in a short account of the curricu- 
lum of a French lycee recently published by Mr. 
W. H. Fraser of Upper Canada college.* 

The word * lycee ' itself, in its present applica- 
tion to the secondary colleges of France, dates 
back to Napoleon Bonaparte, and was given by 
him to them when he re-organized the university 
system. The name was afterwards changed to 

* college royal ' at the restoration and under Louis 
Phillippe, but was changed again to lycee in 1848. 

* Lycee' is the French form of Afrwwn;, the gymna- 
sium near Athens, where Aristotle assembled the 
members of his school of philosophy. By exten- 
sion it was applied to certain schools in Paris de- 
voted to science and literature. Almost every 
considerable city and town in France has now its 
lycee, whilst in Paris there are several of them, 
for example, Lycee Henri IV., Loiiis-le-Orand, St. 
Louis, and others, — enormous establishments af- 
fording accommodation to many hundreds of stu- 
dents, both interne* and externes, as the students 
in residence and the outsiders are respectively 
called. Until recently, only boys enjoyed the 
privileges of these colleges, but now provision has 
been made in several places, including Paris, for 
the education of girls also. Their colleges are en- 
tirely distinct, and the programme of those for 
girls is, in the main, a modified form of that pre- 
pared for their brothers. 

The whole course of the lycee should be com- 
pleted, and generally is completed, by the pupil 
before he has reached his twenty-first year. It 
may be finished, however, by the eighteenth 
year. This is not astonishing, when we reflect that 




Fkbkoabt 18, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



171 



the pupil enters at an early age, that the sessions 
are long, and that he moves forward without 
break or interruption through a programme care- 
fully weighed, measured, and detailed before- 
hand. The class hours are now twenty a week, 
as compared with twenty-four previous to 1884, a 
reduction owing to the fact that evidence of over- 
work had become apparent. 

The whole work is divided into eight classes, 
numbering from eighth, as the lowest, up to sec- 
ond, which is followed by the classe de rhetorique 
and the classe de philosophie, not numbered. 
There is below the eighth a preparatory class, 
which is, in its turn, preceded by an elementary 
division of three classes. Thus the boy may enter 
very young, and may be promoted to the eighth 
class when he is nine years old. The work in the 
preparatory class consists of French together 
with German or English ; to these alone four 
hours out of the twenty are devoted : also history, 
geography, and two hours a week for arithmetic, 
together with an hour each of object lesson and 
drawing. At nine years of age, then, the collegian 
is fairly launched upon his career. The number 
of hours devoted to his mother-tongue is still the 
same, nine ; he has still four hours a week in Eng- 
lish or German ; history takes an hour and a half, 
and geography the same ; arithmetic and object 
lessons take three hours, while drawing, as in the 
preparatory class, occupies an hour. The next 
year, if he has not failed at examinations, the 
pupil proceeds to the seventh class, and must be at 
least ten years old. In it, the division of time to 
the various subjects is precisely the same. 

When the pupil is at least eleven years old, and 
in the sixth class, i.e., at least six years from the 
completion of his course, a marked change takes 
place in the subjects of study, and in the dispo- 
sition of time. His native language drops at once 
to three hours a week ; he has been exercised in it 
for years nearly half of the whole class-time, and 
his style has been largely formed. Perhaps this 
early and thorough practical exercise in his 
mother- tongue is a reason why almost every edu- 
cated Frenchman can express himself in language 
always elegant, smooth, and concise. What is 
lost by French and modern languages in the pro- 
gramme is gained by Latin, which rises at once to 
ten hours a week. History also gains an hour, 
arithmetic and science losing an hour, while draw- 
ing gains the time which they lose. Thus, when 
the Latin grammar and 'De viris illustrious 
Romae ' is begun, the boy is reading in English 
Miss Edgeworth's ' Tales/ * Evenings jat home,' and 
Miss Corner's ' History of England,' or Benedix's 
'Der Process,' 'Griechische Heroengeschichte,' 
etc., in German, with exercises in reading and 



conversation. In arithmetic, he is doing vulgar 
and decimal fractions, while in drawing, he is at- 
tempting architectural design and the human 
figure. 

In the fifth class the hours are precisely the 
same until January, when Greek is begun, and to 
it two houns a week are devoted. The Latin has 
now got as far as the ' Fables of Phaedrus,' ' Cor- 
nelius Nepos,' and the * Metamorphoses of Ovid/ 
The Greek is elementary, but in English, Sir Wal- 
ter Scott's 'Tales of a grandfather.' and other 
works of similar difficulty, stand side by side with 
Grimm's * Fairy tales,' Andersen's « Tales,' and 
1 Der Eigensinn ' of Benedix. The history corre- 
sponds to the language studied, so that in this 
class Greek history is almost exclusively read. 
Arithmetic has got as far as the rule of three, and 
geometry is continued. An elementary course of 
botany balances a similar course of zoology in the 
preceding year. 

In the fourth class, only two hours are devoted 
to the mother-tongue ; Latin has six and Greek six 
hours; modern languages, history, science (in- 
cluding mathematics), drawing, two each, and 
geography one. French classical authors are read, 
Caesar, Ovid, and Virgil, in Latin, conjoined with 
Latin composition. In Greek, Xenophon, Lucian, 
and composition are done. Lessing, Musaeus, 
Kotzebue, and Hoffman, with De Foe, Irving, 
etc., are read in German and English. Roman 
history is continued, while a course of geology 
replaces the botany of the preceding year. 

At not less than fourteen years the third class 
is entered, and the work becomes heavy. In this 
class, mathematical work increases, and has three 
hours assigned to it. Latin and Greek have each 
five hours, with modern languages about as be- 
fore. It would be tedious to go into detail in all 
the classes ; the principal difference to be noted in 
the development of the scheme in the next three 
years is the increasing attention given to mathe- 
matics, physics, and history. 

At fifteen years, if the boy be clever, he is in 
the second class. After the completion of this 
year's work, the programme divides into classe 
de rhetorique and classe de philosophie. The 
French classics are continued in the second class, 
and the older French literature and philology are 
studied, together with the history of literature. 
Virgil, Horace, Cicero, Livy, and Tacitus are read 
in Latin ; and Homer, Euripides, Plato, Xenophon, 
and Plutarch in Greek. In the living languages, 
pieces from Goethe, Schiller, Hauff, Shakspeare, 
Goldsmith, Walter Scott, and Dickens are read, 
and the mathematics go about as far as the end 
of quadratics. 

As stated above, the course now divides into 



172 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. EX., No. 211 



two classes. In the classe de rhetorique, the lan- 
guages prevail, while in the classe de philosophic, 
metaphysics, mathematics,and the natural sciences 
prevail. A good idea of the proportion may be 
obtained from the time devoted to each subject. 
In the classe de rhetorique, French. Latin, and 
Greek have each four hours ; modern languages, 
history, two hours each ; mathematics, etc., three 
hours, and geography one. In the classe de phil- 
osophie, mental and moral science and logic, and 
the French authors, occupy eight hours, Latin 
and Greek one, modern languages one, and his- 
tory two ; science (including arithmetic, algebra, 
geometry, physics, chemistry, and physiology) 
has eight hours. A fair idea of the difficulty of 
this final year's work may be obtained by a glance 
at the authors in the classe de rhetorique. Nearly 
all the principal French classical authors are read ; 
in Latin. Terence. Lucretius, Virgil, Horace, 
Cicero, Livy, Tacitus ; in English and German, 
Shakspeare, Irving, Byron, Tennyson, Dickens, 
George Eliot, Lessing, Goethe, and Schiller ; a 
good deal of modern history is added, with plane 
and spherical geometry and some chemistry. It 
might be stated that two hours a week are de- 
voted to drawing, but that in the higher classes it 
is considered an extra. 

If we reduce the above sketch to percentages, 
taking into account the whole time of the stu- 
dent, from entrance into the eighth class till the 
end of his course, we obtain the following : — 

Subject, French, 20.62 per cent; Latin and 
Greek, 83.74; modern languages, 12.23; history 
and geography, 14.68 ; mathematics and science, 
14.68 ; mental and moral science, 5.00 ; drawing, 
1.25. 

In this course some things are obvious. The 
preponderance given to language and literature, 
Latin and Greek, is especially noticeable. It can- 
not be said that the programme is a light one. 
Another point is, the very small part which options 
play in it ; certain options are allowed to those 
who intend to become teachers of the natural 
sciences or mathematics, otherwise the framers of 
it seem to take for granted that every boy should 
go through the same course of mental gymnastics. 
For those who wish to study a profession, or for 
such as wish to specialize further, the university 
is open, and the university course presupposes 
as a basis the broad, general culture of the lycee. 



During the winter of 1885-86 there were 14,- 
633 students in the Italian universities : 3,894 of 
these were at Naples, 2,073 at Turin, 1,216 at 
Rome, 1,168 at Bologna, 1,006 at Padua, and 1,005 
at Pavia. At Ferrara there were but 89. Of the 
whole number, 5,195 were students of medicine. 



WHEN SHOULD THE STUDY OF GREEK 

BE BEGUN t 

The biennial conference of the head mas- 
ters of the great English schools and colleges 
always develops some interesting discussions 
on educational topics of current interest, as 
well as some very uninteresting ones on 
matters of purely local interest and impor- 
tance. At the meeting in December last. Dr. 
Fearon of Winchester moved two resolutions re- 
garding the study of Greek, and spoke at length 
in support of them. The resolutions read, 1°, 
that it is desirable that the teaching of Greek to 
boys should be begun at a later age than it is at 
present ; 2°, that it is desirable that a knowledge 
of Greek should not be required for admission to 
the classical side of the public schools. 

In the published report of Dr. Fearon's remarks, 
we read that he began by explaining what he 
meant by the words, 'at a later age than at 
present.' He saicl that he had recently himself 
collected statistics, and found, that, of 385 boys 
now learning Greek, 213 had begun at ten or 
earlier, and of these 213, seventy-four bad begun 
at nine or earlier. The average age was ten, or 
rather younger. He had also consulted a number 
of preparatory school- masters, and, almost without 
an exception, they put the time that it took them 
to prepare boys in Greek for admission into public 
schools at from two to three years. The first prop- 
osition he wished to establish, was, that the cause 
of Greek would not suffer by raising the age of be- 
ginning from ten to thirteen. For the last year 
and a half he had kept accurate records of all 
boys who had passed through Winchester, and 
he had submitted their records to his staff. It 
was difficult to arrange particular facts in a way 
that would carry general conviction, but the in- 
ference that he and his assistant masters — al- 
most without an exception — had drawn, was, 
that boys who had started Greek at ten were no 
better than those who had started at eleven. 
Some of the most able and brilliant classical 
scholars at Oxford and Cambridge had begun 
Greek after they were fifteen. But he did not 
rest his case on his experience with promising 
boys, who, it might be argued, would come out 
well under any system. The facts as to backward 
boys could not be got over, and were most humili- 
ating. Of thirty-five boys who had lately entered 
in the bottom division at Winchester, only three 
had reached a point in the school where they 
read anything harder than the shorter form of an 
elementary Greek reader. One of them had 
studied Greek for three years before entering, 
and for seven years at Winchester ; two others 
had reached that point after three and a half 



Fmbuabt 18, 1887. J 



SCIENCE. 



173 



years ; and thirty had not reached it at all. Such 
a state of things appeared to him intolerable, and 
he had fully made up his mind to deal with it. 

