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SCIENCE 



A WEEKLY JOURNAL 

DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



Editobial Committee : S. Newcosib, Mathematics ; R. S. Woodward, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickeeino, As- 
tronomy ; T. C. Mendenhall, Physics ; E. H. Thtjeston, Engineering ; Iea Eemsen, Chemistry ; 
J. Le Conte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. Maesh, Paleontology; W. K. Brooks, 
Invertehrate Zoiilogy ; C. Hart Mereiam, Vertehrate Zoology ; S. H. Scuddee, Entomology ; 
N. L. Brittox, Botany; Heney F. Osboen, General Biology; H. P. Bowditch, 
Physiology ; J. S. Billings, Hygiene ; J. McKeex Cattell, Psychology ; 
Daniel G. Brinton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



NEW SERIES. VOLUME I. 
JANUARY TO JUNE, 1895. 



NEW YORK 

41 East Forty-ninth Street 
1895 



THE NEW ERA PRINTING HOUSE, 

41 North Queen Street, 

Lancaster, Pa. 



5oS.7S 



j^. 



CONTENTS AND INDEX. 



N. S. VOL. I.-JANUARY TO JUNE, 1895. 



The ttamen of Confrihiilors are Printed in Small Cai)itals. 



Abbe, Cleveland, Tlie Needs of Meteorolofcj', 181 

Abl)Ot, W. L., Collections from Pamir, 696 

Abel, .1. J.. Dixthvl Sulphide, 113; Trichloride of 
Acetonic Acid, 113; Cachexia Tyreopriva, 114 

Acfldemische Keviie, 446 

Academy of Science, New York, 28, 84, 220; Bash- 
ford Dean, 167, 306; J. F. Ke.mp, 193, 279, 
391, 669, 727; W'LLIAM Hallock,447; Texas, 
56, 448, 728; Rochester, 83; Iowa, 111; Indi- 
ana, 221; Michifpjn, 250; Philadelphia, 251, 
447; National, 449, 477; St. Louis, A. W. Doro- 
LAS, 503; Wisconsin, 728. 

Adams, Frank D., Tlie Lanrentian, 63 

Adams, .John Couch, Memorial to, 640 

Adler, Herman, Alternatinp: Generations, a Biolog- 
ical Study of Oak Galls and Gall Flies, C. V. 
Riley, 4.57 

Aeronautical Annual, 56 

Aero-therapfutics, Charles Theodore Williams, 247 

Africa, Map of, 695 

African Folk-Lore and Ethnography, 405 

Agassiz, A., on the Rahamas, 293, 332 

Agricultural Analysis, Haryey W. Wiley, Charles 
Platt, :559 

Agriculture, Bulletin of Cornell University, 276; Notes 
on, Byron I). Halsted (I. ), 376^ (II.), 509; 
(III.), 680: Civil Service Rules in the Depart- 
ment of, 640 

Alabama, Tlie Chunneuugga Ridge and the Black 
Prairies of, 295 

Ala.ska, 219; Gold and Coal Resources of, 470 

Aldrich, T. B., Trichloride of Acetonic Acid, 113 

Alexander, J., Model Engine Construction, R. H. T., 
109 

Allen, Harrison, Pithecanthropus erectus, 239, 299; 
Tlie Classitication of Skulls, 381 

Allen, Hairison, Member of Council of Philadelphia 
Academy of .Science, 390; retirement of, 555 

Allen, J. A., Pocket Gophers, C. Hart Merriani, 
241 ; Pocket Gophtrs, Vernon Biiiley, 689 

Allen, J. A., On the .'Species of the Genus Reithro- 
dontomys, C. H. M., 720. 

Alternating Generations, Herman Adler, C. V. 
Riley, 457 

American, .Journal of Science, 112, 195, 308, 420, 
532, 700: Chemioil .lournal, 139, 196, 308, 420, 
532; J. Elliott Gilpin, 642 ; Anthropologist, 
140; Journal of Mathematics, 168, 448; .\ssoci- 
ation, 220, 636; its Table at Wood's Holl Uabora- 
tor>', 249; at Cold Sjiriiig Harbor Uil)onitor>-, 
277; Museum of Natural History, 249; Geolo- 
gist, 252, 3:!6. 420; ,T<)umal of Psychology, 280; 
Microscopical Society, 417; Association for the 
Advancement of Physical Education, 418; Cul- 
ture, Tlie Origin of Native, 456; Metrological 



Society, J. K. R., 484; Aca<lemy of Medicine, 529; 
ileteorological Journal, 570; University, Gift to 
the, 615 

Amherst, Summer School, 530; State College Entomo- 
logical Dejiartment, .555 

Anatomists, Tlie New York Meeting of the Associa- 
tion of American, 295 

Anatomy, 165; the Best Order of Topics in a Two 
Years' Course in a Jledical School, Frederick 
Henry Gkrrish, 312 

Andrce S. A., To the North Pole by Bidloon, 642 

Animal as a Machine and Prime Mover, R. H. 
Thlrston, 365 

Animals and Plants, Tlie Fundamental Difference 
Between, Charles S. Minot, 311 

Antelopes, The Book of, P. L. Sclater and Oldfield 
Thomas, C. H. M., 389 

Aiithropo-geography, 255 

Anthropological Society, Publications of the German, 
363. 

.^thropology, 26, 27, 218, 278, 640; Current Notes 
on, D. G. Beinton, New Series (I.), 47; (II.), 
72; (III.), 126; (IV.), 253; (V.), 404; (VI.), 455; 
(VII.), 488; (Vin.),544; (IX. ), 649; llie Teach- 
ing of, 254 

Apjialachian Jlountain Club, 473 

Apple Failures, Recent, 510 

Arclueological News from Switzerland, 456 

Archa>ology, European, 73; A Deductive Science, 127; 
of Southern Florida, D. G. Brinton, 207; Ameri- 
can School, 556; American School at Hencon of 
Argos 556; American Institute of, 615 

Area of I>and and Water, 568 

Argon, .5.5, 417, 444; Ira Remsen, 309; Lord 
R AY'LEIGH, 701 ; the preparation of, J. E. Gilpin, 
582 

Arizona, Memorial to Congress, 249 

Arnold, Carl, Repetitoriuiii der Cliemie, Edward H. 
Keisek, .526 

Art, Primitive, 544 

Aryan Cradle Land, 129 

Aslimead, W. H., Lysiognatha, 560 

Astronomical Society in Biussils, 697, and Physical 
Society of Toronto, Thojias Lindsay, 573 

Astionomie mid Geopliysik, Jahrbuch der, 717 

Astronomy, 692; and Astro- Physics, 56; Native in 
Mexico and Central America, 72; Elements of, 
(George W. Parker, C. A. Y., 415 

Astrophysical Journal, 56, 168, 224, 336, 474 ; S. B. 
Barrett, (!15 

Atmosphere, The Earth's, William Coutie, Edwabd 
Hart, 360 

Attraction Spheres and Centrosomes in Vegetable 
Cells, John H. Schaflner, Albert Schkeider, 
189 



SCIENCE. 



C Contents and 
Index. 



Auk, The, 196 

Austen, Peter T., On Indiscriminate 'Taking,' 209 
Ayrton, W. E., and E. A. Medley, Tests of Glow- 
Lamps, T. C. M., 66a 

B., D. G., Grundriss der Ethnological Jurisprudenz, 
Alhert Herman Post, 25; Ethnologische Studien 
Zur Ersten Entwiekluug der Strafe, S. R. Stein- 
metz, 25 

B., J. S., Municipal Government, Alhert Shaw, 578 

B., N. L., Flora of Nehraska, 25; Grasses of Ten- 
nessee, Pt. II., F. Lamson Scrihner, 55; Field, 
Forest and Garden Botany, Asa Gray, 527; Sys- 
tematic Botany, E. Warming, 550 

B., W. K., Can an Organism AVithout a Mother be 
Born from an Egg, 162 

Bach, C, Elasticitat und Festigkeit, Maxsfield 
Mebeijian, 688 

Bacillus, Tlie Influence of Certain Agents in Destroy- 
ing the Vitality of the Tj'phoid and Colon, John 
S. Billings and Adelaide Wakd Peckham, 
169 

Bacteriology, Outline of Diary, H. L. Russell, H. AV. 
C, 189; A Course of Elementary Practical, A. 
A. Kanthack and I. H. Drysdale, 416 

Bacteriosis of Rutabaga, 509 

Bailey, L. H., The Plant Individual in the Light of 
Evolution, 281 

Baile.v, L. H., 82; Appropriation for Horticultmal 
Work, 499; Horticulturalists' Rule Book, 682 

Bailey, Vernon, Pocket Gophers of the United States, 
J. A. Allen, 689 

Baker, Frank, Human Lumbar Vertebra, 531 

Baldtvin, J. Maek, The Social Sense, 236 

Baldwin, J. Mark, Studies from the Princeton 
Psychological Laboratory, 643 

Ball, M. v.. Streptococcus pyogenes, 447 

Ball, Valentine, Death of, 723 

Ballard, Harlan H., Tlie World of Nature, Wyatt 
W. Randall, 553 

Ballistic Galvanometer and its Use in Magnetic Meas- 
urements, Thomas Gray, 533 

Balloon Ascent, 500 

Barber, H. G., Hj'patus baohmanni, 560 

Barlow, Alfred E., Huronite, 62 

Barnard College, Site for, 695 

Barograph Record During a Tornado, 320 

Baeeett, S. B., Astrophysical Journal, 615 

Base Level, Meaning of the Term, 175 

Bastian, Adolph, Some of his later Writings, 73 

Bastin, Edson S., Laboratory Exercises in Botany, S. 
E. Jelliffe, 358 

Bateson, W'illiam, Materials for the Study of Varia- 
tion, H. W. Conn, 23 

Bauer, L. A., On the Distribution and the Secular 
Variation of Ten-estrial Magnetism, 673 

Bauer, L. A., On the Secular Motion of a Free Mag- 
netic Needle, 671 

Bayley, W. S., Great Gabbro Mass, 65; Contact Phe- 
nomena, 65 

Bays and Fiords, Submerged Valleys, 259 

Beal, F. E. L., Food Habits of Woodpeckers, 304 

Beal, W. J., Teaching Botany, 355 

Bean, Tarleton H., Deep Sea Fishes, 501 

Bearcamp Water, Frank Bolles; W. T. Davis, 80 

Becker, G. F., Gold Fields, 668 

Bedell, F. and A. C. Crehore, Resonance in Trans- 
former Circuits, 671 

Beet-Leaf Spot, 378 



Behrens, H., Anleitung zur Microchemischen An- 
alyse, E. Renoif, 036 

Bell, Alexander Graham, Gift to Volta Bureau Li- 
brary, 725 

Bell, Robert, Honeycombed Limestones, 67 

Belopolsky, A., Pulkowa Refractor, 616 

Benton George Willard, A Laboratory Guide for 
a Twenty Weeks' Course in General Chemistry, 
W. R. O., 611 

Beegey, Dr. D. H., Summary of Conclusions of a 
Report by Di-s. D. H. Bergey, S. Weir Mitchell 
and J. S. Billings upon the ' Composition of Ex- 
pired Air and Its Eft'ects upon Animal Life, ' 481 

Berlese, A. N., Icones fungorum ad usum Sylloges 
Sacoardiana: accommodata3, Joseph F.James, 528 

Bernthsen, A., Text-l)ook of Organic Chemistry, Fe- 
lix Lengfeld, 272 

Berthelot, M., Argon, 444; Banquet in Honor of, 500 

Bertlioumieu, M. G. V., Ichneumonidje, 276 

Bertillon, Dr., Identif3-ing HandwTiting, 556 

Bertkau, P., and the Review of Entomology, 303 

Bevier Sheet, Report on, Arthui' Winslow, J. D. R.,248 

Bibbins, Arthur, Fauna of Potomac Formation, 362 

Bickmore, Alhert S., Address by, 695 

Billings, John S., and Adelaide Ward Peckham, 
Tlie Influence of Certain Anents in Destroying the 
Vitality of the Typlioid and Colon Bacillus, 169; 
A Card Catalogue of Scientific Literature, 406; 
Degeneration, Max Nordau, 465 ; Summary of Con- 
clusions of a Report by Dr. D. H. Bergey, S. Weir 
Mitchell and J. S. Billings upon The Composition 
of Expired Air and Its Effects upon Animal Life, 
481 

Billings, JohnS., Retirement of, 583 

Billroth, Prof., Statue of, 668 

Biological, 331, 361 ; Society of Washington, 84, 168; 
F. A. Lucas, 304, 418, 502, 586, 725; M. B. 
Waite, 334, 531, 698; Laboratory of Cold Spring 
Harbor, 166; Lectures, Delivered at the Marine 
Biological Laboratory of Wood's HoU, Charles 
S. DOLLEY-, 244; Wood's Holl 1894, 418; Lec- 
tures and Addi'esses, Arthur Milnes JIarshall, H. 
W. Conn, 413; Laboratory, Tlie Marine, 516 

Biology, Introduction to Elementary Practical, 
Charles Wright Dodge, H. W. Conn, 78; Section 
of, New York Academy of Science, 84, 167, 306 

Birdcraft, Mabel Osgood AVriglit, C. H. M., 635 

Birds, of Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Wit- 
mer Stone, C. Haet Meeeiasi, 187; A'isitors' 
Guide to the Local Collection of, in the Museum of 
Natm-al Histoiy, New York City, Frank M. Cliap- 
nian, C. Haet Merriaji, 189; of Eastern North 
America, Frank JI. C'hapman,C. Hart SIerriam, 
437; Land and Game, of New England, H. D. 
Minot; C. H. M., 495; Our Native, of Song and 
Beauty, H. Nehriing, C. H. M., 577; Collection 
of W. E. D. Scott, 722 

Black Knot of Plums and Cherries, 510 

Boas, Franz, On Dr. William Townsend Porter's 
Investigations of the Growth of the School Chil- 
dren of St. Louis, 225; Growth of First-born 
Children, 402 

Boedeker, K., Death of, 364 

Bolles, Frank, At the North of Bearcamp Water, W. 
T. Davis, SO 

Bologna, Gold Medal of Academy of Sciences, 693 

Books for Sale, 166 

Bosanquet, R. C.. Craven Studentship, 585 

Boston Society of Natural History, 308, 532, 588 



New Sf.rifs."! 
VOU'ME 1. J 



SCIENCE. 



Botanical, Books at Auction, fi<)6; C.izette, 82, 140, 
252, 364, 5(t3, 642: f-ociety of America, -^O; 
Society, Italian, 500; tJarden Slissouri, Wm. 
Tkklkase, 716 

Botanists, Directory of Livin};, 696 

Botany, I?iMiojti~.iI)liy of American, 139 ; Teachin;;, 
W. .1. Beal, 355 ; Laboratory- Exercises in, Edson 
S. Rnstin, S. E. .Ikllikke, 358; Memoirs from the 
De)iiirtnient of Columlna College, 3(i3; Stiiictural, 
An Introdnctiiin to. H. D. Scott, Albert ScHXEi- 
DER, 443; Intro<lnction to, Volney M. Spalding, 
W. P. Wilson, 496 ; Field, Forest and Garden, 
Asa Gray, K. L. B., 527, Systematic, E. Wann- 
ing, X. L. B., .5511 

BoWDlTCll, H. P., A Card Catalogue of Scientitic Lit- 
erature, 182 

Boyle, Itavid, Primitive Man in Ontario, 218 

BKADBrRY Robert H., Tlieoretical Chemistry, W. 
Xernst, .579 

Bramier. B., Argon, 445 

Bray, Wm. L., Amaninthacea;, 504 

Brixtox. Daxiel G.. Tlie Character and Aims of 
Scientitic Investigation, 3; Current Xotes on An- 
throitologv, New Series (I.), 47; (II. ), 72; (III. ), 
126: (IV.), 2.53: (V.), 404; (VI.), 4.55; (VIL ), 
488; fVIIL), 544; (IX.), 649; American Folk- 
Lore Society, 101; The Arclneology of Southern 
Florida, 207; Tlie Pvgniies, A de Quatrefages, 
443 

Brinton, Daniel G., A Primer of Mayan Hieroglyphics, 
27; Frederick Starr, 326; Proto-Historic Eth- 
nography of Western Asia, 696 

Brisson's Genera of Mannnals, 1762; C. Hart JIer- 
RIAM, 375 

British, Association for Advancement of Science, 139, 
472, 556, 637; Astronomical As.sociation, 692; 
Medical As-stx-iation. 278, 417: JIusenm, 694 

Britton, X. L., Undescribed Ranunculus, 306 

Brooker, A. and Slingo W., Electrical Engineering 
for Electric Light Artisans and Students, F. B. 
Crocker, 209 

Brooks, Alfred H., Crystalline Rocks, 669 

Brooks, W. K. An Inherent Error in the Views of 
Galton and Weismann on Variation, 121 ; Dcr 
Monismus, Ernst Haeckel, 382 

Brooks, W. K.. 166 Environment and Variation, 38 
Sen.sorv' Clubs of Certain C<elenterates, 335; 
Connui Gesner, 529 

Brorsen, Theodor, Death of, 667 

Brown, Addison, A<l<Iress by, 82 

Brummer, .lohannes. Death of, 473 

Bnchan, Alexaniler. < )ceanie Circulation. .505 

Buchanan, .Sir George. Death of, (>40 

Buckland, William, llie Lite and Correspondence of, 
Mi-s. Gordon, A. S. Packard, 320 

Bulletin of the American Mathematical Societv, 28, 
336. 392; of the Tonev Botanical Club." 168, 
308; 448, 530, .532: of the St. Petersburg Acad- 
emyof Sciences, 220 

BCMl'fs, Herjion C. Lahoratorv Teaching of l^irge 
Cla.«ses Ziiologv, 41, 260 

Butler, X. M., Addresses, 390, 722 

Butterflies and .Mi.ths. W. Fnrnean.\ .S. H. S., 443 

Byron, John W., Death of, 585 

C, H. W., Dairy Bacteriology, H. L. Rus.sell, 189 
C, J. T., Science in Canada, 379, 628, 653; Sir 

William Dawson, 446 
Caddis-fly in the Pennian Beds of Boliemia, 220 



California, Appropriation for the University of, 499 ; 
F(KHl-i)roduct.s, 584 

Calkixs. G.vry X.» Systematische Phylogenie der 
I'rotisten und Pflanzen, Ernst Haeckel, 272 

Call. Kiiliard Ellsworth, The Life and Writings of 
Constantine Samuel Rafinesciue, G. Browx 
G0(H)E,384 

Calvin, S., Cuological Photographs, 390 

Cambridge, L^niversity of, 27; Scientitic Instrument 
Company, 606 

Cameil, Louis Florentin, Death of, 499 

Can an Organism without a Mother be Born from an 
Egg? W. K. B , 162 

Canada. Science in. .1. T. C, 379. 628, 653 

Canadian, International Exposition, 390; Royal .So- 
ciety's Ainuial Meeting, J. T. C, 653 

Cancer, Treatment of, 583 

Cape Canaveral, Tlie Migi-ation of, 606 

Carh.\RT, Hexry S., 'liie Educational and Indus- 
trial Value of Science, 393 

Carniverons Plants, 165 

Carolina, Aiipnipriation for the University of X, 333 

Carter, Surgeon-Major, Death of, 615 

Ca,sey, Tliomas L.. Retirement of. 584 

Catalogue of Scientific Literature, A CanI, H. P. 
Bo\VDiTcn. 182: Hexry Alfred Todd, 297; W J 
JIc'Gee. 353; and Congress, An International Sci- 
entific, Hokatio Hale. 324; J. S. BiLLixcis. 407 

Cattell, J. McKeex, The Princeton Meeting of the 
American Psychological Association, 42' 

Cattell, .T. McKeen. Distribution of Exceptional 
Ability 43; Bodily and Mental Tests, 727 

Catholic University. Washington, Bequest, 556 

Caucasic Linguistic St<x;k, 4.55 

C'ayley, Arthur, Death of, 166; Geor(;e Bruce H.\l- 

STED, 450 

Cliagas, Manuel Piuheiro, Death of, 615 

'Challenger,' Report on, 417 

Chamberlain. Chas. J., Aster Xovaj-Angliic, 643 

Chamberlin, T. C. Glaciation of Xewfoundland, 63; 
Recent (ilacial Studies in Greenland, 66 

Chambers, (J. F., The Story of the Stars, David P. 
Todd, 552 

Chapnijui, Frank M., Visitors' Guide to the Local 
Collection of Birds in the Museum of Xatural 
History, Xew YorkCitv, C. HaetMerriam, 189; 
Tlie Maiiiiii;ils of Florida, F. W. T., 219 ; A 
Handbook of the Birds of Eastern North America, 
C. HartMkrriax. 437 

Cliapman, T. A.. Classitic-ation of Butterflies, 663 

Charities and Corrections. Confen'iice of, .530 

Chatelier, H. L.. Le Grisou, Charles Platt, 79. 

Chemical, Analysis. Fr. KudorIT, Edward Hart, 
137. Analysis, Qualitative, of Inorganic Sul>- 
stances, EDCiAU F. Smith, 415; Society ( Lon- 
don), Annual Meeting of, W. W. R., 606 

Cliemie, Carl Arnold. Edward H. Keiser, 526 

Chemischen Dynamik, Line Discussion der Kriifte 
der, Lndw'ig Stettenheimer, H. C. JoXKi?, 271 

Chemistry, Organic, Carl .Schorl em in er, Edcjar F. 
Sjiith. 1(>3: a I^iboratory Manual, M'. R. Orn- 
doiff, Fkli X Lexcifeld, 4(39; A Ijilxjratory Guide, 
(ieoige Willard Benton, W. R. O., 611 ;"a Text- 
book of Orgiinic, A. Bernthsen, Felix Lexg- 
KELD, 272; A Short History of, F. P. Venable, 
W. A. Xdyes. 469: Tlieoretical, W. Xernst, Rob- 
ert H. Bradbury, 579 

Chester, A. H., Ciystals, 700 

Chicago, University of, Degrees, 722 



SCIENCE. 



Childhootl, luternational Coiigi-ess on, 220. 

Christie, W. H. M., Honorary Freedom of Si^ectacle 
Company, 641 

Claek, William B., Tlie Geological and Natiu'al 
History Survey of Minnesota, A^ol. III., Paleon- 
tology, 658 

Clark, "William B., Ci-etaceous Deposits, 64; Marginal 
De\'elopment of the Jliooene, 66 

Classilication of Skulls, Haekison Allen, 381; G. 
Sergi, 658 

Cleghoru, Hugh Francis Clarke, Death of, 667 

Clouds, Tlie Motion of, 471 

Cold and Sno\vtall in Araljia, 568 

Coldspring Harbor Laboratory, A. A. A. S. Tables, 277 

College of the City of New York, Appropriation, 249 

Collet, E., ITie Norway Lemming, C. H. M., 690 

Color Association with Numerals, E. S. Holden, 576 

Colorado College, Summer School, 722 

Colored Eace in the United States, Tlie Future of, 256 

Composition of Exj)ired Air and its Effects upon 
Animal Life, D. H. Bergey, S. "Weir Mitchell, 
J. S. Billings, 481 

Congres des Societes Savantes, 613 

Conn, H. "W., Materials for the Study of Variation, 
William IJatesou, 23; Elementary Practical Biol- 
ogy, Charles Wright Dodge, 78; Biological Lec- 
tures and Addresses, Lectiu'es on the I)ar^yinian 
Theory, Arthur Milnes Mai-shall, 413 

Connecticut Sandstone Group, C. H. Hitchcock, 74 

Conway, William, Karakoram Himalayas, 472 

Cook, A. H., A. E. Shipley, F. E. C. Eeed, The Cam- 
bridge Natural History, III., W. H. Dall, 610 

Copliu, W. M. L., Appointment of, 584 

Copp(5e, Henry, Death of, 364 

Correspondence, 182, 239, 297, 324, 353, 381, 406, 
433, 457, 490, 519, 546, 575, 608, 632, 656, 682, 
716 

Cotton States and International Exposition, 557 

CouES, Elliott, Tlie Genus Zaglossus, 610; Illus- 
trations in the Standard Natm-al History, 682 

Coues, Elliott, Zebulon Montgomery Pike, 640 

Coutie, William, The Earth's Atmosphere, Edward 
Hart, 360 

Coville, Frederick V., List of Ferns and Flowering 
Plants N. E. United States, 419 ; A Eeply, 504 

Cox, C. F., Diatom Structm-e, 167 

Coxe, Eckley B., Death of, 585 

Crane, INIiss Agnes, Brachiopoda, 555 

Craniology, Publications on, 128 ; Studies in, 405 

Crawford, A. C, Cachexia T^Teopriya in Dogs, 114 

Crocker, F. B., Electi-ical'Eugineering, W. Slingo 
atid A. Brooker, 299 

CroU's Glacial Theory, 570 

Cross, Whitman, Geological Society of Washington, 
558, 668 

Cross, Whitman, Tlie Geology of Cripple Creek, 559 

Crowley's Eidge, 605 

Cuneiform Inscriptions, 455 

Cunningham, E.'h., Photo-Micrography, 167 

Curtis, J. G., Galen's Treatise on Practical Anatomy 
and Experimental Physiology', 114 

Gushing, H. P., Tlie Faults of Cliazy Township, 58 

Cuspate Capes of the Carolina Coast, 605 

Dall, W. H., The Cambridge Natural History, III., 
A. H. Cook, A. E. Shipley, F. E. C. Eeed, 610 

Dana, Charles N., Address of, 26 

Dana, James D., 333, 472, 489, 545; A Manual of 
Geology; Joseph Le Conte, 548 



Darton, N. H., Peridotite at Dewitt, 65; Sedimentary 
Geology, 66; Salina Formation at De Witt, 700 

Darwin, From the Greeks to, Henry Fairfleld Os- 
born; A. S. PACKARD, 21 

Darwinian Theory, Lectures on, Arthur Milnes Mar- 
shall; H. W. Conn, 413 

Darwinism and Eace Progress, John Berry Hay- 
craft: Geo. St. Clair, 467 

Davis, W. M., Current Notes on Phj-siogi-aphy (I.), 
174 (IL), 257(in.), 292 (IV.), 318 (V. 1,487 
(VL), 505 (VIL), 568 (VIIL), 605 (IX.), 651 
(X.), 678; National Geograpliic Monogi-aphs, 
J. AV. Powell, 439; The Education of the Topog- 
rapher, 546 

Davis, W. T., Bearcamp Water, Frank Bolles, 80 

Dawson, George M., Appointment of, 139; Eocky 
Mountains, 700 

Dawson, Sir Williaji, Tlie Eiyers of Eden, 575 

Dawson, Sir William, Eetirement of, J. T. C, 446 

Deaf and Dumb Institution, New York, 446 

Dean, Basiiford, The New Y'ork Aciidemy of Sci- 
ence, 167, 306 

Deane, Walter, My Herbarium, 503 

Decerebrized, The Frog not Brainless but. Bust 
G. Wilder, 633 

Deer, The Earliest Generic Name of an American, 
C. Hart Mereiam, 208 

Degeneration, Jlax Nordau, J. S. Billings, 465 

Density and Diameter of Terrestrial Planets, E. S. 
Wheeler, 424 

Desmognathus fusca. The Central Nervous System of, 
Pierre A. Fish, C. H. M., 496 

Detasseling Com, 510 

Development, National versus Individual, 650 

Devonian Limestone-Breccia in Southwestern Mis- 
souri. Oscar Heeshey, 676 

Dictionary, An Illustrated, of Medicine, Biologj- and 
Allied Sciences; George M. Gould, 216 

DiLLER, J. S., Scientific Societies of Washing-ton, 586 

Diptheria, Tlie New Serum Treatment of, 48, MUk 
in its Eelation to, 164 

Discrimination of Colors, 471 

Distribution of Butterflies, 303; of Animals and 
Plants, Jlerriam on the, 318; of the Blow Gun, 
Walter Hough, 425; Sledges, Otis T. Mason, 
490; and Secular Variation of Terrestrial Slag- 
netism, L. A. Bauer, 673 

Dixon, S. G., Actinomyces, 447 

Dodge, Charles Wright, Introduction to Elementary 
Practical Biology, H, W. Conn, 78 

Dolbear, A. E., JIagnetic Waves, 165 

DoLLEY, Charles S., Biological Lectures delivered 
at the Marine Biological Laboratory, 244 

d'Orleans Duke, Presentation of Collection, 390 

Dorsey, James Owen, W J M, 208 

Douglass, A. AV., St. Louis Academy of Science, 503 

Douglass, A. E., Telescope and Dome, 616 

Downing, A. J., Memorial to, 696 

Drysdale, I. H. and A. A. Kanthack, A Course of 
Elementary, Practical Bacteriolog3% 41() 

DUMBLE, E. T., Volcanic Dust in Texas, 657 

Dumble, E. T., The Cretaceous, 65 

Duner, N. C, Z Herculis, 474 

Dm-ham, Arthur E., Death of, 640 

Earthquakes, 695 
Eaton, Darwin G., death of, 364 
Echidna, Tlie Generic Name of the Three Toed 
T. S. Palmer, 518 



New Series."! 
Volume I. J 



SCIENCE. 



Eden, Where was the Gaideii of. D. G. Brintox, 
488 ; The Rivers ot, 8lK William Dawsox, 
575 

Educational, Re^^e^v, 333; National -Association, 722 

Egg, Can an Organism without a Mother be Born 
from an, W. K. B., 162 

Egyptian Publications. 694 

Elasticitiit nnd Fcstigkcit, C. Ricli, Maxsfield 
Merrimax, Gi^f* 

Electric Measure, Leg-.il Units of, T. C. JIexdex- 
HALL, 9 

Electrical, Engineei-s. American Institute ot, 28; 
Street Railways, llie Testing of, 217; Engineer- 
ing, W. Slingo and A. Brooker, F. B. Crocker, 
299; Apparatus. 723 

Electriciens. Socii'to Internationale des, 26 

Electricity, and Magnetism, 28; Elementary Lessons 
in; Sylvanus T. Tlionipson, T. C. M., 187; One 
Hundred Yeare ago and to-day, Ed\nu J. Hous- 
ton, T. C. M., 216 

Electrification of Air, LORD Kelvix, 589 

Electriques, Les Osoillations, H. Poiucare, JI. I. 
Pipix. 102. 131 

Elevation as a Cause of Glaciation, 679 

Elihu Tliompson I'rize, 190, M., 240 

Ellis, Havelock, Xormal Psychology, 418 

Elmira Reformatory. 26 

Elsas.*;, Adolf, Death of, 607 

Emotions, 45 

Engine, Construction, Model, J. Alexander, R. H. T. 
109; Tlie Steam and Other Heat Engines, J. A. 
Ewing, R. H. Thuestox, 136; Steam and the 
Marine Steam. John Yeo, R. H. ThuE-STOX, 328; 
New Quadruple E.xjiansion, 664 

Engineering. Magiizine. 82; Education, Proceedings 
of the Society for the Promotion of, R. H. T., 580 

Engineers, -American Society of Civil, 84 

Engineer's Pocket Book, Tlie Mechanical, William 
Kent, R. H. Thuestox, 634 

Englishmen, the Earliest. 126 

Entomological Society, Tlie New York, 84; ot Wash- 
ington, L. O. Howard, 560, 726 

Entomologists, Daily Post Card, 191 ; Losses by fire 
among, 303 

Entomology, 191, 220, 277, 303, 663 

Entwickeluugsmechanik der Organismen. Archiv tiir, 
110 

Ethics, Program tor the School of Applied, 557 

Ethnography of Western Asia, 406 

Ethnological .Jurisprudenz, Gruudriss der, Albert 
Hermann Post, D. G. B., 25 

Evolution, the Plant Indi%idual in the Light of, 
L. H. Bailey, 281 

Ewing, J. A., The Steam Engine and Other Heat 
Engines, R. H. TilUESTOX, 136 

Experiment Station Record, 680 

FairchUd, H. L., Glacial Lakes, 61 

Fernald, H. T., Homoplasy, 70 

Ferri, Luigi, Death of, 446 

Finger Prints, 82 

Firth, R. H., Hygiene, 216 

Fish Commissionei-s Report from Michigan, 361 

Fish, Pierre A., Tlie Central Ner\'ous System ot Des- 

niognathus Fusca, C. H. M., 496; Adult Nervous 

System of the Salamander, 335 
Fiske, John, Lectures on Evolution, 499 
Fitch, Robert, death ot 
Fleming, M., Stars Having Peculiar Spectra, 616 



Flora ot Nebraska, N. L. B., 25; Origin ot Our Vernal, 
Joiix Habsbergee, 92; Hai-shberger on the 
Origin ot Our Vernal, Chaeles Robeetsox, 371 

' Fly Belt ' in Africa, 568 

Fffihn-like East Winds in Africa, 570 

Folk-Lore, Tlie American, Society, D. G. Brixtox, 
101; New York Branch, Wm."B. Tvtiiill, 473 

FOXTAIXE, W.M. M., Mcsozoic Plants From Kusuke 
Kii, Awa and Tos;i, Jletajiro Yokoyoma, 525 

Forestiy and Economic Botany, 275; E. F. S., 557; For- 
estry AssiK'iation, 586 

Forests and Tonents, 680 

Fossil, Vertebrates of Argentina, 497; Mammals of the 
Puerco Beds, Henry Fairfield Osborn and Charles 
Earle, W. B. Scott, (160. 

Foster's, Prof. Michael, Abridged Physiologj', 724 

Franklin, C. L., The Retina, 46; Tlie Fovea' 115 

Franklin. Fabian, Rctiiement ot, 695 

Franklin, W. .S., Magnetic Properties of Iron, 672 

French Opinion, A, 180 

Furueaux, W., Butterflies and Moths, S. H. S., 443 

Galton's Jlethod of Isogens, 2-57 

Gal ton, Francis, Organic Stability, 498; honorary 

degree, 614 
Gannett, Heni-y, A Manual ot Topographic Methods, 

W, M. Davis, 179; Maxsfield Meeeimax, 464 
Gaxoxg, W. F., Tlie Laboratory Teaching of Large 

Classes in Botany, 41, 230 
Ganong, W. F., Cactacea;, 503, 643 
Geikie, Sir Archibald, Memoir of Sir Andrew Crom- 

bie Ramsay, Joseph Le Coxte, 490; Member of 

Vienna Academy, 724 
Geikie, James, The Great Ice Age and its Relation to 

the Antiquity of Man, W. M. Davis, 260; C, H, 

Hitchcock, 408 
Generic Names of the Three-Toed Echnida, T. S. 

Palmer, 518 
CJeographic, Distribution ot Life, Laws of Tempera- 
ture Control of the, 53; Monograjihs, National, 

258; J. W. Powell, W, M, Davis, 439; Society, 

307; National, Everett Haydex, 501; Annual 

Bu,sine-ss Meeting, 665 
Geographica, Biblioteca, 613 
Geographical, Congress, International, 110, 257; 

Prizes, 258; Journals, American, 506; Jouinals, 

Foreign, 507 
Geographisches ,Talirbucb, Wagner's, 507 
Geologic Atlas ot the United Stiites, W. M. DAVIS, 

259; J. W. Powell, AXDREW C. Lawsox, 717 
Geologischer Querschnitt durch die Ostalpen, A. 

Rothpletz, AxDREw C. Lawsox, 522 
Geological, Society of America, the B;iItiniore Meeting 

of the, J. F. Kemp, 57; of Washington. WiliTMAX 

Cross, ^^4. 251, 558, 668; Survey, Appropriations 

torthe r. S., 362; ot Maine, 418;'Tlie University of 

Kansas, F. H. Sxow, 576; Society, 698 
Geology, 219, 278; Manual ot, James D. Dana, Joseph 

Le Coxte, 548; Columbia Department ot, 530; 

at the University of Chicago, 725 
Geomorphology ot the Soutliern Apjialachians, 176 
Gereish, Fredeeick Hexby, Tlie Best Order of 

Topics in a Two Years' Course of Anatomy in a 

Medical School, 312 
Gilbert, G, K,, Formation ot Lake Basins by Wind, 

59, and F, P, Gulliver, The Tepee Buttes, 59; 

Cretaceous Time, 64; Gravity Measurements, 583 
Gill, Tiieo., Tlie Lowest ot the Vertebrates aud their 

Origin, 645 



SCIENCE. 



[Contests and 
Index. 



Gill, Tlieo., On the Torpedoes, 502; Ceratodontidrc, 725 

Oilman, D. C. Seriptoribus et Lectoribiis, Salutem, 2 

Gilman, D. C, Adtb-ess of, 39, 390 

Gilpin, Elliott J., Tlie Preparation of Argon, 582; 
Tlie American Chemical Journal, 642 

Gizycki, Georg Ton, death of, 364 

Glacial Origin of Lake Basins, 651 

Glasgo-(T, Gift to the University, 697 

Glazebrook, K. T., Heat, Light, T. C. Mendenhall, 
215 

Glogan, G., death of, 446 

Glow Lamps, Tests of, W. E. Ayrton and E. A. Med- 
ley, T. C. M., 662 

GooDE, G. Beown, America's Eelation to the Ad- 
vance of Science, 4; Tlie Life and Writings of 
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, Eichard Ells- 
worth Call, 384; The Ideal Index to Scientific 
Literature, 433 

Goode, G. Brown, Deep Sea Fishes, 501, 531 ; Location 
and Record of Natural Phenomena, 725 

Gophers, Pocket, C. Hart Merriam, J. A. Allen, 
241 ; Vernon Bailey, J. A. Allen, 659 

Gordon, Mrs., Tlie Life and Correspondence of Wil- 
liam Buckland, A. S. Packard, 329 

Gould, B. A., S. Newcojib, A. Hall, National Acad- 
emy of Sciences Report of the Watson Trustees 
on the Award of the Watson Sledal to Seth C. 
Chandler, 477 

Gould, George 51., Illustrated Dictionary of Medi- 
cine, Biology and Allied Sciences, 216 

Graduate Courses, 724 

Graf, Arnold, Leeches, 70; Tlie Excretory System of 
Clepsene and Nephelis, 306 

' Gran Chaco, ' The Tribes of, 126 

Grant, U. S. and H. V. Wincliell, Preliminarj' Re- 
port on the Rainy Lake Gold Region, 331 

Grasses of Tennessee, Pt. II., F. Lamson Scribner, 
N. L. B., 55 

Gravity Measurements, Heebeet G. Ogden, 571; 583 

Gray, Asa., Field, Forest and Garden Botany, N. L. 
B., 527. 

Gray, Thomas, The Ballistic Galvanometer and 
its Use in Magnetic Jleasurements, 533 

Greene, Andrew Bt. , Historic and Scenic Places, 500 

Greenhill, Alfred George, A Treatise on Hydrostatics; 
E. S. Woodward, 269 

Gregory, Richard A., The Planet Earth, T. C. M, 
243 

Grisou Le., H. Le Chatelier, Charles Platt, 79 

Griswold, L. S., Nomenclature of Siliceous Rocks, 62 

Growth, of the School Children of St. Louis, On Dr. 
William Townsend Porter's Investigations of, 
Feaxz Boas, 225; of First-born Children, 
Feanz Boas, 402 

Gnatamalian Antiquities, 255 

Haeekel, Dr. Ernst, 28; Systematische Phylogenie 
der Protisten und Pflanzen, Gaey X. Calkins, 
272; Der Monismus als Band zwisclien Religion 
und Wissenschaft; Glaubens Bekenntniss eines 
Naturforsohers, W. K. Brooks, 382 ; David 
Starr Jordan, 608 

Hageman, S. G., Egyptological Work, 613 

Hale, George E., Solar Corona, 475 

Hale, Horatio, An International Scientific Cata- 
logue and Congi-ess, 324 

Hall, A., S. Newcojib, B. A. Gould, National 
Academy of Sciences; Report of the Watson Trus- 
tees on the Watson Jledal to Seth C. Chandler, 477 



Hall, C. W., Tlie Pre-Cambrian Floor of the North- 
western States, 63 

Hallock, William, Physics, 247, 248; Physiolog- 
ical Physics, 301; New York Academy of Sciences 
447 

Hallock, William, Photographic Method of Compar- 
ing the State of Vibration of Two Tuning Forks, 
221 

Halsted Byron D., Notes on Agriculture, (I.), 376; 
(IL), 509; (in. ), 680 

Halsted, Byi-on D., English Ivy, 530 

Halsted, George Bruce, Tchobychev, 129; Original 
Research and Creative Authorship the Essence of 
University Teaching, 203; Russian Science Notes, 
277; Arthur Cayley, 450; The International 
Mathematical Congress, 486; James Edward 
Oliver, 544 

Hansen, Hemimerus, 191 

Hanshofer, Karl, Death of, 109 

Haekness, Williaji, On the the Magnitude of the 
Solar System, 29 

Harrington, Mark W., Rainfall Charts of the United 
States, 319; Climatology, 500 

Harrison, Charles C, Gift to the Universitj- of Penn- 
sylvania, 666 

Harrison, J. E., Degree of LL. D., 614 

Haeshbeegee, John, Origin of Our Vernal Flora, 
92 

Harshberger on the Origin of Our Vernal Flora, 
Chaeles Eobeetson, 371 

Hart, Edward, Cliemical Analysis, Fr. RudorS, 
137; The Earth's Atmosphere, William Coutie, 
360 

Haetog, Maecus, On Certain Habits and Instincts 
of Social Insects, 98 

Harvard Univei-sity Infirmary, 614 

Haycraft, John Ben-y, Darwinism and Race Pro- 
' gress, Geo. St. Claie, 467 

Hayden, Everett, National Geographic Society, 501 

Hayes, C. W., Geology of the Cartersville Sheet, 668 

Hazen, H. a., Magnetism and the Weather, 234 

Heat, R. T. Glazebrook; T. C. M., 215 

Helion, 445, 582 

Helmholtz, H., 55, 333; Memorial, 499, 612, 721, 
Hugo Mijnsterberg, 547 

Henry Jlorris, Death of, 641 

Herbarium of Rousseau, 614 

Herri ck, C. L., Slodern Algedonic Theories, 672; 
Cerebellum, 672 

Herrick, Francis H., Notes on the Biology of 
the Lobster, 72, 263, 382 

Heesiiey, Oscar, On a Devonian LimestonerBreccia 
in Southwestern Missouri, 676 

Hill, R. T., 249, Rica and Panama, 501 

Hirschfeld, Gustav, Death of, 555 

History, of Religions, 27; the Five Books of, J. W. 
Powell, 157 

Hitchcock, C. H., Tlie Connecticut Sandstone Group, 
74; Tlie Great Ice Age and Its Relation to the 
Antiquity of Man, .Tames Geikie, 408 

Hitchcock, C. H, Highland Level Gravels in North- 
ern New England, 60 

Hobbs, W. H., Borneol and Isoborneol, 700 

Hodge, C. F., Gro'svth of Yeast, 116; Daily Activity of 
Animals, 116 

HoLDEN, Edward S., A Large Reflector for the Lick 
Observatory, 457; A Genei'al Subject-index to 
Periodical Scientific Literatm-e, 520; Color Asso 
elation with Numerals, 576 



SCIENCE. 



noldini, Edward S., Mars, 529: Decoration, fil5 

Holiii, Thfo.. CEdiina of Violet Leaves, 334 

HiMtiiultural Coiifness, 697 

Jloiticiilturalists' Hule-Book, L. H. Bailey, 682 

lliirticultiire, Eleotro. :'>T() 

)losi,itals, Tlie Cooling of, 192 

HoniH, Walter, Distribution of Blow Gmi, 425 

Houston, Edwin J., Electricity t)ne Hundred Years 

Ago and To-day, T. C. M.,"216 
How.vKD, L. O., Entomological Society of Wasbing- 

ton, 560, 726 
Howard, L, O., Some New Scale Para-^ites, 560 
Howe, Henry Marion, Be,«.semer Gold Medal, 586 
Howe, James Lewis, Tbe Liquefaction of Gases — 

A Controversy, 542 
Hubbard, Gardiner G., Russia, 555, 686 
Huber, G. Carl, Loss of Nerve Substance in Peripbe- 

ral Neries, 117 
Hudson River Palisades, 530 
Hug^ins, William, Modern Spectroscope, 615 
Hulke, .1, W., Deatb of, 304 
Humanities, Tlie, .T. W. Powell, 15 
Humphrey, .T. E., Cell Literature, 643 
Hyatt, Alphevs, The Laboratory Teaching of Large 

Cla-sses, 197 
Hydrostatics, A Treatise on, Alfred George Greenhill, 

R. S. WooDWAKn. 269 
Hygiene, 48, I. Lane Nottcr and R. H. Firth, 216 

Ice Age, Tlie Great, and its Relation to the Antiquity 
of Man, James Cleikie, C. H. Hitchcock, 408 

Icones fungorum ad nsum Sylloges Saccardiana; Ac- 
comraodatic, A. N. Berlese, Joseph F. James, 
528 

IHERINO, H. vox. On Marine Mollusks from the Pani- 
pean Formation, 421 

niustrations in tlie Standard Natural History, Elli- 
ott CouEs, C. Hart Merbiam, 682 

Index, Medicus, 100: Ideal, to Scientific Literature, 
G. Brown- Goode, 433 

Indiana Academy of Science, 221 

Indiscriminate 'Taking/ Peter T. Austex, 209 

Infectious Diseases, Explanation of Ac(iuired Immu- 
nity from, George M. Sterxberg, 346 

Ingen, C. van, Canil>rian Faunas, 670 

Inheritance, A Dynamical Hypothesis of, JOHX A. 
Ryder, iL i,"597; (IL), 617 

Initial Capital, Use of the, in Speeitic Names of 
Plants, F. H. Kxowltox, 423 

Insect Life, 584 

Insects, On Certain Habits and Instincts of Social, 
MARcrs Hartog, 98 

Instinct, Lloyd Morgan upm, H. F. O., 712 

Institution of Naval Architects, 499 

Intestinal Fluke, New Species of, 276 

Introductory Note, \V. M. Davis, 174 

Invention, the Evolution of, O. T. Masox, 50: Sim- 
ilar, in Areas Wide Apart, O. T. JIason, 235 

Iowa Academy of Sciences, 111 

Iron Mountain Sheet, Arthur Winslow, J. D. R. 
330 

James, Joseph F., Descriptions des ravagenrs de la 
vigne, Henri .lolieoeur, 527; Icones fungomm 
ad UBiim Svlloges Saccardiana; Ac-commodata\ 
A. N. Berlese, .528 

James, Joseph F,, Daimonelix and Allied Fossil, 420; 

James, W., Unity of Consciousness, 44 

Janet, Ch., Myrmica rubra, 303 



Japan, Journal of the I'nivei-sity, 696 

Japjinese, Tlie Ethnic Affiliations of, 47 

Jelliffe, S. E., Laboratory Exercises in Botany, Ed- 
son S. Ristin, 3.58 

Jenny, W. P., fossil plants, 137 

Jewell, Lewis E., Spectrum of Mars, 475 

John Dalton and the Rise of Jlodern Chemistrv", Sir 
Henry E. Roscoe, Edward H. Keisek, 686 

Johns Hopkins University, Circular, 166; Degrees, 
695; Appointments in, 697; Prize, 723 ; Lectures 
at, 723 : Gifts in Memory of Prof. George H. Wil- 
liams, 723 

John, .J. P. D., Resignation of, 615 

Joint Commission of the Scientific Societies of Wash- 
ington, 333; program iif tlie. 390 

Jolicceur, Henri, Descri])ti<)us des ravageurs de la 
vigne, Joseph F. James, 527 

JoXES, H. C, Eine Discussion der Kriifte der Chem- 
ischen Dynamik, Ludwig Stettenheimer, 271 

JoRDAX, David .8tarr, Haec-kil's Monism, 608 

Journal, of the American Chemical Sneiety, 252, 280, 
392: of Geology, 252, 448; of Jlorphology, 335; 
of Comparative Neurology, 672 

Julius, P,, Systematic Survey of the Organic Coloring 
Matters, Ira Remsex, i86 

Kansas, Pemio-Carboniferons and Permian Rocks 
of, Charles S. Peosser, 275; University Field 
Work of, 500 

Kanthack, A. A. and I. H. Drysdale, A Course of 
Elementary Practical Biology, Including Bacteri- 
ological Analyses and Chemistrj', 416 

Karakoram Himalayas, 472 

Keeler, Jajies E., Spectroscopic Observations of 
Saturn at the Allegheny Observatory, 519. 

Keeler, James E., Saturn, 016 

Keiser, Edward H., Kepetitorium der Chemie, 
Carl Arnold. r-,-2(i; John Daltou and the Rise of 
Modern Chemistry, Sir Henry E. Roscoe, 686 

Keith, Arthur, The Apiialacbians, 58 

Kelvix, Lord, On the Electrification of Air; On the 
Thermal Conductivity of Rocks at Different Tem- 
peratures, 589 

Kelvin, Lord, Popular Lectures and Addresses, 
T. C. Mexdexhall, Vol. IL, Geology and Gen- 
eral Physics, 50 

Kemp, G. T , Extraction of Blood Ciases, 117 

Kemp, J. F., Tlie Baltimore Meeting of the Geo- 
logical Society of America, 57; The New York 
Academy of Sciences, 103, 279. 391, 6()9, 727 

Kemp, J. F,, Crystalline Limestones, 63; Petrography 
of Peridotite at DeWitt, 65; Iron Oie Bodies, 669 

Kent, William, Tlie Mechanical Engineer's Pocket 
Book, R. H. Thurston, (i34 

Keyes, Charles K.. The Ozjirk I'plift, 59 

Kingsley, J. S., Bibliograi)hical Project, 39; Pauro- 
jiida, 71 

Kirkwood, Daniel, Death of, 694 

KxowLTox, F. H., Use of the Initial Capital in Spe- 
cific Names of Plants, 423 

Konig. Arthur. Discrimination of Colors, 471 

Kriifte der Chemischen Dynamik, H. C. JoxES, 
271 

Kreider, D. A.. Perchloric Acid, 700 

Knlz, Prof.. Death of, 220 

Ki'MMEL, Hexry B., .Some Meandering Rivers of 
Wisconsin, 714 

Knndt, death of, .55 

Knnz, George F., 109; Seals, 279 



SCIENCE. 



[Contents and 
Index. 



Laboratory Teaching of Large Classes, Alpheus 
Hyatt, 40, 197; In Botany, AV. F. Ganong, 
230; Zoology, Heejion C. Bumpus, 260 

Ladd, G. T., Double Consciousness, 43; Ethical Semi- 
nary, 723 

Lagoa Santa, Eewix F. SiniH, 510 

Lake Superior Mining Institute Excursion, 418 

Lake Zurich, the Origin of, 651 

Land-Birds and Game Birds of New England, H. D. 
Minot, C. H. M., 495 

Landes und Yolkeskunde, Forschungen zur Deutsoh- 
es, 508 

Lane, Alfred C, The Relation of Grain to Distance 
from Margin in Certain Eocks, 61; Crystalized 
Slags from Copper Smelting, 63 

Langley, S P., Hodgkin Fund Prizes, 109 

Language, the Origin of, 404 

Lankester, E. Eay, Lectures at Royal Institution, 014 

Latitude, Variation of, J. K. Eeks, 561 

Lauth, Prof., Death of, 304 

Lavoisier, Blonument to, 697 

La\vrenoe, George N., Death of, C. Haet Meb- 
EIAM, 268 

Law Schools of New York, 557 

LAWSO^^, Andrew C, Die Ost Alpen, A. Rothpletz, 
522; Geologic Atlas of the United States, 717 

Leaming, Edward, Micro-photographs, 167 

Le Conte, Joseph, Memoir of Sir Andrew Cromhie 
Ramsay, Sir Archibald Geikie, 490 ; A Manual of 
Geologj', James D. Dana, 548 

Lee, Feedeick S., Carl Ludwig, 630 

Lee, Frederick S., Equilibrium in Fishes, 118; Ap- 
pointment of, 585 

Leidy, Joseph, Bust of, 724 

Lemming, The Norway, R. Collett, C. H. M.,690 

Lengfeld, Felix, Organic Chemistry, A. Bernthsen, 
272 ; A Laboratory Manual in Organic Chemistry, 
W. R. Orndorff, 469 

Ley's Cloudland, 678 

Libraries of New York, 304, 555 

Library Building at Harvard University, 417 

Lick Observatory, A Large Reflector for, Edwaed S. 
HoLDEN, 457; 555 

Light, R. T., Glazebrook, T. C. M., 215 

Lillie, Frank, Embryology of the Unionidife, 335 

Lindgren, "Waldemar, Gold Quartz Veins, 68 

Lindsay, Thomas, The Astronomical and Physical 
Society of Toronto, 573 

Linnsean Society, 83, 696 

Liquefaction of Gases — A Controversy, James Lewis 
Howe, 542 

Lister, Sir Joseph, Presentation of Albert Medal, 
500 

Lobachevsky, Nicolai Ivanovich, A. Vasiliev, Alex- 

ANDEE ZlWBT, 356 

Lobster, Notes on the Biology of, Feancis H. Hee- 

EICK, 263, 382 
Loey, William A., Primitive Metamerism, 68; Pineal 

Sense Organ, 69 
Locusts in Cj'prus, 446 
LOMBAED, WaeeenP., Proceedings of the American 

Physiological Society, 113 
Lombard, Dr., Death of, 249 
Lotsy, John P., Gift of Herbarium, 723 
Low, President Seth, A City University, 528; Gift to 

Columbia College, 554 
Lowest of the Vertebrates and their Origin, Theo. 

Gill, 645 
Lowell, Percival, Mars, 529, 616, 640 



Lucas, F. A., Biological Society ot Washington, 304, 

418, 502, 586, 725 
Lxicas, F. A., Abnormal Feet of Mammals, 305 
Ludwig, Carl, Death of, 528 ; Feedeeic S. Lee, 

630 
Lydekker, Richard, The Royal Natural History, C. 

Haet Meeeiam, 387 

M., Tlie Elihu Tliorapson Prize, 240 

M., C. H., The Book of Antelopes, P. L. Sclater and 
Oldfield Thomas, 389; Tlie Land Birds and Game 
Birds of New England, H. D. Minot, 495; Des- 
mognathus fusca, Pierre A. Fish, 496; Our Native 
Birds, H. Nehrling. 577: Birdcraft, JIabel O.sgood 
Wright, 635; The Ornithology of Illinois, Robert 
Ridgway, 661; Tlie Norway Lemming, R. Col- 
lett, 690; The Genus Eeithrodontomvs, J. A. Al- 
len, 720 

M., T. C., Elementary Lessons in Electricity and 
JIagnetism, Sylvanus P. Thompson, 187; Elec- 
tricit%', One Hundred Years Ago and To-day, 
Edwin J. Houston, 216; The Planet Earth, 
Richard A. Gregory', 243; Loss of Professor 
Milne's Seismologieal Apparatus, Library and 
Collection, 431; The Physical Review, 475; Tests 
of Glow Lamps, W. E. Avrton and E. A. Med- 
ley, 662 

M, W J, James Owen Dorsey, 208 

McClintock, Emoey, Past and Present of the 
American Mathematical Society, 85 

McDonald, J. Donnell, Expedition of, 139 

McDonald, W. C, Gift to McGiU University, 555 

McGee, W J, A Catalogue of Scientific Literature, 
353 

McGee, W J, Geology of Arizona, 59; Topograph- 
ical Development of Sonora, 568 

McMrm-ick, J. Playfair, A Text-Book of Inver- 
tebrate Morphology, A. S. Packaed, 493, 632 

Macdonald, A., Sensitiveness to Pain, 43 

MacFarlane A., on the Units of Light and Radiation, 
248; Space Analysis, 302 

MacKenzie, A. S., Attraction of Crystalline and Iso- 
tropic Masses, 475 

MacMillan Coxway, The Scientific Slethod and 
Modern Intellectual Life, 537 

Magnetic Waves, 165 

Jita-netism and the Weather, H. A. Hazex, 234 

Jlaiarial Jlap of Italy, 556 

lilammals, Brissou's Genera of, C. Haet Meeeiam, 
375; of Florida, F. W. T., 219 

Marine Biologiciil Laboratory, 516 

Markham, Clemens R., Antarctic Expedition, 557. 

Slarshall, Ai'thur Milnes, Biological Lectiu'es and 
Addresses, Lectiu-es on the Darwinian Tlieory, 
H. W. Conn, 413 

Martin T. C, Herman von Helmholtz 333 

Mason, 0. T., Similar Inventions in Areas Wide 
Apart, 235; Tlie Distribution of Sledges, 490 

Mason, O. T., Origin of Culture, 640 

Masouty, General de, death of, 390 

Mathematical, Society, Past and Present of the Ameri- 
can, Emoey McClixtock, 85; Annual Sleeting 
of the American, 110; Tlie International Con- 
gress, 110; Geoege Bruce Halstead, 486; 
Papei-s for the, at Kazan, 664 

Mathematics, American Joui-nal of, 168, 448 

Matter, Tlie World of, Harlan H. Ballard, Wyatt 
W. Raxdall, 553 

Matthew, W. D., Effusive and Dike Rocks, 670 



SCIEXCE. 



Mattliews, A. P., raiiereatic Cell, 71, 118; Excretory 
Nerves, 118 

Matthews, Edward B., Granites of Pike's Peak, 62 

Mayan Hieroglypliics, Daniel G. Briutou, Frederick 
' Starr, 32i> 

Mazamas, 499 

Maze, rAl)l)e, Meteorological Observations, 501 

Mearns, Edgar A., Hares of Mexican Border, 098 

Mwhanics, A Treatise on Tlieoretical, Alexander 
Ziwet, K. S. W., 20; An Historical Survey of the 
Science of, K. S. WttoDWARD, 141 

Medical Schools, u.5(i, 095; Journals in Russia, 584. 

Meditenanean, The Eastern, 500 

Medlev, E. A., and W. E. Ayrton, Tests of Glow 
Liiinps, T. C. JI., 662 

Meehau, Thomas, Carnivei-ons Plants, 165 

Meissel, E. D. F., death of, 500 

Mcltzer, S. J., Cardio-iesophagogeal movements, 118 

MEXDENHALli, T. C, Legal Units of Electric Meas- 
ure, 9; Popular Lectures and Addresses, Vol. II., 
Geology and Plnsics, Lord Kelvin, 50; Heat, 
Light, R. T. Glaz'ebrook, 215 

Mental Development in the Child and in the Race, 
28 

Merriam, C. Hart, Zoological Nomenclature, 18; 
Unity of Xonienclature in Zoologj- and Botany, 
161; Birds of Eastern Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey, Witmer Stone, 187; Birds in the JIuseuin 
of Natural History, New York City, Frank JI. 
Chapman, 189; The Earliest Generic Name of an 
AnicricanDeer, 208; Brissou's Genera of Mam- 
mals, 375; Tlie I^oyal Natural History, Richard 
Lyddecker, 387; I'.irdsof Eastern Nortli America, 
Frank M. Chapman, 137; The lUustratious in the 
Standard Natural History, 682 

Merriam, C. Hart, Environment and Variation, 38; 
Temperature and Distriljution, 53; Monographic 
Revision of the Pixjket tJophers, J. A. Allen, 
241; Distribution of Plants and Animals, 318; 
JIamnials of the Pribilof Islands, 698; Short 
Tailed Shrews, 725 

Merrimax, JIansfield, a Manual of Topographic 
Method, Henry Gannett, 464; Elasticitat und 
Festigkeit, C. Bach, 688 

Merritt, Ernest, Absorption of Certain Crystals in the 
Infra-Ked, ()71 

Mesopotamian Culture, Tlie Antiquity of, 2.'>4 

Mesozoic Flora of Portugal comjiared with that of the 
United States, Lester F. Ward, 337 

Mesozoic Plants from Kosuka Kii, Awa and Tosa, 
Metajiro Yokoyania, Wm. M. Font.\ixe, 525 

Meteorological Keiiorts, Argentine, 321 

Jletcorologique, Bureau Centrale, 678 

Meteorologische Zeit.schrift, 569 

Jleteorologv-, Tlie Needs of, Cleveland Abbe, 181 : 
A. L. RoTCH, 302 

Mexican Boundary, Remarking the, O., 349 

Mexican: National Exhibition, 390 

Meyer, Lothar von, deatli of, 530 

Michigan, Academy of Sciences, 2,50; Bequest to the 
University, 5rt4 

Microchemischen .Vnalyse, Anleitung zur, H. Beh- 
rens, E. Rexoik, 036 

Microscopical Societv of Washington, 641; New Jer- 
sey State, 699 

Mills, Wesley T., Psychic Development of Young 
Animals, 43; Cortex of the Brain, IIj^ 

Mineralogical Club, New York, 474 

Minerva, 27 



Minnesota. Academy of .Sciences, 473, 588; Publita- 
tions (if. -.MS; Fortnightly Scientific Club, Uni- 
versity i>( Minnesota, 251; Grant to the Metlical 
Department of tlie Univci-sity, 584 

MiNOT, Charles S., The Fundamental Difference 
lietwci-n Animals and Plants, 311 

Minot Charles S., Work of the Naturalist in the 
World, 39, 530; Olfactory Lobe, 70; Tlie Structu- 
ral Plan of the Human Biain, 249 

Minot, H. D., Land Birds and Game Birds of New 
England, C, H. M., 70, 495 

' Missing Link ' Found at I^st, 47 

Mississipjii, Origin of, 294 ; Local Displacement of, 487 

Missouri Botanical Garden, 038 

JIiTCHicLL, S, Weir, Summary of Conclusions of a 
Rejiort by Drs. D. H. Bergey, S. Weir Mitchell 
and .T. S. Billings upon ' The Composition of 
Expired Air and its Eflfects upon Animal Life,' 
481 

Mole, Brewer's, The Proper Scientific Name for, 
Frederick W. True, 101 

MoUusks, On Marine, from the Pampean Formation, 
H. vox Iherixg, 421 

Monistic Creed, The Tyranny of the, W. K. Brooks, 
382 

Montiigue H.\Tnan, Death of, 304 

Montgomery, Hexey, Volcanic Dust iu Utah and 
Colorado, 05(> 

More, A, G., Death of, 473 

Morgan, C. Lloyd, Lectures on Instinct, 093 

Morg-an, T. H., Unsegmented Eggs of Sea Urchins, 
71 

Jlorphologie der Erdoberfliiche, Penck's, 508 

Morj)hologv, A Text-book of Invertebrate, J. Play- 
fair McMurrick, A. S. Packard, 493, 032 

Slother, Can an Organism without a, he Born from an 
Egg, W. K. B., 162 

Munich, Tlie Region about, 052 

JIunicipiil Government in Great Britain, Albert 
Shaw, J, S. B.. 578 

Mi'SSTERBERG. Huoo, Heliiiholtz Jlemorial, 547, 012 

JIurray, ,Iohn, Report on Challenger, 417; Honorary 
Degree, 097 

Muscardine, Disease of Chinch Bugs, 509 

Naples Zoological Station, 249; American Students at 

the, H. F. OsiiORN, 238 
National Academy of Sciences, 449; Report of the 

Watson Trustees on the Award of the Wat.son 

Medal to Seth C. Chandler, S. Newcomb, B. A. 

GoiLD, A. Hall, 477 
National, Univei-sity, A Propose<l, 278, Ethnological 

Exposition, 499 
Natural History, Boston Society of, 84; Tlie Royal, 

Ricliard Lydekker, C. Haet Merriam, 337; 

HI 17; The Cambridge, III., A. H. Cook, A. E. 

Shiphy F. R. C. Reed, W. H. Uall, 610 
Natural Science, 498 
Naturalists. Tlie B;dtiniore Meeting of the American 

SiK-icty of. W. A. Setchell, 34; Philadelphia 

jilace of next meeting, 499; German Society of, 

,■>."■)(;: Dircctoiy, 095 
Naturfoisclur und Aerzte, Vei-sammlung dcr Gesell- 

schatt deutscher, 82 
Nehrling, 11., Our Native Birds of Song and Beauty, 

C. II. M.. .-.77 
Nernst, W., Tlieoretical Chemistry, Robert H. 

Bradbiry, 579 
Neumann. Franz. Death of, 668 



SCIENCE. 



[Contents and 
Index. 



New Books, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 196, 224, 252, 

280, 308, 336, 364, 392, 420, 448, 476, 504, 532, 

560, 588, 616, 644, 728 
Newark System, Israel C. Russell, 266 
Newbokl, W. R., Associate Editor, 390 
Newcomb, S., To Our Readers, 1; B. A. GoULD, A. 

Hall; National Academy of Sciences, Report of 

the AVatson Ti-nstees on the Award of the Watson 

Medal to Seth C. Chandler, 477 
Newcomb, Simon, Associate of Academie des Sciences 

724. 
Newell's Report on Agriculture by Irrigation, 258 
Newell, H. F., Argon, 616 
Newton, John, Death of, 528 
New York, Academy of Sciences, 28, 84, 220; Bash- 

roKD Dean, 167, 306; J. F. Kemp, 193, 279, 

391, 6G9, 727; Annual Reception of, Heney F. 

OsBOEN, 321; William Hallock, 447; Gift to 

the University of the City of, 640 
Nichols, E. S., and Mary Ci. Spencer, Influence of 

Temperature on Transparency of Solutions, 476 
Nomenclature, Zoiilogical, C. Hart Meeeian, 18; 

Unity of, in Zoology and Botany, C. Haet 

Mee'eiam, 161 
Nordan, IMax, Degeneration, John S. Billings, 465 
North Dakota State University, 417 
Notes and News, 26, 55, 80, 109, 137, 164, 190, 217, 
■ 249, 275, 303, 331, 361, 390, 416, 444, 470, 497, 

528, 554, 581, 612, 636, 663, 692, 721 
Notter, I. Lane, Hygiene, 216 
Noyes, W. a., a Short History of Chemistry, F. P. 

Venable, 469 

O., Remarking the Mexican Boundary, 349 

O., H. F., Joints in the Vertebrate Skeleton, 581; 
Lloyd Morgan upon Instinct, 712 

O., W. R., Laboratory Guide, General Chemistry, 
George Willard Benton, 611 

Oceanic Circulation, Buclian's Challenger Report 505 

Odgen, Heebeet G., Gravity Measurements, 571 

Oliver, James Edward, Geoege Bbuce Halsted, 544 

Onomatology, American, 72 

Organic Coloring Matters, A Systematic Survey of, 
G. Schultz and V. Julius, Iea Remsen, 186 

Original Research and Creative Authorship the Es- 
sence of University Teaching, Geoege Beuce 
Halsted, 203 

Orndorff, W. R., A Laboratory Manual Arranged to 
Accompany Remsen's Organic Chemistry, Felix 
Lengfeld, 469 

Ornithology of Illinois, Descriptive Catalogue, Rob- 
ert Ridgway, C. H. M., 661 

Orthoptera, The Need of a Change of Base in the 
Study of North American, Samuel H. Scud- 
dee, 19 

OSBOEN, Henry Fairfield, American Students at 
the Naples Zoological Station, 238; Annual Re- 
ception of the New York Academy, 321 

Osborn, Henry Fairfield, From the Greeks to Darwin, 
A. S. Packard, 21; Environment and Varia- 
tion, 35, and Charles Earle, Fossil Mammals of 
Puerco Beds, AV. B. Scott, 660 

Owen, Richard, Tlie Life of. Rev. Richard Owen, A. 
S. Packard, 209 

Oxford, University of, 27, 640, 697 

Oysters as a Means of Transmitting Typhoid Fever, 49 

Packaed, a. S., From the Greeks to Darwin, Henry 
Fairfield Osborn, 21; Tlie Life of Richard Owen, 



Rev. Richard Owen, 209; The Life and Corre- 
spondence of AVilliam Buckland, Mrs. Gor- 
don, 329; Invertebrate Morphology, J. Playfair 
McMurrick, 493, 632 

Packard, A. S., Observations on Siphonaptera, 191 

Paleobotany, 137 

Paleontology, 445, Tlie Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey of Minnesota, Vol. III., William 
B. 'Claek,"659 

Palmer, T. S., The Generic Name of the Three-toed 
Echidna, 518 

Parker, George W., Elements of Astronomy, C. A. Y., 
415 

Parkman, Francis, Memorial to, 304 

Paronymv, The Progress of, Bl'RT G. AVildee, 515 

Passaic, the Extinct Lake, 487 

Payer, Julius von, Expedition tor Polar Research, 640 

Pear Blight, -M. B. AVaite, 721 

Pearson, D. K., Gift to Mt. Holyoke College, 667 

Peary Relief Expedition, 614 

Peck, Dr., Death of, 500 

Peckham, Adelaide AVaed, and J. S. Billings, 
The Influence of Certain Agents in Destroying 
the AUtalitv of the Typhoid and of the Colon 
Bacillus, 169 

Peckham, 5Ir. and Mrs., Spiders, 191 

Penck's Morphologic der Erdoberflache, 508 

Peruvian Civilization, The Sources of, 650 

Pestalozzi, Letters of, 697 

Pfaff, Franz, Rhus toxicodendron and Rhus venenata, 
119 

Philadeljihia Academy of Natural Sciences, 251, 447 

Philips, Jr. Henry, death of, 697 

Philosophical Society of AA''ashington, 251, 307 

Physical Education, Association, 530 

Physical Review, 28, 55, 139, 364; T. C. M., 475, 670 

Physics, 26, 55; AA^illiaji Hallock, 247 

Physiogi-aphy, Current Notes on, AY. M. Davis (I.), 
174;(n.), 257;(III. ), 292;(IA".), 318; (V.), 487, 
(Aa.), 505; (VIL), 568; (VIIL), 605; (IX), 651; 
(X), 678 

Physiological Physics, William Hallock, 301 

Physiological Society, Proceedings of the American, 
AA^AEEEN P. Lombard, 113 

Physiologie, Dictionaire de, 110 

Physiology, An American Textbook of, 110; Interna- 
tional Congress of, 697 

Pickering, E. C, T Andromedse, 474; Eclipse ot 
Jupiter's Fourth Satellite, 475 

Pithecanthropus erectus, 193; HAEEiso:sr Allen, 239, 
299 

Plains. AA''inslow's Explanation of the Missouri, 178 

Planet Earth, Richard A. Gregory, T. C. M., 243 

Plants, Length of A^essels in, Eewin F. Smith, 77 

Platt, Ch.\eles, Le Grisou, H. Le Cha teller, 79; 
Agricultural Analysis, Harvey AA^. AViley, 359 

Poincaru, H., Les oscillations electriques, 51. I. 
PUPIN, 102; IL, 131 

Popular Lectures and Addresses, A''ol. II., Geology 
and General Physics, Lord Kelvin, T. C. Men- 

DENHALL, 50 

Popular Science Jlonthly, 336, 529, 530 

Porter, AY. T., Physiology of Respiration, 119 

Posepny, Franz, Death of, 530 

Positions in Toronto, Ajiplication for, 694 

Post, Albert Hermann, Grundriss der Etlmologischen 

Jurisprudenz, D. G. Beinton, 25 
Powell, J. AV., The Humanities, 15; Tlie Five Books 

of History, 157 



VOLl'ME I. 



SCIENCE. 



Powell, .1. W., National (icograpliic Monographs, W. 
M. Davis, 439; History of Culture, (i40; Geo- 
lojcic Atlas of the United States, Andrew C. 
Lawsos, 717 

Pre-historic Tribes of the Eastern United States, 256 

Preservation of Animals and Plants, 640 

Price, .lames, Death of, .">85 

Price, L. L., The Colleges of Oxford and Agricultural 
Depression, 697 

Prosser, Charles S., Pernio- Carboniferous and Per- 
mian Hocks of Kansas, 275 

Protolenus Fauna, 452 

Psyche, 196, 448 

Psychological, Association, The Princeton Meeting of 
the American, .1. McKkkx Cattell, 42; Re- 
view, 55, 82, 335, 643; Index, 473 

Psychology-. At Chicago, 81; E. B. TitcHESER, 426 

Publications of the University of Wisconsin, 279 

Publishers' Circular, 109 

Pupix, >I. I., Les oscillations electriques, H. Poin- 
carO, 102, II. 131 

Pupin, M. I., Automatic Vacuum Pump, 221 

Purdue Universiti.', 585 

Pygmies, A de Quatrefages, D. G. Brintox, 443 

Quatrefages, A. de, Tlie Pvgimes, D. G. Beixton, 443 
Quick. K. W.. C. I). Child, B. S. Laraphear, Ther- 
mal Conductivity of Copper, 670 

E., J. D., Bevier Sheet, Arthur Winslow, 248; Iron 
Mountain Sheet, Arthur Winslow, 330 

E., J. K., American Metiological Society, 484 

E. W. W., Annual Meeting of the Chemical Society 
(London), 606 

Raffalovich, M. A., Uranism, 672 

Eafinesfiue, Tlie Life and Writings of C'onstantine 
Samuel, Kichard Ellsworth Call, G. Brown 
Goode. 384 

Eainfall. Charts of the United States, Harrington's, 
319; Central American, 569 

Eainv Lake Gold Region, H. V. Winchell and U. S. 
Grant. 331 

Eamsay, Memoir of Sir Andrew Cronibie, Sir Archi- 
bald Geikie, .Joseph LeConte, 490 

Ramsay, Prof, Helion, 582 

Randall, Wvatt W., Tlie World of Matter, Harlan, 
H. Ballard, 553 

Rawlinson, Sir Henry, 304 

Ravleigh, Lord, Argon, 701 

Ravleigh, Lord, Waves and Vibrations, 304; Faradav 
' Jledal, 418 

Readers, To Our, S. Xewcojib, 1 

Redfield Memorial, 470 

Rees. ,T. K., Variation of Latitude, .561 

Rees, .T. K., Penumbr;e of Sun Spots, 221; Astron- 
omy during 1894. 447; Geodetic Tlieodite, 727 

Reforestation, Tlie .'^lu-cious Term, 321 

Regression and Organic i^tability, 498 

Reid, Harry Fairlield. Variations of Glaciers, 60 

Reigliard, .Jacob, Tlic Wall-eyed Pike, Artificial 
Fertiliziition, 361 

Reithrodontonivs, Tlie Genus, J, A. Allen, C. H. JI., 
720 

Religious SymlKilism. Tlie Analogies of, 47 

Eemsen, Ira. Systematic Survey of the Organic 
Coloring Matters, Drs. G. Schultz and P. Julius, 
186; Argon. 309 

Eemsen, Ira, Colorides of Orthosuliihobenzoic acid, 
642 



Rexoif. E., Anleitungzur Microchemischen Analvse, 
H. Belirens, 636 

Resi-arch, Degrees for, 614 

Ridgway, Robert, The Ornithology of Illinois; De- 
scriptive Catalogue, C. H. M.,'661 

Rie.s, Heinrich, Harrison Granite, 279 

Riley, C. V., Alternating Generations, Herman Ad- 
ler, 457 

Ritual Calendar of Central America, 649 

Rivers, Graded, 176; Some ileaudering of Wiscoasin, 
Hexry B. Ki'MMEL, 714 

RoBERTSox. Charles, Hai-shberger on the Origin 
of Our Vernal Flora, 371 

Robertson, Charles, Flowere and Insects, 503 

Rochester Academy of Science. 83 

Rockhill, W. W., Delegate to the International Geo- 
grajihical Congress, 6()7 

Roscoe, Sir Hiiny E.. John Dalton and the Rise ot 
Modern Cluiiiistry, EDWARD H. Keiser. 686 

RoTCH, A. L., Meteorology, 302 

Rothpletz, A., Die Ost Alpen, Axdeew C. Lawson, 
,522 

Rowland, H. A., New Forms of Galvanometers, 120; 
Solar Spectium Wave Length, 474, 616 

Royal Society, 362, 557, 585,' 612, 614; Meteorolog- 
ical Society, 529; Botanical .Society-, 586, 694; In- 
stitution, 692; Astronomical Society, 639; Geo- 
graphical .Societv, 665, 694; Institute of London, 
446 

Royce, Josiah, Psychology of Imitation, 44, 643 

Rudorf, Fr., An Introduction to Chemical Analysis 
for Beginners, Edward Hart, 137 

Runic Inscriptions in Eastern America. 488 

Russell, H. L., Outlines ot Dairy liicteriologv, H. W. 
C, 189 

Russell, Israel C, Tlie Newark System, 266 

Ruschenberger, William S. W., Death of, 417 

Rus.sian Science Notes, George Bruce Halsted, 
277 

Russian Thistle, 377 

Ryder, John A., A Dynamical Hypothesis of In- 
heritance, 597, II. 617; 

Eyder, John A., Death of, 417; Uni)ublished JISS. ot, 
500; Meeting in Memory of, 613 

S. E. F., Biltmore, 557 

S. H. S., Butterflies and Moths, AV. Furneaux, 443 

Sachsse, Rol>, death of 615 

St. Andrew's University. 446 

St, Clair, Geo., Darwinism and Race Progres.s, John 
Berr\- Haycratt, 467 

St. John's River, New Brunswick, History of, 294 

St. Louis Academy of Science, A. W. Douglas, 503 

St. Paul Academy of Science, 473 

Salisbury, Kollix D., Tlie Water Supply ; Geolog- 
ical .Survey of New Jersey, Cornelius Clarkson, 
Vermeule, 684 

Salisbury, RoUin D., Surface Formations of Southern 
New .Jei'sey. 67 

Sanford, E. ('.. I'sychological .Studies, 42 

Saturn, Spectroscopic Olxservations of, Jame-s E. 
Keelek. 519 

.Savor>-, Sir William, Death of, 364 

.SchalTner, .John II., Tlie Nature and Distribution of 
Attraction Sjiheres and Centrosomes in Vege- 
table Cells, Albert ScHXEiDER, 189 

Schermerhorn, W. C, Gift to Columbia College, 
.554 

Schmidt. E. E., Member of Prussian Academy, 446 



SCIENCE. 



C Contests and 
Index. 



SclimicU's, Dr. Eniil, Recent AVorks, 406 

Sehmitz, F. N., Death of, 279 

Schneider, Albert, Attraction Spheres and Ceii- 
trosomes in Vegetable Cells. John H. Schaff- 
ner, 189. An Introduction to Structural Botany, 
H. D. Scott, 443 

Schneider, Albert, Rhizobea, 306 

Schorlemmer Carl, The Rise and Development of Or- 
ganic Chemistry, Edgar F. Smith, 163 

Schultz, G., Systematic Survey of Organic Coloring 
Matter, Ira Remsen, 186 

'Science,' 352 

Science, America's Relation to the Advance of, G. 
Beowx Goode, 4; (popular), Articles on, 81, 
303; The Nature of, and its Relation to Philo- 
sophy, E. W. Scripture, 350; In Canada., J. T. 
C, 379, 628, 653; The Educational and Indus- 
trial Value of, Hexey S. Carhaet, 393; 

Scientific, Investigation, The Character and Aims of, 
Daxiel G. Brixton, 3: Literature, 20, 50, 78, 
102, 131, 162, 186, 209, 241, 269, 299, 326, 356, 
382, 408, 437, 457, 490, 522, 548, 577, 610, 634, 
658, 684, 717; Societies, of "Washington, 26; Sec- 
retaries of, 499; J. S. DiLLER, 586; Joint Com- 
mission, 333; Journals, 28, 82, 112, 139, 168, 195, 
224, 251, 280, 308, 335, 364, 392, 420, 448, 474, 
503, 532, 615, 642, 670, 700; Method and Modern 
Intellectual Life, Conway MacMillan, 537. 

Sclater, P. H., and Oldfield Thomas, The Book of 
Antelopes, C. H. M., 389 

Scott, D. H., An Introduction to Structural Botany, 
Albert Schneider, 443 

Scott, W. B., Fossil JMammals of the Puerco Beds, 
Henry Fairfield Osborn and Cliarles Earle, 660 

Scribner, F. Lamson, Grasses of Tennesse, N. L. B. 
55 

Scriptoribus et Lectoribus, Salutem, D. C. Giljian, 2 

Scripture, E. W., Tlie Nature of Science and its 
Relation to Philosophy, 350 

Scripture, E. W., Lecture on Psycbology, 722 

Scudder, S. H., The Need of a Change of Base in the 
Study of North American Orthoptera, 19 

Seebohn, Henry, Eggs of British Birds, 529 

Seeley, H. G., Skeleton of Pareiasaurus Baini, 331 

Seeley, H. J., Reputed Mammals from Karroo For- 
mation, 445 

Seelye, J. M., Death of, 583 

Seismological, Apparatus, Library and Collection, 
Loss of Professor Milne's, T. C. M. 431 ; Society 
in Rome, 697 

Seegi, G., The Classification of Skulls, 658 

Setchell, W. X., The Baltimore Meeting of the 
American Society' of Naturalists, 34 

Shaler N. S., Lower Silurian Limestones, 58 

Shaw, Albert, Municipal Government in Great Brit- 
ain, J. S. B., 578 

Sheldon, Samuel, H. W. Litch and A. N. Shaw, Elec- 
trolytic Condensers, 670 

Shepard, Willara A., death of, 668 

Shields, T. E., Apparatus for PI ethysmographic Study 
of Odors, 120 

Simpson, Charles T., Naiad Classification, 419; Geo- 
graphical Distribution of Naiades, 587 

Skeleton, Variations in the Human, 253 

Skulls, Classification of, Harrison Allen, 381, G. 
Seegi, 658 

Slingo, W., and A. Brooker, Electrical Engineering, 
for Electric Light Artisans and Students, F. B. 
Crocker, 299 



Sotth, Edgar F., Organic Chemistry, Carl Schor- 
. lemmer, 163; Tlie Qualitative Chemical Analysis 
of Inorganic Substances, 415 

Sjiith, Eewin F., Length of Vessels in Plants, 77; 
Lagoa Santa, 510 

Smith Ervrin F., Nomenclature Question, 587; Biol- 
ogy of Bacillus-tracheiphilus, 699; Associate edi- 
tor, 724 

Smith, John B., A Flat-headed Borer, 276 

Smith, Theo., Entero-hepatitis of Turkeys, 531 

Smyth, C. H., Crystalline Limestone, 63 

Smyth, E. A., Jr., Hawks and Owls, 276 

Soil treatment of Orchards, 577 

Snow, F. H, Kansas, State Geological Survey, 376 

Social Sense, J. JIaeic Baldwin, 236 

Society, Internationale des Electricians, 26 

Societies and Academies, 28, 56, 83, 110, 166, 193, 
220, 250, 279, 304, 334, 391, 418, 447, 473, 501, 
531, 558, 586, 668, 698, 725 

Society of Naturalists, The Baltimore Meeting of the 
American, W. A. Setchell, 34 

Sociology, Am. Jour, of, 722 

Solar System, On the Magnitude of the, "William 
Haekness, 29 

South American Tribes and Languages, 457 

Space Analysis, 302 

Spalding, "Volney M., Introduction to Botany, W. P. 
Wilson, 496 

Spectroscopic, Observations of Saturn, James E. 
Keelee, 519 

Speleological Society, 544 

Spencer, Cornelia Phillips, Degree, 724 

Spencer, Herbert, Professional Institutions, 499 

Spencer, J. "W., Geographical Evolution of Cuba, 59 

Stanford Univereitj', 585, 667 

Staer Fredeeick, a. Primer of Mayan Helro- 
glyphics, Daniel G. Brinton, 326 

Starr, Frederick, Notes on Jlexican Archeology, 219 

Stars, The Story of, G. F. Chambers, David P. Todd 
552 

Steinmetz, S. R., Ethnologische Studien zur ersten 
Entwicklung der Strafe, D. G. B., 25 

Steam Power and Mill Work, Geo. W. Sutcliffe, 
R. H. T., 581 

Sternberg, George M., Explanation of Acquired 
Immunity from Infectious Diseases, 346 

Sternberg, George M., Explanation of Natural Im- 
munity, 121; President of Association of Mili- 
tary Surgeons, 530 

Stettenheimer, Dr. Ludwig, Eine Discussion der 
Kriifte der chemischen Dynamik, H. C. Jones, 
271 

Stevenson, J. J., Pennsylvania Anthracite, 391 

Stiles, C. W., Cestodes, 68, 334, 419 

Stone Age, Divisions of the, 254 

Stone Age, Subdivisions of, 404 

Stone, Witmer, Tlie Birds of Eastern Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey, C. Hart Mereiam, 187 

Strafe, Ethnologische Studien zur erster Entwicklung 
der, S. R. Steinmetz, D. G. B., 25 

Strasburger, Eduard, Botany in Germany, 642 

Strong, O. S., The Use of Formalin in Golgi's 
Method, 166 ; Cranial Nerves of Amphibia, 
335 

Stumpf, Carl, Jlember of Prussian Academy, 446 

Subject Index, A Cfeneral, to Periodical Scientific 
Literature, Edward S. Holden, 520 

Surface Cun-ents of the Great Lakes, 505 

Survey of Michigan, 219 



SCIENCE. 



Sutclifle. Ceo. W., Steam Power and Mill Work, 

K. H. T., 581 
Sutherland. Charles. Death of, 585 
Swinlnirne, Kalph, Death of, 697 
Syracuse University, Aiipointnients in, 696; Gift to, 

722 
Svstematische Phylogeiiie der Protisten und Pflan- 

zen, Ernst Haeckel. Gary N. Calkixs, 272 

T., F. W., Tlie Mammals of Florida, 219 

T., R. H., Society tor the Promotion of Enjjineering 
Education, 580: .'^team Power and Mill Work, 
George W. SutelilTe. .581 

Tarns of the English Lake District, 652 

Tartars, The Orotchi. 2.'>(1 

Tchehychev, GEORGE Urice Halsted, 129 

Teaching Botany, W. ,1. Beal, 355 

Technologisches, Wiirterbueh, 363 

Telescope, for Berlin Industrial Exhibition, 333; for 
American University. 557 

Temperature Control, i,aws of, of the Geographic 
Distribution of Life, 53 

Tesla, Nikola, Laboratory destroyed by fire, 390 

Texas Academy of Science, 56, 448, 728; Volcanic 
Dust in. H. W. Turner, 453 

Tlie Evolution of Invention, 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Kock at Different Tempera- 
tures. Lord Kelvix. 596 

Thiersch, Carl. Death of. 584 

Tliomas, Gldfield. and P. L. Sclater. Tlie Book of 
Antelopes, C. 11. M.. 389 

Tliompson, .^ylvanus I'.. Elementary Lessons in 
Electricity and Magnetism, T. C. M., 187. 

Tliomson, E.. Inter-communication among Wolves, 

Thi'Rstox, R. IL, Model Engine Construction, J. 
Alexaxder, 109: The Steam Engine and Other 
Heat Engines, .1. A. Ewing, 136: Steam and the 
Marine Steam Engine, John Yeo, 328; Tlie Ani- 
mal as a Machine and Prime Mover, 365 ; The 
Mechanical Engineer's Pocket Book, 634 

Tlmrston, R. H., Debt to Inventors. 641 

TlTCHEXER, E. B.. Psychology, 426 

Toads on the Sea.shore, Frederick W. Trie, 166 

Todd, David P., The Story of the Stars, G. F. Cham- 
bers, 552 

Todd, Hexry Alfred, A Card Catalogue of Scien- 
tific Literature, 297 

Tmld, J. E., South Dakota Geological Survey, 219 

T(misa, Dr., Death of, T^TM 

Topogiapher. M axsi'IKLH MerrimaX, 464; The Ed- 
ucation cif. W. y\. Davis, 546 

Topogi-aplii<' .Methods, Caiinett's Manual of, 179 

Topographical Atlas, 138 

Torrey Botanical Club, 28 

Tree and the Cone, 6.50 

Trelease, Wm., Jtis'iouri Botanical Garden, 716 

Trouvelot. Leopold, Death of, 585 

Trie, Frederick W., The Proper Scientific Xanie 
for Brewer's Mole, lol ; Toa<ls on the Seashore, 
166 

Tsetsaiit, 218 

Tubercular Consumption, Prize for Best Essaj', 278 

Tuke, I). Hack, Death of. 304 

TURXKK, H. W., Volcanic Dust in Texa.s, 4,53 

TvTHILL, W>i. B., New York Branch Americiin Folk- 
Lore Society, 473 

nine, Edwin B., Amaranthacea;, .504 

Units of Light and Radiation, A Macfarlane, 248 



Univei'sity Extension, 724 

Upham. Wanin, Disc-rimi nation of Glacial Accunin- 
latiiin and Invasion, (iO: Climatic Cuiiditions, 61; 
Uplift of the ICxisting Aiii«dachians, 180 

Van Gieson. Ira, Formalin, 167 

Vannic Language, 128 

Variation, Materials for the Study of, William Bate- 
son. H. W. Coxx, 23; An Inherent EiTor in the 
Views of Gallon and Weismann on, W. K. 
Brooks, 121; in Crabs, 49^: of Latitude, J. 
K. Rees, 561; Mechanical Interpretation of, 638 

Vasiliev, A,, Xicolai Iviinovich Lobachev.sky, Alex- 

AXDER ZlWET, .356 

Vegetation of tlie Ancient World, 138 

Venable, F. P., History of Chemistry, W. A. XoYEs. 
469 

Vermeule, Cornelius Clarkson, Water Supply; Geo- 
logical Survey, New Jersey, RoLLix D. Salis- 
bury, 684 

Vertebrate jialeontology, Field exploration, 693 

Vertebrate Skeleton, H. F. O., 581 

Victoria Institute of London, 472, 667 

Vienna, Academy of Sciences, Bequest, 278; Histor- 
ical Exhibition, 303 

Vigne, Description des Ravageurs de la, Henri Joli- 
acur, Joseph F. James, 527 

Vogel, H. C, Spectra of the Planets, 474 

Vogt. Carl, death of, 555 

Voleanic Dust, In Texas, H. W. Tirrner, 453; In 
Utah and Colorado, Hexry Montgomery: 656 
In Texas, E. T. Dumble, 657 

W., R. S., Tlieoretical Mechanics. Alexander Ziwet, 20 
Waite, M. B., The Biological Society of Washington, 

334, 531, 698: Remedy for I'ear Blight. 721 
Waite, M. B., Flora of Washington, 305 " 
Walcott, Charles D., Apjialachian Type of Folding, 

58; Lower Cambrian Rocks, 64: Bigsby Jledal 

Awarded, 304: U. S. Geological Survcy,"530 
Waldo, Frank. Wind Velocities, 700 
Walteiiwvl, Brunner yon, Monographie der Pseudo- 

])hyliiden, 663 
Walter, Miss Emma, Delaware Water Gap, 390 
Ward, Lester P., The Mesozoic Flora of Portugal 

compared witli that of United Stiites, 337 
Ward, Lester F.. Vegetation of the Ancient World, 

138; Maniuis Siiporta, 390; Red Hills aud Sand 

Hills of South Carolina, 6(i9; Gania Grass, 725 
Wanning, E., A Handbook of Systematic Botany, 

N. L. B.. .5.50 
Wa.shburn, L. F., Laboratory Studies, 696 
Water Supply, Geological Survey of New Jersey, 

Cornelius Clarkson Vermeule," Rollix D. Salis- 
bury. 684 
Weather .8ervic<>. New York Stiite, 320 
Weed Seeds in Winter Winds, 509 
Weed, Walter H.. and Louis V. Pirsson, Geologj- of 

tlie High Wood Mountains, Montana, 59; Tlie 

Slionkin S;ig, .559 
Weidman, S;inuiel, (^uartz-keratophyre, 67 
Weierstra.ss, Prof., Election of, 363 
Weights and Mea-sures, 304 
Welding of Iron. 332 
Wcldon, Prof., Vaiiation, 278 
Wellington, Arthur M., Death of, 614 
Wheeler, E. .S, Density and Diameter of Terrestrial 

Planets, 424 
Wlieeler, Dr., Fertilization, ,335 



SCIENCE. 



AMiite, David, Tlie Pottsville Series 64 
"White, Gilbert, Natural History of Melbourne, 614 
"Whitfield, R. P., New Forms ot Marine Alg-ae, 67 
"VMiiting, Harold, death of, 667 
"\Miitniaii, C. 0., Utilities of Biology, 641 
"WiLDEE, BUET G., The Progress of Paronym}', 515; 
• The Frog Svas not Brainless, but Decerebrized, 632 
"Wiley, Harvey "W., Principles and Practice of Agii- 

cultnral Analysis, Charles Platt, 359 
"Willey, Arthur, Aniphioxus, 645 
"tt'illiams, Charles Theodore, Aero-therapeutics, 247; 
"V\^illiams College, bequest to, 584 ; 
"Williams, George Huntington, Memorial to, 219, 723 
"\^^Iliams, H. S., Devonian Fossils, 64 
"Williams, H. "SV., Death of, 724 
"Williston, S. "W., North American Diptera, 362 
■^'ilson, E. B., Environment and Variation, 38; Cen- 

trosomes, 69; Polarity of the Egg In Toxoxjneus- 

tes, 69; Fertilization, 335; Atlas of Fertilization 

and Kart'okiuesis, 666 
"Wilson, yf. P., Introduction to Botany, "S^oluey M. 

Spalding, 496 
Winchel, H. V., and U. S. Grant, Eainy Lake Gold 

Region, 331 
"S\''ine and Beer, Consumption of, 165 
"Winslow, Arthur, the Bevier Sheet, J. D. R. 248; the 

Iron Mountain Sheet, J. D. E., 330 
"V\'inter Storms in the North Sea, 679 
"Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 

728 
AVomen at Oxford, 473 
"VS'^ood's Holl, Biological Lectures Delivered at the 

Marine Biological Laboratory, Chaeles S. Dol- 

LEY, 244; Biological Laboratory, A. A. A. S. 



Tables at, 249 ; Biological Lectures for 1894, 
418 
"SVooDWAED, R. S., An Historical Survey of the Sci- 
ence of Mechanics, 141; A Treatise on Hydro- 
statics, Alfred George Greenhill, 269 
■^'oodward, R. S., Condition of the Interior ot the 
Eaitli, 193; Smithsonian Geographical Tables, 
292; "Variation of Latitude, 638 
Wortman, J. L., Devil's Corkscrews, 306 
"Wright, Frederick G., Glacial Phenomena, 60 
AVright, .MaliU- Osgood, Birdcraft, A Field Book of 
Two Hundred, Song, Game and AVater Birds, C. 
H. M., 635 
"ft^ylie, Theophilus A., Death of, 723 

Y., C. A., Elements of Astronomy, George AV. Parker, 

415 
ATeo, John, Steam and the Marine Steam Engine, E. 

H. Thueston, 328 
Yokoyoma, Metajiro, Mesozoic Plants from Kosuke, 

Kii, Awa and Tos;i, A\"5i. M. Fontaine, 525 

Zaglossus, Tlie Genus, Elliott Coues, 610 

ZlWET, Alexandee, Nicohii Ivduo\'ieh Lobach^v-. 
sky, A. A'asiliev, 356 

Ziwet, Alexander, An Elementary Treatise on Theor- 
etical Mechanics, R. S. AV. 20; Card Catalogue, 
557 

Zoological Nomenclature, C. Haet Meeeiam, 18; 
Picture Puzzle, 55 ; Congress, International, 217, 
585; Station, American Students at the Naples, 
H. F. Osboen, 238; Garden in New ATork, 446, 
530; Zoological Society, German, 500; London, 
586 



ERRATA:—^. 144, col. 2, line 34: for these, read three, p. 153, col. 2, line 59: for JIaupertius, read 
Maupertuis. p. 212, col. 1, line 11: for plan, read phase, p. 213, col. 1, line 13: for cooking, read working, 
p. 334, col. 1, line 23: for Styles, read Stiles, p. 457, col. 2, line 23: for oiuipida;, read Cyuipidas. 



SCIENCE. 



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Friday, January 4, 1895. 



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SCIENCE. 



Editorial Committee : S. Newcomb, Mathematics ; R. S. Woodward, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, As- 
tronomy ; T. C. JIexdexhall, Physics ; R. H. Tiiueston, Engineering ; Iea Remsex, Chemistry ; 
Joseph Le Coxte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiograpliy ; O. C. Marsh, Paleontologj- ; W. K. 
Brooks, Invertebrate Zoology ; C. Hart Mebriam, Vertebnite Zoology ; N. L. Brittox, 
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J. S. Billings, Hygiene ; J. McKeen Cattell, Psychology ; 
Daniel G. Brixton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, January 4, 1895. 

CONTENTS: 

To Our Feaders : S. Newcomb 1 

ScriptoribiiH et Lectoribns, Salutem. D. C. Oilman, 2 
The Character and Aims of Scientific Investigation: 

Daniel G. Beinton. . ! 3 

Amerim's Selation to the Adcance of Science: G. 

Brown Goode 4 

Legal Cnits of Electric Pleasure : T. C. Mendex- 

H^VLL 9 

The Jliimanities : J. W. Powell 15 

Zoologieal Nomenclature: C. Haet Meeriam 18 

The Need of a Change of Base in the Studt/ of North 

American Orlhoptera: SAMUEL H. SCUDDER...19 
Scientific Literature : — ■ 20 

Ziwet's Mechanics: R. S. W. Osborn^s From 

the Greeks to Darwin: A. S. Packard. 

Bateson's Materials for the Study of Variation : 

H. W. Conn. Ethnological Jurisprudence : D. 

G. B. Botanical : N. L. B. 
Notes :— 26 

The Scientific Societies ; Physics; Anthropology; 

Edumliimal ; Forthcoming Books. 

Societies itnd Academies 28 

Scientific Journals 28 

New Books 28 

MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended 
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McKeen Cattell, GarrLson on Hudson. N. Y. 

Subscriptions ( five dollars annually ) and advertisements 
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New York. 



TO GUI! READERS. 
After. a brief period of suspension this 
journal again appears, greeting its readers 
with the compliments of the season. The 
interest in its future which has been showTi 
in various quarters during the past few 
months, convinces its editorial start" that 
there is room for a journal devoted to the 
promotion of intercourse among those inter- 



ested in the study of nature. The separa- 
tion of our investigators around many 
widely separated centres, and the conse- 
quent lack of communication between them, 
increases the necessity of such a journal, as 
well as the difficulty of adapting it to the 
wants of all classes of subscribers. The expe- 
rience of centuries show's tliat great success 
in advancing scientific knowledge cannot be 
expected even fi-om the most gifted men, so 
long as they remain isolated. The attrition 
of like minds is almost as necessary to intel- 
lectual production as companionship is to 
conversation. In saying this I am not un- 
mindful that such men as Copernicus, Kepler 
aud Leibnitz were little stimulated by the 
companionship of other minds while think- 
ing out their great works. But if the age for 
discoveries of the kind which these men 
made is not past, it is certain that work of the 
kind they did can be repeated onlj- once in 
many generations. What other autl less for- 
tunate investigators have to do is to develop 
ideas, investigate facts, and discover laws. 
The commencement of this w'ork of develop- 
ment on a large scale, and with brilliant suc- 
cess, was coeval with the formation of the 
Roj'al Society of London and the Academj^ 
of Sciences of France. When these bodies 
came together their members began to talk 
aud to think. How imperfectly they thought, 
and how little they knew the way to learn, is 
shown more fully by the history of their de- 
bates and by the questions discussed at their 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 1. 



meetings than by anything contained in the 
ponderous vohimes of their transactions. 

At the present day one of the aspects of 
American science which most strikes us is 
the comparative deficiency of the social 
element. We have indeed numerous local 
scientific societies, many of wliich are meet- 
ing with marked success. But these bodies 
cannot supply the want of national coop- 
eration and communication. The field of 
each is necessarily limited, and its activi- 
ties confined to its o^vn neighborhood. We 
need a broader sympathy and easier com- 
munication between widely separated men 
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and asks the aid of all concerned in mak- 
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space for technicalities which interest only 
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itself mostly Avith those broader aspects of 
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educated men of every profession. A spe- 
cialist of one department may know little 
more of the work of a specialist in another 
department than does the general reader. 
Hence, by appealing to the interests of the 
latter, we do not neglect those of the scien- 
tific profession. At the same time, it is 
intended that the journal shall be much 
more than a medium for the j)opularization 
of science. Underljdng the process of spe- 
cialization which is so prominent a feature of 
all the knowledge of our time there is now 
to be seen a tendency toward unification, a 
development of principles which connect a 
constantly increasing number of special 
branches. The meeting of all students of 
nature in a single field thus becomes more 
and more feasible, and in promoting inter- 
coui'se among aU such students Science 
hopes to find a field for its energies, in 
which it maj' invite the support of all who 
sjnnpathize with its aim. S. Newcomb. 

AVashington. 



SCJIIPTOFIBUS ET LECTOEIB US, SA L UTE.V. 
Ea^eetbody interested in Science knoAvs 
what it ought to be, bright, A-aried, accurate, 
fi-esh, comprehensive, adapted to many men 
of many minds ; a ncAVspaper , in fact, planned 
for those who wish to folloAv a readable 
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ledge. It is not the place for ' memoirs,' 
but for 'pointers;' not for that which is 
so technical that none but a specialist can 
read it ; not for controversies, nor for the 
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the riding of hobbies. It should not be 
maintained for the dominant adA'antage of 
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they must be put in the right sort of phrases 
and paragraphs. 'There's the rub.' Who 
is to collect, prepare, rcA'ise and set forth 
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Avlde domains of iuA^estigation ? Money 
helps to secure such articles, but the work 
must be done ' for love and not for money.' 
Altruism is called for, the willingness, if 
not the desire, on the part of scientific 
Avorkers, CA'en in the A^ery highest classes, 
to conti'ibute prompt, brief, readable, trust- 
Avorthy reports of what is going on, with 
fitting comments. 

Scientific men haA'e rarelj' the editorial 
instincts or aptitudes, like those of the edi- 
tors of Nature, the Popular Science Monthly, 
the Journal of Science. Caution, close at- 
tention to details, precise expressions, are 
indeed theirs, but readiness to collect and 
impart news, and ability to make use of the 
phraseology of common life, are often want- 
ing. There are notewoi'thy exceptions 
among men of the first rank. Dr. Asa 
Gray, the botanist, could say what he had 



January 4, If^O.j.] 



SCII'LXCK 



to say in a clear and intoirsting manner, 
and Clerk Maxwell, the mathematical phys- 
icist, could \^Tite paragraphs and vci-sos 
racj- enough for Fimch. No better writers 
of instructive and agreeable English can be 
wished for than Darwin, Tyndall, Huxlej- 
and Spencer. Sciknce hopes to be so for- 
tunate as to discover and awaken the de- 
sired talent among the American students 
of nature. Its experience is worth some- 
thing. Its managers know the rocks and 
shoals that must be avoided. They will 
welcome aid, suggestions, contributions, 
news, from everj- t|uarter. They ask co- 
operation. Thej- bi'lieve that the art of 
writing can be acqiured. One of the fun- 
damental canons of success is to WTite so 
clearly that the rapid reader can perceive 
what is meant. 

Such will be the aims of the new manage- 
ment of SCIEXCE. 

Finally,— 

" If to do were as easy as to know wliat were good to 
do, chapels luul been eluirches and poor men's cottages 
princes' palaces. It is a good divine that follows his 
own instructions : I win easier teach twenty what 
were goo<l to lie done, than to be one of the twenty 
to foUow mine own teaching." 

D. C. GiLMAX. 

John's Hopkins University. 



THE CHARACTER AND AIMS OF SCIEXTIFIC 
INVESTIGATION.'^ 

The influence of this Association is in the 
highest and best sense of the word educa- 
tional. Its discussions are aimed to present 
the correct methods of scientific investiga- 
tion and to be guided by the true spirit of 
scientific iiKiuiry. Permit me to explain 
this statement a little, for in it lies more 
than anywhere else the right to existence 

* From the introductory address of I)r. Itaniel <!. 
Brinton, President of tlie American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, at the annnal n\eetiT)g in 
Brooklyn, Angnst, 1894. 



of our organization and the best etl'ects it 
can exert ui«)n its own members or upon a 
community where it convenes. 

The goal which we endeavor to attain is 
scientific truth, the one test of which is that 
it will bear untrammelled and unlimited 
investigation. Such truth must be not only 
^erified, but always verifiable. It must 
welcome every test ; it must recoil ft'om no 
criticism, higher or lower, from no analysis 
and no skepticism. It challenges them all. 
It asks for no aid from faith ; it appeals to 
no authority ; it relies on the dictum of no 
master. 

The evidence, and the onlj' evidence, to 
which it appeals or which it acknits, is that 
which is in the power of every one to judge 
— that which is fiu-nished directly by the 
senses. It deals with the actual world 
about us, its objective realities and present 
activities, and does not relegate the inquirer 
to dusty precedents or the mouldy maxims 
of commentators. The only conditions 
wliich it enjoins are that the imperfections 
of the senses shall be corrected as far as 
possible, and that their observations shall 
be interpreted by the laws of logical induc- 
tion. 

Its aims are distinctly beneficent. Its 
spirit is that of charity and human kind- 
ness. From its peaceful victories it returns 
laden with richer spoils than ever did war- 
rior of old. Through its discoveries the 
hungry are fed and the naked are clothed 
by an improved agriculture and an in- 
creased food supply ; the dark hours are de- 
prived of their gloom through methods of 
ampler illumination ; man is brought into 
fi-iendly contact with man through means 
of rapid transjiortation ; sickness is dimin- 
ished and pain relieved by the conquests of 
chemistry and biologj-; the winter wind is 
shorn of its sharpness by the geologist's 
discovery of a mineral fuel ; and so on. in 
a thousand ways, the comfort of our daily 
lives and the pleasurable employment of 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 1. 



OUT faculties are increased hj the adminis- 
trations of science. 

Scientific ti-uth has likewise this trait of 
its own ; it is absolutely open to the world ; 
it is as fi'ee as air, as visible as light. 
There is no such thing about it as an inner 
secret, a nij-sterious gnosis, shared by the 
favored few, the select illuminati, concealed 
from the vulgar horde, or masked to them 
under ambiguous terms. Wherever you 
find mysteiy, concealment, occultism, you 
may be sure that the spirit of science does 
not dwell and, what is more, that it would 
be an unwelcome intruder. Such preten- 
sions belong to pseudo-science, to science 
falsely so called, shutting itself out of the 
light because it is afraid of the light. 

Again, that spirit of science which we 
cultivate and represent is at once modest 
in its own claims and liberal to the claims 
of others. The first lesson which everj^ 
sound student learns is to follow his facts 
and not to lead them. New facts teach 
him new conclusions. His opinions of to- 
day must be modified by the learning of the 
morrow. He is at all times ready and 
willing to abandon a position when further 
investigation shows that it is probably in- 
correctly taken. He is in this the reverse 
of the opinionated man, the hobby rider 
and the dogmatist. The despau- of a scien- 
tific assemblage is the member with a pet 
theory, with a fixed idea, which he is bound 
to obtrude and defend in the face of facts. 
Yet even toward him we are called upon 
to exercise our toleration and our charity; 
for the history of learning has repeatedly 
shown that from just such Avayward enthu- 
siasts solid knowledge has derived some of 
its richest conti-ibutions. So supreme, after 
all, is energy, that error itself, pursued 
with fervid devotion, yields a more bountifal 
harvest than ti-uth languidly cultivated. 

But, perhaps, the picture I have thus 
di-awn of the spirit of scientific inquuy 
excites in the minds of some a certain 



antipathy, or, at least, a sense of dissatisfac- 
tion and incompleteness. To such this 
description may sound narrow and material- 
istic ; the results of scientific study thus 
rehearsed may appear vague, indefinite, in- 
competent to satisfy the loftier yearnings 
of the soiil of man for something utterly 
true, immutably real. 

Vain, indeed, were the life work of our 
Association; bereft, indeed, wei-e we of 
just claim on yoiu" consideration, did we 
appear before you with such a thankless 
and fatile confession of the ultimate aim of 
our labor. But it is far, very far, otherwise. 

All this prj'ing into the objective, ex- 
ternal aspect of things ; this minute, pains- 
taking study of phenomena ; this reiterated 
revision and rejection of results, are with 
the single aim of discovering those absolute 
laws of motion and life and mind which 
are ubiquitous and eternal ; which bear 
unimpeachable mtuess to the unity and the 
simplicity of the plan of the universe, and 
which reveal vnt\x sun-clear distinctness 
that imchangeable order which presides 
over all natural processes. 

This is the mission of science — noble, in- 
spiring, consolatorjr ; lifting the mind above 
the gross contacts of life ; presenting aims 
which are at once practical, humanitarian 
and spiritually elevating. 

Daniel G.Brinton. 

UsriVEESITY OF PENNSYIiVANIA. 



AiMEBICA'S RELATION TO THE ADVANCE 
OF SCIENCE* 

" In art and science there is no such thing 
as nationalism : these, like all things great 
and good belong, to the entfre world, and are 
promoted only by free interchange of ideas 
among contemporaries, with constant refer- 
ence to the heritage of the past." So wrote 

*From W/tat ?ias been done in America for Science — 
an Address delivered before the Philosopliical Society 
of "Washington, November 24, 1894, by G. Beown 
GOODE, retiring President. 



January 4, 1895. ] 



SCIENCE. 



Got'tlie in his Spriiche in Prom. In the 
present address I have spoken, not of 
^'American Science," but of what has been 
done in America for science. I have sum- 
marized the work accomplislied in the 
study of the physical conditions and bio- 
logical statistics of two great continents. I 
have shown that our countrj-men have 
made important contributions to exact 
knowledge in every one of its departments 
from astronomy to anthropologj-, and that, 
contrary to general belief, these have been 
chieHy in pure science rather than in the 
application of science. Most of our Ameri- 
can advances in economic science, with the 
exception of those in tlie field of electricitj^, 
have consisted in multifarious adaptation 
and bold application of principles and meth- 
ods first made known in Eui'ope. Except 
in ingenious mechanical inventions, Ameri- 
cans have done little in connection with ap- 
plied science that is strikingly new or great. 

It is not, however, by determinate con- 
tributions to the aggregate of human knowl- 
edge that America has aided most largely 
the advance of science. It has been in a 
manner vastly more subtle and far-reaching, 
tlirough the action of an intellectual leaven 
which has imbued the thought of all man- 
kind. 

America has ahvaj-s afforded to scientific 
workers a most sympathetic and apprecia- 
tive audience — even at periods in her his- 
tory when she has been producing the least 
at home. When Auguste Comte was young 
he intended, it is said, to seek a career on 
this side of the sea. but was dissuaded by a 
friend, who assured liim that if Lagi'ange 
himself were to conu; to the United States 
he could only earn his livelihood by turning 
land surveyor. Tliis was alism-dly faLse, 
for in that very year Laplace's Micuniqtie 
Celeste was being tran.slated, for the first 
and only time into Englisli, by Nathaniel 
Bowditch, whose service to science, which 
was more important througli liis connnen- 



taries than his translation, was fully ap- 
preciated even during his own lifetime, and 
who has ever since been esteemed one of the 
most distinguished of our countrymen. 

European science has always been more 
warmly appreciated by our people than con- 
temporarj' European literature, and men 
like Lyell, Huxley Wallace and Tyndall, 
when thej' have come among us, have re- 
ceived the most enthusiastic welcome, and 
their books have been consumed in much 
larger editions than at home, and not with- 
out becoming royalties to their authors. 

Many others have come to us, not in pros- 
perity but through necessity, and were none 
the less heartily welcomed^Gallatin, Hass- 
ler. Priestly, Cooper, Bernard, Duponceau, 
Cupont de Nemours, Nicollet, Eau and 
others. 

Humboldt wrote in 1807 : 

" During five years passed in the Spanish 
colonies of America a few French emigrants 
we found at Nueva Valencia, in Guatemala, 
were the only ones we saw. Beyond the 
Atlantic the United States of America af- 
ford the only asylum to misfortune. A 
government, strong because it is free, con- 
fiding becausi' it is just, has nothing to fear 
from giving refuge to the proscribed."* 

Priestly, who had been forced to with- 
draw from the Royal Society, called Amer- 
ica ' The Land of the future,' and Richard 
Price, in the midst of the Revolution, one 
of the most ])opular men in England, in de- 
clining the invitation of Congress to remove 
to this country wrote : " The United States 
is now the hope and likeh' soon to become 
the refuge of mankind." 

There is even more to be said concerning 
the influence of our peoi)le ui)on the thought 
and practice of the Old World. 

The liberal policy of our State and Na- 
tional governments toward many branches 
of scientific work is well understood abroad, 
and has had an influence, especially in en- 
*I'eimnnl Xairalife, Vol. ii., Cliapter I. 



6 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 1. 



couraging the publication of dignified and 
well illustrated reports upon the results of 
scientific exploration and research. 

An illustration of the popular apprecia- 
tion of knowledge in this country is to 
be found in the gro^i;h of libraries, and 
in the increasing volume of the stream of 
books, new and old, which pass constantly 
to the westward across the Atlantic. 

Augustine Birrell, M. P., in an addi'ess at 
Dumfermline, Scotland, has presented some 
most astounding statistics in regard to books 
and libraries. He said that in the pubUc 
libraries of Europe there are twentj^-one 
million printed volumes ; in those of Aus- 
tralia, one million more, while those of 
America contain fifty millions — ^more than 
twice as many as in all the rest of the 
world.* 

The mere possession of books does not in 
itself count for much, but the eagerness to 
acquire the means of research, not books 
only, but all other instruments and appli- 
ances for intellectual progress, is very sig- 
nificant. It should be remarked also that 
this tendency, so far as the public at large 
is concerned, has not become very evident 
until within the last third of the present 
century. 

There is a relationship still more funda- 
mental between America and the advance of 
science, to which only a passing allusion is 
proper here. 

I refer to the reflex action of democratic 
institutions upon those of the Old World — 
to the influence of human freedom, practi- 
cally demonstrated upon American soil, 
upon the freedom of the people in our 
parent lands. 

It was one thing for men like Priestley to 
fly hither for personal liberty. It was quite 

*Pall Man Gazette, September, 1891. The esti- 
mate is perliaps somewhat extreme, though the offi- 
cial return of puhlic libraries in the United States 
(excluding the other American republics and the col- 
onies) show nearly 32,000,000 books in public libraries 
of over one thousand Tolumes. 



another for Coleridge and Southey to plan 
for the founding of a pantisocracj' on the 
banks of the Susquehanna, and then to re- 
main at home with Wordsworth and pro- 
mote human freedom by their writings, or 
for Price to denounce the oppression of the 
American colonies as an outrage against 
liberty, and thus to secure from the people 
of London, who presented him with the 
freedom of their city, an assurance of sym- 
pathy among their English kinsmen, which 
encouraged the colonists to declare then- in- 
dependence. If, at the time of the Great 
Exodus, the men who organized the Royal 
Society of London had carried out their 
purpose of removing in a body to Connecti- 
cut, there to found an academy of sciences, 
the higher learning would have been re- 
tarded, not advanced. 

It is almost impossible for us to under- 
stand the manner in which even now free- 
dom of thought and action is burdened 
in the Old World bj^ the weight of feudal 
traditions and by the existence of class dis- 
tinctions and privileges. Americans surely 
do not understand, but that quick-witted 
race of Orientals, the Japanese, have done 
so from the very time when they ap- 
plied themselves seriously to the task of 
making then- OAvn what is best in the 
civilization of the eircum-Atlantic peoples. 
To England they went for ideas about 
a navy and for lighthouses, to Germany 
for a system of government, for military 
insti-uction and for medicine, and to France 
for a code of laws. In matters of edu- 
cation, however, they have chosen from 
the very start to be guided by Ameri- 
cans ;* their keen perception teaching them 
that, whatever may be its defects in de- 
tail, the American educational plan is that 
which in some form or other is certain 

* Their postal system, their telegrapliic code and 
their meteorological ser^dce are also purely American 
in origin, as well as sxich foreign agi'icultural methods 
as they may have adopted. 



Jani'aby 4, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



to he adopted by eveiy fi-ee people, and to 
work mighty clianges in traditional, social 
and governmental systems. Not less sig- 
nificant, perhaps, in the same connection is 
the present attitude of Pope Leo XIII. 
and his counsellors in regard to educa- 
tional movements in tlie United States. 

The condition of affairs in Germany up 
to f[uite a recent day. as shown in Virehow's 
address to the Congress of (Jerman Natural- 
ists in 1872, seems almost incredilile. 

Describing the organization of that so- 
ciety, fifty years befoi-e, he said : 

" Not perliaps at tlie dead of night, but still beneath 
the veil of secrecy, a handful of savants assembled for 
the first time at Leipsio, at the in\'itation of Oken. 
In fact, in 1&2, no considerable body of men could 
come together in Germany in answer to a public in- 
vitation, without the permission of the civil authority. 
They could not discuss among themselves scientific 
questions, no matter how unconnected with the 
political and national questions of the day. Add to 
this the other fact that, if I am not mistaken, it was 
only in ISOl, at the Congress of Naturalists at Spires, 
that the names of the Austrian members could be 
made public, and then we can appreciate the tre- 
mendous change that has been brought about in 
the Vaterland." 

In England personal liberty, though not 
consciously retarded by law, is severely 
trammeled by the natm-e of existing social 
organizations. Distinction in science and 
letters is, even to-day, practically, subor- 
dinated to social distinction. As an illus- 
tration one need only notice the position of 
the President of the Royal Society ui)on any 
list m which the names of influential Britons 
are arraj'ed in order of social precedence. 
It is next to impossible for a man of moderate 
means, however learned, to become presi- 
dent of one of the great English scientific 
societies, and the honor mo.st highly 
esteemed by the masses in England, as 
well as throughout Europe, that of a deco- 
ration, is rarelj" given, except to men who are 
prosperous in some material way. 

