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SCIENCE 



AN ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY 



VOLUME III 

JANUARY-JUNK 1884 




Cambridge Mass. 

THE SCIENCE COMPANY 

1884 



"-. I 



u> ^ 



Copyright, 1884, 
By the science COMPANY. 



iFraidilin fttft^: 

RAND, AVERY, & COMPANY, 
BOSTON. 



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SCIENCE. ~ INDEX TO VOLUME IIL 



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' • ..... ..i Jnbiim of, a44. 

3vn»c of dtix>ellon» 31, 

I .,.>,. k;,, ... ..uachof Ottxwit flold QAl- 

urnLLnife' club, ffpiirt of, ISo. 
Cof«>;ltoh.>^y, »trui'turml ftfid wytU'iofttiv, 

eoi. 

Condylttr* crinUUi, IMo. 

CQitcre*** .^mcrlr^Mi fiirMtry,3fli|; of urc- 

Uc travvllvi*. 425; QcmiBU ifvorrsDhl- 

eaJ, 3&§; lnU;r«iiilloa»l omtUtoragfcttl , 

808. 
Cotile projcclton In oeeiiuic c^riOKnipliy, 

chart, ^IX. 
Couiea, mutufti rvliiUon* of, 186. 
Conhim rniuiMtlMiiiTn, 423. 
CoKW, U. \W Evolution of lli« decApod 

t04MI« f//. &U 
Coniir-'* iruUtiml cxp«Hnaent'jiU< 

II »> f,tr 18S3, revlvwed, 402; 

0\.' "' 

-'- t'tete&tii on Inven- 



'^76; pleifUif, 676; 
otti.67«. 



, pueslbtllty of, 401. 



Cotn 
tl. i 
Coij* 

Coni.i 

Coi.t 

Cotjki p? iiMUM'Mip^ Inncelt, r«*vl*!Wt>d. 233. 

Coi'Bt K. i». A rHrbi>nif«rou« («nui< of 

•ftdDUtv ' ■" 
Com. K, I r iht! Orvsl BmIo, 

f^ ■, '-.r ■ ■ ' ,-.. - in;^ 

., k^le of, 

'ji .»ii,.<A*, AM iir>>|»iiylAcUc 

In 
TApr ..t w«iCT» of, 779. 

f, .Vi, US, 4n4,474, 
I rml Liittory •ouk-iy 

Comua Caiitdcrmt]*. 2.*i.l, 3VM. 
CorT««iftond«iicv uuivonliy, S44. 



n. ^ij4 ; rojiiriilji, 23KL 

- fnjm, 340; ftklc* *lt4*r 

- -, 'JV*> 

' JiLirtj, 383; production of Unlird 

« or!>. K. Ktcp ecrvtcal rlb» In ibe hu 

Coue*. K,, on Murth'Amctrluttn omlibol- 

Cm ,, n^vlewcd, ^^\, 

C' I. Bomo Iiidliuiii ftiitfltiU 



crttpUy, SOS. 
j»t-til of, 007. 



Crci L, llrnrll, 582, In 

CfL'UiUA. --..., .^^T. 

OnoisnY, W- n. i'hemleBl geotogy, S9; 

.I..r« ,,f i,,.l,,r].l vv \^ ^4%, 

Cr ..7. 

Cr. 

Ci' ■ , -.^. .. i.....HJu&,263, 

C f 1 1 rov Lim «n t» Ui bridge- 



'\^, 
;l«. 



cttllfomleftt 



Ct«UBicanLbu» < 
Cli<>nlsa in < > 

4«9. 

Cup^lopa^n* Iuciited<i2» :i^*d. 
Cuvier dub. OlndnniiLl. '2f>9. 
ev^'-"' -i--'-^ .f.r...,,,„.v'*s of, l«. S04; 

C -pic«l, 142. 

Cv „, •- ^. 

C\ i- ciimljjfra, 4U4* 

D.» tl. 14. UndoljiUont in clay dopuilU, 

404. 
D.* W. 11. TbouRr and < v.^ --■ v «.-i<* 
DAaNKT, C, W,, Jun. < niu 

Kinir'fl Mounudn, XonJ 17; 

r > v„i .^ f^, j^Qi^h Ciif '..'1*. . 

]) -,nriirida1, 4tiv. 

I' ljf«»in, 4t»5. 

1*A. , , ... -, Hts, I - - ^ " Wviii 

or ( 'opocr River, " - ».if 

til*- TiilUtnnii t-xji' ur- 

. Tao; A 
w f//, 8tt; 

»tifcl<» of fXp*oraUon In Africa, A\X 
l>»li, W. H.. on llnipi'l*. irie, 
Dnlmiii)il«iit in carbunlferoUM roeka, ^03. 
I)unlfll*« rrlnclplc* of pbyaicii, reviewed, 

fl31, 
Duniiii exptrdition to Ka^t O rc^fnlAnd. 2114. 
Dnrwin nnd ^wine It-liro* ivvi^w^d, 4*1. 
Dorwin, on Instinct, 15. 
PtirwiniAn quotAttout, 4^. 
I>Krw1alHai,4d1. 
Dutofl of flcientlfie bookt, S7U 
Davenport oeadctny of nalurid ndtsiiee*, 

737. 
DAYiDSom* ti. The new Botfocluff irol« 

cano In Bi-Hoir l^cn, ilL 28'J; volcanic 

eruption of Mutinl ^i. Au«;uMtln, Oct, 0, 

t)avld»on'a Uiitlah foHail Bmchiupodn, 
343. 

Davis. W. M. How do th« winda Mow 
within tbn utorro-dluk? ill. 4Crj; inetv- 
oroloetlcal ciiafts nf ihc N^orth Atlantic, 
♦7/, <>M; thr uldtT w hid chart- of the 
North .\tlat]t(r. itl. 6V3; pali'oxuic blff^t 
lidrn, 473 ; troplcul cyclonM, 14:;; wbirl- 
wlndfrt cyione*, and t<:»mado«M« ttti 40, 
&3. \^», 

Dawmon, G, &f. Ii4:cfnt Ki?oTo|fieal ob. 
At«rvntlon» In tbo Canibdian »ortb'W«ai 
krritory, <H7- 

DttWi<on, Q. M., oo ptioapbale dttpoilta, 
M37. 

Bny'a Eltjctrtc-Ugbt nrllbrnt^tlt.', reviewed, 

Ikaf, ruliadva voncL^rniuf the, 66; leech- 
ing th«, ao&. 



I ill. 27ft ; In animal*, MT ; 
I Lurj, (IW* 

lit. 210, 4N6, d8l, U% 

\ . . _. .;.»., 771. 

lWi|,i»-»cu Crumtncctt, ilL Tl3: dri*dif)n|r« 
MU, apparatuk, itL 44S; Aahen, »i^ tt^. 



i ■ . . ^ ..:. - - ; kUofV, -Tl. 

Ik'-b0t*i<i(k, uu loMM ml 4i4iiotfvn from acabl^ 

•olli. IT. 
In t;ii!\ I* l^.,onmtiUipl«xt<7lt<i|fru|iiiy.8M. 

irlAtii, Silt; 'l'own#rndl,'JWt. 

I r , on gold *4nd* uf Cidlfuf.' 

I inafJuptUr,£l(l, t 
.«, 

1 ..„ ... ^ . 1. ai<t-pla]fue, \hh. 

l^ruucite ujiLti:^ruU>|$i*el»e i{e««li<K*luiftt 
239. 

DfrVOntan, upinr .nirif, i. nf .Ti. 

Deycuzia T 
DLamondu^ i 

DicuUocepbu, .^ i :.: 

Diotyoneura, divcovpiy u»f, 4^i 
Dictyopborm, 306; vorux, 2*5. 
Diotyoapoogidae, OAQ. 
Didymodua, (MA; ooinpr^^aau*. ^>; gtb* 

boauti 420; tnibutui, 42U; n^bilioaa <»jf, 

4LM. 
Iiitfe«tl<»n, tnteratitlai, In Bnipn and An* 

chiuln, UU, 
Dfi.i.JLil. J. ^. Voieank* i«ind which frU 

at LlnalaahkA, Alanka, Oct. 20, lnH.\ UL 

ft.Vl. 
Diltcr, J. 6,, on gvolu^y of tbv CHa«m!u 

Dlikir'a «tudy of volttitnlo ro«k« of divlttloo 

of Pacific, .'UW. 
DiiDinock. G., on Attaeut ).*eerapliik, 3d; 

on Fordcula unriculurin, ^7; ^n *uale« 

of r..i.>..,v,i '.^ i-»7. 

inn. - 

Dino i4i. 

Til,. I 

-ui,iU&; eibb^wiiB, 



ill, map of, eaa; lopoi*- 



l>l».tr. 

raja., ... 
T>odi'c*iliton MpaiilA. 2."^. 
DoUfy, C. 8,, on c^Mlpn. .164, 
I>olomt>dc« k''tivbro(iU»,b4i'ltaviQr of, 217. 
DomeeitJctttion of <mtrich, US. 
DoNALUttoK, U. H. LocaUiHtloD In the 

bruin, ilL 4«4. 
DoolUtle, M. }l.,on doubtful ob^ervationa, 

26; on relation of mualc c^nd chemii'ikl 

elerocntx, 607. 
l)oni<*y, (J., oo clant Heal ion of Slonaii 

IribcB, mh. 
Dralnafte of New- York Rwumpa, M?. 
Draper'* reaearcbe* In «juxtrum. photog- 
raphy, tm. H4 
DrawbrldsOf ciuhiontHi pitrr and roiilttK 

tninniOD, U2. 
DredglDHt deep-aea« *i04; fippuratut, UU 

Diift-raarglo In Ohiovatley, map^ 404; In 

Ui»ne«otii,6SM». 
Dnimmond'* Natural law tn the iplrlloal j 

world, revJKWud, 151, 
Dtifour, O. H., 7dU. 
I>0!tUUl, J. B., Wfl. 
Dun, W. A., on monnda iti 8oioto valii<y, 

79. 
Duncan's Hcroca of itolfnce: bolnni«t#, 

r(»(yiugltli, and g:vologi«ta—n*Tii<^fd, 

2CL 
Durv ,'' ' ■" -" * - -n Itare*, 3d7. 
r>uti. .72, 

Duu tb« GroDd 

Curjri'CJ. <li*iiriri, riMi wmu, ut, 327. 

Dwellln{ra for poor, f«««iy« on^ 4<M. 
pwl^ht, W, ft ( on Van Duzcr** Irvn- 



me, u«4f of, in vtrn- 



806 



SCIENCE. — INDEX TO VOLUME III. 



Blarth, early knowledge of rotundity of, 

142 ; Slate of interior of, 480. 
Earthqualic in Kngland, map^ 740; at tea, 

ft42; fc;wl«8. of 1881, 28; wavea, 114. 
Eaton, H. \V. Klectrlc- light teats at the 

Louisville exposition, 14; a tailed child, 

673; the Tocpler-Holtz oaacbinc, ill. 

7M. 
Eclipses, ancient, 6.17. 
Eddy, H. T. lludiant heat, 88, 171. 
Eddystone lighthouse, new, 82. 
Edinburgh unlvernlty, 639; tercentenary 

celebration of, 371. 
Education. liberal, 43o, 704, 739; scientiflc 

methods in, 745; technical, 789. 
Educational rock-suites, 234. 
Egg-cocoons of Lycosa, 685. 
Egypt, civilization of, 55. 
Ekbmeem, necropolis at, 609. 
Electric balloon, ill. 152. 196. 
Electric-light arithmetic, 692; in our 

homes, 521; systems, tests of, 174; 

tests, 14; uoc of, in building, 425; use 

of, in gunpowder>mills, 498. 
Electric ranchine, ill. 753; signals, ill, 

243 ; time-signals, 59, ill. 401. 
Electrical apparatus, loan- collection of, 

670; books, 419; engineers, American 

institute of, 668 ; exhibition at Philadel> 

phia, ill. 398; intemaUonal, 113; in- 

ductlon, 674; science, progreas of, 

258. 
Electricity, 202, 262, 729 ; measurement of, 

692; researches on, 549. 
Elephant, white, 170, 212. 
Eleusis pallida, 768. 
Elevator, atmospheric, 494. 
Eliot, on liberal education, 704, 739. 
Elliott, H. W. The monk-seal of the 

West Indies, Monachus tropicalis Gray, 

ill. 752. 
Elliott, II. W., on carnivorous habits of 

the muskrat, 457. 
Ellisia nyctelea, 395. 

Ellzey, M. G., on prepotency of male par- 
ent, 424. 
Embrvology, human, 771 ; of teleosts, 802. 
Empidonax flaviventris, 55:!. 
Encke's coratt, 660. 
Encyclopaedia Brltaunicai, 760. 
Energy in nature. 491. 
Kngelmann, (George, 2:)8; portrait, 405; 

collecUon of, 639. 
Engine, rangnctic, ill. 274. 
Engineer«>' school of application, WiUet's 

Point, 066. 
England, earthquake in, map, 740 ; marine 

researcli in, 5.')7. 
English, collegiate study of, 58; diction- 
ary, 527 : nobility, weights of, 268 ; npar- 

row, 239, 494. 
Enteledon, hindfoot of. 266. 
Entimus imperialis, 127. 
Entomology, economic, 233. 646. 
EpeiraatraU, 24; basilica, 396; insularls, 

768; labyrinthica, 3»6. 
Epilobium latifolium, 253; spicatum, 253. 
Equus major, 295. 
Ercolanl, death of, 138. 
Erosion in New Brunswick, 076. 
Erosophian microscopical society. 298. 
Erysimum parviflorum, 253. 
Erythea edulis, 629. 
Erythraea exsiccata, 639. 
Etchings, typographic. 466. 
Ethusa alba, 713; granulata, 716. 
Etowah rpounds, ill. 779. ^ 

Eupagurus longicarpus, 267; pollicaris, 

207. 
Eurypharynx pelecanoldes, 62H). 
Eustomias obscurus. 626. 
Eutaenia sirtalis. 67, 396. 
Evolution of Cephalopoda, ill. 122, 145; 

of zoea. m. 513. 
Exchange post, naturalists', 558. 
Expcrlment-sutions, national, 301 ; state, 

492. 
Exploration in Africa, 413; American, 

766; congress, polar, 760. 
Explosions on I^>ndon railways, 516. 
Explosive materials, 76. 
ExpuHure, question of, 306. 
Eyes ol animals, 336. 



\ 



F., C. L. Illusive memory, 434. 

Fagus betuloides, 168. 

Family registers, 3. 

Fabqdhab, Henry. Professor Tait on 
the reality of force, 700. 

Farquhar, U., on flreely oscillating pendu- 
lum, 424. 

Fasciated branches, 694. 

Faulu of Virginia, ill, 614. 

Fay, E. A. Congenital deafness in ani- 
mals, 347. 

Fedia olitoria, 395. 

Fedtschenko's collections, 270. 

Fermentation, 545. 

Ferns, Canadian, 676. 

Fkrrbl, William. The maxima and 
minima tide-predicting machine, iU. 408. 

Festuca ovlna, 253. 

Fiber zibcthicus, 457. 

Field-mice. 768. 

Fllaria horrida, 367 ; labiata, 367 ; sangui- 
nis-hominis, 497. 

FiLHOL, H. The deep-sea Crustacea 
dredged by the Talisman, Ul. 713 ; the 
deep sea dredging apparatus of the 
Talisman, ill. 448; the deep-sea tlahes 

. collected by the Talisman, ill. 623. 

Finland Bay, faunal exploration of, 340. 

Firth college, twhnical department of, 82. 

Fischer, E., on the use of naphthaline as 
an insecticide, 456. 

Fischer, P., on invertebrates of Talisman 
expedition, Ul. 657. 

Fiah, basaalian, <M. 620; and game laws, 
revision of, 109; blind, from Missouri 
River, 687; culture, modem, 208; em- 
bryos, survival of. 721 ; viviparous, 769. 

Fish-cultural association, American, 719. 

Fisher's Manuel de conchy liologic, 212. 

Fisheries exhibition, international. 497. 

Fishes, deep-sea. ill. 62:>, 747; food, 
American, 722 ; mivrations of. 721 . 

FiTZUSRALD. G. F. liadiant heut, 88, 586. 

Fitzwilllam museum, 697. 

Flemlnv. See Lydtin, Fleming, and 
Van Hertsen. 

Fletcher. J., on Flora ottawaensis, 20. 

Flint, J. M., on medicine among Chinese, 
739. 

Floods, Ohio, 214, 227, 371 ; cause of, 528; 
prevention of, 385. 

Flora of Labrador, 359, 402 ; OtUwaensis, 
26; of L'pper Yukon, 252. 

Florida Foraminifera, 736; geology and 
natural history of, 637; shell-mounds 
of, 736; springs of. 333. 

Flower, W. H., 212; appointment of, 272; 
on study of anthropology. 801. 

Flowers, protection of, 699, 712, 743; sexes 
of, 554 ; protection act, 743. 

Fluorite, phosphorescent, 640. 

FOL. H. Microbes, 128. 

Folk-lore of Yucatan, 270. 

Foraminifera from Florida, 736. 

Forbes, W. A., scientific papers of, 298. 

Force, reality of, 700. 

Forestry, artlflclal, 438; congress, 368. 

Fordcula auricularia, 207. 

Formations, names of, 59. 

Formica rofa, 423. 

Fornax badius, 235; Homii, 235. 

Fossil bones from Louisiana, 295; leaves, 
24. 

FoULKE, Sara G. Manayunkia spcciosa, 
803; the reproduction of Ciathrulina 
elegans. 236, 435. 

Foulke, Sara G., on Apailus bipera, 295. 

Fouquiera splendens, 4. 

Fox-squirrel, habit of, 747. 

Fragarla vesca,253: Vlrginiana. 350. 

Franklin, 8. li., 238. 

Frazer. See Connett and Frazer. 

French academy , prizes of, 609 ; geogniphi- 
cal societies, 771 ; sensitivenvsA of; to 
criticism of scientiflo work, 530. 

Frisby on comet of 1882, 287. 

FRIT8CU. A. A human skull fh>m the 
loess of Podbaba, near Prague, ///. 785. 

Fuel.cconomy of.in iron manufacture, 358. 

Fulgur canaliculata, 267, 494; carica, 267. 

Fulgurite fh>m Oregon, 735. 

Fulfc language, 742. 

Fungi, edible and poisonous, 164. 



Gadus morrhua. 189. 

Gaub, a. P. Inertia, 561. 

Gagb, S. H. The application of phoU>g. 
raphy to the production of natural-his- 
tory figures, Ul, 443. 

Galathodes Antonli, 713. 

Gaiicia, geology of, 727. 

Galium boreale, 253; pubens, 4. 

Gallaudet, E. M., on teaching the deaf, 
505 ; on international relations, 6o6. 

Galilnula galeaU, 216. 

Galton, Francis. His proposed * family 
registers,' 3. 

Gallon's Life-history album, reviewed, 
734 ; record of family faculties, reviewed, 
734. 

Gamblls, 111. 

Gambrusia patruelis, 769. 

Gannett. Henry. The geodetic work 
of the Hayden and Wheeler nurveys. 
447. 

Garman, S. Muraenopeis, 347; the old- 
est living type of Vertebrata. Chlamy- 
doselachus. 345; a peculiar nelachian. 
ill, 116; eating horns, 88. 

Gas, natural, 723. 

Gases, critical sUte of, 98. 

Gastrostomus, pedunculated lateral. line 
organs of, ill, 5; Bairdli, 5. 

Gatschbt, a. 8. Recent linguistic re. 
searches, 759. 

Gauitheria Shallon, 236. 

Geodetic work of Hayden and Wheeler 
surveys, 447. 

Geographic names, derivation of, 85 ;|ter- 
minofoKyi poverty of, 1 13. 

Geographical congress, German, 39S; so- 
cieties, French, nl ; society royal, award 
of medals of, 80. 

G«ographischcs jahrbucb, reviewed, 200. 

Geography-teaching, 86. 

Geological formations, synchronism of, 
33, 60; institute of AuHtria, 611; mu- 
seum at St. Johns, 5.i6; observations in 
Canadian north-west territory. 047 ; rela- 
tives of Krakutoa, ill. 702 ; report, 11- 
linois, 332; society of London, Ameri- 
can awards of, 384 ; survey of Alabama, 
report for 1881-82, reviewed. 418; of 
Bohemia. 611 ; of territories, 369. 

Geologists, international congress of, 168. 

Geology, chemical, 59; fundamental theo- 
ry of dynamic, 511 ; non-professional 
work in, 428; of the Asturias and Ga- 
licla, 727; of Grand Canon, (7/. 327; 
of northern Canada, 755. 

Geranium caespitosum, 4. 

Germ-theory of disease, 133. 

German geographical congress, 3U8 ; iron 
and steel industry society, 660 ; univer- 
sities, scientific Instruction in, 399. 

Germany, cannibalism in, 298; tempera- 
ture in, 546. 

Gbiiiaks, 340. 

Gilbert, G. K. Capitalization of names 
of formations, 69; rlpple-marks, HI. 
375. 

Gilbert, G. K., on deflection of river- 
courses, 503; on Knight's tour, 396. Stn.* 
also Lawes, Gilbert, and Warington. 

Gill, D., on determinations of ntellar 
parallax, 456, 612. 

Gill, T. Assumptions of muscum-keip- 
ors, 615; Chlamydoselachus, 345; tlie 
ichthyological peculiarities of the bas- 
aalian fauna, m. 620; osteology of the 
cormorant, 404; the relations of Dldy. 
modus, or Diplodus, 429. 

Gill, T., on Squall, 738; on survival of fish 
embryos, 722; and Ryder, J. A., on 
Lyomeri, 504. 

Gisbome, F. N., on electrical induction, 
674, 771. 

GUcial striation. 636. 

Glaciers in California. 206; of Mont 
Blanc, 771 ; on Mount Shasta, 208. 

Glaciology, Indiana, iU. 748. 

Gladstone and Tribe's Secondary h«l- 
teriea, reviewed, 61. 

Glidewell mound, 637. 

Glottidiaantillmrum,825; pyramldata,S8ft. . 

Glucose report, 160. 

Glyphus manupiaUa, 716. 



SCIENCE. — INDEX TO VOLUME HI. 



807 



Ml 

It I 

Invi»ntk>n of ihi- 

I0irr«pby. *7J; 

•umption* of en 

Sor.tliv, (f. 11,, ., 

Iw ' 
I f 



, 7ti7. 
: J4) ; compresitaA, 



inlnk' vc-vn|!{e of 
phtK 



i s, Tun. 

Oi-ouluirej 

: -fejloiiij of ndcnce 

■ ', 

OimE, iJ. VV* ToroRilo tn wnBtrrn North 

i'liroUnn. iU. 
io#«(*liri» oij ArviitMiiKuLtci. 3<MI. 
SovcrnttU'iit »tjd ecunomlc entomology, 

' ■ iferm- theory of 

;. tf L 927. 
KJver, 1610. 

mill ton, ivviiiWfd, 19* 

ULlijurHa, 172.213.610, 

lim FnltM, >/ !, MouDUiln 

Otwii^ uuoii iA>, ;7l; L>anl«h 

t'X|" M>; north, Kt'otjnoayattil 

, t ■ ■ 



■rln»wi»txlty'» oroM«lngof NorAtii i^oioUii* 

1ft, 
9rolT'* riiiitt fiDAlyvo** 425. 
iriiwih, tO&. 

^m .111 ► ir.iomUon* »n, lift. 

. ,., lii pih of, 504, 
S^nnoiwin rnntlnie legUui* tupogTApHy of, 

el, i,-.M,l,i -NJ'i f.r-r'r»i«.2m. 

*d, iW», 704» 
kl1> Mdnjtim, m, 775. 

Oyroacopt!, 2<>;. 

rSufi'tcl, £m on apparAtuii for mti&yiug, 

«T&. 
lAlii«iinriii tUUlAtit* 2^8. 
Iaokk, H, a. Till' o«cnrrM»c« of ibc 

nfftNiitii t!y In Xurtb ArnbHca before 

the r«'Viiliitlon, JlSi. 
I«te''ti, 11 A » «>n sefnnontAl organ* In 

udoniiU* Ijtrvtie, 25. 
lAQi'it, A, ri**<l »kl«a la Chtim flv^oyeari 

n ,k"M''- work tn Ydlowpl*>n*» nnttonttl 
fjjii k, tao. 

^"^* "•••t*n4,aa5; trintptar*, »Ji5. 
h<ilu«. 424. 
ii'w pbtrnomenon. a97; 



llAli, ' 
tiAll, 



J4. 

■wnl of W«llier priif 
^ <• 1 1 . «jn foi»»II vpiingvis. <9<}6» 
f-utia, Mn\ \n liquid*, SMO. 

»i i ., K.: .., fjf ifrowlh 

• for »cleu- 

met*mor- 

. ». * M .^.r, f«, 302. 

, I 'J. 

ric liirUt ill our homi^ii, 

ii^wedt l«X» 

.. n M.,nu-fbr.«41. 



Hiirv*, North-Ai I T. 

HAr^HiluK ptmik" 09, 

Burrmjfion, \\ i «)(>t«r«f 235. 

Harvftrd unlv<?miy ht:rbu.r!UfD,23J5; obstfr- 

vstory, ]<}7: btilletlti, 424; «nmmer 

coutMs of botAoy, oiiH, 
Hahtkt, K. L. A colt nnd iu mother** 

bUnkci, 672, 
IlAv<4TtN-G8t C, 8. InertlH, Jid9 ; h alngiilAr 

optJoAt phennmi'oon, AOl. 
rfjivtHct^k, on ^Ipunculu* niidii*, A82, 
HAoir, L. \r., on mpid tn»ii«it in flili. 



7ti9, 



lidiiifii* reviewed* 560. 
, on Uifurlnif (uaMl lenvr 



UArDK.s, F. V. A acientiHc «windl. 
24;». 

Hayden'« »ttrTC'y, twelfth report of, re- 
vii'Wfd. iU TC^a, 

HnydiM J4i>d Wheeler •iirvcy*, gcndctlc 
work of, 447. 

tljiyijint un new raorphologlottJ element of 
hloodi ifi, 

ITaxisk. IL a II of wnvcB of 

cifid In iht' I trittp^ 14U. 

OiiJtvn. H. A , ni -,a;i«. 

IIi'ahhfiiBOLitutti.tri, Auiujioan* MW; exhibi- 
tion. 7flU. 

lU'jil fi I'm xojl, r.lisirricter of, iHMi. 

Ut I M0 lti»Mtiite of tftchv 

I.' :m, 

Usiui'UOi, A. -^yuchrutil«m of Ketdogt- 

cal fiirro&th>n«, 50. 
lldlpHn, A., on cjirbonlftTuun Auim<»^ 

nSu-m, 33^; on Foramlniferm from Fior 

UU, 7'M. 
lUWi'u] spring*. 724, 
Helkldae, Britiiih. U2. 
lltUoiit^t*. ihe>iry of. fl97. 
Hell^uniu idvolvift, .323. 
Uidit fwperxa, elTfCi uf vftriouB foodi on, 

:i70; vfrgiitii. 342. 
H''3lin.iTkiii. ti .. r,n v&Hation of t«niperttture 

li 46. 

Hri I cel»ta. 2J6, ."iOS. 

Hlu, ._. I hcuLaturo. 2fi4. 

UBNiiritLK?, J. K, Dtfflt'Ctlve effect of 

<>Arth^H rotAtlun, tj75; gyration of a vi- 

bmrlng pendulum^ HL 11^. 
H«?n*ctcum lanatumt 258. 
Ilervdlty, new tbt^ory of, SSfli; atndy of| 

HiT^'ny, report of obaervniory at, 064. 
Hcrrtck, C. L.. on Mono^piUiH, 494. 
Hbkrick, F. H. Karts Venuont bJrdi, 

2lf1. 503. 
IlKitMCHKL, J. A singular optical phc- 

DOrtienoo, 704. 
HtTMcber* photo metrlf work, 612, 
llcwpproiiiyfi leucopUA. i40, fllfi, 7ftK. 
Hi'^^ftlan (1y, occurrence of, lu America, 

43i. 
Hetfrodon ptatyrhino*, 254. 
Heyn<;maon, on alugs, 770. 
Uibematlnir mammah, UL 538, me, 673. 
Hilgard, J. E., on depth of Oiilf of M«x> 

ico, .VM. 
Hlllebrand, W. F-, and Pearee, B., on new 

mineral* in Uuh, 067. 
Hlmatayai, aaeent of. 743. 
IIiNitK, .r I. r>. AiMinnI j^rowth of the 

* lirec of heaven.' 'i7i>. 
Qlrtnoneara, entomognipby of, 488; ob- 

«ciira, 4§B. 
HlAUjrlent iHidv. *c(rnilflL' mothodi In, 6^(4, 
Hlfclory, liidijsff ■' ■"" ■■- '^■u'lom ln,6V7. 
UodgeB, y,, oti 521. 

noltWk,A.,uii U; on Indian 

impiiimenta itu.L. ; ..m i- H<>ltltt, 604; on 

VlolB, 523. 
Hnlm, on Danish eYpodlUoti to East 

rJroenland. 2Kd. 
lIut.UKs, W. H. Appearance of the cy- 

flono rlond at Roche* ler, Mian., ISSai, 

1^' '•"■ ntrio flgure* from •outbem 

H< ttloni, 602. 

How.. ...u. .\,:. 
Hooker, d., on palmt, 629. 
IT»pkln«on'* Dynamic ulvctricHy, n>* 
YiewtNl, 61>2. 



llauifh, Q. \V,, u« Dearborn oba«rvatonr, 

62t}. 
Hoir*ton*« Element* of cbemUtry* i*' 

viewed. 78, 
ni>ci«eau und [^uenBler'n Mitteorotofv, 

U'V\< KX>:], <«2. 

V, n. lied eun»0t* und pr»- 

. 11. A. The great comet of Sep- 
Vr, 1882.401. 

i.i„ W. II, The naw tnorphtdoeica) 
I i'nt of the blood. 46. 
a>, W. M., on Connecticut oy^UMr. 

I ^ton from Menlone, UL BM , 

I'odbubu. 4W0, Ut, 765, 

I ' '■. - '^' 

lluu*i>Urvyfc, .Indrew Atklnaon, p^rtrtiU, 

478, 
Hnnf. T >^ ...n . fVBUlUne rock*, 503,674; 

un I -'iun, 675. 

Iluro j:. 

HuHT« UaloA round the moon^ 

115. 
Huston, Haiu. Some cttHou* luiiiinil 

Mlt^^vh;llU. 114. 

V f: . t? , , on ihc Pocahontaa ml ii» 

v2. 
I;., irirn. '.J-^e. 

llV*Tr, A, I"** of the tiatu- 

TnllNt, 44, M of the Cepbalo' 

', .\., mMtriKia of ctdlular UmUv, 

viw hMih.nt of mining. 465. 
fonnU, 2 16, 
• , work of, K3. 



I ihIoi) exhibition of, 744. 

ii -lor, m>. 

Ice Itatmer*, 522; eru*hiitg etrentfth of, 
!kV7; floe*, iU. 536; rope*, ^76; aofiea, 
expluratloti in, 7C6. . 

Iceb(^rg(«, UL 5S5, • 

li^elan*!, volcanic eruption In, 5^, 

InDiNus, J. F. ruiuloe from Krakatcuh 
144. 

t .l.pri>dnctlon, reelewed, 4(KI; 

reporl, reviewed, 333; *t4il»* 

,1-1, fwlfth report of, re- 

'.. ./■.,,., 'i;i'- nuiBpum of natunii 

lUijiujiii^iiun. uiKd oi urUlIclal, onbealUi, 

l)h]«ivo memory. 274, 345, 375, 434. 
T,.,n..^, i..,r.!....."..,f,^. i//. .580, 701; from 

I , »7M48. 

lu ..,...., .... ,.^.: «jf number of, 830; tn 
Oregon, 4t>6; relatluo of inoiindballd* 
er* to, 658, 

Indicator*. com[>ariiK)n of, 725. 

Indu«irUt aru a* factor* In bUtorjr, 597. 

Inertia, 482. &5a. 

InfiiKorIn flagellata, 3JI7. 

Iihh«-rhnnoo of injiirjofi, 144, 

Itij linen. inherllHnce of, 144. 

Jno immunda, 766, 

Inostemma Bo«e]t. 768. 

In«eHbed atone* from Ohio, .184, 467, 

InciecliuJide. napblhallne na, 455. 

t nil ecu, 545; a« fowl, 242, 

hmllnet, 15. 

Itisulatlng-iiktn on metal wire, 749. 

JnU^lllgeoco of batrachlana, 66; of viiakea, 
2>3, 

International bureau of w- 1 -« *- " i <T>caa- 
ure*, 305; conirreNi «>' Ifti; 

electrical exhibliJon, ! - e«* 

btbllion, fund* <' ' ■ i and 

puleunto logical i Man 

Ci^ 'erence, 773 iilon, 

LT*a, 74'J: " - i >o*t, 

5f ; oruiti I'olar 

ri«,nmi*ii' •• 1»0' 



808 



SCIENCE. — INDEX TO VOLUME IIL 



Int<^rnationale zolt«chrift flir allgemeine 
AprachwUncnschaft, reviewed, 364. 

Invpntioim, patents on, 522. 

Invi'ntorH, nu'ellng of, 368. 

Invertebrates of Talisman expedition, ilt. 
SftT. 

Iowa wpatherscrvlce, 83. * 

Iridium on coppiT plates, 796. 

Iron and »ieel institute. Journal of, re- 
viewed, 56<). 

Iron, etIVct of sea-wator on, 693; from 
N(>rth Carolina muundit, W. 308; hot 
blaMt in mukinv. 72; manufacture, fusl 
in, 358: oxidizability of, 470. 

Italics tor scientitic names, 82, 87. 

Ivesia Baileyi, 4. 

J., J. (t. Formation of anchor-ice, 303. 

Jade, worlcini; in, 642. 

J A MRS. ,1. F." Expulsion of water from 
a vrowinv leaf, t7/. 245; the flora of 
Ijibrmlor, '^S9•, two species of tertiary 
pluiitH, ill. 43:). 

JiimeH. J. F., on Caladium, 2:16. 

tTatnestown tornadoes, 801. 

Janet's Tlu'ory of morals, reviewed, 360. 

Japanese cu(>toms, 528 ; scientific students, 

Jean-BaptMe-Andr# Dumas, /M>Wra«. 750. 

Jeans's Crt^ators of the age of steel, re- 
viewed, 790. 

Jeffersonia diphylla, 629. 

JcrrRiE.^. J. A. Osteology of the cor- 
morant. 59, 474. 

Jenkins, F., on telpherage, 799. 

Jimenez, death of, 670. 

Johns Hopkins university circulars, 469, 
607 ; lalK>rati>ry, i7/. 7, 350 ; lectures, 555. 

Johnson, Alice, on morphi>k>gy of pelvis 
and le^, i/l. 324. 

Johnson, A. H.. on ocean-currents, 336. 

Johnmm. L. <.\, on springs of Florida, 
S3;>. 

Johnson-. W. \V. The use of the method 
of ratt !» in mathematical teaching, 473, 
(Vt5. smv also Kice, J. M., and Johnson, 
W. W. 

JoNBS, William. I^mgevity in a fisstlng 
spider. 4. 

Journal of agricultural science, SSS. 

Julien, A. A., on Olivine rocks of North 
l'an>lina, 4"^. 

Jupiter, rv'tation of. 2». 

Jurassic dinosaurs. iU, .VI2. 

Kadiak Island, news fnnn. 798. 

Katmia anguittifolia,359: gtaoca. 336, 253 ; 

latifolia. 359. 
Karnes near Ijuising, 4. 
Kanawha valley mound, iU. 619. 
Kansas, climate of. 37U : university of, 53 ; 

chemical laboratory of. iU. 53; weather 

obM>rvation<t, 426; weather report, 110, 

\M\ 
Kapi»e, «»>. 

Kanftkomra vallev. ioumey to. 2S&. 
Kar^tbx. G. Red skies a centurv ago, 

231. 
Ka-nohit Kala, positaon of, 55. 
Kellerman's B«.>:any, n:viewed. ♦». 
Keniuckv nharmaceatkal association. 497. 
Kerr. W. i. ., on mica-nynes of North Cmt- 

ollna, •>»>. 
Keweciuiwan scries. 553. 
Kidder. J. H . on u*c of Xcasler rragcnt 

in axr-aaalys«s, 463. 
Kinder. J. J. de. on mnoving machinery, 

»4 
Kixti. F. H. A pcmSble solutioa of the 

star.dar*. time question. 61. 
Knigb:** tour, 3Mc 
Kohan. *«if. 
Koch, avard to. 669; aixUi repon ai, 574; 

screnih report of. 5*4. 
Koriv» rp^os. expedStioos to. 611. 
Kmkat>s er^pti.xi. Mop. 211. 344, SK; 

a:c:.^pbe?1c waT^, «)1. MM. ili. 531. TiCil : 

eqjaz^'nal f^mokc-strewa fram. S6I : fvo- 

!-o<:vraI re juices of. UL TfiS: newvirw 

ci. ;a er2pck-n. 7K: psatee fKln 144; 

watt r-waivs frooa. UL 777. «, 

Erm^se. G. A . on FnBc ba«vi«e, HL 
Kreciz. OB cooset of IMS. ! 



KUNS, G. F. Five Brazilian diamonds, 
i//. 649. 

Eunz, G. F., on phosphorescoit fluorite, 
640 ; on stone head from Staten Island, 
695 ; on working In agate, Jade, and chal- 
cedony, 642. 

Kasu, 498. 

L. Artificial production of rain, 276; a 

spider's device in lifting, iU. 432. 
Laboratories, physiological, 73, 100. 
I^boratorv in modern science, 172; ma- 
rine, of Johns Hopkins university, ill. 7. 
I^bnulor, flora of, 359, 4U2. 
I^cerda's Bacillus of beriberi, reviewed, 

331. 
I^Achnostema fusca, 587. 
I^acy's Spencer's philosophy of the un- 
knowable, reviewed, 417. 
lAgopus leucurus, 296. 
Lake Superior, geology of, 675. 
I^ki^ of Great Basin, 322; Minnesota, 

695. 
Lamellibranch foot. 130. 
Lamprey, spinal conl in, 107. 
Lancaster's Kain in Belgium, reviewed, 

580. 
Lance- head found in whale, 312. 
I.And-office maps. 696. 
Langiey, 8. P., on character of heat ra- 
diated fhHn soil, 5M; on wave-lengths, 

496. 
I^mguages, Chilian, 550; Gnatemaltec, 

794; summer school of, 798. 
Lanius Ludovlcianus, 216. 
Lankester's Classification of the Molluscs, 

reviewed, 730. 
Lansing, Karnes near, 4. 
Lapps, speed of, in running, 740. 
Lariflon's Tenting-school, reviewed, 203. 
Larix Americana. 32. 
Larkix, E. p. Does Unlo spin a bysaus ? 

302 ; how a spider sometimes lifts heavy 

objects to iU nest, 3l». 
Larval theory of origin of cellular tissue, 

337. 
Lassen's Peak, rocks ot, 551. 
Latchford, F. R., on Canadian sbella,235. 
Latrodectes verecnndus, 766. 
Lava- flu w from Mauna Loa. ilt. 410. 
Lavaliee, Alphonse. death of, 698. 
Lawes. Gilbert, and Warington. on loas 

of nitix>cen from anble soils, 17. 
Lawson. <T.,on Oanndian Banuncnlaceae, 

675. 
LCA. Isaac. Unio forms a byasos, 434. 
Leaf, expolsion of water tnm a. ill. 345. 
L««ming and talking, compatibility of, 

343. 
Lcnv«a, fossil, figuring by pboloffnq>hy, 

769. 
LxCoxTK. John. Ataospbefic waves 

from Krakax«j«, 701 ; npperglow of the 

skic*, 143. 
LvCoxTC. Joseph. A singnlar optical 

pbeoooMOon. 4<>l. 644. 
LK.'oDtc's physical stndie* of Lake Ta- 

bo«.3M. 
Ledum La:i£>!:ca. 353. 
Lre, W. S.. oo pjwu of New Jersey. a»5. 
Leg. iBorpc»^j^ of. i:L 334. 
Lnbrrr. J. B.. '^o pLant-Bf* in Montana 

aod bakM^ 4K. 
Le4dy. J., award -. f Lyei! aMdal bo. 309 ; on 
D)cty<>p%iGca. 3M: on fMril bones from 
L^s^ikaa. Si: on moiL&skt ^f New 

Jersey. 367: oo pnrastoc worm*. 387: 
on Pc£&asSAM«m pn^jtciitKm, 667; 
c-3 reoASM of frjtaL, Bsaaaajs, %M; on 
Ser^f^iA iMSMh-at. 5M: «« tape-worma, 
«f6. -jc t^s ore Stjb Issk^-ca. tSf*. 
Ln* irter-vaoRa.' sit%*e/roio^»ts^ station, 

743; K£T<»r. pc^ar •&»<»:« a;. 4M. 
Lecc C. W.. oa. CVsaiec*ia» oC staice 

Is4aad.l4i. 
"LertM "BB 1 1. yrwavA^, Ztk. 
ljtf*>i0tvmM a*rr;9s. IBL 
Le7»» si^.G*. ac . lUMpsicria. W7. 
Le*qi«rc«x. Le«t. avsri «f Baan«v ^wmtt- 

L I — iig''s jvseimj is ^'Tifrs. 4n. 

Leo. W. 1r^ «■ tfsKS «f OXBtwn TM20jt 



Lewis, H. C. A near view of Krakaton 
in eruption, with extracts from the log 
of the barque William H. Besse, 702. 

Lewis, H. C, 298 ; on fossils in triassic red 
shale, 295; on phosphorescent lime- 
stone, 267. 

Lewis, W., on resilience of steel, 295. 

Dck observatory, weather at, 5^6. 

IJebie's statue, repair of iiOnry to, 272. 

IJfe, beginning of, 292. 

LlKlit, lectures on, 765. 

Lightning protection, 160. 

Li Hum auratum, 32; Canadense, 32; can- 
dldum, 32. 

Lima excavata, 657. 

Liroax agrestis, 236. 

Limestone, phoitphon.>scent, 267; ripple- 
marks in. 274. 

Limnaea peregra, 425. 

Limnophysa bulimoides, 32^1. 

Liraopsis minuta, 657. 

IJmpi'U, 166. 

Linguistic researches, 759. 

LIngula acuminata, 137; Nor^'oodi, 325. 

Linnaean society. New York, 294, 366, 
5.V2. 

Limner's First annual report on the ir^ju- 
riuus insects of New York, reviewed, 
234. 

Linura perenne, 253. 

Liopeltis vemalls, 256. 

Lispognutus Thompsoni, 713. 

Literature, claims of, 745. 

Little, \V. C, on conditions of growth of 
the wheat-rnst, 457. 

Llama, image of, from Peru, 743. 

Lobster-fishery, 722. 

LocaUzaUon in brain, iU. 484. 

Lockwood's Electricity, reviewed, 729. 

locomotive, fireless, 612. 

Lomvia arra, 294. 

Lonchocephalus calciferus, 137. 

London exhibition of hygiene, 744 ; health 
exhibition, 799; society of arts, 799; 
Albert medal of, 802; society of biblical 
archeology. 111, 239. 

Longevity in spider, 4. 

1.ouii>\ille electriclight exposition, 14. 

LovBRiNti, J., address of, on presenting 
the Rumford medals to Professor Row- 
land. 356. 

Loxia leucoptera, 216. 

Locapina crenulata, .374. 

Lucas, F. A., on English sparrow. 494. 

Ludlow, W., on crushing-strength of ice, 
367. 

LrLL, E. P. Naval officers and the coast- 
survey, 86. 

Lnpinus arcticus, 253. 

Lycopodium annotinum, 253; complana- 
tum, 253. 

Lycosa riparia, 685; egg-cocoons of, 685. 

Lydtin, Fleming, and Van llertsen's I^p- 
agation of tuberculosis, reviewed, 634. 

Lyell medal, 209. 

Lyle, I>. .\., on life-saving service, 267. 

Lynn. W. T.. on ancient eclipses, 637. 

Lyomeri, 504. 

M. Electric time-signals, 50. 

M. P. club, *24U. 

McOay, on rfaomUe modification of speis- 

kobalt. 266. 
Md'ooK, U. C. How egg-cocoons are 

made bv a Lycosa, 685. 
McCook. 11. C, on carpenter-ant. 209; on 

orb-weavers, 396; on Segeatria canites, 

354; on thatching-ant, 423. 
McDonald, M., on movements of flsbea, 

721. 
Mac7aBi.AXE, J. Evidence of unrecorded 

tomadoca, ^M<. 
Mc^irss. C. K. A novel magnetic engten, 

MaeOrecor, J. G., on aqneons solatlOBS 

of sulphate of copper, 675. 
Machinery, removing. 6fM. 
McKay. L. W., on phon>boric acid, lOT. 
MarkwtMe. G., <m tracMal organs of In- 



Mncion Mraatiaen. 293. 

VcMrmcs. J. P. Tbe cranial rfba «€ 



SCIENCK — INDEX TO VOLUME HI. 



809 



llpMiirrlcb, J* l\, on oataolcify af AmU 

Mftcoun. .Lr an funiflt 1ft4, Beit ttlbo Bur* 

.,,*. ^ 1 \v '1 MnoOUU»«t. 

.irChlunifo, 215. 

m, «J5. 

i tiiUilUalinit, 267. 

-//. 274. 

^lu uii'i •'Lci'nborg'M HitcterlA. re- 

-'■ '-"■ •- " — n. TSMJ. 

the tmder- 



Mkruiam, (\ IL ntbttriiRttriK ntaromnla, 

Aid. 
M«rrUiTi, n, K-» on woailchwok, lUJT. 



• r 



•tcnry of, 42*. 



II] >o«l atlA*» review e<]» 232; 

Z<.M , revlewinl, T^, 

Mj4nii i^tit, 2t»7; rtitnaln* In 

flOfl; lilWrfmilntf, iW, 



. 3*8. 

MuriMiri'.'! iiriiiLT luiiu^Lry tii ii.i{iui|lk, 3AP» 

I llAilt''* lllntory of thn fM^i4Jnct^A| reviewed, 

fio. 
f Uftrluv rc»iiirch m Enirlantit •titie of, 667. 
I Mii.rk, K. n , . oti .1 Amt'tftown lortiiidoDa, 80t, 
, ICAra» out4fr MioltlU* of, 104; roUtton 
•nod of^ATiL 
miUen, ubAai-valory rtt, «H*7. 
H, O, C\, on new mrid «trang« tltnciwiur, 
iti* IW\ 01} new Jtimpmlc dlriOMan»t 
Ut. fi42, 
MaRTISI, H. X. Modern phy«ioloKteal 
labor»lorie«, vrh&t mid why lti«y «re, 

llftrtln'* Klem«at*ry pliynlolog)*, r*- 

vk'WHd« 4tf. 
MiwcitriV KloctHeity nod m^gnPtUm, re- 

but Id era to lb I- I ^, 
^|lM«M-hit«tnt- »v :y,f/^ 
SO. ' new 
bui . Moni- 
tor :;\ i«6, 

'2f>' . nuT. T.IS, TWi',, 

fliiiBpn, pngr»phlciij m*p of. 

42T, \^'' 

I IffiflUMSont r -, 305. 

^Kalbctniitic. vldng, 

melhoUi'f llmir* Ifi , ;ui ., ii;,., lUi.i ; leaub- 
tntir. (iiiMhod of raltJB in. 47n, .SA7, A46. 
Miiitb«w. li. P., on fttuna of St. John 
lirotip. fi7»l ; on vUlagi- of aUjnc iiff, am, 
L V»tt1lli I<t»a, lavft'llow from, ilL tlu, 
rlCcAD •oIht ilmo, definition of, 32^* 
r KoaL, preM^rviitJou of^ 74.*l. 
} lf«chanical cnglo«eirt, raeeiiQg of, At PUti> 
' btirpti.?'^. 
^^ - < (jODiU' «oi]f£td de Teyler, 4A7. 

rn ardaland, oil. 
> . rf»»t !n tterhn, 772; mnwRDin, 

'!(t*etlr»n of cotDparnUvr 

Medir tf, ftfnofi^ C1itneBc,73!ll, 

Hc^fl1i-rni.rj4-^Fm lower Ihiui tbe Atittnllc, 

M. 
M«»«baft, T., on action of ptanr* r.n U:^, 554 ; 

on blet dlim^ of I 1,665; 

unCotilutri fna<vi -jitted 

bmnchv., fi'M ..rj 

Has. , . 

lefH 

on I 

|ll«f»l i)li..342. 

-n from, <«. 541. 
"^ I criifd of, 'iBT. 

" '^. 773; dUuno««, eor- 



, *»«1i. 



J.i. 



; of S^ortb At^ 

, new, 734; Ut- 

2m; service, 

, rrvlttwoc|.794. 

r.itlve« of ^11 
NewKni^tmud 
iiTid study of, 

>, 4au, 473. M7; 



!.»., j.iA; Letdyl*a35, 7ST; 



MpV'-hih sKiviJUi 

■ubdlvi^n. fla'n 
Mlnmf Klivipr, inouDd« of, 2»4. 
Mtr ' Noiih Oftrollnft, 30S. 

Ml 

Ml y of plAnt«, 602. 

Micro- Mcriji. iiiMtNCtorDm, 2iUl, 
Mkru>fjet*;r. ik>w, 739, 
Mleronierut, crmikAt ribi of, 644; "al- 

muideH, 242, 644, 7'^: oatootogy of, 5»2, 

ifl. 749. 
MI''r>»-"<<oplt>n! IttvecUgaUouB In butAQlcnl 

],,' r < . :u. 
M . Aracricou Modety of» 4f»0. 

AJ;. pdB, 158, 

ilinuii H I rii^niatni of lb« alf, mrlewed, 

Milan socleiy for comm«roliil czplomtloQ 

of AMttA, aoo. 

MitbAiue, B., on tbv CniTsus expedition, 

3S7. 
Milk« chiiDffet Id, during boUliiig, 367, 
Mii.i.KR, lil DeKfne** In white cmm, v^a. 
Mfni4.*tioin jn Inorgmnlc nnttire, AlH, 
Mtmulut car'linftlis, 236; LvwUll» 23A; 

Intent, '23^^, 
Mind, rt8«; dawn of, <VW. 
MliH-ml. now, from V "g* 

ilj TonnepiMSff, iK< -d 

HtaU*** AM; w»terh, 
MltieniioiTV' of CV^nndJii. 7 '•:'». 
Mlii>'ml«of AInNka, 2»7; In ITtAhtMT* 
Mine*, ventilation of, 47U. 
Mlnliiir-cngr^ncer^, American InBttttiie of, 

MintuHiotA Inke*, (39r>; actadcrmy of nuturftf 
nclvncca, 4M, AOS ; ptaniit« 4v>o. 

Ml Nt*T. C. £5. Development nf the thyroid 
and tliymut gland* and the lon^te, 725; 
morphulogj' of the pcdvie iind lejK. ifl. 324. 

Ill not, C ti., on growth and dcnth, 105. 



MlsBlonariea among MoAimnz^t 112. 
llMOuri, b 
Utm, &56. 



MlMouri, barn owfj 



110; upper, tya- 



Uotlutea, eatalogo* of, AlO; uew oIiubIB- 
oilloD of, 730; Scfarenk'ii oollccUos of, 

MoUiiakt of Now JemMv. aA7. 
&lunarhmi tropiciili». hL 7A2. 
M on e««» u n i flu rA , 3f53« 

Mofit ^*oftT if We^t Indiea, HL T52. 
M. , 1»J7. 

M' Mar, 4»i. 

XI > .4niiiH, 25. 

MontAii:^ , ii*^. 

lionlBli'i ^^771. 

I I tie welt mound, 637. 

Mujfc, K. K., uu t43«tJng etiroDOiinet«n, 

A41. 
MoralR. theory of, 360. 
Morebeita e»culvnu, 165. 
MoiiKLAKD, S. T. Inertia, 6^. 
Morrli. U. G., on atCDOipbvtlo vlwaior, 

404, 
Morrlikon, on oomtl of lltS, SiT* 
Uoaavaof Aluka»»ft. 



Motor, »'-''» I Hraf^eAfbon, 40JJ; <^ufr«ot» 

tlOrT 

Mr>n> I, 637; of RanawbA tmi* 

l<'>.''- 

Mound but Jd em, ntlJiUoo of, to blatorlO 

IndiJinH, ti&H. 

Irtii. . 

of iui-'j'ipv"4[nn v.tiiiL-y, ._„ii., ■ Mnoidi 

fbeii, 730; apuo)«hapt'd ortiiiiiietitM 

from. 4:44, 
Mount Hi'Mirt Uland, GnN^n-Mounulii 

rnllwny on, 415. 
&luunl St. i\ti^U9tiD, voieanlc craptton of, 

UL IMA. 
Mount dhaKtji, anceut of, 27; giiurier* an, 

•jtWr irtH|. *tf, \2'i\ anvtftbllhy of. iw mtt^ 

■ - ' '■ -■' ■ ■' ■• 'fW 



•ity ftnd nittgnetltia, ro* 



Mttf^l' 
vicv, 

Uii*^ ■ - '■ -'-■■ ' •-*---t 

cm)'- 

Cnii I 

of. r,i... ,u.,. 

Mii*eun)«, opentn/r of, Mi eveninga, 230. 
Mufile «nd eitttmlcai elcfuenla, i*«>lAtloo of* 

607. 
MiiKical pitch, 61^7. 
Mnnk-ox, discovery of «kull of* 4>Q8« 
Munkral. cnniiTuroiii habit* of, 46T,tkel 

tonn. I'^V. 
Mvtful" Tl-nryll, 4m. 
^' ' " ' " ' robattua, 2f»5. 

. . -.S, 
iMviiiMri •■aMT^unuMinp, a73; aubarciittluaf 
648. 

N.,G. A. T^ * 

NapbtUalfti 

NapU'ii, KOw 

N.tlal ob«ervur.»r V, .i;>tj. 

Nalica dupIlLMtn^ 267; heiv*, 267; ob«o- 

let»i, 267. 
Natlotmi :i' * " " • * 

April »*- 

read ul, 

agricultural i-xpvrlTnriiii.-«iaiu>rj». 'i*h. 
Natural biaiory. AmerfoAo tetl-booka 

of, 271 ; fiKurv*, proUuellon of, (ft. 443; 

mtmeumti, 191 ; of man, 4<i5. 
Naturalioi, bUKlneita of, 44. 
NatumliKtn Hicjliuiio, 612. 
Natornll(ii»> blogmphiiiN of, d6l ; toeeilng 

of, 1. 
Naucrates doctor, ^'24. 
Nautical uimaoju:, '^8. 

NautilograpsQB tn 

Nautilus poropil ill tljc»lu«, US. 

Naval obsiervalory. .^^i'- i 6, naral oh* 

iiervftlory. 
Nivnl r>ftl<'fTS und roast>*arvey. 86. 
; if A, 657 ; cusptdiitA, 657. 
Tf Kkhmecm, 60». 
at^rails, 264 ; miioulntus, 264. 
>i-l-iiin, i: , on Nalni obnervatory, lt&6, 
Nclumbtunj I^keflll, 4d4 ; hiU^um, 4U; 

tcnullolitirn, 434. 
KumalocnrcinuH gnicilipen, 716. 
Neo«j|uma bnthypbiiuin, 624. 
Neptitnus Sayl, 1 13. 
Nerve lone, 210, 
Nesster reiigent. nse of. In ftlr-nnalyaes, 463. 
Nellion cnrolinenels, 'ill.' 
Kultle^, use of Hi' 
NSWSERHT^J. 8. ft gvuloglOAl ( 

hlsiory, il>2; tt. irte as f 

lor* in modem ' 
Newberry, J. S., ii along tb« i 

line of Nortbr. iIixmm1,«8«: ' 

work of, in Col, .4112. 

New BrUtiswick -t of* 610; 

naturalhlBtorv "'^'* 

NEWt'OMa, fc*. " 1 U>!o. 

ftcopo, i7^ liftO; >unt 

ing reflect* iTH, : on a 

llbemlcMli. ri^-.Mii I, i-rnalna* 

tlona of - LK, 4i»6. what Is • 

liberal edi 



810 



SCIENCE. — INDEX TO VOLUME III 



^ew-Kiigland flsh and game laws, IM; 
manufacturei-8* Institute, cntaloffue of, 
263; socletv for obBorvation and study 
of meteorology , 743. 

New Hebrides, 270; vovage among, 112. 

New Idria district, geology of, 6«5. 

New-Tersey cities, water-supply of, 700; 
geological survey, ill. 625; molluslcs, 
267; plant-life, 3»5; sute agricultural 
experiment stations, report of, for 18S3, 
reviewed, 492; topographical map of, 
60J. 

New Mexico, explorations in, 670. 

New Houth WhIcs, antimony ores in, 639; 
coHl-meaHuret) of, 42r); prize of Lln- 
naean society of, 638; prize of Itoyal 
society of, 470. 

New. York academy of sciences, 165, 640, 
642 : letjritlatiire, attitude of, toward ar- 
tificial dairy-products, 499; microscopi- 
cal wocietv, 797; paleontology of, 421; 
rainfall of, 421 ; silver deposlu of, 737 ; 
state survey, 421. 

Niagara Falls, cantilever-bridge at, ill. 
672. 

Niagara formation in Indiana, 637; gorge 
as a chronometer, 556. 

Niger expedition. 742. 

Nitre, formation of, 467. 

Nitrogen, loss of, from arable soils, 17. 

Nomenclature, zodlogical, 241. 

North- .\merican ornithology, 294. 

North Atlantic, meteorological charts of, 
UL 6:)4. 

North-Carolina mica-mines, 208; olivine 
rocks of, 486; phosphates in, 31; to- 
pography of, 391. 

North-west passage, 747; territory, Cana- 
dian. 647. 

North wind of California, 334. 

Northern transcontinental survey, 114, 
140. 

NoiTRsE, J. K. The Greely search, 533. 

NourseV American exploration in the 
^ice-zones, 766. 

Novaia Zemlia, crossing of, 16; polar 
station at, 468. 

yuoBNT, E. Synchronism of geological 
formations, :>3. 

Nummulltes from Florida, 607; Will- 
coxli, 736. 

Nummulltic formation in Florida, 607. 

Nuphar pumilum, 768. 

Nyctea scatuliaca, 294. 

Nye, Harold B. Remains of a prehistoric 
tree. ill. -.Wl. 

<)., E. Ropes of ice, 375. 

Observatiotii". doubtful, 26. 

Observatory, Cincinnati, publications of, 
498; at Her«^ny, Hungary, report of, re- 
viewed. 664 ; at Marseilles. 697 ; Paris, 
report of, 641 ; royal, at Brussels, 465. 

Oceancurrents. 336; study of, 343. 

Oceanic oscillations, 341. 

Odium, E., on level of upper OtUwa, 107. 

Ohio, barn-owls in, 31; floods, 214, 227, 
371; cause of, .>28; difficulty of pre- 
venting, 385; meteorological bureau, 
801; mounds, exploration of, 774, 799; 
valley, drift-margin In, man, 464. 

Ohm, determination of, 10, 56; standard 
value of, 669. 

Oil, action of. on water, 638. 

Old Providence Island, 669. 

Oleomargarine, 613. 

Olivella btplicata, 374. 

Olivbr, J. E. A singular optical phe- 
nomenon, 474, 568. 

Olivine rocks of North Caroli'.a, 486. 

Ondatra zibethicus, 294. 

Onociea sensibiiis, 4.33, 532. 

Onopordon acanthium, 395. ' 

Ophlbolus doliatus, 255. 

Oporornis agilis, 216. 

Optical phenomenon, 275, 404, 474, 501, 
563, 644, 704; telegraph, 468. , 

Orb-weavers, 396. ; 

Orbitoidcs ephippium, 736. \ 

Orcutt, C. R. Pian^dIstrib»^Uon in 
Lower California, 4; popular fiamea of 
California flowers, 644; stoneHi placed 
in pine-trees by birds, 805. \ 



Orcynns thjrnnus, 740. 

Oregon, fulgurite fh>m, 735. 

Organisms uf air, 518. 

Ornithological congress, 308 ; of "Vienna, 
670. 

Ornithologists' union, American, 241. 

Ornithology, North- American, 294. 

Orthls impressa, 874; Tioga, 875; tul- 
liensis, 374. ' 

Orthoceras elegans, 126; pleurotomum, 
127 ; unguis, 126. 

Orthoceratites truncatus, 124. 

Osar. origin of, 404. 

OsBORN, II. F. Illusive memory, 274, 
375. 

OflBOKN, Henry L. The Johns Hopkins 
marine laboratory, iU. 7; the water- 
pores of the lamelll branch foot, ia\ 

Osborne, J. G., on the Pocaliontas mine 
disaster, 552. 

Ostrich, domestication of, 112; farming, 
670. 

Ottawa fleld-natnralists* club, 26, lu7, 164, 
23.'), 3:)7, 394. 528 ; transactions of, 466. 

Ottawa, level of, 107; microscopical so- 
ciety, 2i) ; valley, deer of, 394. 

Otto gas-engine, 497. 

Ovibos moschatus, 468. 

Owen, Richard, 211. 

Owls, barn, in Ohio, 31. 

Oxalic acid, effect of, on blotting-paper, 
466. 

Oxidizability of iron and steel, 470. 

Oxus. channel of, 296, 463. 

Oyster beds, Connecticut. 720 ; crop, 
threatened failure of, 215; enemies 
and parasites of, 618; industry, 720. 

Pachydesma crassatelloides, 373. 

Pacific, red skies in, 216. 

Packard's Briefer zodlogy, re\-iewcd, 50. 

Paleozoic high tides, 473. 

Palms, 629. 

Panjab. legcnis of, 28. 

Panjabis, proper names of. 111. 

Panther-Creek coal-basin, 690. 

Papilio, 212, 298. 

Paradozides acadicus, 676; lamellatus, 
676. 

Parafllne shale deposits of Servia, 771. 

Parallax measurements, 640; determina- 
tion of stelUr, 456, 612. 

Parasitic worms, 367. 

Paris geographical society, 426; observa- 
tory, report of. 641. 

Parker's botanical collection, 425. 

Parker, W. K., lectures on mammalian 
descent by, 297. 

Parniissia fimbriata, 253 ; palnstris, 253. 

I'urrish, K., on efl\;ct of sea- water on iron, 
693. 

Parry, C. C. on I*lnus Torrej'ana, 24. 

Parus atricapiilus. 552. 

Passer domesticus. 494. 

Passcrculus princeps, 294. 

Pasteur, Louis, reviewed, ill. 546; on hy- 
drophobia, 744. 

Patents on inventions, 522. 

Patula asteriscus, %\b. 

Pahl, H. M. Atmospheric waves from 
Krakatoa, 531; the unit of time con- 
troversy, 430. 

Pa\ul, H. M.. on Krakatoi atmospheric 
waves, 5i)4. 

Paving, wood-blocks for, 556. 

Pbabodt, p. G. Janet's Theory of mor- 
als, 360. 