The experience of the continent was wholly op- 
posed to the English plan. At Basel, no language 
except the mother-tongne was learned till ten, 
then Latin was begun, and French and German 
not till thirteen. The evidence from Germany 
was more pertinent, for there both systems had 
been tried. In the gymnasia of Hanover, before 
the year 1866, Greek had been begun in teriia 
(average age thirteen), whereas in Prussia it was 
begun in quarto (average age twelve). After 
1866, the Hanoverian system was brought into 
uniformity with the Prussian, and this was con- 
tinued till six years ago, when it was determined 
not to begin Greek till fourteen. The testimony 
of the professors of Hanover is, that, at eighteen, 
boys know just as much Greek by beginning at 
fourteen as by beginning at twelve. 

Passing to his second proposition, Dr. Fearon 
maintained that other subjects were squeezed out 
by the premature study of Greek. In the last five 
years they had had boys from 185 preparatory 
schools. He had sent a circular to sixty* two of 
the more important among them, and received an- 
swers from forty-five. One of the questions he 
had asked, was, " Do the requirements of public 
schools compel you to disregard subjects to which 
you consider more importance ought to be paid ? '' 
To this question, twenty-one had answered ' no,' 
and twenty-three ' yes, 1 but he confessed that the 
question was a wicked one, and that he could 
hardly expect masters to pass condemnation on 
their own system of teaching. In this matter they 
must go behind the judgment of preparatory mas- 
ters, and he found by experience that it was pre- 
cisely in this matter that preparatory masters 
erred and came short. They sent to Winchester, 
boys admirably grounded in Latin grammar, but 
sadly deficient in English history and French. In 
the last year he had been advised to reject boys 
for total ignorance of French. And he found, 
moreover, not only that the most backward boys 
in Latin and Greek were the most backward in 
French, but also that, they were comparatively 
more backward in French than in classics, proving 
that all their energy had been put into Greek and 
Latin. The only safe guide in this question was 
to look to the training of boys' minds and educa- 
tion generally. To judge from the experience of 
the teachers of lower forms, and his own experi- 
ence as an examiner, the boys who were best at a 
mechanical knowledge of Greek grammar were 
those who were getting least good as to the culture 
of general intelligence. He was convinced, from 
his own observation, that the two main difficulties 



of young boys arose from the multiplicity of sub- 
jects, and from the number of subjects all of the 
same kind. Their brains got perfectly muddled 
by being driven from, one point to another. So 
far from the study of Greek suffering by the 
change, he believed that it would gain. Boys 
would come more freshly to the subject at thir- 
teen or fourteen, with minds more matured, and 
able to see the points that masters were driving at, 
and we should rid of one absurdity our present 
Procrustean education. 

In conclusion, he recommended: 1°. That the 
study of Greek should not begin before the age of 
thirteen or fourteen, and that it should not be 
introduced at all in the entrance examinations of 
public schools. This step he intended to carry out 
himself. 2°, That Greek should be rigidly excluded 
from examinations for entrance scholarships. 
Latin and English would afford a much sounder 
test, and it would be a great advantage to have 
from the first the teaching of Greek in their own 
band. 8°, He would give up Greek with boy* 
who showed no taste for Greek, or who intended 
to leave school at seventeen. He knew that this 
declaration would lose him votes, but he could not 
himself continue the system which allowed boys 
to be studying Greek delectus for ten years. They 
could not dictate to preparatory schools, but these 
would follow if the head masters gave them a 
lead. By thus postponing and limiting the study 
of Greek, they would do nothing to injure the 
cause of Greek scholarship, and they would do- 
much to set the education of the country on a 
more satisfactory basis than it was at present. 

Familiar as this sort of argument is in the 
United States and on the continent of Europe, it 
is still considered ultra-radical in England ; and it 
is somewhat surprising that Dr. Fearon's resolu- 
tions and remarks met with no greater opposition 
than they did. In fact, a number of head masters- 
sided more or less strongly with Dr. Fearon. No 
immediate action was taken on the resolutions by 
the conference, however, and they were referred 
to a committee, after having an amendment to the 
effect, that, "it is desirable to arrive at some 
greater agreement as to the stage in education 
which should be reached before Greek is begun by 
boys intended for a classical school,'* tacked on to 
them. 



THE GREEK ELEMENT IN ENGLISH. 

The crusade against the study of Greek, which 
is the fashion just now, is not always successfully 
met by the defenders of that study, because they 
either understate their own position or else miss 
altogether the true point of the discussion. The: 



174 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 211 



study of Greek is not going to retain its place be- 
•cause some celebrated mediaeval and modern in- 
tellects were trained in it. It must rest its claim 
upon the higher ground of its humanizing influ- 
ence and its unexcelled literary culture. Greek 
also appeals to us as having no inconsiderable 
share in the formation of our own language as we 
know and use it to-day, especially in the nomen- 
clature and terminology of philosophy and the 
sciences. The value of the study on this ground 
is not referred to often enough, and we have never 
seen it more simply and deftly emphasized than 
in Dr. Goodell's little book entitled • The Greek in 
English.' 1 As the author puts it in his preface, 
" The object of this book is to enable pupils to gain 
some real and living knowledge of that part 
of English which came from Greek. ... It 
merely attempts to teach that minimum which 
even those who wish to banish the study of 
Greek from our schools would admit can least 
easily be spared ; and it is written in the belief 
that that portion is absolutely essential to a ready 
command of a full English vocabulary." And 
this is the kernel of the book. It is written to 
help students to an understanding of English, in 
so far as English is derived mediately or immedi- 
ately from Greek. 

The work is arranged about a grammatical out- 
line somewhat like that usually found in Greek 
primers of the old-fashioned sort, because the 
author believes that to be the simplest and quick- 
est way of learning what he has to teach. The 
vocabulary is rather representative than complete, 
but it is reasonably full. We are quite ready to 
believe that Dr. Gcodell's book will commend it- 
self to many preparatory teachers as giving, not 
all that the beginner who has a college course in 
view wants to know, but that minimum of Greek 
that is a necessary part of the equipment of every 
well-educated man. 

Dr. Goodell makes a curious slip — unless, in- 
deed, he holds the not impossible but improbable 
opinion advanced by Clement of Alexandria, that 
* metaphysics ' is equivalent to supranatural — when 
he instances ' metaphysics ' as one of the words 
into which a deeper insight is given us by a knowl- 
edge of Greek ; for the prevailing opinion is that 
the word ' metaphysics * is a conglomerate used by 
Andronicus of Rhodes to denote that portion of 
Aristotle's writings which came after the treatise 
on physics in his arrangement (rd fiera ra $voik6). 
Therefore the fact that metaphysics means ontol- 
ogy, the science of being, is purely accidental ; it 
might just as well have come to mean ethics or psy- 
chology ; and a knowledge of Greek, while it ex- 

i The Greek in BnglUh. By THOMAS D. GOODZLL, Ph.D. 
New York, HolL 16°. 



plains the genesis of the word, can hardly be said 
to give us a ' lively sense of its exact meaning.' 



R0SENKMAN2TS PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCA- 
TION. 

The influence of Professor Rosenkranz on the 
educational thought of Germany has been very 
great. Born early in the century, he was a uni- 
versity student at a period of great philosophical 
and pedagogical activity. Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, 
and Schleiermacher were then the great leaders of 
German thought, and Rosenkranz came under the 
personal influence of the two latter. While yet a 
very young man, — he was twenty-eight years of 
age at the time, — he entered upon his long tenure 
of the chair of philosophy at Konigsberg in suc- 
cession to Kant and Herbart. The work of which 
the book before us is a translation was published 
in 1848, under the title ' Paedagogik als system.' 
It may be said to have raised pedagogical discus- 
sion in Germany from the petty details of kinder- 
garten and administration to the high plane of 
philosophy. The work has also had a wide circu- 
lation, considering its character, in this country, 
for it was originally translated, some fifteen years 
ago, for the Journal of speculative philosophy, 
and, in adition to its circulation in that form, two 
thousand copies of a reprint failed to meet the de- 
mand for it. For the present and second edition, 
which Dr. William T. Harris publishes as the first 
volume in the International education series, edited 
by him, the translation has been revised and 
popularized, and accompanied with a full com- 
mentary and analysis, prepared by Dr. Harris him- 
self. These latter are so elaborate that they un- 
questionably veil to a certain extent Rosenkranz's 
own work, but just as unquestionably do they add 
to the value of the book for teachers. 

The translation of the title by « philosophy of 
education ' is a happy one, for it sets the book be- 
fore American readers in its true light. It tells 
them in a word that there is a science of educa- 
tion, and that that science claims a place in the 
philosophical encyclopaedia in the closest connec- 
tion with psychology and ethics. For pedogogics 
may be best described as psychology and ethics 
applied. The title indicates, also, the stand-point 
and method of the book, for, as Dr. Harris says in 
his preface, to earn this title, "a work must not 
only be systematic, but it must bring all its details 
to the test of the highest principle of philosophy." 

It must be premised that Rosenkranz's philoso- 
phy, and hence this theory of education, is 

The philosophy of education. By Johann Karl Friedbich 
Rosbnkranz. Translated by Anna C. Brackktt. Nejr 
York, Appleton. 12°. 



Febkuabi 18, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



175 



strongly Hegelian in form and statement, and 
hence abounds in the eccentricities and meta- 
physical peculiarities of that great thinker. But 
to our mind, this does not impair the usefulness 
and timeliness of the book, for whatever Hegel's ex- 
aggerations may have been, and despite the fact 
that his philosophy is on the wane, he seized hold 
on a great number of spiritual truths, and formu- 
lated them as they had never been formulated be- 
fore. 

The key-note of Rosenkranz's pedagogical phi- 
losophy is, that, ** man's true nature is not found 
in him at birth, but has to be developed by his 
activity ; his true nature is his ideal, which he 
may actualize by education.'* 

The book is divided into three parts. The first 
considers the idea of education in general, its 
nature, form, and limits. The second part treats 
of the special elements of education, the physical, 
the intellectual, and the practical (in the sense of 
will-education), and discusses the various stages of 
the process of education and the problems pre- 
sented by them. The third is given over to par- 
ticular systems of education, and is a short history 
of educational theories. 

Roeenkranz strikes a true note when he puts 
pedagogics on a psychological basis, " the nature 
of education is determined by the nature of mind " 
(p. 19), " the general form of education is deter- 
mined by the nature of the .mind " (p. 26), and 
passim. The limits of education are three. The 
first is the subjective limit, and is found in the 
individuality of the pupil. "Whatever does not 
exist in this individuality as a possibility cannot 
he developed from it. Education can only lead 
and assist : it can not create " (p. 47). The second 
limit is the objective one, and lies in the means 
which can be appropriated for education. " That 
a talent for a certain culture shall be present, is 
certainly the first thing; but the cultivation of 
this talent is the second, and no less necessary. 
But how much cultivation can be given to it, ex- 
tensively and intensively, depends upon the means 
used, and these again are conditioned by the 
material resources of the family to which one be- 
longs. The greater and more valuably the means 
of culture which are found in a family, the greater 
is the immediate advantage which the culture of 
each one has at the start" (p. 48). The third 
limit of education, Rosenkranz calls the absolute 
limit. And this is defined as, " the time when the 
youth has apprehended the problems which he has 
to solve, has learned to know the means at his 
disposal, and has acquired a certain facility in 
using them. ... To treat the youth, after he 
has passed this point of time, still as a youth, con- 
tradicts the very idea of education, which idea 



finds its fulfilment in the attainment of this state 
of maturity by the pupil" (p. 49). After this 
limit is reached, self -education supplants instruc- 
tion by teachers, and the ideal to be had in view, 
and the methods to be followed, must have been 
implanted during the antecedent period. 