" I know in London, " writes Leland, "a very great 
man of science, mmiiii mcundus, who has never been 
knighted, although the tradesman who makes for him 



his implements and instruments has received the title 
and the accolade. ' ' * 

The changes which tlie last four centuries 
have wrought are by no means to be all 
attributed to the influence of the inhabitants 
of the NcAv 'World, but in a large degi-ee, no 
doubt, to the .social and political modificar 
tions which the discovery of America rend- 
ered possible in the Old "World. 

It is, after all, very difficult to realize the 
exact relation of this discovery to the intel- 
lectual history of mankind, and it maj' be 
impossible, unless we were endowed with 
the gift of omniscience. 

A few months ago, standing within the 
great red fortress of the Alhambra, looking 
down on the plain of Granada, still green 
with the orchards and vineyards planted 
by the former Moorish rulers of Spain, I 
understood, as I had never done before, 
that the final expulsion of the Orientals 
from Europe was almost simultaneous with 
the discovery of America. Six months be- 
fore he sailed westward, Columbus stood 
with Ferdinand and Isabella upon that very 
tower, and saw the last cavalcade of exiled 
Moors disappear over the mountains toward 
Africa. For many centuries the military 
strength of our European ancestors had 
been chiefly de\oted to repelling the inva- 
sions of these restless men of tlie East. 
Feudal government held universal domain, 
and all the learning of Europe was lioarded 
up within monastic walls. 

" Tlie discovery of the New World not only offered 
new productions to the cm-iosity of man. It also ex- 
tended the then existing work of knowledge respect- 
ing physical geography, the varieties of the human 
species, and the migrations of nations. It is impos- 
sible to read the narratives of the early .Spanish 
travelers, espi-cially that of Acosta, witliout i)erceiv- 
ing the influence w liich the a.spect of a great continent, 
the study of extraordinarj- appearance of nature, and 
intercourse with men of different races must have 
exercised on the progress of knowledge in Europe. 
The germ of a great number of physical truths is 
found in the works of the sixteenth century ; and 

* Memoirs, l^itS, p. 127. 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 1. 



that genn would have fructified had it not been 
crushed hy ignorance and superstition." 

So wrote Humboldt at the end of the last 
century. He must have felt, although he did 
not say so then, that ignorance and super- 
stition were also to be dissij)ated ia the new 
and expanded intellectual atmosphere. The 
passage already quoted ft-om his Tm-itings 
shows this clearlj'. 

The establishment of the supremacy of 
Western civilization, and the finding of a 
New World were, after all, less important 
than the discoverj^ which the men of both 
hemispheres made on this side of the sea — 
that they might become free and their own 
masters. It was the opening of a new 
period in human historj^. Men were awak- 
ing fi'om the slumber of ages. Europe 
began to emerge fi-om abject intellectual 
slavery. In political life the traditions of 
the age of despots were broken, and the 
development of free institutions begun. In 
religion a reformation was inaugurated, 
wider in scope than the movement led by 
Luther, which is commonly associated with 
that name. In art, soulless and awkward 
formalities were replaced by enthusiastic 
culture of the ideals of classical daj's, which 
in time grew broader, more spontaneous 
and more inspired. In the field of letters, 
scholastic traditions were cast aside, and 
each nation in Europe developed a new 
language and a new literature. In science, 
similar scholastic and traditional usages 
were discarded. The students who com- 
piled uncritically and generalized upon the 
worthless results of their own antiquarian 
researches, gave place to the restless, skep- 
tical, critical inquirers of modern times. 

We have just ended our celebration of 
the discovery of America, the end of the 
Dark Ages, the bti-th of individual freedom 
and of proper government. We celebrated 
at the same time the beginning of a new 
epoch. The Mediseval Renascence was lim- 
ited to Europe ; ours will embrace all the 



nations of the earth. It may be that this 
should be considered the outgro'n"th and 
fulfillment of that which marked the end 
of the ISIiddle Ages, but whether we are at 
the beginning of a new movement, or at the 
culmination of an old one, the last forty 
years have undoubtedly witnessed greater 
changes in the spirit of men's thoughts 
than the foiu- centuries which had gone 
before. 

The earlier Renascence gave to man the 
right and liberty to tliink and act as he, in 
his own jiidgment, saw fit. The Renas- 
cence of to-day is leading men to think, not 
only with personal freedom, but accurately 
and rightly. Far be it fit-om me to say that 
I believe that mankind in general are very 
much nearer to accurate and just stand- 
ards of judgment than thej'^ were four hun- 
dred years ago, but the spirit of to-day 
favors untrammeled and searching investi- 
gation of every question in which man is 
concerned, a critical comparison of the re- 
sults of such investigation, and a fi-ank in- 
tolerance of all illogical or unsound theory 
and application. 

This is the spirit of science — the spirit of 
unprejudiced search for truth — and this, 
emphatically, is the spirit of thinking men 
of to-day in America, in every department 
of activity. 

Who can say what is to be the part of 
America in the future intellectual life of the 
world ? It cannot be less important than in 
the past, and in all likelihood the influence 
of America will be more comi^rehensive and 
deep-seated as the years go by. Is it not 
possible that it may hereafter become the 
chief of the conservative forced in civiliza- 
tion rather than, as in the past, be exerted 
mainly in the direction of change and re- 
form ? 

Brain of the New World, what a task is thine, 
To formulate the Modern — out of the peerless gran- 
deur of the Modern, 
Out of thyself. * * * 



JASI'ARY -I, lf<95.] 



SCIENCE. 



9 



Tliou nuMitiil moral orl), thou new, imlecil new, spir- 

itnal world, 
The IVesent holtls thee not — for sueh vast growth as 

tliine, 
For such unpanillcle<l (light as thine, such hrotnl as 

thine, 
Tlie Future only hoUls thee and can hold thee.* 
G. Brown Goode. 
U. S. National Museum. 



LEGAL UNITS OF ELECTRIC 3IEASVIIE. 

It will, doubtless, be interesting to all 
phyt^ic'ists, as well as to many in other de- 
partments of seience, to know of the legali- 
zation by Act of Congress, within the last 
six months, of imits of electrical measure. 
It is not necessary in these columns to go 
into an exposition of the necessity for such 
action on the part of the Government, nor 
to refer to the enormous amount of capital 
invested in the manufacture of instruments, 
devices and machinery, the sole object of 
which is the conversion of some form of 
energy into electricity and the reconversion 
of electricity into some form of energy. 
The measurement of the enormous quanti- 
. ties of electricity that have within the last 
decade been produced and thus converted 
has, up to a recent date, in all cases de- 
pended upon the conventional acceptance 
of units of measure which have for many 
years been in use among scientific men, and 
which originated in the necessity for such 
units of measure in scientific investigations. 
It is always wortli while to note, lu)wever, 
that the great simplicity and perfection of 
electrical measurement is due to the fact 
that the science of electricity preceded the 
art of its utilization. In this respect elec- 
trical engineering has a very decided ad- 
vantage over all other branches of engineer- 
ing, for in all others the art preceded the 
science, and the science, therefore, was 
obliged to build itself upon the crude and 
mostly unphilosophical principles that de- 
veloped in the art. 

•Whitman, Leave;) of Grass. 



The fundamental units of electrical meas- 
ure, nanu;ly, the ohm, the ampere and the 
volt, have been in use among scientific men, 
to the exclusion of all others, for more than 
a decade, related as they are to the funda- 
mental units — length, mass and time, which 
are admirably adai)ted for use as the basis 
of all electrical metrology. It has, how- 
ever, long been recognized that much incon- 
venience was caused in electrical discussion 
bj- the lack of a few additional units, the 
use of which would greatly fticilitatc mathe- 
matical calculations and numerical state- 
ments. The literature of the subject has 
abounded, during the past ten years, with 
suggestions as to these additional and de- 
sirable units of measure, and various writers 
have, from time to time, adopted such as 
seemed to be necessary for their own use, 
even giving them such values and such 
names as were best in their judgment. It 
was evident, therefore, that to prevent con- 
fusion in electrical nomenclature it was de- 
sirable to have an international agreement 
as to these tmits, their value, their num- 
ber and their names ; the demands for 
this have grown very extensive in the last 
few years, the result having now been 
reached in the passage, by Congress, of a 
law which seems to define and settle these 
questions as far as the United States Gov- 
ernment is concerned. 

All readers of this journal are, doubtless, 
fiimiliar with the fact that as early as 1881 an 
electrical convention, or congress, was held 
in Paris for the purpose of trying to agree 
upon definitions of the fundamental units of 
electrical measure and their material repre- 
sentations, in cases where mateiial repre- 
sentations were possible. After much dis- 
cussion, and not without very considerable 
opposition, there was proposed at that time 
a material representaticm of the ohm which 
was known to be somewhat in error. The 
real ohm must always be that defined by 
the Coaimittee of the British Association 



10 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 1. 



for the Advancement of Science, and any 
material representation which may be 
adopted should only be considered as an 
approximation to this. It was first agreed 
that this theoretical ohm should be re^jre- 
sented by the resistance offered to an un- 
varying current of electricity bj^ a column 
of mercury one square millimeti'e in cross 
section, and one hundi-ed and six centime- 
tres in leng-th, at a definite temperature. 
Even at the time of the acceptance of this 
ohm it was well known that the length of 
this column was nearlj^ three millimetres 
too SEiall to correctly represent the ohm of 
the British Association Committee. This 
result had been estabUshed by investiga- 
tions by Rowland in this country, and by 
other experimentalists in Europe. In con- 
sequence of the inaccuracj^ of this first 
material representation of the ohm it did 
not meet with much favor, although it was 
quickly taken up among practical men, and 
resistance coils in great numbers were wound 
in accordance with this definition, being 
generally, but incorrectly, known as the 
' Legal Ohm.' I do not know that this 
unit was ever adopted by any govern- 
ment, or even by any municipal corpora- 
tion. 

During the last ten years there has been 
a continual agitation of this question, re- 
sulting in the determination to go over the 
whole subject again, with a view to defining 
the fundamental units and adding such 
other units as might be desirable and neces- 
sary, at an International Congress to be 
held at Chicago in 1893, in connection with 
the World's Fair. The inception and or- 
ganization of this Congress was largely due 
to the American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers and to local societies in the city of 
Chicago. Its history is so well known that 
it is only necessarj^ to refer to it very 
briefly. In order to avoid errors which are 
likely to arise in the consideration of a very 
important siibject by a very large assem- 



blage, it was agreed that the question of 
units should be referred to a body wliich 
was within, and formed a jjart of, the gen- 
eral International Congress, and which was 
known as the Chamber of Delegates. In 
this Chamber of Delegates the number of 
representatives from the different nations 
was limited ; five each were allotted to the 
United States, Great Britain, France and 
Germany, three to Italy, and to the other 
nations a smaller number. Most of the 
jirincipal delegations were full on the assem- 
bling of the Chamber, and the total number 
of persons was about thii-ty. Dailj' sessions 
were held during the week of the Interna- 
tional Congress, and many hours aside fi-om 
these sessions were occupied bj' special com- 
mittees in the discussion and develojDment 
of the various subjects which came before 
the Chamber to be acted upon. 

In reference to the personnel of this 
Chamber, it may be well to say that the 
delegates from foreign countries were ap- 
pointed by their respective governments 
and presented regular authenticated com- 
missions, and that the representatives of 
the United States received their authority 
fi-om the Secretary of State in a commis- 
sion which he prepared after the names of 
the five j)ersons selected had been recom- 
mended to him by a vote of about sixty or 
seventy of the leading electricians of the 
country, who had been invited to join in 
this ballot by the Chairman of the Execu- 
tive Committee for the organization of an 
International Congress. The five names 
receiving the greatest number of votes 
were recommended to the Secretary of 
State for appointment as representatives of 
the United States. A list of the delegates 
present and taking an active part in the 
deliberation of the Chamber is given here- 
with : 

liepi-cseniing the United States. 
Professor H. A. Rowland, Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, Baltimore, Md. 



Jaxiahy 4, 1«)5.] 



>iClENCE. 



11 



Di-. T. C. lli'nilciilinll, SupciinteiuUnt United States 
Coast and Geodetic Suney, and of Standard Weights 
and Pleasures, Washington, D. C. 

Professor H. S. Carhart, University of Michigsm, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Professor Elihn Tlionison, Lynn, Mass. 

Dr. E. L. Nichols, Cornell University, Ithaca, X. Y. 
ErpriHinliiiff Great Britain. 

W. H. Preece, F. R. S., Engineer in Cliief and 
Electrician, Post-office, England ; President of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineei-s, London. 

W. E. Ayvton, City and Guilds of London Central 
Institntion, Exhibition Koad, London. 

Professor Silvanus P. Tliompson, D. Se., F. R. S., 
Princijxil of the City and Guilds Technical College, 
Finsbnr*-, London. 

Alex. Siemens, Pi Qmen Anne's Gate, Westmin- 
ster, London, S. ^\■. 

lit pri suiting France. 

E. Mascart, Jlembre de I'Institut, 176 rue de 
P University-, Paris. 

T. Violle, Professenv au Conservatoire des Arts et 
Metiers, 89 Boulevard St. Michel, Paris. 

De la Touanne, Telegi-aph Engineer of the French 
Government, 13 rue Soufflot, Paris. 

Edouard Hospitalier, Professor a I'Ecole de plij- 
si<iue et de chimie industrielle de la ville de Paris ; 
Vice-President de la Societe internationale des Elec- 
triciens, 6 rue de Clichy, Paris. 

Dr. S. Leduc, 5 quai Fosse, Nantes. 
lifpratenting Italy. 

Conim. Galileo Fen-aris, Professor of Technical 

Physics and Electro-technics in the R. Museo Indus- 
triale, Turin, Via \'enti Settembre, 4(>. 

Representing Germany. 
H. E. Hermann von Helraholtz, Phisident der 
Physikalisch-teehnischen Keichsanstalt, Profeasor, a. 
d. Universitiit, Berlin, Charlottenburg bei Berlin. 

Dr. Emil Budde, Berlin N. W. Klopstock- 
strasse 53. 

A. Schrader, Rcgierungsrath, Mitglied des Kaiserl. 
Patcntanits, Berlin. 

Dr. Ernst Voit, Profes.sor an der technischen Hoch- 
schnle, Miinchen, Sehwanthalerstrasse, 7:$-3. 

Dr. Otto Lummer, Mitglied der Physikalisch-teeh- 
nischen Ueichsiinstalt, Cliarlottenburg, Berlin. 
Jiepresenling Merien. 
Augustin W. Chavez, City of Mexico. 

llepresenting .1 imlrio. 
Dr. .Johanu Siiliulka, Techni.sche Ilochscliule.Wien. 

Krpresen ting S'tritzirin « il. 
A. Palaz, I'rofesseiir, Ijiusanne. 
Rene Tliury, ingenieur, Floris.sant, Geneve. 



l!epres( nting Sweden . 
M. Wcnnnian, Byradief i Kougle Telegi-.ifstyrelsen, 
Stockholm. 

Representing British Xorth America. 
Ormond Higman, Electrician, Standards Branch, 
Inland Revenue Department, Ottawa. 

As a result of the deliberation of this 
Chamber, it was agi'eed to recommend to 
the several governments rejiresented by the 
various delegations the adoption of eight 
units of eleetrieal measure, namely : the 
ohm, the ampere, the volt, the coulomb, the 
farad, the joule, the watt and the henry. 
The Chamber also prescribed definitions 
for these several units, but as thej- are es- 
sentially the same as those adopted by 
Congress, and which ^vill be found in detail 
below, it is not necessarj' to refer to them 
here. 

Shortly after the adjournment of the Con- 
gress a report of its proceedings Avas made 
to the Secretary of State by the United 
States delegates, and this report was dis- 
tributed by the Depai-tment of State among 
the various nations represented, and also 
among those not represented, with the re- 
quest that they should cooperate with the 
United States in the legalization of the units 
of electrical measure thus carefullj- selected 
and defined. In order to secure action on 
the part of our own Government, a bill was 
preijared and introduced into the House of 
Representatives l>y Mr. Charles W. Stone, 
of Pennsylvania, early in 1894, defining 
these units substantially in agreement with 
the definitions adopted by the Chamber of 
Delegates at Chicago, and declaring them 
to be the legal units of electrical measure 
for the whole of the United States. Through 
the active interest of Mr. Stone, and by the 
assistance of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers or a few individiuil 
members tliereof who interested themselves 
in the passage of the mea.sure, this l)ill be- 
came a law by the approval of the President 
on the P-'th of Jul v last. 



12 



SCIENCE. 



[X. S. Vol. I. No. 1. 



The diffei-euces between the definitions 
adopted by the International Congress at 
Chicago and tliose found in this law are 
very sliglit, and consist entirely of verbal 
changes that were thought to be desirable 
and necessary by the Senate Committee to 
■which this bill was referred after its passage 
hy the House of Eepresentatives. It may 
be well to remark tliat a subcommittee of 
the Chamber of Delegates, consisting of von 
Helmholtz, Professor AjTton and Professor 
Carhart, had been appointed to prepare 
specifications for the better realization of 
the adopted material representation of the 
volt. The continued illness of von Helm- 
holtz, from the time of his leaving this 
country, at the close of this Congress, up to 
the day of his lamented death, about a year 
later, prevented the completion of the labors 
of this committee at an earlier date ; how- 
ever, correspondence had been begun, and 
many points had been defined and settled 
among its members. The si^ecifications for 
the better representation of the ampere to 
which the Chamber of Delegates had agreed 
will be found in the report of the American 
delegates to the Secretary of State. As 
this subcommittee had not yet been able to 
formulate a report, and as it was necessary 
for Congress to make some reference to 
these specifications in the Act adopting the 
units, it was agreed that the matter should 
be referred to the National Academj"- of 
Science, as is provided in the last section of 
the Act. This Act, as it finally became a 
law. is as follows : 

(Public No. 105.) 

All Arl III ileflne and cstaUixh the iiniis of cicctvical 
measure. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America in Congress 
assembled, Tliat from and after the passage of this 
Act the legal units of electrical measure in the United 
Stiites shall be as follows: 

Firxt. The unit of resistance shall be what Is known 
as the international ohm, which is substantially equal 
to oue thousand million units of resistance of the 



centimetre-gramme-secoud system of electro-magnetic 
units, and represented by the resistance offered to an 
unvarying electric current by a column of mercury at 
the temperature of melting ice fourteen and four 
thousand five bundled and frsvcntj-one ten thous;indtlis 
grammes in mass, of a constant cross sectional area, 
and of the length of one hundred and six and three 
tenths ceutimeti-es. 

Second. Tlie unit of current shall be what is kno-mi 
as the international ampere, which is oue-tenth of the 
unit of current of the centimetre-gramme-second 
system of electro-magnetic units, and is the practical 
equivalent of the unvarying current, which, when 
passed through a solution of nitrate of silver in water 
in accordance with standard specifications, deposits 
silver at the rate of one thousand oue hundred and 
eighteen millionths of a gramme per second. 

Third. Tlie unit of electro-motive force shall be 
what is knowTi as the international volt, which is the 
electro-motive force that, steadily applied to a con- 
ductor whose resistance is one international ohm, will 
produce a current of an international ampere, and is 
practically equivalent to one thousand fourteen hun- 
dred and thirty-fourths of the electro-motive force be- 
tween the poles or electrodes of the voltaic cell known 
as Clark's cell, at a temperature of fifteen degrees 
centigrade, and prepared in the manner described in 
the standard specifications. 

Fourth. Tlie unit of quantity shall be what is 
known as the international coulomb, which is the 
quantity of electricity transferred by a cun-ent of one 
international ampere in one second. 

Fifth. The unit of capacity shall be what is kno^NTi 
as the international farad, which is the capacity of a 
condenser charged to a potential of one international 
volt by one international coulomb of electricity'. 

Sixth. The unit of work shall] be the joule, which 
is equal to ten million units of work in the centi- 
metre-gramme-second system, and which is practically 
equivalent to the energy expended in one second by 
an international ampere in an international ohm. 

Serenth. The unit of power shall be the watt, 
which is equal to ten million units of power in the 
centinietre-gramme-second system, and which is prac- 
ticallj' equivalent to the work done at the rate of one 
joule per second. 

Eighth. Tlie unit of induction shall be the henry, 
which is the induction in a circuit when the electro- 
motive force induced in this circuit is oue interna- 
tional volt while the inducing current varies at the 
rate of one ampere per second. 

Sec. 2. Tliat it shall be the duty of the National 
Academj' of Sciences to prescribe and publish, as soon 
as pos.sible after the passage of this Act, such specifica- 
tions of details as shall be necessary for the practical 



Jantauy 4, 189").] 



SCIENCE. 



13 



applicjition of the detinitions of the ainpere and tlic 
volt hi'reiiibrfore given, and such six-ellications shall 
he the standard specitU^itions herein mentioned. 
Approved July 1"J, 1-"JI. 

It mil be desii-ahlo to add some remarks 
upon the steps which have been taken in 
the same direction by the English Govern- 
ment since the adjoiirnmeut of the Inter- 
national Congress. All who are familiar 
with the legislation in the United States on 
the subject of "Weights and ^Measures will 
recognize the passage of the Act given 
above as the first general legislation estab- 
lishing units of measure for the whole coun- 
try, on the part of the American Congress. 

Although the Constitution provides that 
Congress shall have the power to establish 
systems of weights and measures, it is well 
known that Congress has never exercised 
this power except in the Act of 1S66, which 
involves the semi-establishment of such a 
system Ijy making the use of the Metric 
System permissive throughout the Uuited 
States. Aside from this, systems of weights 
and measures in this counti\y have been 
uniformly and universally the result of 
State legislation until the passage of the 
above Act defining units of electrical 
measure. 

In England a committee has for some 
time been in existence whose object was 
the recommendation of suitable units of 
electrical measure, that they might be le- 
galized, as is the practice in (ireat Britain, 
by means of an • Order in Council ' signed 
by the Queen. Among the members of this 
committee are such well known names as 
Lord Kelvin. PreeccGlazebrook and AjTton. 
This connnittee made a report on the 2d 
of August, 18it4, and this report was ap- 
proved by the Queen on the 2.3d of the 
same month, so that in this country we 
were a little more than a month in advance 
of Great Britain in the legalization of units 
of electrical measure. The P-nglish com- 
mittee, however, did not feel prepared to 



go as far as we liave gone in tlie recom- 
mendation foi- the adoption of the whole 
list of eight units approved at Chicago. 
Some members of this committee have ex- 
plained this in personal conference by the 
statement that the three primary units, the 
ohm, the ampere and the volt, were found 
to be not difficult of material representa- 
tion, while most of the others were verj'' 
decidedly so, and, as most of the others are 
derived from these three, it was thought 
best, at the present time, to restrict author- 
itative adoption to the ohm, the ampere 
and the volt. In defining these units the 
English committee has also departed 
slightly fi-om the definitions as adopted at 
Chicago, the changes being mostly- verbal, 
but, in one or two instances, of such a char- 
acter as to quite alter the fundamental rela- 
tion of the materialized unit to its theoreti- 
cal representative. In order that this may 
be clearly seen, it may be well to quote the 
definitions of these three units, as found in 
the ' Order in Council ' of August 23d. 
The following is quoted directly from said 
' Order ' : 

'• And wliereas it has l)een made to ap- 
pear to the Board of Trade that new de- 
nominations of standards are required for 
use in trade based upon the following units 
of electrical measurement, viz.: 

" First. The Ohm, which has the value 
of 10' in terms of the centimetre and the 
second of time and is represented by the 
resistance oflered to an unvarying electric 
current by a column of mercury at the tem- 
perature of melting ice 14.4.521 grammes 
in a mass of a constant cross sectional area 
and of a lengtli of 106.3 centimetres. 

" Second. The Ampere, which has the 
value tV in terms of the centimetre, the 
gramme and the second of time, and which 
is represented by the unvarying electric 
current which, when passed through a solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver in water, in accord- 
ance with tlie specification appended hereto 



14 



SCIENCE. 



[X. 



Vol. I. Xo. 1. 



and marked A, deposits silver at the rate 
of 0.001118 of a gramme per second. 

" Third. The Volt, which has the value 
of 10* in terras of the centimetre, the 
gramme and the second of time, being the 
electrical pressure that if steadilj^ applied 
to a conductor whose resistance is one ohm 
will produce a current of one ampere, and 
which is represented by .6974 {,\l%%) of the 
electrical pressure at a temperature of fifteen 
degrees C. between the poles of the voltaic 
cell known as Clark's cell, set up in accord- 
ance with the specification appended hereto 
and marked B." 

The specifications referred to in the above 
as marked A are those that were adopted 
at the Chicago Congress, together with some 
additional suggestions as to the methods of 
procedure. 

The specification marked B refers to 
the method of preparation of Clark's cell, 
including a detailed statement as to ma- 
terials and as to the method of setting up 
the cells. These specifications are made 
so as to include several different kinds of 
cells, so that the Lord Rayleigh modifica- 
tion of the Clark cell, and also a modifica- 
tion devised and used by the Germans, may 
be used at will. There is certainly a de- 
cided advantage in this. Attached to the 
' Order in Council ' is a schedule which is 
declared to set forth the several denomina- 
tions of electi-ical standards as approved by 
the Queen. In this schedule the standard 
of electrical resistance is described as be- 
ing the resistance between the coi^per ter- 
minals of a particular coil of wire under 
standard conditions. The standard of cur- 
rent is described as being the current which 
when passed thi-ough the coils forming a 
part of a particular instrument under spe- 
cific conditions gives rise to forces which 
are exactly balanced bj^ the force of gravity 
at Westnlinster upon a particular mass of 
matter forming a part of said instrument. 
The standard of electro-motive force, or. 



as it is termed in the ' Order in Council,' 
' electrical pressure,' which is denominated 
as one volt, is described as being yjjj part of 
the pressure which when applied between 
the terminals of a particular instrument 
causes the rotation of a certain portion of 
said instrument to the extent wliich is 
measm-ed \>j the coincidence of a certain 
wii-e with the image in the eyepiece of the 
telescope and with certain fiducial marks. 

A careful examination of the above defi- 
nitions,together with the schedule following, 
and a comparison of the same with the 
units as defined by Act of Congress, which 
are essentially those of the Chicago Cham- 
ber of Delegates, will give rise to many in- 
teresting and important reflections to which 
space cannot now be given. It maj^ be 
suggested, however, that there is room for 
uncertainty under the provisions of the 
English regulations as to what is the' 
standard of resistance, or of current, or of 
electro-motive force. Of course this will 
all turn upon what would be the action of 
the English authorities in case of a sus- 
pected error in the material representation 
of these standards as provided for in the 
schedule. The ' Order in Council ' makes 
no provision for a course of procedure in 
such an event, and it is but natural to as- 
sume that standards of a very complicated 
character, and so composite in material as 
those thus adopted, must be continually 
liable to changes, and the reintroduction of 
errors of considerable magnitude. 

The actual material representations of 
these three electrical units, it will be ob- 
served, are by this ' Order ' removed at a 
considerable distance fi-om the ftmdamental 
definitions adopted by the English com- 
mittee, as well as by the Chicago Chamber 
of Delegates, thus, although the ohm is 
defined primarily by reference to the C. G. 
S. system of units, and secondarily by refer- 
ence to the column of mercurj^, in actual 
practice it is neither the one nor the other 



Jasvary 1. 189.">.] 



SCIENCE. 



15 



of tliosc, but is tlu^ resistance of a solid 
metallic conductor. 

The ampere, wliile defined primarily in 
terms of the C. G. S. system, and scconthirily 
in reference to the silver voltameter, is in 
practice determined by the dynamic action 
of one current uiK)n another. In the same 
way, the volt is not in practice referred to 
the C. G. S. system of units, nor is it deter- 
mined by comijarison with the Clark cell, 
but by the measurement of the rotation 
effect upon a part of a certain instru- 
ment when the electro-motive force is aj)- 
plied between certain points in that instru- 
ment. 

One cannot refrain from the opinion that. 
fi-om an absolutely metrological standpoint, 
the regulations of the • Order in Council " 
should be condemned rather than approved ; 
however, personal conference with the re- 
presentatives of the English Board of Trade 
and Standardizing Laboratory i-eveals the 
fact that the material representations of 
electrical units, thus provided, are to be 
considered as i)ut tentative in character, 
adopted on account of greater convenience 
in actual practice, and to be continually re- 
vised and corrected by reference to tlie fun- 
damental definitions, which are essentially 
the same as those approved by the re])re- 
sentatives of Great Britain at the Chicago 
Congre.ss, and where they do differ from 
those are, it will be generally admitted, I 
think, on the whole, more sound. 

It is very important for the I'nited States 
that, when the time shall come, as it must 
before long, for the preparation of material 
representations of as many of the electrical 
units that have been legalized as can conve- 
niently be represented, the gi-eatest ettbrt 
shall be made to see that there be no hasty 
action, and that, as far as possible, already 
well established principles of metrology 
shall be strictly applied. 

T. C. Mkxdkmiai.i.. 

WoRCKSTKU I'OI.VTIXIIXIC TXSTITITK. 



Tin: UVMASiriKS. 

TuK study of the history of mankind is 
logically developed into five great branches, 
viz.: industries, pleasures, languages, insti- 
tutions and opinions. These are the Hinnani- 
tien. Into all of these realms modern scienti- 
fic research penetrates and seeks to discover 
their origin and development from the be- 
ginning of primeval human life to the pres- 
ent time. In following the c(mrse of hu- 
manity from the earliest savagery to the 
highest enlightenment it is found that man 
has traveled by five parallel roads from the 
starting place of ignorance toward the goal 
of wisdom. Xow he travels on one road, 
now on another, parceling out his activities 
and dividing his time between all. On 
wings of thought he pa.sses from way to 
way. When he travels by one road he 
seems to have one end m view, by another 
road another end in view, and yet as often 
as he may change his goal and the road by 
which lie travels he is pursuing the route 
to wisdom. He may travel by false charts, 
or he may lose his way, and yet the end in 
view may remain the same. He engages in 
the arts of industry and the purpose is wel- 
fare ; he engages in the arts of pleasure and 
the purpose is happiness ; he engages in the 
arts of speech and the purpose is expres- 
sion ; he engages in institutional arts and 
the purpose is justice ; he engages in the arts 
of learning and the purpose is knowledge. 
In the way by labor, the way by plea.sure, 
the way by speech, the way by institutions 
and the way l)y learning — in all waj-s — he 
runs to the goal of wisdom. 

In all the research prosecuted during the 
present century, and especially during the 
later decades, one great generalization is 
reached fi-om the multitudinous facts gath- 
ered from the world; this is the intellectual 
unity of the human race. The history of 
the lower animals, from primeval geologic 
time to the present, exhibits a constant dif- 
ferentiation of species, genera, orders and 



16 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 1. 



liigher grouijs. The evolution of animal 
life is the unfolding of neAY forms. In the 
study of mankind this evolution is replaced 
by an involution Avliich tends toward \mi- 
fication. In his early historj' biotic forms 
and varieties were developed, with more 
or less differentiation of functions. Some 
men were high of stature, others were low 
of stature ; some men were blondes, others 
were brunettes ; some men had long skulls, 
others short skulls ; some men had their 
eyes ]3laced obliquely, others horizontally ; 
some men had round hair, others had flat 
hair. The tendency in the beginning was 
toward the differentiation of varieties, 
which, had man continued in his lowly es- 
tate on a plane with the lower animals, 
m^ight have resulted in the differentiation 
of species not interfertile with one another ; 
but with mankind interfertility was pre- 
served. 

Man was endowed with suj)erior intellect. 
He had outrun tlie lower animals in the 
race of culture and began to develop the 
five great activities : industry, pleasure, 
speech, government and learning. With 
these evolving powers the evolution of 
varieties was checked. The evolution of 
activities siiperseded the evolution of biotic 
varieties, and man's course of development 
was by involution and seriation ; men be- 
came more and more interdependent, and 
this is involution. Some men made more 
progress in the five great activities than 
others, but all progress resulted in serial 
development. So some peoples have a 
higher culture than others. All of the 
human activities are interrelated and ever 
become more and more interrelated. Not 
onlj^ are the activities interrelated, but the 
peoples themselves become more and more 
interi-elated through them in the progress 
of activital development. 

Let us now take a hasty view of mankind 
in his early estate, moving along the high- 
ways of progress toward the present time. 



Early man was scattered over all the earth 
in kinship tribes, each one knit together by 
bonds of kindred blood and cords of mai"- 
riage ties. All tribal societj'' wa.s thus 
organized. These little tribes, in vast num- 
bers, each contained but a few individuals 
who inhabited the Eden between the walls 
of ice. Theh" arts of welfare sprimg fi-om 
conditions of local envii-onment. "Where 
the waters were abundant they became fish- 
ermen ; where the beasts of the wold and 
prairie were plentj^ they became hunters, 
where the fruits of the forest and plain were 
rich they became gleaners, and where all of 
these soui'ces of supply existed their food 
industries were diversified. In frigid lands 
thej' built their houses of snow and ice ; in 
forest lands they built their homes of shards 
of trees, boughs and bark ; in the savannahs 
they built their homes of reeds and mats ; in 
arid lands of naked rock and cliff they built 
their homes of stone — everj'where they 
adapted the materials of the local environ- 
ment to their use. Where the beasts were 
plentj^ thej^ made their clothing of pelts ; 
where animals j'ielded wool thej' made their 
clothing of woolen fibers ; where fibrous 
plants were abundant they made their cloth- 
ing of vegetable tapestries, and they decor- 
ated homes and clothiug with the pigments 
and stains which they found where they 
lived. So man started on the way of wel- 
fare. 

The children of these little tribes had 
their youthful sports. Thej^ kept plaj^- 
house as their mothers kept house ; they 
plaj^ed with dolls as their mothers played 
with babies ; they played at hunting as 
theii" fathers were himters ; they played at 
fishing as their fathers were fishermen ; 
they plaj'ed at fruit gathering as theii' 
fathers and mothers gathered fi-uit; and 
they played at war as theii" heroes made 
war, and thus mimetic sports were de- 
veloped. The elders engaged in running 
races, in wrestling matches and various 



JAXI ARY 4, l^Oo.] 



SCIENCE. 



17 



•fumos of athletic prowess aiul skill, aiul 
thus their athletic sjiorts began. They en- 
gaged in games of cliauce and staked their 
little stoi-es of wealth and sought to divine 
their chances and developed simple meth- 
ods of divination, and thus their intellec- 
tual games began. With sports of mim- 
icry, sports of athletic skill and sports of 
chance and divination, the highway of 
pleasure was entered. 

They began to express their ideas by 
gesture speech and oral speech in imitation 
of the siglits and sounds of the world, and 
especially of the characteristics of one an- 
other ; thus gesture speech and oral speech 
liegan, and the tribes entered upon the 
highway of speech. 

In the biotic constitution of man the 
.seeds of government are planted, for there 
must be husbands and wives, parents and 
children, and there must be authoi'ity and 
obedience. As the kinship tribes w'ere de- 
veloped authority and obedience grew with 
the group, and a system of terms was de- 
veloped by which kinship through streams 
of blood and marriage relations was clearly 
exliibited, and to the elder was given the 
right to coninuuid. and to the younger the 
tluty to obey — a system of perfect equality, 
for every individual grew in authority as 
he grew in years, and must command some 
and obey others. Thus began forms of 
government, and the tribes entered upon 
the highway of institutions. 

Every child learns by experience. The 
accumulation of experience from infancy to 
old age is great even with jn-imal man, but 
by s](eech the experience of the elder is 
taught to the younger. In the stream of 
generations there are elder and younger in 
every tribe, and the experience of ancestf)rs 
is handed down. Thus primal man entered 
upon tlie highway of learning. 

Let us .see whei-e the human race began. 
A multitude of kinshij) tribes spread over 
the habitable earth, each tribe on the lii"li- 



ways of progress, with simi)le arts suited to 
local envii-onment. with simple plea.sures 
suited to home environment, with simple 
speech developed fi-om the gestures and 
vocal souiuls of men and the low'cr animals 
and the scenes of nature found in the en- 
vironment, with simple governments de- 
veloped out of biotic life conforming to the 
environment of kinship and age and the 
needs of daily life, and with simple knowl- 
edge gathered by the individual through 
experience and transmitted one to another 
liy speech and handed down from genera- 
tion to generation in an ever-growing stream 
of wLsdom, all taught by the environment. 

In this picture we have primal men in 
multitudes of distinct tribes under the 
difl'erentiating forces of environment by 
which they may be developed into species, 
but for one overpowering factor — superior 
human intellect. There can be but one 
kind of mind. Two and two are four with 
every people ; the moon is round, gibbous 
or crescent wherever it .shines for man ; the 
sun shines in every ej'e ; tlie child grows 
in every experience. Thus the four great 
mental activities of number, form, cause 
and becoming are the same in every land, 
and the mind of every man is a unity of 
these four powers, and every mind is like 
every other mind in their possession. They 
dilfer only in extent of experience acquired 
directly by self or indirectly from others. 
A\'hile the mind is the same with all men 
the will is the same. All desire to gain 
good and to avoid evil, .so all wills develop 
on a common plan. By mind and will, by 
mentality and volition, man jn'ogresses on 
the five highways of life, so that all men 
are impelled to the same goal of wisdom. 
Pui-suit of the common end has proved to 
be more powerful in producing involution 
than the forces of environment in produc- 
ing ditlerentiation or classific evolution. 
It now Ijeconu's necessary to make a hasty 
sketch (illnimau evolution. 



18 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. VoT.. T. Xc). 1. 



The kinship hibes first developed hy man 
graduallj^ underwent a' change. Tribe co- 
alesced with tribe, and when tribes became 
too large by union or by natural multipli- 
cation thej' divided. In the consolidation 
of tribes the plan of union by kinshijj re- 
mained. Two or more tribes allied their 
fortunes bj^ intermarriage, each furnishing 
wives to the other ; so the chains of affinity 
were forged, and out of this affinity spring- 
new bonds of consanguinity. In succeeding 
generations fathers and mothers belong to 
different clans, and each tribe is made up of 
individuals, every member of which is kin 
to both primal tribes. Kinship through af- 
fixiity and kinship, through consanguinity, 
was maintained in knowledge by a device 
of naming, so that the name not only ex- 
pressed kinship by clan, but also kinship 
by tribe as composed of clans, and at the 
same time expressed relative age by which 
authoritjr was claimed and yielded and 
primeval eqiiality maintained. In the co- 
alescing of tribes in this manner a new gen- 
eration became heirs to the activities of the 
coalescing tribes. They inherited indus- 
tries, pleasures, languages, institiitions and 
opinions of the ancestral tribes. So tribes 
coalesced with tribes and divided and coal- 
esced again, until tribal society was lost in 
the confusion of ancestries. Then nations 
were born, based not on kinship bonds but 
on territorial boundaries. The first nation 
and every other nation since has in its very 
organization lost its ancesti-al identity by 
multiplied admixture of streams of blood. 
To speak of a nation as of one blood or as 
derived from one primeval tribe with its 
primitive industries, pleasures, speech, in- 
stitutions and oi^iuions is absurd. To search 
for the origin of a nation in one primeval 
tribe having some one or all of the primeval 
activities is a search for the impossible. 

It is thus that the study of the human 
race has led to the discovery of its unitj^ 
It is found that we cannot classify men as 



biotic kinds with differing forms, functions 
and genealogies, as the lower animals are 
classified. An early tendency to such dif- 
ferentiation is discovered, but it is farther 
learned that this tendencj* has been par- 
tially obliterated and gi'eatly obscured in 
the later history of mankind. By these 
discoveries many interesting facts have been 
recorded of variations in human foi-ms, 
fiinctions and genealogies. The study is 
one of interest and proves to be valuable. 
Thus the old science of ethnology remains as 
the study of biotic varieties of mankind, 
and is pursued with more vigor than ever 
and becoming of more and more import- 
ance. 

In the study of ethnology as the science 
of biotic races the attempt was early made 
to supplement biotic characteristics with 
cultural characteristics fi-om the domain of 
arts, or, as they are here called, humanities. 
This has led to the development of a new 
science pertaining to human activities as 
herein classified, and to which the term 
demology is sometimes given, while even the 
term ethnology is made to include both the 
biotic and the activital history of mankind. 
It maj' be well to keep the term ethnology 
to the limits of its primitive use and to 
adopt the term demology for the new 
science of human activities. 

J. W. Powell. 
Washington. 



ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

THE EARLIEST GENERIC NAME OP THE GEOUND 

SQUIEEELS COMMONLY PLACED IN THE 

GENUS SPEEMOPHILUS. 

The eccentric Eafinesque, who imposed" 
such a multitude of new names upon ani- 
mals and plants, seems to have been first 
to name the group of gi-ound squirrels for 
which the later name SpemiojMlm of Cuvier 
(1825) has been in common use for more 
than half a century. In 1817 Eafinesque 
published a paper entitled ' Descriptions of 
new genera of North American Quadrupeds,' 



.Ianiahy 4, 1895.] 



SCJENCK 



19 



in wliicli till' ■ IJurrowing; S(|uiiTel ' of Lewis 
& ("lark was mailc the tj-pc of a new genus 
and species. Aitixuiu/x brachiiira.-^ This ani- 
mal had bei'ii named Ardamys cohi7nbiatnt!< 
hy Old two years ]ireviously ; f and was 
afterward erroneously referred to the genus 
Ci/numi/f — likewise proposed by Rafinesqne 
for one of Lewis & Clark's animals. Several 
yeai-s ago I sliowed that the animal in ques- 
tion is a true ground .squirrel or spermo- 
])hile, X ^>iil^ refrained from reinstating Rafin- 
i'sque"s genus AnUonyx because it was then 
believed that a still earlier name would be 
found. A somewhat exhaustive search 
through the literature, however, has failed 
to bring to light anything earlier; hence it 
seems necessary to publicly reintroduce 
A>ii.'<onyx as the jn'oper generic name for the 
group of mammals now commonly referred 
to Speriitopluhi.''. 

THK K.^RLIEST -VVAILAliLK NAME FOIi THE MOUN- 
TAIN GOAT. 

It has been customary of late to refer the 
Mountain Goat to the genus Mazama of Ra- 
linesque.§ But Mazaina was based prima- 
rily ou the Tanumazume of Mexico, which 
Ralinesque called M. tenia, and which has 
been since showni to be a deer.|| The next 
.species mentioned by Rafinesque is our 
Mountain Goat, which he named 31. dor- 
mta. But under this species he makes 
the following unequivocal statement which 
seems to have been overlooked : " This spe- 
cies, with the following [il/. gericca. which is 
really the same animal] and the Mazamn 
pnda [of Chili] . will form a particular sub- 
genus (or pcrhai)s genus) which I shall call 
Oreamiiog. distinguished by the horns .slightly 

*Am. Monthly Miigiizine, II., 1817, 4.5. 
tOutlirie's Geoirrai>tiy, 'JilA m. Ed., II., 181,), 292 
and :iO:j-304. 

J Mammals i)f idalio, N. .Vm. Fauna, No. 5, .July, 
1891, 39-42. 

SAm. Montlily Mag., II., 1817, p. 44. 
II Biologia Ci'ntmli-.Vmi'ricana, Mammalia, IS&J, 
p. 113. 



curved liai'kwards or outwards, often rough 
or annulated. and long hair, besides living 
in mountains." (Am. Monthly Mag., II., 
1817, 44). In view of these facts there 
seems to be no escape from the adojttion of 
the name Oreamnos as the earliest available 
generic name for the Mountain Goat, which 
is the type and only known species of the 
genus, the ' -1/. pxida ' being a South Amer- 
ican deer. The full name for the species 
is Oreamnos monfaniis (Ord) 1815, and the 
type locality is the Cascade Range, near the 
Columbia Ri\er, in Oregon or Washington. 
C. Hart Mekriam. 

W.VSHIXGTOX. 



THE SEED OF A CIIASGE OF BASE IX THE 
STUDY OF XOHTH AMERICAS OUTIIOI'TERA. 

Some twenty years ago one of the very 
acutest and most industrious of modern 
entomologists, the late Carl Stal, of Stock- 
holm, began the publication of a Re- 
censio Orthopteroruin. In it and in kindi-ed 
papers he had within fi\e years laid the 
foundation of an entirely new system in 
nearly every family of Orthoptera, oflering 
novel and taxonomically important but 
easily overlooked points of structure for 
subdivisions of a high order. A great deal 
of work has been done since then (the num- 
ber of species has perhaps doubled), and it 
has been mainly upon the lines laid dowTi 
by him, but in greater detail. 

Most American students of Orthoptera, 
however, have been very poorly acquainted 
with these modern studies, and the result 
is that, with a distressing wealth of unde- 
termined sj)ecies. new forms have been de- 
scribed and referred to genera of ancient 
name, a j)rocedure which in many cases has 
given little or a wrong impression of the 
real aflinities of the insects in question, and 
it has now become impossible to correlate 
American and European work. Something, 
indeed much, has been done by European 



20 



SCIENCE. 



[X. p. Vol. I. Xo. 1. 



entomologists, but their aiitoptic acquaint- 
ance with oiu- fauna is relatively poor ; and 
while there are ample materials here, there 
appears a remarkable paucity of students 
inclined to serious work in this direction. 
Lists we have in number, but in them al- 
most invariably figure Acridium, Calop- 
tenus, Oedipoda, Stenobothi-us, Mantis, etc., 
genera which in their now resti'icted appli- 
cation do not or hardly exist in North 
America. 

There has been some excuse for this, since 
the broad scope of Stal's work, embracing 
the Orthoptera of the globe, rendered work 
upon exclusively American material diffi- 
cult to one without means of reference to 
extra- American insects, collections of which 
are uncommon in this country, though 
easily obtainable by any one with means. 
Still, it is sti-ange that no one having access 
to the museums in our larger cities or uni- 
versities has undertaken to apply the 
modern system of classification to one or 
another of the families or subfamilies of 
American Orthoptera. He would have 
earned merited applause from all students 
ia this field. 

One attempt, indeed, was made to collate 
what could be known of the Acrididfe, biit 
it was before Stal began his work, and it 
may almost be classed as a hindrance. 
Now, however, the field is open, for Brunner 
von Wattenwjd, whose collection of Or- 
thoptera is the richest in the world, pub- 
lished a year ago a Revision du Systhne des 
Orthoptcres, through which, by means of 
the tables given by him of an exceedingly 
simple character (sometimes in practice one 
finds them too limited), one may quickty 
group his collection in a natviral order, and 
by means of the literature to which refer- 
ence is briefly made, determine the generic 
position or affinities of whatever he has be- 
fore him. The way for a revision of any 
group is therefore clearer than ever before, 
and oiir entomologists will have none but 



themselves to blame if they do not here- 
after better coordinate their work wdth that 
of the Eiu-opean writers. 

Samuel H. Scuddkr. 
Cambeidge. 

SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 
An Elementary Treatise on Theoretical Me- 
chanics. — Part I., Kinematics ; Part 11. , In- 
trodiietion to Dynamics; Part III., Kinetics. 
— By Alexander Ziwet, Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in the University 
of Michigan. — 8vo. — Macmillan & Co., 
London and New York, 1893-94. Pp. 
viii+181, vui+183, viii+236. 
Since Lagrange set the model for analji:i- 
cal mechanics in his Mecanique Analytique, a 
little more than a century ago, there has 
been no serious lack of good elementary 
works devoted to that science. Most con- 
spicuous of the latter is Poisson's Mecanique 
(1811, 2d ed., 1833), which was undoubtedly 
naore mdely read and followed than any 
other work duiing the first half of this cen- 
tury. It is only recently, however, that the 
great advantage of the analj^tical over the 
geometrical method in mechanics has come 
to be generally recognized by authors and 
educators. The influence of Newton has 
long held English wi-iters to the geometrical 
form of the Principia. To this, neverthe- 
less, there are a few noteworthj' exceptions, 
the most important of which in the present 
half centiiry is probably Price, whose vol- 
umes on analji:ical mechanics {Infinitesimal 
Calcidus, Vols. III. and IV., 1S(J2) have 
done excellent service. 

Along with the remai'kable growth of 
science in general duriQg the past thirty 
years a great impetus has been given to 
mechanics. This is traceable chiefly to two 
sources, namely : first, the develoj^ment of 
the Faraday-Maxwell view of electricity 
and magnetism ; and, second, the thought- 
inspiring qualities of the great work of 
Thomson and Tait on Natural Philosophy. 



JASIARY 4, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



21 



The latter treatise and the Ehctrmty and 
Magnetigm of Maxwell have stimulatetl a 
wonderful activity in the study of mechani- 
eal ideas ; and, as a result, a number of higli- 
elass elementary books on pure mechanics 
have appeared during the past decade. The 
work of Professor Ziwet is one of the best of 
this class. It is up to date and distinctively 
in touch with the j)rogressive spirit of the 
age. In accordance with the modern order 
of presentation. Part I. is devoted to kine- 
matics, Part II. to statics as a special case 
of dynamics, and Part III. to kinetics. No 
one acquainted with the magnitude of theo- 
retical mechanics would expect to find a 
complete treatise even in the space of 600 
octavo pages. It goes without saying, in 
fact, that he who would now do battle in 
the fields of mechanics should be armed 
with a battery of treatises. But it must be 
admitted that tlie work of Professor Ziwet 
covers the ground exceedingly well, giving 
a fairly good idea of nearly everj- important 
principle and process trom the composition 
of vectors to the kinetics of variable systems. 
The mode of treatment, though distinctly 
analytical, is tempered by the introduction 
of geometrical illustrations and analogues 
where they serve to give clearness and fixity 
of ideas. A noteworthy feature of the work 
is the lai-ge number of references to the 
literature of the science. These references 
alone make the work one of the best that 
can fall into the hands of the enterprising 
student. The typography and press work 
are worthy of the distinguished publishers 
under whose auspices the volumes appear. 
A few misprints and a few inaccuracies of 
expression are visible in the work ; but 
these are inevitable in a first edition of such 
a treatise. A speedy demand for a second 
edition will, we hope, enable the author not 
only to remove these trifling defects, but 
also to add an index, which will much 
enhance the value of fhe work for purposes 
of reference. R. S. W. 



From the Greeks to Danrin. — An oiitllue of 
the development of the evolution idea. — By 
Hexky Fairfikld Osbokn. — Columbia 
University Biological Series 1. — New 
York and London, Macmillan «S: Co., 
1894. Pp. 259. 82.00. 
This is a timely book. For it is time 
that both tlie special student and the gen- 
eral i)ublic should know that the doctrine 
of evolution has cropped out on the surface 
of human thought trom the period of the 
Greek philosophers, and that it did not 
originate with Darwin, and that natural 
selection is not a synonym of evolution. 

The author divides his work into six 
sections, entitled respectively : The antici- 
pation and interpretation of nature ; Among 
the Greeks ; The theologians and natural 
philosophers ; The evolutionists of the 
eighteenth century ; From Lamarck to St. 
Hilaire ; Darwin. 

It is clearly shown that evolution has 
reached its present completeness as a result 
of a slow growth during the past twenty- 
four centuries, and that Darwin owes more 
to the Greeks than has been hitherto recog- 
nized bj- any of us. The Greek philoso- 
phers in biologj', as in geologj-, anticipated, 
at least in some slight degree, modern 
scientific philosophy. The doctrine of con- 
tinuity in the organic and inorganic world, 
anticipations of the monistic philoso- 
phy, and of the evolution of life, were 
taught by Thales and Anaximander, while 
Aristotle spoke of some of the factors of 
transformation, and even clearly stated the 
principle of the survival of the fittest, 
though he afterwards rejected it. 

The father of evolution was Empedocles, 
who believed in spontane(ms generation, 
that plants came first, that animal life long 
after budded forth from the plants, and in 
his poetry Oslioru finds the germ of the the- 
ory of the survival of the fittest or of 
natural selection. Democritus perceived 
the principle of adaptation of single organs 



22 



SCIENCE. 



[N. a. Vol. I. Xo. 1. 



to certain purposes, while Anaxagoras at- 
tributed adaptations in nature to intelligent 
design and was thus the founder of Tele- 
ology. But as Aristotle was the father of 
natural historj' so was he the first scientific 
evolutionist, being the earliest to conceive 
of the chain of being from polyps to man, 
a view afterwards generally held until La- 
marck replaced it bj' his truer simile of a 
branching tree. The great Grreek natural- 
ist and anatomist understood the principle 
of adaptation of organs in its modern sense, 
discovered the law of the physiological 
division of labor, and conceived of life as 
the function of the organism ; was not a 
vitalist ; understood the doctrine of hered- 
ity, atavism or reversion ; and finally, with 
all his errors and misconceptions, had vague 
notions of the unity of type, of nature, of 
gradations in nature, while the core of his 
views on evolution was the doctrine of an 
' internal perfecting tendency,' which crops 
out in modern science in the writings of 
Owen, and even Koelliker, as well as 
others, including Weismann. 

Passing to the evolutionists of the present 
century, Oken's place is, it seems to us, 
properly assigned ; due credit is given to 
Buffon, who saw the force of isolation, and 
fall credit to Erasmus Darwin, though suifi- 
cient stress is perhaps not laid on the fact 
that he was not a working zoologist and 
had no followers. Osborn efiectually dis- 
poses of the strong suspicion of Dr. Krause 
that Lamarck was familiar with the ' Zo- 
onomia,' and made use of it in the develop- 
ment of his theory. He clearljr brings out 
the fact, as stated by Martins, that Laplace 
supported Lamarck in the docti-ine of the 
inheritance of acquired habits, as applied 
to the origin of the mental faculties of man, 
both of these authors anticipating Spencer, 
the doctrine being an old one, and ex- 
pressed by De MaLUet. 

The statement of Lamai-ck's views is full 
and carefully drawn up, and his preemi- 



nence as the founder of modern evolution, 
though he had no immediate ibllowers, ow- 
ing to liis Cuvierian environment, clearly 
stated. This being the case, and in \'iew or 
the fact that the number of Lamarckian 
evolutionists is now so great and constantly 
increasing, we should have wished that he 
had devoted still more si)ace to one of the 
greatest naturalists of j)re-Darwinian times, 
giving more quotations fi'om his works. 

Osborn controverts, and with success, we 
think. Huxley's dictum that Treviranus 
should be placed in the same rank as an 
evolutionist with Lamarck. We certainly 
do not hear of Treviranians. The state- 
ment of the views of Owen is fair, and yet 
we should scarcely use the word ' hostility ' 
in stating his attitude towards Darwinism^ 
or natm-al selection. Owen refused to at- 
tack the Vestiges of Creation when that 
book appeared, but rather sjTnpathized with 
the general views of its author. As Osborn 
states, " Owen was an evolutionist in a 
limited degi'ce," somewhat in the manner 
of Buffon, and perhaps a shade more fi-om 
his wide knowledge of paleontology, but it 
is to be borne in mind that neither was 
Koelliker nor were others, Darwinians as 
such, and there are many still who accept 
the genei-al doctrine of evolution, but do not 
regard natural selection as an adequate or 
efl&cient cause, or at least consider it as only 
one of many factors. 

While mentioning Darwin and Wallace 
as the leading selectionists no reference is 
made to the botanist Hooker, who, in his 
Flora antarctica arrived at the doctrine of 
transformation independently of Darwin, 
and became one of his two strongest suppoi't- 
ers. Also Bates should have been mentioned. 

The book should be widely read, not only 
by science teachers, by biological students, 
but we hope that historians, students of 
social science, and theologians will acquaint 
themselves with this clear, candid and 
catholic statement of the origin and early 



Janvary 4, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



23 



history of a theoi-y which not only exphiiut; 
the origin of lifo-fornis, but lias transformed 
the methods of the historian, placed phil- 
osophy on a higher plane, and immeasurably 
widened our views of nature and of the 
Infinite Power working in and through the 
universe. A. 8. Packard. 

Bkowit Univee.^itv. 

Materiah for the Studijof Vaviatlon. — WiLLiAjr 
Bateson. — London and New York, Mae- 
millan & Co., 1894. xv -r 597 $6.50. 

Over thirtj- years ago Mr. Darwin out- 
lined the gi-eat problems for investigation 
in natural history, and, one after another, 
these lines of investigation have been 
studied bj' naturalists. Embryology, pale- 
ontologj- and systematic classification early 
attracted the attention of many naturalists, 
and these branches of investigation have 
been very thoroughly studied in the last 
quarter of a century. Geogi-aphical distri- 
bution was made a special subject of re- 
search bj- Mr. Wallace and others. These 
various lines of studj', while, of course, 
they have not been exhausted, have cer- 
tainly been studied to such an extent that 
most of the valuable lessons which they 
teach have been learned. In recent years 
also another factor of the evolution problem, 
namely, that of heredity, has been the 
subject of eager research by various natursi^l- 
ists. It is somewhat strange that the 
problem of variation has been so universally 
neglected except l)y Darwin's AnimaU and 
Plants. It is upon variations in animals 
that the whole of the theories of Darwin and 
all evolutionary doctrines are based, but 
while the last thirty years has seen much 
speculation as to variations, both concern- 
ing their causes and distribution, while 
many illustrative instances have been ac- 
cumulated, while nearly all the modern 
theories of evolution are based directly 
upon certain conceptions of variation, there 
has been no systematic attempt to study 



this I'undanicntal problem. Sjieculative 
zoology has always a greater attractiveness 
to most minds than the more laborious and 
less entertaining work of collecting facts. 
The last twenty-fivQ yeai-s has seen an 
abundance of publications upon evolution 
from theoretical grounds, and while varia- 
tions themselves have been discussed on 
both sides of tlie Atlantic, tliese discussions 
have been almost universally based upon a 
few stock illustrations, and must be recog- 
nized as without any proper foundation in 
facts. Natural science is certainly indebted 
to Mr. Batesun for having taken up at last 
this branch of research which lies at the 
^•ery foundation of the origin of species. 
Mr. Bateson"s liook has a very modest title, 
and the author simplj* claims to have 
brought together materials out of which a 
theory of the oi-igin of species may in the 
future be built. But this is the only 
systematic attempt j^et made to study valua- 
tions themselves. The present volume is 
only the first instalment, and we are prom- 
ised more in the future. A book of nearly 
(iOO pages, filled with numerous illustrations, 
describing in more or less detail variations 
of all kinds, in all types of animals, will 
certainly find its way into the library of 
every naturalist who has any interest in 
speculative thought. 

A review of this character is hardly a 
fitting place to discuss the subjects pre- 
sented in this work. In reading over its 
pages there are. however, three or four 
striking conclusions of so much general 
theoretical im])()rtanco that they may be 
selected as the teachings of this first volume. 
Most prominent am(mg them stands the 
deduction of the author that variations are 
discontinuous. It is the theory of Darwin, 
and, in general, of his followers, that .species 
were produced by natural selection acting 
u])on slight continuous variations. The 
diiliculties of this thought were ])lain to 
Mr. Darwin, and have liecome more plain 



24 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 1. 



and more forcible as the years have passed. 
While the followers of Darwin's views have 
tried to shut their eyes to them and have 
tried to explain away the objections that 
have arisen, it has been plain to every 
thinking naturalist that the natural selec- 
tion of minute accidental variations is en- 
tirely inadequate to accomplish the great 
end of producing species. The most import- 
ant result of Mr. Bateson's study of varia- 
tions is that the variations that occur in 
animals are not minute and continuous, or, 
rather, that they are fi-equently discontin- 
uous. By this term the author means that 
variations may be sudden and extreme in 
character, such as the sudden development 
of a new tooth in a single generation, or 
the appearance of a new leg, or some other 
very prominent characteristic which appears 
at once without the numerous intermediate 
stages which Mr. Darwin's theory assumes. 
■\Vhile Mr. Bateson does not claim that this 
view is demonstrated by the facts now col- 
lected, he does iasist that all of his data 
pomt in that direction. The extreme sig- 
nificance of this conclusion upon the ques- 
tion of the origin of species is plaiu at once. 
A second conclusion which one reaches in 
the perusal of these mstances is that varia- 
tions are not haphazard, but, while, of course, 
they cannot be predicted with certaiatj^, 
they do fall under certain definite laws. 
Jlr. Bateson has found it possible to group 
the variations that occur in animals under 
verj^ definite classes, so definite that, in many 
cases, at least, it is imijossible to question 
that they are regulated by some organic 
law. Of coiu-se, Mr. Darwin recognized that 
variations had then- causes, but, neverthe- 
less, he was iaclined to believe that they 
were ' par hazard.' According to the con- 
clusions of Mr. Bateson, however, they are 
of a more or less definite nature. Inci- 
dentally also Ml-. Bateson points oiit that 
the study of variation gives us a new con- 
ception of homology, and almost deprives 



us of the belief in the long recognized law of 
reversion. It is somewhat surprising to be 
called upon to abandon the law of reversion, 
and perhaps the author does not deny that 
it may be a factor in development, but he 
does claim most of the instances so ex- 
plained have nothing to do with this prin- 
ciple. It is not possible here to dwell far- 
ther upon the many suggestive facts which 
are brought out by this study. 

In criticism one may say that the Eng- 
lish is extremely poor. The subject, of 
course, is a difficult one, and the author is 
obliged to use a new termiaologj' and to ex- 
plain his priaciples as he progresses. This 
in itself renders the book somewhat obscure, 
but we must add to this the fact that in 
many cases his sentences are very involved 
and cumbersome, and' altogether the work 
is difficult reading. We may also some- 
what regret that the author does not weave 
into the work a few more suggestions as to 
the significance of some of the facts that he 
has treated. The great part of this work 
reads like a museum catalogue, and museum 
catalogues are much more intelligible if one 
understands the basis of classification. Mr. 
Bateson, however, distinctly states that he 
does not consider the evidence as yet suffi- 
cient to warrant conclusions except in re- 
gard to some few general subjects. One 
may also question if most of his material 
does not savor too strongly of abnormal, 
and, indeed, almost pathological variations, 
to fairly serve as a basis for a theory of the 
origin of species. But, in spite of one or 
two such minor criticisms, the book of Mr. 
Bateson is an exti-emely valuable addition 
to zoological literature, and when it is com- 
pleted by siibsequent volumes upon varia- 
tions of different nature it is hardly possi- 
ble to doubt that it will be one of the few 
valuable and lasting additions to the litera- 
tm-e on the general subject of the evolution 
of organic natui-e. H. W. Conn. 

Wesleyan Univbesity. 



JANUAKY 4, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



25 



Griindriss der Ethnologkchen Jurupi-ndenz. — 

Albert Hkrman-x Post. — Two Vols. — 

Oldenburg and Leipzig, 1895. 
Ethnologische Studini ziir Evden Eniwicklung 

der Strafe. — S. R. Steixmetz. — Tavo Vols. 

— Leiden and Leipzig, 1894. 

In these two earefully prepared and thor- 
oughly reasoned work.s we have for the first 
time an unbiased application of the facts 
fiu-nished by ethnology to an analysis of 
the evolution of jurisprudence. The study 
of them will prove of the gi-eatest profit 
to the advocate, the anthropologist and 
the philosophic student of the growth of 
society. 

Dr. Steinmetz, in liis over 900 large oc- 
tavo pages devoted to the subject, pursues 
the idea of punishment through all the 
forms under which it appears in early con- 
ditions, such as personal revenge, blood 
feuds, compounding of ofiFences, famdy, 
totemic and social punishment, the venge- 
ance of the gods, and religious chastise- 
ment. The foundation for this historic 
analysis is laid in the earlier pages of the 
first volume l)y an able excursus on the 
psychological motives which underlie the 
thirst for vengeance and the passion for 
cruelty. This fm-uishes a philosophic basis 
on which the author constructs his conclu- 
sions by an inductive study of all the forms 
of punishment and penalty found in primi- 
tive and early peoples. With this ho is 
contented, and witli a tempei-ance worthy 
of high commendation, he refi-ains from 
committing his work to one or another 
• school ' by applying it to the defence 
of some pet doctrine of popular sociol- 
ogy, which would at once limit its use- 
fulness. He rather says : " Here are the 
psycliic motives : and here are the results 
to which under various conditions they 
have given rise. Let the facts present their 
owni inferences." 

This impartial spii-it also thoroughly pei-- 
vades the more comprehensive study of Dr. 



Post. It is considerably over a thousand 
pages in length and is an exhaustive analj'sis 
of the whole notion of rights, of the person, 
the family, the clan and the state, as they 
apply to both persons and things. In the 
second volume he ti-averses in his investiga- 
tion of penalties much of the ground occu- 
pied bj' Dr. Steinmetz, and a comparison of 
their methods and results is quite interest- 
ing. The autlior's reading is immense, and 
the care with which he cites his authorities 
is mo-st praiseworthy. While fully aware 
of the distinctly philosophic nature of his 
subject, — for a people's abstract conc-eptions 
of ethics are embodied in their concrete 
foi-ms of laws, — he withstands the tempta- 
tion to theorize on these points and keeps 
himself strictly within the limits of objective 
and inductive inijuiry. 

Of both these works it may be said that 
they represent the purest scientific method, 
and that they stand in the front rank of the 
contriljutions to Ethnology- in its true sense 
which have appeared of late years. 

D. G. B. 

Flora of Nebraska. — Edited by members of 
the Botanical Seminar of the Universitj' 
of Nebraska. — Introduction and Part 1.. 
Protophyta-Phijcophtjta ; Part 2, Coleoeheeta- 
cece, Characeie. — Lincoln, Nebraska, Pub- 
lished by the Seminar, 1894. 4to, pp. 
123, pi. 36. 

The beautiful work here noticed must 
long hold first place in the pul)lished results 
of the exploration and study of a local flora. 
It is hard to find words in wliicli to express 
our gratification at its appearau(-e, and we 
have tried in vain to find any point which 
is fau'ly open to adverse criticism. Begin- 
ning with a synopsis of the larger groups, 
including families, and an introduction con- 
tributed by Professor Bessey. in the details 
of whidi there is room for much difference 
of ojjinion, there follow concise descriptions 
of the classes, orders, families, genera. 



26 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 



species and varieties of Protophyta and 
Phyeophyta found within the State, con- 
ti'ibuted bj' Mr. DeAlton Saunders, and of 
the Coleochsetaceae and Characea; by Mr. 
Albert F. Woods. The descriptions are 
well drawn, the typogi-aphj^ excellent and 
the plates accurate and well executed. We 
tender our cordial congratulations to all 
concerned in the production of the book and 
to all who may have opportunity to use it. 

]sr. L. B. 



THE SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

The programs of the mid-winter meetings 
of the several scientific societies promise 
large attendance and many important 
papers. The American Society of Natural- 
ists meets at Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, and in conjunction with it the 
American Morphological Society and the 
American Physiological Society. At the 
same place and time the American Society 
of Geologists meets. During the same 
week the Anatomists meet at Columbia 
College, New York ; the American Psycho- 
logical Association meets at Princeton ; the 
American Folklore Society meets at Wash- 
ington, and the annual meeting of the 
American Mathematical Society is held at 
Columbia College. These meetings will be 
fully reported in Science. 

PHYSICS. 

Actual trial trips with flying machines 
have recently been made by Mr. Maxim 
and Prof. Langiej^. Mr. Maxim's machine 
was fastened to rails to prevent its rising, 
and sailed 500 feet at the rate of 45 miles 
per hour. Prof. Langley's seroplane was 
allowed to fly over the water at Quantico, 
Md., on December 8th. Both Mr. Maxim 
and Prof. Langley use light steam engines 
in preference to storage batteries. 

The Soci^te Internationale des Electri- 
ciens established a central laboratory at 
Paris about seven years ago. The principal 



object of the laboratory was the preserva- 
tion of electrical standards, and to afibrd 
practical electricians an opportunity for 
testing their various instruments. It is 
evident that such a laboratoiy ofi'ers special 
advantages for the investigation of questions 
belonging to the science and industry of 
electricity. These facilities have been to 
some extent utilized ; but, in order to in- 
crease the usefulness of the institution, the 
Society has added to it a School of Applied 
Electricit}^ This school, which will be 
opened on December 3d, has been con- 
structed on a plot of land granted bj^ the 
city of Paris, the funds for the building- 
having been raised by private subscription. 
Purely practical instruction will be given 
at the school. There will be two chief 
courses, one dealing with the industrial 
applications of electricity, and the other 
with electrometry. It is hoped that the 
school will be a training ground for higher 
work in the Central Laboratory, to which 
it is attached. — Nature. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

De. Charles L. Dana's address on Degen- 
eration and its Stigmata, delivered at the 
Anniversary Meeting of the New York 
Academy of Medicine, Nov. 28, 1894, has 
been pi-inted in the Medical Record, of 
Dee. 15th. Dr. Dana traces with much skill 
the historic develojiment of the scientific 
method that discovers mental traits and 
especially mental degenerations from their 
physical manifestations. 

The charges made against the manage- 
ment of the Elmira Reformatorj^ have been 
dismissed by Governor Flower. The ma- 
jority of the commissioners who examined 
the charges report that the institution 
stands preeminent among the reforma- 
tories of the world and that its success in 
the reformation of criminals has been extra- 
ordinary. This confirms the views of the 
leading criminologists and reformers. 



January 4, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



27 



EDUCATIONAL. 

Dk. J. K. Talmagt. has been called to the 
profesisorship of geolojjy recently estaljlished 
in the University of Utah. 

America has aceouiplished uiiuli lor the 
advancement of Anthropology-, but the work 
has l)een largely done bj' the Government 
institutions and by individuals. Columbia 
College oflers this year courses in Anthro- 
pology (Dr. Farraud and Dr. Ripley), and 
the University of Califoi-nia must now be 
added to the institutions proposing courses 
in this subject. 

The Universities of Oxford and of Cam- 
bridge have recently taken action of con- 
siderable interest to Americans proposing 
to study abroad. The comparatively few 
Americans who have been in residence at 
Oxford or Cambridge would undoubtedly 
agree in recommending this course to others 
as highly as studying at a German univer- 
sity'. But hitherto degrees could only be 
obtained by undergoing very irksome ex- 
aminations. Oxford will now confer the 
degrees Litt. B. and Sc. B. on evidence of 
' a good general education,' and research 
work evincing • a high standard of merit.' 
Three years" residence is required, but this 
condition may be modified. Tlie grace 
adopted at Cambridge is as follows : " That 
a syndicate l>e appointed to consider: ( 1 ) the 
means of giving further help and encourage- 
ment to persons who desire to pursue courses 
of advanced study or research within the 
University ; (2) what classes of students 
should be admitted to such courses; (3) 
what academic recognition, whether by 
degi'ees or otlierwise. should be given to 
such students, and upon wliat conditions ; 
that the syndicate be i!mpowered to consult 
and confer with such jiersons and bodies as 
they may think fit : and that they report 
to the Senate before the end of the Lent 
Term, 1895." 

The fourth edition oi Minerva (189-1-1895) 



presents as frontispiece an etched poi-trait of 
Lord Kelvin by Ilerkomer. The book now 
extends to 9.'}0 pages, an increase of 69 
pages over the preceding edition, many new 
institutions having been included. The 
American universities and colleges added 
in this edition are Brjni Mawr, Cincinnati, 
Colgate, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, Nebraska, Ohio AVesleyan, Ver- 
mont, Wellesley. Western Reserve, making 
the total number thirty-nine. In attend- 
ance of students the order of the great uni- 
versities is Paris, Berlin, IMadrid, Vienna, 
Naples, Moscow, Budapest, Munich. Athens, 
Oxford, Harvard. But in many of these 
institutions attendance on popular lectures 
seems to be included. 

A WORK with the range of Minerva, giving 
the courses as well as the instructors in in- 
stitutions of learning, would be of much 
use, but a difficult undertaking. The need 
has, however. Ijeen supplied for the differ- 
ent institutions of Paris by Le livret de 
I'etudiant de Paris (Delalain Frere 1894— 
95), prepared under the direction of the 
general council of the faculties. 

FORTHCOMI^fG BOOKS. 

Dr. Daxiel G. Brinton, Professor of 
American Arch»ologj' in the Universitj' of 
Penn.sylvania, has in press a Primer of 
Mayan Hieroglyphics, to be published by 
Ginn & Co., Boston, in which he aims 
to explain the elements of the mysterious 
wi'iting ■ on the monuments of Central 
America. 

GiNN & Co. also announce a series of 
handl)Ooks on the History of lieligions, edited 
by Prof Morris Jastrow, Jr., of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. The Eeligions of India, 
by Prof. E. AV. Hopkins, of Bryn Mawr, 
will form the first volume. 

Macmillax iSc Co. announce The Principles 
of Sociology, by Prof Franklin H. Giddings, 
of Columbia College ; Monism, The Confemon 



28 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 1. 



of Faith of a Man of Science, by Dr. Ernst 
Haeckel ; Life at the Zoo, by C. J. Cornish ; 
a new edition of S. Thompson's Electricity 
and Magnetism and Mental Development in the 
Child and in the Race, by J. Mark Baldwin. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCEENOES. 

J. A. Matthews, Notes on Carborundum. 
Bashfoed Dean, On the collections of Fossil 

Fishes at Berea, New London and Delaware, 

Ohio. 
L. McI. Luquee, TJie Relative effects of Frost 

and Sulphate of Soda Efflorescence as shown 

by Tests of Building Stone. 

J. F. Kemp, Secretary. 

THE TOEEEY BOTANICAL CLUB. 

B. D. Halstbd, Abnormalities in Plants Due 
to Fungus Parasites. 

Heney H. Rusby, Seeretary. 

AMEEICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTEICAL 

ENGINEERS. 

LuDWiG GuTMANN, On the Production of Ro- 
tary Magnetic Fields by a Single Alternating 
Current. 
In the absence of the author, the paper will 

be presented in abstract by Dr. M. I. Pupin. 
A meeting of "Western members will be 

held the same evening at Chicago, where 

the paper will be read by the author. 

Ralph W. Pope, Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS. 
THE AMEEICAN NATURALIST. 

Quarternary Time Divisible in Three Periods, 

the Lafayette, Glacial, and Recent : "Warren 

"Cpham. 
The Homologies of the Uredinea ( The Rusts) : 

Charles E. Bessey. 
On the Evolution of the Art of Working in 

Stone; a preliminary paper by J. D. Mc- 

Guire: Charles H. Read. 



Zoology in the High School: Clarence M. 
Weed. 

Editorials; Recent Books and Pamphlets; Re- 
cent Literature. 

General Notes: — Petrography; Geology and 
Paleontology; Botany; Zoology; Entomology; 
Archeology and Ethnology. 

Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 

the physical review. 

Frontispiece : portrait of Professor von Helmholtz. 

Studies of the Lime Light : Edward L. Nich- 
ols and Mary L. Crehore. 

A Study of the Residual Charges of Condensers 
and their Dependence upon Temperature: 
Frederick Bedell and Carl Kinsley. 

A General Theory of the Gloiv-Lamp II. : H. 
S. "Webee. 

Minor Contributions ; Notes ; Neiu Books. 

bulletin of the AMEEICAN MATHEMATICAL 
SOCIETY. 

On the Choup of Holoedric Transformation of a 
Given Group into Itself: E. Hastings 

MOOEE. 

On the Non-Primitive Substitution Ch'oups of 
Degree Ten : G. A. Miller. 

Briefer Notices ; Notes ; New Publications. 



NEW BOOKS. 

Popidar Lectures and Addresses. "Vol. II., 
Geology and General Physics. Sir W. 
Thompson. London and New York. 
Macmillan & Co. 1894. Pp. x., 599. 

Light. Elementary text-book; theoretical and 
practical. R. T. Glazebrook. Cambridge 
University Press. New York. Macmillan 
& Co. 1894. Pp. vii., 213. $1.00. 

Manual of Physico- Chemical Measurements. By 
"WiLHELM OsTWALD. Trans, by James 
Walker. London and New York. Mac- 
millan & Co. 1894. Pp. xii., 255. $2.25. 

Electricity One Hundred Years Ago and To-day. 
Edwin J. Houston. New York. W. J. 
Johnson & Co. 1894. Pp. 199. $1.00. 



SCIENCE. 



New Series. 
Vol. I. No. 2. 



Friday, January 11, 1895. 



Single Copies, l.i cts. 

AXNCAL SUBSCRIPTIO.N". S.'S.OO. 



QUSTAV E. STECHERT'S 

Recent Importation of Scientific Boolcs. 



Abhandlungen, physikalische, der kiinigl. Aka- 
demie der Wissenschafteu zu Berlin. 4". Mit. 1 Taf. 
Mk. 10. 

Bois, Dr. H. nu. M;j};netisclie Kreise, deren The- 
orie und Anweudung. Mit 94 in den Te.xt gedruck- 
ten Abbildungen. gr. 8". Gebunden. Mk. 10. 

Christiansen, Pkof. Dr. C, Elemente der theo- 
retischen Physik. Deutscli v. Dr. Job. Jliiller. Mit 
e. Vorwort v. Prof. Dr. E. Wiedemann, gr. 8°. Mk. 
10. 

Drude, p. Physik des Aethers auf elektromag- 
netischer Grundlage. S". Mit 66 Abbildgn. Mk. 14. 

ForPL, Prof. Dr. A., Einfiihrung in die Maxwell- 
'sche Theorie der Elektricitiit. Mit. e. Einleit. Ab- 
schnitte iiber das Kechneu m. Vectorgriissen in der 
Physik. gr. 8". Mk. 10. 

G.\RNAn.T, E. Mccanique, physiqne et cliimie. 
Paris, 1894. 8". Avec. 325 fig. 8" fr. 

KoR.v, Dr. Arthie. Eiue Tlieorie der Gravita- 
tion und der clcktrischen Ei-sclieinungen auf Grund- 
lage der Hydnxlynamik. Zweiter Teil: Elcktrody- 
naniik. Erster Abschnitt. Theorie des permanenten 
Magnetismus und der konstanten elektiischen Striime. 
gr. 8». Mk. 3. 

Weber. Sechster Band. Mechanik der inensch- 
lichen Geliwerkzeuge. Besorgt dureb Friedrich Mer- 
kel und ( )tto Fischer. Mit 17 Tafeln und in den Text 
gedruckten Abliildungen. gr. 8'. Mk. 16. 

Wkhkr's Werkk, Wilhelm. Herausgegeben von 
der Kiiniglicben Gesellsebiift der Wissenschafteu zu 
Gottingen. Vierter ftiml Galvanismus und Elektro- 
dynaniik. Zweiter Till. Besorgt durcli Heinricli 
Weber. Mit 4 Tafeln und in den Text gedruckten 
Abbildungen. gr. ''". .Mk. 16. 

WiEDK.MAXK, t;isTAV. Die Lehre der Elektriz- 
itat. Zweite unigearbcitite und verniehrte Auflage. 
Zngleich als vierte AutiaKe der Lelu"e voin Galvanis- 
mus und Elektromagnetisuius. Zweiter Band. Mit 
163 IIolzschnitt«n und einer Tafel. gr. 8". Mk. 28. 

CHEMISTRY. 

BlECHELE, Dr. Max., Phamiaceutische Uebungs- 
priiparate. Anleitung zur DarstelUing, Erkcnnung, 
Priifung und stiicliionietrischen Bereclinung von of- 
fizinellen chcniisch-i>liarmaceutischen Priiparaten. 8". 
Gebunden. Mk. 6. 

BcjAKD Dr. Alfons, und Dr. Eduaed Baier. 
HiUsbuch tiir NahniDgsiuittelchemiker auf Grund- 



lage der Vorschriften, betreffend die Priifung der 
Nahrungsmittelcheniiker. Mit in den Text gedruck- 
ten Abbildungen. S'. Gebunden. Mk. 8. 

Erlexmeyer's, E., Lehrbnch der organischen 
Cheiuie. II. Till. Die aioinatischcn Verbindungen. 
Begonnen von Kch. Meyer fortgesetzt von H. Gold- 
schmidt, weiter fortgefiilirt von K. v. Buchka. I. Bd. 
8 Lfg. Mk. 6. 

Geissler, Dr. Ewald. Grundriss der phanna- 
ceutischen Massanalyse. Mit Beriicksichtigung ein- 
iger handelsoheinischen und hygienischen Analysen. 
Zweite verbesserte und verineiirte Auflage. Jlit 37 
in den Text gedruckten Holzschnitten. 8 ". Gebun- 
den. Mk. 4. 

•2H9fi. Gikard. C, et. A. Dupre. Analvse des 
inatieres aliinentaires et recherche de leurs falsifica- 
tions. 8". 32 fr. oOe. 

Glucks.mann, Karl. Kritische Studieu ini Be- 
reiche der Fundanientalansehauungen der theoretisch- 
en Clieniie. Zweiter Teil: Uber die Molekularhvpo- 
these. 8°. Mk. 2.30. 

Handworteuhuch deb Chemie, herausgegeben 
von A. Ladenburg. XII. Bd. S". Mit Holzschn. S. 
Nr. 2532. ilk. 16. 

JacqvoT, E. et WiLJi, Les Eaux minerales de la 
France. Etudes chiniiques et geologiques. 8°. Avec 
carte et 21 fig. 20 fr. 

Jahresberioit iiber die Leistungen der chemisch- 
en Technologic ni. bi>sond. Beriicksicht. der Gewerbe- 
statistik f. d. J. 1^93. Jabrg. 1— XXV bearb. von 
R. V. Wagner. Fortgesetz v. Dr. Ferd. Fischer. 39. 
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Mk. 24. 

CTIchsner de Coxxick. Cours de cliimie organ- 
ique. 2 vol. 8". Fr.20. 

OsTW.VLD, W. Die wissen-schaftlichen Grundlagen 
der analytisclien Clieniie. 8°. Mk. 4. 

OsTWALD, W. Elektrocheinie. Ihre Gesehichte 
und Lehre. 3. u. 4. Lfg. 8". Mit Abbildgn. a Mk. 2. 

RiCHTER's, V. v., Cliemie der Kohleiistoffverbin- 
dungen od. organisclie Chemie. 7. Aufl. Neubearb. 
V. I'rof. Dr. R. Anscliiitz. ( In 2 Bdu. ) 1. Bd. Die 
Chemie der Fettkiirp.r. 8". Holsclin. Mk. 10. 

ScHXELLicR, K. Reactionen und Reagentien. Ein 
Haiidbuch fiir Aerzte, Analvtiker, Ajxitheker und 
Cliemiker. I. Bd. 8". Jlk! 6. 

ZiRKEL, Prof. Dr. FERDlNAXn. Lehrbuch der 
Petri )gi-apliie. Zweite, giinzlicb neu verfa.sste Auf- 
lage. Zweiter Band. gr. 8. Jlk. 19. 

GUSTAV E. STECHERT, 

810 Broadway, New York. 



SCIENCE.— AD VERTISEMENT8. 



Macmillan & Co.'s New Books in Science. 



Elementary Lessons in Electricity and 
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By Sylv ANUS P.Thompson, D.Sc, B.A., F.E.A.S., 
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^1.40, net. 

Lectures on Human and Animal Psy= 
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Translated from the Second and Revised German 
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(Oxon.), Ph.D. (Leipzig). 8vo, Cloth, $4.00, net. 

Popular Lectures and Addresses. 

By Lord Kelvin, F.R.S. In 3 vols. Vol. II. 
Qeology and General Physics. With Illustra- 
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A Laboratory Manual of Physics and 
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Arranged and Edited by Edwaed L. Nichols, 
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Manual of Physico=Chemical Heasure- 
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MACMILLAN & CO., 66 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



SCIENCE. 



Editorial Committee : S. Newcojib, JIathematics ; R. S. Woodwakp, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, As- 
tronomy ; T. C. JIexdexhall, Physics ; R. H. TllUKSTON, Engineering ; IBA Remsen, Chemistry ; 
Joseph Le Coxte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. Maesh, Paleontologj' ; W. K. 
Brooks, Invertebrate Zoology ; C. Hart Merriam, Vertebrate Zoiilogy ; N. L. Bkittox, 
Botany ; Hexry F. Osborx, General Biologj- ; H. P. Bowditch, Physiology ; 
J. S. Billings, Hygiene ; J. McKeen Cattell, Psychology ; 
Daniel G. Brixton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, Ja>tjabt 11, 1895. 



COXTEX^TS: 

On lite JIagniUtde of the Solar Si/stem : WiLLIAJl 
Harkness ". -'9 

Till- Baltimore Meeting nf the Ameriraii Sociiii/ (if 
XtilKralints: W. A. Setchell, Secretary :?4 

The I'rineeton Meeting of the American I'si/ehologieal 
Axfoeiation : J. McKeen Cattell, Secretary. . .42 

Current Xolex on Anthrnpulngy; Xeic Series, I.: D. 
G. Brinton 47 

Hygiene : — 48 

The Xew Serum Treatment of Diphtheria ; Oys- 
ter/) as a Jfeans of Tiniismitling Typhoid Fever. .49 

The Emiution of Invention ; O. T. MASON .50 

Scientific Literature : — 50 

Kelrin^s Popular Addresses : T. C. Mendenhall. 
Laws of Temperature Control of the Geographic 
Distribution of Life. Lamson-Seribner' s Uraxsis 
of Tennessee : N. L. B. 

Notes : — 55 

Physics ; Personal ; Zoology ; Xew Piibliealinns. 

Societies and Academies 56 

Xew Books 56 

MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended 
for review should be sent to the responsible editor, Prof. J. 
McKeen Cattell, Garrison on Hudson, N. Y. 

Subscriptions ( five dolliirs annually ) and advertisements 
should be sent to the Publisher of Science, 41 East 49th St., 
New York. 



ON THE MAGNITUDE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.* 
Nature may be studied in two widely 
different ways. On the one hand we may 
employ a powerful microscope which will 
render visible the minutest forms and limit 
our field of view to an inlinitesimal frac- 

*Part of the Address delivered before the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science at its 
Brooklyn meeting, August 16, 1894, by the retiring 
President, Professor Harkness, and reprinted with 
his permission. 



tion of an inch situated within a foot of our 
own noses ; or on the other hand, we may 
occupy some commanding position and from 
thence, aided by a telescope, we may ob- 
tain a comprehensive view of an extensive 
region. The first method is that of the 
specialist, the second is that of the pliilos- 
opher, but both are necessary for an ade- 
quate understanding of nature. The one 
has brought us knowledge wherewith to de- 
fend ourselves against bacteria and microbes 
which are among the most deadly enemies 
of mankind, and the other has made us 
acquainted with the great laws of matter 
and force upon which rests the whole fabric 
of science. All nature is one, but for con- 
venience of classification we have divided 
our knowledge into a number of sciences 
which we usually regard as quite distinct 
from each other. .-Uong certain lines, or 
more properly, in certain regions, these 
sciences necessarily abut on each other, and 
just there lies the Aveakness of the special- 
ist. He is like a wayfarer who always 
finds obstacles in crossing the boundaries 
between two countries, while to the trav- 
eler who gazes over them from a command- 
ing eminence the case is quite difterent. If 
the boundary is an ocean shore there is no 
mistaking it ; if a broad river or a chain of 
mountains it is still distinct ; Init if only a 
line of posts traced over hill and dale, then 
it becomes lost in the natural features of 
the landscape, and the essential unity of the 



30 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol,. I. No. 2. 



whole region is apparent. In that case the 
border kind is whollj' a human conception 
of which nature talies no cognizance, and 
so it is with the scientific border land to 
which I propose to invite your attention 
this evening. 

To the popular mind there are no two 
sciences further apart than astronomj' and 
geology. The one treats of the structure 
and mineral constitution of our earth, the 
causes of its physical features and its his- 
torj', while the other treats of the celestial 
bodies, their magnitudes, motions, distances, 
periods of revolution, eclipses, order, and of 
the causes of their various phenomena. 
And yet many, perhaps I maj^ even say 
most of the apparent motions of the heavenly 
bodies are merely reflections of the motions 
of the earth, and in studjdng them we are 
really studying it. Furthermore, preces- 
sion, nutation and the phenomena of the 
tides depend largely upon the internal struc- 
ture of the earth, and there astronomy and 
geology merge into each other. Neverthe- 
less the methods of the two sciences are 
widely different, most astronomical prob- 
lems being discussed qiiantitatively bj' 
means of rigid mathematical formulre, while 
in the vast majority of cases the geological 
ones are discussed only qualitatively, each 
author contenting himself with a mere state- 
ment of what he thinks. With precise data 
the methods of astronomy lead to verj' exact 
results, for mathematics is a mill which 
grinds exceeding fine ; but, after all, what 
comes oiit of a mill depends wholly upon 
what is put into it, and if the data are un- 
certain, as is the case in most cosmological 
problems, there is little to choose between 
the mathematics of the astronomer and the 
guesses of the geologist. 

If we examine the addresses delivered by 
former presidents of this Association, and of 
the sister — perhaps it would be nearer the 
truth to say the parent — ^Association on the 
other side of the Atlantic, we shall find 



that they have generally dealt either with 
the recent advances in some V)road field of 
science, or else with the development of 
some special subject. This evenmg I pro- 
pose to adopt the latter course, and I sliall 
invite your attention to the present condi- 
tion of our knowledge respecting the magni- 
tude of the solar system, but in so doing it 
will be necessary to introduce some con- 
siderations derived from laboratory experi- 
ments upon the luminiferous ether, others 
derived from experiments upon ponderable 
matter, and still others relating both to the 
surface phenomena and to the internal 
structure of the earth, and thus we shall 
deal largely with the border land where 
astronomy, pthysics and geology merge into 
each other. 

The relative distances of the various 
bodies wliich compose the solar sj'stem can 
be determined to a considerable degree of 
approximation with very crude instruments 
as soon as the true plan of the system be- 
comes known, and that plan was taught by 
Pj-thagoras more than five hundred years 
before Christ. It must have been knoA\Ti to 
the Egyptians and Chaldeans still earlier, if 
P3i:hagoras really acquired his knowledge 
of astronomy from them as is affirmed by 
some of the ancient WTiters, but on that 
point there is no certaintj^ In public Pj-tha- 
goi-as seemingly accepted the current belief 
of his time, which made the earth the center 
of the universe, but to his own chosen dis- 
ciples he communicated the true doctrine 
that the sun occupies the center of the 
solar system, and that the earth is onlj' one 
of the planets revolving around it. Like 
all the world's greatest sages, he seems to 
have taught only orally. A century elapsed 
before his doctrines were reduced to writing 
by Philolaus of Crotona, and it was still 
later before they Avere taught in public for 
the first time by Hicetas, or, as he is some- 
times called, Nicetas, of Syracuse. Then 
the familiar cry of impiety was raised, and 



JAXIARY II, 1S95.] 



SCIENCE. 



31 



tlif Pytliajjorean system wasi-vi'iitually sup- 
pressed by that now ealled the PtoU'iiiaie. 
whieli held the field until it was overtlirown 
by Copernieus. almost two tlumsand years 
later. Pliny tells us that Pythagoras be- 
lieved the distances to the sun and moon to 
be respectively -JoL'.oOO and 12.(i00 stadia, 
or takiufi the stadium at (JL'S feet, 25t.s;j7 
and 1.4!)'_* English miles; but there is no 
record of the method by whicli these num- 
bers were ascertaint'd. 

After the relative distances of the various 
planets are known, it only remains to de- 
termine the scale of the system, for which 
l)urpose the distance between any two 
planets suffices. We know little about the 
i-arly history of the subject, but it is clear 
that the primitive astronomers mu.st have 
found the quantities to be measured too 
small for detection with their instruments, 
and even in modern times the problem has 
proved to be an extremely difficult one. 
Aristarchus of Samos. who flourished about 
'270 B. C, seems to have been the first to at- 
tack it in a scientific manner. Stated in 
modern language, his reasoning was that 
when the moon is exactly half full, the earth 
aiul sun as seen from its center must make 
a right angle with each other, and by meas- 
uring the angle between the sun and moon, 
as seen from the earth at that instant, all 
the angles of the triangle joining the earth, 
sun and moon would become known, and 
thus the ratio of the distance of the sun to 
the distance of the moon would be deter- 
mined. Although perfectly correct in theory, 
the difficulty of deciding visually ui>on the 
exact instant when the moon is half full is 
so great that it cannot be accurately done 
even with the most powerful telescopes. Of 
course Aristarchus had no telescope, and he 
dws not explain how he effected the obser- 
vation, but his conclusion was that at the 
instant in question the di.stance between the 
centers of the sun and moon, as seen from 
the earth, is li'ss than a right angle by ^'^ 



part of the saim'. We sliould now exjyress 
this by saying that the angle is (S7 degrees, 
but Aristarchus knew nothing of trig(mom- 
etry, and in order to solve his triangle, he 
had recourse to an ingenious, but long and 
cumbersome geometrical process which has 
con\e down to us, and aft"ords conclusive 
proof of the condition of Greek mathematics 
at that time. His conclusion was that the 
sun is nineteen times further from the earth 
than the moon, and if we combine that re- 
sult with the modern value of the nuum's 
parallax, viz. : 3,4'22.38 seconds, we obtain 
for tlu' solar parallax ISO seconds, which is 
more than twenty times too great. 

The only other method of determining 
the solar parallax known to the ancients 
was that devised l>y Hipparchus about 150 
B. C. It was based on measuring the rat'.' 
of decrease of the diameter of the earth's 
shadow cone l)y noting the duration of lunai- 
eclipses, and as the result deduced from it 
happened to be nearly the same as that 
found by Aristai-chus, substantially his valu' 
of the parallax remained in vogue for nearly 
two thousand yeai"s, and the discovery of 
the telescope was required to reveal its er- 
roneous character. Doubtless this pei"sist- 
ency was due to the extreme minuteness 
of the true parallax, which we now know is 
far too small to have been visible upon the 
ancient instruments, and thus the sui)posed 
measures of it were really nothing but 
measures of their inuc uracy. 

The telescope was first pointed to the 
heavens by Galileo in 1()09, but it needed 
a micrometer to convert it into an accut-at'.' 
measuring instrument, and that did not 
come into being until 1(539, when it was in- 
vented by Wm. fiascoighe. After his death 
in 1644, his original instrument passed to 
Richard Townley who attached it to a four- 
teen foot teh'scope at his residt'nce in Towti- 
ley. Ijancashire. England, where it was usc<l 
by Flamsteed in observing the diurnal j)aral- 
lax of ^lars during its oj»positif)ii in 1(>72. 



32 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 



A description of Gascoigne's micromctei- was 
published in the Philosophical Transactions 
in 1667, and a little before that a similar 
instrument had been invented by Auzout iu 
France, but observatories were fewer then 
than now, and so far as I know J. D. Cassini 
was the onlj^ person beside Flamsteed who 
attempted to determine the solar parallax 
fi-om that opposition of Mars. Foreseeing 
the importance of the opportunity, he had 
Kicher dispatched to Cayenne some months 
previously, and when the opposition came 
he effected two determinations of the paral- 
lax ; one being by the diurnal method, from 
his own observations in Paris, and the 
other by the meridian method fi-om ob- 
servations in Fi-ance by himself, Romer 
and Picard, combined with those of Kicher 
at Cayenne. This was the transition from 
the ancient instruments with open sights 
to telescopes armed with micrometers, and 
the result must have been little short of 
stunning to the seventeenth century as- 
tronomers, for it caused the hoarj^ and gi- 
gantic parallax of about 180 seconds to 
shrink incontinentlj' to ten seconds, and 
thus expanded their conception of the solar 
system to something like its true dimen- 
sions. More than fifty years previously 
Kepler had argued from his ideas of the 
celestial harmonies that the solar parallax 
could not exceed 60 seconds, and a little 
later Horrocks had shown on more scientific 
grounds that it was probablj' as small as 14 
seconds, but the final death-blow to the 
ancient values ranging as high as two or 
three minutes came from these observa- 
tions of Mars by Flamsteed, Cassini and 
Richer. 

Of course the results obtained in 1672 
produced a keen desire on the part of as- 
tronomers for further evidence respecting 
the true value of the parallax, and as Mars 
comes into a favorable position for such in- 
vestigations only at intervals of about six- 
teen years, they had recourse to obsei-vations 



of Mercury and Yenus. In 1677 Ilalley 
ol>served the diurnal parallax of Mercury, 
and also a transit of that planet across the 
sun's disk, at St. Helena, and in 1681 J. D. 
Cassini and Picard observed Venus when 
she was on the same parallel with the sun? 
but although the obsei-vations of Yenus 
gave better results than those of Mercury, 
neither of them was conclusive, and we now 
know that such methods are inaccurate 
even with the powerful instruments of the 
present day. Nevertheless, Halley's attempt 
by means of the transit of Mercury ulti- 
mately bore fi-uit hi the shape of his cele- 
brated paper of 1716, wherein he showed 
the peculiar advantages of transits of Yenus 
for determining the solar parallax. The 
idea of utilizing such transits for this pur- 
pose seems to have been vaguely conceived 
by James Gregory, or perhaps even by 
Horrocks, but Halley was the first to work 
it out completely, and long after his death 
his paper was mainly instrumental in induc- 
ing the governments of Europe to undertake 
the observations of the transits of Yenus in 
1761 and 1769, from, which our first accu- 
rate knowledge of the sun's distance was 
obtained. 

Those who are not familiar with practical 
astronomjr niay wonder why the solar par- 
allax can be got fi-om Mars and Yenus, but 
not fi-om Mercury, or the sun itself. The 
explanation depends on two facts. Firstly, 
the nearest approach of these bodies to 
the earth is for Mars 33,870,000 miles, 
for Yenus 23,651,000 miles, for Mercury 
47,935,000 miles and for the sun 91,239,000 
miles. Consequently, for us Mars and 
Yenus have verj' much larger parallaxes 
than Mercury or the sun, and of coiirse the 
larger the parallax the easier it is to meas- 
ure. Secondly, even the largest of these 
parallaxes must be determined within far 
less than one-tenth of a second of the truth, 
and while that degree of accuracj' is possible 
iu measuring short arcs, it is quite unat- 



Janvary 11, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



33 



tainahk- in long ont's. Hence one of the 
most essential conditions for the successful 
measurement of parallaxes is that we shall 
be able to compare the place of the near 
body with tliat of a more distant one situ- 
ated in the same region of the sky. In the 
case of ^lai-s that can always be done by 
making use of a neigliboriug star, but when 
A'enus is near the eai-th she is also so close 
to the sun that stars are not available, and 
cousecjuently her i)arallax can be satisfac- 
torily measured only when her position can 
be accurately referred to that of the sun, or, 
in other words, only during her transits 
across the sun's disk. But even when the 
two bodies to be compared are sufficiently 
near each other, we are still embarrassed by 
the fact that it is more difficult to measure 
the distance between the limb of a planet 
and a star or the limb of the sun than it Ls 
to measure the distance between two stars, 
and since the discovery of so many asteroids, 
that circumstance has led to their use for 
determinations of the solar parallax. Some 
of these bodies api)roach within 75,230,000 
miles of the earth's orbit, and as they look 
precisely like stars, the increased accuracy 
of pointing on them fully makes up for their 
greater distance, as compared with Mars or 
Venus. 

After the Copernican sj'stem of the world 
and the Xewtonian theory of gravitation 
were accepted it soon became evident that 
trigonometrical measurements of the solar 
parallax might be supplemented by deter- 
minations based on the theory of gravita- 
tion, and the first attempts in that direction 
were made by Macliin 1729 and T. Mayer in 
1753. T\\c measurement of the velocity of 
light between j)oints on the earth's surface, 
first effected by Fizeau in 1849, opened up 
still other possibilities, and thus for deter- 
mining the solar parallax we now have at 
our command no less than three entirely 
di.stinct cla.s.se.s of mcthod.s which are known 
respectively as the trigonometrical, the gra\ - 



itatioiial and tlic photo-tachymetrical. AVe 
have already given a summary sketch of the 
trigonometrical methods, as applied by the 
ancient astronomere to the dichotomy and 
shadow cone of the moon, and by the mod- 
erns to Venus, Mars and the asteroids, and 
we shall next glance briefly at the gravita- 
tional and photo-tachymetrical methods. 

♦ :;: ^ ^ i{= :^ 

The theory of probabilitj* and uniform 
experience alike show that the limit of ac- 
curacy attainable with any instrument is 
soon reached : and yet we all know the 
fascination which coutinuallj- lures us on 
in our efforts to get better results out of the 
familiar telescopes and circles which have 
constituted the standard equipment of ob- 
servatories for nearly a century. Possibly 
these instruments may be capable of indi- 
cating somewhat smaller quantities than 
we have hitherto succeeded in measuring 
with them, but their limit cannot be far off 
because thej- already show the disturbing 
effects of slight inequalities of temperature 
and other uncontrollable causes. So far as 
the.se effects are accidental they eliminate 
themselves from every long series of obser- 
vations, but there always remains a residuum 
of constant error, perhaps quite unsus})ected, 
which gives us no end of trouble. Encke's 
value of the solar parallax affords a fine 
illustration of this. From the transits of 
Venus in 1761 and 1769 he found 8'58 
seconds in 1824, which he subseciuently 
corrected to 8*57 seconds, and for thirty 
years that value was universally accepted. 
Tlie fii-st objection to it came from Hansen 
in 1854, a second followed from Le Verrier 
in 1858, both based upon facts connected 
with the lunar tlieory, and eventually it 
became evident that Encke's parallax was 
about one-(iuarter of a second too small, 
Now please observe that Encke's value 
was obtained trigonometrically, and its 
inaccuracy was never suspected until it 
was revealed by gravitational methods 



34 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 2. 



which were themselves in error about one- 
tenth of a second and required subsequent 
correction in other ways. Here then was a 
lesson to astronomers who are all more or 
less specialists, but it merely enforced the 
perfectlj^ well known principle that the 
constant errors of any one method are acci- 
dental errors with respect to all other 
methods, and therefore the readiest way of 
eliminating them is by combining tile re- 
sults from as many different methods as 
possible. However, the abler the specialist 
the more certain he is to be blind to all 
methods but his own, and astronomers 
have profited so little by the Encke-Hansen- 
Lie Verrier incident of thirtj^-five years ago 
that to-day they are mostly divided into 
two great parties, one of whom holds that 
the parallax can be best determined from a 
combination of the constant of aben'ation 
with the velocity of light, and the other 
believes only in the results of heliometer 
measurements upon asteroids. By all 
means continue the heliometer measure- 
ments, and do everj'thing possible to clear 
up the mj'sterjr which now surrounds the 
constant of aberration, but why ignore the 
work of predecessors who were quite as 
able as ourselves? If it were desired to 
determine some one angle of a triangulation 
net with special exactness, what would be 
thought of a man who attempted to do so 
by repeated measurements of the angle in 
question while he persistently neglected to 
adjust the net? And yet, until recently 
astronomers have been doing precisely that 
kind of thing with the solar parallax. I 
do not think there is any exaggeration in 
saying that the trustworthy observations 
now on record for the determination of the 
numerous quantities which are functions of 
the pai-allax could not be duplicated by the 
most industrious astronomer working con- 
tinuously for a thousand years. How then 
can we suppose that the result properly 
deducible from them can be materially 



affected by anj-thing that any of us can do 
in a lifetime, vinless we are foi-tunate 
enough to invent methods of measurement 
vastly superior to anj^ hitherto imagined ? 
Probablj^ the existing observations for the 
determination of most of these quantities 
are as exact as anj' that can ever be made 
with our present instruments, and if they 
were fi-eed from constant errors they would 
certainly give results very near the truth. 
To that end we have only to form a system 
of simultaneoiis equations between all the 
observed quantities, and then deduce the 
most probable values of these quantities by 
the method of least squares. Perhaps some 
of you maj' think that the value so obtained 
for the solar parallax would depend largely 
upon the relative weights assigned to the 
various quantities, but such is not the case. 
With almost any possible system of weights 
the solar parallax will come out very nearly 
8-809" ±0-0057", whence we have for the 
mean distance between the earth and sun 
92,797,000 miles with a probable error of 
onlj^ 69,700 miles; and for the diameter of 
the solar system, measured to its outermost 
member, the planet ISTeptune, 5,578,400,000 
miles. William Haekness. 

Washington. 



THE BALTIMORE MEETING OF THE AMERI- 
CAN SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

The thirteenth annual meeting of The 
American Society of Naturalists was held at 
Baltimore during the Christmas vacation. 
Considering that Baltimore is the southern 
limit where meetings may be held by the 
Society, the attendance was large, forty to 
fifty members being present. 

The first session was called to order by 
the President, Professor Charles S. Minot of 
the Harvard Medical School, at 2 p. m. on 
Thursday, December 27th. 

A quorum being present, the Society at 
once proceeded to the transaction of busi- 
ness. The committee appointed in 1893 to 



Janvary 11, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



obtain, if possible, the removal of the duty 
on scientific instruments reported that al- 
though they had succeeded in obtaining the 
cooperation of most of the leading scientific 
men, yet the inception of the movement 
had been so delayed that the Gorman Bill 
was already being considered by the Senate 
before the petitions could be presented to 
the House. 

The following resolution recommended 
by the committee was then adopted: '• In- 
asmuch as the repeal of the present iniqui- 
tous dutj- on scientific instruments is im- 
peratively needed hy the interests of the 
country, we recommend that a committee 
be appointed to present our just demands 
to the President, to the Chairman of the 
t'ommittee on Finance of the Senate and 
the Chairman of the Committee of Ways 
and Means of the House of Representatives, 
and to take such other steps as may be 
practicable to secm-e the immediate repeal 
of the duty." 

The report of the committee on the revi- 
sion of the Constitution and By-Laws was 
unanimously adopted. By the new consti- 
tution The American Society of Naturalists en- 
courages the formation of other societies 
of similar name and object in other parts 
of the country and invites other societies 
whose chief object is the encouragement 
of the studj- of Natural History to become 
affiliated with it. The affiliated societies 
shall have a common place and time of 
meeting with the American Society of Nat- 
uralists, the exi)enses of which are to be 
paid from a common treasury supplied from 
a common fee. The records of the secre- 
taries of the different societies are also to 
be published at common expense. 

Tlie discussion upon Environment in its 
Influence upon the Succesitive Stages of Develop- 
ment and as a Cause of Variation, took place 
in the Physical Lecture Room, Tiiursday 
afternoon. It was opened by four papeis 
and followed by remarks by Professors Cope 



and Hyatt. Di'. J)all, Dr. C. V. Hiley and 
others. 

Professor Osborn, of Columbia College, in 
opening the discussion, observed that natu- 
ralists were reacting fi-oni the discussion of 
theories towards the renewed inductive and 
experimental studj- of the factors of Evolu- 
tion. This was due to the feeling that the 
prolonged discussion led by Spencer and 
"Weismanu had assumed a largely deductive 
character and would not lead to any per- 
manent results. The inductive reaction 
had taken two directions : first towards 
the exact study of Variation, and second 
towards experimental Evolution. As re- 
gards Variation we should not expect to 
form anj' laws so long as variations were 
considered en masse without regard to the 
past and present history of the organisms 
studied. That organisms vary with their en- 
vironment is a truism. What we need is a 
clearer conception and interpretation of this 
relation as a basis for experimental study 
in the laboratory and in the field. The first 
misconception to be removed is that which 
has sprung up from the misuse of the terms 
Heredity and Variability. Niigeli pointed 
out many years ago as Weismanu and 
Hurst have insisted more recently that 
Heredity includes one phenomenon seen 
from two sides which maj' convenient Ij" be 
termed Repetition and Variation. A large 
number of the variations recorded by Bate- 
son, for example, are simple repetitions of 
ancestral structure, and every new variation 
is to be regarded as the expression of here- 
ditarj' forces working under new conditions. 
The first object of investigation is to decide 
the time of oriijin of a variation, first in race 
historj-, second in individual history. Vari- 
ations which arise as practical repetitions 
of past experience may conveniently be 
termed ^palingenic,' while those which are 
new to the organism may be termed -ceno- 
ijenic' As regards individual history the 
most important ([uestion is to determine 



36 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 2. 



whether a variation is merely 'ontogenic,' 
that is springing up in the course of indi- 
vidual development from some disturbance 
of the hereditary mechanism, or 'phjlogenic^ 
and constant as distinguished by Nageli. 
From recent study of palingenic variation 
we must recast our conception of Heredity 
especially in view of the remai-kable re- 
searches of Cunningham upon the color, 
and of Agassiz, Giard and Filhol upon the 
sjrmmetry of the flat fishes (Pleuronec- 
tidse). These characters of enormous an- 
tiquity, summoned as it were from the vasty 
deep, reveal the law that repetition or vari- 
ation in ontogeny depend largely upon 
repetition or variation in environment, that 
for many of the most fundamental charac- 
ters, development and environment are 
inseparable and all theories which tend to 
separate the tv\'0 are untenable. As regards 
cenogenic variations or those which are 
new in the experience of the organism, the 
distinction between ontogenic variations, or 
what are commonly called acquired chara- 
cters, and phylogenic variations is also of 
pressing importance. The organism may 
be compared to a clock, keeping regular time 
upon a base ; if the base is tilted slightly 
the clock may continue to tick but it may 
not keep the same time ; if after the lapse 
of a long period the base is restored to its 
original position the clock will tick in cor- 
rect time as before. This thought shows 
that the conditions which have been de- 
manded as crucial tests of the permanent 
phylogenic influence of environment upon 
organisms will be very difficult to fulfill in 
experiment — when the repetition of a meso- 
zoic environment is found to produce a repe- 
tition of a mesozoic structure. Experiment 
should now be directed separately iipon 
each of the four stages of development 
(germ cell, fertilization, embryonic, larval 
and adult) and then withdi'awn, and put- 
ting together the results of all the work 
which has been recently done of this kind 



we find three classes of variation phenomena 
coming to the surface ; first 'palingenic 
variations,' second 'saltations,' thu-d 'onto- 
genic adaptions' (Haeckel); fourth a class 
of 'phylogenic variations' which have been 
termed 'mutations' by some jjaleontologists. 
We are so far from a sohition of the work- 
ing causes of these four classes of variation 
that it seems best to consider that we are 
on the threshold of the Evolution Problem, 
to take an entirely agnostic or doubtful posi- 
tion as to all the prevalent theories, and press 
forward in strictly inductive search for laws 
which maj' not be forthcoming imtil the 
next centviry. 

Professor Edmund B. Wilson, of Columbia 
College, followed with a discussion of the 
influence of the environment on the early 
stages of embryonic development. That a 
change of external conditions, such as tem- 
perature, chemical nature of the medium and 
the like, causes changes in the rate or form 
of development has long been a familiar 
fact, but we have only recently come to per- 
ceive clearly how significant are the changes 
thus broiight about and how vital is the part 
played by the environment in all develop- 
ment, whether pathological or normal. For 
if a changed mode of development is the 
' result ' of a change of envu-onment, the 
normal development must in exactly the 
same sense be the ' result ' of the normal en- 
vironment, i. e., in both cases we are deal- 
ing with a definite phj^siological response of 
the idioplasm to external conditions. The 
facts both of normal and of experimental 
embryology demonstrate the justness of this 
point of view. The experiments of Pfliiger, 
Driesch, Eoux and others show, for instance, 
that the forms of cleavage may be pro- 
foundljr altered by mechanical means, and 
indicate that some of the normal fundamen- 
tal cleavage-forms are the direct result of 
mechanical conditions, such as the shape of 
the egg, pressure of the membranes, surface 
tensions between the blastomeres, and the 



January 11, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



37 



like. Temperature has a profound efl'ect 
not only on the rate of development, but 
also on its form. Thus Driesch showed 
that the eggs of sea-urchins when incu- 
bated at a temperature sliglitly above the 
normal undergo remarkable changes. The 
form of cleavage may be considerably al- 
tered (without affecting the end result of 
development), and the gastrulation may be 
profoundly affected. In some cases ' exo- 
gastruhe ' are formed, the archenteron be- 
ing turned out instead of in, and these 
undergo all the normal differentiations of 
the Pliiteu!', though they ultimately perish 
since the alimentary canal is turned inside 
out and the larva' are incapable of taking 
food. Other physical agents siich as gravity 
have been shown to have a profound effect 
on development, determining the position 
of roots and branches in hydroids (Loeb), 
or even the polar differentiation of the egg 
as in the frog (Ptliiger, Born, etc.). 

The most remarkalile and significant ex- 
amples of environmental influence are, how- 
ever, found in the effect of change in the 
chemical environment. In the case of sea- 
urchins Ponchet and Chabry found that in 
sea-water deprived of calcareous matter the 
Plutem larva is unal>le to develop its spicu- 
lar skeleton, and Herbst showed that the 
same result was produced hy a very slight 
excess of potassium chloride in the water 
even though the normal amount of calcare- 
ous matter were present. In both cases the 
larvic not onlj^ fail to develop spicules, but 
are unable to produce the characteristic 
ciliated arms. Thus arises a larva having 
a simple ciliated belt and verj' .similar to 
a j'oung Tornaria. This is a very instruct- 
ive case : for it shows in the first place that 
a definite character (formation of the skele- 
ton) has a fundamental though verj- subtle 
relation to the external environment, and 
in the second place, that this relation indi- 
i-ectly extends to other characters (ciliated 
arms) that follow upon the development of 



the fii-st character. Such cases pave the 
way to a rational conception of epigenesis. 
by sliowing the multijilication of effecjts in 
ontogeny and the complicated results that 
may follow from a single and api)arently 
insignificant condition of the environment. 

Even more striking results are those ob- 
tained (by Herbst) by the addition of a 
minute percentage of lithium chloride to 
the sea-water. The primary result is to 
cause exogastrulation (like the effect of 
raised temperature). Beyond this, how- 
ever, the entoderm area (i. e., archenteric re- 
gion) often becomes abnormallj- large. The 
entoderm may then be reduced to a mere 
knob consisting of only a few cells, or may 
even disappear altogether so that a blastula 
is formed that conskts entirely of entoderm ! 
This extraordinary result, if it can be ac- 
cepted, shows that even so fundamental a 
process as the differentiation of the germ- 
layers stands in a vital relation to the 
chemical environment. It is a revelation 
of the importance of environmental influ- 
ences in development and it shows that we 
must readjust our conceptions not only of 
development but also of inheritance, of 
which development is an expression. Our 
attention has been focussed too closely upon 
the formal mori)hological aspect of develop- 
ment which we have regiirded too largely 
as the result of a prc-organized germ- 
plasm operating like a machine. Embryo- 
logical development must be thoroughly re- 
examined from a physiological point of 
view, full weight being given to the essen- 
tial part played by the environment. This 
point of view in no way sets aside the ne- 
cessity of assuming a specifically oi-ganized 
germ-i)lasm for every species as the basis 
of inheritance. It simplifies the problem, 
however, and opens the way for further in- 
vestigation, which is practically barred liy 
the artificial and foi-mal theories of devel- 
opment advocated by Roux and Weismann. 

The third pajjcr read was by Professor 



38 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 2. 



W. K. Brooks, of the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. The subject was: An Intrinsic 
Error in the Theories of Galton and Weisniann. 
It will be published in full later. The 
principal point taken was against the theory 
of variation springing from a mixture of an- 
cestral characters. It was shown that manj'' 
lines of descent maj^ arise from a verj' small 
number of parents and represent a slender 
thread, consisting of very few strands, manj^ 
individuals of the same species having an 
identical remote ancestry. In other words, 
sexual environment instead of being unlim- 
ited is very narrow, and as we pass back- 
wards the number of ancestors increases 
rapidty for a number of generations, and then 
decreases instead of increasing indefinitely. 
The causes of variation are therefore to be 
sought rather in modern conditions of organ- 
isms than in the remote past. 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam, of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, contri- 
buted an exhibition and discussion of a 
beautiful series of mammal and bird tj^Des 
exhibiting protective coloring and a number 
of dynamic variations. The origin of pro- 
tective colors is to be sought in fortuitous 
vax-iation preserved by selection. The the- 
ory of the direct action of environment in 
modifying color as in the bleached tj^pes of 
the desert regions is not borne out by obser- 
vations and is disproved in the case of noc- 
turnal types. A second and distinct class 
of facts comes under the head of Dynamic 
Variation, and to this class we refer to 
modifications of the beak, of the feet and 
limbs as due primarily to the habits and 
activities of the animals themselves. 

At the close of the afternoon session, Pro- 
fessor E. B. Wilson, of Columbia College, 
exhibited by means of the stereopticon, lan- 
tern slides, 23i"epared fi-om photographs 
taken from sections, illustrating the cytolo- 
gical changes during maturation, fecunda- 
tion, and segmentation. The different ef- 
fects of the various killing, fixing and stain- 



ing agents upon the ultimate details of cell- 
structure, were admirablj' brought out. 

At eight o'clock the Society had the 
pleasure of listening to Professor William 
Libbey, of Princeton, who told of his expe- 
riences during Two Months in Greenland. 
The lecture was illustrated by a large num- 
ber of magnificent views of Polar Scenery. 

After the lecture the members were en- 
tertained by the authorities of the Johns 
Hoi^kins University and the citizens of Bal- 
timore at a most pleasant assembly in Mc- 
Coy Hall. 

The Society reassembled at nine o'clock 
on Friday morning, Dec. 2Sth. 

OfBcers for the year 1895 were chosen as 
follows : 

President — Professor E. D. Cope, Univer- 
sity of Pennsj^lvania. 

Vice Fresidents — Professors Wm. Libbey, 
Jr., Princeton University ; W. G. Farlow, 
Harvard University; C. O. Whitman, Chi- 
cago Universitj'. 

Secretary — Professor H. C. Bumpus, Brown 
University. 