Peabody academy of science, Salem, 393, 
464. 

Peabody museum of American archaeol- 
ogy, call for funds for, 774; meeting of 
trustees of, 799; sixteenth and seven- 
teenth annual reports of, 668 ; work of, 
287. 

Pearce. R. See Hillebrand. W. F., and 
Pearce, R. 

Pearson. F. M., on Tennessee mineral 
springs. 493; on Tenn ess ee Umber, 234. 

Pecteu pes-felis, 658 ; septemnidiatus, 657 ; 
vitreus, 657, 

Pedicularis flammea, 253. 

Pelecanus carbo, 404. 

Pelvis, morphology of, iU. 344. 



Pendulum, fireely oscillating, 424 ; gyration 
of vibrating, ill. 776. 

Pknhallow, D. p. Some peculiarities 
of plant-growth, UL 354. 

Penhal low's Vegetable histolog>', re- 
viewed, 602. 

PsNNOOK. H. W. A clock for sending 
out electric signals once an hour or 
oftencr, ill. 243. 

Pennsylvania anthracite, 310. 

Pennsylvania university, annual course of 
lectures at, 211; biolugical department 
of, 141, 215. 217, 584, 617, 637. 773. 

Penrohb, C. H. The critical state of 
gases. 98. 

Pentacheles crucifer. 714. 

Pentastomum proboscideum, 667. 

Pentstemon confertui>, 2>3; glaucus, 253. 

Peptone in solution, determination of, 554. 

Perca americana, 532. 

Perekop Isthmus, 270. 

Periodic law of clicmlcal elements, 336. 

Personal notes. 111. 

Petermann's Geoifraphlschc mittheilung- 
en,555; for 188:i, 4lo. 

Petroleum industry of Baku, :t69; origin 
of, 526; vapors, action of, 466. 

PeuciHlanum amblguum, 236. 

Phaiacrocorax carbo, 216. 

Phallus impudicus. 545. 

Philadelphia academy of natural sciences, 
209, 236, 267, 294, ;i34, 367, 396, 423, 5.53, 
6<>6, 637, 666. 694, 736; lectun^ at, 465; 
engineers' club. 295. 367, 4'J4. 552, 606, 
693; Franklin instituUs 51, 108, 266; 
numismatic and antiquarian society, 
524.606. 

Pbillips, W. a. Arrow-poinuat Rvans- 
ton, III., UL 273. 

Pbiioiogical society, new dictionary of, 
527. 

Phooa concolor, 423 : foetida, 479. 

Pboladomya arata, 658; 

Phosphate deposits, .337; in Alabama, 
586; in North Carolina, 31. 

Phosphorescent fluorite, 640; limestone, 
267. 

Photography, application of, in producing 
natural-history figures, UL 443; astro- 
nomical, 167; figuring fossil leaves by, 
769 ; spectrum, 699, 726 ; vertical camera 
in. 672. 

Photometric work, 612. 

Phylloxera in Hungary, 697. 

Phymatodes thoracicus, 235. 

Physical constanu, 373. 

Physics, principles of, 6:J1. 

Physiology, elementary, 49. 

Pickering, £. C, on measuring colors, 
738 ; photometric work of, 612. 

Pir.KEKiNa, W. H. New photographic 
lab^iratory of Massachusetts institute of 
toclinology. i//.180. 

Picoides arcticus, 216. 

Picus pubescens, 494. 

Pig. half-star\'ed, 564. 

Pilot-charts, 343 ; of North Atlantic Ocean 
for February. 212; for April, 496. 

Pinches, on Babylonian art, 111. 

Pinus Jeffreys!, 305; I.jimbertiana, 236; 
lophosperroa. 24 ; syivestns, phenol in, 
526; Torreyann, 24. 

I*isidlum pusillum, 42*>; ultrvnontanum, 
32.1. 

Planets, discovery of. 370; small, names 
of, 470. ^ 

Planorbis aequiumbilicatus, 145 : comeus, 
425; nautileus, 425. 

Plant analyses, 425; distribution, 4; 
growth, peculiarities of, iU. 354; life in 
Montana and Dakota, 495; of Minne- 
sota, 495 : protection of, 609, 712 ; rare, 
768; thawing ice, 554. 

Plantd's Researches on electricity, re- 
viewed, 549. 

Platyceras, 325; roinutissima, 1.37. 

Plectropomus crassiceps, 628. 

Pleuracanthus, 645; laevissimus, 420. 

Plotus anhinga, 475. 

Pocahontas mine disaster, 552. 

Pogge* P>ot. death of, 670. 

Point Barrow, meteorological sution e(» 
UL 478. 



\ 



SCIENCE. — INDEX TO VOLUME IIL 



811 



Poland, bone-caves of, 489. 

Poliu- commlMiou, inUtriiHtional, IIU; ex- 
pedition, 800 ; exploration congrctttt, 7tJ9 ; 
■tatioua, Kuasian, 468. 

Polemoniiim humile, 253; reptaua, 768. 

Political Dcience, claims uf, 748. 

I'oUution, riviTA, prevention act, 465. 

Polygonum aviculare,253; vivip:iruni,2«>3. 

Polype laricis, 234. 

Pons-Brooks comet, ///. 67. 

Poor, dwellingH for, 464. 

Portanre fonnatiou* of New York, 421. 

Portland (Ore.) natural Mcience ai^tocia- 
Uon, 297. 

Po»trofl1ce mapft, 696. 

Potentiila argeuu^a, 395 ; fruticoi»a, 253. 

Potorlum Hiicheiirto, 253. 

PotMdam fauna at Saratoga, 136. 

Pott«, K., on Crlittatella. 667; on freMli- 
water Apongo«, 335, 737; on «pongeM 
from Florida, 637 ; on Vrnatelia graeiliit, 
423. 

Pottftville conglomerate, ///. 12. 

Poughkeep»ie, VaHHar brothen*' inHtitute 
of. 51, 237. 

Poulacn's Botanical niicrochemiritry, re- 
viewed, t)02. 

PowBLL, J. W. The fundamental theory 
of dynamic geology, 511 ; on the ittate of 
the Interior of the earth, 480. 

Prairien, adaptability of, for artificial for- 
estry, 438. 

Prasopora Selwyni, 25. 

l^tt, VV. H., on tlathead vkulli* from Ar- 
kannaii mound*, 737. 

Pray, T., Jun., on cotton-fibre, 5S3. 

Precipitation, 302. 

Precocious races, 339. 

Prehistoric tree. ///. 347. 

Prefer, W., on physiology of the embryo, 
7*1. 

Prime meridian, universal, 1. 

Primitive communities, 780. 

Primula t^ibirica, 253. 

Princeton scienee club, 107, 165, 266. 

Prizes of U.ti. naval inHtitute, 8:t ; of HoHton 
ttociety of natural history, 610; of Lin- 
naean society of New South Walei*. 0:iS ; 
of Royal Hociety of New South Wulei*, 
470 ; for sanitary service, 4»)7 ; of Frencli 
aca<lemy, 661». 

Productus giganteuii, :u), 60; punctutui*, 
3.3. flO; semireticulatUH. (io. 

ProfeKHor's time, value of, 428. 

Prosser, ('. S., on silver doponits of New 
York, 737. 

IVotoxoa, BUtschli'M, 34<», 670. 

Pseudohyalina exigua, 236. 

Paeudosita bidentJita, 495. 

Psychological questions, 426. 

Psychology, etfinological, 204. 

Ptinus rutilus, 127. 

Ptychaspis speciosus, 137. 

Ptychogaster formosus, 714. 

Puccinia graminls, 457. 

Pueraria Thunbergeana, 493. 

Pulex irritans, 207. 

Putnam, K. \V., on human under-jaw 
found in Trenton gravels, 605. 

Pyramidella minu^cula, 658. 

Pyrgula nevadensis, 468. 

Pyruia rotundifolia, 253; secunda, 253. 

Queen Cliarlottc Islands, foKsils fnmi, 612. 
Quercus agrifolia, 4 ; Kmoryi, 4, 305 ; pun- 
gens, 4; tinctoria, 335. 
Quicksilver de|K>sitft of California, 365. 

Kabies, prevention of, by inoculation, 611. 
Races In France, anthropometric elements 

of, 465. 
Radiant heat, 32. 88. 171, 5S6. 
Rail-roaking, 761. 
Railways, explosions on, 516. 
Rain, artificial production of, 229, 276 ; by 

gun-firing, 214. 
Rainfall, amount and fiuctuation of, 497; 

at Amherst, 431; beyond the Missis. 

sippl, records of, 471; of New York, 

421; in San Diego, 498. 
Ramsay, W., on the critical state of gases, 

98. 
Rana CaWsbyana, 66, 67. 



Randolph, N. A., on changes in milk dur- 
ing boiling, 367; on peptone in solution, 
554. 

Rangifer caribou, 394. 

Rauunculaceae, Canadian, 675. 

Ranunculus acris, 359; flammula, 253. 

Rathbun, R.. on lobster-fishery, 722. 

Rawlinson, R., on drinking-water, 640. 

Ray, p. H. The U.S. meteorological sU- 
tlon at Point Barrow, ill. 478. 

liecurvirostraamcricana, 216, 503. 

Reflections, experiments with, ill. 616. 

Reflectors, new method of mounting, 320. 

Regulussatrapa, 494. 

Relchert, C. B., 29S. 

Renisen's Theoretical chemistry, 60. 

iieptiles, check-list of, 264. 

Researches, publication of results of, »>43. 

Rest, gospel of, 56. 

Retrospect and prospect. 5. 

Revue colouiale et Internationale, 743. 

Rhachianectes glaucus, 342. 

Rhapidophyllum hystrix, 629. 

Rhea fibre, treatment of, 341. 

Rhinoceros tychorhinus, 786. 

Rhododendron Californiciim, 236; maxi- 
mum, 236. 

Rhythmic variations, 503. 

Ribesrubrum,253. 

Rice, H. J., on destruction of Saproleg- 
nia, 719. 

Rick, J. M., and Johmson, W. W. The 
use of the method of limits in mathe- 
matical teaching, 430. 

Richards, R. iT. Economy of fuel in 
iron manufacture, 358; the hot blast in 
making iron, 72. 

liidgway, on action of water in modern 
turbine, 694. 

RiLKV, C. V. Entomography of Hirmo- 
neura, 488; silk-culture in the colonies, 
562; the use of naphthaline as an in- 
seciicide. 455. 

Ripple-marks, 172, 274, ill. 375. 

Kivktt-Carnac, II. Influence of winds 
on tree-growth, 114. 

Kizzolo, quaternary formation of, 268. 

Robinson, J. R., on his steam-boiler, 
79. 

Rochester, appearance of cyclone cloud 
at, ill. 304. 

Rock investigation, microscopic, 551 ; 
suites, eduaitioual, 234; crystuliine, 
origin of, .^)03, 674; of I^Assen's Peak, 
5.->l. 

Roekwood, on mutual relations of conies, 
165. 

Romer*s Bone-caves of Poland, reviewed, 
489. 

litjgers, \V. A., on solution of perfect- 
screw problem, 724. 

Roiti, A., on Hall phenomenon in liquids, 
360. 

Romalea microptcra, 33. 

Romanes, Q. J., on tite dawn of mind, 
639. 

Rome, national library at, 526. 

Root, Elihu, tJiblet to, 467. 

iiosny's Codex Cortesianus, reviewed, 
458. 

Ross, on history of latid-liolding, 786. 

Rotalia globosa, 216 ; globulosii, 295. 

Rotation of earth, 275; experiments, 716; 
period of Mercury, 297 ; terrestrial, 503. 

Rothrock, J. T., on structure of violet, 
666. 

Rowland. 11. A., address of, on receiving 
the Rumford metlals. 256. 

lUiv, Protap (.-hundra, 6o9. 

lioYcE, J. After-images, 321 ; (Jones's 
Biogen, 661. 

Rubus arctieus, 253; Chamaemorus, 253. 

Rumford medals, presentation of, to Pro- 
fessor Rowland, ill. 256. 

Runeberg, R. J., 268. 

Russell, II. C, on artificial production of 
rain, 229. 

RasHBLL, I. C. Lakes of tlie (Jreat Basin, 
322. 

Russell, I. C, on glaciers in (-alifornia, 
208; on volcanic dust, 555. 

Russia in Asia, chart of, 640; Si^ientific 
work in, 640. 



Russian geographical society, 868, 608; 
medal of, 771 ; meteorological stations, 
112, iU. 117, 368; polar expedition, 800; 
polar stations, 468 ; surveys, 698 ; univer- 
sities, activity of, 756. 

Russo-Perslau frontier, 270. 

Rust, cause of, 426. 

Rtdsr, J. A. The pedunculated lateral- 
line orvans of Gastrostomus, ///. 5. 

Ryder, J. A., on embryology of teleosts, 
80: on sunival of flsL embryos. 721 ; on 
viviparous fish, 769. See also Gill, T., 
and Ryder, J. A. 

J5. Transmission of long or inaudible 

sound-waves, 474. 
8., F. J. A singular optical phenomenon, 

•275, 474. 
Sabal Adansonl, 629; palmetto, 629; ser* 

rulata, 629. 
Safford, T. H. The use of the method 

of limits in mathematical teaching, 305. 
St. John group, fauna of, 676. 
St. Johns, geological museum at, 556. 
St. Louis society of microscopists, 640. 
St. Petersburg academy of sciences, 769 ; 

society of naturalists, 744. 
Salisbury. R. I). Aeolian ripple-marks, 

172. 
Salix cordata, 294; glauca, 253; Sitchen- 

sis, 253. 
Salmon, D. E. I'he discovery of the 

germ of swine-plague, 155. 
Salpa, 554. 
Samia ceanothi, 583; Cecropia, 583; Co. 

iumbia, 583; Cynthia, 58:1. 
Sampson, F. A. Barn-owls in Missouri, 

116. 
San Diego natural history societv. 24, 464; 

rainfall In, 498. 
San Francisco, earthquake- waves at, 

114. 
Sau Juan Teotihuacan, ruins of, 52:{. 
Sappho, observations of, 470. 
Saprolegnia, 719. 
Sarcodes sanguinea, 335. 
Saroknt, C. 8. (ieorge Entfelmann, 

portrait, 405. 
Sargus vulgaris, 242. 
Sarpedon scabrosus, 235. 
Saturn, markings upon, 272; obbervatious 

of, 608. 
Saunders, S. 8., 772. 
Saxifraga leucanthemlfolia, 253; tricuspi- 

data, 253. 
Saxon sun-dials, 526. 
Scalops aquaiicus, 538. 
Scaphander puncto-striatus, 657. 
Scaphiopus solltarius, 66. 
Scaphirbynchops platyrhynchus, 587. 
Scapholeberis anguiala, 494. 
Schmidt, E., ou relation of mound-buihi. 

ers to historic Indians, 658. 
Schmidt, J. F. J., 398. 
Schrenk's collection of Mollusca, 340. 
ScHWATKA, F. The Alaska military re- 

connoissancc of 1883, ill. 220, 246; an 

arctic vessel and her equipment, ill, 

505 ; Icebergs and ice-floes, ifl. 535 ; the 

Middle Yukon, ///. 677, 706; wintering 

in the Arctic, ill. 566. 
Schwatka, Fred'k, 771. 
Science and fidth, borderUtnd of, 131; 

claims of, 745; electrleal, progress of, 

258; InstrueUon In, in England, 269; 

teaching in America, 241. 
Sciences, historv of, 50. 
Scientific association, international, 245; 

club, Manhattan, Kansas, 208 ; liypoth. 

eses of the ignorant, 301 ; instruction 

In German universities, 399; linguistics, 

364; method in historical study, 564; 

names, 32, 87 ; researches in Baltic. Ill ; 

theorists, self-sufllclent, 472; writing, 

style in, 634. 
Sciurus nlger, 747. 

Scopelus maderensls, 625; MtiUeri, 628. 
Scou, W. B., on Enteledon, 266; on the 

lamprev, 107. 
Scott's Morphology, i viewed, 332. 
Screw problem, 724.' 
Scribner's Wher' did life begin, re- 

viewed, 292. , 



812 



SCIENCE. — INDEX TO VOLUME IIL 



Bi'.uiidvr, S. P., on muskrat Akeletous, 
731«. 

t^cudilor. S. II., uu Anihracoraartu* from 
ArkaiiHiiH, 207. 

ricynunullihi ('arpvnteri, 713. 

Sea-wutcr, vftWl of, on Iron, 603. 

BeuHiile laboratory ul AnnlNqiiam, 469. 

tikcuENOFF, I. Tho Hcicutidc activity of 
the KuHHian univentitiuH during tlieuuit 
twuntytlvf years, 750. 

Svconilc Hoclutc (le Teylcr, prize of, 467. 

Beduiia Hucioty of natural history, ;!68. 

SediiniMilH, chuiHiflcation of, 743. 

Se«.>bol)m*H KngUtih village community, 
780. 

t>egoi«irla canllOM, 334. 

Si*((nu-ntal or^nnB in odonat« larvae, 25. 

Si'lachini). peculiar, ill. 116. 

Sella, Quititino, 6au. 

tielwyn, A. K. C, on geology of Lake 
Superior, O'f). 

Beneuio triani(ularii*, 253. 

Berenoa nerrulata, 629. 

Serpulu diantbuN, 554. 

Servia, parnftlne nhale deposits of, 771. 

SfXi-s ol flowers, 554. 

Sextularia ^lobulosa, 295. 

Sharkd, carboniferous gtiHUS of, 275. 

Sharp, Benjamin, 212, 342; on visual 
organri of Solen ensis, 237. 

M .-lis, t'reH!<-u'uter, increase of, 425. 

Sbeppar "k Darwinism slated by Darwin 
himi«elt, review « d, 4vl. 

SboolbredV Measurement of electricity, 
reviewed, 6y-. 

SuuFELDT, K. \V. Osteology of the cor- 
morant, 143, 474 ; osteology of the large- 
moutbed black bass (Mieropterua sal- 
moides),532, 749. 

Shufeldt, K. W., on Mlcropterus sal- 
moides, 73K. 

Sbumway, W. A., on topography of Ap- 
palachians, 604. 

Sialia arcUcn. 296. 

Sienieus, Charles William, 7/orfrai7, 34. 

Signal-service, 344. 

Silk-culture in tlie colonics, 431, 562. 

Silk-manufacture in the United States, re- 
viewed, 290. 

SlIver-depoBiU of New York, 737. 

SlmuOi'plialuM diiphnuideus, 494. 

Singing snails, 370. 

Siouan tribes, classification of, 605. 

Sipunculus nudus, development of, 682. 

Skeleton from Meutone, ill. 541. 

Skidor in United Sutes, 33; races on, 
74(». 

Skies, colored, 99; red, 30, 37, 170, 172, 
231; inlMiina, 121; in I'aoific, 216; up- 
pergluw of, 143. 

Skulltt, flntltea<l, from Arkansas mounds, 
737. 

SlugK, 770. 

Smith, Eugene A. Cretaceous phos- 
phates in Alabama, 586. 

Smith, H., on temperature of waU'r, 528. 

iSmith, ICobert Angus, 800. 

Smith, liosa, on spiders, 24. 

Smith Sound, 622. 

Snakes, Intelligence of, 253. 

Snell, S. C. lUiufall at Amherst, Mass., 
431. 

Snow, analyses of, 168; volcanic dust In, 
139. 

Snowballs, natural, 114. 

Suciete des ^lectrlciens, 140. 

Societies, scientific, need of workers in, 
671. 

Society of arts. Het> Maasociiusetts insti- 
tute of technology, society of arts. 

Society of naturalists of eastern Unito<l 
States, 27; address of Trofessor Hyatt 
before, 44; of Moscow, 55. 

Solen eiiMlH, visual organs of, 237. 

Somal country, exploration of, HOO. 

Song. 2;U. 

Sorghum-sugar, report on, reviewed, 161. 

Sound-waves, transmission of, 474. 

South Kensington museum, vialu»rs at, 
212. W 

South-Sea Islands, /wropoiogy of, 470. 

Spong's Lightning •[ ^^-ctlfin, revluwiMl, 

iet». * m 



Spectrum-pliotography, 699, 726. 
Speech, 231. 

Speir's psychological questions, 426. 
SpeifkoWlt, rhombic modification of, 

266. 
Spencer, Herbert, travels of, 771. 
Spencer's philosophy of the unknowable, 

417. 
Sphaerium lacustre, 425. 
Sphyroplcus ruber, 296. 
Spicula amoris, 342. 
Spiders, 24; longevity in, 4. 
Spider's device in lifting, 305, ill. 432. 
Spirea millefolium, 236. 
Spirifer lineatus, 33. 
Spiriferadisjuncta,374; lineata, 60; meso- 

costalis, 374, 421 ; mesostrialis, 374. 
Spiriferina ziczac, 421. 
Spirifers of upper Devonian, 374. 
Spondylus Gussoni, 658. 
Sponges, fossil, 666; from Florida, 637; 

fresh-water, 335, 737. 
Spongilla fragilis, 335. 
Spool-shaped omamenta from mounds, 

434. 
Sporangltes in clay, 237. 
Springs of Florida, 333. 
Squall, structural features of, 738. 
Squisr, O. H. The faulU of south-west- 
ern Virginia, UL 614. 
Standard natural history series, 28 ; time, 

1,61. 
Stanley's note-book, 800. 
State agricultural experiment-stations, 

492. 
Staten Island, natural science association 

of, 24, 16o, 423, 583. 604. 
Steam-boiler, safety.seom, 79. 
Steam-en;;inc Indicators, 601. 
Stearns on Tyrgula nevadensis, 468. 
Steatornis carlpcnsls, 208, 425. 
Steel, age of. 790; oxidizability of, 470; 

resilience of, 295. 
StelUir parallax, deU*rminations of, 456, 

612. • 
Sterna ftiliginosa, 216. 
Sternberg. See Mognin and Sternberg. 
Steward. See Brooks and Steward. 
Stewart, S. N., on current motor, 606. 
Stokes, A. C. The reproduction of 

Clathrulina elegans, 303. 
Stokes, A. r., on Cynips quercus-corai- 

Sera, 494 ; on Tarantula areuicola Send- 
er, 768. 

Stokes's Lectures on light, reviewed, 765; 
mathematical and physical {tapiTs, re- 
viewed, 204. 

Stolj's Ktlinography of Uuatemala, re- 
viewed, 794. 

Stone, K. J., on the astronomical labors of 
Mr. Common, 544. 

Htons, W. K. Another 'yellow day,' 
686. 

Stone age, discfivery of village of, 610; 
head from Htaten Island, 606. 

Storm -disk, winds within, ill. 402. 

Straw terry-flower, retrognule metomor- 
)>hosis of, ill. 302. 

Streams, effect of woods on, 422. 

Streptopus roseus, 26:{. 

Btruthiouteris germanira, 768. 

Struve, Otto, on pamlbix measurements, 
640. 

Study at home, 348. 

SrrKTKVAMT, K. L. Khythmie varU- 
tions. 603. 

Huctorla, revision of, 236. 

Sudan, faUe j>rophet of, 100. 

Suez Canal, 140. 

Sulphur, average product of, 349. 

Hummer course in Ixitany, 66H. 

Hun-dials. 626. 

Hun-glows, 336. 

Hun-spot maiimum, 600; tlie piriodloal 
r.liangfl of, 686. 

Hunsetfl, red. 3, Wi. 

Hurveys in Russia, 608. 

HwainjM, drainage of, 667. 

Hwiufll«r, scli-nUfle, 246. 

Hwlnffplague, germ of. IM. 

Htmomii, h. .L The KrokolCNi erupUoo, 
244; th* rMl sklM. 172. 

Hyiidosmya UinglRallla, 6ft7. 



T., W. Komalea microptera, 33. 

T., \V. B. Illusive memory, 345; is ma- 
terial contact possible? 4Ul. 

Taconic question, 675. 

Taenia flavopunctata, 666. 

Tahoe, Lake, physical studies of. -JrtS. 

Tailed child, 673. 

Tall on reality of force, 700. 

Talisman, Crustacea dredged by, ill. 713; 
discoveries by, 429; dredging appara- 
tus of, ill. 448; expedition <if, I6s; in- 
vertebrates of, ill. 657; fishes col lecti>d 
by, ill. 623. 

Tainias striata, 67. 

Tanner, Z. L. Tlie cruise of liie Alba, 
tros.t from Cura^oa to Aspiuwall, 
590. 

Tape- worms, 666. 

Tapes diversa, 373 ; staminea, 873. 

Tarantula arenicola, 768. 

Taku, K. S. Carnivorous habits of the 
muskrat,457 ; cod-hatching experiments 
at Gloucester, 189. 

Taylor, T., on detection of imitation but- 
ter, 583 ; on new micrometer, 739. 

Technical education in Europe, 789. 

Telegraph, optical, 468. 

Telegraphing to China, mode of, 638. 

Telegraphy, multiplex, 394. 

Teleosts, embryology of, 802. 

Telephone-receiver, gloved hand^as, ill. 
770. 

Telescope, Vienna, Ul. 380. 

Telescopes, great, 487. 

Telpherage,799. 

Temperature in Germany, 546; of water 
in lakes and oceans, 523. 

Tennant, J. F., on humidity and chro- 
nometer rates, 287. 

Tennessee, mineral springs in, 493; tim- 
ber of, 234; topography of, 2o0. 

Tcnting-school, 203. 

Terebratula Guerangeri, 325. 

Terramares, 470. 

Tertiary in Alabama, 32; plants, two npe- 
cies of, ill. 433. 

Testing-machines, improvementFi in, ill. 
312. 

Tetroo obscurus, 225. 

Text-books, duty on, 62; excellence of 
American, 271. 

Textularia globosa, 216. 

Thallassaetus leucopterus, 424. 

Thatching-ant, 423. 

Thermometer exposure, 306, 563: stand- 
ard, 83. 

Thomas, B. W. Mocrospores in the 
rocks about Chicago, 215. 

Thomas, Cyrus. The Codex Corteslanus, 
458; the Etowah mounds, <//. 779; iron 
from North -Carolina mounds, Ul. 308; 
a mound of the Kanawha valley, Ul. 
619; spool-shaped ornaments from 
mounds, 434. 

Thompson, G., on ascent of Mount Shasta, 
27; on glaciers on Mount Shasta, 208; 
on ice-banners, 522; on Mount Shasta, 
265; on north wind of California, 
334. 

Thompson's map of Mount Shasta, 522. 

Thomson, \V., lectures by, 6&5. 

Thomson's Vortex rings, reviewed, 289. 

Thenar, 660. 

Thunderstorms, study of, 2. 

Thuhstom, K. H. The age of steel, IM; 
a new motor, 630; Sir cniarles William 
Siemens, pvrirait^ 34. 

Thymus glands, development of, 725. 

Thyroid glands, development of, 725. 

Tidal observations, 65. 

Tlde-pmlicUng machine, iU. 408. 

Tides, high, 402, 473. 

TiLiTOiANiAC. The Greely relief expedi- 
tion, 172. 

Timber, waste of, 234. 

Time, unification of, 517; sigiiolsi M; 
electric, ill. 401. 

Tin tire fk-om Dakota, 200. 

Tinnunrulus s|>arverlus, 200. 

TissANUiBH, G. Electric ballo(»n, UL 
162, 106. 

Tltaniferous iron ore, 676. 

T*linkit Indians, 207. 



SCIENCE— INDEX TO VOLUME III. 



818 



Tonti, P. P. Tiie Dearborn observalorj*, 
030; bumldlty and cbroDumc*t«r rale«, 
2S7 ; rtfiieArcliii* oq «fltrononitci»l ip«C' 
trnni-pholog^mphy, 726. 

ToL>D» J. E, TIh^ poMlblo origin of Home 
oflar, 404. 

TodhiiDttfr, Ii»aiic. 2m. 

TwpliT lioltt ronobtne, i/f, 7fi3- 

TongUtf, iltfvelopmt^al of. T25. 

To^Kjkgmphic w<jrk In Appalnchlftnt, 266; 
in Tonne Bflce, 206. 

TopogmpblcAl raap of Ma«aftcbatotU»427 ; 
of Nt'w .lerwcy. MX); »nrvev of Mama* 
cbu»etv», 4/t7 ; eTiri'ey, practical Vkloe of, 
944; •unoyinK, revlcwwl, W3, 

TTopo^riipby uf Appal&chlAntt 004; of 
North C»rollGii, C^iil. 

Toroado chart for March, i7/. &&a; ciren- 
iar i¥l,, 6'i:4; invuj<ilhraiion» TflT; In 
w(;«terfi Xorth ('nroliiia* 4*4, 

Tomadoet, j//. 40, 63., QQ ; breeding-ground 

af.bSb, iliuxlratlon of, 3^; EQt^chnulcml 

and electrical theorlet of, 630; study of, 

Jin America, 3Tt2. unreoorded, 346« 

r Tomwicis V., on pboflph*l« dppoaita, 337. 

Torn>y botanical club. 23e, 623, 530. 
' TottoDville, foa«U leavea si, 34> 
[ Tracheal organ* of InaeetA, 906. 

Traiiilt, rapid, In Phlljidolplilft« 003. 

Trnnaporlatloo, agvnclea oi, 20©. 

Traiiucbold, on oceanic OBcUlattonat 34K 
.Tkbat. Mftry. nuUavlor of Dolomede« 
U'ut'brDiUH, 217, 

Tr«<? tftnwtb, ltillai>nce of witida OD, 114. 

Tret' of heuvfn» growth of* 276» 

Trei^B of ilow itrowtb, iWS. 

TRtLiLABV., \V, A biid liablt of the foi- 
aqulrrel (Hciuru* ntger, vaf, hidovlcK 
Anat), 747. Injteotii and fermentation, 
_ M&. 

I'^renton grav«I»t bamnn nndcrjaw from* 
006 i natural history aocioty, '^6, 404, 

TrJaaalc r«d ahatc, foaailfl ln.29<j». 
Tribe. Bee Oladttone and Tribe. 
Tribulum, 470. 

Trilobii«?, appamlagea of, ill^ 279. 
^r ' -Jlbi,429, 

H avdon. 494. 
i'*-rnlrieoeiB» 067. 
J HI' - r Prognaaa o( electrical 

•ci 1983,268. 

Tnu IL A bUnd flah from 

th' iver,687. 



Tri' .gy, reviewed^ JWL 

*i'ubcrtuj'>Hi'i, jin 

TucKKR, It. H.. JiinT The diatrkbuiion of 



propagation of, <^. 



oometa wiib rcfemnoe to aolur motion, 

060. 
Turbine, action of water in. 094. 
Tutilc'a comet, ephemorla of, 799. 
*l>rrcll, J. B.» on revlalon of Suotorla, 

- m, 

U*. W. The winter of 107^-80 Is Kurope*, 

4M. 
TTjftilvy^ Vadnme, journey of, to Karalto- 

UIm* 3»0, 

Unit rraiica, 068. 

UnaUixcik I, v^.iciinic oand which fell at, 

W 4^1. 
Uuio. bysaut of, 903, 434; ooXeeotua, 205; 

laucoolatna, S96. 
r nil of. time queatlon, 290, 480. 
I Ktied ^tatca natroDomical expedition to 

Chile, 137; c«nBUB bureau, ^43; aiinpen- 

*lMn of worlt of, 34.'i; cenans oflUv, T78; 

pnbUcalionii of« %5 ; k-^nlh ccneua repurta. 

%ol. Iv., 13*. 20<>; voIb, v and vl., 468; 

eo^al aurvey,filO: appendix to report of, 

041 ; lnt<nfr1tv nf, 7=i<^; trnijKf*;rr»-nrf^ f>t, 

m ' - ' - : 

cul 
'jn 

cb. 

Ian UfeaarlDg acr 

Tb 4 iL-ttlatatlod at Point 

Barrtm, ill. 47 ^ ; tnlncral at»aaUca, OdO; 



motion of warea of oold In, map, 149; 
muaeuma of, 191; national muaeum, 109; 
proceeding* of^ 268; uaral Inatltute, 

ftriae offered by, 83; naral obaenraiory, 
OS, 137; odmlnlatratlon of, 29, 390; ob- 
aerratoriea, lmpr«aalon prodnoe4 by, 
472; poHi^nmUi maps, 096; aigiial-ofDoe, 
1, 767: terma employed by, 344; wanta 
of, 68; alik Induatry, 290; aolor eolipae 
espedition, report of, 426. 

Univeraltiea, Ruaaion^ 766. 

Uiiknowabte^ philosophy of« 417. 

I.'pham. W., on ratalognlng plants of 
Mhmi'jiota, 496; on drift In &Qnneaota, 
606; on Minnesota Lake*, 006. 

Upton, \V. The red akte*, S7. 

Urtinua. obser>'atio» of, 098. 

Lfrnaieila gracilia, 42S. 

rtiimanlA torda, 294. 

Vacu;fi)ium parvlfotfum, 363* 

Valgus sflmunlger, lilT. 

Valvata vlrona, 823. 

Vanadls, cruise of, 54* 

Van Duzer'a iron-mine, 61. 

Vau Hert«en. dee Lydtln, Fl^mingt and 

Van Hertaen, 
Variable stars, 16T. 
VarieUfts, origin of, 737. 
Voasar Brotliers* InatHute. See Pough- 

keepaic, Vnaaar Brothers* Institute of. 
Vega voyage, 268. 
Vegc^lation along Northern Poelflo roll- 

rood, 230. 
V^cntilAtlon, 796 ; of nulnes, 470. 
Ventura county, Cal , rcli(v Id, 378. 
Vunua merceuarla, 267. 
Verbeck'a (ieologieal relatlvea of K-ra^ 

katoa, reviewed, ill. 762. 
Vermont birds, 210, 503. 
Verrlll. A, E, on deep-sea dredgtngs« 604 ; 

hii second catalogue of MoUuaoa, 610. 
Vertebrates, study of, In America, 271, 
Vertigo QouldU. 236; milium, 2S6. 
Veapertillo fuaoua, 639. 
Vlcla amurlcano, 108, 
Victoria, obacrvations of, 470. 
Vlcunii, image of, from Peru, 743. 
Vienna, omltbo logical congresa of* 670; 

ViT -^- '.' 

V irida, 623; canina, 623; cu* 

'<1.1; labceolnta, 523; odo- 

I . ' ti, 62n; pidata, 623; 

piiN. [tubeacenaoriocarpa, 

Ti ^ fitriatA, 3^6. 

Vii»lct» ^iru.iuri' .-i. o60. 
Vlrbflnia, fauiu of. 014. 
VMvUectlon in England, 297. 
Voice, 23K 
Volcanic dost in the CIreat Boaln, 665 ; dnat 

In anow, 135»i eruption In Icehind, 6^; 

laland, new, lit. SO; rockfl of dirftlon of 

Pacific, 3*30; aand. iU. fl&l. 
Volcano on Auguatine Island, 70S. 
Vortex rluga, 2§V. 

W. Atfuoapberic wave from Krokatoa, 

401 ; iBcrtla, 66». 
W., A. Umita of tertiary lu Alabama, 

32. 
W., F. The variation of temperature of 

Germany, 646. 
WadsworTB, M. Ew Olivine rooka of 

North Carolina, 480, 
Wttd* worth, M. E., on the Keweenawan 

serlea, 563» 
WMj?ti.r> Oeograpblacbea Jahrbueh, re- 
viewed, 200. 
Walcott, C. I>» Appendages of the 

trilubUe, itl. 2-». 
Wiilcotl, C. D., on CombrUin fauna nf the 

L^iiitt'd t^tatea. 682; on Potsdam fauna 

of L nlted Statea, 130. 
Waldo, Leonard, jdtandsrd thermomc- 

tera, 33. 
Walker prise, beatowal of, oo Janiea 

lUn, poHraUn &71. 
Ward, L. F. Cau Unites and Zamlo- 

slrobus, 632; the claims of political 

science, 748. 
Ward, L. F.. on iipp«r Mlaaoiirl systenii 

566. 



Waringtoii, See L*wes, Oltbert, and 

Warington. 
Wahrbn, E. JL The skldor In tba 

United 8tntes, S3» 
Warron, Gouvemeur Keioble, portritit^ 

276. 
Warring, C. B., on gyroaoope, 237. 
Washington untbropological society, 006: 

Baturday lectures of, 63, 230; biological . 

society, 2U8, HM, 420, 738, 700; cbemicalj 

aocietv, 294, 403. 683; entomologlCiK!] 

Bocl'i^ ^-''^x. 400,708; phi loan phi cttT aoH 

ci . I : t ^^ JKW, 3^^ 424, 666, 607, 

Wa*! lfora,OS9, 

WatcL ^ ,,. Vale coll-— *>V' 

Water, action of, in m^ 

drinking, purity of, 

from leaf, ilt, 246; t. .,.,>.. ... ■ ., .;. 
W^ater.poreti of lameiUbrnnch foot, 130. 
Water-supply of New-.l er*ey ditlea, 700. 
Water. . -.i.-.r. .,.f„ 44:4. 
Wat Kole ou the Hon of 

tlii un, 262. 

Wttiu .. u. ot chemiatry, reviewed* ■ 

390. * wy 

Wave < lengths In invlalbie prlomatl 

apectrura« 490. 
Weather, 202; at Lick obaervntory, 620; 

observations, Ifausaa, 420 ; aenieu, Ala- 

bama, 627; Iowa, ft3; abaiiona,loeall«na 

of, 299. 
Weathering in PottovlUt conglomenila, 

ilL 12, 
Webster^a OutlJnca nf cbemlstfy, re- 

viewed, 621. 
Wetghtji and measures, Intematlooal bii- j 

reau of, SOS, 
Welch. William H., 526. 
West Virginia, topographical work lo»i 

60:J. 
Wi«TON, E. B. AtRiuapherlc wav« 

from Krakatoa, fU. 631. 
Wetbereti. E., on «tructure and formation 

of coal, 620. 
Whalebone, manufacture of artfUclal* 

400. 
Wheat-niMt, growth of, 467. 
Wheeler «tjr% eya, geodetic work of, 447. 
Whirl wind*, UL 40, 63, W. 
WiiiTK, r. A, Adaptability of the 

prairlea for artificial foreatry, 438; tita 

enemies snd paraaitcs of the oyster^ 

past and present. 61S. 
WbUe. ('. A., or n ■ '-.H'l. 

White fl^be» of \ 
Wbileavea's ra^e^. 
WuiTlNO, Hurol^J. (,o^ 'MiiKcunRphysi. 

cal conslantio, 37.'1. 
WniTMAN, C O. Development of Stpun- 

cuju* DUdiia, 6^2. 
WnTMPKit, E. Colored skies oflwr an 

eruption of Cotopoxl, 09. 
Wtegand, »^. L., on n«c of cast-iron 111 

boiler construction, 200, 
Willcox, J., on Florida siiell-moundM,7^: 

on geology and natural tilstory of Flori- 
da, 437; on Nummnlttes frotn Florida, 

007. 
Williams, A., Jun.,on mineral reaouroea 

of the Cntted 8Ute«, il30, I 

WiLiiAMa, t*. <). Kxperltnenis with ro-T 

flections, iU. 010, 
WiLLiAxti, H. S, The •pirlfer* of the 

upper [Devonian, 374. 
Williams, H. S., ou paleontology of New 

York, 421. 
Wilson, H. M., topographical work of, 30. 
WiscnitiX, A. Uis world life, 172; the 

red jPunfO'iB, 3. 
WidchettV World life, 172. 
Wind chart* of North AllanUc, iU. 693; 

velocilie*. ill. 406. 
Winds within «tonn-«n>k, itL 402, 
Wine, araenic In, 3^8. 
Wlngaie division, topographical work Of* 

20. 
WIKLOCK, W. O. The Pons- Brooks c 

et. Ut. H7. 
WiWf^Low. Arthur. PecullariUua of 

weathering In tbo Pottavllle ooitglomer- 

ate, at, 12. 
WInstow, F., on oysler-lndustry, 720. 
WiDtcr of 187»-80)ii Europe, 406. 



814 



SCIENCE. — INDEX TO VOLUME III 



WlUrock'is Ervihraen exclcoata, 690. 

Woburn rouitloD experimenta, 716. 

WosiKoF, A. Thermometer exposure, 
6<U ; tropical cyclones, 142. 

Wolfe expedition, 772. 

Woman's journey to Karakomm valley, 
228. 

Wood, De VoUon. Radiant heat, 32; 
the UMe of the method of limits in mathe- 
matical teaching, 375; the use of the 
method of rates in mathematical teach- 
ing, 587. 

Woodbridge, S. H., on heating and ven- 
tilation, 796. 

Woodchuck, life-history of, 867. 

Woods, A. T. Modem ralLmaking, 761. 

Woods, effect of, on flow of streams, 422. 

Wooster, L. C. Karnes near Lansing, 
Mich., 4; ripple-marks in limestone, 274. 

Worldlife, 172. 



Worshipful company of grocers, prize of, 
467. 

Wortben, A. H., on species fh>m car- 
boniferous formations, 526. 

Wrecks, charting, 85. 

Wbioht, a. a. Some curious natural 
snowballs, 114. 

Writing, style in, 534. 

Wtckofp, W. C. Silk-culture in the 
colonies, 431. 

Xenophora mediterranea, 658. 

Tale college observatory, administration 

of, 529, 668; clock at, 466. 
Yarrow's Check-list of American reptiles, 

reviewed, 264. 
Yellow day, 586. 
Yellowstone national park, 185. 
Young's Sun, 638. 



Yucatan, folk-lore of, 270. 
Yukon, Middle, Ul. 677, 706; upper, flora 
of, 252. 

Zamiostrobus, 532; mirabilis, 433. 

Zapus hudsonius, 541, 616. 

Zellschrift fUr wissenschaitliche mikro- 
skopie, 801. 

Zilla rosa, 24. 

ZiTTSL, K. A. Museums of natural his- 
tory in the United States, 191. 

Zoea, evolution of, iU. 513. 

Zonites excavatus, 342; interiextus, 342; 
nitidus, 342; suppressus, 342. 

Zoological atlas, <33; gardens, 57; of Cin- 
cinnatl, 610; nomenclature, 241; pre- 
serve in the west, 585. 

Zoologischer JahrMbericht, 114. 

Zoiilogy, briefer, 50. 

Zygadenus elegans, 253. 



ERRATA. 



Page 26, col. 2, 27th line from bottom, for ' Nat-sis-ad ' read 
•Nat-siB.a£.> 
'* 26, " 2, 10th line from bottom, for * Mo-eukap-i ' read 

• Mo-en-kap-1.' 

" 67, " 1, 26tb line from bottom, for *Butanla' read 

• Eutaenia.' 

" 137, " 1, line 9, for 'calclferous' read 'calciferus.' 
«' 188, " 2, lines 4 and 14, for * Cullle > read « Sands.' 
•• 189, " 1, line 6, for' CulUe' read 'Sands.' 
" 216, ** 1, lines 1 and 2, omit <an abundance of macro- 
spores, besides.' 
** 296, ** 2, 4th line from bottom, for 'Dendroica' read 

• Dendroeca.' 

•• 316, •• 2, 14th line from bottom, for *m* read **.' 
" 337, ** 2, 20th line from bottom, for * larval ' read 

• larvae.' 

•• 345, •• 1, line 3, for 'Bredicton' read •Bredichin.' 

** 394, " 1, 18th line from bottom, for 'Coriacus* read 

• Cariacus.* 



Page 494, col. 2, 14th line from bottom, for ' can i lieu lata* read 

* canaliculata.' 
2, line 24, for * MyUlus ' read * Mytilus.' 
2, 2d paragraph. The rocks mentioned did not 

come fr3m the Silver-Cliff district, but 
from the same locality as the specimens 
mentioned on p. 667, col. l,2d paragraph. 

2, 13th line from bottom, for ' deodorizing ' read 
'odorizlng.* 

1, 8th line from bottom, for 'Mayenla* read 
' Mevenia.' 

1, 4th line from bottom, for 'on* read *and.' 

2, line 21, for 'a hundred and twenty-four* read 

• ihirty-six.* 
2, line 6, for * a hundred and ninety three ' r^td 

'two hundred and thiiteen.* 
2, 22d line from bottom, for ' telepherage ' read 
' telpherage.' 



648, 



723, 

737, 

740, 
796. 

796, 

799, 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III. 



SPECIAL ARTICLES, 



Abbot, Henry L. Andrew Aiklu^n HamplirL>>». 



f\»i trait 



ItOIIViTTU'Ur 

Abbott. A. 



V. JmpnjVfinuiiU \\\ u*«lliii;'UiAi'hliiu«> 



Tito lnt«IUgieno« uf bAtmchiiuii^ . 



n<iU. ill 

I i. .Ti of rncati ^oliu* tiinr . 
unliic* , . . . , 
<.\ 4acIHy of Lu»don 



N 
Alien, W. F. ir 

AmcrlcAiii Jt^%ur<|i<i of ■ 

Amtirlcnii (V«b ciiltiirui . 

Am<<rtciin liiMUtute i}f tuiutftg-t^iigificeni ,*.*•*. 

Aiui'rieiiii ijii'dlotti n«*(niUilluii : iU in«>eUllf tn Wnshlut;- 

f'-'^' . , . , ........ 

Anil \ of nitiuliinii r« . . . ^ , » 

All' Invk'ioii frt'i Inmoo. tH. . . 

AiiUi; , , ,.. .1 piipt't* lu i . . ,. - uittt1icUuti{$ttu fur 

Itiivj . , ,.,»..., 

Armaby, H» P, \^>m of nltTogt^n from arAtIc (oUi - 

Till" W MUurii TMtttUoH eipi^rliiivftt* . ♦ 

Artillcliii firtjrfurLJoh of mfn 

Adhburaer, Charles A. r«3tiii*ylv«iii» »nihr»clt« . 

A*<rMiiumli'>»l lii}toi> of Mr. Common 

Babbitt. Pranc B. Indliw litjpleniutitii of th<j itorili- 

wt-*t, lit. ,,,*...,. 

Barton. George H. N*ovr» on i\m tAva^flow of 188o-$i 

from Aluiiurt l.u», IIL ,..,.,- 

Bell. Robert. ii<'ohigy and mloeriilogy nf nurthi^m 
i'aiHiKU 

lii-Atuwtil uf lIic tfrAuU honormry Wulkcr prlzi? uu Profciu 
nor Jnine« Itntt fhrtrnit 

BldweU» Sbelford. An (^xptMiimUonornAirapheiiOcn- 
t'iiuh * . . 

niulug^ciil inntllule Ai Hiiliiddtfhla ......... 

nioloieVrnl tntHimtory of the Johda Hopkins unlvtiniHy. 

Blfldr, H. W. The liiU^rimtiunal bureau of wctjc11it» and 
m^iMurH* 

Brauas, D. The Altm* of Yewt. Jit. .-,... 

Conn, H. W. Rvolutlon of the dveft|»od jto««« //I. . , 

Crovaax exiwulltjon ......,.,.,.... 

Crosby. W. O. Tb** color* of nnuiml wnt*!* . . . . 

i"rul»t* of thv Al^utr-uMi from Uunii^oa lo AspinWAtl In 
Ffbruriry tin ' " ' ...,,» 

D.» W. H. 1 rMV»l« 

Dsll. W. H. i of iho ArnH orOoppcr Rfvvr, 

A Wtt. /?/.''"'*** 

•J i 
l>»r 



Kxplosloii* on lluo tiMdrri^mutid rnitwaypi of London , . . 

47ft Falfte prophet of tlo' Sutirtn » « , ^ , 

Ferrel, WUUam. The mmhuu and mlnlniu Udf-prt^. 

ilicUtif? insM hliH!, JtL 

Pllhol. H. The* dpcp-floa Crii«i»ccA drcdgtfd by Xho TalU- 

I. /;/ , , , , . » . » . ^ , , ^ ^ , . 

I drvtiglMif ttppAniluv uf iW TiilUlliiU}. JtL^ 
I i finhe* I'ollccted by tb»j TnUiinian. ///. * . 

FU' '..•Ul 

Fol. H. Nfi. rub,. . 

Frltsch. Anton, A bumiin tkull froiii tlii< Icm'm of IW- 
Imhw, ro'ur I'niifUf!. flf .,,...,♦ 

Ga^e^ Simon H. Hi. 

lh«^ ;»rodiK'(lir>n of oiih 

Gannett Henry. Th. ^ 

iuitj ^\''h^'t^^^r wiirvcy* , , . 

Garman« 8. A pt'cuHnr Krlucblaiu ///. ...*.. 

Gatscbet. A. 8. Rce«ju lloicuioUc rtt^earchw. . . . 

416 Gill, Theodore. Thi? lchthyoioi{l«mlpecu1t*ritiwiofllH» 

tiJi>^JItlij|lt fullflli. Itt * 

Gitx . ri.Mi.n.d .,>^^ <.euni>iiilc 0nluiuo)oiev . . 

Or HS2 ......:' 



I \fHrj* . 
iriH?uUntl . 

Hor|rd> 'I'be new Hogu«lolf ¥olcii&o In 



/a. 



Vlh.itii. . riipiiQft of Mount et. AngtiBtfn, 0<(t. 6, 18811. 

Itt 

Bevtfl, W. M. Miittfar<jlo|{tciil cbarU of lb* Norlb At- 

lnnUct. /a 

Tbo riUk'f wind ch*rtf of the North AiUdUo. /W. . , . 
Whirlwludj», cvclunr*. itnd lornvidovn. fit, . , . 10* 6i 
DaniTSOn. G. M. Hcceni (f(?oloKlciil ob«M.'rv«tlc»o« In th« 

r*Hnii4tnn uorth-wcM trirrUory 

iVUTinltiatloo of !l bfn ..'.....*.... 

EUniculiy of prf Ohio ttimtU , , 

Dtller, J. tj ^ud whlcb tb\t m Tjnjiliubkjfc, 

A(«*k;i«. Orr - ■'■/, , . . 

Donaldson, Ht>nry H. I>K:ttJU»t*on lu the bmlu. 



///. 



I>tttniiii, ilonn Kiiptlatj-.ArMJrCv /Vrfm»7 • 

Duty fiiUoiporivd fick'titlde U>tt^book# ....... 

Baton. H. W. *KU<ctHchtfht umtm ai tfae LouUvHlo « 

ptTuHlf^n . .... ,.,.»,«... 

Tl. ,,M. Itt. 

BlI I luunk MHil of lh« Weit Indlci 

.V- /«. . 

Knriift'* v.im.t uji,i tut r<-J»tinjt.rDc4iain 



713 



«*f phutoKriipliy lo 
■4urcn. III. . . . 
ork ut %lw ll«ydi«n 



H71 



Greene, Charles £i, Thu aimtUvvcr. bridtfn at .Niagiim 

589 Full*., /n. . , &7-i 

ISrfcn-Mounuihi rullw«»y, Mount lK'*crT I*liin4 . , . * 415 

410 OrinvweukvV c-ro8nlu»f of Noiaiii Zwmllii IH 

Ouyot. Arnold, ihtrtrnit 318 

7^ Haffue. Arnold. Rvd «kle* in Chlnn live yvi^n nieo « . Vil 
Hall. Bdwin H. Reply lo Bldweirn c^xphmalion of 

671 lliiir* phptioinent^n . 3$7 

Inorlin in 

38ft Hall phcnumeiion In liquids 3<K} 

U17 Halstedp Byron D. CondlUonii of growth of the wlieau 

rust iKt 

SfiO Hazen, H. A. The motion of wave* of cold In ihc 

Unit«U KtMie*. /i^. ..>..,..,,,.., I4« 
30& Holmes. W, H. Keccntrlc flguros trtvm iintithem 

OO mouiidft. ///. , , - . . - 43« 

513 Howell, WUUam H. ThenuwmurpbDlo)r1*'f*t«'t(»fni'nt 

mt of the blood .4ft 

i4& Hyatt » A, The bmilneM of the naturalist . 44 

KvohJtIon of ihc (Vphalopoda. HI. . . , 122, 14A 

SUO folrrtisilioiiJil itrU'nllflc aA^uetatluii '^h 

ftflo James, Joseph F. Thu flora of Labnulur ;t59 

77* JiiruM-lo iHhit'oiors. itt. . 642 

067 Karaten, G. lied nklex a ccrniury a^o £tl 

tt2S Koch, h'ixth rvport of the tit-riflan cbolcr* cotnmlnnton . 674 

89 Kunss, Qeorg^e F. Five Braxltlau diamnndn. til. , . 649 

32& Lttbumd-try In ntodiTU nclcncw , 172 

4tB McGook, H. C. How egg-oocoons arv iniule by a Lj- 

28« ciUMi ASA 

1$ Martin, H. Newell Modem phplologlcal inborato. 

rti-t what and why thi^y art? . 73, 10(1 

382 Mason. O. T. Th^ relation of tlus mound bulldera tu 

Ibe mstorie IndianK. <^ 

18(1 MendenbalK T. C. A 4Uc»*tlon of eipoturv * , • . 306 

Migrntton of hlrdu in Kngland ........... I6»l 

ft64 Minot, C. 6. Dtt'i'lopment of the thymld mm) thyoiQ« 

59^ k'lAnd* aod the tongm/ , . . . iH 

i, 03 NffirjtViofoiry nf the iwlvlsand leg. tit ..^34 

N:*' ■ • - . 8W 

047 N^ < >icl<>no«at April Meaaloh . 603 

l«» N* «,..,.... . 68H 

HH6 New :tn>l xiDotv'r iiirionaur. 72/. , . « 190 

Newberry, J. 8, The Indiutrlal aru a* fkator^ In mvA* 

Q61 .rnM-i-rv ........ Mt7 

N*/ ^ '^■1 "i^rirm toleacope, ///. Jl8*i 

484 »'iii 

760 I u 704 

IIS I 'ii» •<! ^Ji'iiiu puttaiaji 468 

lunuLloii . « . .,.,.. ... 4^6 

14 Or L. The .John* ilopkfni* mitrtf»f taboK 

763 (.(i-.ry, /y/ ,,...,..... . T 

Thw watcr-porua of Iha latu^lll branch foot . lao 

7frS l^alm* . 039 

ft40 l*cabody muteuin of Amortcttn urcbAcology . 287 



4 



IV 



SCIENCE. — CONTENTS OF VOLUME III. 



PAOK 

PenhallOW, D. P. Some peculiarities of plant-erowtli. 

Ill 354 

Penrose, C. B. The critlcHl state of gasefi 98 

Powell, J. W. The fundamental theory of dynamic 

geology 511 

On the sUte of the interior of the earth 480 

Prefient sun-tipot maximum 51K) 

Presentation of the Kumford medals to Professor Itowland. 

Ill 256 

Protection of alpine i)lants 712 

Bay. P. H. The 17. S. meteorological station at Point 

Barrow. Ill 478 

Retrospect and prospect 5 

BichardS. B. H. Economy of fUel in iron manufacture, 358 

The hot blast in malcing iron 72 

Biley, C. V. Entomography of Kirmoueura .... 488 

The use of naphthaline as an insecticide 455 

Kototion of Jupiter 230 

Koyal society of Canada 673 

Boyce. Joslah. After-images 321 

BuBSell, Israel G. Lalies of tlie (ireat Basin ... 322 

Russian meteorological m>rvicc. Ill 117 

Simmon, D. E. The discovery of the germ of swine- 
plague 155 

SarSTOn^t C. 8. Georgia Engelmnnn. I\)rtrait ... 405 

HcalesofColeoptera. /// 127 

Schwatka, Frederick. The Alaska mlliury recon- 

noiSHance of 1883. lU 22U, 246 

An arctic vessel and her equipment. HI 505 

Icebergs and ice-floes. /// 535 

Tlie Middle Yulcf.n. Ill •J77, 706 

Wintering in the Arctic. /// 566 

Scientific method in historical study 564 

S^Chenoff, I. The scientific activity of the Russian 

uuiversitics during the last twenty-five years .... 756 

Hmith t^und and its exploration. Map 622 

Htudy at liome 348 

Style in scientific writing 5.34 

Tarr, Balph 8. Carnivorous habits of the muskrut . . 457 

Cod-hatching experiments at Gloucester 189 



Technical education in Euntpe 

Tests of electric-iight systems at the Cincinnati ex 

/// 

Thomas, Cyrus. The Etowah mounds. ///. , 
Iron from North-Carolina mounds. ///. . . . 
Thurston, Robert H. A new motor . . . 
8lr Charles William Siemens. I'ortraU . . . 
TlSSeuidier. O. Tlssxmdler's electric balloon. 
Todd, David P. The Dearborn observatory . 

Humidity and chronometer rates 

Researches 6n astronomical spectrum-pliotograpl 
Trelease. W. Insects and fernientation . . 
TrowbridfirOt John. Progress of electrical 

during 1S83 '. 

Tucker, R. H., Jun. The distribution of con 

referv nee to solar motion 

U., W. The winter of 1S79-80 in Europe . . 

Vnlflcstion of time 

Uiiite<i States census olilce 

Upton, W. The red skies 

"W., F. The variation of temperature in German 
Wadsworth, M. B. Olivine rocks of North < 
Wcklcott, Charles D. Appendages of the 

Ml 

Watson, Sereno. Note on the flora of th* 

Yukon 

White, C. A. Adaptability of the prairies for 

forestry 

The enemies andparasites of the oyster, past and 
Whitman, C O. Development of Sipunculus 
Whymper, B. Colored skies after an eruption 

paxi 

WinlOCk, W. C. The Pons-Brooks comet. / 
WlnSlOW, Arthur. IVcuIlarlties of weatheri 

Pottsville conglomerate. /// 

Woman's journey to the Karakorum valley . . 
Woods, Arthur T. Modern rail-making . 
Zittel, !Karl A. Museums of natural bistor; 

United States 



BOOK EEVIEWS. 



PAGE 

Aboriginal literature of America 732 

Agricultural experiment-stations 492 

Albrecht's I/ogarlthmic-trigonometric tables 601 

Art ciitalogue of the New- England manufacturers' institute, 263 

Anhburner's (Geology uf the l^antlier-Creek coal-ba(«in . . (SSK) 

liacterla and the germ-theory of disease i:{3 

Darrois' (Jeology of the Asturias and Galicia 726 

Barrus*R Tabor steam-engine indicator 601 

Itasiiler's Weather 262 

Rastlan's Ethnological psychology 204 

Becker's C^omstock lode 48 

Iferthelot's Explosive materials 76 

Resant's Treatise on hydromechanics 78 

Biological theories of an artist 332 

Itorderland of science and faith 131 

Bn>oks's I. aw of heredity 388 

Browne and Behnke's Practical guide for singers and speak- 
ers 231 

Bulletin astronomique 581 

Calderwood's lielations of mind and brain 686 

('arpenter's FInergy in nature 491 

(John's Die pflanze 160 

Connett and Frazer'H Patents on inventions 622 

Coues's Biogen. By Jo^Uth Royce 661 

I >anieirs Text-book of the principles of physics .... 631 

Darwinism 461 

Duncan's Heroes of science 261 

Dut ton's Tertiary history of the Grand C^fion district. III. 827 

Dynamic ele<*tricity «»2 

Economic entomologv 2:iS 

Exploring voyage of the Challenger. ///. By O. Brown 

O'oodf .'i76 

Galton's Life-history album, and Record of family (hculties, 734 

Geological rolaUvos of Krakatoa, and its late eruption. III. 7C2 

Geological survey of Alabama 418 

Gladstone and Tribe's Secondary batteries 51 

Gordon's Electricity and magnetism 262 

Graves's Ufe of Sir William Rowan Hamilton 10 

Guatemaltec languagM 704 

Goyot't CrMtion MO 

Hafin** Handbooh d«r kHmatologie 102 

HiunmimA*^ Bleetrie light in our boniM Ml 



Havestadt'M Chilian languages 

Haydfn'ri Twelfth annual report of the U. 8. geolo| 

vey. Jft 

Houston's Elements of chemistry 

llouzeau and IjuncuHter's Traitc- elC'm<;ntaire de m 

Kle 

IlllntiiK ffeological report 

Janet's Tlieor>' of morals. By Franch G. PrabotX 
Jeans's Creators of the age of itteel. By li. II. Th 
Journal of the iron and Kteel institute .... 

Kellerman's Elements of botany 

I^acerda's Bacillus of beriberi 

Joey's Examination of Spencer's philosophy of 

*knowable 

I^ncaster's La pluie en Belgique 

I^nkenter's New classitioation of the Mollusca. 1 

Dull 

I^rison's Tenting-school 

Late electrical books 

1x)ckwood'8 Electricity, magnetism, and electric tel 
Lord's statistics of coal-production in IllinuU 
Lydtin, Fleming, and Van Hertsen's Propagation 

culosls 

Magnin and Sternberg's Bacteria 

M' Alpine's Botanical atlas 

M' Alpine's Zoological atlas 

Marie's History of the sciences 

Martin's Elementary physiology 

Mancart's Electricity and magnetism 

Meteorological journals 

Miguel's Organloms of the air ...... . 

Minor book notices 

Nourse's American exploration in the lce«sonea . 

Packard's Briefer zo5logy 

Pasteur, Ix)uis. Ill 

Plant^'s Recherches sur T^lectricit^ 

Proceedings of the American society of mte||Mcoi 
Recent works on the micro-chemistry of plaota . 
Report of the commissioner of agrieultara for IBS 
Report of the observatory at Wmxxjt HnnfMy . 

Report on sorghum susar 

ROmer** Bone-caves of Poland 



SCIENCE. — CONTENTS OF VOLUME III. 



PAGE 




789 


on. 






174 




779 




308 




030 




34 


15-J 


!.196 




689 




287 




726 




545 


ICO 






258 


itb 






650 




485 




617 




778 




37 




546 


lA. 


486 


te. 






279 


►er 






252 


lal 






438 


3t» 


618 




682 


to^ 






99 




67 


he 






12 




228 




761 



he 



191 



: 


PAOK 




550 


ir- 






103 




78 


lo- 






462 




332 




360 




790 




550 




460 




331 


n- 






417 




5«« 


fl. 






730 




21 K{ 




410 


y. 


7211 




400 








634 




362 




232 




783 




50 




49 




202 




734 




518 


»21 


,601 




766 




50 




546 




549 




460 




002 




68{i 




661 




161 




489 



PAOK 

Roeny** Codex CorteiifinuK. By Cyrus TKomas .... 458 

Scientific UnffuUtict 364 

8oribner'0 Where did life begin 292 

8pBng*e Lightning protection 160 

Htokes'e Burnett TecturcH on light 765 

Stokea'a Mathematical and phyiiical papers 204 

Thomson's Vortex rings 289 



Topographical surveying 

TryoD'« Structural and flyMtcmatic conchol< 
Wagner's GeographiMchcs jahrbuch . . 

Watts's Manual or chemistrv 

Webster's Outlines of chemistry .... 
WyckotTs Silk-man ufnctu re in the United i 
Yarrow's Checklist uf North -American re 



INTELLIGENCE FROM AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC ST^ 



OOVERNMBNT OROAl«IZATION8. 

Engineers* school of application, WillcU Point, New York, 

665. 
Geological survey of Canada, 605. 
U. 8. geological survey, 26, 52, 80, 135, 166, 205, 234, 265, 293, 333, 

365, 391, 421, 463, 493, 522, 551, 582. 003, 636, 665, 692, 735, 766, 

795. 
U. 8. national museum, 109. 
U. 8. naval observatory, 108, 137. 
U. 8. signal-office, 767. 



STATE IMSTITUTIONB. 