It would unduly tax our space, and it is not 
necessary, to select for emphasis the many valu- 
able and suggestive points in Rosenkranz's treat- 
ment of specific educational subjects. They will 
appeal at once to every educator who reads the 
book.* But some specially pregnant passages may 
be quoted. * ' Mens sana in corpore sano is correct 
as a pedagogical maxim, but faults in the judgment 
of individual cases ; because it is possible, on the 
one hand, to have a healthy mind in an unhealthy 
body, and, on the other hand, an unhealthy mind 
in a healthy body. Nevertheless, to strive after 
the harmony of soul and body, is the material 
condition of all normal activity. The develop- 
ment of intelligence presupposes physical health" 
(p. 68). " What we learn through books forms a 
contrast to what we learn through living. Life 
farces upon us its wisdom; the book, on the con- 
trary, is entirely passive. ... If we are indebted 
to life for our perceptions, we must chiefly thank 
books for our understanding of our perceptions. 
We call book-instruction ' dead ' when it lacks, for 
the exposition which it gives, a foundation in 
illustration addressed to sense-perception, or when 
we do not add to the printed description the percep- 
tions which it implies : and these two are quite 
different" (p. 121). "The course of study must 
be arranged so as to avoid two extremes : on the 
one hand, it has to keep in view the special aim 
of the school, and, according to this, it tends to 
contract itself. But, on the other hand, it must 
consider the relative dependence of one specialty 
upon other specialties and upon general culture. 
It must leave the transition free, and in this it 
tends to expand itself" (p. 188). •« Social culture 
contains the formal phase, moral culture the real 
phase, of the practical mind. Conscience forms 
the transition to religious culture. In its univer- 
sal and necessary nature, it reveals the absolute 
authority of spirit. The individual discerns, in 
the depths of his own consciousness, commands 
possessing universality and necessity to which be 
has to subject himself. They appear to him as 
the voice of God. Religion makes its appearance 
as soon as the individual distinguishes the Abso- 
solute from himself, as a personal subject exist- 
ing for and by Himself, and therefore for him. 
The atheist remains at the stage of insight into 
the absoluteness of the logical and physical, aes- 
thetic and practical, categories. He may, there- 
fore, be perfectly moral. But he lacks religion, 



176 



8CIEXCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 211 



though he loves to characterize his uprightness by 
this name, and to transfer the dogmatic defini- 
tions of positive religion into the ethical sphere " 
(p. 168). " Education has to prepare man for re- 
ligion in the following respects : 1°, it gives him 
the conception of it ; 2°, it endeavors to hare this 
conception realized in his life ; 8°, it subordinates 
the theoretical and practical process in adapting 
him to a special stand-point of religious culture " 
(p. 159). 

In treating the history of educational theories, 
Rosenkranz distinguishes three types, the nation- 
al, the theocratic, and the humanitarian. "The 
first works after the manner of nature, since it 
educates the individual as a type of his {ace" 
(p. 188). The theocratic system resembles the na- 
tional, but it makes the ground of the uniformity 
of the individuals not merely the natural element 
in common, but it takes as the common interest 
the result of spiritual unity, which neglects na- 
ture and concentrates itself upon the events of its 
own history. "The theocratic system educates 
the individual as the servant of God*' (p. 188). 
The third system "emancipates the individual, 
and elevates him to the enjoyment of freedom as 
his essence ; educates him within national limits 
which no longer separate but unite ; and, in the 
consciousness that each, without any kind of me- 
diation, has a direct relation to God, makes of 
him a man who knows himself to be a member 
of the spiritual world of humanity " (p. 188). 

It is almost impossible to exaggerate the im- 
portance of this treatment of education for teach- 
ers and the American public generally. Too often 
given over to shallow theory, false practice, and 
superficial sentimentalism, a broad, deep, and 
philosophic treatment of education will be for 
them both a stimulant and a tonic. To those used 
to the trashy educational journals and books now 
so current among us, Rosenkranz will undoubt- 
edly be difficult reading. But be needs more than 
reading ; he must be studied. The certain effect 
of the study will be to develop tbe intellectual and 
moral insight of the student, and, where a vicious 
activity and bold experimental ism exist, to sub- 
stitute for them a true practice and a sound phi- 
losophy. 

The Swedish society of anthropology and 
geography has published a collection of drawings 
made by C. Bovallius during his stay in Nicaragua 
in 1883-88. Though zoological researches were 
the main object of tbe author's journeys, he 
availed himself of the opportunity to make some 
archeological collections. He went over the same 
ground as Squier did more than thirty years ago, 
but he found many new relics of the ancient in- 



habitants. He publishes drawings of many 
statues hitherto unknown, and as he does not con- 
sider some of Squier's reproductions sufficiently 
exact, he gives his own copies of the originals. 
The volume contains 41 plates, and a map of 
Nicaragua and Costa Rica. In the plates we find 
represented objects from Zapatera, a small island 
in the lake of Nicaragua, rock carvings from 
Ceiba, a small island near the former, and ceramic 
objects from Ometepic, Zapatera. and Ceiba. 
The author gives a brief introduction on the 
tribes of Nicaragua, and descriptive text to ac- 
company the plates. 

— The last number of the Quarterly journal of 
microscopical science (vol. xxvii. part ii. p. 285) 
contains a very severe criticism of Dr. Patten's 
paper on the * Eyes of mollusks and arthropods.' 
The review is unsigned, but was presumably, we 
venture to say, written by the editor of the 
journal, Professor Lankester, who is certainly a 
competent authority to pass judgment. Fault is 
not found with the new observations recorded by 
Dr. Patten : on the contrary, they are accepted as 
sincere and valuable. The full severity of the con- 
demnation is turned upon the theories and gener- 
alizations of the author, and upon his criticisms 
of preceding investigators. The accusation is 
brought that the author has promulgated many 
false views and crude theories, such as would 
have appeared possible only to an ignorant thinker ; 
further, that he has recklessly set aside by simple 
denials many statements of esteemed observers, 
on the ground that they were irreconcilable with 
his own conclusions ; finally, that be used a tone 
in his criticisms which is unpardonable in a 
scientific discussion under any circumstances. It 
is very rare that such heavy charges are made 
against any scientific writer. Their extreme 
gravity renders it specially incumbent upon us to 
reserve our judgment until Dr. Patten shall have 
made his answer. As we have directed attention 
to the accusation, we shall be glad to give due at- 
tention also to the defence. 

— As part of the scheme of the late Colonel 
Roudaire an£ M. de Lessens to form an inland 
« African sea,* it was suggested that an attempt be 
made to obtain water from artesian wells, with 
the idea of cultivating the sourrounding country 
and using the rents for building the canal intended 
to connect the Mediterranean with the proposed 
sea. The first well was started in Hay, 1885. 
Water was found at a depth of 295 feet, and in 
June, 1886, was running at the rate of 2.340 gal- 
lons per minute. As a consequence, the banks of 
the Melah River (Tunis), which a very few months 
ago were deserts, are now populated and productive. 



FraauAHY 18, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



177 



Contents of foreign educational periodicals. 

Central-organ fiir die Interessen des Realschul- 
wesens, December issues. — Zweik&mpfe zwischen 
dpricbwdrtern. Dr. Friedrich — Womit muss der eng- 
liacbe Unterricht in Deutechland beginnen ? Dr. Ernst 
Friedrich. — Die Einheitsschule. — Nacbrichten, 
Bucher. — Anzeigen, u.s. w. 

Zeitsckriftfikr das Realschulwesen. — Die Bezeich- 
nvmg der Au»«prache in den englischen Lehrbuchern, 
Prof. J. Resch. — Ueber das spbftriscbe Dreieck, Ed- 
aard Qrohmann. — Schulnachrichten, ReceDsionen, 
n.8.w. 

Revue Internationale de Venseignement, Jan. 15 

— La question des university's franc, aises, Ernest 
Lavisse. — La reforme des etudes juridiques en Alle- 
magne, Oeorges Blonde 1. — Histoire de la civilisa- 
tion dans 1a sud-ouest de la France, Camilla Julian. 

— Un professeur f rancais ; M. Belot, M. Bayet. — 
Chronique, correspondance, nouvelles et informa- 
tions, bibliographic, etc. 

Revue de Geographic, December. Des rapports 
entre leg populations et le climat sur les bords euro- 
peens de la Mediterranee, M. Vidal-Lablache. — La 
societe de topographic de France et l'ecole de geog- 
raphic, M. Bardoux. — De la constitution de la 
science geograpbique, M. L. Drapeyron. — De la 
topographic appliquee k la colonisation de la cGte 
occidentale d'Afrique, M. Ch. Borer. — Le mouvc- 
ment geograpbique, M. Delavau. 

Revue de Venseignement secondaire, Jan. 1. — Re- 
vue de quinzaine, M. Zevort. — Les essais de Mon- 
taigne ; notre bibliographie, H. Gustave Allais. — 
Agregation de Tenseignement special en 1887 ; Bibli- 
ographie speciale. — L'anglais, langue complemen- 
taire de l'aliemand, M. G. S. 

Revista de la association de Maestro*, October 
(Buenos Aires). — Horarios escolares (carta de Berra.) 
— Reformas escolares, conferencia por el profesor 
normal Pablo A. Pizzurno. — Las reuniones peda- 
gogics* y los horarios. — Una estatua a Pestalozzi. 

— Parasitos de la educacion (artfeulo dedicado a 
todns los snperintendentes). — Indicationes utiles a 
los maestros. 

Rivista pedagogiea italiana, Dec. 15. — Un' in- 
chiesta peicologica sulP infanzia, E. Mortelli — If ili- 
tarizzazione o semi - militarizzamento dei convitti 
nazionali, A. Gelmini. — I iavoro manuale nella 
scuola popolare (continuazione e fine), C. Grimaldi. 

— Sol passaggio delle scuole eleroentari alio stato. — 
Poche osservazioni di un maestro elementare, A. 
Gnutti. — Dalle varie provincie del regno. — L'istru- 
fione primaria in Livorno, Plinio. — Qua e la f rai 
programmi didattici, F. Veniali. — Libn e giornali. 

— Intorno all* insegnamento agrario nelle acuoli 
rnrali. — Le scienze naturali nelle scuole elementari. 

Zeitschrift fur Sehul-geographie, January. — Die 
Verwertung deutscher Dichtung und Sage fur den 
Reoitraphiachen Unterricht, S. Gorge. — Der erd- 
kondliche Unterricht an den bdberen M&dcben- 
scbulen in Deutschland. — Winnipeg. — Repertorium 
der methodischen Literatur. — Relief karten. — No- 
tizen, Zeitschriften, u.s.w. 



Educational articles in miscellaneous periodicals. 



Enseignement secondaire et les dernieres reformes, 
P. M. Gabriel Com pay re. La revue generate, 
Jan. 1. 

Faitb and physical science. W. H. Mallock, Forum, 
February. 

Generalizations of science, the. Prof. C. L. Morgan, 
Mind, January. 

How I was educated. Andrew D. White. Forum, 
February. 

Laws of habit, the. Prof. William James. Popular 
science monthly, February. 

McCosb. James, the president of Princeton college. 
Century magazine, February. 

Methods experimental© chez les anciens, la. V. 
Brochard. Revue phUosophique, January. 

Mouvement intellectual, le. MM. Frary et Bourget. 
Nouvelle revue, Jan 1. 