Treasurer — Doctor E. G-. Gardiner, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

Committee-at-Large — Professors E. B. Wil- 
son, Columbia College ; W. H. Howell, 
Johns Hopkins University. 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in the Society : 

William Ashmead, U. S. Dept. Agricul- 
ture, Washington ; Severance Burrage, 
Mass. Inst. Tech., Boston; W. E. Castle, 
Harvard University ; H. E. Chapin, Uni- 
versitj^ of Ohio, Athens, Ohio ; J. E. Hum- 
phrey, Johns Hopkins University ; M. M. 
Metcalf, Woman's College, Baltimore; H. 
C. Porter, University of Pennsylvania ; W. 
H. C. Pynchon, Trinity College, Hartford ; 
Charles Schuchert, U. S. ISTational Museum; 
Norman Wyld, late of Bristol, England. 

The report of the Treasurer showing a 
balance of somewhat over $200 was ac- 
cepted by the Society. 



Jasuauy 11, 1895.] 



SCIE.\'CE. 



39 



The Society, on motion of Professor 15iini- 
pns, appropriated a sum not to exceed §130 
to equip the American tabU^ at the Xaples 
Station witli proper microtomes, and a com- 
mittee of three was appointed to attend to 
this nuitter. 

Professor J. S. Kingsley detaih'd a • l)il)- 
liographieal project ' originating with Pro- 
fessor (i. W. Fiehl of Brown University. 
Tliis i)ropo.ses to put into tlio hands of 
workers in zooh)gy a bibliography of cur- 
rent literature, in such a form as to be 
readily accessible, the latter to be readilj- 
combined with the earlier, and to present 
the matter both as to subjects and as to 
authors. By a vote of the Society, a com- 
mittee of five was appointed to consider 
this ' project ' and to report in print both 
in Science and in The American Xattind- 
iW. 

President (iilman. in a very pleasant and 
cordial way. then welcomed the memljers 
of the visiting societies to Baltimore, speak- 
ing on behalf of the authorities of the Johns 
Hopkins University and of the citizens of 
Baltimore. 

Pr(>sideut Minot chose for the subject of 
his address 'The Work of the XafKralid in the 
U'orl'L' The object of the naturalist is to 
discover the truth about nature and to pub- 
lish the results of his work to the world. 
The conditions of success are readily to be 
observed. First and foremo.st is truth. The 
naturalist's first business is to get at the 
truth, and the obstacles which stand most 
prominently in liis way are : ( 1 ) the limita- 
tions of his own abilities, and (2) the limi- 
tations of accessories for carrying on his 
work. The naturalist must observe, experi- 
ment and reason, and his training must 
necessarily be along these lines. Experi- 
mentation is necessarily more diHicult than 
observation, for in the former case the 
naturalist asks why, not how. The gi-eat 
work of the future, as is already being 
shown, is to be done by the experimenters. 



Oui- notion of ca\isation is still in a very 
rudimentary condition. 

Again, the reasoning faculty is one of our 
weakest points. The naturalist must learn 
to carefully distinguish between discussion 
and controversy, and while being led and 
taught to indulge freelj- in the former witli 
all the intelligence at his command, he must 
also be taught to avoid the latter. 

The naturalist is naturally exposed to 
many evils, such as this matter of contro- 
versy, which tend to cause liim to depart 
from his proper mission, viz.. of getting at 
the truth. He is especially likely to be led 
astray by impatience to get results. Pre- 
liminary communications are a very great 
as well as a very i)revalent e\il. The opin- 
ion of the sjtcaker was very pronouncedly 
adverse to this form of publication. The 
greed for priority leads many even lin" 
workers far asti-ay. 

The tendency to speculate is a third evil, 
and this has perhaps reached its culmina- 
tion in tlie doctrines of Weismann. An- 
other evil is the one which leads us to ac- 
cept too readily simple and well tini.shed 
conceptions. Herljert SjK'ncer furnishes us 
with an illustrious example of the effects of 
this. 

In the matter of publication, four classes 
may be distinguished: (1.) Original Memoirs; 
(2. ) Handbooks; (3.) Text Books ; (4.) Bihlio- 
graphies. The last three are important 
both in form and in the matter. The first 
are like digestive organs. It is theii' func- 
tion to assimilate crude facts and render 
them digestible. Advice to prune and di- 
gest such matter for publication is much 
needed. Details not bearing directly uj^on 
the subject sliould be carefully excluded. 
Most original papers could be • boiled 
down ' to one half, and some even to one 
tenth of the amount that is i-eally published. 
The English wiite best and this may be 
owing to the example of Huxley. The 
Ciermans and .\mericans who cojiy after 



40 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 



them come next, and the French are the 
greatest sinners in the matter of vei'biage. 

The eifect of the work of the naturalist 
upon his own character is especially shown 
in his optimism. Literary men seem much 
inclined to grow pessimistic. This point is 
well illustrated by a comparison of the re- 
cently published letters of Asa Gray and of 
James Eussell Lowell. Lowell's letters 
show increasing pessimistic views toward 
the end of his life, while those of Gray re- 
main uniformly optimistic. Something of 
this was iindoubtedlj^ due to the different 
temperaments of the two men, but much 
was also due to the different nature of their 
work. Gray could always see new things 
unfolding before him. 

One drawback in the naturalist's life is 
his comparative loneliness and isolation. 
Seldom has he in his own neighborhood an- 
other interested in the same particular line 
as himself. Eeunions of natui'alist societies, 
such as those at the time meeting in Balti- 
more, counteract this to a considerable ex- 
tent, but there is need of even greater affili- 
ation. 

The influence of the naturalist upon man- 
kind in the way of teaching them compe- 
tence had not been considered sufiiciently. 
In political questions competencj'^ comes in, 
and the solution of much of our present 
ti'ouble lies not so much in restricting the 
right to vote as it does in restricting the 
right to become a candidate. We, as na- 
turalists and as citizens, should uphold com- 
petence. Our schools, even the best of 
them, judging by their results, do not edu- 
cate properly. The naturalist should see 
to it that our schools educate, with science 
in its proper place. It is the duty of the 
naturalist to advance the development of 
the university. The schools use elementary 
knowledge to advance the mind in acquisi- 
tiveness, and the college uses advanced 
knowledge in the same way, but the uni- 
versitj' attempts to advance the mind in 



independent work, to develop and discipline 
origiualitj'. 

To carrj' on its proper work the univer- 
sity needs a lai'ge endowment, at least $10,- 
000,000. It is not possible to teach zoology 
unless the proper instruments and books 
are provided. The university, above all, 
needs proper professors. The qualifications 
of a professor in a iiniversity should be : (1) 
the ability to carry on original researches 
himself, and (2) to train others to carry 
out original work. 

The annual discussion on ' Laboratory 
Teaching of Large Classes ' followed Pro- 
fessor Minot's address. Professor Alpheus 
Hyatt, of the Boston Society of Natural 
History, introduced the subject somewhat 
as follows : 

Teaching has two objects in view : (1) to 
train the faculties of individuals, and (2) to 
increase the store of information. The im- 
portance in laboratory teaching of bringing 
the pupil into contact with the organisms 
themselves is absolutely necessary. The 
term, ' large classes,' is relative. It may 
mean twenty, thirty, forty, up to several 
hundred. In teaching large classes, there 
must be taken into account the matter of 
division into sections, rooms, assistants, ap- 
paratus, etc. The first point to be insisted 
upon is the matter of personal contact be- 
tween the pupils and the instructors. In 
experience with Boston teachers, the classes 
numbered five hundred. Tables were pro- 
vided for the whole number, and on these 
tables were placed the trays of specimens^ 
on which the exercise was to be given. The 
specimens were thus arranged l^efore the 
exercises by assistants. The lecturer then 
proceeded to demonstrate the various points 
upon his own specimens, and the j)upils fol- 
lowed him bj^ working out the same points 
on the specimens in the tray. The speci- 
mens kept the lecturer down to his subject 
and also kept the pupils at work. Of course 
the field was necessarily limited. 



JAXIAKY 11, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



41 



The initial cxpi'uso for providing the ma- 
terial was small, l)eing about SIO for geo- 
logy, S15 for botany, and S25 for zoology. 
Diagrams and crayon sketches, magnifying 
glasses, and various methods of a simple 
kind were made use of. These methods 
were afterwards used with smaller sections 
with even more satisfactory results. Ex- 
aminations were given to test the pupils' 
proficiency, not only in knowledge of the 
subject but also of methods of study. For 
this purpose test objects were given the pu- 
pils to examine and describe. At the close 
of his paper. Professor Hyatt exhibited 
some specimens of these examinations. 

Professor H, C. Bumpus, of Bro-mi Uni- 
versity, spoke upon the subject from the 
zoological point of view. The value of 
laboratory work depends largely upon good 
material, which should be supplied in abund- 
ance and in excellent condition. At the 
present time there is no excuse for supply- 
ing poor or scanty material, since abundance 
of excellent material can be obtained at 
small cost. The importance of having the 
best dissections and best drawings obtain- 
able in the laboratory itself cannot be over- 
estimated. It does not induce the laziness 
and attempts at shirking that seem to be 
the fear of so many teachers. If the student 
desires to cojjv a line dissection he is to be 
encouraged to do so, and any teacher can 
readily detect the sketches copied from a 
chart or diagram. The speaker said also 
that he had found it an excellent plan in 
certivin dithcult cases to supply blanks 
on which the outlines of important struc- 
tures were laid down, the details to be 
added by the pupil. A printed outline of 
the order of work, directions for manipula- 
tion, and questions to be answered from the 
specimens are a great help. The need of 
competent assistants is obvious. 

The botanical side of the question w^as 
considered in a jiaper by Professor W, F, 
Ganong, of .Smith College, The experience 



given w'as obtained in managing clas.ses of 
about 200 men at Harvard, and the plan 
given was worked out under the guidance 
of Professor (J, L, Goodale, The conditions 
under which the instruction was under- 
taken were : ( 1 ) The classes were too large 
for individual teaching bj' the instructor; 
(2) laboratory hours must be adjusted to 
other academic work, to insuflicient ac- 
commodations, and sometimes even to yet 
other considerations ; (.3) many .students of 
diverse attainments must be taught how to 
work and to think scientificall}', and must 
be kept progressing together through the 
stages of a logically gi'aded course, and (4) 
large quantities of special material must be 
provided for at unfavorable seasons. 

In conducting such classes competent 
assistants were necessary, each to have not 
more than twenty men under him, and 
these were to remain under his special 
charge throughout the course. Such as- 
sistants may be readily recruited in any 
large university where there are special 
students doing advanced work. The assist- 
ants met the instructor to talk over plans 
and details of coming work. Uniformity of 
plan was insisted upon, but details of me- 
thod were left to the assistant. The in- 
structor did not devote himself to any one 
section, but visited each one as often as was 
possible. Weekly guides were printed for 
the use of the student, indicating the points 
to be studied, their relative importance, and 
any necessary information given. They 
were intended to supply just enough data 
to enable the student to progress to correct 
conclusions. 

The materials required ^vere arranged in 
the coui-se, so tiiat in the winter such tilings 
as could be grown easily or jjrocured out of 
doors, as seeds, seedlings and buds, came 
first, and then followed the succession of 
opening buds, leaves, flowers and fruit made 
accessible l)y the advance of spring. In other 
words, the time of giving tlie course and the 



42 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 2. 



gi'Oiiping of the subjects was so arranged 
that the material for each subject was in 
proper condition when it came before the 
class. Some of the weekly guides accom- 
panied the paper, for examination. 

Discussions were presented by Professors 
H. W. Conn, Marcella O'Grady, E. S. Morse 
and C. S. Minot, and the additional fact was 
brought out that a good synoptic collection 
was a desirable feature of the laboratory 
equipment, in order that the pupil might 
not have too narrow a view of each group 
of organisms, such as he is likely to carry 
away fi-om the study of a single type. 

After jjassing a vote of thanks to the au- 
thorities of the University, the citizens of 
Baltimore and the University Club for the 
hospitality extended to it, the Society ad- 
journed. 

The annual dinner of the affiliated So- 
cieties took place at ' The Stafford ' at 7 :30 
on Friday evening. No set toasts were 
given, but informal speeches formed a very 
pleasurable close to this rexinion. 

W. A. Setchell, Secretary. 

Yale Univeesity. 



THE PRINCETON MEETING OF THE AMERI- 
CAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The third annual meeting of The Ameri- 
can Psychological Association was held at 
Princeton College on Thursday and Friday, 
December 27th and 2Stli, under the presi- 
dency of Professor William James, of Har- 
vard University. P.sychology is the j'oung- 
est and likewise one of the most vigorous 
of the sciences. Although the Association 
is small, consisting of those only who are 
actively engaged in psj^chological investi- 
gation, and the members are widely scat- 
tered, there were sixteen papers read, ex- 
clusive of those presented in the absence of 
their authors. Indeed, the only drawback 
to the pleasure of the meeting was the fact 
that the program was so crowded that there 
was not sufficient time for discussion and 



social intercourse. The short intervals be- 
tween the meetings were, however, pleas- 
antly filled, owing to the hospitality of 
President Patton and Professor Baldwin, 
and the excellent accommodations of the 
Princeton Inn. 

The Association was welcomed to Prince- 
ton by President Patton in a fitting address 
in which he alluded to the importance of 
such meetings, not only for the advance- 
ment of science, but also for the cultivation 
of inter-university friendliness, to the death 
and life-work of President McCosh, and to 
the prominent place always given to philo- 
sophy and psychology at Princeton. 

The palmers presented covered a wide 
range of psychological topics. Experimen- 
tal psj'chology proper was not so fullj^ rep- 
resented as in the Philadelphia and New 
York meetings, owing to the detention of 
several members, but all the communica- 
tions were strictly scientific in method. 

The fii'st paper. Minor Studies and Appa- 
ratus, by Professor Sanford, was, indeed, of 
purely experimental character, coming from. 
Clark University, where President Hall has 
given such a prominent place to experi- 
mental psj^chology. Professor Sanford first 
showed charts demonstrating that the reti- 
nal fields for color are relatively smaller in 
the case of children than in the case of 
adults. In the second study he reported 
experiments on the accuracj^ with which an 
observer can distinguish bj^ different senses 
which of two stimuli is first presented. A 
flash of light is perceived relative^ earlier 
than a sound — contrary to results formerly 
published by Exner. In a third study pri- 
mary memory was investigated. In a fourth 
study questions were asked students con- 
cerning the confusion of related ideas, for 
example : — How do you distinguish your 
right from j'our left hand ? How do you call 
up a forgotten name ? How do you collect 
the attention '? AVhat were yonr favorite 
games when a child '? What is the earliest 



Ja.niary 11, ISil."..] 



SCIENCE. 



43 



thing yon can renieniijcr and how old were 
you? The distinction between motor and 
sensoiy types and other psychological ([ues- 
tious were discussed in connection with the 
answers, and tlie method of securing mental 
statistics by asking ((uestions was criti- 
cized. In conclusion, an instrument was 
shown for presenting objects alternately to 
each eye, and charts and photographs illus- 
trating illusions of size, Listing's Law 
and the Horopter. These studies will be 
published in the forthcoming number of the 
American Journal of P^i/chology. 

Professor Ormond. Professor Baldwin and 
others took part in the discussion that fol- 
lowed the reading of the paper. The dis- 
cussion of the diH'erent papers was of nearly 
as great interest as the papers themselves, 
but to report it would carry us too far into 
details. 

The second paper was on The Psychic De- 
velopment of Young AnimaU and its Physical 
Correlation, by Professor T. Wesley Mills, 
of McGill University. The speaker em- 
phasized the importance of comparative and 
genetic psychology — that is the study of 
the mental life of the lower animals and of 
children. He had observed the dog, cat, 
rabbit, guinea-pig and birds. They were 
watched from their birth, and notes were 
made several times during the day. The 
method was emphasized rather than the 
results, which Avill be published later. 

Following Professor Mills" paper was one 
0)1 the Distribution of Exceptional Ability, by 
Professor Cattell. The speaker explained 
how he had selected the 1.000 most eminent 
men by an objective method, and how this 
enabled him to measure and express num- 
erically their mental traits. Curves were 
shown giving the time and racial distribu- 
tion of great men. These demonstrate the 
rise and fall of leading tendencies in the 
past, and enable us, to a certain extent, to 
predict tlie course of civilization in the 
future. 



Dr. A. Macdonald,of the IJureau of Edu- 
cation, presented a report on fien.ntivenei''i 
to Pain. He exhibited the in.strument used 
and describeil his method for measur- 
ing sensitiveness to pain. Women ai-e more 
sensitive than men in the ratio of 7 : 5. 
^len taken from the street are not half so 
sensitive to pain as professional men. 
Americans are more sensitive than Phiglish- 
men or Germans. The right-hand side of 
the body is less sensitive than the left-hand 
side. Some instruments for anthropometric 
tests were also exhibited and described. 

At the close of the morning session 
Brother Chrysostom. of Manhattan College, 
read a paper on Freedom of the Will. This 
time-honored problem was discussed from 
the point of view of St. Thomas Ariuinas, 
with due recognition of recent writers. 
The Catholic Church certainly deserves 
honor for finding or putting modern science 
in the works of the great Schoolman. 

The afternoon session was opened by the 
longest and most carefully prepared paper 
of the meeting. Consciousness of Identity and 
So- Called Double Consciousncs, by Professor 
Ladd. of Yale University. Professor Ladd 
began by defining identity in material 
things and in minds. Changes heighten 
rather than diminish the consciousness of 
identity. A metaphysical ego is not needed 
— minds vary in their unity and reality. 
Doul)le consciousness and hypnotic states 
should be treated in their relations to nor- 
mal mental life, as it is not likely that the 
principle of continuity is violated in this 
case. Psychical automatism should be care- 
fully studied — a man is not onlj^ that of 
which he is conscious. We can consider 
our automaton as well as our ego ; one or 
the other may be predominant : they may 
be in conilict or act in cooperation. The 
automaton is evident in our daily life — in 
games, in dreams, in dramatic composition 
and acting, in prophecy. Ethically con- 
sidered, a man is usually two or three, 



44 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 2. 



rather than one — hence the categorical im- 
perative of Kant. The sanest minds are at 
times divided into two or m.ore selves, as 
much as are the most extreme cases of hj'j)- 
notic or pathological double-consciousness. 
Prof. Ladd's paper is included in his forth- 
coming work on Psj'chology, in the press of 
Charles Scribner's Sons. It excited much 
discussion and some criticism. 

The remainder of the session was taken 
up by a paper on A Preliminary Report and 
Observations on a Research into the Psychology 
of Imitation by Professor Eoyce, of Harvard 
University. He began by noting the diffi- 
culty of defining imitation from other men- 
tal functions. He then described experi- 
ments now in progress in the psychologi- 
cal laboratory of Harvard UniversitJ^ An 
observer listens to a rhythmic series of 
taps which are later repeated or imitated 
\>y movements. The record was taken on a 
kymograph, and the impressions of the ob- 
servers were noted and studied. The objec- 
tive records have not been collated, but 
Professor Eoyce reported the subjective 
state as described by the observer, and its 
variations with different rhythms. In fur- 
ther discussion of the subject Professor 
Eoyce considered different kinds of imita- 
tion, and their relation to the rest of mental 
life and to the physical organism. The 
subject of imitation has recently become 
prominent and is evidently of the utmost 
importance in social psychology — ^not only 
the development of the child but also the 
thoughts, feelings and actions of men de- 
pend largely, if not chiefly, on imitation, 
and our theoretical knowledge has impor- 
tant practical applications. 

The address of the President, Professor 
James, of Harvard University, occupied 
the evening session. The subject, 37te Unity 
of Consciousness, was treated with the speak- 
er's unvarying clearness and literarj^ skill. 
Professor James once said that meta- 
physics in a natm-al scieuce ' spoils two 



good things,' but no natural science, be it 
physics or psychologj^, can draw a sharp 
line between its facts and its philosophy. 
It is also worth noting that what the phy- 
sicist considers part of his science may be 
regarded as metaphj'^sics by the psycholo- 
gist, and conversely. The question of the 
unity of consciousness is, perhaps, as much 
a part of scientific psychology as the doc- 
trine of the conservation of enery is a part 
of the science of physics. Professor James' 
address was largely made up of a review of 
the various theories proposed to account for 
the prmciple of union in the mind when 
many objects, susceptible upon occasion of 
being known separately, are brought to- 
gether in the mind and knowm all at once. 
The Associationists say that the ' ideas ' 
of several objects 'combine.' The Anti- 
Associationists say that such a process of 
self-compounding of ideas is incomprehen- 
sible, and that they mu.st be combined by a 
higher synthetic principle, the Soul, the 
Ego, or what not. The speaker expressed 
dissatisfaction witli the both these views. 
He said that his own aversion to the doc- 
trine of the ' Soul ' rested on an ancient 
prejudice, of which he could give no fully 
satisfactorjf account to himself, and he com- 
plimented Professor Ladd, of Yale, for his 
continued loyaltj^ to this unpoijular princi- 
ple. Even Professor Ladd in his book pre- 
fers to speak of ' Soul ' by some paraphrase 
such as ' real spiritual being.' Within the 
bounds of the psychological professor the 
' Soul ' is not popular to-day. Professor 
James conceived liis problem as that of how 
we can ' know things together,' and in the 
first half of his address he incidentally said 
a good deal about knowledge. To the jjop- 
ular mind all knowledge involves a sort of 
mutual presence or absence as regards the 
object and the mind, which is treated as 
very mysterious. Professor James expelled 
this mystery from most cases of knowledge. 
He found the mystery of presence or ab- 



Jaxtary 11, 1893.] 



SCIENCE. 



45 



seiu-e, however, to ahiile in one little fact, 
from which it cannot be driven, and that is 
the verj' smallest pnlse of consciousness, 
which always is consciousness of cliange. 
Tiie present moment is no fact of experience; 
it is only a mathematical postulate, and the 
minimum real experience gives us a passing 
moment, in which a going and a coming 
fact meet on equal terms, and what was is 
known in one indivisible act with what 
does not quite yet exist. This is the origi- 
nal type both of our knowing at all and of 
knowing of things together, according to the 
speaker. He said there was no use trying 
to explain it, for it was the fundamental 
element of all experience. But we might 
seek to determine the exact conditions that 
decide what particular objects should be 
known together, and to this inquiry the end 
of tlieadcb-ess was devoted. Various phys- 
iological, psychological and purely spiritual 
theories of the conditions were reviewed, 
without the speaker saying which one he 
fa\ored. He hoped, however, that his re- 
marks might stimulate inquiry which should 
tiear fruit at the meeting next year. He 
closed with a modification of one of the 
most important doctrines of his own book 
on psychology, which in that state of mind, 
subjectively considered, ought not to be 
called complex at all. He admitted them 
to be complex, but is as far as ever from al- 
lowing the complexity to be described in 
the usually accejited way of the Associa- 
tional school. The address will be printed 
in full in the March number of The P.-iiicho- 
loyiral lievicw. 

The morning session of the second daj' 
was taken' up bj' five papers on pleasure, 
l)ain and the emotions, and in the afterno(m 
when the pa])ei-s of the program liad l)een 
read, the discussion returned to this subject 
and was carried on with much eagerness to 
tiie moment of adjournment. The papei's 
were The Clamjicatioii of Pleasure and Pain, 
By Prof. Charles A. Strong, of the Univei-sitj' 



of Chicago ; .1 Theory of Emotions from the 
Phy.<i<)logical Htftinlpoint, by Prof. G. H. 
Mead, of the Univei'sity of Chicago ; De- 
dre, by Dr. D. S. Miller, of Bryn Mawr 
College ; Pleamre and Pain Defined, by 
Prof. S. E. Mezes, of the Univei-sity of 
Texas ; Pleasure-Pain versus Emotion, by 
Mr. H. R. Marshall. 

It would not be easy to give an abstract 
of these papers that would be intelligible to 
men of science working in other depart- 
ments — indeed, the mose careful attention 
was demanded of the audience. The kind 
of psj-ehology presented is a develoi)meut of 
descriptive psychology which may be called 
analytic psychology — a subject best repre- 
sented in English by Dr. Ward's able but 
difficult article on Pfijchologn, in the Encyclo- 
piedia Britannica. The question of the emo- 
tions and their expi-ession has recently be- 
come prominent in psychological discussion 
— witness the articles on the subject by 
Professors James, Baldwin and Dewey in 
the last three numbers of the Psychological 
Ilevieiv. Pi-ofe.ssor James' original the- 
ory that the mental state is rather the re- 
sult of the ' expression ' than that the ex- 
pression is caused by the mental state is 
pretty well made out. The theory, to put 
the matter most bluntly, says that, " we 
feel sorrj' because we crj', angry because 
we strike, afraid because we tremble, and 
not that we cry, strike or tremble, because 
we are sorrj', angry or fearful, as the case 
may be." Darwin's work, for example, 
should not be called The E.vpression of the 
Emotions. The movements are not caused 
by the emotions, but are aroused reflexly bj' 
the object, and are or have been useful. 
Thus tbe animal in the presence of its 
enemy may feign death or run awaj- as will 
best contribute to its chances of escape, and 
a num may be • paralyzed ' bj' fear or flee 
according to circumstances. A man sneers 
because his ancestois were preparing to 
bite. The mental emotion results from 



46 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 2. 



movements and other changes in the body, 
being largely due to altered blood supply 
and the Uke. 

Professor Strong's paper treated especi- 
ally the classification of pains, reviewing 
the evidence in favor of special nerves for 
pain and the distinction between pain and 
distress (the German Schmertz and Un- 
litst). Mr. Mead emphasized the impor- 
tance of vaso-motor changes for pleasure 
and pain, attributing pleasure to increased 
blood supply and assimilation. Dr. Miller 
argued that desire is the essence of pleas- 
ure, and Mr. Marshall discussed the rela- 
tions of pain, pleasure and emotion. It is 
interesting to note how even descriptive and 
analytic psj^chology is influenced by a 
psycho-physical point of view. Professor 
James a^tly concluded the discussion by 
saying that such papers make us feel that 
we are in ' the place where psychology is 
being made.' 

At the opening of the fifth and concluding- 
session Professor Newbold read a paper 
entitled Notes on the Experimental Production 
of Illusions and Hallucinations. He reported 
that m twenty-two cases out of eighty-six 
tried, he had produced illusions by causing 
the patient to gaze into a transparent or 
reflecting medium, such as water, objects of 
glass and mu-rors. The phantasm usually 
appeared within five minutes, was preceded 
by cloudiness, colors or illumination of the 
medium, and varied from a dim outline to 
a brilliantly colored picture. These were 
often di-awn from the patient's recent visual 
experience, but were often unrecognized and 
sometimes fantastic. Successive images 
were usually related, if at all, by similarity, 
but often no relation was discoverable. 
The image was often destroyed by move- 
ments of the medium and by distracting 
sensory impressions and motor effort. The 
speaker was not inclined to regard the 
phantasms of the glass as demonstrating the 
existence of subconscious visual automa- 



tisms, but rather as illusions of the reco- 
gnized types. But he was not prepared to 
deny that visual automatism might in some 
cases exist and be traced in such pluintasms. 

Mr. Gritting, of Columbia College, de- 
scribed Experiments on Dermal Pain. The 
pressure just causing pain (in kg) was for 
boj's 4.8, for college students 5.1, for law 
students 7.8, for women 3.6. Experiments 
were also described giving the relations of 
area and duration and of velocity and mass 
for the pain threshold. These latter ex- 
periments are of special interest as determin- 
ing the correlation of quantities followed 
by a given mental result. 

The third paper of the session and last of 
the meeting was on Recent Advances in the 
Chemistry and Physiology of the Retina, by Mrs. 
Franklin, of Baltimore, who gave an ac- 
count of the recent experiments by Professor 
Konig on the absorption spectrum of the 
visual purple of the retina, and of her own 
experiments which demonstrated that the 
fovea is color-blind for blue. The recent 
experiments on vision, largely carried out 
in the laboratories of Berlin, are of great 
importance, and make all the older theories 
of color-vision inadequate. The theory 
proposed by Mrs. Franklin is undoubtedly 
more satisfactorj'- than any other, but even 
her theory meets difficulties in these new 
facts. 

At the business meeting of the Associa- 
tion Professor Cattell (Columbia) was el- 
ected President, and Professor Sanford 
(Clark), Secretary. Several new members 
were elected and a new constitution M'as 
adopted. Under this constitution a coun- 
cil of six members is prescribed, and Pro- 
fessoi's Ladd (Yale), Cattell (Columbia), 
James (Harvard), Bald\\'in (Princeton), 
Dewey (Chicago), and Fullerton (Pennsyl- 
vania) were elected. Probably the most 
important business before the meeting was 
the invitation of the American Society of 
Naturalists offering affiliation. It was de- 



JA.SIARY 11, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



47 



decided to meet next year, if possible, at tlie 

s;\me time and place as the Naturalists, 

and the Council was given power to decide 

the question of a closer affiliation. 

.J. McKekx Cattell, 

Secretary for ISO4. 
CoLi-MHiA College. 



CCEliKXT XOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY, NEW 

SERIES— I. 

THE • MISSING LINK ' FOUND AT LAST. 

No publication of late date is likely to 
excite more inteiH'st than a quarto of forty 
jiages which has just Iteen issued from the 
local press of Batavia, with tlie title, 'Pithe- 
canthropus Erectu.t. Eine Alenschenanliehe 
Uebertiintfj.ifonn aus Java. Von Eug. Dubois, 
Militiu-arzt der Niederland. Armee.' 

This noteworthy essay contains the de- 
tailed description of three fi-agments of three 
skeletons which have been found in the 
early i)leistocene strata of Java, and which 
introduce to us a new species, which is also 
a new genus and a new family, of the order 
of primates, placed Ijctween the *SVHi(((/(pand 
Homi)il(hr, — in other words, apparently sup- 
plying the • missing link ' between man and 
the higher apes wliich has so long and so 
anxiously been awaited. 

The material is sufficient for a close oste- 
ological comparison. The cubical capacity 
of tlie skull is about two-thirds that of 
the human average. It is distinctly doli- 
chocepalic. al)out 70° — and its norma verti- 
eaU-i astonishingly like that of the famous 
Neanderthal skull. The dental apparatus is 
still of the simian type, but less markedly 
.so than in other apes. The femora are sin- 
gularly human. They prove beyond doubt 
that this creature walked constantly on two 
legs, and when erect was quite equal in 
height to the average human male. Of 
the various ditlerences which separate it 
from the highest apes and the lowest men, 
it may be said that they bring it closer to 
the latter than to the former. 



One of the ln'arings of this discovery is 
upon the original birth-])Iace of the human 
race. The author believes that the steps in 
the immediate genealogy of our species were 
these: l'rothiiloliiitf--< : Anthropopithecii.-i Siral- 
eiisis: Pithecanthropu.i erectu«: and Homo sa- 
piens. This series takes us to the Indian 
faunal province and to the southern aspects 
of the great Himalayan chain, as the region 
somewhere in which our specific division 
of the great organic chain fii-st came into 
being. 

THE ANALOGIES OF RELIGIOUS SYMBOLISM. 

A LEARNED Hungarian lady, Madame 
Sofie von Torma, has lately published an 
interesting little work, a prologue to a large 
one, m which she points out a number of 
close analogies or even identities between 
the sjTubols and mythsof primitive peoples. 
Its title ' Ethiinc/raphische Analorjiern ; eiii 
Beitrug zur GestaltungB und Entwifhlungsge- 
schichfe der Religionen' (Jena, l.SO-l). 

Beginning with the study of local arclue- 
ology, she soon found that the analysis of 
her home relics took her back to ancient 
Arcadian and Egyptian i)rototypes. and the 
question arose, In what way were they re- 
lated? To this it is her intention to devote 
an extended research; and in the volume be- 
fore us, she states with force and brevity the 
many remarkabk' similarities she has noted, 
and presents the inquiries to which they 
give rise. The text is accompanied with 
127 illustrations. 

ETHNIC AFFILIATIONS OF THE JAPANESE. 

Aftek a great deal of rambling discussicm 
as to the ethnic rclaticmship of tlie Japanese, 
it is gratifying to find a writer who has 
touched bottom at last, and brings a satis- 
factory theory with plenty of good evidence 
to support it. Tlie writer is Dr. Heinrich 
Winkler, who, in his little pamj)hlet, Ja- 
paner nnd Altaier (Berlin, 1804), offi-i-s a 
solution of the ])roblem which is certainly 
Iwund to stand. 



48 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 2. 



He has studied the Japanese both from 
the anthropometric and the linguistic side. 
He points out that thej' present many and 
positive physical differences ii-om the 
Chinese type, and can not be classed as a 
Sinitic people. On the other hand, the 
measurements bring them into close paral- 
lellism with the northern Ural-Altaic peo- 
ples, to that gi-oup which includes the 
Samoyeds, the Finns, the Magyars and, in 
a less degree, the Tungoose. This affiliation 
is strikingly supported by a carefal com- 
parison of languages. There is not a 
marked morphological trait of the Japanese 
tongue which is not also found in this 
Sibiric group. Dr. Winkler rehearses them 
with brevity and force. What is more, in 
the opinion of some, the material portion of 
the language, its vocabulary and radicals, 
present so many identities with this Ural- 
Altaic group that their primitive oneness 
must be conceded. 

This, however, is not to be understood as 
if the Japanese was the Altaic Ursprache; 
but only as one of the children of a common 
mother, each of which has pursued inde- 
pendent lines of development, though al- 
ways retaining the family characteristics. 
D. G. Beinton. 

TJNIVEESITY of PENNSYLVAlSnA 



HYGIENE. 



THE NEW SERUM TREATMENT FOR DIPHTHERIA. 

By cultivating the specific bacillus of 
diphtheria in broth, there is developed in 
the liquid a peculiar product, which is 
known as the toxine of this bacillus. When 
an extensive growth of the bacillus has oc- 
curred, so that a considerable quantitj' of 
this toxine is developed, the fluid is filtered 
through a porcelain filter, which permits 
the sohible toxine to pass through, but re- 
tains the bacilli. 

If this filtered fluid is sufficiently strong, 
tV of a cubic centimeter of it will kill a 



guinea pig weighing 500 grammes, in from 
48 to 60 hours. The effect produced is in 
proportion to the quantity injected, just as 
for any chemical poison, differing in this 
respect from the action of a fluid containing 
the bacilli themselves, which might mul- 
tiply in the body. The bacilli in the fluid 
might be killed by heating, but this would 
also decompose the toxine ; hence the sepa- 
ration is effected by simple filtration, or by 
the addition of some substance like tricresol 
which will kill the bacilli without affecting 
the toxine. 

If small quantities of this toxine be in- 
jected under the skin of an animal, com- 
mencing with a dose which is not fatal and 
graduallj^ increasing it, the animal gi'adu- 
allj^ becomes immune to the effects of the 
poison and after several successive injec- 
tions can receive a very strong dose without 
injury. The blood serum of an animal thus 
rendered immime against diphtheria has 
the power to confer a similar immunity on 
other animals if given in suificient quantity 
in one dose, thus dojing away with the need 
for the repeated and carefully graduated 
injections required to produce immunity in 
the first animal. 

To obtain such an anti-diphtheritic serum 
to be used on man, a horse is injected with 
the solution of toxine, commencing with 
from 2 to 5 cubic centimeters and increasing 
the dose at intervals until within three 
months as much as 250 cubic centimeters 
may be injected without producing any se- 
rious effect. The horse is more resistant 
than many other animals to the action of 
the diphtheritic poison, being naturally 
someAvhat immune. The blood serum of the 
horse produces no harmful etFects on man, 
if injected in small doses, and it can readily 
be obtained in considerable quantities with- 
out killing the animal. 

This serum, taken from a horse which 
has thus been rendered immune, will not 
only produce a temporary immunity in man 



Janvary 11, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



49 



against the diphtlu'ritif poison, hut will 
antagonize the eflects of the dii>hth(n-itie 
poison after this has heen already intro- 
duced into the system, in other words, it 
may be employed as a curative agent in 
cases of diphtheria. The immunity \\hioh 
it produces is a temporary one only, lasting 
from ten days to thn-i' weeks. Its curative 
effect in cases of the disease depends, to a 
considerable extent, upon its use in the early 
stages before the system has been saturated 
with the poison. 

We have not yt't suflicient data to speak 
positively of the value of this anti-diph- 
theritic serum as a means of treatment 
of the disease as compared with certain 
other methods of treatment, especially in 
the early stages, but the evidence thus 
far collected seems to indicate that such 
serum obtained in the proper manner, and 
used with proper precautions in the hands 
of experts, is a valuable addition to our 
means of combatting this terrible malady. 
The serum can only be properly prepared 
and tested by a skilled bacteriologist. It 
must be sufficiently strong in its immuniz- 
ing power, and at the same time must con- 
tain no living pathogenetic germs of any 
kind. It must also have been comparatively 
recently obtained from the living animal, 
for it gradually loses its specific anti-diph- 
theritic powers. Special antiseptic precau- 
tions are also necessary in injecting the 
serum under the skin in the human sub- 
ject to prevent the entrance of noxious 
germs. 

One of the most useful points in applying 
the anti-diphtheritic serum to practical use 
is to have the cases diagnosed at the earliest 
possible date, and this can only be done by 
a skilled bacteriologist. In New York, 
Boston, and some other cities, means arc 
now provided by which practicing physicians 
can have such diagnoses promptly madcj 
and if the case of diphtheria can be seen by 
a physician in its earlier stages, it is possible 



to treat it with great hope of success by 
means of local a])i)lications to the throat 
of certain substances which will quickly 
destroy the bacillus, and prevent the further 
production of its peculiar toxine ; for ex- 
ample, a solution of tri-cresol of the strength 
of one per cent, will usually effect this with- 
out producing undue irritation or causing 
any injury to the patient. Those who 
advocate the use of the immunizing serum 
say little about the local treatment, but 
this last is if anything the more important 
of the two, for the serum does not kill the 
bacilli which are on the surface of the 
mucous membrane of the throat, and there- 
fore does not prevent a person rendered im- 
mune by it from being the means of .spread- 
ing contagion. 

OYSTERS AS K MEAKS OF TRAXSMITTIXG 
TYPHOID FEVER. 

The Medical Record of December 1.5, 1894, 
contains a paper by Professor H. "W. Conn 
upon an outbreak of typhoid at Wesleyan 
University in October and November last, 
which included about twentj--six cases. 
When the serious character of the outbreak 
was recognized, an investigation as to causes 
was begun. The water supply was tested, 
and the house i^lumbing was examined 
without result. It was found that the dis- 
ease was almost entirely limited to the 
members of three fraternities. The period 
of inculiation of typhoid — that is, the time 
which elapses between the taking of typhoid 
Ijacillus into the body and the definite mani- 
festation of the disease — is usually from ten 
to fourteen days, but may range from sevt'u 
to twenty-eight days. The first cases of 
the fever among tlie students appeared 
October 20th, and suspicion soon fell upon 
the fi-aternity sui)pers of October 12tli. 
Careful examination of the food supplied at 
these suppers showed that raw oysters, ob- 
tained by each of the three fraternities from 
the same oyster dealer, were the only things 



50 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 



which were peculiar to their suppers, and 
inquirj' was at once directed to these oysters. 
It was found that they had been obtained 
fi-om the deep water of Long Ishmd Sound 
and had been deposited iu the moutli of a 
fresh water ci-eek to freshen, or to ' fatten,' 
as it is termed, since under such cfrcuni- 
stanees the oyster absorbs the fresh water 
by osmosis and therefore swells and becomes 
plump. Further inqiiirj' showed that, 
within about three hundi'ed feet of the 
place where the oysters had been dej)Osited, 
was the outlet of a private sewer coming 
from a house in which were two cases of 
typhoid fever at the time when the oysters 
were taken up and sent to the University. 

The tj^hoid bacillus will live for a time 
in salt or brackish water, and it was proved 
by trial that if such bacilli are forced in be- 
tween the two valves of the shell they re- 
mained aUve long enough to enable the 
oj^sters to be carried and used at the fra- 
ternity suppers. "Whether the bacillus will 
grow and multiply in living or dead oj'sters 
has not yet been determined, but experi- 
ments on this point are in progress. 

It will be seen that the e^ddence that the 
outbreak of tjqjhoid was produced by these 
oysters is purely circumstantial, but the 
links in the chain are well connected and 
strong. 

It is by no means certain that there were 
any tj'phoid germs within the oj'sters or 
the oyster shells when they were sent to 
Middletown. If the shells were smeared 
on the outside with typhoid excreta some 
particles of this might easily have gotten 
among the oysters during the process of 
opening them. But it is evident that oj^s- 
ters grown or fattened in positions where 
sewage maj^ come in contact with them are 
dangerous if eaten raw. 



the changings which underlie all exanii)les 
of the process into those — 

1. Of the thing or process, commonly 
called inventions. 

2. Of the apparatus and methods used. 

3. Of the rcAvards to the inventor. 

4. Of the intellectual activities involved. 

5. Ofsocietj'. 

Each one of these has undergone an evo- 
lution or elaboration, from monorganism to 
polyorganism, from simj^licitj' to complexity, 
from individualism to cooperation, from use 
to comfort, and so on. This statement needs 
no extended proof; the roller mill is the de- 
scendant of the metals, machinerj' springs 
from tools, the device beneficial only to its 
originator becomes the world-embracing 
and world-blessing invention; the happy 
thought of one person at last comes to be 
the beneficent result of an endowed and 
perennial cooperation, a perpetual reposi- 
tory of invention renewed constantly by 
the removal of the senescent and the intro- 
duction of new and trained minds as in a 
university. 

Now it requires great patience to get to- 
gether the material evidence of this unfold- 
ing or evolution. The mental jirocesses are 
no longer in sight. The nearest approach 
to them are the makeshifts of savages, and 
their minds are almost a sealed book. It 
has therefore occurred to the %ATiter that 
among the questions proposed to those who 
are collating information relating to the 
psj'chic groAAth of childi-en there should be 
a short series respecting the unfolding of the 
inventive facultj- or pi-ocess, the finding out 
originally how to overcome new difficulties 
or surmounting old ones in new ways. 

O. T. Mason. 



THE EVOLUTION OF INVENTION. 
In a recent study that I have made on 
the evolution of invention I have divided 



SCIENTIFIC LITEEATUEE. 
Popular Lectures and Addresses. — Vol. II., 
Geology and General Physics. — Lord Kel- 
vin. — Macmillan & Co., New York and 
London. Pp. 599. Price $2.00. 



Jantary 11, 1895.] 



SCIEXCE. 



51 



It is characteristic of the work of a really 
great genius, cither in Science, Literature 
or Art, that it is not displaced and cannot 
be displaced by that which may come 
after it. 

A bit of scientific work may later be 
found to be erroneous as to data, and, there- 
fore, in the -wTOng as to conclusions, but if 
it be the work of an aggressive, original 
thinker, it will always have great value- 
In the brilliant galaxy of physicists, or, as 
he would himself call them, natural philos- 
ophers, which the present century has pro- 
duced, it is moderation to saj' that none 
outshiaes Lord Kelvin, and it will not be 
denied that none has equalled him in ag- 
gressiveness and originalitj'. The range of 
subjects upon which he has touched during 
his long and active life is so extensive as to 
certainly justify the use of the term Natural 
Philosopher in its broader sense (and cap- 
italized at that), for he has never touched a 
department of human knowledge without 
leaving it richer and more extensive for his 
contact with it. That he has not been in- 
variably infallible is recognized l>y no one 
more fully than by himself, and the new 
editions of his earlier papers which have 
been issuing fi-om the press at intervals dur- 
ing the past few j-ears. bear most interest- 
ing evidence of his readiness to change his 
attitude on great questions whenever the 
verdict of later investigations is against him. 
It is delightful to note the occasional par- 
enthetical ' not ' put to-day into a sentence 
which twenty years ago declared verj' pos- 
itively that ' there /.< ' so and so, or, ' we 
can,^ etc., completely reversing the mean- 
ing of statements which were once made 
with a good degree of confidence. "What- 
ever else may be said, it cannot be asserted 
that Lord Kelvin has ever lacked the cour- 
age to express his own views in most forci- 
ble and unmistakable language. Indeed, in 
this respect, especially, he has set a splendid 
standard of unswerving scientific honesty 



for the innunicralile workers who have been, 
and will be, more or less influenced by his 
metliods and their tremendous product- 
iveness. 

Ilis views as to the proper attitude of the 
philosopher in his relations to unexplored 
regions of human experience are concisely 
expressed in this noble sentence fi-om his 
Presidential Address before the British As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science, in 
1871 : ■' Science is bound by the everlasting 
law of honor to face fearlessly everj- prob- 
lem which can fairly be presented to it." 
"NAlien he comes, however, to touch upon 
some problems which have long been of 
great interest to the human race, but which 
have been assumed, usually, to lie outside 
the domain of experimental or exact science 
( and he touches upon them not infrequently 
in the volume under consideration), it is not 
difficult to see a very decided bias towards 
certain views, and a promptness to accept 
propositions not always well supported by 
evidence, very greatly in contrast with 
what is found in more vigorously scientific 
discussion. 

This series of popular lectures and ad- 
dresses is published in three volumes, the 
fii'st and third having already appeared. 
The second (issued later than the third), 
to which attention is now invited, contains 
the important addresses on geological phys- 
ics which have attracted so much attention 
during the past (juarter of a centuiy, to- 
gether with a numl)er of lectures and short 
papers on sul)jects related to general physics 
and extracts fi-om addresses as president of 
the Royal Society since 1890. The geologi- 
cal papers are of great interest and have 
had much to do with the moulding of the 
views of geologists as to Dj'namical Geologj-. 
The series begins with a short note covering 
but a single octavo page, entitled, ' The 
Doctrine of Uniformity in Geologi/ Brief i/ 
Refuted,'' read at Edinburgh in 1S(;.5. It 
fairly ' opens the ball,' and may be reg-ard- 



52 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. -2. 



ed as the key note to the more elaborate dis- 
quisitions which followed at intervals up to 
recent dates. These papers are so well 
known, or ought to be so weU known, to all 
geologists as to make it only necessarj^ to 
say here that they will be found collected 
iu this volume in convenient form and with 
a few notes and occasional comments by the 
distinguished author, made while the collec- 
tion was being prepared for the press. The 
most important of the earUer papers are the 
address ' On Geological Time,'' given in Glas- 
gow, early in 1868, and that on ' Geological 
Dynamics ' at the same place about a year 
later. In the first of these will be found 
the somewhat severe strictures upon 'British 
Popular Geology ' which brought forth the 
interesting and pointed criticisms of Huxlej^ 
in his address to the Geological Society of 
London, and in the second the replies to 
Huxley's criticisms and futher remarks upon 
the subject. Nearlj' ten years later came a 
'Jievieiv of the Evidence Regarding the Physical 
Condition of the Earth,'' read at the British As- 
sociation meeting at Glasgow ; two papers 
read before the Geological Society of Glas- 
gow, on. ' Geological Climate,' and on the 'In- 
ternal Condition of the Earth;'' and after the 
lapse of another ten j^ears a paper before the 
same societj^ on 'Polar Ice Caps and their In- 
fluence in Changing Sea Levels.' In these 
much of the ground of the earlier addresses 
is again gone over, in the light of later dis- 
covery in geologjr, physics and astronomj'. 

Indeed these same topics recur again and 
again, sometimes incidentally in other ad- 
dresses in the volume, and Lord Kelvin 
makes it entirely clear that in thus taking 
up the discussion of geological problems 
and applyiug to them the methods and 
data of physics and astronomy, he does not 
wish to be considered an interloper. In 
his reply to Huxley, who had rather point- 
edly intimated that view of the situation, 
he good-naturedly remarks : " For myself 
I am anxious to be regarded by geologists. 



not as a mere passer-by, but as one con- 
stantly interested in their grand subject, 
and anxious in any way, however slight, to 
assist them iu their search for truth.'' 

It seems difficult to over-estimate the im- 
portance of these geological addresses, not 
only to the geologist, but to the phj^sicist as 
well. They not only have a general interest 
to both, but are of special importance to 
each. To the one they open new possibili- 
ties of a somewhat exact and satisfactory 
treatment of a most important but hitherto 
rather unmanageable department of his sub- 
ject; and to the other they ofler a most in- 
structive illustration of the power and scope 
of the methods of exact science, when ap- 
plied by one who may justly be called not a 
master, but the master. 

Of the other addi-esses, none, of course, is 
more important or interesting than the 
British Association Presidential Address of 
1871, so well known to all. One of the 
earliest, on ' The Pate of a Clock or Chrono- 
meter as Influenced by the Mode of Susj)ension,' 
is most entertaining and suggestive as an ex- 
ample of the many ' side-lights ' of a re- 
markable intellectual activity. Of great 
historical value is the Eoyal Institution lec- 
ture of 1856 on the ' Origin and Transforma- 
tion of Motive Power' — already republished in 
Volume II. of the 'Mathematical and Physical 
Papers ; ' and one of the most interesting is 
that of late date (1892) on the 'Dissipation 
of Energy.' In this much attention is given 
to the principle of Carnot, and here also oc- 
curs a remarkable statement which the au- 
thor himself has thought worth while to 
print in italics ; — it is : — " The fortuitous con- 
course of atoms is the sole foundation in Philoso- 
phy on ivhich can be founded the doctrine that it 
is impossible to derive mechanical effect from heat 
othenvise than by taking heat from a body at a 
higher temperature, converting at most a definite 
proportion of it into mechanical effect, and giving 
out the whole residue to matter at a lower tem- 
perature." 



JASUAEY 11, 1S95.] 



SCIENCE. 



53 



The address on the opening of the Baugor 
Laboratories will be of interest to all who 
have to do with their like ; that on the occa- 
sion of the unveiling of Joule's statue will 
interest everybody who cares for or who 
knows of the greatest generalization of 
modern science. In short, every page of 
this volume is deserving of the careful 
perusal of all who are devoted to Natural 
Philosophy in its most comprehensive sense, 
and wlio wish to know something of the 
spirit of one whose splendid contributions 
to physical science are, as a whole, greater 
than those of any other philosopher of the 
present time. 

The mechanical execution of the book 
does not seem to be quite in keeping with 
the classical character of its contents, and 
its pages are occasionally man-ed by negli- 
gent proof reading. T. C. Mendenhall. 

Worcester Polytechnic Ixstitute. 

Lair.-t of Temperature Control of the Geographic 

Distribution of Life. 

In the Decemlier issTie of the National 
Geographic Magazine, Dr. C. Hart Merriam 
announces the discovery of the laws of 
temperature control of the geographic dis- 
tribution of terrestrial animals and plants. 
Dr. Merriam has Ijeen engaged on this 
problem for sixteen years and believes he 
has at last obtained a formula which ful- 
fills the requirements. He states that in 
the Xorthern Hemisj)herc animals and 
plants are distributed in circumpolar belts, 
the boundaries of which follow lines of 
equal temperature rather than parallels of 
latitude. Between the pole and the eciuator 
there are three pi-imary belts or regions — 
Boreal, Austral and Tropical. In the 
United States the Boreal and Austral have 
each been split into three secondary trans- 
continental ztmes, of which the Boreal are 
known as the Arctic, Iludsonian and Cana- 
dian ; and the Austral as the Transition, 
Upper Austral and Lower Austral. 



Tlie teni])eraturt' data computed and 
plotted on maps as isotherms are not avail- 
able in locating the boundaries of the zones, 
because thej- show the temperature of arbi- 
trary periods — periods that have reference 
to a particular time of year i-ather than a 
particular degree or quantity of heat. 

It is assumed that the distribution of 
animals and plants is governed l)y the 
temjjerature of the season of growth and 
reproductive activity — not by that of the 
entire jear. The difficult}' is to measure 
the temperature concerned. 

Physiological botanists have long main- 
tained that ■■ the various events in the life 
of plants, as leafing, flowering and matur- 
ing of fruit, take place when the plant has 
been exposed to a definite quantity of heat, 
which quantity is the sum total of the dailj' 
temperatures above a minimum assumed 
to be necessary for functional activity." 
The minimum used by early botanists was 
tlie freezing point (0° C or 32° F). but re- 
cent writers believe that 6° C or 42.8° F 
more correctly expresses the temperature of 
the awakening of plant life in spring. '• The 
substance of the theory is that the game stage 
of vegetation i< attained in any year when the 
sum of the mean daily temperatures reaches the 
same value, which value or total is essentially 
the same for the same plant in all localities. 
This implies that the period necessary for 
the accomplishment of a definite physio- 
logical act, blo.ssoming. for instance, may be 
short or long, according to local climatic 
peculiarities, but the total quantity of heat 
must be the same. The total amount of 
heat necessarj' to advance a plant to a given 
stage came to be known as the physiological 
con-ftant of that stage." But .students of 
geographic distribution are not concerned 
witli the physiological constant of any stage 
or period in the life of an organism, but 
with the physiologicnl constant of the species it- 
,^,,lf — if such a term may be used. " If it 
is true that the same stage of vegetation is 



54 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. A'OL. I. No. 2. 



attained in different j^ears when the sum of 
the mean daily tempei-atures reaches the 
same value, it is obvious that the physio- 
logical constant of a species must be the 
total quantity of heat or sum of positive tempera- 
tures required by that spiecies to complete its cycle 
of development and reproduction.'''' Now, "if 
the computation can be transferred fi-om the 
species to the zone it inhabits — if a zone 
constant can be substituted for a species con- 
stant — ^the problem will be well nigh solved." 
This Dr. Merriam has attempted to do. 
" In conformity with the usage of botanists, 
a minimum temperature of 6°C (43°F) 
has been assumed as marking the inception 
of the period of physiological activity in 
plants and of reproductive activity in ani- 
mals. The effective temperatures or degi-ees 
of normal mean daily heat in excess of this 
minimum have been added together for 
each station, beginning when the normal 
mean daily temperature rises higher than 
6°C in spring and continuing until it falls 
to the same point at the end of the season." 
The sums thus obtained were plotted on a 
large scale map of the United States, and 
isotherms were run which were found to 
conform to the northern boundaries of the 
several zones. This is shown by colored 
maps. The data seem to justify the state- 
ment that " animals and plants are restricted 
in northward distribution by the total quantity 
of heat during the season of (jrouih and repro- 
ductive activity. ' ' 

In the case of the southern boundaries of 
the zones, it was assumed that animals 
and plants in ranging southward would en- 
counter, sooner or later, a degree of mean 
summer heat they are unable to endure. 
" The difficulty is in ascertaining the length 
of the period whose mean temperature acts 
as a barrier. It must be short enough to 
be included within the hottest part of the 
summer in high northern latitudes, and 
would naturally increase in length fi-om the 
north southward. For experimental pur- 



poses, and without attempting unnecessary 
refinement, the mean normal temj)erature 
of the six hottest consecutive weeks of sum- 
mer was arbitrarily chosen and plotted on 
a large contour map of the United States, 
as in the case of the total quantity of 
heat." 

On comparing this map with the zone 
map, the isotherms of 18°, 22° and 26°C 
were found to conform respectively to the 
southern boundaries of the Boreal, Transi- 
tion and Upper Austral zones, leadmg to 
the belief that " animals and plants are re- 
stricted in southivard distribution by the mean 
temperature of a brief period covering the hottest 
part of the year." 

Except in a few localities the northern 
boundary of Austral species coincides with 
the southern boundary of Boreal species, 
but for a distance of more than a thousand 
miles along the Pacific coast a curious over- 
lapping and intermingling of northern and 
southern tj'pes occurs. On looking at the 
temperature maps this is at once explained, 
for the mean temperature of the six hottest 
consecutive weeks from about lat. 35° north- 
ward to Puget Sound is truly Boreal, being 
as low as the mean of the corresponding- 
period in northern Maine and other points 
well within the Boreal zone. On the other 
hand, the total quantity of heat is found to 
be the same as that required by Austral 
species. " It is evident, therefore, that the 
principal climatic factors that permit Boreal 
and Austral types to live together along the 
Pacific coast are a low summer teinpera 
ture combined with a high sum total of 
heat." 

A table is given showing the actual gov- 
ei-ning temperatures, so far as kno\Aai, of the 
northern and southern boundaries of the 
several zones. 

In conclusion. Dr. Merriam calls attention 
to the subordinate value of humidity as 
compared with temperature. " Humidity 
and other secondary causes determine the 



JAXIAKV 11, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



piesfiice or absence of partieular j^pecies in 
partieuliir localities within their appropriate 
zones, but temperature predetermines the 
possibilities of distribution ; it fixes the 
limits beyond which species cannot pass ; it 
defines broad transcontinental belts within 
which certain forms may thrive if other 
conditions pei-mit, but outside of which they 
cannot exist, be the other conditions never 
80 favorable." 

GniK^e.-' of Tenneg^ee — Part II. — F. Lamsox- 
ScRiBXER. — ^University of Tennessee, 
Agric. Exper. Sta. Bull.. YII. 1-141, 187 
lignres. 1894. 

The first part of this important work treat- 
ing of the structure of grasses in geiaeral, 
issued two years ago, is now supplemented 
by the part here noticed, containing descrip- 
tions and figures of all species known by the 
author to inhabit Tennessee. Carefully pre- 
pared keys to the genera and species are a 
feature of the book. The cuts are good, al- 
though printed ou paper hardly firm enough 
to bring them out to the best advantage. 
The descriptions are diagnostic and couched 
in strictly technical language ; on this point 
it is remarked : ■■ Attempts to avoid tech- 
nical or • hard ' words often result in obscur- 
ing the meaning of the author, and an undue 
simplicity of expression is often apt to be 
oft"ensive by implying a lack of intelligence 
on the part of the reader." As the book is 
intended primarily for the farmers of the 
State, this may be considered by some as a 
position of doubtful value. 

It is to be regretted that the rules of no- 
menclature adopted by the botanists of the 
American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, which are practiaiUy those ap- 
proved by the zoologists, have not been 
strictly followed. This will seriously ham- 
per the usefulness of the book, for some of 
the names used by Prof. Scribner have be- 
come obsolete. 

N. L. B. 



NOTES. 

PHYSICS. 

The newly discovered gas is to be the 
subject of a discussion at a meeting of the 
Royal Society on January 31st, when Lord 
Rayleigh and Prof. Ramsay will present 
their paper. This will be the first meeting 
under a i-esolution of the Council of the 
Society passed last session, wherebj- certain 
meetings, not more than four in number, 
are to be devoted everj' year each to the 
hearing and consideration of some one im- 
portant communication, or to the discussion 
of some important topic. — Xatiire. 

PERSONAL. 

The University of Berlin is seriou.sly 
crippled by the deaths of Helmlioltz and 
Kundt. Their places cannot be filled, but 
Prof. Kohlrausch will probably be called 
to one of the vacant chairs. 

The PhjMcal Review has j)ublished excel- 
lent portraits of llelmholtz, Kundt and 
Hertz, with biographical sketches by the 
editor-in-chief. Professor Nichols. Proba- 
bly the best account so far published in 
English of the work of Helmlioltz is that 
contributed to the Psychological Review for 
January by Professor Stumpf, of the Uni- 
versity of Berlin. 

Mr. F. Y. Powell, of Christ's College, 
succeeds Fronde in the Regius Professor- 
ship of Modem History at Oxford. 

ZOOLOGY. 

A Picture-puzzle of a remarkable kind 
appears in the Zoi'iloyid for December. It 
is a reproduction of two photographs of a 
Little Bittern, showing the strange atti- 
tude assumed by the bird to favor its con- 
cealment. One of the figures shows the 
the bird standing in a reed-bed, erect, with 
neck stretched out and beak pointing up- 
wards ; and in tliis position it is difficult 
to distinguish the bird at all from the 



56 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 2. 



reeds. The eye is deceived in a similar 
manner when the bird is crouching against 
a tree-stump at the river side. Mr. J. E. 
Harting tliinks that the curious attitudes 
adopted by the bird, on finding itself ob- 
served, are assiimed in the exercise of the 
instinct of self-preservation. He mentions 
a similar habit, observed and described by 
Mr. W. H. Hudson, in the case of South 
American Little Heron, which frequents 
the borders of the La Plata, and is occa- 
sionally found in the reed-beds scattered 
over the pampas. Without the aid of dogs 
it was found impossible to secure any spec- 
imens of this bird, even after making the 
spot where one had alighted. — Nature. 

NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

Astronomy and Astro-Physics will hereafter 
be called the Astrophysical Journal and will be 
published from the University of Chicago, 
under the editorship of Profs. Payne and 
Keeler and a board of the leading men of 
science in this department. 

A monthljr Magazine of Travel, somewhat 
practical and popular in character, will 
hereafter be published fi-om 10 Astor Place, 
New York. 

The Aeronautical Annual for 1896, soon to 
be published by W. B. Clarke & Co., Bos- 
ton, will contain reprints of some early 
treatises on aeronautics, among them da 
Vinci's Treatise on the Flight of Birds, Sir 
George Gay ley's Aerial Navigation (1809), 
A Treatise upon the Art of Flying, by Thomas 
Walker (1810), and Franklin's aeronauti- 
cal correspondence. — Critic. 

P. Blakiston, Son & Co. announce The 
Dynamics of Life, by William E. Gowers, 
M. D., of London. 



James E. Thompson ; Address. 

David Cerna ; The phonetic arithmetic of 
the ancient Mexicans. 

William Keiller ; DescrijMve anatomy of 
the heart. 

Thomas Flavin ; Developmental anatomy 
and pathology of the kidneys. 

Thomas U. Taylor ; Present need of engi- 
neering education in the So^ith. 

Egbert A. Thompson ; The storm-water stor- 
age system of irrigation. 

T. H. Bryant, Acting Secretary. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
THE TEXAS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE. 
DECEMBER 31, 1894. 

Dr. Halsted, President, in the chair. 



NEW BOOKS. 

Progress in Flying Machines. O. Chanute. 
New York, The American Engineer and 
Eailroad Journal. 1894. Pp. iv + 308. 

Lectures on the Darwinian Theory. A. M. 
Marshall. Edited by C. F. Marshall. 
London, D. Nutt; New York, Macmil- 
lan & Co. 1894. Pp. xx-i-236. $2.25. 

Sea and Land. Features of Coasts and 
Oceans with Special Eeference to the Life 
of Man. N. S. Shaler. New York, 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 1894. $2.50. 

Text-book of Livertebrate Morphology J. F. 
McMuRRicH. New York, Henry Holt & 
Co. 1894. Pp. 294. $4.00. 

The Planet Earth. An Astronomical In- 
troduction to Geography. Eichard A. 
Gregory'. London and New York, 
Macmillan & Co. 1894. Pp. viii-t-105. 
60c. 

Physiology for Beginners. M. Foster and 
Lewis E. Shore. New York and Lon- 
don, Macmillan & Co. 1894. Pp. ix+ 
241. 75c. 

The Pise and Development of Organic Chemistry. 
Gael Schorlemmer. Ee vised edition, ed- 
ited bj"- Arthur Smithells. London and 
New York, Macmillan & Co. 1894. Pp. 
ix+280. 

Woman's Share in Primitive Culture O. T. 
Mason. New York, D. Appleton & Co. 
1894. Pp. xiii+295. 



SCIENCE. 



New Series. 
Vol. I. No. 3. 



Friday, January 18, 1895. 



Single Copies, 1.5 cts. 

ANNOAL SnBSCBIPTIOX, $.1.00. 



QUSTAV E. STECHERT'S 

Recent Importation of Scientific Boolcs. 



MATHEJfATICS. 



Bachmann, Paitl, Zaiilentheorie. Versuch e. 
Gesanimtdarstellun'; die,ser Wissenschaft in ihren 
Hanpttheilen. 2. Tlil. Die analytische Zahlentheorie. 
grS". Jlk. 12. 

Gbassjiann's, Hm., Gesammelte mathematische 
wnd physikalische 'VVerke. Anf Veranlassung der 
luathematisch-physikalischen Klasse derkiinigl. siich- 
sischen Gesellschaft dtr Wisseiischafteu und unter 
Jlitw-irkung von Jul. Liiiotli, Ed. Study, Just. Grass- 
luami. Hm. Grassman JId. ,1., G. Scheffers herausge- 
geben von F. Engel. I. Bd. 1. Thl. Die Au.sdeh- 
nungslehre von 1844 und die geometrische Analvse. 
u. 8". 35 Fig. Mk. 1-'. 

Castor, Mor., Vorlcsungen lib. Geschichte der 
Mathematik. 3. Bd. Vom. J. 1668 bis zum J. 
1759. 1. Abtlg. Die Zeit von 1668 bis 1699. gr. 8". 
Mk. 6. 

Hefter, Prof. Dr. Lotiiar. Einleitung in die 
Theorie der linearen Dillerentialgleichungen niit 
einer iinabhiingigen Variablen. Mit 3 Figuren iiu 
Texte. gr. 8». Mk. 6. 

Thomae, Joh. Die Kegelschnitte in rein-projek- 
tiver Behaiidlung. Slit in den Text eingedruckten 
Holzschnitten und 16 litliographierten Figurenta- 
feln. gr. 8". 5Ik. 6. 

ASTRONOMY. 

Galle, J. G. Verzeichnis der Elemente der 
bisher berechneten Conietenbahnen, nebst Anmer- 
kongen und Literatur-Nachweisen, neu bearbeitet, 
erganzt und fortgesetzt bis znm Jahre 1894. Mk. 12. 

Publikationen des astrophysikalischen Observator- 
iums zu Potsdam. Heravisgegeben von H. C. Vogel. 
Nr. 32. X. Bd. 1. Stiick. 4». Mit 30 Tat. Mk. 
12. 

OEOLOOY AND .MIXERALOOV. 

Levy, A. M. Etude sur la determination des feld- 
spatlis dans les platjues minces au point de vue de la 
classiticjition des roches. 8°. Avec 8 pi. c:tl. ct 9 Jig. 
Ft. 7; 50c. 

HlXTZE, C. Handbuch der Mincralogie. 8. Lfg. 
Mit 56 Abbildgn. Mk. 5. 

Waltiier, Prof. Jolis. Einleitung in die Geologie 
als historisc'he WisMMisdiaft. III. (Solilus-s-) Tld. 
Lithogenesis der (iegenwart. Beolxichtungen iib die 
Bildg. der Gesteine an iler heut. Erdoberlliiclie. 
gr. 8<>. m. 8 Abbildgn. Mk. 13. 



Beegh, Dr. R. S., Yorlesungen iiber die Zelle und 
die einfaclien Gewebe des tierischen Kiirpers. Mit 
einem jUihang: Techuisclie Anleitung zu einfiichen 
histologischen Untersuchungen. Mit 138 Figuren im 
Texte. gr. 8". 51k. 7. 

Boas, Dr. J. E. v., Lehrbuch der Zoologie. 2. 
Aufl. gr. 8<>. Mk. 10; geb. Mk. 11. 

DE GRO-SSOtJYRE, A. Keehercbes sur la craie 
superieme. 2'partie. Paleontologie: Les ammonites 
de la craie superieure. 4°. Avec 39 fig. et atlas de 
39 pi. Fr. 20. 

Llxx.VEi, C'aroli, systems naturae. Regnum ani- 
male. Ed. X. 1758, ciira societatis Zoologiacae ger- 
manicae iterum edita. gr. 8". Mk. 10; — Einbd. Mk. 
2.25. 

HallEr, B. Sttidien iiber docoglosse und rhipido- 
glosse Prosobranchier nebst Bemerkungen iiber die 
phyletischen Beziehungen der Mollusken unterein- 
ander. 4". Slit Textfig. u. 12 Taf. Mk. 32. 

POPOFF, Demetrus. Die Dottcrsack-Getiisse der 
Hulines. Mit 12 litlioi^rajjliischen Tafeln in Farben- 
druck und 12 litliogiapliierten Tafel-Erkliirungsbliit- 
tern. 4''. Jlk. 27.— 

Sc'H.MlDT, Adf. Atlas der Diatomaceen-Kunde. 
In Verbindung mit Griindler, Grunow, Janiscb und 
Witt Iierausgegeben. 4-<. u. 49. Heft. Fol. 8 Taf. 
Mit. 8 Bl. Erkliirgn. Mk. 6. 

Semox, Prof. Dr. Hkihard. Zoiilogische Forscli- 
ungsreisen in Austnilien und dem malayisclien Ar- 
ehipel. Mit rntci-stiitxung des Herrn Dr. Paul von 
Eitter ausgetiibrt in den .laliren 1891-1893. Erster 
Biind. Ceratodns. ICrste Liefening. Slit 8 lito- 
grapliisclien Tafeln und 2 Abbildungen im Texte. 
(Text und Atlas. ) gr. 1". Mk. 20. 



Exoler, a., und K. Praxtl. Die natiirlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien nebst ibren Gattungen und wich- 
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Slitwirkung z;ddreiclier berv'orragender Facligelebr- 
ten begriindet von A. E. und K. P., fortgesetzt von 
A. Engler. III. Tl. C. Abtlg. 8". Mit 592 Ein- 
zelbildern in 87 Fig. sowie Abteilungs-Kcgister. 
Subskr.-Pr. Mk. 8 ; Einzelpr. >Ik. 16. 

Lixdex, L. Les Orcliid<''es exotiques et leurs cul- 
ture en Europe. Avec nombr. fig. Fr. 25. 

Sciil'.manx, Kust. Prof. Dr. K., Lehrbuch der sys- 
teniati.schen Botanik. Pliytoijaliiontologie u. Phyto- 
geogr.ijihie. gr. ■^". Hi:! Fig. u. 1 farb. Karte. SIk. 16. 

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SCIENCE. 



Editorial CoBunxTEE : S. Newcorib, Mathematics ; K. S. Woodwaed, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, As- 
tronomy ; T. C. Mendenhall, Physics ; R. H. Thurston, Engineering ; Ira Remsen, Chemistry ; 
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Friday, January 18, 1895. dent Chamberlin in reply expressed the 

-~~ feelings of the members in a few felicitous 

CONTENTS: words. A printed report of the Council was 

ne Baltimore Meeting of the Geological Society of distributed, reviewing the events of the 

America : J. F. Kejip 57 ^ 

The Baltimore Meeting of the American Morphological J^^^'- B. K. Emerson and J. S. Diller were 

Society: 68 elected an auditing committee. Tlie results 

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ton 72 

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COCK 74 1st Vice FrewJenf, Joseph Le Coxte. 

Length of Vessels in Plants: Eewin F. Smith ... .77 qj^ yigg President, C. H. Hitchcock. 

Scientific Literature: — 78 c , -n- t !-• 

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telier's Lc Grisou : Charles Platt. Bolles' Treasurer, I. C. White. 

Bearcamp Water: AV. T. DAVIS. Councillors, R. W. Ells, C. R. Tax Hise. 

Notes : — 80 ' 

The Botanical Society of America ; Psychology; Messrs. Clements, Cobb. Hopkins, Hub- 

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Societies and Acadomes 83 

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Subscriptions ( live dollars annually ) and advertisements lOW S SUau ue WOlKeiS Ol watlieis 111 gLO 

New Yo^rk."'"' '" ""^ Publisher of Science, 41 East 4«th St., j^gy , , /^^^ amendment allowing the Treas- 

^ urer to be elected without limit was also 

THE BALTIMORE MEETING OF THE GEOLOGT- passed. After some announcements by the 

CAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. local committee the Society listened to a 

The seventh annual meeting was held in memorial of the late Professor George H. 

Baltimore, December 27, 28 and 29, in the Williams, of Johns Hopkins University, and 

geological rooms of Johns Hopkins Univer- Second Vice President of the Society, by 

sity. Professor William B. Clark. It was on Dr. 

The first session took place at 10 a. m., Williams' invitation that the Society met 
December 27, and was presided over by in Baltimore and the great loss to the 
President Chamlierlin. The Society was science by his death was the thought upper- 
welcomed by President Gilman, of the Uni- most in the minds of all present. Dr. 
versity, who made a graceful and cordial Clark's graceful and touching memorial to 
address, that was warmly received. Presi- his late colleague was appreciated b\ all 



58 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. A'OL. I. No. 3. 



present. Bi-ief additional tributes were 
also paid by Professor B. K. Emerson, of 
Amherst, Dr. Williams' first geological 
teacher and life-long friend; by J. F. Kemp, 
an old college-mate; by W. S. Bayley, his 
first student in petrographj^, and by his 
friends and colleagues, J. P. Iddings, I. C. 
White, C. D. Walcott and N. S. Shaler. 

A memorial of Amos Bowman, of the 
Canadian Survej^, was then presented by H. 
M. Ami, after which the Society listened to 
the reading of papers, as follows: 

1. On Certain Peculiar Features in the Jointing 
and Veining of the Lower Silurian Limestones 
near Cumberland Gap, Tenn. N. S. 
Shalbb, Cambridge, Mass. 

The paper described peculiar forms of 
dolomitic limestone near Smiles, Tenn., in 
practically undistui'bed strata which are 
ribbed and seamed by minute veins of 
calcite, in the form of small gash veins. 
They were regarded as due to some power- 
ful, though local sti-ains in the rock, but 
the subject was frankly admitted to be an 
obscure one. 

2. The Appalachian Type of Folding in the 
White Mountain Bange, of Inyo Co., Gal. 
Chas. D. Walcott, Washington, D. C. 
The White Mountain range, which lies 

east of the Sierra Nevada, was shown to 
consist of conformable quartzite and Cam- 
brian shales and limestone. The series had 
been thrown into sjmclinal folds with inter- 
venuig eroded anticlines and with a struc- 
ture which, on the whole, closely reproduces 
the Appalachian sections of the East. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. 
Becker, Ami, Willis and Russell, after 
which recess was taken until the afternoon 
session. 

3. New Structural Features in the Appala- 
chians. Aethtje Keith. 

The paper reviewed the old generaliza- 
tions of Appalachian structure, analyzed 
the recently published knowledge, described 



new structures, such as fan structure, cross 
folds, cross zones of shear, a secondary sys- 
tem of folding, the distribution of meta- 
morphism, and advanced a theory to ac- 
count for their production. According to 
the theory, the compressive strain which 
deformed the strata began in the crj^stalliue 
gneisses and granites, thrust the crj^stallines 
against the sediments and bj' the differential 
motion along the shear zones ijroduced but- 
tresses around which the chief changes of 
structure were gTOiiped. 

In the discussion which followed, Mr. C. 
Willard Hayes considered two of the shear 
zones M'ith the conclusion that the changes 
in structure were due to differences of rigid- 
ity in the sediments when they were thrust 
against the crystallines. 

Mr. Keith replied that the changes of 
structure extended through the crystallines 
as well as the sediments, a fact incompatible 
with a merely passive resistance on the part 
of the crystallines. 

Mr. Bailey Willis argued that the chief 
structural changes were due to original 
differences in sediment and in bases of sedi- 
mentation. His conclusion was that the 
sediments moved against a rigid crystalline 
mass, being actuated by a force acting from 
the westward, which was due to the isosta- 
tic flow of material from beneath the load 
of sediment. 

4. The Faults of Ghazy Township, Glinton 
County, N. Y. H. P. Gushing, Cleve- 
land, 0. 

That the Lake Champlain region is, 
structui-allj^, one of faulting without fold- 
ing, is well known. The structure is well 
exhibited in Chazy township, which has not 
heretofore been mapped in detail, except 
for a small area around Chazy village. Its 
considei-ation is of importance, because of 
its bearing on the structure of the Adiron- 
dack region, in which, on account of the 
lithological similarity of the rocks, the de- 
termination of the precise structural rela- 



Ja.nuaky 18, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



59 



tions is a matter of great ditlieulty, if not 
impossibility. Tlie great number of the 
faults, and tlie consequent small size of the 
various faulted blocks, are striking facts. 

In discussion C. 1). Walcott showed how 
these faults had led Professor J. ilarcou to 
believe that he had discovered colonies of 
Trenton fossils in rocks of the Potsdam. 

5. The Formation of Lake-basins hi/ ]Vin(l. 
G. K. Gilbert, Washington, D. C. 

The paper described the formation of ba- 
sins in the arid regions of the West, by the 
erosive action of wind-blown .sand upon a 
shale devoid of ACgetation. In time they 
became tilled with water and formed small 
lakes. 

6. The Tepee Bti/tes. (i. K. Gilbert and 
F. P. Gulliver. 

The paper was read by Mr. Gulliver and 
described a series of conical buttes west of 
Pueblo, Col. They consist of Pierre shales, 
surrounding cores of limestone formed of 
shells of Lucina. It is supposed that as the 
shales were deposited, a colony of lucinas 
established themselves and grew upward 
pari passu, foi-ming a conical or columnar 
deposit of limestone, whose greater resist- 
ance to erosion has left the buttes in relief. 

7. Jlemarks on the Geology of Arizona and 
Sonora. "W J McGee, of Washington. 
The arid region was described as consist- 
ing of north and south mountain ranges 
with wide valleys between. In Arizona the 
surface is largely of volcanic rock, in Sonora 
of Mesozoic limestone. The rivers have 
definite courses and water in the moun- 
tains, but in the valleys they are lost by 
evaporation and absorption before the ocean 
is reached. Their valleys were transverse 
to the mountains and larger vallej's because 
of the general southwesterly dip of the 
rocks. Buttes near the Gulf of California 
show slight talus, which fact gives good 
ground for thinking that the gulf has stood 
at an altitude, as regards the land, several 



hundred feet above its present level in re- 
cent geological time, or, in other words, that 
the land has been depressed by that amount. 

8, Geology of the Highicood Mountains, Mon- 
tana. Walter H. Weed, AVashington, 
D. C, and Louis V. Pirssox, Xew 
Haven, Conn. 

On account of the illness of Mr. Weed this 
paper was not read. 

9, Genesis and Structure of the Ozark 
Uplift. Charles R. Keyes, Des Moines, 
Iowa. 

On account of the author's al)sence the 
paper was not read. 

10, The Geographical Evolution of Cuba. 
J. W. Spencer, Washington, D. C, 

The description of the physical geography 
of Cuba and of the adjacent submerged 
banks was given. Exclusive of a few areas 
locall}' older, the apparent basement is com- 
j)0sed of volcanic rocks of Cretaceous or 
slightly earlier date. These are succeeded 
by fossiliferous Cretaceous sands, etc., and 
limestone greatly disturbed. The Eocene 
and Miocene deposits form a physical unit, 
and are composed mostly of limestone 
having a thickness of from 1,900 to 2,100 
feet. The Pliocene period was mostly one 
of high elevation, accompanied by a very 
great erosion. At the close of the Pliocene 
period the Matanzas subsidence depressed 
the island so as to leave only a few small 
islets, and permit of the accumulation of 
about 150 feet of limestones. Then followed 
the great Pleistocene elevation with the 
excavation of great vallej's, the lower por- 
tions of which are now Qords reaching in 
one case at least to 7,000 feet in depth be- 
fore Joining the sea bej'ond. The elevation 
was followed by the Zapata subsidence, re- 
ducing the island to smaller proportions 
than to-day, and permitting the accumu- 
lation of the loams and gravels like the 
Columbia of the continent. The subs((|uent 
minor undulations are also noted, as shown 



60 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 3. 



in terraces and recent small canons now 
submerged. Also the modern coralline for- 
mations and harbors are notable. 

On the completion of the paper the Society 
adjourned its business session until the 
following morning. 

In the evening many members attended 
Professor Wm. Libbey's lecture on Green- 
land, and afterwards the reception which 
was hospitably tendered the visiting socie- 
ties by the Johns Hopkins University in 
McCoy Hall. On reassembling Friday morn- 
ing the council presented some minor points 
of business, and Mr. J. S. Diller, the chair- 
m.an of the committee on photographs, read 
his annual report. It showed that some 
1,200-1,500 photographs of geological phe- 
nomena and scenerjf had been presented to 
the Society, the same being on exhibition in 
the hall. The negatives of the U. S. Geol. 
Survey in many instances and also those of 
not a few geologists have been made acces- 
sible to the fellows for prints at cost. Mr. 
Diller finally tendered his resignation, which 
was accepted with regret. Mr. G. P. Mer- 
rill, of the U. S. National Museum, was ap- 
pointed to the vacancy. The committee now 
consists of G. P. Merrill, W. M. Davis and 
J. F. Kemp. 

The first paper on the programme was — 
11. Observations on the Glacial Phenomena 

of Newfoundland, Labrador and Southern 

Greenland. G. Frederick Weight. Ob- 

erlin, Ohio. 

N"ote was made of the direction of the 
glacial scratches in ITewfoundland and of 
the evidences of a preglacial elevation of the 
island ; also of the contrast between the 
flowing outlines of the coast range of moun- 
tains in Labrador and the jagged character 
of the coast range of Southern Greenland. 
A description was also given of the projec- 
tion of the inland ice which comes down to 
the coast near Sukkertoppen, in Lat. 65° 
50', and of the phenomena which indicate 
the former extension of the Greenland ice 



far beyond its present boundaries. Still, 
the bordering mountains were never cov- 
ered with ice. 

12. Highland Level Gravels in Northern 
Neio England. C. H. Hitchcock, Han- 
over, IST. H. 

Eecent observations prove the existence 
of a glacial lake in the basin of Lake Mem- 
phremagog, whose beaches exceed a thou- 
sand feet above sea level, and others 
1,500 feet above sea level in northern New 
Hampshu-e. The author wished to present 
a preliminary notice of what may prove to 
be of great service in a more exact defini- 
tion of glacial woi"k in New England and 
Canada. 

The paper was discussed by Professor J. 
W. Spencer, who spoke of his ovm. studies 
in the same region. 

During the reading of the following six 
papers the petrographers and mineralogists 
adjourned to the room above and listened 
to the reading of papers of a petrographic 
character, as subsequently outlined. The 
principal session then listened to the follow- 
ing: 

13. Variations of Glaciers. Harry Field- 
ing Reid. 

The paper called attention to the desira- 
bility of keeping accurate records of the 
movements of glacial ice wherever possible. 
A committee was appointed to further this 
movement at the Geological Congress in 
Zurich last summer, and the writer urged 
the importance of the work, especially as 
regards our western glaciers. 

] 4. Discrimination of Glacial Accumulation 
and Invasion. Warren Upham, Somer- 
ville, Mass. 

The accumulation of ice-sheets bj^ snow- 
fall on their entire area was discriminated 
from an advance or invasion bj^ the fi-ont 
of the ice, extending thus over new terri- 
tory. The former condition is shown to 
have been generallj' prevalent, on the gia- 



January IS, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



Gl 



ciated portions of hotli North America and 
Europe, bj- the occurrence of comparatively 
small areas of ice accumulation beyond the 
extreme boundaries of the principal ice- 
sheets. The latter condition, or ice invasion, 
is indicated on the outer part of the drift- 
bearing area eastward from Salamanca, N. 
Y., tlu'ough Statcn and Long Islands, 
Martha's \'inej'ard and Xantucket, where 
the soft strata beneath the ice were dis- 
located and folded. 

1.5. Glimatic Conditions Shown by North 
American Inlerf/ldcial Deposits. Wak- 
EEX Tpham, Somerville, Mass. 
During the times both of general accu- 
mulation and growth of the ice-sheets and 
of their final recession, fluctuations of their 
borders were recorded in various districts 
by forest ti-ees, peat, and molluscan shells, 
enclosed in beds underlain and overlain bj' 
till. Such fluctuations, while the ice accu- 
mulation was in progress, enclosed chiefly 
arctic or boreal species ; but when the ice 
was being melted away, in the Champlain 
epoch, the remains of the flora and fauna 
thus occurring in interglacial beds, as at 
Toronto and Scarboro', Ont., may belong 
wholly to temperate species, such as now 
exist in the same district. The cold climate 
of the Ice age appears thus to have been 
followed by a temperate Champlain climate 
dose upon the waning ice-border. 
16. Glacial Lakes in Western Neiv York 
and Lake Nezvf)err>/,the Succe.ssor of Lake 
Warren. By H. L. Fairchild, Roches- 
ter, X. Y. 

The paper presented evidence that the 
finger lakes of central Xew York were all 
pre-glacial in character and that during the 
presence of the ice-sheet at their outlets 
they were backed up and discharged south- 
ward, as is abundantly showTi by deltas at 
various heights on both sides of the present 
divide. Professor Tairchild cited eighteen 
glacial lakes from Attica on the west to the 
Onondaga river valley on the east. These 



he has named from important towns now 
on the sites, as Lake Ithaca for the glacial 
form of Cayuga lake, which was ;55 miles 
long, ri-lO miles broad and 1 100 feet deep. 
It has been long known that when the ice 
cover(>d western Xew York the great lakes 
discharged at Chicago to the Mississippi 
and the great lake formed by them is called 
Lake Warren, and has left a good beach. 
At a much later stage, when the !Mohawk 
was uncovered, the waters ran to the Hud- 
son, and the great lake on the site of On- 
tario has been called Lake Iroquois. The 
intermediate stage between these two, when 
the discharge of the water covering western 
Xew York was through the low jtass at the 
south end of Seneca lake thi-ough Horse- 
heads near Elmira, Professor Fairchild has 
called Lake Xewl)erry. The elevations of 
this and the Chicago pass are such that 
when allowance is made for the depressed 
condition of the area at that time, the exist- 
ence of the lake can be demonstrated. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Mc- 
Gee and Gilbert, who commended the 
choice of the new name as felicitous and 
timelj-. J. W. Spenser also spoke, but dif- 
fered w'ith the author in some points. 

Meantime, in the upper laboratorj- (the 
Williams room), the petrographic .section, 
under the chairmanship of Professor B. K. 
Emerson listened to 
18. The Relation of Grain to Distance from 

Margin in Certain Rocks. Alfred C. 

Laxe, Houghton. Michigan. 

A description of the variation in texture 
and grain of sonn' quartz diabase dikes of 
Upper Michigan was given, and the same 
compai-ed with eft'usive flows of similar 
mineral composition. These descriptions 
were based on series of thin sections of 
kno\^n distance from the margin. Inter- 
stitial micropegmatite is primary or pneu- 
matolytic, and the feldspar crystallization 
begins before that of the augite,' continuing 
until later. The distinction between the 



62 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 3. 



intrusive or dike type and the effusive type 
was pointed out. The main object of pre- 
sentiug the paper at this time is to elicit the 
best methods of measuring the coarseness of 
grain of a rock, the object being to express 
by some arithmetical or mathematical form- 
ula based on statistics, or in some other def- 
inite way, the relation of texture to walls 
and thickness in a dike. The paper elicited 
considerable discussion by Messrs. Hovey, 
Kemp, Iddings, Cross, and G. P. Merrill, in 
which the following points were made ; the 
large size of the phenocrysts in some very 
narrow dikes ; the importance of not meas- 
uring minerals of the intratellurio stage ; 
the great variability of circumstances under 
which dikes cooled, as heated or cold walls, 
pressure, mineraUzers, etc., and the difficult- 
ies of getting rehable data of the kind re- 
quired by Dr. Lane. 

19. Crystallized Slags from Copper smelting. 
Alfred C. Lane, Houghton, Michigan. 
This paper described (with exhibition of 

specimens) slags from the cupola furnaces 
used in coppersmelting, which contained 
large mehUte crystals, between one and two 
centimeters square, interesting optically and 
in mode of occurrence. Crystallized hema- 
tite was also noted. 

The specimens elicited great interest on 
account of the size and perfection of the 
crystals. 

20. On the Nomenclature of the fine-grained 
Siliceous Bocks. L. S. Geiswold, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

The writer described the difficulties met 
first, in his study of novaculite, and later, 
in connection -with other siliceous rocks, 
such as cherts, jaspers, etc., in applying defi- 
nite names. The troublesome characters of 
opaline, chalcedonic and quartzose silica, as 
regards the origin of each, presented obsta- 
cles both for mineralogic and genetic classi- 
fication. 

This paper elicited an interesting dis- 
cussion which threatened at times to take 



up the whole subiect of the classification of 
rocks. The general feeling seemed to be 
that rocks could best be named primarily 
on a mineralogic and textural basis, and 
that these priucii^les furnished the best so- 
lution of the difficulties presented by the 
paper. The speakers were Messrs. Wolff, 
Emerson and Lane. 

21. 0)1 Some Dykes containing ' Huronile.^ 
By Alfred E. Barlow, Ottawa. (Eead 
by F. D. Adams.) 

This paper contained a brief petrographi- 
cal notice of certain dykes of diabase con- 
taining ' Huronite,' as the mineral was 
originallj^ named by Dr. Thomson, of Glas- 
gow, in Ms Mineralogy of 1836. Dr. B. J. 
Harrington's re-examination of this mineral 
in 1886 showed some very gi-ave errors in 
Thomson's work and the ' huronite ' must 
simply be regarded as an impure or altered 
form of anorthite, which has undergone 
either pai-tial or complete ' saussuritiza- 
tion,' owing to metamorphic action. Cer- 
tain localities were mentioned north and 
northeast of Lake Huron, where these dykes 
have been noted cutting the Huronian as 
well as the granitoid gneisses usuall_y classed 
as Laurentian. Mr. A. P. Low, of the Can- 
adian Geological Survej^, noticed dykes con- 
taining this mineral cutting the Laurentian 
and Cambrian in the Labrador Peninsula. 

22. The Granites of Pike''s Peak, Colorado. 
Edward B. Mathews, Baltimore, Marj^- 
land. (Introduced by W. B. Clark.) 
This paper gave an area! and petrographi- 

cal description of the granites composing 
the southern end of the Rampart or Colo- 
rado range and showed that great macro- 
scopic variation may result, while the micro- 
scopic characters remain monotonously uni- 
form. Four types in all were distinguished, 
based on the size of phenocrysts and coarse- 
ness of gi-ain. The paper was discussed by 
Whitman Cross and J. P. Iddings, after 
which the section adjourned to meet again 
at 4:30 p. m. 



January 18, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



G3 



Aliout tlie Siimc time the lu.niu section 
also adjourned for luueh, wliich was most 
hospitably served to the \asiting societies 
ill the Johns Hopkins gj-mnasium. High 
praise is due the local committee for the ex- 
cellent arrangements. After lunch the so- 
ciety' reconvened and the first paper was : 

23. Notes on the Glaciation of Newfound- 
land. By T. C. Chambeklin. 

Tlie paper brought out the very interest- 
ing facts that the glaciation of Newfound- 
land is local and that the moraines and 
sti'ite show that it proceeded fi-om the cen- 
ter of the i.sland to the coast. The drift is 
all peripheral and can be easily ti-aced to its 
sources. 

24. The Pre-Camhrian Floor of the North- 
tvestvrn States. By C. W. Hall. (Read 
in the absence of the author by Warken 
Upham.) 

The paper pointed out the distribution of 
the Pre-Cambrian areas in the territory 
under investigation so far as it is known at 
the present time. It then showed by means 
of records of deep and artesian well bor- 
ings, within reasonable limits of probability, 
the depth of the Pre-Cambrian rocks over 
a considerable area bej-ond the surface area 
outlined. 

Maps and a series of profiles accompanied 
the paper. 

The paper was tUscussed bj- G. K. Gil- 
bert, who called attention to the importance 
of the results. 
2.5. A Further Contribution to Our Knowl- 

nf the Laurentian. Feank D. Adams, 

Montreal, Canada. 

After referring briefly to the author's pre- 
vious work- on the aiiorthosite inti'usions of 
the Laurentian, the paper gave a condensed 
account of the results of a studj' of the 
stratigi-apliical relations and petrogi-aphical 
character of the gneisses and associated 
rocks of the Oren\'ille series in that portion 
of the protaxis which lies to the north of 
the Island of Montreal. By means of lan- 



tern slides Dr. Adams gave a very grapliic 
account of the region in question. Some 
thin sections of rocks as large as an ordi- 
nary lantern slide were used to illusti-ate 
the passage of a massive rock into a cruslied 
and sheared or gneissoid form. The paper 
formed not onlj' an important contriljution 
to the geology of the region, but to our 
knowledge of dynamic metamorphism as 
well. Discussion was reserved until after 
the reading of the next two. 
26. The Crystalline Limestones, Ophiolites, 
and Associated Schists of the Eastern 
Adirondacks. J. F. Kemp, New York. 
After a brief inti-oduction and sketch of 
what others had done on the subject in 
hand, the areas of these rocks, especially in 
Essex county, were outlined and described 
•with geological sections. It was shown 
that they are generally small, usually less 
than a square mile ; that they consist of 
(a) white graphitic crystalline limestone, 
■\\'ith gTcat numbers of inclusions of sili- 
cates, (b) of ophiolites, (c) of black garneti- 
ferous hornblende schists, (d) of lighter 
quartz scliists, and (c) in one area, of closely 
involved granulite very like the Saxon 
gi-anulite. The evidence of the plasticity 
of limestone under pressure was grapliicallj' 
shown by lantern .slides. The trap dikes 
that often cut the limestones were referred 
to, and the relations with the intrusive gab- 
bros were set forth, and the argument 
made that the limestones are older than 
the gabbros and auorthosites of the Norian 
series, and that they are the remnants of 
an extended formation which was cut up by 
these intrusions, inetamorphosed largely by 
them and afterward eroded. A comparison 
was drawn with those on the western side 
of the mountains. 

2T. The Relations of the Grtjstalline Lime- 
stones, Gneisses and Anorthosites in St. 
Lawrence and JeJ/'erson Counties, N. Y. 
C. H. Smyth, Jk., Clinton, N. Y. 
The paper dealt especially with areas in 



64 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 3. 



tlie towns of Diana, Pitcairn and Wilna, 
but was really a review of the relations of 
these rocks in a wider region and was based 
on extended field experience. Peti-ograijhic 
details were presented of the several kinds of 
rocks, and especially of the varieties of the 
anorthosites, which were shown to shade 
into angite-syenites, and apparently into red 
gneiss. Many irruptive contacts of anor- 
thosites and limestone were cited and the 
location of the classic mineral localities of 
this region was shown to be along these 
contacts. The same important thesis was 
worked out as in the preceding two papers, 
that the great inti'usions of the Norian se- 
ries were later than the gneisses and lime- 
stones. 

The papers were discussed by Whitman 
Cross, who called attention to the close 
parallelism of the geology in the Pike's 
Peak district of Colorado ; and by C. D. 
Walcott who referred to his own studies in 
the Adirondacks and similar conclusions to 
those advanced. 

28. Lower Gambrian Bocks in Eastern Gali- 
fornia. Chaeles D. WAicOTT, Wash- 
ing-ton, D. C. 

An account of the discovery of the Lower 
Cambrian rocks and fauna in the White 
Mountain range of Inyo County, Cal. See 
also ISTo. 2 above. This important discov- 
ery affords a means of correllating the early 
Cambrian hfe in the remote West with 
those alreadjr known in the East. 

29. Devonian Fossils in carhonifei'ous strata. 
H. S. Williams, ISTew Haven, Conn. 
The paper described the fauna of the 

Spring Creek hmestone of Arkansas, which 
lies between the Keokuk-Burlington sti-ata 
below and the Bates^dlle sandstone above, 
and is at about the horizon of the Warsaw 
and Chester of the Lower Carboniferous in 
the Mississippi Valley. The fossils are 
closely related to the carboniferous fauna 
described by Walcott from Eui-eka, Nev., 
and by J. P. Smith from Shasta County, Cal. 



But certain Devonian forms as Leiorhyncus 
quadricodatum and Productus laehnjmosiis of 
the New York Devonian are found with 
them, which are lacking in the jSIississippi 
Valley, but are found in the Devonian of 
the West. The interpretation was then 
made, that the Arkansas fossils indicated a 
Devonian incursion from the westward. 

Dui-ing the reading of this and the suc- 
ceeding titles the petrographers reconvened 
in the upper laboratory, as later recorded. 

30. The Pottsville series along the Neio 
Biver, West Va. David White, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

This paper was a careftil description of 
the sti-atigraphy of the series, the determi- 
nations being based on the fossils, which 
evidence was presented in full. 

31. The Cretaceous Deposits of the Northern 
Half of the Atlantic Coast Plain. Wm. 
B. Clark, Baltimore, Md. 

The several formations established as a 
result of a detailed study of the Cretaceous 
strata of Monmouth countj^, New Jersey, 
were shown to have a wide geographical 
range towards the south. They have been 
ti'aced throughout the southern portion of 
that State, while all except the highest 
members of the series are found crossing 
Delaware and the eastern shore of Mary- 
land. Several representatives of these for- 
mations appear on the western shore, reach- 
ing to the banks of the Potomac. 

32. Stratigraphic Measurements of Creta- 
ceous Time. (x. K. Gilbert, Washing-ton, 
D. C. 

The -nTiter described a great series of 
Cretaceous rocks, 3500-4000 ft. thick, Ijdng 
in the Ai-kansas River Valley, west of 
Pueblo, Colo. Thej' consist of laj^ers of hme- 
stone 1 ft. to 1 ft. 6 in. tliick, separated by 
1 in. of shale — this alternation being uni- 
formly repeated through the whole thick- 
ness. The wi'iter argued that ft-equent con- 
tinental oscillation from deep to shallow 
water deposits was unhkely as having caused 



January 18, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



65 



the beds, and hence appeaU'd to cliniatio 
cycles. 

Tlie cycles of a year's changing seasons is 
too short to account for the limestone ; the 
next longer cycle, the lunar, involves no 
changes of climate ; hence the cj^cle of the 
precession of tlie e(|iiinoxes, 21,000 j'cars 
long, was selected, and allowing four feet of 
de}X)sit for each cycle, tliis portion of Cretace- 
ons time was estimated at 21,000,000 years. 

There was no discussion, but a very cAi- 
dent feeling of solemnity at the announce- 
ment. 

33. Notes on the Cretaceous of Weste7-n Tex- 
as and Coahuila, Mexico. E. T. Dumble, 
Austin, Texas. 

The author being absent the paper was 
only read by title. 

The main section then adjourned until 
the pre.sidental addi-ess at 7:30 the same 
evening, ileantime the peti-ographers lis- 
teni'd to 

34. Spheriililic Volcanics at North Haveni 
Maine. W. S. Bayley, Water^ille, Me. 
In the Journal of Geologj' a few months 

ago the late Dr. George H.Williams referred 
to the existence of old rhyolit«s on the 
coast of ilaine. The author described very 
briefly the occurrence of these rocks, and 
exhibited specimens of them. The speci- 
mens showed very perfect spherulites, litho- 
physie and all the common features of glassy 
volcanics. Tliey brought out an interesting 
discussion regarding the abundance of these 
rocks along the Altantic sea-board. J. E. 
Wolft" spoke of theii- great extent near Bos- 
ton, and especially at Blue ECill, where the 
relations with the Quincy gi-anite are a hard 
problem. A. C. Lane mentioned their fre- 
quency in central Elaine, as shown by the 
collections of L. L. Hubbard. T. G. White 
referred to those near Mt. Desert. J. F. 
Kemp spoke of recent field and peti-ogra- 
phic work in progress on the gi'cat areas 
near St. John, N. B. W. S. Ycates brought 
up the curious phosphatic spherulites lately 



found in Georgia, which closely simulate 
litliophysjT, and remarks were made on 
them by W. Cross and J. P. Idtlings. 
35. The Peripheral I'hases of the Great Gab- 

hro Mai's of Xorthca.4ern Miniie-'<ofa. W. 

S. Baylky, A\'aterville, Me. 

On the northern border of the gi-eat gab- 
bro mass in nortlieast«m Minnesota are 
basic and gi-anulitic rocks whose composi- 
tion indicates tlieir relationships with the 
gabljros with which they are associated. 
The basic rocks arc aggregates of the basic 
constituents of the gabbro. They are char- 
acterized especially by the abundance of 
titanic iron. The granulitic rocks dilVer 
fi-om the central gabbro mainly in struc- 
ture. They consist of aggi-egates of rounded 
diallage, hypersthene and plagioclase. all of 
wliicli minerals are present also in the nor- 
mal rocks. The Ijasic rocks are probably 
differentiated phases of the gabbro, of ear- 
lier age than the great mass of the nor- 
mal rock. The granulitic phases are simplj- 
periplieral phases. Closely parallel cases 
were brought out in the discu.ssion as 
existing in the AcUrondacks (by C. H. 
Smyth, Jr., and J. F. Kemp), and in Que- 
bec (F. D. Adams), where they have been 
been called granulites, augite-syenites and 
augite gneisses. H. D. Campbell mentioned 
the sjime phenomena in similar i-ocks in 
Rockbridge county, Virginia, and all the 
speakers commented on the peculiar devel- 
opment of orthoclase feldspar in the border 
facies of a gabbro mass. 
86. The Contact Phenomena at Pigeon Point, 

Minn. W. S. Bayley, Wat*rA-ille, Me. 

The speaker distributed copies of his re- 
cent Bulletin U. S. Geol. Suiwey, Xo. lO't. 
and exhibited a series of specimens which 
illustrate the peculiar contacts and transi- 
tion rocks at Pigeon Point. Discussion fol- 
lowed bj' by J. P. hidings and others. 
37. A Xew Di.->covirij of Peridotife at Deiritt, 

3 miles east of Si/raeiise, N. Y. N. H. Dar- 

TON. Petroyraphij of same, J. F. Kemp. 



66 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. A'OL. I. No. 3. 



Mr. Darton described the opening up of 
tliis new boss of peridotite in the building 
of a reservoir. Tlie wall rock is Salina 
shales, and the geological section of that 
part of the state was outlined in explana- 
tion. J. P. Kemp described the rock as a 
very fresh peridotite as these rocks go, with 
perfectly unaltered olivines and a ground 
mass of small augite crystals, with what 
was probably originally glass. Gabbroitic 
segregations were also mentioned contain- 
ing feldspar. The interest of the rock lies 
in the fact that it gives much fresher mater- 
ial than that described by Dr. G. H. Wil- 
liams from Syracuse, in which the larger 
original minerals were represented onlj^ by 
alteration products. No perofskite or me- 
lihte could be found in the Dewitt material. 

Professor B. K. Emerson exhibited re- 
markable pseudomoi-phs of olivine from a 
rediscovered though long lost mineral lo- 
cahty in Massachusetts, and corundum with 
interesting enclosures. 

The section then adjourned with the in- 
tention of having an exhibition of rock sec- 
tions the following morning in the same 
place. 

A goodly audience greeted President 
Chamberlin at 7:30 in the evening for the 
anniial presidential address, the subject be- 
ing Recent Glacial Studies in Greenland. 
The speaker brought out the distribution of 
the ice sheet over Greenland, described his 
observations at Disko Bay and elsewhere 
and his final location at Lieut. Peary's sta- 
tion, Inglefleld Gulf. Many pecuUar feat- 
ures of Greenland glaciers were brought out, 
such as their rampart-like terminal cliffs, 
their general foliation or banding and en- 
closed debris, their causeways of morainic 
material, etc. The glaciation is thought to 
be now near its maximum extent because 
just beyond the ice are unglaciated areas 
and jagged islands that have never been 
covered. A large series of lantern views 
followed and brought out still more forcibly 



the points of the address. President Cham- 
berlin was listened to with close attention 
during the two hours occupied, and all thor- 
oughlj' enjoyed the lecture, but it is never- 
theless true that an hour and a quarter, or 
at most an hour and a half, is about as long 
as a speaker can wisely keep a general 
audience. 

The Society reassembled in the geological 
laboratory about ten o'clock for the annual 
supper. After an excellent menu had been 
cared for, Professor B. K. Emerson was cho- 
sen toastmaster, and by his characteristic 
sallies, in which he was ably aided by several 
speakers, resolved his hearers into inter- 
mittentlj^ active spiracles of mirth upon the 
lava sti-eam of his wit. 

When the Societj' reassembled on Satur- 
day morning the first paper read was 

38. The Marginal Development of the Miocene 
in Eastern New Jersey. Wm. B. Claek, 
Baltimore, Md. 

The deposits which characterize the mar- 
ginal phase of ISTew Jersey Miocene in Mon- 
mouth and Ocean counties were especially 
discussed. The gravels, sands and clays 
were considered and their relations shown, 
together with the occurrence of giauconite 
in certain areas. The connection of the 
sti'ata in the northern counties with the 
highly fossiliferous beds in South Jersey 
was explained. The paper was discussed 
by IST. H. Darton bringing out some slight di- 
vergence of views on the classification of the 
deposits, in that the discover}^ of fossils by 
W. B. Clark had somewhat revised the ear- 
lier stratigraphic work. 

39. Sedimentary Geology of the Baltimore Re- 
gion. N. H. Darton, Washing-ton, D. C. 
An account of the local geology of Meso- 

zoic and Cenozoic formations and some 
statements regarding certain unsolved prob- 
lems in coastal plain geology, illustrated by 
maps and sections. The sections which 
passed through the crystallines of the Pied- 
mont plateau and the city of Baltimore 



JAXIAKY 18, 189r>.] 



SCIENCE. 



07 



brought out aduiirahly tlu' I'elations of the 
hitcr sediments to tlie okler protaxis. 

40. The Surface Fdrmations of Southern New 
JerM'y. Eoi.i.iN 1). SALisBrKY, Chicago, 
111. 

The sui-f'ace formations of southern New 
Jersey, which liaAe often been grouped to- 
gether under the names, ' Yellow Gravel ' 
and 'Columbia.' are believed to be divis- 
ible into five formations, the oldest of which 
greath' antedates the glacial period. The 
several formations are unconformable on 
eacli other and are believed to have been 
widely separated in time of origin. These 
formations were called the (1) Beacon Hill, 
(2) Canasaucon (the spelling may be 
wTong), (.3) Jamesburg, (4) Trenton and 
the (5) Kej'port. It is impossible as yet to 
say which are Columbia and which not, but 
(2) is probably Pleistocene, and formed 
durmg ice action on the north. Nothing 
later than (3) is Columbia. The paper was 
discussed by Warren Upham. 

41. New Forms of Marine Alga: from the Tren- 
ton Limentone, ivith Observations on Butho- 
graptus laxus, Hull. R. P. Whitfield, 
New York. (The paper was read bj- E. 

O. HOVEV.) 

Certain fossils from Platteville, Wis., re- 
ferred years ago by Hall with doubt to the 
gi'aptotiles, were shown to be reallj' articu- 
lated, marine algie, and referable to several 
species. True corallines from the same 
hoi'izon at Middleville were also described 
which are mudi older than any hitherto 
mentioned members of this group of plants. 

42. 0)1 the Honeycombed Limestones in the Bot- 
tom of Lake Huron. Robert Bell, Ottawa, 
Canada; (Read by H. M. Ami.) 

Tlie Limestones over a certain region in 
the bottom of Lake Huron are extensively 
eroded in a peculiar manner which the 
wi-itt'r calls hcmeycombing and pitting. He 
described this condition, the area within 
which it is found, the depth of the water and 
other conditions most favorable to its pi-o- 



duction and thin attcmi)tt'd toaccount forits 
origin, enumerating various i)os.sible causes 
which might suggest themselves, and giving 
the most probable one, namely, a difl'erential 
solubilitj- of the rock in the presence of 
slightly acidulated Avater. Reasons in sup- 
port of this view wi're stated. The geologi- 
cal ages and the lithological characters of 
the various limestones attacked were men- 
tioned in trying to an-ive at the conditions 
which produce the phenomena described. 
The localizatiim of this form of erosion may 
be attributed to a slight acichty of the water 
in that part of Lake Huron, and reasons are 
given for believing that an acid condition 
actually exists. In addition to the consider- 
ations due to the structure and composition 
of the rock lying at the bottom of such water, 
certain external conditions were mentioned 
as favoring the lioneycombing process, which 
appears to be still in active progress. Ex- 
amples were given of somewhat similar 
erosion elsewhere, but the typical honey- 
comlting here described appears to l)e con- 
fined to Lake Huron. The paper was illus- 
trated by specimens and photographs. 
43. On the Quarts-keratophijre and its A-^^o- 
ciated Rocks of the Baraboo Bluffs, Wiseon'<in. 
Samuel Wei dm an. (Read l)y J. P. Id- 
dings.) 

In the vicinity of Barab(x>, Wisconsin, 
occur acid por])hyritic rocks wliich corre- 
spond chemically with quartz-keratophyres. 
They exhibit under the micro.scopo fluxion, 
spherulitic, poicilitic, and other structures 
of volcanic rocks, and are associated with 
volcanic breccias which show them to have 
their origin in a surface flow. They are of 
Pre-Cambrian age. since they rest upon the 
upper Huronian (piartzite and are overlaid 
by the Potsdam sandstime and conglomer- 
ate. In some i)ortions of the area- they 
have been completely changed to finely foli- 
ated sericite schists through tlie orographii- 
movement which elevated the quartzites to 
form the Hlufl's. 



68 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 3. 



44. The Characteristic Features of the Califor- 
nia Gold Quartz Veins. Waldemar Lind- 
CtEen, WasMugton, D. C. 
The writer described tie extent and asso- 
ciations of the veins, bringing out the fact 
that thejr are in all manner of wall rocks, 
although especially in the auriferous slates. 
They were shown to be true fissure veins 
that cut the walls at all angles, although 
mostly along the strike. Direct issue was 
taken with the view that thej' are replace- 
ments of limestone or related rock, for it 
was shown that while the veins are sili- 
ceous and filled with quartz, the wall rocks 
have very generally suffered carbonatiza- 
tion. Finally the source of the gold was 
placed in deep seated regions, whence it had 
been brought by uprising solutions. 

On the conclusion of the paper, the cus- 
tomary votes of thanks were passed to the 
local committee, to the Johns Hopkins 
University and to others whose efforts had 
made the session a success. The next 
place of meeting, a year hence, has not been 
settled. On the whole, the meeting was 
the best attended and most interesting and 
successful yet held. J. F. Kemp. 

Columbia College. 



THE BALTIMORE 3IEETINQ OF THE AMERI- 
CAN MORPHOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

The Society met on Thursday morning 
in the lecture room of the Chemical Build- 
ing and again upon Friday afternoon, ad- 
journing for the intermediate sessions of 
the Society of Naturalists. In the absence 
of Professor C. O. Wliitman, President of the 
Society, Professor W. B. Scott, of Princeton, 
Vice-President, took the chair. Among 
those present at these sessions besides those 
who presented papers were Alpheus Hyatt, 
Edward S. Morse, Edward D. Cope, Samuel 
F. Clarke, C. F. Herrick, Henry F. Osborn, 
E. A. Andi-ews, W. H. DaU. 

The oflBcers elected for the year 1895 were: 



President — Professor Edmund B. AVilson, 
Columbia College. 

Vice-President — Professor W. B. Scott, 
Princeton College. 

Secretary and Treasurer, Dr. G. H. Parker, 
of Harvard University. 

The foUo-nang are abstracts of the papers 
presented : — 

Dr. C. W. Stiles, of the U. S. Agricul- 
tural Bureau, presented the first paper upon 
Larval Stages of an Anoplocephaline Cestode 
and exliibited specimens of Distoma (Poly- 
orchis) moUe (Leidy, '56), S. & H., '94 ; 
of DioctophjTue gigas. End., and of Distoma 
tricolor, S & H. Five hundred of the last 
named species are ready for disti-ibution as 
exchanges to college zoologists. 

Professor William A. Locy, of Lake For- 
est University, presented the first paper on 
Primitive Metamerism in Selachians, Amphibia 
and Birds. It has been generallj^ assmned 
that the metameric divisions of the Verte- 
brates depend primarily on the middle 
germ-layer, and that whenever they appear 
in the ectoderm they are secondarily 
moulded over the mesodermic segments. 
This proposition is not supported by these 
observations. We find in very young em- 
bryos of amphibians and birds, primitive 
metameric di-sdsions wliich effect the entire 
epiblastic folds and in Selachians extend 
also out' into the germ-ring. They are 
present before any protovertebrse are formed 
and are most clearly marked in the border 
regions. These segments become later co- 
incident with the so-called neuromeres, but 
it is to be noted that they are by no means 
confined to the neural tube. The time- 
honored designation ' metamerism of the 
head ' should be interpreted as meaning 
regional metamerism not as a different form 
of segmentation from that which affects the 
trunk region. This paper was discussed 
and the accuracy of the author's observa- 
tions was questioned because of the con- 
spicuous character which he assigned to 



Jaxuary 18, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



m 



certain surface markings never observed by 
others. The opportunity given for examin- 
ing the specimens, liowever, proved that the 
markings could be faintly seen as described 
by the author. 

Dr. Locy's second paper was a Note on the 
Mumologies of the Pineal Sense-Organ. The 
basis for determining homologies of the two 
epiphysial outgi'owths of Petromyzon, Telc- 
osts and Lacertilia has been furnished by 
recent publications by Studuicka, Hill and 
Klinckowstrom. Basing a comparison upon 
innervation and also upon the history of 
the vesicles, we may regard the upper epi- 
physial vesicle in I'eti'omyzou as corres- 
ponding to the epiphysis of Teleosts and 
Lacertilia, and the lower epiphysial vesicle 
as equivalent to the anterior vesicle of Hill 
(which early absorbs ) in the teleosts. and to 
the pineal eye in the Lacertilia. 

Under the title : • The Qiiadrille of the 
Centrommes' in the Echinoderm egg; a second 
contribution to biological mythology, Professor 
E. B. AVilsou, of Columbia, presented the 
somewhat surprising results of his renewed 
investigation of the phenomena of fertiliza- 
tion in the eggs of the sea-urchin. Rabl 
had predicted in 1SS9 that the union of the 
germ-cells would be found to involve a con- 
jugation of centrosomes or archoplasmic ele- 
ments in addition to the well-knowna conju- 
gation of nuclear elements. Fol's celebrated 
paper on the Quadrille of the Centrosomes 
in 1891 was apparently a triumphant fulfill- 
ment of the prediction, and, having been 
ininiediatelj" and universally accepted, ex- 
ercised an important influence on the current 
theories of inheritance. A prolonged re- 
search upoii the eggs of Toxopnenstes variegatus 
shows, with a high degi-ee of certainty, that 
Fol's results were based on material pre- 
))ared by defective methods; that his ac- 
count of the origin of the archoplasm is 
fundamentallj' erroneous ; that no ' Quad- 
ri lie ' occurs in the American species at least , 
and that his account of it is largelj' mythical. 



Results e.ssentially similar and fully corrob- 
orating the above have been reached in the 
Columbia Laboratory bj" Mr. A. P. Mathews 
in the eggs of Arbucia and Asterias. In all 
these cases the egg-centrosome and archo- 
plasm degenerate and completely di.siippear 
after formation of the second polar body, 
and, therefore, do nut i>lay any part in the 
fertilization. Tlie sperm-archoplasm is de- 
rived not from the tip of sperm l)ut from the 
middle-piece (as in the earth-worm and in 
the axolotl) and by division gives rise di- 
rectly to the amphiaster of the first cleavage 
without any participation of an egg-centre 
or egg-archoplasm. All the stages in the 
fertilization process of Toxojmenstes were ex- 
hibited by the author in photographs taken 
■with an enlargement of one thousjind ilia- 
meters with the coiJperation of Dr. Edward 
Leaming, of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, Kew York. These photographs 
illustrated furthermore the effect upon the 
egg of various reagents, a considerable num- 
ber of which have been carefully tested. 
Fol's picro-osmic mixture was shown to be 
very defective, causing more or less marked 
disorganization of the archoplasmic struct- 
ures and producing various artefacts. The 
' centei-s ' (centrosomes) of Fol were un- 
questionably such artefacts, produced by the 
slu-inking and clotting together of the ar- 
choi)lasmic recticulum. In properly pre- 
served material (sublimate-acetic, Flem- 
ming"s fluid, etc..) the arehoplasm-masses 
(' astrospheres') consist of a uniform reti- 
culum and contain no centrosomes. 

In a second paper on the ^Polarity of the 
Egg in Toxopneusfes ' Professor AVilson de- 
scribed the results of his observations on 
the paths of the jironuclei in tiie transpar- 
ent li%Tng egg. The very unexpected result 
was renehed that in this ca.se the ultimate 
vertical axis of tlie egg (' egg-axis ' jn-opei-) 
does not necessarily coincide with the polar 
axis but may form any angle with it: but 
the plane of first cleavage is nevertheless 



70 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. A'OL. I. No. 3. 



always nearly thi'ough the entrance-point 
of the sperm. Regarding the former point 
there is a possible source of error in that 
the excenti'ic egg-nucleus may wander fi-oni 
its original position (near the polar bodies) , 
so that the diameter passing through it no 
longer represents the egg-axis. (This can- 
not be determined fi-om the polar bodies, 
since they quickly become detached from 
the egg). Many facts indicate, however, 
that such wandering does not occur. If it 
does not, then the polarity of the egg is not 
primordial but induced, and one of the most 
fundamental characteristics of the egg is 
thus brought into the category of epigenetic 
phenomena. 

Professor Charles S. Minot, of the Har- 
vard Medical School, presented a paper upon 
The Olfactory Lobe. He showed that of 
eleven layers of cells in the olfactory lobe 
onlj the inner two layers belong to the cere- 
bral cortex proper, proving that the olfac- 
tory lobe is a ganglion structure belonging to 
the sensory ganglion series with certain great 
secondary modifications. This is further 
supported by the fact that' the lobe primar- 
ily connects with the brain at a point topo- 
graphically similar with a point midway be- 
tM^een the ' dorsal zone ' and the ' ventral 
zone ' of His. In a second paper Professor 
Minot pointed out as a Fundamental Difference 
Betiveen Animals and Plants, of value princi- 
pally in teaching, that while animals feed 
typically upon solids, plants always procure 
their food in a gaseous or hquid form. This 
paper was discussed by Dr. Locy, Dr. 
Humphries and several other botanists and 
zoologists present, the point being raised 
that plants manufacture their own food and 
that when plant assimilation really begins 
it is practically analgous to that of animals, 
as it consists in the taking up of solid par- 
ticles. 