New- York state survey, 421. 
University of Kansas, til. 53. 

PUBLIC AlfD PRIVATE INSTIT 

Har\'ard college herbarium, 235. 
Harvard college observatory', 167. 
Museum of comparative zoology, Cambridf 
Peabody academy of science, Salem, 303. 



RECENT PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTCFIC SOCIEI 



Academy of natural sciences, Philadelphia, 209, 236, 267, 294, 

8S4, 367, 996, 423, 553, 606, 637, 666, 7&. 
Academy of natural sciences, Philadelphia, botanical section, 694. 
Albany instftute, 666. 

American philosophical society, Philadelphia, 79. 
American society of civil enslneers. New York, 463, 523. 
Anthropological society of Washington. 605. 
Appalachian mountain club, Boston, 866, 553. 
Biological society. Washington, 208, 294, 423. 738, 769. 
Boston society of natural history, 337, 553, 605. 
Brooklyn entomological society, 736. 
Brook vt lie society of natural history, 623, 637, 768. 
Cambridge entomological club, 26, 207. 
Canadian institute, Toronto, 165, 266. 
Chemical society, Washington, 294, 463, 583. 
Chicago academy of sciences, 237. 
Cincinnati natural-history society, 79, 236, 367. 
Colorado scientillc society, Denver, 523, 667. 
Cnvier club, Cincinnati, 209. 

Davenport academy of natural sciences, Iowa, 737. 
Kngineers* club, Philadelphia, 295, 367, 494, 552, 606, 603. 
Kntomologlcal society of Washington, 768. 
FrmnkUn institute, Philadelphia, 51, 108, 266. 



Linnaean society. New York, 294, 366, 552. 
Massachusetts institute of technology, ill, I 
Minnesota academy of natural sciences, 494 
Natural-history society of Cornell unlversll 
Natural-hiMtory society of New Brunswick, 
Natural science association of Staten Island 

24. 165, 423, 583, 694. 
New- York academy of sciences, 165. 
New- York microscopical society, 797. 
Numismatic and antiquarian society, I^hilai 
Ottawa field-naturalisu* club, 26, 107, 164, 2 
Ottawa microscopical society, 25. 
Philosophical society of Washington, 166, 2 
Philosophical society of Washington, matl 

424. 
Princeton science club, 107, 165, 266. 
San Diego natural-history society. 24, 464. 
Scientific club, ManhatUn, Knn.. 208. 
Society of arU, Boston, 79, 15.'), 207, ill. 394 
Torrey botunicnl club, New York, 236, .523, 
Trenton naiuralliisiory society, 305, 494, 7( 
Vassar brothers' institute, Poughkeepsie, 5 



COMMSNT AND CRlTlClBM, 1, 29, 57, 85, 113, 141, 160, 213, 241, 271, 299, 343, 371, 390, 427, 471, 499, 529, 557, 585, ( 
745, 773. 

LimRS TO THE EDITOR. HI. 3, 31, ill, 59, 86, 114, 142, ///. 171, 215, ill. 243, {//. 273, ill. 302, ill. 345, ill. 373, ill. 
ill. 581, 659, 586, ill. 614, 644, 672, 700, ill. 747, ill. 775. 

Notes and NBWH, 27, 54, 82, 110, 138, 168, ill. 209, 238, 268, 296, 337, 368, ill. 396, 424, ill. 464, ill. 495, ill. 524, 
667, 696. ill. 739, Ul. 769, 797. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Alnoman, 70; hut, 60; anold Aino 71 

Alaska and adjoining region, map of, 187, 284; new volcano 

Island In (0 flgs.) 89-91 

Aretlo veaael and her equipment (4 flgs.) 506-509 

Arrow-poinu at Evansville, IIL 278 

Buffio Bay, the channels north of, opposite 377 

Balloon, Tlaaandler's flying, 163; end view of, 154; batteries 

for, 100; basket of 197 



Basins at Mammoth Hot-Springs of Gardin< 

Bat, the dusky 

Batrachichthys 

Blaze which had been covered by many yen 

Bogosloff Island, distant ten miles, as seen b 

Levasbeff, 1768-69, 283; the new volcac 

tember-October, 1888 

Brain of dog, functional areas in ... . 



VI 



SCIENCE. — CONTENTS OF VOLUME TIL 



PAOB 

Bridge over tfae Niagara River, cantilever (2 figs.) .... 573 

Canoe, method of tracking, up a rapid 223 

CauUuiteB fecundue I/onqx 433 

Cephalopoda, evolution of the (7 Ags.) 126 

Challenger, the, 577 ; natural hitttory workroom on board the, 578 

Chlamydoselachus anguineua 116 

Cold, November, 1881, map dhowing motion of waves of . 151 

Coleoptcra, scales of (8 ftg«.) 127 

Colorado, Granite Falls, a scene in the inner gorge of Kaibab 
district. Grand Canon of the, opposite 299; dikes in the 
canon-wall of the inner gorge. Grand Canon of titc, 328 ; 
niches or panels In the red-wall sandstone. Grand 

Canon of the 330 

Comut, path of Pons-Brooks, 68 ; as seen Sept. 26, 1883 . . 69 

Cucumber, flower growing upon a 356 

Cyclone cloud at Rochester, Minn., 1883 304 

Diamonds, Brazilian (6 figs.) 049 

Dinosaur, a now and strange (3 figs.) 198, 199 

Dinosaurs, new Jurassic (6 figs.) 542, 543 

Dogs, kennels for mad, 548; cage for same 548 

Dumas, JeanBaptiste-Andr6, portrait of 751 

Dynamometer used at Cincinnati ezDOsition, 1883 (3 figs.) . 176 

Earthquake in England, April 22, 1884, map showing . . 741 
Electric machine, Toeplcr-Holtz, 754; signals, clock for 

sending 243.401 

Electrical exhibition building at Philadelphia 398 

Eugelmann, George, portrait and signature of 405 

Eurypharynx pelecanoidcs 620 

Eustomias obscurus 626 

Faults of south-western Virginia 615 

GalHthodes Antonii 713 

GastrostomuH, the pedunculated lateral-line organ of (2 

tigs.) 6 

(}ey»er in action, 1871, Old Faithful 104 

(jlacial boundary, map of southern Indiana and Ohio, show- 
ing 464 

Glaciology, some Indiana 748 

Guyot. Arnold, portrait and signature of 219 

Hall, James, portrait of 572 

TIumphreyH, Andrew Atkinson, portrait and signature of . 477 

Icebergs and ice-tloes (2 figs.) 536,537 

Indian imploments of the north-west (2 figs.) 589 

Johns Hopkins university, marine laboratory of the, 7; in- 
terior view of, 8 ; vacht and steam-launch of. 9 ; biologi- 
cal laboratory of the, plans and views (6 figs.) . . . 350-353 
Kansas university, plans of new chemical laboratory (2 figs.), 

53 ; view of same 54 

Krakatoa, atmospheric waves from, 531 ; before and after 
the eruption, 211; the late eruption and the geological 
relatives of (8 figs.), 763, 764; water-waves from (map 

and fig.) 776, 777 

Lava falling into a pool of water, a cataract of red-hot . . 412 

I^va-flow of 1880-81 from Mauna Jjoa 411 

Leaf, expulsion of water from a growing 245 

Macrurus australis, 6*21 ; globiceph 625 

Magnetic enidne, 274; observatory at Pawlowsk, Russia . 119 

Malacosteus niger 627 

Mclanocetus Johnsoni 621 

Meteorological station at Pawlowsk, Russia 119 

Microbes, warm room for the culture of 547 

Micropterus salmoides, osteology of 749 

Mole, the star-nosed 540 

Monk-seal of the West Indies 753 

Morphology of the pelvis and leg 325 

Mounds, the Etowah (11 figs.), 780-784; iron from North- 
Carolina (2 figs.), 308, 309; eccentric figures from south- 
ern (6 tigs.) 437, 438 

Jtfount St. Augnstin after the eruption, as seen by Capt. 

Cullie, Nov. 10, 1893 188 



PAOB 

Mouse, the white-footed 540 

Nelumbium luteum, longitudinal section of 434 

Nematocarcinus gracillpes 715 

Neostoma bathyphilum 624 

New Jersey, map showing geological survey of 525 

North .\tlantic, the older wind-charu of the (5 figs.), 594> 
596; meteorological charts of the (3 figs, and map), 

655, 656. opposite 656; track-chart of the 672 

Onoclea sensibilis Lesqx 433 

Pendulum, gyration of a vibrating 774 

Photographic camera for natural -history objects (2 figs.), 443, 444 
Photographic laboratory of Massachusetts instituti' of tech- 
nology, plan of 81 

Pipe found near Charleston. \V. Va 619 

Point Barrow, signal-station at, 478; ice-arch formed near . 479 
Pottsville* conglomerate, peculiarities of weathering in the 

(7 figs.) 12-14 

Ptychogaster formosus 714 

Reflections, experiments with 616, 617 

Ripple-marks (5 figs.) 376 

Rumford medal, presented to Prof. H. A. Rowland . . . 257 
Siemens, Charles William, portrait and signature of . . . 35 
Skeleton from Mentone, France, ancient human (2 figs.) . . 541 
Skull, human, from the loess of Podbaba, near Prague 

(3 figs.) 785, 786 

Spider's device in lifting 433 

Strawberry -flower, retrograde metamorphosis of a ... 302 
Talisman, deep sea dredging apparatus of the (13 figs.), 448- 
455; deep-sea fishes collected by the (4 figs.), 624-627; 
invertebrates collected by the, 658; deep-sea Crustacea 

dredged by the (3 figs.) 713-715 

Telegniph, the Delany synchronous 375 

Telephone, glove (2 fiffs.) 770,771 

Telescope, the great Vienna 381 

Testing-machines, improvements in (5 figs.) . 313, 315, 317-319 

Tide-predicting machine 409 

Tornadoes, diagram showing their relation to the prevailing 

winds 556 

Tree, remains of a prehistoric 347 

Trilobite, appendages of (3 fisrs.) 280, 281 

Vertebra, seventh cervical, in man 61 

Volcanic sand which fell at Unalashka, Alaska, Oct. 20, 1883, 652 
Walking a log, as practised by the Alaskan Indians, position 

of the feet in 223 

Warren, G. K., portrait and signature of 277 

Whirlwinds, cyclones, and tornadoes, diagrams and maps 

explaining (10 figs.) 43, 44, 65, 94, 95 

Wind velocities and directions near Chicago 495 

Winds within the storm-disk (2 figs.) 403 

Wintering in the Arctic (10 figs.) 566-571 

Yellowstone, Grand Canon in the 105 

Yukon River, map of Upper, 221 ; Dayay valley, looking up 
Nourse-River valley, 222; a view in the Davay valley, 
224; I.4ike Lindeman on, 225; I^ke Bennett from Payer 
Portage, 247 ; Miles Canon fVom its southern entrance, 
250; Indian village of Kitl-ah-gon In the von Wilczek val- 
ley, 251; view looking into the mouth of the Pelly Riv- 
er, 677; view looking up the Yukon fh>m the mouth of 
the Pelly River, 678; looking across the, 679; Ayan In- 
dians and their birch-bark canoes on the, 688; section of 
paddle used on the, 680 ; plan of hut on the, 680 ; Kon- 
itl, chief of the Ayans, on the, 681 ; gambling * chips,' 
682; section of the, 682 ; map of the Middle, 707 ; sec- 
tion of bank of the (3 fivs.) 708; Indian village of Klat- 
ol-klin on the, 709; fishing-net ijsed on the, 710; fish- 
.club used on the, 711 ; moss hanging from banks of . . 711 

Zamiostrobus mirabills Lesqx 433 

Zoca, evolution of 514 



SCIENCE. 



AN ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL PUBLISHED WEEKLY. 



CAMBRrDOE, MASS.: THE SCIKJrCB COMPANY. 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 4, 1884. 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM. 

The thonghu and aotions of young men of 
intellectual strengtlK in whom is vested the 
future fate of scientific progress in tbia coun- 
try, are worth attention, and are of the deep- 
est interest to those who are, or soon will be, 
no longer explorers of new fields. Tlie meet- 
ing last week in New York, of the new society 
of naturalists, composed almost wholly of 
young men, was remarkable for the force and 
directness of the discussions, and the absence 
of i)ointles8 and wearisome talk. It became 
plain that we have men capable of the best 
work, and that we are preparing for a bnlUnnt 
future of investigation, whenever the instni- 
mentalities necessar^v for fullest snceess arc 
sufficient. The spirit of independence, and 
the disreganl of purely personal iaflueuce, were 
as great as could be desired. All propositions, 
from whatever source, met with an equal aud 
critical treatment ; and no clique or locality had 
the slightest claim for consideration. Fliila- 
delphia was best represented ; while there was 
a striking absence of delegates from Wash- 
ington, New Haven, and Caml>ridge. 

The Iiitcriiiitioiml corittTi'iice iur lixing U|>ou 
a universal i)rime meridian and a tmi versa! 
iystera of time has at length l>een called by 
the State department to meet in Washington, 
Oct. 1. 18H-I. Diplomatic |>roceedingft are 
always expected to go on with a certain dig- 
nified leisure ; but the arrangements for tlie 
meeting of this conference have been delayed 
far beyond any thing customary, eveu in di* 
domacy* The act authorizing the conference 

came a kw in August i 1882. As there was 



some doubt whether there would be a sufficiently 
general response to the invitatiou to insure the 
success of the conference, a preliminary cir- 
cular requesting the views of the various govern- 
ments interested, and an expression of their 
willingness to enter the conference, was issued 
from tlie State department toward the end of 
1 882 . The responses w ere i n some cases favor- 
able, and in others negative or undecided* A 
desire was felt by the Europeans to have a pre- 
liminary discussion of the subject at the In- 
ternational geodetic conference at Rome in 
October, 1883, The feeling at this conference 
luiving shown that there would be little dif- 
ficulty in the universal adoption of the Green- 
wich meridian, the final step of calling th© 
conference was taken. Why so late a date 
was choeen we are not informed. 



Ln our issue of Dec. 14 we published an 
article under the title of * The signal-service 
and standan! time.' criticising the action of 
the chief signal-offlccr in not adopting the new 
standards of time at signal-service stations. 
We have since learned that our criticism was 
not well founded, as the information upon which 
it was based gave an incomplete idea of the 
IKJsition of the service in this matter. It is 
true that the obsen^ers of the service are still 
governed by the local times of their respective 
stations ; but this is only a temporary arrange- 
ment, and will be changed as soori as possible. 
The reason of the delay is this : the inter- 
national observation, which is taken at many 
stations of observation throughout the whole 
world, is made at seven a.m.. Washington time. 
It is proposed to make this observation eight 
minutes earlier, or at seven a.m. of the time of 
the lliXXi meridian, which is exactly (ireenwieh 
noon ; but, before this change can l)c made, 
the co-operating weather-services and numer- 









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•■M :::...:-. :.:.: The dli* 

'■■■.'•^-. ;.L^^ Vvl lO be 

.-■v.:: J ■: f The winds 
. . :#»-V- ,;i:.wi:. There m 

■^ '-.:-■• n: ! •■- \;>. r^^Tloii of the fre> 



Jakijlby 4, 1884, J 



SCIENCE. 



qaeney and violeuc'c of lightning to the diflVr- 
eat parts of the storm-area, or for discovering 
its possible preference for one or another 
topographical or geological distri<^-t when it 

* strikes/ Some of these points have been 
studied in Europe, but inticb remains to be 
ione even there. Indeed, there is no depart- 

Ftaient of meteorology in which local iind close- 
ly placed observers caii attain an end so 
distinetly originid, n\n\ ^o far out of reach of 
the government senice, oa in this ; and ten 
years* observations from stations near one 
another, and numerous enough* would yield 
results of the greatest practical and theoreti- 
cal interest. . 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR, 

, ttorry *jpo h den <* ar<» rfqueHnS ft) ^f a* bt'ltf a^ poM»ibU> Tht 
iirit*r*$ nam* it in <tU coJtes rtquiratt tt§ pro^ q/ ffoi^d faUh, 

Mr. rrancis Oalton's proposed ' family regi»ter».' 

Many obliging leLtfrs reacli mc trom Aiut?rica. 
^jOffering family information for iny use, of the kind 
Jescribed by ruy frieml, Mi% Henry R Osborn, in your 
'isuL! No. .'iO, as that which 1 want. 
The acbeme ih^nt descril>eij is one that I circulated 
» gather opinions and to obtain gtildancu before cJe- 
ennining iui pr^olHc fonn. This h now done, and 
riih your permission I will say a few words Ufion it. 
The Informjitiou wanteil applies to so manv differ* 
(Dl indiviiluals in the same family group, una differs 
' wo much in intnuteness, acconllng to the degree of 
kinship, and it has to be arranged in so special a 
manner, that a copious explanatory description and 
numerous tables are requisite. There is no real com- 
plexity: nr-vertheless, I feel assured, that, without 
r ilile guidance, endless mistakes will arise. 

* lents will send pa^ee of useless matter; and, 
iMj Lijr I'lher hand, they will be silent about simple 
facts, the absence of which will seriously diniini»h 
the vahic of otherwise copious returns. I tlH;n*f<»re 
found it necessary to prepare a book containlug a 
full account and explanation of what wad wanted, iu 
order to exhibit tlie varous hereditary tendencies 
that converge upon any given person, and containing 
rt* Hw. . .r^,^» |,[nii» all the necessary scheduler. This I 
! : it is in the press, and will be publisheil 
a iiitm&sby Macntillan, and will be procura- 
ble ill America. 

As regants the prise scheme, I found it inadvisable 
Uy restrict it to medleal men, and I have thrown it 
open to • British subjecU resident In the United 
■ Kingdom.* I could not extend it farther, owing to 
ho extreme ditti*-ulty of verifying statements of facts 
iSleged to have occnrre<l abn>aa. My self-imposed 
task will bi' hard enough ai it is. The conditions of 
the prizes are fuily explained in a fly-leaf to the Eng* 
lish edition. 

Let me take Ihis opportunity of saying a few 
words about another book to which my name is at- 
lAcbed as editor, and which will appear at the same 
lime. It is ciilleil the * Life-history album/ and was 
prepareil by a sub-committee, of which 1 was asked 
to be chainoan, who acted by direction of the Col- 
lective Ifivestigation committee of the British medical 



associatioiu This book give^ explanations and sched- 
ules for the regi**trarif>n of fuTHrmat data us lif#> ad- 
vances, just ;is the ' 
account once for u' 

ever, being very dij, v., ,i. ,i. v,,, ..,>- ...-.-^ 
much more meiHcal in the * Album.' It i- ' 

by the Life history sub-committee tlial tlu i 

v^lue to the ptjssessor, of his own Ilfe-histoiy up to 
date, would be considerable, and of great service to 
tlie children. They also feel, that, if tli mh are 

commonly kept, it will be possible h- ob- 

tain extracts of a great many of them i . i^.*, •> sta- 
tistical purposes, which would be of high scientific 
value. The album;* will contain a vast amount of 
infonnatlon which is now left to perish, and the lack 
of which is a great hinderance to obtaining that com* 
pleto and comprehensive knowledge of the family 
antecedent* of numerous pertsotis, wlitch is at preitcut 
the paramount desideratum lo inquirers into heredity. 
I shall be very grateful to any oi your reuflers who 
may see my forthcoming ' Record of family faculties,* 
and may make themselves aequainled with what I 
want, who will send me Information concerning their 
own familieH. But 1 cannot explairt my wants with 
suliieietit lirev iiy either here or by letter, ajid must, ^ 
perforce, rxifer those who care to know them lo the 
boo k i tsei f , Fn an c is G alto S - 

The red Bunsets. 

I have recently noticed several articles upon the 
gorgeous sunsets lately seen in this country, and de- 
sire to put down a few notes; on the same. 

The red glare was .*«► brilliant the evening of Nov. 
27, that the flre-alarm was sounded in New Haven, 
Conn., calling out the engines. On the succeeding 
night the deep red glow was magniticent, appear- 
ing f.ir above blocks in the busiest part of the city. 
Careful observation has shown the phenomeikon vorj' 
nearly as brilliant at sunrise .'w at sunset. The deep 
red has apf>eared the last of all the cotavA in the sky 
at sunset, and invariably tlie tirKt in the murning. 
There has been, in addition lo thb, agrayish afterglow 
at night, and in the morning^ a slight effulgence be- 
tokening the rising sun. This afterglow, or etTul- 
gence, ha* tnade it possible to observe the *ky directly 
at the region where the deep red had just appeared, 
or was soon to appear; ami tuts invariably showed fine 
fleecy clouds at a great height, generally stratified 
horizontally, and extending with slightly Increzising 
density to tlie south-west or snrith-east horlxou. 
These* lij:ht stratilied eloud-ai h were visible, 

even though the sky appear* !y cloudless a 

few minutes luifore and afu i i.... - ;^iitlgence. The 
starn the past month have «ihown, night after night, 
most extraonlinary twinkling, and the air has lieeii 
saturated with moisture. Again and itgain. with a 
high barometer and a perfectly clear sky, sometimes 
even with a cold north-west wind. I have been aston- 
ished to find the relative humi«lity a bundri*d percent. 

As to a probable explanation, the wildest theories 
have been advanced: meteorsi, cosmical dust, zodia- 
cal ll«ht, comets, ehi-ctricity, volcanic gases ,ind 
ashes, etc., have each hail their adherents. Of these, 
the last is the only cme worthy of consideration. The 
recent f ?) eruptions at Java, 11,(KK) miles distant, are 
advanced as a sufficient cause for the presence of the 
ashes. 

That volcanic ashe^ may be carried great di?itancea 
is well known. Loomis's' Meteorolotry,' p. 77, gives 
an instance in which a^hes were carried lOQ miles to 
the north -^.a^t and 1,20U miles to the west of the vol- 
cano Coseguina. Xot withstanding this evidence, it 



SCIEXCE. 



[YoL. m., No. 4a. 



-v^vxuc Ken. vidr^zui^ msvdlXMt 






f*-ff»'-v'! 



::k» [f one ir irsur-omiMf^ T.tc^ c< 

diit. i.jit. fTii. Ii jt fCiae-L •>-«g iiif I^A: fti ixic- ^cae 

liiu k.: -jit r*t fOiL : !!««•** ii«t irrii: » sr-** v«ni- a» 
r ▼ "-* . Bxi^ TiH- i»n«* LJsg^i>«JY fee t2t*a ui» :c»ij?e- 
ui:. .u< c fcl.. lilt ^^< >-.'.r:"* ■ Kf'Mfrf^'irtT.* T«. ^.i? - 
Ti - iiii.7 £ ij.r it* ya^im t'tiit iii* b.*i»«- iA^ir ti* 

taf " . '"t ii.**fr"f;»'.*»L •*» ~"ip* *ani j ex i^sic^ »irf rrd 

▼"1.. 1. ij "W'^tr. I1.1J JiST* :isfa - nj3ii_ir wit* ,ard 

sT^ :€ r*».c^ajr *: tii*. s: i"-ic i:iiji±i_ "ittrfT erf :L* 

" _ ' G. A. X. 

T^rc -Jbr c»aiie> "iljii iT^^^remt "Jut vboje iirATWi. 
•L»L -it :Si»i "it £u:iit£.3»«« »i* ccniOeit. u>d erei: 
i«a.«-r 'Udo. cc. Tift jrvrKiz:^ rr^fg— ;p: in:: iL*- ck'V 
n;r*'t "it -wiiiw* iiEZut -r^iJi acvT. :c tiit ta^-ert bvw 

fȣ-:x trK ix ^it **SL 'A ii*t i*Li "it c>:os* irere 

A: * -T it t^uic w»i & 6 e g? e r r?<- wti c-roi* Skore 
ir-.-i-z- A' 5-31 lilt cJrro&f *»«?* "iiz- ic.»i sbC'-wftJ 
fi. - : tin djKizir: ':w:i:id-«< r:«cr cc. li* <**:*rL brcv 
mcc^ "ii'ixi » -njt ic-jci.>c ±. li** »«=:- A: 5i.*l« ibt 
tr:-. ._L«es» -•*» recistc ^ a pin::^ tiji: i.ic. r-xi; & 
ciiJ7 reczjcw wu *iil psrce^obje ir »il- 1-i.r:* i-f *ii* 
1*7- " A: 5J5 u* #i7 ▼"»« €T«7-wis* :i._:.?T Tei>d. 
t^': a CATC rziddj zzii eccjd kLI ^« ih:Mi:r'»Kk jII 
ar^t^rf -it bcciacci Ai <wl'> it *i7 "wis icciKiT 
€"K^ii**- :i!:c:cl f*^ Kar* wire t2k1v*- A d^rk-red 
p-:--*- ^.-z^t :* £jre:r**c :::. ai: ^pmr-^i <i :it b«aT>e£5^ 
a^'i .=. :it w^^ ti Tomt ±. ^rcttd. i.j-5t£=rt>i haiki2$ 
fr:=i it piGCtxc ctf 'i* iss- A: €JS^'.' r.-:- ck-ods, bci 
clLj r-ir« t< trK ir»!* oc fc«x ^^r^ ' r-^-^* wcsv t». 
f:*>- Ai £rss zk raodioi wa» m«c. :<z: sl^on^v it 
btca'^ft r^ir-iffa^ai'iT appartci. Ii "«ra» a fafrt 
6=:S£T r«d Kill c4 » ra rtl7 barred in ih? v««s. This 
pv V ijjsed rvo Locn axM! etA: K:T:::te« afic sniustf; : 
aicr:«;^cn- cals: zhtsmceaktr crtrrj: frc«c ^^ u> 
fS = F. Tbe c<*erraik-CiS ; <«*» izzmtz i:i «>rm«p- 
xacc ^l:h fr»;'ar c:*s nwK.127 icadt iz. rarx^cs part* 
of xi-t wf-rii- AirTtTPga Wccchki-u 

Asa A7^«r. I^k. SL ISL 

Flast cttetritwitiop in Iaiwci Galif ochul 
I vc«U caZ ai;«i:uon to U:« fact, tha: zc^acT Ari> 
Booiaii. Xev M^zicaz:. ar-d Mexican f;«^ erf p^^^^ 
^ofttbfr viik B<*re n-i-nixn: ipe&eK art f c-and on 
ibt Banov ftnp of tabitlazMU in nonbcTT. Lover 
Gi^orma. Amo^ them I bat meniion Quercos 
gaccyi iiiH. fny ui, Astraolvm Soootae. Foaqnl- 



EML iM manT ocbcrK with Gcnnia 



caenitocnm of the Rocky Mountains. Ivesia'Bafleyi 
erf Nevada. Gall am pubent, Qnercus agrifotia, tlie 
ectmmon Pterit, Aquilegia tmncata, and a nombcr of 
int^odnccd {*) tpedet well known throoghoot Um 
Uzaied States. Charles R. Obcttt. 

Su DMfo. Cftl., Dec U. 



( near LftDsiiic. ICch. 

A few years since, I spent one or two days at Maaoii, 
K<ct xtu miW south of Lansini:. Mich. I had hoped 
;o rtiun. at 5«>me futun* lime, and ci-mpWie my ob- 
K-rr*ii..r.s ui*on s«»me peculiar ridjit^ rf sxud. craTel, 
aid t<>wlders in llie vicinity cf tlt^i vii;a::t>: but, as It 
3nay W 5onie vtar* l»efi«re 1 shall be ablr t-- ilo so, I 
wvuM like to lay the obsenaiions tirf««re the readers 
of A-iOiCf. hiipin^ that s*'nie nf ihv Michigan nead- 
er5 may ha\e liiiitr u* invest iuate :Lv s'.bj'-c: fully. 

TLe surface is here nearh plaiir. Tbe fn-Li mo- 
rairr of the Saiiiuaw glacier* 1« 'be lie* s->mc iLirty-five 
ir-iirs :o the soutli-south-east. beyoitd J jick«on. These 
rl»icesiieiul towarxlsthismoniine fnran s-'me ur. known 
jtt'ir.: nonh of Mas<»n to anoilier uiikn^wi. pc«;iii ten 
i-r more miles s»»uih-s<»uth-east. 1 ^as iiifom-.ed that 
s^«ie of these ridges wort* six aiid trigL: nii:r> ir. iength« 
ard aie sometimes used as a highway. The drair ace is 
to the northwanl at present, paralle*. wi;h:Le O'urse 
of :he ridges, though I noticed on«: or iwo ii-siancee 
where creeks had intersected the rid^r* ii.s'ead oi 
being guide«l by them. The ridges ser^nit^J :o j^rsisl 
in a northerly' ct>urse. though with ma: y l.-oal ex- 
ceptions. I noticed one instance in which tbe main 
ridge turned nearly at an angle tkf I^K'^ : bu: the main 
course was ivntinuetl farther n«'nh ir. ihe heavier 
ridge, and at the elbow by a much ligl.ii-r »:.r. Tbe 
ridge* are quite variable in elevaiii-ii. Perhaj* the 
mean lies l>etween twenty and thirty frts. Tte s^-^pe 
was not measuretl, but is", as a rule, :^^^ greAi t" per- 
mit their being cn^sseil by teams at ihr x-.a:i:ral grade. 
The ci^miKMient material is all wa;er-» »>rri. ai-d eri- 
der.ilv de|H«it(Hl thnmgh the agency of »a:er. Tbe 
bcwljers aiv of all sixes, up to tw«?;Ae ii.cht-s. ,j^^^ 
hajis forty per cent were sandstone, simiiAr ;:. ".'iiho- 
Ic^ical characters to the subjacent r>.i^k *:ra:j. Tbe 
nemainder were motamonduc or igntvus spec.t*, ex- 
e>*i»t s^>roe limestone iH»bbies. 

whether these ridges ^en^ formed in ih< '.:'. z :«»' 
r.ai crevasses and river-4'hannels of the ancii:.: ,: a. ; 
or not, must bo dotennimHi by a m»^re carefu. s-f 
v-rf the region than the writer Was able to n-.jike .2 
few days siHMit at Mason. I-. C. >Vv*o>tk 

Kuivka, Kan.. lH>c. t*. ISiCU 

Longevity in a fasting spider 

i>n the fifteenth day of iVtoWr, l?^l. I end 
spider in a small (m|HT Ih>x. Fn^m that day 
»tventh day of May. ISSa (IHH days*. I ca 
watched and daily iiispeot<Hl the pns*>ner. ar 
positively afBnn tliat he imrtook of no fo^ni or 
The U^x in >»bloh h« was conthunl was as cV 
white as white |>a|H»r could make It, and rvm 
while he cinitinutHl to occupy ll, except fo' 
peerance of a few dark ii|H»cka which 1 sup 
the droppings of the prlHoner. 1 cart^fuH 
him every day, and Moinet lines two or thrt 
a day: and I wa^i unablo to drteci an> em 
symptoms of weaknoitii, or even Irritability 
whiie he ll\e\l. lie alwayi apiM'aird as 
kx^etl as phiiDp and healthy, an he dii' 
dropped him into the Imx, until within r 
his death, when 1 first oimerved that >» 
was tipi^ he would fall from bin ihihUIo 
Wll.ll VM J 
Ktwbw«li, N\Y. 



Jakcahv 4. \ep4.] 



SCIENCE. 



The pedunculated lateral-line organs of Gaa- 
troatomus. 

The recent discovery of a form of deep-sea fiahei 
closely allied to the Eurypharyux described by M. 
TaiUaut, by the U. S, fish-conuniaaion steamer AJ- 
batross, has afforded excellent opportunities for a 
more thorough examination of the external charac- 
tera presented by the skin of these forms. Tlila 
Bpccies uf euryphar>iigoid flahes, — the one studied 
by Professor Theodore Gill and mystflf, and named 
byus Gastroatomus Bairdii, — upon closer examlna- 
tfon of the region of the lateral line, disdoBes features 
which appear to be somewhat remarkable, if not 
unique, amongst organs of the kind hitherto known. 
The lateral line is in its usual position, and begins 
just behind the head. Theni if no mucous canal 
covering the end-organs; but these are Isolated »a 
gjoup!* of from two to five, standing on the skin in an 
oblique row at the hind 
margin of each muscular 
iomite. The p-oups con- 
sist, in f net, of from two 
to five Binlked orpins^ as 
shown in tig. 1 in the cuU 
Tlie fla!kfi are not pig* 
menU'd at all, except at 
the tips, where they sujv 
port a discoidiil cup- 
shai(>«d organ, which 15> 
more or less completely 
ptjB:mented internally. In 
some instances tliese end- 
orgrtns are very distinctly 
cup-fibafied: in others 
tlntl form I* lej^s clearly 
ttppuront. The base from F«p, 1» 

which the i^tiilka arise is 

not so deeply pigtnented iis the surrounding skin, 
which is very denst^ly loaded with pij;ment, and very 
black. The pigment on the basal disks is^ in fact, 
Arranged in a sllsbily reticular manner: the pig- 
mented layer is continuous with the outer clear 
sheaths of the stalks; and the medullary portion of 
the stAlk can be seen In some casea to consist mainly 
of nerve-librlls, which pass outwards to the cup-Jike 
organs at tho lip. In a few cases there appears to 
be a clear space in tlii^ centre of the cup-like end- 
orgiin, 3ts shown In fij,?. 2, surrounded by a dense 
circ!" '^' r^i'^'nented tissue. 

1 ri of tlieso side-organs of Ga*trostomus 

ism lactile, or may serve a special purpose 

at the great depth in which this fi*'h lives. Tbey re- 
mind one vei7 forcibly of the rows of comb-like end- 
organs which have recently been described by F. 
Leytlijj on the head of the cave-fish 
(Amblyoptiis spelaeus DrK,); but in 
this ca^e the stalks are not so robust, 
and are much more slender, and 
relatively longer. It may even be 
that the*e lateral bands of side-or- 
gans of Gaftrt^ifttomus arc phospho- 
Fig. 27 rescent at their tips, like the side- 

organs of scopelids, steropiyclnd?, 
etc. The lateral bands made up of short oblique 
rows of these organs, as the fi*h moves through ilie 
water at a depth of live to fifteen hundred fathoms, 
may po^sibly become luminous. 

Ihat they are also senson,' In fimction there can 
be no doubt, lM:'ing found in the usual iK)sition of the 
lateral line, as In common flshes, and. like it. prob- 
ably innervated from the vagus. The stalks are 
fully a fiixteenth of an inch long, and are apparent 



on the side when the fish Is Immersed Ui aleohui or 
water, and project outwards quite freely, so as ta be 
visible along the sides Mhen the fisli is viewed from 
above. These naked side-organs remind one also 
somewhat of the naked nerve-hilts on the sides of the 
body of young fishes, such as those of Gadus and 
Gambusia. In the former the stiff fiensory hairs of 
the nerve-hills prr ^ * ■ -^ i- • • from the surface 
of the hill into t! ' , but in no em- 
bryo fishes am I ;i . jrgans are ever 

pedunculated. In iaci, the side-organs of Gastros- 
tonuis Bairdii, like the whole of the rest of tiie orga- 
nliation of the animal, particularly its skull and 
branchial apparatus, present an extreme phase of 
specialization. J. A. Rydkr. 



RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT 

WiTti the present numbc-*r Sci€n4:^ enters 
Dpon the second year of its existetice. The 
time is an appropriate one, while extending a 
cordial greeting to iU readers, to call their nU 
tention to its work and its purposes. That a 
journal of poptilar science^ with the varied and 
infornoal contents appropriate to a weekly pub* 
Ueation* would, if judiciously conducted, prove 
a weleotue addition to the list of American 
penodicals, has long been felt by those most 
interested in scientific progress ; but, when 
the numberless ditliculties in the way of suc- 
cess had to be consi<lered in detail, they were 
found to he numerous and perj»!exing. The 
general scope of the journal was the only fea- 
ture about which little doubt c*ould be felt. 
Two quite distinct yet inseparable objects of 
existence presented themselves : one was to 
keep the readers of the journal informed of 
the progress of seieuee in all its branches ; the 
other, to give expression to the well-matured 
views of scientific men upon all public questions 
counected with the increase of knowledge, and 
thus to become, so far as pos,sil>le, an organ 
of public opinion upon scientific atfairs. 

In pursuing the latter object the path of 
duty was too plain to require discussion. The 
journal must be the organ of no individual, 
clique, or part3% but must^ while preserving 
entire impartiality, give plain and fearless 
expression to its convictions upon any question 
in which the interests of science at large were 
involved. How far it has fulfilled this require- 
ment is a question to be decided by its readers 
and patrons, without argument from ourselves. 

The question of the contents of the journal 
in detail was a far more intricate one. 8 hall 
its articles be designed exclusively for the spe- 
cialist, or shall the results it makes known be 
popularized by the omission of all purely tech- 
nical nomenclatnre? Shall they be long and 
elaborate, or slioit at the risk of incomplete- 
nesa? Shall they be strictly and purely scien- 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IIL, Ko. 4S. 



titio, or shall the speculative, sentimental, and 
ix)eti(^ sides of things he allowed to apj>ear? 
Shall its chronicles of progress consist of the 
briefest possil)le memoranda of all important 
current reseanthes, each duly lahellecl for ref- 
erence, or shall a selection be si> made that 
each account shall l)c pre|)ared with a state- 
ment of the origin, place, and object of the 
research, with a view of making its true signifi- 
cance known? In the case of scientific arti- 
cles, wlhMc shall we draw the line l>etween what 
belongs to this journal anrl what to those in- 
tended for the pul)lication of original re- 
searches ? These are merely a few of tlie more 
imiK)rtant questions which the projectors were 
obliged to meet, and which they have cndeav- 
ore<l to decide in the way best fitted to give 
general satisfaction. The result is seen to a 
certain cxt<'nt in the present number ; but some 
aspctds of the subject may be profitably con- 
si(i(»re(i from a broader fiehl of view. 

The dilllculty arising from the technical na- 
ture of scientific researches admits of being 
partially r(?solve<l, so far at least as the gen- 
eral principle is concerned, by a M^sy obvious 
consideration. Science nnist be almost as 
nuich poj)ularized, lo be made arx'essible Ut 
all scientific read(?rs, as to b<; rea^lable by the 
educated public who wen* never in a lalx^ra- 
tory. A new fornmla in thermo<lynaniics is as 
incomi>rehensible to a botanist as lo a mi'.tu\fttr 
of Congress. The average physicist knows as 
little al)out a bracliiopo<l as the average luor- 
<!hant. AVhat the most modest well-re»d cU^r- 
gyman \\\\\y fairly think he knows aU;iji 
Darwinism 'far exc«*e<ls all that tlie common 
run of chemists r<?ally do know. The obvious 
conclusion is, that, sliould we seek U) make dJK 
cussions of current scientific researehes aerirssi- 
ble to all scientific readers, we cannot avoid 
being somewhat popular in style. 

On the other hand, if the journal should 
present to its r<'a<l<'rs only that t-hmn <ff read- 
ing-matter which they get for nothing in the 
daily [>apers, its xavy existenei? woijid Ur a 
superfluity. To justifv the publjejition of any 
perio<lical devoted to a s|x;cialty, it inu>»t pM-. 
sent its readers with a kind of niatt^T which 
they cannot find in the public printi^. 

The t<irm ' popular s(!i«*nec ' in ofo-n ma/Je \j, 
include a class of diseuHsions 'juiU- *V\\U'rt.u^ 
from the presentation of scjiriitifie iruthn in 
counnon language. Scienec »it the preM-nt 
day is the ideal of <lemoerHr\ . Itn woik :nt*\ 
its honors, from the highest to the loweHt.. um- 
thrown open, without rentriction, Ut ;i)l men. 
There is no authority which euu imy Ut the 
humblest worker, *' I know W\\%, and \ou do 



not : I am therefore above your criticism, and 
you must accept my statements without essay- 
ing to inquire into the validity of their founda- 
tion or the Sf>undne88 of their application." 
There is no tribunal in the scientific world 
which has the iK)wer to pro(*laim what is and 
what is not proved ; what problems are and 
what are not solved. To one who has never 
(rousidererl this state of things, the first im- 
pression felt is, that it must imply universal 
anarchy : that in a community where every one 
has equal authority — that is, no authority at 
all — there can Ijc no such thing as permanent 
and widely received opinions. But the very 
opjK^site is the truth. A system which recjuires 
every doctriiic to stand on its own merits, and 
to maintain itself only by l)eing proof against 
every assault, is the very one under which truth 
stands the best chance of showing its i)erma- 
nency. A long-establishc(( scientific doctrine 
stands like the Matterhorn. not thi'ough being 
\)T<}U'<iU'<\ from assault, but by l>ting able to 
resist the storms of ages. 

Now. there is in every civilized country a 
class of writers who avail themselves of this 
principle of equalit}' to discuss subjects of 
which they have no accurate knowletige, to pro- 
[Kiiind new theories, and to attack old ones. 
A voluminous literature thus arises which is 
th«j work of the lay element in the scientific 
<:r.»mmunity, and which is therefore sometimes 
r;;illw| |Kipular scienctr. Such productions must 
stand on their merits as much as the proposi- 
tioMH of the professional scientific man. and 
are entiths^l to f;i>nsideration only according to 
their merit. The |>olicy of Science is lo admit 
nothing lo itn pages which does not belong to 
th«5 domain of knowledge, excluding with es- 
\fiytrhi\ T'are S|/<'(riilations upon subjects like the 
nebular hyi^^ithesis in which many active minds 
are m/ fond of indulging. 

After a can;f(il consideratitui of the fonn in 
which fhe results of eurrent n»searches should 
\»i'. pf<'»srf'nt«'d. it has been deeidtMl lo substitute 
Tot the weekly hiinunary heretofoiv presented 
brief div;u4Mon^ of current work which shall 
\h'. of tnnto. int.eri'ht Ut the general reailer. To 
'omhiiit' ^Mfvity with perspicuity in such eases 
m oDi-n it \i'ry ditlieult problem, lu which the 
*//A*Uh iii*'uu fiM'ordH the only solution. 

Til* fofiri in which Science is mnv pi-esented 
\iHH t^< ;j V/ ;i huge extent the result of care- 
ffj] .riq'iif fimoiig its aeeessiblo iViends and 
|/f<tror.*' ^f;lhi^«•Hll\ , the plan in view cannot 
U' i\i;i\t,\^A Ml :i iiin;/ie numbei' ; but we hope 
Uiuf a few vn'i'kA will Hhow our pur|K>se to 
i/fMk<- HtMitfM of gf enter \aluo than heretofbre 
1/, «/fM i>».d«'fiin(( eir/'li. Ill' readers. 



I 



JjL2«DilJlY 4, 18S4.] 



SCIENCE. 



THE MARINE LABORATOHY OF THE 
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVEHSITY. 

The Chesapeake zoological labotator}' was 

instituted by the trustees of the Johns Hopkins 

university as part of the biological department 

of that university in 1878, and Dr. W* K. 

Jrooks was appointed director. Its purpose 

twofold. — to furnish complete facilities for 

'original studies in mariue zoology* and a place 

for more elementary uistnictioa. The fauna of 

the southern watei^ of the United States was 

selected for stud\ . In providing thus a place 



Topsail Inlet, ten miles west ft'ora Cape Look- 
out, protected from the ocean, except in its 
worst moods, by a broad saud-har, and 3'et so 
near that an hour's sail carries one out ui>on the 
high seas. Owing to the configuration of the 
coast-line, the warm Florida current Hows by 
and almost bathes the shore. This warm cur- 
rent* setting up IVom the shores of the Gulf, 
sweeps along with it many pelagic animals 
which belong to a hotter climate. Yet, while 
the ocean-life is decidedly southern ^ the climate 
of Beaufort is not oppressive : indeed, the place 
and its neighbor, Morehcad City, are summer 



^*^'^^,^ 



F 



*'^"V^*N , 



p-^/BsMfc^p^-:^ 






K^i 



«8*^>«-' 



* 



^AiirKr i.An«MtATf>nT at HrArroiiT 



for advanced worlc, this university has taken 
the initiative among American colleges ; the 
various summer schools held along our coast 
being more particularly concerned in instruc- 
tion than in inv* > of new problems. 
The first and secon us in 1878 and 1870 
were held in the lower [lai ts of the Chesapeake 
Bav. In 1880 the laboratory was moved to 
Ueaufurt, N.C. 

Ueaulbi-t has been a favorite haunt of natu- 
ralists ever since IBHU, when jt was visited by 
Drs. Stimpson and GilL No better place could 
be selected for the study of the forms of life 
in southern watem. It lies at the mouth of Old 



resorts. The town, standing almost in the 
ocean, is swept by nearly constant breeres^ 
which temper the heats of July and Augtjst. 

The place is quite accessible, being only two 
miles from Morehcad City, the esistcrn termi- 
nus of the North Caroluia midland railway, 
and may !»e readied by steamer from Norfolk 
vid Newbcrnc, and by rail from points noilh 
and west vid Goldsboro. 

The site of the laboratory at Beaufort is 
most convenient, being at the very water's 
edge. A pier built out from the front gat© to 
the deep water crosses a flat of black soft mud, 
bare at every low tide, and a i^lace wliere the 



SCIENCE. 



fViti m Vf 



specimen lumlcr iiTT ^ " > ^ irch 

here obtftiTi^ f<>r one ^ «^l- 

IftDa ID t ft CliaeiuptMiUd, A]|ibeus, au- 

nelkUt 11 tM-'biiii>lLM'ins, a.sci<!mns, and 

barnacles u|x>n the wlmif- piles. The general 
eludeul eau liore find material to ilhistratt.* kis 
study of almost any of lUe larj^er groui*s liter- 
ally within a stent* 's throw of his nork-n>om. 
From the end of I he wharf at high water Uu* 
dip-net secures not imly quantities of things to 
interest the gcnerfd student, hut Crustacea, 
niednsae, Sagitta, and hirvai* of thy greatest 
interest to the specialist. 

Across the channel which runs along the 



goi^ia, A- 
coral. Hi^ 

Leucifer, Siphonophora, pelagic larvae, an 
medusae of great interest, such as Li Hope an 
Cunina. The rocks upon the artifirial lu'en" 
water furnish Penophora, tuindarinn hydroid 
and several species of actinians. On shells III 
sliore are found the known genera of entopr 
tan Bryozoa, 

But 1 Clin not give n complete Imt of f! 
fauna here, nor even mention all the attraetioiK 
I have not tried to do so, bat cnerelv to inti 



l^-'^ 



— :^ 



ITkMiliii 



Jtc^ ^ 



fir 



...LL'0 



iNTicnioii *»r ManiKft i 



AW9mt Af murr^T 



water-front is a largo snrvcl-fthoal, unroverfitl 

during several hours every day ; t»i ^' Uia 

favorite haunts of myriads of int. r> r 

tures. I say myriads advisedly. 

most striking features of the V,*- 

the extreme abundance of oli 

which occur there at all, Thr im*« t ^ju* -h h*;* 

shoal is literally honeycombed by a t^tUmm^ 

species of Balanoglo«»UH often threiit ''' ' " 

and on the outer edge an* to be foai- 

in great uurabcrH, ami dead NhclU *' 

iDhabile<i by Thnllanema, i\h ronny ?^ 

the patienee to colleet* All <• 

creep Linnjhis. In the drpprr 

the shoal are Rcuilla« ' »nd Um 

beautiful nudlbranch VI 



raster tlw cseeedlf^ variety and n>FnTtdfinf^ 

fbroMi iff \hm grcatr^t tnten?«t, 

fort luui Imen Ui»' r^vurt of natui ii 






It has not ypl b€«n 

felt to 1)0 a somewt 

' Vd>oratoni' - '^ 
HKlern eor 
"1. A tw o*HiorM 
Mrns, was rented , 



iflth oij^ 



Januabt 4. IS^L) 



SCIENCE. 



9 



value of wljic'li does not require eommenL The 
fiirnisliing; of the builcting was simple, — tiled 
tables, with lights only: aud other luxuries 
were dbpeused with. Not even were pumps 
erected to maintain a eourttantly renewed 
stream of salt water circulating through tlie 
aquaria. In their place was used the cheaper 
aud very elfuctive device of aeration by means 
of a stream ol* fresh air constantly forced 
through the aquaria by a Sprengel pump* 



and with a draugbrtJ^^B^ut thirty inches, 
capable of taking us to any [>oint9 about the 
sounds aud rivers, or even of venturing out to 
sea when Old Prob did not menae** with dan- 
ger-signals. The launch was most usefuK and 
was in service almost every day for drc<lging, 
trawling, or carrying parties out to tow in the 
open ocean. She is, iiowever, but a passing 
stage, as her name Nauplius implies ; and we 
hope some day to possess a Aill-grown steam- 



YACHT jkHU arnAUhAUSCH or joana moi'Kins karoos laii^jratout* 



Facilities for work were not, however, in the 
least curtailed ; and all the appanitus for cap> 
lure and means for getting about were pro- 
vided. The dredge and trawh spade and sieves 
for bottom fauna, towing and dipping nets of 
silk bolting-cloth for surface forms, and many 
special traps devised for the capture of partic- 
ular animals, formed a complete array of appU- 
anises. Besides its small boats, the laboratory 
haa for several years possessed a steam-launch 
of Herreacholl pattern, tw^enty-seven feet long, 



vesseK in which we can with safety explore the 
deeper waters offshore, which are as yet al- 
most entirely unstudied. 

During the past summer the navy has re- 
ceived an iuii)ortant addition io the form of a 
yacht, to be ealled the Zoea, though at presont 
otherwine registered. She is a full-rig-:; r< I 
sloop, forty-seven feet long* fifteen feet beam, 
She won a silver cup in a regatta u|x>n the 
Potomac while in her former service, and her 
speed wiis a pleasant feature of collect! ng-tiips 



10 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IU., No. 48. 



in her. Her Bailing qualities do not at all 
unfit her for our work. Her cabin has ample 
accommodations for four persons, and could 
stow eight ; and the cuddy forward has room 
and all the utensils for the cook : so that cruises 
to a distant dredging-ground can be undertaken 
without inconvenience, by a fair-sized party. 

Of the "usefulness of the Chesapeake zoologi- 
cal laboratory we may feel assured, though it 
is still in its infancy. It has held six sessions. 
During that time there has been a total attend- 
ance of fifty, of whom fourteen have been in 
attendance at least two sessions. These fifty 
men have been gathered from more than twelve 
different colleges, and are at present located 
in fourteen different states, besides two who 
came from Canada, one from Cambridge, Eng., 
and one from Japan. 

In 1879 the laboratory was in co-operation 
with .the Maryland fish- commission ; and Dr. 
Brooks devoted most of his own time during 
the season to a study of the oyster, with espe- 
cial reference to its embr3'ology and its artifi- 
cial propagation. The theoretical results of 
his work are of the greatest significance ; but 
he succeeded in artificial!}' fertilizing the oys- 
ter's eggs, and shedding such light upon the 
habits of reproduction that the greatest interest 
was aroused, and zeal in the search for some 
practicable method of oyster-culture, to replen- 
ish the waning oyster-beds. This interest has 
resulted in the discovery of a practicable 
method. 

I will not recapitulate all the scientific papers 
published as resulting from work done in the 
laboratory: suffice it to say, that important 
memoirs have been published upon Lingula, 
Squilla, Leuclfer, Renilla (the last two being 
published in the Philosophical transactions of 
the Ro3'al society) , Thallasema, and a mono- 
graph, not yet complete, of the Hydromedusae 
of the south coast. Beside these memoirs, the 
various members of the laborator}*^ have writ- 
ten numerous shorter papers, which have been 
published in the Quarterly jownal of micro- 
scopical science^ the university Studies^ and 
Carus's Zoologischer anzeiger. These articles, 
embodying the results of the laboratory's work, 
number, in all, fifty-nine separate titles. 

For the most part, the laboratory has been 
morphological in the aspect of its work ; not 
exclusivel}' so, however, for both in 1881 and 
1883 Dr. Sewall worked there upon selachians 
with reference to the equilibrium-sense func- 
tion of the semicircular canals. 

Last summer (1883), after three years at 
Beaufort, the laboratory was moved back to 
the Chesapeake Bay, and located in a buildlDg 



rented from the Hampton normal school. The 
location was in many respects not a good one^ 
for it was far awa}- from the best collecting- 
gi*ounds and supplies of pure salt water ; but 
it was selected to permit the laboratory to 
co-operate with the Maryland state oyster com- 
mission in experiments upon artificial propa- 
gation, and other expedients for a rapid and 
reliable method of restocking the oyster-beda 
in Chesapeake Ba}'. Lieut. Winslow, U.S.N., 
detailed for special service, was with us during 
most of the summer ; and in the early part of 
the season the oyster-jwlice boat, Gov. Hamil- 
ton, was stationed at the lower end of the bay. 
The results of the season's work are not yet 
so far worked up as to permit one to sp>eak 
about them. We had among us Mr. William 
Bateson of Cambridge, Eng., who came over 
to work upon Balanoglossus. I lis work in- 
cludes a more thorough knowledge of the lar- 
val history of Balanoglossus than has been 
hitherto attained, and promises much that will 
be of greatest interest in respect to that most 
problematical creature. Henry L. Osborn. 



THE DETERMINATION OF THE OHM. 

The importance of having a uniform stand- 
ard of electrical resistance is so apparent, 
that the establishment of a unit which shall be 
suitable for practical work, and will also satisfy 
the demands of electrical science, has for a 
number of years been regarded by all electri- 
cians as of the first importance. 

The requirements of such a standard are, thr 
it shall be easily reproduced or verified ; that 
shall have a simple relation to the units of wo 
heat, etc. , and therefore be based on the fun( 
mental units of length and time ; and, fina^ 
that it shall be of so great resistance as V 
suitable for all ordinary practical work. 

In the year 1862 the British a^sociatioi 
cided that a unit of resistance based simp! 
the earth quadrant, or ten million metn 
the unit of length, and the second as th 
of time, would be of such a magnitudf 
best satisf}' the requirements of the cas 
periments were then undertaken b}- a 
tee of the British association with s 
the construction of standards whicl 
accurateh' represent this unit of resif 
ohm as it was called. Owing to sc 
defects in experimentation, and tc 
countable error in the determinatior 
efllcient of self-induction of the rev< 
their result was in error. This sta' 
ish association unit, as it is now cf 
fessedly too small ; bat it is the 



JAXITABT 4, I!^.] 



SCIENCE, 



11 



so-called ohm-coUs that are in current use. 
The latest experiments indicate that the value 
of the British association unit is .9867 ohms ; 
this result iiuviug been ohtained by Lord Ray- 
"eigh by two distinct methods, and hy Mr. 
^'Gla;fiebrook by still another method. But dif- 
ferent observers still diller quite widely in their 
results. 

The International committee on electrical 
units, which met in Xovcmber, 1882, in Paris, 
in view of the present unsettled state of the 
case, and the neeetisity for the speedy adoption 
of a suitable sta-ndard, decided that when the 
flength of a cohimn of pure mercury of one 
square millimetre section, and having a resist- 
ance of one ohm, shall have been determined 
to within one part in a thousand, the ohm 
shall then be defined as the resistance of such 
a column of pm*e mercury of the determined 
length ; and the different governments repre- 
sented were urged to prosecute e^cperiment^ 
for the accurate determination of this length. 
For this purpo&e, among others, an appropria- 
tion of twelve thousand five hundred dollars 
was made by the lust Congress of the United 
States. The wurk on the unit of resistance is 
under tiie charge of Profcssur Rowland of the 
Jolms Hopkins university; and the experiments 
Are being carried on in Baltimore, both at the 
univei-^ity and at Clifton Park, two miles from 
the city. Owing to some unexpected delays in 
the construction of necessary apparatus, the 
work that has been undertaken first ia the de- 
termination of tile speciQc resistance of mer- 
cury in British association units. This has been 
experimented upon liy measuring the resistance 
of columns of pure mercury contained in glass 
tubes of various calibers and lengths, so that 
the resisUnces of the columns experimented 
upon range from one to ten British association 
units. The remaining part of the work is the 
determination in ohms of the resistance of the 
British association standard used in this deter- 
mination of the specific resistance of mercury. 
Two principal methods will be employed for 
this purpose, 

Fii'st, the resistance will be found by means 
of the mechanical equivalent of heat. The ap- 
iratus used by Professor Rowland, in his well- 
nown w*ork on that subject, has been set up 
for tlii^ pur[)ose. It is proposed to heat some 
non-1 'on chicling liquid, such as alcohol or tur- 
pentine, by means of the heat developed by 
the piissftge of the current of electricity in a con- 
ductor whose extremities are kept at a known 
difference of potential. The same heating 
will then be produced, under the same circum- 
stances, by purely meelninical means; and the 



resistance of tlie conductor will thus he deter- 
mined directly from the work-equivalent of the 
heat developed iu the conductor. 

The second method to be used la that of 
KircholT, as modified by Rowland in his deter- 
mination of the ohm in 1876. The instrumenta 
will, however, bo in large part oew^jmd con- 
structerl expressly for this research ; so that a 
new sot of instrumental constants will be in- 
volved. A third method, the earth-inductor 
method of AVeber, will also be used if time 
permits. 

For these experiments it is proposed to use, 
af< a source of electricity in the calorimetric 
method, fifty Plante cells charged by a small 
dynamo machine » For measuring large cur- 
rents of electricity an electrodynamometer has 
been constructed, with the Ilelmholtz arrange- 
ment of two large coils and a single small 
suspended coil. The diameter of the large coils 
is about one metre : that of the small suspended 
coil is about twenty-five centimetres. There 
are two sets of large coils, — one wound with 
large wire, about no. 8 ; and the other with much 
smaller, about no, 1 5. There are also two small 
suspended coils wound to correspond. This ar- 
rangement gives the instrument great power and 
range. The divided circle was made by Fauth 
& Co. expressly for this instrument. Four in- 
duction-coils are to be wound in four parallel 
equidistant grooves, turned on the outside of 
a brass cylinder about one metre in diameter. 
These coils will each consist of about two hun- 
dred turns of no. IT) cop[>er wire. This arrange- 
ment will afford great variety in the mutmer in 
which the several coils may be combined ; for 
the inductive action of each coil upon each of 
tlie others may be taken, giving three simple 
combinations for each coil. 

The trustees of the Johns Hopkins university 
have kindly placed the Clifton House at Pro- 
fessor Rowland's disposal for the conduct of 
these experiments; and, as it stands in exten- 
sive grounds at a considerable distance from the 
road, it will be peculiarly suitable for delicate 
electrical experimeuts. Piers have been built 
for the different instruments, and a small steam- 
engine set up for supplying the power necessary 
for running the dynamo machine and the me- 
chanical equivalent of heat apparatus. The 
.actual experimentation will be carried on, under 
Professor Rowland's direction, by A. L. Kim- 
ball, assisted by H. R. Goodnow and Ensign 
Louis Duncan, U.S.N. ; the latter having been 
specially detailed for the work by the Navy 
department. 

It is hoped that a satisfactory conclusion 
will be reached by September, 1884, 



12 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 48. 



PECULIARITIES OF WEATHERING IN 
THE POTTS VILLE CONGLOMERATE, 

The striking characteristics of the Potts- 
ville conglomerate in eastern Pennsylvania 
are its highly siliceous composition and its 
solidity. Owing to a consequent great dura- 
bilit}^ it stands out prominentl}' along the 



^^ 













r 






Fig. 1. — Outcrop showing weatheriDg along the plane of Btratificntion, 



different mountain ridges which surround the 
anthracite coal-basins ; but though, as com- 
pared with the associated rocks, its resistance 
to weathering is very great, the effects of this 
action are everywhere revealed on examina- 
tion. 

The surfaces of the finer and more compact 
varieties are frequently seen to be covered with 
numerous small holes, or pit-marks, resulting 
from the removal of separate grains. Blocks 
of the coarse pudding-stone have generally a 
very rough surface, the pebbles projecting half 
their thicknesses above the surrounding ma- 
trix ; and fragments of this rock are sometimes 
80 thoroughly permeated and softened by per- 
colating water that they can be crushed to 
grains by the hand. 

Along the planes of stratification the sub- 
aerial decay of this rock is particularly well 
marked. Deep clefts and gashes aie found 
along these planes, which frequentl}' cut en- 
tirely across large masses, dividing them into 
separate slabs. This action is best developed 
along the upturned edges of steeply inclined 
dips, where water has the best opportunity to 
accumulate and to prolong its action in incipi- 
ent grooves; and, with isolated blocks only 
slightly inclined, the increased decay along the 
uptiu*ned edges, due to this same cause, is often 
noticeable. A somewhat remarkable fact about 
such weathering % that clefts parallel to the 



stratification are found in an apparentl}' homo- 
geneous rock. In such cases a difference or 
deficiency of cementing-material must be the 
directing cause. 

Weathering action across the plane of strati- 
fication is exhibited in its first stages by shal- 
low and narrow grooves, which run sinuously 
across the rock. These have their origin in 
little streams of rain- 
water which flow from 
the surface down the 
sides of the rock. Once 
started, such a groove 
forms a channel whose 
drainage capacity* con- 
stanth' increases as the 
depression enlarges ; and 
b}' degrees the fine groove 
grows to a decided fis- 
sure, half a foot or more 
across, which the contin- 
ued action of rain-water 
cuts deeper 'and deeper 
into the rock. This fis- 
sure is generally of ap- 
proximately uniform 
breadth ; but, as it enters 
farther into the rock, the water drains into it 
from all sides, and an enlargement is some- 
times formed at the end, which I have seen to 
result in an almost circular hole, completely 
penetrating the rock. 

The most peculiar and remarkable of all the 
results of this weathering action are, however, 

1 I 



^^f^rffirirt- 




Fio. 2. — Isolated conglomerate tnaas •bowiogii 
cring along the vlane* of atraUficatioD on the 

those produced by a superficial f 
plane of stratification- Over flf 
the rock, white, washed-looking 
but where a slight depression e 



Jakuabt 4, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



13 




Fig. 3. — Weathering across 
the plane of stratification. 



--^"^/ 



accumulates and stands, and as a consequence 
the grains of the rock in immediate contact 
.are loosened, and, on the evaporation of the 
water, blown awaj'. Thus the depressions 
which were at first, 
perhaps, only a frac- 
tion of an inch, are 
deepened, and, b}' de- 
grees, basins of as 
much as a foot in 
depth are eaten out. 
These are often so 
regular in outline, and 
with such smooth 
sides, that they might readil}' be mistaken for 
pot-holes ; and, indeed, it was such that I first 
considered them, and was puzzled to account 
for the peculiar 
channel in which 
the waters produ- 
cing them must 
have flown. A dis- 
tinguishing feature 
of these depres- 
sions, however, is 
that each one has 
an outlet cut down 
to near the bottom of the cavit}- ; and this is 
easily accounted for, on the theory of their 
subaerial origin, by considering, that, once 
such a basin started, the overflow would 
alwa3's pass off over the lowest edge, and as 
the basin increased in depth, by continued 
dissolving action, so would the outlet also. 
A further confirmation of this is furnished 
b}' the facts, that in inclined rocks the out- 
let is always towards the lower rim, and the 
bottom of these cavities is either horizontal or 
sloping towards the outlet. In the bottom is 
also generally accumulated a small amount of 
gravel and sand recently loosened from the bed. 
These basins are of all sizes, up to three feet 




Fio. 4. — Enlargement at end of 
fisHure. 