Peusee, la. A. Gautier. Revue scientifique, Jan 1. 

Physiological selection. George J. Romanes. Nine- 
teenth century, January. 

Political economy in America. Dr. R. T. Ely. North 
American review, February. 

Question du Latin en Allemagne, la. M. Schwied- 
land. Revue scientiflque, Jan. 1. 

Ranke and his method. Dr. J H. W. Stuckenberg. 
Andover review, February. 

Religious exercises in state schools. Prof. N. R. 
Davis. Forum, February. 

Renan's later works. Andrew Lang. Fortnightly 
review, January. 

Schools as prisons and prisons as schools. Lord Nor- 
ton. Nineteenth century, January. 

School of English literature, a. Unsigned. Quarter- 
ly review, January. 

Science in religious education. Daniel G. Thompson 
Popular science monthly, February. 

Spencer's * Unknowable.' Unsigned. Scottish re- 
view, January. 

University of London, the. Unsigned. Quarterly 
review, January.. 



Publications received at Editor's Office, Feb. 7-is. 



Bastian, A. Die Seele indischer und hellenischer Philosophic 

in den Gespenstern rooderner Geisterseherei. Berlin, Weid- 

roann. 223 p. xa°. (New York, Stecheit, $2.20.) 
Baumcartbn. P. Lehrbuch der pathologischen Mykologie. 

Halfte i. Braunschweig, Bruhn. 200 p. 8°. (New York, 

Stechert, $2.20.) 
Baunack, J. und T. Studien auf dem Gebiete des griechischen 

und der arischen Sprachen. Band i. teil 1. Leiprig, Hirxel. 

218 p. 8°. (New York, Stechert, $2.20.) 
Baylry, W. S. A summary of progress in mineralogy and 

petrography, in 1886. Philadelphia, Amer. nat. [40] p. 



12* 



Collitz, H. Die neueste Sprachforschung^ und die Erklarung 
des indogennanischen Ablautes. Gottingen, Vandenhoeck 
& Ruprechx. 40 p 8°. (New York, Stechert, 60 cents.) 

Compayrk, G. Elements d'instruction morale et civique. 65th 
ed. Paris, Delaplane. ao-» p. 16°. 

Same. Recits, exemples, preceptes, paranoics, fables. 

tooth ed. Paris. Delaplane. 138 p 16 . 

Notions eiementaires de psychologie. Paris, Delaplane. 



Alternative to socialism, the. Unsigned. London 

quarterly review, January. 
Droit natural et la science sociale, le. H. H. Joly, 

Nouvelle revue, Jan. 1. 



299 P. 12" 

Dahl, F. Die Nothwendigkeit der Religion, eine lettte Conse- 
quent: der darwinschen Lehre. Heidelberg, Weiss. 1x2 p. 
8 C . (New York, Stechert, 75 cents.) 

DiKDKRiCHS, A. Unsere Selbst- und Schmelx-laute (auch die 
englichen) in neucm Lichte. Strassburg, Trlibner. 3x5 p. 
8°. (New York. Stechert, $1.00.) 

Du Bois-Reymond, E. Rcden von. Zweite folge. Biographie, 
Wissenschaft, Ansprachen. Leipzig, Veit. 589 p. 8°. 
(New York, Stechert, $3.30.) 

Els as, A. Ueber die Psychophysik. Marburg, N. G. Elwert. 
76 p. 8° (New York, Stechert, 75 cents.) 

Frby, T. Zur Bekampfung zweitausendjahriger Irrthuzner. 
Leipzig, Fntsch. 84 p. 8°. (New York, Stechert, 55 cents.) 

Frit?, J. Aus antiker Weltanschauung. Hagcn i. W., Rise). 
433 P- 8*. (New York, Stechert, $2.60.) 



178 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 211 



cw 



Gabngb. C. Lehrbuch der angewandten Optik in der Chcmie. 

Braunschweig, Vieweg. 463 p. 8 C . (New York, Stechett, 

$6.60.) 
Grobbbr, G. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. Lief. i. 

Strassburg, Trtibner. 380 p. 8°. (New York, Stechert, 

$1.50.) 
Gubssfbldt, P. In den Hochalpen. ad ed Berlin, Allge 

meiner Verein fiir deutsche Literatur. 349 p. ia°. (Nev, 

York, Stechert, $3.30.) 
Hbking. E. Ueber Newton's Gesetz der Farbenmischung. Prag, 

Tempsky. 92 p. 8°. (New York, Stechert, $p cents.) 
Hilgakd, E. W. Alkali lands, irrigation and drainage in their 

mutual relations. Sacramento, State. 45 p. 8° 
Hilgbnpbld, D. A. Judenthum und Judencnristenthum, eine 

Nachlese iu der ** Ketzergeschichte des Urchristenthums. " 

Leipzig, Reisland. 192 p. 8° (New York, Stechert, 90 

cents.) 
Jacobsbn.O. Die Glycoside. Breslau, Trewendt . 174 p. ia°. 

(New York, Stechert, 70 cents.) 
Kohl. F. G. Die Transpiration der Pflanzen und ihre Einwirk- 

ung auf die Ausbildune pflanzlicher Gewebe. Braunschweig, 

Bruhn. 124 p. 8°. (New York, Steckert, $3.30.) 
Lange, L. Die geschichtliche Entwickelung des Bewegungsbe- 

griffes und ihr voraussichtliches Endergebniss. Leipzig En- 

gelmann. 141 p. 8°. (New York, Stechert, $1.10.) 
Mbusel, E. Die Quellkraft der Rhodanate und die Quellung als 

Ursache fermentartiger Reaktionen. Gera, Reisewitz. 36 p. 

8*. (New York, Stechert, 5s cents.) 



Calendar of Societies. 



Philosophical society, Washington. 
Feb. 12. — H. A. Hazen, The sky-glows of 1883; 
Bailey Willis, Bay's Mountains, Tennessee ; 6. Brown 
Ooode, The geographical distribution of scientific 
men and institutions in the United States. 

Chemical society, Washington. 

Feb. 10. —R. B. Biggs and J. £. Whitfield, on 
some new meteorites ; C. A. Crampton, Analysis of 
sugar-cane and beet- juices, etc. 

Torrey botanical club. New York. 

Feb. 8. — F. J. H. Merrill, Exhibition of plants 
collected at Tampa and Key West, Fla., and Collin 
and Robertson counties, Tex., in 1886. 

Boston scientific society. 
Feb. 8. — Some errors in relation to the art of the 
mound-builders ; A splendid meteor; Furs out of 
season ; S. Garman, On Massachusetts snakes. 

Sedalia natural history society. 

Nov. 8. — G. C. Broadhead, The geology of west- 
ern Missouri. 

Dec. 13. — H. M. Specking, Natural history and the 
use of the microscope. e 

Jan. 10, 1887. — F. A. Sampson exhibited a fine 
skull of the Coryphodon; Mrs. C. Demuth, Reptiles, 

Election of officers. — President, Dr. J. W. Trader ; 
vice-president, H. 0. Sinnett; corresponding secre- 
tary, F. A. Sampson; recording secretary, J. W. 
Walker. 

Missouri university club, Columbia. 

Feb. 7. — R. £. Gall, The present status of the doc- 
trine of descent. 



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ANNALS OF MATHEMATICS. Edited by Ormond Stone 
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(Harvard), 8vo„ 560 pp. 
Co., Pubs., New York. 



SCIENCE. 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1887. 

COMMENT AND CRITICISM. 
The full discussion, from both the economic 
and the commercial standpoints, that the inter- 
state commerce bill has received in the United 
States, bi ought out the many points of contact 
between the railway problem as it presents itself 
to this and to other nations. We have had forced 
home upon us the conviction, that while local 
conditions may vary, yet the question at issue is 
substantially the same, whether it presents itself 
here or in Great Britain or Germany. For this 
reason the observations concerning the railways 
and transportation made by the British commis- 
sion on the depression of trade — of whose report 
we present an account elsewhere — will be of in- 
terest to those who have studied the railway 
problem in the United States. The report of the 
majority of the commission finds, that, among 
all tbe causes which are said to have aggravated 
the prevailing depression, none has been so per- 
sistently put forward as the difficulties connected 
with the transportation of goods. The complaints 
made before the commission under this head are 
of three classes : "1°, that the railway companies 
regulate their charges so as to favor one district, 
or place, or trade, at the expense of another, and 
the importer of foreign goods at the expense of 
the home producer ; 2°, that the cost of transit in 
this country is excessive as compared with the 
charges made for similar services in other coun- 
tries, and that consequently our home trade is 
being crippled or destroyed to the advantage of 
our foreign competitors, who are able to place 
their goods in our markets at a less expense than 
the home producers, who carry on their operations 
at a much less distance ; 8°, it is contended that 
if the water communications of the country were 
properly developed, an effective competition would 
thus be established which would regulate the 
monopoly now possessed by the railways." 



or locality loses, another must gain. Further- 
more, if companies be compelled to withdraw the 
advantages complained of in the case of imported 
goods, what assurance is there that it may not be 
found necessary to follow the same treatment with 
goods intended for export, and, in fact, to abolish 
all through rates ? In regard to the second point, 
it is admitted that railway transportation is 
cheaper on the continent than in Great Britain, 
because of the lower initial cost of the continental 
railways, and because the longer distances to be 
traversed there operate to reduce the rate per 
mile. But it is contended that the present rates 
— which have parliamentary sanction — only af- 
ford an average return of about four per cent on 
the capital invested, and consequently cannot be 
reduced. The commission adds that it is not 
so much the cheapness of land transportation on 
the continent that is felt, but the cheapness of the 
sea transportation between the continent and 
Great Britain : for the complaints arise princi- 
pally from the inland towns which have no trans- 
pott save that afforded by the railways, and con- 
sequently are at a disadvantage as compared with 
sea-coast towns. As this advantage in favor of 
the latter is perfectly natural, the commission 
finds no justification for interfering with it. On 
the third point both complainants and commission 
agree, and the latter recommends the adoption 
of measures which will permit of the free devel- 
opment of canals wherever they are likely to be 
useful and prevent their being controlled by the 
railway companies, as appears to be the case in 
many parts of the country. 



The report states, that, so far as the first of these 
points goes, even if proved, it could only account 
for a local and not for any such wide-spread de- 
pression as is found to prevail ; for what one trade 

Na SU-1897. 



The bill which has been introduced in the 
assembly of the state of New York, entitled "An 
act to regulate the licensing and registration of 
physicians and surgeons, and to codify the medi- 
cal laws of the state of New York," is one which 
should meet with the hearty support of the medi- 
cal profession, and receive the vote of every mem- 
ber of the legislature. That legislative action is 
necessary to codify tbe laws relating to medical 
practice is evident, when it is considered that there 
are at the present time fourteen or more such laws 
in force, some of them having been enacted as 



180 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 218 



long ago as 1806. The act now before the legisla- 
ture repeals many of these laws entirely as well as 
the inconsistent and useless sections of the others. 
We have not had time to compare the proposed 
law with those which it will repeal, but as the 
act has been prepared by the counsel of the New 
York county medical society, who has probably 
had as much experience in these matters in the 
courts as any of the lawyers, we presume the re- 
pealing clause is right and proper. We are glad 
to see that provision is also made by which the 
question of registration will be settled, so that the 
practice of county clerks throughout the state will 
be uniform. It will hereafter be necessary for a 
physician to register in person in but one county, 
after which registration he will receive a certifi- 
cate of registration from the county clerk. If he 
desires to remove his practice to another county, 
or to engage in practice or open an office therein, 
he may present his certificate in person to the 
clerk of that county, or mail it to him by regis- 
tered letter. On this certificate the clerk will in- 
dorse, ' registered also in county,' and the 

physician is then qualified to practise therein. 



cine, are also worthy of commendation. We 
sincerely trust that the whole bill will promptly 
pass both houses of the legislature and receive the 
signature of the governor. 