Dr. Arnold Graf, of Columbia, presented 
the next paper upon The Origin of the Pig- 
ment and the Causes of the Presence of Patterns 



in Leeches. The pigment originates in the 
excretophores. These are wandering cells 
which pick up excretory substances fi-om 
the walls of the capillaries ; one part of the 
cells wanders to the funnels of the nephri- 
dium and thus delivers their contents into 
the nephridium, wliile another part of the 
excretophores wanders under the skin 
emerging along the lines of least resistance, 
which lie between the muscle bundles. 
The color patterns of the leeches vary, 
therefore, according to the arrangement of 
the musculature. In Nephelis the longitud- 
inal musculature is developed most strongly 
and consequently the pattern consists in 
longitudinal stripes. Clepsine has as a con- 
sequence of its parasitical mode of life a 
strongly developed dorso-ventral muscula- 
ture and therefore the pattern consists in 
spots, the loug-itudinal sti'ipes ha^dug been 
interrujjted and broken up by the trans- 
verse and oblique muscle bundles. The 
bearing of these facts is very important. 
The color pattern of the leeches is not in 
itself adaptive; it is entirely incidental and 
secondary to the musculature which is es- 
sentially adaptive. A change in the mus- 
culature Avould result in a change in the 
superficial color pattern. This shows how 
a very striking superficial character maj'' 
originate without any adaptive significance 
and as a secondary inheritance. 

The following paper bj' Professor H. T. 
Fernald, of Central College of Pennsylvania, 
was entitled Homoplasy as a Factor in Mor- 
phology. A review of zoological Hterature 
in the past ten years shows that in every 
group of animals beginning wdth the sponges 
and extending iip to the highest vertebrates 
the phenomenon of parallel or homoplastic 
development is becoming increasinglj' ap- 
parent. Numbers of cases were cited fi-om 
all classes of animals showing that identical 
sti'uctures, produced independentlj' in differ- 
ent phyla, are extremely numerous.. The 
paper was discussed by Professors Hyatt, 



Jaxuauy Is, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



71 



Cope and Scott, who jioiutt'il out that 
while the term ' honioplasy ' Wcas proposed 
by Lankaster the phenomenon itself was 
early pointed out hy Darwin and has 
been fully elucidated by palaeontolojjists. 

Mr. Seitaro Gato, of the Johns Hopkins 
University, gave a demonstration of some 
pai'ts of the P>toi)aiasitic Trematodes in- 
cluding a number of featui-es fi"om his full 
memoir upon this subject recently pub- 
lished in Japan. 

Mr. A. P. Matthews, of Columbia, fol- 
lowed \\-ith a paper on the Morplwlnykal 
Changes in the Pancreatic Cell, eorresponcUng 
ii'ith Functional Acfiriti/. The cells of JVec- 
tuntg are exceptionally large and favorable 
for observation of the changes wliich occur 
before and after feeding. The striated ap- 
pearance of the outer zone of the pancreatic 
cell is due to coarse cytoplasmic filaments 
or threads which end in the centre of 
masses of chromatin within the nuclear 
membrane. In fact, these threads are di- 
rectly continuous with the cytoplasmic reti- 
culum in the inner zone ; these threads are 
often coiled and in such cases explain the 
structures known as Nebenkerne. When 
the gland is secreting the zymogen granules 
and reticulum are washed out of the cell by 
lymph currents and new thread substance 
is manufactured l)y the chromatin. Dur- 
ing the so-called ' rest ' of the cell the thread 
substance degenerates into zymogen gran- 
ules and the cytoplasmic reticulum of the 
inner zone. The zymogen granules grow 
by accretion. The thread substance grows 
by accretion at the chromatin end. The 
nucleus undergoes no appreciable changes. 
There are indications that the ('hromatin is 
a ferment, and that it is the essential forma- 
tive element of the cell ; probably tliis is 
true of all the cells and all chromatin ; if 
so, the character of cj-toplasm and new 
chromatin formed will depend on the char- 
acter of the nutrition. It is po.ssible that 
the chromatin of embryonic cells differenti- 



ates as a result of dillerentiations depend- 
ent upon the location in the segmenting cell 
mass of the chromatin of the original blas- 
tomeres. If this is true it is unnecessary 
to assiime that characteristics are repre- 
sented deiinitely in a so-called ' stirp ' lo- 
cated in the chromatin. 

Professor J. S. Kingsley, of Tufts College, 
next i)resented a paper upon the Anatomy 
and Jielationshi})!' of Pauropida, on behalf of 
Mr. F. C. Kenyon. 

Professor Aljiheus Hyatt, of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoologj-, Cambridge, pre- 
sented a paper summing up his researches 
upon the ParallcUmis between the Ontogeny and 
Phytogeny of Pecten. 

Professor Andrews submitted for Profes- 
sor T. H. Morgan, of Bryn JIawr, some of 
his observations recentlj' made in Naples at 
the American table supported bj- the Smith- 
•sonian Institution. It is found that the 
unsegmented eggs of a sea-urchin may l)e 
broken into minute fragments which develop 
into perfect larva'. One such fragment may 
be one-fiftieth of the volume of the egg and 
yet develoj) into a ga.strula if it contain a 
male and a female pronucleus. The gas- 
trula thus produced is so exeeedinglj' small 
that three in a row are no longer than 
an infusorian, such as Paramoecium. The 
volume of such a gastrula is one-sixty-fourth 
part of that of a normal gastrula. While 
the number of ct-lls in a normal blastula on 
the point of invaginating is five to seven 
hundred, the numlier in one of the minute 
blastulas at the same stage niiiy be as small 
as sixty. With such facts we explain the 
known difficulty in rearing larvie fi-om iso- 
lated cells of late cleavage stages, as due to 
a limit in the number of cleavages pos.sible 
before gastrulation. That is, gastrulation 
comes after a definite number of cleavages 
and a cell has its possible cleavages reduced 
in a certain ratio by the number of preced- 
ing cleavages. 

The paper of Professor F. H. Herrick, of 



72 



SCIENCE. 



[X. S. Vol. I. No. 3. 



Adelbert College, upon tlie Biology of the 
Lobster wiU be printed in full in a later 
number of Science. 



CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY {II.). 

NATIVE ASTRONOMY IN MEXICO AND CENTEAL 
AMERICA. 

At the International Congress of Ameri- 
canists, wMcli met in Stockbolm last Au- 
gust, two papers were presented wbicb ought 
to give j)ause to those would-be critics who 
of late years have been seeking to belittle 
the acquirements of the semi-civilized tribes 
of Mexico and Central America. Both are 
studies of the positive astronomic knowledge 
which had been gained by the observers 
among those tribes. One is by Mrs. Zelia 
Nuttall, and bears the title, Notes of the 
Ancient Mexican Calendar System. It is 
intended merely as a preliminary publica- 
tion to a thorough analysis of this system 
as it was carried out in Mexico, and con- 
tains only the outlines of her discoveries. 
These are, however, suificient to support 
her thesis, that the astronomer-priests 
possessed a surprisingly accurate knowl- 
edge of the exact length of the solar 
year, of the revolution of the moon, and 
of the sjTiodical revolution of the planet 
Venus. 

The second paper is by Dr. Forstemann, 
who is the foremost student in Germany of 
the contents of the books written in the 
hieroglyphic script of the ancient Mayas. 
He takes up page 24 of the Dresden Codex, 
and explains its meaning. This page has 
been long recognized as a sort of abstract or 
table of contents of those which follow it in 
the Codex, but its exact bearing has not 
previously been interpreted. Dr. Forste- 
mann shows by ingenious and accurate 
i-easoning that it relates chiefly to the syn- 
odical revolution of the planet Venus and 
its relation to the courses of the sun and 
moon. 



RECENT AMERICAN LINGUISTIC STUDIES. 

It is gratifying to note that the immense 
field of native American languages is find- 
ing cultivators in many countries. 

Even in England, where so little has been 
done in this direction, a special fund has 
been raised called the ' vocabulary pub- 
lication fund,' which prmts and issues 
(through Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & 
Co.) short grammars and vocabularies of 
languages from MSS. in the possession of 
learned societies and individuals. The first 
printed is a grammar and vocabulary of the 
Ipurina language, by the Eev. J. E. E. Po- 
lak. This is one of the Amazonian dia- 
lects, and though we were not without some 
material in it before, this addition to our 
knowledge is veiy welcome. 

From the same teeming storehouse of 
Brazil, Dr. Paul Ehi-enreich has lately pub- 
lished in the Berlin Zeitschrift fi'tr Ethnoloc/ie, 
his excellent studies m the language of the 
the Carayas and Caj-apos. They are practi- 
cally new in matter and form. The Pu- 
quinas are a rude tribe who live about Lake 
Titicaca. M. Eaoul de La Grasserie has 
lately issued (through Koehler, Leipzig) a 
number of old texts ra their langxiage ; and 
Dr. Max. Uhle has collected considerable 
material in it as sjjoken to-day. Dr. A. F. 
Chamberlain, in the American Anthropolo- 
gist for April last, analyzes a number of ne- 
ologisms in the Kootenaj^ language ; while 
our knowledge of the remote and confusing 
dialects of the Gran Chaco has latelj' been 
notablj' increased by the activity of the-Ai-- 
gentine scholars, Macedo and Lafone-Que- 
vedo, in editing from rare or manuscript 
works the notes collected by the early mis- 
sionaries. 

AMERICAN ONOMATOLOGY. 

The study of the meaning and origin of 
geographical names has a higher purpose 
than to satisfj' a passing curiositJ^ They 
are often the only surviving evidences of 



JAXIARY 18, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



i-3 



migrations ami occuiiaiu-y ; they preservo 
extinct tongues or obsok'te forms ; and they 
indicate the stage of culture of the people 
who bestowed them. Especially useful in 
these directions are the aboriginal names 
on the American continent ; for the shifting 
of the native population was so rapid, and 
the dialects disappeared so quickly, that the 
place-names are sometimes the only hints 
left us of the presence of tribes iu given 
localities. 

A model study in this field is that of Dr. 
Karl Sapper in Globus, Bd. LXVI., No. G, 
on ' The Native Place-names of Northern 
Central America.' It embraces Guatemala, 
Chiapas, Tabasco, and portions of Yucatan, 
Honduras and San Salvador. The aim of 
the writer is to define the limits of the 
Mayan dialects, and to explain the presence 
of Nahuatl influence. lie accomplishes his 
purpose in a thorough manner. Mr. De 
Peralta, in his Etiioluyia Centro- Americana 
(Madrid, 1893), did much the same for 
Costa Rica ; and in the Algonkian regions 
of the Eastern United States, Mr. William 
"Wallace Tooker ( in the American Anthropol- 
ogist and other periodicals) has supplied 
unquestionably correct analyses of the com- 
plicated and often corrupt forms derived 
from that stock. 

SOME KKCKXT EVKOPEAX ARTICLES ON 
AMERICAN ARCHEOLOGY. 

Althouch some lolty archa'ologists in the 
I'nited States display an inability to per- 
ceive the value of the antiquities of this 
continent, it is gratifying to note that this 
purblindness does not prevail in Eurojje. 

What native .American skill could accom- 
plish in the line of true art is well shown by 
the reproduction on the design on a beau- 
tifully colored and decorated vase from 
Chama. (luatemala, figured by Herr Diesel- 
I'orlf in the Zeitsch riff far Elhnologie, 1.S94, Heft 
V. It will creditably bear comparison with 
tlie iiigher periods of Etru.scan techni(jiie. 



In a publicatii)ii which has been lately 
started by the Museum of Ethnogra])hy of 
Berlin, called Ethiiulogii<ches Kotizblatt, Dr. E. 
Seler, well known for his profound re- 
searches into Mexican antiquity, has a copi- 
ously illnstrated article on the great stone 
sculi)tures of the Nati(mal Museum of Mex- 
ico. He identifies several of the figures 
about which doubt has been entertained. 

The Count de Charencey, also an author 
who has written abundantly on American 
subjects, has an article in the Hevue ck'n lie- 
llgions for June last, on Leg Deformations 
Vranienncs. Unfortunately, he lias not out- 
gi'own the theories of Angrand and other 
obsolete writers, who saw ' Toltecs ' and 
' Asiatic influence ' and the ' Ten Lost 
Tribes ' wherever they turned their gaze in 
the New ^^'orld. It is a pity that his real 
learning should be thus misdirected. 

The Report, the ninth, of the British As- 
sociation on the Xortlnvestern Tribes of Can-, 
ada, contains this year but 11 pages, writ- 
ten bj' Dr. Boas. At the next meeting it 
will conclude its labors. 

SOME OF ADOLPU BASTIAN's LATER WRITINGS. 

The untiring activity of Professor Adolph 
Bastian, wlio for more than a quarter of a 
century has occupied the position of Direc- 
tor of the Royal ^Iiiseum of Ethnography 
at Berlin, is something amazing. 

He but recently returned from a long 
journey iu the Orient, one of the products 
of which was a remarkable book with a 
not less remarkable title, Ideal Worlds ac- 
cording to Vranographic Provinces, in which 
he discusses at length the cosmogonies and 
tiieog(mies of the i)liilosophers of India. 
This indicates the special direction of his 
studies of late years. They have turned 
toward the elementary conceptions of primi- 
tive and early pe((i>les concerning the uni- 
verse, cosmogony and theogony, the nature 
and destiny of the soul, the life and sup- 
posed worlds hereafter, tlie processes of 



74 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 3. 



thought, the notions of social relation, 
traced as far into their abstract forms as it 
was possible for the human mind in that 
stage of development to conceive and ex- 
press them. 

This tendency is illustrated hj the titles 
of some of his latest issues; as, Vorges- 
chiditUehe ScJidpfungslieder in ihren Ethnischen 
JElementargedanken ; Zur Mythologie und Psy- 
cJiologie der Nigritier in Ghdnea mit Beziuj- 
nahme auf Socialistische Elementargedanhen ; 
Wie das Volk Denht; ein Beitrag zur Beant- 
wortung sozialer Fragen auf Ch'undlage Eth- 
nischer Elementargedanken, etc. 

These writings are all crammed with wide 
erudition and mature reflection; but, unfor- 
tunately, the author persists in following a 
literary stjde of expression which is certainly 
the worst of anj^ living writer, intricate, ob- 
scure, sometimes unintelligible to a born 
German, as one of his own pupils has as- 
sured me. This greatlj' limits the viseful- 
ness of his productions. 

D. G. Brinton. 

UjfivEESiTY OF Pennsylvania. 



THE CONNECTICUT SANDSTONE GROUP. 

The attempt to revive the abandoned 
name of Newark for the older designation 
of Connecticut, in its application to the 
Triassic terranes in the Atlantic geographic 
area, is supported by G. K. Gilbert and op- 
posed by B. S. LjTnan, in a joint discussion, 
in the Journal of Geology, Vol. II., No. 1. 
One would think that the considerations 
presented by me in the American Geologist, 
Vol. v., page 201, would have been suffi- 
cient to sa.tisfy any one looking at the sub- 
ject judicially and impartially, of the inad- 
equacy of the name Newark to special 
recognition. In seeking a name for a ter- 
rane we should naturally inquire, ^r«i, where 
is the area which exhibits best the typical 
features? In answer to this we have the 
fact that in the Connecticut area the early 
exploration was the most thorough, the vei-y 



unique occurrence of fossil footmarks was 
first recognized, and is the onlj' one in which 
they have been thoroughly studied. At 
first these were thought to have been made 
by birds ; but the later suggestion of deino- 
saurs has been verified by the masterly 
restorations of Anchisaurus by Prof O. C. 
Marsh, obtained in the same Connecticut 
valley. Eeptilian bones were knoAvn als» 
fi'om Pennsylvania, but no one has ever 
connected them with the tracks. Thus the 
feature which characterizes the American 
Trias is found in its perfection in the Con- 
necticut and not in the Newark area. Thfe 
fish are also more abundant in the first 
named area. The other features of imj^ort- 
ance are the coal and fossil plants, and 
these are best developed in a Virginia 
area. 

Second. It is essential for the suitability 
of a geographical term, that the locality be 
one where the terrane should be exhibited 
in its entirety or maximum. The Connec- 
ticut valley has the whole series. The city 
of Newark ' does not contain one-fourth 
part of the thickness of this sandstone, and 
that which is visible is only a fraction of 
this fourth.' This early statement of mine 
is confirmed by Mr. B. S. Lyman, who says^ 
the exposures at Newark amount to ' one- 
tenth or one-twentieth of the beds to be 
included in the name.' Mr. Lyman has- 
still later called attention to the probability 
that the Newark beds belong to the Permian 
instead of the Triassic. 

Third. The name of Connecticut or Con- 
necticut river sandstone has precedence 
over Newark. It was both in actual use 
before the suggestion of Newark, and was- 
again proposed and used after 1856 and be- 
fore 1892, because no one except Mr. Red- 
field employed the term Newark. The pi'o- 
posal was never accepted by the geological 
public. 

In the early days of geology the use of 
local names was confined to the groups like- 



Jaxuaky If^, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



Silurian ami Devonian. It was not until 
geologists found it ncci'ssaiy to specify the 
smaller divisions that it was discovered 
how convenient tiiey were. The first users 
of names like Potsdam and Trenton did 
not make formal announcements that here- 
after a particular name would be applied 
to a definite set of beds with special paleon- 
tological characteristics. It was the • sand- 
stone of Potsdam,' the ' limestone of Tren- 
ton Falls,' enunciated almost apologeti- 
cally. We would not to-day question the 
validity of these early names because their 
authors did not set them forth in their 
perfection, like Minerva springing forth 
from the brain of Jupiter. I find tlie sug- 
gestion of Connecticut to have been made 
by E. Hitchcock in his rejiort upon the 
Geology of Massachusetts in 1833, page 209. 
He says, ' the group which I denominate 
new red saucktone in the Connecticut valley' 
(the italics are mine). This was repeated 
in the Final Rejjort, p. 441. Like his con- 
temporarii'S he preferred the use of the Eu- 
ropean term of Trias, New Red or sometimes 
Liassic to the geographical one. We note 
that the expression of new red sandstone in 
the Connecticut valley is fully as definite 
as the later one of sandstone of Potsdam. 
This usage of Connecticut appears in all of 
E. Hitchcock's papers, and he distinctly 
included the terranes of New Jei-sej', Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina. I quote later 
samples of its use. In the Ichnologj^ of 
New England, 18.58, page 20, may be found 
the following heading descriptive of an ex- 
tended discussion ; • 5. Conclusions as to 
the Age and Equi\alency of the Connecti- 
cut River Sandstone.' In 1859 he pub- 
lished in the Report of the Secretarj' of the 
Massachusetts Uoard of Agriculture a cata- 
logue of the State Collection. The follow- 
ing is the headingused descriptive of the spe- 
cimens from this terrane : " Conxkcticut 
RiVEU Sandstone. {Liassic and perhaps Tri- 
amc and Permian nandstones and limetstones.)" 



In 1800 Messrs. II. and C. T. Smith, .'{oG 
Pearl street. New York, published a wall 
map of Hampshire county, Mas.sachusetts, 
based upon the surveys of Henry F. Wall- 
ing. Hundri-ds, perhaps thousands, of these 
maps adorned the walls of houses belong- 
ing to citizens of that county. Upon it 
was placed a geological map of the county 
by Edward Hitchcock, and in explanation 
of the colors we have ' Connecticut River 
Sandstone, Lower and Upper,' and the 
words New Red or Trias do not appear at 
all. Thus the usage of the name C<mnecti- 
cut in the writings of this author has been 
constant and has passed ft'om the emploj'- 
ment of l)oth the Eluropean and local terms 
conjointly to the use of the latter one ex- 
clusively. 

Other earlier authors employed the geo- 
graphical name in a geological sense. Thus 
Lyell in his Travels. 1845, page 100, Vol. 2, 
says ' the Connecticut deposits,' Dr. James 
Deane constantly speaks of the Connecticut 
river sandstone ; and in his final work upon 
the footmarks, a quarto with 61 pages and 
46 plates, published by Little, Brown & Co., 
Boston, in 1861 , his title is 'A Memoir upon 
the Fossil Footprints and other Impressions 
of the Connecticut River Sandstone, by 
James Deane, M. D.' 

Roderick Impey Murchison, in his anni- 
versary address before the Geological Soci- 
ety of London, 1843, page 107, etc., speaks 
of the ' deposit in Connecticut ' and the 
• ornithichnite and Paleoniscus beds of Con- 
necticut.' 

Dr. John C. Warren, President of the 
Boston Society of Natural History, is re- 
ported as having given ' an historical ac- 
count of the science of Ichnology, particu- 
larly as illusti-ated by the fossil Ibotprints 
in the Connecticut River Sandstone;' Nov. 
2, 1853, Proc. B. S. N. H., Vol. IV., p. 376. 
Various remarks of his on these subjects 
were printed in 1854 in a book entitled 
'Pemarks on Sonte Possil Impressions in the 



76 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 3. 



Sandstone Bocks of Connecticut River,' by John 
C. Warren, M. D., President of the Boston 
Society of Natural Historj^ 

Prof. W. B. Eogers, at a meeting of the 
Boston Society of Natural History, June 20, 

1855, spoke of the discover jr of the fern 
Clathropteris in the ' Connecticut River 
Sandstone.' 

The use of the name Connecticut River 
Sandstone as applied to the rocks in ques- 
tion seems to have been universal among 
the members of the Boston Society of Nat- 
ural History in the fifties, and it is applied 
as a matter of course in the index in Vols. 
v., VI., VII., etc. Mr. T. T. Bouve also 
uses the expression prior to 1855. 

A sufficient number of citations have now 
been made to prove the frequent application 
of the term Connecticut River Sandstone to 
the Triassic terranes before the proposal of 
W. C. Redfield in 1856 to apply the designa- 
tion of Newark to the same. Others could 
be added. But I will in the next place call 
attention to the fact that no one had followed 
Redfield's suggestion till 1889, a period of a 
third of a century, until Mr. I. C. Russell 
proposed to revive the name of Newark. 
Every American geologist by his silence in- 
dicated his disapproval of the suggestion. 
Furthermore, the use of the expression Con- 
necticut had become pronounced. In fact, its 
use, coupled with the rejection of Newark, is 
sufficient to establish the usage of the former 
without any regard to the usage previous to 

1856. I will cite a few instances of its use. 
The catalogue of the Massachusetts State 
Cabinet in 1859, the Ichnology in 1858, the 
map of Hampshire county, 1860, and the 
title of Dr. Deane's book in 1861, belong to 
this category. ^. D. Rogers, in the Geologj^ 
of Pennsylvania, 1858, prefers the term 
' older Mesozoic,' biit certainly rejects the 
use of Newark, as he makes no reference to 
it, and uses the following expressions : ' The 
vegetable fossils in the Connecticut sand- 
stone ;' ' the organic remains in the Connec- 



ticut red sandstone.' A title, ' Red Sand- 
stones of the Connecticut Valley.' Roswell 
Field ' made a verbal communication on the 
footmarks of the Connecticut river sand- 
stones ' before the Boston Society of Natural 
History, June 6, 1860. In 1859, at the 
Springfield meeting of the A. A. A. S., he 
discusses the ornithichnites of the ' sand- 
stone of the Connecticut valley.' This 
paper was reprinted the following j'ear in 
the American Journal of Science. 

Prof 0. C. Marsh presents in a section il- 
li;strating the occurrence of vertebrate life 
in America the name of Connecticut river beds 
which includes all the Atlantic areas. This 
has been printed with his 1877 address be- 
fore the A. A. A. S., the third edition of 
Dana's Manual of Geology, 1880, the mono- 
graph on the Dinocerata, 1885, etc. 

Prof. Joseph Le Conte in his Elements of 
Geology, 1878, and later editions describes 
the eastern Jura-Trias under the head of 
Connecticut river valley sandstone. 

Prof J. P. Lesley in C 4 of Second Penn- 
sjdvania Survey, p. 179, 1883, says, "Amer- 
ican geologists now write habitually of the 
Triassic red sandstone of the Connecticut A' al- 
ley and of North Carolina." Although the 
Newark area was through Pennsylvania he 
prefers to select the localit^y name fi"om 
either of the other principal areas. There 
are two references to the want of acceptance 
of the term Newark. I had the pleasure of 
attending Prof J.- D. Dana's course of lec- 
tures on Geology at Yale College in 1856. 
I noted that he then mentioned the fact 
that Mr. Redfield had proposed the name of 
of Newark for the American Trias. But 
he has never used the name in any publica- 
tion, evidently for good reasons. In a 
sketch of the Geology of Massachusetts 
with map in Walling's Official Atlas, 1871, 
the following is printed, written bj^ myself: 
" W. C. Redfield proposed the name of 
Newark sandstones for the group; but be- 
sides being inappropriate, it was of later 



January 18, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



date than tlie appellation of Connecticut." 
This review of the usages of names foi- 
the trias shows that the name of Connecti- 
cut was distinctly proposed bj' E. Hitch- 
cock in 1833, and was constantly used by 
the geologists specially interested in those 
works before 185C: AV. C. Redfield pro- 
posed the name of Xewark for the terrancs 
in 1856: that instead of accepting the name 
geologists universally employed the name 
of Connecticut when using a local designa- 
tion up to 1889: that in this period there 
were several unmistakable formal proposals 
of the use of Connecticut: and that there 
were in this period allusions to the fact that 
the name of Newai-k was not accepted. 
Even ]SIr. Russell, in his leai-ned paper of 
1878, used the name of Triassic in prefer- 
ence to Xewark. 

Mr. Gilbert mentions three ' qualifica- 
tions of a geographic name for employment 
in stratigraphy, (1) definite association of 
the geographic feature with theterrane, (2) 
freedom of the term from pre-occupation in 
stratigraphy, (3) priority.' These are ac- 
ceptable with the addition of a fourth, ap- 
propriateness of application. All of these 
qualifications are possessed by the term 
Connecticut , while the term Newark can- 
not satisfy a single one of them. 

C. H. Hitchcock. 
Dartmouth College. 



LEXGTff OF VKSSELS IX PLANTS. 
The diameter of pitted and other vessels 
is easily measured upon the cross-section of 
any stem, but their length is less readily de- 
termined. Probably, if the question were 
put, a majority of botanists would say that 
they rarely exceed a few inches in length, 
especially if they still believe with Sachs 
that the water ascends through the walls of 
the vessels. As a matter of fact, the spiral 
and pitted vessels <if plants often form open 
passageways of great length. Some experi- 
ments made upon woody stems by Strass- 



burger ( Ueber (/<■» liau u. die Verrieliliiiifjeii 
der Leitunggbahiieii in den Pflanzen) seem to 
place this beyond dispute. His method of 
procedure was to fasten a glass tube to the 
iipper end of a cut stem by a rubber Itand, 
insert a funnel into the upper end of the tube, 
and subject the cut surface to the jiressure 
of a column of mercury kept at a uniform 
height of twenty centimeters, successively 
shortening the stem until mercury appeared 
at the lower end. Using this method, he 
obtained the following results : 

(1.) In a branch of Quercus rubra. 1.5 
meters long and about three centimeters 
thick, mercury ran out of thirty vessels on 
the lower cut surface almost as soon as it 
was poured into the funnel. When the 
branch was shortened to one meter fifty- 
four to fifty-six vessels were permeable. In 
a slender branch of Quercus pedunadata, 
one meter long, thirty-five vessels dropped 
mercury, and Mhen this was shortened to 
one-half meter mercury came out of more 
than 100 vessels. Another branch five 
centimeters thick at the base and 3.6 meters 
long was tried, and drops of mercury fell in 
quick succession from eight vessels. In 
Quercus Cerris mercury came through seven 
vessels of a branch four meters long and six 
centimeters thick at the base. Shortened 
to 3.5 meters nine vessels dropped mercurj- ; 
at three meters, twelve vessels ; at 2.5 me- 
ters, numerous vessels. Conclu.iion : Vessels 
two meters long are quite common in the 
oaks, and it is probable that single vessels 
may be as long as the stem itself. 

(2.) In Eobiuia Pseudaeacia, a branch 
two meters long and three centimeters thick 
was impermeable and first let through mer- 
cury when shortened to 1.18 meteis. Then 
it dropped from four vessels. Successively 
shortened mercury dropped from an inci-eas- 
ing number of vessels as follows : One 
meter, nine vessels ; fifty centimeters, thirty- 
eight vessels ; twenty-five centimeters, fifty- 
seven vessels. 



78 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 3. 



(3.) A stem of Wistaria 1.75 meters 
long and having seven internodes dropi^ed 
mercury from seven vessels. Another stem 
three meters long and containing forty- 
seven internodes was first killed by heating 
for an hour in water at 90°, and then dried. 
This did not let mercury through until it 
had been shortened to 2.5 meters. Then it 
di'opped pretty fast from four vessels. Ee- 
duced to two meters, nine vessels dropped 
mercury, and out of some it ran rapidly. 
Another shoot gave nearly the same re- 
sults. A fresh and very long stem had to 
be shortened to three meters before mercury 
came through. Then it dropped from three 
vessels. Successively shortened, the num- 
ber of permeable vessels was as follows : 2.5 
meters, eleven vessels ; two meters, eighteen 
vessels ; 1.5 meter, twenty-seven to twenty- 
nine vessels. These stems were one to two 
centimeters thick. Conclusion : Some of the 
vessels in Wistaria are quite long, though 
scarcely more than three meters. Most of 
the wide vessels are about one meter long. 

(4.) A cane of Vitis Labrusea 1.2 centi- 
meter thick, which was previously killed 
by heating for an hour in water at 90° C. 
and then air-dried, first let mercury through 
(3 vessels) when shortened to 2.2 meters. 

(5.) A shoot of Aristolochia Sipho 1.5 cen- 
timeters thick, 2.5 meters long, and having 
fifteen internodes was kUled in the same 
way. This let mercury through foui'teen 
vessels. Another shoot 2.1 meters long let 
the mercury through many vessels. A fresh 
stem five meters long, the longest he could 
get, dropped mercury from five vessels. 
"When successively shortened, more and 
more vessels dropped mercuiy. At 3.5 me- 
ters twenty-five vessels let it through, and 
when the stem was cut down to three me- 
ters the number of vessels dropping mercury 
coidd not be determined. Conclusion: In 
this plant numerous vessels are three meters 
long, some are five meters long, and a few 
are probablj'^ longer. 



In Aristolochia the vessels of different an- 
nual rings were equallj^ j)ermeable, but in 
the wistaria, the locust and the oaks the 
permeable vessels were mostly on the per- 
iphery. The records were made in from ten 
to thirty minutes fi-om the beginning of the 
pressure, the tune depending on the length 
of the stem. In general the mercuiy was 
passed through the stem in the same direc- 
tion as the ascending water current, but a 
change of direction did not give contradic- 
tory results. These experiments were re- 
jjeated, usmg a pressure of forty centime- 
ters, but even this did not rupture anj' cross- 
walls. This increased pressure overcame 
the capillarjr resistance and forced the mer- 
cury through many smaller vessels, but 
otherwise the results were much the same. 
Erwin F. Smith. 

Washington. 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 
Introduction to Elementary Practical Biology. — 
By Charles Wright Dodge, M. S.— Har- 
per Bros., New York. 1894. 
This book is a laboratory guide for high 
school and college students. The teacher 
of biology who is endeavoring to train his 
students in the best manner is in modern 
times, amid the abundance of laboratory 
guides, in veiy much of a quandary as to 
the best of two opposite methods. If, on 
the one hand, he puts a laboratory guide 
into the hands of the student, the result is 
apt to be that the student soon learns simply 
to verify the facts mentioned in the book, 
and thus loses all stimulus for original ob- 
servation, which should be the foremost 
result of practical work in biological science. 
On the other hand, if the teacher gives to an 
elementary student a specimen to study 
without laboratory dii-ections, he is at such 
complete loss to know how to proceed, what 
to do, and particularly what points to no- 
tice, that a large proportion of his time is 
wasted through sheer lack of the proper 



JAXIARY 18, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



li) 



knowledge of methods. To force a student 
to invent metliods does stimulate indeed 
observation, but it is a very great waste of 
time on the part of most students. Between 
this loss of stimulus to original observation 
and the loss of time, the instructor is very 
puzzled how to proceed. 

Prof Dodge of Kochester University in 
the guide just published has attempted to 
solve the problem by a new method of direc- 
tion. The laboratory guide here noticed 
gives the student some few directions as to 
methods of dissection and methods of pro- 
cedure, but beyond this gives him practi- 
cally no information in regard to his speci- 
mens. By a series of skilfully aiTanged 
questions it forces the student to make his 
owni observations and to make them in the 
right direction. Instead of directing the 
student to observe a certain fact a question 
is asked which leads him to hunt for 
a solution, and the result is indeiiendent 
observation. This method of study renders 
the text book of no value unless the student 
has the specimen directly in front of him, 
for there is no possibility of answering these 
questions in any other way than from the 
specimen. 

The method of teaching here planned is 
certainly an ideal one and has been quite 
successfully carried out by Prof. Dodge. It 
is true that the questions given are some- 
times entirely beyond the possibility^ of the 
student's solution, and it must also be re- 
cognized that this method is one designed 
to occupy a very great amount of time. 
Some of the problems which are set before 
the student will re(juire days for solution, 
and others have not yet been settled by the 
observation of scientific investigators. It 
will therefore take a great amount of time 
to complete the outline given, for the book 
is a comprehensive study of biology, includ- 
ing the study of the animal and vegetable 
oell, on the .side of animals, the study of the 
sponge, hydra, campanularian hydroid, star 



fish, earthworm, the lob.ster, locust, clam, 
and the frog: and on the .side of the vege- 
table kingdom, green felt, stone work, rock 
weed, mould, mushrooms, liverworts, ferns 
and flowering plants. Whether the student 
in the time allotted to the study of general 
biology even in our best colleges w'ill be able 
to complete the list by the method outlined 
in the guide is doubtful, but there can be 
little doubt that the method of teaching 
adopted by Prof Dodge in this book is an 
ideal one, and for stimulating observation 
and at the same time enabling thi- student 
to do the mo.st work m the smallest amount 
of time, there is perhaps no laboratory guide 
in biology jet published which succeeds as 
well as the one here noticed. 

H. AV. Coxx. 
Wesley.\x Uxiveksity. 

Le Grimu [Fire Damp] , par H. Le Chatkl- 
lER, lugenieur en Chef des Mines. — Pro- 
fesseur a I'Ecole nationale des Mines. — 
Paris, Gauthier Villai-s et Fils, 1894. 
Pp. 187. Broch6 2 fr .50, Cartcmne 3 fr. 
The rapid extension of technical scientific 
knowledge, and the increasing call for spe- 
cialists in every department, is best shown 
in the literature of the past few years. The 
di.scussiou of general topics within the limit.s 
of a single volume is now possible only in 
the most elementary works designed for be- 
ginners and for the lower classes of our col- 
leges. We have in place of the general text 
book a rapidly increasing library devoted to 
special subjects, each presented by special- 
ists in their own field and each treating of 
some small part of the great sciences form- 
erly considered as a unit. The j)resent vol- 
ume is of this nature, and, coming from the 
hand of an engineer of wide reputation, will 
be of great service to all advanced students 
of mining whether still within the college 
confine or employed in the active practice of 
their profession. • Kiery ' mines are com- 
mon in our coal fields, and many mines long 
worked without suspicion of danger, or with 



80 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 3. 



carelessness engendered bj^ delaj'ed casu- 
alty, suddenly become tbe scenes of disaster 
and great loss of life. M. Le Chatelier has 
brought together a great mass of facts from 
many sources and has so presented them as 
to place them conveniently within reach of 
all workers m the field. Part I. treats of 
the nature and production of fire damp, its 
composition, manner of exj)losion, its limit 
of inflammability, and other properties, phy- 
sical and chemical. Part II. is highly prac- 
tical and is devoted to the consideration of 
the immediate cause of accidents, with pre- 
cautions against the same, the use of safety 
lamps and of safety explosives, etc. To 
those desii'ing a more extended treatment of 
any of these subjects, or those wishhig to 
consult original papers, the very complete 
Bibliography which is given at the end of the 
work will be of great service, particularly 
as a guide to continental publications. 

Charles Platt. 
Philadelphia. 

At the North of Bear camp Water. — Chronicles 
of a Stroller in Neiv England from July to 
December. — By Feank Bolles. — Hough- 
ton, Miflain & Co., 16 mo. pp. 297. 
Any one who will go afield in the rain 
for the purpose of seeing how the wet birch 
trees look, or who will stay through a stormy 
night on a mountaiu top for the sake of the 
scenerj', has certaialy a lively interest in 
nature. The late Frank Bolles had all of 
this interest and in addition a kindly sym- 
pathy with every wandering creature. In 
his last book. At the North of Bearcamp 
Water, one does not find as manj^ paragraphs 
suitable for quotations on a daily calendar 
as would occur in a volume of Thoreau, but 
his description of a July afternoon when 
"The air was full of quivering heat and 
hazy midsummer softness," has all the 
strength of beauty and truth. 

The book particularly describes nature in 
the vicinity of Chocorua mountahi, but 
there are also chapters on Old Shag, Bear 



and other White Mountain peaks. In these 
accounts of scenery of deer, foxes, birds and 
trees there is an evident truthftilness, as 
real as the objects themselves. Tlie mass 
of detail brought into some of these chapters 
is surprising, and a frog did not jump 
across the path without being made to play 
his part in the account of the day's ramble. 
Among the most interesting pages are 
those devoted to ' A Lonely Link,' and to 
' A Night Alone on Chocorua.' Mr. Bolles 
had his red roofed cottage bj- the lake and 
describes the squh-rels, muskrats, porcu- 
piaes, and many birds that were his 
neighbors. The narrative is peaceful in 
tone, as restful as a quiet ramble in the 
woods, and those who wish to be trans- 
ported in spu'it to pleasing natural scenes 
will do well to accept Mi". Bolles as guide. 
AV. T. Davis. 



NOTES. 
THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 

The Botanical Society of America was 
organized during the meeting of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of 
Science at Brooklyn, N. Y., in August, 
1894. The following exti'acts from the Con- 
stitution adopted are of general interest. 

" There may be two classes of members — 
active and honorary. Only American bot- 
anists engaged in research, who have pub- 
lished work of recognized merit, shall be 
eligible to active membership. Before the 
1st of January following his election, each 
active member shall pay into the treasury 
of the Society a fee of twenty-five dollars 
($25), and thereafter annual dues to the 
amount often dollars ($10), payable before 
the 1st of January." 

" Candidates for active membership shall 
be recommended by three active members 
of the Society not members of the Council, 
who shall certify that the candidate is elig- 
ible under the provisions of the Constitu- 
tion. These nominations shall be placed in 



Jantary is, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



81 



the liands of the Secretary at least three 
months before the meeting of the Society 
which is to act on tlieni. Two months be- 
fore said meeting, the Secretary sliall cause 
to be prepared and sent to each active 
member of tlie Society- a list of the nomi- 
nees, indicating the residence, occupation 
and qualilications of each and the names of 
those recommending him." 

" The otticers of this Society shall be a 
President, Vice-President. Secretarj- and 
Treasurer. Tlieir duties shall be those us- 
ually performed by such officers in other 
bodies, and such additional duties as may 
be prescribed by the Constitution of this 
Society. They shall hold office thi'ough the 
annual meeting following the year of elec- 
tion, and until their successors have been 
elected and qualified. An addi-ess shall be 
delivered by the President at the annual 
meeting two years after his election." 

" The officers, together with the last 
Past-President and two members elected 
by the Society at its annual meeting, shall 
constitute a Council, which shall be charged 
with such duties as are prescribed by the 
Society, and shall represent the Society in 
the interval between meetings of the lat- 
ter, reporting any ad interim action at the 
next general meeting of the Society ; but 
acts of the Council not .specified in the 
Constitution, or for which special power 
has not been conferred by the Society, shall 
be binding on the latter only after they 
have been reported and approved at such 
general meeting. The Coimcil shall con- 
stitute a Publication Committee, charged 
with editing, publishing and distributing 
such publications as may be authorized by 
the Society, and they shall have the power 
to select from their own number or the 
mcnibei'ship of the Society an editor to 
whom they may delegate the uumediate 
duty of editing such publications. They 
shall all constitute a Board of Curators 
for tlie property of the Society, subject to 



such rules as are jirovided in the Constitu- 
tion or otherwise prescribed by the Soci- 
ety." 

•' The Society shall hold an annual meet- 
ing at such time and place as the Council 
each year may select ; and special meetings 
for the presentation of papers or the trans- 
action of business, at such other times and 
places as the Society or Council may from 
time to time deem necessarj-." 

The officers for the present year are : 
Prof. Wm. Trelease, Missouri Botanical 
Garden, President ; Prof. N. L. Britton, 
Columbia College, New York City, Vice- 
President ; Prof. C. R. Barnes, University 
of AVisconsin, Madison, AVis., Secretarj'. 

rsYcnoLOGY. 
The department of Philosophy and Psy- 
chologj' at Chicago has been made this year 
one of the strongest in America. Professor 
Dewey, formerly of the University of Michi- 
gan, has accepted a call to the Head Pro- 
fessorship of Philosophy; Mr. G. H. Mead, 
also of the University of Michigan, has 
been made assistant Professor of I'hiloso- 
phy; Mr. J. R. Angell, formerly of the 
University of ^Minnesota, has been made as- 
sistant Professor of Psychology, and >Ir. S. 
F, McLennan has been made assistant in 
Psychology. 

AltTICLES ox SCIENCi;. 

Among the articles of scientific interest 
in the popular magazines are the following : 

A New Flying ^lachine, Abram S. Maxim 
(Jan. Centiinj) ; Want of Economy in the 
Lecture System, John Trowbridge ; The 
Genius of France. Havelock Ellis ; Gallia 
Rediviva, Adolphe Cohn (Jan. Aflanfic 
Monthly') ; The World's Debt to Astronomy, 
Simon Xewcomb {Dec. Cliantauquan) ; The 
"Worlds Debt to Chemistry, IT. B. Corn- 
wall (Jan .Cliautauqmin); Mental Character- 
ists of the Japanese, George Trumbull 
Ladd (Jan. Seribncrs) ; Heredity, Part 
III., St. George Mivart (Jan. Hnmanita- 



82 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 3. 



rian) ; Recent Science, Prince Krapotkin 
{Dee. Nineteenth Century'). 

Nature has reprinted (Dec. 13 and 20) 
in full the interesting address on Endoio- 
ment for Scientific Research and Publication 
given by Mr. Addison Brown before the 
Scientific Alliance of New York, and pub- 
lished in the Report of the Smithsonian 
Institution for 1892. 

Mr. Kumagusii Minakata has written, in 
view of the claims of priority recently made 
by two English ■m-iters, a letter to Nature 
(December 27), calling attention to the use 
of ' finger-prints ' as a means of signing 
documents and identification in the laws 
and usage of China and Japan as early as 
650 A. D. 

The Naturtoissenschaftliehe Rundschau is 
publishing in its current numbers an ac- 
count of the sixty-sixth Versammlung der 
Geselkchaft deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte, 
held last j^ear in Vienna. 

FOETHCOMING PUBLICATIONS. 

Following the publication of H. M.Ward's 
translation of Hartig's Text-book of the Dis- 
eases of Trees, the same publishers (Messrs. 
Macmillan & Co. ) announce as nearly ready 
three other unportant translations: Ratzel's 
Volkerkunde, translated by A. J. Butler; 
the article Construction from Viollet le 
Due's Dictionnaire raisonne de I' architecture 
francaise, translated by Gr. M. Duss, and 
Paulsen's Universities of Germany, translated 
by E. D. Perry, of Columbia College. 

There will be issued this month as a 
supplement to The Psychological Review a 
Bibliography of Psychological Literature for 
189Jf, compiled by Dr. Livingston Far- 
rand, of Columbia College, and Mr. Howard 
C. Warren, of Princeton College. The 
bibliographjf will include so far as possible 
all books, monographs and articles in Psy- 
chology, and those publications in philo- 
sophy, biologjr, anthropology, neurology 



etc., which are impoi-tant for psychology. 

An Ann'ee Psychologigue, edited by Profes- 
sor Alfred Binet, will be issued in March. 

Messes. Macmillan & Co., announce for 
early publication A Rural Science Series, 
edited by Professor L. H. Bailey, of Cor- 
nell University. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS. 
THE BOTANICAL GAZETTE, DEC. 

Contribution to the comparative histology of pul- 

vini and the resulting photeolic movements. 

( With plate XXXIV.) F. D. Heald. 
Two new ferns from New England : Geoege E, 

Davenpoet. 
Some notes on the Legmninosce of Siam : Glenn 

Culbeetson. 
Briefer Articles; Editorial; Current lAtera- 

ture ; Notes and News ; General Index. 

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EEVIEW, JAN. 

Hermann von Helmholtz and the New Psychol- 
ogy: C. Stumpf. 

The Theory of Emotion (II.) ; The Significance 
of Emotions : John Dewey. 

The Muscidar Sense and its Localization in the 
Brain Cortex: M. Allen Staee. 

A Location Reaction Apparatus: G. W. Fitz. 

Discussion : — Paul Shoeey ; H. M. Stan- 
ley; H. R. Maeshall ; E. B. Titch- 
enee. 

Psychological Literature ; Notes. 

THE ENGINEEEING MAGAZINE, JAN. 

Silver Coinage Historically Considered: H. D, 

McLeod. 
Modern Theories as to Electricity: Heney A. 

Rowland. 
The Drainage System of the Valley of Mexico : 

Hon. M. Romero. 
Practical Hints for City Officials: E. C. Gaed- 

nee, Lewis M. Haupt. 
Selecting Motive Power for a New Plant: 

Chaeles E. Emeey. 
Plumbing Trade Schools and Their Influence : 

E. IST. G. LeBois. 



Jakuary 18, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



83 



Lahoratorij Training for Minimj Engineers: 

R. H. Richards. 
Operating Machine Tools by Eledricitij : 

Geok(;e Richmond. 
First Principles in Architecture : Wii. Hexuy 

Goodyear. 



SOCIETIES AXD ACADEMIES. 
THE LIJfN^AN SOCIETY. 

The Liimtean Society of New York City, 
in cooperation with the American Museum 
of Natural History, has arranged for a 
series of illustrated lectures to be given in 
the large lecture hall of the museum, on 
Tuesdays at 8 p. m. The lectures are : — 
Frank M. Chapman, assistant Curator in 
the American ^luseum of Natm-al His- 
torj-. A Trip through the Lesser Antilles. 
Physical and Natural History of the Is- 
lands, their Products and Inhabitants. 
January 8. 
Henry Fairfield Osborn, Sc. D., Da Costa 
Professor of Biology, Columbia College. 
The Great West, a Half Million Years Ago. 
An account of our Continent when it was 
separated from South America and joined 
to Asia, and the Climate and Vegetation 
were Sub-tropical. Februaiy 5. 
"William Libbey, Jr., Sc. D., Professor of 
Physical Geogi'aphy and Director of the 
E. M. Museum of (ieology and Arch;e- 
ology, Princeton College, New Jersey. 
Hawaii, the Paradise of the Pacific. March 12. 
Frederick W. Putnam, Professor of Amer- 
ican .Arclueologj' and Ethnology in Har- 
vard Univei-sity, and Curator of Antliro- 
pology in the American ^Museum of Na- 
tural History. Ancient Earthworks in the 
Ohio Valley. April 2. 

TTNTVERSITV ARCH.EOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The University Archseological Associa- 
tion of Philadelphia offers a course of lec- 
tures to be given at 4 p. m., in the Library 
building of the Vniversity of Pennsylvania, 
as follows : — 



January 1). — Mr. Talcott Williams, Some 

Morroccan Relation.*. 
January 1(!. — Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, The 

Beginnings of the Fine Arts. 
Januarj' 23. — Mr. Henry G. Bryant, 

Xoies on the Must Xorthern Eskimos. 
January 30. — Dr. Harrison Allen, The 

Human Skull; xehat uits Place in a Mnseitm 

of Archteology f 
Februarj' (1. — Captain Richard S. Collcm, 

U. S. M. C, The Evolution of Small Arms. 
February 13. — Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, 

Love Charms and Tokens. 
Eebruaiy 20. — Me. Stewart Culin, The 

Wand of the Conjuror. 

Stewart Culin, Secretary. 

the ROCHESTER ADADEMY OF SCIENCE. 
Program ot Meetings, 1895. 

January 14. — Annual Meeting ; Election of 
Officers ; Illustrated Paper by the Presi- 
dent, Prof. H. L. Fairchild, The Geology 
of the Pinnacle Hills. 

January 21. — Emil Kuichling, The New 
Conduit of the Rochester Water Works. 

January 28. — Popular Lecture, J. D. Mal- 
LONEE, The Structure of Rocks as Shown by 
Polarized Light. 

February 11. — J. Stanley-Broavn, The Pri- 
bilof Islands and the Seal Industry. 

February 2.5. — J. Euuexe "Whitney, The 
Depotism of the Plurality. 

March 11.— Charles H. "Ward, The Teeth 
of Man. 

March 25. — Prof. A\'. W. Rowlee, The Evo- 
lution of Seeds. 

April 8. — Charles Wright Dodge, Diph- 
theria and Anti-to.vine. 

April 22. — Adelbkrt Cronise, The Panama 
Canal. 

May 13. — Richard jNI. Moore, The Coleop- 
terous Fauna of Rochester and Vicinity. 

May 27. — H. L. Fairchild, Glacial L<ikes of 
Western Xew York. 

June 10. — H. L. Fairchild, The Geology of 
Irondcquiiit liny. 



84 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 3. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 
Decemljer 19. 
Mansfield Meeriman, The Strength and 
Weathering Qualities of Hoofing Slates. 
This paper, which will be published in 
the transactions of the Society, about Feb- 
ruary 1st, gave an account of original 
physical and chemical tests of the proper- 
ties of different slates. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 
January 9. 
Mr. J. S. DiLLER, Artificial wire silver, pre- 
pared byF. C. Phillips. 
Mr. G. p. Merrill, On the disintegration of 
the granitic rocks of the District of Columbia. 
Mr. W. Lindgren, Characteristic features of 
the gold quartz veins of California, with speci- 
mens. "Whitman Cross, Secretary. 

THE BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 
January 12. 
L. H. Bailey, The Plant Individual in the 
Light of Evolution. 

Frederic A. Lucas, Secretary. 

BOSTON society OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

January 14. 
J. Walter Fewkes, The neiufire ceremony 
at Walpi. Samuel Henshaw, Secretary. 

the new YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
SECTION OF BIOLOGY. 

Exhibition of microscopical and lantern slides 
with notes on technique. 

E.. H. Cunningham, On the Sources of Illu- 
mination for Photo-micrography. 

C. F. Cox, The Lantern Slides of Mr. E. F. 
Smith, F. R. M. S., of London, illustrating 
the latest Theories of Diatom Structure. 

O. S. Strong, Notes of new histological Nerve 
Methods. 

Edward Leaming, Exhibition of photomicro- 
graphic slides, bacteriological, neurological, 
biological. 

Bashford Dean, Secretary. 



the new YORK entomological SOCIETY. 
January 15. 
Meeting at American Museum of Natural 
History. 

R. L. Ditmars, Notes on a collecting trip 
through Connecticut. 

Lewis H. Joutel, Secretary. 



NEW BOOKS. 

PadiantSuns. Agnes Giberne. New York, 

Macmillan & Co. 1894. Pp. vii+.328. 

Pace and Language. Andre Lefeyee. New 

York, D. Appleton & Co. 1894. Pp. vi-F 

424. 
Die Samoani.sche Sehopfungs-Sage und Ansch- 

liessendes aus der Sudsee. Adolf Bastian. 

Berlin, Emil Feller. 1894. Pp. 50. 

Die Gross-Schmetterlinge Europas. Prof. 
Ernst Hofmann. 2d Ed. C. Hoflfinann. 
1894. Pp. xlf 24. M. 28. 

Model Engine Composition with Practical hi- 
structions to Artificers and Amateurs. J. 
Alexander. London, Whittaker & Co. ; 
New York, Macmillan & Co. 1894. Pp. 
viii+324. $3.00. 

Ein geologische Querschnitt durch die Ost-Alpen. 
A. RoTHPLETz. Stuttgart, E. Schweizer- 
bart. 1894. Pp. iv+268. M. 10. 

Geotektonische Probleme. A. Rothpletz, 
Stuttgart, E. Schweizerbart. 1894. 
Pp. 175. M. 8. 

Biological Lect^ires Delivered at the Marine 
Biological Laboratory of Wood^s Hall, Bos- 
ton. GiNN & Co. 1894. Pp. 242. 

Introduction to Chemical Analysis for Begin- 
ners. Fe. Rudorff. Translated from 
the Sixth Edition by Charles B. Gibson 
and F. Menzel. Chicago, The "W". T. 
Keener Co. 1894. $1.00. 

The Etiology of Osseous Deformities of the 
Head, Face, Jaivs and Teeth. Eugene S. 
Talbot, 3d Ed. Chicago. The W. T. 
Keenee Co. Pp. xvi+487, $4. 



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MATIIEJIATICS. 

Bachmaxn, Pail, Zalilentlieorie. Versuch e. 
Gesammtdarstellunj; dicser Wissenschaft in ihren 
Hanpttlieilen. 2. Till. Die analytische Zalilentlieorie. 
gr8°. Mk. 12. 

Gka.ssmaxx's, Hm., Gesammelte matheniatische 
uiul physikalische AVerke. Auf Veranla.ssung der 
matlieniatisch-pliTsikaliscben Klasse derkijnij;!. siicli- 
sischen Gesellscliaft der Wissenschaften und iinter 
Mitn-irkunj; von Jul. Liiiotli, Ed. Study, Just. Grass- 
niann, Hm. Grassman 5Id. J., G. Scheffers heranstce- 
geben von F. Engel. I. Bd. 1. Thl. Die Ausdeli- 
nungslelirc von 1844 und die geometrische Analjse. 
u. 8». 35 Fig. Mk. 12. 

C.\NTOE, MoR., Vorlesungen iib. Geschichte der 
Mathematik. 3. Bd. Vein. J. 1668 bis zum J. 
1759. 1. Abtlg. Die Zeit von 1668 bis 1699. gr. 8". 
Mk. 6. 

Heftee, Pkof. Dr. Lothar. Einleitung in die 
Theorie der linearen Piffcrentialgleichungen mit 
«iner unabhiingigen Variablen. Mit 3 Figuren im 
Texte. gr. S". ' Mk. 6. 

Thomae, Joii. Die Kegelselinitte in rein-projek- 
tiver Bebandlung. Slit in den Text eingedruckten 
Holzschnitten und 16 lithographierten Figurenta- 
feln. gr. 8". Mk. 6. 

ASTRONOMY. 

Galle, J. G. Verzeichnis der Elemente der 
bisher berechneten Conietenbahnen, nebst Anmer- 
knngen nnd Literatur-Nachweisen, neu bearbeitet, 
ergiinzt und fortgesctzt bis zum Jahre 1894. Mk. 12. 

Publikationcn des astrophj-sikalischen Observ'ator- 
inms zu Potsdam. Herausgegeben von H. C. Vogel. 
Nr. 32. X. Bd. 1. Stiick. 4". Jlit 30 Taf. Mk. 
12. 

GEOLOGY AND JUNERALOGY. 

Levy, A. M.' Etude sur la determination des feld- 
spaths dans les pla(|aes minces au point de vue de la 
clafisilieation des roches. 8°. AtecSpl. cal. et 9 Jig. 
Ft. 7; 50c. 

HiNTZE, C. Handbucb der Mineralogie. 8. Lfg. 
Mit 56 Abbildgn. Mk. 5. 

Walther, Prof. Jobs, Einleitung in die Geologie 
als historisc-be AVis.si'ns<-liiift. III. ( Selilu.*,s-) Till. 
Lithogcncsis der (Jcgenwart. Bcdliuclitungcn iib die 
Bildg. der Gesteine an der heut. Erdoberfliicbe. 
gr. 8". m. 8 Abbildgn. Mk. 13. 



Bergh, Dr. R. S., Vorlesungen iiber die Zelle und 
die einfachen Gewebe des tieriscben Korpers. Mit 
einem Anliang: Teclinische Anleitung zu einfachen 
histologisclicn Untersuchungen. Mit 138 Figuren im 
Texte. gr. 8". Mk. 7. 

Boas, Dr. J. E. v., Lelirbuch der Zotilogie. 2. 
Aufl. gr. 8". Mk. 10; geb. Mk. 11. 

De Grossouvre, A. Recberches sur la craie 
suporicure. 2' parti e. Paleontologie: Les ammonites 
de la craie supirieure. 4°. Avec 39 fig. et atlas de 
39 pi. Ft. 20. 

LixxAEi, Caroli, systema naturae. Regnum ani- 
male. Ed. X. 1758, cura societatis ZotUogiacae ger- 
maiiicae itemm edita. gr. 8". Mk. 10; — Einbd. Mk. 
2.25. 

Haller, B. Studien iiber docoglosse und rhipido- 
glosse Prosobranchier nebst Bemerkungen iiber die 
pbyletischen Beziehungen der Mollusken unterein- 
ander. 4». Mit 6 Textfig. n. 12 Taf. Mk. 32. 

POPOFF, DE^^ETRIUS. Die Dottersack-GetJisse der 
Huhnes. Mit 12 litliogiapbisclien Tafelii in Farben- 
druck und 12 lithograpbierten Tafel-Erkliirungsbliit- 
tern. 4". Jlk. 27. — 

SCHJIIDT, Adf. Atlas der Diatomaccen-Knnde. 
In Verbindung mit Griindler, Grunow, .lanisch und 
AVitt herausgegeben. 48. u. 49. Heft. Fol. 8 Taf. 
Mit. 8 Bl. Erklargn. Mk. 6. 

Se.mox, Prof. Dr. Richard. Zoiilogische Forsch- 
ungsreisen in Australien nnd dcm malayischen Ar- 
chipel. Mit Unterstiitzung des Herrn Dr. Paul von 
Eitter au.-igefiihrt in den Jahren 1891-1893. Erster 
Band. Ceratodus. Ei'stc Lieferung. Mit 8 lito- 
graphischeii Tafdn und 2 Abbildungen im Texte. 
(Text und Atlas. ) gr. 4". Mk. 20. 



EXGLKK, A., und K. Praxtl. Die natiirlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien nelist ihren Gattuugen und wich- 
tigeren Arten, insbesondere den Nutzpllanzon, unter 
ilitwirkung ziihlreicber liervorragender Fachgelehr- 
ten begriindet von A. E. und K. P., fortgesetzt von 
A. Euglcr. III. n. 6. Abtlg. 8". Mit 592 Ein- 
zelbildcrn in 87 Fig. sowie Abteilungs-Register. 
Subskr.-Pr. Mk. 8 ; Einzelpr. Mk. 16. 

LiXDEN, L. Les Orchidees exoticpies et leurs cul- 
ture en Europe. Avec nombr. fig. Fr. 25. 

iSciiUM.vxx, Kust. Prof. Dr. K., Lehrbuch der sys- 
teniatisclien Botanik, Pliytopaliiontologie u. Phyto- 
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Friday, Jakuaky 25, 1895. 



CONTENTS: 

The Past and Present of the Atnerican Mathrmntuul 

Society : Emoey McClintock 85 

Tlic Origin of our Vernal Flora: John Harsh- 

BERGER 93 

0» Certain Hahits and Instincts of Social Insects ; 

Marcus Hartog 98 

Tlie Proper Scientific Name for Bretcer's Mole: 

Frederick W. True 101 

The A meriran Folk-Lore Society : D. G. BriNTON 101 
Scientific Literature :— 103 

Poincare's Les oscillations elcctriques (I.): M. 

I. PUPIN. Alexander's Engine Construction : 

R. H. T. 
Notes :— 109 

Personal ; General ; Congresses ; New and Forth- 
coming Publications. 
Societies and Academies : — 110 

American Mathematical Society ; loiea Academy 

of Sciences. 

Scientific Journals 113 

New Books 113 



MSS. intcnrteil for publication and books, etc., intended 
for review should be sent to the responsible editor, Prof. J. 
McKeen Cattell, (;iarrifion on Hudson, N. Y. 

Subscriptions { five dollars annually) and advertisements 
should be sent to the Publisher of Science, 41 East -JSth St., 
New York. 



THE PAST AND FUTURE OF THE AMERICAN 
MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY.* 

ITavixg been requested by the Council 
to address the Society on retiring fi-om the 
presidency, it has appeared to me that I 
must choose betw'cen the discussion of the 

*Addrcss delivered by the retiring President, be- 
fore the American Mathematical Society at the annual 
meeting held December 28, 1894. 



position and prospects of some branch of 
mathematics with Avhich I may be familiar 
and a more general and discursive review 
of the present position and future prospects 
of our Societj-. I have, after some hesita- 
tion, chosen the latter subject. It seems 
desirable, on the w'hole, that there should 
be made at tliis time some permanent 
record, however slight, of the steps by 
which so large and flourishing a society has 
come togetlier, and of the views ('oncerning 
its present scope and tlie hopes concerning 
its future possiliilities which are entertained 
by tliose who have hitherto been most im- 
mediatelj' concerned in the conduct of its 
affairs. 

The New York ^Mathematical Society, 
originating in 1SS8. was at first not much 
more than a small mathematical club meet- 
ing periodically at Columbia College. The 
first meeting was called by a circular signed 
by three young men. The number of those 
who could be expected to attend these meet- 
ings was not great, but all who were able 
and who were sufficiently interested to do 
so were invited to join the Society. It was 
fortunate in securing for its first president 
Profes.sor Van Aniringe, distinguished alike 
by scientific attainments, official eminence, 
and administrative abilitj'. The professor 
of astronomy at Columbia was also active 
in it from the first. The meetings of the 
young Society were, as I am informed (for 
at that time I did not reside in New York). 



86 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



attended with more than interest, I might 
say with zeal. The tlu-ee who called the 
Society into being may, without invidious- 
ness, be mentioned as having aided mater- 
ially in the prosecution of its work. One 
of these of course need not be named to 
you. He has served from the beginning as 
Secretary, and again as the leading mem- 
ber of the publication committee. It is no 
flattery to him to say that the growing en- 
ergies of the Society must at various stages 
have become chilled or misdirected, except 
for his comprehensive intelligence and un- 
tiring industry. Another was our former 
Treasurer, now absent from the country. 
Still another has been elected by you to-day 
to the office of Librarian. The meetings 
were, as the ordinary meetings still are, 
held at Columbia College, and at that time 
the majority of the members of the Society 
were connected with that institution. The 
President, after two years' service, fearing 
that the continuance of a representative of 
that College as presiding officer would tend 
to hamper its usefulness, proposed the elec- 
tion of a new President not connected with 
any college. It was in this way and for 
this reason that you honored me with the 
post from which I retire to-day. It is not 
improper for me to add that I am myself 
an outspoken believer in the docti'ine of ro- 
tation in office, and that I was only pre- 
vented fi-om retiring at an earlier period by 
urgent representations concerning the pre- 
sumed welfare of the Society, at a time 
when all were not yet fully agreed upon the 
expediency of changes which have since 
taken place. 

The Society was therefore distinguished 
from all American mathematical clubs or 
associations by two circumstances : it was 
formed in and took the name of the largest 
city of America, and it was distinctly under- 
stood to be unconnected with any institu- 
tion of learning. Suggestions came to be 
made that its usefulness would be decidedly 



increased by the publication of a periodical 
journal. Consideration of these sugges- 
tions by the Council led to the establish- 
ment of the Society's Bulletin, with the 
nature and scope of which you are all fa- 
miliar. It was decided to be inexpedient 
to publish original investigations, that field 
being already occupied by successful Ameri- 
can periodicals. To meet the expense of 
the publication, the fees of the members 
were somewhat increased, and for the same 
reason, as well as to extend the usefulness 
of the Societj^ well-known mathematicians 
in all parts of the country were invited to 
become members. That this movement 
towards enlargement was judicious and 
timely was proved at once by the rapid 
growth of the membership,* which since the 
middle of 1891 has included a large pro- 
portion of the prominent mathematicians 
of the United States and Canada. As the 
Society thus became in reality an associa- 
tion of American mathematicians as a bodj"-, 
the change of name effected this year was 
only a natural sequence. Finallj', the re- 
sult of the change of name has been that a 
number of persons, including several of the 
highest repute, who had not previously 
joined the New York Mathematical Societj^, 
regarding it as a local organization, have 
connected themselves with the American 
Mathematical Society; and I need hardly 
say that, if any one of prominence still 
holds aloof, from inattention or otherwise, 
his entrance at any time as a member will 
be greeted with a hearty welcome. 

It is said that when the London Mathema- 
tical Society was organized there had been 
no previous example of a similar organiza- 
tion, and that fears were felt and expressed 
that its management might naturally drift 
into the hands of a few having time and 
energy to give to its affairs, and that there 
might thus be serious danger of its falling 
into the control of a clique. The lapse of 
time has developed the fact that the lead- 



January io, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



87 



iiig membei"s of that society have been men 
of broad views, unusually free from per- 
sonal i)rejudit'e and (luick to recognize 
talent wherever displayed. "We maj' al- 
most conclude from the history of that 
society that proficiency in the science of 
mathematics is distinct evidence of a well- 
balanced mind. It may be doubted whether 
an equally numerous body of poets or mu- 
sicians could have held so successfully on 
its course during half ;i centurj-. It is of 
course impossible to predict that the man- 
agement of our own Society will be equally 
prudent, energetic and successful during a 
half century to come. All that can be 
said at present is that not a trace of per- 
sonal self-seeking on the one hand or of 
personal prejudice on tlie other hand has as 
yet become visible in our counsels. One 
single motive has thus far been conspicuous 
among all who have interested themselves 
in the Society : a strong belief in its pros- 
pective usefulness combined with an earn- 
est desire to further its success. 

Thus far I have spoken only of the pro- 
gress of the organization as such. Tlie or- 
ganization, however, is merely the frame- 
work. It has certain living objects, and 
even during its period of formation and 
growth it lias been distinctly successful in 
promoting those objects. I have spoken of 
ol>jects ; the Constitution, however, reminds 
me tliat there is but one object : to encourage 
and maintain an active interest in mathe- 
matical science. It is, however, possible to 
subdivide this very general statement of the 
aims of the Society. In order to encourage 
and maintain an interest in mathematical 
science, we may say, then, (1) that mathe- 
maticians must be brought to know more 
about each other and concerning each 
other's work ; (2) tliat the number must 
be increased by the encouragement of the 
study of the higher mathematics among the 
young : (."5) that information should be dis- 
seminated fully and .speedily concerning 



mathematical publications abroad as well 
as at home ; (4) tliat, as regards the more 
important of such publications, competent 
critics should lie induced to write and pub- 
lish papei-s descriptive of their conttmts and 
indicating their merits or defects : (.5) and 
that every member of the Society should lie 
stimulated to the most successful effort jios- 
sible in his own line of mathematical labor, 
whatever it may be. This .subdivision is 
not presented as scientific and exhaustive. 
Others would doubtless make variations of 
their own ; and it is certain that the sepa- 
rate points I have indicated are not mutu- 
ally exclusive. I mention these several ob- 
jects merelj- as they occur to me for the 
purposes of this occa.sion. 

That by entering the Societj- and receiv- 
ing its monthly Biillrfin the mathematicians 
of the United States and Canada have been 
and are brought to know far more about 
each other and concerning each other's work 
than they ever knew before or could possi- 
bly have known otherwise is obvious to all. 
The mere list of members, which conveys 
to each of us the names, addresses and oc- 
cupations of all the rest, would alone justify 
this statement. Tlie BuUefui, with its lists 
and reviews of new books, together with 
many notes concerning the higher matlie- 
matical work of ditterent institutions, has 
aflbrded much additional information, and 
it may be expected that further experience 
will enable its conductors fi-om time to time 
to add to its usefulness in this direction. 

While the Society is not directly con- 
cerned in encouraging the study of the 
higher mathematics among the young, its 
indirect influence in that direction has un- 
doubtedly been felt, and must be felt in- 
creasingly as time goes on. Years ago, 
when tlie present centurj' was much 
younger, the course of study in our colleges 
was so arranged as to give a large propor- 
tion of the time of the undergraduates to 
the study of mathematics. Subsequently 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



the tendency in colleges having uniform 
courses of study was to cut down the num- 
ber of hours given to this science, as well 
as to the classics, and to parcel oiit the time 
among the modern languages and various 
sciences. It is believed that even ah-eadj^ 
the oi-ganization, the meetings, and the 
publications of the Society have, by the ef- 
fect of numbers in association, perceptibly 
strengthened the tone of the mathematical 
departments of many institutions of learn- 
ing and assisted in enabling them, more or 
less successfully, to stem the hostile tide of 
sentiment to which I have just referred. I 
say ' assisted,' for other agencies, especially 
the journals, have done great good. That 
the dissemination of knowledge concern- 
ing the gigantic strides latelj;^ made and 
still making in mathematical science must 
in the future have the same favorable effect 
to an even greater extent is not to be 
doubted. 

As to the next point in my list of objects, 
I need hardly mention to you that the 
Societj' has succeeded and is succeeding in 
disseminating information fally and speed- 
ily concerning mathematical publications 
abroad as well as at home. In addition to 
this general statement, for the proof of 
which we need only refer to the monthly 
numbers of the Bulletin, I may recall to jou 
that the Society is at this moment engaged 
in j)ublishing, at its own expense, supple- 
mented bj' personal subscriptions, one of 
the largest and most important volumes 
ever pubhshed containing nothing but orig- 
inal investigations ; namelj', the extensive 
and very valuable collection of papers — 
mostly by European authors — ^prepared for 
and presented to the Mathematical Con- 
gress in 1893, held in connection with the 
World's Fair at Chicago. 

Again, considerable success has been at- 
tained in inducmg competent critics to MTite 
and publish papers descriptive of the con- 
tents and indicating the merits or defects of 



the more important current mathematical 
publications in all countries. In this re- 
spect it is hoped that the usefulness of the 
JBullefin, already recognized, will be largely 
augmented as time goes on. You have to- 
day strengthened the Publication Commit- 
tee by the addition of a third member of 
tried capacity. The Committee dejiends 
for its critical papers upon the cooperation 
of other members of the Society, and it is es- 
pecially pleased to receive voluntary offers 
of siich papers from members who have not 
not j'et contributed to the Bulletin. It is to 
this resource as much as to any other that 
we must look for the enlargement and im- 
provement of the Bulletin. The Committee 
must be aided freelj^ by the presentation 
of an increasing amount of material from 
which to choose; and I use this occasion to 
urge upon each member that he take every 
opportunity consistent with other engage- 
ments to impart to his fellows the historical 
and critical results of his own reading in 
any special branch, and particularly in con- 
nection with any new and important work 
recentljf published in that branch. The 
well-known saying of Bacon cannot be too 
constantly before our minds : " I hold every 
man a debtor to his profession, from the 
which as men of course do seek to receive 
countenance and profit, so ought they of 
duty to endeavor themselves by way of 
amends to be a help and ornament there- 
unto." 

Finally, and I might say above all, it is 
the object of the Society that every mem- 
ber should be stimulated to the most suc- 
cessful effort possible in his own branch of 
mathematical labor, whatever it may be ; 
whether it be in teaching, or writing, or 
original investigation, or in any combina- 
tion of these lines of activitj^. The inves- 
tigator must also be a writer ; the writer 
may present his own investigations, or com- 
ment upon or summarize or write the his- 
tory of those of others, or elaborate a treatise 



Jantary 25, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



89 



or tfxt-book upon j^ome special subject ; but 
Avhoever maj- investigate, and whoever may 
write, it is tlie lot of almost all of us in one 
■way or another to teach. For this reason 
it is plain that this Society is, and must 
always remain, a society of teachers. Any 
tendency to restrict its usefulness solely to 
the paths of investigation and publication 
should, for every reason of prudence and 
wisdom, be resisted. The management of 
any organization which does not commend 
itself to the great majoritj' of tho.se inter- 
ested must not indeed necessarily end in 
failure, but must certainly fail of produc- 
ing the most appropriate, the most useful, 
and therefore the best results. While, 
however, expressing this general opinion, I 
would bj- no means be understood to dis- 
parage the work of the writers and investi- 
gators. Not every teacher, however suc- 
cessful, feels impelled to write for publica- 
tion, and not every writer has time and 
facilities for original investigation ; yet we 
all of us take pride in such work when 
done by others, and we all of us, as mem- 
bers of the Society, feel that it would fail 
of its highest objects if it did not encourage 
in ever}' way the production of good papers 
and books and, above all, the prosecution 
of original discover}-. 

In encouraging the writing of books, as 
distinguished from the prosecution of origi- 
nal research, the Society can do little except 
indirectly, by increasing the possible de- 
mand for such works. The need of what 
we maj' call advanced text-books giving, as 
far as possible, summaries of existing knowl- 
edge in the several higher branches, has 
long been felt, and of late years has to some 
extent been supplied. Some of these fields, 
however, are still open ; and as time goes 
on, fresh books, to take the place of those 
now fresh, will still be wanted ; (or our 
science is in all points, even those sometimes 
regarded as most stationary, in a condition 
of advancing evolution. It is, if you plea.se, 



the same old oak, but what formerly were 
twigs are now sturdy limbs, and what now 
are tiny stems may soon be recognized as 
vitally important branches. As to the 
making of thorough and systematic books 
on mathematical subjects, it has before now 
been remarked that the task is really more 
difficult, for some at least, tlian that of work- 
ing uj) original papers. Some of the reasons 
for this were clearly stated by Mr. Glaisher 
in his presidential address in 1886 before 
the London Mathematical Society. I recall 
the case of a friend who at one time began 
the preparation of a summary of knowledge 
in a special field ; but he had not gone far 
before he found such temptations in the way 
of unifying theories or bridging over gaps 
that the result was the production of two or 
thi-ee contributions to the journals and the 
abandonment of the book. We must, I 
think, accord unusual honor to those who 
apply themselves successfully to the task, 
more arduous every year as the mass of 
original work rolls up, of summarizing and 
condensing into clear bodies of doctrine all 
existing important discoveries in special 
fields of mathematical labor, certainly with- 
out hope of pecuniary reward and usually 
without prospect of an}- wide circle of 
readers. 

As yet the Society has done little towards 
the encouragement of writing and inves- 
tigation. The existing well-known and 
successful journals maintained, whether by 
a great university, 1)}- scientific societies of 
a general character, or by the generous ef- 
forts of indiN-iduals, have afforded oppor- 
tunities for the pulilication of extensive 
papers with which the Society's Bulletin 
is not intended to compete. For much the 
same reas(m those of its members who liave 
been per.sonally solicited to give their aid 
have been appealed to for contributions to 
the Bulletin rather than for original papers 
to be read and discus.sed at the meetings. 
It is to be hoped that, as time goes on, the 



90 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



members of the Society "will become more 
and more accustomed to present their orig- 
inal papers for reading at the meeting, be- 
fore publication. It may perhaps also be 
expected that a closer connection may be 
developed between the reading and the pub- 
lication of such papers, whereby, on the 
one hand, perhaps, editors of journals may, 
as members of the Council or otherwise, 
have some preliminary oversight of the 
acceptance of paj)ers for reading, and 
whereby, on the other hand, the accept- 
ance of a paper for reading shall insure its 
speedy publication. 

While the Society can thus do little di- 
rectly to encourage the writing of important 
treatises, it can and should, without doubt, 
do much to stimulate original research. 
Original discovery has always been recog- 
nized as the quickest and surest road to dis- 
tinction. A permanently valuable paper 
read and discussed at a meeting of the So- 
ciety becomes an immediate object of inter- 
est to those who attend; the subsequent 
record of the reading in the Bulletin, sup- 
plemented, perhaps, by a brief abstract, 
excites a still wider interest among the 
membership at large; and in this way many 
of the readers are prepared to welcome the 
publication of the paper when it appears. 
There are — apart from the institutioii of 
medals or prizes, which would be within the 
Societj''s province — many other ways in 
which, directly or indirectly, the influence 
of the Society va&j be felt in turning the at- 
tention of individuals to the importance of 
original work. And as some slight contri- 
bution towards this desirable end, I shall 
close this address with a few remarks and 
suggestions intended more particularly to 
reach those members of the Society whose 
attention is turning in this direction, but 
who have not as yet produced original 
papers. If in doing so I happen to give 
good advice, particularly as regards style, 
of which I have not always succeeded in 



following myself, I trust I may be iavored 
with the same kindly personal considera- 
tion as is customarily accorded to an ema- 
ciated physician or to a stammering profes- 
sor of rhetoric. Yet as to the style in 
which a mathematical paper should be 
wi-itten, as distinguished from good Eng- 
lish style in general, there is not really 
very much to be said. Such papers should 
contain good English, and enough of it. 
Obscuritj', above all things, should be 
avoided. The printer should not be an- 
noyed unnecessai'ily \>y complicated frac- 
tions and other things difficult to print. 
Phrases and symbols familiar to the writer ,^ 
but not necessarily familiar to his readers, 
should not be introduced without explana- 
tion. Such phrases and sjinbols can al- 
ways be explained by taking the time and 
trouble ; and though the paper be made 
somewhat longer, it becomes far more satis- 
factory. It is of course possible, especi- 
ally if one has not much to say, to err 
in the opposite direction hy diffuseness 
and verbosity. The golden mean lies in 
the distinct explaining of every symbol, 
of every phrase not universally under- 
stood, and of every step in the discus- 
sion in language otherwise extremely con- 
cise. 

It would doubtless excite a smile were it 
known that anjr young man was for the first 
time saying to himself : " Go to ! let me make 
a discovery." Yet that is what each one 
implicitly does say to himself who makes 
any discovery. It is hard to imagine how 
any new point could occur fortuitously to 
an investigator not engaged in investigat- 
ing. ISTo one can tell until he tries whether 
or not he is fitted for that sort of work. No 
one can be sure, even though failure come 
to him after failure, that he shall not later 
meet with success. One sort of iailure, in- 
deed, should convey the most flattering en- 
couragement. It is when a supposed dis- 
covery is made, which pi'oves on further in- 



January i>5, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



1(1 



quiry to have been made long before l\v 
some one else. The immediate effect is dis- 
heartening ; and yet the occurrence has es- 
tablished the existence of the power of dis- 
covery. "When once anything, no matter 
what and no matter how old, is discovered 
afresh and originally, the beginner has only 
himself to blame for any subsequent want 
of success. It may, in fact, be doubted 
whether every earnest mathematician who 
takes pleasure in his work has not in him, 
to some extent at least, the capacity for dis- 
covery. Indeed, any fresh solution of an 
interesting problem, any new proof of an old 
proposition, is in itself a piece of original 
work. Undoubtedly some are born with 
greater capacitj- than otliers ; yet no one 
can tell, without trying, the limits of his 
own capacitj' in this direction ; and it is 
l)robably true in this, as in other lines of 
effort, that genius consists in an infinite 
capacity for taking pains. 

He who for the fir.st time makes an at- 
tempt towards original mathematical re- 
search must do so either in pure or in 
apj)lied mathematics. By far the greater 
number of papers relate to the former class 
of investigations : and yet it would seem 
that greater opportunities for attaining im- 
portant results lie in the latter direction. 
We all of us know, in a general way, that 
many important improvements in pure 
mathematics are the direct result of efforts 
connected with practical applications. Our 
knowledge of the laws of phj-sics is con- 
stantly luidergoing development. Just 
now, perhaps, the most Lmpoi-tant improve- 
ments are those connected with the laws of 
electricity, in which some of the members 
of this Society have taken a prominent 
part. Mr. Walker, in his presidential ad- 
dress of 1890 before the London Society, 
brought forward lunnerous instances illus- 
trating the enormous influence of applied 
mathematics upon the progress of the pure 
science. The numerous illustrations which 



he adduced should be consulted by every 
one interested in the applications, and 
should encourage him to active effort in 
extending the domain of applied matliema- 
tics, and thereby almost necessarily adding 
to existing knowledge in the region of pure 
mathematics. 

For some reason which no one has under- 
taken to explain, but probably connected 
with the much wider dissemination of ele- 
mentary instruction in pure mathematics 
as compared with applied, by far the greater 
number of investigations thus far have re- 
lated to pure mathematics ; and it may be 
presumed that for some time to come this 
dispropoi-tion will continue. In other 
words, our young mathematician who says 
to himself that he will make a iliscoverj- is 
most likely to confine his efforts to that in 
which he has been most thoroughly in- 
structed and with which he is therefore the 
most familiar — the pure science. How, 
then, is he to set about it? One way, 
and a most satisfactory one, would be to 
take part in some such neminar as that at 
Gottingen, described some time since in our 
Bulletin . Another quite similar method is 
to begin by assisting some active investiga- 
tor and carrying out his suggestions faith- 
fullj'. The impulse given to a number of 
our best men in this way by Professor Syl- 
vester when he was in this country is well- 
known to us all. On the other hand, any 
attempt at collaboration between two equals 
would seem almost certainly predestined to 
failure. Though exceptions are well known, 
it is really rare to find any fresh and im- 
portant development in a paper worked up 
by two friends of ecjual .skill, and still rarer 
to find a succession of papers by the same 
pair of authors. Good practice, however, 
can be had in correspondence between two 
friends on some fresh subject, each sharpen- 
ing the mind of the other, provided the 
correspondence be carried on as a matter of 
growing interest between the two, rather 



92 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



than for the piirpose of producing a joint 
publication. As a rule, however, the young- 
discoverer works alone, and he will most 
likely find, before he gets to the publishing 
stage, that his first discoveries have been 
made earlier by others. He must choose 
his subject according to his own taste. 
Usually he will be led most easily to some 
fresh result, if he reads and digests with 
keen interest the latest publications of 
others upon some growing subject. He 
may, perhaps, perceive that one of these 
papers has not exhausted all the possibili- 
ties ; or he may, by an alteration in the 
point of view, find himself enabled to ob- 
tain the same result by a much shorter and 
more satisfactory process. He must not 
fear that he is giving his mind to a subject 
too trivial. ISTo matter how slight the ad- 
dition which he makes to the sum of knowl- 
edge, it is yet an addition, and unless it is 
superseded by the doing of the same thing 
by some one else in a better manner, it 
is a permanent contribution to science. 
Some are helped greatly, at times, by 
working first on some numerical illustra- 
tion of the problem in hand ; others, again, 
by a preliminary geometrical representa- 
tion ; and the first path to any discovery 
is not usually the best. It is sometimes 
supposed that the mass of original work 
done in so many countries and published 
in so many languages makes it likelj'^ that 
any ordinary piece of work will be over- 
looked in the great mass. Nevertheless, 
liter a scripta manet ; and what may now 
seem an unimportant addition to an unim- 
portant branch may probably one day, when 
that branch is no longer unimportant, and 
when its special history comes to be itself a 
topic of discussion, receive its due recogni- 
tion. Meantime, every little helps. The 
most trifling addition to the actual sum of 
knowledge will be at least useful as a step 
to aid the next investigator ; but whether 
important or unimportant, whether appre- 



ciative recognition comes or not, whether 
others are helped or no one takes notice, 
there is a degree of personal pleasure in the 
mere fact of origiuation which is the just 
and certain reward of every piece of suc- 
cessful investigation. 

Emoey McClintock. 
New Yokk. 



THE ORIGIN OF OUR VERNAL FLORA. 
Those who have collected flowering plants 
for manjr years, without a doubt have been 
impressed with the wonderful regularity 
and precision displayed in the successive 
flowering of diiferent species, even genera of 
plants. The character of the vernal flora in 
the northern United States * depends on the 
seasonal development of plants belonging to 
different natural orders. Each plant, even 
orders of plants, have definite times of ap- 
pearance, when their flowers open, fertiliza- 
tion takes place, and seeds are distributed. 
At times, a lull or break in the continuity of 
this floral procession takes place just be- 
fore the true summer plants appear. Such 
a break seems to occur in the neighborhood 
of Philadelphia between the twenty-fifth day 
of May and the tenth or fifteenth day of 
June, when the first true summer plants 
appear. Curiously enough, this period cor- 
responds with the time of the ice saints in 
the United States, when there is a possibil- 
ity of frost over a large portion of our con- 

* Tlie advent of spring may properly be considered 
as taking place at the approach of an isotherm one de- 
gree higher than 42.8° F., the general limit of proto- 
plasmic activity. Tliere is no temperature in the ex- 
treme South, in the vicinity of the Gulf, below 43.8° 
on the average, and there is therefore no advent of 
spring; no real beginning of vegetation and recloth- 
ing of trees vrith leaves. On February 1st, the 
isotherm in question is found crossing the United 
States from the vicinity of Cape Hatteras on the east 
to the north of El Paso, then northward to the Pacific 
near San Francisco Bay. The phenomena of ^nnter 
are to be found north of that line. See Harper's 
Slonthhj Slagiizine, May, 1894, page 874, article by 
Mark W. Harrington. 



January 25, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



98 



tinental area.* A floral caloiular might be 
constructed with the dates of germination, 
seed discharge and death of annual plants, 
and it would be found that a plant year 
after year departs very little in the time of its 
appearance from the dates put down in this 
vegetal almanac. Take a common agricul- 
tural plant by way of illustration. The 
planting season for Indian corn is ft-om the 
1st to the 10th of ^May in favorable weather. 
One hundred and ten days from date of 
sprouting to date of ripening or security from 
frost is about the average season. In many 
cases in the corn belt, Nebraska for instance, 
the farmers are quite sure of at least one 
luindred and twenty days. All this goes to 
prove that each plant has a peculiarity of 
its o\^^l with regard to temperature and en- 
vironment; that the sum of the mean daily 
temperatures from the time of sprouting un- 
til the time of seed discharge is pretty nearly 
a constant one, and that if a plant be 
watched for years in succession it will be 
found that this thermometric sum oscillates 
little either way from the plant's normal. 
It is desiral)le that our native plants should 
be investigated as to temperature condi- 
tions, for some rule must determine the 
appearance of plants, the time of flowering 
and the time of suspended growth. It is 
no liaphazard process, but depends on 
fixed laws of growth and development. 
The daily appearance of new plants de- 
pends considerably more on the habits of 
their ancestors than on the controlling 
influence of present meteorological condi- 
ticms. 

Our forest trees show some very interest- 
ing peculiarities in their early spring devel- 
opment, which is apj>arently caused liy tlieir 
past conditions of growth and development. 
Heredity seems to i>lay a very important 
role in their vegetative habits. The facts 
condensed in the accompanying taltle will 
help to elucidate this statement : 

*Sec HarjM'r'.'t Jfarjtniiic, May, 1894. 



Plants 
wind- 
fertilized, 
flowerinf^ 
from 
March 

to 
June. 



Cretaoeons 
or Chalk 
Pcriotl. 



Post- 
Cietaoeous 



Querc-u.s (oiiks), Fajjus 
(Iwcfhcs), .Siilix (wil- 
lows), Platanus (plane- 
trees), SiLssiifras, IjiuniK, 

J Magnolia, Lirioilenilrou, 
(tulip-trees), Mvrica 
(wax myrtles), Betula 
(birches), Liqnidambar 
(gum-trees), .Fuglans 

I. (walnuts), .\cer(maples). 

Conius (dog- wood), 
Xyssa ( sour-gums ), Frax- 
inus (a.shes). 

Ulmiis ( elms ), planera, 
Celtis, Carya (hickory), 
I accmiKin (hlue-berries). 



Almus (alders), Car- 
Miocene. ^ pinus (horn-beam), Xe- 
gundo. 
Italicized genera insect-fertilized. 

It will be seen from this table that the 
more important genei-a of trees flower in the 
early spring. The cause for this is to be 
found in the past history of the plants, for 
if we arrange them, as in the table, as to 
their appearance in geological time, we dis- 
cover that nearly all of them appeared be- 
fore or during the Miocene (middle Tertiary 
or Mammalian Age) Epoch, wlien the north- 
ern hemisphere was many degi-ees warmer 
than at present, and when a mild climate 
extended far into the arctic regions. It is 
impossible to ignore the force of the testi- 
mony as to the continuous warm climate 
of the north temperate and polar zones 
throughout Tertiary (Mammalian) Times. 
We have in the lower Cretaceous (Chalk) 
Period an almost tropical climate down to 
the upper Eocene (Lower Tertiary), when 
it remains warm temperate, for instance, 
in central Europe and cold temperate 
within the polar area. It then gradually 
cools down and merges through the Pliocene 
(tapper Mammalian ) into the Glacial Epoch. 
That being the case, it is highly probable 
that the .season of growth of our forest ti-ees 
during the Miocene Period was uninter- 
rupted, and that flowers followed rapid vege- 
tation, as night follows daj-. The Glacial 
Period succeeded with its cold acting as a 



94 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



distm-bing influence, cutting off the growth 
of the trees sharply just before tlie flowers 
opened. The stately monarchs of the Plio- 
cene forests began to change their habit and 
adapt themselves to the new meteorological 
condition, the ever increasing cold. The 
unopened flowers were enveloped by the yet 
undeveloped leaves, which became harder 
and firmer, forming membranaceous and re- 
sinous covered bud scales, as a protection 
against the ice and cold. Flowers thus pro- 
tected remained dormant during the long 
glacial winter, and on the return of the next 
growing season opened their flowers for wind 
fertilization. This habit of earlj' flowering- 
became impressed so strongly on the plants 
that' it became hereditarily fixed. Trees of 
abnormal habit frequently show atavism, 
floweriag in the late autumn, if exception- 
ally warm. This apparently indicates that 
the cold cut into two periods the normal 
process of jilant growth. The dJAasion, thus, 
of the period of growth into two unequal 
halves by the glacial cold explains why our 
forest trees have varied little durmg the pro- 
cess of time fi'om a wind pollinated (anemo- 
philous) state, because their floral organs 
are developed in the spring before the ap- 
pearance of the most highly specialized 
flower visiting insects. Two causes have 
operated to keep our trees permanently in 
an anemophilous condition, first, the sepa- 
ration of the vegetative and reproductive 
stages by the cold of the Glacial Epoch, and 
their early spring flowering ; and secondly, 
the association of trees together into forests, 
flower visiting insects loving essentially 
open glades, or areas devoid of timber. 

More diificulty is experienced in explain- 
ing the appearance of the herbaceous vernal 
flora. In order to arrive at a clear under- 
standing of the problem, a few statistics are 
necessary. 

The following table compiled from a 
variety of sources arranged for convenience 
of presentation according to the system of 



A. L. Jussieu (now little used) will be of 
use as apjiroximately showing the statistical 
systematic distribution of our spring jjlants. 



r stamina epigyna 
Polypetalse \ " hypogyna 

i ' ' perigj'na 

C Corolla hypogyna 
Monopetaloe j " perigj'na 

i " epigyna 
(_ Apetalie. 

Jlonocotyledones. 



S e ' ^ . o i 3 

Q P O K,M 



6 1—1 3 
91 61 86 75 22 

6 18 17 30 16 
13121 91117 



8 5 913 
6 15'13 — 



A predominant number of the plants, 
tabiilated in the foregoing table, fall into 
eight natural orders: Eanunculaceaj (but- 
tercup family), Cruciferse (cress familj^) 
Violacese (violet family), Caryophyllacese 
(pink family), Eosaceae (rose family), Saxi- 
fragacete, Ericacese (heath family), Com- 
positse (sunflower family). The plants 
belonging to these eight natural orders form 
the major and characteristic part of our 
spring flora, and with the exception of the 
Ericaceae and Comjjositre (few in number) 
are all polypetalous (many petals, distinct), 
and monocotyledons hypogynous (stamens 
and parts below the ovary) in its make-up. 
The more complex and irregular flowered 
fandlies appear later in the year. Now this 
order of flowering corresponds curiously 
with the order of evolution of the flowering 
plants, which was suppositiously as follows : 

A. Monocotyledons. Wind Fertilized. Grasses, 
Sedges. 

B. Dicotyledons. 

1. Wind Fertilized. Ti-ees. 

2. True Insect Fertilized. 

(a) Pol}'pet«ili3e. ( Petals distinct, 4 or 5. ) 

(b) Gamopetalos. ( Petals united. ) 

This comparison leads us to infer the ab- 

1 Darraoh, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1860, 145; 
''Darlington, Flora Cestrica; 'Gray Manual; ^Roth- 
rock, Flora of Alaska; ■'Burk, Flora of Greenland, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1894. 



JANI'ARY 25, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



95 



senc-o of true flowers until late geologic 
times, for it is only by the visits of insects 
and their irritating action on vegetal proto- 
plasm that the most irregular flowei-s have 
heiMi slowly evolved, for there is a broad 
parallelism l)etween the more dillerentiated 
types of the vegetal kingdom and the ap- 
pearance of the various orders of insects, 
which was : 

GEOLOGICAL SUCCESSION OF IXSECTS. 

Devonian, Ortlioptera (eai^mgs, grasshoppers), Xeu- 

roptera ( ant-lions) . 
Carlwniferous, Coleoptera (beetles). 
Cretaceous Olite, Hymenoptera (bees), Hemiptera 

(lice), Diptera (flics). 
Tertiary. Lepidoptera i Imtterflies). 

We know from the close association of 
insects and flowers that the insects were 
modifled by their visits to flowers, and con- 
vei-scly that flowers have been changed to 
suit the visits of insects, and it is therefore 
not improbable that our most highly spe- 
cialized flowers, and most irregular ones, 
appeared and were modified by the Lepidop- 
tera in the late Tertiary time ; for moths 
and butterflies are most higlily specialized 
to insure cross fertilization, or allogamy. 
This variation in flowering plants must have 
been most strong at the close of the Mio- 
cene period, and after the retreat of the 
glaciei-s still more rapid than before, for it 
is proljable that the intense struggle which 
took place by the migration and intermix- 
ture of forms of difterent kinds, occasioned 
by the change of environmental conditions, 
was a powerful factor in causing the strik- 
ing variety of flowers and insects. The 
' responsive power ' of the proto{)lasm of 
the plants, acting in concert with the exter- 
nal impulses received from the environ- 
ment, must have been strong after the dis- 
appearance of the glaciers, on account of the 
re-occupation of a barren glacial country 
by northward moving plants, whose proto- 
I)lasm had become re.sjwnsively mobile dur- 
ing the long continued struggle in the south. 
It is not at all improbable that the poly- 



petalous groups of plants were northern 
ones during the Miocene period, and that 
their flowering period depends on this past 
geographical position. Those plants which 
lived far north during late ^Miocene and 
Pliocene times were least modified, for if is 
likely that moths and butterflies were then 
few in number, and the time was not suffl- 
ciently long for change to take place before 
the glacial ice sheet moved southward, mix- 
ing the northern and southern types, and 
introducing a struggle which was to last 
until the ice disapi)eared by the temperate 
heat. Many tropical plants remained asso- 
ciated with the northern forms crowded 
southward by the glaciers, notwithstanding 
that a great number perished under the 
more rigorous conditions of a colder climate. 
When the glaciers retreated, the predom- 
inant polypetahe adapted to a cold climate 
did one of three things : 1 , They reti-eated 
northward. 2. They retreated up the high 
mountains. 3. They took almost exclusive 
possession in their growth of the spring 
months, for the temperature conditions are 
such as to suit well their hereditarilj- im- 
pressed preference for the cold. 

These plants flower and mature their seeds 
quickly before the summer is well advanced, 
which mark them as physiologically adapted 
to the influences of the short glacial summer, 
alternating with the long glacial winter. 
This rapid growth production of flowers and 
seed in a short space of time is possible from 
the quantity of nutritive material stored up 
in the plant. The beet, turnip, i)arsnip and 
carrot are familiar examples of biennials 
with the reserve substance packed in the 
roots ; the houseleek, lily and onion with 
the ba.ses of the leaves enlarged and thick- 
ened to contain the stores of starch, sugar 
and [jroteids. Even under these favorable 
conditions, when tlie plant would be in a 
condition to grow most vigorously, every 
externally perceptible vital motion never- 
theless ceases, and it is onlv after a dormant 



96 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



period of some months that growth com- 
mences anew, and this fi-equently under 
circumstances which appear far less favor- 
able — especially at a conspicuously lower 
temperature. "This periodic alternation 
of vegetative activitj^ and i-est is in general 
so regulated that, for a given species of plant, 
both occiTr at definite times of the year, 
leading to the iaference that the periodicity 
only depends upon the alternation of the 
seasons, and therefore chiefly upon that of 
temperature and moisture." A few well- 
known examples are selected for illustration. 
' ' The leaf-shoot and flowers contained in 
the bulb of the Crown Imperial commence 
to grow vigorouslj' in the spring-time with 
us, even at the beginning or middle of 
March, when the soil in which the bulb has 
passed the winter possesses a temperature 
of 6-10° C; the leaf-shoots protrude for- 
cibly from the cold earth to grow vigor- 
ously in the but slightly warmer air. There 
would be but little to surprise us in this, if 
we did not at the same time notice the fact 
that a new leaf-shoot is alreadj' formed in 
embrj'o in the subterranean bulb in AprU 
and May; this shoot, however, does not grow 
to any extent in the warm soil during the 
summer and autumn. On the contrary, 
this favorable period of vegetation passes by, 
until at the end of the winter an iuconsider- 
able I'ise of temperature above the freezuig 
point suffices to mduce vigorous growth ; and 
as is well known, the same is the case with 
most bulbous and tuberous plants, as the 
meadow saffron, potato and kitchen onion." 
" I have man jr times attempted to induce 
the tubers and bulbs ripened in autumn to 
put forth their germinal shoots during N'o- 
vember, December and January, bj^ laying 
them in moist, warm loose soil ; but as in 
the case of the potato, as well as in that of 
the kitchen onion, no trace of germination 
appeared. If, on the other hand, the at- 
tempt is repeated in February, or still better 
in March, the germhial buds begin to grow 



vigorouslj' even in a few days. It is evident 
that some internal change must have taken 
place in the tubers and bulbs during the 
winter months, when it is impossible to bring 
them into activity fi-om their state of rest." 
Our spring plants in this agree physiologic- 
ally with their arctic congeners. The period 
of rest described above in such early spring 
plants, as the winter aconite, crocus, Ery- 
thronium, etc., has ia my opinion been due 
to the influence of the glacial cold heredit- 
arily impressed on these plants in con- 
nection mth the chemical changes which go 
on. The following diagrams will illustrate 
my meaning. Diagram B shows that the 
period of vegetative activity of our sprmg 
plants corresponds with an arctic or a glacial 
summer, while the dormant period corre- 
sponds with an arctic winter, although our 
present summer has encroached on the 
former glacial winter. 

Astronomical Year, Glacial Period. 



Vegetative; ■p.inwprs 
Period. J-' lowers. 


Dormant Period. 






Arctic Summer. Arctic Winter. 
Astronomical Year, 1894. 


Vegeta- 
tion. 


Flowers. 


Dormant Period. 









Present Summer. Present Winter. 

It was necessary for this rapid gro'wiih 
that the food material should be prepared be- 
forehand, because the arctic or glacial sum- 
mer is an exceedingly short one. Mr. Henry 
Seebohm,* in his presidential address before 
the Geographical Section of the British As- 
sociation, gave a gi-aphic description of the 
succession of the seasons in high arctic lati- 
tudes. A few sentences are worth quoting 
in this connection. He said that the stealthy 
approach of winter on the confines of the 
polar basin is in strong contrast to the 

*See Pojmlar Science Monihhj, XLV., 138, May, 1894. 



January 25, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



97 



catastrophe wliieli acoompanies the sudden 
onrusli of summer. •• One by one the 
flowei-s fade and go to seed, if they have 
been fortunate enough to attract a bee or 
other suitable poUen-bearing visitor. The 
arri\al of summer hapjjens so late that the 
inexperienced traveler may be excused for 
sometimes doubting whether it really is 
coming at all. When continuous night has 
become continuous day without any percep- 
tible approach to spring, an Alpine traveler 
naturally asks whether he has not reached 
the limit of perpetual snow. During May 
there were a few signs of the possibility of 
some mitigation of the rigors of winter. l)ut 
these were followed by frost. At last, when 
the final victory of summer looked hoj^less, 
a change took place : the wind turned to 
the south, the sun retired behind the clouds, 
mists obscured the landscape, and the snow 
melted ' like butter upon hot toa.st,' and we 
were in the midst of a blazing hot summer 
picking flowers of a hundred different kinds 
and feasting upon wild ducks' eggs of vari- 
ous species." 

The polypetalous families which blossom 
early in the season, although old geologi- 
cally speaking, have not been gi'eatly modi- 
fied since Pliocene times, because their 
flowers open in the spring before the Lepi- 
doptera hatch out from their cocoons. It 
is obvious that every species of flower can 
only be visited and fertilized by those in- 
sects which occur at the time when the 
plant is in flower and in stations where it 
grows. The insect visitors of a plant are 
therefore limited by the season and by the 
time of day when it flowers, by its geogra- 
phical distribution and by the nature of its 
habitat. The high northern polypetahe 
have remained therefore regular while 
those plants gi'owing in the southland have 
become highly irregular by the visits of 
numerous liighly organized insects in great 
number near the equatorial zone. We 
must be cautious, however, in generalizing 



too broadly, for we can only call those parts 
perfect which fulfill their purpose in the 
life of the plant essentially well; that is to 
say, which under existing conditions insure 
the sexual reproduction of the species with 
particular success. 

The Composit;e (sun-flower family), the 
highest expression of evolution amongst 
Dicotyledons, appeared latest in geological 
succession, for no undoubted form of them 
(Sj-nanthene ) has been found farther back 
than the middle Pliocene. Muller says:* 
'• The numerical preponderance which this 
family has attained in species and genera 
(1000 ) , and the extreme abundance of many 
of the species, are due to the concurrence of 
several characters, most of which singlj-, or 
in some degree combined, we have become 
acquainted with iu other families, but never 
in such happy combination as in the 
Compositie. The following points deserve 
special mention: (1) the close association 
of many flowers; (2) the accessibility of the 
honey as well as the plentiful secretion and 
security from rain; (3) the possession of a 
pollen mechanism, which renders cross fer- 
tilization certain iu the event of insect visi- 
toi-s." It is a ma.sterful order of plants 
most commonly met with in the late sum- 
mer aud autumn, flowering profusely until 
the heavy frosts of early winter, when they 
cast their seeds abundantly. An enumera- 
tion of the Compositie growing in the vicin- 
age of Philadelphia shows that the plants 
are essentially late summer growers. 



Flowebing to Fbiit Ripexixg. 


SlMBEIl 
OF Pl.AST»_ 


April-May, 


2 
4 




6 






,Iuly-Aii}:iist, 


8 
15 




32 


Auj;Hst-(K't<>l>er 


a5 

15 








121 



'^ MiiUer, The Firlilizntion of Flowers. 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



These are the latest group of plants to ap- 
pear geologicallj', they grow and flower in 
the warm season added to the short arctic 
summer by the retreat of the glacial winter. 
The following diagram will indicate more 
clearly what is meant, and will show why it 
is that the Compositte of the north temperate 
zone are the characteristic herbaceous vege- 
tation of the late summer and autumn 
months. 

Peesent Astronomical Yeae. 



■ Spri:ngP;lants 


Shr 


Vac;ant -Sumimer 

Spa:cele:ft after 

: the: Gla:cial 

■ ;Retr;eat 








: : Treies & 


ubs I i 








OCC:Upie:d by: 
Cojinpoisitse : 





Glacial Summer. 



Glacial Winter. 



Miocene Season of Growth. 

The land area left bare by the retreat of 
the glaciers was one of low tension, althou^gh 
by the increase in the length of the summer 
(some three months) it had a climate in 
every way suited for the growth of plants. 
The country to the south was one of very 
high pressure tension, which must be re- 
lieved. The great strain was removed 
partially by the movement of plants to the 
northward. " Of all the plants which went 
south before the first invasioii of the glacial 
ice sheet, none showed greater capacitjr for 
variation and improvement than the ances- 
tral forms of the modern dominant familj^ 
of Compositse." Such plants in having 
seeds adapted to fly before the prevalent 
north winds had reached a low latitude, 
where great change of form took place 
owing to the intense struggle for existence. 
The composite plants were assisted north- 
ward by the same structural means as 
carried them south. Modified considerably 



into new forms bj' their migrations and 
life in the south, they retained their fond- 
ness for a warm climate. By the extension 
of the arctic summer, some three months, 
they had an ojjportunitj^ for extensive 
migration over the country formerly ice 
bound. 

It is thus fi-om the high and low pressures, 
caused alternately by the glacial epoch, 
that the distribution of our flora in time 
has been accomplished. 

John W. Haeshberger. 

Univeesity of Pennsylvania. 



ON CERTAIN HABITS AND INSTINCTS OF 
SOCIAL INSECTS. 

If the mere inductive evidence for the 
Lamarckian theory of the hereditary trans- 
mission of acquired characters be strong 
anj^'here, it is assuredly in the region of 
nervous and mental phenomena. Eomanes, 
whose reserve on the inheritance of ac- 
quired characters of a phj^sical nature is 
everj^where manifest, admits that manj' in- 
stincts are due to the ' lapsing of intelli- 
gence.'* "Just as in the lifetime of the 
individual, adjustive actions which were 
originally intelligent may by frequent repe- 
titions become automatic, so in the lifetime 
of the species actions originallj- intelligent 
maj', b}^ ft-equeut repetitions and hereditj^, 
so write their eflects on the nervous system 
that the latter is prepared even before indi- 
vidual' experience to perform adjustive ac- 
tions mechanically which in previous gen- 
erations were performed intelligently." 

Even Weismaun, with all his wealth of 
imagination and capacity for elaboration 
of details, has nowhere attempted to trace 
out the mechanism for the evolution of in- 
stinct on the line of his ' germ plasm the- 
orj%' nor applied to it the manifold combi- 
nations of ' biophors ' and ' determinants,' 
' ids ' and ' idauts ' which he assumes as the 
machinery of inheritance. So far the only 

*3fental Evolution in Animals, p. 178. 



Januaev 25, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



99 



key to many instincts is found in the con- 
ception tliat they are inherited habits, 
themselves the originally conscious reac- 
tions of the individual to its surroundings ; 
and this conception has never been seriously 
attacked from tlie front in open field. Yet 
Dai-win and all his followers have regarded 
the habits and instincts of social insects as 
mainly if not wholly evolved by casual vari- 
ations and natural selection. For the ori- 
gin of the instincts and habits of these 
creatures cannot ol)viously be explained on 
Lamarck's principle, since they are for the 
most part evinced by the workei-S and sol- 
diers, who are neutei-s ; and such, of coui-se, 
cannot transmit their instincts by blood to 
their followers, who are only collaterals and 
outside the direct line. Here and there, in- 
deed, these neuters may lay eggs, unfertil- 
ized but not infertile, since in the bees thej' 
produce drones and in some ants also males ; 
but we have no evidence that this occurrence 
is fi-equent or regular enough really to in- 
lluence the race. However, there are two 
matters, the so-called instincts of neuters 
generally, and those of slave-makers in par- 
ticular, that may be dealt with from a 
point of view which will show that an ex- 
planation is available that makes no exces- 
sive denuind on Lamai'ckians. 

It is a truism to say that one of the most 
potent iactoi-s in education is the imitation 
of one's peers. As a teacher of experience, 
I know well how thi' presence of a few bright 
and handy students eases my annual task 
of breaking in a class of book-taught lads 
to a study requiring handiwork and obser- 
vati(m. The nearer akin the model, the 
more powtTful is his example. Thus, the 
trained elephant is an almost necessary aid 
to the tamer of wild elephants ; no l)ird-or- 
gan can do as well as a good songster ; and 
if we wish to train a daw, magpie or star- 
ling to speak, its Itest teacher is a loquaci- 
ous parrot. 

Animals may readily thus acquire /i«6/7'< 



which, if we did not know their origin, we 
might well mistake for imtinctt. Thus a dog 
reared by a she-cat has acquired the habit 
of sitting up on his tail, licking his paw.s and 
washing Ins face — watching a mouse-liole 
for hours together ; ' and liad in short all the 
ways and manners and disposition of liis wet 
nurse.'* So that in considering the behavior 
of any species we have to be cautious and 
bear ever in mind that manifestations whicli 
at first sight seem unetpiivocal instinct may 
be really habit, and habit only. 

Xow every neuter insect is born from the 
pupa (as it was born from the egg) into a 
community of busy workere of its own kind, 
practising the art that shef will have to 
practise in turn. If then her mental pow- 
ere and emotional development are up to 
the average of the race there can be no dif- 
ficult}- in her qualifying for the place she 
will take in the nest. Again we must re- 
member that this neuter insect hatches from 
the egg into a helpless larva, to be fed and 
tended with most devoted care by the adult 
sister workers until it passes into the chrys- 
alis or i>upa stage, where il sleeps out the 
transformations that make it an adult. We 
know well that neuter insects show every 
sign of varied emotion; everyone can tell 
the difference of demeanor between the busy 
bee and the angry one; and observers have 
shown us ample evidence of many other 
emotions. If then memory of the earlier 
larval state survives the pupa trancej our 

*Ree Koinanes, op. cit., p. 226. 

t Tlie .>io-fallc(l neuter is always an imperfect female. 

t Lubbock liiis .shown that ants will tend any young 
whatever of their own species even if born in other 
nest.s; liut none the less they do reject them as 
strangers after they have ])a.s,se<l tlirouf;h pniiadom 
into the adult state, while they welcome Isu'k the 
offspring of their own nest that liave been fosteretl by 
strangers. Tlie converse- experiments have not been 
tried, to ascertiiin whether the new-born adults that 
have been nursed outside their own nest show any 
memory of or preference for their own folk or their 
fosterers respectively. (See Lubl)ock, '.\nts, Bee» 
and Wa.si)s. ' 1 



100 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



newly emerged neuter should revive with 
the liveliest gratitude and almost filial af- 
fection for its mates, who have tended it as 
devotedly as elder sisters in charge of a 
family do even among ourselves. 

The only possible objections to this view 
are, first, that the insects have not intelli- 
gence enough for imitation, and secoudlj^ 
;that teaching presupposes communication 
between the teacher and the taught, which 
we have no right to assume. But these ob- 
jections fall as baseless when we observe for 
ourselves, or trace with a Huber, a Forel, a 
Lubbock, or a Bate the unmistakable in- 
telligence and the unequivocal signs of com- 
munication to be found among these ani- 
mals. 

We may still assign to natural selection 
a certain part, much more limited than has 
hitherto been supposed. It conserves the 
general intelligence of the race at a high 
pitch, by constantly weeding families proli- 
fic of foolish virgins; and it checks all ex- 
cessive development of individualitj^ by de- 
strojdng families with an undue proportion 
of those geniuses who aim at striking out 
new paths for themselves instead of de- 
votedly working at their settled coopera- 
tive tasks. But the singular mixture of 
ability and rovitine displayed by ants and 
bees is just what we should expect if their 
arts were largely attained by the influence 
of strong tradition. Our lawyers till quite 
recently showed the severe limitations im- 
posed by tradition on intelligence. And 
this is my case for regarding the ways of 
neuter insects as habits and practices, not 
instincts. Many ants make slaves; they 
raid the nest of other species, killing the 
adults and bringing home the helpless 
young. These are nursed by workers of 
the same slave race that were once them- 
selves brought in the immature state to the 
nest. Some of these slave makers can 
neither clean themselves nor feed them- 
selves; everything has to be done for them 



by their slaves, save the work of war and 
capture. 

Lubbock writes: "They have lost the 
greater part of theii* instincts ; their art, 
that is, the power of building; their do- 
mestic habits, for they show no care for 
their omti young, all this being done by the 
slaves; their industry — ^they take no part in 
providing the daily supplies if the colony 
changes the situation of its nest, the 
masters are all carried by the slaves on 
their backs to the new one; naj', they have 
even lost the habit of feeding . . . How- 
ever small the prison, however large the 
quantity of food, these stupid creatvires 
will starve in the midst of plenty rather 
than feed themselves." 

The origin of this character is not far to 
seek; the fertile insects, i. e., the males and 
perfect females of social insects, contribute 
little or nothing to the work of their nest 
save their offspring * ; hence in the parents 
of each generation there is a constant 
fostering of selfishness and dependence to 
be transmitted to their ofispring. 

The female or queen termite (or White 
ant), indeed, is guarded from all exertion 
and tended in a way to satisfj' the indolence 
of the most languid Creole fine lady; the 
only drawbacks of her position being lack 
of amusements and of lovers on the one 
hand and an excessive fertility on the 
other. Where all or many of the neuters 
are workers, indolence and selfishness are 
checked and natural selection constantly 
eliminates those families whose altruism 
is insufficient for a social life. But if 
once circumstances arrive in which slaves 
are present to do the duties, it is easy 
to see how all the traditions of work or 
self help — save in war — can die out and be 
utterly lost, bravery, pugnacity and hon- 
orable cooperation being the sole vh-tues to 
survive. It seems at first sight strange 

*Tlie amount done is perhaps greatest among 
Wasps and Humble Bees, least among Termites. 



January 25, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



1(»1 



that the slave holders have lost the power 
of feeding themselves'; but this is not 
unexampled in human affairs. Surely 
many a fine lady might starve outright in a 
jilaee with no provender but live fowls and 
unthre.shed wheat and water, no utensils 
hut dry sticks and a few stones. Yet we 
know that savages of far lower wit could 
kill and pluck the fowls and get fire, spit 
and roast them, crush the wheat between 
the stones and make a damper cook it in 
the embers. This is a case of the loss of 
the power of self help by peculiar education, 
and if we admit this explanation for the 
fine lady we have no right to reject it for 
the slave holding ant. 

I am aware that I have not dealt exhaust- 
ively with the whole question of social in- 
sects. There are lots of cruxes in their 
manners and customs, and especially in the 
manifold forms that occur in one and the 
same species. AVhy, for instance, worse 
food and a narrower cell should make a fer- 
tilized bee's egg become a sterile worker 
instead of a queen, no one knows ; and the 
problems presented among ants are far more 
ditlicult and complicated. But it is as well 
to take stock frequently of our speculations, 
and to place our certain realized assets to 
the credit side, even though we have to 
keep most of our accounts open indefinitely. 
Marcus Hartog. 

QiEEx's College, Cork. 

THE PROPER SCIESTIFIC NAME FOR 
BREWER S MOLE. 
Thkre are three species of moles in the 
Eastern States, the Star-nosed mole, Cnndy- 
liira rri.'ifafa, the common or Shrew mole, 
Scahji" aqiiaf!ru.i, and a third less familiar 
species known as Brewer's mole, or the 
Hairy-tailed mole. It is to this last species 
that mj^ remarks relate. It was described 
by Bachman in 1842 in the Boston Journal of 
Nafural Hixtory (vol. 4, page 32) under the 
name of Scalop-t breurri, and was cited under 
that designation until 1879, when Dr. Coues 



proposed to change the specific name to 
anicricanii.'t. This proposition was based on 
the fact that in Harlan's Fauna Americana, 
published in 1825, the name ' Talpa ameri- 
(■a)ia, black mole, Bartram's manuscript 
notes,' occurs in synonjTuy at the head of a 
description which Dr. Coues thought might 
be in part, at least, applicable to the species 
under consideration. 

I find, however, that this is a literal trans- 
lation of Desmarest's description of the 
European mole, Talpa curopcea, with no ad- 
ditions whatever, and no other alteration 
than the omission of a word or sentence 
here and there. It is evident, therefore, 
that Harlan included nothing from Bar- 
tram's manuscript, whatever it may have 
contained, and that the name Talpa amerl- 
mna has no validity. 

It will be necessary to return to the 
specific name breu'cri. I recently separated 
Brewer's mole as the representative of a 
distinct genus, which I called Para'<ealnj)s. 
If this distinction be accepted, the proper 
name of the species will be Para.^calopg 
breu'eri (Bachman). 

Frederick W. Trie. 

U. ,S. National Miseum. 



TJIE AMERICAN FOLK-LORE SOCIETY. 

The annual meeting of the Society was 
held at the Columbian l^niversity, "Wash- 
ington, December 27th and 28th. Owing 
to a death in his family, the President, Dr. 
Alcee Fortier, of Louisiana, was prevented 
from attending. 

The Secretary, ]Mr. AV. W. Newell, sub- 
mitted a report in which he detailed the 
publications of the Society for the year. 
These included two volumes of • Folk Talcs 
of Angola,' prepared by Heli Cliatelain, late 
United States commercial agent at Loanda, 
West Africa, and jiapers by various well- 
known authors as follows: 'Notes on the 
folk-lore of the mountain whites of the 
AUeghanies,' J. Hampton Porter; 'Three 



102 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



epitaphs of the seventeenth century,' Sarah 
A. P. Andrews ; ' Popular medicine, cus- 
toms and superstitions of the Eio Grande,' 
Capt. John G. Bourke ; ' Plantation court- 
ship,' Frank D. Banks ; ' Retrospect of the 
folk-lore of the Columbian Exposition,' 
Stewart Culin ; 'Eskimo tales and songs,' 
Franz Boaz ; ' Popular American Plant 
Names,' Fannie D. Bergen. 

A large number of papers were read be- 
fore the Society and discussed by the mem- 
bers present. The first was by Dr. Wash- 
ing-ton Matthews, entitled 'A ISTavaho Myth,' 
which related in detail one of the sacred 
legends of the tribe. 

Capt. R. R. Moten then read a paper on 
'Negro folk-songs,' in which he spoke of 
natural musical tendencies of the colored 
race and reviewed a number of the old 
songs of the South before the war. Negro 
music, he said, might be divided into three 
kinds, that rendered while working, a dif- 
ferent kind for idle hours, and a third and 
more dignified sort used for worship. Capt. 
Moten said the general public had but little 
idea of the old negro music, and that many 
of the so-called negro songs rendered by 
white men in minstrel performances were 
abortions. There were some old familiar 
melodies, however, which were true to 
nature, and full of inspiration. 