Fi«. 5. — The rcsulU of superficial weathering in the plane of 
stratification. 

and more in diameter. Their shapes are va- 
ried, — sometimes circular, sometimes oblong, 
— with gently sloping sides, or steep, even re- 



curving ones, according to the character of the 
rock. Thej' are frequently connected in strings 
by narrow channels, like a miniature lake sys- 
tem ; and, with the enlargement of these chan- 
nels, a simple, deep groove across the rock 
results, all this action combining to give the 
rock a very rugged api>earance. 

The very prei>onderance of silica grains in 
this rock, to the exclusion of any good cement- 
ing-material, is probably one of the chief 
reasons for its deca}'. Rain-water is, without 
doubt, one of the most active agents ; but the 
secretions from the thick growth of moss and 
lichens, which frequentlj^ covers the surface 
and penetrates into the cavities of the rock, 
have probably also their effects. The deep 
gashes produced by the action of the rain- 
water offer excellent opportunities for frost to 
continue the work of destruction ; the ice form- 
ing in these clefts, and, b}- its prying action, 
completing the separation of the already par- 
tially di>aded mass. 

As a consequence of this wide-spread weath- 
ering process, large continuous outcrops are 
rarely found. Collections of huge blocks gen- 
erally mark their site ; and the thick accumu- 
lations of smaller fragments, which are so 
frequentl}' found over conglomerate areas, 




i 



\ \ N ~ - -^^ '"^"Mi>> >:i^^ 



Fiu. 6. — I^rge hasin in conglomerate, with a double outlet. ] 

result, without doubt, from the further subdi- 
vision of these larger blocks. 

The products of decay cither accumulate in 
place, are washed down by streams, or blown 
away by the wind. On the top of Broad Moun- 
tain, and elsewhere, the disintegration in situ^ 
I am informed, is so great that the loose rock 
is dug out as gravel ; and, in valleys watered by 
streams flowing down from conglomerate ridges, 
deep deposits of siliceous sand are found, val- 
uable for building-purposes. 

The decay of the sandstones and shales, as- 
sociated with or underlying the conglomerate, 
is even more pronounced than in that rock. 
Changes of color, especiall}* from the greenish 
tints to red, brown, and yellow, are the most 



14 



aCIESCE. 



[Vol. IIL. No. 4a. 



frequent reunite ; ami thin U often ai*xfmi'/%ai*A 
by a RfffU-ning f* a fiardy '*rfierer.t aand or 
clay. Knotu:ftu<i confriakiorw are th«« fre«joeot- 
h' 'Irairn froMi surface iivli'.-atioiM. a.<t to t>»ft &»- 
turr: of the iirulerUing rock. 

The «uljije<rt of the 'lecay of ro'iw ;**.* re- 



Sm:th. J. A. Tanner, M.D., and H. W. Eaton, 
Ph.D.. |y>oUviIle — was not api)ointed till about 
titn*: week.« tiefore the close of the exposition : . 
hMXie thorf/figh tests were impossible. 

A.* t!»e I'. S. company did not enter into 
t.-.« eor«Vt*t. there was uo comixjtitiou on the 






1/ 















1 : ' / .' 



I'r'^ ' \'^-.a*ii •/j'^.'^ -■ 



fATilly \)iki'A\ arlrijirahly trfraU:/) by I>r, T, ^AMtfj 
Hunt.' dii^fly with n;gard t/^ tij'; /.Tyi?ta.iir*^r 
r^y.-ks : and it d#r.v;n'frK l/i U; furtJurr «ttijd>-/i. -n 
tb^; ca.sc oXWu'Ait moro r^rc-iint rff^tkn, from i**, «:^i- 
dent iinfiortanc^; in (:h(:mU:fi\ fi/'oU/'/y^ Irai ir*t/rf- 
e»iiu^^ and well-known relation to t/>jA/j(raj/hy. 
and i*H errr>nornic b'rarin;^. Ainnii: Wi**iy>w, 



ELEcrnrc li^jht tests at the 

LOUISVILLE EXPOSITION. 

Tut: di.<»p]ay of ftk<lric li{fhU» at th<: Ix/tnth 
\i\U: fzX]Kfh\tion. HA Ut nijrnU:r. wa* tlie ii^r*:»1> 
irht evr^r ma/b; in and around one b'jildin^, 
'Ihfr nnm>K;r of lij^iit** uv;'! vari^/J v^rn^what, 
but the average wa.H ali^/ut &« followii : — 






yort Wa^ f.^ A*iUti^.y •: 1**^.1'; .ijft.t '.'/W- 
P^'J 






Am. 



94 



The jijr>' — c^nniAting of ]k;njainin Itankin, 
I»uiiiville; W. W. Weaver, Chicago: CtAarli;* 

H'^n*., LL.D^ F.f£^. JaMric«M>»nia/ «/ •eime*, i<«|HM»Uf« 



,.vAv:*r*/:^r.* ,/j!/,*'^. However, tlie following 
V'*:*,* mt-ti^. ;,',%/!<' '-onneetion was made with a 
T,;/.-..* '/y^/ii ;.;:,/ .JJ '# lijifht« at what was con- 
*.'{*'?<', ft-, a-.'^'ft;,/'' jrf/:fit in th<» circuit ; and fif- 
V/-f. .*;;.;/«< ♦ ^r '/ th'-rn new and the balance 
st*^'/,V/3 >;. tv r;,s*!'^!;y from the circuit while 
>//).*^< rttfH V'TtV-'! -fi a HfK'cially constructed 
;/.v///f.v-^/'/ ' ,"•/.'. "*» r. ; .e i n^l icator-cards were 

\ h'.f.*Af. % //ffs,t-*M'f with a twelve-foot bar 

i»4* \^f\ * v: ^'j' ;y,r;///ntal int(Misity deter- 
tu\t»tA w.V. * > ^uf'/f,u ?it an angle of 45*. 
'fr.*' .t,*d<i.w*'. ',^ •'./: ^fiorninally) IG-candle 
J:;r;/-e *•>/; ti^r:, \i */, \UJ',(', candles, a ver- 
'"*'/, f^y, U 77 ^i'y.Jt %fA rh<* average horse- 
j/>i»* • )»;.^ :',/ y, 7 '.#:*'r flgurcH give 9,70 
li^//*. '/f {'*;;; .// ^iv;./-* ;/"f ni<rchanical horse 

'I M- fc/**.//*, '/ V.'. 4-.V/fr»a.tjc n'gnlator w 
t.v n ♦/>*>/; »f» ■:. 4 , /',* ./I the pliotomctc 
flf*^ //; ii.-y) *','% , '/, , y.** b#'inj^ thrown < 
aiMi Of, /.'* ',' ' // "/./ y. / ^i:t4'% the vnrint' 
«»a* I z'j/i?,';.'F '..• -. *,. n*' otherH it ' 
I/'H< f/,;,r, ','; '/ J. '%'y, ^ '//,ly ft nionier 
fii'kt't **:.* /y/ '//; *-< v.A , /;/4 were tl' 

off UUf\ t,u, 

of tne Iv J .'«///, »/*///, V** ,'/y/«*. ►■♦•Ufiwft 

Wttfrlt/JfM'M of t/ri^ i.*/U* t^'/i >'*'' *fW t' 



Jandaby 4. J884.1 



SCIENCE. 



15 



during the I DO days of the exposition, with 
over 4,000 lights hurtling, there wjis not nt any 
time a suspension of light from ffiihirc of the 
flplOittijccs of ihr Ivlis^iu cloctrlc ligiiting c^^m* 
puny.'* 

Of the nrc-lights, lamps were chosen, one 
nt ji time, from the cireuits, and inserted in 
the same circuit in the pholometer-room, care 
being tak<?u that uo changt; was made in the 
circuit adjustments, Indicator-eards were 
taken from the engine used, during the test- 
ing of each lamjK The strength of current, 
and fall in electromotive forcf*, were also de- 
termined with an amperemeter and voltmeter; 
but* as only relative results were desired, these 
instruments were not graduated. 

The photometer-har was fifty feet long; and 
tests showed that there was no relleetion vi- 
tiating the results, ivom the dead-black surface 
of the walls of the room. The photometi'ic 
testa were made with an Edison incandescent 
light as a standariL Fifteen tests from eandJe 
to incandescent, atul ten from incandescent to 
are ligijts, were made for each lamp, Ave arc- 
light tests being between the same number of 
tests of the standard. 

The arc-light was cut out during the tests 
of the standard, and a new cup was allowed 
to form before the next set of tests was made. 

The dynamos were worked to their full 
ftdvertiscil caijacity in regard to the number 
of lights in the circuits; ami four lights were 
testetl in each case, with the following rc- 

?«..«««. !Tljom»on 



Total namlx^r of Hgbte ta circuit . , . . 

Toiil iliOcllBtttr^U tsiirpr^powrr . . . « . 
BelaUve rii :i Ufftil, 



MM 



From these tests, and an examination of 
the dynamos, lamps, regulators, etc.. the 
awards wei'e made as follows : to the Kdison 
company* for isolated lighting, medals for the 
best incandescent system and light, and for 
the best dynamo and lamp for the incandes- 
cent light ; to the Fort Wayne Jenney electric 
lighting com|*any, medals for the best S3*8tcm 
and dynaum for arc-lighting; but, to the 
Thomson Houston electric lighting company, 
fi medal for the iK'st arc-light, because, ** while 
the light of the Jenney was slightly stronger 
per horse-power of electrical energy used iu 
tiie lamp, it was not quite so steady as the 
Thomson Moustoo.** H. W. Eatosi, 



TUB LATE MR. DARW/N ON INSTINCT.^ 

At lh<? itietiting of the Linnean Boclety thl« even- 
ing (Dec. fj) a highly iulciresiajg {losihiiuioafl paper 
on Insiliici, by Charles Dai-win, will be read and 
di8i*us8ed« W© hiive been favoix'd with an early 
abtt tract of the »ame, which we here present to aur 
readers. 

After detailing sundry fttcls with reference to tbe 
migratory histiucts of different animals^ Mr* Darwin 
procerdii tu suggest a theory to account for ihcra, 
Tliis theory is prvclaoly tbo same as that which was 
suh»».M|uently and imlepundcutly enunciated by Mr, 
Walhice hi Saturr^ voL x. p. 45U, Thus» to quote 
from tliR essay: *'Dunrig the hing courae of ages, let 
vallrya b«>coino converted hjto i^sstiiarles, a?id then 
into wider and wider arnis of the sen; and still I 
can well believe that the itiiptilKo lorlgjinally due to 
seeking food] wbich leads Uie pinioned goose to 
tjcraiuble northward would lead our bird over the 
tmeklesa wat<*rs; and ihat* by tbe aid of the un- 
known power by which many animals (and (ava^e 
men) can retain a trtie course, it would saftdy cross 
the sea now covering the ^ubmvrged path of ita 
ancient journey/* 

The next topic considered is that of instinctive 
fear. Many facts arc given showing the gm^i'* !« 
actjul«iiion of such instinctive foar» or hert'«i 
dread, of man* during the period of human ul»r.L. ... 
tion. The*!e facts led Mr, Darwin to consider the 
instinct of feign In i; death, as shown by 8Undr>' species 
of anitnab, when in the presence of danger* Seohig 
that * death is an unknown j^tate to each living crea- 
ture,* Utia seenu-d to bim *a remarkable instinct:' 
and accordingly he triod a number of exjierimenta 
upon the subject with insects, which proved that in 
no one case did the attitude in which the animal 
'feigned death* resemble that in whicli the animal 
really died; »o that the in*tincl really amounts to 
nothing else, in the case of insects at ail ev^ents, than 
an instinct to remain motionless, and therefore rncon- 
spicuouB, In ibe presence of danger. From the fia* ts 
jjfifen with regard to certain vertebra ted animals, 
however, it is doubtful how far thb explanation can 
lie applied to them, 

A large part of tlie e^say is devoted to *Nidiflcation 
and habitation,' with tlie object of showing, by an 
aecumutation of facts, that the complex instincts of 
nest-buiiding in bltxls and of constructing various 
kinds of habitations by mammals, all probably arose 
by gradual stages under the directing influence of 
natural selection. 

The essay concludes with a number of * miscella- 
neous remarks' on inetincts in general. First the 
variability of instinct is proved by sundry examples; 
next tiie faet of double instincts occurring in the sania 
species; after which, "as there is often much dlffl* 
culty in Inrngining how an inMinct could first have 
arisen," it is thought ** worth while to give a few 
out of many cases of occasional and curious habils, 
which cannot be considered as regular instincts, but 
which might, acconlltig lo our views, give rise to 

* From iiatur4 of Doe. A. 



4 



16 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 48. 



su<'li.** Filially, oas»?s of s|H'oiuI (litliciilty an* th'alt 
Willi. Tlu'M' may lu» I'la.ssiticd uiuh»r tho fttlhtwiii;; 
lioads: 1. Similar instincts in unalliod animals; 2. 
Dis*<iniilar instincts in allied animals; \\. Instincts 
apparently dotrimontal to Iho spodos whirh oxhihit 
thorn; 4. Instincts p4Tfonnod only onco thirin^; tlio 
lifetime of an animal; T). Instinrts of a tritlin^ or 
useless character; 0. Special diflieulties connected 
with tlu' instinct of mijjratltui; 7. Sundry other in- 
stincts pre^enting more or less difliculty to the tlu'ory 
of natural selection. 

Thf 'conclu8i<m* gives a summary of the >;entTal 
principles which have Iwen set forth hy the wliolr 
essay. This, therefon\ we shall quote in vjrtf'iuto: — 
**\Ve have in this chapter chietly e»>nsid«'retl th" 
instincts of animals under the point of virw whether 
it is possibhi that they couhl have been a<*quire<l 
throujrh the means indicated on our theory, <u- 
whether, even if the simpler ones could have Ihm-u 
thus ac<iulred, others are ho complex antl wonderful 
that they must have heen siM»cialIy enth»we<l, and 
thus overthn>w the theory. lJearin« in miiul the 
facts given on tlu; acquirement, through the seler- 
tion of self-originating tricks or nuMlilieation of in- 
stiiiet, or through training and hahlt aldeti In fonie 
slight degree by imitathm, of hereditary actions and 
dispositions in our domesticated animals, and llieir 
parallelism (subject to having less time) to the in- 
stincts ..f animals in a state of nature; bearing in 
mind tliat in a state of natunr inslinets do eerlalnly 
vary in some slight degree; bearing in mind liow 
very generally we find in allied but diMtlnei. anlmaN 
a gradation in the more complex instinetM, whl^li 
shows that it is at least i>ossible that a eompb-x In 
stinct miirht have been accpiired by Hur<'e.Hsive Mleps, 
and whi(!h, moreover, generally iiKlicates, ar<-ordin« 
to our theory, the actual steps by whi(di Ih** instlm't 
has l)ecn ac«|umHK inasmuch ns we supiiose iillieil 
instincts to have branchial oflf at dllTi^n-nl slagi-n 
of desci-nt from a common ane.est*>r, and tl»er«'fore to 
have retained, more or less unaltered, tin- ln»lin<'l'^ of 
the seviTal lineal ancestral forms of any om; n\n'rU-n, 
- bearing all this in mind, together with the eei i jilni y 
that instincts are as important to an animal uh thHr 
generallvcorrelateil structures, and that In the himg 
gle for life under changing conditions slight modlh 
calion> oi instinct could hardly fail f^-eanionally lo be 
pn.fitable to individuals, I can se^j no overwhelming 
diffieuliv on onr the.>ry. Kven in the most marvel 
lous ih^rinct known, that of the cells of iIh- hive bee. 
we hav.- <et.Ti how a ♦^imph- instinctive action may 
lead to n-^ulis which fill the mind with astonivbrneni 
..Monov..r, it seem^ to me that the very u-neral 
fact of the gradiition of complexity of in^linH^ «ithii. 
the iimit. r.f the .ame gn.up of animals and hkewlM- 




r .• • .- i/*r^.cial|v'-:;dowed. we can onr. .-ay ma. 
-.:. .. .rti.-.rv cea-*: to be -.rpri-in?: ::id^*-d, it wo.iJ'l 



be wonderful that far more nnmertms and flagrant 
eases could not be il.jiected, if it were not that a 
species which has failed to l)ecome modifietl ami so 
far p.'rfected in it^ instincts that it could continue 
struggling with iheco-iidiabitants^.f the same region, 
would simply a<ld one more to the myriads which 
have bocome extinct. 

**It may not Iks logical, but to my imairination it 
Is far more saiisfju-tory, to hHik at the voung cuckoo 
ejecting its foster-brothers, ants making slaves, the 
larvae of the lchneunioni<Iae feeding within the live 
bodies of their prey, cats playing with mice, otters 
and crmorant., with living lish. not as inMincts 
speeijilly given by th.. Creator, but as verv small 
l»artM of one general law leading to th.' advance- 
ment of all or-anic bodies, — Multiply, varv; let the 
strongi'ht live and the weakest die." 



DIL, filtlSKWETZKrs CUOSSIXG OF 
SOVAIA ZEMUA. 

0\ il.e , Voverfdnrr, Dr. (irinewetzkv described, 
befop' ibei,eo;7aphi'al H.M-i.Mv of St. Pei'ersburc. his 
navel, o,. !h„ i..:;j,,.j. ji,. jj^^, started on fool on the 
;. AiigijM, wiih Kriwoskeya and a Samt>vede lafew 
of wh'Mn are U.itA ,,e;ir Karmakulv). The weather 
wan beai.t,/.,), .».<: il.erniometer r,o C'.; hut soon after 
reai-hi/./ .-» ii.o.i.'iin with a verv extensive view, 
wb.rii- lb. y p*»*M -J..: nl-ht, ihey Were overtaken bv 
a v.ol. f.t ^u'.i, .v,ur., ;,„.| roiiiiH-lled to return. In 
April. I ->.:;. th- '-.»n,.,yede JIarnetz crossed the i*land 
to the M„.t». .,...., »,.,, found SjimoviMle rAwm, 

i.Mn. \Un.uv '.f •;.;,. (irinewei7.ky. ac'companied 
by JUrne-/ .:A .-.m,..., San.oy.de, set out in >b.ds 
di.. wr. by .].,;,* '\ i., y J.;,,! ^..;,r,,.,y anv iWi f.^r the 
do^-. Lit ...,. ,,,.,,,. ,,,..y ^.,^,^,^j j^-^j ^^^^^^^ ^^ 

wild ...r.J.M *,.M ..,.,.,:.,.,.. TldHpn,v,Hlnot'r..be 

the e;.M .,..J „:. .>., ,.,.,. .,,.^y „,^. ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ 
hi-:.. ..a,v;,.z ..'.... . ,,r,o hen! of Mndeer w.u* 

,„... M-ry M.. . .... 5.r..! ^i„HMil effect, due to 

tb.d,fl..o.•y^f .....,,:.,.,,„,. H,„,emen-soves 

Weie ,0..b .p...: -. , «,.. ,.,,,,„.., ,,„!, ,,.^ ^^'.j^ 

'r'l;lT'r-\ ■•■:"'""•" '-'»^y^i--M 

' , : ,' ^- ■*"'*"**••'■'. killed. :i!.d The 
'T'^""'^ A.f.... . ,. f v..rv s„vp ,,,,,i:,i 

'J' »^' "•"";■- ■"'■ ^••.-nvenclumt.rol 

'/"' ^'""\" '" • ' '• '■ - Iim'.l urrou::d. 

in.b.l:, ».^..v ,. --•.^^.. .,.,,.. w.H but :;::e 
*"""• ■';. •' " •;''*w»vbvthc.rr.::. 

TV*"'""' " ' •^'•"^■"- «v..r: 

, ...... - ... ./" ■;;':; '^-'--i--* 

=','"' " '• ■ ■ ■ • •' '...II... ■>.■■■ „..v 

.,. ....;.. . . . "'•"■'■.« I. HI,..,- thAn 

.1 v.. ..... ...- • . . .^■■; ""'■■'■';'■ "'"'■»»- 

'11 ■ . .. / '/.. -I,. i..|„,„ 

"i •'• '-■'/^" '.■ ■•■.-' .::,"" r::''T^"< 



I AMVAKY 17 



SCIENCE, 



17 



ftow, Ziwolka, ami M«>lF8eew (1832^'?D), and a fc?vv 
notes l>y Ilofer and Xordenskiohl, nnd from his own 
ob8i*rvation!*T Orhiewetzky gives the following nkcN*h 
of the south island of Xovaia Zeinlia. It m/iy be 
divided into three parts. The northern lies between 
Mafol5chkin Shar on the north and the Pukowaja 
River on the south: this part has the highest moun- 
tnlns (four thousand f<'et), forming isolated groups 
rather than rang<*s. The central part, extending to 
thr- Knr«'ll<a and Behishia Rivers* hjw five or six 
parall**! ridges, nintiing generally north and south; 
black aJate is common; and the watershed h alx)ut 
seventeen miles from tho west roa^t, Tbesuuthern 
part is a raihi'r low plateau: ihe Goose I^sind (Husi* 
waya Zemlhi) is ineluded in this part, which fs free from 
snow by tht* end of June, and in Jtdy has a rather rleii 
veget*tion» esfiecially on the gently gloplng ground. 

Dr. Griiiewetzky also expressed the opinion that 
the wild reindeer of the northern island belong to a 
tutatly distinct sub-species from those of Uie souUi- 
em Island. 



LOSS OF NITROGEK FROM ARABLE 
SOILS. 

TitE renewed attention of agriculturist* has of late 
been drawn to the question of the nilnigen supidy 
of cultivated soils. On the one hand, Schuiz, in 
Germany, claims to have brought about a gain of 
nitrogen on a sandy soil by means of the cultivation 
of lupines^ and manuring with kalnit. On the other 
hand, Lawe^, Gilbert, and Warington,* in England, 
havfj published res^lt^s which show that a very 
consiilerable annual loss of nitrogen occurs in the 
drain-waller of cultivated fields; and experiments by 
Didj^rain,''* in Fmiice, show, according to his inter- 
pretation of them, an alarming decrease in the total 
nitrogen of tlie sidl in the course of a few years» and 
in spile of abundant manunng. 

SchuixVs experiments have added nothing to onr 
knowledge of the natural supply of nitrogen to the 
soil, and it is not proposed to consider that topic 
here. The results of Lawes, Gilbert, and Waring- 
ton, and of Dch^raiu, however, have attracted much 
attention. If they are to be accepted without re- 
serve, they lead to the conclusion that the fertillry of 
our cultivated fields, so far as it depends upon their 
nitrogen, is being removed in the drain*g©»water, or 
In other ways, at a comparatively rapid rate. 

The instigation to Lawes, Gilbert, and Warlng- 
ton's experiments was given by the observation, that, 
in the lield-experimc-nts carried on for a series of years 
at Roihum.sted, scan_^ely a third of the nitrogen of the 
manure was found in tliecrop under tlie mi>st favor- 
able cotiditions, while, In those ca,ses in which no 
mineral manures were applied, the deficit was much 
greater* The most obvious conclusion was, thai there 
mtist be a great loss of nitrrjgen in th«* tlrainage; and 
experiments were instituted to test this idea. Their 
earlier experiments were with three lysimeters. Ex- 
CAvalioiis were made under and jiround an area of 

1 i/aurn. roy. agric, #oe„ XvU, mii) ivJJJ. 



a thousandth of an acre. The mass of soil thus 
isolated was supported by perforated iron plates* 
and surrounded by mason rj% thus leaving the soil 
with its natural structure* The ^juantity of water 
percolating through this scdl hits been determined 
since ISTO ; and since May, 1877. il« content of 
nitiates has been also determined* Tiie soil wjia 
uncultivated and free from vegetation. Numerous 
Interesting facts are dischisetl by these deterndna- 
tions, but that which now Interests us chiefly Is the 
quantity of nitrogen found in the drain-water* This 
amounted, in the average of four years, to 4(5. 30, and 
44 pounds per acre, at <lepth« reepcctWely of 20, 40^ 
and tJO inches. 

Subsequently thi! same experimenters have de- 
lerrained the nitrates in the drainage- waters from 
their experimental wheat-field, each plot t»f which Is 
drained by a single lateral at a depth of 24 to iit) 
Indies, Having no meann of measuring the drainage, 
the authors take, as the b.'i^is of their calculation of 
the Ujss of nitrogen, the amount of d rain nge- water 
yielded by the no^lnch deep lystmeter at the same 
time. On this assumptioji, the annual loss of nitrogen 
varied froui 15 and 1*^ pounds per acre, on unman ured 
plots* to US high as 7'l pounds per acre. 

It is greatly to Ik* regretted that the authors wcffi 
not able to measure the dralti-water In these exf>eri- 
m^ntJ*; for the method which was atlopled to supply 
tlie deficiency leaves much to be desired. The soil 
in the lysiracter was uncultivated and bare of vege- 
tation; that of the wheat-field was cultivated, and 
bore crops of wheat varying considerably in amount. 
Boili tiiese clrcumstance-s affect the amount of drain* 
age*water. Cultivation, eRi>eeially of a clay soil such 
H'i that at Rothamsted, may affect very markedly the 
ease with which water passes downward through it, 
the amount of water which it can retain in its inter- 
stices, and the rapidity of evaporation from its sur- 
face. The growth of vegetation exerts a still greater 
effect on the fuovements of water in the soil. It has 
been shown by numerous observers, that much more 
Waaler evaporates from a soil covered with vegetation 
than from a bare soil, antl that consequently much 
less of the rainfall percolates through the soil. The 
diminution of the drainage-water in this way has 
also been directly proved by Wollny. Furthermore, 
the various plots in these experiment* carried un- 
equal quantities of vegetation, so that tlie amotint 
of evaporation due lo this source must have been 
unequal also. It appears, then, In the highest de- 
gree impiYibahle, that the quantity of drainage- water 
actually was the. same for each plot as was assumed, 
and unlikely that It was as great as was assumed. 
When we add to tliese considerations the fact, that 
it is uncertain whether the soil of the lysiraeter 
represented an average of the soil of the field, and, 
further, that all errors of the lysimeterare multiplied 
a tliousandfold when the results are expressed per 
acre, we are forced to the conclusion that the figures 
given for the total amount of drain- water, and con- 
sequently those also for the total loss of nitrogen in 
this w ay, can bt% at best, only approximations, and 
are most likely too large. 



18 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IIL, No. 48. 



K'f-.u if ir* nl\ow ih^.m t\t^\r t*»\\ ♦*lfi^, how^it*^^ 

*i',hw^ l«aiV«; #<:«;/:r«Ut/-/l lit*: *y<:rAj(«; ^ttlniti Mhffiiht 

of i,.*f'r^tru ]h tii«; tuMturt'.^ *.t*f;t, *vl ';rA..'.«((^, of 

tii.f* / y*-4r*, tti Hi-n^ti /'*</:« tit<: r. ; * f '/^f *'/i f'/ ♦f./J ;;. 
'/'/;# a;, 'J t\r;iiUi^*/t'. \% from 14 »// i'i p^^'.f.^J* j/*rr 4^;/«j 

//f th*; •/.;) /// M,#j j,I//l iri i;?^^:,, af,'J 7L^}Lt, ,t. l*A\, 

%Uow*f\ ihAt M\yftlt h til if 'J //f fliM M/,0 it,\ »1* »«i„ 
f/r^J*':/** iff i.U*: V/il, Ui<; l4lf>«;r UlkHUTl ;CA.M"1 <,.'f'^*r», 

i//W':f %f.f»l» /// IUh »/,iJ, or t// hay*: t^^/, M:*, ff^-^j if, 

ih^ *o"a\ \',%% of u\U'f'/,*'.u hy th#s %/fil. 'lUfJi 9Af.^^, 

of f'/.ir j,J//U •iVji, *<•/«; Ui/J '/lit, <!*/;>j (,J'/t 1,4 );/.;; an 

ar«'* '/f on*' ar^s ff/^ttAl u, a^///ijt f/^ur «/|'jaf«: f'/*J«,, 7*,* 

fh': f^i.f'J, t/<'i;f4, fr/^J/W-rnai/^, an/J ^.%\^t*r*.$M «*;//>»- 
*i'*';./ Uttf\u% i\»ii Ur%i iUffA jr^jar*, //n*? j,I//t «n <-vn 
••-ft*-* wa* iiumMt*»fA \ out'. f*i4A'\'f*'A, p^r K*/:Uf^, 
^;///; kiW/;(r4.rtt% of ntL^,\»> itiiUtHf*'. , ///,*;, i,^/; fc.i/^ 
>rr;if/.» '// lutrat*? of •//*!*; an/l m.*^, I,ic^/i k*^/;r/4«,« '/f 
%t»l;A,'*ij', //f ar/ir/i//nia« thinttfc i^»'' foW'.^'iu'i f*''*f 
'jt'Xtn. uou*'. *A lU*i iflotn fJf'n*-'} any u^ntt'ttK Af *§,f. 
\f*7M»i.,ii'/ of f.if^'TXf/^rifn^nM, a/j/J at tli*- </,'J //f u.f*M 

*f,/! M v<-n 7^^fi| f*r%|#^/ t ;•#«:; y, 1U»'. \0*'t'*:t,V<€^*'. '/f /.;♦//, 

j(':n i(. th<j »//«! w;«« *lt^t^rni'ni*-f\. Wjth f »»«r aj/I of '.l,*-*-; 
'J"»>Tri,i flit Ion », a t/iL\smfS'. itra^ t'r fj/ fc for #:*/ }< j,J//r j^-. 
t ■**'*• It rUr l,iiffry/;rt Or.1f,'it*ii\l/ pr«:V:nt JiM f.na* ;h/:'>yi 

in t:.'r mn.unr*'., ou fU*: Oh". han'l, an 'I ii,'*\ t*fi,o>*fl ,t, 
tli/; ' to;A »n/J r<;r/iainwij( in tJ**- •'/ii *». li^ 'l^/k/'. of tn*. 
<-x;;-r.m*?nf*, on th*: '/th/?f han'J. tit '-/t-t'/ * «m: *'Mf^'.fA 
tiia*. '/f fh'j *^(/af'^tl>:, a v*-ry j^fat J'/*» '/f hfU'f'/Mtt 
wa^ 1',.ttif\ t// Jjay<? *itj'.\ntt^A. 'lU*- fi,i\o*ith'/, Unk 
/y/nu.n» fh«; ann'jal !//«% nf nifro$(<^n f///rn a f^ff*tot$ 
of luo j,y,u, ft'Auf/'A U* $^*'tufU fftir tt/ m u, *y,i/,f/'4fH 
•*j?h /.a^«'«, ('ttiU'ttf an«J Wafin;(f//n'* r':«i«jf4: 



•V'/^*.'; ;,•/>' 



J 


lf^/«^ //'/>/•, 


;tr.',f.r.y 


K,/'^ If*'/.','! 







Ettft'trfitilA pVtin. 















*Jm^ aA flfr^l aji the highest obtained tliere. When 
w^ ///riaitfj^r that the soil was calculated to contain, 
t/, ad*rpth of 14 indjes, only about 7,0()0 pounds of 
riif.f'/j<«rn |/*rr a/rnr, they seem to show that but a com- 
p^rafi'.^Iy ihort lime would be required to reduce the 
tfij/piy of nir-f^/^en to the point at which culture ceases 
t/# '^ prof;? able. 

/n ovU-.T t// 1^ able to judge of the force of these 
f*^iif*, it U d*-<iirable, in the first place, to consider 
«/.7n/:«l.at juoTf. in dirtail the nieth<»d by which they 
ir«:/e of/*A»ne*l, At the beginning of the experimenU 
•n^ ^M »a< fofind t/» contain .204% of nitrogen; and 
•.n;« »a< inarfT ti*e basin of the calculation for all the 
p//*<, /* \\ MviUi improbable that this assumption 
of uu.forturj among all the plots, as regards nitrogen, 
,* ^/,rr*f/t, an'I. »h'n w«- con>Itler that a difference of 
//»>% //.fr*«f>/nd* U/ a difT<Tence of about 34 pounds 
o1 fi,ir/x^.f, i^r a/:re, we are le<l to question, not only 
U,M. *//./*/./ of li'rh^raiirs re-Hults, but the possibility 
of /Ilv/./'fin/ <mail iosMes of nitrogen by means of 
to.. 'At. -A. f..A. 7 Uf. ab^ioliite quantity of nitrogen was 
'»>/ ..^>'/: ',n 'I./: f'irthera«»Hiiniptit>n that one hectare 
'.f V... V, a '>i/.u of .V/ eentiuH'tn's weighed ;1,S.'jO,000 
/. f/if^u.*^ w^.'h, ajrain, involves a possibility of 
^ftof. ^. ;.*..., *'u^. #i#-temii nation of the quantity 
of n.w/^r. t'tuo^t'A \i\ the weighed crops rests on 
**' ,;tr/.oi.% k4 *o M,e f^-r't^-ntJige of nitrogen they con- 
^■4.r,^o, 9,r..^ i\ .* a ^*:ll-e*tabli»hed fact that consid- 
'/*■,> r4':*/.or.« i»i tbi* ni^-pect occur. Especially 
';/>« t,^*f/ ff,4 . tr»hy, vkith nitrogenous fertilizers, 
»..//. S.4 ^/rt^ -,f ,,/■*- p:of< n-c«lvi'd, tend to increase 
'o> ;y "^i,*n/j» of ».,'.f/*'/en in lh«* crop. 

7', /'/*.;/ ..1/^ O/h^raln's ironclusions involve 
U,i*^ ,.v,f^', M/,./ 4^* ,rn;.fionii; \lz., pertect uniform- 
,•/ //f «// , *- /*^4r'i« nif///j<#-n, <*qual weight of soil 
o/*/ *'. .*. v*4^ «f,/j A'itBiform and average jHjrcent- 

*-/A '/ / f'f^^if .It '.,* *.fO\Hi, 

hi, */.* // ..^. „« ; A., hfif. a f«TW of the plots show 
^ .///« '..' ; . -v/> . !4r..J wbilr, for the reast»ns juf 
»•,.♦>/; =r,A v/ ./4/ / ',f 0/- f«"j|n» Is vrry questionabh 
.» wo,,/; *i/p^»^ i,.' #' n.Mt a/lmit Moin^* '***=* ^'^ " 
•#o// r. 'o '/* ;^^', ^. . - ..' .v,/,«t //f thr experiments. 

K'.fB* ff/t/, i.^**- '/„,. />f-*ri/fn«», however, thor**? 
»/i.*f» vn. f t, *,v. ; ^ ,',rn" in inlnd. During 
f,/«« /.«*/ ;*,^, ,./. ,. ,,, .,./! f,lofti wen* very hea 
/n*n .M/; .* . ;, .4'> ,f * v,in//ni» Jind nitrate of s 
^* 9* -.;/;/--/, 4*. './*,./. /^ .//>'/ poiindH jmt acn», 

• u»/.A /*.,, ..* ,, #/ /•A vf '//#f ;j.'/i touH per aer 
*f f^t, , /< t/. ./., /..,,/, ,.,*, )^//iild br us«'d » 

• /./ '.»'. . •>/ //,.,, ,... , i4orfO/*r, fn»ni th* 
»>.,■»,/ ,..,.,. ..... //.,-. /,//! n'tiilv a** lai>' 

• » •!,/ / /,i/ /,; f ' f f . * . * *A t%\. Iln*ir be^ 
ntt t$,^ f ftf. , „^ ., .. ,^, «y«« hfil III ally 

', I*..'/ 
//'/,/ 

\ttOir',f ,tn. 'ft 
h/ • »,* / .#,. . 
»iM ► t,.^ J ,. 
»hO ,,!',». i.i / 



fort-i/nffA »;'.h th^ I'^tvj* oJ/iM'fv^d In U^^hntitnlMt, 
w»ii.': ',f rh«;v! ft'/urnn w, ^Monuoun, \rt>i\u% oy^r nln* 



Mi n«'/.« '' y/ ' ;, . . ■ , '•- 



X, « /,.,? but II vo 
. ' #/.4f,ofi'M wa? 

,, / ( ,, n mill li 
..« ,f I.iblr 

7n< lull 

• -", 

,' .«^ V nj hit 



jASt'AItT 4, 1884.1 



SCIENCE. 



19 



oatural agencies which tend Ut rt^move nitrogen from 
the soil, had undi»putr-'d ixissession of the fiold. Wlieri 
the mttnurmg was di«conliuiied, the losses of nitro- 
gen, according to Dclierain's retxUts, sank very mate- 
rially, though still retntiining considerable, 

From the combined results of both these inTestiyu- 
tions, it would ajjpear that we mny fftirly conclude^ 
that, nnder ordinary ronditions of tillage, there iscon- 
siderahlv loss of nilroji;en from Uic soil, Lawes, Gil* 
bert, and WaHnt;;ton'» exf>erin»ents show that much 
nitrogen may escape in tlie drainage; and, according 
to their calculations, morenitron:en was removed from 
eix otit of thirteen of their experimental plots in crop 
and drainage^ durins; thirty year«j than was supplied 
in the manure. From Deh^raln's exp»triments we 
learn that a soil under constant tillage may grow 
poorer in nitrogen in spitw of heavy manuring. In 
fact, of all the elements of the soil which are required 
for plant-growth* nitrogen is on*^ of the most mobile. 
The soil, it is true, has the power of fixing ammonift 
in insoluble combination»; but both ammonia and 
organic nitroE^cn are constanlly being converted intt> 
nitric acid in every fertile Ptoil, and this compound 
the soil has no power to retahu Under natural con- 
ditions, when the soil is thickly covered with vegeta- 
tion, thiFi nitric acid is assimilated by the roota as 
rapidly as it is formed, while the compact state of the 
soil hinders access of oxygen to the deeper layers, and 
thus moderates nitrlflcaiion, This action of plant- 
roots in arre:5ting nitrates on their way to the lower 
strata of the soil is shown very plainly in Lawes, 
Gilbert, and Waritigton's experimct^ts ulready cited. 
While the land caiTied a crop of wheat, tiie drain*water 
contained little or no nitrates, except when an excess 
of nitrogen had been given in the manure; but as 
soon as the crop was removed, nitrates made their 
•ppeamnce In the drain-water. 

But an nntilled soil Is not only protected against 
losses of nitrogen r it is also in condition to retain the 
nitrogen brought to it in rain, snow, etc. This comes 
partly In the fttrm of ammonia, which is fixed by the 
soli, and partly in the form of nitric acid, which is 
fixed by the vegetation. In this way a soil carrying 
permanent ve^et*tion may be continually gaming 
nitrogen. This is Indicated by Deh^rain's results on 
Ihc esparcette plots, and, aside Irom them, is suffi- 
ciently evident from the facta, that at some period of 
the world ^s history all Its nitrogen must have existed 
in the free state, and that, so far as we know, the 
combined nitrogen of atmospheric precipitates is 
the 8<3le natural source of nitrogen to the soil. 

Tillage alters this state of things very materially. 
By breaking up and mellowing the soil, it facilitates 
the access of oxygen, and increases the rapidity of 
lutriflcation. At the same tlme^ the natural vegetation 
1ft rt^plnced by one occupying in many cases but a part 
of the ground, and occupying it for but a portion of 
the year. Add to this that by diminishing the amount 
of vegetation we dimini*h the evaporation of water, 
and thus leave the soil moister, and at the same time 
expose it more fully to the sun's rays, thus rendering 
Jt warmer, both of which condilioua favor nitrifica- 
tion, and we sec that cultivation both increases the 



11 ux of nitrogen In the soil, and decreases the means 
of utili7Jng it. 

The clear recognition of this stAte of things brings 
with it the suggestion of at least a pattial remedy, 
which is to keep the soil occupied as fully and as long 
as posijible nith growing vegetation* llie roots of the 
living plant lend to the soil an absorptive power for 
nitrogen compounds, similar to that which it has of 
itself for other elements of i»lant-food, and enable it 
to store up these compounds against future needs. 
To prevent a loss of nitrogen, we must make use of 
this power as fully as possible, both in the system of 
cultivation adopted, and in other ways. After taking 
off a crop in the early fall, inste.ad of leaving the laud 
bare, let it he sown with some quick-growing crop, e.g., 
rye, which shall serve solely to store up the nitrogen 
which would otherwise he lost. In the spring this 
crop is ploughed under, and furnishes nourishment for 
the succeeding crop. 8ucli a plan has been adopted 
here and there with advantage. Its general use would 
turn largely^ of course, on the question of expense. 
On a virgin soil containing already large reserves of 
nitrogen, no appreciable benefit might result from it, 
though even there the preAertation of the present 
fertility Is worth striving for. But between tliis con- 
dition and the state of relative exhaustion to which 
the soil of our older states has been reduced, there 
must be a point where saving nitrogen in this way 
would be of immediate as well a"* prospective beoefit. 
The exact methods of applying the principle involved 
to particular cases it is not the province of this article 
to discuss. The principle ilfcelf, however, is very 
simple. Keep growing roots preticnt in the soil as 
long and as extensively aspo6$.ible to seize upon the 
nitrogen (and other elements as well) which will 
otherwise l>e washed out of the soil, and to store It 
up in insoluble forms, ready for the needs of future 

crops. H. P. AlfcMBBT. 



THE LIFE OF HAMILTON. 

Life of Sir WiUiam Rowan Hamilton^ Knt.^ LL.D,^ 
D*C.L.<, MM.LA.^ Andrews pmfefsor of mtron- 
omy in the University of Dublin, and royal nstron- 
omtr of Irtland^ etc. : including selections from hijt 
poemn^ correfmndetice^ and mii^ceHQntous writings. 
By RoDKRT Fkiickval Gravks, M. A., sub-dean 
of the Chapel royal, Dui)Hn, Vol, i. London, 
Longmans^ Green ^ ^ Co,^ 1882, 20+698 p, 8°. 

This volume, which forms one of the latest 
issues of the Dublin university press series, 
has been preparcti partly through the assist- 
ance fiirnishod liythe Board of Trinity college, 
nnO pubiisht'fl by the provost and senior fel- 
lows. ^Ir. Ginves had at first, however, un- 
dertaken the biography of Hnmilton on his 
own responsibility, and unassisted in the labor 
which it involved ; and we ought not to pass 
unremarked bis especial fitness for the per- 
formance of this aixiuous task. In the first 
place, he was unconnected with HamLltoQ by 



•20 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 48. 



any tin of kindred. Both had experienced 
iiiihrokffn frieiidsliip from early youth. Ham- 
ilton, ill his will, had nominated Mr. Graves 
a?^ hin literary executor ; and the »on» of Hamil- 
ton iisked lii'm to undertake the task, se^ronded 
by the approval of several of the mwt influ- 
eiilial friends of the great mathematician. 
And, while Mr. (graves has to c^mfess himself 
to be no mathematician, he combin<;^l — what 
was of <;^reat*;r im|X>rt — the requisite amount 
of |HTsonal knowledge with the appropriate 
scientific attainments and freerlom from incom- 
patible engagements. In his preface, the au- 
tiior very gracefully says, by way of allusion 
to his wflf-distrust'in assuming the control of 
Haniilton's voluminous pajjers and oorresiK>nd- 
ence. •• I gave a reluctant consent, wishing 
thnt the memory of my friend had been more 
fortunate, but at the same time conscious that 
by me would be devoted U) it the wannth of 
lioncftt affection and arlmiration, and the desire 
to be just and trutiifnl." 

In ncoi-ding the successive mathematical 
discoveries of Hamilton, Mr. (Iraves dws not 
attempt accurately to appreciate their im|K>r- 
tanee. or to give them their exact plaw; in <:on- 
nection withprece^lentorsubser^uent disc^ivery. 
H<* has taken pains to secure that the mathe- 
matical statements in his work are wrrecrt,. 
giving them generally in the ipninnima verba 
of lliimilton himscjlf, and, where in doubt, coii- 
hulting friends of competent authority. This 
course b«gets a desirable confident;*; in the 
acriiracy of the entire work, — which is, how- 
<-v«r, tak(*n as a whole, almost purely a liti;rary 
Ijiographv. It is not so much U) the credit of 
Mr? (/raves as may at first seem probable, 
that he leaves the letters of Hamilt/;n almost 
unaided to tell the story of his life. The con- 
tributions from the author's \H'M are wsy 
largely of the nature of disconnecte-il comment, 
usualfv uix)n a subjoine<l letter: in fmrt, there 
is nothing approaching a continuous analysis 
of the life or work or character of HamilUni, 
sufh as we niav hoi>c to see in a subsequent 
volume, and wliich Mr. (iraves, from his evi- 
derillv ki-en insight, and thorough acquainUncje 
with the subject of his biography, is of all \HtV' 
sons most fuUv qualiflwl to write. Nor cr^uld 
tho book have"^ been otherwise than imi^roved, 
had he drawn verv largely from his own aswi- 
ciation and j^ersonal recollection of Ham ilt^>n 
in th<- interest of those who never knew him. 

TIh^ name of William Hamilton has wn- 
fernd a threefold distinction upon the king- 
doms of (;reat Britain. An early article on the 
snlject of this biography reminds its readers 
tiiat each isle has its Sir William Hamilton. 



The Englishman was noted for his patronage 
of art, the Scotchman was among the first in 
philosophy, and the Irishman was among the 
first in mathematics. And the promise of great- 
ness the young Irishman gave at that early 
day failed in no sense of entire fulfilment in 
the development of mature years. Of the 
three Hamiltons, William Rowan was easily 
the chief. We recall in this connection what 
some of his most distinguished contemporaries 
have said of him. The celebrated Dr. Brink- 
ley, astronomer royal of Ireland (later Bishop 
of Cloyne, and whose successor in the former 
oflice the youthful Hamilton was so soon to 
be), said of him at the age of eighteen, '' This 
young man, I do not say will be, but is, the first 
mathematician of his age.*' The brilliant and 
learnerl Professor Se<igwick, referring publicly 
V) U&mWUm in IH'^li, spoke of him as '^ a man 
who |K>sseHserl within himself powers and tal- 
ents jKnhaps never before combined within 
one phiU>sr>phical character.'' Hamilton was 
\Hjru in Dublin, Aug. 4, 1805, and died in the 
same place, from an attack of gout, Sept. 2, 
IHC,:,, U;ing then royal astronomer of Ireland. 
His early life is the story of alarming pre- 
r:rK;ity, not of invention, but of acquisition. 
Nothing <um\(\ have seemed more certain to 
th^^j who knew the Uyy of half a score than 
that middle life would easily insure him rank as 
the chief of linguists. At five he was able to 
n;a/l and translate J.atin, (ireek, and Hebrew ; 
at ciglit, he km-w Italian and French ; and be- 
fore the age of ten his father wrote of him, 
** His thirst for the oriental languages is una- 
bat^r*!. He is now master of most, indeeii of 
all except the minor and comparatively pro- 
vincial ones. The Hebrew, Persian, and Vr- 
abic are about U, U- i^mWnnoA })v the superior 
and intiuiau? acquaintanrje witirthe Sanskrit 
in which he is ainarly a proficient. The Chal- 
d<'e and Syria/- he is grounded in, and t'ho 
Hindo^Manee, Malay, .Mahratta, Bengali 'ind 
others. H«: in aU.ut to commence the' Chi- 
ni-m;." One of Hamilt/.n'K earliest productive 
efforts was th<t preparation of a little manu- 
s/fript Ui^/k of tl.ifty pj,j^„H, fcrniallv entitled 
^A S\na/^ j(raifirnar, iu Svriac loftcrs -ind 
characti-rs,' eiy;. ^p, ',1^. ji,, ^,^„ ^^^^^ ^^' 
twelve? \eais of w/i- ; iuv\ b«.foro aiiothor vear 
htu\ imHHi-d, UiH Hoik** inchj*l«M| (tlit^Ho are the 
titles giv^-ri by the t,oy hnnm-lr^ ' A m-am 
mar of the Snu>.Unl lai,;<.i„j,,v . ^^,, {" ^ 
praxis,' ' An anal- ...of a p;.,Hi.j.o j,, Syriac • 
find * A i'oih\p*'U'Uour., iiiatiM. of ahrebrA • 
which latti^r pf/>'--''U tiA n„ ft*. quadratic cciu; 
tions. i;p t/; thii 1^,11,1, ||ftriiilu,n WM-nis n^ 
have had »»'''"'»'** '^'^ '^'N^'-ition U,wnrd sden 



Jakl'auv 4, ISSJ.] 



SCIENCE. 



21 



tiG<: studies. lie hnd been fascinated by tele- 
scopic views of the planets, ami had visited the 
Royal observatory at Dunsink. Unquestion- 
ably* one of the mogt imi)ortant events in his 
early career was tlie meeting of Zerah Col- 
Imrn. The two had engaged in trials of arith- 
nieticJil skill when the former was only twelve ; 
but two. years later they re-met, Hamilton be- 
ing ** not so mnch the antagonist as the critic 
and the invesitigator of the methods of the 
gifted compntist/ * That it would be diffleult 
to over-estimate the signilicance of this occur- 
rence is evident ft'om a letter by Hamilton to 
his cousin Arthur, in 1822, wherein he savs 
(p. Ill),— 

'* I was amused this momiog, looking back on the 
t^ai^ernesB vni)i wJiicU I began different brancliea of 
the mathematics, and how I always thought my pres- 
ent pursuit the most interesling. 1 beUeve it was 
seeing Zerah Colburn that tirst gave me an interest 
tn those things. For a long time afterwards I liked to 
l*erfonn long operations in arithmetic in my mind: 
oxtnvctiug the square and cube root^ and every tiling 
that related to the properties of numbers. It i>i now 
a f^ood while since I began Euclid. Do you remem- 
ber when I used to go to breakfast with you, and we 
rea«l two or three propositiojis togethtif every morn- 
ing? I was then so fond of it, thai, when my uncle 
wUhed me to learn algebra, he said he was afraid 1 
would not like \i^ uphill work, after the smooth and 
easy path of geometry. Ilowever^ 1 became equally 
fond of algebra, though 1 never mastered some parts 
of the science. Indeed, the resources of algebra have 
probably not been yet exhausted.'' 

The practical bent of his young mind in 
scientific mutters is interestingly sliown by his 
invention of a telegraphic signal-code, which, 
for a youth of tifleen, is not a little remark- 
able. The letters of the alphabet were first 
arranged in the following scheme (p, 88) : — 

12 3 4 5 



1 


ABC 


D F 


2 


a E H 


J K 


a 


L M I 


N P 


4 


Q K S 


O T 


5 


V X Y 


Z U 




Twice U 


= w 



Then five readily distinguishable positions 
of the arms were cliosen. Kaeh letter, thus, 
would be indicated, after the manner of a 
tlouble-entry table, by its jiosition at the inter- 
section of a horizontal and a vertical cohimn ; 
and tlie tmmbei*s of these intersecting columns, 
transmitted from one station to the other by 



the pre-arranged si^iaB^aSlcnESs spell out 
any desired messtige. It will be observed that 
the duidication of an}' given position of the 
arms always indicates a vowel. This device 
for communicating at a distance was for a time 
practically employed by Hamilton and a play- 
mate of his, eacli being provided with a tele- 
scope, so that he CK>nld readily discern the 
successive positions of the arms of the other* 
His devotion to astronomy had by this time 
t4iken firm hold ; and Hamilton realised this so 
fully himself, that he forcibly made in his stud- 
ies a ' sudden transition to natural philosophy/ 
excusing himself thert*for to his friends by ex- 
plaining that the *Mntenlion was to prevent 
my giving up too much time to astronomy by 
diverting my thoughts to another channel : 
^ atqui emovit vetei'em mire morbus novua,' for 
I am now as deeply engaged in the study of 
pendulums," In a short paper, at the age 
of sixteen, he brings science to the assistance 
of the classics, finding astronomical calculation 
to help in the decision of a moot-point in the 
chronology of the Aeneid. 

It is most interesting to follow the growth 
of Hamilton's young mind as his fondness for 
the mathematics increased, and his devotion to 
the classics waned. His pre-collegiate letters 
abound in passages evincing the radical change 
wliieh was going on, and the solid permanency 
with which his new favorites bad taken posses- 
sion* A passage from a letter to his sister 
Eliza, shortly after his entering Trinity college, 
is cited here as a vigorous iUusu*ation of 
thb: — 

**One thing only have 1 to regret hi the direction 
of my Btutlies, that they should be diverted — or 
rather, rudtdy iforced — by the college course fi**>m 
their natural benl and favorite channel Thai bent, 
you know, is science — ^ science in tt» most exalted 
height^^ in tis most secret recesses. It ban ao capti* 
vated me — so seized on, I may say, my affectiona — 
thai my attention to classical studies in an effort^ and 
an irksome one.'^ 

Immediately on abandoning his absorbing 
interest in the classics, Ids vvork of original 
research in mathematical optics began, Mr* 
Graves quotes the title of an *' Essay on equa- 
tions representing systems of right lines in 
a given plane," etc., — a pajier of twenty- 
one folio pages, to which Hamilton himself 
had appended the following note; ** (This 
curious old paper, found by me to-day in 
settling ray study, must liave been written at 
least as early as 1H22. It contiiins the germ 
of my investigations respecting Systems of 
rays, Iwgun in 1823. W. R, H., February 
27,1834.)" 



22 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IlL, No. 48. 



Hamilton's college career was a most bril- 
liant one. During no small portion of his lei- 
sure, lie was at work developing the germs of 
the above-named investigation, which, in the 
spring of 1827, was presented to the Royal 
Irish academ}', having been expanded into ' A 
theor\' of systems of rays.' The first part 
was published the following year in the fifteenth 
volume of the academ3'*s transactions. His 
collegiate course had not been completed, when, 
less than twenty-two years of age, he was unan- 
imously elected Andrews professor of astronomy 
in the University of Dublin, and royal astrono- 
mer of Ireland, — an extraordinary preference 
for an undergraduate, who had for competitors 
men of high standing and eminence in two uni- 
versities. His appointment under these cir- 
cumstances involved another exceptional event : 
by the donor's direction, the professor of as- 
tronomy is one of the examiners for Bishop 
Law's prize, which is yearly bestowed upon 
the best answerer in the higher mathematics 
among candidates of junior bachelor standing. 
The new occupant of the chair of astronomy 
was, within a few days of his appointment, 
called upon to take his part in the examina- 
tion ; an undergraduate thus officially examining 
graduates in the highest branches of mathe- 
matics. 

In the following autumn, Hamilton met the 
poet Wordsworth. Their corresi^ndence of 
years, in terms of close intimacy, is very fully 
given by Mr. Graves, and forms the richest 
extra-scientific contribution to this biography. 
We may appropriately allude, in this connec- 
tion, to Hamilton's poems, with which a very 
considerable fraction of this large volume is 
filled. Wordsworth criticised these eff'usions 
very freely, and not a few of them are certainly 
unworthy of Hamilton's better moments. The 
subjects chosen for versification, however, show 
an instinctive correctness in the choice of ob- 
jects and impressions, which, treated by a 
poet, would be poetry, but, as dealt with 
by Hamilton, are in general merely healthy 
ideas plainly and unpoetically expressed in 
rhvme or verse. Another friendship of Ham- 
ilton's wo should not omit to mention, — 
that of the philosopher Coleridge, whom he 
mot in London shortly before the former's 
death. Their spirited metaphysical corn?- 
spondence is a very agreeable feature of the 
present work. 

To the wisdom of the same board of electors 
which, without doubt, saved Hamilton to sci- 
ence from the church (for he had at one time 
serious intention of entering that body, and 
was more than once offered ordination) , are due 



the thanks of mathematicians perpetually for 
their prompt recognition of the true sphere of 
his intellectual activity. The duties of his uni- 
versit}- chair, as director of the observatory, 
were in large part uncongenial to him, and his 
brief career as a practical astronomer was not 
a successful one. His tastes being almost en- 
tirely in the direction of mathematical research, 
it was ultimately fortunate, that, from the com- 
mencement of his practice as an observer, his 
vigor of constitution was serioush' impaired. 
Near the close of 1830 he writes to Sir John 
Herschel, " I cannot say much for my dili- 
gence in observing, but perhaps may have a 
better account to give of this department after 
some time ; though among other temptations 
to indolence, I have that of always suflTering in 
health when I attempt night work in the tran- 
sit-room." He had constant cold in the head 
and chest, and was much of his time confined 
to the house. The proposal was soon made 
that he should change the professorship of as- 
tronomy' for that of mathematics ; and consult- 
ing with his friend, the late Dr. Robinson of 
Armagh, the latter replied. — 

''Your course appears to me so clear that there 
can be no hesitation. As a mathematician you will 
probably have no equal in Britain, as an astronomer 
some superiors; for you certainly bave not the practi- 
cal enthu!«iasm which is essential to make one sustain 
the uniform pro<;ress of obFerving. I was well aware 
that you are not very fond of obser\'ing ; but you 
know you have that in common with Encke (who 
haUB It), Airy, and Pond (now never observing)." 

In November, 1831, the university board 
passed a resolution which more than doubled 
llamilton's salar}', and completely defined 
his future relations to the university ; giving 
him entire liberty to pursue, as a first ob- 
ject, his mathematical researches, and thus 
assuming the res|>onsibility of his continuing 
as a mathematician rather than an astrono- 
mer. 

Hamilton's friends were*not slow to do them- 
selves the honor of proposing his membership 
of scientific bodies. Through Sir John Her- 
HCfhel he became a member of the Royal astro- 
nomir;al wiciety at the age of twenty- two ; three 
yifars later he was introduced to the British as- 
HTHjiation for the advancement of science ; Lub- 
bock wns ready to insure hia election to the 
lir^yal s^>ciety (of which, however, he never be- 
came a fdlow) ; and in a letter, in 1832, to his 
intimftt<^ companion, Aubrey de Vere, he says, 
(\), 010), *' A hand has latel}' l)een stretched 
forth to me a/tohh the Atlantic; a diploma 
having l»i;en M<;nt, with great pom]) of broad- 
iK?al, and m forth, to tell me that 1 have been 



jAirrABY 4, 1884.1 



SCIENCE. 



28 



clocted fellow of the Aiiiencan acailcmy of arts 

•* Uttb«r Uiiid(*r unci tuoer reicheii sicb beide die hniid/' 

A picture of ciirioua interest niav ha drawn 
from Mr. Gnives'i* occasional touches, portray- 
ing Itamilton as a ?^j weaker aDil lecturer. He 
"• Ufvd two voices — ouf* deep, rich, sonorous, 
rhythmical t and solemn, which llowed forth 
when he delivered a prelection or a spec-ch, or 
rri-it^'fl [>oetry ; the otlier soaring acul4?ly into 
high regions, when he luu'st into an explana- 
tion, or gave vent to some ebullition of good 
spii'itB or cheerful comment. '* At the meeting 
of the lintisb as64>ciation in 18i^2, at Oxfonh 
his speech returning thanks on behalf t>f the 
Royal Irish acailemy contained -'a gi-ticeful ex- 
Sirt'saion of the feelings stirred in him by his 
Bcniiar [position as the j^nlitury and youthful 
representative of Ireland on the occasion/* 
Bal'bjigi* told him, in congratulation, that '^ an 
suftronomcr had no business to be able to speak 
fto well/' We have space for only a word from 
Mr. Graves's charming sketch of Hamilton as 
a lecturer (pp. 497-lOM); — 

"When he spoke ... it was plain to see that he 
WMS absorbed by a reverential consideration of the 
emndetir of astronomy. ... As he poured out hi 
his sonorous twines bis thoughts thus hjcndi ng poetry 
lid «cience» he appeared . , . absorhed in awed and 
ieligbted contemplatiDji of the iriabs he had the 

^solemn prUileiije of enouncinj^; there wn^ no ap- 
parent coasclou-^ness uf his uwn personality^ he was a 
worshipper reventiling the [perfections of the object of 
his worship; and towards the youthful audience who 
HUrrounde<l him he took tlie jittitude not so much of 
a su[M!rior authority and a teacher as of a worshipper 
desirous that other intelligent spirits should take tire 
from the flame of his devotion. . . » lu lliese intro- 
ductory lectnres he was wont to indulge' biiUKcIf In 
refined aud clo^^uent di^^Juis^Lk)n, in poeiic iHtignuge, 
quotittion and allu<iion, iti tracing tlie history of the 
development of the science, and in marking out the 

^:achlevemenl8 of its great promoters. . < . Tlie subse- 
|uent lecturer of the course were altogether different 
In dtyle^ being rigorously mrilhematlcal and demon- 
strative. . , . They were delivered with an eager 
simplicity, in n yoice often brenking Into a high key, 
strane;e]y i^ontraitiiig with the deep roll of his ortitorl- 
<^al effusions." 

One of Handlton^s grandest acbievenients 
w^as the theoretical discovery of conical rt'frac- 
tion : and m the popular history of physics he 
IS chielly known by this. Its prompt coniirnia- 
tion by Dr. Lloyd, in the laboratory of the 
Dublin university, tendcti strongly to heighten 
the dignity of the discovery, ft was charac- 
terized in terms of most extravagant api>lan9e 
by the great^jst physicists of that day. But 
II ami I ton himself* with the unaltected simplicity 
of true genius, describes it to Coleridge as a 
' subonlijiate and secuntlary result.' The dis- 
eo\eiv hud no |»arallel in the history of exact 



sciencT ; and* as Mr* f » raves a ppropiH a tc I y re- 
marks, it is onl)* ** to be classed with that pre- 
diction of the existence of the planet Kejmine 
which has immortalized the names of Adams 
and Le Verrier/* 

Nothing, perhaps, will better exemplify Ham- 
ilton's rare elevation of character than the fol- 
lowing brief words of his biographer : — 

*^ It is to Hamilton's honour that the impression he 
maile upon young nten, hi^ coevals and hla juniors, 
was such a** to create in them tlie warmest aueelion, 
admiration, and respect, Thia arose from his unaf- 
fected hiunility and bi?* cheerful communicativeness, 
combined with his power to soke most difficulties ad- 
mitting of solution, bis frankness in confessing igno- 
rance, his reverential and profound treatment of all 
great questions/ ' 

In so far as it is possible to know the dis- 
tinguished Irishman from his letters, — and they 
are presented in the fullest profusion, — the 
most commanding feature of bis character is 
the abstdutc absence of every thirjg akin to 
raeagrencssof bnild ; in other words, a thorough 
and genuine nobility. Uepeated illustrations 
of this might be cited fi'om his correspondence ; 
and it is the most conspicuous element of the 
admirable frontispiece which has been aulo- 
tyjjed from a phcdograpb l>y Cliancellor, Dublin, 
of a miniiilurc bust execitted liy Terence Far- 
rell in \H:\:\. We should like to express the 
hope, that, before the conclusion of his task, 
Mr, Graves will present a print from the other 
bust of Hamilton, executed, at the request of 
Lord Dunraven, by the Dubliti sculptor, Kirk; 
in preparation for which a cast was taken from 
the head, and which thus, as faithfully repre- 
senting bis cranial development, can Inudly fail 
t-o |K)ssess a j^ermancnt value. 