Another section of the law which is most equi- 
table and just, and one which will remove all 
cause for doubtful interpretation of existing laws, 
is as follows : " Nothing in this act shall be con- 
strued to punish commissioned medical officers 
serving in the army or navy of the United States, 
or in the U. S. marine hospital service, while 
so commissioned, or any one while actually 
serving as a member of the resident medical staff 
of any legally incorporated hospital, or any legally 
qualified and registered dentist exclusively en- 
gaged in practising the art of dentistry, or any 
lawfully qualified physicians and surgeons resid- 
ing in other states or counties meeting registered 
physicians and surgeons of this state in consulta- 
tion, or any physician or surgeon residing on the 
border of a neighboring state, and duly authorized 
under the laws thereof to practise physic or sur- 
gery therein, whose practice extends into the 
limits of this state, providing that such practi- 
tioner shall not open an office or appoint a place 
to meet patients or receive calls within the limits 
of the state of New York ; or physicians duly 
registered in one county of this state called to 
attend isolated cases in another county, but not 
residing or habitually practising therein. 1 ' The 
other provisions of the law which are intended to 
punish all those who fraudulently practise medi- 



Caft. A. W. Gbeely's appointment as chief 
signal-officer with rank of brigadier-general is a 
well-merited promotion. It is also a compromise 
with those who have been advocating the separa- 
tion of the service from the army ; for, while the 
new chief is an army officer, he is also a man of 
scientific attainments and experience, and it was for 
the purpose of securing a person with the latter 
qualifications that the change was advocated. 
The appointment is also applauded by the Presi- 
dent's friends as being in strict line of civil-eenrice 
reform, as Captain Greely was next in rank in the 
bureau to General Hazen, and had worked long 
enough with him to understand fully the meth- 
ods of the service. The general impression seems 
to be that the senate will confirm the nomination. 



THE LATE ERUPTION FROM KILAUEA. 

Because of the increased numbers of tourists, 
better facilities are now offered for visiting Kilauea. 
Instead of the arduous equestrian journey of 
thirty miles from Hilo, over rough lava, often in 
the midst of rain, the traveller can now disem- 
bark from the Kinau — the best of the inter-island 
steamers — at Keauhou on the dry side of Hawaii, 
and reach the Volcano House by a new road, only 
eighteen miles long, and that mostly in a car- 
riage. Arrangements have been perfected by 
which the round trip can be taken from Honolulu 
in six days' time, allowing two nights and one and 
a half days at the caldera, and at a cost of sixty 
dollars. 

The first recorded eruption from Kilauea was in 
1780, when a troop of native soldiers were suffo- 
cated. The first scientific accounts are those of 
Ellis in 1828, and of the U.S. exploring expedition 
in 1840, as given by Commodore Wilkes and Prof. 
J. D. Dana. Since then the more notable changes 
have been recorded by Dr. Titus Coan in the col- 
umns of the American journal of science. In 
1882 Capt. C. E. Dutton explored Kilauea and the 
Hawaiian Islands generally, presenting in the 
* Fourth annual report of the U.S. geological sur- 
vey' the best description of the volcanic phe- 
nomena of that part of the world that has yet 
appeared. In the following year, and also during 
the past summer, the writer went over the same 
ground. 



Fdtout S9, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



Immediately after tbe disappearance of the 
lava in Kilauea in March last. Prof. W. D. Alex- 
ander, chief of the trigonometrical survey of the 
Hawaiian Islands, directed bis assistants to make 
a plan of the disturbed region ; and by his kind- 
ness we are permitted to present it to the readers 
of Science. Tbe triangnlation and details of the 
sunken portion are from the surveys of J. S. 



between the large and small calderas. Captain 
Dutton copied tbeee errors of Brigham into his 

Commodore Wilkes prepared a map of Kilauea, 
delineating the main topographical features, and 
especially showing the ' black ledge,'— a shelf of 
desiccated lava from 600 to 2,000 feet in width, 
and about 660 feet below Uwakahuna, the 




; tbe general outlines are from W. T. 
Brigham's survey of 1865, while the map was 
drawn by F. S. Dodge. The descriptive lettering 
is mostly taken from Brigham, with a few addi- 
tions and improvements : for instance, tbe names 
of tbe small adjoining craters are altered to cor- 
respond with Hawaiian usage. The ' Kilauea Iki ' 
of Brigham is changed to ' Keana Kakoi,' and 
' Poii-o-keawe ' is changed to ' Kilauea Iki.' Tbe 
designation ' Poll o-keawe ' is applied to tbe shelf 



highest point in the rim on tbe western side. It 
encircles a lower pit, 13,000 feet long, 3,000 feet 
wide, and 881 feet deep, which represents the di- 
mensions of tbe block of melted lava that broke out 
twenty-seven miles distant, and then flowed twelve 
miles to the sea at Nanawali. The black ledge 
was still discernible in 1865, but has not been men- 
tioned for the past ten years. The southern end 
of the deep pit repreeenta the centre of activity, 
called ' Halema'uma'u,' From time to time tern- 



182 



[Vol. IX., No. 2X9 



porary lakes of fire appear on all sides, but Hale- 
ma'uma'u remains essentially constant. This is a 
real crater, while Captain Dnlton has well sug- 
gested the name of ' caldera ' for the entire de- 
pression. 

The entire pit was never taller than on the 
evening of March 6, 1880. The lava that for nine 
years, or since the last previous important die- 
charge (1877), had been accumulating and pooling 
over the floor from Halema'uma'u and New lake, 
till it attained the altitude of 8,719 feet above the 



some of them probably occasioned by the falling 
of large masses of rock. Shortly after midnight 
the lava disappeared through a subterranean chan- 
nel, filling up some vacant chamber, probably, 
since it did not discharge anywhere at the surface, 
nor was there any oceanic disturbance within easy 
distance of the island. The thickness of the 
molten column that disappeared proves to be S70 
feet, without estimating the additional distance 
to the unknown reservoir beneath the rough fal- 
len fragments. 



FlO. 1. — CiTUT I 

sea-level. The floor was conve*, and 160 feet 
higher at the lakes thsn at the northern edge, 
while the general level averaged from ISO to 300 
feet above Ibe black ledge of Wilkes. To the 
south the lava had risen upon the old sulphur- 
banks, nearly covering them, while leavinga long 
narrow promontory scarcely a dozen feet above 
the general level. Late in the evening there com- 
menced a series of earthquake?, so severe as to 
alarm J. H. Many, the landlord of the Volcano 
House, and his household. Up to 8 a.m. of the 
following day, forty-three shocks were noted, 



T TBI NlW LlU 

The map gives a correct delineation of the 
sunken area. The main depression is roughly tri- 
angular, with Bides about 3,850 feet long, forming 
an area less than half a mile square. In extent 
it is not very unlike Kilauea Iki, though the 
basin carries less cubical content. To the east of 
the principal depression is the space left by New 
Lake and Little Beggar, the smaller temporary 
craters. The average depth of this circular seg- 
ment is 106 feet ; the length, 1,700 feet ; width, 
350 to 0B0 feet. It is a sort oF shelf or terrace ad- 
joining the greater depression. The triangular pit 



February 39, 1887.1 



SCIENCE. 



183 



is very irregular, some portions of it equalling the 
New Lake terrace in altitude, while the deepest 
pert is in the centre. The walla of the depression 
may now be called the ' black-ledge ; ' and their 
limited dimensions, as compared with the greater 
pit formed in 1840, will illustrate the littleness of 
the late discharge. Like the last, the next erup- 
tion may be expected after the new pit has been 
refilled. 
The accompanying illustrations show the sunken 



from its lowest point. The greatest depth exhib- 
ited is 570 feet. 

Besides tbe formation of this pit, there were 
produced several large cracks in the neighborhood, 
— one on the Poli-o-keawe, at the sulphur- hanks 
near the Volcano House ; and two on the waj to 
Keauhou, two miles distant. 

Quietness and darkness reigned in this pit till 
the fourth day of June. Four days later we 
visited it, and found upon the east side of the 



FlG. 3. — llALBMVl 






region. The first (fig. 1) shows the space oc- 
cupied by New Lake. The steep wall was the 
edge of the molten lava, and the depth 166 feet. 
In both views the precipitous walls constitute the 
new black ledge. 

The second (fig. 2) shows the pit of Halema'u- 
ma'u. The lava reached very nearly to the top 
of the cliff before the eruption. The general 
level of the depression is similar to that of the 
bottom of New Lake, and the central pit is well 
shown with the steam and sulphurous gases rising 



deepest pit a hole about forty feet across, descend- 
ing at an angle of eighty or eighty-five degrees to 
a lake of fire. Great volumes of steam and sul- 
phur vapor [toured out of this orifice, whose walls 
were lined with sublimed sulphur and Pele's hair. 
As the opening lay in the midst of loose blocksof 
lava and widened out downwards, it was danger- 
ous to stand near theedge ; butthe swashing of the 
liquid was distinctly audible, and stones thrown 
down were heard to splash into the liquid. 
The depth to the lava was probably about two 



184 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. K., No. ! 



hundred feet. To the north-ward about two hun- 
dred feet was a copious discharge of corrosive 
vapors, which increased in strength in the course 
of the following week. At night the fire could be 
seen above the pit, just as at our earlier visits. It 
was evident the fire had returned to Kilauea ; and 
the drooping spirits of the proprietors, who had 
made extensive preparations for the entertainment 
of tourists, began to revive. On the 25th of June 
a still larger vent opened upon the west side of the 
deep pit, or rather two of them. Two lakes of 
. fire formed, divided by a very narrow ridge, 
early at the level of the deepest part of the pit 



south a stretch of volcanic sand and dfbria fully 
equal in dimensions to Kilauea itself. On ex- 
amining more closely the material called 'sand- 
stone' and 'gravel' upon the map, it was seen to 
consist of material ejected from the volcano, and 
numerous lava-bombs were picked up. Ashes 
also cover the country to the south and south- 
west over the Eau desert for several miles. The 
conclusion is therefore forced upon us that the 
earlier eruptions varied in character from any 
thing that has been observed during the last half- 
century. Ashes, sand, and stones were thrown to 
a distance of several miles from the volcano ; BO 



Fio. a. — Tui new Halbma'cxa'd, i 

(at least 800 feet below the Volcano House), and 
having a length of TOO feet and a width of 400 
feet. About the same time the lava flowed out of 
the small opening of June 4, and is Riling up the 
deep pit. Professor Van Slyke of Oahu college 
reports that the pit was entirely filled up at the 
end of July, and that a conical mound is forming 
above it. This will probably develop into a 
second Halema'uma'u, occupying, as it does, ex- 
actly the same place as the old one. All the dis- 
charging vents are situated within the limits of 
the sunken area of the map. 

Advantage was taken of our visit to explore 
the southern part of the caldera. Standing at 
Keana Kakoi, one sees to the south/west and 



1I.Y IN OCTOBER, 1888. 

that the Vesuvian type of action has been some- 
times exemplified here.' It was in the neighbor- 
hood of the Keana Kakoi that the army was suf- 
focated in 1789, perhaps by the very eruption 
whose (Kiwis are now strewed over the surface, 
and it may have come possibly from Keana it- 
self. 