A quartet of colored men was present, 
and sang a nvimber of negro songs illustrat- 
ing the points brought out by Capt. Moten. 

Several speakers dwelt upon the import- 
ant question of the diffusion of folk-tales 
and the explanation of striking similarities 
found in localities widely apart. Mr. "W. 
W. Newell was inclined to explain such by 
theories of transmission ; while Major J. 
W. Powell and Dr. D. G. Brinton, both of 
whom had papers on closely related topics, 
leaned toward the ' anthropologic ' expla- 
nation, which regards those similarities as 
the outgrowth of the unity of human psy- 
chological nature and methods. 



Dr. J. W. Fewkes gave a detailed de- 
scription of the figures in the ancient Maya 
manuscript known as the ' Cortesian Codex.' 
Other j)apers presented were : ' Kwapa 
folk-lore,' Dr. J. Owen Dorsey ; 'Korean. 
Children's games,' Stewart Culin ; ' Burial 
and holiday customs and beliefs of the Irish 
peasantry,' Mrs. Fanny D. Bergen ; 'Biblio- 
graphy of the folk-lore of Peru,' Dr. Geo, 
A. Dorsey ; ' Mental development as illus- 
trated by folk-lore,' Mrs. Helen Douglass ; 
The game of goose with examples from 
England, Holland, Germany and Italy,' 
Dr. H. Carrington Bolton ; ' The Swastika,' 
Dr. Thomas Wilson ; ' Folk-food of New 
Mexico,' Capt. John G. Bourke, U. S. A.; 
' Opportunities of ethnological investigation 
on the eastern coast of Yucatan,' Marshall 
H. Saville ; ' Two Ojibway tales,' Homer 
H. Kidder. 

The officers elected for the ensuing year 
were : President, Dr. Washington Mat- 
thews ; Vice Presidents, Rev. J. Owen Dor- 
sey, Captain John G. Bourke, TJ. S. A.; 
Permanent Secretary, William Wells Ne- 
well, Cambridge, Mass.; Corresponding Sec- 
retary, J. Walter Fewkes, Boston, Mass.; 
Treasurer, John H. Hinton, New York, N. 
Y.; Curator, Stewart Culin, Philadelphia, 
Pa. D. G. Beinton. 

Univeesity of Pennsylvania. 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 
Les oscillatioiis electriques. — H. Poincabe, 

Membre de I'Institut. Paris, George 

Carr6, 1894. 

This woi-k contains, briefly stated, a clear 
mathematical discussion of the general feat- 
ures of the Faraday-Maxwell electromag- 
netic theory in Hertzian form, and of those 
special problems bearing upon this theory 
which are of particular interest to the ex- 
perimentalist. The mathematical solution 
of these problems is compared carefully with 
the results obtained, principally by the ex- 
periments of Hertz and of other iuvestiga- 



January 25, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



103 



toi-s who liavo extended the field of the 
Hertzian method of investigation. But it 
should be observed that the experiments of 
tlie pre-IIertzian epoch receive their full 
share of attention, as, for instance, the ex- 
periments of Rowland, Riintgen, and others. 

The work will undoubtedly exert a very 
strong inlluence upon the future develop- 
ments of tlie electromagnetic theory, and 
deserves, therefore, more tlian ordinary at- 
tention. This circumstance should, in the 
opinion of the reviewer, excuse the length 
of this review. 

General Theory. — Poincare's discussion di- 
vides itself naturally into two parts. In the 
fii-st part an electromagnetic field with con- 
ductors at rest is considered. In the second 
part the discussion extends to electromag- 
netic fields with conductors in motion. 

The Hertzian method of presentation is 
adopted in preference to the Maxwellian. 
Two distinct differences between these two 
methods should now he pointed out. The 
fii-st difterence is essential, and may be 
stated briefly as follows : — 

Hertz described jMaxwell's electromag- 
netic theoiy as the theory which is contained 
in Maxwell's fundamental equations ; he 
stated, however, very clearly that the sup- 
pression of all direct actions at a distance is 
a characteristic feature of this theory. But 
if it is not a sufiicicnt hypothesis, and if no 
other hypotheses are clearly stated by iMax- 
well, then his deduction of the fundamental 
equati(ms which form the heart and soul of 
his theory must necessarily lack in clearness 
and conii>leteness. This is the difficulty 
whicli Hertz discovered in Maxwell's .syste- 
matic development of his own electromag- 
netic theory, and Hertz obviates this diffi- 
culty by starting from the equations them- 
selves as given, proving tlieir correctness by 
sliowing that they are in accordance with 
all our experience. 

The second difference is formal only. It 
mav be stated briellv as follows: Maxwell 



considered the elect rot onic state, discovered 
by Faraday, as of fundamental importance. 
The matliematical exjjression of this state, 
the vector potential, was considered by him 
as the fundamental function in his mathe- 
matical presentation of Faraday's view of 
electromagnetic phenomena. Hertz, just 
as Heaviside did some time before him, 
considered the vector potential as a rudi- 
mentary concept which should be carefully 
removed from the completed theory Just as 
the scaffolding is removed from a finished 
building. In place of the vector potential 
Hertz substituted the electric and the mag- 
netic force as the fundamental quantities. 
This enabled him to state the fundamental 
equations of JIaxwell in a more symmetrical 
form than Maxwell did. 

It seems that it is principally this second, 
the formal, difference which decides Poin- 
care in iavor of the Hertzian method. But 
there is still considerable difference between 
the presentation of the electromagnetic the- 
ory given by Hertz and that which Poin- 
care gives in this book. For whereas Hertz 
proceeded fi-om the symmetrical form of 
Maxwell's fundamental equations as given 
and by deducing from them and from .several 
clearly defined assumptions the general ex- 
perimentally established laws of electrical 
phenomena pi-oved the correctness of these 
equations, Poincare deduces them from the 
following experimentally established facts : 

1. The energj- of the electromagnetic 
field consists of two parts, one due to the 
action of the electric and the other to that 
of the magnetic forces. They are each 
homogeneous quadratic functions of the 
two fundamental ([uantities, that is of the 
electric and of the magnetic forces respect- 
ively. This experimental relation defines 
the units of the electric and of the magnetic 
force and also the phj'sical constants of 
the medium, that is the specific inductive 
capacity and the magnetic permeability. 

2. Having defined the meaning of mag- 



104 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



netic and of electric induction and of their 
fluxes in terms of the corresponding forces, 
Poincare states then the fundamental law 
of electromagnetic induction in a closed 
conducting circuit as an experimental fact 
and deduces immediately the first group of 
the Maxwellian equations. This group is 
nothing more nor less than a symbolical 
statement that the law of electromagnetic 
induction is true for every circuit whether 
it be conducting or not. 

3. Joule's law is stated as an experi- 
mental fact. In a homogeneous conductor 
the heat generated per unit volume and 
unit time at any point of the conductor is 
proportional to the square of the electric 
force at that point ; the factor of propor- 
tionality is electrical conductivity by defi- 
nition. Another quantity is then introduced 
which is defined as the product of the 
electrical force into the conductivity and 
the name of conduction current is given 
to it. 

By means of these definitions, the prin- 
ciple of conservation of energy, and the first 
group of Maxwellian equations, the second 
group, in the form given by Hertz, is then 
deduced. This completes the Maxwellian 
electromagnetic theory for a homogeneous 
isotropic field in which both the medium 
and the conductors are at rest. 

Poincare loses no time in commenting 
upon the physical meaning of these equa- 
tions, but proceeds rapidly to Poj'nting's 
theorem, which introduces one of the most 
important quantities in the wave-propaga- 
tion of electromagnetic energy. It is the 
radiation vector, as Poincare calls it. A 
brief remark, however, prepares the reader 
for the good things that are to come. A 
comparison of Maxwell's fundamental equa- 
tions with those of Ampere shows them to be 
identical except for rapid electric oscil- 
lations, when the displacement currents 
(Poincar6 does not mention this name, but 
only refers to a mathematical symbol) iu 



the dielectric cease to be negligibly small. 
For these no provision was made in Am- 
pere's or any other of the older theories. 
Here then is the starting point of the radi- 
cal departure of the Faraday-Maxwell view 
from that of the older theories. Hence the 
study of Hertzian oscillations takes us into 
a new region of electrical phenomena, a re- 
gion entirely unexplored by the older the- 
ories, and first brought before our view by 
the discoveries and surmises of Faraday, by 
Maxwell's mathematical interpretation of 
these discoveries and surmises, and by 
Hertz's confirmation of Faraday and Max- 
well. 

Hertzian Oscillations. — It is the study of 
these rapid oscillations which forms the 
subject of the rest of Poincare's work under 
consideration. 

Sir William Thomson's theory of the dis- 
charge of a Leyden jar forms a fitting intro- 
duction to this study. It states clearly the 
essential elements which should be consid- 
ered in the study of electric oscillations. 
They are the period and the decrement. 
The relation of these to the self-induction, 
the electrostatic capacity, and the resistance 
of the circuit are given by this theory and it 
was verified by many experiments, espe- 
cially those of Feddersen, who measured 
the period of these oscillations and also 
their decrement by a photographic method. 
But inasmuch as these oscillations were of a 
comparatively long period, 10^ per second, 
they were not apt to furnish a test of the 
Faraday-Maxwell theory. The waves of 
the oscillations studied by Feddersen would 
have been 30 kilometers long and would, 
therefore, have escaped experimental detec- 
tion. 

Hertz was the first to produce verj^ rapid 
oscillations, 10^ per second ; but since their 
period was too short to be measured di- 
rectly, another method of testing the agree- 
ment between theorj^ and experiment had 
to be devised. This was done by Hertz, 



January 25, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



105 



who measured the wave length (about 3 
metres in the earliest experiments ) of the 
waves produced by these rapid oseillations 
by means of the intensity of the spark in 
the spark-gap of a secondary circuit, the 
so-called resonator. Tlie period was ciileu- 
lated by the Thomson formula and divitling 
the wave-length by the period gave the ve- 
locity of propagation, which, according to 
the Faraday-JIaxwell theory, should be 
equal to that of light, and that, too, both in 
the immediate vicinity of the conductors 
and in the dielectric. A mere sketch of 
these experiments is given for the purpose 
of outlining the plan of the discussion to be 
carried out in the succeeding chapters of 
the book. Hertz's method of calculating 
the period of his oscillators is reproduced 
more or less faithful]}- and the various ob- 
jections against it discussed. 

Theory of Hertzian O.iciUations. — This dis- 
cussion paves the way gradually for the gen- 
eral theory of the Hertzian oscillator to be 
taken up in the next chapter. This theory 
can be described as the mathematical dis- 
cussion of the following problem : Given a 
homogeneous dielectric extending indefi- 
nitely. This dielectric is acted upon by a 
steady electrical force applied at a conduc- 
ductor, the oscillator. It is therefore elec- 
trically strained. Describe the pi-ocess by 
means of which the dielectric returns to its 
neutral state when the mitial electrical 
strain is suddenly released. 

The discussion uuist necessarily start from 
Maxwell's fundamental equations. They 
are in the form given bj' Hertz, partial 
differential equations connecting the com- 
ponents of tlie electric and of the magnetic 
forces at any point in tlie dielectric. Hence, 
using the language of the mathematician, 
the solution of the above problem will 
consist in the integration of Maxwell's dif- 
ferential equations, which, translated into 
the language of the experimental physicist. 
means that the solution will cimsist in Hud- 



ing the resulting electrical wave, that is, 
its period, its decrement due to radiation 
and dissipation, and its direction and 
velocity of propagation. It is evident, 
therefore, both to the mathematician and 
to the physicist that the conditions at tlie 
boundary surfaces separating the dielectric 
from the conductor must first be settled. 
To these Poincar6 devotes careful attention. 
A lucid demonstration is given of the theo- 
rems that in the case of rapid oscillations 
there will be : a. Very slight penetration of 
the current into the conductor; b. A 
vanishing of the electric and the magnetic 
force in the interior of the conductor, c. 
Electric force normal and magnetic force 
tangential to the surface of the conductor, 
etc. 

Then follows a beautiful mathematical 
solution of the general problem mentioned 
above. It is this : The law of distribution 
of the conduction current on the oscillator 
being given the electric and magnetic force, 
and tlierefore the state of the wave, at any 
point in the dielectric and at any moment 
can be calculated by a simple differentiation 
of a quantity called the vector potential. 
This quantity is determined from the cur- 
rent distribution in a manner which is the 
same as that employed in the calculation of 
the electrostatic potential from the disti-ibu- 
tion of the electrical charge, but on the sup- 
position that the force between the various 
points of the dielectric and the surface of 
the oscillator is propagated with the velocity 
of light. The value of this solution rests 
on tlu! fact that the law of distribution of 
the conduction current can be closelj' esti- 
mated in some oscillators, as, for instance, 
in the case of Bloiidlot's oscillator consisting 
of a wire bent so as to form a rectangle in 
one of whose sides a small plate condenser 
is interposed. A special form of this vector 
potential applicat)le to oscillatoi-s whose 
surfiice is tiiat of revolution is deduced and 
applied to Lodge's spherical oscillator. 



106 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



whose oscillations are due to a sudden re- 
lease of a uniform electrostatic field. The 
solution of this case is complete. The actual 
values of both the period and the decrement 
are expressed in terms of the radius of the 
sphere. The smallness of the period and 
the exceedingly rapid rate of decay of the 
wave are striking. 

This theorj^ throws much light upon 
Hertz's method of calculating the period of 
an oscillator. Poincare applies it also to 
the explanation of the Hertzian method of 
calculating the decrement due to electrical 
radiation and the force of Poynting's 
theorem is exhibited in a masterly manner, 
although, of course, the calculation for more 
general cases is not as complete as that for 
Lodge's oscillator. More experimental 
guidance is necessary and will not be sought 
in vain in siibsequent chapters. 

Phenomena of Electrical Resonance. — Wave 
Propagation along a Wire. — Having described 
Hertz's method of calculating the period 
and the decrement, Poincare discusses next 
some of the more important experimental 
researches dealing with these two principal 
characteristics of an oscillating system. 
The earliest method employed in researches 
of this class is that devised by Hertz. A 
secondai'y circuit, the resonator, consisting 
of a turn of wu-e Avith an adjustable spark 
gap is brought into the inductive action of 
the oscillator. The length and intensity of 
the induced sj)ark measures the inductive 
effect between the two. When the peiiods 
of the two are equal the effect is a maxi- 
mum; they are then in resonance. But 
experiment reveals the fact that the reson- 
ance effect is not as pronounced as in the 
case of acoustical resonance. Sarasin and 
de la Eive (Arch, des sciences phys. 23, p. 
113; 23, p. 557, Geneve, 1890) mferred fi-om 
this that the oscillator sends forth a com- 
plex wave which, if analyzed in the manner 
of a ray of sunlight, would give a contin- 
uous spectrum. Poincare, guided by a 



carefully worked general theory of reson- 
ance, ascribes the absence of a strong reson- 
ance effect to the large decrement of the 
oscillator. An appeal is then made to ex- 
periments bearing on this point and the 
subject of stationary waves in long wires is 
taken up. Such waves are produced in 
the same way as in the case of sound waves. 
When a train of electrical waves travels 
along a wire and the leading wave reaches 
the end of the wire it is reflected there and 
by the interference between the direct and 
the reflected waves stationary waves are 
formed. Hertz's theorj^ of propagation of 
these waves is given, showing that their 
velocity is the same all along the wire and 
equal to that of light for all wave lengths. 
If the view of Sarasin and de la Eive be 
correct then stationary electrical waves 
should have no pronounced nodes and ven- 
tral segments and, therefore, a resonator 
which, unlike the oscillator, gives a simple 
wave of definite j)eriodicity will pick out of 
the stationary waves that component only 
which is in resonance with it. In other 
words, every resonator, within large limits, 
Avill respond to stationary waves and if mov- 
ed along a wire which is the seat of such 
waves its spark will rise and fall in intensity 
everj' time the resonator passes bj^ a node or 
a ventral segment of that component con- 
tained in the complex stationarj' wave with 
which it is in resonance. It measures, 
therefore, the wave length corresponding to 
its own period and not that corresponding 
to the period of the oscillator. This wave 
length divided by the calculated period of 
the vibrator will give, therefore, a wrong 
velocity of j)ropagation. A mistake of this 
kind was suspected in Hertz's earliest ex- 
periments by which he obtained a different 
A'elocity of propagation along a wire from 
that in the dielectric. Sarazin and de la 
Eive called this phenomenon, first observed 
by them, the phenomenon of multiple reson- 
ance. It is undoubtedly one of the most 



January 25, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



107 



iniportaut discoveries in tlie region of Hert- 
zian oscillations. It was probably ( ^ ) Poin- 
car6 (Ids modesty prevents him fi'om men- 
tioning tliis fact) who first recognized its 
full value and detected its true meaning. 
He devotes a large part of the present work 
to the discussion of this phenomenon and 
every serious student will appreciate heart- 
ily this very interesting feature of the noble 
work before us. Briefly stated Poincare's 
explanation of multiple resonance is this. 
Ordinarily the oscillator has a large decre- 
ment; that of the resonator is very small, 
according to the results of Bjerkness' experi- 
ments. The train of waves excited in a 
long wire by the inductive action of an os- 
cillator after each disruptive discharge 
consists of a big wave followed by a small 
number of waves of very rapidly decreasing 
amplitude. Such a train of waves is evi- 
dently not capable of forming interference 
waves after reflection. Their effect upon 
tlie resonator is jiractieallj- the same as that 
of a single wave, giving the resonator an 
impulse when passing it on its way toward 
the end of the long wire and another im- 
pulse when it returns after reflection. 
Hence, if the time interval between these 
two impulses is a multiple of the period of 
the resonator the resulting oscillation in 
the resonator will be sti'onger than other- 
wise. If, therefore, the resonator be moved 
along the long wire its oscillations will vary, 
passing tlirougli a maximum at regular in- 
tervals; the distance between these intervals 
being equal to a wave length correspond- 
ing to the period of the resonator. But, 
obviousl}', the maxima will be most clearly 
pronounced wlien the resonator is in reson- 

(') It is no more tliaii just that a stronj;; enipliasis 
should be put jijion the fact tliat Bjerkness independ- 
ently (Wied. Ann. 44 |). 74 and p. 92, July, 1891) 
■worked out the same theory and proved it by experi- 
ment at about the same time that Poineare first pul)- 
lished his theory (Arch, des sciences phys. 25 p. GOW, 
G6aii\e 15 Juin, 1891). 



ance with the o.scillator. This is especially 
true in the case of oscill.ators possessing a- 
less strongly developed decrement, as for 
instance, Blondlot's o.scillator. This ex- 
planation is illustrated by a mathematical 
discussion of rare elegance and simplicity. 
Blondlot's experiments (Jour, de Pliys. "J 
serie t. X., p. 549) are then carefully de- 
scribed and the close agreement between 
them, especially as regards the velocity of 
propagation along conducting wires, and 
the above tlieory pointed out. 

Attenuation of Waves.— A.i\ important feat- 
ure connected with wave propagation of 
Hertzian oscillations along wires was 
stronglj' emphasized by these experiments, 
namely, tlie diminution of the wave ampli- 
tude with the distance passed over. This 
has long since given Mr. Oliver Heaviside 
manj' an anxious thought. Poineare is evi- 
dently not aware of that and he attacks the 
problem with just as mucli of his well- 
known mathematical vigour as if its solution 
had not been given long ago by Mr. H(>avi- 
side. (Electr. Papers, Vol. II., p. :«», etc.) 
A few bold strokes of Poincare's unerring 
pen disclose the interesting fact that the at- 
tenuation is due, principally, to distributed 
capacitj- of the wire, since the decrement, 
calculated by Poynting's theorem, is shown 
to be inversely proportional to the diameter 
of the wire. Experimental evidence bear- 
ing upon tliis point is then reviewed. In 
these experiments the employment of the 
resonator had to be discarded and the in- 
tensity of the wave at various points of tlie 
wire measured directly. Various methods 
were einployed in these experiments. The 
most important among them are tlie follow- 
ing :— 

a. Hertz's method (Wied. Ann. 4L', ]). 
407, 1891) of measuring the intensity of the 
wave at any point of a long wire by the 
mechanical force ext-rled upon anotlier small 
conductor suspended in the vicinity of the 
wire. This method jierniits a study of the 



108 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol,. I. No. 4. 



distribution of the magnetic and tlie elec- 
tric force along the wire separately. 

b. The method of Bjerkness (Wied. Ann. 
44, p. 74) in which two symmetricallj^ situ- 
ated points of a long loop are connected to 
the quadrants of a small electrometer and 
the difference of potential measured. 

c. The thei'moelectric method [first sug- 
gested by Klemencic (Wied. Ann. 42, p. 
416)] employed by D. E. Jones (Rep. Brit. 
Assoc, 1891, p. 561-562). The intensity 
of the wave at any point of the wire is 
measured by the thermoelectric effect pro- 
duced in a thermopile placed in the imme- 
diate vicinity of that point. 

d. The bolometric method first employed 
by Rubens and Ritter (Wied. Ann. 40, p. 
55, 1890). 

e. Perot's micrometric spark gap method 
(C. R. t. CXIV., p. 165) by which the in- 
tensity of the wave at any point is measured 
by the maximum length of the spark gap 
when attached to the wire at that point. 

The theorjr of each method is discussed 
briefly but quite completely, and it is shown 
very clearly that the results of the experi- 
mental investigations cited above are in 
good agreement with the theory and that 
they all lead to the conclusion that the os- 
cillations of the oscillator produce simple 
waves, possessing a rapid rate of decay. 
This is in accordance with Poincare's view 
of multiple resonance. 

Bjerkness' experimental method (Wied. 
Ann. 40, p. 94, 1891) of determining the 
decrement of a resonator and Poiucare's the- 
ory of it are then given and it is shown that 
this decrement is a hundred times smaller 
than that of the oscillator. 

A brief theoretical discussion of the 
curves plotted by Perot fi'om the experi- 
ments cited above closes this exceedingly 
interesting and instructive part of the 
book. 

It is pointed out now that the experi- 
ments so far discussed do not decide the 



superioritj^ of the MaxM^ellian theory over 
the older theories because it can be and has , 
been predicted by older theories (Kirch- 
hoff, Abhandl. p. 146) that the velocitj' of ~ 
propagation of electromagnetic disturb- 
ances along a long straight wire suspended 
in air is the same as the velocity of light. 
A review of some of the older exj)eriments 
in this du-ection is then given. 

Direct Determination of the Velocity of Propa- 
gation along Conducting Wires. — The earliest 
experiments carried ou^t according to meth- 
ods against which no serious objections 
could be raised were those of Fizeau and 
Gounelle (1850) over telegraph lines be- 
tween Paris and Amiens, a distance of 314 
kilometers. The method was similar to 
that employed by Fizeau in the determina- 
nation of the velocity of light. The mean 
velocity was found to be 10' kilometers per 
second for iron mre and 18X10* kilome- 
ters per second for copper wire. They em- 
ployed signals of, comparativelj' speaking, 
long duration, and Poincar6 shoAvs by a ref- 
erence to weU. known theoretical relations 
that in this case there is a strong distortion 
of the signals, so that a disturbance starting 
in form of a short wave returns, after passing 
over the whole line, in form of a more or 
less steep wave fi-ont followed by a long tail. 
This made the measurements verj' uncertain 
and the velocitj^ of propagation necessarily 
much smaller than it ought to have been. 
The experiments of Siemens in 1875 avoided 
this objection, in a measure, by employ- 
ing the disruptive discharge of a Leyden 
jar for the purpose of starting an electri- 
cal disturbance on lines of varying length, 
between about 7 and 25 kilometers. The 
velocity found was in several cases nearly 
250,000 kilometers for iron wire. Here 
again the velocitj^ came out smaller than 
that of light and for obvious reasons. 

The last and in all respects most success- 
ful direct determination of the velocity of 
propagation was that recently carried out by 



January 25, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



1U9 



Blondlot (C. E., 117, p. 543; 1893). The sig- 
nals were sent over a wire of about one kilo- 
meter in lengtli and another of about 1.8 
kilometers. In the fii-.st ease the mean ve- 
locity was found equal to 293,000 and in the 
second to 298,000 kilometers per second 
which is very close to the velocity of light. 
Poincar6 proceeds now to the discussion of 
tlie most severe test of the Maxwellian the- 
ory, that is the propagation of electromag- 
netic waves through dielectrics. 

M. I. rupix. 
Columbia College. 

[To he Ciiiidudcd.) 

Model Engine Comtnidion. — J. Alexander. 
— New York and London, Whitaker & 
Co. 1894. Illustrated by 21 sheets of 
drawings and 59 engravings in the text. 
12mo. pp. viii + 324. Price, 83.00. 
This little book is an excellent treatise on 
the construction of models of stationary 
locomotive and marine engines, and con- 
tains also instructions for building one 
form of hot-air engine. It is written by an 
author evidently familiar with his subject, 
and the text and illustrations are such as 
will serve the purpose of both artificer and 
amateur, desiriug to produce model repre- 
sentations of real working engines of stand- 
ard forms. Bright young mechanics will 
find here business-like statements of details 
of drawing, pattern-making, and finishing 
such models ; and, if heedfully complied 
with, these instructions will result in the 
production of steam-engines wliich will actu- 
ally ' steam,' and which will delight the 
lieart of the meehanician. The drawings 
are all representative of British practice, 
and, in some respects, therefore, quite dif- 
ferent from familiar jiraetice in the United 
States; but British jiractice is 'not so bad," 
after all, and many old mechanics, and prob- 
ably every amateur, will be able to profit 
greatly by the careful study of this little 
work.' R. H. T. 



NOTES. 

PERSONAL. 

Karl Hansiiofer, Professor in the Uni- 
vei-sity of Munich, and w^ell known through 
his researehi's in crvstallogi'aphy and other 
branches of mineralogy, lias died at Munich 
at the age of fiftj'-four. 

Prof. G. Lewitzky has been appointed 
Director of the Observatory in Dorpat, and 
Dr. L. Sturve succeeds Professor Lewitzky 
at Charkow. 

Prof. F. KoHLRArscu,of Strassburg, was 
proposed as the successor of Hei-tz at Ber- 
lin, but the death of Ilelmholtz interven- 
ing he will now succeed the latter in the 
Directorship of the Physico-Technical In- 
stitute. 

gexer.vl. 

The discontinuation of the Index Medicus 
is threatened unless sufficient subscriptions 
are secured before February 1 to defray the 
costs of publication. 

AccoRDiNcj to the I'iibU.ilier:<' Cireuhir there 
\vere 5,300 new books and 1,185 new editions 
published in Great Britain during 1895, 203 
more than during isfl4. Of these, 98 new 
books and :!() new editions are placed under 
the beading ' Ai-ts, Sciences and Illustrated 
Works.' 

Mr. (teorge F. KiNZ, Special Agent, Di- 
vision of ^Mining Statistics and Technology, 
U. S. Geological Survey, has .sent letters ask- 
ing for imformation concerning the fresh- 
water pearl fisheries, and concerning pre- 
cious and ornamental stones of the United 
States. 

Prof. S. P. Lanciley, Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, has addressed a 
letter to the competitors for the Ilodgkins 
Fund Prizes of 810,000, of 82,000, and of 
81,000, stating that in view of the very 
large number of competitors, of the delay 
which will be nece.s.sarily caused by the in- 
tended careful examination, and of tiie 
futber time which may be required to con- 



110 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



snlt a European Advisorj' Committee, if one 
be appointed, it is announced that authoi-s 
are now at liberty to publish these treatises 
or essaj'S without prejudice to their interest 
as competitors. 

CONGRESSES. 

The sixth International Geographical 
Congress will be held at London, on July 
26, 1895, and continue until August 3. 
There will be an extensive exhibition in 
connection with the congress. 

NEW AND FOETHCOMING PUBLICATIONS. 

W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, has in 
preparation An American Text-hook of Physio- 
logy, by Henry P. Bowditch, M. D., John G. 
Curtis, M. D., Henry H. Donaldson, Ph. D., 
William H. Howell, M. D., Frederic S. Lee, 
Ph. D., Warren P. Lombard, M. D., Gra- 
ham Lusk, Ph. D., Edward T. Eeichert, M. 
D., and Joseph W. Warren, M. D., with 
William H. Howell, Ph. D., M. D,. as 
Editor. 

The idea of holding International Mathe- 
matical Congresses is crystallizing into 
shape. Prof. Vassilief, of Kazan, has sug- 
gested an assembly of mathematicians in 
1896, in order to definitely decide the or- 
ganization of such congresses. The matter 
was pushed a little further at the Vienna 
meeting of the Deutsche Mathematiker 
Vereinigung, in September last, when it was 
unanimously resolved that the Committee of 
the Mathematical Union should take part 
in framing the necessary arrangements ; and 
the Mathematical Section of the French 
Association for the Advancement of Science 
have also expressed their support of the 
scheme. A cu-cular now informs us that 
the Editors of the Intermediare will be glad 
to receive the names of mathematicians who 
are in favor of international meetings of 
the kind suggested. M. C. A. Laisant's ad- 
dress is 162 Avenue Victor-Hugo, Paris; 
and that of M. E. Lemoine, 5 rue Littre. — • 
Naticre. 



Felix Alcan has just issued the first part 
(extending as far as Aliment only) of an 
elaborate Dktionnaire de Physiologie, edited - 
bj' M. Charles Richet with the cooperation 
of the leading French phj^siologists. The 
work is expected to contain about 5,000 
pages, and to be completed in fifteen parts 
or five volumes. 

GiNN & Co. announce for publication in 
February Molecules and the Molecular Theory 
of Matter, by A. D. Risteen. 

Appleton & Co. announce The Dawn of 
Civilization, by Prof. Maspero, and The Pyg- 
mies, translated from the French of A. de 
Quatrefages, by Prof. Frederick Starr. 

Whittakee & Co. are publishing tliis year 
a weeklj- journal of science combining The 
Technical World and Science and Art. 

W. Engelmann has begun the publication 
of an Archiv fur Entu'ickelungsmechanik der 
Organismen, edited by Dr. W. Roux. 

The Rose Polj^echnic Institute of Terre 
Haute, Ind., has begun the publication of 
a series of bulletins of which the first num- 
ber is Physical Units, by Prof. Thomas Gray. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

the annual meeting of the AMERICAN 

MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY. 

The annual meeting of the American 
Mathematical Society was held Friday af- 
ternoon, December 28th, at Columbia Col- 
lege, New York. In the absence of the 
president. Dr. Emory McClintock, and of 
the vice president, Dr. G. W. Hill, Professor 
R. S. Woodward, of Columbia College, pre- 
sided. Among those present were Professor 
Simon Newcomb, Professor J. M. Van 
Vleck, Professor Henry Taber, Professor 
Mansfield Merriman, Professor H. D. 
Thompson, Professor Maiy W. Whitney, 
Dr. E. L. Stabler, Mr. P. A. Lambert, Mr. 
R. A. Roberts, Dr. Charlton T. Lewis, Mr. 
Gustave Legras, Professor J. H. Van Am- 
ringe, Professor Thomas S. Fiske, Dr. E. M. 



January So, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



Ill 



Blake and Mr. (i. 11. Liug. In the secre- 
tary's report, it was stated that the total 
membership of the Society was 251. The 
council and officers elected for 1895 were as 
follows : President, Dr. George W. Hill ; 
A^ice President, Professor Hubert A. Xew- 
ton ; Secretary, Professor Thomas S. Fiske ; 
Treasurer. Professor R. S. Woodward ; Li- 
brarian, Dr. E. L. Stabler; Committee of 
Publication, Professor Thomas S. Fiske, 
Professor Alexander Ziwct. Professor Frank 
Morley ; Other Members of the Council, 
Professor Thomas Craig, Dr. Emory Mc- 
Clintock, Professor ^Mansfield Merriman, 
Professor Henry B. Fine. Professor E. Has- 
tings Moore, Professor Ormond Stone, Pro- 
fessor Simon Xewcomb, Professor Charlotte 
Angas Scott, Professor Henry S. "White. 

The address of the retiring president. Dr. 
McClintock, was read to the Society by Dr. 
Charlton T. Lewis. It was entitled The 
Past and Future of the Society. The following 
papers. were also read: On a Certain Chiss 
of Canonicfil Forms, bj- Mr. Ralph A. Roberts; 
A New Definition of the Hyperbolic Functions, 
by Professor Mellen W. Haskell. 

Thomas S. Fiske, Secretary. 

COLI'MBIA COLLKGE. 

IOWA ACADEJtY OF SCIENCES. 

Xinth annual session, Des Moines, Iowa, 
December 27 and 28, 1894. 

Thursday Morning, December 27. 

1. Inter- Lusial Till near Sioux City: J. E. 
Todd and H. Foster Bain. 

2. Pre-Glacial Elevation of Iowa. 3. The 
Central Iowa Section of the Mimssippian Serie-t : 
II. Foster Bain. 

4. Secular Decay of Granitic Pochi. o. Struct- 
ure of Paleozoic Echinoids. 6. Opinions Con- 
cerning the Age of the Sioux Quartzite. 7. P- 
liutrations of Glacial Planing in Iowa : Charles 
R. Keyes. 

8. Record of the Grinnell Deep Boring. 9. 
The Topaz Crystals of Thomas Mountain, Utah : 
Arthur J. Jones. 



10. The Lansing Lead Mines : A. G. Leon- 
ard. 

11. How Old is the 3Iississippi ? 12. On 
the Formation of the Flint Beds of the Burling- 
ton Limestones. Vi. Coincidence of Present 
and Pre-Glacial Drainage Systems in Ijctreme 
Southeastern Iowa. 14. Extension of the Illi- 
nois Lobe of the Great Ice Sheet into Iowa. 15. 
Glacial Markings in Southeastern Iowa: F. M. 
Fultz. 

16. The Maquoheta Shales in Delaware 
County, Iowa. 17. On Some Supposed Devon- 
ian Outliers in Delaware County, Iowa : S. 
Calvin. 

18. On the Occurrence of Megalomus Cana- 
dense in the Le Claire Beds at Port Byron, III. 

19. Geological Section of Y. M. C. A. Ar- 
tesian Well at Cedar Papida, Iowa: William 
H. Norton. 

Thursday Afternoon. 

20. President's Address ; Some Recent Work 
on the Theory of Solutions : L. AV. Andi'cws. 

21. Report of Committee on State Fauna: 
C. C. Nutting. 

22. A Xew Method of Studying the Magnetic 
Properties of Iron. 23. On the De.ngn of 
Transfonners and Alternating Ciirrent Motors. 
24. Note on a Phenomenon of Diffraction in 
Sound: W. S. Franklin. 

25. A Kymograph and its Use : AV. S.Windle. 

26. The Volatility of Mercuric Chloride : A. 
C. Page. 

27. Notes on Applying Pollen in the Cross- 
breeding of Plants : N. E. Hansen. 

Friday Morning, December 28. 

28. Changes that Occur in the Ripening of 
Indian Corn: C. F. Curtiss. 

29. Methods of Soil Analysis: G. E. Patrick. 

30. The Coal Supplies of Polk County, Iowa : 
Floyd Davis. 

31. A Study of the Nitrogen Compounds of 
the Soil : D. B. Bisbee. 

32. A Chemical Study of Honey: W. H. 
Heileman. 



112 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 4. 



33 . Notes from the Chemical Laboratory, loiva 
Agricultural College, 1S94 : A. A. Bennett. 

Friday Afternoon. 

34. Effects of Seat on the Germination of 
Corn and Corn Smut : F. C. Stewart. 

35. A General Discussion of the Family 
Psyllidw,with Descriptions of New Species found 
at Ames, Iowa: C. W. Mally. 

36. New Species of Thripidce: Alice M. 
Beach. 

37. Studies of Migration of Certain Aphidi- 
decB : Herbert Osboi-n and F. Atwood Sirrine. 

38. Description of a Species of Aphid Occur- 
ring on Carex : F. Atwood Sirriae. 

39. The Pollination of Cucurbits — by title : 
L. H. Pammel and Alice M. Beach. 

40. Notes on the Pollination of Some Floivers : 
Alice M. Beach. 

41. 0?i the Migration of Some Weeds. 42. 
Notes on Fungus Diseases of Plants at Ames, 
Iowa, 1891^ — ^by title. 43. Notes on the Flora 
of Western Iowa — by title : L. H. Pammel. 

44. The Action of Antiseptics and Disinfect- 
ants on Some Micro-organisms : L. H. Pam- 
mel and 0. H. Pagelsen. 

45. Notes on a Micrococcus which Colors Milk 
Blue: L. H. Pammel and Kobert Combs. 

46. On the Structure of the Testa of Poly- 
gonacece : Emma Sirrine. 

47. A Study of the Glands in Hoptree {Ptelea 
Trifoliata.) : Cassie M. Bigelow. 

48. Gh^aphic Representation of the Properties 
of the Elements. 49. Strata Passed in Sinking 
a Well at Sidney : T. Proctor Hall. 

50. Notes on the Minerals of Webster County : 
Arthur C. Spencer. 

51. Some Notes on the Reptiles of Southeastern 
Iowa. 52. Bones Found in a Cave in Louisa 
County. 53. Mastodon and Mammoth Remains 
in Southeastern Iowa .- A. H. Conrad. 

54. Cement Clays in Iowa. 55. Conclusions 
as to the thickness of the Upper Carboniferous in 
Southivestern Iowa : E, H. Lonsdale. 

56. A Geographical and Synonymic Catalogue 
of the Unionidce of the Mississippi Valley : by 
title, E. Ellsworth Call. 



Officers for 1895 were elected as follows : 

President, H. W. Noeeis. 

1st Vice President, C. R. Keyes. 

2d Vice President, T. P. Hall. 

Secretary- Treasurer, Heebeet Osboen. 

Librarian, H. Fostee Bain. 

Executive Committee, Elective Members: W. 
H. ISToRTON, N". E. Hansen and T. H. 
McBeide. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS. 
AMEEICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, JAK. 

Late Glacial or Champlain Subsidence and Re- 
elevation of the St. Lawrence River Basin : 
By W. Upham. 

Automatic Mercury Vacuum Pump : By M. I. 

PUPIN. 

Ch-aphical Thermodynamics : By R. de Saus- 

SUEE. 

Application of the Schroeder-Le Chatelier Law 
of Solubility to Solutions of Salts in Organic 
Liquids : By C. E. Linebaegee. 

Preliminary Notice of the Plymoiith Meteorite : 
By H. A. Waed. 

Scientific Intelligence. 



NEW BOOKS. 



Elementary Lessons in Electricity and Magnet- 
ism. Sylvanus P. Thompson. ISTewYork 
and London, Macmillan «& Co. 1895. 
Pp. XV + 628. $1.40. 

Popular Scientific Lectures'. Eenst Mach. 
Ti'anslated by J. McCoemack. Chicago, 
The Open Court Publishing Co. 1895. 
Pp. 313. $1.00. 

Laboratory Exercises in Botany. Edson S. 
Bastin. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders. 
1885. Pp. 540. $2.50. 

The Aeronautical Annual. Edited bj'^ James 
Means. Boston, W. B. Clarke & Co. 
1895. Pp. 172. 

Outlines of Dairy Bacteriology. H. L. Rus- 
sell. Madison, Wis., Published by the 
Author. 1894. Pp. vi + 186. 



/ it) 



SCIENCE. 



New Series. 
Vol. I. No. 5. 



Friday, February 1, 1895. 



Single Copies, 16 era. 
Ankdal Subscription, |5.00 



GUSTAV E. STECHERT'S 

Recent Importation of Scientific Books. 



M.VTHEMATICS. 

B.\CHJIANX, Paul, Zahlentheorie. Versuch e. 
GesammMarstellun}; dieser Wissensehaft in ihren 
Haupttheilen. 2. Till. Die analj-tische Zalilentheorie. 
grS". Mk. 12. 

Grassmank's, Hm., Gesamraelte matheniatische 
und physikalische Werke. Auf Veranlassung der 
mathematisch-physikalischen Kla.sse dor kiinigl. sach- 
sischen Gcsellschaft der Wisseiischaften und unter 
Mitwirkung von Jul. Liiroth, Ed. Study, Just. Grass- 
mann, Hm. Grassman Md. J., G. Scheffere herausge- 
geben von F. Engel. I. Bd. 1. Till. Die Ausdeli- 
nnngslehre von 1844 und die geometrische Analyse. 
■a. 8". 35 Fig. Mk. 12. 

Cantor, Mor., Vorlesungen iib. GescMchte der 
Mathematik. 3. Bd. Vom. J. 1668 bis zum J. 
1759. 1. Abtlg. Die Zeit von 1668 bis 1699. gr. 8". 
Mk. 6. 

Heftee, Prof. Dr. Lothar. Einleitung in die 
Tlieoric der linearen Difterentialgleichungen mit 
eiiior unabhangigen Variablen. Mit 3 Figuren im 
Toxte. gr. 8». Mk. 6. 

TnoM.^E, JoH. Die Kegelschnitte in rein-projek- 
tiver Behandlung. Mit in den Text eingedruckten 
Holzschnitten und 16 lithographierten Figurenta- 
feln. gr. 8". Mk. 6. 

ASTRONOMY. 

Galle, J. G. Verzeichnis der Eleraente der 
bisher berecbneten Conietenbalinen, nebst Anmer- 
kungen und Literatur-Nacbweisen, neu bearbeitet, 
ergiinzt und fortgesetzt bis zum Jahre 1894. Mk. 12. 

Publikiitioiion des astrophysikalisclien Observator- 
iums zu Pot.<dara. Herausgegeben von H. C. Vogel. 
Nr. 32. X. Bd. 1. Stiick. 4". Mit 30 Taf. Mk. 
12. 

GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 

Levy, A. M. Etude sur la determination des feld- 
spaths dans les pliw|ues minces au point de vue de la 
cla.ssification des rocbes. 8°. Atec S pi. c:il. et 9 Jig. 
Ft. 7; 50c. 

Hintze, C. Handbuoh der Mineralogie. 8. Lfg. 
Mit 56 Abliildgn. Mk. 5. 

Waltiier, Prof. .lohs. Einleitung in die Geologic 
als liistoris<'lie Wissinscliaft. 111. (Schluss-) Till. 
Litliogcnesis dor (Jogfinvart. Beobacbtungen iib die 
Bildg. der Gcstcine an der heut. Erdoberfliiclie. 
gr. 8*. m. 8 Abbildgn. Mk. 13. 



ZOOLOGY. 

Bekgii, Dr. R. S., Vorlesungen iiber die Zelle und 
die einfachen Gewebe des tieriscben Kiirpers. Mit 
einem Anhang: Tecbnische Anleitung zu einfachen 
histologischen Untersucliungen. Mit 138 Figuren im 
Texte. gr. 8». Mk. 7. 

Boas, Dr. J. E. v., Lelirbnch der Zoologie. 2. 
Aufl. gr. 8°. Mk. 10; geb. Mk. 11. 

De Gros-SOUVRE, A. Kechercbes -sur la craie 
superienre. 2'partie. Paleontologie: Les ammonites 
de la craie superieure. 4". Avec 39 fig. et atlas de 
39 pi. Fr. 20. 

LlNNAEl, Caroli, .systcnia naturae. Regnum ani- 
niale. Ed. X. 175rt, cura societatis Zoiilogiacae ger- 
manicae iteruni edita. gr. 8". Mk. 10; — Elnbd. Mk. 
2.25. 

Hallee, B. Studien fiber docoglosse und rhipido- 
glos,se Prosobranchier nebst Bemerkungen iiber die 
pbyletisclien Beziehnngen der Mollusken unterein- 
aniler. 4°. Mit 6 Textfig. u. 12 Taf. Mk. 32. 

POPOFF, Demetrhs. Die Dottersack-Getiisse der 
Huhnes. Mit 12 lithogra))hischen Tafcln in Farben- 
druck und 12 lithograpliierten Tafel-Erkliirungsbliit- 
tern. 4». Mk. 27.— 

Schmidt, Adf. Atlas der Diatomaceen-Kunde. 
In Verbindung mit Griindler, Grunow, Janisch und 
Witt berau-sgegebcn. 48. u. 49. Heft. Fol. 8 Taf. 
Mit. 8 Bl. Erklargn. Mk. 6. 

Semon, Prof. Dr. Richard. Zoologiscbe Forsch- 
nngsreisen in Australien und dem malayischen Ar- 
chipel. Mit Untcrstiitzung des Herm Dr. Paul von 
Ritter ausgefiibrt in den Jahren 1891-1893. Erster 
Band. Ccratodus. Erste Lieferung. Mit 8 lito- 

fraphisclien Tafelii und 2 Abbildungen im Texte. 
Text und Atlas. ) gr. 4". Mk. 20. 



Ekgler, a., und K. Prantl. Die natiirlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungcn und wich- 
tigeren Arten, insbesondere den Nutzpflanzen, unter 
Mitwirkung zjililreichcr hervorragender Facbgelehr- 
ten begriindet von A. E. und K. P., fortge.setzt von 
A. Engler. III. Tl. 6. Abtlg. 8». Mit 592 Ein- 
zelbildem in 87 Fig. sowie Abteilnngs-Register. 
Subskr.-Pr. Mk. 8 ; Einzelpr. Mk. 16. 

Linden, L. Les Orcbidi'cs e.xotiqucs et leurs cul- 
ture en Europe. Avcc nonibr. fig. Fr. 25. 

Schumann, Kust. Prof. Dr. K., Lebrbnch der sys- 
tematiscbcn Botaiiik, Phytopaliiontologie u. Phyto- 
geographic. gr. 8". 1!K! Fig. u. 1 farb. Karte. Mk. 16. 

GUSTAV E. STECHERT, 



810 Broadway, New York. 



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Lens-Work for Amateurs. 

By Henry Obfoed, autlior of 'Modern Optical 
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Steel Works Analysis. 

(The Specialists' Series), by J. 0. Arnold, F. C. S., 
Professor of Metallurgy at the Sheffield Technical 
School, etc. 12mo, Cloth, |3.00. 

"Written especially for assistants in Steel Works 
Laboratories and Students taking up the analytical 
chemistry of iron and steel with a view of becoming 
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riodel Engine Construction. 

AVith Practical Instructions to Artificers and Ama- 
teurs. By J. Alexander. With Working Draw- 
ings and other Illustrations, &c. 12mo, Cloth, §3.00. 

The Theory of Sound. 

By Lord Eayleigh, Sc. D., F. E. S., etc., in 2 
vols. Vol. 1. Second Edition, Revised and En- 
larged, 8vo, Cloth |4. 

Electrical Papers. 

By Oliver Heaviside. 2 vols., 8vo, Cloth, ^7.00. 

A Treatise on the fleasurement of Elec= 

trical Resistance. 

By Wm. Arthur Price, M. A., A. M. I. C. E. 8vo, 
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Elementary Lessons in Electricity and 
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By Sylv ANUS P.Thompson, D.Sc, B.A., F.E.A.S., 
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College, Finsbuiy. New, Eevised Edition, with many 
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Lectures on Human and Animal Psy° 

chology. 

Translated from the Second and Eevised German 
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sie), Ph.D. (Cornell), and E. B. Titchener, A.B. 
(Oxon.), Ph.D. (Leipzig). 8vo, Qoth, |4.00, net. 

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By Lord Kelvin, F.E.S. In 3 vols. Vol. II. 
Qeology and General Physics. With Illustra- 
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A Treatise on the Measurement of Elec= 
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By William Arthur Price, M.A., A.M.I.C.E., 
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A Laboratory Manual of Physics and 
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Svo, Cloth, $3.00, net. Vol. II. Senior Courses 
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Kiss, Charles P. Matthews, and the Editor. 
Illustrated. Svo, Cloth, $3.25, net. 

" The needs of those who are in trainmg to become electri- 
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adapted for use as a text-book by students who have already 
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Manual of Physico-Chemical Heasure- 
ments. 

By Wilhelm Osxwald, Professor of Chemistry in 
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Author's sanction, by James Walker, D.Sc, Ph.D., 
Assistant in the Chemical Laboratory, University of 
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ology of Plants. 

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ilton Acton, M.A. With Illustrations. 12mo, 
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Columbia University Biological Series. 

Edited by Henry Fairfield Osborn, Sc.D., Da 
Costa Professor of Biology in Columbia College. The 
volxunes of the series already published are as follows: 

I. From the Greeks to Darwin. By Henry 
Fairfield Osboen, Sc.D. Svo, Buckram, 
$2.00, net. 

II. Amphioxus and the Ancestry of the Ver- 
tebrates. By Arthur Willey, B.Sc, 
Tutor in Biology, Columbia College. With 
a Preface by the Editor. With Illustrations. 
Svo, Buckram, $2.50, net. 

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MACMILLAN & CO., 66 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



SCIENCE. 



Editorial Cojimittee : S. Newcojib, Slathematics ; R. S. Woodward, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, As- 
tronomy ; T. C. JIexdenhall, Physics ; K. H. Thurston, Engineering ; Ira Remsejj, Chemistry ; 
Joseph Le Coxte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. Marsh, Paleontology; W. K. 
Brooks, Invertebrate Zoology ; C. Hakt Merriaji, Vertebrate Zoology ; N. L. Britton, 
Botany ; Hesey F. Osborn, General Biology ; H. P. Bowditcii, Physiology ; 
J. S. Billings, Hygiene ; J. McKeen Cattell, Psychology ; 
Daniel G. Beinton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, Febeuaby 1, 1895. 



CONTENTS: 

Procicdingn of the American Pliysinlogieal Society: 
■VVaeeen p. Lombard, Secretary 113 

An Inherent Error in the 1'ieirx of Gallon and W'ci.f- 
mann on Varialion : W. K. BROOKS 121 

Current Notes on Anthropology [III. ): D. G. Brin- 
TON 126 

Tchebychev : GEORGE BRUCE ILvlsted 129 

Scientific Literature :— 131 

I'oinearc's Les oscillations electriqiies {II.): 
M. I. PUPIN. Eicing's The Steam Engine: 
H. H. THUE.STON. Eudorfps Chemical Analy- 
sis : Edward Hart. 

Notes and Neics : — • 137 

Paleobotany; A Topographical Atlas; Bibliog- 
raphy of American Botany ; General. 

Scientific Journals : 139 

Netc Books 140 

MSS. intended fur publication and books, etc., intended 
for review should be sent to the responsible editor, Prof. J. 
McKeen Cattell, Garrison on Hudson, N. Y. 

Sabschptions (five dollars annually) and advertisements 
■bould be sent to the Publisher of Science, 41 East 49th St., 
New York, or Lancaster, Pa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN PHYSIOLO- 
GICAL SOCIETY. 
The American Physiological Society held 
its Seventh Annual fleeting in Baltimore, 
Md., December 27tli and 28th, 1894. The 
mornings Were devoted to the reading of 
papei-s, and the afternoons to demonstra- 
tions and to visiting the laboratories of 
Johns Hopkins University. The success of 
the meeting was largely due to tlie hospi- 
tality of Johns Hopkins University, the 
University Club and friends of the Society 
residing in Baltimore. 



ELECTION- OF NEW MEMBERS. 

Dr. a. C. Abbot, First Assistant at the 
Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Dr. G. Carl Hubkr, Assistant Professor 
of Histology and Embryology at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

Dr. P. A. Levene, of New York City. 

Dr. Franz Pfaff, of Boston. 

ELECTION OF THE COUNCIL FOR 1804-95. 

H. P. BoWDiTCH, I'regident. 

R. H. Chittenden. 

AV. H. Howell. 

F. S. Lee, Secretary and Treasurer. 

W. P. Lombard. 

Reading of Papers and Demonstrations 
by Invited Guests and Members of the So- 
cietj'. 
On the Occurrence of Dkeihyl Sulphide in the 

Urine of the Doij. with a Demonstration of 

Reaction for the Detection of Alkyhulphides 

nf the Serie.t (CnHjn+i )2S. J. J. Abel. 

Dr. Abel demonstrated in a series of re- 
actions, many of them new, that the vola- 
tile, odoriferous compound that is liberated 
when dog's urine is treated with alka- 
lies is ethyl sulphide (CjH.OiS, and al.xo 
that the organic sulphides of the series 
(CnH2n-;i)2S may readily be detected, 
wherever found, with the help of his reac- 
tions. 
On the V»e of the Trichloride of Acetonic Acid 

as An(egthetic for the Laboratory, with Some 



114 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



Account of its Fate. J. J. Abel and T. B. 

AXDEICH. 

Drs. Abel and Aldricli gave an experi- 
mental demonstration of the use of the 
solid trichloride of acetonic acid of Will- 
gerodt, the so-called acetone chloroform, as 
an anaesthetic for the laboratory, with an 
account of its physiological action and of 
its fate, from a chemical point of view, in 
the economy. 
Demonstration of Instances of Experimental 

Cachexia Tyreopriva in Dogs. J. J. Abel 

and A. C. Crawford. 

Drs. Abel and Crawford showed a number 
of dogs whose thyroid glands had been re- 
moved. They also gave an account of their 
results in treating the diseased conditions 
thus induced, and oiitlined the methods and 
aims of a research on the functions of the 
thj'roid gland. 
Equilibrium in the Crustacea. G. P. Clark. 

(Introduced by F. S. Lee.) 

Dr. Clark stated that he had studied two 
kinds of crabs, the ' Fiddler,' Gelasimus 
pugilator (Latr.), and the 'Lady,' Platy- 
onichus ocellatus (Latr.). The former is an 
active runner, the latter an active swimmer. 
The movable eyestalks show marked com- 
pensating movements when the body is in- 
clined. The compensating positions are 
maintained without reaction so long as the 
incUnation of the body continiies. ISTo com- 
pensating movements accompany turning 
around the vertical axis. The otocysts con- 
tain no otoliths. Eemoval of both anten- 
nules, inclusive of the otocysts, caused no 
abnormal position of the body and no forced 
movements, but was followed by a tendency 
of the ' Fiddler ' crab when attempting to 
run, and of the ' Lady ' crab when attempt- 
ing to swim, to roll over on to the back. A 
similar tendency has been observed by 
others in the crayfish and dogfish after re- 
moval of the otoliths. Eemoval of both an- 
tennules was followed by no abnormal posi- 
tion of eyestalks, but by marked diminution 



of their compensating movements. Removal 
of otoliths from both ears of a dogfish is re- 
ported to be without efi'ect on position of 
ej^eballs, but to cause a loss of the mainte- 
nance of compensation which is observed in 
those rotations wliich involve inclination of 
the bodJ^ Compensating eye movements in 
the crab occur only in those planes in which 
in the dogfish the compensation is main- 
tained, and loss of corresponding structures 
in these animals tends to destroy compen- 
sation in the one and the maintenance of 
compensation in the other. In many cases 
it was found that a small amount of com- 
pensation remained after the ' Fiddler ' crab 
had lost both antennules ; if eyes were then 
covered with a thick black mixture it was 
completely stopped. 
Galen's Technical Treatise upon Practical 

Anatomy and Experimental Physiology. J. 

Gr. Curtis. 

Dr. Curtis spoke upon Galen's technical 
treatise on practical anatomy and experi- 
mental physiology, usually cited as 'De 
anatomieis administrationibu^.' 

This was written between A. D. 150 and 
200, and is the earliest existing technical 
treatise upon these subjects. 

The Greek text of Books I. to VIII., and 
of part of Book IX., is extant in print, and 
also Latin translations of the same. 

The rest of the work, viz., the latter part 
of Book IX., and Books X. to XV., is 
inedited, and is contained only in two MSS. 
of an Arabic version of the 9th centurj', 
attributed to Honain Ibn Ishak or to his 
nephew Hobaich. 

One of these two MSS. is at the Bodleian 
Library at Oxford. Bj^ the kindness of the 
authorities. Books IX. to XV. of this MS. 
have been photographed for Dr. Curtis, 
who is also, through the good ofiices of the 
late Dr. Geeenhill, of Hastings, England, 
in possession of an inedited MS. sketch of a 
translation of these books into French, by 
the late M. Gustavb Dugat. 



Ficniu-ARY 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



115 



Dr. Curtis proposes to edit, iiiul to have 
published, a translation into English of the 
entire treatise, the Greek portion to be 
translated by himself, and the inedited 
Arabic portion l\v a eollaborator not yet 
named. 

This English translation will be the first 
complete edition of the ' epoch-making ' 
Galenic work in ((uestion published in any 
language since the invention of printing. 
The Normal Defect of Vision in the Fovea. 

Mrs. C. L. Franklin. (Introduced by 

H. P. BowDiTcn.) 

Konig's announcement, in May, ISOi, 
that the relative absorption by the visual 
purple of the ditl'erent portions of the spec- 
trum is in very close comcidence with the 
relative brightness of the dift"erent portions 
of the spectrum, (1) for the totally color- 
blind, and (2) for the normal eye for faint 
light after adaptation (with the obvious in- 
ference therefrom that the vision of the to- 
tally color-blind and that of the normal eye 
in a faint light was conditioned upon the 
presence of the visiuil purple in the retina), 
made necessary some assumption to take 
account of the fact that in the fovea, which 
is the portion of the retina where vision is 
most acute, no visual purple has hitherto 
been found. Two assumptions were possi- 
ble, either that the cones (and hence the 
fovea) do contain visual purple, but that it 
is here of such an e.\tremely decomposable 
character that it can never, no matter what 
precautions are used, be detected objec- 
tively ; or, that vision does actually not 
take i)lace in the fovea under the above cir- 
cumstances (that is, for the totally color- 
blind and for the normal eye at sucli inten- 
sities as are visible only after adaptation ). 
As I had already made the prediction tliat 
total color-l)lindncss consists in a non-de- 
velopment of the eonen of the retina (Zfsch. 
f. J'ni/rh. n. Phijs. der Sinnenorgane, Bd. IV.) 
and also that the adaptation which renders 
vision possible after twenty minutes in a 



faint light is conditioned by the growth of 
the visual purple (.»//«</, N. S., III., p. lO:?), 
both predictions being naturally suggested 
t)y my theory of light-sensation, I was most 
anxious to put the latter assumption to the 
test. I therefore undertook to determine, 
in the dark rocmis of Prof. Kiinig's laboi-a- 
tory, the threshold for light-sensation for 
ditferent parts of the retina and for ditlerent 
kinds of monochromatic light. 

The blindness of the fovea for faint light 
did not at once reveal itself; the act of 
fixation means holding the eye so that an 
image falls on the part of the retina best 
adaiited for seeing it, and hence it would 
involve keeping the image out of the fovea 
in a faint light, if the fovea were really 
blind in a faint light. But after the total 
disa])i)earance of the .small bright object 
looked at had several times occurred by ac- 
cident, it became possible t<j execute the 
motion of the eye necessary to secure it at 
pleasure. It was then found that the simple 
devices of presenting a group of small 
bright objects to the eye of the ol)server 
was sufficient to demonstrate the ' nomial 
night-blindness of the fovea " (as it may best 
be called) without any ditlicnlty ; one or 
the other of them is sure to fall into the dark 
hole of the fovea by accident. It was only 
by means of this arrangement of a number 
of small bright spots that the total blindness 
of the totally color-blind boy in the fovea 
could lie detected ; he had, of cour.se, 
learned nut to u.se his fovea in fixation. 
Professor Konig then proceeded to demon- 
strate the total blindness in the fovea of the 
normal eye to blue of about 470.-'' 

[These experiments upon the normal 
eye were exhibited.] — It was shown that 
Konig's i)roof that the pigment-epithelium 

*Professor v. Kries is said h\ Protc.'isoi'iiad toliavu 
shown tliatthc experiments in (jucation do not estab- 
lisli the Wk( -blindness ot tlie fovea { BtriMe ilrr Xa- 
turforKclicniUn (Itwlhtlmft zu Freihurg, IX., 'i. S. 61 ). 
I have not vet lia<l nceess to this criticism. 



116 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



is the only layer of the retina which is af- 
fected by red, yellow and green light is not 
wholly conclusive. The interpretation of 
the new facts and their bearing upon sev- 
eral theories of light sensation were dis- 
cussed. 

[This paper will appear in full in The 
Psychological Review for March, 1895.] 
The Influence of loiv Percentages of Alcohol 

upon the Gh'oivth of Yeast. C. F. Hodge. 

The influence of decomposition products 
upon cellular metabolism is a question of 
wide physiological interest and has in- 
creased in significance since the advance- 
ment of recent theories regarding autointox- 
ication. Do the decomposition substances 
of initial activity stimulate the cells to more 
'active metabolism? Aside from the gen- 
eral question of the physiological effect of 
alcohol upon cellular processes, the influ- 
ence of alcohol upon the ceU which produces 
it would seem to be one of the best instances 
upon which to test the theory of autointox- 
ication. Yeast can grow in a saccharine 
solution until by the decomposition of su- 
gar it has brought the alcohol content of 
the liquid np to 14%- With a greater 
amount of alcohol no growth is possible. 
Fliigge also states that at 12% growth is 
hindered. Experiments were made with ex- 
ceedingly attenuated piure cultures in large 
amounts of nuti'ient solution, containing 
from .01^/,, .1% up to 14 (fo. Counts were 
made as often as possible during the first 
three days. The general result up to the 
present is that yeast grows nearly twice as 
fast in pure solution as in 1% alcohol. 
An average of nine experiments thus far 
give the following figures representing pro- 
portional growth in the various cultures. 
Growth in: 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, alcohol. 
77, 45, 16, 1.5, 0.3, 0.11. 

Beyond 5% no growth appreciable by the 
method employed occurred within the three 
days. In cultures containing 0.1% and 
0.01% growth was considerably less than 



in the normal solution ; but it is desirable to 
experiment further before gi^ang the figures. 
As yet no evidence in favor of autointoxi- 
cation theories has been obtained. 
A Means of Recording Daily Activity of Ani- 
mals and the Influence upon it of Food and 
Alcohol. C. C. Stewart. (Introduced 
by C. F. Hodge.) 

Tlius far the animals experimented on 
have been rats, mice and squirrels. They 
are kept in circiilar, easily rotated cages, so 
arranged that anj' motion of the animal 
rotates the cage, and by means of a tambour 
or levers this motion of the cage is recorded 
upon kjonograph paper kept mo\ing night 
and day. An electromagnetic circuit with 
a clock marks hours and minutes. AVe thus 
have the manner in which an animal di- 
vides his time between rest and activity 
recorded by himself. Eats and mice divide 
their days into about 12 hours rest and 12 
hours intermittent work during the night. 
During the work period, short intervals of 
activitj', rarely exceeding an hour, are in- 
terrupted by almost equal periods of rest. 
The squirrel, in winter, works almost con- 
tinuouslj' for from twenty minutes to two 
hours early in the morning, with sometimes 
a short interval of activity late in the even- 
ing, and rests nearly 22 hours in the day. 

Food has a most marked influence upon 
diurnal activity. In general the richer the 
diet in proteid, the greater the activitj'. Fat 
has the opposite effect, reducing the activity 
of mice from 6 to 8 hours' actual work to a 
few minutes a day. To test the influence 
of alcohol on spontaneous activity, rats 
kept on drjr corn were given instead of 
water alcohol of from 5% to 60%. During 
50 daj'S of his treatment, no uniform effect 
of the alcohol could be demonstrated. All 
normal animals experimented on tended to 
woi"k more minutes per day, when barome- 
tric pressure was high, and this miist be 
taken into careful account in estimating the 
effect of any condition upon daily activitj'. 



FEIiRUAEY 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



ir 



A Study of the Operative Treatment for Loss of 

Nerve Hubstaiice in Peripheral Nerves. G. 

Carl Hcber. (Introduced by AV. P. 

Lombard.) 

The report covered the results obtained 
in 50 experiments on dogs, in which tlie 
various methods that might be employed in 
the surgical treatment of divided peripheral 
nerves, where there is loss of nerve sub- 
stance to the extent that an ordinary suture 
cannot be made, were tried. Segments va- 
rying in length from 5—8 cm were removed 
from the ulnar and sciatic nerves of the 
dogs. In 26 experiments a portion of an- 
other nerve (usually the sciatic of a cat) 
was implanted between the resected ends 
of the nerve operated upon, and retained in 
place by means of sutures ; in 8 experiments 
the resected ends were united bj' means of 
decalcified bone tubes ; in 7 they were 
united with a number of catgut threads; a 
tlap from the peripheral end of the cen- 
tral stump was made in 7 experiments ; and 
grafting the central end of the peripheral 
portion of a rese<'ted nerve to an accompa- 
nying nerve trunk was tried twice. After 
carefully closing the wounds, the animals 
were allowed to live for periods varying 
from 2 to 182 days ; before killing the ani- 
mals the nerves operated upon were tested 
as to their conductivity; thej* were then 
removed and prepared for histological ex- 
amination. 

1. In all experiments the peripheral por- 
tion of the divided nerve degenerated, as also 
i cm. of the distal end of the central stump. 

2. Regeneration was obtained after in- 
plautation of a nerve segment, tubular 
suture and suture ') distance with catgut 
threads. 

."5. Regeneration was from the central 
end, buds given otV from the central axis 
cylinders growing toward the periphery. 

4. The implanted substance serves only 
a.s a guide to the down gi-owing axis. 

5, Regeneration takes place most rapidly 



(120 to l.'JO days in dogs) after implanta- 
tion of a nerve segment. 
Demon.4ration of a Neiv Gas Pump for the Ex- 
traction of Blood-Gashes. G. T. Kemp. 
Dr. Kemp exhibited and explained the 
action of a new form of gas-pump. This 
pump is, except for slight modifications, a 
combination of the Sprengel jnimp with the 
Xeeson and IJessel-Hagen additions to the 
Toepler pump. The large bulb is used in 
accordance with a suggestion of Pfliiger and 
is about the size of those in the large pumps 
used in the laboratorj- at Bonn. The pump 
is made in two halves for ease of transporta- 
tion. The vacuum space on each side of the 
bulb prevents the mercury from spitting 
back into the bulb, during the first few low- 
erings of the reservoir, as occui-s in the Nee- 
son-Bessel-Hagen-Toepler pump. The ad- 
vantage of this form of pump over all pat- 
terns which have a 3-way stopcock at the top 
of the bull), is that there is no danger of 
smashing the stopcock fi-om the impact of the 
mercury, and tlie pump can be worked very 
much faster. No precaution has to be taken 
against raising the reservoir bulb too rap- 
idly. 

The Sprengel attachment can be made to 
work either separately or together with the 
other part of tlie pumj). 

There is no stopcock which is not com- 
pletely under mercury seal, so that leakage 
is out of the ((uestion. 

The essential re(iuisite of such a pump is 
to extract all the oxygen as soon as possible, 
certainly before the blood clots, and to keep 
the tension in the blood bulb from rising 
above 20 mm, of mercury, as this prevent.s 
the complete disassociation of the oxygen 
from the oxyhaemoglobin. When blood is 
drawn into the vacuum the oxygen is given 
oft" very rapidly, in a 'puff.' so to speak, 
and the carbon dioxide is given oft" more 
slowly and regularly. By having a large 
Hg bulb which can be filled and emptied 
rapidly, the exhaustion can easily be main- 



118 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



tained so as to keep the tension below 20 
mm. of mercury, and after the oxygen is set 
free the Sprengel part is left working alone, 
and that carries off the CO2, as it is slowly 
evolved, mthout necessitating close atten- 
tion of the operator or the fatigue of raising 
and lowering the reservoir bulb of mercury. 
Further Experiments Upon JEquilibriimi in 

Fishes. F. S. Lee. 

Previous work of Dr. Lee has shown that 
the organs of the sense of equilibrium lie in 
the ear, the semicircular canals mediatmg 
sensations of movements in curves, the 
otolithic parts sensations of the resting 
body. Recent experiments prove that the 
otolithic parts are, moreover, sensory organs 
for progressive movements, i. e., movements 
in a straight line. Hence the ear deals 
with all three groups of equilibrium sen- 
sations of which the living body is capable. 

Stimulation of the central end of the 
lateral nerve causes coordinated movements 
of the fins, analogous to those resulting 
from stimulation of the acoustic. This 
indicates that the organs of the lateral line 
are organs of equilibrium. 

All experiments to prove that fishes 
possess a sense of hearing have so far given 
only negative results. 
Equilibrium in the Ctenophora F. S. Lee. 

Dr. Lee reported the results of experi- 
ments made under his direction by Mr. J. C. 
Thompson on the equilibrium phenomena 
of the Ctenophora. The normal animal ex- 
hibits definite positions of rest and definite 
coordinated movements. After removal 
of the otolith the resting positions are no 
longer maintained, and incoordination in 
movement appears. Forced movements do 
not result. If the body be cutinto two parts, 
one with and one without the otolithic or- 
gan, the former maintains its equilibrium, 
he latter doest not. All attempts to dem- 
onstrate a sense of hearing failed. 

The two following papers, because of the 
lack of time, were read by title: 



On cJianges of Structure in the Pancreatic Cell 

corresponding ivith Functional Change. A. 

P. Mathews. (Introduced by F. S. Lee.) 
On the Existence of Secretory Nerves. A. P. 

Mathews. (Introduced by F. S. Lee.) 
On Cardio-oesophagogeal Movements. S. J, 

Meltzer. 

Dr. Meltzer has shown in a former paper 
that the outflow of arterial blood from, and 
the inflow of venous blood to, the thorax 
produce the cardiac movements which are 
obtaiuable from the pleuritic cavity as well 
from the trachea and the nose. lu this 
paper he described the cardio-oesophageal 
movements arising from the same cause. 
He exhibited tracings which he obtained 
fourteen years ago from his own oesophagus, 
while studying the mechanism of degluti- 
tion. His recent studies were made on 
curarized dogs. By means of vagus inhibi- 
tion the beginning and the end of each car- 
diac cycle were made recognizable. Nearly 
all the curves have the character of a ' nega- 
tive pulse ' and have no similarity either 
to a sphygmo- or cardiogram. The con- 
stant characteristic undulationse seen at 
the beginning of each cardiac cycle are 
due to the movements of the auricle, which 
are more marked in the posterior mediasti- 
num. 
Cortex of the Brain: (a) Localization; (6) 

Developmsnt of. T. W. Mills. 

Dr. Mills undertook this research in con- 
nection with a studjr of the psychic devel- 
opment of young animals. It became ne- 
cessary, however, as a precaution and guide 
in studjdng the functional development of 
cortical centres to make experiments on 
mature animals. While, during these ex- 
periments, most of the commonly accepted 
localization as set forth by Ferrier was veri- 
fied in a general way, the results did not all 
harmonize with those of this investigator. 
Attention was called to details in the corti- 
cal motor localization of the rabbit and 
pigeon more especially, which were at vari- 



February 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



110 



ance both positively and negatively with 
those announced by Kenier. 

There had been foniul a great dift'erence 
in the degree of eortieal development of 
mammals not born blind as compared with 
those born with the eyes unopened: but as 
the work was not complete the author pre- 
ferred not to make many very definite state- 
ments at the present time. Cortical devel- 
opment and psychic development took place 
pari pa-^'^ii . 

The Active I'rinriple of lihus Tox-ieodcwh-oii 
ami Jilutx Veiieiiatii. Franz Pfaff. (In- 
troduced by H. P. BowDiTCH.) 
Dr. Pfofi' stated that his experiments had 
been made with the assistance of S. San- 
ford Orr. He said that it is the general 
opinion that Bh. tojc. and Ek. ven. con- 
tain a volatile proximate principle, which 
causes the well-known dermatitis venenata. 
Maisch's toxicodendric acid has been gen- 
erally accepted as tlie active poison. P. 
and 0. could not believe that a very Aola- 
tile substance is the cause of the trouble, 
as this would be contrary to the phai-macol- 
ogy of vegetable skin irritants. They iso- 
lated Maisch's toxicodendric acid in the 
form of the barium salt, and found it non- 
toxic. The same is true of a solution of 
the free acid in water. As the real active 
principle they found a non-volatile oil. This 
oil, when applied to the skin, causes the well- 
known eruption. Photographs demonstrat- 
ing the effect of the oil upon the human skin 
were shown. As preventive treatment P. 
and 0. proposed a thorough washing with 
water, soap and brush, or, still better, a re- 
peated thorough washiug with an alcoholic 
solution of lead acetate. The oil being sol- 
uble in alcohol, and forming a nearly insol- 
uble lead compound in alcohol, is thus best 
removed from the superficial skin. Fui'ther 
investigations will be undertaken, and an 
attempt made to classifj' Maisch's toxico- 
dendric acid and the new poisonous oil. 
which seems to be of the kind called cardol. 



obtained from Anacardiwn occidentale. These 
two oils are, however, not identical. 
Inhibition Hypothe/tix in the Phyniology of Res- 
piration. AV. T. Porter. 
Dr. Porter said that it is known that 
transverse division of the spinal cord be- 
tween the bulb and the phrenic nuclei 
causes fatal arrest of the respiratory move- 
ments of the trunk. If death be prevented 
for a time bj^ artificial respiration, the re- 
flex powers of the cord gradually increase, 
and in the coui-se of a few hours they maj' 
become so great that pinching the paws, 
blowing on the skin, suspending the artifi- 
cial respiration, etc., may cause extended 
muscular conti-actions, including contrac- 
tions of the respiratory muscles. 

It is claimed that these contractions of 
the respirator}- muscles after the separation 
of the cord from the bulb are proof that the 
respirator}' impulse for muscles of the trunk 
is not derived from respiratory cells in the 
bulb but originates in the spinal cord. 
Against this hypothesis of .spinal respiration 
is urged the fatal arrest of the respiration 
of the trunk caused by separating the bulb 
from the cord. It is replied that section of 
the cord stimulates inhibitory fibres in the 
cord and thus suspends the action of the 
spinal respiratory cells. This inhibition, it 
is assumed, usually lasts throughout the 
period of observation ; in some animals, 
however, after long artificial respiration, it 
is partially overcome, permitting the resi>i- 
ratory contractions mentioned above. 

The doctrine of prolonged inliil)ition of 
spinal respiration is easily overtlirown by 
the following experiment. Hemisection of 
tiie cord usually arrests the contractions of 
the diaphragm on the side of the hemisec- 
tion. ( Exceptions are explained by ' crossed 
respiration.') This arrest is not an inhibi- 
tion, for the diaphragm on the side of the 
hemisection begins at (mce to contract when 
the opposite phrenic nerve is cut. Hence, 
hemisection of the cord between the bulb 



120 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



and the phrenic nuclei does not inhibit the 
the phrenic cells on the side of the section. 
It follows that two hemisections, com- 
pletely separating the cord fi-om the bulb, 
do not inhibit the diaphragmatic respiration 
on their respective sides. The phrenic cells 
often send out no respiratory impulses af- 
ter such a section because they receive none 
from the bulb. The phrenic cells cannot 
themselves originate respiratory impulses. 
Hence, the respiratory impulse does not 
arise in the spinal cord. 
Demonstration — Hemisections of the Spinal Cord 
above the Phrenic Nuclei do not inhibit Tho- 
racic Respiration. W. T. Poeter. 
Acuteness of Vision in St. Louis Public School 

Children. W. T. Porter. 
The Weight of Dark-haired and Fair-haired 

Girls. W. T. Porter. 
Exhibition of Some New Forms of Galvanometers 
Suitable for Physiological Use, With Remarks 
Upon the Same. Prof. H. A. Eowland, at 
the Physical Laboratory of Johns Hop- 
kins University. 

Professor Rowland exhibited two new 
forms of high resistance galvanometers. 
One was a modification of the Thompson 
galvanometer, but less expensive in con- 
struction, and possessed a greater delicacy ; 
the other was a modification of the Dar- 
sonval galvanometer, and was arranged 
with the observing telescope on a convenient 
wall support. It was shown that thej^ were 
well adapted for laboratory use in Physio- 
logical work. 

Demonstration of an Apparatus for the Plethys- 
mographic Study of Odors, toith Report of 
Results. T.E. Shields. (Introduced by 
W. H. Howell.) 

Mr. Shields exhibited his apparatus, and 
gave the following account of its use : 

1 . It consists of a device for holding the 
arm firmly in place in the Plethysmograph. 
Two hard rubber clasps, one fitting the wrist 
and the other the arm above the elbow, are 
rigidly connected by two metal rods. The 



latter of the clasps fits against the Ple- 
thysmogTapli under the rubber membrane, 
where it is held in place by two other rigidly 
connected clasps, one against it outside the 
rubber membrane, and the other against 
the flange of the PlethysmogTaph . 

2. A device for separating the pulse and 
vaso-motor curves. A short ivlde tube leads 
fi'om the Plethysmograph to a vertical glass 
cylinder in which the water level can be 
made to register the pressure on the arm. 
Over the water is an ah- cushion connected 
mth the tambour by a small tube through 
a jjistou movable in the cj^linder. The 
motion of the piston controls the size and 
pressure of the ail- cushion. The lever of 
the tambour is made to move the point of 
an independently supported pen. A long 
narrotv tube leading from the Plethys- 
mograph dips into a test-tube of water 
swung from a delicate spiral spring. 
(Method described by Professor H. P. 
Bowditch.) A vertical thread from the 
bottom of the test-tube passes under a pulley, 
thence horizontally over a second pulley, 
and is held taut bj' a small weight. On its 
horizontal part is fastened a thin aluminum 
plate capable of holding a glass pen at right 
angle to the thread. The bulb of the pen 
is independentlj' suspended by a vertical 
thread. The pendular motion due to the 
latter in the direction of the horizontal 
thread is so adjusted as to neutralize tlie 
curvilinear motion of the pen arising fi-om 
the sag in the horizontal thread. The point 
of the pen may thus be made to describe a 
straight horizontal line. The resistance to 
the motion of the water in the narrow tube 
is sufficient to destroj' all but vaso-motor 
effects ; pulse effects are, in consequence, 
only felt through the ivide tube. 

The odors are contained in a series of 
bottles. The turning of a stopcock, which 
sends the constant current of air through 
any particular odor-bottle, at the same time, 
by an electrical arrangement, marks the in- 



Febkuarv 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



121 



stant, and ojiens tlie terminal end of the 
corresponding tube near the subject's nose. 

A pneumograph records the respiration. 
The pulse, vaso-motor and respiratoiy 
cun'es, the signal and time records (in 
seconds) are all traced in ink on a horizontal 
kymogi-aph. 
Explanation of Xatiiral Immunity. George 

M. Sternberg. 

Dr. Sternberg, after a review of the experi- 
mental evidence relating to the cause of the 
natural immunity which exists among ani- 
mals against parasitic invasion by various 
pithogenic bacteria and by putrefactive 
microorganisms, said that the experimental 
evidence submitted, considered in connec- 
tion with the extensive literature relating 
to ' phagocA^tosis,' leads us to the conclusion 
that natural immunity is due to a gennicidal 
substance present in the blood serum, which 
has its origin (chiefly at least) in the leuco- 
cj-tes. and is solulile only in an alkaline 
medium. And that local infection is usually 
resisted by an afflux of leucocytes to the 
point of invasion, but that phagocytosis is a 
factor of secondary importance in resisting 
parasitic invasion. 

AVarrex p. Lombard, 
UxivERsiTV OF Michigan. Secretary fw 1894. 



AS ISUEREST ERROR IS THE VIEWS OFGAL- 
TOS AND WEIS3IASS ON VARIATIOS.* 

Weismants's name has become so inti- 
mately a.ssociated with the doctrine of germ- 
inal continuity that he is often regarded as 
its first advocate, although it is an old con- 
ception which has found expression in many 
writings. 

Among others I myself stated it in the 
following words in a book printed in 188:5, 
before the publication of Weismann's first 
essay on inheritance. 

" The ovum, like other cells, is able to re- 
produce its like, and it not only gives rise, 

• A paper read, by inNitatioii, at the meeting of the 
Society of Xatntalists, in Baltimore, Dec. 27, 1894. 



during its development, to the divergent 
cells of the organism, but also to other cells 
like itself. The ovarian ova of the offspring 
are these latter cells or their direct unmodi- 
fied descendants." 

After the appearance of Weismann's es- 
says, and the revival of discussion on the 
views of Lamarck, I was much surprised 
to find mj' book referred to as a Lamarckian 
treatise, and my reason for quoting this pas- 
sage now is not to claim prioritj-, but to 
show that, in 1883, 1, like Weismann, attrib- 
uted inlieritance to germinal continuity. 

I may take this occasion to say that I still 
regard inheritance as a corollaiy or outward 
expression of the continuity of living matter, 
although I am less confident than I was in 
1883 of the importance of the distinction 
betn"een somatic and germinal cells. So 
much for the doctrine of germinal con- 
tinuity. 

Passing now to another topic, we find 
that the two most prominent writers on in- 
heritance, "Wiesmann and Galton, base their 
views of variation on the assumption that, 
at each remote generation, the ancestors of 
a modern organism were innumerable, al- 
though a little reflection will show that this 
assumption is untenable. 

Weismann, at least in his earlier and sim- 
pler writings, finds the cause of variation in 
the recombination, by sexual reproduction, 
of the effects of the diversified influences 
which acted upon the innumerable protozoic 
ancestors of each modei-n metazoon. 

If it can be proved that these protozoic 
ancestors were not innumerable, but very, 
very few, and that these few were the com- 
mon ancestors of all the modern metazoa, 
his position is clearly untenable. 

Galton's view of the cause of individual 
diversity is very similar to Weismann's. 
He says : " It is not possible that more than 
one-half of the varietiett and number of tht- 
parental elements, latent or personal, can 
on the average subsist in the ofi'spriug. 



122 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



For if every variety contributed its repre- 
sentatives each child would on the average 
contain, actually or potentially, twice the 
variety and twice the number of the ele- 
ments, whatever they may be, that were pos- 
sessed at the same stage of its life by either 
of its parents, four times that of any of its 
grandparents, 1024 times as many as any 
of its ancestors in the tenth degree and so 
on." 

As he holds that each offspring must 
therefore get rid, in some way, of one-half 
the variety transmitted from its ancestors, 
he finds an explanation of the diversity be- 
tween individuals in the diversity of the re- 
tained halves of then- variety. 

Each person has two parents and four 
grandparents ; but even in a country like 
ours, which draws its people from all quar- 
ters of the earth, each of the eight grandpar- 
ents is not always a distinct person ; for 
when the parents are cousins, this number is 
six, or five, or even four, instead of eight. 

AxQong more primitive people who stay 
at home generation after generation, and 
marry within the narrow circle of their 
neighbors, a person whose ancestors have 
transgressed none of our social laws may 
have a minimum ancestry of only four in 
each generation. 

The maximum ancestry and the miaimum 
fixed by our customs are given for ten gen- 
erations in the two lines below. 
2-4-8-16-32-64-128-256-512-1024=2046. 
2-4-4- 1-1 1 111 1 =38. 

Few persons who can trace their ancestiy 
back for ten generations are descended from 
1024 distinct persons in that generation, 
and in all old stable communities of simple 
folks the number is very much smaller. In 
the long run the number of ancestors in 
each generation is determined by the aver- 
age sexual environment, and it is a small 
and pretty constant number. 

All genealogy bears indirect e^ddence of 
this familiar fact which has not been ade- 



quately recognized by students of inheri- 
tance. 

I have made a computation from the his-" 
tory of the people of a small island on our 
Atlantic coast. They lead a simple life, 
or have done so in the past, but most of the 
men have been sailors, and have ranged 
much farther in search of mates than agii- 
cultural people. I have selected three per- 
sons whose ancestrj' is recorded in detail 
for some seven or eight generations. These 
three persons have no parents or grandpar- 
ents of the same name, and they would not 
be popularly regarded as near relations, al- 
though two of their twelve' grandparents 
were cousins. The generations are not 
quite parallel, and the period covered by 
eight in one line is covered in the two others 
by about seven, and it may be put at about 
7^ for the three. In 7^ generations the 
maximum ancestry for one person is 382 or 
1146 for three persons. 

The names of 452 of them, or nearljr half, 
are recorded, and these 452 named ances- 
tors are not 452 distinct persons, but only 
149; many of these in the remoter genera- 
tions being common ancestors of all three 
persons in many liues. If the um-ecorded 
ancestors were interrelated in the same way 
as they would surely be in an old commu- 
nity, the total ancestry of the three persons 
for 7i generations would be 378 persons 
instead of 1146. 

Few persons know even the names of all 
the living descendants of each of their sixty- 
four ancestors of the sixth genei'ation, 
and marriage with one of them is a pure 
chance, depending on the size of the circle 
of acquaintance and the distance to which 
ancestors wandered. 

If a citj^ like Baltimore, where the 
strangers to each one of us outnumber our 
acquaintances a thousand fold, could be 
quarantined against people from outside for 
a thousand j^ears, each generation would be 
much like the present one so far as known 



Febki'ARY 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



123 



relations ai-e concerned, although at the end 
of the period the inluibitants would cer- 
tainly not be descended from the Baltimor- 
ians of our day, but from only a very few 
of them. Most of our lines would be ex- 
tinct, and the few which survived would 
include most of the Baltimorians of the year 
2900 among their descendants, who, while 
unconscious of their common origin, would 
be allied with each other by common de- 
scent fi'om their virile and prolific ance,stors 
of the year 1894. 

This is proved indirectly but conclusively 
by genealogical statistics, and while a thous- 
and years are hut as yesterday in the his- 
tory of species, zoological considerations 
furnish e^-idence that allied animals at two 
successive geological periods must be re- 
lated like these successive generations of 
Baltimorians. Of all the individuals of a 
species which lived at a given period, very 
few would have descendants at a later per- 
iod, and these few would be the common 
ancestors of all the individuals which repre- 
sent the stock at the later period. 

The extinction of species is a familiar 
conception. The extinction of the lines of 
descent from individuals is no less real, 
and infinitely more significant in the study 
of inheritance. 

As we trace back the ancestral tree it 
divides into two branches for the parents, 
and again into four and eight for the grand- 
parents and great-grandparents, and so on 
for a few generati(ms, but a change soon 
takes place. The student of family records 
may be jHTniitted to pictui-e genealogy as a 
tree whose branches become more and more 
numerous as we get faither and farther 
from the starting point; but this cannot be 
permitted to the zoologist. 

On the contrary, we must acbnit that, on 
the average, the number of ancestors in each 
generatiim can never be gi-eater than the 
number of individuals in the average sexual 
environment. It may be very nmch less, 



however, since most of the individuals in 
each generation must fail to perpetuate 
their lines to remote descendants. 

Now no animal in a state of nature 
ranges so far as man in search of a mate, 
and the sexual environment of many plants 
and animals, such as the fishes in a brook 
or a pond, or the parasites in the intestine 
of a mammal, is very narrow. While new 
blood, no doubt, finds its way in from time 
to time, this is more than balanced by the 
extinction of genetic lines. The .series of an- 
cestors of each modern organism is long be- 
yond measure, but the number of ancestors 
in each remote generation can never be very 
gi-eat, though it may be extremely small. 

The data of systematic zoology also force 
us to believe that tlie ancestry of all the 
individuals of a species has been identical, 
except for the slight divergence in the most 
recent part of their history. 

The zoologist must picture the genealogy 
of a species not as a tree, but as a slender 
thread, of verj- few strands, a little frayed 
out at the near end, but of immeasurable 
length and so fine that the thickness is as 
nothing in comparison. The number of 
strands is fixed by. but is much smaller than, 
the average sexual environment. If we 
choose we may picture a fringe of loose ends 
all along the thread to represent the ancient 
animals which, having no descendants, are 
to us as if they had never been. Each of 
the strands at the near end is important, as 
a possible line of union l)etween the thread 
of tlie past and that of the distant future. 

The gist of the whole matter is this, that 
we miist picture this slender tliread as com- 
mon to all the individuals of the species, 
whose divergence from each other is infini- 
tesimal compared wilh the ancestry they 
share in common. 

The l)ranches of a human genealogical 
tree diverge for a few generations bj- geo- 
metrical progression, but we soon find traces 
of a change, and if the record were long 



124 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



enough to have anj^ evohitionary signifi- 
cance we should surelj' find all the mem- 
bers of a species descended from a few re- 
mote ancestors, and these few the common 
ancestors of all. If one metazoon is de- 
scended from pre-Cambrian unicellular an- 
cestors, the same unicellular individuals 
were the common ancestors of all the meta- 
zoa, and we may be confident that there 
were not verjr many of them in each gen- 
eration. It is quite possible that they were 
even so few as a single pair or even one. 

There is nothing very novel in all this. 
Galton has himself devoted an appendix to 
the mathematical study of the extinction of 
family names, although he and other writers 
on inheritance seem to forget it when thej^ 
assume that the remote ancestors of two 
persons, A and B, were, like the parents, dis- 
tinct individuals, and that the offspring must 
have twice as much ancestry as either 
parent, and, therefore, twice as much va- 
riety, unless there is some way to cancel out 
half of it at each step. 

I called attention to the bearing of this 
convergence of ancestry on the problem of in- 
heritance in 1883, in words which still seem 
to be a clear statement, although the views 
on variation of both Galton and Weismann 
are based on the unfounded assumption 
that each sexual act brings together two to- 
tally dissimilar sets of factors, instead of fac- 
tors which are identical in innumerable 
features for each one in which thej^ differ. 

My statement is as follows : " In order to 
breed together, animals must be closely re- 
lated ; they must belong to the same species 
or to two closely allied species. Since the 
individuals which belong to two closely re- 
lated species are the descendents of a com- 
mon and not very remote ancestral species, 
it is clear that almost the whole course of 
their evolution has been shared by them in 
common ; all their generic characters being- 
inherited fi-om this ancestor. Onlj^ the 
slight differences in minor points which dis- 



tinguish one species of a genus from another 
have been acquired since the two diverged, 
and not even all of these slight difterences.- 
* * We know that the duration of even the 
most persistent species is only an infinites- 
imal part of the whole historj' of their evo- 
lution, and it is clear that the common char- 
acteristics of two allied species must out- 
number, thousands of times, the differences 
between them. It follows that the parents 
of any possible hybrid must be alike in 
thousands of features for one in which they 
differ. * * Crossing simply results in 
the formation of a germ bj^ the union of a 
male and a female element derived from 
two essentially similar parents, ^^•ith at most 
only a few secondary and comparativelj' 
slight differences, all of which have been 
recentljT acquired. ' ' 

I trust that you will not think me un- 
warranted in the assertion that due consid- 
eration of the substance of this extract might 
have saved us much unprofitable discussion 
of the causes of variation, for I hope I have 
made it clear that these must be sought in 
the modern world and not in the remote 
past; that, as I expressed it in 1883, " the 
occurrence of a variation is due to the direct 
action of external conditions, but its precise 
character is not." 

I sought hy these words to express the 
familiar fact that the stimulus under which 
a Yiial action takes place is one thing, 
while the character of the action itself is 
quite another thing. 

This fact seems, Irom its verj^ simplicity, 
to slip out of the minds of naturalists, and I 
should like to improve this opportunitj^ to 
approach it fi-om another standpoint. 

We have been familiar for many years 
with two views of the nature of the process 
of development from the egg. 

One school of embryologists holds that the 
organism arises ft-om the egg by virtue of 
its inherent potency; that the constitution 
which the germinal matter has inherited is 



February 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



V2l 



in SOUK' way an embodiment of all that is 
to 1)0 unfolded out of it; while the other 
school finds, in the stimulus which one part 
of the segmenting egg or of the growing 
organism exerts on other parts, the explan- 
ation of each successive step in the process 
of development. 

Advocates of these two views generally 
regard themselves as opponents, but is there 
any real antagonism ? 

We now have positive evidence enough 
for each view to convince me that both are 
true: that every change which takes place 
in the organism from the l)eginning of seg- 
mentation to the end of life is called forth 
by some external stimulus either within the 
body or without; and yet that the outcome 
of the whole process of development is what 
it is because it was all potential in the germ. 

The gun does not go off until the cap ex- 
plodes: Imt it hits the mark because it is 
aimed. 

While the distinction between the stimu- 
lus to a vital change and the nature of the 
change itself is obvious enougli in simple 
cases, we may easily become confused and 
lose sight of it in handling complicated 
problems. 

A hen's egg does not develop without the 
stimulus of heat, but the view that heat 
cau.ses the chick is too grotesque for a sane 
mind. 

\\'hat interests us is not that it becomes 
a chick while a duck's egg in the same nest 
becomes a duckling, but that the one gi'ows 
into exquisite adjustment to the life of 
fowls, while the otln'r becomes as admira- 
bly adapted for the life of ducks. 

Here the stimulus comes from the exter- 
nal world, but the case is just the same 
when it is internal. 

The well-known results of castration 
prove that the normal development of male 
animals is dependent on some stimulus 
which comes to the jmrts of the growing 
body from the reproductive organs, but who 



can believe that this is an adequate expla- 
nation of the short, sharp horns, the tliick 
neck and the ferocity of the bull, or the 
bright colors and higli courage of the cock ? 

The only explanation of the origin of these 
useful structures worth considering is that 
which attributes tliem to the retention by the 
germ of the effects of past ages of selection. 

We have no reason to take a ditt'erent view 
when the result varies with the stimulus. 
Under one internal stimulus a bud becomes 
a jelly-fish, while under others it may be- 
come a liydranth, or a machopolyp or a blast- 
ostyle, but the problem we have to solve in 
tills case as in others is the origin of a beauti- 
fully coordinated organism, with the distinct- 
ive characters of its species, and with exquis- 
ite fitness for a life like that of its ancestors. 

I showed some years ago that a small 
crustacean, Alpheus heterochelis, develops 
from the egg according to one plan at Beau- 
fort in North Carolina, according to a sec- 
ond at Key "\\^est in Florida, while it has 
still a third life history at Nassau in the 
Bahama Islands, but no one can beUeve 
that the influences which cause this diver- 
sity have anything to do with the final out- 
come of the process. 

The case is exactly the same when a cell 
which normally gives rise to a half or a 
quarter of the body produces the whole un- 
der a different stimulus. 

All the machinery in a gi-eat industrial 
exposition may be started by a single elec- 
tric contact, but however much the discov- 
ery of the Ijutton may interest us, it helps 
us little to understand the result. 

So it is with living orgiini.sm. Kxt^^rnal 
conditions press the button, but it takes all 
the inherited potency of living matter to do 
the rest. 

It is an error to bi'lieve that great know- 
ledge is needful for a clear grasp of fii-st 
principles. Too often a great store of infor- 
mation is like riches. " it cannot be .spared 
nor left behind, but it hindereth the march ; 



126 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



yea, and the care of it sometimes loseth or 
disturbeth the victory." 

Students who are drifting on the sea of 
facts with which the modern laboratory has 
flooded us declare that the doctrine of adap- 
tation is antiquated and unscientific and 
pernicious. 

They tell us organisms have many prop- 
erties which are not adaptive, and that in 
many other cases we cannot tell whether 
a property is adaptive or not. Of course 
this is ti'ue. No one supposes that suscep- 
tibility to poisons, for example, is adaptive, 
and our knowledge of nature is incomplete 
beyond measure. 

They tell us, too, that many attempts to 
explain the uses of parts are fanciful and 
worthless. Unfortunately, this is ti-ue also, 
but the logic which makes it a basis for deny- 
ing the reality of adaptation is enough to 
call Paley ft'om his grave. 

While protoplasm is the physical basis of 
life, the intellectual basis of biology is ad- 
justment. 

I should like to see hung on the walls of 
every laboratory Herbert Spencer's defini- 
nition to the effect that life is not proto- 
plasm but adjustment, or the older teaching 
of the Father of Zoology that the essence of 
a living thing is not what it is made of nor 
what it does, but why it does it. 

Spencer has given us diagrams to prove 
that the vertebral column has become seg- 
mented by the strain of flexion, but Aristo- 
tle tells us that Empedocles and the ancients 
are in eiTor in their attempts to account for 
the jointing of the backbone by the strain 
of flexion, for the thing to explain, he 
says, is not how it becomes jointed, but how 
the jointed backbone has become so beauti- 
fully adjusted to the conditions of life. 

" Is there anything of which it may be 
said : See, this is new. It hath been al- 
ready in the old times which were before 
i^s." W. K. Bkooks. 

Johns Hopkins University. 



CURRENT NOTES ON ANTHROPOLOGY (III.). 
THE EARLIEST ENGLISHMEN. 

Some interesting studies as to the earliest 
signs of human industry in England desei-^'e 
a notice. 

The description bj^ Professor Prestwich 
of some flint implements found by Mr. 
Harrison in pre-glacial strata on the chalk 
plateaii of Kent seems to have added an 
impetus to such researches. Mr. 0. A. 
Shrubsole describes a series of those relics 
fi'om pre-glacial hill gravels in Berkshire, 
in the Journal of the Anthropological Insti- 
tute for August, 1894 ; and in the May 
number of the same journal, Mr. A. M. Bell 
replies with considerable force to the objec- 
tions which had been urged againstProfessor 
Prestwich's reasonings ; viadicating for the 
Kent implements an antiquitj^ beyond that 
of the formation of the present river valleys. 

A pleasantly written volume on the subject 
is one by ISIr. Worthington G. Smith entitled, 
Man the Primeval Savage. He discovered 
a true palaeolithic workshop, or rather 
several of them, in undisturbed relations, 
near Dunstable, about thirty miles north of 
London. The heaps of chips and broken 
flints lay just as the primeval artist had left 
them, covered to many feet in depth by the 
washings fi-om the boulder clay. Mr Smith 
was able to collect the chips in a number of 
instances, and by fitting them together, 
reconstruct the original flint block fi-om 
which the instrument had been formed ; 
and then to make a cast of the size and 
shape of the tool represented by the cavity. 
This beautiful demonstration leaves nothing 
to be desired. He does not believe, how- 
ever, that either his finds or those of the 
others mentioned are pre-glacial. His book 
is agreeably ^^Titten and well illustrated. 
(Published by E. Stanford, London.) 

THE TRIBES OF THE ' GRAN CHACO.' 

The ' Gran Chaco,' or ' Great Hunting- 
ground,' merits its name, for it extends 850 



February 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



127 



miles in Icngtli by 3oO in breadth, one vast 
forest and mai-sb. in tlie northern portion 
of the Argentine Republic. Mueh of it is 
unexplored and almost inaeeessible. Its 
sjKii-se human inhal)itants are siivage and 
wandering tribes, still in the stone age, shy 
and treacherous. Theu' linguistic classifi- 
cati(m presents extraordinary difHculties. 
Kxplorei-s have extended the same name to 
diflorent stocks ; and applied divei-se names 
to the si\me stock. 

An excellent monograph puldished in the 
Atti Delia Societa Romana di Antropolo- 
gia by Guido Boggiani is lielpful as far as 
it goes. It is entitled ' I Ciamacoco.' This 
is another form of Zamuco. the name of a 
tribe converted in the h\st century by the 
missionaries. But the modern is not a de- 
scendant of the ancient clan, scarcely any 
linguistic relative. The author presents an 
accurate vocabulary of about 250 words, 
and gives a full description of the primitive 
arts of the tribe, with 62 beautifully pre- 
IKired illustrations. They still use the stone 
axe, the bow and arrow, feather and shell 
decorations, and other appurtenances of the 
l)ristine condition of culture. 

Another band, the Chunupies, of the 
southern Chaco, is the subject of an article 
by J. B. Ambrosetti, in the Anales de la 
Sociedad Scientitica Argentina for 189-4. 
He gives a short vocabulary- and an ethno- 
graphic description. 

Such work cannot be accomplished too 
soon, as these Chaco tribes are dying out 
with fearful rapidity, and probably half a 
century more will complete their extermi- 
nation. 

AKrH.F.OI.OGV AS A DEDVCTIVE SCIENCE. 

WiTHix the last two yeara an interesting 
issue has arisen between two schools of 
archseologists, the one which knoivK just 
what man's early activities yielded, the 
other which prefers to learn about them by 
studying what relics can be found, and con- 



fining conclusions to their obvious teach- 
ings. 

In America the fonner school is aljly re- 
presented by Mr. W. H. Holmes and ^Ir. J. 
D. ^IcGuire, of Washington. Mr. Holmes' 
lines of thought are fullj- set forth in the 
Proceedings of the Chicago Congress of An- 
thropologj', in an article entitled Natural 
HiMorii of Flaked Stone Implements, He 
maintains that an implement is to be stud- 
ied • as the biologist studies the living crea- 
tui-e;' and he therefore classifies such re- 
mains into '.species' and 'genera,' speaks 
of theii- ' lines of evolution,' and even of 
their ' ancestral forms,' and adds diagrams 
showing their genealogies. 

Mr. McGuire, who has published sevei-al 
interesting articles on the methods of chip- 
ping and rubbing stone, in the American An- 
thropologixf, has become so thoroughly mas- 
ter of the situation in that connection that 
he more than intimates that European 
arclueologists have blundered in drawing a 
distinction between the ' rough stone age ' 
and the ' polished stone age;" a position with 
which Mr, Holmes seems to .sympathize. 
That neither of these learned writers has 
ever examined a European site, seems to 
them of light weight, as the ' natural his- 
tory method ■ is sufficient. 

Those of a dift'erent way of thinking have 
not been silent. In this countiy such stu- 
dents as Prof. Henry W. Haynes. of Boston, 
Mr. H, C, Mercer, of Philadelphia, and Mr. 
Thomas Wilson, of "Washingtim, all of 
whom are pei-sonally familiar with the old- 
est ' stiitions ' on both continents, have con- 
demned as narrow and inapplicable the 
views of Messi-s. Holmes and ^IcGuire ; 
and in the American Xaturall-it, for De- 
cember, Mr. Charles S. Read, of the Britisli 
Museum, in an exhaustive article, sets 
forth the uncertainties which must attend 
conclusions based cm studies limited to one 
field of research. In the same tone are 
several articles in recent issues of Z/' An- 



128 



■SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



thropologie. Mr. McGuire returns to the 
charge in the Januarj' number of the Na- 
turalist, but hardly strengthens his position. 
The discussion is not yet terminated. 
' Replies ' are announced; but at present, it 
must be said that the deductive and infer- 
ential method in archaeology appears to be 
a dubious mode of procedure. 

THE VAJSTNIC LAI^'GUAGE. 

Most readers need not be told that the 
Vannic language means that which was 
once spoken in the region around Lake 
Yan, in modern Armenia, by the people 
who called themselves Kaldi. 

They came into contact with the Assjrri- 
ans about 885 B. C, and adopted from them 
the cuneiform writing, by means of which 
they preserved then- records in their own 
tongue. These have been zealously studied 
and collected of recent years, but without 
positive results. Professor Sayce maintains 
that the Vannic was a G-eorgian dialect, and 
has published from it various translations. 
Last summer, before the Fi-ench Academy, 
M. Oppert pronounced all these translations 
illusory, denied that we know a single 
word of the tongue, and laughed at the 
names of the kings so seriously put forth 
by Sayce. The latter, however, in the Jour- 
nal of the Royal Asiatic Society for October 
last, prints a bilingual inscription in good 
Assji'ian and Vannic, where the texts cor- 
respond almost line for line, and claims in 
a number of examples to have proved by 
this confrontation the correctness of his 
earlier translations. He acknowledges that 
our defective acquaintance mth the As- 
syrian is a difi&cult obstacle to a complete 
rendering. 

The evidence that the Vannic was akin to 
the Georgian is, however, not increased by 
this bilingual text. It still remains more 
probable that it was either ancient Arme- 
nian, or some other long extinct Aryan 
dialect ; possiblj' near to the Thracian, for 



wliicli there is a little evidence in the simi- 
laritj^ of proper names. The jioint is one 
of considerable ethnographic importance. 

REGENT PUBLICATIONS ON CEANIOLOGY. 

Two important contributions on the Cra- 
niology of the South American Indians have 
recent!}^ appeared. 

The first is bj^ Dr. Ten Kate on the skulls 
of the Araucanians of the Argentine Repub- 
lic. His material was 119 crania in the 
Museum of La Plata (where his paper was 
published). He confii-ms the statement 
quoted in my Amevican Race, p. 324, that 
these Indians are markedlj' brachj^cephalic, 
96 out of the 119 having a cephalic index 
above 80. The proportion of artificially de- 
formed specimens is large, numbering about 
82 per cent. They present quite diverse 
varieties of deformation. 

Two series from Southern Argentina, in 
the valley of the Rio Negro, are described 
with his cu.stomary minuteness by Dr. R. 
Virchow in the Proceedings of the Berlin 
Anthropological Society for 1894, pp. 386- 
408. One series was ft-om the base of the 
Cordillera, and evidently was of Ai'aucanian 
origin ; the other, from near the Atlantic 
coast, presented marked dolichocephaly and 
probably came from Tzoneca burials. In 
this article Dr. Virchow incorporates some 
instructive observations on artificial cranial 
deformities in America generally, making a 
useful appendix to his remarks on that sub- 
ject in his Crania Ethnica Americana. 

The Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
No. 969, just issued, is a translation of The 
Varieties of the Human Species hj Giu- 
seppe Sergi, Professor of Anthropology in 
the University of Rome. His method of 
classification is based upon the theories 
of craniology of which he himself is the 
author. Instead of niultiplj-ing, ad infini- 
tum, the measurements of the skull as so 
manj' craniologists affect, he classifies ac- 
cording to broad outlines of cranial shape, 



FKIilUARY 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



129 



believing that such are far more perma- 
nent and therefore more racial than the 
minor variations whicli have engaged the at- 
tention of others. His arguments are drawn 
from a con.scienti<)us study of ample series 
from various (juartei'S of the globe, and 
tiiough some of his refinements may not be 
sufticiently established, the general prinei- 
ples he advocates merit the careful consid- 
eration of cranial specialists, as containing 
some new and certainly correct observations. 
A short prefatory note by myself introduces 
tlie author to the American public. 

THE AKVAX CRADLE-LAXD. 

If anybodj' thinks that the question 
whether the primitive Ai-yan horde lived in 
Europe or Asia has been settled, he is mis- 
taken. Two publications of late date show 
that the defenders of the old theory of their 
central Asian origin are nowise lacking in 
vigorous argument. 

Prof. August Boltz, of Darmstadt, in a 
pamplet Das Vcdavolk in geinen Ge.iaintver- 
hiiltnmen, has worked out the problem of 
the origin and earliest migrations of the 
Aryans quite to his own satisfaction. He 
adds two maps, on which the reader can 
trace very clearly how they began in the 
great Tarim liasin and about Lob Nor, and 
journeyed westward across tlie Pamir pla- 
teau, on the western slojje of which they di- 
verged, the Celtic stem wandering north- 
west into Europe north of the Black Sea ; 
the Greek, Latin. Etruscan and Slavic 
l)ranches by way of the Hellespont and the 
islands ; the Iranian group remaining in 
Pei-sia, while the Yeda-folk or Indo-Aryans, 
ascended the mighty passes of the Hindu 
Kusch and Karakorum ranges to reach the 
fertile valleys to the south. These are 
pretty plans, but we look in vain for a sub- 
stantial support to them. 

Turning to Eui-ope, M. De Nadaillac's 
admirable summary of the results of the in- 
vestigations in the lake-dwelling of that 



continent (in a conti'ibution to the Revue 
dex Quedionn Hcientifiijuex for October last, en- 
titled Le.-< Pojndatioiit Lacudres de VEurope) 
lifts the veil as far as at present possible on 
European culture in neolitliic times — those 
times when the Arj'an stock began its wide 
wanderings. The writer inclines to their 
Asian origin: l)ut with his customarj' frank- 
ness he acknowledges that nowhere in the 
debris of these ancient dwellings has there a 
single positive sign of Asiatic art been dis- 
covered, nor any relic such as we might 
suppose even a savage tribe would carry 
from its pristine home. Until down to a late 
period of prehistoric time, European culture 
seems to have lieeu indigenous. For a 
clear and accurate summarj' of what it was 
among the lake-dwellers, the student would 
do well to peruse the article referred to. 
D. a. Brinton. 
r.vivEnsiTY OF Pennsylvania. 



TCHEBYCHEV* 

Of Kussian mathematicians, second only 
to Lobachevsky should be ranked I'afiuitij 
Lvovitsch Tchel)ychev. 

Born in Russia in 1821 and formerly 
professor at the University at St. Petersburg, 
he reached deservedly the very highest 
scientific honors, being privy councillor, 
the representative of applied mathematics 
in the Imperial Academj- of St. Petersburg, 
in 18r>0 made member of the famous Section 
I.-Geometrie, of the French Academic des 
Sciences, and afterward A»socir Hranger, 
the highest honor attainable by a foreigner. 

His best known work is the justly cele- 
brated Mhnoire mr leg nombres premiers, 
Academic Imperiale de Saint Petersbourg, 
(1850), where he established the exi.stence 
of limits within which the sum of the log- 
arithms of the primes inferior to a given 
number must be comprised. This memoir 
is given in Lioiivllle's Journal, 1852, pp. 306 
-390. 

* Deceased December 8, 1894. 



130 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



Sylvester afterward contracted Tclieby- 
cliev's limits ; but the original paper remains 
highly remarkable, especially as it depends 
on very elementary considerations. 

In this respect it is in striking contrast 
to the equally marvelous paper of the la- 
mented Riemann, Ueber die Anzahl der 
Primzahlen unter einer Gegegebenen Chvsse 
presented to the Berlin Aeademia in 1859. 
Tch6bychev had in 1848 presented a paper 
with this very title to the St. Petersburg 
Academie ; Stir la totalite des nombres pre- 
miers hiferieurs a line limite doninee. (Giv- 
en in Liouville's Joiu-nal, 1852, pp. 341- 
365.) 

Eiemann speaks of the interest long be- 
stowed on this subject by Gauss and Di- 
richlet, but makes no mention of Tcheby- 
chev. However, Sylvester speaks of ' his 
usual success in overcoming diificiilties in- 
superable to the rest of the world.' 

But though best known for his work in 
the most abstract part of mathematics, in 
reality Tchebychev was of an eminently 
practical turn of mind. 

Thus it was his work, Theorie des meehan- 
ismes eonniis sous le nom de parallelogrammes 
(Memoirs des savants etrangers, Tom. 
VII.), which led him to the elaborate dis- 
sertation Sur les questions de minima qui se 
rattachent a la representation approximate des 
fondions, 91 quarto pages in Memoirs de 1' 
Academic Imperiale des Sciences de Saint 
Petersbourg, 1858. While the variable x 
remains in the vicinity of one same value 
we can represent with the greatest possible 
approximation any function / (x) , of given 
form, by the principles of the differential 
calculus. But this is not the case if the va- 
riable X is only required to remain within 
limits more or less extended. The essen- 
tially different methods demanded by this 
case, which is just the one met in practice, 
are developed in this memoir. 

The same line of thought led to his con- 
nection with a subject which has since found 



a place even in elementary text-books, 
namely rectilineal motion by linkage. 

He invented a three-bar linkage, whicli is 
called Tchebychev's parallel motion, and 
gives an extraordinarily close approxima- 
tion to exact rectilineal motion ; so much 
so that in a piece of apparatus exhibited by 
him in the London Loan Collection of Scien- 
tific Apparatus, a plane supported on a 
combination of two of his parallel motion 
linkages seemed to have a sti'ictlj' horizon- 
tal movement, though its variation was 
double that of the tracer in the simple par- 
allel motion. 

Tchebychev long occupied himself with 
attempting to solve the problem of produc- 
ing exact rectilineal motion bj' linkage, un- 
til he became convinced that it was impos- 
sible and even strove long to find a proof of 
that impossibility. What miist have been 
his astonishment then, when a freshman 
student of his own class, named Lipkin, 
showed him the long sought conversion of 
circular into straight motion. Tchebychev 
brought Lipkin's name before the Russian 
government, and secured for him a substan- 
tial reward for his supposed original dis- 
covery. 

And perhaps it was independent, but it 
had been found several years pre^dously by 
a French lieutenant of engineers, Peaucel- 
lier, and first published by him in the form 
of a question in the Annales de Mathema- 
tiqne in 1864. When Tchebj'chev was on 
a visit to London, Sylvester inquired after 
the progress of his proof of the impossibility 
of exact parallel motion, Avhen the Russian 
announced its double discovery and made a 
drawing of the cell and mounting. This 
Sylvester happened to show to Manviel Gar- 
cia, inventor of the laryngoscope, and the 
next day received from him a model con- 
structed of pieces of wood fastened \vith 
nails as pivots, which, rough as it was, 
woi-ked perfectly. Sylvester exhibited this 
to the Philosopliical Club of the Royal So- 



February 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



131 



cietj- and in the Athenseum Club, where it 
delighted Sir AVm. Thomson, now Lord 
Kelvin, and led to the extraordinaiy lecture 
On Recent DUcureries in Mechanical Conver- 
sion of Motion, delivered by Sylvester before 
the Royal Institution on January 23, 1874. 
This in turn led to Kempe's reniaikablo de- 
velopment of the subject, and to Hart's dis- 
covery of a five-bar linkage which does the 
same work as PeaucelUer's of seven. 

Henceforth Poaucellier's Cell and Hart's 
Contraparallelograni will take their jilace in 
our text-books of geometrj-, and straight 
lines can be drawn without begging the 
question by assuming first a straight edge 
or ruler as does Euclid. 

Thus Kempe's charming book, ' Hoic to 
Draw a Straight Line,' is a direct outcome 
of Tchebychev's sketch for Sylvester. As 
might perhaps have been expected, the im- 
mortal Lobachcvsky found in his compatriot 
a devoted admirer. Not only was Tcheby- 
chev an active member of the committee of 
the Lobachevsky fund, but he took the 
deepest interest in all connected with the 
spread of the profound ideas typified in the 
non-Euclidean geometry. Knowing this, 
Vasiliev in his last letter asked that a copj' 
of my translation of his address on Loba- 
chevsky be forwarded to the great man. 
His active participation in scientific assem- 
blies is also worthy of note ; for example, at 
the ' Congivs de V association fran^aise pour 
Tavancement des sciences, a Lyon,' he read 
two interesting papers, Sur le-i valeurs limites 
des inti'yrales. and Sur les quadratures, after- 
wards published in lAoitville''^ Journal. 

George Bruce Halsted. 

UXIVERSITV OF TkXAS. 



SCIEXTIFIC LITERATURE. 
Les Oscillations Electriques. H. Poixcare. 

(COSCLUDED. ) 

Propagation of Electrical 0'<eillation.'< Through 
Air. — The velocity of propagation of electi-o- 
magnetic induction through dielectrics of- 



fered the fii-st experimental test of supe- 
riority of the Faraday-Maxwell theory over 
the older theories. According to these that 
velocity' should be infinite ; according to the 
Faraday-^Iaxwcll view of elcc^tromagnetic 
phenomena it should be the same as that of 
light. Poincare reviews carefully all the 
experimental evidences bearing upon this 
point. Hertz's experiments in Carlsruhe 
are first discussed and his early failures in 
arriving at a satisfactory result are pointed 
out. Two methods emploj'cd in these 
measurements liy Hertz at Carlsruhe and at 
Bonn are described briefly. One of these 
consisted in measuring by means of a reso- 
nator the difference of phase between two 
waves sent forth by the same oscillator, one 
wave along a conducting wire and the other 
through the dielectric in the vicinity of the 
wire. The other method consisted in meas- 
uring what Hertz considered the wave 
length of stationary electric waves in air 
formed by the interference between the di- 
rect waves sent forth bj' an oscillator and 
the waves reflected by a large flat mirror 
consisting of a metal sheet 2 meters wide 
and 4 meters high. In all these experiments 
the velocity of propagation along the wire 
seemed to come out considerably dift'crent 
from and generally less than that in air. 
But the methods were open to several critic- 
isms. In the first place, the hall in which 
these experiments were caiTied out was too 
small for the wave lengths employed ; sec- 
ondly, the influence of the waves reflec'ted 
from the walls was entirely neglected ; 
thirdly, the dimensions of the reflecting 
mirror were not large enough in comparison 
to the wave length to prevent errors of ob- 
servation due to the misleading influence of 
diffraction phenomena. All these objections 
were in a measure overcome in the earliest 
experiments of Sarasin and de la Rive (C. 
R. t. ex. p. 72). In these experiments the 
methods of Hertz were employed, but they 
were performed in a large hall, with a large 



132 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



mirror and -witli smaller resonators. The re- 
sults improved with the increase of the di- 
mensions of the mirror and the diminution 
of the size of the exploring resonators. In a 
subsequent series of experiments (C. R. 
CXX., p. 688) carried out in a very large 
hall with a mirror 8 meters high and 16 me- 
ters mde and employiag circular resonators 
of 50 and 75 centimeters in diameter these 
investigators obtained completely satisfac- 
tory results, proving beyond all reasonable 
doubt that the velocity of propagation of 
electromagnetic waves through dielectrics 
is the same as along conducting wires and 
equal to the velocity of light. The sources 
of error in Hertz's experiments were clearly 
demonstrated by these' experiments, for no 
matter how large were the hall and the 
mirror a sufficient increase in the dimen- 
sions of the exploring resonators would al- 
ways give misleading results, similar to 
those obtained by Hertz. 