It is most irksome to l^e forced from the con- 
templation of this great genius ; for, with this 
initial volume of his biography, we have to 
leave him at the age of tw*enty-seven, and al- 
most in entire anticipation of bis characteristic 
scientific life. His unique researches in the 
highest fields of mathematical investigation, 
his great contributions to the science of dy- 
namics, were yet unmade ; and the calculus of 
i|uatornions, if at all thought of, had no more 
taken shape than the vague in<ieliniteness of a 
dream. If Mr. (i raves has disappointed any 
of his readers in the execution of his task, they 
must be few*, and among those who were so 
favored as to have enjoyed the intimate ac- 
quaintance of the great mathematician. The 
successive instalments of this exceedingly vahi- 
alde biography cannot fail to be watched for 
with eagerness, and welcomed with enthusiasm * 
by all wdujse interesta embraee the history and 
development of the exact sciences. 



•li 



SCIhSCE 



•^ou III- Xo. 48. 



UHrUST rnOfJEKhfSOM OF SriKXTIFir SO* lETIES. 



K«h U.»t.u f.a^»iMl iri;«t/.T7 *ftAV«»i7 



f; /..t/* 'Jjfif' »'#/*. II. ',l«'.v«'l-*fi'l. '*. W. l;*f;.*i^. '.. 

».// ',f f.ii I- 'I'.rr'/Jifirt. »!/ '. '. I'*rr/. I:i S. ■ 

ii'.'w.'lif f ^uf •/•■•/, in 7 iitl''iili'#ri Afi* tirV rail*"! t/* .1 

.,f 'r,' if,',.i'h'if r»w .'V,I"I»^I v>ill«-7, .K*f. Jli/'/'/"'^ii.'/, 

■ Iii/ii.j/ in ='.i«» l'l*'t<''. 'I-s^miP: •*••*»' l»'''" »* ■*'»*. Zr'** 
Mi|r M'.if 'li*' •»'«sil« li«- I' ll Ji«- tJi4». I«*'alify. %■'#'. h*'.- 
\u\t iiny -I*" itn'ii* »'» *Ii'/W. U*' %\iu\B\-f fri#!riti'.ri<''I *». 

Miy«- hi ;i ".li'Jilhj N'ol. lorij< jifK-r. an '»j»iK,rtiini»7 
fiftMiil lo til" wrM'f f'Ji n jH^/vMiJil Jfiv«*ti'/*tiof.. 
h.iv|„j/ l,wn oi»hr«'»I ».v VI<i)"i W. M. Kfri'»ry »'» 
MMil« ji |/i-',|oKi'nl « 'iiiiiln-in'tn of lh«? T*'\^»TU'i\ fi,a| 
f)f|.'.Kiii! OK «»i«- «»' '-nil t'l'ilf »»l»'»v«' >-.o|i-'Ia^I From ih'T 
i,«.t<« iiimI i»;ll«Mloh* Mhm" iii;»il«T, Ji th>v.n\A\uu wm 
«|i.i//ii u|.. .liwIl'iiUiiK MiU Wi'll iimrk«"l ii«'W »i#«Mi-* fo 
nil hoiioM-il nW'iKl ami JiiiilMi''lof l»oMi of III. 1^' o/i»*: 
mil) III.- wiMri , vJ/, . nuiM'loiM-yiiiiii. I'airy. Of Oi«r 
r< w ii|.iw liiM'iiw llM'ii » ollii l«"l, ii •■IiikI" '"»"• *»"* '"Ifl'li 
WHr ii' ril !•» I»i 'loiMv lo U n(f"i<<l f'»r Mi" MT/i'ai. 
|„MMMl.iiyn'|'o»» Whlli'lli'M-. H f'^M Ntl'll^l llil-l.oli'*: 
i.r .-.„„. Mi'iMldMlvi- l.oniiiUI.. who «fcliu'-fi-'l «oiii- of 
lh< l»M,i-.w,i<HU. whlih wiM- |»lHHi''l. »'•'• l»v«'im" in 
imIvi'II'-ii" wii" n»l«'''| wllli luiolhi-r Ihiwr luivi 'I 
«|.ii Itm VVlKMi H"»wliii/. Ill" two illfT.-t*-!.!. khi'li h* 
n.inr.oi.roiiniM. iiikI II. win InfiU'-'l HmUli'- I'n-.u.i 
.lini'.Vi-K^i w.iT iiiUhih'Mi III mi'umIJiik tlii» ^\ti*Ur ;.« 

Mvi- li'livnl r»ol I'.lllllhil'-. "ill <'l.ili'iliilOI of 'o 

iiir.-i.KWii ill- I iiiiilolln'- •|'i...lioiiiiiii/ ii'l'l"! »o rh.^ 
i-nliliialMli I.V iKIiOllHK ••»•' '»""'" '*'"' l""l'"*"'. »*'"> 
nillMllliilliM/ llml. ..r niiil« lo|il...i.I.i'iiiM. h.iW. 
.UHi.llv ri."|iiniiM'i.lli'«'l"iii liiiv.t vlnJI.il lhJ-lo.«IMy. 

|,..,„hi" iiWiiV I" H"' "■' '^^ iM.nloiift of lli«- VlrOlll 

nnr.l ..I llih |»lll". wlilrli. nn f.H U" »" l'""'^<' ^"^ ' " '" 
„lvnlvi..nntin.lloiir..ii»l Hmm of nol moi." Mi.i.i f./OJ 

inline lvliiKl"'lw.'.'nMiiii iMrM.iil n-l »»•""• * "•'" 

|h.|.,w N..I.Mi.i.l. ni •l.-iHlliiK ».«••■• ly .. 11 hiliui^l. 

.|.|,., IH.II. ..rniMlnH-Hrowll. I- iHMr iiH.liilv.oi.fiin. 

,n.imMln-nr I.IkIi l.n.U.M. rlllT- i.IhI .l.'.|ily »n| -I 

„nl„ , llMi Im.IiI I1PII.II.111.U I.V.- IHK «»•• ^•■• 

...ull...f?i..liMl..ilv..ll.'^ IwHM.. ll.'-..poi...' .... 

H„„|,|...h.W..nr.S.«l. IMiT.n. IImM^uMIHi I - 

..r m.l mil,., tim.i |,..ir u ...IKH'I« "••;;... H' '-I'" •' 

„.,,V l.n-i.-M I.. II.O IM-I .MhMMlll|Hi..ll..Hl"l^ - '»•' 

,.„ ., ..r . , .....l.ll..,'. V.'ll"Whli mi.MlM.in.-. o. nl.. u,. 

i„ ,n r.ii r..iii»i II. ..Mini r..n.iH' >•• ' •'■ " * 

.J M.n ,1;...,. i«vln.-. ImllHMl .Mill I..M"".' -• "J' 

, , r .1... n -porlnion- -n.n .-«.•»..,, u h l.h o 

.,,,,,, ,,nv fool.. uM-hnwi. * ini«.»« ••'.''.»••-'• >-'^^^^ 

III illilllliMiM lit lirtiiiv 



■.f '.i-..-**! •.-* '^ ; ifr*-il h^r»-af-.«r . :o r-^pon ir*d act 
i^or. * ii r. rr.*.w ..--^ aw ri.AV b^ ii-^na-**! >ra' for ihe 
;,rM*-r-;i:»:>:. '.f •.[.- r^-ri.r.i;.'. of :he I'ia'i* Torreyan* 
4f. -.0 ft*:**l. '.-•tary-il -if .fi ihe commir.icaiion •:■( Dt- 

A'J-! ■ .'•^r.* v, ., .r flora a:.«l farm 4 : ^y C. R. Orcutt. 
■ T;.*-. ■"r.''^r -■*:*:•!. "'..a:, - ■!.'.>: :ri»r la*^ aiinual ii4«H:t- 
.r.:f, o .«•.- ;!•:'./*:; '\.*(:fr,*iz'.*-^ L.i-.«> Jj<?.eiiiriail»r in *pet:ies 
'.f ,'.iir.'». .:.'I..'-:;0'*s :o thi-? i'-'-non. wlji'n: m.iiiy more 
;.4.': '.*y:. .i.-':ov«-r*-.l 'iiikr.own hitL«5:rto in Caiii-'mia. 
.N'ovi :i;.oij hjii'I^rf-! : hy I^ .»a Smiili. — Zilla ro»a. 
^r.i-.f. I •:.-.. ',.-r»r«l *: ^n. Di«-:j'o >r?s :haii ayearasro. 
M *.i.': ' ofi.rfio;i»-s* orh-w*':tVf:r iii ??aii Francisco and 
■*.^.r..'y, sjMhi.lfig i*!» i!#?;i'*t«: -nar-r on irr».-*. tiu^hes^ 
ami f«ri':«"» :ii;o*l Ui«.' city, ai <>oi.l'rn Oatr Park, and 
*?. u.p-.f iiff Moil-*:. Evi-n in*iile the walls •-£ :li«.- Cal- 
.for:.;;i vra'lifny of ^lienrres, I liav^ 5e»-h its lovi-ly 
w«rh, vciniprmi*-'! by hilkt-n coCiMjim «if in <?g;:s. 
Th*'. *j/.'l'r I*- •r.i- 11 y known l-y tin- frt-o railius in 
?h«: %ri:ir«-, — 'a '^ornl wwig*? cut out of the pi«V Dr. 
MrOy»l. 'rxfin-^-'-h ii, — whirh is ji^^culiar to the y:enus 
Zilla At AyUfH. nearSaiitarruz. I s«w;iireil an Epeira, 
.tw\ *'*ii'tttii I A "L'-^s unrl youir-' spiders, wliiirh have 
r«:v«-ai''l ^ofiiu ciiriou'* fa^'ts in n-ixanl 10 in>cct jiara- 
%\Uti, Of ih':-<. \)T. McCook writrs, "One inteiest- 
\uv. thin;? aty/ut th'; Kpcira at rata cf>«:oon is. that it i» 
«tf»ii;:*:ly \u\t-t,U'A hy parasitic and otlicr enemies, no 
\t'.K% WiAU lour. TIi«-n' wtni first a number of small 
n-'hlii-h iLiitD :tiiv«:, prohahly a sjiircies of Sfdenopsis, 
who no ilouhi wi-iu U-M\u]^ \\\Hm the eirgs and dChrin ; 
*«:'oiid, h*:\'i'A\ larval- of Dcrnifstldae, probably At- 
ux'-ii'i* IH-Jljo. 'I lie»««; w«;re cn'f'ping into the silky 
iiiU;ijof at will. thoij;;h nimKMif llicm wen* ensconced 
wiihiii III'- inn ply <.'«'llh >;f some ichneumon. Next I 
fo'jii'J aih\«r a vi-ry hmull irhneumon fly. I have 
Id vij yi'i w-i-ii ijtiiii' iiiirh a * happy family * within 
»hf l,oijfj«j!! ni a ►pi'Ii-rN I'lry-m'st. Th«» spith'rlings 
^ij iiii '1 !•/ 1^1- ':f>iiliriiled. aiul inditTerent to the pres- 
I ii< « 'A 'Jii.M jiiirijih-r-.** A f«:w' days later. Dr. Mc- 
r*/*!!- wi.' luntr ifif'^niiation, :i8 follows: ** Since 
willing' >';ij J fjiiil fiorii .Mr. (^r.'NMon that the larger 
i< hiii'i>iii''i< ii> :t p.-/.'fnia>-liuH; and tlie small one, as I 
«»yi,/.' J'ln d. a • hah id of funM* mirt, which is parasitic 
iij,«iii j'« /.«/iii;L'liii>. A^ JV/ohiachiis is parasitic upon 
fl'i'!* '• '/y^. 'liJ if |iM ><-ii'-c within thecoction is thus 
.ii.'iuiii.i'l t'.i. Jjy ih«" way, llnTC is a yet minuter 
( I.,. I' fi it.u> t.- i»iir.iM'Av upon th«' rhalrid, that is par- 
ii*-iiii iji.'/i. »!.« !'• //iiiia< ill j!*, that Im jiiirnsitic ui>on the 
t\/y\e ill |-.|*« ii.i a-i.j'y .iii'l oilji-r H|»lder>." 



{(..i.uii .A..WA »■»»•/«.. all •< It III" Htu It'll Inland. 
//" -"I. Jl'i...ii- -Mvi' an ar»'inint i)f the 

'''.f''.'"* * ' . 'A I'.f.'il |i'a\i's :(| Tutti-nvllle. 

1 1- 14 .'i« '. •»' •. r-i.'i I It, flu n{ rnrk containing 

•'•''• ' • "'J "d '/I Kiiy ft'rrui;iMiui4 sand* 

■ ''•• •''■ •'-.' ' 'I 'i.-o,„i , :iii,| ;i piTuliar nm«> 
y:.,ll.. 1.^14 ..',••..,.,<.■ ,,iiiji,ftt Mhiilly of vi*gi*iable 
:.',v'ih#i Miih ^^hat is apparently 
'.*.'{' 'yf imii hi iiu> soft gray 



M «f..-ii.i tA II. < 
liili'/ni: 



Jaxcary 4, 18S4.] 



SCIENCE. 



25 



9Andstone the remains we not yei destroyed, but 
mre in ilic form of carbon or lignite. In the otlier 
rocks ihe vegetable tissue has almost entirely disap- 
peartid. and only the hupressions remain. Tho rocks 
are found in blocks or fragments* none of tbeni 
greater than a foot sqn.ire^ scattered along the beach* 
iDo«tly at the base of rhe bluff, wlileli is cornposetl 
of drift. From our pn-^*eDl knowledge, it is not pos- 
sible to d<?cide whetber they were torn up from an 
outcrop btflow hlgli-water mark and cast upon the 
beach, or wa-sbed out from the base of the blufl: they 
no doubt iKfloii!? to ibe oretaceous, although our 
j>re5<jiit proofs are not yet sufficient to state this to 
a certainty. 

A note was remi from Dr. Britton of Columbia 
COJk^ge, In which he stated that the occurrence of 
aimilitr fossil if erotis sandstones on th<? b^tfach near Glen 
Cove, Long Island^ and vicinity, had been known for 
some time. There ibey are found in precise] y the 
same |»osttion as at Tottenvilte, and are associated 
with extensive beds of tire-clay, kaoline, etc. The 
Toiienville station is not immediately on Ibese clays, 
but tbey are found near by in several directions, 
notably at Krcnschorviile. That the two localities 
mark outcrops of the samo geological formation, and 
probably approximately of the same strata, is almost 
certain. The physical structure of tiie Glen Cove 
scrlf^is is exactly parallel to that of certain of the clay 
betis ttf Middlesex county, N,J., which aru well 
known to belong to the cretaceous epoch. In the 
absence of sufficient fossil evidence, we cannot state 
witli absolute cerUinly that the two deposits are 
equivalent: but there is little doubt that this will 
ultimately be proven, and that the New Jersey and 
Sttt^ten Island clays, kaolines^ lignites, etc, find 
another and their most northern outcrop on the north 
ahore of Long Island, at or near Glen Cove. 

The exact parallelism between our Staten Island 
fi|iocimens and those from Glen Cove, continued Mr. 
Hoillck, can be seen at a glance: in fact, they would 
be indistinguishable but for the labels, with the ex- 
ception of the leafy conglomerate before described, 
which does not seem to be represented elsewhere; it 
is possibly peculiar to Stai^n Island. 

In detenninin^ the genera and species of fossil 
plants, we have to depend mostly upon the veining 
Of the leaves, which is not by any means so satisfac- 
tory as we could wish. Genera can be determined 
with comparative accuracy. Thus we have no doubt 
that one of our Tottenville fossils is a willow, though 
what particular species, it is impossible to say; another 
is undoubtedly an «>vergreen, allied to our juniper or 
arbor vitae. The larger specimens are probably wil- 
lows, viburnums, and sour gums. There are also a 
few fragments with paralJel veins, — no doubt, belong- 
ing to the gra.sses, — a small fruit or nut, and a piece 
of what appears to be an equisetum or horse-tail 
msh. These, with other indistinguishable fragments, 
OOfDplete our list. 

Oambridg« entomological dab. 

D*\\ 14* — Mrs. A. K. Dim mock showed a collection 
representing stages of thlrty-oight si>ecies of insects 



which are found upon Hetula alba, the white birchi 
which will be given later in Piryche, 

Mr. G. Dim mock showed the two halves of a split 
wing of Attacus cecropia, in which the two layers of 
the wing had been separated by the following mode. 
The wing from a specimen that had never been dried 
is put first into seventy per cent alcohol, then Into 
absolute alcohol, and from the latter, after a few tiays* 
immersion, Into turpentine. After r^uaiiting a day 
or two in turpentine, the sfiecimfU is plunged sud- 
denly into hot water, when the conversion of the tur- 
pentine into vapor l>etwei*ii the two layers of the wings 
so far separates these layers that they can \y<\ easily 
parted and mounte<l in the usual way as miscro«copl- 
cal preparatiouif on a slide. This is an ea«y way 
of demonstrating the saclike nature of the wings of 
Insects- 

Dr. H. A. Hagen showed preparations to illustrate 
organs of undetermined function, found on the larvae 
of Gomphidae, Libellulidae, anti Aeschnidae, but 
not as yet found on Agrtonidae, which he beJievi^ to 
be traces of segmental organs. The organs in rpies- 
tion are little cavities or invaginations of the epider- 
mis between the segments, one on each side of the 
median ventral line, on one, two, or three abdominal 
segments, according to the family to which the larva 
belongs. 

Ottawa microiooiyiotd lodiety* 

Dec, IS. — Mr. Henry M. Ami rftod a paper on the 
use of the microscope in determining fossils, with 
especial reference to the Monticuliporldae, Late 
microscopic investigations proved that the more 
minute organisms found in our i*ocks were both 
deserving and requiring such careful Investigations; 
for geologists had been led into erroneous ideas re- 
garding the particular horizon^ and range in geologi- 
cal time, of certain species of these fossils from the 
mere cursory examination given them. Later pale- 
ontologists, pursuing their researches in a more 
scientific manner, had recourse to thin sections of 
these MontlcuUporidae, or fossil Folyzoa, by means 
of which the true external and internal structures 
of the zoarium or skeleton of the genera and species 
belonging to Uils family were satisfactorily ascer* 
tained. 

The work of foundation and means devised by Dr, 
Nicholson (at one time a professor in one of our Cana- 
dian universities) Inaugurated a new era in the study 
of these interesting forms. The mode of procedure 
in preparing thin sections of these fossils was then 
considered atid explained. The different kinds — tan- 
gential, longitudinal, transverse, and axial sections 
— ^ were described, and illustrations of them exhibited 
in charcoal drawings of some of the common species 
found about Ottawa city, — Prasopora Sel vvyni Nichol- 
son, Datostoma ottawaense FoonI, and Mo no try pell a 
trentonensis Nicholson; the various [>oints exhibited 
in these sections — such as the large and smaller 
tubes; cystoid, curved, and straight diaphragm or 
floors; the spinifonn tubull, etc. — were then de- 
scribed, showing how minutely and accurately their 
structures and affinities can by this means be detected. 



26 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 48. 



There was still a rich and wide field open for inves- 
tigation in the study of the Monticuliporidae; and 
care should be taken first to ascertain with the new 
and more scientific means the true relations and 
affinities of the species described previous to 1881. 

Mr. Whiteaves exhibited a choice series of recent 
Polyzoa for comparison with the fossils described in 
the paper. 

Ottawa field-naturalists* olnb. 

Dec, SO. — Mr. James Fletcher read a paper entitled 

* Notes on the Flora ottawaensis, with special refer- 
ence to the introduced plants,' which was explana- 
tory of the lists of plants hitherto published by the 
club, and in which the non-indigenous species are 
not indicated. Mr, Fletcher first defined the district 
from which the plants had been collected, and which 
lies within a circle of twelve miles radius. He then 
noted certain of the more interesting of rare or intro- 
duced species, and presented lists tabulating the lat- 
ter plants under the headings of ^ Aggressive species/ 

* Species able to perpetuate themselves indefinitely,* 
'Species dying out after short perio<ls,' etc. An 
animated <liscussion ensued, confined principally to 
the conditions affecting introduced plants, and the 
spreading of certain si)ecie8. 

Philosophical society of Washington; Kathematioal section. 

Dec, 10. — Mr. M. H. Doolittle gave a paper on the 
rejection of doubtful observations, in which observ- 



ing-errora were sharply divided into two classes,— 
those resulting from blunders in recording, pointing 
on wrong objects, neglect of essential precautions in 
instrumental adjustment, etc. ; and tliose resulting 
from an unusual accumulation of similar elements of 
error. The latter class, because by their magnitude 
in one direction they indicate that the remaining ob- 
servations are in error in the opposite direction, he 
proposed to call inHtructiToe errors, and claimed that 
the larger they were the more histructive, and the 
greater the necessity of retaining them. In practice, 
however, the best rule with suspected observations is 
to reje<rt them when they exceed the limit of error pos- 
sible to the ' instructive ' chiss, and when they fall 
within it to assign a weight proi>ortional to the 
chance that the error belongs to the latter class, and 
not the former. As the law of distribution of the 
former class of errors (if any such law exist) is very 
different from the recognized law of the latter class, 
these questions cannot be decide<l by computation 
with a * criterion.* but must be left to the judgment. 
Prof. A. Hall gave as a general result of the debate 
of this vexed question by i^eirce, Airy, l)e Morgan, 
Stone, Glaisher, Chauvenet, Gould, Winlock, and 
others, that every one can dftUe a criterion that suits 
hinueify but it will not pleane other people. He strong- 
ly opposed using such machiner>' in the discussion 
of observations as eliminated the knowledge and 
judgment of the investigator, and giving to results a 
fictitious accuracy by any sweeping rejection of dis- 
conlant data. 



INTELLIGENCE FROM AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC STATIONS. 



QOVBRNMBNT ORGANIZATIONS. 
Geological snrvey. 

Topographical field-work, — Mr. H. M. Wilson, in 
charge of one of the topographical parties in Prof. 
A. H. Thompson's Wingate division, surveyed, dur- 
ing the season of 1SS>'], about ten thousand square 
miles in north-western New Mexico and north-eastern 
Arizona. The area covered by his work lies between 
parallels of latitude 30*^ and o7°, and extends from 
meridian 109^ to 111^. He also worked some smaller 
detached areas outside of the limits thus indicated. 
This region has hitherto remained a terra incognita, 
partly on account of its aridity and barren condition, 
and partly on account of the difficulty of traversing 
it. So little has been known of it, that within the 
area surveyed by Mr. Wilson a small mountain range 
has been indicated as occupying two places on the 
same map. On the engineer's map of 1879 it is called 
Calabesa Mountains in the northern place, and Squash 
Mountains in the southern; and, on the land-office 
map for 1882, both are indicated without names. Mr. 
Wilson's work proves that they are one and the same, 
occupying a position very close to that assigned to 
the Squivsh Mountains. 

On the 11th of September Mr. Wilson and one of his 
men made the ascent of Navajo Mountain (called 



by the Indians Xat-sis-aii), and they are probably 
the first white men who have ever stood upon its 
summit. Navajo Mountain lies on or near the line 
between Utah and Arizona, and is a dome-shaped 
mass rising about four thousand feet above the gen- 
eral level of the surrounding country, and sixty-five 
hundred feet above the beds of the San Juan and 
Colorado rivers, which are close to its base, the for- 
mer on the north, and the latter on the west. Its ele- 
vation above sea-level is ten thousand four hundn^d 
feet. It sloiMiS abruptly, especially on the east, to a 
plateau of six to seven thousand feet, which extends 
south-eastward for fifteen or twenty miles to the 
cation where Mr. Wilson left his pack-train in camp. 
This was on a trail that leads to Fort Defiance, vid 
the north side of the Mesa de la Vaca and the valley 
of the Kio de Chelly. Another trail leads south- 
ward to Mo-eu-kap-i (a Mormon settlement) and to 
Oraybe and the other Moqui vilhiges. From a point 
a few miles south of the Navajo Mountain, a third 
trail lea<l8 westward to Lee's Ferry, on the Colorado 
River. Mr. Wilson thinks there is also a trail leading 
to the mountain from the north-west. He says all 
the trails in this section are exceedingly rough and 
difficult to travel, on account of the numerous cafions, 
of five hundred to a thousand feet in depth, which 
are cut into the red sandstones (triassic?) that form thcf 



Jaxtary a, 1884.) 



SCIENCE. 



27 



Lsiirface»t04^k of ihi* rMjuntry. On th«' siiiomit of the 

rlDountaiTi, wliicli is aboui a mile in length, -^ lirowhisli 
simdstone occurs, which may possibly l>e Jurassic or 
eTcn crotacecnis; but all the mcks are pi-obably refer- 

L*hl*> 10 the J(irji-trl3i«, with the ex co pi ion of some 

p^ljirk rs:tieous roclv^ which occur as dikes on tlie slopes 
of tlM* mountain. Wirhin about a th<*uBand f»-'et of 
the summit is a spring of guad water, wiiere there is 
& good camping-placc, Tlie slopes are timbered; 
scrubby firs and balsams occurring on the top, with 
tcrub-oftks below, and tall pines atill lower down. 
Amonf5 the latter are many beautiful |>arkf. Tlie 
platcaii-leyel surrounding the mountain is well 
covered with fine tall grass, over \vhich are scattered 
patches of pinoii pines and small nrettA of btire red 

Fiantlstoue. 

In the walla of a short c.iBon on the east side of the 
mountain^ passed Ihron^h by Mr. Wilson in his ascent* 
rtiins of cliff or cave dwellings were seen in a cave or 

Fliollow in the rocks about tiv e hundi-ed feet above th»' 
bottom, and a hundred feot below the top. 

Ancent of Mount Sha»ta. — Mr. Clarence King, in his 
• Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada/ says, ** There 
is no reason why any one of sound wind and limbs 
should not, aft*^r a little niountaineerinf^ practice, be 
able to make the Shasta climb. There is nowliei-e the 
shadow of danj^er, and never a real piece of mountain 
climbing, — climbing, 1 mean, with hands and feet, — 
no scaling of wall^, or lal>or involving other qualities 
than simple muscular endtirance." 

Mr. Gilbert Thomi>son, who, during the past sum- 
mer and fall, M|>ent about two uK^tilhs in topographic 
work on the t-lopcs and sunmiit of Mount Shasta, in- 
dorses this statement of Mr. King^ and would add 
that there ia no reason wliy atrain of pack-mules may 
not be luken to the top of the peak. Mr. Thompson 
and one of his packers (Thomas Watson), on Sept. 
10, ISS3, lied their riding-mules to the iron signal- 
post which marks the extreme summit of the cone, 
and ai'ti the Orst who have ever taken ridlng-tuiimals 
to the Uip of Mount Sha^sta. On Oct, 12, 1883, the 
pack-triun wil« taken to an altitude of 13«0(K) feet, 
and would have been tJiken to the top had not the 
feirly snows prevented. Anoilno" season, however, 
Mr. Thompson expects to camp with his entire train 
ti{»on the summit of Mount Shasta. From one of his 
camps ftt an elevation of 7,4(10 feet, it required hcvcu 
hourM to go to the top with the riding-animals, while 
one member of the party, starting 'from the same 
camp on foot (taking, of course, a more direct route), 
readied the summit after a climb of six hours. It 
took two bours to get l»ack to this camp, and three- 
quarters of an hour nufliceil for the return to the camp 
which was locatetl at the elevation of 13,000 feet. Mr. 
King and his party in September, 1870, made the as- 
cent fruni the nortli-wesL The first day they left their 
riding-animals at an elevatlou of about 10, (XK} feet| 
and climbed as far as the crater on the north-westjern 
spur, wbich point they reached about half-past one 
o^ckw^k in the afternoon. They spent tbe night here, 
suid on the following day, after a climb of four hours 

i and a half, reached the summit. Mr. Thompson's 
«Aoent, mentioned above» was along a spur that ex- 



tends towanl the south-east. Up this »pnr he say 

there is a natural trail, only 500 or ^100 feet of whic 
will require any work to make it perfectly safe for 
mules or horses with pack^. The route tlescHbed by 
Mr. King, and the one M n south-western spur, i 
the routes usually followed by those who make th 
Aseeni from Strawberry valley, on the west side of 
the mountain. One member of Mr. Thompson's pjirty 
climbed the mountain also from the east, which makes, 
attogetber, four different routes by which it has been 
ascended. Mr. Thompson says there are two other 
poMible ways by which the mountain can lie climbed. 
These are on the north-east side. He reports, alsOy^ 
that there are seven glaciers located on the north and 
east slopes of Mount Shasta, Those on the north 
and north-east are connected at their heads, A 
north-west and south-east line would divide the 
glacier-bejiring aide of the mountain from the non- 
glacier-bearing half. However, some of the fields of 
snow and ice on the west side have considerable re- 
semblance to glaciers, and may eventually be so de* 
termined. 

Mr. Thompson suggests that Mount Shasta would 
be the best point in this part of the west for a perma- 
nent high meteorological station like those located on 
the summits of Mount Washington and Pike's Peak. 
Among the several reasons for this opinion, he meu-j 
tlons its accessibility, and the presence of hot-spring 
which might be utilized in heating such a station, but ' 
more especially the fact that it is an isolated peak, 
rising high above the surrounding low country, and 
free, therefore, from the disturbing meteorological 
conditions induced by the presence of contiguous 
mountain ranges. Mount Shasta, Mr, 'Thompson 
says^ does not belong to the Sierra Nevada nor to the 
Cascade lUnge, but stands alone. 

During the season a line of levels was begun at 
Berryviile, where connection was made with the rail- 
roail level, and carried some distance up the mouu- 
tain. Next year this line will probably be carried 
the summit of the peak. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

TitK Society of naturalists of the eastern United 
States, whose organization and alms were described 
In Scieiir.e last spring, held a very successful and in- 
teresting meeting at Columbia college, New York, 
on Thursday and Friday of last week. The attend- 
ance was ver>' large, and Included many distinguished 
men. The membership has grown very rapidly, and 
now includes a large majority of the leading profes- 
sional naturalists of the eastern states. The papers 
presented were of a high character, and many of 
them provoked a discussion such as la rarely heard 
in any scientific body; for seldom are bo many men, 
devoted to one branch of pure science, gathered to- 
gether. The communications, almost without excep- 
tion, referred to problems of practical interest, and 
dealt especially with methods and the organizatloq 
of scientific w ork, and also with methods of teachin 

Upon methods were read several papers, ^* ] 



> / : y \CE. .Vol- in.. So. 4^. 



-«^ V. 



V \ 



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..p. iii.::l .1- V.j.i....:^. a.*m'» !■• Ui<:uriiaiice wM 
. -mi.-i'. . ;ji--u.i 1 liiii"- ■!> -rj. ■ilii»:jiiii* Uac i»rcuiTed 
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fr.-ilii -.ii",. k::i L-m :iji-.'-. C iJiiiia'^ A Hvim. ot 

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.n-.Tnoti»v i 



FRIDAY, JAXXJARY 11, 1884. 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM. 

The aothorities at Washington show hope- 
ful signs of an interest In the a^lministratioii of 
the Naval observatory by proposing the ap- 
pointment of three eminent astronomers as a 
boanl of visitors, who shall annually inspect 
the establishment j advice with the superintend- 
ent respecting the scientific portion of his 
duties^ and roix>rt to tlie secretary of the navy. 
This measure was recommended by the secre- 
tarj' in his annual report, with the ho|>e titat 
many of the objections now nrged against the 
administration might thii8 be removed* That 
he should have expected such a result from 
this simple measure, leads us to doubt whether 
the grounds of the objections referred to are 
fhlly appreciated, and to suspect that the sub- 
ject is viewed too much from the stand-point of 
the politician. The astronomers of the conn- 
try stand in rendiness to give any department 
of the government any advice which they are 
assured will be followed, at least in spirit ; 
but they have no taste for the cheap compli- 
ment of being consulted for the pleasure of 
the thing. That fondness of beiDg ' con- 
sulted/ that appreciation of the pri\ile^e 
of giving advice, and that love of cnrr}ing 
• weight ' in public alTaim, which are so strong 
in the breast of tlio politician, are nearly un- 
known among eminent astronomers. The lat- 
ter have too many more important affairs on 
hand to permit of their enjoying the pleasures 
and duties which fall annually to the boards of 
visitors of the naval and military academies. 
They are quite ready to give the government 
the benefit of their advice, provided they have 
some iLSsuraiice that the advice will be acted 
uiK>n, but not otherwise. Their complaint 
against the observatory is not that they are 
not suftlcicntly consulted, but thnt the organi^^a- 
lion of the est^ibiishment does not fulfil the 

No. «»— IMS. 



condition which common sense shows to be 
necessary to the efficient administration of a 
scientific institution. 



We have already pointed out what we be- 
lieve to be the chief administrative wants of 
the observatory* Briefly summarized, they 
are, a well-considered plan of operations, to 
be devised by the highest expert talent of the 
country, within or without the establishment, 
and to be obligatory upon the supeiintendent, 
and such un organization as shall give reason- 
able assurance that the plan agreed upon shall 
be carried out in all the details necessary to 
its success. For a mei^ board of advice, it is 
diflicult to see the slightest necessity. The 
observatory has never been without one or 
more able astronomers, whose advice the 
sujierintendent can command whenever he 
desijvs, and who have the great advantage of 
an intimate acquaintance with the instrumeuta 
and other means at the disposal of the super- 
intendent. If there is any difliculty in getting 
and using advice from this source, it is be* 
cause the situation is such that something else 
is needed. 

Japan may well be proud of the honors that 
have just been won by two of her sons in two 
of the best universities in Germany. A gold 
medal was offered about a year ago, by the 
University of Leipzig, for the best original 
work that should be [U'orluced within a year, 
on the embryology of the fresh-water plunari- 
ans. The subject is a very ditHcuIt one, and 
on this account has hitherto received very little 
attention. Mr. It*ao lijima, formerly a student 
in the University of Tokio, nn<ler Professor 
Morse, and subsequently under Mr* Whitman, 
was one of the few students selected by the 
Japanese government in 1882 to be sent to 
German universities* Mr. lijima began work 
at Leipzig, in the laboratory of Professor 
Leurkart» early in the spriufr of 1882. At the 



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jAiruABY 11, 1884. 1 



SCIENCE. 



81 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR, 

%• OorrtapondtnU arf rtguetUti In fm ani britf aitnoittUitt* Th4 
^wriUf^§ nam^ U M ali caaet required ci« preo/ofiioodfaiih. 

Sense of direcHoQ. 
I HATE b«en much intereated in the different meth- 
ods of preserving the relative ilm.ition of places, as 
given In late niiinbcrs of *Sdt*nctf| and will venture 
to ftdd my own experience, 

I refer all objects to two rectangrulfir co-onllnate 
axes wlilch agree with the cardinal paints* In alt 
places where I feel at home, these lines are conscious- 
ly present, and ali roads running north and fu»uth, or 
east and west^ coincide with, or seern to bo parallel 
to, these axes. AH places which I have visited, from 
MaMBchusetts to Nebraska, are, with few exceptions, 
oonnectiHi together in one system. 

The principal origin of this system is in the north- 
west corner of a schoothrmse inHamilton county, O. 
There, when a boy» I s&f und^r the direction of a 
teacher to stTidy geography. With face toward the 
north, I looked through a window alung the meridian- 
1 could at idcasurf see east or west, or, if need be, 
south, through opposite windowa. A thorough course 
in geogniphy fixed in my mind the axes of my sys- 
tem, which have been present with me ever since, 
a secondary origin g^i'ing with me everywhere. All 
places with which I am familiar form *part5 of this 
system, and any new place visited is immediately 
referred to its proper location. 

Now for the exceptions. There was another school- 
house, where I attended sometimes, at which I was 
turned a quarter mund. East was north, south was 
east, etc, I account for the anomaly in this way: 
in going to the school house where my system was 
fixed, 1 went east, along a road from which I turned 
to the left into the south or front door of the school- 
house; hut, in going to the second school mentioned, 
I went through fields into a road along which I passed 
toward the south some distance, and then turned 
toward the left into the west or front door *^f the 
schoolhouse. I lost the direction of my axes ol refer- 
ence in crossing the tieUU; so that the west side of 
the new schoolhouse seemed to coincide with the 
south of the old, and thus unconsciously my axes 
were turned a quarter round. No plan I ctnild adopt 
had the b.Mst effect In changing the apparent position 
»>f the cardinal i>olnls. Many a hiugh was raised at 
my expense hrwiuse of my proniptJiess in pointing in 
, wrong directions; and to this d:iy, afterneariy half 

I century, if I wish to think of directions from that 

choolhouse, Iain obliged to change my first decisions 
IhiTtugh an angle of ninety degr#e8. 
Washington City is another place which U entireW 
■ gu t of my system. I entered the city after nightfall. 

&me where between Baltimore an<i Washington, I 
lost m^ rn. I iliriule axes, so that, when I cutue to con- 
sider -'y PennsyJvania Avenue was turned 
half r -i was west, wes^t. eiist ; and I had not 
and have not the least sense of north or south. No 
study of maps, and no thinking over the subject, has 
|llie least effect in arranging things properly, 

Boston is another place which Is not in my regular 

fstem* In thai city and vicinity, Washington Street 
kesa the place of my usual east and west axis, and 

he t!r<'f*r that leads to Mount Auburn is the other 
^ are not in my mind coincident with 

5 1 .e»S. 

!c at different times have been <iulte 
I Once, in a city which is regularly 

1 ilnijL' the wi'si si J. rtf Li strect toward 

1! 1 toward the 

u into .m office 



at my right hand. Coming out, and wishing to con- 
llnae my course toward the south, I really went north, 
and BDent several minutes before I could convince 
myself of my error. Possibly the mislAke arose in 
the following manner. I lost my axes in passing 
from the street-crossing to the sidewalk^ and turned 
north when I supposed I turned south; going into 
the office toward the right, I seemed to go west ; com- 
ing fn.>m the office, I seemed to be going east; and 
turning to the right, I was to my mind going south. 

It is my custom to travel with a map l>efore me; ^ 
and, on visiting a city for the fir«t time, I secure a.; 
plan and study tin ' V incipal streets, 

obtaining correct I i i ts of compass* 

I then carefully Ci.^- ...., j.,t ,i, i^..o...uns, and com- 
monly have no diHicuHy in tinding my way without 
a guide. Mii.tun L. Comstock. 

Knoz college, GaleBbtirg, lU, 

Bam-owla in aouthern Ohio. 

Until recently bam-owlfl have been of rare or 
accidental occurrence in this part of the Ohio valley* 
In the records of the binhj in the vicinity of Cincin- 
nati, there were only three specimens noted; and la 
the record of the birds of Franklin county (Indiana), 
there has been a vacancy under the head of this 
species. On Oct. 2f'^ 18S3, I was pleased to have a 
friend bring me a fine male of this species, killed 
within a half-mile of this town. Soon after this a 
number of specimens were taken near Cincinnati, at 
Glendale, where they had taken up their quarters la 
the town-hall; and others were killed near Jones 
Station, O. In all, this makes fourteen specimens 
that I know to have been taken within ftfty miles of 
Cindnnati, A. W. Butleb. 

Brook vMle fodfity of Dfttural blitory, 
Brotikvllle, Intl. 

Phoapbatea in North Carolina. 

The sucecssful exploration last spring, under the 
direction of our board of agriculture, of ilie large beds 
of phoaphatic nodules embedded in marl in New Han- 
over and Pender counties, started the search for phos- 
phates in North Carolina again. Stray coprolites had 
frequently been found ; but these nodules, forming 
beds four to five feet thick, and extending through 
the country for twenty miles or more, suggested an 
origin different from that of the true coprolite. 

Phosphatic rock has recently been diseovere<l in 
the up-country, xvhich corresponds exactly to the 
water-worn nodules entering into the calcareous con- 
glomerate of the lower Cape Fear, 

In the latter region, about Wilmington, and twenty 
miles above, we find the nodules embedtied in, and 
forming the lowest layer of, a ground and hardened 
eocene marl. The nodules show the amme fossils, 
but differ from the marl in the large amount of sand 
they contain. Tliey vary In composition from fifteen 
to fifty- two per cent of phosphate of lime, neighbor- 
ing fragments having often very varied composition, 
of all shapes, bttt mostly kidney and egg shaped; 
perforated; color, gray to creenish black; specific 
gravity, 2.6 to 2.7. Freshly broken or rubbed, they 
give the odor of bunit powder characteristic of such 
phosphates. 

Higher up the country, in Sampson, Duplin, and 
Jones counties, we find the eocene marl above, and 
the phosphatic rock below, in distinctly separate lay- 
ers. Here the fonnation is such as to leave little 
doubt that the rock is phosphatixed marl (according 
to Holmes's theory), and not true coprolites. It is 
found in large indented slabs, six to eighteen inches 
thick, and weighing sometimes several tons, or in 



32 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. ni., No. 4 



8mall«T pk-ces. evidt^nily broken fn>in This, and *"uu*- 
wliai worn. Tlii* rock*pro*eiil5 all of ilie charaoi er- 
istics ami all of the grades i»f the mviulos f<>und in 
the marl conglomerate, — the same shell*, same largo 
amoimt of sand, and the same ajiiiearance. The 
character of the rook changes gradually here. Be- 
tween Warsaw and Kenausville it is richest, yielilini; 
forty to fifty per cent phosphate, whili' both east and 
west it grows more sandy. Between Sampson on the 
west and Jones on the east we find all the grades of 
rock which were found in a single place in the con- 
glomerate beds of the lower country. We conclude, 
therefore, that this conglomerate was form* d from 
extensive breaking up and mingling of beds similar !•> 
those seen at the present time in Sampson, Duplin, 
and Jones counties, and not from stray coprolites, as 
has been supposed. 

Whether this field will yield any phosphate of more 
than local value depends* upon conditions yet to Ik* 
detennined. Chas. W. Dabxcy. Jun. 

X. C. ezperiment-Mation, Jan. 2. 

Radiant heat 

Wliili* it appears that Mr. Fitzgerald's criticism 
upon Dr. Eddy's liypothesis is conclusive, yet the 
laiter makes a' statement in your ia*ue of Dec. 21 
which is misleading, since it imiflies that the device 
will produce the desired result. Dr. Eddy says, — 

"Thus the fact remains, that, although a definite 
amount of lieat from B remains entangled in the 
region m n, which is not increase«l with the lapse of 
time, there is a continued passa;;e of heat thr«)uuh 
this roi;i«jn intn /^ that U^ing the very ubje.'l souglit 
to hit accomplished by my process." 



Now. the fact is. th»*re cannnt be *a crmtlnued pa<*- 
sa^t' of heat throui:li this re:;ioii into /;/ without 
pcrmiiting the passage of heat frr>m 11 to .1, by any 
of the ])rocesses described. Granting that hr'at is 
entrapped in the space m n. it will i.-«iMp«- into the 
spaci; / m wlien«:ver the door y is ii|>eni'd for the pas- 
sage of Ix^at from A inti» the space m n: and the 
ht>:it so entrapi^ed in tlie spacf* I m will pass on to ^1 
whenever z is opened to ailmit h«-at from .1. This 
is so plain, that it is only necessary to call attention 
to the fact, to have it admitted. If the only ttbject 
sought, as stated in the above extract, was to permit 
the passage of heat from A to B, it could U; .M'oured 
at once without any device l>«Hwe«'n -1 and B. As 
originally stated, the objtfct was to tran-ifer more 
heat from A, the colder bo«Iy, to /<, thi; hotter nut-, 
than was passed in the opjiosite direction. The 
writer has shown in anotlier plaee > that Dr. Eddy's 
system of moving scrfens fails to accomplish this 
result. De Voi.-on Wood. 

IdmitB of tertiary in Alabama. 

The announcement in Science (ii. TTT) of Profes- 
sor Johnson*s extension of the bonier-line of the 
tertiar}' in Alabama to a position ten miles north of 

* American engineer, dblcago, 1SS3, Jan. 12. Feb. U, 2;i, am) 
April 8; alao Jonm. FraM. fn«^. May, 1893. 347. 



A I lent till, and six north (tf Camden, recalls slmil 
observations made by Alexander Winchell in 18B 
and publishetl in Pmc, Amer, atutoe. adv. se. for 18! 
pp. s^ S'l. Tlit*sesub-riaiborne beils he deslgnat 
'buff sanil;' anil the ovfHying ledge of calcareo 
grit was traci-il !)y him •* eight and a half miles nor 
of AlliMit'in, whirh ** was ** twenty-five miles fartfa 
north than th<* t(>rtiary lM>ds had been hitherto reeo 
nizetl in this part of the state." The undeeerih 
fos'tils collecttvl were left with Professor Tuome 
who pronounced them eocene, and held them ford 
scription till his dt>ath in IS.*)". A few years lat 
the vicissitudes of war involved the destruction of tl 
Tuscaloosa cabin.-! by fire. Mr. Winchell' s obterr 
tions were communicated orally in December, 18S 
to Professor Tuoni(*y. who noted them down on 
manuscript map. from which was compiled the mi 
published in ISTiS in Tuomey's (posthumous) secoi 
re}Mirt, edited by Mallet.. This places Uie bounda 
of the erK'ene a' mile north of Allenton, wblch, 
shown above, is not Sf> far north as Winchell trad 
the formation. There is, however, nothins in tl 
t4'xt of the n>|>ort on which any change In the old 
map of this region could l)e ba.sed. Professor To 
niey*s obser\-ations had bet^n directed to other pai 
of the state; and .Mr. Thornton, his assistant, repoi 
tracing this line through Monroe county , while tl 
map sliows it I f Heated nine or ten miles north of th 
county, and, if fully conformed to Information 
Professor Tuomey's |H)ss4>ssion, would have shown 
seventeen and a half miles north. These statema 
arc only important on the principle of sinun ei^ 



Italics for scientific i 

The scientific name of evcr>' described plant a 
animal consists of two or more words: namely, tl 
of the genus, u8<n1 as a substantive; and the mcl 
namt>, which follows, and is an adjective adjnn 
A s{>ecies may have a dozen or a hundred common 
vulgar namt>s', in lialf as many languages; but th« 
is only one name in the deail, unchanglnSy eelentl 
nonifiiclalure. It s«*ems to me that the Tmnortai 
of sclent ifie names, over all others, makea tnem < 
servini; of a more emphatic ty|)e than that of thegi 
eral t<>xi. In the ordinary print — as that of t 
page of Sritnrp — any scientific name should begli 
in italics. Takr. for examfde, the American lar 
tamarack, •>r hackmatack. This tree of our swao 
may have many local names, but it has only one 
srii'nce the whob* world over. The emphasis of t 
fai't is larg<'ly lost i( it is written without an und 
scon*, or printed thus, Larix Americana. It 
ho only a slmrt step farther to have it larix 
cana. 

It does not follow that names of group* d« 
italici/eii. Thus we can have itie cvmar 
which contains the genus Litium ««Uh It* < 
{Lilium f\inii'linHr)^ tile goldeti banded Illy i 
(L. auratum)^ and L. candidum, or the etiiut 
lily. Vrcrcux. Pinuj*, Pruiiti/>, liftnuneutUAt and 
tli<»usanils of other genera of nl •ii- ml anlcaala, wl 

used aloni'. may bi* set in tin rvjit tjpm tat 

page, ami stanil thus, — i(uerc ; mmi. prtt1lili»t 
ranunculus: but I do not lik ^latif of the 

ncric nanit>s are diTived from : ■ ^ ii.\Titca^ a^i 
nat'a, Magnolia, Touritefortli* \. sifli 

these certainly should bt'gin dm, " 

liowever, the name of any genu*- i> lUri cumr* 
of all the plants in that genus, it U r^mMmr^^ 
it without a capital, when emi 1 ' y^ Li^i^r 
We may say of a plant, it is a flue'befOlll 
magnofia, or a delicate llnnaea, and tl 




JASVABY II, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



33 



capital lettera fi well enough, even ttiough the names 
have been derived from proper names; but, if we say 
it is a choice specimen of Begonia HcXj the ca«e is 
different. The wonl * begonia* now becomes a part 
of the scientific name of a specfes of plant. In the 
same manner tho stately magnolia may be Magnolia 
fflauca or M, grandijlora. 

Science does not uro emphatic type for the scien- 
tific names of genera or a|>ecie8, and doubtless for 
good reason!>. I should like to Icam what views tho 
editor and other authorities in scientific nomenclature 
hold on the above subject. Byboh D. UALBT£t>. 

New Tork, Dec. «!, ISftS. 

[We do not agrt^e with our correspondent in hjs 
eslimatc of the value of the scientific names of plants 
ajid animals. Tliey are a simple con%*enience, and 
have no higher value; and the use of Italics for their 
proper mission — tliat of emphasis, or as catch-words 
— is lost if the page bristles with italics having other 
meaning.] 

The akidor in the XTnited States. 

In S> fence. No. 44, mention is made, in Norden- 
Kkinld's account of the Greeidand inland ice, of tlie 
•skidor, * or Norwe4»ian snow-ahi^e. It may be in- 
tercrfting to your readers to Imow that it is the snow- 
shoe most commonly used in Colorado. It is much 
preferred to the Canadian or web stiow-ahoe^ and in 
the mountains in winter is often the only means of 
getting about from place to place -^ as from the mines 
on the mountains to the town?, and fronv one small 
mining town to another — wht^u there is not i^nough 
travel to keep a road open through the doep snow. 
I know of one case In which a daily mail is carried 
twcnty*fJvc miles on snow-shoes; two men having the 
route, each making a single trip in a day, but going 
in opposite direcUons. The motion can hanlTy be 
called * running, * as it is in the footnote on p. 737, 
as the shoes are not lifted from Uie surface of 
the snow at all, but slid forward at each step, tlie 
foot lieing raised slightly at the heel as in commen- 
cing a step in ordinary' walking. The shoes that I 
have seen are from six to eight feet long, and abtnit 
four Inches wide. A pole about seven fc^et long is 
used as n guid<; and support, especially in sliding 
down hill, when a tremendous pace is often attained 
on a long slope. E, K Warrejc. 

C-olorBdo t^priiigi, Jan, 1. 

Standard therm otnetera. 

In your editorial in this week's Science you quote 
the report of the chief signal-officer of the army, im- 
plying that a sensible difference exists between the 
theoretical standard thermometer adopted by this 
observatory and that of the Inteniational committee 
of weights and measures, and that the signal^ervice 
of the army has adopted a new standard therroome- 
ter more nearly agreeing with the latter* 

I should be very greaUy obliged to the chief signal- 
oflScer If he will anticipate the regular course of pub- 
lication of the scientific work of his office, and give 
to the scientific public the results, at least, of the work 
from which it is concluded that the signal-service of 
,tbe army has reached a nearer approximation to the 
^' iindard thennometer of the International commit- 

I have no doubt that there is a small difference be- 
tween the standard air tbemiometer and the particu- 
lar raercurin) standard adopted by this observatory 
as its pniciical representative, at points di^itant froni 
Uie freezing and boiling points; but, as our own stand- 



ard li.is never been compared with any air standard 
in the possession of the signal-service of the army, I 
shall be quite interested to see the work by which it 
Is concluded tliat there exiists a sensible difference 
between the two, Lkonard Waldo. 

Deo. th 1888. 

Homalea microptera. 

In 1S79, in Alabama, I had many opportunities for 
observing Uie habits t»f the * lubber griisshopper; * and, 
if my memory serves me, my observation ahowed that 
the hissing referred to by'Capt. Sbufeldt (Science, 
ii , 81:]) is due in larL'c part to the forcible expulsion 
of air from the thoracic spiracles. It was always no- 
ticed on the oecasions referred to by him, but at no 
other time. W. T. 

Synchrouiam of geological formations. 

I cannot agree with Professor Ileilprin in the line 
of argument adopted in his letter to Science of Dec. 
21, based, as it mainly is, on tbe assumed non- 
occurrence of 'evidence of inversion.' Professor 
HeiJprin asks, ** Wliy has it just so happened that a 
fauna characteristic of a given period has mcaHoftZy 
succeeded one which, when the two are in Buperpoei- 
llon all over the world (so far as we are aware), in- 
dlL-ales ppecedence In creation or origination, and 
never one that can be shown to he of a later birth ? " 

In reply I would say, that some years previous 
to Professor Huxley's address on this subject-, Bar- 
rande, in his \Systfeme Silurien de la Bohdrac,' had 
shown such evidences of inversion to exist in the 
Silurian formation of Bohemia; and though many 
geologists and paleontologists disagreed with Bai*- 
rande ;U that time, as to his theory of ' colonies* by 
which to account for the facts, yet none could dis- 
pute the facts cited by him. If we now tura to tbe 
old red sandstone of Scotland, wc find siill further 
evidences of inversion of like kind; for, while the 
crustacean genus Pterygotiis, common to both the 
upper Silurian and lower old red sandstone, has been 
recently found also high up in the middle series of 
Ibi* fornirition, the carboniferous limestone shells^ 
Productus giganteus» P. punctatus, Spirifer lineatus, 
and others, have been found In the old red sandstone 
far below the fish genera Plerichthys and Holopty- 
chius, so charactc»ristic of the tipper old red division. 
Though tliere appears to he no reason why such in- 
stances of inversion should not have occurred over 
and over ngnin, one can readily understand why, 
through the Imperfection of the geological recora, 
and the comparatively small fraction of the earth's 
surface which has been systematically examined, their 
occurrence is almost unknown. 

With reference to the doctrine of migration, I judge, 
that, from Professor Hell print's argimiont, we look at 
the matter from two difTerent Btand-pointis. He apn 
purently takes no account of the generally accepted 
view of biologists, that, while organic develoT)ment 
has been closely similar in all parts of the world* the 
rate at which it proceeded has varied within the 
widest limits, even in adjacent re^ons. I cannot 
help looking on the various formations as the records 
of that development; and, judging of the past distri- 
bution of life on the earth from what we at present 
see before us, I am forced to believe that identity of 
organic contents in widely separated strata, instead 
of being evidence of chronological contemporaneity, 
is exactly the reverse. 

Instead of encroaching further on your valuable 
space, 1 would refer to Prof. A, Geikic, who, in the 
current Issue of the Encyclopaedia Britannlca (V>th 



SCIENCE. 



[Tox^ nLv Ka 



K. Nl'OIE-vt. 



V > ':fA;:Lh WILLIAM SIEMENS. 

' m t " :'.>.:. i€ '■•JKMfcs- «lie*i in Lori'lou on 
; p: . * ', • ;''/.«-w*r^r lant. al tho ag«.* of sixty. 
; * . i" •,;^ ..*.;,«•'] fuari, U;lt<T known to the 
yr.'-. .' ',' ^/f'-rit hrit:iin and tin* I'nitwl States 
*- '' .;i.' -as William Sii'mons, one of fight sons 
-,' r ■',. r.;i fj'J Si«rnif?n8, was liorn at Lenthe, 
v :%• Hnrifiovun April 4. 1«2;J. He was one of 
Ji firrj.ly of nHrn of science s<*veral of whom 
r.;iv*T hwrom« well known })y their success in 
yuf. ifi\#-fitir;n and intnxluotion of iniproveinents 
anr] in'ifiification of standard methods of engi- 
n'-#rin;j and niciUHnrgical work. Among these, 
hiH hrothcr, Krnst Werner Siemens, is the 
most fnnioiiM. The two brothers have worked 
together, with frequent assistance from a 
yoiingiM* brother, Friedrich, in nearly every 
field of npplicjl science. They have been most 
successful in the departments of mctalhirg}' 
and electricity. 

The eMer brother, Ernst, entered the army 
of I*nissi:i, joining the artillery ; and Carl was 
soni to the iniversity of Outtingen. Carl re- 
ceiverl hi> piepriratory education at the Ciyra- 
na-::i!h .,:■ LiitMck and in the Art sdiool of 
M:»j ■• • .;-. ii'JT what was fonnerly the home 
f'!' "fo -.'.;. <,'!ir>ke. After graduation from 
t:.-: i.v ■.. •- 1- . ].i- I iit/.j*.r| the Stolbcrg engi- 
I.' • : ;::-•.■. ..-. .., I'-Il*. ;i^ ;i|, ;ij,pM-iitiee, l)Ut 
''''•''' ' '■ ;. ■ « r.! . "• riviji:.' To/the purpose 
'-' ;." :^ *'/ ].'»:. I'.fj *o j^.'itifit .'iiirl iijtr<«iuee 
" " * '■' ■ ■••'' '/'.. K'.« ■ 'i fJ' r« iitiiti ;jfovernor' 

-' ' •-•'■" f • ;• M :.;./] ;» :i,(tho'l olHilverillg 

'■•■'•' • ■ ■ "y" f r l.j;j^1. JI'i. m-lllerj in 
^^' '■ '■ '.;'•.■;'.••. '.jy.'< :.■■. ' i'. ■] i/j^fineer. an<l 
'■ ' ' ' ■-■ '- ■ ' ' ' ■ • ■ .'.'/./.« . \>* * *,\h,\t\i ' ijjitural- 
^^-' •'• ■ \ *•* '-^i :.'\ .:.■:*• :n'^' (>tnn:iliy 

''-• ■■ ■ ■ ' ' • '•'/•«'•. V, ;.o ' !,:...: ;'/.iji d ill in In 

!•' "i" ■•! ••'/M.'. •jt^r.jt tlji- i.1i|/ly of 

1111-:: ■• - •.^ t "y'.'. •!:.// !.'^ '». V',1: ij.i; t,i' Tij*:! jn 

Iin ::i...;: Jf.-:.; o;.. ■-'. or.:- - . •;,; f/;;jj;.j ;ii;/ji li-in- 
pi !:•::;!«- : :.r,'i v.i ;*>.* '><" tn* ./ i:»boj«, in 
ei»ii:M- 1'!' ;'.:ij.-. wa- ^«'.rj .rj V.'; iijv* jjlion of the 
S:e:;n :is :- jjvii*. I :*;!-. i.- r.r;.a';»:. ■ uji iiiveniion 

\xl:;rl: li:i«» >:i...e ievo!-jV'.J*iZ"i t','; J/jMhO'l^ of 

pushiviU»u »..f «:. ,,i arjr] of h«rJA'::.;/ irori. nnrl 
wh.rli •> >;■■'.'. !ii^.niifviri^:i!: t:.'.- iii'ii-riiril opera- 
!iou> vlepiUvunt upoii the i»;taiijijj«:rjl of ruaxi- 
nui'.M !ie:i; in furnace* : su'.h a^; th«r uiarjufacture 
ot" j:1:4». :»nd the reiiuction of ore*? of zinc and 



other* useful* metals. Ib 1849 the hrotfaen 
William and Werner, aa they came to be called, 
attracted the attention of ail who were inter- 
ested in the applications of science by tbe an- 
nouncement of their invention of a method of 
*ana(itatic printing.' modifieations of whidb 
have now Wcome generally introduced for the 
production of the simpler kinds of line-engrav- 
ings. This invention greatly interested Pro- 
fessor Faraday, and he was verj" soon sufficient- 
ly well convince«l of its value' to volunteer to 
describe it in a lectun» before the Ko^'al insti- 
tution. His helpful aid was one of the moat 
effective means of making the talented young 
inventors known and of giving them a start in 
a career bringing them i.*ontinually increasing 
fame. 

Siemens next turned liis attention to the new- 
ly announci'd dynamical tlu^ory of heat, and in 
1847 adapted a ' regenerator* to a superheated 
steam-engine. Modifieations of the governor for 
controlling the motion of clock-work were pro- 
posed by him at nearly the same time, and his 
' chronomelric governor ' has bet*n long in use 
on the instruments of the (Ireenwich observa- 
tory. In l^i^>l lie l»rouglit i>ul his water-meter, 
— an instruiiieut in which was a screw with its 
recording or iudiealiiig mechanism >oaled in a 
chamber having a glass window, thnnigh which 
the readings could be nia«le. and so free from 
friction that it gavt; iiior^t aeeuiate measures of 
the flow. 1'lie regenerntive furn:uv now began 
to take such shape that the brol he rs found it 
to their interest to devote their aitenlion to 
that; and in I'^/iOthey worked the invnitioninto 
such form that they eouM see in it the promise 
of complete suecess. I5y the \e:ir l^'-l they 
had patented sriuieofits'niost es^entinl feaTun*s. 
The inventors hiieeeeih-d in r.-ti-^iiig the neces- 
sary capital, aii'i ereeted th«ir furn:uv in works 
at Hiniiin;^haiii in I8i;«;, and inaiie steel by iheir 
process, whieh was exhil)iied at Talis :il the in- 
ternational exhil;itioii of the foll.»\viiig year. 
The priwiaiy o»J«"t ImM in view by the invent- 
ors wa> Ihe^nriiiulactiin: of sleel directly fi\>ni 
the ore. in tiiis they were less Mu\*essful 
than in the making of tlie steel by niixmre of 
wrouglit-iron scrap witii c-;ist iron on the 
hearth of their reverbcratory furnaee. This 
la^it-na filed j>rocess has bcr-oinc a well-known 
metlKxl of pn^iucing the soft iiig»)t-irons mis- 
named steels, ' mild 'or * low * steels, whieh ma- 
teri als are now ho e x ch i s i ve ly su lopt e< 1 by man}' 
makers of Bteam-boiicrs and of rails. Such 
sUiel is steadily driving puddled iron from the 
market : it is called, sometimes ' Siemens,' and 
often * Siemens-Martin ' steel ; the first attempte 
to manufacture steel bv this method having been 



11, 1S84.I 



SCIENCE. 



35 



Buccessfal in Great Britiiin through the eflbrts 
of Siemens, and in France by application of 
the Siemens furnace to this use by Martin. 
The Landore steel-works, started at Lnndore, 
Wales, in 18G8, were the first to make steel 
by the Siemens methods on a considerable 
scale ; and it was there that the great engi- 
neer conducted the more successful experi- 

I xnenta of later 
years. 

The tastes 
and the studies 

' of the brothers 
led them, at 
an early date, 
U? the exami- 
nation of the 
lines of devel- 
opment <Jf ap- 
plied electrici- 
ty. In 1818, 
or earlier, they 
became inter- 
3 ted in tele- 

t graph - work, 

•and both 
Charles and 
Werner began 
to appl}* their 
inventive tal- 
ents to the 
production of 
telegraph in- 
struments and 
apparatus of 
various kinds 

i use<l in elec- 
trical measure- 
ments. Ten 
years later 
the firm of 
Siemens & 
Halske, of 
Berlin and of 
London, was 
formed ; and 
tUey soon be- 

l came the most 
extensive man- 
ufacturers of electrical apparatus in Europe. 
They began the construction of submarine tele- 
graph-cables at an early date, and established, 

r later, factories at Woolwich, England, and in 

' Berlin and St. Petersburg. They finally built 
up tlieir business to such an extent that it be- 



\ 



friend, was constructed under the direction of 
Dr. Siemens, and bus been since employed in^ 
the laying of the principal long cables unde 
the Atlantic, in the Pacific, and under par 
of the Indian Ocean. From this branch of 
electrical work to that of electric lighting was 
but a short step for these great men ; and they 
have, during tlie past half-dozen years, been as 

well known for 
their success in 
the introduc- 
tion of the Sie- 
mens system of 
lighting, and 
for inventions 
of apparatus 
and machinery 
in connection 
with it, as for 
their earlier in- 
ventions in 
other fields. 
All successful 
dynamo - elec- 
U'ic machines 
have the Sie- 
mens aiTna- 
lure ; that 
method oT 
winding, an^ 
its peculiar 
fonn, being es» 
pecially fitte 
for introduc-' 
tion into the 
modern forma 
of dynamo. 
Their lamp 
has proved to 
be one of the 
best in use ; 
and a multi- 
tude of details, 
worked out 
with character- 
istic ingenuity 
and care, has 
given their 
system, as 

whole, a completeness, and a degree of pev^ 
fection in operation, which have contributed 
in no small degree to the fame of Dr. Siemens. 
The wonderful combination of 8ci«>cl;fic knowl* 
edge with practic.il experi-;.ce and information 
possessed by Siemens ^made him eminent in 



trr 



came necessaryto have a large Steamer constant- every department of aj^plication to which he 

ly and exclusively employed in laying down their chose to turn his attention. His success lui 

cables. The Faraday, named for their early raiaing eapitid for large operations was due to" 






SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 49. 