It is not generally known that in 1868 the lava 
of Kilauea discharged from a vent in the Kan 
desert seven or eight miles distant. It has been 
claimed by some that the flow at Kahufeu in that 



tn>m ilieae aerial dischargee rati] 
poallon of lava or Iroia ■ deposit tx 
gaated by Captain Dutton. 



Fbbmabt 35. 1887.1 



SCIENCE. 



185 



jew came from Kilauoo. The best authorities, 
like Datton, agree that the Kubuku flow came 
from Manna Lob, while Kilauea overflowed in the 
Kau desert. The area of the flow is only about a 
quarter of a mile in length and breadth. 

It is worthy of note that after the eruptions of 
1838, 1840, and I860, the returning lava has stood 
at nearly the same level That of 1828, described 
by Ellis, is estimated by Dutton to have been 400 
feet lower than at the time of his visit. Redu- 
cing the figures to a uniform standard reference 
to the sea-level, the altitude in 1828 was 8,177 
feet; in 1840, 8,170 feet; in 1888, 8,140 feet, or 
the lowest point. In 1883 the level of New Lake 
was estimated at 8,577 feet. The highest level of 
March B was at 8,710 feet. It appears, therefore, 
that there has been no essential change in the 
normal natural level of the molten lava for the 
past sixty-five years. 

By advices sent as late as the middle of October, 
it appears that the central cone has risen 700 or 
800 feet above the lowest level of the pit, and it 
is still rising. Small streams of lava issue, play 
around, and harden between the central cone and 
the walls of the pit ; so that the old Halema'uma'n 
ia being restored (flg. 8). 

During the months of September and October 
Professor Alexander employed parties to make a 
further survey and map of the great caldera. The 
result is given in the annexed map after the sur- 



SILDU'DIU'O tH OCTOBIB, 1886. 

veys of F. S. Dodge. The earlier map of Emerson 
was based upon the sketch of W. T. Brigham, 
made in 1806, and any general changes of outline 
observed are doe lo the greater precision of Dodge's 
survey. One observes differences in the northern 
wall, the straightening of the cliff in front of 
Kilauea-lfci, the more satisfactory representation 
of the two side-craters, and the location of the 
promontory at the old sulphur-beds. Halema'uma'n 
itself shows changes between these two latest 



maps. Instead of the deep pit in the centres 000 
feet below the Volcano House, there is a circular 
ridge nearly 600 feet above that lowest point. The 
lava which commenced to flow Jnne 4 has con- 
tinned to discharge ever since, sud has now built 
up this crater. There is a sort of moat between 
the crater and the black ledge surrounding it as 
well as the central pit within. There is represented 
also an interesting patch of Aa to the north of 
Halema'uma'n. C. H. Hitchcock. 

PARIS LETTER. 

In a paper recently read before the Biological 
society of Paris, Dr. Debierre gave the results of 
researches concerning the physical superiority of 
the right side of the human body. Since the ex- 
periments of Halting, Sappey, Jobert, Concet, 
Milne-Edwards, and others, it has been generally 
accepted that in right-banded persons the right 
side is larger, longer, and heavier than tbe left 
side. To ascertain whether this disparity exists 
in early life, or is afterwards developed by educa- 
tion. Dr. Debierre experimented upon the dead 
bodies of young children, and found that, where 
education and practice had not interfered, there 
was no difference in size or weight between the 
right and left limbs. This is well, so far as it 
goes, but there must be some reason for the supe- 
rior development by education of the right side. 
Even if we admit that education is the only reason 
for this superiority, we must believe that some 
circumstances in the foetal development, or in the 
conditions governing the nervous centres, are 
favorable to it, as it is so general, unless we 
believe that the first roan was by special design 
created right-handed. But this belief 1 think no 
naturalist would accept. 

As a consequence or tbe troubled international 
relations on our continent, — a state of affairs 
prejudicial to thought and business alike, and 
which will end some day in a tremendous crash 
and most foolish and unprofitable waste of human 
energy and life, — chemists are busily engaged in 
seeking improved methods of destruction. In 
France a new explosive has been devised, said to 
be as much superior to nitre-glycerine as the latter 
is to common gunpowder. It is called ' melinite,' 
and its explosive force is to that of gunpowder as 
100 to 5. Its destructive effects are fearful, inas- 
much as bombs charged with it do not explode 
immediately upon striking a wall, or similar re- 
sisting surface, the explosion taking place some 
little time after penetration. This new war ma- 
terial is the invention of MM. Locard and Hiron- 
dard of Bonrges, to whom the minister of war 
has given an order for 300,000 bombs charged with 



186 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 212 



it. In Germany a new shell has been devised, on 
principles made known some years ago by M. Tur- 
pin, a French inventor. In this new projectile 
two substances, one of which acts as igniter and 
the other as combustible, are placed close to each 
other, but not in contact. The igniter is con- 
tained in a glass bottle, which is broken by the shock 
caused by the striking of the shell, thereby per- 
mitting the two substances to come into contact 
and causing the explosion at the desired moment. 
Neither of these substances is dangerous in itself, 
and either may be handled separately without 
risk. The projectiles are not charged with the 
igniting substance until they are to be used. A 
third new explosive has been invented in Berlin. 
It is called 'roburite,' and has given good results, 
but it is dangerous to handle, and is said to de- 
teriorate more or less rapidly after manufacture. 

Miss Klumpke, whom I mentioned in my last 
letter as having competed for the internat of the 
Paris hospitals, has been successful, passing as 
number 16, the whole number of competitors 
being about 600. She is an American, from San 
Francisco. Another American lady has been ap- 
pointed interne provisoire, to be on duty only in 
case supplementary internes are necessary and for 
one year instead of four. 

As I stated in my last letter, female students are 
pretty numerous in Paris. Most of them are Rus- 
sians, generally very poor, so they club together 
in email sets, — many of them have brothers or 
husbands with them who are students also, — and 
put their resources into a common fund. One 
room is used as dormitory, another as study, etc., 
and a single cook does for all, — phalansterism as 
proposed by Fourier. They work hard, and the 
life of all, men and women, is very respectable in 
every way. 

At a recent meeting of the Biological society a 
paper on paralytic rabies in man was read by M. 
Gamalela, a physician of Odessa, and director of 
the Russian antirabic inoculation institution in 
that city. One of M. Petei's main assertions in 
his discussion with Pasteur is that paralytic symp- 
toms are met with only in rabbits and in cases of 
experimental hydrophobia ; genuine hydrophobia, 
according to M. Peter, being always convulsive. 
M. Gamalela shows that such is not the case, and 
gives the records of sixteen cases of paralytic 
rabies witnessed by himself. The symptoms in- 
duced by this sort of hydrophobia are as follows : 
ataxy, paresis, and paralysis of the legs and arms, 
sensibility being unimpared (at the outset, at 
least) ; lumbar pains, shooting from the back for- 
wards ; paralysis of the abdominal and rectal mus- 
cles. The paralysis gains ground, invading the 
neck, tongue, and face, and finally asphyxia sets 



in. Among the causes which Beem to co-operate 
in inducing the paralytic form of rabies* M. Gam- 
alela notes especially the penetration of a large 
quantity of virus. This certainly was the case 
with the patients who died after submitting to 
Pasteur's intensive method. 

The government report on fisheries for 1885 
has just been published, The fishing vessels of 
all descriptions number 28,877, manned by 85 915 
men. There are also 57,088 fishermen who fish 
along shore. The total weight of fish taken was 
187,000,000 kilograms, valued at 92,786,585 francs. 
There has been a complaint for some years past of 
the increasing scarcity of sardines. These fish 
seem to stop in the neighborhood of the Spanish 
and Portuguese coasts, not go in*? much farther 
north. The deaths among the fishermen for the 
year mentioned number 863, leaving 212 widows 
and 416 orphans. Were it not for the high 
freights charged by the railroads for the trans- 
portation of fish, the fisheries would be much 
more prosperous than they are, the high freights 
preventing the development of new markets. 
This is especially the case with oysters. In 
Brittany, for instance, oysters are so very abun- 
dant that at present they sell at nine francs per 
thousand* while in Paris they sell at fifty francs, 
owing to the high price of transportation and the 
local duty. 

The telephone experiments which recently 
took place between Paris and Brussels were very 
satisfactory. The line was opened to the public 
some days ago, when a lively chat took place be- 
tween the invited guests of the minister of posts 
and telegraphs, and those of the post-director of 
Brussels. Within the city the wire is inclosed in 
wooden tubes enveloped by a leaden tube. For 
the rest of the distance it is an ordinary aerial 
line, the wire being of siliceous bronze, — the 
same wire being used for both telegraphic and 
telephonic purposes. The tariff for five minutes' 
conversation between Paris and Brussels is three 
francs. 

Some days ago Professor Alglave, the able 
director of the International scientific series, in 
France, delivered an interesting public lecture on 
alchoholism. He stated that of one hundred insane 
persons, forty had been intemperate ; that fully 
one-half our criminals had been in the habit of 
drinking to excess, and that delirium tremens 
kills 2,200 persons every year. The reason for 
the increase in the death rate of alcoholic patients 
is not that there are a greater number of victims, 
but that alcoholic liquors are much more poison- 
ous than formerly, owing to their poorer quality 
and the addition to them of inferior alcohol made 
from rice, potatoes, corn, beets, etc. Of 1,872,000 



r 



Fxbbuabt 35, 1887.] 



SCIENCE. 



187 



hectolitres of alcohol consumed annually, scarce- 
ly 36,000 hectolitres are pure ethylic alcohol made 
from grapes, — and other alcohols are real poisons, 
as may easily be shown. To kill an animal it re- 
quires about 7 grams of ethylic alcohol per 
kilogram of the animal's weight, while of amylic 
alcohol it requires only about 1 gram. To pro- 
duce death in a man of 80 kilograms weight, it 
would require 620 grams of the pure alcohol, but 
only 88 of the other. Alcoholism is therefore pro- 
duced seven times sooner with the latter than 
with the former. 

It is now fifty years since the first railroad was 
built in France, and the fiftieth anniversary is 
being celebrated in the Bois de Vincennes. But 
the railroad companies prefer to wait and celebrate 
this anniversary during the exhibition of 1889, so 
it is likely that the present celebration will be a 

failure. 
At a recent meeting of ihe Academy of 

sciences, M. Hayein of the medical school read 
a paper on the phenomena noticed in the head 
of an animal after decapitation, with or with- 
out transfusion of fresh blood. As soon as 
the head is separated from the body the eyes 
move convulsively, and a look of wonder and 
anxiety is noticeable on the face. The jaws sep- 
arate with force, and the tongue seems to be in a 
tetanic state. There appears to be some conscious- 
ness of what is going on, but this does not last 
more than three or four seconds. The eyes then 
shrink into the head, and some spasmodic efforts 
at breathing are made ; the nostrils expand, the 
mouth opens, the tongue is retracted towards the 
fauces. This respiratory effort is repeated three 
or four times, but the senses seem to be inactive, 
and the will is lost. These phenomena last one or 
at most two minutes, and the head then becomes 
utterly inert. If preparations have previously 
been made so that the head after separation con- 
tinues to receive a fresh supply of blood, the vol- 
untary manifestations persist as long as the blood 
supply is sufficient, — that is, for half an hour or 
so. When a blood-supply is furnished after the 
head has become entirely motionless, the phe- 
nomena are as follows : some contractions, very 
week and feeble, take place, especially in the 
muscles of the lips ; then some respiratory efforts ; 
reflex actions of the eye, first weak, then well 
marked, but the eyelids remain drooping ; the 
senses are quite asleep, and no will is manifested. 
Of course, the longer the period between decapita- 
tion and the restoration of blood supply, the longer 
the time before these phenomena are apparent. 
In conclusion, it may be assumed that decapi- 
tation does not produce instantaneous death. 
Conscious life and feeling continue for a few sec- 



onds. Whether or not pain is felt during this 
brief period cannot be ascertained, most likely not, 
owing to the rapid death of nervous elements, 
with which alone sensation is concerned. 