But among the many encouraging results 
obtained by Sarasin and de la Rive there is 
one result which causes much anxiety to 
the mathematical physicist. It is the 
serious disagreement between the theo- 
retically calculated period of the resonator 
and that determined experimentally by the 
illustrious physicists of Geneva. In an ex- 
ceedingly interesting mathematical discus- 
sion of the functions of the resonator 
Poincare shows that the wave length of the 
fundamental vibration can differ but little 
from twice the circumference of the re- 
sonator, whereas Sarasin and de la Rive 
found it to be equal to eight times the di- 
ameter. The cause of this disagreement 
must be explained by the theory, but how ? 
Poiacare gives no definite answer to this 
question. Many valuable suggestions are 
thrown out, however, and the subject is 
then dismissed after showing by a reference 
to Blondlot's and Bjerkness' experiments 
that the theorj' of the resonator just given 
is correct in its main features. No other 



theory of the resonator has been given since 
that given bj' Hertz, and Poincare's discus- 
sion contains many valuable additions to 
the rough outline of the subject sketched 
out bjr Hertz. In this connection the re- 
viewer ventures to refer to a paper by 
Professor P. Drude (^Zum Studinni des Elee- 
trischen Resonators, Wied. Ann. Nov. 1894). 
Reflection and Absorption of Hertzian Waves. 
— Resonator and mirror form the essential 
instruments in every method of studying 
electrical waves in the dielectric. The 
phenomena of reflection and absorption of 
these waves deserve, therefore, careful an- 
alysis. To these Poincar6 devotes his at- 
tention now. The case of orthogonal in- 
cidence upon a plane metal mirror is first 
discussed. It is shown that the penetration 
of the wave into the metal is inverselj' pro- 
portional to the square root of the product 
of conductivity and permeability of the 
metal and directly proportional to the square 
root of the wave length. For instance, a 
wave of a periodicity of 50 millions per 
second, which is the ordinary Hertzian 
frequency, will be reduced to nearly one- 
third of its initial intensity at a distance of 
gV mm. below the surface of a mirror of 
copper. The relation, however, which 
Poincare obtains between the penetrability 
of the wave and the wave length, the con- 
ductivity, permeability, and specific induct- 
ive capacity of the metal does not hold good 
for fi-equencies as high as those of light, 
for on the one hand it gives by approxi- 
mation a negative value for the specific in- 
ductive capacity of all metals, and on the 
other hand it gives a conductivity 300 to 
400 times smaller than that obtained bj^ 
ordinary resistance measurements. The 
same relations hold good for oblique reflec- 
tion. It is interesting to note that if, as 
Cauchjr believes, the fundamental equations 
of Fresnel (slightlj' modified) hold good for 
metallic reflection then a retardation in 
phase equal to half a period takes place at 



February 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



133 



the reflecting surface when the electric force 
of the incident wave is normal to the plane 
of incidence ; no retardation takes place if 
this electrical force is in the plane of inci- 
dence. The extinction of the wave in its 
passage through the metal develops heat 
and Poincare calculates the rate at which 
the heat is developed by a given current, 
obtaining the interesting result that it is 
proportional to the square root of the 
product of frequency, specific resistance and 
permeabilit}' . The results of these consider- 
ations are now compared to expeiiment. 
The most important experiments bearing 
ufwn this part of the theory are those of 
Bjerkness (1. c). A circular resonator 
having a small plate condenser interposed 
in place of the spark gap was employed. 
Between these plates a small aluminum 
sheet was suspended and measured bj- its 
deflection the mean square of the potential 
difference between the plates. The oscil- 
lator was gradually tuned and the resonance 
etfect in the resonator measured by the 
deflection of the aluminum sheet. Six re- 
sonators of the same dimensions but of 
different material were investigated. The 
resonance curve of copper was highest, then 
followed brass, silver, platinum, nickel and 
iron, in the same order as required by theory. 
The resonator decrement of iron, for in- 
stance, was nine times and that of platinum 
twice as large as that of copper. To meas- 
ure the depth of penetration these materials 
were deposited electrolj^tically, say u"on on 
a copper resonator, or vice verxa, and the 
resonator effect measured for the various 
thicknesses of the deposit. Results agreeing 
very fairly with the theory were obtained. 
Propagation of Electrical Wave.-* through Die- 
lectrics other than Air. — Another crucial test of 
the correctness of the Faraday-Maxwell the- 
ory is furnished by the well known relation 
that the sjiecilic inductive capacity of a di- 
electric is equal to the square of its index 
of refraction. This relation is an immedi- 



ate inference fi-om the new electromagnetic 
theory. Since the index of refraction of a 
substance is equal to the ratio of the ve- 
locity of propagation in vacuum to that in 
the substance it follows that the velocity of 
propagation of a Hertzian wave in dielec- 
trics having a specific inductive capacity 
larger than unity should be smaller than in 
air. This relation was tested by Blondlot 
in the experiments cited above by immers- 
ing Ijoth the conducting wire and the reso- 
nator in a liquid dielecti'ic and measuring 
the wave length. Another method liased 
upon the same principle was that emploj-ed 
by Rubens & Arons (Wied. Ann. 40 p. 585). 
The neutral point of a rectjingular resonator 
was connected directly to one side of the 
spark-gap of the oscillator. No spark was 
then observed in the spark-gap of the resona- 
tor. If, however, the balance of the resona- 
tor was now disturbed by inserting on one 
side of it a certain length of wire immersed 
in a dielectric the spark appeared. The 
balance was again restored by inserting a 
sufficient length of wire in the other side of 
the resonator. The ratio of these two 
lengths of wire measured the ratio of the 
velocities of piopagation in air and in the 
dielectric. 

Another method, first employed by J. J. 
Thomson (Phil. Mag. :iO, p. 129), was based 
on the relation which exists between the 
capacity of a plate condenser and the di- 
electi-ic constant of the insulator separating 
its plates. The period of an oscillator or 
resonator will vary with the dielectric be- 
tween the condenser plates. Thomson mea- 
sured the period of an cscillator for vari- 
ous dielectrics placed between its condenser 
plates and calculated from it the specific 
inductive capacity. Several otlier electro- 
magnetic nu'thods are described briefly by 
Poincare, and then the stiitical methods, be- 
longing most of them to tlie pre-llertzian 
epoch, are passed in quick review. Finally 
the experimental results are coordinated 



134 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



and briefly discussed. In a large number 
of cases Maxwell's relation is confirmed ; 
but, again, the cases are numerous in which 
the agreement between theory and experi- 
ment is far from satisfactory ; this is es- 
pecially true of dielectrics showing traces 
of conductivitj' and large electric absorp- 
tion, and even more true of electrolytes. 
This part of Poincare's work is rather in- 
complete, probably because it offers fewer 
opportunities to a mathematical physicist 
than any other part of Maxwell's electro- 
magnetic theory. The most serious critic- 
ism, perhaps, that may be brought against 
it is its omission of some of the most im- 
portant investigations on dielectric con- 
stants, as, for instance, the investigations of 
Boltzmann. Again, not a single word is 
said concerning the influence which the 
study of the dielectric properties of sub- 
stances had upon Faraday and Maxwell and 
how much it had contributed to the forma- 
tion of their electromagnetic theory. 

The reflection of electrical waves from the 
surface of a dielectric is taken up and it is 
shown by a reference to analogous phe- 
nomena in optics why reflection cannot occur 
when the thickness of a dielecti'ic plate is 
small in comparison to the wave leng-th of 
an electi'ical wave. Trouton's experiments 
(Nature, Vol. 39, p. 391) form the basis of 
this discussion. 

The experimental evidence furnished by 
the study of the reflection of electrical waves 
is cited which supports the view that the 
plane of polarization as defined in optics is 
perpendicular to the direction of the elec- 
trical force in the wave-fi-ont. 

A very interesting experimental investi- 
gation published by Klemencic (Wiener 
Sitzungsber, 19. Feb., 1891) is next de- 
scribed. It treats of wave reflection by di- 
electrics. The dielectric experimented with 
was a slab of sulphur 120 cm. long, 80 cm. 
wide and 7 cm. thick. The wave length 
employed was 60 cm. A rectilinear oscil- 



lator placed in the axis of a cylindrical para- 
bolic mirror furnished the plane waves. The 
reflected and refi-acted waves were studied 
by means of thermoelectric couples attached 
to rectilinear oscillators placed in the axis 
of parabolic mirrors similar to the one used 
in connection with oscillator. There was a 
reflection at every angle of incidence when 
the du-ection of oscillation of the electrical 
force was perpendicular to the plane of in- 
cidence. But when it was parallel to it then 
there was an angle of incidence at which no 
reflection occurred. Fresnel's fundamental 
formulse, however, were not quite satisfac- 
torilj^ verified. Poincare ascribes it to the 
insufficient thickness of the slab. Klemen- 
cic found also that the energy of the inci- 
dent wave was smaller than the sum of the 
energies of the reflected and refracted 
wave, a result which he believed to be due 
to the presence of diffraction. 

Conductors in Motion in an Electromac/netic 
Field. — The last chapter gives the essential 
features of Hertz's essay : On the funda- 
mental equations of the electromagnetic 
field for conductors in motion. 

Poincare considers first the electromotive 
force induced in a circtut which is moving 
through a variable electa'omagnetic field. 
He proceeds as follows : Consider a surface 
formed by the circuit under consideration. 
Let it move with the circuit. Consider two 
consecutive positions of this surface, the 
time of passage from the first to the second 
position being infinitely short, the velocity 
of motion being finite. Consider now the 
space bounded by the initial and the final 
position of the surface and by the ring- 
shaped surface whose boundary is the 
initial and the final position of the circuit. 
The total magnetic flux through this siu'face 
is according to well known relations pro- 
portional to the total amount of what Hertz 
and Poincare call true magnetism included in 
the bounded surface. The total induced 
electromotive force being equal to the total 



Febrvaky 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



135 



i-ate of variation of the magnetic flux 
through the eircuit tlie hist relation leads to 
the following final i-esult : The total electro- 
motive force iuduceil in an infinitely small 
circuit wliich moves through a variable 
electromagnetic field is composed of three 
parts. First, the electromotive force due 
to rate or variation of the magnetic flux 
tlirough the circuit and produced by the 
time variation of tlic field itself. Second, 
the electromotive force due to the rate of 
variation of the magnetic flux through the 
circuit produced by the motion of the circuit. 
The third component of the induced electro- 
motive force can be described as follows : 
Suppose that permanent magnetic charges 
are distributed in any way whatsoever 
throughout the field. There is then a 
transference of magnetic matter through 
the moving circuit. We may call it the 
magnetic convection current, following a 
suggestion of Hertz ( Unters. neb. d. Aus- 
br. der el. Kraft, p. 2(5.5). This magnetic 
convection cuiTent is equal to the quantity 
of magnetic matter contained in the volume 
traced out per unit of time by the moving 
circuit, and is proportional to the third 
component of the induced electromotive 
force. This component does not appear in 
Maxwell's theory, so that the Hertzian 
equations seem to be more complete than 
those of Maxwell. 

Poincare recognizes in this quite a differ- 
ence between Maxwell's presentation of the 
electromagnetic theory and that of Hertz ; 
bat this difference will evidently exist onlj' 
if it is proved that a di.stributiou of perm- 
anent magnetism, whose induction flux over 
a closed surface is a constant, different from 
zero, can exist. The physical meaning of 
such a distribution is far from being clear, 
and Poincare might have well devoted more 
attention to the elucidation of this perplex- 
ing feature of the Hertzian equations. On 
this point the student \\ill do well to consult 
Boltzniann (Vorles. iiber Maxwell's Theorie 



d. Elec. & d. Lichtes, II. Theil, IX. Vorles.). 

The second gi-oup of equations refers to 
the magnetomotive force induced in a circuit 
which is changing its position with respect 
to a field of given distribution of electrical 
force and it is shown that the total magneto- 
motive force induced in an infinitely small 
circuit in motion is composed of four compon- 
ents. The fii-st component is proportional 
to the rate of change of the flux of electric in- 
duction whicli constitutes the conduction 
current. The second component is propor- 
tional to the rate of change of the flux of elec- 
tric induction wliich constitutes the displace- 
ment current. The third component is pro- 
portional to the rate of change of the electric 
flux due to the motion of the circuit, and 
the fourth component is proportional to the 
convection current of permanent electro- 
static charges, corresponding to what w"as 
called above the convection current of perm- 
anent magnetism. There is, however, )io 
difficulty of conceiving a permanent electri- 
fication of the dielectiic such that the total 
flux of its induction through a closed surface 
should be difl'erent from zero, and, therefore, 
the magnetomotive force induced by an elec- 
trical convection current is a priori evidi-nt 
as soon as the correctness of the fundamental 
assumptions in the Faraday-Maxwell theory 
is admitted. There is no diff"erence between 
this second group of equations and those 
given by JIaxwell. 

It is pointed out that the existence of the 
third component was verified by Rowland's 
experiments (Pogg. Ann. 15<S, p. 487), 
and the I'xistence of the fourth component 
by the experiments of Roentgen (AVied. 
Ann. 3<5, p. 204) . The magnetomotive force 
due to displacement currents was, of course, 
first pointed out by the experiments of 
Hertz. 

Next follows a beautifiil mathematical 
discussion of the mechanical forces acting 
upon a body which is moving through an 
electromagnetic field. The foHowing tyjKiS 



136 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. Ko. 5. 



of forces are passed in quick review : 1. 
An ordinary magnetic force due to the pres- 
ence of permanent magnetism. 2. Ordi- 
nary electrostatic force due to the presence of 
electrostatic charges. 3. Electromagnetic 
force consisting of four distinct components. 
One component is the electromagnetic ac- 
tion of the field upon conduction currents. 
The second component is the electromag- 
netic action of the field upon the displace- 
ment ciirrents. The third component cor- 
responds to the electromagnetic action of 
the field upon the cun-ents observed by 
Eowland and Roentgen. The fourth type 
of force is that between a variable current 
and the electrical reactions set up in the 
field by its variation. All these forces ex- 
cept the last have been observed experi- 
mentally. The last one is too feeble to be 
detected by anj^ of the known experimental 
methods. 

The work is, unfortunately, marred by 
quite a number of typographical errors. 
Some of them occur in the midst of important 
and rather diificult mathematical operations 
and will undoubtedly be a source of con- 
siderable perplexity to the younger students 
for whom, especially, this work is intended. 

The reviewer is of the opinion that he 
will reecho the sentiment of every lover 
of the Faraday-Maxwell electi-omagnetic 
theory Avhen he states that this, the latest, 
contribution of the brilliant Fi-ench mathe- 
matician will be a welcome guide to every- 
one who Mdshes to keep in close contact 
with the latest advances of the electro- 
magnetic theory. 

M. I. PupiN. 

Columbia College. 

The, Steam Engine and Other Heat Engines. 
By J. A. EwiNG, Professor of Mechanism 
and Applied Mechanics in the Universitj' 
of Cambridge. Cambridge Universitj' 
Press; ISTewYork, Macmillan&Co. 1894. 
8vo., pp. xiv + 400. Price, $3.75. 
Professor Ewing, in his article on the 



steam engine in the Encyclopaxliu Britannica, 
gave good measure to his ability and knowl- 
edge of the subject by the production of a^ 
ti-eatise in which, for the first time, a system- 
atic and fairty complete discussion was 
attempted of the theory of the real steam 
engine, as distinguished from the purely 
Thermodynamic Theory of the Ideal Heat 
Engine, which only had previously been 
presented by writers on that wonderful 
machine. Clark and Hirn and Iserwood 
had cleverly shown the wide discrepancy 
between the ideal and the real engine, and 
Cotterill had discussed with elegance and 
clearness the extra therm odjTiamic losses of 
the machine ; bu^t Ewing brought together, 
for the first time, and in such form as to 
make his discussion useful, to theorist and 
'practical man' and professional engineer 
alike, in the study of existing engines and 
in the attempt to improve upon them by 
scientifically accurate designing and con- 
struction. His article was a condensed, 
biit complete, exposition to its date, of 
scientific and practical knowledge of the 
methods of economical production of heat 
in the boiler, and of the economical thermo- 
djruamic utilization of the energj^ thus made 
available at the engine, with exact accounts 
of the various methods of waste of thennal 
and of dynamic energy. Had its author 
written nothing else, this article would have 
sufiiced to give him a full share of fame. 

His new treatise on the steam engine, now 
issued in book form, is based upon his earlier 
discussion, but is entirely rewi-itten to give 
it a shape better adapted to its present pur- 
pose, and to permit the introduction of new 
matter. " The endeavor has been, through- 
out, to make evident the bearing of theoiy 
on practical issues. ' ' Some space is devoted 
to experimental work and the discussion of 
facts and data revealed by it. In so con- 
densed a work it would have been impos- 
sible to introduce as complete a study of 
pure thermodynamics as maj' be found in 



Fkhruaey 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



137 



^\'ooll or Peabody. as full ti'eatment of the 
extra-tluTinodynaiiiic wastes as in Cotttn-ill, 
or of experimental mi'thods as in Carpenter : 
but the book exhibits much of that rarest of 
tiilents, ability to condense, and, for an 
abridged work, maintains an extraordinarily 
high standard of scientific quality. The 
discussion of the ' entropy-temperature ' di- 
agram of Professor J. Willard Gibbs, whieh 
is only now, after many years, finding its 
place in the treatment of the heat motors, 
is the fullest and most satisfactory yet pro- 
duced, not even excepting the work of its 
first trans-Atlantic ad\ocate, Mr. J. Mac- 
farlane Gray. This method of gi-ai)hical 
treatment is gradually finding its place, and 
a very useful one, in the discussion of tlier- 
modynamic machines. Following Wood 
and Peabody, and later writers, this author 
has adopted, in all his own computations, 
the value, 778. for the thermodynamic equiv- 
alent obtained bj- Rowland. It may prob- 
ably be safely asserted that this value is now 
universally accepted . 

The unavoidable brevity with which all 
topics are treated in so small a space gives 
the reader occasion, frequently, to wish that 
the volume had been doubled in size, and 
fuller discussion and more of result thus 
8eciU"ed ; but the book takes its place, among 
the many other treatises on the steam 
engine, as meeting a need that is being con- 
tinually felt more and more by engineers, 
and which is not as wt'll supplied bj' any 
other of the existing abridged discussions of 
the theory of the machine. It is well up to 
date in its practical aspects, as well as in 
the van on its purely scientific side. 

R. H. Thikstox. 

CORXKLL rXIVEKSITV. 

-Ill Introduction to Chemical Analy.'si-i for Be- 
ijlnners. — From the Sixth German Edition 
of Dr. Fr. RrnoRFK. — Translated bj' 
Chas. B. Gibson and F. Mex'/el.— Chi- 
cago, The W. J. Keent-r Co. S vo., '.»0 jip. 
Price 81.00 



This book is divided into two parts: Part 
I, Reacti(ms: and Part II. Systematic Course 
of Qualitative Analj-sis. Metallic copper is 
the first substance examined, and then fol- 
low copper, zinc, zinc chloride, manganous 
sulphate, iron, lead, etc., in the order named. 
A careful examination of this part fails to 
detect any gi-eat novelty either of matter or 
arrangement. In Part II the metals are 
grouped under the liiiniliar group reagents 
excejit that lead, mercury and silver are 
placed along with those precipitated by hj'- 
drogen sulfid and not, as is usual, separated 
under hydrochloric acid as gi'oup reagent. 
The scheme of analysis is well conceived, 
but offers little of novelty. The explana- 
tions and notes have been carefully adjusted 
to meet the needs of the student and are a 
valuable feature. The translation is, how- 
ever, a very slovenly piece of work, and the 
nomenclature is especially bad. For exam- 
ple, on page 72, we find ' amnionic ' sulfid 
written AnioS, and lower down we have 
NHjOH. Why the authors deny to bis- 
muth cobalt and nickel the ic terminations 
which they give to nearly all the other 
metallic salts is not apparent. Several very 
awkward sentences occur. For example, in 
the introduction, '• We have made a few ad- 
ditions calculated to assist the medical and 
dental student who sutfers mainly the dis- 
advantage of being unable to devote but a 
small part of his time to chemical stutlies." 

The mechanical execution of the book is 
pretty good. There is no index. 

Edward Hart. 

Lafayette Colleuk. 

NOTES AND NEWS. 
PALEOBOTANY. 

A LARGE collection of fossil plants m:ide bj- 
Professor W. P. Jenny in the Cretaceous 
rim of the Black Hills during the past field 
season has just been opened atthc Xational 
Museum and proves to be of the highest 
interest to paleontology. It was made under 



138 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



uniisual difficulties and in the pure love of 
science in connection with Professor Jen. 
ney's work as a mining expert in the Black 
Hills. All the material comes from the 
lower portion of what was regarded by 
Professor ISTewton as the Dakota group ; 
most of it from nearly the same horizon as 
that fi-om which the gigantic cycadean 
trunks now so well known and the small 
collection of plants made bj' Jenney and 
Ward in September, 1893, were obtained 
(see Journal of Geology for April-Maj', 1894, 
Vol. II., 1^0.. 3, pp. 250-266). The collec- 
tion has not yet been systematically worked 
up, but a casual examination of it shows that 
the plants have no relation to the true Da- 
kota group, but are certainly as old as Lower 
Cretaceoiis and are probably of Kootanie 
age. The genera Gleichenia,Cladophl6bis, Za- 
mites, Athrotaxopsis, and many others char- 
acteristic of the Kootanie, the Trinity and 
the Potomac formations are represented, 
vrhile no dicotyledonous leaves occur. Upon 
the whole they may be considered as a com- 
plete confirmation of the conclusion previ- 
ously reached that the Dakota group of 
Newton must be subdivided and that a 
large portion of it belongs to the Lower Cre- 
taceous. Professor Jenney is able to sepa- 
rate it into five distinct horizons, only the 
uppermost of which belongs to the Dakota 
of Meek and Hay den, between which and 
the underlying beds he finds an uncon- 
formity. 

Mr. Lester F. "Ward delivered two lec- 
tures on Jan. 8 and 10 before the Peabody 
Institute of Baltimore, on the Vegetation of 
the Ancient World, illustrated by over fiftj'^ lan- 
tern views. These were arranged in such a 
manner as to pass in review in their ascend- 
ing geological order all the fossil floras 
known from the Silurian to the Pleistocene. 
The greater part of the illustrations were 
di'awn from American matei'ial, and all the 
great plant bearing horizons of North Amer- 



ica were represented by groups of typical 
and characteristic forms. Special attention 
was given to the wonderful fossil forests of 
this country, and especially of the National 
Yellowstone Park. The fossil flora of the 
Potomac formation, and particularlj' that of 
the State of Marjdand and the City of Bal- 
timore, were duly emphasized. Interspersed 
mth these more scientific illustrations there 
were thrown on the screen a number of the 
magnificient ideal landscapes conceived and 
executed by the gxeat scientific artists, 
Unger, Heer, Saporta and Dawson. The 
lectures were well adapted to give to the 
general public a systematic and compre- 
hensive view of the forms of plant life that 
have inhabited the earth and especially 
those that have flourished in America 
throughout the past ages of geological 
time. 

A TOPOGRAPHICAL ATLAS. 

The Director of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey has recently submitted to 
the Secretary of the Interior an amendment 
to the ' Sundry Civil Bill,' now before Con- 
gress, authorizing the printing and distri- 
bution of an atlas of ten topograpliical map- 
sheets to the schools, academies and colleges 
of the country, the proposed atlas to contain 
illustrations of the various tj^pes of topo- 
gTaphical form observed in the country, and 
to be accompanied bj' an explanatory bul- 
letin which will serve as a primer of topog- 
raphy for school use. 

If the amendment is carried, and the at- 
las meets the approval of teachers, it is pro- 
posed to distribute additional series in later 
j^ears. Those who are interested in the ad- 
vance of geography in the schools cannot 
do better than promptly to address their 
Congressman, asking for support of this ex- 
cellent proposition. It is iu effect an econ- 
omical measure, for it will at a moderate 
cost give a wide and novel use to a large 
amount of material that has been gathered 
at great expense, and that is now stored 



Feiiruary 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



139 



in the office of the Geological Survey, 
awiiiting a limited distribution some yeai-s 
hence. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AMEKKVVX BOTAXY. 

The Bibliography Committee of American 
botanists has just completed its first year of 
organized work in the production of an 
author catalogue of papers relating to 
American Botany. This has been printed 
in the monthly issues of the Bulletin of the 
Torreij Bot<niie(iI Club and then reprinted on 
library cards by the Cambridge Botanical 
Supplj- Co. The editors have endeavored 
to make the record as complete as possible 
and it includes 57-5 titles. The commit- 
tee and the editors earnestlj- request that 
their attention be called to omissions and 
that all interested aid in insuring complete- 
ness. 

Foreign botanists are particularly re- 
quested to call our attention to any of their 
writings which refer to American plants. 
Communications may be addressed to the 
Editor of the Torrey Botanical Club, Co- 
lumbia College, New York City. 



Ox January 10th, Dr. George M. Dawson. 
C. M. G., F. R. S., was appointed Director 
of the Geological Survey of Canada, suc- 
ceeding Dr. Sehvjn, retired. 

The next annual meeting of the Briti.sh 
Association for the Advancement of Science 
will be held at Ipswich, commencing on 
Wednesday. September 11th. Sir Douglas 
Galton is President-elect. 

AccoRDiXG to the daily papers a paity 
composed of Prof. Cliarles E. Hite, Alfred 
C. Harrison, .Jr., Henry C. AV'alsh and Dr. 
J. Donnell McDonald sailed on Wednesday 
to Central America with a view to obtaining 
natural history and archaeological col- 
lections. The expedition is under the au- 
spices of the biological department of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS. 
AMERICAN CHEMICAL JOURNAL, JAN. 

Contributtom from the Laboratory of General 
Chemistry, University of Michigan : — (1) On 
the Action of Chlorcarbonic Jester on Sodium 
Acetone: By Paul C. Freer. (2) The 
Action of Metals on Xitric Acid : By George 
O. Higley. (3) .1)1 Introductory Study of 
the Influence of the Substitution of Halogens 
in Acids, upon the Hate and Limit of Ester- 
Ification : By D. M. Lichty". (4) On the 
Action of Sodium on the Esters of Aconitic 
and Citric Acids. Preliminary Xotice, by 
Paul C. Freer. 

The Combination of Sulphur with Iodine: By 
C. E. Lixebarger. 

Contributions from the Chemical Laboratories 
of the Masmchu.ietts Institute of Technology : — 
An Investigation of the Twitchell Method for 
the Determination of Bosin in Soap : By 
Thomas Evaxs and I. E. Beach. 

A Laboratory Method for the Preparation of 
I'ota.i.mim Fericyanide : By M. S. W.\lker. 
Beviews. 

THE PHYSICAL REVIEWS, JAN.-FEB. 

The Apparent Forces between Fine Solid Par- 
ticles Totally Immer-^ed in Liquids — /; W. 
J. A. Bliss. 

The Distribution of Energy in the Spectrum of 
the Glow-lamp : Edward L. Nichol-s. 

The Influence of Heat and the Electric Current 
upon Young's Modulus for a Piano Wire: 
Mary C. Noyes. 

Minor Contributions: (1) On Magnetic Poten- 
tial: Frederick Bedell. (2) ,1 Method 
for the Study of Transmi.<sion Spectra in the 
Ultra-violet: Erxe.st Nichols. (3) The 
Photography of Manometric Flames: Wil- 
liam H.VLLOCK. 

THE AMERICAN XATURALI8T, JAN. 

Birds of Xew Guinea : George S. Mead. 
Leuci.'>cus Balfeatus (Bichardson), A Study in 
Variation: Carl H. Eigenmann. 



140 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 5. 



On the Evolution of the Art of Working in Stone : 

J. D. McGuiEE. 
Recent Books and Pamphlets; Recent Literature. 

General Notes : Mineralogy. Petrography . 

Geography and Travels. Botany. Zoology. 

Embrxjology . Entomology. Psychology. Ar- 

chceology and Ethnology. Microscopy. 
Scientific News. 

THE BOTANICAL GAZETTE, JAN. 

Undescribed Plants from Guatemala and other 
Central American Republics, XIV. ( With 
plates I-III.) John Donnell Smith. 

Notes from my Herbarium : Waltee Deane. 

The crystallization of cellulose. Duncan S. 
Johnson. 

Noteworthy anatomical and physiological re- 
searches. 

Briefer Articles; Editorial; Current Litera- 
ture ; Open Letters ; Notes and Neivs. 

the AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, JAN. 

Stone Art in America : By J. W. Powell. 
The Huaeos of Chira Valley, Peru : By Samuel 

Mathewson Scott. 
Caste in India : By J. H. Poetee. 

Miemae Customs and Traditions : By Stans- 

BUET HaGEE. 

The Writings of Padre Andres de Olmos in the 
Languages of Mexico : By James C. Pilling. 
Chinese Origin of Playing Cards : By W. H. 

Wilkinson. 
Col. Garrick Mallery, U. S. A .; an Obituary : 

By EoBEET Fletchee. 
Book Notices ; Notes and Neivs ; Bibliography of 

Anthropologic Literature. 



NEW BOOKS. 



A Text-book of Organic Chemistry. A. Bbknth- 
SEN. Translated by Geoege McGowan. 
London, Blackie & Sons ; N"ew York, D. 
Van Nostrand. 1894. Pp.xix+596. $2.50. 

A Text-book of Mechanics and Hydrostatics. 
Heebeet Hancock. New York, D. Van 
Nostrand. 1894. Pp. v + 408. $1.75. 

A Treatise of Industrial Photometry loith Special 
Application to Electric Lighting. A. Palaz. 



Translated from the French by Geoege 
W. Patteeson, Je., and Meeib Kowley 
Patteeson. N"ew York, D. Van N'ost=> 
rand ; London, Sampson Low, Marston & 
Co. Limited. 1894. Pp. vii + 322. $4.00. 

Proceedings of the International Electrical Con- 
gress held in the City of Chicago, August 2ht 
to 25th, 1893. New York, ^4merican In- 
stitute of Electrical Engineers. 1894. Pp. 
xxiv + 487. 

The Life and Writings of Rafinesque. Eich- 
AED Ellsworth Call. Louisville, Ky., 
Filson Club Publications, X. Quarto, 
pp. xii + 227. 

History of Higher Education in Rhode Island. 
William Stowe Tolman. WasMngton, 
Government Printing OflRce. 1894. Pp. 
210. 

The Birds of Eastern Pennsylvania and Neiv 
Jersey. Witmee Stone. Philadelphia, 
Delaware Valley Ornithological Club. 
1894. Pp. vi + 185. 

An Illustrated Dictionary of Medicine, Biology 
and Allied Sciences. George M. Gould. 
Philadelphia, P. Blackiston & Sons. 
1894. XV + 1633. 

Municipal Government in Gi'eat Britain. Al- 
BEET Shaw. New York, The Century 
Co. Pp. 385. $2. 

Eine Discussion der Krdfte der Chemischen Dy- 
namik. Ludwig Stettenheimee. Frank- 
fort, H. Bechhold. 1895. Pp. 85. M. 6. 

On the Origin of Language and The Logos 
Theory. Ludwig Noiee. Chicago, Open 
Court Publishing Co. 1895. Pp.57. 15 
cents. 

Geological Survey of Alabama. Eugene Al- 
len Smith. Montgomery, Alabama, The 
Brown Printing Co. 1894. xxiv + 759 ; 
also Geological Map of Alabama. 

Freytag's Technique of the Drama. Trans- 
lated by Elias J. MacEwan. Chicago, S. 
C. Griggs & Co. 1895. Pp. ix + 366. 

Social Groivth and Stability. D. Ostrander. 
Chicago, S. C. Griggs & Co. 1895. Pp. 
191. $1. 



SCIENCE. 



Vkw Series. 
Vol.1. No. 6. 



Friday, February 8, 1895. 



Single Copies, 15 era. 
Annual Subscription, (5.00. 



QUSTAV E. STECHERT'S 

Recent Importation of Scientific Books. 



Abhandlungen, physikalische, der konigl. Aka- 
deinie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 4°. Mit. 1 Taf. 
Mk. 10. 

Bois, Dr. H. nu. Mafinetische Kreise, deren The- 
orie nnd Anwendung. Mit 94 in den Text gedmck- 
ten Abbildungen. gr. 8". Gebundeu. Mk. 10. 

Chbistiaxsex, Prof. Dk. C, Elemente der theo- 
retischen Physik. Deutsch v. Dr. Joli. Miiller. Mit 
e. Vorwort v. Prof. Dr. E. Wiedemann, gr. 8°. Mk. 
10. 

Deude, p. Physik des Aethers aiif elektromag- 
netischer Grundlage. 8". Mit 66 AbbUdgn. Mk. 14. 

FiiPl'L, Prof. Dr. A., Einfiilirung in die Maxwell- 
'sche Theorie der Elektricitat. Mit. e. Einleit. Ab- 
schnitte iibcr das Rechnen ni. Vectorgriissen in der 
Physik. gr. 8". Mk. 10. 

Gaexault, E. Mecani(|iie, physique et chimie. 
Paris, 1894. 8°. Avec. 325 fig. 8 fr. 

KoRX, Dr. Arthur. Eine Tlieorie der Gravita- 
tion und dt-r elektrischen Ei-scheinungen au{ Grund- 
lage der Hydrodynaniik. Zweiter Teil: Eli-ktrody- 
namik. Erett-r Absclmitt. 'Hieorie des permaneuten 
Magnetismus und der konstauten elektrischen Stiiime. 
gr. 8°. Mk. 3. 

Webkk. Sechster Band. Mechanik der mensch- 
lichen (JilnM-rkzeuge. Besorgt durch Fi'iedrich Mer- 
kel und ( Uto Kiwlier. Mit 17 Tiifeln und in den Text 
ge<lrui-ktiii Abbililungen. gr. 8". Mk. 16. 

Webku's Wkkkk, WiLiiKLsr. Heransigcgeben von 
der Kiinigliclien (Jcscllstliaft der Wis.senschaften zu 
Oiittingen. Vicrtt-r P^md Galvanismus und f^lektro- 
dynamik. Zweiter Teil. Besorgt dureh Heinricli 
Weber. Mit 4 Tafeln und in den Text gedruckten 
Abbildungen. gr. 8°. Mk. 16. 

WiEDEMAXX, GrsTAV. Die Lelire der Elektriz- 
itiit. Zweite uragearbeitete und vcrmehrte Auflijge. 
Zugleich als vierte Auflage der Lehre voni Galvanis- 
II1U8 nnd ElektroniagnetisMius. Zweiter Biind. Mit 
163 HoIzs<linitten und einer Tafcl. gr. 8". Mk. 28. 

CHEMISTRY. 

BiECHELE, Dr. Max., Pharmacentische Uebungs- 
praparate. Anleitung zur Darstellnng, Erkennung, 
Priifung nnd st<ichionietri.'i(lien Berechnung von of- 
fizinellen chemisch-jjhannaoeutischen Priiparaten. 8". 
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BujARn Db. Alkoss, und Db. Eduabd Baiee. 
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lage der Vorschriften, betreflend die Priifung der 
Nahrungsmittelcheniiker. Jlit in den Text gedruck- 
ten Abbildungen. 8". Gebunden. Mk. 8. 

Eelenmeyer's, E., Lehrbuch der organischen 
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Begonnen von lich. Jlcyer fortgesetzt von H. Gold- 
schmidt, weiter fortgefiihrt von K. v. Buchka. I. Bd. 
8 Lfg. Mk. 6. 

Geisslee, Dr. Ewald. Gmndriss der pharma- 
ceutisclien Massanalyse. Mit Beriicksielitigung ein- 
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Zweite verbesserte und venuehrte Anflage. Mit 37 
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den. Mk. 4. 

2896. GiRAEl), C, et. A. Dupre. Analyse des 
juati^res alimentaires et recherche de leurs falsifica- 
tions. 8". 32 fr. 50c. 

Glucksmaxx, Karl. Kritisclie Studien im Be- 
reiche der Fundanientalanscbauungen der ttieoretisch- 
en Chemie. Zweiter Teil: Uber die Molekularhypo- 
these. 8". Mk. 2.30. 

HAXDwiiRTERBUCH DER Cheuhe, herau.sgegeben 
von A. Ladenburg. XII. Bd. 8". Mit Holzschn. S. 
Nr. 2532. Mk. 16. 

JACQUOT, E. et WiLJl, Les Eaux min<!rales de la 
France. Etudes ehiniifiucs et g^'ologiques. 8°. Aveo 
carte et 21 fig. 20 fr. 

J.VHRESBEEICHT liber die Leistungcn derchemisch- 
en Technologie m. bo,sond. Beriicksicht. der Gewerbe- 
statistik f. d. J. 1893. Jahrg. 1— XXV bearb. von 
R. V. AVagner. Fortgesetz v. Dr. Ferd. Fischer. 39. 
od. neue Folge. 24 Jalirg. gr. 8". M. 200 Abbildgn. 
Mk. 24. 

CEcHSXER DE CoxNicK. Cours de chimie organ- 
ique. 2 vol. 8". Fr.20. 

O.STWALD, W. Die wi.ssenschaftlichen Grundlagen 
der analytischen Cliemie. 8". Mk. 4. 

OsTWALD, W. Elektrochemie. Hire Geschichte 
xind Lehre. 3. u. 4. Lfg. 8°. Mit Abbildgn. il Mk. 2. 

RicilTER's, V. v., Cliemie der Kohlenstoffverbin- 
dungen od. organische Chemie. 7. Aufl. Neubearb. 
V. Prof. Dr. R. Ansthiitz. (In2B<ln.) 1. Btl. Die 
Chemie der Fettkiirper. 8". Holschn. Mk. 10. 

ScilXELLER, K. Reactionen und Reagentien. Ein 
Handbuch fiir Aerzte, Analytiker, Apotheker und 
Chemiker. I. Bd. 8». Mk. 6. 

ZiRKEL, Prof. Dr. Ferdikaxd. Lehrbuch der 
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Electrical Papers. 

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MACMILLAN & CO., 66 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



SCIENCE. 



EniTORiAL Committee : S. NEWCom, Mathematics ; R. S. Woodward, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, As- 
tronomy ; T. C. Mexdenhall, Physics ; R. H. Thfrston, Engineering ; Ira Remsen, Cliemistry ; 
Joseph Le Coxte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. Marsh, Paleontology; W. K. 
Beooks, Invertebrate Zoology ; C. Hart Merriaji, Vertebrate Zoology ; N. L. Brittoit, 
Botany ; Henry F. Osbors, General Biology ; H. P. Bowditch, Physiology ; 
J. S. BiLLlXGS, Hygiene ; J. McKeex Cattell, Psychology ; 
Daniel G. Brixton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, February 8, 1895. 



CONTENTS: 

An Hisloriial Stirre!/ of the Science of Mechanics: 
R. S. Woodward 141 

The Fire Sooks of Hislon/ : J. W. Powell 157 

Unity of Xomenclaturc in Zoology and Botany: 
C. Hart Merriam 161 

Scientific Literature : — 162 

Can an Organ inm icilhoiit a Mother he Bom 
from an Egg ! W. K. B. Sc?torleinmcr' s Bise 
ami Development of Organic Chemistry : Edgar 
F. Smith. 

Notes and News : — 164 

Hygiene; Physien ; Anatomy; C4irniroroiis 
Plants; Toads on the Seashore ; General. 

Societies and Academies : — 166 

Nctc I'ork Academy of Sciences, Section of Bi- 
ology ; Biological Society of Washington. 

Scientific Journals 168 

New Books 168 

MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended 
for review should be sent to the responsible editor. Prof. J. 
McKeen Cattell, Garrison on Hudson, N. Y. 

Subscriptions ( five dollars annually ) and advertisements 
■faould be sent to the Publisher of Science, 41 East49tb St., 
New York, or Lancaster, Pa. 



AN HISTORICAL SUR VEV OF THE SCIENCE OF 
MECHANICS.* 
Olk age is at once the age of excessive 
specialization and the age of excessive popu- 
larization of science. Every smallest field 
of scientific activity lias its gleaners and 
classifiers and builders of technical termin- 
ology. The workers in each field proceed, 
as a rule, without much regard to the iuter- 

*Ad(lress delivered by Professor R. S. Woodward, 
at a meeting of the New York Academy of Sciences, 
November 26, 1894. 



ests and objects of the workers in adjoining 
fields, and it may easily happen that the 
precise and lucid, if not romantic, literature 
current in one field will be wadl-nigh uuiii- 
telligible in another. So far, indeed, lias 
this specialization gone that the various 
classes of specialists have but little common 
ground on which to meet, and it is some- 
times difficult, if not impossible, for them to 
dwell together in peace and harmony. In 
a general scientific assembly, for example, 
the naturalists feel great uneasiness in lis- 
tening to a paper from a mathematician or 
physicist, while the latter are almost certain 
to seek relief in the open air from the de- 
pression induced in them by the wealth of 
terminology essential to the descrij)tiou of a 
new species. The general public, on the 
other hand, busy tliough it be with multi- 
farious aSairs, is tpiick to appreciate the re- 
sults of science and eager to know liow thej' 
have been attained. To meet this legiti- 
mate demand for information, scientific and 
pseudo-scientific men have given us a flood 
of popular literature explaining almost ev- 
ery discovery, principle. theoiy,and specula- 
tion known to .scientific thought. Nay more, 
and worse, tliis popularization has gone so 
far that many have come to tliink that 
the royal road to learning has been found ; 
tliat it is only necessary, in fact, to acquire 
a little of the technical terminology, to read 
a few books, and to witness a few pjTOtech- 
nic experiments to come into pos,session of 



142 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



sound knowledge. Thus we hear of uni- 
versity courses in science carried on by cor- 
respondence and completed in a few weeks 
or a few months. The professional popular- 
izer has been developed. He expounds sci- 
ence from the platform and through the 
the press ; and there is no subject so ab- 
struse as to deter him from producing a 
treatise on it in sixty days. Verily, it may 
be said, whosoever hungers for the bread 
of science may find an abundance ready 
made ; but out of this abundance few are 
able to select the real staff of scientific life. 
As a worker in one of the narrow fields of 
scientific thought, I find myself in diffi- 
culties to-night in seeking to say something 
which may be at the same time interesting 
and instructive concerning a science which 
is more than twenty centuries old, but which 
has rarely if ever attracted much popular 
attention. How to steer clear of the rocks 
of obtrusive technicality, on the one hand, 
and of the shoals of popularization on the 
other, is, you will no doiibt agree with me, 
a rather appalling task. Moreover, there 
are special reasons why you might expect 
the science of mechanics to be the driest if 
not the dullest of subjects for a popular 
discourse. One reason lies in the fact that 
those who, from accident or force of circum- 
stances, find themselves obliged to pursue 
the study of mechanics seriously for a few 
months in college, are wont to celebrate the 
completion of such studj^ by making this 
science the subject of mock funeral rites or 
by relegating it to the bonfires of oblivion. 
Another reason finds expression in a very 
common notion, even among highly edu- 
cated people, that the mathematico-ph j^sical 
sciences are like so many highl}^ perfected 
mills whose remorseless and monotonous 
grinding soon converts their operators into 
mere automatons destitute of every hiiman 
sentiment and deaf to every human song. 
In explanation of this notion, at a conven- 
tion of professional educators held in this 



cit3' about a year ago, a distingaiished 
college president said with appropriate 
solemnitj' : — "The line AB cuts the line CD^ 
at right angles. "Who ever shed tears over 
such a proposition as that? " he went on ; 
and after the applause which followed had 
subsided he added, " and who ever laughed 
at su^ch a j)roposition before? " 

Notwithstanding these unfavorable au- 
spices and the profound embarrassment 
they entail, I have ventured to invite your 
attention for the hour to some of the salient 
features of mechanical science, and to the 
element of human nature which is indisso- 
lubly connected mth this as with every de- 
partment of orderly knowledge; believing 
that neither the cold facts of the science nor 
the hard reasoning of its expounders can 
be devoid of interest when recounted in our 
A^ernacular. 

In oiir search for the beginnings of a 
science we look always for the person who 
first formulated one or more of its principles 
in a way intelligible to his fellow men. 
The law of progress admonishes us that 
such a person is not necessarily or generally 
the sole discoverer, for ideas grow by slow 
accretions and become susceptible of clear 
statement only after being entertained in 
many minds. But of the manj^ who think 
of the laws of nature few reach the high 
plane of generalization, and it thus happens 
that the duly accredited originators of any 
science are usuallj^ small in number and 
scattered through a long lapse of time. 
The name which deserves first mention in 
the history of mechanics is that of Arclii- 
medes. He was not only the founder of 
the science of mechanics, but he was also 
the first theoretical engineer. Indeed, he 
may be said to have laid the foxmdation for 
mechanics and engineering so securely with 
the cement of sound mathematics that its 
stability has sufficed for the weighty super- 
structure reared during the succeeding 
twenty centuries. He knew how to weigh 



February 8, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



143 



and to measure and how to work out the 
numerical relations of things ; and it is a sin- 
gular fact, that in an age when fancy ran riot 
and when men were able to put together 
fine phrases without troublmg themselves 
much with the ideas which ought to accom- 
pany their words, tliat Archimedes should 
have concenti-ated his attention on such un- 
poetic things as the principle of the hand- 
spike and the crowbar, and the laws of hy- 
drostatics. His appreciation of the doctrine 
of the handspike and crowliar, or of the 
lever as it is technically called, was worthy 
of its far-reaching consequences ; and the 
saying attriltutcd to hira — '' Give me a ful- 
crum on which to rest and I will move the 
earth " — is a favorite though commonly 
ill-undei-stood popular expression of his 
most important contribution to mechanical 
science. 

For whatever purpose we read history, 
we are continually reminded that the ab- 
sorbing occupation of liumauity has lieen 
fighting one another. The thirst for blood 
and butchery has always been, and we fear 
still is, greater than the thirst for knowledge. 
Thus it was in the days of Archimedes : and 
although devoted to those abstract studies 
which engender no malice toward men, he 
served his king and country by building 
engines of destruction, and perished finally 
at the hands of a Roman soldier in the mas- 
sacre which followed the fall of Syracuse. 

The slowness of the growth of ideas and 
the blight upon scientific thought which fol- 
lowed the decay of the Grecian and Roman 
civilizations are forcibly l>rought to mind by 
the fa<'t that scarcely an increment to me- 
chanical .science was attained during the 
eigliteeu hundred years which elapsed be- 
tween the epoch of Archimedes and the 
epoch of Cialileo. But, as if in compensa- 
tion for this long period of darkness, the 
torch of science relighted by Galileo has 
burned on with increasing intensity until 
now its radiance illumes almost everv 



thought and action of our daily life. The 
fame of Galileo in the popular mind rests 
chieHy on his invention of the telescoije and 
on his battle with the Church in the field of 
astronomy. But he was able to see things 
at short as well as at long range ; and his 
obsei-vations on the vil)rating chandelier in 
the cathedral at Pisa and on the laws of 
falling bodies must be rated as of much 
higher value than his discoveiy of the satel- 
lites of Jupiter. The peculiar merit of those 
observations lay in the fi\ct that they led 
him to correct notions of the properties of 
moving masses, and of the behavior of mat- 
ter under the action of force. Archimedes 
had dealt with matter in a state of relative 
rest, or with statics only. Galileo rose to 
the higher concept of matter in motion, and 
founded that branch of mechanics now 
known as dynamics. 

It seems strange at first thought when we 
look back through the light of modern an- 
alysis on these advances that they should 
hav'e been so slowly achieved and still more 
slowly accepted and utilized. "We must re- 
member, however, that the elaboration of 
the principles which Galileo added to our 
science involved the removal of much scho- 
lastic rubbisli. It was essential first of all 
to establish the validity of precise and 
correct observation. He had to recognize 
that in .studying the laws of falling bodies 
the most important ([uestion was not ivhtj 
they fall but hoic they fall. In doing this 
he set an example which has ever since 
been followed with success in the investi- 
gation of the phenomena of nature. Con- 
sidering the times in which he lived, the 
amount of work he accomplished is little 
short of prodigious. For besides his capital 
contributions to mechanics and astronomy, 
he was the founder of our modem engineer- 
ing science of tlie strength and resistance of 
materials, a science which has recently 
grown into a great department of mechanics 
under the title of the mathematical theorv of 



144 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



elasticitJ^ Thus, like Ai-chimedes, he ad- 
ded to the practical side of science ; indeed, 
a rude woodcut in one of his discourses, 
showing a beam built into a stone wall and 
loaded with a weight at the free end, proves 
that he had no scorn for common things and 
gives the key to a long line of subsequent 
researches. He was also the inventor of 
the thermometer, the hydi'ostatic balance, 
and the proportional dividers, all of which 
instruments are still in use ; and for the 
edification of those who think the pursuit 
of his favorite studies leaves no room for the 
play of the fancy, it should be mentioned 
that he found time to give popular lectures 
on the site and dimensions of Dante's 
Inferno. 

Although it is an axiom of modern phil- 
osophy that coincidence of events is no ade- 
quate evidence of their connection, yet there 
seems to be an innate tendency of the mind 
to anticipate a relation between nearlj- si- 
multaneous occurrences and to attach much 
importance to them when they are historic- 
ally allied. It is one of the curious coinci- 
dences in the liistorj^ of the founders of me- 
chanics that the year of Galileo's death is 
also the year of Newton's birth. Thus it 
might seem that Nature took care that 
G-alileo should have a fitting successor. 

During the interval of nearly a hundred 
years which elapsed between the epoch of 
Galileo and the period of Newton's activity, 
not a few philosophers added to the growth 
of mechanical science. Most conspicuous 
among these was Huyghens, who distin- 
guished himself as a mathematician, astron- 
omer, mechanician, and physicist. Of his 
varied and valuable contributions to these 
departments of knowledge, what would 
strike the general reader as least worthy of 
attention was really of the highest import- 
ance. Nothing is commoner now than the 
pendulum clock. The town clock and Grand- 
father's clock are so proverbial that few 
would suppose that a grand treatise could 



ever have been written about such a com- 
monplace mechanism. But true it is that 
Hu3'ghens, taking up Galileo's discoverj'' of 
the near isochronism of the swinging chande- 
lier, not oulj' produced a working pendulum 
clock, but also a great theory of it. The 
introduction of this instrument for the exact 
measurement of time made the subsequent 
progress of astronomj^ possible, while his 
theorj' of the oscillating pendulum has been 
justly called the true prelude to Newton's 
Principia. The laws of vibration indeed 
play a wonderfully important role in the 
science of mechanics, and it may be said 
that he who understands the doctrine of the 
pendulum in all its phases has in his posses- 
sion the key to the secrets of nearly every 
mechanical system from the common clock 
to the steam engine, and from the steam 
engine to the solar sj'stem. "Well may we 
retain the euphonious title of Horologium 
Oscillatorimn for this important memoir of 
Huj'ghens. 
Chaucer — 

" Dau Chaucer, the first -warbler, whose sweet breath 
Prehided those melodious bursts that fill 
The spacious times of great Elizabeth 
With sounds that echo still, ' ' 

has been called the Father of English litera- 
ture. In a broader sense, because not lim- 
ited by language, we maj' regard Newiion as 
the Father of Natural Philosojjhy. 

It was the happj^ lot of Newton to attain 
these brilliant achievements. First and 
greatest of these was the well nigh perfect 
statement of the laws of djaiamics ; the sec- 
ond was the discoverj' of the law of gravi- 
tation ; and the third M'as the invention of 
a calculus required to develop the conse- 
quences of the other two. As we have 
seen, however, the laws of matter and mo- 
tion were not unknown to the predecessors 
and contemporaries of Newton. Galileo, in 
fact, discovered the first two, and the third 
in one form or another was kno-mi to Hooke, 
Huyghens and others ; but it was the pecu- 



Febkl'ABY 8, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



145 



liar work of Newton to state these laws so 
clearly and fully that the lapvse of two cen- 
turies has suggested little, if any, improve- 
ment. 

What, then, are these laws, you may en- 
((uire ? Let me turn them into the ^•ernacu- 
lar. The first two assert that matter never 
starts off on a journey without solicitation ; 
having once started it never changes its 
speed or direction unless forced to do so ; 
when put to this extremity, it shows perfect 
impartiality to every deflecting force ; and 
linally, it never stops unless arrested. Add 
to these the obvious fact that action and re- 
action are equal and opposite, and we have 
a body of doctrine which, simple as it may 
seem, appears to l)e coextensive with the 
material universe. It must be admitted, of 
course, that a mere comprehension of these 
laws does not suflice to make a mechani- 
cian. Between these stepping stones and 
the table-land from which Newton looked 
out on the order of nature there is a long 
and steep ascent ; but whoso would scale 
the heights must go by waj' of these step- 
ping stones. 

The law of gi-avitation, though commonly 
considered the greatest of Newton's achieve- 
ments, is, in reality, far less worthy of dis- 
tinction than his foundation for mechanics. 
Its chief merit lay in the clear perception 
of the application of the law to the smallest 
particles of matter, for the mere notion of 
gravitation l)etween finite masses was fa- 
miliar to his contemporaries ; in fact, accord- 
ing to Newton's own statement, the law of 
inverse squares as applicable to such masses 
was within the reach of any mathematician 
some years before the publication of the 
I'r'iitcipia. 

A matter of the greatest importance in 
the historj- of Newton's work relates not so 
much to the substance as to the form of it. 
It is now known that the grand results 
bnmght (mt in his I'rincipia were reached 
chietlv bv means of his calculus, or fluxions. 



as he called it, a contribution to science 
hardly less important than either of his 
others. But the fi\shion of his day did not 
favor reasoning h\ means of infinitesimals, 
tho.se mysterious increments and decre- 
ments which the learned and eloquent Bish- 
op Berkeley a half century later called 
* the ghosts of departed «iuantities.' The 
fa.shion, or rather prejudice, of Newton's 
daj^ was strongly in favor of geometrical 
reasoning ; and it would seem that he 
felt constrained to translate the results to 
which his calculus led him into geometrical 
language. It was desirable, he thought, 
that the system of the heavens should i)e 
founded on good geometry. Subsequent 
history shows that this course was an ill- 
judged one. The geometrical method of 
the I'rincipia renders it cumbersome, prolix, 
and on the whole rather repulsive to the 
modern reader; and the only justification 
which appears at all adequate for the ex- 
clusive adoption of this method, lies in the 
fact that his fellow countrymen would not 
have readily appreciated the more elegant 
and vastly more comprehensive analytical 
method. The result was very unfavorable 
to the growth of mechanical science in his 
own country. The seed he sowed took root 
on the continent and has ever since grown 
J[)est in French and German .soil. Accord- 
ing to Prof. Glaisher, in an address deliv- 
ered by him at the celebration of tlie 20(»th 
anniversary of the publication of Newton's 
great work, " the geometrical form of the 
I'rincipia exercised a disastrous influence 
over mathematical studies at Cambridge 
T^niversity for nearly a century and a half, 
by giving rise to a mistaken idea of the re- 
lative power of analytical and geometrical 
processes." 

Readers of Knglisb mathematical text 
l)ooks and treatises can hardly fail to notice 
that the bias they show for gcometncal 
methods, and especially for the formal, 
Euclidean mode of presentation, in which 



146 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. G, 



the procession of ideas too frequently con- 
sists of formidable groups of painfullj'' ac- 
curate and technical paragraphs labelled 
Peoposition, Coeollaey and Scholium. 
This formalism leads to a strained and un- 
attractive Uterary style, which frequently 
degenerates into intolerable complexity and 
obscurity. It is against this sort of 'logic- 
chopping' that most minds rebel, against 
this excessive attention to the husks rather 
than to the kernel of the subject. Another 
and equally serious result of the apotheosis 
of pure geometry is the tendency to magnifj^ 
the importance of ideal problems and the 
work of problem solving. The exclusive 
pursuit of such aimless puzzles constitutes 
the platitude of mathematical research, 
though it often happens that the devotees 
to this species of work are mistaken for 
mathematicians and natural philosophers. 
It is not specially difficult in our day to 
understand how a mind of N"ewton's capac- 
ity should achieve so many important re- 
sults. The simple fact is that he possessed 
just such powers of obseiwation and reiiec- 
tion as were needed to correlate the facts 
his predecessors and contemporaries had 
collected; and the most instructive lesson 
of his life to us is the success which attended 
the industrious application of those powers. 
But, on the other hand, it cannot be said 
that the circumstances of his life were very 
propitious for his work, or that he availed 
himself to the fullest extent of his opportu- 
nities. His favorite studies were, in fact, 
pursued somewhat fitfully, and not always 
with a just appreciation of their merits. 
Possessing to a painful degree that modest}^ 
which is born of a knowledge of things, he 
shrunk from the controversy into which his 
discoveries di-ew him ; and it appears prob- 
able that his Princijyia would never have 
been written had not his friend Halley 
urged him on to the marvelous feat which 
brought out that masterpiece in less than 
two years' time. The demand for works on 



natural philosophy in his day and the ap- 
preciation of the public for natural philoso- 
phers may be inferred from the fact that 
neither Newton nor the Eoyal Society of 
London, to which liis great work was dedi- 
cated, was able to furnish the funds essential 
to print an edition of 250 cojiies. The en- 
tire expense of this first edition was born by 
Halley, who maj' thus be justly called the 
discoverer of his more famous fellow- 
countryman. In such hard times and under 
such depressing circumstances, it is not 
strange that ]S"ewton should have sought 
and obtained a position in the public service; 
though it seems a pity that one of the great- 
est of philosophers, one who said his head 
never ached except when studying the 
mechanics of the motions of the moon, 
should have busied himself during his 
declining years with the dreary details of 
fiscal business as master of the mint. 

The period of about a hundred years 
which followed the epoch of the culmina- 
tion of Newton's acti\'ity is remarkable for 
the diversitj' of mechanical problems to 
which mathematicians devoted their atten- 
tion. The discoveries of Newton comprised 
and superseded the discoveries of Coperni- 
cus and Kepler. The sun with his planets 
and the planets with their satellites became 
grand mechanical systems under the law of 
gravitation. But a crowd of additional 
consequences of this law demanded serious 
study and ijrolonged observation. ]S^e^vton 
had seen that the gravitation and rotation 
of the earth ought to make it flattened at 
the poles. To test this question it was es- 
sential to devise ways and means for measur- 
ing the size and shape of the earth. Out of 
this necessity grew the science of geodesy. 
Maupertius and Clairaut had to be sent to 
Lapland, and Bouguer and La Condamine 
to Peru to measure arcs of meridian before 
definite ideas of the figure and dimensions 
of our planet were attained. The preces- 
sion of the equinoxes had been discovered 



Febriaby 8, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



147 



by Hipparcluis. Tliq . law of gravitation 
supplied a reason for this phenomenon ; 
but to understand it fully the properties of 
rotating bodies had to be elaborately stud- 
ied by Euler and d'Alembert. Observa- 
tional astronomy liegan far earlier than the 
era of Ilipparchus ; but precise observa- 
tional astronomy was not possible before 
Iluyghens' invention of the penduhmi clock 
and before XewtonV law led the way to 
separating the motions of the earth from 
those proper to the stars and to light. 

The earlier part of the period in question 
was also characterized by the varietj- of 
special processes used in the applications of 
mechanics. This peculiarity is due partly 
to the fact that the great method of investi- 
gation now known as the differential and 
integral calculus was not duly understood 
and appreciated. Newton, as we have seen, 
devised and used this method under the 
name of fluxions, but dared not bring it into 
jtrominence in his Principia. Indepeudenth" 
of, though a little later than Newton, 
Leibnitz discovered substantially the same 
method. Priority of publication of the 
method by Leibnitz led to one of the most 
remarkable and bitter controversies in the 
history of science ; proving amongst other 
things that scientitic men are no better than 
other folks, and giving color to Benjamin 
Franklin's allegation that mathematicians 
are prone to be conscientiously contentious. 
IJut this war of words, in which personal 
and national prejudice figured shamefullj- 
enough, did not long disturb the minds of 
continental mathematicians. The Leib- 
nitzian form of the calculus, by reason of its 
intrinsic merits, came into general use. The 
BernouUis, Euler, Clairaut, and d'Alembert, 
who were the leading mathematicians of the 
time, adopted the calculus as their instru- 
ment of research and paved the way to the 
age of extraordinary generalizations which 
began nearthe end of the eighteenth century. 

The varietj- of problems considered and 



the diversity of methods employed during 
this period served to call attention to the 
need of more comprehensive mechanical 
principles. Before the publication of 
d'Alembert"s treatise on djniamics in 174.3, 
each problem had heeja considered by itself, 
and although many important results were 
attained, the principles employed did not 
appear to have any close connection with 
one another. There was thus an oppor- 
tunit}' for rival schools of mechanicians, and 
they fell into the habit of challenging one 
another with Mhat would now be called prize 
problems. The first step toward a unifica- 
tion of principles and processes was made 
by d'Alembert in the treatise just mentioned. 
This treatise announced and illustrated a 
principle, since known as d'Alembert's prin- 
ciple, which put an end to rivalry by show- 
ing how all prol)lems in dynamics can be 
referred to the laws of statics. By the aid 
of this principle, d'Alembert showed how to 
solve mechanically not only the splendid 
problem of the precession of the equinoxes, 
but also that more recondite question of the 
nutation of the earth's axis. The fact of 
nutation had Ijeen discovered a year and a 
half earlier Ity the astronomer Bradley ; but 
d'Alemberfs exi)lanation of this fact, ac- 
cording to Laplace, is not less remarkable 
in the history of mechanics than Bradley's 
discovery in the annals of astronomy. 

The work of the devotees to mechanics in 
the times of which we speak is not gener- 
ally fully appreciated. Their fame is, in- 
deed, eclipsed by that of Newton and by 
that of their innnediate successoi-s. But 
their contributions were important and sub- 
stantial. Clairaut gave us the fii"st mathe- 
matical treatise on the figure of the earth ; 
while his colleague, Maupcrtius, in the 
famous Lapland expedition, announced the 
the jirinciple of ' least action " and the ' law 
of repose,' both of which have proved fruit- 
ful in later times. The BernouUis, a most 
distinguished family of mathematicians, of 



148 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



whom John the first and his three sons 
were then active, worked in all fields of ma- 
thematical research, and rendered especiallj^ 
good service in extending the theorj^ of elas- 
ticity founded by Galileo. The industrious 
Euler, a pupil of John Bernoulli, and a com- 
panion of his sons, em-iched analysis in 
every direction, gave for the first time the 
correct theory of rotating bodies, and -WTote 
on almost every question in the mathema- 
tics, physics, and astronomy of his day. It 
is estimated that his memoirs if fully print- 
ed would fill sixty to eighty quarto volumes. 
Not the least noteworthy of his works are 
his Letters to a German Princess, giving a 
popular account of the principles of me- 
chanics, optics, acoustics, and astronomy. 

Notwithstanding the broad foundation 
for mechanics laid by Newton in his Prin- 
cipia, and notwithstanding the indefatigable 
labors of Clau-aut, d'Alembert, the Ber- 
noullis, and Euler, there was near the end 
of the eighteenth century no comprehensive 
treatise on the science. Its leading prin- 
ciples and methods were fairly well known, 
but scattered through many works, and pre- 
sented from divers points of view. It re- 
mained for Lagrange to unite them into 
one harmonious system. Mechanics had 
not yet h-eed itself from the restrictions of 
geometry, though progress since Newton's 
time had been constantly toward analytical 
as distinguished from geometrical methods. 
The emancipation came with Lagrange's 
Mecanique Analytique, published one hundred 
and one years after the Prineijna. How 
completely the geometrical method was sup- 
planted by the analytical, at the hands of 
LagTange, may be inferred from a para- 
graph in the advertisement to his Mecanique 
Analytique. " One will fiind " he says, " no 
diagrams in this work. The methods I ex- 
pose requu-e neither geometrical construc- 
tion nor geometi-ical reasoning, but only al- 
gebraical operations subjected to a regidar 
and uniform procedure." 



From a philosophical and historical point 
of view this characteristic feature of the 
Mecanique Analytique is of the gi'eatest im-^ 
portance. The mere statement of the fact, 
however, convej'S no adequate idea of the 
immense value of Lagrange's treatise. The 
value of his work consists in the exposition 
of a general method bj^ which every me- 
chanical question may be stated in a single 
algebraic equation. The entire history of 
any mechanical sj'stem, as for example, the 
solar system, may thus be condensed into a 
single sentence ; and its detailed interpreta- 
tion becomes simjjlj^ a question of algebra. 
No one who has not tried to cope with the 
difficulties presented by almost any mechan- 
ical problem can form a just appreciation of 
the great utility of such a labor-saving and 
thought-sa-sdug device. It has been well 
called ' a stupendous contribution to the 
economjr of tliought.' But Lagrange did 
more than this for the science of mechanics. 
He not only perfected a unique and com- 
prehensive method, and showed how to ap- 
ply it to manj^ of the most important and rec- 
ondite problems of his day, but he was the 
first to di-aw sharpljr the line of demarcation 
between physics and metaphysics. The me- 
chanical ideas of Descartes, Leibnitz, Mau- 
pertius, and even of Euler, had proved to 
be moi-e or less hazy and unfruitful from a 
failure to separate those two distinct re- 
gions of thought. Lagrange piit an end to 
this confusion, for no seiious attempt has 
since been made to derive the laws of me- 
chanics from a metaphysical basis. 

The age which witnessed the culmination 
of the splendid generalization of LagTange 
in his Mecanique Analytique was also the age 
in which Newton's law of gi-avitation re- 
ceived its verification, and the age in which 
the foundations of the modern science of 
mathematical phj-sics were laid. Lagrange 
himself is closely identified with these two 
important events in the history of me- 
chanics ; but the names which outsliine all 



i L 



FEBRVAEy 8, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



149 



others are those of Laplace and Poisson. 
It was the life-work of Laplace to deduce 
the consequences of the law of gravitation 
as applied to the solar system. No problem 
of equal magnitude has ever been attacked 
and treated single-handed with such con- 
sunmiate skill and success as sho^\ni by La- 
place in his .l/c'wnuV/i/e Celeste. The five vol- 
umes of this work, together with the popular 
exposition contained in his Systhne clu Maude, 
constitute, I think, the greatest systematic 
treatise ever written. Think, for a moment, 
of the mental eciuipment essential to begin 
such an investigation. Copernicus and 
Kepler had discovered by observation the 
salient features of the motions of the planets 
about the sun. Newton showed that these 
features were immediately and easil}' de- 
rived results of the law of gra^^tation. But 
these were the salient features only. Had 
our planet been the sole one of the sj-stem, 
had it been moonless and devoid of rotation, 
the task of Laplace would have been easy. 
But instead of a single planet, there is a 
crowd of them, each rotating on its axis 
while traveling about the sun, and most of 
them accompanied bj^ lunar attendants. 
When this array of facts is considered, the 
simple law of gn-avitation leads to gi-eat 
complication. The motion of our planet at 
any time depends not only on its position 
relatively to the sun, but on its position 
relatively to the m^ighboring planets. Our 
moon also plays an important role in the 
motions of the earth. By reason of these 
interactions the earth's axis of rotation, 
whicli is the principle line of reference 
for astronomical observations, pursues a de- 
vious course in the lieavens. Add to these 
difficulties those arising from the facts that 
our {)lanet is surrounded by an atmosphere 
which prevents us from ol)serving our true 
relative position, and that light travels with 
a finite tliough gi-eat speed, and the mag- 
nitude of the ta.sk Laplace set for himself 
is in some degree apparent. A complete 



mastery of every branch of the mathematics 
and physics of his day and a capacity to en- 
large the boundaries of either were the in- 
dispen.sable prerequisites, which, .sujiple- 
meuted by a boundless genius for industry, 
enabled him to make dj'namical astronomy 
the most perfect of the aj^plied sciences. 
His conception of the magnitude and im- 
portance of the work he undertook is clearly 
but modestly set forth in the preface to the 
Mccaniqiie Celeste. " Astronomy," he says, 
" considered in the most general mannei- is a 
grand problem of mechanics, whose solution 
depends on the precision of observations and 
on the perfection of mathematical analysis. 
It is extremelj' desirable to avoid all em- 
pu'icism in our treatment of this problem 
and to draw on observation for indispensable 
data only. The present work is destined to 
accomplish, as far as I am able, this inter- 
esting object. I trust that, in consideration 
of the difficulties of the subject, mathema- 
ticians and astronomers will receive the 
work with indulgence." 

Not less important than the contributions 
of Lagrange and Laplace to pure mechanics 
and dynamical astronomy were the volumi- 
nous and luminous wTitings of Poisson dur- 
ing the same periotl. Equally at home with 
Lagrange and Laplace in their favorite re- 
searches, man}' of which he corrected and 
extended, he explored the additional fields 
of heat, light, elasticity, electricity, and mag- 
netism. To his penetrating insight into 
these abstruse subjects and to the wealth of 
analytical resources he developed are due 
more than to any other single source the 
subsequent developments of mathematical 
physics, by which is meant the application 
of mechanics to physical questions. His 
discoveries and researches are scarcely less 
brilliant than tho.se of his two eminent con- 
temporaries, while he outstripped both of 
them in his range and grasp of matliematical 
and physical principles. Moreover, he 
was the prince of expositors of mathematic-jxl 



150 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



subjects. His memoirs ( of which there 
are more than 150) must even now be 
classed amongst the best models of scientific 
exposition. 

It is a striking series of facts that the three 
most eminent workers in our science during 
the period in question, a period extending, 
say, from 1775 to 1825, were all Frenchmen, 
that they were warm personal friends, and 
that they all resided, in their later years at 
least, at Paris. Still more striking is the 
fact that this period of extraordinary devel- 
opment in mechanical science was coinci- 
dent with a period of most profound social 
agitation with Frenchmen in general and 
with Parisians in particular. How was it 
possible to pursue abstract theories of matter 
and motion, how was it possible to con- 
template the grandeur of the celestial uni- 
verse at a time when the heads of states- 
men and philosophers were falling into the 
waste basket, not before the metaphorical 
axe of changing ministers, but before the 
whetted blade of the guillotine ? Tocque- 
ville, in his Democracy in America, has 
warned us against the depressing effect on 
abstract thought of the incessant attrition 
of American life. Why did not the stormy 
times of the French Kevolution check the 
cui'rent of scientific progress ? The answer 
to these questions is to be found, I think, 
in the fortunate circumstance that French- 
men and the French government, whatever 
may have been their shortcomings in other 
respects, have developed a higher apprecia- 
tion for science and scientific men than any 
other nationality. However they may have 
fallen out as a people on questions of religion 
and politics, they have maintained a high 
regard for scientific thought. It was his 
admirable devotion to celestial mechanics 
that saved Laplace from disgrace, or a worse 
fate, at the hands of his fellow-countrymen. 
Even the sorry figure he cut during his brief 
career as Minister of the Interior, into the 
business of which he introduced the ' spirit 



of the infinitesimals,' as the future emperor 
said, did not deprive him of favors due to a 
man of science. 

The personal characteristics and the inti- 
mate friendship and association of Lagrange, 
Laplace, and Poisson are amongst the most 
attractive features of their lives, and worthy 
of a brief digression. 

Lagi-ange was of French descent, though 
he was born at Turin and became famous 
before taking up a residence at the focus of 
French civilization. While yet a youth, 
the ample means of his family were lost in 
commercial speculation; and to this early 
lesson of adversitj' is due, probably, the de- 
termination of his career, for he was wont 
to say that had he been rich he might never 
have pursued mathematical studies. Like 
most mathematicians of distinction, he 
seems to have owed much less to scholastic 
instruction than to his own efforts and in- 
dustrjr. At the age of eighteen he was ap- 
pointed professor of mathematics at the 
royal school of artillerj^ at Turin; and at 
nineteen he was in correspondence with 
Euler concerning isoperimetrical problems, 
which ultimatelj^ led to his perfection of that 
highest branch of pure mathematics, the 
caculus of variations. At twenty-two he 
was one of the founders of a society which 
afterwards became famous as the Turin 
Academy of Sciences. At the early age of 
thirtj' he was called to the post of director 
of the mathematical department of the Ber- 
lin Academy of Sciences as the successor of 
the distinguished Euler. Here he remained 
for twenty years' working with marvelous 
industry and success. About the time of 
the appearance of his great work on analy- 
tical mechanics in 1788, he removed to Paris 
at the instance of the French court, which 
made him a ' veteran pensioner ' and re- 
ceived him with the most flattering honors. 
He lived throxigh the stormy period of the 
Revolution, winning additional favoi-s and 
distinctions fi-om the French government, 



Februaby S, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



151 



and closing his remarkable career at the 
ripe age of seventy-seven. 

Little seems to he known of the ancestry 
and early life of Laplace. It appears, how- 
ever, that he was the son of a farmer and 
that he had achieved some local distinction 
as a teacher of mathematics at the age of 
eighteen, when he went np to Paris with 
such letters of recommendation as he conld 
get, and applied for a position in the go\ern- 
nient schools. He appealed to d'Alembert, 
who was then the leading mathematician at 
the French capital, but d'Alembert, it is 
siiid, gave no heed to either the application 
or the recommendations of the aspirant for 
office. Thereupon the unknown Laplace 
wrote the gi-eat geometer a letter on the 
principles of mechanics which brought an 
immediate reply. ''You needed no intro- 
duction or recommendation," said d'Alem- 
bert, '■ A'ou have recommended j'ourself ; 
my support is your due." Through the in- 
fluence of d'Alembert, Laplace was soon 
given a professor.«hip of mathematics in the 
militarj' school of Paris, and his scientific 
career was thus begun. He was not yet 
twenty-five years of age when lie made one 
of the most important advances in the his- 
tory of dynamical astronomy toward the 
solution of the gi-and problem of the stability 
of the solar system. By this step be became 
at once the peer of his older and eminent 
contemporaries. Euler, d'Alemljert, and La- 
grange. From this time on until his death 
in 1827, his indefatigable labors and pene- 
trating insight brought to light a continuous 
series of brilliant discoveries. The history 
of dynamical astronomj-, indeed, for the lialf 
century ending witli 182.5, is essential!}' the 
history of the work of Laplace as recorded in 
his Mi'canlrjur Giede. A pei-sistent and lofty 
enthusiasm for the system of the world is dis- 
played in all his works; his latest writings 
even being no less inspii-ing than his earli- 
est. His zeal recognized no bounds. " He 
would have completed the science of the 



skies," says Fourier, '• had that science been 
capable of completion." He died at the age 
of seventy-eight, and his last words were 
worthy of the philosopher he was. " What 
we know is very little; what we are ignor- 
ant of is immense." 

Poisson.the youngest of this famous trio, 
was forty-five years younger than Lagrange 
and thirty-two j'eai-s younger than La- 
place. He was born of humlile parent- 
age at Pitbiviers, in 1781, his father at 
that time being a petty government ofiicial. 
While yet an infant, Poisson was con- 
fided to the care of a neighboring peasant- 
woman, at whose hands he received rather 
startling treatment for one who was des- 
tined to become famous in the annals of 
science. Poisson relates that his father 
came one day to see how his son was 
getting on, and was horrified to find that the 
peasant-nurse had gone to the fields, leaving 
the child suspended from the ceiling by a 
small cord at a height just sufficient to se- 
cure immunity from the teeth of the swine 
which, it seems, had ft'ce access to the 
house. In relating this novel incident in 
his early life, Poisson used to say that " a 
gymnastic effort carried me incessantly 
from one side of the vertical to the other; 
and it was thus, in my tenderest infancy, 
that I made my prelude to those studies of 
the pendulum that were to occupj' me so 
much in my mature age," 

As the youth gi-cw up, receiving the bare 
elements of education from his father, the 
qui'stion was raised in his family as to what 
calling he should follow. It was suggested 
that he should become a notary, but the 
better judgment of the family councils de- 
cided that the l)usiness of a notary required 
too much intellectual capacity for the young 
man, and it was therefore determined to 
make a surgeon of him. He was appren- 
ticed to an uncle who practiced the art of 
blood-letting and l)listering of tliat day, 
and who set the beginner at work pricking 



152 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



cabbage leaves with a lancet. How he got 
on at surgeiy, Poisson himself relates best: 
" One day my uncle sent me," he saj^s, " to 
put a blister on the arm of a sick child; 
the next day when I presented mj'self to 
remove the apparatus, I found the child 
dead. This event, very common, they saj', 
made a profound impression upon me; and 
I declared at once that I would never be- 
come a physician." 

He returned to his home, where, soon 
afterwards, an accidental circumstance re- 
vealed the true bent of his mind. His 
father, being still a government officer, re- 
ceived a copy of the Journal de I'Ecole Poly- 
technique. The son read it, and was able, 
unaided, to understand some of its contents. 
He was encouraged to study and soon went 
to the school of Fontainebleau. Here he 
was fortunate in finding a good and sympa- 
thetic teacher in one M. Billy, who took 
a warm interest in, and formed a life-long 
attachment for, his pupil. 

At the age of seventeen Poisson went to 
Paris to enter the JEcole Poly technique. His 
genius soon disclosed itself, and at the end of 
his first year he was excused from the re- 
quirements of the set curriculum and al- 
lowed fi-eedom of choice in his studies. Be- 
fore he had been at the school two years, or 
before he was twenty years of age, he pub- 
lished two memoirs which attracted the 
attention of mathematicians, and led to his 
speedy entrance into Parisian scientific 
society, whose leaders at that time were La- 
grange and Laplace. They were quick to 
recognize and appreciate Poisson's ability, 
and it was doubtless through their good 
offices that Poisson was appointed to a pro- 
fessorship at the JEcole Poly technique, where he 
succeeded the distinguished Fourier in 1806. 
From this time to the end of his life in 1840, 
Poisson was connected with the educational 
system of France. As a scientific investiga- 
tor his untiring patience, industry, and suc- 
cess have been equalled only by those of 



Euler, Lagrange, and Laplace. " Life," he 
was wont to saj^, " is good for two purposes 
only: to invent mathematics and to expound 
them." 

One of the best estimates of the character 
and scope of Poisson's work may be inferred 
fi'om the esteem in which he was held by 
Lagrange and Laplace. They treated him 
with the greatest consideration ; and that 
Lagrange considered him a worthy succes- 
sor in the footsteps of the most eminent of 
mechanicians is shown by the following in- 
cident related by Arago: "I am old," said 
Lagrange to Poisson one day ; " during my 
long intervals of sleeplessness I divert my- 
self by making numerical calculations. 
Keep this one ; it may interest you. Huy- 
ghens was 13 years older than l^ewton ; I 
am 13 years older than Laplace ; d'Alem- 
bert was 32 years older than Laplace ; La- 
place is 32 years older than you." Ai'ago 
remarks that no more delicate way could 
be conceived of intimating to Poisson liis ad- 
mission to the inner circle of the fraternity 
of mathematical genius. 

The dazzling spendor of the achieve- 
ments in djaiamical asti-onomy during the 
epoch of Laplace not onljr diverted atten- 
tion from other applications of mechanical 
science, but it would seem also to have led 
to an underestimate of the importance of 
such applications. Thus the work of Fou- 
rier and Poisson in the theory of heat, and 
that of Fresnel and Gi-een in the theorj^ of 
light', were not duly appreciated by contem- 
porary philosophers. All eyes were turned 
towards the heavens. The permanence of 
the solar system and the dangers of en- 
counters with comets were more important 
questions than those presented by pheno- 
mena close at hand. For nearly a quarter 
of a century after the epoch of Laplace, 
comparativelj^ little pi-ogress was made in 
the fundamental ideas of our science, though 
its machinery received many important ac- 
cessions, especially from Green and Gauss. 



February 8, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



153 



Aliout 1850, however, the accumuhiting 
data of experimental philosophers and the 
relleetions of a number of theorists led to 
the annoimcemeut of the principle of the 
conservation of energy, a doctine which is 
now hekl to be tlie highest generalization of 
mechanical science. This doctrine asserts 
that tlie total energy of any mechanical sys- 
tem is a quantity which can neither be in- 
creased nor dimislied by any mutual action 
of the parts of the system, though it may 
be converted into any one of the forms of 
which energy is susceptible. Thus, the 
sohir system, supposing it to be isolated 
fi-om all other systems of the universe, 
contains a detinite amount of energy, and 
whatever may have been or may be the 
vicissitudes of the sun and planets, that 
quantity of energy was and will be the 
.same. 

But what, in common parlance, some one 
may properly enquire, is energj^ in a me- 
chanical sense ? Tlie answer to this question 
is not difficult. If we raise a weight, as, 
for example, an elevator car above the sur- 
lace of the earth, work must be done. On 
the other hand, if it be elevated and its cable 
be cut, the car will fall back to the earth 
aiul do work of destruction in its fall. The 
work stored up in raising the car to a given 
height is called energy of position, or poten- 
tial energy. The work the car can do by 
reason of its fall is called energy of motion, 
or kinetic energy. If a strict account of 
the expenditure is kept in this case, it is 
found that the sum of the energies of posi- 
tion and motion at any instant is constant. 
Similarly, it was found bj' Count Rumford 
and .Joule that in boring cannon and in agi- 
tating li([uids heat is produced, and that if 
in these cases accurate record is kept, the 
amount of lieat developed bears a definite 
ratio to the amo\nit of energj' expended. 
Thus heat is brought into the category of 
energy, hot bodies being such, as we now 
tliiuk, by reason of the more or less furious 



agitation, or kinetic enei^y, of tlieir ulti- 
mate particles. 

The law of the conservation of energy, 
then, is a simple statement of Nature's 
balance-sheet with respect to material sys- 
tems. Tlie capital invested remains always 
the same, however divereified may be the 
investments. A part may be entered as 
potential energy; a part as kinetic energy; 
a part as heat: etc., but when properly ad- 
ded together, their sum is constant. Broadly 
speaking, it is believed that the various 
forms of energj' may be comprised in two 
categories: the energy of position, or poten- 
tial energy, and the energy of motion, or 
kinetic energy. 

It is interesting to note in connection 
with the history of this doctrine that tlie 
ideas w-hich led up to it go back certainly to 
the time of Newton and Leibnitz. The 
conservation of matter is, indeed, a funda- 
mental concept of mechanics; but the earlier 
philosophers, from Newton and Leibnitz 
down, were acquainted with the conserva- 
tion of momentum and energy in a variety 
of special cases. And it is probable that 
our modern science owes something to the 
nietaphy.sical notions of Descartes. Mauper- 
tius and others, who held that Nature per- 
forms her operations in the most economical 
ways and is, on the whole, conservative. 

It appears not a little remarkable that 
this important doctrine eluded the insiglit 
of Lagrange and Laplace. Lagrange, espec- 
ially, was so near to it that he supplied 
iiearlj' all the analytical machinery essential 
to put it into practical use. Indeed, tliat 
machinery meets a much higher demand. 
It not only enables us to express and in- 
terpret the properties of systems which are 
obviously mechanical, but it shows clearly 
what must be the characteristic features of 
a mechanical exi)lanation of any phenom- 
enon. Thus, in the direct application of the 
doctrine of energy to a mechanical system, 
we express the kinetic energy in terms of 



154 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



the masses involved, their coordinates of 
position, and the time fi-om any assumed 
epoch ; while the potential energy is ex- 
pressed in terms of the masses and their 
relative positions, irrespectively of the time. 
From the expressions for these two parts of 
the energy, all of the properties of the system 
can be derived by means of the Lagrangian 
machinery. In the case of most phenomena 
it is impossible to observe more than a very 
limited nnmber of the circumstances of 
motion ; such as, for example, the coordi- 
nates of one or more of the masses at definite 
epochs, the rates of variation of those coor- 
dinates, etc.; but if we can express the two 
parts of the energy, and if the derived cir- 
cumstances agree with the observed circum- 
stances, the mechanical explanation is re- 
garded as complete. On the other hand, a. 
phenomenon may not be clearly or obviously 
mechanical, and it becomes important in 
many cases to learn whether it is susceptible 
of mechanical explanation. The criterion 
supplied by the Lagrangian machinery is 
this : If the phenomenon can be defined by 
two expressions or functions having the 
properties of kinetic and potential energy, a 
system of masses with appropriate positions 
may be found to satisfy those functions and 
hence explain the phenomenon mechani- 
cally. 

The law of the conservation of energy, 
then, affords a very comprehensive view of 
mechanical phenomena ; and when we add 
that this law is believed to be coextensive 
with the material universe, one can see why 
it should have played so important a role 
in the recent developments of mechanical 
science. Along with the growth and appli- 
tion of this law has come a degree of per- 
fection in the technical terminology of me- 
chanics surpassing that of most other sci- 
ences. The terms mass, force, energy, 
power, etc., as now used in mechanics, pos- 
sess a precision of meaning which, strange 
as it may seem, was largely wanting in 



them thirty to fifty years ago. Nothing il- 
lustrates this fact more forcibly than titles 
to some of the important papers published 
during the past half century. Thus, the 
great memoir published in 1847 by Helm- 
holtz on what we now call the conservation 
of energy was entitled ' The Conservation 
of Force.' In 1854 Prof. Thomson, now 
Lord Kelvin, published an interesting and 
important ' Note on the possible density of 
the luminiferous medium, and on the me- 
chanical value of a cubic mile of sunlight.' 
We should now render the ' mechanical 
value of a cubic mile of sunlight ' as mean- 
ing the energy of a cubic mile of the ether 
due to the action of the sun. About thirty 
years ago the late Professor TjTidall pub- 
lished his capital work on ' Heat Consid- 
ered as a Mode of Motion.' "NVe must now 
translate this into Heat a Mode of Energj'. 
There was, thus, in the writings of experts 
of a half century or less ago, much obscure 
phraseology, while the literature of less 
careful authors was often provokingly am- 
biguous. The word force, for example, in 
a number of treatises published since 1850, 
has been used to denote the tlu-ee radically 
different things we now call stress, impulse 
and energy. 

To the development of the law of energj^, 
and its applications in electricity and mag- 
netism especiallj'', are due also an impox-tant 
fixation of our ideas with respect to the 
units and the dimensions of units which 
enter into mechanical quantities. Less than 
a quarter of a century ago our science was 
in a certain sense restricted by its terrestrial 
moorings. So strong, indeed, had been the 
influence of our earthty abode that onlj' 
experts like Lagrange, Laplace, and Poisson 
would have known how to formulate a 
treatise suitable for instruction in any other 
part of the universe. Thanks to the half 
forgotten labors of Fourier and Gauss, how- 
ever, when it became essential to state the 
laws of mechanics in a way readily appli- 



February 8, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



155 



cable to phenomena wUerever the investi- 
gator maj' be, the restrictions of terrestrial 
attraction were easily removed. By the 
introduction of the so-called absolute 
systems of units, one form of which is known 
as the C. G. S. system, a great step in ad- 
vance was made. It is no exaggeration, in 
fact, to assert that one proper!}' educated in 
the mechanics of our day and planet would 
be as well fitted to investigate mechanical 
phenomena on the companion of Sirius, as 
on our diminutive member of the solar 
sj^stem. 

The rigorous definiteness of terminology, 
and the application of the C. G. S. system 
of units in mechanics, are humorously set 
forth in a little poem published over the 
signature ' dp dt ' about twenty y^sirs ago 
in the joiu-nal A^afiire. It is now known to 
have been written by Clerk-Maxwell. This 
poem purports to give an account of certain 
lectures on the C. G. S. system delivered to 
women by one Professor Dr. Chrschtschono- 
vitich. The author figures as one of the 
auditors, and her lamentations and criti- 
cism run as follows : 

Prim Doctor of Philosophy 

From academic Heidelberg! 
Yonr sum of vital eiiergj' 

Is not the millionth of an erg. 
Yotir liveliest motion might be reckoned 
At one tenth-metre * in a second. 

" The air," you said, in language fine 
Wliich scicntilic thought expresses — 

" The air ' ' ( which with a megadyne 
On each s<juare (cntimetre presses) — 

The air, and I may add, the ocean, 

Are naught but molecides in motion." 

Atoms, yoti told me, were discrete. 
Than you they could not be discreter, 

Wnio knows how many millions meet 
Within a cubic millimetre; 

They cUush together as they tly. 
But you ! you dare not tell me why. 

Then, when, in tuning my guitar. 
The inten-als would not come right, 

One-tentb metre — 1 metre x lO"'". 



" Tliis string," you said, " is strained too far, 

'Tis forty dynes, at least, too tight." 
And then you told me, a.s 1 sang, 
AVhat over-tones were in my clang. 

You gabbled on, but cverj' phrase 

Was stiff with scientilic shoddy; 
Tlie only song you deigned to praise 

Was "Gin a body meet a body;" 
And even there, you .said, collision 
Was not described with due precision. 

" In the invariable plane," 

You told me, " lay the impulsive couple;" 
You seized raj' hand, you gave me pain. 

By torsion of a wrist too supple. 
You told me what that v\Tench would do; 
" 'Twould set me twisting round a .screw." 

Were every hair of every tress 

Which you, no doubt, imagine mine, 

Ih-awn towards you with its Itreaking stre.s.s, 
A stress, Siiy, of a megadyne. 

That tension I would sooner suffer 

Than meet again with such a duffer! 

Our survey of the develoi)ment of me- 
chanical science is thus brought down to 
the present time. But no account of i)rog- 
ress can be complete without some allusions 
to the grand problems which are now occti- 
pying the attention of mechanicians. It is 
hardly necessary to say that these are the 
problems presented by the phenomena of 
heat, light, electricity, and magnetism, oi-, 
in short, the phenomena of that unseen 
medium we call the ether. Just as the 
problems presented by the solar sj'stem were 
the absorbing questions in mechanics at the 
close of the ISth century, so are the prob- 
lems presented by the ether the engrossing 
questions at the close of the 10th century. 

In approaching this subject, whether for 
the present purj)Ose of popular exposition, 
or for the higher purpose of investigation, 
one must confess to a difficulty, apparent at 
least, which might be raised by any hard 
headed reasoner. It might be asked, for 
example, by what right we speak of the 
ether as a medium, when nobody has ever 
seen any such thing? May we not be 
merely juggling with mathematical sj'mbols 



156 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



which stand for no reality ? In answer to 
such questions we should have to admit that 
most of our evidence is what would be called 
indirect, or circumstantial. Nevertheless, 
we could maintain that the evidence of 
things unseen may be very strong, and that 
it is nowhere stronger than in the domain 
of the mechanics of the ether. It seems es- 
sential, therefore, to recall, briefly, the 
salient features of this evidence. 

In the first place, it is known that light 
travels through the celestial regions with a 
definite speed of about 186,000 miles a sec- 
ond. Induction from a wide varietj' of ob- 
servations leads also to the conclusion that 
heat travels with the same speed, and that 
it and light are, in fact, only different aspects 
of the same phenomenon. Year in and 
year out our astronomical tables proceed on 
the assumption that eight minutes and 
seventeen seconds after the sun has risen 
above the plane of our hoi'izon, we may per- 
ceive his light and feel the glow of his heat. 
The earth is traveling in its orbit around the 
sun at the rate of about eighteen miles in a 
second, a fact which, taken ia connection 
with the speed of propagation of light, 
makes the apparent position of a star a lit- 
tle different fi-om its real position. This is 
the beatiful phenomenon of aberration dis- 
covered by the astronomer Bradley more 
than two generations ago. The impi-essive 
feature of the phenomenon lies in the fact 
that it is always the same, due allowance 
being made for the speed and direction of 
the earth's motion. Thus we are forced to 
the conclusion that the velocity of light lq 
the stellar spaces is the same, regardless of 
the source and direction of a luminous ray. 
The step from this conclusion to the con- 
ception that light is propagated by means of 
some sort of an elastic medium is easy and 
natural, and experience with gross matter, 
like water and air, leads quicklj^ to the sug- 
gestion that vibration of such a medium 
must be the mode of propagation . A crowd 



of readily observable facts of reflection, re- 
fi-action, and diffi-action confirms the sug- 
gestion and dignifies it with the title hypo- 
thesis, and finally we are led to accept the 
undulatory theorj^ of light, and to speak as 
confidently of the lumiuiferous ether as of 
any visible matter. Indeed, Lord Kelvin 
asserted, a few years ago, that we know 
more of the ether than we do of shoe- 
maker's wax. Certian it is that the labors 
of Fresnel, Grreen, Cauchy and their suc- 
cessors have given us a splendid develop- 
ment of this mechanical theory of light. 
But, alas ! they do not enable us to express 
in common parlance a very definite idea of 
the medium. No one, it is safe to say, 
would undertake with any degree of confi- 
dence to predict how a portion of the ether, 
a cubic foot say, would look if isolated and 
rendered Arisible. It naight appear like a 
very tenuous and tremulous jelly. Its 
weight would certainly escape detection, for 
a bulk equal in volume with the earth would 
M^eigh somewhat less than one ounce. Argu- 
ing from the phenomena of light alone, it 
would be found to possess a slight rigidity, 
but whether it would prove compressible or 
incompressible we cannot say. 

But the strain on the imagination in trj"^- 
ing to visualize the ether does not end here. 
Quite recently it has been rendered almost 
certain that new and still more complex 
properties must be attributed to this invisi- 
ble but omnipresent medium. About thirty 
years ago, Maxwell, taking up the brilliant 
experimental researches of Faraday, sought 
to give mechanical expression to the phe- 
nomena of electricity and magnetism. The 
characteristic idea of Faraday and Maxwell 
concerning these phenomena was that their 
seat lies not so much in the electrified and 
magnetized bodies themselves as in some 
kind of medium surroundmg and permea- 
ting them. The result of Maxwell's laboi's 
was the publication, in 1873, of a grand but 
enigmatic treatise — grand, because of its 



Fkbki'.\ky 8, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



157 



thonght-provokiug qualities; enigmatic, be- 
cause no one has yet been able to say just 
what Maxwell's views were The pursuit of 
his treatise is like a journey through a 
dreamland, wherein the travelers seem never 
to reaeh their destinations. But the leading 
idea is plain. It is that the medium is the 
important factor, and on the medium the 
attention must be riveted if we would seek 
a satisfactory explanation of electricity and 
magnetism. 

Faradaj- died twenty years before, and 
Maxwell nine years before, anything like 
crucial experiments decided in favor of their 
theory. The old theories of action at a 
distance, without the aid of an intervening 
medium, but with their fluids and positive 
and negative subtilties, died hard, if indeed 
they can be said to be quite dead yet. The 
recent investigations of Hertz and others, 
however, seem to render it practicallj' 
certain that the Faraday-Maxwell concep- 
tion is the correct one, and that the medium 
in question can be no other than the medium 
of light and heat. 

Thus the multifarious phenomena of the 
four sciences of heat, light, electricity, and 
magnetism appear destined to become uni- 
fied as the mechanical properties of a uni- 
versal plenum. The present concentration 
of activity along this line of inquiry seems 
fraught with results of the greatest interest. 
AVc seem to be, in fact, on the eve of <lis- 
eoveries no less brilliant and important than 
those whose record has already adorned the 
history of mechanics. Nevertheless, it nuiy 
not be our good fortune to witness such ad- 
vances. The ether may prove intractable 
for a eeuturj' or more. It is conceivable, at 
any rate, that the full comprehension of this 
medium lies beyond the present range even 
of tliat extra sense which the late Charles 
Darwin attributed to mathematicians. It 
may be essential, in fact, to first give atten- 
tion to visible and tangible substances, like 
shoemaker's wax, before the mind will be 



prepared to visualize the hidden reality. 

But however this may be, mechanical sci- 
ence will remain worthy of the arduous la- 
bors of its devotees. The phenomena of 
matter and motion, though suVyect to few 
and simple laws, are infinitely varied and 
infinitely instructive. The knowledge of 
those phenomena already acquired gives as- 
surance, as Helmholtz said in these halls a 
year ago, that we possess the right method of 
investigation. "\Ve may therefore expect 
that a diligent application of this method 
will yield in the future a not less inspiring 
body of truth than that which has come 
down to us from Archimedes and his suc- 
cessors. E. S. Woodward. 

Columbia College. 



THE FIVE BOOKS OF HISTORY. 
Ix the study of the phenomena of historj' 
scientific men resort to five great classes of 
records. The science of geology seeks to 
discover the history of the earth — of the 
rocks of which it is composed and of the 
plants and animals wliich have lived from 
time to time. In this research the geolo- 
gist discovers that nature's last chapter eon- 
tains a story of mankind, for it is found that 
the bones of man and some of the works of 
his arts have Ijeen buried by natural agen- 
cies in the geologic formations. Sometimes 
these materials of history are buried in 
cave drift and in deposits derived from min- 
eral waters which drop from the ceilings or 
ooze from the crevices of the caves. In 
flowing away and evaporating, such waters 
leave behind certain mineral constituents, 
especially carbonate of lime, which, consoli- 
dating and crystallizing, accumulate over 
the floors and walls of the caves and form 
pavements of calcite and aragonite. From 
the waters drojiping down from the ceilings 
stalactites are fornu'd above and stalagmites 
below, in marble cohunns of great natural 
beauty. I'nder and within such formations 
the bones of men and vestiges of their arts 



158 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



are sometimes discovered associated withi 
the bones of animals, some of which are 
found to be of extinct species ; but the 
relics of man are found in other formations. 
Altogether, the finds are not many. The 
geologic record of man we may call the 
Stone Book. It records but a meager tale ; 
the rock-leaved bible of geology has but a 
postscript devoted to mankiud, but in it are 
facts which prove to be of profound interest. 
Man was scattered widely over all the 
habitable earth in the early period of his 
development. The ' Garden of Eden ' was 
walled with ice, so that man was not dis- 
persed to the poles, for the outer or polar 
lands were uninhabitable. Within these 
walls men were scattered far and wide, 
on the coasts of every sea, on the shores 
of every lake, and on the banks of 
every stream, for everywhere between the 
frigid zones the vestiges of primeval man 
are discovered. The ruins of his habita- 
tions are thus widely spread — ^in palefits 
erected over lakes, in habitations con- 
structed in every valley, in villages where 
men gathered by tribes, and in cities where 
they were gathered by nations. The ruins 
of his ancient dwelling places and the ves- 
tiges of his arts scattered over the lands 
are now esteemed of priceless value by 
the scientific historian. The ruins furnish 
much more material than the rocks for the 
ancient historj^ of mankind. Stone imple- 
ments are found in great abundance over 
all the eai'th ; implements of bone, horn, 
shell and wood are in like manner widely 
dispersed. In ruins of habitations and 
vestiges of arts a story is told of develop- 
ing activities in all of the five great depart- 
ments of art, for by them we learn much of 
the industries, pleasures, speech as recorded 
in glyphs, institutions as illustrated by the 
paraphernalia of social organizations, and 
even of opinions as they are expressed in 
picture writings and ideographs. Let us 
call this the Ruin Book. It is a sti-ange 



book, studied by aid of the pickaxe and the 
shovel. Sometimes' habitations are found 
in ruins pUed one over another, giving evi-" 
dence of the occupancy of sites for many 
centuries during successive culture periods 
extending from ruder to higher life. 

In all ages birth and death have been 
abroad in the land. From the infant's wail 
at bii-th to the mourner's cry at death men 
are engaged in the five great activities. 
Primeval man leai-ned to buiy his dead, 
and as the swarming generations have come 
down from antiquity thi'ough fields of life 
whose sheaves were garnered by the sickles 
of death, the tombs have become the gran- 
aries of arts, to which the scientific historian 
resorts that he may discover the vestiges of 
the earlier humanities. Over all the earth 
these gi-anaries are scattered in graves, 
mounds, catacombs, sepulchers and mauso- 
leums, and the whole habitable earth is a 
necropolis. Sometimes more than bones 
are found in the ancient tombs, for often 
they contain works of art. Primeval men 
were organized into ti-ibes by bonds of afiBn- 
ity and consanguinity. The ownership of 
propertj' was mainly in the tribe and in the 
clans and gentes, which were organized 
tiibal units; hence property was chiefly 
communal in the clan or gens and in the 
tribe. But some articles of property be- 
longed to individuals, cliiefly clothing and 
ornaments, though a few implements and 
iitensils were owned by individual men and 
women. In order that controversy should 
not arise about the ownership of property 
of this character, it was a fundamental doc- 
trine of this early life that personal propertj' 
should be inherited by the grave. With 
the dead person, therefore, were buried the 
clothing, ornaments, instruments and iiten- 
sils which he ]30sscssed at his death. Grad- 
ually this institution became a sacred rite, 
as about it were thrown the sanctions of 
religion; and in this more highly developed 
stage propertj' belonging to the mourning 



Febriary 8, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



159 



friends was sometiuies added to the sacri- 
fice. This was especially the case wlun 
personages of great importance were buried. 
In connection with the rite a mythologic 
lore sprang up in many tribes by which 
special virtues were attributed to the sacri- 
fices as necessary to the happiness and 
prosperitj' of the dead on their journey to 
the spirit abode and for their welfare on 
their arrival in the land of the ghosts. 

In the burial of these works of art, rec- 
ords of the stage of culture to wliich they 
and their contemporaries had arrived were 
placed with the dead. It is thus that the 
tombs become priceless relics of antiquity. 
In later times, when tiibes had been organ- 
ized into nations and higher arts devel- 
oped, catacombs, sepulchers and mauso- 
leums were constructed, sometimes hewn in 
the rock. In the sarcophagi and in the 
chambers of death many vestiges of culture 
are found, and often inscriptions are discov- 
ered, all of which arc now of priceless value. 
It is thus that the tombs of the ancients 
constitute a book of history. Let us call it 
the Book of the Tombs. 

Tribes and nations are still scattered over 
the whole habitable earth, and the people 
who dwell on the continents and islands 
labor in many arts, sport in many pleasures, 
speak in many tongues, are governed bj- 
many institutions, and entertain manj- and 
widely divergent opinions. In aU of these 
forms of culture some peoples have passed 
beyond othei"s on the five highways of life, 
so we are able to study peoples in various 
stages of culture. Xo people have invented 
a culture at one great effort, but whatever 
arts they practice have been graduallj' ac- 
quired bj' eflbrt extending from primeval 
to present time. The humanities discovered 
as existing in any tribe or nation constitute 
an epitome of the historj' of welfare, which 
has been developed l)y minute increments 
of progress through untold generations of 
eflbrt. Their arts, tlien, have been inherited 



from generation to generation, while every 
generation has made its contribution to their 
development. The primeval arts of in- 
dustry, therefore, have not been lost, but 
have grown to something higher. 

In like manner, the pleasures in which a 
people primarily engaged far back in an- 
tiquity, when the habitable earth was fii*st 
peopled by lowly tribes, still remain, trans- 
formed into a higher life of childish sports, 
athletic exercise, more beautiful decora- 
tions, more intellectual games, and more 
elaborate fine arts. There is thus an im- 
mortality of the arts of pleasure by inheri- 
tance fi-om generation to generation. 

Speech is produced by generations of peo- 
ples. AVords are lost in the air, but the 
meanings of words and the knowledge of 
their formation remain and are taught from 
generation to generation, so that even evan- 
escent oral language has perennial life. 

Institutions, which are devised to regu- 
late conduct, live on, and gi-adually develop 
as new conditions arise which demand new 
solutions. Old forms are inherited, but by 
minute increments they are transformed, as 
new concepts of justice are developed. 

So opinions have a personal existence by 
inheritance and a constant change by de- 
velopment as knowledge increases. 

I see the germ bursting from the acorn, 
with its stem and plumule of leaves ; I .see 
the plantlet bourgeoning from the earth ; I 
see the scion stretching its green arms into 
the air ; I see the old oak with its great 
branches in a benediction of shade. Dis- 
covering oaklets in acorns, and mighty oaks 
with dead branches and djing trunks and 
nmltitudes of intermediate forms in every 
oak gi-ove, I learn the history of the gi-owth 
of oaks without watching the germs until 
they Ijccome dead trees. In like manner, 
all of the humanities may be studied in va- 
rious stages of growth by studying the for- 
est of tribes and nations scattered over the 
face of the earth. A host of men are en- 



60 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. G. 



gaged in scientific research for tlie purpose 
of discovering the characteristics of the five 
great systems of humanities as thej^ are 
represented in the daily life of peoples. 
This is found to be a book of many books, 
gathered into libraries of tribes and nations. 
Let us call this the Folk Book. 

Gradually man has developed written 
speech. He has learned to wiite his 
thoughts in glyphs of meaning on rocks, on 
bark, on the skins of animals, on tablets of 
stone and clay and on parchments made of 
many fibers. It is thus that we have tomes 
in written language which are gathered in 
libraries scattered over aU the world of en- 
lightenment. 

In these books the opinions of mankind 
are gradaullj^ collected, and the process has 
been going on since the dawn of civilization. 
The erroneous and the correct, the true and 
the false, have both been recorded, so that 
the books contain a strange mixture of 
truth and error. Yet when rightly read in 
the spirit of modern scientific criticism, 
they tell interesting stories and contain val- 
uable instruction. Scientific men do not 
appeal to historj^ for the truths of science 
about the objective world. From the be- 
ginning of culture to the present time man 
has interpreted the external world some- 
times truthfully, sometimes erroneously. 
That which is true remains, that which is 
error dies. Yet ever in recording error 
something of value has been preserved, for 
these errors reveal the development of mind 
and exhibit the methods by which the facts 
of nature have been interpreted from time 
to time. 

But more ; that which the writers of the 
books of the ages sought to teach is one 
thing; that which they unconsciously taught 
is another. In the telling of an event of 
history sometliing more becomes a matter 
of record, for a statement may contain many 
facts, though the author purposel}' or uncon- 
sciously sought to propagate a lie. If we 



read of an armj^ sailing in a fleet of vessels 
to pursue a predatory war, the item of hLs- 
torj^ may be ti'ue or false, but unconsciously- ' 
the writer in making his statement records 
many facts of value about the time in whicli 
he "ttTites. He may trutlifully explain arts, 
habits, customs or institutions. In all of 
these ancient writings something of value is 
stored. Many of the earlier writings are in 
poetic form, and in these and others the 
ostensible subject-matter may be mji:hical. 
Everywhere we find exclamatory and emo- 
tional passages informed with the mysticism 
and ignorance of the age, but these mj'ths 
and mystical hymns and devout praj'ers i-e- 
veal to scientific criticism a world of mean- 
ing relating to the history of opinions. So 
the writings of antiquity are held to be of 
profound interest and importance when used 
in the proper manner. Science does not 
appeal to Ai-istotle as an authority on the 
constitution of the mind, for he supposed 
the brain to be a refi-igerator for the blood, 
but it appeals to Aristotle's ideas of the con- 
stitution of the mind for the purpose of ex- 
hibiting the state of thought to which he 
had arrived and of illustrating the evolution 
of philosophj'. Science does not appeal to 
Homer as authority on the nature of the 
gods and the constitution of the earth as 
ruled by these gods, for he thought that tlie 
winds were kept in caves and transported 
in sacks, but from Homer it learns how the 
powers of nature were personified and how 
these personages as gods were supposed to 
take part in the affairs of mankind at the 
time Homer ^vl■ote. Science does not appeal 
to the novels of Plato for the piirpose of dis- 
covering the best forms of institutions, 
though he elaborated his opinions with lit- 
erary charm in ' The Republic,' but it does 
appeal to Plato to discover how the best 
minds of his age theoretically solved the 
problems of government in his time. Science 
does not appeal to the writings of Confucius 
or the Buddhistic scriptures for the purpose 



February 8, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



161 



of discovering the true religion, but for the 
purpose of discover uig the history of re- 
hgious opinions. If we use the writings of 
antiquity in this spirit the records of the 
past are of priceless value for the lessons of 
history- which they teach. Let us call this 
the Scripture Book. 

Modern history resorts to the Stone Book, 
the Ruin Book, the Tomb Book, the Folk 
Book and the Scripture Book for the mate- 
rials to be used in discovering and formu- 
lating the development of the industries, 
pleasures, languages, institutions and opin- 
ions of mankind. 

The present generation has inherited all 
the labors of the past. The culture of the 
day is but a slight modification of the cul- 
ture of the last generation, and that was 
derived from the antecedent generation ; so 
all the generations have wi-ought for us, 
and our culture is the product of their 
labor and invention. Every generation 
has added its minute increment, and hence 
there has been progress. We cannot ilis- 
sever our life from that of the past. We 
inherit its arts and improve them a little ; 
we inherit its pleasures and make but a 
slight change ; we inherit its speech and 
improve our expression only to a slight de- 
gree ; we inherit its institutions and mod- 
ify the forms of justice only in small par- 
ticulars, and we inherit its opinions and 
entertain new ideas only as we have discov- 
ered a few new facts. So we are indel)ted 
to the dead for that which we are, and 
are governed by the dead in all our activi- 
ties. Yet the past is not a pall on the 
present, hiding the truth, but a search- 
light that may be turned on the future. 
The past is not a tyranny on the present, 
but an informing energy wliich evolves 
throngli us that the future may be im- 
proved. Science endeavors to guide the 
waj- by a study of the past and to conserve 
and direct our energies in a legitimate 
course of development. The past is the 



chart of the future ; if misread it is a false 
guide, if correctlj' read the way is cleai-. 
It is thus that the five volumes of the pilot 
book of life are of profound import;uice. 

J. W. PoWKI.I,. 
WASHIStiTON" D. C. 



rxirv OF NOSIEKCLATURE IX ZOOLOGY 
AXD BOTANi'. 

Systematic biologists have reason to re- 
joice at the appearance of the completed 
list of ferns and ilowering plants of north- 
eastern Xorth America,* on which a com- 
mittee of leading botanists has been en- 
gaged for the past two or three yeai-s. Fol- 
lowing the example set by American orni- 
thologists in 1883, a number of prominent 
botanists determined to sink individual 
preferences for the sake of that much sought 
goal — uniformity and stability in the names 
of genera and species. In 1892, therefore, 
a committee was appointed by the Botani- 
cal Club of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, comprising !N. 
L. Britton, J. M. Coulter, H. M. Rusby, W. 
A. Kellerman, F. Y. Coville, Lucien M. Un- 
derwood and Lester F. Ward: and was after- 
ward increased by the addition of Edward 
L. Greene and AVilliam Trelease. j Although 
the De Candolle or Paris Code of 1867 is 
the alleged basis of departure, it is evidi-nt 
at a glance that nearly every important 
rule is borrowed direct from the American 
Ornithologists' Union Code of Nomencla- 

* List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing 
without cultivation in Xorthea-stern North America. 
I'repiired by a Coiuniittce of the Botaniail Club, 
.Vmerican Association for tlie Advancement of .Science. 
( From Memoire Toitcv Botanical Club. ) New York. 
1893-189-1. [Also i.'^ued in dated signatures, a.s pub- 
lished, during 18-3 and 1884.] 

t In addition to the members of the committee tlie 
following botanists have contributed special jMirts to 
the 'List': L. H. Riiley, T. H. Kearney, .Jr., Tliom- 
as Morong, F. Lani.son-Scribner, John K. .'^mall, .1. 
G. Smith and Wm. E. Wheelock. 



162 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



ture, published in 1886. The latter code 
has been already adopted, not only by orni- 
thologists, but also by leading mammalo- 
gists, paleontologists, herpetologists and 
ichthyologists, and its essential features 
have been accepted by many prominent en- 
tomologists and other wi-iters on inverte- 
brates. It is a matter for special congratu- 
lation, therefore, that the botanists have 
' fallen into line ' so that, for the first time, 
the naturalists of a great continent are in 
substantial accord on the main points in- 
volved in the nomenclature of genera and 
species. Better still, the agreement is by 
no means confined to America, for many 
of the more progressive naturalists of the 
Old World have already accepted the same 
guiding principles. 

These principles, as applied in the work 
under consideration, may be briefly stated 
as follows : (1) Priority of publication the 
fundamental principle of nomenclature ; 
(2) Botanical nomenclature to begin with 
1753, the date of the first edition of Linnse- 
us's Species Plantarum; (3) Original specific 
name to be retained without regard to ge- 
neric name ; (4) A name once a synonym al- 
ways a synonym ; (5) Original name re- 
tained ' whether published as species, sub- 
species or variety ' ; (6) Varieties [sub- 
species] written as trinomials; (7) Double 
citation of authorities. 

The well printed volume is not wholly 
above criticism. One is surprised to find 
that the original spelling of generic names 
has been violated — as Buettneria for Butne- 
via (p. 163), GleditscJiia for Gledetsia (p. 
192), and so on. The retention of capitals 
in certain specific names is also to be regret- 
ted. A word of explanation respecting the 
synonymy, and also a more explicit state- 
ment as to the exact scope of the 'List ', 
would have been acceptable. But these 
matters are trivial compared with the obvi- 
ous merits of the work. 

C Haet Meeeiam. 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 

CAN AN OEGANISM T^TTHGUT A MOTHER BE 

BOEN FEOM AN EGG ? 

1. Ein (jeschlechtlkhe erzeugter Organismus 
ohne mufterUche EigenscJiaften. — Boveei. — 
Berichte d. Gesellsch. f. Morph. u. Phys. 
zu Miinchen, 1889. 

2. Giebt es gesehleehtliohe erzeugte Organimnen 
ohne miltterliche Eigenschaften. — Seeligee. 
— Arch. f. Entwickelungsmechanic, I., 2, 
1894. 

In 1889 Boveri gave an account of cer- 
tain experiments which seemed to him to 
prove that a denucleated fragment of the 
egg of one species of sea-urchin may be 
fertilized by a spermetazoon from another 
species, and that it develops into a lai-va 
with none of the characteristics of the spe- 
cies which supplied the egg, but exactly 
like, though smaller than, the normal lar- 
vse of the species which supplied the sper- 
metazoon. He believes that his experi- 
ments demonstrate the law that the nu- 
cleus alone is the bearer of hereditarj^ quali- 
ties ; that with the removal of the mater- 
nal nucleus are removed at the same time 
the maternal hereditarj^ tendencies of the 
egg, and that while the maternal proto- 
plasm famishes a large share of the mate- 
rial for the production of the new organism, 
it is without influence on the form of this 
organism. 

This paper was welcomed with great en- 
thusiasm as a contribution of the utmost 
value to the solution of the problem of in- 
heritance, although careful study of it, or 
of the translation which was published in 
the American Naturalist for March, 1893, 
will show that Boveri's evidence for his be- 
lief is not direct but very circumstantial. 

Seeliger has repeated Boveri's experi- 
ments with great care, and on a much more 
extensive scale, and he shows that the in- 
direct evidence, upon which Boveri bases his 
belief that the larvse in question were bora 



Fkdiuaky S, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



163 



from demicleated Ofjgs or fi-agmonts of 
eggs, is fallacious. Seeliger also brings for- 
ward positive or direct evidence to show 
that Boveri's generalization is an error. 
W. K. B. 

The Rm and Development of Organic i'hcm- 

iMry, bj' Carl Schoklemmer, LL. D., F. 

R. S., revised and edited by Akthvr 

Smithells, B. Sc.. Prof. Chemistrj' in 

Yorkshire College, Leeds, Victoria Vniv. 

Macmillan & Co., Xew York. Pp. 280. 

Price 81. GO. 

The first edition of the late Professor 
St^horlemnier's history of organic chemistry 
made its appearance in 1879. Until the 
publication of the present volume no revis- 
ion appeared, althoujih a German edition, 
carefully edited, was printed in 1880. It 
was while Schorlemmer was engaged in the 
preparation of this second English edition 
that death overtook liim, and his unfinished 
task fell into the hands of Professor Smith- 
ells, who has ably completed it. 

A brief but exceedingly interesting bio- 
graphical sketch of Schorlemmer precedes 
the real subject-matter of the book. From 
this we gather that the researches which 
made tlie author famous were first begun 
in 18(il, as a result of the studj- of oils 
obtained from cannel coal. From them 
wei-e isolated the alii)hatic hydi'ocarbons. 
A large field was ojjcned up in this study 
of the paraffins, and Schorlemmer's results 
were of great importance in the development 
of organic chemistry. 

In the first chapter considerable space is 
devoted to the discussion of the origin of the 
word chemistry: attention is directed to the 
earliest attempts at classification; the labors 
of Lemery, Stahl, Scheele, Lavoisier, 
Berzelius and Gmelin are fully reviewed, 
while a concise account of the aetherln theory 
closes the <'liapter. 

In the second chapter attention is given 
to Berzelius' attempt to emphasize the dif- 



ference between orgsinie and inorgiinic 
bodies as pointed out l)y Gjnelin ; the syn- 
thesis of urea by Wiiider, which created such 
a high degree of excitement in the chemical 
world ; and the beginnings of the contro- 
versy which was waged between Dumas, 
Liebig and Berzelius. The presentation of 
the substitution theory and the attacks to 
which it in turn was subjected are fully and 
clearly narrated. 

From time to time the story is interruptt'd. 
Thus, in the fiftli chai)ter. the author brings 
together the various definitions of organic 
chemistry. The early definition of Liebig, 
viz. : that organic chemistry is the chemi.stry 
of the c()mjK)und i-adicals, was shown to be 
inadefjuate through tiie efforts of Williamson 
and Odling, who demonstrated the existence 
of the same in inorganic compounds. As 
carbon was recognized as the element 
common to all organic bodies organic chem- 
istry might, evi'n in the early days, have 
been defined as the chemistry of the carbon 
compounds, or of radicals containing carbon, 
had it not been that compounds like carbon 
monoxide, phosgene, carbon disulpliide and 
the carbon chlorides were not produci-d in 
the organism. In 1848 Gmelin, believing 
that he had found a boundary line, wrote, 
' hence organic compoumh are all primary covi- 
jMitnds containing more than one atom of 
carbon.' This definition no longer sufficed 
after the chemical world accepted Gerhardfs 
atomic weights. In 1851 Kekule, recog- 
nizing the difficulties in the way of a simple, 
satifactory definition, recorded himself in 
these words, " organic chemistry is the chem- 
istry of the carbon compounds." He held it 
to be a special i)art of pure chemistry, but 
because of the great number and importance 
of the carbon compounds believed that it 
should be separately treated. Erlenmeyer 
wrote " their study recpiires in many resiH'cts 
peculiar methods of investigation, dilVerent 
from those employed in the study of tiio 
compounds of other elements, and thus the 



164 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



necessity for a division of labor has also 
made itself apparent in the interest- of scien- 
tific research. ' ' Butlerow gave as his opinion 
that organic chemistry must be defined as 
the chemistry of the carbon compounds. 
After giving place to the definitions of the 
earlier writers Schorlemmer defines ' organic 
chemisti-y as the chemistrj^ of the hj-dro- 
carbons and their derivatives.' He, how- 
ever, recognized that it did not place a sharp 
boundary line between the inorganic and 
organic fields. 