:. '. ;-^:v,r.'il ^'^ara/.^r. however, quite as much 
%.- 'y :."- r^rpita-.ion as a scientific man an<l 
i \i.-:r.'-'. h:/rn':*-T. The firm of Siemens A: 
111 ':■ -*ri- '.ri :- rtblo to secure concessions 
f;,::. '.. \\\\r'.'AXi :fov»?riiment for probalily 
'. . : r.-.-r -\"-r.-:v': -y-iiem of eltrv:itf?<l electri<? 
;:. - . T ;..:". ;r'/.:^-t-'l. i\uf\ has hej^un its con- 
'.\- . . .'. !:. '.-•: '•:■•. ari'l ->iiliurt»s of Vienna. 
'I ■-•: r . ••:-?': ^f .-'j'.h fail'vays Jit the electrical 
•:^ :. » J-. i .cjj aa 1*1 '/iv*; jrreai c«infi'U*nce 

'. . . ' r . . : A ! -A Ji y iy .,t e m -» will ^ 1 1 1 j^? ri»e' le those 

.*'.. r ..-:-, ■*;.. honor sjr William **iemens 
:-- *. .-: .-..*:r.Vyr of the • ♦ilectric resistance 
;. :,..-'-'::.' to which is so CiOs*-:y relat#-<I 
]':'.: ''.'•■ J. Lii r* :; I *: y ' s • "rx;! oiu e t* r r . ' Th ey w ; ; 1 
.' V •;. ;;.'>: :.'. :;. a - the d i «s f:fj \t- re r hT W*-. .\f. :- 
'::. • ^f '■.*: el'r'*.r!c liirht on \'t:'^*:l:i\y^r. . ivi ^f 
•, . . ■ : . : . - ': : . V/ : . ;& I -^>» . o f t :j «• ■ fiat ho :rj:**: : ' i. :. : '..■.- 

U.', ;.':;/*:.'? ?ire nurnerous. ar/i ;;_i-. ■ . ' 
• ;. - :;. . :;. Xj r*^'i : . *. : I h *• ;.' r i - : j a 1 ! y : «: . .■; V: 'i'. < . 
J':'*.-. ',.'/--':. y co.'.nect':*] witr; :,:- w^'ir i -j-. 
i:. .''r.*>y.'.T afi'i 'K-coveries. 

'I : . • r ;r ; ' : ?i V- s*. co:/j rx; «.- rci a 1 a r i ' i f . ;..i •. •; . i fr . . ■ 
^e-. -•':-; sT '*i':rr* ':;.-? .'ifri ii!-? |>a:*.;i<:.v -in ■.«•■> ■ 
i:. *...^:.. T.*:.*-^:aiy:j-ca"r/<- work, a:..- i.'.O'i: ; 
i;. *:.'■ ir/.r^-^i'^'-'iori of t:.«- **ie:j.*::.»: j-'t-iv. -. * 
;/'•;:•': r/lfiV jjf^fAt for njeta:Jir:(!'a. v;a'i.'. .-.■■ • 
'1':. n ry-Vrrn is e-;*:in:4*.efl to -a*.':. '.: \*» f.-» 
•Aor^i of t.iiir '-oti^try. thirty to f.V.;. o»^' •> 
of t:.': f'le! ii-«-'l v.' earlier met^o >. v. >•■• ■ 
an iricrrJiTC of work done i><rr f'-;r;,:./A ■.**.. 
n'-ar!y equa! liroj/^^rtioD. to ^iv: :i f.^e* ;.•••>.. ■ 
in con-.equen'^:': of the purity of *.'.«: t.i "jt t.-.. 
many iiicidenral advanta;:e-!. 1* ;..v> ^iw:-. v. 
the |>*-ople of the [."iiited Strites ;.-. o;.' ■-»•• »»»; ■ 
twenty- five and thirty miilions of 'io ••.'.-. . . ■ 
ing the comparatively few year- ^^^\ v.' .-,1 * • 
na'^'cs have been in general use. 

The name of Charhrs William ^ • ':.-"..' .-. 
horiorc'l in every civilized country : t.*.': ^ \- ' . 
nation capahh' of appreciatint: tr;*- ;;oo. ^^r. 
done by him has jriven expre->!or. \v ■ • 
apprer-iation. The British institii-ioij o* ■ • 
gini;ers admitted liim to \ni:uih*:t -.':.'.,• 
years ngo. and made him a niMur^e; o* .': 
council. lie was awarded the Trlford Ji.« ^.v. 
for iji-» inventions, a distinction only u^'o; j« j 
to th<' greatest of engineers for the gre;il«:-;t 
of inventions or constructions, and was ;^iv<-n 
th«' Royal Albert and the Bessemer medals 
later, lie "^'H'? made a fellow of the Koyal 
society of Great fe'**il"» '^ member and a pres- 
ident of the British Association for the ad- 
vancement of sciences *"^^ ^ member of the 
councils of botli tho«® societies. He was 
elected president of i^® British institution of 



mechanical engineers and of the Society of 
telegraph engineers, and was made a member 
of many foreign societies. l>oth scientific and 
engineering. He was an honorary member of 
the American philosophical society and of the 
American society of mechanical engineers. 
He was given the degree of D.C.L. b}- Oxford, 
and of LL.D. by the universities of Dublin 
ami Gla.^go w . He recfi ved m au}' decorations, 
one of the latifst of which was that just offered 
him by Austria at the Vienna electrical exhi- 
bition. He was knighte<l, a few months before 
liis death, by (jueen Victoria ; and liis sudden 
and prematui-e death — for he was a man physi- 
cally strong and sturdy, and evidentl}' con- 
structed for an octogenarian — did not occur so 
t:arly as to dci)rive him of more numerous and 
J^^•;lt♦:r honors of this formal sort than usually 
f.ii: to tho lot of even the greatest of men. 

^'.r William Siemens was a man of large, well- 
• .*;>•] frame, nniscular rather than fat in his 
«'i.' ;. -:&r-). Iiut inclining to stoutness as he 
.;' * o. ;. He had a noble, well-shaped head ; 
.^'^''.. -Toiig. and characteristic features, which 
' ' ::.'/'/..<:, kindly, and unusually expressive. 
/ : - :r... r,ri'rrs were tiiose of a man who had grown 
V. r::.ow his place in the world and to feel sure 
•/ i :./j:\i place .imong men. quiet, composed, 
' -yr.rM'rfjt. without being in the slightest degree 
— .f-a-s-scrting, or at any time disagreeable to 
:. ■: associates, to friends, or to competitors in 
. ,-:n*'Ss. Equally at home in the courts of 
••/j.aity, in the halls of science, and in the offices 
o* o»isiness-men, he impressed every one whom 
■-«: met with his strength, talents, knowledge, 
i.r. i savoir faire. He numbered among his 
f : :«:nds the great in every department, — states- 
.';i':ri. men of science, engineers, inventors, and 
' apItaUsts. He was e(iually honored and be- 
,oved by all, and loved equally well to entertain 
\:i*-Mi all in his fine London mansion and in 
::;s l>eautiful country place, in both of which 
.^o-^J>i table homes he met his guests witli a plain, 
Tlr/jjjU;, and kindly greeting and conversation, 
wliieh made them at once at home, and at ease 
witli their entertainer. One of his most pleas- 
ifi;: powers was that of adapting himself to the 
t'rni|>«'rament and the methods of conversation 
of tiiose whom he met, whatever their rank in 
!ifc or their personal interests and lines of 
thouglit. 

In his death is lost, to his intimates, one of 
the truest and best of friends ; to his emi)lo3'ee8, 
a kind benefactor ; to science, one of her most 
splendid workers ; to the arts, one of the great- 
est among their promoters ; to the world, one of 
the noblest among its few great benefactors. 

Robert H. Thurston. 



jAJOTARr n, 1S84.] 



SCIENCE 



37 



THE RED SKIES. 

Thk remarkable atmosi)herIc phenomenon 
which has recently atterKlecl sunrise aud sun- 
get, liaa attracted great attention not only 
ttom the general puhlic. but from scientific 
men, who Ijuvl* endeavore<l to give a satisfac- 
tory explanation of it. Similar appearances 
have been noted in former years ; but they have 
been of limited extent, and attributable t^^ local 
causes- The distinguishing cbaracteristios of 
the present manifesUtion are its enormous ex- 
ten t» since it has been observed over nearly the 
whole earth, its persistence, and the fact that 
the times of its fimt appearance have varied in 
different countries, thus suggesting a progres- 
^ve motion. 

In the United States the reports of observ- 
of the signabservice show that its earliest 
appearance was in October. At Pensacola, 
Fla., on the 8th, the phenomenon was observed 
at both sunrise and sunset. Near the middle 
of the month it was noted along the southern 
border from southern California to the Tiulf of 
Mexico. At the close of the month it was ob- 
served in great brilliancy in the southern and 
south-western states. In the more northern 
portions of the country* during October, the 
sunsets were characterized by unusual bril- 
liancy ; but the peculiar * afterglow ' which 
marked the later appearances was not noted, 
la the early part of November the phenome- 
non was still observed on a few da^'s in the 
sonth and west ; but after the 20tb it appeared 
in its full beauty over nearlv the whole country. 
In New England, the Atlantic, Gulf, and cen- 
tral states, the lake region, the north-west, 
and along the Pacific coast, the phenomenon 
was observed, beginning at various dates after 
the 21st, according to the weather conditions 
of the different localities. The 27th was the 
date in which the appearance was first es- 
pecially marked m the eastern states, SiBce 
that date, to the end of the year 1883, the 
skies have been characterizenl by the same 
brilliancy, whenever tbo weather conditions 
have been favorable to its observation ; the 
^7th and 28th of December revealing the ap- 
pearance in the eastern section of the country 
to a marked degree. 

The sky seems Uj have had essentially the 
flame characteristics wherever the phenomenon 
has been observed. In Europe and America, 
however, if we may judge from the published 
descriptions, the green or blue appearance of 
the sky has been less noticeable than in India, 
where the earliest observations were made. 
In this country the * afterglow' has l)ecn 



ruddy, with at times an orange or greenish 
tint. The observer at Memphis, Tenn., under 
date of Oct. 30, writes, '* For more than one 
hour after sunset there was in the west a 
<^egment of red light, whose intensity and 
brilliancy appeared equal at all i)oints in the 
segment. The position {altitude?) of the seg- 
ment was about 30*=, azimuth 45^^ to 120**." 
On Oct. 31 the appearance was similar, *-*' ex- 
cept that in the north-east quarter of the seg- 
ment a few converging bands, apparently dark, 
entered the segment from a clear sky. While 
no stars were visible in the illumined part of 
the segment, they were visible in all other 
parts of the sky* and also in the bands, which* 
it appears, were dark in contrast.*' At Wash- 
ington, on Dec* 211, a ruddy arch arose in the 
early morning, and was about 25* high an 
hour and ten minutes before sunrise. Soon 
after, the usual twilight arch appeared, also of 
a ruddy tint ; and the two were seen simul- 
taneously, the former losing its outline, and 
gi'owing paler as it became tranfused over the 
sky. During the day, the material causing 
the api^earance was plainly visible as a white 
haze surrounding the sun to a distunce of 
about 30°. At sunset on the 27th and 28th 
the phenomena were as at sunrise, but in re- 
verse order, tlie secondary glow lasting an 
hour and three-quarters after sunset. Uliile 
the glow at the end of December is perhaps 
not as intense in color as when first seen a 
month earlier, it is the same in other respects. 
It has been described in proftise detail in the 
daily press ; and several English magazines, 
notably Nature^ have devoted much space to 
it. 

Three different hypotheses have been advo- 
cated to explain the phenomenon, assigning 
its cause to aqueous vapor, meteoric and vol- 
canic matter res [actively. It is undoubtedly 
atmospheric, and due to the presence of some 
matter in unusual quantities » The persistence 
of the phenomenon, and its great extent, are 
objections to the view that it is due to aqaeoos 
va|>or. There would certainly have been, ere 
this, extensive precipitation, wore aqueous va- 
por the cause ; but reports indicate nothing 
abnormal in the rainfall. Moreover, the glow 
has been most noticeable when the air has been 
driest : it has been a characteristic of the cold, 
dry weather, which attends areas of high baro- 
metric pressure. In addition, the spectroscope 
has confirmed the indications of the psychrom- 
eter. The pocket-spectroscope shows a very 
weak rain-band, and a strong development of 
the bands designated by Razzi Smyth as a 
and 3, and ascribed by him to ' dry air,* the 



38 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IIL, No. 4ft 



latter known especially as the ^ low sun-band.' 
The same result has been obtained in England 
and in America. A careful examination of the 
spectrum with a powerful grating spectroscope, 
made at sunset on Dec. 28, showed that the 
aqueous lines were feeble ; and the spectrum, 
at its disappearance, was much farther extended 
towards the green than is usual in a clear sky. 
From all these considerations, it seems that 
the hypothesis of an excess of aqueous vapor 
in the atmosphere is not tenable. 

It seems not unreasonable to suppose that 
the upi>er regions of the atmosphere have re- 
ceivecl from some source an accession of light 
matter which reflects the sunlight. Of the two 
suggested sources, — meteoric dust encountered 
by the earth in its progress, and volcanic mat- 
ter projected to an enormous height, — either 
would be a satisfactory explanation. The for- 
mer would seem in itself the more reasonable, 
were there not in this instance special consid- 
erations which give additional weight to the 
latter. Both of these hypotheses have been 
independently suggested by various writers. 
Mr. lianyard advocates the meteoric view in 
Knotvledge for Dec. 7, and Mr. Lockyer the 
volcanic theory in the London Mail of Dec. 
10, and current numbers of Nature. English 
scientific men have shown great interest in this 
investigation ; but few references to it have 
been made, as yet, in the publications of other 
countries. 

It will be of interest to classif}' the dates at 
which the atmospheric phenomenon has been 
earliest observed in diflerent countries. The 
following table contains a list of the dates and 
countries, with the approximate distance and 
direction of each country from the Straits of 
Sunda, in which occurred the tremendous vol- 
canic outburst of Aug. 26. It should be 
noted, that, while the dates given have been 
collated from the best evidence at hand, there 
is a possibility that the}' ma}- be too late in 
some cases, either from the fact that earlier 
observations have not been reported, or were 
not made owing to unfavorable weather : the}' 
must therefore be taken as only approximately 
accurate. A few have been derived from gen- 
eral statements in which the exact dates were 
not mentioned. 

This table has been derived mainly from 
English periodicals and from the records 
of the U.S. signal-service. The important 
references to New Ireland and the Hawaiian 
Islands were received b}' letter from Mr. S. E. 
Bishop of Honolulu, who has also obtained from 
shipmasters the information that the phenom- 
enon has been extensively seen on the Pacific 



Ocean since Sept. 1 . It is also reported fh>m 
China, but no date is assigned. 



Date. 



C-ountry. 



DltUfice and dlreo- 
Uon fhMn StimiU 
of SuDda. 



Aug. 28 

28 

30 

Sept. 1 

2 



15 
1.') 
2i> 
Oct. 8 
19 

N'ov. « 
20 



20 

2K 

30 



IlodrtKuep 3,001) 8.W. 

Mauritius 3,500 8.W. 

SfychcllcH 3..VI0 VV. 

IJrazll ' 10,600 W. 

GoidCooMt T,a00 W. 

New Ireland I 3,000 R. 

Venezuela 12.000 W. 

Wt'dtlndlM ' 12,000 W. 

I'eru : 13,000 W. 

Hawaiian Iiflaudf ! 7,000 X.R. 

Souiiiom India ..... 2,000 N.W. 

Oylon 2.000 K.W. 

-.Soutiiern Au»tralia .... 3.000 B.K. 

Tnitmanin 4.000 S.K. 

rai>o of Good Hope .... 6,000 8.W. 

Florida 13,000 N.W. 

California 9.500 N.B. 

Houthi-m United Siatei* . . 11.000 N.B. 

Knjfland T.ftvW N.W. 

Turicev IMOO N.W. 

Tnlti-d Stattn 11,000 N.K. 

Italy 7,000 N.W. 

Krance i 1,M0 N.W. 

(iermany 7,000 N.W. 

Hpuin , 8.000 N.W. 

Swi-dcii ' T.ftOO N.W. 



An examination of this table shows at once 
the wide-spread character of the phenomenon, 
and its progressive motion. It is imix)ssible 
not to conjecture a connection with the vol- 
canic eruption in the Sunda Straits, by which, 
on Aug. 2(j, the island of Krakatoa disappeared 
wholl}' from the face of the earth. The terri- 
ble nature of this outburst can hardly be real- 
ized : the sky was darkened for several days, 
the noise was heard two thousand miles, mag- 
netic disturbances were noted, the tidal wave 
was distinctly felt at San Francisco, and the 
atmospheric disturbance was sufllcient to cause 
marked barometric fluctuations, which were 
noted by the barographs on the continent, in 
England and America, for several succeeding 
days. Coincidence in dates is not a proof of 
a connection between the atmospheric and the 
volcanic phenomena ; but it is certain that the 
former were first observed near the scene of 
the latter, and that similar atmospheric effects 
have been heretofore recorded over limited 
areas in connection with volcanic outbursts. 
Assuming the origin of the atmospheric etfects 
to be the volcanic eruption, the table sliows an 
extremcl}' rapid progression in both an easterly 
and a westerly direction, — the fonner over the 
Pacific Ocean, the latter over the Indian and 
Atlantic oceans, to South America and the 
West Indies. Mr. Lockyer considers that the 
latter continued westward to the Hawaiian 
Islands, and does not regard an eastward pro- 



Janttary n, 1881.1 



SCIENCE. 



39 



gressiou at all ; but the later evidence iVom 
the Pacific shows that the phenomenon was 
seen several thousand miles east of Java on 
Sept. 1 . This extremely rapid progression has 
been mentioned as an objection to the volcanic 
theor}', but it is not impossible to believe in its 
truth ; and we know little or nothing of the 
motions of the higher strata of the atmosphere. 
Besides, it is not neeessarj^ to reckon from Aug. 
26 ♦ the date of the volcanic catastrophe ; for 
the volcano had been in eruption since May 20, 
and the steamship 8iam, on Aug. 1, in latitude 
6® south, longitude 81)" east, sailed for more 
than forty miles over floating pumice. There 
seems also to be a well-marked southern pro- 
gression » though the dates for Australia and 
Tasmania are probably too late. 

It is difficult, however, to trace with cer- 
tainty a progression northward. The October 
appearances in the United States, and the 
November appearances in the United States 
and Europe, if the result of the August erup- 
tion, show a rate of progress very much slower 
than that iu an easterly or westerly direction. 
There seems also to be a gap In the dates ; for, 
with the exception of the three dates in Oc- 
tober, there is a September group covering a 
lai^e territory, and a similar group in Novem- 
ber over a di tie rent territory. The October 
reconls, which are all in the United States, 
are definite, but few in number. During this 
month, and up to the "20th of November, there 
was a well-marked brilliancy in the sunrise and 
sunset colors over a large portion of the United 
States, but it did not possess the marked in- 
teosity which seemed to suddenly begin after 
the 20th. It is possible that the sudden in- 
crease in the latter part of November, which 
was noted both in America and in Europe, was 
due to the arrival over these countries of the 
volcanic matter which had been moving slowly 
northwards for ten weeks ; and the October ap- 
pearances may have been either the sequel of 
the progression towards the West Indies in 
September, or the forerunner of the later, more 
marked appearances. 

Another explanation, in consonance with 
the volcanic hypothesis, may be given. The 
eru(ition in the Sunda Straits is not the only 
volcanic outburst of great intensity which has 
recentl}' occurred, though it has been better 
known because occurring in an inhabited re- 
gion. Meagre accounts have been received of 
a gn^at outburst in Bering Se», to which brief 
allusion was made in Science ^ No, 46. The 
October weather review of the signal-service 
contains a letter from Sergeant Applegate, the 
observer at Unalashka. Alaska, in which he 



says, referring to some sand which 
rain-storm of Oct. 20, — 



fell 



m a 



" Thii sand is supposed to have come either from 
the Mukusliin, or Lbe new volcano adjacent to Bogoa- 
lov. The former is at a dUtaaoe of about nineteen 
miles Boulh-west, but for years has only isaiied forth 
smoke or steam. The latter ia a now one, which 
made its appearanca this summer, and burst out from 
the bottom of Behring Sea. It has been exceedingly 
active, as It Las already formed an islaad from eight 
hundred to twelve hundred feet high* According to 
the report of Capt* Anderson, the discoverer, who satis 
one of the company's vessels, and who went within 
two thausaud y$irds of it, it presents a most magnifi- 
cent sight. The fire, smoke, and lava arc coming out 
of many crevices, even nnder the water-line. Large 
bowlders are shot high in air, which, striking the 
water, send forth steam and u hissing sound. BogoB- 
lov ifl about aixiy miles from here/in a west direc- 
tion. The new volcano is about one-eighth of a mJle 
north* west of It." 

This makes the position of the volcano, lati- 
tude, 54^ north; longitude, 168** west. The 
San Francisco Cfitonide of Nov. 23 contains 
a more detailed report, but adds nothing essen- 
tial to the above description. As this exten- 
sive eruption has been taking place for some 
months, it is not improbable that the atmos- 
phere has received a large accession of volcanic 
materia! from this source also ; and possibly to 
this cause may be due, at least in part» the 
appearance of the sky in November. 

It would seem as if an examination of the 
dust particles brought to the earth by rain or 
snow would furnish final proof as to the source 
of the matter causing the phenomenon, pro- 
vided that it is not wholly above the influence 
of the descending precipitation. The force of 
gravity would certainly eventually bring to the 
earth portions of the material. It is not un- 
common for meteoric matter to be found in the 
analysis of freshly-fallen snow ; and an anony- 
mous writer in the New -York Jierald of Dec. 
22 implies that the late snows have given indi- 
cations of meteoric matter. This, if verified, 
would tend to confirm the truth of the meteorio 
theory; but results of quite a different char- 
acter are announced in Nature for Dec. 20, 
which has been received since this article was 
begun. An anal3^8i3 of fresh snow, made 
by 3Ir. 3IcPherson in Madrid, Spain, revealed 
the presence of ** crystals of hypersthene, py- 
roxine, magnetic iron, and volcanic glass, all 
of which have been found in the analysis lately 
made at Paris of the volcanic ashes from the 
eruption of Java.*' Similarly a microscopic 
examination of the sediment from a violent 
rain-storm on Dec. 13 was made at Wageningen, 
Holland, by Messrs. Beyerinck and Dam, and 
compared with a sample of ash from Krakatoa* 



40 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 40. 



It was found that *' lx>th the sediment and the 
volcanic asii contained, (1) small, transparent, 
glassy particles ; (2) brownish, half- transpar- 
ent, somewhat filamentous little staves; and 
(3) jet black, sharp-edged, small grains re- 
sembling augite. The average size of the par- 
ticles obHcrved in the sediment was of course 
much smaller than that of the constituents of 
tlie ash. These observations fortify us in our 
supposition, expressed above, that the ashes of 
KrakatoH have come down in Holland." 

These analyses certainly tend to confirm the 
volcanic hy[x>thesis, though it is interesting to 
not<? that some of the substances found b}- Mr. 
McPherwm are also characteristic of meteoric 
matUT. The evidence* thus far accumulated 
seems to jwint positivel}' to the truth of the 
volcani(! hyiK>thesis. The op[)onents of this 
view dwell uix>n the improbability of so much 
mattcfr l>eing thrown up to such a great height, 
and of its remaining so long a time in the 
atmosphere. But the magnitude of the Java 
eruption has certainly not been overrated ; 
and th(f amount of matcirial thrown into the 
atmosphere from this s^>urce alone is probably 
sufficient to account for the observed effects. 
If we add the amount from the Ahiskan vol- 
cano, there is less reason to doubt the ability 
of the hypothesis to account for the quantity 
of material require<l. The oljjection on the 
groun<l of the |>ersistence of the phenomenon 
has been met by Messrs. Greece and Crookes 
on el(K!trical gn^unds. If the matter thrown 
up is charged with negative electricity, it would 
be rir{x;lled from the earth, and its particles 
would njix'l each other, thus causing the rapid 
dissemination of tlie material in the atmos- 
phere, and its ri*U*ntion for an indefinite 
jyeruHl. The decline of brilliancy has been 
slow during the time it has been observed in 
this country. In the Hawaiian Islands it is 
still a niarkfHl phenomenon, afl<»r a lapse of 
several months. We may therefore expi»ct 
that for some timi* to ccmje we shall observe 
it under favorable weather (y>nditions, but that 
it will gradually lH*(;ome less prominent until it 
is known only as a fucrt of past history. 

W. IJlT^OX. 

WMhingUin, I ).(:., Jmi. J, JNHI 



WHIRLWINDS, CYCUiNliS, AND TOR- 
NADO US. ^ VII. 

Wfc are now prepared Ut ifxmider and ex- 
plain the actual dUtriliutlon anil motion of 
cyclones. 

The limitation of yiol«*nt c>y(*lon«ii to the 



ocean is natural enough : the level surface of 
the sea allows a great accumulation of warm, 
moist air before the upsetting begins, and per- 
mits the Aill strength of the winds to reach a 
very low altitude. On land the air never waits 
so long as it may at sea, before upsetting ; it 
never becomes so moist : and, when in motion, 
the inequalities of hill and valley hold back the 
lower winds by friction. On land the strong 
part of the cyclone is relatively higher than at 
sea, as the records of mountain observatories 
show ; and we know less of it. 

No violent cyclones are known to have oc- 
curred within four hundred miles of the equa- 
tor. Here, — where the air is warm, quiet, and 
heavily charged with moisture ; where heavy, 
quiet rains are frequent ; where the conditions 
which have been mentioned as essential for 
starting a cyclone are of common occurrence^ 
— cyclones are nevertheless unknown. Thej 
occur oflen enough, however, in the embry- 
onic form of thunder-showers, but they never 
reach the adult stage ; and this must be be- 
cause at the equator the deflective effect of 
the earth's rotation is zero, and the in rushing 
winds are allowed to move directly towanl the 
low-pressure centre and fill up the depression, 
instead of increasing it by their deflection and 
their centrifugal force. From this we learn, 
that, while warmth and moisture may be suffi- 
cient to begin a cyclone, they alone cannot main- 
tain it. There would be no violent cyclones 
if the earth stood still. 

It might be inferred from this that cyclones 
should increase in frequency and intensity as 
we recede from the equator toward the poles, 
for in the higher latitudes the earth's deflective 
force is known to increase. It is tnie that 
storms are much more frequent in high lati- 
tudes than near the equator ; and this is veiy 
likely due to the greater ease with which n)od- 
erate indraughts are here deflected so as to pro- 
duce a central baric depression. But the more 
intense storms are all within thirty or thirty- 
five degrees of the equator. Ijecause, in more 
polar latitudes, the air is not warm or moist 
enough to co-operate effectively with the deflec* 
tive forces, and produce violent winds. It has 
already been explained that a rising column of 
moist air cools more slowly than one of dry air ; 
and on this there was shown to depend much of 
the greater energy of oceanic su^mis over that 
of desert whirls^ It should now be added, 
that, of two ascending currents of saturated 
air, the warmer will rise much more vigorously 
than the cooler : hence the warm, saturated sir 
of the tropical sea breeds hurricsneii. cycloDes, 
and typhoons of greater strength than the 



JaM'ART II, I8ti4.] 



SCIENCE, 



41 



Btorms that are raised \n temperate latitudes, 

Ithough the latter outnumber the former on 

>unt of the more etfective aid of the earth's 

^rotative deflection at a distance from the equa- 

tor» 

We must next examine the cause that deter- 
mines the season of cyclones, throws them near 
the western shores of their oceans, and requires 
I them to move toward or parallel to the east- 
ern coast of the adjoining continents. This 
will be found to depend on the general circula- 
tion of the winds, as may be seen on examin- 
ing the air-currents of the North Atlantic at 
the seasons of the most frequent bumeanes. 
Poey has com piled a list of hurricanes oljserved 
in the West Indies since 14U3, amounting to 
^ three hundred and sixty-five in all ; and of 
I these, two hundred and eighty-seven, or nearly 
► eighty per cent, occurred in July, August, Sep- 
f tember, and October. Now, these are the very 
^months when the equatorial calms or doldrums 
Jitre farthest north of the equator, and lience in 
a position to allow the embryonic storms to 
develop by the aid of the earth's deflective 
force. At other seasons the trade- winds ex- 
tend nearer to the equator ; and then, in a lati- 
' lude where storms miglit grow if once started, 
^the steady blowing trades prevent even the for- 
mation of an embryo. The few storms that 
occur at these other reasons have less evident 
causes : they may ari^e in conflicting winds, 
and may be fairly thrown among those unex- 
plainetl etfects that we call accidental. Once 
formed, the storm is carried along, by the gen- 
eral circulation and by the strong winds, to- 
ward the West Indies, On nearing them, it 
moves to the north-west and north, mostl}' be- 
cause branches of the trade-winds here turn to 
that direction in the cyclone season, so as to 
avoid the mountains further west, and to run 
up over the warm land of our country ; pailly 
.because of the continual polar tendency, or 
'excess of deflection on the northern side of the 
storm. Even if the general surface- winds do 
not blow along the storm-tracks, it is very prob- 
able that the upj^er current, returning from the 
equatorial calms towartl the prevailing westerly 
winds of the temtx^ratc latitudes, follows a 
course closely parallel to the average of the 
cyclone paths ; and there is good reason to be- 
lieve that the upper winds have a great control 
over the storm's progression. If the storm 
should begin on the eastern side of the Atlan- 
tic, it would probably be held so near the equa- 
tor by the indraught of the trade-winds that it 
could not reach a destnictive size. The greater 
I Atlantic hurricanes are therefore those that 
ll^egtn in the western part of the calran or dol- 



drums when they are farthest from the equa- 
tor, and then, passing along their curved paths, 
take the West Indies and our south-eastern 
coast on their wa}' up into the North Atlantic. 
As they go, their diameter greatly increases ; 
because they draw their wind-supply from 
longer distances, and because in the temperate 
latitudes the earth's deflective force is greater 
than it was in the tropics. But with this in- 
crease in diameter there cornea a diminution 
of intensity, because the winds are cooler and 
contain less vaix)r ; and finally the storm dies 
away when the weakened u[xlraught at the cen- 
tre fails to throw its overflow outside of the 
limits of the whirl. The storm is then not work- 
ing its way .* ftiction will soon cause the winds 
to cease, and the disturbance will come to an 
end. 

As for the South Atlantic, it possesses no 
cyclone region, because the doldrums never 
extend south of the equator. In spite of the 
sun's passing to the south in winter, the heat- 
equator, which determines the position of the 
doldrums, haitlly passes the geographic equa- 
tor in the Atlantic; the excess of land in the 
northern hemisphere, and the strong genei*al 
winds of the southern hemisphere, keep it 
back : ami so the iSouth Atlantic has no cy- 
clones such as occur in all tlie other oceans. 
The cyclones of the Pacific and Indian oceans . 
depend on conditions such as have been de 
scribed for the North Atlantic, They ar»1 
commonest vn the southern hemisphere in Feb- 
ruary for tlie same reason that they are most 
frequent in the northern in the months about 
September, 

We have now considered the origin and mo* 
tions of the cyclones and hurricanes, and the 
region? of their occurrence. This study has 
its highest aim in giving timely warning of 
their approach and in devising rules for avoid- 
ing them. If their tracks lay over the land, 
the telegraph could in all cases give sulllcient 
notice of their coming, for their motion is slow jJ 
hut the^' are at sea during much of their life/^ 
and the questions now arise. How can the cap- 
tain of a vessel gain the first intimation of their 
coming? and, Wliat should ho best do to avoid 
their dangerous centre? 

The storm's earliest etiect on the atmosphere 
is shown by the barometer. It is ordinarily 
stated that the first etfect is seen in a diminu- 
tion of pressure ; but it is very probable, both 
from theory and from careful observation, that 
a slight abnormal increase of pressure precedes 
this diminution. The tropical seas, where cy- 
clones are most violent, have, as a rule, very 
small and very rare irregular changes in at- 



42 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 40. 



mosplieric pressure ; and careful watching will 
pretty sureh' show a rising barometer, as the 
annulus of high pressure that surrounds the 
storm (see fig. 8) moves over the observer. 
The weather may still be clear, and the wind 
moderate and from its normal quarter ; but this 
change in the glass demands renewed watch- 
fulness. Let us suppose that such an observa- 
tion be made on board a vessel lying east of 
the Lesser Antilles. The chart shows the cn\>- 
tain that he is in the stormy belt. He may be 
directly in the path of the advancing storm, 
where he will feel its full violence ; and he 
must make the best of his way out of it. Fol- 
lowing the rising pressure, three other signs 
of increasing danger may be observed, — first, 
faint streamers of high cirrus-clouds ma^' be 
seen, slowly advancing from the south-east to 
the north-west, or from the east to the west, 
in the high overflow from the storm's centre ; 
this unpropitious change may accompany the 
rising of the barometer, or may be first seen 
when the barometer is highest : second, the ba- 
rometer begins to fall, slowly at first, but more 
and more quickly' when it reaches and passes 
twenty-nine inches ; the vessel is then within 
the limits of the storm : third, the wind has 
shifted so as to blow from a distinctly northern 
quai*ter, and its strength goes on increasing ; 
this is the indraught, blowing spirally toward 
the centre. There is then no longer any ques- 
tion that a storm is approaching ; and as soon 
as a heavy bank of clouds makes itself seen, 
moving southward across the eastern horizon, 
then the central part of the storm is in sight. 
These clouds are the condensed vaix)r in the 
rising central spirals, and rain is falling from 
them. In deciding on a course to be pursued, 
the first point to be determined is, where is the 
storm's centre? That being known, its prob- 
able ))ath can be laid down with considerable 
certainty in this part of the ocean ; and then, 
perhaps, the greatest danger may be avoided. 
But here a very practical ditRculty arises. To 
find the direction of the storm-centre, we must 
know the incurving angle of the wind's spiral, 
— the angle of inward inclination that it makes 
with a circle whose centre is at the storm's cen- 
tre. The earlier students of the question — 
Dove, Redfield, Reid, and Piddington — con- 
sidered the course of wind to be concentric cir- 
cles, or inward spirals of very gradual pitch ; 
so that they said the inclination of the wind is 
practically zero, and a line at right angles to its 
course must be a radius leading to the centre. 
Later studies showed this to be incorrect. The 
inclination of the wind inward from the circle's 
tangent was found to vary from 20® to 40° or 



50® : but it was tliought that this iDclination 
was symmetrical on all sides ; so that, with an 
average inclination of 30®, the storm's centre 
must always bear 60° to the left of the wind's 
course. Finall}*, the most recent results seem 
to show that the wind's course is neither circu- 
lar nor symmetncally spiral ; that the wind's 
inclination is very distinctly dilferent in differ- 
ent latitudes, on diflTerent sides of the storm, 
in the different conditions found on sea and 
land, at different distances from the centre and 
at different altitudes. In so complicated a 
case, much judgment will be required to find 
where the storm-centre lies. 

First, in regard to the latitude of a storm. 
Without considering its progression, the nearer 
it is to the equator, the less its indraught winds 
will be deflected to the right by the earth's ro- 
tation, — the more nearly radial they will be. 
But, as the}- move with much energ}', they will 
gain in rotary motion rapidly as they ap- 
l)roach the centre, and there will whirl around 
in almost perfect circles. Storms in low lati- 
tudes will therefore tend to have a compara- 
tively small but violent central whirl, only one 
or two hundred miles in diameter, within which 
the winds ma}' be almost circular ; and the 
centre will there be nearly at right angles to 
the wind's course. Farther from the centre, the 
winds would be nearly radial ; and, if storms 
could arise on the equator, they would have 
simply radial indraughts with a very small cen- 
tral whirl. On the other hand, in the temperate 
zone the inflowing winds will be strongly de- 
flected to the right of their intended path ; and 
they must depart widely from a direct line to 
the centre of low pressure, forming a whirl 
often one thousand miles in diameter : but, un- 
less they inclined inward at a distinct angle, it 
would take them too long to reach the centre, 
and their strength would be lost in overcoming 
friction on the way. Their average inclination 
is therefore well marked. The steeper incli- 
nation of the winds close to the centre, ob- 
served in some northern storms (Toynbee), 
may be an effect of the tornado action in the 
cyclone, yet to be described. 

Second, in regard to the sides of the storm, 
as alfected by its progression. The inclination 
will generally be less than the average in fh>nt 
and on the right, and greater in the rear and on 
the left of the centre ; for in whatever manner 
the storm advances, either by bodily transfer- 
rence or by successive transplanting, the motion 
of the wind must partake both of the direction 
of whirling and direction of progress, when 
seen by an observer not moving in either of 
these directions. In the case of bodily trans- 



UrUA^y H» l!^84,] 



SCIENCE. 



43 



ferrence, the direction of the wind as shown by 
a vane will be the simple resultant of its whirl- 
ing and progresBive motions ; in the case of 
successive transplanting, it will be the result- 
ant of the earth's deflecting force and a cui've 
of pursuit ; a curve of pursuit being the path 
followed by a body moving towards a point that 
is continually^ changing its position. In either 



J' 



moderate winds may blow on the north ; the 
difference between the two being about twice 
the storm's progressive motion. The change 
in inclination has been sho^ n to occur in some 
of the West-Indian hurricanes, but it is not 
very pronounced in the land-storms of the 
temperate zone. Its best application is in 
storms on mountain summits ; as on Mount 
Washington (fig. 19), and again in the case 
of the outflowing winds in the upper half of 
the storm, as shown by the motion of cirrus- 
clouds, and ilhistrated in fig, 20* Of course, 
in this case of outward motion, the less incli- 
nutioQ is in the rear, and the greater in the 
front. 

Third, in regard to land and sea storms. The 
inclination will be greater in the former than In 
the latter. On the sea, the centrifugal force 
of the earth's deflection will be most pro- 
nounced, and the winds will be more nearly 
circular than on land, where friction will tend 



Fio, 18. 



'a 



ease, the effect may be sufllciently represented 
by fig. 18, in which the broken arrows show 
the motion of the wind with respect to the 
storm-centre, and the straight dotted lines 
measure the velocity of the storm's advance. 
The wind will seem to blow along the result- 
ant of these two directions, as shown by the 
foil armws ; and the resulting inclinations are 



-e«t 



STORM 



TRAC*? 



-?t)1 



"w 4- c 



Fill, 19. 

manifestly less in front than in the rear, and 

Lless on the right than on the left. With the 

|Tariation of inclination, there will be an in- 

rerse change in the wind's velocity. It will 

^Wow faster on the right and rear or dangerous 

side of the storm, and slower on the left and 

front or manageable side. In the North AUan- 

lic, where the storms oflen move rapidly, while 

Hi hurricajie (irevalls soutli of the centre, very 



Fto. 90. 

to destroy their oiiginal motion, and so allow 
them to run more directly into the storm-cen- 
tre. This is fully borne out by obsei*vation, 
and is especially well shown in the contrasted 
oases of storms on the opposite sides of the 
northern Atlantic. Fig. 21 shows an averages 
storm in the eastern United States, about readyj 
to embark on the ocean ; and in this the inclina*! 
tion of the winds is less on the sea than on th©i 
land side. This effect is doubtless produced in 
part by the preceding condition concerning the 
front and rear sides of the storm. But in ei* 
amining a storm just about landing on the ' 
western shores of Europe, as shown in fig. 22, 
it is seen that here the front winds have the 
greater, not the lesser, inclination : hence posi- 
tion in regard to the centre cannot be the cause 
of the differing inclinations here. A better ex- 
planation is found in the fact that the eastern 



44 



SCIENCE. 



[YOL. IIL, No. 49L 



Bicit f»f iije foorxL rw^ires its vixKis ftom the 
i&iid. laid liie weisrern side from the «eji : and, 
iL iivviOTduiiot witii xhi*. the eastejn side should 
iiLVir Uie p^-ater. and The western side the 
Jesser indiuAtioL, &s if the case. The fact that 
EurcifK'i^ii SI onus bare a less velocity of pno- 
rress) nii thaii iboae in this countrr would still 
furJjt-T allow the land and sea conditions to 
c?oLTr:»: ibe iuc-lination in the former region. 




Fio. SI. 

Fourth, it is nianifost fVinn nil tho pn^ootiiiig 
cases that the oiitorniost winds of a storm ar\> 
nearly radial, and that thoir ilireotion lHHX>mos 
more drcuhir as they advance. This results 
direotly from tho fastor nmtion and loss radius, 
consequently the greator (vntrifujsal forw near 
the centre, and re(|uireM no Kpooial illustration. 
It need only ho ni,i4.d. In rooaiiin^r U,,. Urst or 
latitude condition, that, nt Inij^o iJiMlanot^s fhim 
the centH', ofinatorinl HtorriiH mio j^ononiilv 
more radial than thfwo ol'thi' tornpornto zonos*; 
but, at Hmnll diManofM \)nui tho i-ontro, this 
rule may havo to Ik* ri.v.iii..d. 'n,i« |„ ,.„it,. ;„ 
aecordanco with Ihi- nivttUr «ii/«. Imf, |(.hr in- 
tensity of tho nUnum in Um f« niporiit^. zono 






in 



/.:* 



\ 



f'Uf'^ • 



1 "^ 



WILT", .a sresL TiirjTik rvr'^i,/^ |jftu*;iw *• ...... .. 

1= *ea. JiiAMia lit » w^>»«s«a .,-..... 



7«0(Xt feet, the winds are probably perfectly 
circular in the core of the storm ; and at a 
little greater height they assume an outward 
inclination as the}* change to the outward 
spiral of the up[)er overflow. It is oommon, 
therefore, to note that the surface-winds of a 
storm are not parallel to the motion of the 
clouds. As the latter are more AiUy in control 
of the earth's deflecting force, they"will always 
tend to the right of the former : and, in the 
extreme contrast of surface-indraught and up- 
jiermost outflow, the cirrus-clouds may drift 
Siow-y I in api»earance) 90** or 1 20° to the right 
of the surface-winds. It is therefore usually 
Uf «torm-disturbances of the general atmoe- 
pberic circulation that the irregular drifting 
of different cloud-layers is to be ascribed. And 
DOW. after this long digression, we may return 
to The rescue of the vessel in the West-In<&n 
burrii"ane. 



THE nrsiyEss of the xaturalista 

TiiK Socioty of naturalists of the eastern United 
Statos is an association in which all preliminaries 
should he hrlof, and ceremonious speeches oat of 
plaoe. Our fin^l offioial meeting: at Springfield was, 
however, nUnoRt wholly ivcupied with the technical- 
ities of iiivaidTiation. and we necessarily pave but 
little time to iitlier niutterp. The attendance at that 
iiieetiii^, ini accoiiiit of ilu- natural aversion of sd- 
eutille null toileiailsof s;ioh an ui.ii.ierestingnatuze, 

WHS Miiiull. i|iiin»d with the numlicrs now present; 

mill f Mir lint of iiieiiibers is also m.-re than doable 
Willi I II was ilifii. Tiider these c: re:: instances a few 
pielliiiiii;iry wimU i»f explanatii-r. will not be wboUj 
willioiii iiiii'fnlfn-^*. < *"r corrt^s;^>x:dence with scicn- 
iHIr iiH'ii iil»«» iiln»«s that tin* novi/.y of the organl- 
/fiiinii mill nhjiMMs of this s<<:rt\ rt-quirps sone 
fxpliiiiiilioii III a «-i»inpn»heusiTe ar.-: co:idt-nsed fotm 

rioMi iinfiift olir INTSOII. 

'..I (hi iih I am awaiv. th;s :* iLi fi«t an«-mpt to 
forifi nn .i««o*'l«illon ior the trar.sactU-n of what r 
hi' iiillrd. wlihoul don^jjation : :h' d.ir.iTy of 
ffifmi IiiImiib, llio liUHine»*< of * a:-.:ra.-*L«^ 

Mf r' i./fMf I. arifMitllh^ *SMV;a:i ^:-* h*^ e \k". : 
Hi.ii »',i..|iii iifl n|Miii the idea :ha: :2:e :e:i.:..^ii] 
#. tr ..f I'll III •> wrio iiives*A7:*:> ::.*< j irfcr-.t fnciin tte 
,«...it« .,1 ..|..titifio work. .•:•..: *...v.:c :^ .• TiWd 
!,/.».. r.iiii lii.ilv ^^hich **>•' A;:*r..:f :* ::. . 
■ *,i. .1,,' u**!'.!!. mid puMc.i- -7. f -.. t r«-.:-rd* ctf tfs- 

/ :....! iiwiiirh. It Vx.* *.-T.. •- : iL-f lor aft 

fi vi>nt< !«•'. '^ ^- •^' ■ •""»^»»T- * 

f IdliHi w.i« •••H-f'ij'.Lr; v: i ^^hl 1« to 

I f Th.. :.^r:ir.i. w :i *■: .. nw ha»a 

I in nil Pfiorm.'^:* •x-.'n- t.::..t -.:.f lasJ dee- 

>.. ....H»..fi.f ifTnelua- nj' *iu» :<? n L;.-k ••ii:r4ire a»l 

, i.ii-..f...l «M ^■-« "T'ps i«';iM-i . 

i ., Ill rn'l#-! *iuu«^ 7»H'- £•. 



f«;ieimTaf 



7Alif3Aicr 11, 18M.] 



Science. 



co-operation should be found which can be of great 
benefit, not only to Ui08e whose opportunities have 
been smallf but also tiot less to those who are capable 
of contributing most in such a scheme for the gen- 
eiBil good of science- workers. The contact of fellow- 
workers not only stimulates the intellect to Its he«t 
AfTorts In the presence of appreoiative hearers, but 
enables the mind to brorulen Its outlc»ok, and avoid 
the effects of the cloisLer-like seclusion in abstraction, 
wliich hiks had such fascination for the students of 
aiJ ages* and which lias also had such serious effects 
upon the usefulness of individual life. The ralscon* 
ceptions and difficulties which science has to contend 
with have also become of greater importance; and 
one has only to mention the word * vivtsectiorr to 
justify this remark^ and at the same time indicate a 
field for practical eflfort on the part of this society, 
which should bear good fruit in the immediate future. 
In fact, whichever way we tuni, whether to the purely 
praeltcal details of making sections, or other prepara- 
tions in any branch of natural science, or to the 
broader questions of a technical nature which inter- 
est the public at large, we find in every direction paths 
of usefulness openings which must lead to beneficial 
results for the future of science and science- workers, 
If properly and judiciously handled. 

They seem to us to embody questions which are 
vital to the unimpeded progress of science. We can, 
H is true, get along without any efforts to ameliorate 
the present condition of affairs; but will this be the 
most desirable course for the interests of science atid 
for our own future satif^fftclion? Will the amount 
of time we may gain for iuYestigatiou by remaining 
at home, and standing aloof from disturbing causes, 
repay us for the inevitable loss of influence^ and the 
possible loss of future facilities for the prosecution 
of work ? In some classes of work such losses are 
sure to be visited ui>on us, or our immediate succes- 
sors, through the growth of ignorant prejudices we 
have taken no trouble to correct or prevent. 

An able writer in Science of Oct. 26, on the sub- 
ject of vivisection, points out the necessity of taking 
some Imnit^diate steps for the information of the pub^ 
He uiion this question, and, it seems to us, uses very 
able arguments 'to support the conclusion, which Is, 
that ** the only danger lies in the ignorance of the 
great majority of ordinarily well*infomied people re- 
garding such subjects." This writer, in conclusion, 
remarks with great force, '^ Secrecy , not publicity, 
U what American physiology has to fear/' 

The society may disagree with me, and perhaps 
consider it unnecessary to take any active steps in 
this direction ; but the unavoidable effects of the gen- 
eral discussion of such a question will l>e very reas- 
suring to the men who will have to beiir the brunt 
of the coming stniggle; and every one who takes 
piart In It will find that his opinions and future course 
may be more or less influenced, and perhaps even 
determined, by what he may he«r. 

Those most deeply Interested In the American 
Msoclatlon will surcdy be willing to grant that such 
quollons can be more effectively handiest In a society 
O0ftD{¥>*«d of purely professional men, whose undi- 



vided attention can be given to them, whose inter- 
est is of the deepest nature, and who can be de- 
pended upon to give sufficient time and work when 
appointed on committees. 

Another question which seems to me of absorbing 
general interest relates to a matter about which 
great differences of opinion may exist, even among 
scieutiflc men themselves; and in this I speak purely 
as an advocate of one side. What can we do to call 
the attention of the institutions of learning to the 
fact that their duties to science and the future of 
investigation demand a change of policy? Through- 
out the country, and even in the higher Institutions, 
false views are prevalent with regard to the qualific*' 
tions necessary for teaching science. We find science- 
teaching placed on the same basis as mathematics 
and the languages, in which books are the necessary 
media for the communication of ideas. It is com- 
monly supposed that a man can learn his lesson, and 
repeal it to scholars, and that one may be a good 
teacher of a science of observation without being him- 
self an observer. In some places even, a tendency to» 
wards investif^alion is considered a distiualificatlon,, 
since it withdraws the mind from giving full atteu* 
tion to the practical duties of the classroom. In such 
places education is measured by the quantity, and rule 
of thumb, by the amount of supposed knowledge 
gained, without relation to how it is gained, or what 
habits of mind are cultivated in the operation. Un- 
doubteilly, the teacher in such places may need and 
acquire a certain amount of dexterity and success ns 
a mental taxidermist; hut that he will ever Inten- 
tionally train a single student to do original work is 
beyond belief. 

The slight amount of respect and consideratiou 
shown to the claims of the investigator are in part due 
to this evil, and in part to a custom which is exces- 
sively hard to deal with. We refer to the habit, very 
prevalent in this country, of sending children to the 
same colleges at which the parents themselves bare 
been graduated. Tliis habit shows some signs of break- 
ing up, and the technical schools are doing fine work 
in this direction; still, the American mind is conser- 
vative in respect to education, and tends to keep the 
hereditary colleges full, irrespective of their intrinsic 
worth. If these institutions should have to rely solely 
upon their educational attractions, we should find 
that tlie individuality of Instructors, their reputation 
for sound learning and original thought, and their 
capacity to do the highest kind of teaching, would 
eventually command the same respect, and perhaps 
the same emoluments, as in Germany. 

Can we, as a body, arrive at any general agree- 
ment of what should be done with regard to such 
vital questions? or can we even do any thing towards 
the formation of an opinion of what It would be desir- 
able to do? This last result will seem tame to many 
energet^ic minds; but the speaker is old enough to 
have seen the mighty effects of active and determined 
agitation upon what is familiarly known as public 
sentiment. Sooner or later — and generally much 
sooner than any but the most sanguine iigitator can 
anticipate — the times become ripened, and the last 



46 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IIL, No. 40. 



steps of the process of change to the new order of 
things follow in rapid succession. An event may be 
long in preparation, but its consummation takes place 
witli a rapidity which must be experienced to be fully 
appreciated. 

Another question of the greatest and at present 
time-absorbing interest is, what can be done to force 
the schools to properly prepare students for the col- 
leges and universities? We use the word * force,' 
rather than * induce,' because all arguments except 
those which can be supported by the pressure of the 
entrance examinations fail to awaken these schools 
to the needs of science-teachers in these higher insti- 
tutions. The following remarks appeared in Science 
of May 18, 1883, and can be used appropriately in this 
connection : — | 

" In the brief, Informal discussions [which took place at the 
Bpringfleld meetingj, the opinion was very generally expressed, 
that one of the most important qucsUons with which we have to 
deal, and one which needs immediate attention, is the prepara- 
tion necessary for the study of natural science in colleges. The 
great diifioulty in making a success of college iniitructlon in the 
sciences lies in the fact that not one young man In twenty knows 
either how to observe, or how to think about facts of observation. 
His education in that line is very deficient, or else entirely want- 
ing; ho is utterly helpless without his books, and seems quite 
unable to see or to correlate facts for himself. No other branch 
of the curriculum is so inefficiently treated by the preparatory 
schools and academies. It is the reverse of right that the col- 
lego professor, with a class of from forty to eighty men, should 
have to make the vain attempt to teach the lowest step in the 
observational sciences. Methods which can alone guarantee 
success in imparting to the eye and the mind the rudiments of 
science cannot be employed under such conditions. Moreover, 
it is a matter for the deepest regret, that young men who are 
soon to be in places in the world where they have no books, and 
where the keenest exercise of the powers of obser\'atlon, and the 
Judgment of facts, are demanded, should in so many cases have 
no opportunity, or next to none, either in school or college, for 
the acquisition of a training upon which the success of their life- 
work, in the Urger number of professions and occupations, is de- 
I>endont. 

*' It is to be hoped that one needs only to mention such objects 
as these, to bespeak for this new association the sympathy and 
support of all naturalists, and earnest workers in science." 

In the above remarks expression is given to opinions 
some of which, we know. Will meet with general 
approbation, and otliers will very properly be regarded 
as merely personal views. We shall, however, have 
attained the object for which this address was writ- 
ten, if we have made it evident that this society can, 
if it be so disposed, take up questions of the highest 
importance to the public service of science, and help 
towards their solution by its deliberations. We be- 
lieve it can do this wherever it can unite the majority 
of scientific men in opinion and in effort. The 
power which can be wielded by such an organization 
is in exact proportion, not to its numbers, but to its 
earnestness, determination, and especially its fearless 
support of what is just and right. 

Aiter referring further to the work of the society, 
as outlined in the article already referred to, Pro- 
fessor Hyatt proceeded : — 

Enough papers to occupy nearly the whole time 
which can be devoted to them will be announced by 
the secretary. Though these and kindred subjects 
will be our most important objects, it was due to the 



society to show that its scope was not neceitarily 
wholly confined to such details; and this we haT6 
endeavored to accomplish in the first part of the pre- 
ceding remarks. 

In conclusion, we beg leave to report that the execu- 
tive committee has had great responsibilities thriut 
upon it since the first meeting. These they hare en- 
deavored to meet to the best of their ability; and we 
believe that the present attendance, and the nutny 
honorable names on our list, will help to extenuate the 
errors inseparable from haste and overwork. 

In place of Professor Clarke, whose absence in 
Europe we regret, the executive committee appointed 
Dr. C. S. Minot, and he has faithfully and acceptably 
performed the duty of secretary pro Urn. 



THE NEW MORPHOLOGICAL ELEMENT 
OF THE BLOOD. 

Within recent years it has been established beyond 
doubt by the labors of Hayem, Blzzozero, and otheity 
that there exists in the blood of mammals, and ap- 
parently of other vertebrates, a third type of corpnacle, 
differing morphologically from both the red and the 
white corpuscle, and possessing certain distinctiTe 
properties of the greatest importance in coagolatioiu 
These elements were called hematoblasts by Hayem 
upon the supposition that they are eventually trans- 
formed into red corpuscles. As this view is by no 
means established, it will be better to speak of them 
as blood-plates, the name given to them by Biszozero. 
These blood-plates must not be confounded with the 
' invisible corpuscles ' of Norris. The latter, accord- 
ing to the testimony of most observers, are simply 
ordinary red corpuscles, from which the haemoglobin 
has been removed by the method of preparation. 
As might be supposed, the presence of these bodies 
was more or less clearly noticed by some of the many 
observers who for years past have made the blood 
a subject of investigation. That they escaped detec- 
tion in the great majority of cases, is owing, doubtf- 
less, to the very rapid alterations which they undergo 
after the blood is shed, unless especial measures are 
taken to preserve them. 

To Hayem belongs the credit of their real discoveiy. 
His investigation of their form, and, to a certain ex- 
tent, of their properties, was so thorough, and his 
method of demonstrating their presence so slmfde, 
that the attention of other observers was forced to 
the subject; and his results were soon confirmed, with 
the exception of certain dcteils of structure which 
are still open to investigation. On account of the 
quickness with which they are destroyed after tho 
blood has escaped from the vessels, it is necessary to 
make use of certain preservative li(iuids which hsTO 
the power of fixing these corpuscles in their normal 
shape. The solution recommended by Hayem is com- 
posed, of water 200 parts, sodium chloride 1 part, lo- 
dium sulphate 6 parts, and mercuric chloride ,80 
parts. Bizzozero recommends a .75% solution of 
sodium cliloride, to which some methyl aniline violei 
has been added. Osmic-acid solution, 1 %, may alio 
be used. To obtain good specimens of the blood- 



Jahdart 11, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



47 



plates, the following method Is suggest4?d by Laker. 
A drop of preaerTative liquid is placed on the slide, 
and a drop of blood on the cover-slip, and the slip 
laid qnickly on the slidei so that the two drops come 
in contact. As many as possible of the red corpuscles 
are then drained oft by means of a piece of filter- 
paper applied to the slip on the side opposite to the 
drop of preservative liquid; or the two drops may be 
placed on the slide, and the cover-slip laid on from 
the side of the preservative liquid. The one precau- 
tioa which it Is necessary to observe is to lose as little 
llmo as possible in traiisferrlng the blood to the pre^ 
servative liquid. 

Obtained in this way, the blood -plates of the mam- 
mal are small, non-nucleated, discoid bodies from 
one-fourth to one-half the size of the red corpuscles. 
Haycm states that they are bi-concave, like the red 
corpuscles, and that many of them have, a slight 

enish or yellowish color due to the presence of 

emoglobin. Bizzozero, on the other hand, main- 
tains that they are perfectly colorless and not bi-con- 
cave, Hayet supports Hayem's statement with 
regard to the preseufc of haemoglobin in some, at 
least-, o( the blood-plates; while Laker thinks that the 
pale greenish hue possessed by them Is owing to a 
reflection of light f I'om the upper surface. The same 
tint may he abst*rved in white corpuscles ; and, further- 
more, when the blood-plates are collected in masses, 
thia color does not become more dfstincL Laker con- 
firms Hayem's statement that the plates are bl-con- 
cave, and says that he has often obtained from them 
the well-known optical phenomenon shown by the red 
corpuscles. The blood-plates occur In considerable 
numbers, Acconling to Hayem, they are forty times 
more numerous than the white corpuscles, and twenty 
times less numerous than the red corpuscles. Stain- 
ing-reagents have but little action upon tbem. Water 
causes moat of them to disappear, though some indi- 
vidual plates may resist its action for a long time. 
Dilate solutions of acetic acid or caustic alkali quickly 
destroy them, while a 35% solution of caustic potash 
Is without any marked action. Laker states, that, in 
their general behavior towards reagents, they resem* 
ble most the nucleus of the white corpuscle. With 
regard to their origin, nothing is known. That they 
are not simply remnants of broken down white cor- 
puscles is evident, in the first place, from the typical 
form they possess, and, in the second place, from 
th^j dlflference in chemical composition between the 
two, as shown by reagents. Bizzozero has proved 
conclusively that they are not pathological forma- 
tions arising after the blood has been shed, since he 
has seen and studied them in the mesenteric blood* 
vessels of living animals. 

Hayem believes that the blood-plates are finally 
transformed into red corpuscles. His reasons for 
this belief are as follows: 1. They posaeaa a^mllar 
form; 2. Tliey have a similar chemical composition, 
both containing haemoglobin ; 3. The appearance of 
many intermediate forms between the typical blood- 
plata and the ordinary red corpuscle, especially in 
certain pathological conditions — after a severe hem- 
orrhage, for iustauoe. Under these conditions, Hay- 



em states that the plates become more abundant, 
and gradually return to their normal proportion as 
the number of red corpuscles increases. In the main, 
these statements are confirmed by Mayet; but, as we 
have said, the similarity in form, and the presence 
of haemoglobin, are denied by others, especially Biz- 
zozero; and neither Bizzo^ero nor Laker was able to 
detect any intermediate forms between the blood- 
plates and the red corpuscles. Perhaps the most 
interesting result that has come out of the study of 
these elements is the knowledge of the impoKant 
part they take in the coagulation of blood. This 
property has been thoroughly investigated by Bizzo- 
zero. His conclusions may be briefly stated as fol- 
lows. Liquids which have a tendency to prevent 
coagulation also preserve the blood-plates more or 
less completely from destruction. Experiments made 
upon blood kept within the living blood-v^sel show 
that as long as the blood remains uncoagulated the 
blood-plates are unchanged, while the rapid coagu- 
lation of portions of ^the blood removed from the ves- 
sel is always'precedetl by a destruction of the plates 
and the forruation from tbem of granular masses. 
When a drop of blood is whipped with small threads 
for about fifty seconds, the threads withdrawn, 
washed gently in .76 % sodium-chloride solution, and 
then examined under a microscope in the methylated 
soda solution, they are B^^n to be covered with a 
layer of plates, together with some white corpusclee. 
If the whipping is continued longer, the plates are 
converted into a granular mass, and covered wltli a 
layer of fibrin e^ If this process is reversed, and a 
slow stream of blood is allowed to pass over a thread 
watchett under the microscope,' the different stages 
of the process can be observed, — the deposition of 
the plates, their fusion into a granular mass, and the 
subsequent formation of ftbrine. When one of these 
threads, to which the blood^ptates and a few red and 
white corpuscles an? adhering, is added to a liquid 
containing the two fibrtne factors, but not fibrine 
ferment, coagulation takes place. That this coagula- 
tion is not owing to the thread or to the red corpus- 
cles b easily demonstrated: it must result from the 
addition of either the white corpuscles or the blood- 
plates. When, however, bits of tissues rich in leuco- 
cytes—such as the spleen, lymph-glands, medulla of 
bone — are added to the aix^ve liquid, no coagulation 
at all, or else a very imperfect coagulation, follows. 
The inference, then, is, that tbe coagulation in the 
first case results from the addition of tbe blood-plates. 
In his latest communication, Bizzozero states, that if 
to a few drops of peptonized plasma, which coagu- 
lates very slowly, some water or carbon dioxide Is 
added, and the preparation is examined under the 
microscope, the blood-plates will be seen collected 
into large heaps in which the Individual blood-plates 
may still be recognized. In a few minutes the 
plates fuse together into a granular mass which be- 
comes vacuolated, and at this moment coagulation 
begins. From the periphery of the granular heaps 
hundreds and thousands of fine processes radiate, and 
form a network which slowly spreads Into the sur- 
rounding plasma. 



48 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IIL, N<k 40. 



Bizzozero attributes the origin of thrombi in blood- 
vessels to the destruction of these corpuscles. He 
has been able to watch the process of formation in 
the mesenteric vessels of living animals when a lesion 
of the walls of the vessels was produced in any way. 