M. J. Schoenfeld has recently devised an in- 
genious method of written communication be- 
tween blind persons and those who can see. In- 
stead of printing the letter p, for instance, in relief 
as in other systems, a combination of pointed pro- 
jections or stops, — as we will call them for con- 
venience, — is used. These stops are of conical 
form, such as may be produced upon one side of 
a piece of paper by pressing lightly upon the other 
side with a sharpely pointed pencil. The number 
of stops used is six, arranged in two parallel 
columns of three each, thus ;:, and numbered 
consecutively from one to six, 1, 2, and 8 running 
down the first column, and 4, 5, and 6 down the 
second. In this system the letter o is represented 
thus > , and r thus :• , — and as these signs are 
in relief they may be read as well by the eye as 
by the touch. The letter o, as we perceive, is a 
combination of the stops numbered 1, 8, and 5, — 
2, 4, and 6 being omitted. The letter r is com- 
posed of the stops numbered 1, 2, 3, and 5 ; and 
so on, each letter being represented by a different 
combination of two or more of the stops. By the 
aid of a list of all the combinations used and of 
the letters to which they correspond, this system 
is easily learned, and it may be as easily read by 
the blind as the relief print now used. 

A very useful though little known laboratory in 
Paris is that devoted to anthropometry, as applied 
to the identification of criminals. It is popularly 
called the * Feet-bureau.' The reason for this 
peculiar name will be found farther on. In this 
laboratory every criminal, when taken into cus- 
tody, is submitted to a thorough anthropometrical 
examination. He is divested of all clothing, and 
the form and dimensions of bis head, face, fingers, 
feet, body, etc., are accurately noted down, and 
his face is photographed. There is already a col- 
lection of some sixty thousand photographs, and 
how can any particular photograph in this large 
collection be quickly found when required ? This 
is the way M. Bertillon, the able director of the 
bureau, has classified them, so that he can readily 
find a photograph by which to identify any crim- 
inal whose picture is in the collection. The photo- 
graphs are divided into three groups, according to 
the age of the criminal. Each of these groups is 
subdivided into three classes, according to the 
height of the person. A fuither subdivision of 
these classes is based upon the length of the head, 
and a final subdivision is governed by the length 
of the feet, — hence the name * feet-bureau.' By 
this arrangement any desired picture among the 



188 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 912 



sixty thousand may be found in a moment, and on 
the back of it is a complete record of the crimi- 
nal's past life, together with an accurate descrip- 
tion of him. The bureau is very serviceable, the 
criminals being the only ones who find any fault 
with its workings. 

An interesting paper upon the physiological 
action of saccharine — discovered some years ago 
by Fahlberg — has been contributed by MM. 
Aducco and Moseo. They find that frogs cannot 
live in a solution of this substance, on account of 
its acidity, though strong doses of a concentrated 
solution of it do not seem to affect them. Upon 
dogs, saccharine has no definite action. The weight 
of the animals is not changed by its use, and it 
has no effect upon the quantity or quality of the 
urine voided. Chlorides seem to be ejected in 
greater proportion, but this is all. Saccharine 
passes through the body without change, its only 
effect being to render the urine less putrescible 
than usual. Upon man the effects are similar, 
five-gram daily doses having no effect whatever, 
passing away wholly with the urine, entirely un- 
changed. Upon the whole, saccharine seems to 
be an inoffensive substance, having the valuable 
quality of being a substitute for sugar without the 
injurious effects of the latter in certain ailments, 
such as diabetes. 

An excellent work upon hygienic dietetics has 
recently been published by M. Dujardin-Beaumetz, 
in which he ably reviews previous works upon the 
physiology of digestion, and advances sound 
ideas of what dietetics must be as governed by 
the various states of health and disease. Another 
work, by M. Dangeard, upon the inferior organ- 
isms, will prove useful to zoologists and botanists. 
It is a book of reference concerning a very small 
division of protozoa, but cod tains no general ideas 
upon physiology or morphology. V. 

Paris, Feb. 11. 



GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 
Africa. 

The European population of Algiers in 1886 
numbered 261,500 French and 210,000 foreigners. 
Among the latter the Spanish element is the most 
numerous. As among the French population 
there are 88,000 soldiers, and about a thousand 
foreigners are naturalized every year, the foreign- 
ers actually outnumber the French. The Euro- 
pean population has doubled during the last 
twenty-five years, and the native population, 
which numbers 8,800,000 Arabs and Kabyles and 
48,000 Israelites, is increasing at a rale of about 
80,000 a year. Since 1881 the increase was 423,000. 

Stanley publishes a letter in which he states 



that all the political authorities and experts in 
Cairo are opposed to the idea of his taking the 
Kongo route for reaching Emin Pasha. As hfe 
expedition will be well armed, they do not con- 
sider the obstacles he would find on the Karagwe 
or Masai route insuperable. Stanley, however, 
wishes to avoid a struggle with Uganda, as he 
fears that the missionaries now in Mwanga's 
power will be murdered in case of war. He 
estimates the length of the Kongo route at 157 
days, — twenty days by steamer from Zanzibar to 
the Kongo, three days by steamer on the Lower 
Kongo, thirty-five days on the Upper Kongo, and 
ninety-nine days of land journey to Lake Mwoo- 
tan. The Karagwe route he calculates at 156 
days land journey, the Masai route at 154 days. 

No news has been received of Mr. Luderitz, 
who went on an exploring expedition in sooth- 
western Africa last fall. He has not been heard 
of since he embarked on the Orange River in a 
canoe. 

Dr. E. Holub's party has been attacked by the 
Bechuanas, and his companion was killed in the 
fight. Holub escaped unhurt. After the news of 
this disaster was received, a committee was formed 
in Vienna to raise funds for enabling Dr. Hofcab 
to resume his explorations on the upper Zambezi 

The French are making use of their occupation of 
Madagascar, says Nature, to gain a thorough knowl- 
edge of the natural history of the island. There 
have already issued from the national press several 
fascicules of a magnificent ' Histoire physique, nat- 
urelle, et politique de Madagascar,' edited by M. Al- 
fred Grandidier, to be completed in thirty volumes 
quarto. The subjects to be comprised in this 
work are : 1°, physical and astronomical geog- 
raphy ; 2°, meteorology and magnetism ; 8°, eth- 
nology, anthropology, and linguistics ; 4°, political, 
colonial, and commercial history ; 5°, natural his- 
tory of mammals ; 6°, natural history of birds ; 7°, 
natural history of fishes ; 8°, natural history of 
reptiles ; 9°, natural history of Crustacea ; 10°, 
natural history of terrestrial and freshwater 
mollusks ; 11°, natural history of plants ; 12°, geol- 
ogy and paleontology. The various sections are 
intrusted to competent authorities ; and the geo- 
logical portion is to be illustrated by about five 
hundred chromo-lithographs or colored plates, the 
anatomical details being represented in lithog- 
raphy and photography. The total number of 
plates will not be less than 1200. 

America, 

Mr. Chaffanjon was going to leave San Fer- 
nando de Atabapo on the Upper Orinoco in No- 
vember, 1886, to explore the sources of that river. 
Through the support of the government he got 



Fkbsuabt 25, 1087.] 



SCIENCE. 



189 



some Moquivitares Indians for guides. They are 
the neighbors of the Guahariboe, who occupy the 
district of the sources of the Orinoco. The latter 
are very much feared by the whites, as they 
. murder everybody who tries to enter their country. 
ChafEanjon hopes through the help of his Moquivi- 
tares friends to be able to gain their confidence 
and accomplish his purpose. On his way to 
San Fernando he made interesting linguistic and 
archeological researches. 

Oceania. 

It is stated by Nature that the lake district in 
New Zealand is showing signs of fresh distur- 
bances. Tremors have been felt at Rotorua, and 
Tarawera has emitted dense volumes of steam. 
The Wahanga Peak appeared most active. No 
fire was visible, and after this outburst every- 
thing quieted down again. 

On the 15th of January a new volcanic eruption 
took place on Hawaii. 

Oceans. 

The Proceedings of the Royal geographical so- 
ciety for December, 1886, contain an interesting 
paper by J. Y. Buchanan on ' Similarities in the 
physical geography of the great oceans.' The 
author mainly discusses three important oceano- 
graphical problems, — the equatorial current, the 
equatorial counter-current, and the rising of cold 
water near the coasts of continents. Buchanan 
describes the influence of the evaporation which 
takes place in the region of the dry and warm 
trade-winds and monsoons. The water which 
gets warmer but more concentrated sinks under 
the colder layers of less concentrated water, and 
thus becomes a medium of transportation of heat 
into the deeper strata. As this warm water is 
moving west, it reaches its greatest depth in the 
western parts of the oceans. As corals are con- 
fined to regions of warm water, they principally 
live in the same area. While the region of the 
equatorial current has water of great density, the 
equatorial counter-current has lighter water, and 
wherever the velocity of the eastern current is 
increasing, its density is decreasing. Buchanan 
does not give an explanation of the origin of the 
counter-current. His observations on the density 
agree with the well-known fact that the current 
lies beyond the belt of trade-winds which effect a 
rapid evaporation. The mechanical cause of this 
current remains still doubtful, though it seems 
probable that the equatorial current is its princi- 
pal cause. Buchanan's remarks on the rising of 
cold water near the coasts of continents are of 
great interest. Formerly the existence of cold 
water was considered a sufficient proof for the 



existence of cold currents. Recent researches, 
however, make it probable that in such places 
cold abysmal water rises from the adjoining 
depths. Buchanan shows on a map that the cold 
water is principally found on windward coasts of 
the oceans, where the currents are flowing from 
the continent The loss of water in these regions 
is made good by the rising cold water. The Janu- 
ary number of the Annalen der hydrographie calls 
our attention to the fact that wherever a current 
is deflected from a coast, it attracts the adjoining 
water. It depends on the configuration of the 
ocean whether the abysmal water or that of the 
adjoining surface takes the place of the water 
that is carried away by the current. The rotation 
of the earth is the principal cause for the deflec- 
tion of the currents and the consequent rising of 
the cold water. Every coast-current in the 
northern hemisphere is deflected to the right, in 
the southern to the left, and in all these places 
cold water may be obrerved. 

General. 