In the remaining chapters the further 
development of the organic field is traced 
mth great care. The diiferent views in re- 
gard to the constitution of benzene, the ar- 
rangement of atoms in space, geometi-ical 
isomerism, various striking syntheses in 
both the parafiin and aromatic series are 
clearly presented. In regard to the great 
revolution produced in calico-printing and 
in the manufacture of madder preparations 
b}' the synthesis of alizarin by Graebe and 
Liebermann, Schorlemmer writes "madder 
finds to-day only a verj^ limited application 
in dyeing of wool. Twenty years ago the 
annual yield of madder was about 500,000 

tons when a friend of the author 

asked to see the madder plantations at 
Avignon he was told ' it is no longer grown, 
as it is now made by machinery.' " 

The book closes with a chapter upon the 
unsolved problems. " If to-day we cannot 
make morphine, quinine, and similar bodies 
artificially, the time is near at hand .... If 
we cannot make quinine we have already 
found a partial substitute in antipjTine." 
Yes, in the language of Schorlemmer " or- 
ganic chemistry advances with giants' steps. 
About fifty years ago only twelve hydrocar- 
bons were known, and twelve years ago 
this number had increased to about 200. 
To-day we are acquainted with more than 
400, and many of them, as well as their de- 
rivatives, have been carefully studied." 

The little volume from which we have 



quoted is well constructed and replete with 
information for the student of chemistry. 
Its careful studj^ will be well repaid. The. 
editor and publishers deserve much credit 
for again presenting such a valuable work. 

Edgar F. Sshth. 
Univebsity of Pennsylvaxia. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 
MILK IN ITS RELATIONS TO DIPHTHERIA. 

Vladimikow, in the Second Part, Vol. 
III., of the Archives des Sciences Biologiques 
•publiees 2^<^'>' L'Institut Imperial de mededne 
Experimentale, St. Petersburg, page 84, gives 
the results of some researches made by him 
in ISTencki's laboratory on the effects of the 
diphtheria bacillus upon cows, and especially 
as to the possibilitj' of producing in the cow, 
by subcutaneous injections of this organism, 
a disease which would result in the infection 
of the milk by the same organism, so that 
such milk might become a carrier of the 
germs to those who used it. 

Dr. Klein, of London, has reported, as the 
result of such hj'podermic injections, the 
production of an eruption upon the udder 
of the cow, in which eruption the diphtheria 
bacillus was found to exist. 

These experiments were repeated by Dr. 
Abbott, of Philadelphia ; but while he found 
that the injection produces disease, and even 
death, in the cow, there was no eruption in 
the udders, and no diphtheria bacillus in 
the milk. Vladimirow confirms the results 
obtained by Dr. Abbott. He found that if 
the diphtheria bacillus was introduced into 
the milk ducts of the teats upon one side of 
the udder of the cow, an inflammation was 
produced upon that side of the udder, and 
general fever occurred, which, in one case, 
produced death. The milk secreted by the 
injected half of the gland acquired a greenish 
tint, coagulated, contained pus, had an alka- 
line reaction, and contained less sugar and 
more albuminoids than the milk coming 
from the sound side of the gland. The di- 



Fkbruary 8, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



1G5 



niinution in the (luantity of sugar wiis due 
to the dooom posit ion of this substance by 
the diphtheria batillus, with the production 
of lactic acid. Tlic diphtheria bacilli only 
remained alive in the udder for a short 
time — from four to five days — and their 
number steadily diminished. Sulx-utaneous 
injections of cultures of the diphtheria bacil- 
lus in the cow produced a serious fever, with 
lo.><s of appetite, etc.. but there was no irri- 
tation on the udder, the milk did not change 
iu its appearance and contained neither dij)h- 
theria bacilli nor the toxins due to these. 

C-OXSrSIPTION OF WIXE AND BEER IN DIFFER- 
ENT COUNTRIES. 

During the years 1886-90 the mean an- 
nual consumption of wine, stated as num- 
ber of liti-es per head of population, was, 
in Spaiu, 11.5; in Greece, 100. .3; in Bul- 
garia. 104.2: in Portugal, 95.6: in Italy. 
95.2: in France, 94.4; in Switzerland, 60.7: 
in Roumania, 51.6: in Servia,35.0: in Ger- 
many, 5.7: in Belgium, 3.2; in Holland, 2.2: 
and in Great Britain and Ireland. 1.7. 

In 1890 a.verage consumption of l)eer. 
stated as number of litres per head of popu- 
lation, was, in Belgium, 177.5; in Great 
Britain and Ireland, 136.2; in Germany, 
105.8: in Denmark, 102.9; in the United 
States, 58.0; in Switzerland, 40.0: in Xoi"- 
way, 37.5; in Holland, 34.(>: in France, 
22.5: and in Italy. 0.9. (Bulletin de I ' Lut. 
infernaf. de Statistique. VII. 2." Sive. 1894. 
p. 309.) 

m.\(:netic waves. 

At a late meeting of the Mathcmatico- 
Pliysical Club in Cambridge, Mass., Profes- 
sor Dolbear showed that magnetic waves 
prtKluced by the vibrations of a magnet 
making two thousand vibrations per second 
could easily be heard by listening to a mag- 
netic teleplione held in the neighborhood 
without any emploj'ment of its coil. The 
inductive action of the waves upon the mag- 
net of the telephone being direct instead of 



being fii-st transformed into an electric cur- 
rent as in the common way of using it. 
Two sympathetic tuning fork.s may, if mag- 
netized, react in the same way as they will 
from sound vibrations and one ijiake the 
other vibrate through a thick wall, thus 
showing that such walls are transparent to 
magnetic waves. The reactions show that 
the periodic change of form due to vibra- 
tion changes the strength of the magnetic 
field at the same rate. A few turns of wire 
about the bend of a U magnet maj* have 
the ends fastened to a telephone circuit, 
when, if the magnet be struck so as to pro- 
duce a sound, it will give so loud a sound 
in the telephone as to probably surprise 
one who has not tried the experiment 
before. 

ANATOMY. 

The Bibliographie Anatomlque begins its 
third year with the announcement of in- 
creased success. It is to be enlarged to 
make room for a greater number of original 
articles, and at the same time the subscrip- 
tion is to be raised from seven and a-half to 
ten francs. This excellent publication gives 
a current classified list of all anatomical ai-- 
ticles i)ublished iu French, and difiers from 
other similar journals in adding brief re- 
sumes of all the more important articles. 
In practice it covei-s (juite thoroughly the 
field of vertebrate morphology, and it may 
therefore be recouunended for the support 
of American investigator.s. 

CARNIVOROUS PLjVNTS. 

Profes-sor Tuom.\s Meeuan, in an article 
on Darlingtonia Califoniica in the January 
issue of Meehan'.< Monthly, notes that the 
so-called carnivorous plants are just as able 
to get their food from the earth as other 
plants do, and that the animal food which 
they undoubtedly consume through their 
foliage can only be looked upon as a gas- 
tronomic luxury in no way to be classed 
among the necessaries of life. 



166 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



TOADS ON THE SEASHORE. 

During a vacation recently spent at Cape 
May, New Jersey, I was mticli interested in 
observing the habits of the toads on the 
seashore. Between the ' board-walk ' and 
high-water mark is a narrow belt of un- 
even sand, dotted with tufts of beach-grass 
and raised here and there into miniature 
' dunes.' Here the toads congregate in 
considerable numbers, and as evening draws 
on they may be seen hopping about in quest 
of food. As they were not to be seen dur- 
ing the heat of the day, I became interested 
to know where they concealed themselves. 
A short search revealed their whereabouts. 
Like so many of the small animals of the 
contiguous waters, they bury themselves in 
the sand for concealment. Upon looking 
attentively over the surfaces of the little 
dunes, one saw here and there a pair of 
bright eyes, not unlike the sand in color 
and as fixed as gems in a rock. It was 
only necessary to totich the sand in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the eyes, when a toad 
would hop out and tumble clumsily over 
the hummocks in endeavors to escape. 

"Whether the toads captured any prey 
while concealed in the sand I was unable 
to discover, but I should tloink it improb- 
able, as their mouths were usually beneath 
the surface and there would be little chance 
for them to shoot out their tongues. 

Frederick W. True. 



Professor Arthur Cayley, the eminent 
mathematician, died at Cambridge, England, 
on January 26, at the age of seventy-four. 

John S. Burdon-Sanderson, M. A., Fel- 
low of Magdalen College, and "Waynflete 
Professor of Physiologj'-, has been appointed 
Regius Professor of Medicine, at Oxford, in 
place of Sir Henry A¥. Acland, Bart., Christ 
Church, resigned. Professor Burdon-San- 
derson continues to direct the lectures and 



practical instructions in the Department of 
Physiology, with the assistance of Dr. Hal- 
dane and Mr. Pembrey. 

Applications for the table at the Biolog- 
ical Laboratory of Cold Spring Harbor, 
maintained by the American Association 
should be sent to Professor W. H. Conn, 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., 
or to Professor F. AV. Hooper, Bi'ooklyn 
Institute of Arts and Sciences, Brooklyn, 

N. y. 

The Johns Hopkins Univerdty Cireidar for 
January consists of scientific notes on work 
done at the University. It includes a 
reprint fi'om the Journal of Geology of Pro- 
fessor Brooks' paper. On the Origin of the 
Oldest Fossils and the Discovery of the Bottom 
of the Ocean, and a reprint from. Natural 
Science of a review of Professor Brooks' 
monograph. The Genus Salpa. It also con- 
tains notes in chemistry, astronomj' and 
botany. 

The French Minister of Education, M. 
Leygues, has opened the new buildings for 
the scientific departments of the Sorbonne. 

The list of books for sale issued by Ber- 
nard Quaritch in January includes many 
valuable works in natural history, especially 
in botany and ornithology. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
NEW Y'ORK academy OF SCIENCES. 

Biological Section : Januarj;- 14, 1896. 

Notes on Neurological methods and ex- 
Mbition of photo-micrographs. 

A paper on The Use of Formalin in Golgi's 
method was read by Mr. 0. S. Strong. The 
writer found that formalin (40% solution of 
formaldehyde) may be used (instead of os- 
mic acid) mixed with potassium bichro- 
mate. Pieces of adult brain were placed 
in the following : Potassium bichromate 
(3i%-5%) 100 volumes -|- formalin 2i to 
5 vol. During several days or more the tis- 



Febkuary 8, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



167 



sue is transferred to the silver nitrate solu- 
tion {\%). Or the tissue after 1 to 2 days 
may be transferred from the above bichro- 
mate-formalin mixture to the following : 
Pot. bieh. (5/f ) '2 vols. + formalin 1 vol. 
After 12 to 24 hours the tissue is put into 
silver solution. The advantages of this 
method are that it avoids the use of osmic 
acid and that the stage of hardening 
favorable for impregnation lasts longer than 
when the osmium-bichromate mixture is 
used and good results are consequently 
more certain. lu other words, the forma- 
lin-bichromate does not overharden. In 
this respect it is also superior to the lithium 
l)ichromate method of the author (N. Y. 
Acad, of Sc. Pro. vol. XIII., 1S94). For 
embryonic tissue the formalin method is 
probably not equal to the osmium-bichro- 
mate method, possibly because it does not 
liardeu sufficiently. For such tissue lHh- 
inm bichromate (which hardens more 
rapidly tlian potassium bichromate) had 
better be mixed with the formalin instead 
of potassium bichromate. While good results 
are obtainable, especially with advanced 
embryonic tissue, with either of the above, 
yet the author belitives that for such tissue 
the osmium-ljicliromate method is prol)ably 
in certain respects somewhat superior. 

A fuller account will be published later. 

Dr. Ira Van Gieson reported some pre- 
liminary observations on the action of for- 
malin as a fixative and preservative of the 
central nervous system for the ordinarj' his- 
tological staining methods ; solutions of Ibr- 
malin, four, six and ten per cent, were used, 
followed bj- 9.^ per cent, alcohol and celloi- 
din embedding. Sections of the human cord, 
cerebellum and cortex prepared in this way 
gave very thorough fixation of the ganglion 
cell, neuroglia cells, and fine nerve fibres. 

Weigert's haematoxylin method can be 
applied to such sections, and gives very 
good results for the plexus of fine fil)res in 
the cortical and spinal grey matter. The 



mjelin of the fine fibres is well preserved 
and gives the characteristic bluish black re- 
action with the "Weigert liaematoxylin stain, 
as in chronu> hardened preparations. The 
background of the grey matter is especially 
clear and the fibres sharply delineated. 
The formalin hai-dened sections should be 
soaked in the neutral copper acetate solu- 
tion, diluted one-lialf \nth water, for 2 
hours, then thoroughly washed in water and 
immersed in the Weigert lithium-carljonate 
haematoxylin solution two to twelve hours. 
Weigert's borax-prussiate of potassium so- 
lution is used for differentiation. The dif- 
ferentiation takes place rapidly and must be 
watched carefullj-. 

The formalin sections of the central 
nervous sj'stem maj- also be used for Rehm's 
modification of Nissl's method ; but the 
staining of the chromatin and minute struc- 
ture of the nucleus and cj-toplasm is not 
quite so shai-plj' outlined as with absolute 
alcohol fixation. 

The duration of the hardening in formalin 
solutions has a verj- important and \ arying 
influence on the nerve fibers and ganglion 
cells with reference to the application of 
such methods as the Weigert and Nissl 
groups of stains. A further study to define 
the more exact limitations of formalin as a 
new histological pres^■l'^•ative for the nervous 
system will be published later and the more 
exact periods of time in the hardening ne- 
ces.sary lor different stains detailed. 

Mr. R. H. Cunningham, On the Souvvea of 
Illumination for Phufo-Micrographi/, noted a 
practical mode of employing the arc light 
with satisfactory results. 

Mr. C. F. Cox ilhistrated the Latest Theories 
of Diatom Stntetiire, exliibiting lantern slides 
of Mr. T. F. Smith, of London. 

Dr. Edward Learning projected a series 
of his micro-photographs of bacteria, fer- 
tilization processes of sea-urchin, Toxo- 
penemtes, and Golgi preparations. 

Bashford Dean, Recording Secy. 



168 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 6. 



THE BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON, 
JAN. 26. 

Council meeting at 7:30 p. m. 

A New Cotton Enemy, brought over from Mex- 
ico : Mr. L. O. Howard. 

Anatomy of a Leaf-gall of Pinus virginiamis : 
Mr. Theo. Holm. 

Abnormal Feet of Mammals : Mr. F. A. Lucas. 

The Mesozoie Flora of Portugal compared with 
that of the United States : Prof. Lester F. 
Ward. 

Frederic A. Lucas, Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS. 
THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, JAN. 

On the Conditions which Affect the Spectra-Pho- 
tography of the Sun : A. A. Michelson. 

Photographs of the Milky- Way : E. E. Bar- 
nard. 

The Arc-Spectra of the Elements I. Boron and 
Berylium: H. A. Eowland and E. Tat- 

NALL. 

On Some Attempts to Photograph the Solar Co- 
rona Without an Eclipse, made at the Mount 
Etna Observatory: A. Riccd. 

Discovery of Variable Stars from their Photo- 
graphic Spectra : E.G. Pickering. 

Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wave- 
Lengths I.: H. A. Eowland. 

Observations of Mars made in May and June, 
189 If, ivith the Melbourne Gi-eat Telescope: 
E. L. J. Ellery. 

Recent Changes in the Spectrum of Nova 
Auriga : W. W. Campbell. 

The Modern Spectroscope. X. General Consider- 
ations Respecting the Design of Astronomical 
Speetroscojies : F. L. O. Wadsworth. 

Minor Contributions and Notes. 

Reviews. 

Recent Publications. 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICS, JAN. 

Sur une transformation de mouvements: Par 

Paul Appell. 
Extrait d'une lettre adress'ee & M. Craig : Par 

M. Hermite. 



On the First and Second Logarithmic Deriva- 
tives of Hyperelliptic Functions: By Oskar 

BOLZA. 

Sur la definition de la limite d'une foncHon, 
Exerdce de logique mathematique : Par G. 
Peano. 
Theorems in the Calculus of Enlargement : By 
• Emory McClintock. 
On Foucault's Pendulum : By A. S. Chessin. 

BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB, 
JAN. 

Family Nomenclature : John Hendley Barn- 
hart. 

A Revision of the North American Species of 
the Genus Cracca : Anna Murray Vail. 

A Revision of the Genus Scouleria with De- 
scription of one neiu Species : Elizabeth G. 
Britton. 

Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United 
States — III. : John K. Small. 

New Plants from Idaho : Louis F. Hender- 
son. 

Buxbaumia Aphylla : Geo. G. Kennedy. 

Herbert A . Young : Wm. P. Eich. 

Proceedings of the Club. 

Index to Recent Literatare Relating to American 
Botany. 



NEW BOOKS. 

The Factors in Organic Evolution : A Srjllabus 
of a Course of Elementary Lectures. David 
Starr Jordon. Pp. 149. Ginn & Co. 
$1.50. 

The Geological and Natural History Survey of 
Minnesota. N. H. Winchell. Minneap- 
olis, Harrison & Smith. 1894. Pp. 210. 

Anatomy and Art. President's address be- 
fore the PhilosopMcal Society of Wash- 
ington. Egbert Fletcher Washington. 
1895. Pp. 24. 

Annual Reports of the Bureau of Ethnology of 
the Smithsonian Institution, 1S90-1891. J. 
W. Powell. Washington, Government 
Printing Offtce. Pp. 742. 



SCIENCE. 



New Series. 
Vol.1. No. 7. 



Friday, February 15, 1895. 



SiNQLE Copies, 15 cis. 
Ankual Subscription, fS.oO 



GUSTAV E. STECHERT'S 

Recent Importation of Scientific Books. 



PHYSICS. 

Abhaxdlungen, physikalisohe, der kiinigl. Aka- 
demie der Wissenschafteu zu Berlin. 4°. Mit. 1 Taf. 
Mk. 10. 

Bois, Dr. H. du. Ma^netische Kreise, deren Tlie- 
orie und Anwendnng. Mit i)4 in den Te.vt gedruck- 
ten Abbildungen. gr. 8". Gebunden. Mk. 10. 

CiiRiSTi.\NSEN, Prof. Dr. C, Elcmente der tlieo- 
retischen Pliysik. Deutscli v. Dr. Joh. Jliiller. Mit 
e. Vorwort v. Prof. Dr. E. Wiedemann, gr. 8". Mk. 
10. ^ 

Dhude, p. Physik des Aethers anf elektromag- 
netischer Grundlage. 8°. Mit 66 Abbildgn. Mk. 14. 

FtipPL, Prof. Dr. A., Einfiihrung in die SlaxweU- 
'BcheTlieorie der Elektricitat. Mit. e. Einleit. Ab- 
sohnitte iiber das Rechuen m. Vectorgrossen in der 
Physik. gr. 8". Mk. 10. 

Garkault, E. Mocaniqne, physique et chimie. 
Paris, 1894. 8". Avec. 32.5 fig. 8 fr. 

KoRX, Dr. Arthur. Eine Tlieorie der Gravita- 
tion und der elektriselien Erscheinungen ant Grund- 
lage der Hydrodynamik. Zweiter Teil: Elektrotly- 
namik. Ei-ster Abschnitt. Tlieorie des pemianenten 
Magnetism us und der konstanten elektrischen Strome. 
gr. 8». Mk. 3. 

Weber. Sechster Band. Mecbanik der mensch- 
lichen Gehwerkzenge. Besorgt durch Friedrich Mer- 
kel und Otto Fischer. Mit 17 Tafeln und in den Text 
gedrnckten Abbildungen. gr. 8". Mk. 16. 

Weber's Webke, Wilhelm. Herausgegeben von 
der Kiiniglicben Gesellsfhaft der Wissenschafteu zu 
G<)ttingen. Vierter Band Galvanismus und Elektro- 
dynamik. Zweiter Teil. Besorgt durch Heinrich 
Weber. Mit 4 Tafeln und in den Text gedruckten 
Abbildungen. gr. 8". Jlk. 16. 

Wiedemann, Gistav. Die Lelu'e der Elektriz- 
itiit. Zweite umgearlieitcte und vcrmehrte Auflage. 
Zugleich als vierte Aullage der Lelire vom Galvanis- 
mns und Elektromagnetisnius. Zweiter Band. Mit 
163 Holzschnitten und einer Tafel. gr. 8°. Mk. 28. 

CHEMISTRY. 

Biechele, Dr. Max., I'liannacenti-sche Uebungs- 
priiparate. Anleitung zur DarstcUung, Erkennung, 
Priifung und stiichiouietrisclien Berechnung von of- 
fizinellen clieniisch-phamiaceutischen Priiparaten. 8". 
Oebnnden. Mk. 6. 

BujARD Dr. Aleons, und Db. Eduabd Baier. 
Hilfsbuch fiir Nahrungsuiittelchemiker anf Grund- 



lage der Vorschriften, betreffend die Priifung der 
Nahrungsmittelchemiker. Mit in den Text gedruck- 
ten Abbildungen. 8". Gebunden. Mk. 8. 

Erlenmeykr's, E., Lehrbuch der org-anischen 
Chemie. II. Thl. Die aromatischen Verbindungen. 
Begonnen von Kch. Meyer lortgesetzt von H. Gold- 
schniidt, weiter fortgef iihrt von K. v. Buchka. I. Bd. 
8 Lfg. Mk. 6. 

Geissler, Dr. Ewald. Gmndriss der phanna- 
ceutischen Massanalyse. Mit Beriicksichtigung ein- 
iger handelscheniiscben und hygienischen Analysen. 
Zweite verbesserte und vermebrte Auflage. Mit 37 
in den Text gedruckten Holzschnitten. 8". Gebun- 
den. Mk. 4. 

2896. GiRARD, C, et. A. Dupre. Analyse des 
matieres alimentaires et recherche de leurs falsifica- 
tions. 8". 32 fr. 50c. 

Glvcksmaxn, Karl. Kritische Studicn im Be- 
reicbe der Fundamentalanschauungen der throrcti.sch- 
en Chemie. Zweiter Teil: tjber die Molekularhvpo- 
these. 8". Mk. 2.30. 

HANDwiJRTERBrcH DER Chemie, herausgegeben 
von A. Ladenburg. XII. Bd. 8". Mit Holzschn. S. 
Nr. 2532. Mk. 16. 

Jacquot, E. et WiLM, Les Eaux mint-rales de la 
France. Etudes chimiques et giJologiques. 8". Aveo 
carte et 21 fig. 20 fr. 

Jaheesbericht iiber die Leistungen derchemisch- 
en Technologic m. besond. Beriicksiclit. der Gewerbe- 
statistik f. d. J. 1893. Jahrg. 1— XXV bearb. von 
E. V. Wagner. Fortgesetz v. Dr. Ferd. Fischer. 39. 
od. neue Folge. 24 Jalu-g. gr. 8". M. 200 Abbildgn. 
Mk. 24. 

OilcHSNER DE CoNNlCK. CouTS de ohlmie organ- 
ique. 2 vol. 8". Fr.20. 

Ostwald, W. Die wissenschaftlichen Gmndlagen 
der analytischen Chemie. 8". Mk. 4. 

Ostwald, W. Elektrochemie. Ihre Geschichte 
und Lehre. 3. u. 4. Lfg. 8". Mit Abbildgn. a Mk. 2. 

RiCHTER's, V. v., Oiemie der Kohlenstoffverbin- 
dungen od. organische Chemie. 7. Aufl. Neubearb. 
V. Prof. Dr. R. Anschiitz. (In2Bdn. ) 1. Bd. Die 
Chemie der Fettkiirper. 8°. Holschn. Mk. 10. 

ScHNELLER, K. Reactioucn und Heagentien. Ein 
Handbuch fiir Acrzte, Analytiker, Apotheker und 
Chemiker. I. Bd. 8". Mk." 6. 

ZiRKEL, Prof. Dr. Ferdinand. Lehrbuch der 
Petrographie. Zweite, giinzlich neu verfasste Auf- 
lage. Zweiter ISanil. gi'. 8. Mk. 19. 

GUSTAV E. STECHERT, 

810 Broadway, New York. 



SCIENCE.— AD VERTI8EMENTS. 



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"Written especially for assistants in Steel Works 
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riodel Engine Construction. 

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The Theory of Sound. 

By LoED Eatieigh, Sc. D., P. E. S., etc., in 2 
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Electrical Papers. 

By Olivee Hbaviside. 3 vols., Bvo, Cloth, $7.00. 

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Elementary Lessons in Electricity and 
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Lectures on Human and Animal Psy^^ 
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A Laboratory Manual of Physics and 
Applied Electricity. 

Arranged and Edited by Edward L. Nichols, 
Professor of Physics in Cornell University. In two 
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SCIENCE. 



Editorial Committee : S. Newcomb, Mathematics ; R. S. Woodward, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, As- 
tronomy ; T. C. Mendenhall, Physics ; R. H. Thiteston, Engineering ; Ira Remsen, Chemistry ; 
Joseph Le Conte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. SIaesh, Paleontology; W. K. 
Brooks, Invertebrate Zoology ; C. Hart Merriam, Vertebrate Zoology ; N. L. Britton, 
Botany ; Henky F. Osborn, General Biology ; H. P. Bowditch, Physiology ; 
J. S. Billings, Hygiene ; J. McKeen Cattell, Psychology ; 
Daniel G. Brinton, J. W. Powell, Anthropology. 



Friday, February 15, 1895. 



CONTENTS: 

The Influence of Certain Agents in Destroying the 
Vitality of the Typhoid and of the Colon Sacillm: 
John S. Billings and Adelaide Ward Peck- 
ham 169 

Current Notes on Physiography (/.).' W. M. 
Davis 174 

TTie Needs of Meteorology : CLEVELAND Abbe . . . 181 

CorrCKpondcnee : — 182 

A Card Catalogue of Scientific Literature : H. 
P. Bowditch. 

Sdentifie Literature : — 186 

Organic Coloring Matters: lEA REMSEN. 
Thompmn^n Electricity and Magnetism: T. C. 
M. The Birds of Eastern Pennsylvania; Birds 
in the Museum of Natural History, Netc I'oiA" 
City: C. Haet Merriam. BusseIVs Dairy 
Bacteriology : H. W. C. Botanical : Albert 
Schneider. 

Notes and Neies : — 190 

The Thompson Prize ; Entomology ; Cooling of 
Hospitals ; Pithecanthropus Erectus. 

Societies and Academies : — 193 

New York Academy of Sciences, Section of Geol- 
ogy and Mineralogy. 

Scientific Journals 195 

New Books 196 



MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended 
for review sliould be sent to the responsible editor, Prof. J. 
McKeen Cattell, Garrison on Hudson, N. Y. 

Subscriptions ( five dollars imnually) and advertisements 
should be sent to the Publisher of Science, 41 East 49th St., 
New York, or Lancaster, Pa. 



THEINFLUENCB OF CERTAIN AGENTS IN DE- 
STROYING THE VITALITY OF THE TY- 
PHOID AND OF THE COLON BACILLI'S. 
During the last year a series of re- 
searche.s upon tlie influence of liglit, of 
deeiccation. and of the products of certain 
micro-organ i.sm.s upon the vitality of some 



of the pathogenic bacteria has been car- 
ried on in the Laboratory of Hygiene of the 
University of Pennsylvania, bj- Dr. Ade- 
laide W. Peckham, in accordance with a 
general scheme for such investigation pre- 
pared by Dr. AVeir Mitchell and Dr. Bil- 
lings, the Director of the Laboratory, and 
with the aid of a grant from the Bache fund. 
A portion of the results obtained in this re- 
search has been communicated to the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences at its meetings 
in April and in October, 1894 ; but as the 
volume of the Transactions of the Academj- 
which will contain these papers will not be 
issued before next year, it has been thouglit 
best to publish some account of tliese ex- 
periments without further delay. 

That direct sunlight kills or stops the 
growth of certain bacteria has been known 
since 1877, when Downes and Blunt pre- 
sented to the Koyal Society a report on 
" Researches on the effects of light upon 
bacteria and other organisms."* Since 
that date a number of papers on this subject 
liave been published, the most imjiortant 
one in relation to the typhoid bacillus being 
that of Janowski in 1 SOO.f The fii-st series 
of experiments bj- Dr. Peckham was made 
with the daphijlococeus pyogenes aureus, the 
object being mainly to determine the best 
methods of investigation. 

* Proc. Roy. Soc. 1877, vol. 26, p. 488. 
t Zur Biologic der Typhn.s Bacillen, Centralbl. f 
Bakteriol, etc., VIII., 1690, pp. 167, 193, 230, 262. 



170 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



Photobacteriographs were made by Buch- 
ner's method, namely, by placing a square 
of black paper, or of glass of different colors, 
upon the bottom of a plate containing in- 
oculated agar-agar during insolation; but 
although the protected portion was visible 
after fifteen minutes' insolation and incuba- 
tion for twenty-four hours, and sharplj^ de- 
fined after two hours' insolation and incuba- 
tion as before, no accurate estimate could 
be made of the difference in the destruc- 
tive power of different periods of inso- 
lation. Successfal photobacteriography re- 
quires inoculation of large quantities of 
bacteria, in order that the colonies may be 
set so closely together that a ground-glass 
appearance is produced; in which case 
coiinting of the colonies is practically im- 
possible. 

For this reason the following method was 
used for each of the three organisms, 
the staphylococcus pyogenes aureus, the bacillus 
coli cammunis and the bacillus typhi abdom- 



To obtain an accurate measure of the 
effects produced by lights of different in- 
tensity or of different colors, it is necessary 
to ensure, as far as possible, that the bac- 
teria to be experimented on shall be uni- 
formly distributed in the culture media. 
Tubes containing each 10 cc. of bouillon 
were inoculated with one drop of a bouillon 
ciilture and then placed in an incubator for 
twenty-four hours. A small quantity of 
sterilized gravel was then added to the 
culture tube and it was thoroughly shaken, 
after which 10 cc. of a one-half per cent, 
salt solution was added and the culture 
drawn into a Nuttall's dropping apparatus. 
From this, one-twentieth of 1 cc. of the 
bouillon culture was dropped into a tube of 
melted agar-agar, which was slowly and 
thoroughly agitated, and the contents were 
then poured into a Petri dish, carefully 
levelled on a levelling tripod over ice water. 
In the first method used the Petri dishes 



were found to be so uneven on the bottom 
that the layer of medium under the pro- 
tective square was often very thick or very 
thin as compared with that about the cir- 
cumference of the plate, and, therefore, 
comparisons made between the centre and 
the cu'cumference would be in almost every 
case unreliable. To overcome this diffi- 
cultj', just one-half of the plate was shaded 
mth black paper or colored glass. 

The plates were then exposed to sunlight, 
bottom upwards, so as to allow the sun to 
shine as directlj^ as possible on the inocu- 
lated agar-agar. At intervals of fifteen 
mhiutes a plate was removed and placed in 
the incubator. The temperature of the 
plates during insolation was always 
below 34° C. as shown by a thermometer 
with a blackened bulb which was placed in 
the sun and the temperature noted every 
fifteen minutes. Sunny, still days were 
latilized for insolation, beginning at 10 A. m. 
during the months of October, November 
and December. After insolation, the plates, 
and also a non-insolated control plate were 
incubated for tn^enty-four hours. 

The colonies were counted in the follow- 
ing manner : A number 1 eye-piece was 
divided into fields (as done by Nuttall in 
counting tubercle bacilli), by inti'oducing a 
disk of black cardboard which had a square 
opening divided into four parts by two hairs 
placed at right angles. This eye-piece and 
an objective of low power were used in 
counting. The percentage of germs de- 
stroyed by insolation was estimated &"om 
the mean of four counts taken on both the 
insolated and the protected halves of the 
plate. Bjr this method an accurate state- 
ment can be made regarding the difference 
in protective power given by the different 
colors, not from simple observation, but by 
comparison of a definite number of colonies 
counted. 

The following table shows the compara- 
tive effect of the blue raj'^s and of complete 



Febbuary 15, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



171 



«hado\vs on the growth of the organisms ex- 
perimcnted on : 



Percentages of or- 
ganism destroyed in 
the insoluted half of 
[ the plate as com- 
pared with the pro- 
tected half. 



Number of minates exposed 15 30 45 60 75 !)0 105 120 

I black paper..,lT!28 33 34 6o63 90 9« 

Ibliie glass....! 7 U 30 32 24 38 35 .52 

ik paper. . 25 15 25 71 83 88 97 99 



Typhoid Shaded mth- 



Colon ... .Shailed nith- 

(blue glass.... 

I black paper.. 
.\iireus.. Shaded with-^ 

(blue glass.... 



13.29132 35|S6 59 60 52 

..i..J55j.. 17272 80 90 
.. 38S4J&151'41 48 50 



From tliis series of experiments the fol- 
h)\ving results were obtained : 

Insolation for fifteen minutes destroys to 
a sliglit e.\tent each of the three organisms 
experimented ui)on. Two hours" insolation 
de.stroys 08% of the germs and from three 
to six hours kills all. The colon bacillus is 
more easily destroj'ed by insolation than is 
the typhoid bacillus. Exposure to diffuse 
dayliglit, to gas light, or to the incandes- 
cent electric light produces little effect. 
Red, orange, yellow, and green light pro- 
duce little effect, during two hours' insola- 
tion ; while the blue and violet rays kill 
nearly as rapidly and as certainlj- as full 
sunlight. Insolation from six to eight hours 
lessens the number of colonies under the 
protective square to a slight extent, for the 
colors red, orange, yellow and green. 

Plates were made in the same manner 
and exjiosed to diffiised light for periods 
varying from fifteen minutes to two days. 
The exposure was made on clear sunny days 
in the light, part of a room. In this ex- 
periment the result was negative, the num- 
ber of colonies on the two sides of the plate 
being approximately the same. 

.\n ordinary gas-burner and an incandes- 
cent light were each used as the source of 
illumination. The plates were placed bot- 
tom-upwards in a dark room near the light 
used. Illumination for sixteen hours with 



gas produced no effect on the gi-owth of the 
organism as shown by counting of the col- 
onies. 

Illumination for four and one-half liours 
with an incandescent light al.'<o g-ave nega- 
tive results. 

A series of experiments was made witli 
tubes of bouillon inoculated with the differ- 
ent orgiinisms and tlien enclosed in larger 
tubes containing fluids of different colons — 
red, orange, yellow and blue, which were 
exposed to sunlight with control tubes, one 
placed in water, and the other in a similar 
tube covered with black paper. The ma- 
terials ifsed for making the colored solutions 
were corallin, chromate and bichromate of 
potassium, and methylene blue. From these 
tubes, plates were made, and the number of 
colonies counted. 

It was found that an increase in the num- 
ber of colonies continued to the eighteenth 
daj'^, the number being greater in the colon 
and aureus cultures than in the typhoid. 
The colonies then began to decrease, and on 
the fiftj'-eighth day the plates contained but 
few colonies. In this experiment, as in the 
last, plates made from culture tubes placed 
in blue ffuid showed fewer colonies. 

Since the presentation of the above re- 
sults, with details, charts and tables, to the 
Xational Academy, in April, 1804, Dr. Dieu- 
donne has published in the Arhviten au» dem 
Kaiserliclien Gesnndheitgamte, a paper on the 
effects of sunlight on bacteria, in which he 
reports results substantially the same, and 
obtained by almost tlie same methods as 
tho.se of Dr. Peckham. 

Sunlight not only weakens or kills the 
typhoid and the colon bacillus, but it aff'ects 
culture media .so as to render them less 
capable of sui)j)orting the growth of these 
organisms. Dr. Peckham found that sterile 
bouillon insolated from one to ten days and 
then inoculated with tlie baciUii-i typhi ub- 
dominalU showeil no diminution in the num- 
ber of colonies as comjKired with a control 



172 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



plate made from a similar culture uot so 
exposed. Twenty days insolation and then 
inoculation with the typhoid bacillus 
showed great deci'ease in the number of 
colonies on all the plates ; some of them were 
sterile. Insolation of fortj^ days, and inoc- 
ulation in the same manner, gave very few 
colonies for each plate, probably the same 
as the number of germs introduced, i. e., 
there had been no development. Bouillon 
insolated 50 — 60 days and inoculated gave 
sterile tubes. This insolated bouillon after 
inoculation and incubation remained per- 
fectly clear, and plates made after a week 
of incubation gave no more colonies than 
those made at the end of twenty-four hours. 
Its reaction was alkaline, but not intensely 
so. 

Insolated agar-agar — Of twenty-three tubes 
of agar-agar insolated twenty days, and 
then inoculated with the badlhis typhi ab- 
dominalis, all except one remained sterile, 
and neither the hacillus typhi abdominalis nor 
the hacillus coli communis grew when inocu- 
lated in stripes on these plates. Of seven 
tubes of agar-agar insolated forty days and 
then inoculated with the bacillus of typhoid, 
all remained sterile. On four of these plates 
mould appeared after some days. Of seven 
tubes of agar-agar insolated forty days and 
then inoculated and incubated as before, all 
remained sterile. 

Insolated gelatine. — Of ten gelatine tubes 
insolated forty days and then inoculated 
with the hacillus typhi abdominalis, six re- 
mained sterile, two contained a few colonies 
of bacillus typhi abdominalis, and two were 
contaminated. 

The insolated bouillon was then kept in 
diffuse daylight for forty days and again 
inoculated with the typhoid bacillus. Within 
twenty-four hours the tubes of bouillon be- 
tame turbid and plates made from them 
showed innumerable colonies. 

It is diflacult to account for the effect of 
insolation on culture media. Koux in his 



experiments on anthrax found that iusola* 
tion of bouillon for tivo or three hours ren- 
dered it unsuitable for germination of the- 
spores, but if the bacilli were introduced 
they would thrive. He attributes this alter- 
ation to some chemical change which the 
culture media undergo during the insolation. 
He found also that if the insolated media 
were kept in the dark or in diffuse daylight 
for a time, the original nutritive qualities 
were restored and germination of spores 
would take place. Geisler and Janowski 
observed the bactericidal j)roperties of inso- 
lated media, but the latter coiUd find no 
chemical alteration in such media. 

Percy Frankland in his chapter on action 
of light on micro-oi'ganisms* concludes from 
the results obtained by many investigators 
' that the effect is due to a process of oxi- 
dation possibly brought about through the 
agency of ozone or peroxide of hydrogen, or 
both ; that all apparent^ dii-ect low tem- 
perature oxidations require the presence of 
water. And inasmuch as the bactericidal 
action of light is unquestionably a case of 
low temperature oxidation, there is the 
strongest presumptive evidence, as well as 
weighty experimental evidence, that moist- 
ure, which practically means the possibility 
of the presence of peroxide of hj^drogen or of 
some similar material, is essential for its 
manifestation. 't Westbrook (' Some of the 
effects of sunlight on tetanus cultm-es. 
Jour, of Pathol. & Bacteriol. III., Nov. 
1894, 71 ') found that old broth cultures of 
the tetanus bacillus in an atmosphere of 
hydi-ogen were not in the least affected by 
exposure to sunlight, either in regard to 
their virulence or their rapiditj' of growth 
on reinoculation. "When the same culture 
was sealed up in the presence of au-, the 

*Micio-organisms in water, p. 390. 

fGelatine, to which were added different amounts 
of the peroxide of hydrogen, was inoculated with the 
bacillus typhi abdominalis and poured into plates. 
Tliose plates in which more than one part of the 
peroxide to 5000 of gelatine was used, were sterile. 



February 15, 1695.] 



SCIENCE. 



173 



micro-organisms, were not only killed, but 
the material was completely harmless when 
inoculated into white mice. It was, how- 
ever, possible to obtain vigorous and viru- 
lent growths from cultures which had been 
made quite innocuous by the action of the 
Bun. Oxygen was used up in the process. 
Under ordinary circumstances one might 
be tempted to explain the effect of sunlight 
in destroying bacteria by the drying of the 
organisms exposed to it, especially in the 
case of those bacteria which do not form 
spores, but our experiments show that 
desiccation for months has little effect on 
the vitality of the typhoid or of the colon 
bacillus. To detei-mine the influence of 
desiccation upon these organisms, and also 
upon the ataphylococcKs aureus, the following 
experiments were made : 

Bouillon cultures of the baciUiia typhi ah- 
dominalis, the hacillus coli communis and the 
staphylococcus anreus were roughly dried on 
threads one centimetre long and then desic- 
cated, a portion lieing placed in a vacuum, 
another portion in a desiccator over sul- 
phuric acid, and a third in a closet ; all 
were kept in the dark. The result of the 
desiccation under the tliree different condi- 
tions is as follows : 
Bacillus typhi abdoiniiialin : 

Lived in a vacuum from December .30 
until July 24, or 207 days. In a desic- 
cator over sulphuric acid from January 
3 until July 24, or 213 days. 

In a closet from December 18 until July 
24, or 229 days. 
Bacillus coli communis: 

Lived in vacuum from November 29 to 
May 30, or 183 days. 

In a desiccator over sulphuric acid from 
January 3 until Julj- 24, or 213 days. 

In a closet from December 30 until May 
30, or 152 days. 
Staphylococcus aureus : 

Lived in vacuum from November 29 until 
July 24, or 207 days. 



In a desiccator over sulphuric acid fi-om 
October 2.5 until April 19. or 178 days. 

In a closet from February 13 until July 
24, or 162 days. 

It will be seen from these experiments 
that the organisms experimented on endure 
desiccation for five mouths, or more, with- 
out losing their ^^tality. and hence the slight 
evaporation which may have occurred in 
the insolation experiments, had probably no 
influence on the results. 

It is evident that sunshine must exercise 
considerable influence in destroying bacteria 
on the surface of soU, streets, etc., exposed 
to its influence, but its action is almost con- 
fined to the surface, as appears from the re- 
sults obtained by Esmarch in attempts to dis- 
infect bedding and clothing by this agency. 
While the light from an incandescent elec- 
tric lamp has little germicidal effect, tliat 
from a powerful arc lamp produces eft'ccts 
similar to those of sunlight, and it has been 
proposed to use this means to disinfect the 
walls of infected rooms. The bacillus of 
tuljerculosis appears to be more quickly de- 
stroyed by light than the typhoid or the 
colon bacillus, being killed by exposure to 
simple diffused daylight in about a week,* 
and this fact should be borne in mind in ad- 
vising measures to prevent the diffusion of 
this organism. 

The investigations ujion the typhoid and 
the colon bacillus referred to in this paper, 
were undertaken as part of a general scheme 
of inquiry to ascertain the agencies which 
tend to detroy the tjiihoid bacillus when it 
is introduced into a source of water supply, 
as, for example, into a running stivam. 
An important part of this investigation 
relates to the influence of the common 
water bacteria, or of their products, upon 
the vitality of the typhoid bacillus. 

This research was conducted as follows : 

* Uebor Ixactcriologisclic Forachung : Vortra); in der 
ersten allgem. Sitznng des X intemationalen Con- 
gress, 1890. 



174 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



1. Forty -five varieties of bacteria found 
in the water of the Schuylkill river were 
\ised in the first experiment. Cultures of 
each organism were made on agar-agar and 
after attaining a luxuriant growth were 
sterilized, the reaction was taken, and the 
medium was again slanted. A set of these 
tubes was inoculated with the bacillus typhi 
abdominalis and a second set mth bacillvs 
coli communis. 

The object of this research was to ascer- 
tain whether the two organisms would grow 
on media containing the products of the ac- 
tivity of water bacteria. The reaction was 
alkaline in every tube. The bacillus typhi 
abdominalis and the bacillus coli communis 
lived in every instance, some showing fairly 
luxuriant growths, while others were only 
transparent films. 

2. In the second experiment, thirty-nine 
varieties of the water bacteria used in the 
first experiment were inoculated into tubes 
each containiug 10 cc. of sterilized tap-water 
and 5 drops of bouillon. Two sets of tubes 
were made as before, one being inocu^lated 
with the bacillus typhi abdominalis and the 
other with the bacillus coli communis. To 
ascertain whether the two organisms under 
consideration would multiply in the pres- 
ence of water bacteria, gelatine plates were 
made for twelve or more days. Both ba- 
cilli gave characteristic colonies with each 
of the water organisms, except two which 
had apparently an antagonistic effect upon 
their development. They were both mem- 
bers of the subtilis gTOup. In other mem- 
bers of this group this peculiarity was ab- 
sent. 

The typhoid bacillus in several instances 
outlived its associate organism. In one 
instance a gelatine plate made from a tube 
of sterilized water inoculated with the ty- 
phoid bacillus and a water bacterium 160 
days previously gave characteristic colonies 
of the bacillus typhi abdominalis. 

3. To meet the objection that might be 



raised to the use of heat for the sterilization 
of the medium in which the water organ- 
isms had grown, the opinion having been ad- - 
vanced that some products of gi'owth are 
either volatile or rendered inert by high tem- 
peratures, flasks each containing 70 cc. of 
bouillon were inoculated with water bacteria 
and incubated for from 15 to 20 days. The 
cultures were then filtered through porce- 
lain, the reaction was taken, and the filti-ate 
was run into sterilized tubes which were 
inoculated with the bacillus typhi abdomi- 
nalis and the baeilhis coli communis and then 
incubated. In each of the thirteen filtrates 
inoculated the bacilli grew and multiplied 
for at least four days. 

John S. Billings. 

Adelaide Waed Peckham. 



CUMBENT NOTES ON PHYSIOGRAPHY (Z ). 
INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

It is proposed to contribute to Science 
under the above title a series of notes and 
comments on recent investigations and cm*- 
rent literature concerning phj^siography, or 
physical geography in its modern form. A 
brief statement of the field to be covered 
may be appropriate at the outset. 

Following the plan inti'oduced by Carl 
Bitter, and popularized in this countiy 
chiefly by Arnold Guj^ot, geographj' maj' be 
defined as the study of the earth in ^'ts rela- 
tion to man. Some prefer to extend tliis 
relation to all forms of life. Physical geog- 
raphy ma J' then be defined as the rational 
study of those features of the earth which 
must be understood in order to appreciate 
its relation to man. In deference to the 
opinions of the majority of the conference 
on geographj^, held in Chicago in Christmas 
week, 1892, physiography is taken as the 
name of this subject in its modern form, 
with particular reference to the rational 
study of the lands, where man dwells. De- 
scr'iptive geography is an empirical study 



Febei'abv 15, 1893.] 



SCIENCE. 



175 



that liardly deserves a place in modern 
teaching. Political geography is undiffer- 
entiated history. Commercial geography is 
the elementary phase of economics. The 
distribution of plants and animals leads tlie 
way to botany and zo()logy ; the chief value 
of this subject coming from the emphasis 
that it gives to those physical features and 
conditions of the earth that determine the 
distribution of life ; when it is made a 
basis for the introduction of classification 
and terminology, it is misused, for these 
matters need deliberate study with a method 
and discipline of their own. The subjects 
of oceanography and meteorologj^ involve 
considerations and disciplines so different 
in many respects from those which char- 
acterize the study of the lands that they 
fully deserve separate names and treatment ; 
but their teachings must be frequently drawn 
on for use in physiography. 

Contributions from many subjects, as- 
tronomy, physiology, botany, zoology, his- 
tory and economics, are merged into a single 
elementary study — geogi-aphj- — in the ear- 
lier school years ; all are expanded and sep- 
arately treated in later school years ; all de- 
serve to be treated over again afterwards in 
the broader way characteristic of college 
teaching ; and all include broad fields for in- 
vestigation in the university. 

Physiography being particularly directed 
to the study of the lands, must of necessity 
in its higher researches give due considera- 
tion to themore minutefeaturesof land forms 
and their development — ^subjects which re- 
cent writere name gi'omorphologj' and geo- 
morphogenj' — for tiic sufficient reason that 
a close understanding of the development 
of land forms greatly aids the observation, 
description and recognition of the forms 
themselves ; and that the knowledge thus 
only to be gained of the forms of the land 
is essential as a preparation for the careful 
study of their relations to man and other 
inhabitants of the earth. 



As thus explained, physiography is an 
outgrowth of geologj' ; and geology, especi- 
ally field geologj-, is a necessary prelimi- 
nary discipline both for those who would 
undertake the higher study of physiography 
and for those who would reduce it to the 
simplest form of expression for early school 
use. 

MEiVXIKG OF THE TERM, BASELEVEL. 

Since the introduction of the term base- 
level by Powell twenty years ago, its use 
has become popular but unhappily its mean- 
ings have not been well defined. A sub- 
division of the work that the word has been 
made to do now seems desirable. It should 
be restricted rather closely to its original 
meanings, and newer terms should be em- 
ployed for its secondary meanings. Powell 
originally wrote : " AVe may consider the 
level of the sea to be a grand base level, 
below which the ch-y lands cannot be eroded, 
but we may also have, for local and tempo- 
rary purposes other base levels of erosion, 
which are the beds of the principal streams 
which carry away the products of erosion." 
(Colorado Eiver of the West, 1875, 203.) 
By using a few qualifying adjectives, there 
need be no confusion between general, 
local and temporary baselevels. "Wiien 
unqualified, the general baselevel, or sea 
level, should be underetood. 

When a region has been ba.selevelled 
(the verb being here made from the noun, 
after the ordinary English fashion), the 
surface thus produced is often spoken of as 
a ' baselevel.' For example, J. S. Diller 
writes: ''It is evident that a general base- 
level of erosion must have originated ap- 
proximately at sea level. This is the only 
position in which a very extensive baselevel 
can originate. If we now find such a base- 
level at a considerable elevation above the 
sea, its position furnishes evidence that 
since the baselevel was formed the country 
has been uplifted." (Chicago Journal of 



176 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



Geology, II., 1894, 33.) Further on in the 
same article, he writes of the ' deformation 
of the baselevel.' Although the writer has 
repeatedly made a similar use of the term, 
it now seems doubtful if it should be used 
so freely ; and some such word as peneplain 
might serve to replace this extension of the 
original meaning of baselevel. This is the 
more advisable, when it is considered how 
very seldom a region is reduced sensibly to 
baselevel; how generally a long eroded 
surface still retains some faint inequality of 
form which should be expressed in its name. 

GEOMOBPHOLOGY OF THE SOUTHERN APPA- 
LACHIANS. 

The interpretation of the development of 
geogi'aphical features in accordance with 
the general theory of baselevelling has re- 
ceived two notable contributions during the 
past year. The first is by Hayes and Camp- 
bell on the Geomorphology of the Southern 
Appalachians ( N"at. Geogr. Magazine, VI., 
1894, 63). The authors recognize the wide- 
spread occurrence of more or less fully de- 
nuded peneplains at two levels, one of late 
Cretaceous, the other of late Tertiary date, 
thus extending the conclusions reached by 
others farther to the north. They then 
proceed to measure the amount of deform- 
ation that the peneplains have suffered by 
drawing contour lines upon them. It ap- 
pears very clearly that the axes of elevation 
along which these old lowlands have been 
arched up, coincide closely with the Appa- 
lachian axis; thus adding two more dates 
to the many others at which this Une has 
been the scene of deformation. The tilting 
of the surface of the deformed peneplains is 
regarded as of importance in determining 
the capture and diversion of certain streams 
by their rivals; this principle being further 
illustrated by Campbell in a separate article 
on ' Tertiary changes in the drainage of 
southwestern Virginia' (Amer. Journ. 
Science, XLVIII., 1894, 21). 



GKADED RIVERS. 

A RIVER that ceased the active deepening 
of its valley is by various ■^Titers described 
as havmg reached its baselevel. Thus A. 
Winslow writes : " The streams of the prai- 
rie country have, in large part, 

reached base level, ani are developing me- 
ander plains." (Missouri Geol. Survey, 
VI., 1894, Lead and Zink deposits, 310.) 
H. Gannett figures a bit of the Great Plains 
of Colorado as ' near base level,' although 
the contour lines indicate altitudes of over 
4000 feet. (Monogr. XXII., U. S. Geol. 
Survey, 1893, pi. viii.) Now it is true that 
streams which have ceased the active deep- 
ening of their vaUeys serve as local base- 
levels for their ti-ibutaries — as Powell's ori- 
ginal definition stated ; but it seems unad- 
visable to speak of these streams as them- 
selves having reached baselevel ; still less 
is the country which slopes down to them 
necessarily near ' baselevel.' If the term is 
used in so general a sense as this, then an im- 
portant feature in the development of rivei\s 
will remain undistinguished bj' any special 
name, and the attention of readers will not 
be forcibly brought to it. It is well known 
that when a river has cut down its valley 
and reduced its velocity to such a value 
that its capacity' to do work in transporting 
waste is just equal to the work that it has 
to do, any further change iu the profile of 
the stream-channel can take place only as 
fast as a change in the amount of land- 
waste ofiered to the streams shall allow. 
If the amount of waste slowly decreases, as 
is commonly the case, the stream will slowly 
assume a flatter and flatter slope (except so 
far as the development of meanders may 
lengthen its coui'se and thus retard the deep- 
ening of its valley). If an increase in the 
amount of waste takes place after equality 
of capacity and task is reached, as some- 
times happens, then the stream must ag- 
grade its valley for a time. If the climate 
of the region changes, a new slope may be 



Februaby 15, 1S95.] 



SCIENCE. 



V 



called for. Of two regions, similar in all 
respects except that one is made of resist- 
ant rocks, and the other of weak rocks, the 
fii*st will develop a stronger relief dnring its 
mature dissection than the second. The 
Great Plains of the "West are often referred 
to as a region of considerable elevation, in 
which, however, the rivers are unable to cut 
deep vallej's on account of the rapid disin- 
tegration of the tributary slopes, and the 
consequent necessity of maintaining steep- 
sloping channels in order that the streams 
may do theii- work of bearing the plentiful 
waste of the land to the sea. 

All this series of considerations is con- 
fused if it is said that a river which has es- 
tablished an equality between its capacity 
and its task is 'at baselevel. ' From whatever 
profile of slope it began to work on, it has 
developed a profile of equilibrium, as certain 
French writers would phrase it ; or, follow- 
ing a suggestion by G. K. Gilbert (Chicago 
Jouraal of Geology, II., 189-1, 77), it has 
graded its slope ; it is a graded river ; it is 
almost balanced between degi'ading and ag- 
grading its valley, and most of its activity 
may be given to lateral sapping. No better 
English term than ' grade ' has been sug- 
gested for the expression of this important 
idea. 

GEOMOEPHOGENY OF NORTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

The second contribution to the general 
subject alluded to above is bj^ A. C. Lawson, 
in account of the Geomorphogeny of the 
coast of northern California (Bull. Dept. 
Geol., Univ. of Cala., I., 1894, 241-242), 
which students of this new-named subject 
will do well to consult. Although only the 
report of a rapid reconnoissance, the paper 
announces the determination of a well- 
marked, uplifted and dissected peneplain, 
in which a fully developed system of subse- 
quent drainage is exhibited on an extensive 
scale. The district is recommended to 
students as an inviting field for further in- 



vestigation. The author brings out the 
point that a constructional mass of resistant 
rocks will never at any stage of its denuda- 
tion yield a topography that may be reach(Kl 
at certain stages in the denudation of a mass 
of weaker rocks ; and he therefore suggests 
that in the accounts of topographic devel- 
opment, or geomorphogeny, a factor should 
be introduced indicative of the rate as well 
as of the stage of degradation of the region 
concerned. 

THE ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES OF BASE- 
LEVELLING. 

The results gained in the two papers 
mentioned above, and in many other similar 
articles, are based on the essential princi- 
ples of baseleveUing : Any region must in 
time be reduced to a nearly featureless 
peneplain close to sea level ; during the pro- 
gress of its denudation, the forms assumed 
follow a tolerably well defined sequence, de- 
pending chiefly on the structure of the 
wasting mass ; the features and arrange- 
ment of the drainage lines are essentially 
systematic and not arbitrary in their de- 
velopment. A generally accepted corollary 
of these princiijles is that a surface of de- 
nudation, having faint relief and no control 
by structure, can be produced onlj- close to 
its controlling baselevel ; and that such a 
surface represents the peneplain stage, at- 
tained close to the end of the cj'cle of denu- 
dation in which it was developed. It is 
evident that if a plain of denudation can be 
produced at a considerable altitude above 
baselevel, and independent of structure, 
then the conclusions of various investiga- 
tors regarding land movements, based on 
the occurrence of elevated, warped or 
faulted peneplains, must be critically re- 
vised. It therefore behooves those who ac- 
cept and employ the doctrine of baselevel- 
ling to examine carefully any alternative 
hypothesis by which peneplains are ex- 
plained independently of baselevels. 



178 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



THE GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION OF OUE 
TOPOGRAPHERS. 

Some engineers hold the opinion that it 
is not necessary for a topographer to have 
an understanding of the forms that he maps ; 
it is sufficient for him simplj^ to record what 
he sees without knowing its meaning. If 
all topographers could sketch with minute 
accuracy, if thej' all worked on a large 
scale and without limitation of time, they 
might perhaps manage to get along without 
an appreciative knowledge of the subject of 
their sketching. But the topographers by 
whom our maps are made cannot as a rule 
sketch with minute accuracy ; and even if 
they could, their talent would be of little 
avail, for time could not be given to its use; 
moreover, maps of a scale large enough for 
minute accuracy are too expensive to un- 
dertake in so vast a country as ours. In 
many parts of the country the land is 
hardly worth as much per mile as it would 
cost to map it in an elaborate manner. 
Our maps must be made on a relatively 
moderate scale — seldom more than an inch 
to a mile ; expensive detail cannot be per- 
mitted ; and very slow work must give way 
to methods that will give results more 
rapidly. A great deal of our topographical 
work must be done by rapid sketching be- 
tween measured points ; the sketching must 
always be generalized ; and every thing 
that will promote the production of good 
results from rapid and generalized sketch- 
ing must be taught to the topographer. 

Looking at the subject in this practical 
manner, there can be no question that an 
appreciative understanding of topogxapM- 
cal features is of great value. Eapid work 
by a topographer who does not understand 
the country before him will produce an un- 
appreciative portrait. Generalizations bj' 
a surveyor who does not understand the 
relations of the forms that he generalizes 
wUl produce an unsuggestive and inaccur- 
ate map. . A good understanding of physio- 



graphy should therefore be regarded as an 
essential qualification of a topographer ; and 
schools of engineering should see to it that 
adequate teaching of this subject is pro- 
vided for theu" students. 

WINSLOW'S EXPLANATION OF THE MISSOtJKI 
PLAINS. 

Such an alternative hypothesis is offered 
by A. Winslow in his recent report on the 
lead and zinc deposits of Missouri (Geol. 
Survey of Missouri, Vol. YI., 1894). He 
describes certain parts of southern Missouri 
as exhibiting broad expanses of nearly flat 
land. A ' prominent feature ' of the district 
is ' the steepness of the hills adjacent to the 
stream valleys' (p. 306). Another part 
of the same region is a dissected plateau of 
carboniferous strata, terminating eastward 
in an irregular escarpment. The even inter- 
stream uplands of both plain and plateau 
are not regarded as of constructional origin, 
for the region has long been above sealevel ; 
the possibility of either upland having once 
been a smooth peneplain of baselevel erosion 
is considered and rejected ; and the follow- 
ing hj'pothesis is offered in its stead : 
" These prairie and plateau plains are pri- 
marily due to the fact that the slope of the 
surfaces has alwaj^s been and continues 

slight Consequently, the flow of the 

streams has been so sluggish that general 
atmospheric degradation has nearlj^ kept 
pace with the corrasion of the streams and 
formation of the valleys. As a result, the 
whole surface has been denuded simultane- 
ously. This condition is attributable, first, 
of course, to the gentleness of the original 
constructional slope ; the horizontality of 
the stratification has helped to perpetuate 
it Secondarily as a factor in the pro- 
duction of these surfaces, it is probable that, 
where streams have con-aded so slowly, 
broad flood plains have been developed at 
difierent levels at diiferent times. Thus 
many flat stretches, which may be removed 



i A 



February 15, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



179 



from the formative streams, are, perhaps, to 
be considered as of the nature of terraces 
marking the flood plains of a past stage of 
erosion" (p. 322, 328). Change of altitude 
of the region, or in other words, change of 
baselevel. is not referred to as essentiallj' 
involved in the problem. 

The plateau surface, sloping to the west 
and terminating eastward in an escarpment 
Carboniferous strata, seems to depend on the 
greater resistance of these strata. It might 
be called a structural plain ; a stripped sur- 
face on which general denudation has hesi- 
tated by reason of the endurance of the ex- 
posed strata, although the streams have 
deeply trenched it. 

With the prairie plains the case is difter- 
ent, for much of their area " is underlain by 
coal measure rocks, which are readilj' acted 
on by sub-aerial agents of erosion" (p. 
323) . If the streams of the region were not 
enclosed by steep- sided valleys, but wander- 
ed across the plains in channels hardly be- 
neath the general surface level, then it 
might be admitted that the whole surface 
would waste away about as fast as the 
streams degraded their courses. But as the 
streams are in well-enclosed valleys, it does 
not seem logical to admit that the inter- 
stream plains can have wasted as fast as the 
valley forces. If the streams of the region 
even now distinctly incise its surface, all 
the more strongly must they have done so 
before long continued denudation had re- 
duced its original altitude to its present 
altitude. The steep valley sides should 
long ago have been ravined, and the inter- 
stream plains should thus have been un- 
evenly dissected. If this process had been 
long in progress, the region might already 
have reached or i>assed through the stage of 
most varied relief — topographical maturity : 
but it could not have attained an even sur- 
face distinctly above the level of its streams. 
Similarly, it does not seem admissible to 
suppose that streams, which are now run- 



ning in rather narrow, steep-walled valleys, 
should ever, when still higher above base- 
level, have had broad flood-plained valleys, 
beneath which they have incised the narrow 
existing vallej-s, yet without being prompt- 
ed to this change of behavior by any change 
of altitude in the region. 

A decision as to the origin of these plains 
must be left to workers on the ground ; but 
opinion as to the sufficiency of the j^rocess 
suggested for their production may be formed 
by any one who has familiarized himself 
with the general principles of denudation 
here involved. In the writer's mind Wins- 
low's hypothesis does not invalidate the 
generally current principles of the base- 
leveling theory. 

gannett's manual of topographic 

METHODS. 

The general principle that the topo- 
grapher should be well trained in physio- 
graphy is strongly affirmed in CJannett's 
Manual of Topogi-aphic Methods ( Monogr. 
XXII., IT. S. Geol. Survey, 1S93, issued in 
1894). The volume contains a concise ac- 
count of the surveys thus far undertaken 
in the United States ; an account of the 
map now in progress by the U. S. Geological 
Survey, this containing much of interest to 
the geographical reader; and a treatment 
of the more technical matters of astronom- 
ical determination of position, horizontal 
location, secondary triangulation, sketch- 
ing, and office work. In the chapter on 
sketching, there is an interesting discussion 
of the origin of topographic forms, with 
illustrations taken from various map 
sheets in the Survey office; this discussion 
being introduced 'as an aid in the interpre- 
tation of the various topographic forms 
which present themselves' to the topo- 
grapher. Here we read the sound state- 
ment that "it is in the matter of generaliza- 
tion that the judgment of the topographer 
is most severelv tested. He must be able 



180 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



to take a broad as well as a detailed view 
of the country; he must understand the 
meaning of its broad features, and then 
must be able to interpret details in the 
light of those featiu-es. Thus, and thus 
only, wiU he be competent to make just 
generalizations" (p. 107). 

THE UPLIFT OF THE EXISTING APPA- 
LACHIANS. 

The origin of topogTaphic forms has as yet 
received so small a share of attention from 
the greater number of field geologists and 
geographers, and the presentation of the 
problems involved has as yet gained so Uttle 
attention from teachers in schools of higher 
grade that contributions to the subject ft-om 
a man of Mr. Gannett's experience and 
qualifications are of great value. Yet in 
certain parts it seems to the writer that his 
plan of presentation is open to criticism . He 
states first that topographic features origi- 
nate by uplift, by deposition and by erosion. 
Under the heading of uplift, he writes : 
" The ridges and valleys of the Appalachian 
region are the result of uphfts, with numer- 
ous sharp folds and faults, which raised at 
various angles an alternation of hard and 
soft beds, from which erosion has since 
carved the existing alternations of ridge 
and valley" (p. 109). In spite of the 
qualifications of a preceding paragraph, to 
the effect that forms produced by uplift are 
during and since their rise greatly carved 
hj erosion, the reader can hardly acquire a 
correct understanding of the facts concern- 
ing the Appalachian ridges and valleys from 
Gannett's statement ; nor can he easily ac- 
quire ft'om the Appalachians an idea of the 
nature of forms produced by uplift mth 
folding and faulting. Such forms can be il- 
lustrated best by the selection of young 
topographic districts, on which erosion has 
as yet made little advance. Our western 
country possesses many and excellent ex- 
amples of this class. Furthermore, it is no 



more allowable to describe the Appalachian 
ridges and valleys as the ' result of uplifts, 
with numerous sharp folds and fault ' than ' 
it would be to associate the fiords of Labra- 
dor with the ancient deformation of the old 
rocks of that region. The ApiDalachian up- 
lifts with folds and faults have long ago been 
consumed ; the uplift fi-om which the ex- 
isting ridges and valleys are carved was a 
broad arcliing of the region, without folding 
or faulting of perceptible measure. It is 
true that the uxJ-arched mass possessed a 
structure given ages before by folding and 
faulting ; but that more disorderly kind of 
uplift had little in common with the broad 
and even uplift of the region by which its 
present relief was initiated. The essaj' by 
Hayes and Campbell, alreadj' referred to, 
gives sufficient demonstration of this im- 
portant conclusion. 

A FRENCH OPINION. 

The following abstract from an essaj' en- 
titled 'L''age des formes topograpMques' by 
A. de Lapparent, the eminent geologist 
(Eevue des questions scientifiques, Oct., 
1894), expresses an opinion concerning the 
personnel of a topographic corps that is 
somewhat surprising as coming from France, 
where we had supposed that the propriety 
of the military control of official geographical 
work was unquestioned. De Lapparent 
■m'ites in effect : The distraction of our 
professional geographers bj' the studj' of ar- 
bitrary political boundaries in the early part 
of this centurj^ would have been lessened if 
the work of detailed mapping had been left) 
to men readj- to interest themselves in the 
many questions provoked by the manifold 
forms of land relief. Unfortunatelj^ the re- 
verse was done in decreeing that cai-to- 
graphy should be exclusivelj^ a ftinction of 
the department of war. Up to 1830 there 
was in France an excellent institution, that 
of the geographical engineers. Well pre- 
pared in the Ecole polj'technique, the 



:' i 



February 15, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



181 



officers of this corps devoted themselves en- 
tirely to geodesy and topography. Thus 
occupied they came to have a lively appre- 
ciation of the relation between internal 
-Structure and external form. Trulj', geologj' 
was at that time but little advanced, but this 
productive combination of two ordei-s of 
studies must have been of mutual advan- 
tage, had not an always regrettable decision 
caused the suppression of the corps of geo- 
graphical engineers, and the transfer of their 
duties to the officers of the armj' stafi'. 
Certainly there was no lack of capacitj' 
among the latter, but it was nevertheless a 
capital mistake to entrust a service essen- 
tially civil, and even scientific, to military 
officers who could not devote themselves ex- 
clusively to it. Consequent! J', even though 
the maps have been well made, there has 
been a slow advance of what may be called 
appreciation of topographique form (T intel- 
ligence du terrain). Certain of the more 
sagacious geologists in vain showed how the 
meaning of topographic form is illuminated 
when it is studied in relation to internal 
structure ; the divorce of 1830 continued to 
exercise its unlucky influence, and all the 
more because other nations, following the 
example of France, have for the most part 
identified topographical work with that of 
the national defense. But a reaction has 
graduallj^ set in, and to this none have con- 
tributed more eftectivelj' than the Ameri- 
cans ; and here the author goes on to pay a 
high tribute to the scientific results of our 
western surveys. 

Accepting the correctness of the principles 
stated by de Lapparent, it follows that our 
topographere can succeed in their great work 
only wlien imbued with a truly scientific 
spirit. There is small likelihood of this 
spirit being generally attained so long as 
engineering schools give so little attention 
as at present to the studj"^ of the great sub- 
ject on which tlieir tojiographic art is to be 
exercised. For this reason, such works 



as Gannett's ^lanual are particularly wel- 
come. 

W. M. Davis. 
Harvard Un-iversiiy. 



THE NEEDS OF METEOROLOGY. 

To state a problem clearly is to contri- 
bute much towards its solution ; to realize 
one's wants and make them known may 
bring the needed help ; therefore I accept 
with pleasure an invitation to speak of the 
needs of meteorology. 

Considered as a source of climatological 
statistics bearing on every branch of human 
activity, on land and sea, meteorology has 
been handsomi'ly supported for a century 
by all governments and scientific organiza- 
tions. This feature of our work is now 
carried on bj' the U. S. Weather Bureau 
and the State Weather Ser\-ices with in- 
creasing thoroughness from year to year. 

Considered as a system for the prediction 
of storms andweather for a day or two in ad- 
vance, meteorologj- has received enthusias- 
tic support by our own and all other nations. 
"We are now doing about all that can be 
done bj' the mere utilization of the tele- 
graph and weather map and the cautious 
application of general average rules, but 
we are still powerless in the presence of 
any unusual movement of the atmosphere. 
Indeed, I do not see that even our West 
Indian hurricanes are predicted anj^ better 
to-day than they were in my ' Probabilities ' 
of August, 1871. 

Meteorologists can never be satisfied 
until they have a deeper insight into the 
mechanics of the atmosphere. Something 
more is needed than the most perfect 
organization for ol)ser\'ing, reporting and 
publishing the latest news from the 
atmosphere. It is not enough to know 
what the conditions have been and are, 
but we must know what they will be, and 
why 80. We must have a deductive treatise 
on the laws governing the atmosphere as 



182 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



complete and rigorous as the ' Celestial 
Mechanics ' of La Place, and this will 
necessarily be a treatise on the application 
to the atmosphere of the general laws of 
force, or what is technically known as the 
dynamics and thermo-dynamics of gases 
and vapors. Such a work cannot be written 
now, nor when written can it be studied 
successfully unless accompanied by an 
introductory ' Laboratory manual of physics 
and hydro-dynamics.' 

But the preparation of this latter work 
demands appropriate laboratory arrange- 
ments. I will, therefore, invert the order 
and say that further progress in meteorology 
demands a laboratory and the consecration 
of the physicist and the mathematician 
to this science. Something like this was 
started in 1881, by G-eneral Hazen, in es- 
tablishing a ' Study Room,' but it was ruled 
out by the report of a committee of Con- 
gress, and since that daj' meteorology has 
more than ever looked to the universities 
for its higher development. The applica- 
tions of climatology to geology, physiogra- 
phy, hygiene, irrigation and other matters 
have been developed, but meteorology it- 
self, the most important and the most com- 
plex of all the physical sciences, still re- 
mains to be provided for. 

The crying need of this science is a home, 
a domicile, a meteorological laboratory, and 
full recognition as a course in university 
study. 

Without experimentation there is no true 

progress in the physical sciences. 

Cleveland Abbe. 
Washington. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 
A CAED CATALOGUE OF SCIENTIFIC LITERA- 
TURE. 

Editor of Science, Dear Sir : The efforts 
which students of the l^atural Sciences are 
constantly making to provide themselves 
with more complete summaries of the 



literature of their various departments all 
testify to the existence of a wide-spread 
feeling of dissatisfaction with the existing 
methods of cataloguing scientific papers and 
reporting upon the results of scientific re- 
search. That this dissatisfaction is felt by 
none more keenly than by those engaged in 
the work is shown by the appeal made last 
spring by the Eoyal Society to various 
universities and leai-ned societies for advice 
as to the feasibility of maintaining by in- 
ternational cooperation a complete catalogue 
of current scientific literature. 

The following circular of the Society, to- 
gether with the reply of Harvard Univer- 
sity to the same, will doubtless be of inter- 
est to your readers, and by opening the col- 
umns of j^our journal to a discussion of the 
subject you will not fail to elicit valuable 
suggestions with regard to the details of the 
plan. 

In adopting the recommendations of the 
committee as printed below, the University 
Council voted " that the Secretary of the 
Council be instructed to transmit to the 
Roj^al Societj' a letter stating the opinion 
of this Council, that the expression ' scien- 
tific literature ' as used in the above recom- 
mendation ought to receive a very broad 
interpretation . ' ' 

Yours very trulj', 

H. P. BOWDITCH. 

LETTER FROM THE SECRETARIES OF THE ROYAL 
SOCIETY. 

The Royal Society, 
Burlington House, March 22, 1894. 

Sir : The Roj'al Society of London, as yon 
are probably aware, has published nine 
quarto volumes of ' The Catalogue of Scien- 
tific Papers,' the first volume of the decade 
1874-83 having been issued last year. 

This Catalogue is limited to periodical 
scientific literature, i. e., to papers published 
in the Ti-ansactions, etc., of Societies, and in 
Journals ; it takes no account whatever of 



Februaby 15, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



183 



monographs and independent books, how- 
ever important. Tlie titles, moreover, are 
arranged solely according to authors' names; 
and though the Society has long had under 
consideration the pri'paration of, and it is 
hoped may eventually issue, as a key to the 
volumes already pul)lished, a list in which 
the titles are arranged according to subject- 
matter, the Catalogue is still being prepared 
accoriling to authors' names. Further, 
though the Society has endeavored to in- 
clude the titles of all the scientific papers 
published in periodicals of acknowledged 
standing, the Cat^ilogue is, even as regards 
periodical literature, confessedly incom- 
plete, owing to the omission of the titles of 
papers published in periodicals of little im- 
portance, or not easy of access. 

Owing to the great development of scien- 
tific literature, the task of the Societj^ in 
continuing the Catalogue, even in its pres- 
ent form, is rapidly increasing in difficulty. 
At the same time it is clear that the pro- 
gress of science would be greatly helped by, 
indeed, almost demands, the compilation of 
a Catalogue which should aim at complete- 
ness, and should contain the titles of scien- 
tific publications, whether appearing in peri- 
odicals or independently. In such a Cata- 
logue the titles should be arranged not only 
according to authors' names, but also ac- 
cording to subject-matter, the text of each 
paper and not the title onlj' being consulted 
for the latter purpose. And the value of 
the Catalogue would be gi-eatly enhanced 
by a rapid periodical is.sue, and by publica- 
tion in such a form that the portion which 
pertains to anj' particular branch of science 
might be obtained separately. 

It is needless to say that the preparation 
and publication of such a complete Cata- 
logue is far beyond the power and means of 
any single society. 

Led by the above considerations, the Pres- 
ident and Council of the Royal Society have 
appointed a committee to enquire into and 



report upon the feasibility of such a Cata- 
logue being compiled through international 
cooperation . 

The committee are not as yet in a posi- 
tion to formulate any distinct plan by which 
such international cooperation might be 
brought about ; but it may be useful even 
at the outset to make the following prelimi- 
nary suggestions : — 

The Catalogue should commence with 
papers published on or after January 1, 
1900. 

A central office or bureau should be estab- 
lished in some place to be hereafter chosen, 
and should lie maintained by international 
contributions, either directly, that is by an- 
nual or other subsidies, or indirectlj', that 
is by the guarantee to purchase a certain 
number of copies of the Catalogue. 

Tliis office should be regularly supplied 
with all the information necessarj- for the 
construction of the Catalogue. This might 
l)e done either by all periodicals, mono- 
graphs, etc., being sent direct to the office 
to be catalogued there, or by various insti- 
tutions undertaking to send in portions of 
the Catalogue already prepared, or by both 
methods combined. 

At such an office arrangements might be 
made by which, in addition to preparing the 
Catalogue, scientific data might be taljulatcd 
as they came to hand in the papers supphed. 

The first step, however, is to ascertain 
whether any scheme of international coop- 
eration is feasible and desirable. The com- 
mittee accordingly is desirous of learning 
the views upon this subject of scientific 
bodies and of scientific men. 

We, therefore, venture to express the hope 
that you will lie so good as, at some early 
opportunity, to bring the matter before the 
Harvard University and to make known to 
us. for the use of the committee, the con- 
clusions arrived at concerning it. 

Should the decision you report be in any 
wav favorable to the scheme, mav we fur- 



184 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



ther ask you to communicate to us, for 
the use of the committee, any suggestions 
which JO^x may think it desirable to make; as 
to the best methods of inaugurating a scheme; 
as to the constitution and means of main- 
tenance of the Central Oifice; as to the exact 
character of the work to be carried on there ; 
as to the language or languages in which 
the Catalogue should be published, and the 
like? 

We are, your obedient servants, 
(Signed) M. Foster, Secretary R. S. 

Eayleigh, Secretary R. S. 

J. LisTEE, Foreign Sec. R. S. 

EEPOET OF THE COMIUTTEE OF THE UNIVER- 
SITY coinsrciL appointed to consider the 
communication of the royal society 
relating to a catalogue of scien- 
tific papers to be made by in- 
ternational cooperation. 

To the University Council of Harvard Univer- 
sity : — 

The committee of the Universitj^ Coun- 
cil, to whom was referred the accompany- 
ing circular of the Koyal Society, respect- 
fully submits the following report : 

The committee iinds itself fally in sym- 
pathy with the desu'c of the Royal Society 
to improve the methods of cataloguing 
scientific literature, and is distinctly of the 
opinion that the estabhshment of such a 
catalogue, to be compiled through interna- 
tional cooperation, is both desu'able and 
practicable. 

To determine in what way this result can 
be best attained, it will be well to consider 
what are the defects of existing methods, 
and what are the requirements which an 
improved system may be reasonably ex- 
pected to fill. 

Bibliographical catalogues and indexes are 
generally defective in one or two waj^s. 
Either they present simply a Ust of titles 
which often convey an inadequate, and 
sometimes a misleading idea of the contents 



of the articles catalogued, or they appear, 
like the various annual reports, so long af- - 
ter the publication of the articles which are 
reported upon that they lose a great part of 
their value as guides to current literature. 
A thu'd defect is common to all existing 
catalogues, viz., that of necessitating a ref- 
erence to a number of separate volumes 
whenever the literature of several years is 
to be sought for. 

It is evident that some form of card cata- 
logue can alone remedy these defects, so 
that the practical question is : How can a 
card catalogue of current scientific litera- 
ture be best established and maintained? 
The requirements of such a catalogue may 
be stated as follows : — 

1. It should appear promptly — if possi- 
ble, simultaneously with the book or article 
catalogued. 

2. It should furnish an accurate descrip- 
tion of the purport of the book or ai-ticle. 

3. It should be readily accessible to all 
persons interested in the literature cata- 
logued. 

It seems probable that these requirements 
maj^ best be met by the cooperation of a 
centi-al bureau with the various publishers 
and editors of scientific literature in issuing 
with each book and with each number of 
every periodical a set of cards of standard 
size and type, each card to exhibit for a 
book, or for a single article in a periodical : — 

1. The name of the author. 

2. The title of the book or article. 

3. The date, place, and house of publica- 
tion of the book, or the title, volume, and 
page of the periodical in which the article 
appears. 

4. A brief statement, not to exceed eight 
or ten lines, to be prepared by the author 
himself, setting forth the general purport of 
the book or article, so as to furnish the 
necessaiy data for cross references. 

Each card should be in duplicate to per- 
mit of arrangement according to subject or 



February 15, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



185 



author, or both if desired, and additional 
cards should be issued whenever tlie char- 
acter of the title necessitates cross refer- 
ences. A card when printed would present 
somewhat the following appearance: * 



Calderwood, Henry. Evolution and Man's 
Place in Nature. Macinillan & Co., London and 
New York. 1893. pp. 349. sm. 8°. 

Summary: 



Gourlay, F. Tlie I'loteids of the Tliyroid and 
the Spleen. Journal of Physiology. 1894. Vol. 
xri. p. 23-33. Plate II. 

Summary : 



The dimensions and texture of the card 
should be determined by careful comparison 
of the cards already in use in the principal 
libraries of the world. 

Si>ace should be left at the top of the 
card for writing such words as may be de- 
sired for cross references. This could best 
he done by each person for himself, as there 
would necessarily be much difference of 
opinion as to the number and character of 
the cro.ss references desired. Furthermore, 
subscribers of different nationalities would 
wish to catalogue the same subject under 
diflferent headings, e. </., an article on the 
spleen would be ciitalogued by a French- 
man uiuler rate and by a German under MHz. 

* Tlie size is here re<hiced. 



If thought desirable, the tj'pe used in 
printing the cards could be kept set up till 
the end of the year, and then, by arranging 
the material according to subjects, an an- 
nual report in book form could readily be 
published. 

A central bureau charged with the work 
above outlined could verj' properly be es- 
tablished under the auspices of the Royal 
Society. In this central office subscriptions 
could be received from libraries and indi- 
viduals for tlie cards relating to the articles 
published in certain journals, or to the 
literature of certain departments of science, 
and the subscriber would thus receive, in 
weekly instalments, a complete card cata- 
logue of all the literature in his own line of 
work. The cards thus i-eceived could be 
arranged by each subscriber so as to form 
the sort of card catalogue best adapted to 
his own needs. 

Although in this scheme the greater part 
of the work, including the printing of the 
cards, would be done in a central office, j'et 
the cooperation of the pulilishers could not 
well be dispensed with, for from tliem must 
be obtained the summaries prepared by the 
authors, wliich form an essential feature of 
the scheme. No difficulty need be antici- 
pated in obtaining such summaries ; for it 
would be the interest of the writers to fur- 
nish them, and no one could prepare them 
so easity and correctly as the writers them- 
selves. 

A central office with this function would 
readily secure the cooperation of lil)raries 
and learned societies throughout tin; M'orld ; 
and to an undertaking thus endorsed the 
publishers of scientific literature would 
doubtless lend their aid, since they would 
find in it a means of advertising their V>usi- 
ness. The support of such an office could 
be provided for at the outset by international 
subscription ; but it would doubtless in a 
short time l)econie self-supporting, since por- 
tions of the total catalogue would l)e needed 



186 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



not only in every public library, but on the 
study table of every serious student in every 
department of science. 

The above report is submitted not as an 
elaborated plan, but as a suggestion of the 
end to which effort should be directed. 
Your committee would further express the 
hope that some plan may be put into oper- 
ation at an earlier date than the year 1900, 
the time suggested in the circular of the 
Koyal Society. 

In accordance with the views above set 
forth the committee respectfully recom- 
mends the adoption by the University 
Council of the following votes: — 

1. That, in the opinion of the University 
Council, the establishment of a catalogue of 
scientific literature to be maintaiued 
through international cooperation is both 
desirable and practicable. 

2. That a copy of this report be trans- 
mitted to the Royal Society as the sugges- 
tion of a way tu which this plan may be 
successfully carried out. 

3. That the Corporation be requested 
to contribute a suitable sum toward the 
carrying-out of this enterprise, provided the 
plan finally adopted by the Royal Society 
shall appear to the University Council to be 
practicable. 

Henby p. Bowditch, Professor of Physiology, 
Cliairman. 

Feedeeick W. Putsam, Peabody Professor of Amer- 
ican Archseology and Ethnology. 

Nathaniel S. Shalee, Professor of Geology. 

Edwaed C. Pickeeing, Paine Professor of Practical 
Astronomy. 

John Teowbeidge, Rumford Professor and Lecturer 
on the Application of Science to the Useful Arts. 

William G. Faelow, Professor of Cryptogamic Bo- 
tany. 

Heney B. Hill, Professor of Chemistry. 

Edwaed L. Maek, Hersey Professor of Anatomy. 

William T. Councilman, ShattuckProfessor of Path- 
ological Anatomy. 

lEA N. HoLLls, Professor of Engineering. 

Hugo Munsteebeeg, Professor of Experimental Psy- 
chology. 

William F. Osgood, Assistant Professor of 3Iaihe- 
matics. 
June, 1894. 



SCIENTIFIC LITEBATURE. 
Systematic Survey of the Organic Colouring Mat- 
ters. By Drs. G. Schultz and P. Julius. 
(Translated and edited, with extensive 
additions, by Aethue G. Green, F. I. C, 
F. C. S., Examiner in Coal-tar products 
to the Citj' and Guilds of London Insti- 
tute.) London and New York, Mac- 
millan & Co. 1894. 4°, pp. viii + 205. 
Price, $5.00. 

The industi-y of the organic coloring mat- 
ters has within a comparatively few yeai-s 
grown to enormous dimensions, and it is 
becoming difficult even for the specialist in 
organic chemistry to keep track of the new 
products. In this valuable book a carefully 
classified list is presented of 454 dj'e stufis 
which have been patented, and many of 
these are now iu extensive use. All of them 
are derived indirectly fi-om coal-tar. Under 
each dj^e we find the common name, together 
with other names sometimes used ; the scien- 
tific name ; the empirical formula ; the 
constitutional formula ; the method of pre- 
paration ; the year of discovery ; the name 
of the discoverer ; reference to the patents 
granted ; behavior with reagents ; shade 
and dyeing properties, and method of em- 
ployment. The original German edition is 
so well known, and it has acquired such a 
high reputation that any words of praise for 
the book would be superfluous. The trans- 
lator's work seems to have been done with 
care, and he has not only furnished a trans- 
lation of the original, but brought the work 
up to date, that is to say, up to the date of 
publication, for it must be borne in mind 
that a book treating of organic coloring mat- 
ters bears to the general subject somewhat 
the relation that an instantaneous photo- 
graph bears to the rapidly moving object 
which it attempts to represent. 

The authors tell us that : " The average 
quantitj'^ of gas tar worked up per annum 
is given at 350,000 tons for England, and 
530,000 tons for the whole world, whilst the 



Febbuaey 15, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



187 



quantity of coke-oven tar, though constantly 
increasing, probably does not at present ex- 
ceed 50,000 tons. It maj' be expected, how- 
ever, that witli the more general introduc- 
tion of electricity for lighting purposes and 
the consequent diminution of the supply of 
gas tar, the coke-oven tar will eventually 
become the main source of our aromatic 
' hydrocarbons." To this it should be added 
that the increasmg use of ' water-gas,' in 
this country at least, is decreasing the sup- 
ply of coal-tar, so that the time is certainly 
approaching when it will pay to collect the 
tar from the coke-ovens. 

The translator expresses the hope " that 
this work will be found valuable not only 
to the technical chemist, but also to the 
dyer, analyst, merchant, patent agent, etc., 
and in fact to every one concerned with the 
production, handling, or use of the coal-tar 
coloui-s." His hope is undoubtedly well 
founded. He might have added the patent 
lawyers, many of whom have learned to 
rattle oft" their ' ortho,' ' meta,' ' jmra' with 
a facility that would put many a modest 
chemist to the blush. Ir.\ Remsen. 

Elementary Lei<son.s in Electricity and Magnet- 
ism. Sylvanus P. Thompson. K^ewYork, 
Macmillan&Co. 1894. Pp.628. Price, 
81.40. 

The fii-st edition of this book appeared in 
1881. It at once became immensely popu- 
lar, and deservedly so, on both sides of the 
Atlantic. The author combined in a rare 
degree the three principal requisites for the 
preparation of a good text-book. He was 
himself a widely known scholar and investi- 
gator in the department of science specially 
treated ; he was more than ordinarily ac- 
complished in the art of exposition, and he 
was an experienced and successful teacher. 
His possession of these qualifications in un- 
diminished magnitude is evidenced in the 
preparation of this new edition now offered 
to the public, which is the original work in 
plan, but entirely revised and largelv re- 



written, with an enlargement of scope suffi- 
cient to embrace the importivnt additions to 
the science which have l)een made during 
the past fifteen yeai-s. To enable this to be 
done without undesirable condensation, the 
size of the volume has been somewhat in- 
creased. Indeed, one of the larger merits 
of the plan of the book is to be found in the 
conscientious retention of the long known 
and well estal)lished principles and facts of 
the science, to neglect which for the newer 
and more novel developments is a tempta- 
tion to which too mauj' authors of text-books 
in physical science have yielded. While 
retaining all essential 'fundamentals,' Pro- 
fessor Thompson has found place for the 
presentation of all of the essentials of recent 
discovery, and while this has been done with 
conciseness it has also been done with that 
clearness and logical appropriateness for 
which the wiitings of this author are justly 
celebrated. The wonderful results of the 
study of alternating currents and alternating 
current machinery are well presented in this 
edition, as are recent advances in both theory 
and experiment due to Hertz, Fitzgerald, 
Boltzmann, Lodge and others. At the end 
is an excellent series of questions, classified 
as to the chapters of the books to which 
they refer, which cannot fail to add much 
to the value of the book in use, especially 
for those who study without an instructor. 
In fact, as an ' all around ' elementarj- text- 
book in electricity and magnetism it will be 
difficult to find another in the English lan- 
guage that is superior or even equal to this. 

T. C. M. 
The Birds of Eastern Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey, prepared under the direction of the Del- 
aware Valley Ornithological Club. Bj' WiT- 
MER Stone. Philadelphia, 1894. 8°, pp. 
vii-i-185. 

Eastern Pennsylvania has hmg been a 
favorite field for lovers of birds. Audubon, 
Wilson, Nuttall. Cassin, Peale, Woodliouse, 
Gambel, Bonaparte. Heerman, Haldeman, 



188 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



Ord, Baird and Trumbull may be numbered 
among the contributors to its ornithological 
literature. Aside from general works and 
special or local papers, three publications 
have been devoted to the birds of this 
particular area : (1) Barton's i^ra(/??ienfe of 
the Natural History of Pennsylvania ; ( 2 ) 
Trumbull's Birds of East Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey ; (3) Witmer Stone's Birds of 
Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Bar- 
ton's ' Fragments' is a rare folio printed in 
Philadelphia in 1799, and is something of a 
curiosity. Trumbull's list is a carefully 
annotated and atti-actively illustrated cata- 
logue published in Glasgow, Scotland, in 
1869, and reprinted in America. Stone's 
' Bii-ds of Eastern Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey' is a large octavo published by the 
Delaware Valley Ornithological Club in De- 
cember, 1894. It is a thoroughly modern 
work, abounding in exact data and authori- 
ties, and based largely on the field observa- 
tions of Mr. Stone and other members of the 
Delaware Valley Ornithological Club — evi- 
dently a very active organization. It is 
divided into two principal parts : An essay 
on the Greographic Distribution and Migra- 
tion of Birds ; and a Systematic Annotated 
List of the Birds of the region. To these 
are added a bibliography and an index. 
The chapter on Geographic Distribution is 
subdivided into general and local parts. 
The general part is weak, and in the refer- 
ences cited some of the more recent and im- 
portant papers are overlooked. The local 
part is excellent and gives ample evidence 
of Mr. Stone's familiarity with the some- 
what diverse physical and faunal character- 
istics of the region. Some idea of its scope 
may be had from the headings : The Mari- 
time Marshes, the Pine Barrens, the Cedar 
Swamps, the Lowlands of Pennsylvania, the 
Delaware Valley, the Susquehanna Valley, 
the Interior Uplands, the Appalachian Dis- 
trict, the Alleghany and Pocono Mountains. 
This part is accompanied by a curious col- 



ored map which might be termed a physico- 
faimal map of Eastern Pennsj'lvania and 
New Jersey. 

The Canadian or Boreal element in the 
fauna is restricted in Pennsylvania to 
" the tops of the highest mountains and 
the elevated plateau region, where the deep 
hemlock forests, with their cool brooks and 
dense shade, still remain undisturbed. The 
passage from the Alleghanian to the Cana- 
dian zone is here, as a rule, remarkably 
distinct, as the more northern birds keep 
strictly to the virgin forest. ' ' The settlement 
of the region has proved particularlj' des- 
tructive to the Canadian species. It is 
melancholy to be told that " where the 
forest has been removed the Canadian spe- 
cies for the most part disappear, and judging 
fi'om present indications, it would seem 
that this element in our fauna, which once 
undoubtedly extended over a much greater 
area than at present, may soon almost en- 
tirely disappear, as the lumbermen j'ear by 
year encroach upon the forest tracts." 

The chapter on Bird Migration is full of 
interest and replete with new information 
respecting the region studied. 

In the Sj^stematic part no less than 352 
species are recorded on good CAddence as 
occurring within the area embraced by the 
catalogue. A new departure is here inti-o- 
duced which more pretentious works would 
do well to follow. Instead of the much 
abused term ' Habitat ' the ' Breeding range ' 
and ' Winter range ' of each species are 
given. Mr. Stone is to be congratulated 
upon the distinction of being first to inaugu- 
rate this reform, which is bound to come into 
general use in the near future. Another im- 
provement that might be made in all lists of 
birds is the transfer of accidental stragglers 
from the body of the work to a special list at 
the end. Since such extra-limital species 
form no part of the proper fauna of a region, 
why should they be included among the reg- 
ular inhabitants? C. Haet Merriam. 



February 15, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



189 



Fi'.^i/or's Guide to the Local Collection of Birds 

in the Mu.'<eum of Xatural History, Xetv 

York City. By Fkaxk M. Chapman. 1894. 

8°, pp. 100. 15 cents. 

One of the best and most attractive local 

bird lists that has ever appeared in Amei-ica 

has been recently issued fi'om the American 

Museum of Xatural Historj^, New York. 

While it bears the misleading title Visitor's 

Guide, only a glance is necessary to see that 

it is much more. It is in reality a compact 

treatise on the birds known to occur within 

50 miles of the gi-eat metropolis. 

The author, Mr. Frank M. Chapman, pre- 
faces the list proper by 12 pages of interest- 
ing and important matter respecting the 
physical and faunal aspects of the region, 
and the birds that are found there at differ- 
ent seasons. The area covered bj' the list 
is unusually rich in birds, no less than 348 
species being recorded as occurring within 
its limits. This richness, as stated by Mr. 
Chapman, is due in part to the circum- 
stance that two faunas — the AUeyhanian (or 
eastern division of the Transition Zone) and 
Carolinian (or eastern division of the Upper 
Austral Zone) meet within its boundaries, 
and in part to the natural advantages of the 
region. ''Our sea-coast, ^\dth its sandy 
beaches and shallow baj's ; our rivers, 
creeks and ponds, with their surrounding 
grassy marshes ; our wooded hillsides and 
valleys ; our rolling uplands and fertile mea- 
dows,offer haunts suited to the wants of most 
birds. Again, our coast-line and the Hudson 
River Valley form natural highways of mi- 
gration regularly followed by birds in their 
journeys to and from their summer homes." 
The paper is a model of its kind and 
should be in the hands of all interested in 
the birds of New York and vicinity. It is 
bountifullj- illustrated by cuts of birds bor- 
rowed from Coues' 'Key,' to which are added 
several full-page plates of gi-oups in the 
American Museum. 

C. Hart Mekriam. 



Outline of Dairy Bacteriology. By H. L. 
Russell, University of Wi.sconsin. Pub- 
lished in Madison, Wisconsin, 18!)4. 
Pp. vi+18C. 

There is no better indication of the rather 
remarkable advance that has been made in 
recent years m bacteriological matters not 
connected with diseases than the publica- 
tion of a text-book upon dairy bacteriology. 
That tliere should be demanded for classes 
in dairy schools a text-book describing the 
various phenomena connected with bacteria 
in their relation to dairy matters is rather 
siirprising when we consider the fact that 
dairy bacteriologj- itself is the result of ex- 
periments of the last very few years. Prof. 
Russell has attempted in this little book of 
about 180 pages to give an outline of the 
present knowledge of the relation of bac- 
teria to milk and all its products. Tlie 
book is designed originally for his classes 
in a dairy school, and is, as its title indi- 
cates, only an outline, not involving any 
critical scientific discussions. As an out- 
line, however, it is quite complete and the 
treatment is satisfactory. The book will 
be of iise not only in dairy schools, but to 
all who are interested in matters connected 
with milk or butter supply. It will also be 
found useful to nurses and phj-sicians who 
desire a knowledge of some of the recent 
discussions in connection with milk bac- 
teriology and its relations to diseases. 

H. W. C. 

Tlie nature and distribution of attraction-spheres 
and centrosomes in veyetable cells. — John H. 
ScHAFFNER. Bot. Gaz. Nov. 1894. 
The author studied centrosomes found in 
root tips of Allium cepa L., Vicia faba L., 
Tradescantia rosea L., also in the resting cells 
of the epidermis of Allium cepa bulb scales 
and in the walls of Z)7/»m longijlorum ovaries. 
The usual methods for preparing and stain- 
ing the material were adopted. In addi- 
tion the author used a stain suggested by 



190 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



Prof. Newcombe. It is called the iron- 
tannin-safranin stain and consists of the 
following solutions: 1, 1% aq. sol. of fer- 
rous sulphate; 2, 5% aq. sol. of tannic acid; 
3, alcoholic solutions of anilin-safranin; 4, 
aq. sol. of picro-nigrosiu. The sections are 
placed for thirty- to forty minutes in the 
iron solution, washed, then placed for the 
same period in the tannic acid solution; 
again washed and replaced for a few min- 
utes in the iron sol. After washing again 
they are placed in the safi-anin for thirty 
minutes; then fifteen minutes in the picro- 
nigrosin. This method is said to give good 
results. 

The special results of the investigations 
may be summarized as follows: (1.) Cen- 
trosomes and attraction spheres are present 
in non-reproductive as well as in reproduc- 
tive vegetable cells. (2.) In phanerogams 
there are two of these bodies for each resting 
nucleus. (3.) When the nucleus prepares 
to divide, one or both of the centrosomes 
migrate to take then- position at the poles 
of the future spindle. (4.) Stibsequently 
they immediately begin to divide. The 
division is complete in the prophase of the 
mother nucleus. (5.) After their migra- 
tion the spheres remain at the poles of the 
nuclear spindle and do not change theu- 
position until the beginning of the following 
division. (6.) Centrosomes are persistent. 

One plate and a list of thirty-three valu- 
able references accompany the article. 

Albert Schneider. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 
THE ELIHU THOMSON PRIZE. 

The Elihu Thomson prize of 5,000 francs 
has been awarded to Dr. Arthur G. Web- 
ster, of Clark University, Worcester, Massa- 
chxisetts. The history of this prize is, 
briefly, as follows : — 

In 1889 the City of Paris offered a series 
of prizes for the best ' electric meters,' it 
being required that certain conditions should 



be satisfied, to be determined by an exact- 
ing pi'actical test. The first prize, 5,000 
fi-ancs, was awarded to Professor Elihu 
Thomson, who submitted the well known ^ 
Watt-meter devised by him. Wishing to 
encourage investigation of certain theoreti- 
cal questions Professor Thomson donated 
the prize for the establishment of a new 
competition, the subjects to be considered 
and the prize to be determined by a com- 
mittee which consisted of J. Carpentier, Hip- 
polyte Fontaine, Hospitaller, Mascart, A. 
Potier and Abdank-Abakanowicz. Four 
subjects for investigation and discussion 
were selected, and it was announced that 
competing memou-s must be submitted on 
or before September 15, 1893. Four me- 
moirs were submitted to the committee ; one 
of these was wiitten in German, one in 
French and two in English. The two latter, 
numbered respectively three and four, re- 
lated to the same subject, namely, the de- 
termination of the period of electric oscilla- 
tions. On examining the memoirs the com- 
mittee reported that it ' considered memoir 
number four to be worthy to receive the 
prize estabhshed by Professor Elihu Thom- 
son,' and expressed the hope that the author 
will be encouraged to continue his beautiful 
researches. 

At the same time they express their re- 
gret that they have not available another 
prize of the same value which they would 
be glad to award to memoir number three. 
When their desire in this respect was made 
known, Professor Thomson and the French 
and English Thomson-Houston Electric 
Companies joined in offering another 5,000 
francs, which was awarded to the author 
of memoir number three. On opening the 
sealed envelopes containing the authors' 
names, it was found that memoir number 
four, for which the first prize had been 
awarded, was prepared bj' Dr. Webster, 
and number three was the joint product 
of Oliver Lodge and Glazebrook. 



February 15, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



191 



The title of Dr. Webster's memoir was 
' An Experimental Determination of the 
Period of Electric Oscillations.' 

He is to be congratulated upon so signal 
a success, and it is especially gi'^tifying that 
an American should have come out in the 
lead in competition with the two distin- 
guished Englislimcn who contested with 
him, and especially so as their work and 
his were upon the same subject. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

Dr. McCook is to be warmly congratu- 
lated on the successful issue of the third and 
final volume of his ' American Spiders and 
their Spinning Work,' which has appeared 
four years after the second volume. The 
author is more at home in his delineation of 
the outdoor world than in systematic work, 
with which this volume is mainly concerned, 
yet he has applied himself to this task with 
commendable zeal and success and describes 
123 species and 30 genera. Apparently (as 
the table of contents curiously shows) he 
had intended to carry his work beyond the 
'orb weavers,' but his courage or his time 
gave out as he saw his work grow to por- 
tentous dimensions. We have to thank 
him for thirty large and careful plates of 
spiders coloi-ed. besides a mass of structural 
details; they will greatly facilitate future 
study. The price of the complete work is 
now justly advanced to SoO. Unhappily 
the title page is marked 1893, though the 
preface is dated in July, 1894, and the vol- 
ume was not issued until December, ISiM. 

Mr. a\d Mrs. Pkckham have given us 
(Trans. Wise. Acad., X) a new series of 
their admirable experiments with spiders in 
a paper on their visual powers and color 
sense ; they " prove conclusively that Atti- 
dae see their prey (which consists of small 
insects) when it is motionless, up to a dis- 
tance of live inches : that they see insects in 
motion at much greater distances ; and that 
they see each other distinctly up to at least 



twelve inches" ; they are guided by sight 
rather than by smell. The experimenters 
are further " of the opinion that all the ex- 
periments taken together strongly indicate 
that spiders have the powei- of distinguish- 
ing colors." 

Certainly the University of Califor- 
nia Entomological Society has done a 
uniqiie thing in issuing from Berkeley, Cal., 
as a Californian journal of entomology 
' The Entomologists^ Daily Post Card ' at 
$2.00 a year. A card of regulation size 
and color is ijrinted on both sides in clear 
type, leaving a meagi-e space for an ad- 
dress. The number before us contains an 
editorial on note taking, part of a list of 
species in Edwards's last catalogue of but- 
terflies, and a portion of a tabular key to 
the genera of Nymphalidse. It is a curious 
venture. 

In a recent paper on the Siphonaptera 
(Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVI., 312- 
3.55) Dr. A. S. Packard gives an excellent 
resume of published observations on the 
embryology, postembryonic historj' and an- 
atomy and the adult structure of the fleas, 
adding new data from his own preparations 
and numerous figures. He is led to regard 
them as forming a distinct order standing 
nearer the Diptera than any other, but with 
many points of relati(mship to the Coleoj)- 
tera. 

Hansen gives in English (Ent. tidskr." 
XV., 65-89, pi. 2-3) an important paper on 
the structure and habits of Ileniimerus, a 
Platypsylla-like insect infesting rats in 
Africa, and which had previouslj' been 
studied only from dried material. Sau.ssure 
in particular had published a long memoir 
upon it, founding upon it a new order 
Diploglossata from its possessing, as he 
thought, a second labium. Hansen shows 
that this does not exist (it is diflicult to 
understand how the ligures of Hansen and 
Ssiussure can have bi'eu taken from the same 



192 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



kind of insect) and he concludes that 
" Hemimerus belongs to the Orthoptera, 
constituting a separate family very closely 
allied to the Forficulina." He shows from 
his dissections that the insect is viviparous, 
bringing forth one young at a time. 

THE COOLING OF HOSPITALS. 

De. Moeeill Wyman, of Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts, has published in the Proceedings 
of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, Vol. 30, page 482, an interesting- 
paper giving the results of some experiments 
made in the Cambridge Hospital, in which 
the air admitted to the wards in warm 
weather was cooled by passing it through 
pipes in which cold water was circulating, 
these pipes being the same as those used for 
warming the air in the winter by the circu- 
lation of hot water. In one experiment the 
external temperature was at 83° F.; there 
was no wind and the patients were suffering 
from the heat. The temperature of the 
water as it entered the cooling pipes was 
57 to 58 degrees. An electrical fan 36 inches 
in diameter, making five hundred revo- 
lutions a minute, forced about 10,200 cubic 
feet of the warm outer air through these 
pipes into the ward, which contained 21,000 
cubic feet. In an hour the ah entering the 
ward was at 71° F., and the comfort of the 
patients was manifestly improved. But 
the cooling surfaces were not only the ten 
cooling coils of 30 square feet each, but also 
the four walls of the air chamber beneath 
the ward, being about 3,300 square feet of 
surface, and it is estimated that the cooling- 
power of the coUs was about one-tenth that 
of the walls. A month later the heat of 
the external atmosphere was greater and 
the fan was more constantly in motion; the 
temperature of the air chamber had in- 
creased, and that of the water had risen to 
70°. The quantity of water required for 
the circulation was large and expensive, and 
it was therefore shut off. But the same 



amount of ventilation was continued, th^ 
air passing thi'ough the air chamber. During 
the summer the ward temperature gradually 
rose until it diii'ered but little from that of 
the open air. Nevertheless, the comfort 
given to the patients and nurses was im- 
mediate and decided, and there was a 
decided feeling of freshness and freedom 
of air. 

Dr. Wyman points out that we can do 
little towards lowering the temperature of 
the air in hot weather in the volumes re- 
quired for the ventilation of a hospital. It 
is a question of the rate of evaporation 
fi-om the perspiring surface, which is gov- 
erned in a great measure by the velocitj' of 
the air coming in contact with that surface, 
and this is a factor which by art it is possible 
to control. If we try to cool the air before 
it enters the ward, it must be remembered 
that air absolutely humid, when brought 
into contact with warmer air also saturated, 
will cool the latter, which will approach 
dew-point, and if its moisture is condensed 
into visible vapor will give out heat. 
" Evaporation consumes heat, condensation 
liberates heat." " To give comfort dui'ing 
the excessive heats of summer the sick re- 
quu"e three or four times the air needed for 
satisfactory ventilation in winter. It re- 
quired 400,000 cubic feet an hour for our 
sixteen patients, and yet while this large 
quantity was passing through the ward it 
was only known, except at the registers, by 
the accompanying sense of freshness and 
pleasant coolness ; it was never felt as a 
draught." 

" The experience of the Cambridge hos- 
pital leads to these two conclusions : first, 
that fresh air directly from the open, in 
the quantity and manner there supplied, 
can be made to give great comfort to 
the sick during the heats of summer ; and, 
secondly, that previous cooling of the 
air so supplied is difficult and practically 
useless." 



Fehri-ary 15, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



193 



PITHECANTHROPUS ERECTrS. 

Professsor Mar.sh has contributed to the 
February number of the American Journal 
of Science an account illustrated by plates of 
the discovery by Dubois described in Sci- 
ence (January 11) by Professor Brinton. 
A •m-iter in Xature (January 24) under the 
initials R. L. (Professor Lankaster) holds 
that the remains arc human, the skull be- 
ing that of a microcephalous idiot. Profes- 
sor Marsh writes : — 

" The brief review here given of the main 
facts relating to this discoveiy, together 
with the figures reproduced from the mem- 
oir, will afford the reailer some idea of the 
importance of this latest addition to the 
known allies of prinueval man, if not to his 
direct ancestry. "Whatever light future re- 
searches may throw upon the afhnities of 
this new form that left its remains in the 
volcanic deposits of Java during later Ter- 
tiary time, there can be no doubt that the 
discoverj- itself is an event equal in interest 
to that of the Neanderthal skull. 

"The man of the Xeander valley remained 
without honor, even in his own country, for 
more than a (juarter of a centurj-, and was 
still doubted and reviled when his kinsmen, 
the men of Spy, came to his defense, and a 
new chapter was added to the early history 
of the human race. The ape-man of Java 
comes to light at a more fortunate time, 
when zeal for exploration is so great that 
the discoven- of additional remains may be 
exi>ected at no distant daj'. That still 
other intermediate forms will eventually be 
brought to light no one familiar with the 
subject can doubt. Nearlj- twenty years 
ago, the WTiter of the present review placed 
on record his belief that such missing links 
existed, and should l)i' looked for in the 
caves and later Tertiary of Africa, which he 
then regarded as the most promising field 
for exploration in the Old World. The 
first announcement, however, has come 
from the East, where large anthropoid apes 



also survive, and where their ancestore were 
doubtless entombed under circumstances 
favorable to early discovery. The tropical 
regions of both Asia and Africa still oiler 
most inviting fields to ambitious explorei's." 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
new YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The section of CTCologj' and Mineralogy 
of the New York Academy of Sciences met 
on Monday evening, Januarj^ 21, and lis- 
tened to a paper by Prof. R. S. Woodward, 
of Columbia College, on the Condition of 
the Interior of the Earth, of which the fol- 
lowing is an abstract. The two envelo^its 
of the earth, the atmosphere and the ocean 
are important factors in the problem of the 
interior, and yet we know les.s of the condi- 
tion of the outer atmosphere than of the 
inner earth. The atmosphere's shape we 
can calculate, with some approximation to 
the truth, as an oblate spheroid, whose polar 
radius is 5.4 times the earth's radius, and 
whose equatorial radius is 7.6 times the lat- 
ter. This shape is determined by centri- 
fugal force and gravity. Its bulk is 310 
times that of the earth, but its mass is onlj^ 
one-millionth that of the latter. If we 
speak of the latter as 6642 x 10'* tons we 
can get some conception of the mass of the 
atmosphere, and of its extreme tenuity in 
the outer portions. 

Our inferences regarding the interior of 
the earth rest chiefly upon four facts, viz. 

1. Its shape and size, which are known 
with great accuracy. 

2. Its surface density, 2.6. 

3. Its mean density. 5.58, which is prob- 
ably accurate within two units in the 
second decimal place. 

4. The precession ratio -^ , in which C is 
the moment of inertia of the earth with re- 
spect to the polar axis, and A is the moment 
of inertia with respect to an equatorial axis. 

These facts limit the distribiitioii of the 
earth's mass. The densitj' of the mass must 



194 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



inci'ease from the siirface toward the center. 
Various laws of its increase have been pro- 
posed, of which that of Laplace seems to be 
on the whole the most plausible. 

It is im2Dortant to appreciate that the 
strata rest vipon one another substantially 
as if fluid, because the arch of the crust is 
so flat. The compressive stress on any 
portion considered as a keystone is 30 times 
the crushing strength of steel, and 500- 
1000 times that of granite and limestone, 
whence it follows that the earth is prac- 
tically in hydrostatic equilibrium. It also 
follows that the pressures in the interior 
are excessive, and that at the center the 
pressure is about 3,000,000 atmospheres. 
The earth is ' solid,' as the word is used 
by Lord Kelvin, that is, it has no cavities 
below a comparatively shallow depth. The 
explanations of the changes of latitude lately 
advanced and based on internal hollows in 
which loose matter rolls around are absurd. 
There is perfect continuity of matter, and 
there is only fluidity when for some local 
cause the pressure is somewhat relieved. 
As Major Button has shown, the trans- 
mission of vibrations from the centrum of 
the Charleston earthquake indicated a 
medium nearly as homogeneoiis as steel. 

Geologists have had to account for move- 
ments of the crust, such as subsidence, ele- 
vation, crumpling, folding, etc. Two ele- 
m^entarjr forces are necessarily appealed to. 
The first is Ch-avity ; the second that due to 
the Em-til's Internal Heat. The idea of the 
earlier geologists that the earth cooled and 
contracted and hence caused the disturb- 
ances has been mostly relied on as an ex- 
planation, but for the last ten or fifteen 
years it has been felt to be insuflicient. The 
idea of Babbage and Herschel that loaded 
areas, or areas of sedimentation, sink and 
crumple up the adjacent areas as moun- 
tains, tending thus to renew and perpetuate 
regionsof upheaval, has also had believers. 
This has had its best formulation in the re- 



cent doctrine called isostafsy, which regards 
the earth as a body in essentially hydrosta- 
tic equilibrium, and as balancing inequali- 
ties of pressure by subterranean flow. Tlie 
speaker regarded this doctrine, however, as 
insuflicient in that it furnishes no start and 
tends to run rapidly down. We need secu- 
lar contraction to keep isostasy at work. 
The earth's internal heat is the great store 
of energy available for this purpose. How 
to explain the earth's internal heat is a 
hard and dark problem. The nebular hy- 
pothesis, first outlined in Leibnitz's Proto- 
gea has been most widely believed. The 
critical stage in this method of development 
came when convection ceased and the sphere 
was all at the same temperature, the stage 
usually called consistentior status. Then 
came the formation of a crust and the be- 
ginning of geological phenomena as usually 
discussed. The speaker had reason to ques- 
tion the reliability of the nebular hypothe- 
sis and whether the earth had ever been 
gaseous, etc. An origin for the globe and an 
explanation of its heat are perhaps as well 
to be found in the collision of meteoric 
bodies. 

The time that has elapsed since the con- 
sistentior status has been an interesting sub- 
ject for computations, and widelj' varying 
estimates have been made. Lord Kelvin in 
1862, on very questionable data, placed the 
limits of geological phenomena at 20,000,- 
000-400,000,000 years in the past. On the 
same line, Tait estimated 10,000,000, but it 
was doubtless true that in England the 
weight of Kelvin's authority had fettered 
geological thought in the last thirty years 
to too narrow limits of time, for no geolo- 
gist of eminence had questioned his results. 
Yet within a month Lord Kelvin has raised 
his upper limit to a possible 4,000,000,000. 
All must appreciate that if the data are un- 
reliable, the finest processes of mathematics 
will lead to no certain result. 

The speaker concluded that to secular 



February 15, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



195 



cooling must be attributed the principal 
motive force. The main criticism raised 
against it is its insuflieiency, but George 
Darw^in has shown that as a cause it can be 
mathematically shown to be able to produce 
results at least of the same order as those 
observed. In the sj)eaker's estimation it is 
probably sufticient, although the heat ra- 
diated is a very difficult thing to measure 
in a reliable way. Our data are all from the 
continents, and they have not been obtained 
in sufficient quantity. The oceanic areas 
are necessarily unoliserved. 

In discussion Professor Kemp stated that 
attention had been naturally been drawn to 
the interior of the earth in the endeavor to 
explain, first of all, the contrasts of the con- 
tinental elevations and the oceanic abysses, 
and secondly, the crumplings, foldings and 
faults of mountainous regions. Herschel's 
explanation, while rational and simple on 
the face of it, is inapplicable because it is 
the area of sedimentation, subsidence and 
' overloading ' that later on is upheaved in 
the mountains, and this apparent contradic- 
tion is the great difficulty. He also referred 
to the measures of rigidity of the crust, to 
the remarkable localization of the yielding 
along narrow lines wlien it did come, and to 
its great effects and relativelj' short dura- 
tion. He asked Professor "Woodward also 
to touch on the slowing up of the revolution 
of the earth and the consequent readjust- 
ment of the spheroid to the loss of centri- 
fugal force, an idea advanced some years 
ago by W. B. Taylor. 

In reply Professor "Woodward admitted 
that the questions were old and very difficult 
ones, and that for the mountains he had no 
explanation to advance. He spoke of the 
mountainous protuberances as measures of 
the rigidity, aiul yet this must be qualified by 
the statement that according to isostas}- and 
to recent pendulum observations they ap- 
pear to be somewhat lighter under the sur- 
fiice. As to the slowing up of rottitiou and 



loss of centrifugal force, the idea was an im- 
portant and valuable one, but it did not ap- 
pear to be sufficient to account for the re- 
sults. 

Professor Rees referred to the rt'cent 
observations on changes in latitude made 
under his direction, and to certain factors 
that entered into the calculations wdiich 
would thrown light on the question. 

Professor Hallock brought up the recent 
results of experiments on the gyration of 
liquids as bearing on the question and prov- 
ing that a fluid set in rapid rotation con- 
tinues to gjrate long after the enclosing 
vessel ceases. The curious results obtained 
at the "Waterville arsenal in the great test- 
ing machine were also cited. The attempt 
was made to burst a cast iron cylinder by 
forcing into it, through a three-sixteenth of 
an inch hole, paraffine and tallow. But it 
was found that both these substances be- 
came, under high pressures, more rigid than 
steel and could not be driven through the 
hole. 

Prof Britton asked Prof "Woodward if 
the amount of heat radiated per annum 
could be quantitatively expressed, and in 
reply Prof. "Woodw-ard said it is computed 
£i-om very meagi-e data to be enough to melt 
a layer of ice 5 to 7 mm. thick over the 
earth's surface. The chairman. Prof E. P. 
Whitfield, in closing the tliscussion called 
attention to the fact that the submarine 
crumpling and upheaval were not well 
known nor often taken into account, and 
yet the}- probably far exceed all that we see 
on the continents. 

The discussion will be continued at the 
meeting of the Section, February 18. 

J. F. Kemp, Recording Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS. 
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, FEB. 

Relation of Gravity to Continental Elevation: 
By T. C. Mendenhall. 



196 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 7. 



Observations upon the Gladal Phenomena of 
Newfoundland, Labrador and Southern 
Greenland : By G. F. Weight. 

Recurrence of Devonian Fossils in strata of Car- 
boniferous Age : By H. S. "Williams. 