In the blood of animals with nucleated red c<)r- 
puscles, Hayem has described a form of corpuscle 
which has properties analogous to those possessed 
by the blood-plates of mammals. These corpuscles 
may be preserved for study by the use of the liquids 
mentioned above. They are colorless, nucleated, 
slightly flattened bodies, be^uriug a general resem- 
blance in shape to the red corpuscles, though usually 
more elongated at one or both of the poles. They 
vary greatly in size, but as a rule are somewhat larger 
than the white corpuscles. They are distinguished 
from the white corpuscles mainly by a difference in 
form and by the changes which they undergo after 
the blood has been shed. The white corpuscles are 
always more or less spherical, while the plates are 
flattened disks. After the blood has been shed, they 
become exceedingly viscous, and form granular 
masses from which fibrous processes radiate. Their 
functional value in coagulation appears to be the 
same as that of the blood-plates in mammals with 
non-nucleated rod corpuscles. 

William H. Howell. 



THE COMSTOCK LODE. 

Geology of the Conutock lode and the Washoe dis- 
trict. By George F. Becker. (Monographs 
U.S. geol. surv., ill., with an atlas.) Washing- 
ton, 1882. 422 p. 4°. 

The appearance of the second of the new 
series of monographs published by the U. S. 
geological survey will be greeted with pleasure 
by the jscientiftc world, not only on account 
of the amount of new information it contains 
regarding the geolo^cal and physical character 
of one of the most important ore-deposits on 
the globe, but also as an index of the increas- 
ing interest which is being taken in this coun- 
try in a very important but comparatively new 
branch of geological research. Becker's report 
contains, with perhaps one exception, the most 
considerable contribution yet made by an Amer- 
ican to microscopical petrograph}', and deserves 
for this reason, aside fVom its other merits, high 
commendation. 

Referring, for a historical, economic, and 
technical treatment of the Comstock lode, to 
the works now in preparation by Messrs. 
Lord and Eckart, the author devotes himself 
to a purel}^ scientific investigation of this inter- 
esting region. A r^um4 of the results reached 
by von Richthofen, Zlrkel, King, and Church, 
is given, which is followed by a detailed de- 
ficription of the rocks in connection with which 
the ore-deposits occur. This work is carefully 



done, and, notwithstanding a very apparent 
lack of acquaintance with the literatare and 
many important methods of modem petrogra- 
phy, is a valuable contribution to the subject. 
For instance : the actual presence of the sos- 
pccted sodalite in the granite might easily have 
been placed beyond a doubt by a simple mi- 
crochemical test. Again : the measurement of 
extinction-angles would have been much more 
satisfactory had they been made on cleavage 
pieces fh)m their isolated powder instead of in 
the sections ; while Boricky's test would cer- 
tainly have yielded as good results as Szabo'e. 

The variety of rocks in the area studied is 
very great, comprising, in order of their agee, 
granite, metamorphics, granular diorite, por- 
phyritio diorite, metamorphic diorite, quarts- 
porph}Ty, earlier diabase, later diabase, earlier 
hornblende andesite, augitc andesite, later horn- 
blende andesite, and basalt. None of these 
exhibit in their occurrence or structure any 
thing very striking or abnormal, if we except 
the sodalite in the granite, whose presence is, 
however, left ver}- doubtful. Of especial inter- 
est are the decomposition processes, whidi 
have altered the rocks in the area between the 
Comstock and Occidental lodes almost past 
recognition. These are thought to be due to 
solfataric action, which was not earlier than 
the eruption of the later hornblende andesite ; 
and they have received a good share of the 
author's attention. All the rocks of this area 
are equally decomposed ; and, in the case of all, 
the same minerals have undergone the same 
alteration. Hornblende, augite, and mica 
change into chlorite, and this in turn gener- 
ally to epidote, though sometimes to a mixture 
of quaitz, calcite, and limonite. The felspar 
becomes filled with secondary fluid inclusions) 
and finally forms a mass of calcite, quarts, 
and a substance of unknown character, which, 
according to the author, is certainly not kao- 
line. 

By far the most interesting results of the 
author's studies, from a petrogrnphieal stand* 
point, are those arrived at in reference to the 
origin and nature of that much-discussed rock- 
type, propylite. As is well known, this name 
was given by von Richthofen to certain earij 
tertiary, andesitic rocks of Hungar}*, possess- 
ing a fibrous green hornblendic constituent and 
a granitic habit. Both von Richthofen and Zir- 
kel regarded the Washoe district as a locality 
where this type was especially well developed ; 
and the present author entered upon his work 
fully convinced of the correctness of their 
views. All the more interesting, then, is the 
fact that a careful and elaborate study of the 



Janujlbv 11, 1884,] 



SCIENCE. 



49 



very rocks forced him to the opinion that pro- 
pylite has no nght whatever to be regarded as 
an independent rock-tjpe, hut 13 always an 
allerntion product of diabase, diorite, or aude- 
site, by the change of the bisilicates to iiralite 
or cblonte. 

In chapter iv. the author diBcuseea theo- 
retically the structnral rosult^ of faulting. He 
regards the schistose structure, so often ob- 
served in the audesite, as the result of faulting 
under intense lateral pressure^ and shows that 
Buch sheets would naturally tend to arrange 
themselves in a logarithmic curve, as seems to 
be the case at the Comstoek. 

The chapter on chemistry is not very satis- 
factory'. But few new rock analyses are offered, 
and none are ably discussed in connection with 
the microscopic diagnosis. The finding of very 
small quantities of ore in the accompanying 
rocks, especially the diabase, would seem to 
suggest just the reverse course of reasoning 
from that adopted ; and certainly none of the 
facts presented appear to warrant the sup- 
planting of von Richthofen's theory, t!mt the 
ores came from great depths, by one ascribing 
their deposit to segregation produced by ordi- 
nary solvents (hydrogen sulphide and carbon 
dioxide) from the rocks at the side of the lode. 

The discussion of the heat-phenomena of 
the lode receives especial attention in chapter 
vii. The rapid increase of temperature is well 
known to be one of the great hinderances in 
working the mines, being nearly double the 
average observed elsewhere. This has been 
accounted for by some by chemical action: 
as, for instance, the oxidation of ppite, or 
the kaolinization of felspar. The author con- 
eludes, however, in light of the careful experi- 
ments conducted by Dr» Barns in reference to 
the latter theory, that such an explanation is 
untenable ; and that the source of the heat 
must be sought in former, and not entirely 
extinct, volcanic activity. 

The observations of Dr. Barns, bearing on 
the electrical activity of ore-bodies, are re- 
corded in chapter x. They relate as well to 
the deposits at Eureka a^ to those in the Com- 
t stock, and, while not directly productive of 
results of practical ImjKjrtance to the pro- 
spector or miner, possess a very considerable 
Bcientific interest. 

The execution of the plates and maps is up 
to the usual high standard of the survey pub- 
lications. The chromolithographic representa- 
tioufi of rock-sections in polarized light are 
particularl}' successAil, and, as far as my expe- 
rience reaches, are the best of the kind yet 
produced anywhere. 



MARTIN'S ELEMENTARY PHYSIOLOOr. 

The htitnan batJyr an eUmentartf text-book cf anatmn^^ 
phyuolom, and kyqiene. By H. NfiWfiLL Mar* 
TIN, New York, Holt, 1883. 11 + 355 p., i pL, 
illustr. 10**. 

This volume forms the second volume in 
the * American scientific senes, Briefer course,' 
published by the Messrs. Holt. It is an 
abridgment of a larger work by the same 
author, and is intended for use in schools and 
academies. The demand for such a book, 
and the ditHcuUy of preparing one, are well 
known to any one who has sought in vain, 
among the numerous text-books now in the 
market, for one really scientific, and suited to 
the age and needs of his pupils. It is a book 
of about three hundred and fifty pages, but 
how it could well have been made smaller we 
do not see. The language is simple, the style 
clear, and the book, at the same time, easily 
comprehensible and thoroughly seientilic. It 
is elementar}^ without being superficial. The 
essential facts are j>ointcd out to the pupil 
without taxing his memory with a mass of 
unimportant details, or vexing him with con- 
fiicting theories on unsettled questions. At the 
end of each chapter these are condensed, and 
their connection shown in a brief summary, 
which ai<ls the memory, and excites the interest 
of the pupil. From the physiological facts are 
dedutx'd the most important laws of hygiene, 
while the student gains glimpses of wider fields 
of anatomy and zoology in the footnotes. 

A new and most important characteristic of 
the work is the series of directions to teachers 
for demonstrating on frogs and rats the main 
outlines of anatomy, and for physiological ex- 
periments accompanying each chapter. These 
are all clearly explained, and easy, yet it is 
to be feared that they will be neglected by 
three- fourths of the teachere using the book. 
Their importance might well and justly have 
been far more strongly urged in the preface. 
We hear every year less of the objections to 
such dissections. The great difficulty is, that 
most of the teachers in our schools and acade- 
mies have been taught ph3*8iology in the old 
way ; and many of them have never even seen 
the inside of a frog. The3' greatly over-esti- 
mate the difficulties of such dissections and 
experiments, and do not appreciate that the 
sight of the real organ or process is worth 
more to the pupil than an hour's study of text- 
books or charts. If the teacher will once try 
fairly the experiment of following these direc- 
tions, he will be surprised at the small amount 
of extra work caused, and at the enthusiasna 



60 



SCIENCE. 



[YoL. III., No. 40. 



which they call forth in his class. The figures 
of the book are large and clear : in one or two 
of the plates so much has been attempted that 
the3' appear, at first sight, confhsed ; but this 
is a slight blemish in a book worthy, in other 
respects, of all commendation. The book is 
well fitted, in the language of the author in his 
preface, to *' prepare the student for the work 
of subsequent daily life by training the observ- 
ing and reasoning faculties." 



PACKARD'S BRIEFER ZOOLOGY. 

Zodloqy. By A. S. Packard, jun. New York, 
^o/f, 1883. 6+334p.,iUustr. 16o. 

TuE Zoolog}' of the same series as the pre- 
ceding is also an abridgment of and intro- 
ductory to the larger text-book by the same 
author. Of the 315 pages of the text, only 
130 are devoted to invertebrates: of the 180 
pages devoted to vertebrates, many are occu- 
pied by large and very ornamental but hardly 
useful pictures. Of about 300 cuts, 90 are 
devoted to birds and mammals, and 40 to fish : 
of these a few are anatomical, the rest illus- 
trations. The removal of many of these cuts 
would leave room for more print, without affect- 
ino" the attractiveness of the book. The book 
islntended for young pupils, and yields to the 
common prejudice that birds and mammals are 
most interesting to this class. Yet precisely 
these animals come least within their reach, 
and their study of birds especially involves 
far more memorizing than observation on the 
part of most 3'oung pupils. These same pu- 
pils, in one afternoon excursion, could collect 
scores of insects, in which Professor Packard, 
as his other books show, could easily interest 
them. But to insects proper only 16 pages 
are devoted. Here a few pages of tables for 
determining the families, at least with one or 
two of the most common and familiar species 
as examples under each, would encourage the 
young student to new search and obser\'a- 
tion. , , 

Of most of the lower types and classes the 
young student sees generally only one or two 
specimens, if any. Here clear, sharp, and exact 
definitions are needed to enable him to distin- 
guish between essential and non-essential char- 
acters. These we miss ; and here, as under 
certain types in the larger text-book, the stu- 
dent becomes bewildered in the attempt to 
burden his memory with a mass of, to him, 
equally important Oata. This is especially 
noticeable in the treatment of the difficult type 
of the Coelenterata, but more or less marked 



elsewhere. The points of affinity and differenoe 
between the succeeding types and the strnc- 
tural characteristics which form the basis of 
classification in the subdivision of those types 
are not clearly or sharply stated. There are 
no grand outlines to direct the student's atten- 
tion. In a text-book intended exclusively for 
use in the laboratory, it is perhaps admissible 
that t}'pical and specific characteristics should 
appear side by side, and with equal emphasis ; 
in a tex^book designed largely for use in the 
classroom as well, it is a great defect. These 
outlines are little, if any, clearer in the abridg- 
ment than in the larger book. The anatomical 
outs are generally good, but they are most of 
them small, much smaller than those of the elk 
or moose ; and in some of them so much has 
been attempted that the organs are sometimes 
diflScult to trace. Larger and more schematio 
drawings would have been more useful. Bar- 
ring certain of these defects. Professor Pack- 
ard's larger work is the best text-book which 
we have for use in our higher schools and col- 
leges, but it certainly has not been improved 
by abridgment. 



MARIE'S HISTORY OF THE SCIENCES. 

Histoire des sciences mathiimatiques et physioues. Par 
M. Maximilien Marie. Tome I. De Thalto 
kDiophante. Paris, (7atiMi«r- 7i7/ar«, 1883. 286 
p. 8°. 

This volume is devoted to the mathematics 
of the Greeks, and covers nearlv a thousand 
years (640 B.C. to 825 A.D.). 

The author di\ides this time into three peri- 
ods, roughly distinguished by the nature of the 
work done in geometry ; the first period (640 
B.C. to 310 B.C.) being that in which no at- 
tempt was made to apply arithmetic to geome- 
try, but exclusive attention was given to dealing 
with and comparing concrete magnitudes with- 
out reference to their numerical measures. 
During the second period (310 B.C. to 150 
B.C.), numerical measures of complex magni- 
tudes began to be investigated, — for example, 
Archimedes obtained a flrst approximation fop 
the ratio of the circumference of the circle to 
its diameter ; but the numerical work was merely 
incidental, and was usually suggested by some 
problem connected with astronomy : while, ia 
the third period (150 B.C. to 325 A.D.), rea- 
soning on concrete magnitudes began to be 
largely replaced by reasoning on their measures, 
and geometry developed mainly in the direction 
of trigonometry. 

At the beginning of the history of each of 
these periods is an introductory chapter eon- 



January 11, 1884] 



SCIENCE, 



tainiog a brief rhumi of the principal char- 
acteristics of the period, together with a short 
account of the progress made during the period 
in each of the branches of the mathematical sci- 
ence of the time, — geometry, arithmetic, phys- 
ics^ and astronomy. This is followed by the 
biographies of the mathematicians and physi- 
cists of the period and an analysis of their 
work. 

The three introductory chapters, taken to- 

kgether^ form a short and interesting history of 

I Greek mathematics; while the biographies are 

[ sufQciently fuU^ and the analyses are remai'ka- 

blj clear and concise. 



SECONDARY BATTERIES. 

The ehemistfy of (he secondaty hatieries of Plantt and 
Faure. By J, H. Gladstone and Alfbkd 
TftiJiic. London, i/acmt//an |r Co., 188^. (Na- 
ture series.) 11 + 59 p. 16°* 

The valuable papers of Gladstone and Tribe, 
originally printed in Nature^ have been pub- 
lished in a collected form in the present volume, 
I which contains much information us to the 
chemical actions going on in the Plants and 
Fanre batteries. In successive chapters the 
authors consider the subjects of local action, 



the chemical changes occuning in the charge 
and discharge of the cell, the function of the 
sulphate of lead formed, and some minor top- 
ics. The chapter devoted to the function of 
the sulphate of lead, which the authors have 
shown to be formed in the normal action of 
the battery, is especially interesting. In the 
formation of a Faure cell, sulphate of lead, 
originally produced by local action, is oxidated 
to a peroxide on one plate, and reduced to 
spongy metallic lead on the other ; and, when 
the cell is discharged, lead sulphate is finally 
produced on both plates. On recharging the 
battery, the authors consider that the lead sul- 
phate is again oxidated on one plate, and 
reduced on the other, as when the cell was 
originally formed, — a point which is a very 
practical one, as the lead sulphate, if not oxi- 
dated, will soon prove fatal to the usefulness of 
the cell. This view, announced in the original 
papers, is substantiated by a number of recent 
experiments, notwithstanding the doubts that 
have been thrown upon it ; so that, in charging i 
and recharging, the plate of the cell is not 
corroded, it is also shown that the fact ' 
noticed by Flante, that elevation of tempera- 
ture facilitates the formation of the cell, is 
explained by the more rapid formation of lead 
sulphate under these conditions. 



RECENT PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



Taoax brotlian' instltutdy PooglikeepiMi 

J>€e. S. — Professor W. B. Dwight gave the results 
of a recent re^examination by himself of Van Duzer*8 
Iron-mine^ Cornwall aUitlan» Orange coiuily, N.Y. 
Here a low ridge presents a ted rock of sandstone and 
coDglomerate, running into red shales to the souths 
in contact conformably with a highly fossillferoiu 
Ihaaestone in nearly vertical layers. No other com- 
Hnation of the kind Is apparent in this region ^ and 
thsn wai much speculation among early geologists 
•a to the horkon. W. 6. Kogera called the red rock 
fibetriassico-jurassic sandstone; Dr. W. Horton con- 
sidered it the Medina group, and assigned the lime- 
stone some place lower; Prof, Mather, with some 
[doubt, ccncurred with Horton, and further assigned 
Elbe Umeatone to the Catskill sbaly limestone. Prof, 
"Dwight, aft^r a careful study of the locality, is satis- 
fied that the red rocks arc of the Medina epochs and 
the limestones lower Hehlerberg; but by the fossils 
^lie identifleSf in addition to the Catskill shaly lime- 
•tone» the tentacuUte limestone and the lower pen- 
Ltamerous groups. He finds no foundation for the 
Itatements of Horton, indorsed by Mather, that the 
i ore occurs in layers between the layers of lime- 
one. On the other hand, it Is a bed of Itmonlte 



formed at the base of the ridge superficially, as in 
other iron -mines of the region, by the decomposition 
of the red ferruginous shales at the junction with the 
limestone* 

Five hundred and sixty-two specimens, represent^ 
ing various departments of natural history and 
archeology, were reported to the museum by the 
secretary. 

Fraaklin iattitate, Fhiladelphiib 

December 19. — A special committee, appointed to 
consider the propriety of recommending the c<^unc|ls of 
the city of Philadelphia to pass an ordinance requir- 
ing steam-engineers to pass an ejEamination and to , 
be provided with a license, as evidence of their com-^ 
potency, made majority and minority reports; the 
first taking the view that such action on the part of 
the society would he inexpedient, afid the latter 
recommending such action. The reports were freely 
discussed, jtro and con; and the subject was post- 
poned for final action until the stated meeting in 
January, 

Mr. G, Morgan Eldddge then read a paper on * Thi 
British patent designs and trade-marks act of 18881 
as affecting American inventors,' explaining the pro* 
visions of the new law to go Into operation on the 1st 



52 



SCIENCE. 



lYoi* IIL9 Mo. 49. 



of January, 1884, and especially clearing up many 
points wherein the technical journals, which had 
favorably reviewed its provisions, had erred. 

Prof. E. J. Houston introduced Mr. Patrick B. 
Delaney of New York, who thereui>on described in 
detail his lately invented system of synchronous- 



multiplex telegraphy, illustrating the same with the 
aid of detail-drawings and lantem-slidea of eMentlal 
portions of his apparatus. Mr. Delaney's system, as 
thus far perfected, permits of the sending of seventy- 
two separate and distinct messages over a single wire 
simultaneously. 



INTELLIGENCE FROM AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC STATIONS. 



OOVBBNMBNT OBOANIZATION8. 

Geologiotl nurvey. 

Geological field-work. — Mr. J. S. Diller, in his 
reconnaissance of the Cascade Kange, passed through 
the Dalles, at the north end of the range, and fol- 
lowed it southward into California. The following 
Is an abstract of the preliminary report made by him 
to Capt, C. E. Dutton, who has charge of the investi- 
gation of the volcanic rocks of that region. Ande- 
sites and basalts are found on the west side; and 
at Oregon City Uie lavas have a thickness of three 
hundred feet. The massive rocks stretch far south- 
ward towards Salem; and on them rest extensive 
alluvial deposits which form fertile plains in the val- 
ley of the Willamette, French's Prairie being one 
of them. Between Salem and Albany the eruptive 
rocks also occur; but at Jefterson, a short distance 
north of Albany, the miocene sandstone occurs, and 
is extensively used in the neighborhood for build- 
ing-purposes. From Albany to Eugene City, both 
eruptive rocks and the miocene sandstones occur, 
the latter being well exposed at Springfield and 
before reaching the Calapooia Mountains. Thirty- 
five miles south of Eugene City the miocene sand- 
stone is frequently penetrated by basaltic and other 
eruptive rocks. Near Cottage Grove the sandstone 
resembles somewhat a tufa, but contains coal, like 
the miocene north-east of Lebanon. Coal with a 
thickness of five feet is said to occur at the great 
bend of Pit River, but was not seen by Mr. Diller, 
as he did not visit the locality. The Calapooia Moun- 
toins are made up mainly of recent volcanic rocks, 
especially on the north side. Fragmental rocks are 
found on the south; but whether they are paleozoic, 
or not, remains in doubt. These beds extend to near 
Oakland, where well-marked tertiary api)ears. South 
of Rosebury is a belt two miles in width, of olivine 
enstatite rocks, altered, for the most part, into serpen- 
tine. It is bounded on the south by a highly tilted 
conglomerate, which resembles the millstone grit of 
the Alleghanies. No fossils were found in it, but on 
petrographical grounds it was referred to the creta- 
ceous, which Mr. Diller says has not been record 

rated by a belt of crystalline stratified rocks -the 
eastward continuation of the Rogue River Moun 
tains South of Myrtle Creek, sehis^seSs icZ 
f. r '. *'!?!? ^^^^"^^^ branch of Umqua R ver 
to Caflonville, where crystalline schistose ricks for^ 
the prominent mountain ridge through T^ich t^ 
gorge of Canon Creek is cut. \hese Sks il'^e- 



trated by a granite which has probably been land- 
surface for a long time. This granite outcropt fre- 
quently in southern Oregon and northern CalifomlA, 
especially in the Siskiyou MounUins, which are prin- 
cipally made up of it : it also forms Trinity Moun- 
tain and Castle Rock. 

The crystalline rocks representing the eastern pro- 
longation of the Itogue River Mountains are limited 
on the south by the supposed cretaceous rocks of 
Rogue River valley. Mr. Diller thinks that both 
cretaceous and tertiary rocks are embraced in the 
section seen on the north-east side of Stewart's 
Creek (a tribuUry of liogue River extending east- 
ward from Jacksonville). These rocks extend Into 
California, where they are covered by the great flow 
of recent eruptive rocks in the plain north of Mount 
Shasta. 

Little Shasta valley, especially between Shasta post- 
office and Mount Shasta, is an extensive plain cot- 
ered by a flow of basic lava like that on the great 
plain cast of the Cascade Range in central Oregon. 
Mount Shasta rises above a similar plain. 

At the Haystacks, a short distance north of the 
base of Shasta, granite f>ccur8. Between Moont 
Shasta and Lassen s Peak, Cambrian, mesozoic, and 
tertiary occur. Around the eastern base of Shasta to 
Burney valley, and westward over the mountain 
crest to Buzzard Roost, little else is seen than basic 
volcanic rocks. Four miles west of Fumaceville the 
road leaves Cow Creek, and ascends to the 'plain/ 
which is covered with angular lM>wlders and thin soil 
underlaid by coarse conglomerate. From Buzzard's 
Roost a cafion along Cow Creek is cut in carbonifer* 
ous limestone and other altered scdimenUry rocks. 

At Fumaceville, in the metaniorphic rocks found 
west of the limestone, mining operations have been 
carried on; but at present the oi>enings are deserted. 
Farther west, cretaceous (?) strata come in, dipping 
towards the Sacramento; and above them, tertiary 
rocks full of fossils. The latter extend to the alluTlal 
plain of the Sacramento. ^ „ ^ 

The Cascade Range, constituted almost wholly of 
basic lavas, is a low, broad arch, not less than 
seventy-five miles in diameter, rising from 3,800 Isfl* 
at Summit Prairie, near Mount Rood, t« 5,e(K) feet at 
Crater I ake Alx>"t the head of Deschutes River the 
generalVlain, which more or less gradually meigea 
into the slope of the mountains, has a height of 4,705 
fee^ ThXghout Oregon this plain lies about a 
thousand feet ^clow the general ^^^^ 
and Imth are formed of lava sheets ansing fma 
£yx^L^ions. There are numerous topog^pM. 



Jastaby 11, ISAt.l 



SCIENCE. 



53 



cal etenients on ibe broad arch produced by local 
extrtisions» or subsequent erosion; lava bavitig lioen 
poured from many crattirs that rise from eiglit liuij- 
dred lo eiglit thousimd feet above the arch, fonning 
tktk Irregular aeries of ridges having here and there a 
radiiJ arrangement. Some are on a Line, as if from 
a f^ommon fissure; but, for the most part^ they are 
irregular in distribution. The great i)eakA of the 
range are all remnants of old craters. The larger 
ones form the moat prominent peaks of the system, 
and» aUhough post-mlocene in age, arc older than 
many of the smaller ones, which are mainly cinder* 
cones, which retain their crater-form more or leas 
|H3rfectly* As a rule, also, the latter are basaltic, 
while the chief mass of the larger ones is andesUic* 

While Pit River, and perhaps some of its promi- 
nent tributaries, as well as the Umqua and Hogue 
llTertf are examples of antecedent drainage, it is 
probable that tlie Klamath and Columbia rivers, with 
their tributaries, are, in part at least, consequent 
However, the trip was too hasty to make completely 
trustworthy observations on this point* 

— During July, August, aiid 8«ptember, Dr. F. V. 
Haydeu, with Dr. A. C. Peaie as an assistant, made 
a geological reconnaissance along the line of the 
Northern Pacific railroad from Bismarck, Dakota, to 
Helena^ Montana. Oeoiogical sections were made 
at various points, especially with reference to the line 
between the Fox Hills cretaceous and the Laramie 
group. Collections of fossil plants and sliells weni 
made at Sims, Gladstone, and Little Missouri, in 
Dakota, and at Glendive, Miles City, Billings, the 
Bull Mountains, Stillwater, Livingston, Bozemwi, 
and other placed, in Montana. Tlie various cool- 
lufnes along the line of the road were visited and 
examined, as were also the borings for artesian wells 
at Bismarck, Dakota, and at Billings, Montana. 

STATE INSTITUTIONS. 
TTidvsrtity of E&oaas, Lswnnos. 

The new chemical laboratory. — The regent* of the 
university have wisely provided for the increased 
growth and importance of the chemical department 
by the construction of a building for laboratory pur- 
poses. It is built of native limestone, witli dressed 
stone iind brick trimmings, and, as may be seen from 
the engraving, is in the form of a T* 

The part extending east and west is 80 by 35 feet, 
and the L north of this is 40 feet square. The main 
laborator}' and lecture^roora are finished to the rafters, 
and all the rooms on the main floor are provided with 
additional tight and abundant ventilation by sky- 
lights* The ground-flr»or rooms are 12 feet in the etear, 
and well lighted. These are occupied by an assay- 
' room with crucible and mutlie furnaces and complete 
Apparatus for the fire assay of ores, and also by labo- 
ratories for blow-pipe work. 

The east wing of the main floor, which is 14 feet to 
the eaves, is occupied by a lecture-room, seated in 
amphiUteatre style, and capable of accommodating 
from 80 to 100 studeu t s. In addition to the ventilating 
apparatus al>ove mentioned, the plan includes flues 



in the wall, connected with hoodS| and lioods in the 
centre of the main laboratory, wbleh ftre ventilated 
by glazed pipes terminating al)ove the roof. 



OttOUND-FUKlB PLAH. 

A. lire MMfty room: B. ■toreroom; C, meullargloiit find blow- 
pipe UboraLory ; D, wet ftMmy room. 

All the rooms are supplied with running water, and 
gas, and heated by steam* The laboratory intended 
for qualitative students has over 25,000 cubic feet of 
air-space, and is intended for 54 students, each to be 
supplied witli cupboards, sets of reagent bottles, etc. 
The tables are to be furnished with slate tops, and, in 
the quantitative room, with filter*pumps. 



E^ 



Or 



I " ^ "J 



B 



^^ F^^ 



ȴCOXD-rLOOR PLAX. 

A, wajhroom; B, lecturf-rootn ; L\ storfroom; D« ipedAll«U* 
Ittbormtory; E, bAiancc roum; K, profo««vr'» olfioe; G, tiuall- 
tatlve 1*borotory ; U, porch, t* nUJrwJiy, 

Protection from fire Is insured by means of a large 
tank in the attic, from which pipes supply the differ* 
ent rooms. 



JJL^VABT 



SCIENCE. 



55 



BwiUerland. The difference of levels at Triesto and 
' AmsterdaDif measured ttd Silesia and Bavaria^ ap- 
pears to be 0.5& metre. Each of these fotir results 
(0.72, 0.60, O.SO, and 0.59) having a probable error of 
0,1 metre, their accordance is quite satisfactory; and 
we may admit thus that the average level of the 
i^fediterranean is in fact lower by 0.7 metre than that 
fof the Atlantic 

— Many years ago the late Mr« Leonard Homer 
Dmmunicated to the Royal society the results of a 
eriea of borings which he bad caused to be made in 
||be upper part of the delta of the Kile, with a view 
ascertaining the antiquity of the civilization of 
fSgypt Since that time, Flgari Bey, an Italian geolo- 
gist in the service of the Egyptian government, has 
made and published the results of a large series of 
borings effected in different parts of the delta; but 
his work is hardly on a level with the requirementa 
of modem science. It has been thought advisable, 
therefore, by the British government, to take ad- 
vantage of the presence of lis troops in Egypt In 
order to carrj' out a series of borings across the mid- 
dle of the delta^ in the full expectation that such 
borings, if made with proper care, and carried down 
to the solid rock, will afford information of the most 
important character, and will throw a new light upon 
the natural and civil histor>' of this unique country, 
r Instructions have been sent to the officer command- 
t)g the engineers to undertalve the operations; and it 
i hoped, that, before long, information will reach us 
fhich will be of no less interest to the archeologist 
^than to the geologist. 

— The committee of the British association for the 
ivaocement of science, consisting of Profs. G. H» 
)arwfn and J. C« Adams, for the harmonic analysis 
of tidal observations, made its report at the South- 
port meeting of the associatiou last year (lS8o). Pro* 
essor Darwin, who is the author of the report, states, 
bat, although it is drawn up in a form probably dif- 
fering widely from that which it would have had if 
Professor Adams had been the atithor, the latter 
grees with the correctness of the methods pursued. 
he general scope of the paper is to form a manual 
for the reduction of tidal observations by the har- 
monic analysis inaugurated by Sir William Thomson, 
ad carried out by the previous committee of the 
tiation; and it is intended to systematize the 
^position of the theory of the harmonic analysis, to 
omplete the methods of reduction, and to explain 
the whole process. The method of mathematic&l 
treatment differs considerably from that of Professor 
Thomson; he having followed in particular, and ex- 
tended to the diurnal tides, Laplace's method of 
eferring each tJde to the motion of an aatre Jlcti/ in 
tie heavens, considering that these fictitious satellites 
\ helpful in forming a clear conception of the equl- 
^Ubrium theory of tides. Professor Darwin, however, 
having found the fiction rather a hlnderance tlian 
otherwise, has departed from this method, and con- 
dected each tide with an * argument,' or an angle 
defeasing uniformly with the tiuie^ and giving by its 
'"hourly Increase the * speed * of the tide. In the 



method of the ostreM flct^s, the * speed ' is the differ- 
ence between the earth's angular velocity of rotation 
and the motion of the fictitious satellite amongst the 
stars. The committee practically found itself engaged 
in the question of the reduction of Indian tidaJ ob- 
servations; since it is only in that country that any 
exUL?nBive system of observation, with systematic 
publication of results, extsta. Professor Darwin has 
discussed the entire subject with Major A. W. Bairdj 
R,B,, the officer in charge, at Poona, of the tidal de- 
partment of the survey of India; and their general 
agreement as to the modifications to be made in the 
notation of the old reports appears to insure a har- 
monious course of future procedure* Major Balrd 
returned to India in the spring of 1883, and lately 
began revising all the published results, so as to bring 
them into the uniform system here recommended. 

— The southern part of the peninsula of California 
has recently been explored by Dr. H, Ten Kate, who 
reports {Bet. (fethnoffr.^ ii. 321-:^26) that there are no 
longer Indians of pure race dwelling in that region. 
The blood of the ancient Pericuis and Coras flows, it 
is true, in a great number of m^tis; but they resemble 
the Spaniard far more than they do the Indian. In 
the graves of the dead few relics are found. Here 
and there on the cliffs are rock-pa hi tings, a few olj 
which Dr. Ten Kate reproduces. The paper close 
with the account of a discovery in Sonora. M* 
Emeric has found upon the shore of the sea, about 
ten metres above tlie water-mark^ under inuumerablej 
blocks of lava, objects resembling fishes and turtle 
cut out of marble and a hard green rock. He 
found several stone knives smoothly polished. 

— The Society of naturalists of Moscow has sent 
Kudriaotzeff to examine hi detail the geology of the 
region drained by the upper waters of the Oka. Do- 
kuchaeff undertakes similar studies for the region 
traversed by the Volga. Both those investigations 
are made at the special request of the authorities of 
the provinces named ; and their results^ combined with 
those already derived from the studies of Eusslan 
geologists for other districts, will go far toward a basisj 
for a satisfactory geological map of this part of 
Europe. 

— The calculation by Gladlsheff, of Stebnitzki's 
astronomical data for the posltiun of Ka-uchlt Kala, 
the capital of the Merv oasis, has been concluded, and 
places it In 37° 35' 19" north latitude, and 60«> 27' 20'- 
east longitude, from Paris, — a position tolerably near 
that derived from older and less perfect observations. 

— Some interesting facts regarding the public col- 
lections of American archeology in the United States 
are given by Henry Phillips, jun., in a paper to the 
American philosophical society. Judging by this 
report, there are six museums of the first class In this 
country, containing upwards of five thousand speci- 
mens, — the Academy of natural sciences in Philadel- 
phia, the Davenport academy of natural sciences, 
the National museum at Washington, the Feabodf. 
museum of Aroerlcaa archeology and ethnology at| 
Cambridge, the Peabody academy of science at Salem, 



66 



SCIENCE. 



IVou III., Na 49. 



and the Wisconsin historical society at Madison. To 
these must doubtless be added the American museum 
of natural history at New York, and the Peabody 
museum at New Haven, from which he received no 
reports. 

Four museums should apparently be grouped in a 
second class as important ones, but not so extensive 
as those of the first class; namely, Amherst college, 
the New London county historical society, the Wis- 
consin natural history society of Milwaukee, and the 
Wyoming historical and geological society at Wilkes- 
barre, Penn. Eleven other museums are reported to 
have collections of considerable interest. To judge 
from the statements given in this paper, the Peabody 
museum at Cambridge is the largest in the country. 

A list of twenty-five other institutions believed to 
have collections, and from which no information was 
received, is appended. We have already referred to 
two. It may be remarked concerning these, that the 
Boston society of natural history has no such collec- 
tions, and that there is no institution bearing the 
title * Academy of natural sciences, Baltimore, Md.' 

— Dr. Greorge M. Beard and Mr. Herbert Spencer 
almost simultaneously sound the alarm against our 
modern worry in the words, *The gospel of work 
must make way for the gospel of rest.' An English 
writer, signing himself E. S., protests, in the Journal 
of science, against a theory of civilization which makes 
the acquisition of material wealth almost its sole 
object, and which brands all men not engaged in such 
pursuit as idlers. *'We have under its inspiration 
stripped our own country, over a great and increas- 
ing part of its surface, of every beautiful feature. 
We have blackened its skies with smoke-c loads, pol- 
luted its air with sulphurous acid, filled its streams 
with liquid filth, covered its hills with * spoil-banks,' 
blighted its green fields, cut down its woods, and ex- 
tirpated many of its most lovely animal and vegetable 
species. Our cities, from London downwards, pre- 
sent, as tlieir main feature, meanness, monotony, 
and ugliness by the square mile; rarely, indeed, re- 
lieved by a street or a single building upon which the 
eye may rest without pain." The diseases caused by 
over-work, public morals, and the effect of our system 
on true intellectual progress, receive vigorous treat- 
ment. The author concludes that our industrial civ- 
ilization is found wanting in every particular. " It 
has broken down more rapidly and more disastrously, 
even, than the military regime which preceded it, and 
will be found to have left upon the human race even 
deeper marks of its failure." 

^ About half way between the mouth of the Santa 
Cruz River and the base of the Andes, and situated 
along the left bank, Signor Moreno has discovered an 
eocene deposit rich in mammalian remains. It lies 
at the base of an elevated terrace some eight hundred 
and twenty-five feet in height, and is made up of 
alternate lacustrine and marine strata (eocene, mio- 
cene, and pliocene), whose summit is mantled by 
an extensive accumulation of glacial detritus. The 
most important find heifi was the skull of a huge 
mammalian named by Barmeister ' Astrapotherium 



patagonicum,' and by him supposed to be closely re- 
lated to Brontotherium, but which Moreno (under 
the new name of Mesembriotherium Broeae) considers 
to be a generalised type of marsupial, probably aquatic 
in its habits, and having certain characters in the 
skull to ally it with the Camivora. In the same de- 
posit were found the remains of a true marsupiaL 
At a somewhat newer horizon, Moreno found the 
skulls of two genera of small-sized mammalians, 
which form a direct transition between the rodents 
and toxodonts. No traces of either miocene or eocene 
edendates were detected. In a deposit apparently 
transitional between the cretaceous and eocene were 
found two molars, with part of the cranium, of an ani- 
mal (Mesotherium Marshii) whose true position has 
not as yet been al)solutely ascertained, but which ap- 
pears to represent the most ancient South American 
mammalian thus far discovered. Contrary to the 
opinion of geologists before him, Moreno considers 
Patagonia as the region whence the mammalia (late 
tertiary and quaternary) of the more northern regions 
have been derived. Instead of there having been a 
late southward migration into Patagonia, it is con- 
tended that a northerly migration set in with the 
advent of the glacial period; of which last, it is fur- 
ther claimed, there is convincing evidence. Patago- 
nia is believed to have been united with the Antarctic 
continent on the one hand, and with Australia on 
the other. 

— One of the reasons which led to the construction 
of inductive coils of the large diameter, employed 
by Professor Rowland in his present work on the 
ohm, is the hope of using them in a determination 
of the ohm according to the method of Lorentz. 
Their large size will admit of the use of a revolving- 
disk of more than half a metre in diameter. 

— The aukj a quarterly journal of ornithology, the 
continuation of the Nuttall bxdletin, as the organ of 
the American ornithologists' union, begins with Jan- 
uary, 1884, under the editorial supervision of Mr. 
Allen, with Dr. Elliott Coues, Mr. Robert Ridgway, 
Mr. William Brewster, and Mr. Montague Chamber- 
lain as associate editors, and with Messrs. Estes & 
Lauriat as publishers, necessitating the same general 
character as heretofore the Xutiall bulletin has borne, 
but with increased size and enlarged facilities. 

— The Saturday lectures under the auspices of the 
Anthropological society and the Biological society of 
Washington will be delivered this year, as heretofore, 
in the lecture-room of the U. S. national museum, 
Saturday afternoons, at half-past three o'clock, be- 
ginning Jan. 5. The series will include twelve oi 
more lectures, and will be divided into courses o' 
four lectures each. The programme for the fir 
course is herewith presented. The lectures are fr 
and the public are invited to attend. Jan. 6, B 
Grove K. Gilbert, Cliffs and terraces; Jan. 12, P; 
fessor Otis T. Mason, Child-life among savage $ 
uncivilized peoples; Jan. 19, Professor Edwan' 
Morse,* Social life among the Japanese; Jaa 
Major J. W. Powell, Win-tun mythology. 



FRIDAY, JANUARY IS. 1884. 



COMMENT AND CJilTlCfSM. 

The Philatlelpbiii local committee for the 
receptioQ of tlic Amcricau and Biilisli assoeiu- 
tioiis for llie advnneemeDt of science, which will 
meet in that city on the M of next September, 
is taking active steps to mnke the meeting a 
emoralile one. The well-known hospitulity 
K»f rhiliKlelphia, together with the unusual at- 
tractions oflered bj the comlnned meeting oi 
the two|^reat scientitic bodies, will tmdoubtcdiy 
secure a very large attendance. I'uder the 
auspices of the Franklin institute, an inter- 
national electrical exhibition will be opened 
simultaneously with the meeting of the asso- 
ciations, and a congress of electricians will at 
the same time be convened. Excursions of 
unusual interest and extent arc being plunncfK 
Hon. John Welsh is president, and Pmf. U. 
Carvill Lewis and Dr. E. J. Nolan seci*etanes, 
of the local committee, which consists of a 
hundred and fidy of the most intliteuttal citi- 
zens, representing all the prominent institu- 
tions of the city. Comnumicalions for the local 
cx)mmitlee should be addresse<l to its head* 
quarters, — the Academy of natural sciences. 
The meeting will probably be held in the build- 
ings of the University of Pennsylvania, which 
have been offered for that purpose. 



It is hinccrely to be hoped that the local com- 
mittee at Montreal will take no steps which, 
by excursions or otherwise, may prevent a full 
attendance at PhiUulelphia of members of the 
British association. The committees at Mon- 
treal and Philadelphia should work harmoni- 
ously, arrai»ging for coml>incd excursions at 
the close of the Philadelphia meeting. With 
the aid of the Montreal committee, the Pblla- 
del[»lnrt meeting can be made the most impor* 
tant scientific gathering that has ever been 
tield in this countr}'. 



Mil. Theodork Link, in tlie NaturnliHt for 
December, pleads forcibly for the betterment 
eg' zoological gardeuft. These oitlinarily are, 
indeed, to speak paradoxically, nothing but 
stationary travclUng*shows, — Barnura'a me- 
njigcrics cullc<l to a halt. What is re(]uired for 
the animals' happiness and health is obvious 
enough : but, as questions like the present are 
generally declde<l from man's jx>int of view, 
let us shill to that. The mission of these 
gardens, as Mr. Link says, is ostensibly '^the 
study and <lissemination of a knowletlge of the 
natiunl habits of the nnimat kingdotn. ** There- 
fore an opportunity for such habits among 
these animals is essential to the student visiting 
them. Perhaps most visitors, however, go for 
amusement t or for the (jleasure of ea*y instnic* 
tion. We go to see sometliing opposite to the 
re8trair)ts of otn' own civilization, to behold 
the wonders of untrammelled instincts* to en- 
Joy the beauties of free motion. Btit as it 
is, we seek n pleasure-gartlen. and llnd it a 
prison. We find no animated vigor there U> 
cheer and to excite us, but helpless misery too 
nuicli like the poorer side of human life. 



The great clilTlculty* it seems to us, is in 
attempting with limited means too big and mls- 
ccllaneous collections, im|>erfect, unsatisfac- 
tory, and uninstructivc, about in proportion to 
their excess of size. Would It not be better 
in a given half-acre to have a single pair of 
lions, or of any other much ndmired brute, 
rather than a subdued camel, a cranij>ed tiger, 
a dilapidated ostrich, and a discouraged croco- 
dile, all obliged to stand as nearly as possible 
on one leg, for want of an}' thing better to do? 
Any chance and inducement given to the ani- 
mals to breed naturally and frcelv, certainly 
might be a direct and valuable econom}* to any 
jEoological society in keeping up its stock. 



AccoitntKo to a commnnication made to the 
London section of the Society of chemical in- 



58 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 60 



dustr}' b}' Mr. Weldon, it does not seem 
that we are much nearer to cheap aluminium 
than we have been for a long time. A short 
time since, it was announced that a new 
method of production had been invented and 
was in use ; but Mr. Weldon says this inven- 
tion onl}' relates to the production of anhjjg- 
drous alumina from ix)tash alum ; and, if the 
method of obtaining this were fift}' per cent 
cheaper than that of M. Pechiney of Salindres, 
it would onl}' cheapen aluminium b}- five per 
cent. - 

Apropos of the present discussion of the 
excessive requirements of Greek and Latin in 
our colleges, let us not forget the neglect of 
English. One of the reasons most commonly 
given for the stud}' of the ancient languages 
is tliat they aid the understanding of our own. 
This is undoubtedl}' true, but they are not the 
best aids ; and if a good understanding of Eng- 
lish be the desired end, as it certainly- should 
be, there can be no question that it will be 
sooner and better attained b}' the study of 
English itself. The derivation of our words 
can be ver}* satisfactorily taught along with ad- 
vanced spelling, and the meaning of a large 
number of roots, prefixes, and suflixes, can 
then be acquired, so as to give most practi- 
cal assistance to the comprehension of English ; 
much better, we venture to say, than if etymo- 
logical study be limited to the languages from 
which the roots, prefixes, and sufiixes come, 
and direct statement of their use in building 
up our own language be omitted. It is cer- 
tainly very common to find students who have 
' passed ' in Greek and Latin still unable to 
explain the meaning of not unusual scientific 
terms. Indeed, so large a share of the time 
allowed to linguistic stud}' is now given to 
Greek and Latin considered simpl}' as dead 
languages, without reference to their living 
descendants, that no time is left in which the 
general student can learn what he certainly 
should know about his mother- tongue. 



There is pressing need of collegiate study of 
English as a language : and few subjects would 
be more attractive than this might be made by 
a lecturer who would tell his class where and 



when the language attained enough of its pres- 
ent characteristics to be entitled to its present 
name, what were its ancestors, and how they 
mingled and changed their form in producing 
their descendant ; who would describe how the 
language itself has varied in recent centuries, 
and how its unsystematic spelling, so unlike 
the phonetic simplicity of Italian and Spanish, 
depends on its complex origin ; who would 
point out the historic reasons for its depend- 
ence on earlier languages for words expressing 
abstract ideas, in contrast with the relative 
unabhdngfgkeit of German. All this would no 
more require a knowledge of ancient or foreign 
languages than an appreciation of elementary 
lectures on chemistry needs an understanding 
of organic analysis ; but it would give a very 
dittbrent knowledge of English from that de- 
rived from the study of Latin declensions and 
Greek accents. We cannot doubt that it would 
be of great service to all who have to write out 
what they think, and that it would attract to 
philological studies many students who are 
now repelled from them. 

We understand that the scientific work of 
the Army signal-ofllce is likely to form a 
feature of increasing imiwrtance in the future 
development of that department, and that Gen. 
Ilazen desires to secure the services of the 
best talent in the country. It would seem that 
the study of mathematics, mechanics, and 
physics, as bearing on meteorology, has been 
sadly neglected in our universities ; and it is 
by no means easy to find any who have 
been studying the sciences with a view to the 
pursuit of investigations in meteorology . As 
a general rule, those who have studied and 
practised astronomy for a few years are the 
best prepared to advance meteorology. The 
fine library of the signal-office, its unequalled 
mass of observations and maps, its courses 
of lectures, its annual classes of men under 
instruction at Fort ^lyer, its collection of appa* 
ratus, all offer to young meteorologists oppor- 
tunity and stimulus to farther advancement; 
while the publications of the ofllce oflfer eveiy 
facility for making known the results of origi- 



Jaku^uy 18, 18W.) 



SCIENCE. 



59 



nal iDvesUgMtlons, Even mctoorologlsU uul* 
side the olllce, or employed by it as consuliirig 
8pecia]ist9« may find it to their ailvaDtoge to 
avail themselves of this opporlutilty for [»ubli- 
cation. Considering the great AiUire evidently 
in 8toi*e Tor meteorology, it is not aurprising 
that Professor Abbe is, ag we und erst and, dili- 
gently inijuiring for tlkose who are willing to 
come to bis assistance in the etfort to develop 
a B^^'Btematic^ dciluetive, and exact science of 
meteorology. We eommeud this sul)joet to 
those whose studies have taken this direction. 
There are neede<l the investigator, the teacher, 
and the ex|>ert consulting-meteorologist, pre- 
I melv as in other branches of science. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR, 

writrr** nttmw m in nil cti«#* r*quirtd tiM proof &/giHHi /aiik. 

Chemical geolo§7. 
It Appears to me^ ilmt U\ his intereatinf? comnumi- 
I CAtion III the number of Scivnce for Dec. 28, Pro- 
fcaaor Wiiiclit II has fall«n into an orror» whirh» while 
dimiiilslihig by more tJian onc-c»lgUlh his r-jtimate of 
the spciihir increase of Uie rarth s iniv^s, is yet more 
Seri(Hi3 from the ^tcunl-poii»t of chemical ^oolojify. In 
determining th<- lummutof carhon dloxitie abstracted 
from rho :itmt>s|*heie and fixed jn the earth's t;rnst» 
be e*timateR» Hr>t, that representee J hy the carl^onate 
roeki {iiinestoae. dolumlte, etc, ), and, second, tjhit re- 
I quired for the decomposition of an assiimcd thick- 
' DPSS of decomposable silicate rocks; and hoth these 
amounts are iticluded in his grand total. Hut tliis 
\b certainly had l>onk-kee|iintf. for a pctrtion of the 
carhon dioxicie is counted twit'e. Th«j decay of the 
silicate rocks is a iieces^iary aiiiecedenr of the forma- 
tion of the carbonate rocks; and the carbon dioxide 
of the latter is prt!cise(y the* same as that which has 
previouBly deconi^wsed the former. In Rcneral terms, 
this jLfrandest of all chemical proce*ses proceeds as 
follows: (he carbnn dioxi<le of the aimnsfihere de- 
composeF (he felspars* hornblende* anijite, miciH, etc, 
of the silicate rock^, leavin;: the alumina and trou 
with the silica »« a more or fess ferruginous knoline, 
tml fortniniy: carbomilej^ of the alkalies and Mtkaline 
i*Hrlhs» which are carried away in sohuinn, and ul- 
timut*'ly reach the gea, where (he latter are deposited 
at lifneHtone and dolomite, an<l the fanner react with 
UiO calcium and inaj^'nesium chloiides of the sea- 
W»t4»r, producing; alkaline chlorides (chiefly common 
•alt) and more limestone and dolomite. As Dr. 
Hunt lias so clearly shown* the kaohne on the land, 
and unh m the sea, are merely incidental results of 
Ui8 fixation of the carbon dioxide of the ahuosphere 
In the carbonate rockf. W. <>. Cro»iiv. 

Osteology of the cormorant 

Or. Shufeldt'fH letter in Scimce {\L S22) calls for 
A few remarks. In relation to his limt ^ta(emeI1t. 
that * th'* ocelpifjil ■tyl*' of th*« cormorant Ih not an 
* lU'ick^^of the neck» 

ithijndich i««t dem 
i...;;^.^ V- ,;.;.,..,..,,, ..,,,i i . i,,...,ilus. abcr «uch uur 



dicsen heiden, ein an dem ofct>. 0uperiu» dur^di hunil 
masse verbundener* drcieckig pyramldenforinigeij, 
nach hinteii f^erichicter knochen, welcherdie ansatz- 
Iliiche derden kopf bewcji^enden iiiu*kelusox VLrgrofi- 
serti er ist ein sehueiiknochen und gehort nicht xum 
scbadel '■ (Thierreichs. 10). lei view of sueh emi- 
nent authority* it would seem that gtmiethiuj^ more 
than simple denial is retjuired to upset a state- 
ment accepted by anatomists for many years* It is 
worthy of note that Dr. Shufeldt does not mention 
the nature of the borte in his article, and that, in 
ignoring the point to which I took exception* he 
virtually acknowledges his mistake. It is difficult 
to understand how one who does not know the posi- 
tion of a bone is fjualified to exfiounrl its nature; and 
in all cases it is wise, if we would couvince, to give 
reasons for dissent from authorities. 

As to Ids socianl statement, that my Ideas of the 
morphology of the rotular process are wron^, 1 would 
simply remark tliai the ideas referred to are not mine, 
but tliose of Xitzsch, of Meckel* of Tiedemann, of 
Owen, of Selenka* and of Mivart, "and su^ijest tliat 
it would be appropriate t«» read sucli eminent autlior* 
Itics before ilisposing of them with an empirical de- 
nial. Dr. Shufeldt*8 paper clearly intimate* thiit the 
rotular iJroce^s of the divers is tlie homoloi:ue of tlie 
pateHa in other birds. The coexistence of the two 
dlsprova4 this by reductlo mi abaunlum. I would 
invite Dr. Shufeldt to quote the passjuje to which 
he refers when citing Owen as considering any pro^ 
cess of tlie tibia as the analogue of the patella. 

Lastly. Dr. hhufeldl strUes *' that, furtliermore* I 
find m)self misquoted more than once.'* I would 
remind Dr. Sliufeldt that I <iuotedhitn but once; and 
of the accuracy of this, any one may satisfy himself 
by referring to Sciencr^ li* ii42, 2d column, line 39. 

J. AmoUY .iKFFniEB, 

Electric time-signals. 

Your correspcmdent who describes his method of 
making electrical ^ignRl8 in a rt^cent number of 
Science (li, 8i3) can greatly simplify and thereby 
Improve his arrangement by Inserting withiTi the 
cltKrk a couple of thin metallic springs with platinum 
contacts, the circuit being completed by the pressure 
<jf the hammer on the * outwanl stroke.^ Tlie writer 
has had such an attachment to an ortlinary * pro- 
gramme clock ' in constant use for about ten years, 
as is doubtless the case with many others who have 
had occasion to distribute time. The signals are 
transmitted to several bui Mings, in one of wiiich an 
electric gong is struck, and in others a number of 
* vibrating ' bells are rung. 

Mercury contacts are generally troublesome. The 
arrangement described seems unnecessarily com- 
plicated : besides, It is difiicult to see the necessity for 
insulating the clock * on a square of plate glass.' 

M. 

Columbui* O. 

Capitalisatioii of names of formatious. 

The use of capitals is a literary rather than a scl- 
ent itic matter; but gi^ilogists, nevertheless, suffer liS 
a chws from the existing confusion iit regard to the 
iiame^ of formatiMns. 

AutJiors wliitare cojisistent wifb 0^,,..-- u--^ fh this 
matter fa) tin lv» I hr«*e classes. Ti class 

spt^ak of the Potsdam* and of tin i-, but 

of potsdam strata and carbon if er<>nM feU^it^i. In so 
dtdng they i^Ih%h (Im* nam**-^ of fonuatious as proper 
iioun««, bi»t refu*i' ' /i- projH?r adjectives. Thiaj 

pmiMlce iMuployn lUtnx not i)^!!^*^ jjf*' coun- 

l^nanced In our J,* .^,.,,-^ . we do not say ^crmitnl 



60 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. 111., No. sa 



idiom. Aiioth<*r objection is, that tlic jtractice intn>- 
duces a (listinction difficult to maintain on account of 
tlio graduation of the nominal into tlut adjective sense. 
'Tlic Carboniferous' may or may not imply some 
sucli noun as foiination, and the degree of such impli- 
cation i.s variable. 

Authors of the second gnmp speak of the Potsdam 
and Potsdam .strata, but of the carboniferous and 
carboniferous strata. The distinction thus made is 
etymologic, being based on the immediate derivation 
of tlie name of the formation. To this there are two 
objections. First, it is contrarj' to the analogies of 
the language, for capitalization is generally eontroll<?d 
by meaning. We speak of *the Pacific/ although 
the designation isetymologically acommon noun ; and 
we call the recently ])opular feminine waist-gear a 
jersey, although the designation is etymologically a 
proper n<>un. Second, it has t)ie eilVct of recalling 
attention continually to the derivation of names, and 
thus retaining their'connotative meaning. For mne- 
monic reasons, and for these only, it is convenient 
that nauK'S of formations should originally be conno- 
tative, but it is of prime importance that they should 
eventually become merely «lenotative. Tlier'e was a 
certain original utility in having * Potsdam* call to 
mind a place, and * carboniferous ' a chararter; but 
tlie names having become securely attached to their 
several fonnations. it is now imperatively demanded 
tliat each shall designate a certain portion of the strat- 
lgra])hic column and a certain portion of geologic time, 
without connotating place or composition, indeed, 
the reason wliy modern usage employs ge(»graphic 
tenns in the naming *)f new formatitms. instead of 
designating them by their physical characters, is that 
a minimum of connotation is thus secured frt>m the 
outset. 

Authors of the thinl class capitalize all nain<;s of 
formations, wlji'ther used as nouns or adjei-tivi's. and 
in so doing cseajH} these evils. The only objection I 
see to thrir practice is, that it elass«*s with proper 
nouns a gi'(»up of nf\nies which nay fairly be compared 
with other groups n«»t so ela^sc'd. Tbe dcniar<*alion 
lietwecn c<»mmon and proper nouns is «'^senlially 
somewhat obs<'ure: and the drawing of the line is 
largely a matter of practical convenience. It is note- 
worthy that no author wliatever has so drawn it as 
to inehhle all names of foinintions with common 
noun<. 

The capitalization of all fnrniation names luis the 
manifest advantage that it enal»les nne to say that the 
Carbon i I erous nicks are not tlu* only carboniferous 
rocks, or, in other uords, that it does not depriv** the 
genlogi^l of the imlepehdent use <»f words in<licalive 
of rock character which havt» been appropriated f«>r 
the names of furniations. If the use of capitals were 
altogeilier discarded in the desiirnalion of formations, 
this advantage would be lo^t, but another wt)uld be 
gained: for we should then be able lo sp»'ak of th«* 
rocks t^i /\)isdam wiihuut implying their y>oisdam 
age, (J. K. <iii.nKi:T. 

Remseu's 'Theoretical chemistry.' 

Will you kindly all«>w me to correct an error into 
which it seems that 1 f«'ll, in my notice of l*rofessor 
Kemsen's * Theoreiic.il chemistry' {Scicncp, ii. s-JO)? 
It cannot be denied that the statement, "Of the sub- 
stitution pro«lucts of benzene which contain three 
substituting groups, more than three varieties have 
been observed,*' is literally true. The context and 
form of expression were such that I could not but 
tliink this assertion was made of those derivatives in 
wliich the three substituting groups were alike. Had 
it occurred to me ttiat the statement was not thus lim- 



ited, I certainly should not have pronounced it rmsh, 
but so cautious and incomplete that it must inevita- 
bly mislead even tlie most careful reader. 

The ckitio. 

Bynchronism of geological formatioiia. 

I trust that you will permit me a little more space 
to reply to the* further remarks of Mr. Nugent on this 
subject {Sclencff iii. ;J3), seeing that your correspond- 
ent has failed to grasp the point wliich I bad in- 
tended to elucidate in my last communication. 

Mr. Nugent is correct when he contends that I rest 
my case on the non-occurrence of • evidences of in- 
versions; ' and, if my line of argument based on this 
fact fails to meet with his api>roval, I sincerelv regret 
it. Paleontology, as far as I am aware, has thus far 
failed to show a single une(|uivocal case of faunal 
inversion such as I have indicated ; nor does there ap- 
pear at the present time very much likelihood of its 
ever being able to do so. Nor would the discovery 
of a solitary instance materially affect the question, 
inasmuch as, U]x>n the theory of very broad contem- 
poraneity suggested by Huxley, instances of inversion 
ought to be about as numerous as those of non-inver- 
sion. My courteous critic admits that ** there is no 
reason why sucli instances of inversion should not 
have occurred over and over again,'* and that at the 
present time tlieir * occurrence is almost unknown;' 
but his api>eal to the ' imperfection of the geological 
record' (lK)tli geological and geographical), in expla- 
nation of the overwhelming negative testimony, will, 
I am afraid, scarcely meet tlie situation. 

The special cases referreilto — Harrande's colonies, 
and the intermixture of Silurian and Devonian, and 
Devonian and carbonifenms fos>ils in the old red 
sandstone of Scotland —are far from being of the 
character desired. The former need scarcely to be 
commented upon, since they have always been in- 
volved in a certain amount of obscurity; and their 
very existence as sucli has very recent ly'been denied 
by Marr, who personally examine<l the region, Lap- 
worth, and a host of other geologists. In the case of 
the ohl red samlstone of Arr.ui, where there is an in- 
tercalation of a band i)f marine limestone containing 
Product us giganteu»«, P. semireticulatus, P. puncta- 
tus. Chonetes hardn*nsis, Spirifera lineata, and other 
well-known earbonilerous fossils. Professor Geikie 
(who, we believe, fn St made the <iliservatii»n) <listinctly 
atlirms that the««e ori:anisnis must "haxe betMi in ex- 
istence long before the formation of tin- thi«-k Arran 
limestone." an<l that their habitat during the period 
of the ileposition of the uniierlying>and>ton<; was im- 
mediately outside of the basin or basins that through 
upheaval were now being gradually isolated from the 
sea: in other woril>, we have here merely an instance 
wln?re the rangi' of a certain number of i»ri:anic forms 
has been »*xten«le«l sonn^what lower <lown in the gtK>- 
logieal scale than it had hitheito been indi(*ated. 
These same forms re-appear in ihesiiperinjp«»si-d lower 
carboniferous limestones, and, as Profi»or (reikie 
observes, they must have been living durini; l^ie long 
interval coincidt.Mit with tlw s«>diint ntaiion of the 
intervening sandstone 't>utsiileof the npjier old red 
sandstone area.' The same relation ledds with the 
Siluro-Devonian mixture in the basal old red of Lan- 
arkshire. No one can deny the local dlsphu-ensent and 
interchange of portions of two ei>nsecuti\e faunas, 
especially at about the beginning or clo>e of their own 
respective series: but these displacements are not of 
the nature of the inversions that (uicht to illu>trate 
the (h)ctrine of broad contemporaneity. 

To what extent similar or idenlicarfaunas indicate 
ahHohitt' chronological relationship can probably never 



18, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



61 



ik^ determined ; but I believe It may be iafely as* 
ned that ibe syiicbronUm ie defined within com* 
alively narrow limits; or, ns previously expressed, 
'^fonnalloiis characterized ijy the satne or very nearly 
related faunas in widely separated rt'^ions belong, iti 
very modernle limits, to upproxtmately the same 
actual a^e» and are to aii intents and purposes syn- 
chronous or contemporaneous" (Kr/rucf, No. 41). 
Professtnr Geikie» who is quoted by your correspoud- 
eni a$ supporting the ortliodox doctrine of homo- 
taxis, orhomolaxis in its broadest limits, judiciously 
refers to chrouolog^ical divergences of only thousaiuU 
of years, and not of miliionit {* Tex^t-book of geology,' 
pp, 617-619), A^OELO Heilpbin. 

AcMJemy of natuinl Actcncct, Phlladelphtft, 
Jmk 12. 1884. 

Free cervical ribs in the human subject 

I aend you a photo|;^r4iph of a notable and very iu- 
terestlng anatomical preparation ^ell worthy of be- 



in possessing two demifacets, instead of a full facet 
above ^ml a demi-oiie below. The sanje subject wan 
also badly nut together in some other respects; e.g*, 
one of tli'e long thoracic rihg (1 tbink the fifth) bifur- 
cated at tlie stt'rnal end. The specimens were handed 
to me by one of my pupils, Mr, Arthur J. II alb The 
anomaly ht-»re figured, while not new, h so rare that 
1 thiuk'l have seen but one illustration of it; namely, 
that ^Hven by Professor t)wt'n in bis 'Comparative 
anatomy and physiology of verlebrates/ 

Elliott Codes. 
SmlihsonUa iDtUiutloii, WMlilnstuni 
Jftti. 4, UU, 

A poaolble solution of the atandaj-d time 
question. 