The February number of tho Scottish geographi- 
cal magazine contains a paper by John Murray on 
the total rainfall of the globe, and its relation to 
the discharge of rivers, accompanied by a map 
showing the distribution of annual rainfall. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Murray, 2,248 cubic miles of rain 
fall annually on areas with inland drainage. 
Such areas extend to 11,486.850 square miles. The 
land draining directly to the ocean has an area of 
44,211,000 square miles. If from this quantity we 
subtract all areas having less than 10 inches of 
annual rainfall, we get 88,829,750 square miles. 
The mean discharge from this area into the ocean 
is 6,569 cubic miles annually. The total weight 
of substances carried by this means to the ocean 
is rather more than 5,000,000,000 tons each year. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The cholera epidemic is now declining in the 
Argentine Republic, having entirely disappeared 
from Cordoba. It still prevails in Montevideo, 
and has recently broken out at FreyBenitos, where 
the Liebig company has its slaughter-houses and 
factories for the preparation of the extract of 
meat. The La Plata River is closed to navigation 
on account of the epidemic. Although cholera 
has declined in the interior of the Argentine Re- 
public, there is no change in the city of Buenos 
Ayres. There is no news from Paraguay, but it 
is learned from the Brazilian province of Matto 
Grosso that cholera is doing great havoc there. 
At Corumba the people are terror-stricken and 
have fled into the interior. Fear is now enter- 



190 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., No. 212 



tained that these refugees may spread the cholera 
into Goyaz and possibly into the Amazon region 
and to Para. 

— Following a period of apparent stagnation, 
due to the final arrangements as to site, pro- 
gramme, details of building, and the laying-out 
of the grounds, advices from the headquarters of 
the directors of the Paris jubilee of railways state 
that activity now prevails on the grounds, and 
that the palace and equipment will be ready for 
the opening in May. 

— Messrs. Ticknor & Company announce for 
publication, on Friday, Feb. 25, 'The life and 
works of Giordano Bruno,' a new volume of the 
English and foreign philosophical library ; ' The 
course of empire,' being outlines of the chief po- 
litical changes in the history of the world, ar- 
ranged by centuries, with variorum illustrations, 
by C. G. Wheeler, author of ' Familiar allusions,' 
with twenty-five maps ; and ' Familiar allusions,' 
a handbook of miscellaneous information, includ- 
ing the names of celebrated statues, paintings, 
palaces, country-seats, ruins, churches, ships, 
streets, clubs, natural curiosities, and the like, by 
William A. Wheeler and Charles G. Wheeler. 

— At a late meeting of the New Fork academy 
of medicine, Dr. J. H. Girdner read a paper on the 
methods of detecting and locating metallic masses 
in the human body by the induction balance and 
the telephonic probe. He referred to the appa- 
ratus which had been constructed by Professor 
Bell for the purpose of locating the bullet in the 
case of President Garfield, and said that it had 
failed because at the time the patient was lying 
on a metallic mattress, which interfered with the 
working of the instrument. Now we have an 
apparatus which will detect and locate any piece 
of metal, wherever situated in the human body. 
In the construction of the induction balance a 
bichromic battery is used, with six cells, and an 
ordinary interrupter, the interruptions being about 
six hundred to a second. The exploring coils 
were put in a framework of wood, which Profes- 
sor Bell called the ' explorer,' while to the others 
the name 'adjusting coils' was given. Thus in 
the primary current were two coils, in the second- 
ary current were also two coils, and in the circuit 
was a telephonic receiver. When the exploring 
coil was not in relation to a metallic substance, 
there was silence in the telephonic receiver ; but, 
as the explorer approached or receded from the 
metallic mass, the balance was disturbed, produ- 
cing a musical tone in the receiver. The sound is 
distinct six inches from the metal, if located in 
the human body. The telephonic probe consists 
of a telephonic receiver and two wires, — one ter- 



minating in a long, slender steel probe ; and the 
other with a steel plate laid over the surface of 
the body in the neighborhood of the metallic 
mass, as determined by the induction balance. 
The steel probe being now plunged into the body, 
as soon as it reaches the metal a distinct click 
is heard. The practical working of the instru- 
ment was shown by locating a bullet in the chest 
of a soldier wounded during the civil war. A 
piece of lead was also recognized in the centre of 
a piece of beef. 

— Sir J. William Dawson will prepare a volume 
for the International scientific series on the sub- 
ject of the development of plants in geological 
time. 

— The article by Prof. N. S. Shaler of Har- 
vard, on ' The stability of the earth,' in the March 
Scribner'8, will be accompanied by very numerous 
illustrations, which throw light upon the subject 
of earthquakes and other movements of the earth s 
crust. 

— The persistence with which surgeons con- 
tinue to employ chloroform as an anaesthetic in 
surgical operations, notwithstanding the over- 
whelming evidence of its danger, is beyond com- 
prehension. We have called attention to this 
subject whenever deaths have resulted from this 
cause, and the number of such events has been 
considerable. Another has just occurred in Phil- 
adelphia. A lion-tamer in the service of Fore- 
paugh had one of his fingers bitten by a colored 
man, and in the course of his treatment chloro- 
form was administered. It is said that he died 
upon the table while still under the anaesthetic 

— Lieutenant Emory will sail early in March, 
in command of the Thetis, one of the Greely ex- 
pedition relief-ships, for the Alaska coast. 

— The U. S. fish-com mission steamer Albatross 
is being fitted wiih new boilers, and will sail in 
the: spring for her work on the Pacific, where, 
among other questions to be solved, will be that 
of the fish- bearing properties of the huge Kiu 
Sawa or Black Stream of Japan, which, crossing 
the Pacific in a high latitude, modifies the tem- 
perature and climate of Alaska and the Aleutian 
Archipelago in very much the same way that the 
Gulf Stream does the climate of England and the 
Shetland Islands. 

— Dr. Gabiiel E. Manigault of Charleston, S.C., 
has accepted the invitation of the geological sur- 
vey to write a descriptive account of the incidents 
and effects of the earthquake of Aug. 31, 1886, 
for the forthcoming report on that subject. Dr. 
Manigault is an accomplished naturalist, and is 
curator of the museum in Charleston. He was in 



FDM7ART 35, 1887.1 



SCIENCE, 



191 



the city at the time of the earthquake, and has 
since made a careful investigation of its incidents. 

— Major Powell, director of the geological sur- 
rey, in a statement which he has furnished for 
publication, says that there is no present likeli- 
hood of iron ore being exhausted in this country ; 
but the remedy for prospective exhaustion is still 
further exploration for the mines to which the 
geologist points in various parts of the country. 

— Commissioner Col man of the department of 
agriculture has issued a circular relating to the so- 
called ' Australian rabbit.' He says that the name 
is a misnomer, the animal being the common rab- 
bit of Europe, which has been introduced in Aus- 
tralia. He recites its ravages in that country, 
and says that the introduction of the European 
species would be an unnecessary and hazardous 
experiment. He suggests that congress pass a 
law conferring upon the commissioner of agri- 
culture the power to prevent the landing of any 
animal, bird, or other pest, in any port of the 
United States that in his opinion would be inju- 
rious to agriculture, in the same way that cattle 
infected with contagious diseases are now pro- 
hibited from entering our ports. He cites the 
case of the English sparrow, to show that it is 
unwise to transplant species which crowd out the 
native ones. 

— We learn from the Sidereal messenger for 
February that Chicago may lose its astronomical 
observatory. The Dearborn observatory is the 
property of the Chicago astronomical eociety, but 
is upon ground leased to it by the now extinct 
University of Chicago, and may be required to 
vacate upon sixty days' notice. The society has 
received a request to transfer its instruments and 
library to an institution of learning outside 
of Chicago, but an effort is being made to obtain 
another site within the city. 

— Another small comet was discovered by Bar- 
nard on the evening of Feb. 16. It is visible 
in a three- inch telescope. The great southern 
comet seems to have vanished as suddenly as it 
came. Though careful search has been made for 
it, we believe it has not been seen in the northern 
hemisphere. 

— Nine comets passed the sun in review during 
the year 1886. One was a well-known periodic 
comet returning at the appointed time ; and two 
of the new-comers appear to be moving in elliptic 
orbits, one of them identical, possibly, with De 
Vice's lost comet of 1844, or at least belonging to 
the 'same family ' as the latter. Olbers' comet of 
1815, which was expected at perihelion in Decem- 
ber, 1886, has not been detected, but, as an uncer- 
tainty of over three years exists in the time of 



revolution, it may be picked up during the com- 
ing year. It is the only periodic comet expected 
in 1887. Two out of the nine comets were dis- 
covered in 1886, one in 1887, leaving six for 1886. 
Three were visible to the naked eye. Three be- 
long to Barnard, three to Brooks. Two were 
found by Finlay. and one by Fabry. Comet 1886 
IX. was picked up by three observers indepen- 
dently on three successive mornings in October, 
showing what a careful watch is kept for these 
little wanderers. Mr. Warner has paid eight hun- 
dred dollars in prize-money for the captures. 

— As a result of the attempts to bring to pass 
an earlier publication of the Proceedings of the 
American association, the Proceedings of the Buf- 
falo meeting held last summer were published 
during January of this year. Heretofore the Pro- 
ceedings have not been published much within a 
year after the date of meeting. This promptness 
in publication has resulted partly from the re- 
duced volume of the Proceedings, and partly by 
obliging the authors of papers to furnish abstracts 
prior to the time of reading them. Several of the 
addresses and reports were in type and stereotyped 
before the meeting, and others were held in type 
ready to be incorporated in the order of printing. 

— The annual meeting of the Davenport acad- 
emy of sciences was held in that city Jan. 26. The 
past year was one of unusual activity in the soci- 
ety, and large accessions were made to the collec- 
tions. 

— In the Boston medical and surgical journal 
we find an extract from the Annates cThygi&ne et 
mtdecine Ugale which gives the observations of a 
French physician, Dr. Masson, on the footprints 
which are sometimes found at the scene of a mur- 
der, and the aid which they furnish in the detec- 
tion of the perpetrator of the crime. The point 
which was especially studied was whether the 
marks discovered were made by one and the 
same foot, and so by one person only. He found 
that the same foot would give footprints with very 
different dimensions, according as it was used in 
standing or walking, corresponding with the two 
essential functions of the foot, as an organ of 
locomotion and of support. It appears to Dr. 
Masson impossible that two human footprints 
should closely resemble each other unless the same 
foot has made them. The impression made by a 
foot discloses such clear characteristics, the dis- 
tinctive marks under different conditions are so 
numerous, the footprints of the same foot are so 
alike under dissimilar circumstances, that an at- 
tentive expert, having good footprints to study, 
ought to arrive at clear and precise conclusions. 
The toes, the great toe especially, leave marks that 



192 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IX., Nol 



should be examined attentively. These, and the 
outline of the digitoplantar depression, the line 
which defines the plantar arch, are the data for 
diagnosis. The conclusions which Dr. Masson 
draws, are, 1°, the dimensions and the shape of 
footprints made by the same foot vary with the 
attitudes taken ; 2°, the two extreme and charac- 
teristic types are represented by impressions made 
by the foot in walking and in standing ; 3°, the 
expert called to study the matter of footprints 
should always take impressions of the foot of the 
accused in the act of standing and of walking, 
and should compare only those which correspond 
with the same attitude ; 4°, in connection with 
the measurements made, one should always con- 
sider the points which throw light upon the in- 
dividual characteristic? of the foot. 

— We have received the first volume of the 
publications of the observatory (' History and 
work of the Warner observatory') founded by 
Mr. H. H. Warner of Rochester, N.Y., about six 
years ago, and now well known through its con- 
nection with the Warner comet prizes. The vol- 
ume is published by Dr. Lewis Swift, the director, 
and gives a description of the observatory (a tower 
attached to the dwelling of the director) and the 
instruments, and a list of over four hundred 
nebulae discovered since July 9, 1888. About two- 
thirds of the pamphlet are taken up by *The 
Warner prize essays.' These are, an essay on 
4 Comets ; their composition r purpose, and effect 
upon the earth,' by Prof. Lewis Boss of the Dud- 
ley