Constituents of the Canon Diablo Meteorite : By 
O. A. Derby. 

/5 - Bromvalerianic Acid : By J. G. Spenzee. 

The Inner Gorge Terraces of the Upper Ohio 
and Beaver Rivers : By R. E. Hice. 

The Glacial Land-Forms of the Margins of the 
Alps : By H. R. Mill. 

Distribution of the Echinoderms of Northeastern 
America : By A. E. Veerill. 

Lower Cambrian Rocks in Eastern California : 
By C. D. Walcott. 

Pithecanthropus Ereetus, Dubois, from Java : 
By O. C. Maesh. ( With Plate II.) 

Scientific Intelligence : Chemistry and Physics ; 
Geology and Mineralogy; Botany; Miscella- 
neous; Obituary. 

AMEEICAJSr CHEMICAL JOURNAL, FEB. 

Researches on the Complex Inorganic Acids: 

By WOLCOTT GiBBS. 

Diazobenzene Aniline Chloride: By J. H. 

Kastle and B. C. Keisbe. 
On Imido-Ethers of Carbonic Acid : By Felix 

Lengfeld and Julius Stieglitz. 
On Some Bromine Derivatives of Paraisobutyl 

Phenol : By F. B. Dains and I. R. Roth- 

EOCK. 

On the Action of Acid Chlorides on the Methyl 
Ether of Paraisobutyl Phenol: By F. B. 
Dains. 

The Effect of Hydrolysis Upon Reaction- Veloci- 
ties : By F. L. Koeteight. 

On the Influence of Magnetism on Chemical Ac- 
tion : By F. A. Wolff, Je. 

Reviews; Notes. 

THE auk, JAN. 

A Winter Rohin Roost in Missouri, and other 
Ornithological Notes : By O. Widmann. 

On the Nesting of Kriderh Hawk (Buteo bore- 
alis krideri) in Minnesota : By. P. B. Pea- 
body. 



The Nest and Eggs of the Olive Warbler {Den- 
droica oKvacea) : By William W. Price. 

A Contribution to the Life History of Porzana 
Cinereiceps Lawrence, with Critical Notes on 
Some of its Allies: By Charles W. Rich- 
mond. 

The Terns of Muskeget Island, Massachusetts: 
By George H. Mackay. 

A Sivallow Roost at Waterville, Maine : By Ab- 
BY F. C. Bates. 

A New Species of Thryothorus from the Pacific 
Coast : By A. W. Anthony. 

A New Subspecies of Harporhynclvus from Lower 
California : By A. W. Anthony. 

The LeConte Thrasher (^Harporhynchus le- 
contei): By C. Hart Meeeiam. (Plate 1.) 

Twelfth Congress of the American Ornitholo- 
gists^ Union : By John H. Sage. 

Recent Literature ; General Notes ; Correspond- 
ence; Notes and News. 

PSYCHE, FEB. 

Rehabilitation of Podisma Latreille: S. H. 

SCUDDEE. 

Two new Species of Entomobrya (Illustrated) i 

F. L. Harvey. 
The Tipulid genera Bittacomorpha and Pedicia 

(Illustrated) : F. M. Aldrich. 
Gall of Eurytoma sp. on the Cat's-claiv Thorn: 

C. H. Tyler Townsend. 
Entomological Notes. 



NEW BOOKS. 

North American Fauna, No. 8. C. Hart 
Merriam. Washington, Government 
Printing Office. 1895. Pp. 258. 

Elements of Psychology. James H. Hyslop. 
'New York, Columbia College. 1895. Pp. 
131. $1.00. 

Lens Wo7-k for Amateurs. Henry Oefokd. 
NewYork, MacmiUan&Co. 12mo. 80cts. 

Proceedings and Addresses of the Second An- 
nual Conference of the Health Officers in 
Michigan Held at the State Laboratory of 
Hygiene, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Lansing, 
Mich. 1894. Pp. 63. 



SCIENCE. 



New Sekies. 
Vol. I. No. 8. 



Friday, February 22, 1895. 



Single Copies, 15 crs. 
Annual Scbsckiption, to.OO 



GUSTAV E. STECHERT'S 

Recent Importation of Scientific Books. 



PHYSICS. 

Abhan'DLUXGEX, phjsikalische, der konigl. Aka- 
demie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 4°. Mit. 1 Taf. 
Mk. 10. 

Bois, Dr. H. du. Mafrnetische Kreise, deren The- 
orie nnd Anwendung. Mit 94 in den Text gedmck- 
ten Abbildungen. gr. 8". Gebunden. Mk. 10. 

Chkistiansex, Peof. Dk. C, Elemente der theo- 
retischen Physik. Deutsch v. Dr. Job. Miiller. Mit 
e. Vorwort v. Prof. Dr. E. Wiedemann, gr. 8". Mk. 
10. 

Dkude, p. Physik des Aethers auf elektromag- 
netischcr Grundlage. 8°. Mit 66 Abbildgn. Mk. 14. 

FOPPL, Prof. Dr. A., Einfiihrung in die Maxwell- 
'sche Theorie der Elektricitilt. Mit. e. Einleit. Ab- 
achnitte iiber das Eeclmen m. Vectorgrcissen in der 
Physik. gr. 8°. Mk. 10. 

Gabxault, E. Mecaniqne, phvsique et chimie. 
Paris, 1894. 8". Avec. 325 fig. S'fr. 

KoKX, Db. Abthir. Eine Tlieorie der Grarita- 
tion nnd der elektrisolien Ersebeinungen auf Grund- 
lage der Hydrodynaniik. Zweiter Teil: Elektrody- 
namik. Erster Abschnitt. Theorie des permanenten 
Magnetismus und der konstanten elektrischen Strcime. 
gr. 8». Mk. 3. 

Webeb. Sechster Band. Jlechanik der mensch- 
lichen Gehwerkzeuge. Besorgt durcb Friedricb Jler- 
kel nnd Otto Fischer. Slit 17 Tafeln und in den Te.vt 
gedmckten Abliildungen. gr. 8". Mk. 16. 

Weber's Werke, Wiliielm. Herausgegeben von 
der Kiiniglichen GesilLsebiift der WisseiLsehafteu zu 
Gottinpen. Viertcr Rand Galvanismus und Elektro- 
dynamik. Zweiter Teil. Besorgt durcli Heinrich 
Weber. Mit 4 Tafeln und in den Text gedmckten 
Abbildungen. gr. 8". Mk. 16. 

WiEHEMAXx, GrsTAV. Die Lehre der Elektriz- 
itat. Zweite unigearbeitete und vermebrte Anflage. 
Zagleicb als vierte Auflage der Lehre vom Galvanis- 
nins und Elektroniagnetisnius. Zweiter Bi»nd. Mit 
163 Holzschnitten nnd eincr Tafel. gr. 8". Mk. 28. 

CHESnSTEY. 

BiE(nELE, Dr. Max., Pharraaceutische Uebungs- 
praparate. Anleitung zur Darstellnng, Erkenniing, 
Prufnng und stiicbiometrischen Berechnung von of- 
fizinellen chemisch-phamiaceutischen Priiparaten. 8°. 
Gebnnden. Mk. 6. 

BuJARD Dr. Alfons, und De. Eduard Baibb. 
Hiltsbuch fiir Nahrungsmittelchemiker auf Grund- 



lage der Vorschriften, betreffend die Priifnng der 
Nahrungsmittelchemiker. Mit in den Text gedmck- 
ten Abbildungeu. S". Gebunden. Mk. 8. 

Erlexsieyee's, E., Lehrbuch der organischen 
Chemie. II. Thl. Die aromatischen Verbindungen. 
Begonnen von Rcb. Jleyer fortgesetzt von H. Gold- 
schraidt, weiter fortgef iihrt von K. v. Buchka. I. Bd. 
8 Lfg. Mk. 6. 

Geissler, Dr. Ewald. Grundriss der pharma- 
ceutiscben Slassanalyse. Mit Beriicksichtigung ein- 
iger handelschemisohen nnd hygieniscben Analysen. 
Zweite verbesserte und vennehrte Auflage. Jlit 37 
in den Text gedmckten Holzschnitten. 8". Gebun- 
den. Mk. 4. 

2896. Girard, C, et. A. Dupre. Analyse des 
matieres alimentaires et recherche de leurs falsifica- 
tions. 8". 32 fr. 50c. 

GLUCKSJfANX, Karl. Kritische Studien im Be- 
reiche der Fundamentalanscbauungen der tbeoretiscb- 
en Cliemie. Zweiter Teil: Uber die Molekularhj-po- 
these. 8°. Mk. 2.30. 

Handw()Rterbuch der Ciiemie, herausgegeben 
von A. Ladenburg. XII. Bd. 8". Mit Holzschn. S. 
Nr. 2532. Mk. 16. 

Jacquot, E. et WiLM, Les Eaux minerales de la 
France. Etudes chimiques et g^ologiques. 8°. Aveo 
carte et 21 fig. 20 fr. 

Jahresbericht iiber die Leistungen der chemisch- 
en Technologic m. besond. Beriicksicht. der Gewerbe- 
statistik f. d. J. 1893. Jahrg. 1 — XXV bearb. von 
IJ. V. Wagner. Fortgesetz v. Dr. Ferd. Fischer. 39. 
od. neue Folge. 24 Jahrg. gr. 8". M. 200 Abbildgn. 
Mk. 24. 

CEcHSXEE DE CoxxicK. Cours de chimie organ- 
ique. 2 vol. 8°. Fr.20. 

Ostwald, W. Die wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen 
der analytischen Cliemie. 8°. Mk. 4. 

OsTW.^VLD, W. Elektrochemie. llire Geschichte 
und Lehre. 3. u. 4. Lfg. 8". Mit Abbildgn. a Mk. 2. 

ElCHTER's, V. v., Cliemie der Koblcnstoffverbin- 
dungen od. organische Cliemie. 7. Aufl. Neubearb. 
V. Prof. Dr. K.' Anschiitz. (In2Bdn. ) 1. Bd. Die 
Chemie der Fettkiiqier. 8". Holschn. Mk. 10. 

ScHXELLEB, K. Heactioncn und Reagentien. Ein 
Haudbuch fiir Aerzte, Analytiker, Apotheker und 
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ZiBKEL, Prof. Dr. FEEDiXAxn. Lehrbuch der 
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Editorial Committee : S. Newcomb, Mathematics ; R. S. 'Woodwaed, Mechanics ; E. C. Pickering, As- 
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Joseph Le Coxte, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. Marsh, Paleontology; W. K. 
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Friday, Fbbeuaey 22, 1895. 



CONTENTS: 

The lAiboratori/ Teaching of Large Classes: Al- 
PHErs Hyatt 197 

Original Jiesearch and Creative AuVwrship the Es- 
sence of Vnirersity Teaching: Gkorge Bruce 
Halsted 203 

The Archxology of Southern Florida : D. G. Brin- 
tox 207 

The Earliest Generic Name of an American Deer: 
C. Hart Mekriam 208 

James Owen Dorsey : W J >I 208 

Discussion : — 209 

On Indiscriminate ' Taking ' .• PETER T. AuSTEN. 

Scientific Literature : — 209 

Life of Richard Owen : A. S. Packard. Glaze- 
brook's Heat, Light; Houston's Electricity: T. 
C. M. Hygiene ; Gould's Dictionary of Medicine. 

Notes and News : — 217 

TSf International Zoological Congress; The Test- 
ing of Electrical Street Itailways; The Minnesota 
Academy of Natural Sciences; Anthropology ; 
Zoiilogy; Geology; Entomology; General. 

Societies and Academies : — 220 

A. A. A. S. Meeting, ISUo ; New York Academy of 
Sciences, Section of Astronomy and Physics ; In- 
diana Academy of Sciences. 

Scientific Journals 224 

New Books 224 

MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended 
for review should be sent to tlie responsible editor, Prof. J. 
McKeen Cattell, Garrison on Hudson, N. Y. 

Sul)scriptions (five dollars annually) and advertisements 
should be sent to the Publishir of SciE.NCE, 41 East 49th St., 
New York, or Lancaster, Pa. 



LABORATORY TEACHING OF LARGE 
CLASSES.* 

Teaching maj' be subdivided into two 
kinds : First, that wliich cultivates the fac- 

* Annual discussion before tl»e meeting of the American 
Society of Naturalists, Baltimore, December 27, 1894. The 
continuation of this discussion by Professors Bumpus and 
UanoDf; will be published in the ne.\t issue of Scie>-ce. 



ulties of the individual, increasing his abil- 
ity to work for himself and enabling him to 
use his intellectual powers with confidence 
in the acquisition of knowledge. Second, 
that which disregards or takes for granted 
that he has these powers at his command 
and strives to increase his store of informa- 
mation. The first process is the improve- 
ment and building up of the intellectual 
forces by any means that will enable them 
to do tlieir work thoroughly and correctly, 
and the second is practically, except in so 
far as it can be used in carrying on the first 
process, a load carried bj' the brain. Simi- 
lar in fact, though not in kind, to the extra 
fats and extra growths, of all sorts carried 
bj' the body, it may sometimes be of ad- 
vantage, and sometimes, when in unnatural 
proportion, a serious and perhaps even an 
injurious burden. 

The cultivation of the original powers of 
the individual, of his whole mind, with, of 
course, proper regard ibr moral and phj-si- 
cal well-being, which are, in mj- opinion, 
equally important and essential, is akin to 
the treatment by which a good teacher of 
athletics strives to improve the native 
strength of a pupil and give the muscles 
endurance and force, and which the young 
gymnast himself is taught how to use to the 
gi-eatest advantage. Tliis athletic training 
must go hand in hand with judicious feed- 
ing, and in the parallel processes of educa- 
tion similar objective training must go hand 



198 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. i 



in liancl with a legitimate amount of infor- 
mation. It is striving against nature to 
throw a pupil wholly on his own resources 
and allow him to find his way alone. This 
effort not only wastes valuable time, but it 
is an attempt to return to primitive condi- 
tions and to produce unfavorable surround- 
ings that do not exist at the present time. 
This kind of teaching is fortunately very 
rare nowadays, and usually an ideal that it 
is impossible to pursue consistently in act- 
ual practice. 

The natural and right course is really fol- 
lowed by a very good teacher, and strives 
not only to exercise and train his pupil's 
faculties, but at the same time or at proper 
intervals furnishes information that will 
give needed nourishment and renewed 
strength to liis power of doing pioneering 
work, if he be capable of this higher order 
of effort. 

The happy combination of self-culture 
and sufficient intellectual meals is by no 
means easy, and they are mingled in due 
proportion only when the pupil can be em- 
ployed for much the largest part of his time 
in the handling of objects or experiments 
under proper direction, which will enable 
him to build up bj^ his own experience meth- 
ods suitable for his own mind, or, failing 
that, to at least learn how original work 
has been done by others. 

Laboratory teaching is an effort made 
now by all institutions to furnish proper 
facilities for practical instruction of this 
sort, and it is successful or the reverse, ac- 
cording to the proportions in which the 
system adopted deviates from the happy me- 
dium in which neither self-culture nor the 
administering of information is allowed to 
usurp the whole field. 

This being a partial description of Labor- 
atory teaching, it is a question in the minds 
of most naturalists whether it is in a strict 
sense applicable to large classes except un- 
der very exceptional conditions. In the 



first place, what is a large class ; is it foi-ty, 
eighty, or one hundred and sixty? Can 
the class be taken in sections or must it bo 
handled as a whole? Can the instructor 
command laboratorj' facilities in the shape 
of rooms, tables, specimens or instruments, 
and materials for observation or experi- 
ment, and, above all, can he command as- 
sistants ? All of these queries must be re- 
plied to in some shape bj' each instructor 
before it is possible for him to consider 
the subject from any practical point of view. 

It is obvious that laboratory exercises and 
information must be individuaUzed to be of 
the highest standard, and this could not be 
carried out fully by an instructor alone, ex- 
cept for a small class. There is also an ob- 
vioiis limitation of numbers due to the neces- 
sarj' limitation of facilities that can be 
offered bj^ any institution, however well 
equipped. Even if an instructor had an 
enormous laboratory capable of accommo- 
dating a large class and money to employ 
the best of assistants, it is also obvious that 
the larger the class the further removed 
the members must be fi-om personal contact 
with their teacher, and as individuals con- 
sequently less able to benefit by his experi- 
ence and by his example, these tw'o last be- 
ing perhaps after all among the most im- 
portant elements of good teaching. 

Assistants come not only between the head 
teacher and his pupils, but where there are 
many minds there must be some strict 
system and set ways of doing the work, and 
more or less disregard of the peculiar needs 
of each individual. It is, however, evident 
that as long as this is recognized as a neces- 
sary evil, and the red tape of the system 
regarded in this light and not exalted into 
a fetish of productive virtue, a very large 
class may be kept at work through assist- 
ants, if they are allowed to have some indi- 
viduality themselves and are taught to cul- 
tivate the same gift in some of then- pupils. 
In such matters, however, one must speak 



Febrvaky 2-2, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



199 



from the fulness of his own experience, and 
I must leave this subject to those who have 
liad experience in conducting large labora- 
tories crowded with j)upils. 

My own experience has been with a few, 
unfortunately with very few jmpils of the 
highest gi-ade. and then, skipping all mter- 
mediate gi-ades, next with pupils who have 
come to me uninformed or worse ofl' in being 
burdened with undigested information. The 
first of course had almo.st unlimited time 
and ample facilities, and, therefore, do not 
come into consideration here. 

My classes have varied from ten to five 
hundred, but unluckily the binding force of 
the conditions under which instruction was 
given did not vary in the same proportion. 
I have always been obliged to give lessons 
to the whole class at once, and the time has 
been invariably limited to comparativelj' 
few hours. 

I'nder these somewhat difficult conditions 
it became necessary to adopt some system 
that would include, as far as pi-acticable at 
least, tlie idea of self culture, so that the 
pupils would at anj- rate not be led into the 
belief that they knew how to handle and 
use a subject when they rcallj' had only ac- 
qufred some informatitm and the power to 
read about it more intelligently, and perhaps 
also the ability to recognize certain facts of 
which no educated man should be ignorant. 

Pennit me to exercise one of the usual 
privik'ges of every speaker and enlarge 
somewhat the boundaries of this discussion 
by asking you to consider Laboratory Teach- 
ing as but one branch of object teaching. 
We shall then be able to regard it from the 
point of view of its essential character and 
see more clearly its aiiplication to cases in 
which large clas.ses must be dealt with in 
lecture rooms capacious enough to hold from 
eighty to five hundred or even more persons. 
It may then l)e said, tliat in proportion as a 
lecturer follows objective methods and clings 
to the habit of making his audience see. 



each for himself or herself, the objects he is 
talkmg about, in just the same proportion 
is he trying, at least, to educate them ac- 
cording to the ideal standards. 

Some twenty-four years ago the Teachers' 
School of Science was begun in Boston and 
it became necessary to decide how the les- 
sons should be conducted. To be faithful 
to the ideals of science and handle a class 
as large as could be comfortably seated in 
the lecture room of the Boston Society of 
Natural History was the practical problem, 
and secondarily how to do this so as to lead 
to the final adoption of natnral history 
teaching in the public schools. 

Two necessary conditions were assumed 
as the l)asis of the system adopted : first, the 
actual study of specimens, and second, the 
subsequent possession of these Ijy the teach- 
ers. This system was inaugurated with a 
class of eightj% and was found to be practi- 
cable with five hundred persons, and suc- 
ceeded as well as could be expected with 
such large audiences. The lectui-ei-s em- 
ployed b}- the school, which subsequently 
came for the most part under tlic patronage 
of the Trustee of the Lowell Institute. Mr. 
Augustus Lowell, w^ere instructed to con- 
form to the requirements mentioned above, 
and the sj-steni has not been materially al- 
tered since the beginning, except in one of 
these requirements. Of late years it has 
not been deemed necessary to have very 
large classes, nor to distribute specimens in 
such profusion as during the earlier years 
in which hundreds of thou.sauds had been 
given awaj-. The details aj-e very simple. 
p]very person in the audience is furnished 
with a certain number of specimens. These 
are placed by assistants upon temporary 
tables opposite each chair befbi-e the les.son 
begins. The tables for large classes were of 
the .simplest des<'ription, mere boards with 
a slight moulding to keep objects from roll- 
ing ofl'. They were made in sections and 
were fastened to the floor by iron stanch- 



200 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 8. 



ions that could be unscrewed and removed 
after they were no longer needed. It occu- 
pied three men about one-half of a day to 
put them up and take them down and store 
them away from a lecture room accommo- 
dating five hundred persons. The seats in 
this room were the ordinary distance apart 
and were not constructed especially for the 
purpose of giving additional room for these 
tables. Similar tables have also been built 
and used successfully in several different lec- 
ture rooms. 

The lecturer leads his hearers to observe 
with the specimens in hand certain facts, 
and he may if he chooses go far beyond 
these simple observations in his remarks, and 
he very often does this, but the specimens 
are dead weights upon his flights into the 
empyrean of fancy or theory. The objects 
are there ; they demand constant atten- 
tion, and the teacher cannot keep away 
from their consideration, nor can his audi- 
ence lose consciousness that they are the 
subjects upon which the work is to be 
done. 

The principal difficulty is to acquire the 
habit of carrying on the thread of the dis- 
course, directing it to some definite morpho- 
logic point, or whatever the lecturer may 
choose, weaving the facts shown by the 
specimens into a demonstration of this point, 
and at the same time keep, the pupils at 
work upon the specimens to such an extent 
that most of them actually see the needed 
facts. 

The field capable of being illustrated and 
taught in this way is necessarily limited, 
and there are in each branch of science 
certain series of facts requiring elaborate 
apparatus or rare specimens that cannot be 
used in sufficient numbers. ]S"evertheless, 
the limits in each department are not so 
narrow as one at first thinks, and the field 
covered grows continually broader in pro- 
portion to the ability and experience of the 
instructor. 



The first expense is not large ; the cost 
of the Geological and Mineralogical speci- 
mens was about ten dollars for each lecture, 
and for Botany about fifteen, and Zoology 
twenty to twentj^-five for audiences of five 
hundred. 

But before entering upon the second part 
of mj' subject, the application of this method 
to smaller classes, permit me to say that 
diagrams were used in order to direct the 
attention of the audience to the facts to be 
observed, and thej^ were encouraged to make 
notes and sketches and instructed in the 
use of a cheap magnifier costing from sixty 
to seventj^-five cents. The lectui-er was 
allowed also to place objects simDar to 
those in the hands of the audience upon his 
table and platform and on the tables in the 
body of the lecture room, and whenever 
practicable these were liviag representatives 
of the preparation. 

It is needless to say to this audience that 
no claim is made here to the discovery of a 
royal road to knowledge. The system itself 
is an ancient one and was used before I was 
born by many persons. The habit of ob- 
serviQg accuratelj^ cannot be formed by an 
hour or two of work on Saturday afternoon, 
even with the use of specimens. The 
method has, however, a valid claim to con- 
sideration in so far as it possesses great 
advantages over the subjective methods of 
the ordinarj' lecture, when illustrated solely 
bj' diagrams or stereopticon pictures, and 
its results are far more satisfactory. 

All lessons or lectures away from the act- 
ual presence of the objects described or dis- 
cussed throw the individual back upon his 
own mental processes, unless he already 
has experience and knowledge of the facts 
treated. Illustrations in the shape of dia- 
grams or stereopticon pictures are substi- 
tutes of one dimension ; they have the su- 
perficial attributes of length and breadth, 
but their apparent thickness and solidity 
are artistic shams. People who are taught 



FEBRU.VKY •22, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



201 



in tliis way think afterwards iu a weak sub- 
jective form. The objects depicted are present 
to them as pictures, not as things. The 
classes in drawing at the Lowell Institute 
were objectively taught and not permitted 
to draw fi-om illustrations, but among the 
pupils there were often some that had had 
instruction according to this method. They 
were seated and placed so that no two per- 
sons got the same Anew of a cube mounted 
on a stand, in one of their lessons. Those 
that had had no training from copying flat 
illustrations tried to depict what they saw; 
those that had had this sort of training us- 
ually outlined the cube as they thought a 
cube ought to appear, giving it the conven- 
tional shape and aspect it had in their own 
minds. "Whether seated on the floor or on 
chairs, or standing, in ft-ont or at one side, 
the cube almost invariably appeared on 
their sheets with the top side in perspective, 
whether they saw the top or did not see it 
from their station. 

Able pupils carry awa3- from our lessons 
much more than they can from lectures, 
however elaborately adorned with illustra- 
tions, and our results show that even the 
crudest efforts to observe facts with ex- 
amples in hand lead often to a realization 
of the effectiveness of objective work and a 
desire for more culture in this direction. 

These lectures to large audiences created 
gradually a demand for more precise and 
extensive instruction in some of our pupils. 
and this demand led to the giving of si'ries 
of lessons on the same subjects to more 
limited numbers and extending over longer 
periods of time. These have lately taken 
the form of consecutive courses running 
through each winter for four yeai-s. We 
have just finislied one on Geologj', of this 
amount of time, about one hundred and 
thirty hours in all, and another in Botany, 
and have still another in Zoologj- and Pale- 
ontology, of about the same length, which 
will be finished this year. 



In these classes numbering from thirty- 
six to forty-eight the lecturer treats the au- 
dience in much the same way as far as 
specimens are concerned, but having more 
time and more control over the pupils, he 
can do his work more effectually. Each 
pei-son must have a note-book and magni- 
fier; microscopes are furnished by the So- 
ciety. The pupils are told that they must 
make notes, and must make sketches of the 
specimens. Those who state that they can- 
not draw are insti-ucted to try and are 
shown that the quality of their tb'awing is 
not of so much importance as the employ- 
ment of the ej-es and mind in tiying to 
draw the object before them. The act of 
trying to draw a specimen is not absolutely 
essential to the success of this method, but 
it is very helpful. It holds the pupil down 
to his work, keeps him constantly observ- 
ing, and he soon learns to make approxi- 
matel}' a good outline of the specimen, and 
then studies the details much more closely 
than he would otherwise do, if not making 
an effort to represent them on his sketch. 

Different teachers have different ways of 
doing their work, but in general it may be 
said that those at present at work in the 
school follow this process more or less and 
also hold either examinations at stated in- 
tervals or have reviews in which the stu- 
dents are questioned with regard to what 
they have been studying and so on. One 
gentleman keeps a complete card catalogue 
of names and marks, so that he can follow 
accurately the exact course of each jmpil 
back through the entire four years, and he 
holds no final examination, preferring to 
make his work perfect as he goes along. 

Two of the teachers — there are onlj' four 
in all — have constantlj'' had the services of 
two assistants who helped to set out the 
specimens and clear the tables after the les- 
.sons were finished. These assistants were 
for the most part selected from the audience, 
and can generally be obtained in this way, 



202 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 8. 



either as vohintary laborers or for a vei-y 
moderate compensation. These persons, 
under the direction of the teacher, help him 
to supervise the note making and microsco- 
pical observations of the pupils and help 
them to see and discuss with them the facts 
that they observe. A large part of every les- 
son is passed in the description and discus- 
sion of observations made on the specimens. 
The pupils are also encouraged to work in- 
dependently in making connected studies 
and collections out of doors, and to embodj' 
the results in reports and actual collections 
presented at the final examinations or at the 
close of the term. 

Field work is also carried on in connec- 
tion with the laboratory lectures in miner- 
alogy and geology, and it is proposed to do 
the same when opportunity offers in other 
branches. One can judge in part of the 
ability and attainments of classes by the ex- 
amination papers and their note-books kept 
through the term, and the results in this di- 
rection have been higlily satisfactory. I 
have not had time to gather any of these 
evidences as I had intended to do, and I 
shall have to ask you to take my word for 
it that these were more than creditable. 
I have brought a few placards of the courses 
and of the questions for the final examina- 
tions in two of the courses, which I have 
exhibited for your inspection. 

The persons attending these lessons were 
all adults and mostly teachers in the public 
schools, but the same method has been found 
to be equally successful with classes of the 
Institution of Technology and Boston Uni- 
versity, and no difficulty has been experi- 
enced in handling them in this way beyond 
what is usual with such pupils. Pupils of 
the Teachers' School of Science have also 
applied the same method to large classes of 
young people of both sexes in the public 
schools, and by covering less ground at each 
lesson succeeded with them also. 

In certain subjects, such as Physical Geog- 



raphy, Chemistry and Physics, and Physi- 
ology, and so on, this method has a neces- 
sarily more limited application than in the" 
branches enumerated above, but even in 
these departments it has been more or less 
used, du-ectly by selecting the few experi- 
ments that could be actually made bj^ indi- 
viduals in the audience, and indii-ectly by 
showing others on the platform that could 
be repeated by them with apparatus that 
they could make themselves, or purchase 
with very small outlay. 

Permit me in conclusion to repeat that it 
has been thoroughly tested with such classes 
of persons of all ages as have been described, 
but it has not yet, as far as I know, been 
applied to large classes of students in any 
university. If it has been applied to such 
classes by any one their experience is proba- 
bly known to some persons in the audience, 
and I shall be glad to hear what the results 
have been. I am aware that our experi- 
ence will probably be of real value only to 
those who have to deal with classes having 
at their command a limited number of hours 
and but little chance for laboratory work 
outside of the hours devoted to the lessons. 
N"evertheless, there are many who now lec- 
ture with illustrations, diagrams and the 
stereopticon, to whom I would with all de- 
ference suggest the possibility of adding to 
these specimens distributed among their 
pupils. And I further make bold to recom- 
mend that those who make partial use of 
text-books, as aids for the pupils to study 
and recite from, drop a part of these re- 
quirements and allow their pupils to substi- 
tute actual work on specimens done inside 
or outside of the class-room, collections 
made by themselves and so on. I also 
crave their permission to suggest one fea- 
ture of our examinations which you will see 
mentioned on the cards I have displayed. 
This consists in placing before each pupil a 
set of test specimens which he is required 
to place in proper sequence as regards their 



February 22, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



203 



mutual relations, to luunher, name, describe, 
and so on, in accordance with what he has 
been taught. I have myself a way of slip- 
ping into this set one object that the pupils 
have never seen, so far as I know their 
studies. The replies to this silent ques- 
tioner fi-equently enable me to determine 
who are the best oliservers and most origi- 
nal thinkers, and very often point out clearly 
the difference between them and those who 
are merelj- the best students. 

Whether this system is the best that can 
be devised or has only some praiseworthj' 
feature, or is in reality but a poor substi- 
tute for a good one, I shall not pretend to 
decide. There are numbers of scientiiic 
teachers of great experience and learning- 
present who have heard my ai'guments and 
must be our judges, but I think they will all 
indulgently agree that the teachers who liave 
adopted and elaborated this method have 
tried to come as near to the ideals of objec- 
tive work as the adverse circumstances of 
large classes and limited time would per- 
mit. Alpheus Hyatt. 

Boston. 

ORKilXAL RESEARCH AND CREATIVE AU- 
THORSHIP THE ESSENCE OF UNIVERSITY 
TEACHING* 

That which is most characteristic of the 
present epoch in the history of man is un- 
doubtedlj^ the vast and beneficent growth 
of science. In things apart from science, 
other races at times long past may be 
compared to the most civilized people of 
to-day. 

The lyric poetry of Sappho has never 
been equalled! The epic flavor of Homer, 
even after translation, comes down to us 
unsurpassed tln-ough the ages. Dante, the 
voice of six silent centuries, may wait six 
centuries more before his mediteval miracle 
of song finds its peer. 

* Inaugural Address l)_v the President of the Texas 
Aaideniy of Science, Dr. George Bruce Halsted, Octo- 
ber 12, 1894. 



The Apollo Belvidere, the Venus of Milo, 
the Laocoon are the glory of antique, the 
despair of modern sculpture. To mention 
oratory to a schoolboy is to recall Demos- 
thenes and Cicero, even if he has never 
pictured Ca'sar, that gi-eatest of the sons of 
men, quelling the mutinous soldiery by his 
first word, or with outstretched arm, in 
Egj-pt's palace window, holding enthralled 
his raging enemies, gaining precious mo- 
ments, time, the only thing he needed to 
enable him to crusli them under his domi- 
nant intellect. 

There is no need for multiplj'ing exam- 
ples. The one thing that gives the pres- 
ent generation its predominance is science. 
The foremost factor in modern life is science. 
All criticisms of the scope of life, of the es- 
sence of education, made before science had 
taken its present place, or attempting to 
ignore its prominence, are obsolete, as are 
of necessity any systems of education 
founded on pre-scientific or anti-scientific 
conceptions. 

Unfortunately there are still some people 
so dull, so envious, so unscientifiic, so stu- 
pid as to maintain that the highest aim of 
a university should be the training of young 
men and young women, where they use the 
word ' training ' in its repressive, inhibi- 
tive sense. The most profound discoveries 
of modern science unite in replacing this 
old ' training ' idea of education by one 
immeasurably higher, finer, nobler. We 
now know that the paramount aim of 
teaching at every stage, and preeminentlj- 
of the final stage, at the university, should 
be to lidp the developing mind, the develop- 
ing character, the developing personality. 
Judicious, delicate, symj)athetic help is now 
the watchword. Even horses and dogs 
worth owning are no longer ' broken;' they 
are 'gentled.' 

What has brought about this glorious 
change ? Science, the greatest achievement 
of human life, the one thing that puts to- 



204 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 8. 



day, the present, in advance of all past 
ages. Not only by having subjugated the 
forces of natui'e to the dominion of mind, 
but also by its intellectual influence, science 
is remodelliag the life and thought of mod- 
ern humanitj'. 

Thoiigh science is the piirest knowledge, 
yet even our estimate of knowledge has 
been changed by science. Mere acquire- 
ment is now considered an unworthy end 
or aim for endeavor. Action, production 
alone now receives our homage, now gives 
a life worth living ; and, therefore, each 
must aim either at the practical application 
of his knowledge, or at the extension of the 
limits of science itself. For to extend the 
limits of science is really to work for the 
progress of humanity. This is a fitting 
crown to the sweet and symmetrical evolve- 
ment which true teaching aids — ^the unfail- 
ing spring of pure pleasure which it affords. 
The laws of physical, but, above all, of 
mental health, made clear by science, let 
every one realize how now our truest edu- 
cation stands ready to aid, to save, to sat- 
isfy endangered or craving bodies or minds. 
Nothing is more beautifully characteristic 
of young children than the desire to know 
the why and wherefore of everything they 
see. This natural spirit of inquiry needs 
only proper direction and fostering care to 
give us scientists. But no one can teach 
science who does not know it. For a 
teacher, however subordinate, to have the 
true informing spu-it to vivify his book- 
knowledge, even of the very elements, it is 
found almost uniformly essential that he 
should have been in direct personal contact 
with some one of those great men whose 
joy it is to be able to advance the age in 
which they live, and lead on mankind to 
unexpected victories in the progressive con- 
quest of the universe. But it is the highest 
function of a university to help the gifted 
young man on his way toward becoming 
one of these glorious creators, these men 



who make and who honor the age in which 
thej^ live. A universitj' should wish to 
feed the mental leaders of the next genera- ~ 
tion. For this nothing can take the place 
of contact with the living spirit of research, 
original work, creative authorship. 

Without fostering and requiring such 
work of students and still more of all its 
professors, no institution can be a univer- 
sitj^ of the first class. Intimate contact 
with a producer of the first rank is worth 
more than the whole world of so-called 
training by use of retailed convictions. 

The most inspii-ing teacher must have 
known how to acquire conviction where no 
predecessor had ever been before him; to 
show others how to conquer new regions, 
he must himself have broken barriers for 
human thought. As Eector of the Univer- 
sity of Berlin, Helmholtz said: "Our ob- 
ject is to have instruction given only by 
teachers who have proved their owa power 
to advance science." There is no honest 
test or proof of scholarship or acquirement 
but production. The characteristic quality 
of all the highest teaching lies in the fact 
that it comes from a creator. 

No more convincing demonstration of 
my thesis could be wished for than the 
work of Sylvester for America. On page 
233, I., of his Hohere Geometi-ie, 1893, 
Felix Klein, as high an authority as any 
living, says: "Sylvester hat noch 1874 als 
60 jahriger Mann den Mut gehabt an die 
Johns Hopkins Universitj^ in Baltimore 
ueberzusiedeln und durch eine ganz specif- 
ische durch 10 Jahre fortgesetzte Lehrthii- 
tigkeit hohere mathematische Studien auf 
amerikanischen Boden zu initiiren." 

The birth of higher mathematics in 
America will always date from Sylvester's 
advent at the Johns Hopkins. There and 
then with his mighty head he raised the 
whole western continent, and made it a 
worth jr associate in the profoundest thought- 
life of our world. But few know that this 



February 2-2, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



205 



epoch-making period was not Sylvester's 
first, advent in the United St.ates. The im- 
mortal glory now belonging to the Johns 
Hopkins University might have been antici- 
pated by another, and with the verj- same 
instrument. 

An adequate life of James Joseph Syl- 
vester has never been wi-itten, and jiroba- 
bly never will be while he lives. At Cam- 
bridge he was most impressed by a classmate 
of his own, the celebrated George Green, 
who had already then produced the re- 
markable Green's Theorem, and much of 
the work which still stands as a founda- 
tion stone in the edifice of modern elec- 
trical science. As Sylvester would not 
sign the thirty-nine articles of the Estab- 
lished Church, he was not allowed to take 
his degree, nor to stand for a fellowship, to 
which his rank in the tripos entitled him. 

Sjivester always felt bitterly this religious 
di.sbarment. His denunciation of the nar- 
rowness, bigotry, and intense selfishness ex- 
hibited in these creed tests was a wonderful 
piece of oratory in his celebrated addi-ess at 
the Johns Hopkins University. No one 
who saw will ever forget the emotion and 
astonishment exhibited by James Eussell 
Lowell while listening to this unexpected 
climax. Thus barred from Cambridge, he 
accepted a call to America fi-om the Univer- 
sity of Virginia. 

The cause of his sudden abandonment of 
the University of Virginia is often related 
by the Rev. Dr. R. L. Dabney, as follows : 
In Sylvester's class were a pau' of brothers, 
stupid and excruciatinglj' pompous. When 
Sylvester pointed out one day the blunders 
made in a recitation by the younger of the 
pair, this individual felt his honor and 
family pride aggrieved, and sent word to 
Professor Sylvester that he must apologize 
or be chastised. 

Sylvester bought a sword-cane, which he 
was carrying when waylaid by the brothers, 
the younger armed with a hea^'y bludgeon. 



An intimate friend of Dr. Dabney's hap- 
pened to be approaching at the moment of 
the encounter. Tlie younger brother step- 
ped up in front of Professor Sylvester and 
demanded an instant and humble apology. 

Almost immediately he struck at Sj-lves- 
ter, knocking ofi' his liat, and then delivered 
with his heavy bludgeon a crushing blow 
directly upon Sylvester's bare head. 

Sylvester drew his sword-cane and lunged 
straight at him, striking him just over the 
heart. With a dispairing howl, the student 
fell back into his brother's arms screaming 
out, " I am killed I '" " He has killed me." 
Sylvester was urged away from the sjiot by 
Dr. Dabney's friend, and without even wait- 
ing to collect his books, he left for New 
York, and took ship back to England. 

Meantime a surgeon was summoned to 
the student, who was lividly pale, bathed in 
cold sweat, in complete collapse, seemingly 
dying, whispering his last prayers. The 
surgeon tore open his vest, cut open his 
shirt, and at once declared him not in the 
least injured. The fine point of the sword- 
cane had struck a rib fair, and caught 
against it, not peueti-ating. 

When assured that the wound was not 
much more than a mosquito-bite, the dying 
man arose, adjusted his shirt, buttoned his 
vest, and walked oft', though still trembling 
from the nervous shock. Sylvester was 
made head professor of mathematics of the 
Royal Military Academj^ at Woolwich, a 
position which he held until the early period 
set by the English military laws for confer- 
ring the life-pension. 

He thus happened to be free to accept a 
position at the head of mathematics in the 
Johns Hopkins University at its organiza- 
tion. With British conservatism, he stipu- 
lated that his traveling expenses and annual 
salary of five thousand dollars should be 
paid him in gold, and this fixed, he came a 
second time to America. 

The fame of his coming preceded him, for 



206 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 8. 



by this time he was ranked by Kelland in the 
Encyclopsedia Britaunica as the verj' fore- 
most living English mathematician. The 
only possible sharer of this proud preemi- 
nence was his life-long friend Cayley. 

Appointed among the first twentj' fellows 
at the organization of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and having an intense desire to 
study Sylvester's own creations with him, 
I became alone his first class in the new 
University. Sylvester gives in his cele- 
brated address a graphic account of the 
formation of that first class as illustrating 
the mutual stimulus of student and pro- 
fessor. 

The text-book was Salmon's Modern 
Higher Algebra, dedicated to Sylvester 
and Cayley as made up chiefly from their 
original work. 

The professor broke every rule and canon 
of the Normal Schools and Pedagogy, yet 
was the most inspiring teacher conceivable. 
Eveiy thing, from music to Hegel's meta- 
physics, linked into the theory of Invari- 
ants, combined with the precious personal 
data, and charming unpublished reminis- 
cences of all the great mathematicians of 
the preceding generation. 

Such a course in the creation of modern 
mathematics, with most precious, elsewhere 
unattainable, historic indications, will per- 
haps never be paralleled. It went on not 
only at the appointed hours, but the pro- 
fessor would send for his class at night, 
while at other times they took excursions 
together to Washington. The incidents of 
these two formative years, spent in most 
intimate association with one of the great 
historic personages of science, can never be 
forgotten. It was during this period that 
Sylvester founded the American Journal of 
Mathematics, and it is due to his particular 
wish that it was given the quarto form. 

Then began a new productive period in 
his life, the astounding activity and mar- 
velous results of which can be faintly esti- 



mated by consulting the pages upon pages 
taken up in the Johns Hojikins Bibliogra- 
phia Mathematica, merely to enunciate 
the titles of the memoirs and papers pro- 
duced. The verj' complete and profound 
historic and bibliographic account of the 
theory of Invariants given by Meyer in the 
Berichte of the deutsche mathematische Ge- 
sellschaft indicates very fairlj' Sjivester's 
final place in the history of that all-pervad- 
ing subject. His origmal contributions to 
many other parts of the vast structure of 
modern pure analj'sis are of nearly as great 
weight. 

Sylvester was completely of the opinion 
that no teaching for a real universitj^ can be 
ranked high which is not vitalized by abun- 
dant original creative work. He main- 
tained that it was the plain duty of any 
mature man holding a professorship in a 
real university to resign at once if he had 
not ah'eady been copiouslj'^ and creatively 
productive. 

He believed that without unceasing orig- 
inal research and published original work 
there could be no real university teaching, 
and that any universitj' professor who, 
without such a basis, pretended to be a 
good teacher, was, consciously or unconsci- 
ously, a selfish fraud. 

On page 6 of his address delivered on 
Commemoration Day, 1877, he speaks of a 
university * under its twofold aspect as a 
teaching body and as a corporation for the 
advancement of science.' He then con- 
tinues; "I hesitate not to say that, in 
my opinion, the two functions of teaching 
and working in science should never be 
divorced. 

" I believe that none are so well fitted to 
impart knowledge as those who are engaged 
in reviewing its methods and extending its 
boundaries . . . May the time never come 
when the two offices of teaching and re- 
searching shall be sundered in this Univer- 
■sity !" 



February *2, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



207 



This was spoken of the Johns Hoi^kins. 
Since tlien no university has vohmtarily 
avowed an ideal not equallj' noble and ex- 
alted. Science, penetrating ever deeper, 
makes clear the conditions of progress, of 
true education, of finest teaching. 

Only those who have produced can ade- 
quately fulfill its present motto : " I serve, 
I help." Geokge Bruce Halsted. 

L'XIVEESITY OF TEXAS. 



THE AItCS.EOLOGY OF SOVTHERX FLORIDA 
Through the investigations of Professor 
Jeffries AVyman, Mr. A. E. Douglass and 
lately of Mr. Clarence B. Moore, a large 
amount of accurate information about the 
mounds of central and southern Florida 
lias been laid before the public. Especially 
noteworthy are Mr. Moore"s explorations, 
which have been pul)]ished with every de- 
sirable addition of nuips, measurements and 
illustrations. They were conducted with a 
fidelity to the correct principles of mound 
excavation, which renders them models of 
tlieir kind. The results were rich, instruc- 
tive, often surprising, such as copper breast- 
plates and ornaments, curiously decorated 
pottery, specimens of Catlinite, and little 
earthern images, very life-like, of the bear, 
sijuirrel, wildcat, and even the tapir, which 
latter had become extinct in Florida when 
the whites first explored it. 

Nothing, however, which has been found 
in the mounds of Florida justify us in sepa- 
rating them as a class fi-om other mounds in 
the Southern States ; there is nothing in 
them ' extra-Indian," as Jlr. H. C. Mercer 
remarks in his review of the subject in the 
American Naturalist for January. He might 
have gone further and have said there is 
nothing extra-North American Indian. The 
pottery decoration does not reveal those 
arabesque designs which Mr. Holmes has 
jK)inted out in some of the more modern 
pottery of the Gulf coast, as indicating 
Caribbean or Antillean influence. If that 



arrived, its arrival was later than the con- 
struction of the older Floridian mounds. 

But an obscurity certainlj- hangs over 
tlie ethnogi-aphy of Florida at the period of 
tlie discovery. 

A large part of the peninsula was peopled 
by a tribe whose language stood alone on 
the continent, the Timucuas, and which be- 
came extinct generations ago, though fortu- 
nately resei'ved in the works of a Spanish 
missionary. Father Pareja. They are de- 
scribed by the Spanish and French explorers 
of the sixteenth century as quite a cultured 
people, and at that time building mounds 
and erecting their houses upon them. 

It is not certain that they extended to the 
extreme south, and therefore this portion 
of the peninsula is left blank on the lan- 
guistic map of the region. That some tribe 
of advanced culture occupied the territory 
about tlie Carlosahatchie bay is revealed by 
a curious discovery due to the distinguished 
antiquary and explorer M. Alphonse Pinart, 
which he communicated to the former pub- 
lislier of Science. In examining a rare work 
by Father Francisco Romero, jniljlished at 
Milan in 1G9.3, entitled Llanio Sagrado de la 
Aiiwrica Meridional que busca alivio en los reale.'' 
ojox de Xue.itro Senor Don Carlos III., he found 
the statement that a chieftain called Carlos, 
who lived on the bay of that name on the 
southwest coast of Florida, came across to 
Havana in a small canoe to be instructed in 
the Christian faith and baptized. On re- 
turning, the autliorities promised to send a 
missionary to his people, but neglected to 
fulfill their agreement. 

" Some time afterward," says the writer, 
■' they recieved a letter \^Titten witli char- 
acters entirely ditVerent from ours, and with 
a strange ink. This letter was l)rought 
across by a lisherman, who translated it. 
He stated that the Floridian chief, Carlos, 
sent by it his respectful liomage to the au- 
thorities, and complained bitterly that the 
missionary had not been sent to him.'' 



208 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 8. 



The original, says the author, was subse- 
quently taken to Spain and deposited in the 
library of the Duchess of Aveyro. M. Pin- 
art adds that, fi'om correspondence with the 
representatives of that family, he has reason 
to believe this original is still in existence. 

Whether the ' writing ' was the familiar 
pictography of the North American Indian, 
or allied to that higher form which preA'ailed 
in Mexico and Yucatan, may be decided by 
a sight of the document itself. At any rate, 
it is worth mentioning that this unknown 
people had a recognized system of recording- 
ideas; and possibly investigations in the 
mounds of that locality may bring other 
specimens to light . 

D. G. Brinton. 

TJniveesity of Pennsylvania. 



THE EARLIEST GENERIC NAME OF AN 
AMERICAN DEER. 

In" September, 1817, Eafinesque pubUshed 
descriptions of two species of deer from 
Paraguay, which he named Mazama bira and 
M. pita.'^ The first was based on the 
Gouazoubira, the second on the Goitazoupita, 
of Azara. Both had been previously de- 
scribed by lUigerf; consequently the speci- 
fic names fall. Mazama bira Eaf. ^^Cervus 
rufus 111.; M. pita Kaf. =C simplidcornis 111. 
But the generic name Mazama antedates by 
many years the names Suhulo %, Passalites §, 
Coassus 1 1 , and even Cariacus ^, and hence is 
the earliest generic name for any American 
deer, so far as known. Fortunately, the rules 

*Am. Monthly Mag., Vol. I., No. 5, Sept. 1817, p. 
363. 

fAbliandl. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Berlin (for 
1811), 1815, p. 117. 

tSubtdo H. Smith, Griffith's Cuvier, Vol. V., 1827, 
p. 318. 

? Passaliles Gloger, Hand- u. Hilfshuch Naturge- 
schiohte, 1, 1841, p. 140. 

II Coassus J. E. Gray, List. Mamm. British. Mus. 
1843, pp. xxvii and 174. 

II Cariacus Lesson, Nouv. Tableau Eegne Animal, 
Mammif., 1842, p. 173. 



of nomenclature demand that the type be 
chosen from the species originally covered- 
by the genus ; it cannot be taken fi-om those 
subsequently added by Eafinesque himself 
(in Am. Monthly Mag., Vol. I., p. 437, Oct. 
1817; and Vol. II., p. 44, Nov. 1817). The 
tjTDC therefore must be one or the other of 
the two well known South American deer, 
rufus or simplioicorim, and may be restricted 
to the formr, which will stand as Mazama 
rufa (lUiger). 

C. Haet Meeriam. 



JAMES OWEN DORSET. 

Eev. J. Owen Dorsey, Indian Hnguist, 
died in Washing-ton, February 4, of typhoid 
fever. For over twenty years Mr. Dorsey 
was an enthusiastic student of aboriginal 
languages, chiefly those of the Siouan fam- 
ily. His acquaintance with these languages 
was so extended and his grasp of principles 
so strong as to render him one of the fore- 
most authorities on Indian linguistics. Al- 
though numerous publications have been 
made under his name, the greater part of 
the material collected and created during 
his active career remaius unpublished. 
Fortunately, this rich store of manuscripts 
is preserved, under the systematic arrange- 
ment of their author, in the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology, with which Mr. Dorsey 
has been connected from its organization. 

James Owen Dorsey was born in Balti- 
more, Maryland, October 3] , 1848, and re- 
ceived his earlier education in local schools. 
He was remarkably precocious, reading He- 
brew at the age often, and his vocal range 
and power of discriminating and imitating 
vocal sounds were exceptional. He entered 
the Theological Seminarj^ of Virginia in 
1867, was ordained a deacon of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church in 1871, and during 
the same year became missionarj^ among 
the Ponha Indians, in what was then Dakota 
Territory. There he began sj^stematic study 
of Indian language, mji:h and custom. 



Fkbruary :J2, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



209 



Among his publications are memoirs on 
' Omaha Sociokigy,' ' Osage Traditions,' ' a 
study of Siouan cults,' ' Omaha dwellings, 
furniture and implements,' printed in the 
annual reports of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology ; ' Omaha, and Ponca lettei-s,' a 
bulletin of the same bureau ; and the ' Dhe- 
giha language.' forming Volume YI. of the 
Contributions to North American Ethnol- 
ogy. In addition he edited a Dakota-Eng- 
lish dictionary, and a volume on Dakota 
grammar, texts and ethnography, by the 
late Rev. S. R. Riggs, published in two 
volumes of the last named series. Numer- 
ous minor articles were published in ditfer- 
ent anthropologic journals. Mr. Dorsey 
was Vice-President of Section H of the A. A. 
A. S. in 1893, and at the time of his death 
was Vice-President of the American Folk- 
lore Society. In the absence of the Presi- 
dent of this Society he presided over the 
annual meeting in Wasliing-ton during the 
Christmas holidays, this being his last pub- 
lic work in science. W J M 



DISCUSSION. 
ON INDISCRIMINATE ' TAKING.' 

In many of the text-books which have of 
late appeared, and even in articles by some 
of the most renowned chemists, the verb ' to 
tiike ' is frequently used in a way that is 
very annoying to teachers who are endeav- 
oring to train students in brevity and ex- 
actness of expression. Pages could be filled 
with examples of bad style and verbo- 
sity that ill-accord with the clearness and 
brevity that are desirable, and that are 
supposed to' chara<'terize scientific litera- 
ture. A few quotations from recent text- 
books will suffice to illustrate this particu- 
lar case — that of indiscriminate 'taking.' 

" Take a cylindrical porous jar, such as 
is used in a galvanic battery, close the open 
end, etc." 

It were better to saj', " close the end of a 
cylindrical porous jar, such as is used, etc." 



Another example : " Take two flasks and 
connect them." 

Better — " Connect two flasks," etc. 

Another : " The method of experimenting 
adopted by Graham was to take a bottle or 
jar with a neck contracted somewhat and 
fill it to within half an inch of the top with 
the solution of the salt to be investigated." 

Better — " The method . . . was to fill a 
bottle or jar with a somewhat contracted 
neck to within half an inch," etc. 

Another : " If we take an iron tube closed 
at one end and connected at the other with 
a Sprengel pump and exhaust it com- 
pletely." 

This awkward form of diction often ex- 
cites mirth in the class-room, as it gives 
unusual opportunities for double meanings. 

" Take a pound of sugar and an equal 
weight of sulfuric acid." This would be a 
severe dose, even for a trained scientist. 

The following is from a recent text-book : 
" Take a lump of chalk or sandstone, some 
very dry sand, a glass of water and a glass 
of treacle." 

This might do for a bill of fare in a 
Chinese restaurant, but it is out of place in 
a scientific book. 

" Take some white arsenic." — " Take a 
sedlitz powder," — are the singular directions 
which j)reface two experiments in a book 
recently published by the Society for Pro- 
motion of Christian Knowledge in London. 

If editors and teachers will paj- more at- 
tention to this awkward use of the word 
' take ' they will incur the gratitude of a 
patiently suffering public. 

Peter T. Austen. 

Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. 



SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 
Tlie Life, of Tlichard Oiven. By his grandson, 
the Rev. Richard Owen, M. A. With 
the scientific i)ortions revised by C. 
Davies Suerborn. Also an essay on 
Owen's position in anatomical science. 



210 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 8. 



By the Right Hon. T. H. Huxley, F. 

E. S. Portraits and illustrations. In 

two volumes. New York, D. Appleton 

& Co. 1894. Pp. 409, 393. $7.50. 

The life of the great English comparative 
anatomist as told in these volumes was in 
many respects an ideal one. It is the old 
story of a self-made man, who, without the 
advantages of good preparatory schools, or 
of the university life at Cambridge or Ox- 
ford, by his own native ability and industrj', 
as well as by his kindly disposition and social 
tact, rose to the highest scientific position in 
Great Britain, came to be the friend of some 
of England's leading statesmen, of her great- 
est poets and novelists ; the recipient of 
marked favors from the Queen ; living to 
see the completion of the magnificent na- 
tural history museum at South Kensington 
planned by himself, and dying at the great 
age of eighty-eight years, during sixty of 
which he published the long series of mono- 
graphs and general works which form his 
most enduring monument. 

This biography, as prepared by his grand- 
son largely from Owen's letters and diary 
and those of his wife, even if it includes 
what may be thought to be many trivial 
details, gives what seems to us to be a most 
arttractive and life-like sketch of the man. 
"We see Owen, not only in his study at the 
College of Surgeons and afterwards at the 
British Museum, but also at his home in the 
little rambling thatched cottage in Rich- 
mond Park, presented him by the Qvieen. 
We also catch glimpses of his club life, of 
his success as an administrator, as a lec- 
turer, as a literateur ; we are given evi- 
dences of his fondness for art and music 
and the drama, as well as poetry, and ac- 
counts of his journeys over the continent 
and up the Nile. 

It is a record not of a scientific recluse, 
but of one who had many outside interests, 
and who lived in touch with the best minds 
and the best thought of his time. 



Richard Owen was born in 1804 at Lan- 
caster, the son of a merchant. After leaving 
the grammar school, he was M'hen sixteen 
apprenticed to a surgeon, and when twenty 
matriculated at Edinburgh University as a 
medical student. Six j^ears after he became 
prosector to Dr. Abernethy in London and 
assistant curator of the Hunterian Collection 
at the College of Surgeons, and in 1856 was 
appointed superintendent of the Natural 
Historj^ collections of the British Museum, 
a position created for him and which he held 
until shortly before his death. 

His first paper was published in 1830, 
and two years later his famous memoir on 
the pearly nautilus. This at once gave 
him a national and continental reputation 
as a comparative anatomist of the first rank. 
Huxley makes the generous claim, in 
referring to the work, that there is 
nothing better in Cuvier's ' Memoires sur les 
Mollusques,' and he adds: " Certainly in the 
sixtj' years that have elapsed since the 
pubUcation of this remarkable monograph, 
it has not been excelled, and that is a good 
deal to say with MiiUer's ' Mj^xinoid Fishes ' 
for a competitor." Owen's last work (the 
list of the entire series of articles, mono- 
graphs and general works embracing 647 
titles) appeared in 1889. What a record ! 
Sixty years of almost uninterrupted health, 
of unexamj)led productiveness, of accurate, 
j)ainstaking, honest labor. 

Owen's place in biological science, a 
science which has widened and deepened 
so immeasurably since the date of publica- 
tion of his first great work in 1832, is not 
altogether easy to determine, but the task 
is much lightened by the appreciative and 
magnanimous essay by Professor Huxley on 
Owen's position in Anatomical Science, 
placed at the end of the biogTaphj\ 

Owen was called by some of his contem- 
poraries ' the British Cuvier,' and this fairly 
well expresses his position. He may be said 
to have lived in the interregnum between 



Februaky >2, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



211 



the age of Oken, St. Hilau-c and Ciivier, and 
tlie age (if the modern school of morpholo- 
gists. He made no special eontrilrations to 
comparative embryology ; he was guiltless 
of histology and of microscopic techui(iue. 
His ideas and lines of thought and work 
were a fusion of Okenism and of the 
doctrine of correlation of organs biuglit 
by Cuvier, with perhaps a slight infus- 
ion of the transformationist school of 
France. Like some of the fossil forms 
which he restored with masterly skill 
and philosophic insight, he was in a sense 
a synthetic or prophetic type of naturalist. 
For example, he declined when asked to at- 
tack the ' Vestiges of Creation ', rather 
sjTnpathizing with the views put forth in 
that book; bnt also objected to become a 
loyal disciple of his friend, Darwin. He 
partiallj- accepted the general doctrine of 
evolution ; but though his ^■iews were vagne 
and nnformed. like many others perhaps in 
the period between ISM) and 1870, he prob- 
ably felt tliat Natural Selection was not a 
sole, eflicient cause, though believing in the 
orderly evolution of life bj- secondary law. 
We find in this life no statement from 
Owen's own letters or journals regarding his 
attitude to tlie doctrine of natural selection. 
Either he was late in life somewliat iudifter- 
ent, or he was guarded in speaking or writ- 
ing of the matter. Oertainly there are no 
grounds for the statement sometimes made 
that he showed outright ' hostility ' to Dar- 
winism, unless his Athenfeum article be re- 
garded <as such. In Owen's evidence before 
Mr. Gregory's committee regarding the re- 
moval of the Natural History Collection to 
South Kensington his biographer tells us : 
"Owen made some interesting remarks con- 
cerning Darwin's work on the 'Origin of 
Species," just published, which helps to 
strengthen the impression that he was at 
first much taken with the new views, and felt 
the same friendliness toward them as he liad 
previously shown to tlie views expressed in 



the ' Vestiges of Creation.' " Owen remarks 
concerning the arrangement of the new mu- 
seum : " With regard to birds, I must say 
that not only would I exhibit every species, 
but I see clearly, in tlie present plan of na- 
tural history pliilosophy, that we .shall be 

compelled to exhibit varieties also 

As to showing you the varieties of those 
species, or anj- of those phenomena that 
would aid one in getting at the mystery of 
mysteries, the origin of species, our space 
does not permit : " and again he replies to 
a question of the chairman : "I must sjiy 
that the number of intellectual individuals 
interested in the great question which is 
mooted in Mr. Darwin's book is far beyond 
the small class expressly concerned in sci- 
entific research." 

Owen's controversial papers, as well as his 
statements of scientific belief, were at times 
vague and a grain oracular, and were jire- 
sented in a labored style, quite different from 
that of his letters and popular lectures, or 
even his work on Archetypes, the style of 
which has been characterized as 'clear and 
forcible.' Darwin in the well known refer- 
ence to Owen's views in the Historical 
Sketch prefacing the sixth edition of the 
Origin of Species was, he says, 'completely 
deceived' by such expressions as ' the con- 
tinuous operation of creative power,' and he 
was ajiparently unable to determine wliat 
his real opinions were, and was evidently 
piqued and disappointed that the great an- 
atomist, his old scientific friend of many 
years, did not accept the doctrine of natural 
selection. On p. 91 his biographer states : 
'• If not 'dead against' the theory of natural 
selection, Owen at first looked askance at it, 
prefeiTing the idea of the great scheme of 
Nature which he had himself advanced. 
He was of the opinion that the operation of 
external influences and the resulting 'con- 
test of existence ' lead to certain sjiecies be- 
coming extinct. Thus it came about, he 
supi)osed, that, like the dotlo in recent times, 



212 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 8. 



the dinornis and other gigantic birds had 
disappeared. But he never, so far as can be 
ascertained, expressed a definite opinion on 
Darwinism." 

It is well enough at this day, when the 
scientific woi'ld is of one mind as regards 
the ti'uth of the evolution theory, to ascribe 
indifference and even 'hostility' to Owen, 
but we fail to see that this is quite just. 
For Owen, so far from attacking or mini- 
mizing the new plan of evolution invoked by 
Darwin, was even said by the editor of the 
'London Review,' as Darwin tells us, in his 
own words, to have ' promulgated the theory 
of natural selection before I had done so.' 

So strong a Darwinian as the acute and 
clear-headed Gray states, more fully and 
satisfactorily perhaps than Darwin, the posi- 
tion of Owen. In his ' Darwiniana ' Dr. 
Asa Gray, who, writing in 1860, frankly 
confesses : " We are not disposed nor pre- 
pared to take sides for or against the new 
hypothesis," and yet who by his own studies 
and mental tendencies was ' not wholly un- 
prepared for it,' thus humorously refers to 
Owen's views, published before the appear- 
ance of Darwin's book, " Now and then we 
encountered a sentence, like Prof. Owen's 
' axiom of the continuous operation of the 
ordained becoming of living things,' which 
haunted us like an apparition. For, dim as 
our conception must needs be as to what 
such oracular and grandiloquent phrases 
might really mean, we feel confident that 
they presaged no good to old beliefs " (p. 
88). Further on he writes : " Owen him- 
self is apparently in travail with some trans- 
mutation theory of his own conceiving, 
which may yet see the light, although Dar- 
win's came first to the birth In- 
deed to turn the point of a pungent simile 
directed against Darwin — the difference be- 
tween the Darwinian and the Owenian hypo- 
theses may, after all, be only that between 
homoeopathic and heroic doses of the same 
drug " (p. 102). Again, in 1873, he writes : 



" Owen still earlier signified his adhesion to 
the doctrine of derivation in some form, buj; 
apparently upon general, speculative 
grounds; for he repudiated natural selection, 
and offered no other natural solution of the 
mystery of the orderly incoming of cognate 
forms." 

Finally we maj' quote from a letter of 
Darwin's (Life ii. p. 388), written in 1862 
to Sir Charles Lyell : "I was assured 
that Owen in his lectures this spring a,d- 
vanced as a new idea that wingless birds had 
lost their wings by disuse, also that mag- 
pies stole spoons, &c., from a remnant of 
some instinct like that of the Bower bird, 
which ornaments its plajdng passage with 
pretty feathers. Indeed, I am told that he 
liinted plainly that all birds are descended 
from one." 

From all that has been said it would seem 
to follow, from a perusal of these scattered 
fragments, that Owen was an evolutionist 
somewhat of the Lamarckian school; that 
he was not a Darwinian as such, not being 
fully persuaded of the adequacy of natural 
selection as the sole cause of all evolution. 
To this class certainly belong some natural- 
ists and philosophers of the present day. 
But it should be added that Owen, in the 
latter part of his life, did not use the hy- 
pothesis or theory as a working one, as did 
some of the elder naturalists of his own 
period, asLj^ell, Wjanan, Leidy, etc. He 
was fifty-five years old when the 'Origui of 
Species' appeared, and either was not then 
prone to speculation, or had little leisure 
for it. 

It must be granted that Owen, clear- 
headed and sagacious as he was, did not rise 
to the plane of that high qualitj^ of genius 
which opens up new lines of investiga- 
tion. His was not an epoch-making mind 
of the quality of Lamarck or Darwin, in 
the field of evolution, nor of Miiller, Von 
Baer, Eathke, and Huxley, the founders of 
modern morphology; nor of Koelliker or 



February 23, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



213 



Lej'tlig, the founili'i-s of modern histology. 
He was a closet naturalist, made no collec- 
tions with his own liands, was not a field 
paleontologist ; and his travels were rather 
for health and recreation than for study or 
exploration. The vast collections which 
poured in upon him from South America, 
Australia and New Zealand, as well as 
from his own land, occupied his working- 
hours and energies decade after decade, 
until the passing years left him stranded on 
the shores of a world of ideas and modes of 
cooking now subsiding beneath the incom- 
ing flood of modern methods and theories. 

And yet, his philosophic grasp and sug- 
gestive mind exhilnted in his treatment 
of the subject of parthenogenesis, in his 
essay on the subject which appeared in 1849, 
and in which he has, as Huxley states, an- 
ticipated the theory of germ-plasm of 
Weismann, are qualities of genius, and 
prove what he might have produced, had 
he received anj' training along the lines of 
embrj'ology and cell-doctrines. 

'•Owen, in fact," says Huxley, '"got no 
further towards the solution of this W(mder- 
ful and difficult prol)lem than Morren and 
others had done before him. But it is an 
interesting circumstance that the leading 
idea of ' Parthenogenesis," namely, that sex- 
less proliferation is, in some way, depend- 
ent upon the presence in the prolifying re- 
gion, of relatively unaltered descendants of 
the primary impregnated embryo cell (A + 
B) is at the bottom of most of the attempts 
which liave recently been made to deal with 
the question. The theory of the continuity 
of germ-plasm of Weismann, for example, 
is practically the same as Owen's, if we 
omit from the latter the notion tliat the en- 
dowment with ' si)ermatic force ' is the in- 
dispensaljle condition of proliferation." 

Owen's greatest works, those of most last- 
ing value, in vertebrate zoology were, as 
pointed out l)y Huxley, besides his memoir 
oil the anatomy of Xautilus, his work on 



Odontography, his papers on the anthropoid 
apes, on the aye-aye, on Monotremes, and on 
Marsupials, as well as on Apteryx, the great 
auk, tlie Dodo, and Dinornis, as well as Lepi- 
dosiren, while chief among his essays on 
fossil mammals were those on Mylodon, Me- 
gatherium, Glji^todon, etc. He also pro- 
posed the orders of Theriodouta (Anomo- 
dontia), Diuosauria, and Pterosauria, and 
as early as 18.'?9, as Zittel states, " he began 
liis long series of fundamental works which 
continued to appear for half a century, and 
which laid the foundation for all later re- 
searclies on fossil reptiles." He also revised 
the classification of the Ungulates, his divi- 
sions of odd and even-toed Ungulates being 
well founded and generally accepted. 

Unlike Cu-\der and others, Owen labored 
without the aid of trained assistants ; he 
did his own work unassisted. And here 
arises the question how far he was indebted 
to Cuvier for his methods of work. It is 
generally supposed and stated that Owen 
studied in Paris under Cuvier, and that 
" Cuvier and his collections made a great 
impression on Owen, and gave a direction 
to his after studies of fo.ssil remains." But 
his biographer explicitly states that he onlj^ 
made a brief visit to Cuvier in July, 1831, 
and gives us the following account of his in- 
tercourse with the great French anatomist : 
" His rough diary, which he kept during his 
stay at Paris, seldom mentions the fossil 
vertebrate collection, and shows that his 
interviews with Baron Cuvier were for the 
most part of a purely social character. It 
notes, for example, that he attended pretty 
regularly Cuvier's soirees, held on Saturday 
evenings, and that he enjoyed the music. 
With the diarj' agree his letters. Both de- 
vote page after page to the sights and amuse- 
ments of Paris. Owen, in fact, seems to 
have regarded tliis stay at Paris as an ex- 
ceedingly^ l)leasant and entertaining holiday. 
At the .same time it is impossible to form a 
just estimate of Owen's work without tak- 



2i4 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 8. 



ing the labors of Cuvier into accovint. Al- 
though Owen stands on ground wholly his 
o^mi, he was ever willing to acknowledge 
the debt which he owed to Cuvier." 

The name of Owen will ever be associated 
with those of Oken, Goethe, Spix, and Carus, 
or the school of transcendental anatomy. 
The discussion by Huxley of Owen's work on 
the archetype of the vertebrate skeleton is 
handled in his peculiarly trenchant and 
clear-minded way, and yet his criticisms are 
genial, just and broad. It should be re- 
membered that Owen's work ' On the Ai'che- 
type and Homologies of the Vertebrate 
Skeleton ' appeared in 1848, over ten years 
before the appearance of the ' Origin of 
Species,' and at a period when many minds 
in the scientific world were tinged more or 
less deeply with the spirit of the German 
and French transcendental school of an- 
atomy. As Huxley eloquently exj^resses it, 
" The ablest of us is a child of his time, profit- 
ing by one set of its influences, Umited by 
another. It was Owen's limitation that he 
occupied himself with speculations about the 
' Archetype ' some time before the work of 
the embryologists began to be appreciated 
in this country. It had not yet come to be 
understood that, after the publication of the 
investigations of Kathke, Reichert, Remak, 
Vogt and others, the venue of the great cause 
of the morpology of the skeleton was re- 
moved from the court of comparative an- 
atomy to that of embryology." He then 
adds : "It would be a great mistake, how- 
ever, to conclude that Owen's labours in the 
field of morphology were lost, because they 
have jdelded little fruit of the kind he 
looked for. On the contrary, they not only 
did a great deal of good by awakening at- 
tention to the higher problems of morphol- 
ogy in this country ; but they were of much 
service in clarifying and improving anato- 
mical nomenclature, especially in respect of 
the vertebral region." 

As regards the vertebrate theory of the 



skull, perhaps the last word has not been 
said, if traces of vertebrae still, as is alleged^ 
appear in certain of the shai'ks. 

If Huxley by his destructive criticism has 
destroj^ed, or seemed to have destroyed this 
theory, the ghost is apparently not wholly 
laid. The more ideal constructive, German 
minds, as Gegenbaur and others, claim that 
the adult skull is in a degree segmented, as 
evinced by the serial arrangement of the 
nerves, as well as of the branchial arches. 
Though Wiedersheim states* that " the at- 
tempt to explain the adult skull as a series 
of vertebrae fails completely," adding, " it is 
a case of protovertebrte only," he says in a 
foot-note that Rosenberg has, however, 
shown that in a shark (Carchcmas glaueus), 
" the portion of the cranium lying between 
the exit of the vagus and the vertebral col- 
u^mn is clear Ij^ composed of three vertebrre." 
Gadow finds four vertebrte in embryos of 
Carcharias, while Sagemehl has found a 
somewhat similar modification in Ganoids. 
It would seem that the segmentation of the 
head observed in the embrj^o of vertebrates, 
and probably inherited ft'om their vermian 
ancestors, has been obliterated in the adults 
by adaptation, but that ti-aces may have 
survived in certain sharks and Ganoids. 

Finally, it must be conceded that though 
it is the fashion of the younger men to 
characterize Owen as a comparative anato- 
mist of the old school, and now quite overr 
shadowed by the scientific leaders of the 
present generation, the kindly and dis- 
criminating judgment of the great English 
anatomist and essaj-ist we have just quoted, 
will undoubtedly be sustained by many 
coming generations. Owen's place in na- 
tural science, in many respects an unique 
one, will be among the greatest anatomists 
of the first half of our ceuturj\ His name 
will bridge over the gap between Cuvier, 
and the embryologists and morphologists 

Elements of the Comparative Anatomy of Verte- 
brates, p. 56. 



Fkhri'ary 22, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



215 



of the second half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. 



A. S. Packakd. 



Browx University. 



Heat ; Light; Elementanj Text-Bo()k>', Theoreti- 
cal and Practical for Schools and College.': : 
By E. T. Glazebrook. 12 mo., about 
220 pages each. New York, MacmiUan 
& Co. Price $1.00. 

These are recent volumes in the series of 
Cambridge Natural Science Manuals. 

All American physicists are familiar with 
the previous excellent products of Mr. 
Glazebrook "s pen in the line of text-books 
for laboratory and class-i-oom, and will be 
interested in this new series which is in- 
tended to fill a place quite different from 
that for which his previous works were pre- 
pared. They are less extensive and more 
elementary. According to the author, they 
represent what has for some time consti- 
tuted a practical course for medical students 
.in the Cavendish laboratorj\ There has 
been much discussion, and there will con- 
tinue to be much discussion for some time 
to come, as to the proper sequence of labor- 
atory, text-book and lecture instruction in 
elementary physics. In the Cavendish lab- 
oratory the system adopted for this course, 
at least, seems to be that the instructor 
first presents a portion of the subject in the 
form of a lecture in which he illustrates, by 
the use of simple apparatus, and explains 
the theory of the experiments, deriving 
principles and numerical results, as far as 
possible, from the residts of experiments 
actually performed. The members of the 
class then make the experiments, singly or 
in pairs, or occasionally in large groups, 
using the same, or similar, apparatus. 
The volumes contain descriptions of experi- 
ments and also theoretical principles and 
deductions, so that they constitute at once 
text-book and laboi-atory hand-book. At 
intervals througliout the work there will 
be found well selected coirections of prob- 



lems and examples, and a good set of ex- 
amination questions at the end. The ap- 
paratus described is usually simple, and 
most of it could be made with simph' ma- 
terials by one having some technical skill 
of the right sort. 

It is hardly necessary to say that the the- 
oretical discussions and presentation of prin- 
ciples are, for the most part, clear and clean 
as far as they go. 

In the ' Heat,' the first chapter has to do 
with its nature, and its relation to work or 
energy is conciselj' but clearly stated. In 
the second chapter the treatment of temper- 
ature and its measurement is unusually 
satisfactoiy, considering the limitations to 
which the whole work is subjected. It is to 
be regretted, however, that there is no men- 
tion of the hj'drogen scale, since so many of 
the most important temperature measure- 
ments now depend upon it. Calorimetrj' is 
discussed quite thoroughly, with many prac- 
tical illustrations, and in the chapters de- 
voted to expansion several neat suggestions 
as to methods will be found. In the refer- 
ence to the necessity for ' compensating ' the 
eflfect of temperature on the balance wheel 
of a watch, it is erroneously implied that the 
principal reason for this grows out of the 
change in the dimensions, and consequently 
moment of inertia of the wheel due to change 
in temperature, while, as a matter of fact, 
it is the temperature change of the modulus 
of elasticity of the ' hair ' or balance spring 
which makes nearly all the trouble. The 
volume ends with a brief but good chapter 
on the mechanical equivalent of heat. 

In the volume on ' Light,' the geometrical 
treatment is used exclusively. There is a 
single brief reference to the physical nature 
of light, which is so thoroughly discussed 
in the author's volume on ' Physical Optics ' 
published some years ago, but in the book 
under consideration the rectilinear propa- 
gation of a ' raj' ' is assumed and made the 
basis of the whole discussion . The chapters 



216 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 8. 



devoted to reflection fi-om plane surfaces are 
excellent, and those in which refraction is 
treated are particularly thorough and good. 
The simpler geometrical treatment of lenses 
is very satisfactory ; optical instruments and 
' aids to vision ' receive rather more atten- 
tion (especially the latter) than is usual in 
books of this class. There are also a num- 
ber of interesting and rather uncommon ex- 
periments and exercises combining the eye 
and lenses of various forms, by means of 
which many problems relating to vision are 
made clear. There is a chapter on the 
spectrum and color, with which the volume 
ends. 

Both of these volumes can confidently 
be recommended for courses in secondary 
schools, or in colleges where a limited 
amount of elementary instruction in physics 
is required. T. C. M. 

Electricity, One Hundred Yea7-s Ago and To- 
day. Edwin J. Houston. New York, 
W. J. Johnston & Co., Limited. 12mo., 
pp. 200. 

This volume is built around or upon a 
lecture having the same title which was de- 
livered in 1892. It was a historical discus- 
sion of the growth and development of elec- 
tricity from the beginning (not one hundred 
years ago ) to the present time. In preparing 
it for publication the author has increased its 
volume several times, and its interest and 
value proportionately by the addition of an 
extensive series of historical foot-notes. 
Many of these consist of long quotations from 
original authorities which would have been 
hardly suitable for a popular address, but 
which greatly enhance the worth of the ad- 
dress when printed. Some discussions of 
quite recent date are extensively quoted, 
and this volume includes, in comparatively 
small space, the results of much labor ex- 
pended in the pursuit of exact information 
by reference to original papers. For this 
reason, if for no other, it will be welcome to 



all interested in the science of electricity or 
the art of its application. T. C. M. 

Hygiene. By I. Lane Nottee and R. H. 

FiETH. London, Longmans, Green & Co. 

1894. 

This manual, of 374 pp. 8°, is a very con- 
cise and clear summary of what a non-pro- 
fessional, well educated man should know 
with regard to the general laws of health, 
the causes of disease, and the best means 
of combating the latter. Dr. Notter is the 
Professor of Hygiene in the Army Medical 
School at Netley, and Examiner in Hygiene 
in the Science and Art Department at South 
Kensington, and Dr. Firth is his assistant 
in each of these positions, hence this manual 
may be considered as a summary of the 
latest English teaching on tliis subject. In 
such subjects as heating and ventilation, 
house drainage, construction of buildings, 
hospitals, etc., its recommendations are 
adapted especially to the climate and cus- 
toms of England, and the illustrations are 
solely of English appliances and methods, 
and this must be borne in mind by Americaa 
readers. 

Galton's gi-ates, Tobin's tubes, Shertng- 
ham valves, Buchan's traps, etc., are not to 
be found in the market in this country, 
where other equally satisfactory appliances 
take their place. 

It is not a book to be resorted to for tliril- 
ling and sensational quotations, but it will 
be found to give sound common sense advice 
upon the subjects of which it ti-eats, and is 
commended to the readers of Science as a 
good manual of reference. 

An Illustrated Dictionary of Medicine, Biology 
and Allied Sciences. By George M. Gould, 
A. B., M. D. Philadelphia, P. Blakis- 
ton. Son & Co. 1894. 4°, pp. 1633. 
This is a veiy hiH and complete diction- 
ary of medicine, printed clearly on good pa- 
per, and so bound that it will remain open 
at any page, a convenience not always 



Februaky •«, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



217 



found in books of reference. Some of the 
words proposed by the author are not ac- 
cepted by good autliorities, as for example, 
' chemic ' for chemical, ' physiologic ' for 
phj'siological, and in this respect the work 
is sometimes misleading. In the attempt 
to give a complete list of the bacteria many 
names are given which would not be ac- 
cept<?d l)y a bacteriologist, the list evidently 
having been prepared by some one not 
familiar with the subject. These, however, 
are minor details ; the main fact about the 
work is that it is the most complete and 
practically useful single volume dictionarj- 
of medical terms in the English language, 
and as such it is commended to the readers 
of Science. 

NOTES. 
THE INTEENATIOXAL ZOOLOGICAL CONGREaS. 

The following invitation has just been 
issued to the Third International Zoological 
Congress to be held in Leyden next Septem- 
ber : " The first International Zoological 
Congress took place in Paris at the time of 
the International Exhibition of 1889. The 
second meeting was held in Moscow in 1892. 
There the resolution was passed that in 
September, 189.5, this Congress would again 
meet in Leyden, the oldest University of 
the Netherlands. The Netherlands' Zoolo- 
gical Society has taken upon itself to make 
all the necessary arrangements for the re- 
ception and accommodation of the Congi'ess. 
At tlie invitation of that Society, the under- 
signed request you to become a member of 
the International Congi-ess and to attend 
the Leyden meeting. It ajipears probable 
that diil'erent questions, in which the inter- 
est of zoologists in general, as well as those 
of specialists are involved, can be brought 
to a solution by mutual exchange of opinions 
on the occasion of such an international 
meeting. At any rate the way that will 
lead to such a solution may there be pre- 
pared. Moreover it is undoubtedly a dis- 



tinct advantage to become personally ac- 
quainted with representatives of Zoological 
Science from diU'erent parts of the world. 
As soon as you shall have expressed your 
sj-mpathy with tlie above stated aims of the 
International Zoological Congress we shall 
be glad to be allowed to append your name 
to a more general invitation directed to all 
zoologists and morphologists, which will be 
brought before our fellow-workers by the aid 
of diflerent periodicals. We venture to 
add that even in case of your not being able 
to attend the proposed Congress you will 
favor us with the expression of your sym- 
pathy with the movement. Pray to be 
so kind to send your answer to Dr. P. P. C. 
Hoek, Secretary of the Netherlands Zoolo- 
gical Society at Helder, Holland." 

The invitation is signed by about one 
hundred naturalists in different jiartsofthe 
world, including the following from tliis 
country : A. Agassiz, E. D. Cope, E. L. 
Mark, O. C. Marsh, H. F. Osborn, W. B. 
Scott and C. O. Whitman. 

THE TESTING OF ELECTRICAL STREET 
RAILWAYS. 

The expenditure and distribution of 
power on electrical street railwaj-s has 
formed a subject of investigation on a some- 
what extensive scale, and for a number of 
years past, by the departments of Sibley 
College, Cornell Universitj'. In the issue of 
the Sibley College Journal for January, Mr. 
James Lyman, formerly of Yale University, 
now engaged in special work of this char- 
acter in the graduate department of the 
College, summarizes some of the most im- 
portant results thus collated. In the per- 
formance of the work of investigation, par- 
ties are sent out, sometimes to the number 
of ten or a dozen, including the experts in 
charge and their student-assistants, di- 
vided into squads, assigned each to its spe- 
cial part of the work, the electricians to the 
measurement of current, the electrical en- 



218 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. a 



gineers to the handling of the dynamos 
and electric ' plant,' the mechanical en- 
gineers to the testing of engines and 
boilers, and each individual to that work 
which he can best direct or with regard to 
which the experience will prove most 
fruitful.* 

The records of the Sibley College labora- 
tories are thus peculiarly rich in data of 
this kind. The first case quoted is that of 
the trial of the Rochester, N. Y., street rail- 
way plant by Dr. Bedell, in 1891 . The road 
has about twenty miles of track, and very 
easy gradients. The traction demanded 1.4 
E. H. P. per ton, at 6.5 miles average speed, 
efficiency of line was 90 per cent., that of 
the station 64.8 per cent., and there were 
needed, at the engines, 2.4 /. H. P. per ton, 
20 I. H. P. per car. The Buffalo plant was 
tested in 1892, under the responsible direc- 
tion of Messrs. Wood and Palmer. The 
average power demanded was 1.76 I. H. P. 
per ton. The Ithaca street railway was 
tested in 1894, and is important as illus- 
trating work on heavy gradients, averaging 
about nine per cent., a maximum occui-ring 
at twelve or thirteen. The traction co- 
efficient was found to be 40 pounds, per 
one per cent, of gradient and per ton. 
In a level country, the estimate for power 
to be provided at the station is put at 
2.5 I. H. P. per ton of car and load, the 
number of cars on the line averaging about 
ten. If averaging twenty, the figure be- 
comes 2.2. 

* As many as a dozen indicators and nnnierous volt 
and ammeters, dynamometers, special condensing 
apparatus, scales for weighing coal and water, and 
similar test apparatus are often supplied by the Col- 
lege, the resources of which are gauged, in a way, by 
the fact that it furnishes a large part of its graduating 
classes of late years, numbering about a hundred, 
with all the instruments needed in work of investiga- 
tion in their graduating theses ; which theses are us- 
ually accounts of such work. Its working ' plant ' 
includes fifteen steam engines, seven gas engines, 
some fifty gauges and a still larger number of steam 
engine indicators. 



THE MIJSTNESOTA ACADEMY. 

The ]\Iinnesota Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences has, in addition to its 'Bulletin,' in- 
stituted a new series of publications tenned 
'Occasional Papers.' It is intended that 
in this series shall be published researches 
of considerable importance. Vol. I., No. 1, 
which has recently appeared, contains 'Pre- 
liminary Notes on the Birds and Mammals 
collected by the Menage Scientific Expedi- 
tion to the Philippine Islands,' by Frank S. 
Bourns and Dean C. "Worcester. 

ANTHEOPOLOGY. 

Under the title of ' Notes on Primitive 
Man in Ontario,' by David Boyle, there has 
been printed in Toronto, by order of the 
Legislative Assembly, as an appendix to the 
report of the Minister of Education, Dr.G.W. 
Boss, a pamphlet of about 100 pages, contain- 
ing much instruction concerning the aborigi- 
nal tribes of that province. Mi-. Boj'le has 
been for many j^ears the efficient cui-ator of 
the valuable Ethnological Museum of the 
Canadian Institute. This monograph com- 
prises many pictures of the native imple- 
ments of stone, claj^, bone, horn, shell and 
copper in that museum, and will be useful 
to ethnologists for purposes of comparison. 

Tsdsaiit is the Tsimsian name of a small 
tribe recently discovered on Portland Inlet, 
British Columbia, 54° 50' Lat., which con- 
sists at present of twelve Indians only. 
They live on the proceeds of hunting and 
fishing and originally spoke a Tinne or 
Athapaskan dialect, which is evidenced by 
the fact that two of theii* number still re- 
member words of it, though the rest speak 
the Nass dialect of .the Tsimsian Indians 
surrounding them. Even the original 
Tinne name of the tribe is no longer re- 
membered. Dr. Franz Boas studied the 
tribe during the later months of 1894, and 
also discovered another remnant of the 
same lingaiistic family, the Tinn6, which 
lives in the vicinity. He favors, somewhat, 



February 32, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



210 



the tlieory that Haida, Tlinkit and Tinn^' 
are related to each other, and tliat after a 
more thorough study the three will be found 
to form one and the same linguistic family. 
Dr. Boas' discovery is remarkable for this 
reason, that the great TLnne family is al- 
most exclusively an inland nation, and has 
pushed its branches to the ocean only at two 
places, viz., in Southern Texas (Lipans) 
and in .Southwestern Oregon (Rogue 
Rivers), contiguous to the northwest coast 
of California, where little Tinne tribes have 
settled also. 

Alai>l;a. This name was originally ap- 
plied only to the narrow peninsula situated 
at the southwest extremity of the Alaska 
Territory. , It is a corruption of alakshak, 
mainland, continent, a term of the Eastern 
dialects of the Ale-ut language. The name 
of Unaluxhka Mand contains the same word, 
for it is contracted from iingun alakshak, 
'to the west of the mainland.' Anguu, 
tveat, also enters into the composition of 
TJnangun, a division of the Ale-ut people, 
which is reducible to nn, people, and iingun, 
tixxt. ( From notes by Ivan Peti-oflf. ) 

The Department of Anthropologj-, Uni- 
versity of Chicago, has just published 
Bulletin 1 — Xote.t on Me.eican ArchiroJofjy, by 
Frederick StaiT. A full description is given 
of the ruins of an interesting ' painted 
house' at San Juan de Teotihuacan. The 
walls were decorated with pictures, in a 
varietj' of colors, representing warriors and 
religious personages. The designs ai-e re- 
produced in a series of a dozen cuts. Some 
notes are also given regarding ^Mitla and 
Monte Alban. Paintings from a wall at 
Mitla are reproduced in full size. 

It is the intention of the University to 
publish Bulletins in tliis Department from 
time to time as fresh material is secured. 

ZOOLOGY. — THE M.\MM.\IJS OF FLORIDA. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman has recently 
publislied a list of the Mammals known to 



inhabit the State of Florida (Bull. Anier. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. vi. pp. 333-346). He gives in 
all, the names of 53 species and sub-species. 
Aquatic species are excluded. The largest 
forms are the Virginia deer, the black bear, 
the puma and the wolf. The last-named 
is approaching extinction. The beaver is 
believed to occur in the Chij)ola River. 

The sole "West Indian form is a leaf-nosed 
bat (Artibeug carpolegus), and this is believed 
to be only an accidental visitant. The 
house-rat of Florida is the white-bellied 
roof rat (Mu.i alcxandmig') rather than the 
Norway rat. F. AV. T. 

GEOLOGY'. 

At a meeting of the Council of the 
Michigan Academy of Sciences, Messrs. A. 
C. Lane and I. C. Russell were appointed 
a committee to present to the Legislature a 
j)lan for a topographical survey of Michigan. 
The plan to be proposed will be in cooper- 
ation with the U. S. Geological Survey and 
the preparation of a map similar to the 
maps of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and 
Connecticut, recently compiled at the joint 
expense of the States named and the L^. S. 
Geological Survey. 

Profes-sor J. E. ToDD, State Geologist of 
South Dakota, has just issued his first re- 
port. It is entitled ' South Dakota Geo- 
logical Survey, Bulletin Xo. 1: A Preli- 
minary Report on the Geologj' of South 
Dakota.' In this volume the present state 
of knowledge concerning the geology of the 
State is presented briefly and in a form that 
is acceptable to the intelligent citizen as 
well as to the specialist. The report is an 
octavo- of 172 pages, and it is accompanied 
l)y several plates and a geological map of 
the State. 

The committee appointed by the mem- 
bers of the Johns Hopkins University to 
mature a plan for securing a permanent 
memorial of the late Professor (Jeorge 
Huntington Williams are able to announce 



220 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. '. 



i/hat subscriptions have been received of a 
sufficient amount to procure a portrait in 
oil, which will soon be completed and pre- 
sented to the University. The artist selected 
is Mr. Eobert G. Hardie, of New York. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

In a paper read to the K. Bohm. Gesell- 
schaft der "Wissenschaften on November 23d 
last, Dr. Anton Fritsch, of Prag, announced 
the discovery in the Permian beds of Bo- 
hemia of the larval cases of a caddis-fly. 
This is the first indication of the existence 
of insects with a complete metamorphosis 
in paleozoic times, unless the doubtful ii-ag- 
ments found by Dathe in Silesian culm are 
to be regarded as shards of beetles, or the 
passages found in certain carboniferous 
woods are to be credited to coleopterous 
larvae. It is to be hoped that Dr. Fritsch 
will amply illustrate these remains in his 
great work now in progress on the Fauna 
der Gaskohle Bohmens. 

GENERAL. 

Peofessob Warburg, of Freiberg, has 
been called to Berlin as the successor of 
Kundt. 

Professor Kulz, of Mai-burg, known for 
his researches in physiological chemistry, 
died on Januarjr 16. 

Macmillan & Co. announce a translation 
by Dr. A. C. Porter, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, of the Lehrbuch der Botanik, 
by Strasburger, ISToU, Schenck and Schimper. 

The St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences 
has recently made some changes in the 
system of publishing papers communicated 
to it. In September, 1894, it commenced 
the publication of a monthlj' number, under 
the title Bulletin de V Academie Imperiale des 
Sciences, which serves as the organ of the 
three classes of the Academy. This Btdletin 
is intended to include the proces-verbaux of 
the meetings, annual reports of scientific 
researches, reports on prizes conferred by 
the Academy, notes on the work of the 



museiims, &c. lu addition to notices of 
this kind, the Btdletin will contain short 
scientific papers. The Mcmoires de I'Acad- 
cmie Imperiale des Sciences will form in future 
the second means of publication. It will ^ 
be divided into two independent series, 
dealing respectively with the physico- 
mathematical section of the Academy's pa- 
pers, and the historical and philological sec- 
tion. The publication of the Melanges, tires du 
Btdletin, has been discontinued. — Natttre. 

Ajn International Congress on Childhood 
will be held in Florence in the spring of 
1895. Among the questions to be discussed 
are the physical, moral and mental eleva- 
tion of children, childi-en's hospitals, the 
care of deaf-mute and blind children up to 
the time of their admission into an educa- 
tional institution, care of poor and aban- 
doned children, reformatories, and vaga- 
bondage in its relation to childhood. — N. 
Y. Mediccd, Record. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
A. A. A. S. MEETING, 1895. 

At a special meeting of the Council, held 
on January 26th, it was decided to post- 
pone the proposed meeting in San Francis- 
co. An invitation from Spi-ingfield, Mass., 
to hold the meeting of 1895 in that citj', was 
accepted. The date of the meeting was 
fixed as follows : Council meeting, "Wednes- 
day, August 28th, at noon ; General Ses- 
sions, Thursday, August 29th, at 10 a. m. 

Special efforts will be made by the offi- 
cers of the sections to prepare programmes 
for the sections in advance of the meeting 
and for this purpose members are requested 
to send abstracts of their papers, as early 
as possible, to the Permanent Secretaiy, or 
to the Secretaries of the Sections. 

F. W Putnam, Permanent Secretary. 
Salem, Mass., Jan. 30, 1895. 

NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ; SECTION 
OF ASTRONOMY AND PHY'SICS, FEB. 1. 

Professor "W. Hallock showed a new 



Fehiuaky 22, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



221 



photographic method of comparing the rate of vi- 
bration of two tuning forks. The forks are 
so clamped that a pron<>: of each is held in 
front of a nianometric capsule. The forks 
are bowed and the llauies photographed as 
described in the Physical Review, Vol. 
II., p. 305, 187.^. The vibrations arc then 
counted in the wavj' line on the negative. 
The accuracy in ordinary work is about two 
or three-tenths of a \\ave per second. 

The second paper was by Prof J. K. 
Rees on the Penumbne of .ntn-sj)ots as 
shown in Rutherfui'd"s photographs, with 
especial reference to the discussion at the 
December meeting of the Royal Astronom- 
ical Society. Professor Rees called the at- 
tention of the Section to the remarks made 
by the Rev. F. Howlett on presenting to 
the Royal Astronomit'al Society of London 
three volumes of sun-spot drawings. Tliis 
set of volumes contains drawings made dur- 
ing a period of thirty-five years, and shows 
minute details in regard to the forms and 
changes of solar spots. The Rev. Mr. How- 
lett stated tliat his main object in continu- 
ing the series had been to test the theoiy 
put forth by Professor Wilson, of Glasgow, 
in the latter part of the last century. "Wil- 
son's theory claimed that the penumbra in 
a spot shelves down toward the umbra ; and 
that the portion of the penumbra nearest 
the sun's centre will, therefore, grow nar- 
rower and narrower, due to perspective, as 
the sun-spot reaches a point nearer and 
nearer to the limb. Mr. Howlett claimed 
that Ivis drawings showed that the Wilson- 
ian theory was not Ijoi-ne out bj' his obser- 
vations as recorded in his drawings. 

He made bold to s;n' that, instead of the 
penumbra of tlie spot possessing shelving 
aides sloping down toward the umbra, the 
penumbra shows a convex surface in a 
curve conformable to the general contour 
of the solar surface. He remarked that he 
had not himself witnessed a single case of 
certain notching of the limb. 



Professor Rees exhibited on the screen a 
series of fine photogi-aphs of the solar sur- 
face taken by Mr. Rutherfuid with his pho- 
tographic telescope (1.3 inches diameter of 
object gla.ss, 11 feet of focal length) during 
the years 1870-1871. Attention was willed 
to the appearance of the penumbral regions 
of the spots which showed conclusively that 
the penumbra was. as a rule, eccentric with 
respect to the umbra. Spots were pointed 
out near the centre of the sun where the 
penumbral mai-king was deficient on, .some- 
times the west side, then on the east side, 
sometimes on the north side and sometimes 
on the south side. Spots were also indi- 
cated which showed, when near the limb of 
the sun, the penumbral region wanting on 
the side farthest from the centre and well 
developed on the side toward the centre. So 
far as these photographs showed, there was 
no doubt that the A\"ilson theory did not 
completely explain the various phenom- 
ena. 

Professor Rees also showed some pictures 
of sun-spots taken by Mr. C. A. Post, of 
New York City, exhibiting the non-central 
character of the umbra with respect to the pe- 
numbra. Mr. C. A. Post, of New York City, 
then threw on the screen some photographs 
of the sun and moon that he had taken. 

He also exhibited a series of strikinglj- 
beautiful lantern slides made from photo- 
graphs of lightning flashes. 

Professor M. I. Pupin described his new 
form of automatic vacuum-pump (see Am. 
Journ. Sci., Vol. 3!), 1895, p. 10). An ex- 
tremelj' ingenious device utilizes an ordi- 
nary vacuum pump (water pump) to raise 
mercury for tlu' Sprengel pump. Little 
mercurj' is needed and the whole is con- 
tinuous in its action. 

INDIAIfA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCE. 

The Indiana Academy of Science met at 
Indianapolis, December 27-28, 1894, with 
W. A. Noyes, of the Rose Polj'technic of 



222 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 8. 



Terre Haute, as President, and C. A. Waldo, 
of De Pauw Universitj^, as Secretary. 

The Academj' was well attended by the 
leading scientists of the State. 

After the ordinary preliminarj' business, 
the body continued in general session, and 
listened to the reading of nine papers on 
general scientific topics. 

The Academy then met in two sections, 
Physico-Chemical and Biological. In the 
former section, 28 short papers were read, 
and in the latter 51. The papers indicated 
that much work had been done during the 
past j^ear in the various lines of scientific 
investigation. 

The reports from the directors of the Bio- 
logical Survej' of Indiana were encouraging, 
showing that every effort was being put 
forth to accomplish this survey as quickly 
as possible and in a satisfactory manner. 
A resohition was passed requesting the Leg- 
islature of the State to print and distribute 
the proceedings of the Academj^ This ex- 
pense has alwaj's been borne by the Acad- 
emy, but in view of the fact that the State is 
reaping the benefits it should assume the 
expense. 

The Spring meeting will be held at the 
Wyandotte Cave, in Crawford county. 

Following is a list of the papers : 
Address by the Retiring President, — Lavoisier. 

W. A. ]I^OTES. 

GENERAL SUBJECTS. 

1. Some Facts in Distribution of Gleditschia 
Triacanthos and Other Trees : Ernest Walker. 

2. Propagation and Protection of Game and 
Fish : I. W. Sharp. 

3. Anthropology ; the Study of Man: Amos 
W. Butler. 

4. A Neiu Biological Station and its Aim : 
C. H. Eigenmann. 

5. Transmission of Impressions in Spinal 
Cord : G. A. Talbert. 

6. Does High Tension of Electric Current 
Destroy Life : J. L. Campbell. 



7. The Surdue Engineering Laboratory since 
the Restoration : Wm. F. M. Goss. 

8. Method of Determining Sewage Pollution 
of Rimrs : Chas. C. Brown. 

9. Psychological Laboratory of Lidiana Uni-^ 
versity: W. L. Bryan. 

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL SUBJECTS. 

10. Interesting Deposit of Alumina Oxyhy- 
drate : G. W. Benton. 

11. Observations on Glacial Drift of Ja.^per 
County : A. H. Purdue. 

12. Concerning a Burial Mound Recently 
Opened in Randolph County : Joseph Moore. 

13. Reversal of Current in the Toepler Holtz 
Electrical Machine : J. L. Cami^bell. 

14. A Florida Shell Mound: U. F. Glick. 

15. Note on RocJc Flexure: E. M. Kindle. 

16. The Alternate- Current Transformer witJi 
Condenser in one or both Cireuits : Thomas 
Gray. 

17. Elastic Fatigue of Wires : C. Leo Mees. 

18. A Warpied Surface of Universal Elliptic 
Eccentricity : C. A. Waldo. 

19. Accurate Measurements of Surface Ten- 
sion: A. L. Foley. 

20. Efect of the Gaseous Medium on the 
Electrochemical Equivalent of Metals : C. 
Leo Mees. 

21. Some new Laboratory Appliances in 
Chemistry : H. A Huston. 

22. Volumetric Determination of Phosphorus 
in Steel : W. A. Noyes and J. S. Eoyse. 

23. Actio7i of Ammonia upon Dextrose : W, 
E. Stone. 

24. Action of Zinc Ethyl on Ferric Chloride 
and Ferric Bromide: H. H. Ballard. 

25. The Sugar of the Century Plant: W. 
E. Stone and Dumont Lotz. 

26. Camphoric Acid : W. A. Il^oyes. 

27. Action of Potassitnn Sulf hydrate upon 
Certain Aromatic Chlorides: Walter Jones 
and F. C. Scheuch. 

28. A Neto Phosphate: H. A. Huston. 

29. Dip of the Keokuk Rocks at Blooming- 
ton, Ind : Edward M. Kindle. 



February -ii, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



223 



• 30. Stntdural Geologic Work of J. H. Meam 
in Arkansas : J. C. Branner. 

31. Wavr Marks on Cincinnati Lime-itone : 
W. P. .Shannon. 

;?2. Correlation of Silurian Sections in Ea.4- 
ern Indiana : V. F. Marsters and E. M. 
Kindle. 

33. Some Xew Indian Fossih: C. E. Nowlin. 

.■!4. Extinct Fauna of Lake County: T. H. 
Biill. 

35. Strepomatid(e of the Falh of the Ohio, 
loith their Synonymy: R. Ellsworth Call. 

36. Streams of Southeastern Indiana, with 
List : H. 31. Stoops. 

37. The Swamps of Franklin County: H. 
M. Stoops. 

BIOLOGICAL SUBJECTS. 

38. Wafer Cultures of Indigenous Plants : D. 
T. MacDougal. 

39. Working Shelves for Botanical Labora- 
tory : Katherine E. Golden. 

40. Xew Apparatus for Vegetable Physiology : 
J. C. Arthur. 

41. Collections of Plants made during the 
Year: M. B. Thomas. 

42. The Flowering Plants of Wabash County: 
A. B. nrey and J. IS". Jenkins. 

43. Revision of the Phanerogamic Flora of 
the State : Stanley Coulter. 

44. Report of Progress of the Botanical Divi- 
sion of the State Biological Stirvey : L. M. 
X^nderwood. 

45. Value of Seed Characters in Determining 
Specific Rank in the Genus Plantago : Alida 
M. Cunningham. 

46. Additions to the Fish Fauna of Wabash 
County : W. O. Wallace. 

47. Notes 0)1 the Reptilian Fauna of Vigo : 
W. S. Blatchley. 

48. Preliminary Li^t of Birds of Broivn 
County: Edward M. Kindle. 

49. The Birds of 1S03 : Amos W. Butler. 

50. iSbme Notes on the Blind Animals of 
Mammoth Cave, with Exhibition of Specimetis : 
R. Ellsworth CaU. 



51. The Batrachians and Reptiles of Wabash 
County: W.O.Wallace. 

52. On the Occurrence of the Whi-<tling Swan 
(Olor columbianus) in Wabash County: A. 
B. Ilrey. 

53. Birds of Wabash County: A. B. Ulrey 
and W. O. Wallace. 

54. Birds Observed in the Sawtooth Moun- 
tains: B. W. Evermann and J. T. Scovell. 

55. ^»ii'»!a/ Parasites Collected in the State 
during the year 1S04 : A. W. Bitting. 

56. Angling in the St. Lawrence and Lake 
Ontario: Barton W. Evermann. 

57. Indiana Mammals : Amos W. Butler. 

58. Mimicry in Fishes : W. J. Moenkhaus. 

59. Variation in Leueiscus: C. H. Eigen- 
mann. 

60. The Redfish of the Idaho Lakes: B. 
W. Evermann and J. T. Scovell. 

61. Observations upon Some Oklahoma 
Plants: E. AV. Olive. 

62. Rediscovery of Hoy^x White Fish or 
Moon-eye (Argyrosoma hoyi) : Barton W. 
Evermann . 

63. Saxifragaeew of Indiana : Stanlej' Coul- 
ter. 

64. The Range of the Blue Ash : W. P. 
Shannon. 

65. Plant Products of the U. S. Pharmaco- 
pa:a (1890): John S. Wright. 

66. Noteworthy Indiana Phanerogams : Stan- 
ley Coulter. 

67. Methods of Infiltrating and Staining in 
oto the Heads of Vernonia: E. H. Hea- 

cock. 

68. Embryology of the Ranunculacece : D. 
M. Mottier. 

69. Certain Chemical Features in the Seeds 
of Plantago Virginiana and P. Patagonica : 
Alida M. Cunningham. 

70. Root System of Pogonia : M. B. Thomas. 

71. Salt-rising Bread: Katherine E. 
Golden. 

72. An Increasing Pear Disease in Indiana: 
L. M. Underwood. 

73. Notes on the Floridece : Geo. W. Martin. 



224 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 8. 



74. Measurement of Strains Induced in Plant 
Curvatures: T>. T^ MacDougal. 

75. The Stomates of Cyas : Edgar W. Olive. 

76. The Buckeye Canoe of 18Jfl : W. P. 
Shannon. 

77. Embryo-Sac of Jeffersonia Diphylla: 
Frank M. Andrews. 

78. Cell Structure of Cyanophycew : Geo. 
"W. Martin. 

79. Some Notes on the Amoeba : A. J. Big- 
ney. 

80. Variations of the Polyporus lucidus : L. 
M. Underwood. 

81. Preliminary Account of the Development 
of Etheostoma Cceruleum : A. B. Ulrey. 

82. Embryology of the Cupuliferce : D. W. 
Mottier. 

83. Enbryology of the Frog : A. J. Bigney. 

84. Variation in Etheostoma : "W. J. 
Moenkhaus. 

85. Blood Corpuscles of very Young Human 
Embryo : D. W. Dennis. 

86. Poisonous Influences of some Species of 
Cypripedium : D. T. MacDougal. 

87. Development of Sexual Organs of Cyma- 
togaster : C. H. Eigenmann. 

88. The Vegetation House as an Aid in Re- 
search : J. C. Arthur. 

89. TJie Proposed New Systematic Botany of 
North America : L. M. Underwood. 



SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS. 
ASTBOPHYSICAL JOURNAL, FEB. 

On a Lens for Adapting a Visually Corrected 
Refracting Telescope to Photographic Observa- 
tions with the Spectroscope: James E. 
Keelee. 

Schmidt's Theory of the Sun: E. J. Wilczyn- 

SKI. 

A Cloud-Like Spot on the Terminator of Mars : 

A. E. Douglass. 
Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wave- 

Lengths. II.: H. A. Rowland. 
Photographic Observations of Eclipses of Jupiter's 

Satellites: Willaed P. Geeeish. 
The Arc-Spectra of the Elements. II. Ger- 



manium: H. A. Rowland and R. R. 

Tatnall. 
Comparison of Photometric Magnitudes of the 

Stars: Edwaed C. Pickeelng. 
The Spectrum of ^ Cephei : A. Belopolsky. 
Minor Contribution and Notes ; Reviews ; Recent 

Publications. 



NE]V BOOKS. 

Butterflies and Moths. W. Fueneaux. Lon- 
don and New York, Longmans, Green & 
Co. 1894. Pp. xiv+358. $3.50 

Elements of Astronomy. Geoege W. Paekee. 
London and New York, Longmans, 
Green & Co. 1894. Pp.236. $1.75. 

Steam and the Marine Steam-Engine. John 
Leo. London and New York, Mac- 
millan & Co. 1894. Pp. xiv+196. $2.50. 

Memoir of Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay. Sir 
Aechibald Geikie. London and New 
York, Macmillan & Co. 1895. Pp. 
x+397. $4.00. 

Meteorology. Thomas Russell. London and 
New York, Macmillan & Co. 1895. 
Pp. xxiii+277. $4.00. 

The Supremacy of the Spiritual. Edwaed 
Randall Knowles. Arena Publishing 
Co. 1895. Pp. 61. 

The International Beginning of the Congo Free 
State. Jessie Siddall Reeves. Balti- 
more, Johns Hopkins Uuiversitj' Press. 
1894. Pp. 106. 

Report of work of the Agricidtural Experiment 
Stations of the University of California ; Be- 
ing a Part of the Report of the Regents of the 
University. Sacramento, 1894. Pp. 506. 

The Cause of Warm and Frigid Periods. C. A. 
M. Tabee. Boston, Ellis. 1894. Pp. 80. 

Electrical Engineering for Electric Light Arti- 
sans and Students. W. Slings and A. 
Beookee. London and New York, 
Longmans, Green & Co. New and Re- 
vised Edition. 1895. 8°, pp. vii+753. 
346 illusti'ations. 



SCIENCE. 



New Series. 
Vol.1. No. 9. 



Friday, *i!ff ARCH 1, 1895. 



Single Copies, 16 crs. 
Annual Subscription, t6.00 



GUSTAV E. STECHERT'S 

Recent Importation of Scientific Books. 

.\xi)i:R.-iS(>ii.v, AuKEL. Phvsikalische Principien 
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Friday, March 1, 1895. 



COXTENTS: 

On Dr. William Toirnseiul Porter's Inrcsligations of 
the Growth of the School Children of St. Louis : 
Fr Axz Boas 223 

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W. F. Ganoxg . . ." 230 

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Tlir Elihu Thompson Prize: M. 

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Allex. Grcgon/'s'Th( T'IoikI Earth: T. C. M. 
The Wood's Ifnli P.iuhHjical Lectures: CHARLES 
S. DoLLEV. Williams' Aero-Therapeutics. Phys- 
ic.f : William Hallock. Geology : J. D. R. 

Notes and News : — 249 

The A. A. A. S. Table at Wood's Holt Lahornlory ; 
General . 

Soe>ciie.s and Academics : — 250 

Michigan Academy of Scimcc : The Academy of 
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ON DR. WILLIAM TOWNSEND PORTER'S IN- 
VESTIGATION OF THE GROWTH OF THE 

SCHOOL CHILDREN OF ST. LOUIS.* 
Dr. Porter's investigations on the growth 

of the school children of St. Louis claim 



particular attention, as the author opens a 
number of new problems and proposes new 
methods of inquiry. His conclusions are 
far-reaching and have a close relation to 
the method of treatment of a number of 
questions. It is the importance of these in- 
vestigations, which are based on very exten- 
sive material, which induces me to subject 
the author's methods to an examination. 

Dr. Porter's scheme of measurements is 
based largely upon that used by Dr. H. P. 
Bowditch in his investigations in Boston, 
and on the one which I used in the collec- 
tion of data in Worcester, Mass. To these 
the measurements of girth of chest and 
of strength of grasp are added. It must 
be regretted that Dr. Porter determined the 
age of the child at its nearest birthdaj', 

*1. The Physical Basis of Precocity and Dullness. 
(Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, 
Vol. VI., No. 7, March 23, 1^<93. ) 

2. Tlie Relation between the Growth of CliiUlren 
and their Deviation from the Physical Tyjie of their 
Sex and Age. (Ibid., Vol. VI., Xo. 10, November 
14, 1893. ) 

3. Untersuchungcn der Schulkinder in Beztig auf 
die physischen Grundlagen ihrcr geistigen Entwick- 
lung. ( Verb. d. Berliner Gcsellschaft fiir anthropolo- 
gic, 1893, pp. 337-354. ) 

4. Tlie Growth of St. Louis Children. (Transac- 
tions of the Academy of .Science of St. Louis, Vol. 
VI., No. 12, April 14, 1894, pp. 263-380 ; repnbli.sheil 
in Quarterly Publications of the American Statisti- 
cal Association, N. s., No. 24, Vol. III., December, 
1893, pp. 577-587. ) 

5. The Growth of St. Louis Children. (Urid., Nos. 
25, 26, Vol. IV., March-June, 1894, pp. 28-34.) 



226 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. I. No. 



while heretofore all investigators deter- 
mined the age in full years. There exists, 
therefore, a difference of half a j'ear between 
the period of Dr. Porter's tables and all 
others which makes a comparison dififlcult. 
■ Dr. Porter bases all his discussions on 
the assumption that all series of observations 
of children of anj' given age are probability 
curves, and he illustrates this point by a 
detailed discussion of the observations on 
stature of eight-year-old girls. In connection 
with this subject he discusses the meaning 
of the probable deviation, of the mean, and 
of the average value of the series. Although 
he employs both the mean and average 
values, he evidently inclines toward the use 
of the former. I will not dwell at length 
upon the fact that whenever the curve is 
really a probability curve the average is 
a better value than the mean, because it is 
more accurate, nor on the other fact that 
the mean deviation gives a more constant 
value than the probable deviation, and is 
therefore the better value, as both con- 
siderations have little practical bearing, 
although I consider them of importance 
from a theoretical point of view. 

It may be granted for a moment that the 
curves are probability curves. Then there 
remain two objections to Dr. Porter's values. 
The one is that the difference in numbers 
of individuals observed for each year is not 
taken into consideration. This difference 
in numbers has the effect that the average 
age of all individuals whose nearest age is 
six years will be a little more than six 
years. These corrections amount to more 
than 3% of the annual growth, during the 
first and last years to even more. It af- 
fects the annual rate of growth of stature to 
the amount of several millimeters, the 
weight to the amount of half a pound. 

Furthermore, Dr. Porter makes a linear 
interpolation for determining the mean, 
while the general curve ought to be taken 
into consideration. The determination of 



the 50 % point of a series ought to be based on 
the values found at two points, at least, on 
each side. The same may be said of the 
interpolation for all the other percentile 
grades. The corrections made necessary by 
these two causes are not great, but sufficient 
to make all the millimeters and tenths of 
kilograms inaccurate. 

A more important objection is based on 
the fact that the observed curves are not 
probability curves. In examining Dr. 
Porter's curve for stature of girls of 8 years 
of age (paper No. 4, p. 286), it will be seen 
that in the first jjart of the table the differ- 
ences between theorj' and observation are all 
j)Ositive, while in the second part thej' are, 
with one exception, all negative. When 
the curves of stature, weight, span of arms, 
height sitting, gii'th of chest for girls from 
12 to 15 years of age, and for boys from 14 
to 18 years of age are consulted it will ap- 
pear that the asymmetry is still more 
mai'ked. Dr. Porter himself quotes at 
leng-th Dr. Bowditch's remarks on this asym- 
metry (Ibid., p. 298), and calls attention to 
the difference between mean and average. 
These constantly occurring differences and 
their regular distribution are the verj^ best 
proof that the curves under consideration 
are not probability curves. If this is the 
case, neither the average, nor the mean, nor 
the most fi-equent value represent the type 
of the age to which the curve refei'S. 
This can be determined onlj'^ by a detailed 
examination of the causes of the asj'mme- 
tries. 

I have stated at a former time (Science, 
Vol. XIX., May 6, May 20, 1892) what I be- 
lieve to be the cause of this asjTnmetry, and 
I will revert to tliis subject after the dis- 
cussion of one of Dr. Porter's most funda- 
mental deductions. 

He concludes, from his data, that the 
basis of dullness is deficient physical devel- 
opment ; that the basis of precocity is an un- 
usualty favorable physical development. 



MAlfcTl 1, 1895.] 



SCIENCE. 



227 



His mt'tluxl has been to compare the meas- 
urements of all children of a certain age at- 
tending various grades of schools. He found 
that those in the lower grades were inferior 
in their measurements to those attending 
the higher grades. He expresses this result 
in the following language (No. 1, p. 168): 
" Precocious children are heavier, and dull 
children lighter, than the mean child of the 
same age. This establishes a basis of pre- 
cocity and dullness."' I believe that the 
method of investigating this point is not 
free of objections. It would, indeed, be a 
serious accusation against the tea<,'hers of 
St. Louis if they should entirely disregard 
the effects of physical development in grad- 
ing their pupils. However crudely this 
may be done, it is certainly done to a lim- 
ited extent. Sickly children who stay out 
of school for a gi-eat portion of the term 
will lag behind ; vigoi-ous ones will advance 
more rapidly. Be this the case or not, the 
fact remains that children who are physic- 
allj' more vigorous accomplish a greater 
amount of mental work. But I do not be- 
lieve that Dr. Porter's wording of the phe- 
nomenon conveys the correct interpreta- 
tion. I should prefer to call the less favor- 
ably developed grade of children retarded, 
not dull ; and these terms are bj- no means 
equivalent, as a retarded child may develop 
and become quite bright. In fact, an inves- 
tig-.ition which I had carried on in Toronto 
witli the same object in view, but according 
to a different method, gives just the reverse 
result. The data were compiled by Dr. G. 
M. West, who found that the children pro- 
nounced by the teacher as bright wei"e less 
favoral)ly developed tluin those called dull 
by their teachers. Furthermore, I do not 
believe it is correct to say that the facts 
found by Dr. Porter establish a basis of pre- 
cocity and dullness, but only that preco- 
cious children are at the same time better 
developed physically ; that is to say, the in- 
teresting facts presented by Dr. Porter prove 



only that children of the same age who 
are found in higher grades are more ad- 
vanced in their general development than 
those who are found in lower grades. Dr. 
Porter has shown that mental and physical 
gi'owth are correlated, or depend upon com- 
mon causes ; not that mental development 
depends upon physical growth. 

This brings me back to the question of 
the cause of the asymmetries of the obsei-ved 
curves. According to the above interpreta- 
tion of Dr. Porter's results (which is merely 
a statement of the observed facts), we 
must expect to find children of a certain 
age to be on ditt'erent stages of development. 
Some will stand on tlie point corresponding 
exactly to the age. while others deviate from 
it. This was the assumption which I made 
in the paper quoted above, when trying to 
explain the asymmetries of the curves, and 
I consider Dr. Porter's observations a very 
strong argument in favor of my theory, 
which is briefly as follows : 

When we consider ch