Although the adoption of five standards of time 
for the movement of rail road -trains in the United 
ijlates has simplitied the time question for the trav- 



^/ 



Mt'Vtintli fcrvlesl vartulm uf ihti hmnnu «ut^«et, ilfi« itliee, nenti from libuve; •bowing wi»n-dev«»l<jpuc1 And 
ft-twly »i-uc»ital«d pair of cwrvlokl rib*. 



Ing engraved and published (n Sctfnce. It is the 

.ieveBth cervical vwtebra of the human subject. 

Pnatural «ixe, viewed frfim above, «howin^ a pair of 

rfree cervical ribs. This demonstrates the fact that 

jlhe so-culled Iransversc fjroee'*^ of a cervical vertebra 

consists of a diapctpbysis with a coalesced pletira- 

pophysis, the vertebrarierial foratnen •^Mcbaraclerisiic 

of cervical vertebrae belnR an oponinis t>elween these 

L two apophyses. The pholocra|>b shows* tbe prep:ira- 

lUon .sn well that liiile description Is leiprired. The 

I whole biMit- 1!* 5een to be a little di!*torted, and the two 

ibs are Sfrn to be of different shajie and if^lze. Tbe 

rribs are pbot^tgraphed a little apart from their rtv^pec- 

Uve articulations, otherwise in Mtu, Each freely 

srticulntes, a»* usual with ribs, by its head with the 

T * I by lU shmilder with the diapi>pby*is, of 

t ra. The base of each diapopliysiM present*! 

i«^iM>i<v a nick Meeper and niure regular on liie 

an on tlie right side) wliich is a piirt of ttve 

Ibrarterial foramen proper, the rest of wblch is 

rfretimscriljed by the rili itself; the whole upAce bc- 

Sireeii the vertebra and tbe neek of the rib being thus 

tlmrsje contifiuuus openiii tibir eontour. 

Tlie luwer border of tli this vertel*ra pi^- 

'»*•"'"-*■ '1' -' '- i' , , ii.it ftbown) for half 

Iorsal)rlb; sti that the 
jjjr- . have been anomalous 



elling public, I believe it U a matter of deep r#»^ret, 
that, pinee a chanjee has been in;uie, tli ' i 'I 

not have been to a single standiini insi I 

thai Gn-enwieh lime, as Mr. SeludtVLi > >r4uuM-.i-.My 
cpicrie^ in .svjr/ifv, No. ;I8. This is the more to be 
regretted, since tbe railroad companies have found it 
Impracticable lo make the chan^e^ on the proposed 
meddians, and sfince, as Mr, 5chott rightly appi-e- 
hend«. all ordinary buMinesa must aiway* be con- 
ducteil on loenl nieuii solar time. 

It appears lc.» me that this whole question eonld be 
very simply and forevi^r settled by t\w adoption of 
Greenwich time for the movement of all puldic con* 
veyance-* the world over, and tbe construction of time- 
pieces which wouhl indicate at once both local mean 
solar time and Greenwich time. The mdy modifica- 
tion of the ordinary lime-piece? needml, to enable 
them to indicate both i\tnp», is to provide them with 
two dials, one of which sliali be movable lihtyui an 
axif^ and capable of beint? set at any desired point. 
It is immaterial which dinl is stntionary: the same 
set of handH would sweop biitb dials, and indicate, of 
CMuri^e, both Urnes, at once. Thus pi-ovided, a ^teraon 
d<»siring to take tbe next train would be governed 
simply by the Greenwirh dial. Fnrt!ierraor<^ vhr^nit? 
his lime- piece lose or jiain. it w«>uld only be 
to set it by eltlier local meati solar time or ) i 



62 



SCIENCE. 



[You in., Ko. 00. 



any station, to have it right again both at home and 
with the worid. 

The adoption of such a standard would not necessi- 
tate tlie substitution of new time-pieces for those 
now in use, nor expensive alteration of them. A very 
simple, inexpensive way of adapting existing watches 
to the suggested change would be to etch the Green- 
wich dial upon the watch-crystal in a little smaller 
circle than that of the dial proper. The crystal could 
then be set to indicate the difference of time between 
the given place and Greenwich, and secured by a little 
white wax. Clocks could be similarly changed also. 

If the hours are to be read from one to twenty-four, 
as seems desirable, and as some roads have already 
agreed to do, this will necessitate not only a change 
in the rate of motion of the hour-hand of time-pieces, 
but in the dial also. Now, since a change is to be 
made anyway, why not avoid twice changing by re- 
considering at once the action already taken, and 
move immediately in the direction Mr. Schott has 
suggested. This would avoid the necessity of pub- 
lishing in time-tables local times; while the traveller 
would have simply to consult his time-table, and refer 
to his Greenwich dial, to know at what moment to 
take a public conveyance, not only anywhere in the 
United States, but anywhere in the civilized world. 
Train-men and station-hands could experience no 
inconvenience In being guided by their Greenwich 
dial, it being necessary simply to make that dial the 
more conspicuous which is to be consulted oftenest 

F. H. EiNO. 
River FalU, WU. 



THE DUTY ON IMPORTED SCIENTIFIC 
TEXT-BOOKS. 

At the last meeting of the American asso- 
ciation for the advancement of science, there 
was some discussion of the effects of the 
existing tariff on foreign text-books on our 
school system. This is the first considerable 
effort to call the public attention to the results 
of our Chinese commercial polic}' upon the edu- 
cation of our 30uth. That system of policy is 
such a vast elaboration of rules, and the effects 
of its regulations are so hard to trace in the 
machinery of our society, that it has derived a 
strength and a safety from its ver}* magnitude 
and its obscurity. The ordinary- mind shrinks 
from tlie effort to trace the complication of its 
effects on great labor-employing industries like 
pig-iron manufacture. It requires the courage 
of a great soldier to give battle to the tariff on 
such fields ; for, however convinced the free- 
trader' may be of the right of his cause, he sees 
that his victory will mean destruction to many 
whom he cannot regard as foes. But here and 
there around the tanff jungle there are places 
that ma}' be improved without danger of any 
serious consequences to great interests. Some 
years ago, in a lapse into discretion, if not into 
rationality, the tariff men took oft* the duty on 
quinine. A few score men had to seek other 
employment, probably to their serious but not 
permanent incon%'enience, and that greatest of 



all helpers of the sick was free to go untaxed 
to its users. 

As real though less sympathetic claim may 
be urged for the removal of the tax on educa- 
tional materials and methods. Even in our 
money-earning state of society the amount that 
can be spared for the education of our chil- 
dren is so small that such money should be 
the last thing to receive the burden of taxation. 
What would have been thought, if in the fier- 
cest struggle of the war, when we were taxing 
the physician's right to minister and the drug's 
power to heal, if some legislator had proposed 
to tax each college-student, sa}', three dollars 
a year, for the privilege of pursuing his educa- 
tion in the most effective manner? Taxes on 
this principle may be warranted in a besieged 
city ; but even on our darkest da}' such a meas- 
ure would have been laughed out of Congress, 
would have been denied even the rites of decent 
burial in a committee. Yet substantially this 
is what is practically' done in this day of un- 
paralleled prosperity, when, for the first time 
in all histor}', a government is sore burdened 
with its revenues. A commission of well- 
paid experts, charged to contrive some means 
to clear away this excess of income, retains 
this amazing tax after a year of pondering on 
the subject I 

The singular character of the tax is evident 
enough in the most general statement of its 
nature, but close inquiry shows us that it be- 
comes even less comprehensible the better we 
understand its details. The books excluded 
b}' the tax are not the spellers, readers, arith- 
metics, etc., that are made by the million. 
Against these, no foreign books would stand 
an}' chance whatever, unless they were intro- 
duced to the schools through the existing pub- 
lication-houses. The books that are affected 
by the law are those that have at best a narrow 
sale. They are principally books in French, 
German, Latin, or Greek, used only in college 
classes for special purposes, which it would not 
pay any American publisher to reproduce. But 
let us suppose that the English, (rerman, or 
other printers could furnish a set of school- 
books so decidedly better and cheaper than 
our own that our thrifty publishers should be 
driven from the field : will any reasonable man 
say that we should continue to maintain them by 
a head-money tax on the pupils of our schools? 

There is no good reason to fear that our pub- 
lishers would lose by a free trade in educa- 
tional materials. If the change be made in 
such fashion that they may have as good a 
chance in foreign markets as foreigners should 
have in our own, we can trust the business 



Janpaht 1?^. 1SM4.1 



SCIENCE. 



f;3 



capacities, auil the stimulated c^neri^ies of our 
lext*book ruakers, to keep our place in the 
struggle. But grunt the truth of the sad pre- 
sages of those who see the dchige in free trade, 
can we afford either the principk' or the eflfects 
of levying a poll-tax on education? 



WHIRLWINDS, CYCLONES, AND TOR- 
NADOES.^— YllL 

The barometer was falling more and mure 
rapidly, and the wind blowing with iucretised 
violence froni the north t in the exuiupU* that 
was described. Then, if n transparent storin- 

rd^ drawn to pro[)cr scale after the* pattern 
fig, t», be placed on the chart so that its 
Strong north wind shall pass the jxisition of 
the vessel, it will give the l>e8t indication of the 
general form of the hurricane ; and a course 
may be laid by which the daugerous centre 
will be avoided. In this ease, the safest 
C!Oijrsn will be to run southward, or a jjoint or 
two west of south, till the barometer begins 
to rise; anrl then, if desired, a more easterly 
course may be followed. Even if the vessel bo 
OD its way to a F.uroiJcan port, this will be its 

if(*«»t motho^i of avoitling the storm ; for, in 
'-'■^ to beat again«*t the wind and leave 
1 1 M to the >outh, thejc is too muclt risk 

that its increasing strength will in'cvent llie 
vesHuM making sutHcient headway to escape 
being caught in the central whirl t it won hi be 
better to sail around the southern sitle of the 
storm, and, after tlie centre had passed on 
the west* then shape a north -east^^rly course 
with the wind on the starboard beam. Home- 
times it has hapjiencd tVom ignorance of such 
sailing-rules as these, or from inabilfty. even 
with their aid, to escape fmm the sudden vio- 
leoce of a storm, that a vessel liuds itself on 
the storm-track at the time of the passage of 
the centre ; and there is then obscrve(J the 
peculiar and dreadful cahu within the whirl, to 
which sailors have given the name of * the eye 
of the titorra/ Let us suppose, in the example 
given above, that the vessel endeavored Jo force 
its way against the increasing north wind, and, 
failitrg in this, remained on. the path of the 
stonn till tlic centre ailvanced on it. During 
its approach there will be no very marked 
change in the direction of the wind ; but its 
force inereas*'S even boyond what seems its 
greatest possibh* strength, and goes on increas- 
ing, blowing in tremenrlous and terrible gusts, 
till the veys* 1 is stripped of its canvas, and the 
yards iind masts are cracked and broken away. 

I O>tillnu0d fj-ufii Xg. i&. 



and the liull lies helpless and unmanageable* 
Rain falls in driving torrents, a6d the si^a rolls 
in great broken wavi'S. The roaring of the 
winds rises to a 6ci*caming j)itch ; anti when 
at its most fearful strength, it suddenly diea 
away. In live minutes, perhai)s even less, 
the air is quiet ; and only the heavy sea, and the 
commotion of the clouds, and a distant fading 
sound of the retr<*flting wiud, tell of the vio- 
lence that has passed b^\ Tho vessel is in a 
cushion of (|uiet air left under the core of the 
Sturm. There is generaliy but a short time 
given to sutfer the stis|x*nse of this unnntural 
quiet. In half an Iiour or an liour, accoiding to 
the si/.e and rate of motion of the storm, the 
centre ]>asscft away^ and the opposite aide of 
the whirl suddenly falls on the unhappy wreck, 
coming again with all the roar and tury that 
was felt before, but now blowing in the oppo- 
site direction, — a terrilic hurricane from the 
south, chopping the waves into the dreaded 
cross-sea, where the water rises in pyramids 
insteatl of in linear crests, ami changes its 
form so rapiilly and with such broken rhythm ag 
to strain great leaks in tlic worn-out hull, and 
leave it to founder in clearing weather, while 
the storm goes on in its destnictive path. 

Tliere is yet much to be learrjed ccjueerning 
the curves toHowed by the winds In these 
storms. The diagrams, us <les<Tibed above, :ire 
based on obscrvath>n and Iheoi-y, but mu^t l>c 
regarded only as provisional until [>roved by 
the average of many more observations than 
have yet been made. Hules for various cases 
m.ny be ea^^ily devised on the plan above de- 
scribed, but they are not infallible: thei*© id 
still much to be done in perfecting them. Ofily 
one additional point need bo mentione<l : care 
is ncedcil to avoid sailing after and o\ ertaliing 
a slow-moving storm, and so falling into its 
[>ower. Tins would seldom ha|>pen in our lati- 
tude, but might well occur in the Indian Ocean, 
where some storms Imve been Ibnud to rest 
almost stationary over one district of the sea 
for more than a d,nv. A case is reported 
where a vessel tlms fell into the dangerous 
whirl, and could not escape, but was carried 
round and round the centre, while scudding 
unch*r bare ik>1cs, till it made five complete 
revolutions before the storm left it behind . 

There remains to be described the storm- 
flood proiluced when a storm runs u|>on a low 
shore, as often happens at the head of the Bay 
of Bengal, The cyclone advauces with grow- 
ing strength till it reaches the flat delta of the 
great Indian rivers. It finds the land hero 
p« rfectly level, and so little raised above the 
witter that its cultivated surface has to be pro- 



64 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IIL, No. 60. 



U'cXf'i\ from iiver-overflow8 l»y dikes ten or 
twfivr H-irt iiigli biiilt along the sliores. But 
tii».' iiiMowing winds briisli the water of the 
hay up ngainst the hind ; the diminished at- 
iriospiit.-ric pressure al>ont the slorin-eentrc 
allows the heavier surrounding air to lift the 
water here, and for every inch tliat the mercury 
falls in tlie haronieter tiie water will rise a foot ; 
the rain alone may contrihute nearly a loot of 
water in a day ; and finally, if a strong tide 
conspire with these other causes, a great Hood 
is pnxlueed, that overwhelms even the dikes, 
and drowns out all the low c-ountry ; and the 
poor people, unprovided with sullicient means 
of escape from tiie winds and the watere that 
come frrun ahove and below, are lost by the 
thousand. Six storms alone, that have devas- 
tated this coast since 1700, have, if the records 
can be trusted, destroyed over half a million 
lives. 

The disapiKjarance of a storm has already 
been alluded to. The storm will fail, or greatly 
decrease in strength, when running from the sea 
on the land; for friction here is greater, and 
there is less moisture in the air from which 
heat can lie obtained to overcome the increased 
friction and continue the existence of the dis- 
turbance. Again : the storm must decrease in 
intensity as it recedes far from the eijuator ; for 
it then enters regions of less warmth, and con- 
scfjuently less moisture. Finally, it nuist end 
when th<* iipdraught caused by heal ilerived from 
the fulling rain fails to throw the overflow out- 
side- of the storm's limits ; for then more air 
entiTs the storm than flows out of it, and the 
incssiiri' at the centre will increase. The re- 
verse of this is worth noting: the storm will 
increase in size and in UMal strength, altiiough 
periinps not in central inlcn>ity, as long as the 
updraii^liL is active enough to throw some of 
its vohinu^ outside of the area occupied by the 
siirface-inchaught ; for then the pressure at 
the cenlic will decrease, and the d(ivelopnn*nt 
of llie embryo will eontinue. 

Before; proceeding to the consideration of 
tornadoes, wc may de\ol<' a little space to the 
B[)ecial features of (^ur own stoiins i'ast of the 
liocky Moimtains, as determined chiefly by Pro- 
fessor Loomis in his <'areful study of the signal- 
service nijips. 

The storm-are.'is, as indicated by the curved 
lines of e«jii;il pressures, are ovals about twice 
as long as wide, with the longer axis generally 
north-east and south-west, 'i'lie average direc- 
tion of progressi({n of nearly live hundre<l 
stornis, in l«72-7l\, was north 81^ cast, with a 
mean velocity of t»\cnty-six miles an hour, or 
six hundred and twfnty-four miles a day : the 



maximum velocity was above eighteen hundred 
miles a day. Some of these barometric de- 
pressions begin on the Pacific Ocean, or in our 
north-western territories : most of them are 
first noti*d within the western mountainous dis- 
trict ; and a goo«^l share of the remainder arise 
on the plains. Ver^- few come from the West 
Indies. After passing us, they sweep out over 
the ocean, generally turning well to the north- 
east, and. if ci)ntinuing long enough, ninningto 
Norway or Iceland rallier than to Great Britain. 
The probability that a storm which leaves our 
coast will arrive in England is only one in 
nine. The average tracks of a large number of 
storms from the Hocky Mountains to the Ural 
are shown on the accompanying map, pre- 
pared bv Kopi>en (Anualen der hydrographies 

If storms moved only according to these 
averages, their prediction would be made easy 
and accurate ; but they naturally fail to do so, 
and hurry or slacken their pace, or turn to one 
side or the other of their average course, in 
what seems to be the most capricious fashion. 
It is the early discovery of these individual 
|)eculiarities tiiat tasks the acutcness of the 
weather-men. 

With reganl to velocity, storms advance 
much faster in February than in August (174 : 
10(»), and in the late afternoon and evening 
than at other hours (12:> : 100). If the tele- 
graphic reports show a rapidly rising barome- 
ter, and a weak wind in the rear of the storm, 
it will ])robably move rapidly. The rain, also, 
exercises a m:irkc«l control on the storm, as is 
shown by comparing the forward extension of 
the rain-area with the rate of progress: — 



Kurwaril fXtinhinii «>1' raiii. Tro^ii'ikriiin of •torm-ccntre. 



4<).1 iiilli-e an hour. 



.■>;>'.» 



■J-J.3 
10 ;i 



further, by comparing the axis of the rain-area 
with the course of the siortii : — 



Ax In of raln-an-u 



X. r..T K. 
S. Wo* K. 



Courm* I'f Hturiu. 



X. 44* K. 

S. oy' K. 



Anally, by comi)aring the rainfall with the in- 
crease or decrease of the central barometric 
depression : — 



Jahdabt 18. 1884.1 



SCIENCE. 



65 



Aremge mlnflill wlllilti 






CImu>c« of centrmi dcpreuloa tii 



+ 0.10" (Ue., fltorm deOTt<«ing). 

-O.OA 

- a.l^tt (1.0., vtorm iDcreauiQg). 



Rain, therefore, In shown to aid iii determining 
the velocity, directiaa, and devidopmeut of our 
stunns^ as has alreatiy iKien inrerred. 

Til as tar in rej^ard lo the motion of the storm 



tions here shown has already been discussed. 
It should be added., that the unexf>eeted ap- 
proach to equality in the wind's strength on 
the right and left (south and north) sides of the 
storm is probably in large part due to the wind i 
on the north coming but little retarded from 
the sea, while that on the south has lost nmchof 
its proper velocity by blowing long o\ er laud ; 
8o that, while the winds should theoretieallv 
show a less velocity on the left than on the right 
side of the track when the storm moves over a 
uniform surface, this iuequulity might be largely 



■y^ ^ [:V' 



A houts^ ttortn* In ibv year. 
12-1,'. •♦ 



• 6-10 

r Undtr 6 



AriRACiL ih^*.i^'> ok »TuiiMH rilOU TUB ftOCKT HOUKTAINS TO TUE URAL, 



& whole. The winds of the storm blow 

Br, the more marked the central depression 

pind the closer the isobars. If the space ou the 

lelgual-surviee maps between adjoining isobars 

I (the difference of tbt-ir pressure being one-tenth 

of an inch) measure one hundred and thirty 

miles, the wiml will probably blow five miles 

an hour; if eighty miles, thirty miles an hour; 

if fort3'-fivc miles, filly miles an hour. There 

is, how*evcr, much variation from this rule, 

depending on the form of the ground and the 

[.ueighborhood of the lakes or the sea. The 

iverage direction, inclination, and velocity of 

our storm winds in the four quadrants is shown 

in fig. 21, The relation of the several incliiia- 



couuteracted by the relations of sea and land 
that obtain in the eastern part of our country. 
This is confTtmed by finding the winds on the 
left side of the stonns of northern Europe much 
weaker than on the right ; for here the i>rogres- 
sion of the storm, and the relation of sea aodj 
land, combine to produce this cflTect* Our space] 
forbids more detailed consideration of the vari- 
ation of our storms with the seasons ; and the 
reader desirous to pursue the subject farther 
should provide himself with the government 
daily weather-maps, which may be had by sub- 
scription lo the chief signal-ofllcer in Wash- 
ington, luid should consult Professor Loomis's 
essays iu the American journal of science for 



66 



SCIENCE. 



[YoL. III., No. 6a 



recent yeai-s, the circular on the practical use 
of meteorological reports and weather-maps 
(issued b}' the signal-service, 1871), and the 
ai)pendices on the relation of rain and winds, 
and on the course of storms in the ditferent 
months, in the signal-service reports for 1878 
and 1874. 

( To be concluded.) 



THE INTELLIGENCE OF BATRACHIANS. 

In his recent volume on Animal intelligence,^ 
]\Ir. Romanes devotes less than two pages to 
the intelligence of batrachians. He remarks, 
' On the intelligence of frogs and toads very 
little has to be said.' That our author should 
have included toads in the above seems 
strange ; as instances of cunning, and proofs 
of the general intelligence, of these animals, 
are nunu?rous. In conversation with practical 
observers of animal life, I have never yet 
found one that did not actford a marked degree 
of intelligence to toads. In short, toads may 
readily be tamed, will come when called, and 
have been seen to place matter attractive to 
flies, their principal food, near their hiding- 
places, so they couM remain at home and at 
the same time be sure of a sulliciency of food. 
'I'his evidence of foresight, on the i)art of 
toads, is no uncommon occurrence, and quite 
etfectually establishes their claim to a credit- 
able degree of intelligence. 

Of tiie spade-foot or hermit toad (Scaphio- 
pus solitnrius) and the tree-toad (Ilyla v(»rsi- 
color) I have but litth; to record. The former 
is but rarely seen, and I have had no oppor- 
tunity to experiment with it with a view to 
testing its mental cn]>abilities. The habits 
of the animal, as described by Agassiz and 
rutnnm, would lead one to conclude tliat in- 
tellectually they are to be classed with the 
common toad. The tree-toad, or Ilyla. being 
crepuscular in habits, was found dillicult to 
study, and nothing was determined that bore 
upon the question of its intellectual capacity. 
I can but state my impression, wliicii is, that 
they are not so cunning as the common toad. 

On the other hand, 1 am pained to confess 
that my many observations and experiments 
with the several species of true frogs found 
here, conducted without an intermission for 
four months, have yielded but little evidence 
that these creatures |)ossess a i)article of intel- 
ligence. It almost proved, indeed, to be labor 
lost, — 

* To perch upon a slippery log, 
And sit in judgment on a frog.' 

1 Animal intelllgonce. By Qcorge J. Komanet. (Inlernat. 
»c. series, no. xllv.) New York, Appleton A Co. 



Mr. Romanes remarks, that, if fVogs are re- 
moved to a long distance from water, they will 
take the shortest route to the nearest pool or 
brook. Even this, I find, is only usually true. 
Quite ten per a^nt of such ' removed ' fh>g8 
started off, when released, in the direction of 
the most distant water, rather than that which 
was nearest. One of m}' many experiments 
was as follows : I placet! a pail filled with water 
in a dry, dusty field, burying it to the brim. It 
was protected by a cap of coarse wire sieving. 
I then liberateii a frog within twenty yards of 
it. It hopixnl in the opiK)site direction, towards 
water nearly three hundred yards distant. I 
then placed a frog on the opi)Osite side of the 
buried pail, so that the distant brook could 
only be approached by passing near or directly 
over it, if the frog took a direct course. This 
the frog did, and less than a score of leaps 
brought it to the wat«'r covered by the sieve. 
It seemed quite satistied with the fact that a 
little water was in sight, although out of reach. 
Here the frog remained until morning. The 
following day I removed the pail, and buried it 
within fifty yards of a running brook. I then 
took seven frogs of three species, and placed 
them ui)on the sieve, which wns about half an 
inch above the surface of the water. Here 
five of them remained during the whole day, 
exposed to the glare and heat of a cloudless 
midsummer day. The evaporation from the 
water beneath Uhmu barely kept them alive ; 
and yet within so short a distance was a run- 
ning brook, with all the attractive features of 
ideal frog-life. 

I repealed this experiment, with slight mo<li- 
fications, several times, and always with essen- 
tially tlie same results. 

In his Travels in North America ( Kng. trans., 
vol. ii. p. 171), Peter Kalm refers to certain 
habits of the bull-frog (Hana Catesbvana) 
which seemed to indicate tiiat the frogs of this 
species occupying the same pond were some- 
what governed by a leader. His remarks are, 
" When many of them croak together, they 
make an enormous noise. . . . They croak all 
together, then stop a little, and begin again. 
It seems as if they had a captain among them : 
for, when he begins to croak, all the others 
follow ; and, when he stops, the others are* 
silent ; ** and he adds that the ' captain ' appar-' 
ently gives a signal for them to stop. This, 
if true, would be evi(h'nce of considerable in- 
telligence ; but it is only apparently true of 
them. I have very carefully watchecl the bull- 
frogs in a ix)nd near my house, and have found 
that the croaking of the ' captain ' is not 
always that of the same individual. At times 



jAjruASY 16, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



67 



the initial croak won hi come from one side of 
the pond, tliori tlie othtr, aud so contiime to 
vary. This shows at ooce that not any one 
individual stnrted and stopped the croaking of 
its corn puni cms. 

Hoping to find that in tlic pursnit of prej. 
which is prliicipaily insects, frogs would dis- 
play some intelligence, I tried several exiK'ri- 
meDts to test their ingenuity ; but it was of 
no avail. Unless the food could be easily 
reached by making the simple exertion of a 
single leap., the frogs would go hungry* Suh- 
eeqnently 1 placed a large fly upon a piece of 
thin mica, and surrounded it with a circle 
of fine needles, piercing the plate. The dy 
thus protected could only he seized by the frog 
suffenng a severe pricking of the jaws. This, 
I found, a frog would sutfer indotlnitc^h', in its 
attempts to secure the fly. In one instance, 
the frog, which had been fasting for seventy- 
two hours, continued to snap at the needle- 
protected Jly until it had entirely skinned its 
upper jaw. 1 concluded from this, that the 
witB of a frog were too limited to be demon* 
strateti. 

Some weeks after having completed these 
experiments, I had the gcKKJ fortune to cap- 
ture two fully grown specimens of the bull- 
frog (Ran a Catesbj'ana) : and, noticing their 
enormously distended sides, 1 examined the 
stomach -con tents of the two. In one was a 
ftill-grown chipmunk (Tamias striata) ; in the 
otl)er, a garter-snake (Eutania sirlalis) meas- 
uring eighteen inehe^s in length, and alsf> a 
tield-mouse (Arvicola riparia). On close ex- 
amination, J found that the snake had partially 
swallowed the mouse ; and, w^hile thus helpless, 
Ibe frog had evidently attacked the snake, and 
•wallowed it. 

It ia evident, I think, that the frog rccog- 
ui^ed the helpless condition of the snake at 
the time, and took adv:intuge uf it. IT m, it 
is evidence of a degree of intelligence, on the 
part of the frog, wliicli the results of my ex- 
jjeriments on tbe frogs generally, had not led 
me to ex|)cct. C^erlainly a frog, however large, 
will not attack even a small snake if it is pos- 
sessed of its usual activity. 

The salamanders, on the other hand, by 
their active movements, wandering disposition, 
cjf ' of hearing, aufl other minor charac- 

t! 4ive evidence of greater intelligence. 

Thu J ciin state of them, however, as an im- 
pre*tsion only ; fur my efforts to prove them 
{} of cunning were not successful. The 

pi I ; imander, it is true, lights when cai>- 

turi*<i, curving its back, and snapping viciouj^- 
Iv. TfiiM no frog ever does. The conmion 



spotted triton (Diemyctelus) becomes quite 
tame when kept in an aquarium, and, as I 
found, ia soon able to determine the difference 
between a fly held against the glass and one held 
over the water. I frccptently held a fly against 
the glass, an<l very near the triton ; but it took 
no notice of it, after one or two efforts to seize, 
it, but would follow* ray hand, and. w^hcn the 
fly was held over the surface of the water, the 
triton i)romptly leaped at and seized it. This 
is, indeed, but meagre proof of intelligence, 
but seems to show, 1 think, that a salamander 
is more cunning tlian a frog. 

My observations lead me to conclude, that 
the habits of an aninial Imve much, if not all, 
to do with the intellectual capacity it possesses. 
Frogs, as a class, arc nut migratory. They ftre- 
queut a given pond or stream ; and, sustained 
by the insect-life that comes to them but ia 
not sought, the3* pass an eventless life, trust- 
ing, as It were, to luck. Such an existence 
requires no intellectual exertion, and none is 
made. The salamanders, on the contrary, are 
far more wandering ami active. They appear 
to be ever in search of fcx)d, and, when lying 
in wait for it, choose such positions as experi- 
ence has taught them are best adapted for the 
purpose : at least, my studies of such speci- 
mens as I have kept in confinement lead rae 
to believe so. Intellectually, therefore, the 
salamanders are in .advance of the frogs ; bat 
the batrachians as a class, although higher in 
the scale of life than fishes, are, I believB, in- 
ferior to them in intelligence. 

Chas. C, ABaarr, M.D. 



THE PONS-BROOKS COMET, 

TnE c*omet which is now being observed at 
its first predicted return was discovered by 
Pons, at Marseilles, two hours afler midnight 
of July 20, 1812. Pons was at the time 
concierge at the Marseilles observatory, but 
afterwards became its director. He died in 
Florence, Oct. U, IHiil, at the age of seventy, 
having, between the years IKOI and 1827, dis- 
covered no less than thirty-seven comets ; this 
one, according to Zach {MomttL corr,, xxvi, 
270), the sixteenth in ten years. 

Pons describes the comet at the time of 
disc»overy as an irregular, nebulous mass, with* 
out coma or tail, and invisible to the naked 
eye. Having made sure, from the motion, 
that it was really a comet, he announced his 
discovery on July 22 ; and, frt>m July 25 to 
Aug. 3, it w^as l»riglil enough to be observed, 
at lower culmination, with the I^larseiUes in- 



s(;//:yf;/:. 



[Vol. IIL, No. 50. 



I '»■ ■ •ni, r ... ,,,,.; I,, I,.,. ,. ..,.,. f, 

" ' 1" " '■ "'ix ■•! r.ii I ; I,-. I ;/,!,-. ■..••«. 

■ '• ■ ■' 'li'i i ■ ' I J t!.- » f,iii«l«- i'':i;r 

' ■■' "•' •"' \ I'JlMr :i 1.1 ,;ii,j,..- \.iu- 

■ "' J'" I'l'l. -. I..III.;. 1... I ■^ :,,, j» „,„ 
' ■ '' '•' "li 111! . . III! iMltiiMI'- 'l"lili«- I.i'-- 

l'' "til ul r;i|i|i:iM-tM-r il'mu- *..--'.i-- 

' '""■ 'r"nr iTriix null :f r|.- loi;'^'-. •■■.:■." 

'" ■' \"''U III,- CMiiii-i \iNiIili- to li.i- r.-.k — l 

o-.^,.,., i l^l-.'. .,,,,1 Mil .Srj.f. 1 1 :.. J -..-s 

; ' ■ •■■ * I'M!.;; wliili- nil l!ii- ^miih- •! .r..-. :i*. 

■'*■•-'. !ln- t:iil IS Mix, I, -m -j ' 17'. .^.^ :-.,. 

iliaini'lrr of llu* iirii-"i- > ."1.4 

/ scrtiiiiU (tiim-). T;.*- \a< 

oliMT\;ni«ni wliii-li \Vf r!i.i :i" 

tills :ip|n-:ir:mif \v:is .-i? M;i:- 

Sl-illis nil Srjit. .'7. 1*»1-. ".,»■ 

t'i»in«-t ln'inj^ thill j;!-": \ ^-: .i- 

in lilt' iiinriiiuix iwi/ir.*. 

Fnnn tlir nl '-fix :»:;«»::* of 
1^1 'J. fovt-riiij: :i pt-rii-i '.fiii^t 






^'.t^ *»• 



LtEC 3'--- «. 




\ 



|iiii, '111 \\i»-!sN. Nr\*?:i i" ■■''< «v'v ^'•y.- 
.. • \» ,.»% ■ • ! • . 'v. "'v ■■....' 'V. 









}(fttt\ upon tlu* plnno of tlio c»f)niet's orbit. 
'Ifn-^Mi.-t int-i-^snrv for <lr!ininjjj the? ellipse in 
wiii'ii tii«* foiiH't luovrs :irc, the angle Q 
ii^.'il'j. the longitude of the ascending nf>fle ; 
til.- Mi.L'U- n-a (-H*,l''), the (liliereiiee be- 
twiiii tin* longitiule <;!' the nodt? and the longi- 
TM'hr of periJH-lion (EI) : the angle /. the incH- 
nalioii brtwceii the earth's orbit sind that of 
tin* foiiiet : 7, Ihr i>erihelioii distance (0.77o) 
i-xpiv-^ied in nnits of the earth's distance from 
thf >n!i : T. the dale of ]M'rihelion passage ; 
:iiid fi, tin' ecct-ntricity (h/.h;), or ratio, — 

distrince from <*eiitro lo ftKMis^ 
semi-axis nnijor 

8 nnd n — S are shown in the fignre : and. to 
l\*vm the crmiplete pietnre. we an* to imagine 
the phiiir of the comet's <irbit revolved at)out 
the lliif .1 /J. tlit> line of nodes, until it nmkos 
an angle of 74' (/) with the plane of the 
paptT. Tlie directions in which the comet 
and the earth are moving are indicated by 
arrL>ws. The jK)siti()ns of the two boilies on 
a number of tlates are also given. The ijcri- 
hiiion is reachetl on Jan. 2."i, 1SS4, when the 
ii^nu-t is seventy million miles from the sun, 
• and sixty-eight million miles from the earth. 
Tiio nearr^i ap])roach tt) the earth, al>out fifty- 
tiin*e million miles, is u|xin Jan. ^, 1HS4. 

The brightness, as far as de^KMiding upon 
!hi- iii-^tance fn>m the sun and fnnn the earth, 
<; ould reath a maximum about Jan. II, a 
huii'iiid :ind f«irty-t]ve limes as bright as when 
iiisi-»»vert«i by r>nH)ks. :in<1 live times as bright 
:*s at thr time of l^.nle's oliservation, when, as 
a ■ ready note«l. thr ^.tmiel had a tail a degree 
in ■iiii:ih. Wi- might expect, then, that it 
\u«nld bi* visihlr to the nnked eye 
iii'm tlu* middle of Heeemberto the 
middle %}\' Febrn:iry. equalling, at its 
■t <:. :".i- i'lightness of a star of the third mag- 
!',:::iii : ''Ht iinu-^nal and unexplained fluelua- 
v.iv s :!i I he bright ne^< have been observed, 
wliivli :i lilt r tluM' pivdirtions a little nntrust^ 
w»'::!:v. Iii thi- tir-t Wivk in Decern her the 
v>':ri-: p:i->i-«l within aJ'ont seven degrees of 
::;!■ :!«:.: ^tar n I.yrae, and continued ita 
:i:.«::.:i :a:'ir.\ :«»xvards the south and east. 

>:;.i i> •iiso«v,Tv. by l>ri>ok$. our visitor 
;.;i-i it^i.xi'i in a most ivculiar manner as 
rx^. : is '•: i;h:iie>s. Ihe theoretical change 
is c ^« :. •; rro:Vs<nr Uoss's article in Science^ 
. 4 ; . • . I »:.::. e :\» i ! i ►« i n g page we find obser- 
^:.:.-<i !.:;:i :\l Hmtv a id college observatory 
v-. **i • :. .:. -J-J. iVi. The variability remarked 
a: Ibi \:i- : :> ixMit'.rmeti by observations made 
r.: :; s'..: ::;e s.srao lime at Paris, Hamburg, and 
l>r»>.:ir. ; so that we tlnd a pretty well defined 



Jamdauy 18, 1894. 



SCIENCE, 



69 



mnxinnini oC frooi iLe seventh to Ibe eigbtU 
iTiaguitn*le, roncht'd between Sept. 22 and 24, 
falling oiV sij<Idenl y on either si«le ; for on Sept. 
21 the eomet wa8 * very faint/ with * a slight 
condensation/ and on the 28tli it was tenth 
to eleventh magnitnde. Bigonrdan Bays, •* It 
had for ftonio time a l>nUiaacy thirty or forty 
times what miglit have been expected, — a 
fact diffienlt to exphun on the theory that 
cornels have no light of their own/* 

As regards any variability at its former ap- 
pearance, the observations of 1812 are not snf- 
ficiently precise to furnish conclusive evidence. 

A rough sketch of the comet, as seen with 
the 2f»-inch equatorial of the Naval observato* 
ry, Washington, was made on Sept. 2G, 1883 ; 
and by |>ernn^sion of the superintendent of the 
observatory, Rear-Adruiral U. \V, ShufeMl, 
it is hei'e given, with the observer* s note. 
'' Sept, 2<j.3*J, 1883; — observer, Winlock; — 



the influence of Neptune. Schulhof and Bos- 
sert* in pointing out an error in Kirk wood's 
calculation, modifying somewhat his conclu- 
sion, sa}' that the reanirkalOe resemblance be- 
tween the orbits of these comets indicates that 
there was originally some intimate connection 
between them. Indeed, these two cornets, and 
the comets of ISITj, 1847, V. (Brorsen), and 
1852, IV. (Westphal), seem to belong to the 
same family'* 

As to the proper designation of this comet 
of Pons and of Brooks, authorities and prece- 
<lcnts differ. In The observatory for November, 
1883, Mr. W. T. Lynn writes, *^ I presume the 
designation Pous-Brooks's cornet is understood 
to be only pro\nsional. Accoi*t'ling to rule. It 
should be I'ons's conjet ; . . * its pcnuunent 
name must therefore be • Pons's long-|H*riod 
comet/ or * Pons*s periodical comet of 1812.* " 
The shortest designation seems likely to pre- 
vail ; and doubtless the comet will be known 
hereafter as the * Pons-Brooks comet/ or per- 
haps simply as the ' Comet of 1812/ it being 
the only eomet that was seen in that year. 

W. C. W UNLOCK. 



26-ineh equatorial, magnifving power 183. The 
t'omet appeared as an oval, nebulous muss, 
with a fairly well defined stellar nticletis, some- 
. rhaj elongated in Ihv preceding foUowhtg (Mi ec* 
tiorf; the nucleus being situated at about the 
centre t>f the nebulosity. The whole mass was 
>rae C/ or 8' in diameter." 
The spectrum of the comet was examined by 
Konkoly/ Sept. 27, 1883. It consistt^d of 
three extremely faint bands. — the middle one 
brightest, the third (from the red end) next, 
and the one towards the red faintest. The 
bands ended in points, and were unequal in 
^engttf. They sometimes liglite<l up for one or 
wo seconds ; and at these times they seemed 
"to be much shorter than oi-dinarily, — a phe- 
nomenon quite new to the observer. 

From the eimilarity of tlie orbits of the com- 
ets of 1812 and 1810, IV., Kirkwood has siig- 
I fi'd {Amer.jonrn, hc, 2d series, xlviii. 255) 
they were doubtless members of a come- 
tary system, and were brought into the solar 
B3'atem B95 years before the Christian era by 

' Jtlron. Mehr*t N©. 2M7. Th» ohtervaltny, Koreijiber. 



THE AJNOS OF VEZOJ 

Althouoh the literature relating to the Island of 
Tezo, and the Altiof^, — the inhabitants of this island as 
well a.^ the southern half of Saghalien (or Karafuto), 
the Kiirlte Islamls, and the southern i^xtremity of 
Kamtchatka, — ha»? Increased much Iti recent years, 
still a description of tlie same, hiiaed npon personal 
observation, may be of use in explaining the many 
contradictory reports and ophiioiia of etbnologisti. 
Two facts should be tiorne in mlnd^ — first, that the 
Ainos are not, even in Ihe most remote way, to be 
cl&iiseil with the dark races; ami, second, that they are 
in no way rehui-d with their southern neighhort, the 
Japanese. With regard to their color, I must remark, 
that I have not found the Ainos of either sex darker 
than many Euroi»eans: indeed^ It is not rare to find 
in southern and eastern Eurt»pe darker individuals 
than are tx) ]}e seen amonsr the aborigines of Yezo. 
The assertion that the Ainos are dark brown, or even 
hiack, is sometimes made by those who do not take 
into consideration tlie fact that 5tiper-*tition prevents 
them from washing, and that consetiuently their 
complexion apjvear^ at times much darker than it 
really is. The real color, which may bo he«t seen to 
m]vanta;;e among the Ainos hving on tljo seashore, is 
a little lighter, and legs reddish, than that of the 
Japanese. The development of hair Is somi^what re- 
markable: in the case of the men It covers the entire 
body to about the ejct^nt seen In very hairy Euro- 
peans, The bearil Is Icixuriant and beautiful: the 
women Imitate h by tattoohig. The curly or wavy 

* Uy rmfc'Mor BitAUNi-of lluKo. TranaUied frois tb« ait» 
nuttn uf the Dorlln anthrc'potogttui) •o<'U*ty, 



Jamtaby IB, 18S4,1 



SCIENCE. 



l 



'^i 



<»f Inconsiderable ljit«rest» in camparison la the soft, 
melancholy, but melodious music, with its perfect 
tlme^ which accompanied it. This sinking would not 
have iurprised me in the least in Norwayg for exam- 
ple; hut hero it api»eareil In the roosft striking con* 
trSrSt with similar efforts of the Japanese, and indi- 
cated quit^» a different cast of mind. 

In the vicinity of Sapporo was Juishikari, an Alno 
Ullage of especial interest. It was here that I came 
to know t!ie construction of their huts (great 9f|uare8 
with smaller additions, 
all hung with rushes 
ami reeds )^ many of 
their customs, their 
toucbinfc adhesion to 
tlieir old uature-wor- 
flhipf tlieir woisln'p of 
the sun by the fnnwo 
{a aacred sia£[ frilled 
with shavings pendent 
fixim its uppiT end, and 
placed in the eiistern 
window uf the hut), 
and Uieir fear of the 
dead. Their food con- 
alsts mainly of millet 
and salted salmon. 

The intelligence of 
lb* Ahjos is hyno means 
small. They learn the 
Jajmnese language very 
easily, accusit>in Ihem- 
aelves very readily to all 
Innovationn which are 
not in conflict with 
their religious concep* 
lions, occasion ally make 
improvements, and are 
rtady to answer ques- 
tiont in a precise man- 
ner They never betray 
their ogc^ and pretend 
not to know it. With 
this exception, I learned 
every thiup 1 wished 
from them. I obtained, 
for eitample, a detailed 
account of their terms 
for different colors. Af- 
ter what I had seen, I 
waa not surpriseii to 
find that these terms 

<|uite conformed to our own. and deviated fundamen- 
taJly from those of the Japanese, The Japanese 
have only one word for fti^ue and green ; while the 
Ainos have distinct names for both colors, wliich 
often apfiear to be confounded when interpreted by 
Uie Japanese. 

In Saru (or Sara) I had an opportunity to see olJ of 
an ancient state orfranization that lias survived the 
introduction of a village government. Here 1 found 
the seat of tlie cliicf among the village elders, which 
wa« formt'ily U»cated somewhat farther In the lute- 



frr^ 



'rif '<i^ 



^ 



AK OLD ArM«). 



rlor, at Biratorl or Piraloru. The chief was regarded 
by the Ainos as a sort of klntj. Under Japanese 
domination his power and rank were lost. 

The mode of travelling has been well described by 
Miss Bird. It is impossible to make any progress 
without horses; and these, although not of the mean- 
est sort, are most shamefully aliused by the Japanese, 
III this respect the Ainos generally prove useful and 
agreeablt? servanti*, but they ai'e often the too sub- 
servient tools of their masters. However^ I, have 
never seen the Ainos 
abuse their horses, their 
only domestic animals, 
in the reckless and bru- 
tal manner observed 
among the Japanese: 
Indeeii, I have wit- 
nessed on many occa* 
8 Ion 9 quite the opposite 
mode of ti-eatmenL 

In my journeys along 
the coast, I became con» 
viuced that the popula- 
tion of the Ainos had 
*been under - estimated* 
just as that of the Japa- 
nese had been over-esti- 
mated. While the nuiu- 
ber of the latter is cer- 
tainly le^s than a hun- 
dred thousand, instead 
Of more, an officially re- 
ported, the number of 
the Ainos (said to be 
eighteen thousand) 
must be trebled in order 
to rcacli approximately 
ju"c urate figures. The 
erroneous estimate of 
the Jai>ani'se govern- 
ment is explained by the 
fact that it takes no ac- 
count of the large num- 
ber of Aino villagos on 
the large rivers of re- 
mott! parts of the iMland, 
and particularly along 
the coast, but is baspcl on 
the relation of the square 
surfaces of known and 
unknown parts. In some 
of the l^et ter known parts 
of the island, especially In the south-west, the Ainos 
have been completely dislodged; and in the mixed dis- 
tricts their number has also been much reduced. 

From all these ol>servation8, as well as from the 
traditions of the Ainos, in whicli are ever-rccurrlng 
laments for a better past, and from many fw^cultarU 
ties in their customs (e.g., loss of the vtsc of really 
good weapons, the poisoning of the arrows and mares 
for lieastA of the cliase, particularly bears), we must 
conclude that the Ainos are to be classed wlih those 
peoples that have earlier been more riehly supplied 



'^%,mw 



A^J 



0?« 



72 



SCIENCE. 



|Vou lU., No. 50. 



wiMi \\\i'. itn|>l('}rif'ntM of rivilUatioii, hut have hccoinc 
fh'Knuhtrl intfllrrtiiHlly thmui^h iMoIathin. Prehin- 
U»rh: <li.Mrov<'ii«'H, parlinihiHy Ihow* made in llie ro- 
gion (if Otani, on tlir went r:oaHt of \\\n inland, favor 
thin vir'w. Tli(t pits found there for dwellings indi- 
cate that tin; AlnoH ranie from tlie north to Yezo. 
Tlie Hiifll he.'i])s contain, hesiden very ele«;ant pot- 
Hlicrd.s, many Htone impiements, es]»ecially ohsidian 
heaiJN of lanr(>H and arrows, and ornaments of differ- 
ent kinds, as stone-hcadM and the like. In all these 
reNpcctM th(* HlicIl-hoapA are diNlinguished from those 
found thri>u;;liout J a] tan, from latitude 31»^ north to 
thf HDUtlH'rnniost point of tlie eoast of Kiushiu, 
within whiili liniils the nhelMieaps arc destitute of 
ornanirnts. poor in stone imidemenls, and entirely 
wli hour ol»sldlan. These facts |M)int to a higher clvil- 
izalion nf the Aino rare, and at the Mime time refute 
the assumption that the Ainos formerly settled a 
largi^ part »)f the main ihland (Nipon), — an assump- 
tion erroni'ously supposed by some to Iw 8UpiK)rte<l 
by prehJNtone «liMeovenes. As there is n(» near rela- 
tionship between the Ainosand the (iiljaks of North 
Saghulien. who are less hairy, more prognathous, and 
more like the 'IVhuktehi race, we must assume that 
the AInos were displaced by the (iiljaks, and that 
their nearest relatives, judging. from important analo- 
gies of language, and esiM^cially fn>m their * naturell,' 
are to be sought anu)ng the Kaoli of northern Corea 
(Oppert's Caueasian type of Koreans). The latter 
have syninietrieal features and luxuriant beanls, and 
are then'fon' called * beanled barbarians* by the Jap- 
anese. They stand to tlu^ inhabitants of southoni 
Corea in ni.iny respects as tlie Ainosto the Japanese. 
The Kaoli have had, to be s!ire, a history very differ- 
ent from that of the AInos; for they became a civil- 
ized |M'ople, while the Ainos in. the primeval forests 
of Vezo became moiv and more uncivilized. This 
fact is not ojiposed to the assumption of a kinship of 
the two races; and this assumption is supiHirted not 
only by the particulars already alluded to, and the 
uiuicniabie capacity (»f the .\inos for gn'ater Intel- 
lectual activity than they nt>w exhibit, but also by the 
fact, that, notwithstanding the developed culture of 
the rmcans. certain things (e.g., the lance-sha]»ed 
turrets i»n grave nuuiunients) n»eur which remind t>ne 
of \i-io 1V>ides, the tiaditions of the Kaoli. and 
certain n^nucs 4»f places in the .southern part of Amur 
\o\\ the Sun^ari and its south-eastern tributaries), 
point to earlier d^\clling-placcs of the race. Fn>m 
here the Ainos probably spread over the l(»wer part 
of .Vniur and S.ighalien. Other attempts U\ bring 
the .\iuos auil :he North-(\>rt»ans into close ndation- 
ship with oihcr people* aiv ton hypothetical to rcjiuire 
mcntiiMj hi re. It is certainly to be IioihmI, b!it un- 
for;un.nr]\ it can hardl> be e\pci*ted. that the silent 
bu: c]iv|uent jipiH'al for friendly sympathy which the 
hoait\ ^^^'c;^lJ: »'f the .\ini»s and ti»c mcl.tnclioly hmk 
gixen to v;,;nJC«Ts sceiu to make deai. may meet 
with svMuc prac:it;»l rcHp.Mjsc: at al! evcnt>. we should 
\uA \\\:\\\\Ay\ »Mir mos; cor«l;;d good \\\\\ from lhe>e 
sons o! \\w prjuieval forest n ,if our tenipcr.ite zone. 
XX ho arc •.:n<]'.ic5tionably the mt»<t peaceful :ind goml- 
naturcd t»l all the Si»-callcil •s:»\atfi^s.* 



rilE nor BLAST IN MAKING IRON. 

At tlie last few meetings of the Iron and steel in- 
stitute of (Jreat Britain ver>' imiM>rtant papers have 
been presented and discussed, showing tlic direction 
in which conii)etition has brought about economy in 
iron-manufacture. These iKijK'rs, notably those of 
Messrs. Cochrane, Hawdon, Bell, Cowj)er, and How- 
son, give to the technical reader a very goml idea of 
the latest opinions of the foremost iron-makers of 
Kngland. 

The iiislii!ite held its September meeting in Mid- 
dlesborougli, — the place in which it was organized 
fourteen years ago. This anniversary naturally led 
to some general reflections on the progress made in 
that lime, which can be appreciated by the general 
]mblic. The only drawback to the discussions was 
the absence, owing to illness, <»f Mr. I. Lowtliian 
Bell, who has been present at all the previous meet* 
ings. 

In 1828 Mr. J. B. Xeilson patented a process for 
heating the air before it was blown into the blast- 
furnace, claiming that a gain in economy of working 
was the result. The idea was n»eeived with disbelief 
in most quarters. A little later Mr. Neilson proved 
conclusively to all that one hundred pounds of coal 
burned in heating the air for the blast were able to 
save three hundred to four hundred )H)unds of the 
fuel used within the furnace. The first step was 
made, and the iron-makers had li> accept the conse- 
quences. 

From this small beginning the tide of invention 
and enterprise went on, until the air used for blast 
was no longer heated by c<»al burned for the pur- 
]>ose, but by the combustion of what were formerly 
waste gases issuing fnmi the top of the furnace. One 
improvement after another was introduced, until the 
temperature of the blast was raised to lKN>o F., and 
even to UMX)^ F. At this i>oiiit it seemed that the 
metal pipes used in the stoves for heating had 
reached their limit of endurance; and a ])ortion of 
the in>n-making wtirld made up their minds that 
gn>aier heat than this could not l>e economically 
maintained, and that, even if the question of obtain- 
ing the heat w:is solved, there was still a balance of 
chemical reactions within the furnace which would 
jireveiit the greater heat from being a«Ivantageous. 

Meanwhile, by the use of the Sienion< n\generator 
principle, two different inxeiitors, Cuwper and Whit- 
well, each manufactured stoves which contained 
fire-brick chanil>ers. within which the waste gases 
burned for a period, until the tin'-brick> wi-re at a red 
heat. The gasi's were then lurmil t»lY to the alter- 
nate stove, and the air for the b!as;-furnace was 
driven in through the heated stove until the other 
one had became sufficiently heated. The inter- 
change' was again made, and sn on. Thisc v.irioiis 
devices have resulted in the ])roductiiiii of a blast of 
air fur the furnace healed ii|» ti^ h'Miit- K., t»r even to 
I7t>t»^' F. 

Now let us see what has been the n-sult of this 
ihange. The bla>t- furnaces nf In'iJI prodii«fd, on an 
.ivi'ragc. a little over lSt» tons of iron jht week. To» 



jAirCABT 18. 1884.1 



SCIENCE. 



73 



day tliey in'otluce, ou i\n av<?rii|Df<-', upwanls of iJOO totis 
per week, in fiome cases 8iX) or iMHJ (and in one of the 
Pittsburg fmiiaccs llie enoruiuiis output of 1,800 
Ions bas beeu rt^aclietl), Mr. CbHrles Ci^cbrnue, an 
advocAie of the bottest bot b])\8l, J»late(J, that, at Ibe 
works iit Onnsby, they began in 1H55 with a furnace 
of 7,0(>> cubic feet cajniclly, aurl with a temperature 
of air between that of molten lead and molten zinc, 
using 39.54 cwt;*, of euke to the ton of pig. In 1857 
Uicy u»ed 3.187 cwta, ; in imi it was only 20.66: in 
1877 it had become rcdun^d to 22.04', and in 1882, 
21.18 cwts, was Ibe average for all furnaces, small 
JUid liirge, while the larger furnaoe of .34»tXiO cubic 
feet capacity worked the whole year through on 
ld.3S cwt«. per ton of pig. Henre from laVi to 188:^. 
the saving was WM cwt*, of coke per tfm of inm; 
and, in Mr. Cochrane's opinion, fully half this sav- 
ing was due to the use of the Towper fire-brick 
stovei. 

Mr. Cochrane has recounted some of ihe theo- 
retical calculations that have been made. In 1879 
he vein II red to predict Uiat a ton of iron could be 
made with 17JH> cwts. lit 1881 he had made iron 
with 18.40 CHts, Another iron-master stated that a 
furnace has run for eight weeks on less than 18 cwis. 

Mr* Jlawdon claims that healing the blast from 
9900 F. to 14(M)o p^ resulted in a saving of 1,5 cwts. 
of coke to the ton of iron» and that a further heating 
lo 1550° F, was followed by a t<»tal saving of 2.5 
cwts., bringing the coke down to 21,8 cwts. 

In the discussions which took place at Ihe meet- 
ings referred to, the t>romiuent iron-manufaciurcrs 
generally took the ground that the hotter the blast 
the lietler the result, up to the trmperalure of melt- 
Ing iron, Mr. I. Lowtliian Bell, however, dissents 
from this view, and thinks, that, in renl ultimate 
economy, 10oO<^ F- will prove to be about the limit 
of beat for the blast which it is worlli while to strive 
lor. R, li. RiCHARi>H« 



MODERN PHYSIOLOGICAL LABORATO- 
RIES: WliAl' THEY ARE AND WHY 
THEY AHE.^ — h 

A LiTTi-K more than seven years ago I announced 
from this platform that tlie old biological laboratory 
was ready fur u*e, — that set of rooms in the third 
itoiy of this buildingf which, inconvenient in many 
respects as they were, will, I trust, always be re- 
membered by some of us with affection, and mayhap 
with ft little pride. 

This night on which we have met to celebrate the 
eompZetion of the new laboratory is, however, an 
occasion for looking forward rather than backward. 
But before proceeding to s[)eak in detail of the new 
huSldlng, I feel sure I do but what every tiun of the 
members of the biological department present would 
think me remiss to omit, in pausing a moment to ex- 

* An »ddr«c« dicltv(»r«*d on the occailon of the formjil oponlny 
of tb«> UI7W blo)oiriC4tl l4boratory of ihv Johns Uupklti* unl- 
Tcnlly, Jnn. 2, 1HS4. By R. Nkwku. Mastin, M.D.. Dr. 8c„ 
IfJi., pn^fo»»or iif t»1o]u^ III Uie uiilvcrsUy. 



pre*8 our irratilude to those to whom we owe it, — first 
to our founder, Johtis Hopkins, for his munlliceuce; 
and next to his tru*tces. Probably very few preii- 
ent r»>aliie how much time atid thought tlie trustee? 
spent on the building before a stone of its foundAtio 
was laid, and during its erection. No one but myself 
knows bow often 1 have been put tn good heart by 
the cheeriiii; words, "\Vell, Dr. Martin, let us get it 
rlglit wiien we are alnuit it." Ln this connection I 
cannot refrain from saying, that, though wo owe all 
so much, we owe a special debt of gratitude to Mr, 
Uiiil Pleasants, the chairman of the building com- 
mittee. Throughout Ihe whole «uujnicr there was 
hardly a mornitig on which he did imt visit the build- 
ing, and that not merely for a glance, but far more 
often to spend an hour or two hours al>out it, and 
make sure that all was goitig right. 

The material result of this liberality* forethought^ 
supervision, and care, is that stately building on the 
top of the hill. Handsome though not ostentatious, 
comforlaijie but not luxuri<ots, plea.nant to work iii 
without tjnuecessar>^ fitiery. It stands there, for its 
purpose unrivalled in the United States, and noi 
surpa^^ed in the world, 

Sttbstantlal, solirU well thought out, suited to it» 
ends, and with no frippery about it, it i** now for us 
to see that our work agrees in character with the 
building. 

There are many here to*night, who, not being hi* 
ologist*, may desire to know what such lalK>ratoriea 
are for, and why there Is any need of them. I shall 
perhaps best begin my attempt to answer these ques- 
tions by slating briefly what our own laboratoty is. 

It is a build tug constructed primarily to afford fa- 
cilities for instruction and research in physiology; 
and, secondarily, similar opivortunities in allied M-i- 
ence^, as comparative anatomy and botany, some 
training In which is essential (and the more the bet- 
ter) to every one who would attain any real knowledge 
of pliysiology. As so many distinct branches of bii>- 
logical science are pursued in it| we call it in general 
the biological laboratory; but it is a biological labora^- 
lory deliberately planned that physiology in it »hall 
be rjueeu, and the rest her handmaids. If, therefore, 
you visit the building prepared to see a great zoolo- 
gical museum or an extensive herbariifiu, you will 
be disappointed. I do not ui.derrale, and no one 
connected with this university ciui, — bearing in mind 
the brilliant anatomical researcl es of Dr, Hrooks and 
others^ made among us, — the calms of morphology; 
and in time I truf^t we may see a sister building spe- 
cially designed for study of the structure, forms* 
and development of plants and animals. But one or 
the other had to be first chosen, unless wo were to 
do two things Imperfectly instead of ime well, and 
there were strong reasons for selecting physiology,/! 
In the first place, I thitjk even the morphologlsts wif 
admit that hitherto, and esj>ecially in the United 
Stales, they h,^ve had rather rnon^ than their fair 
share; innumerable museums .ind many laboratorie 
have been built for tlielr u*e; while phys^iology. It 
she got any thing, Wiis usually allotted some out-of- 
the-way room in an entirely unsuitable building, if 



74 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 60. 



no one olso wanted it, and was very glad to get even 
that. A second and still stronger reason is, that as 
mcdicin*^ is slowly passins: out of the regions of em- 
piricism and rule-of-thumb treatment, or mal-treat- 
meiit, it has become evident that sound physiology 
is its foundation; and this university will at no dis- 
tant day have a medical school connected with it. 

As you walk presently through the rooms of the 
new building, and see the abundance of instruments 
of precision for teaching and research — the batteries, 
galvanometers, induction-coils, and spectroscopes; 
the balances, reagents, and other appliances of a 
chemical laboratory; the microscope for every stu- 
dent; the library of biological books and journals; 
the photogra])hic appliances; the workshop for the 
construction and repair of instruments — when you 
see these things, it may interest you to recall that 
sixty years ago there was not a single public physio- 
logical laboratory in the world ; nor was there then, 
even in any medical school, a special professor of 
physiology. So late as IS-VJ Johannes Miiller taught 
in Berlin, human anat<miy, comparative anatomy, 
pathological anatomy, physiology, and embryology. 

DuHois-Keymond, now himself professor In Ber- 
lin, lias graphically described the difficulties of the 
«amest student of physiology, when be attended 
Midler's lectures in 184().> 

•• We vrcrt* aIiowd (he taya) a few flrenhly prciMtred micro- 
•copic »pcciraen0 (the art of putUng ap permanent preparaUona 
being still unl<nown).and the circulaUon of the blood in the 
ftt>i(*0 wch. " So much for the histological side. 

" \\v wore also shown the experiment of Altering frog's blood 
to get a colorlens clut, an experiment on the roota of the spinal 
nerved, some reflex movements in a f^og, and that opium -poison' 
Ing was not conducti'd along the nerves. There were some bel- 
ter experiment!! on the physiolog}' of voice,— a subject on which 
Miiller had recently been working; and there was Anally a dem- 
onstration of the effect upon rcapiration of dividing the pneu> 
moga^tric nerves." 

In all, you see si> experiments, or sets of experi- 
ments, in the whole course, in addition to the exhibi- 
tion of some microscope slides; and all these mere 
demonstrations. It w'as hardly thought of, tliat a 
student should use microscope, or make an experi- 
ment, himself. If ie desired to do so, the difficulties 
in his way were sue a as but few overcame. 

•• lie mui.1 exiH-riment i^ his lodginiyrK, where on account of his 
frog» lie usually L^>t into \n>uble with the landlady, and where 
many rem-arohi-s were imi'Oifsible — there were no trained aw»lHt- 
ants lo guid# him — no p hllc pbysiologicul library — no collec- 
tion «if appiinitu<i. We h vl to n^U our own colls, solder our «»wn 
galvanic elenimis. make i ven uur own rubber tubing, fur ut that 
time it wuf n.>i an nrtiele of comm«-rei We s;iwed, planed and 
drllk-J — we tIK'd, turnetl and polished. If throutrh the kind- 
ness of a tearher a piece of apparatus was Icni to u*., how we 
made the most of it — how we studied its idiosyncrasies — above 
all, how we kept It clean '. " 

Of oour-if certain men, the men who were Ixirn to 
become physiub 'gists, and not nuTc atifudants on 
lectuivs on physiology, surmount e«l these dilhculties. 

> Kniil I>uHois.Keymo|)i1. />»r /•A*/*/«/*n/i>ir/i*' uutrrrhht, 
sott<it uti'f Jttit. n(.-rlin. 1'^T$. 'I'lic i)uotati<ins fnmi this |tam- 
phlet, while giving, I trust, a true idt-a of the siibMunce of Du- 
Bois-Kcymon«l's statements, have lH»en curtailed, and are not to 
be resrsiriliHi as literal fUll iranslatioiisuftlie original. — II. N. M. 



One has only to recall the names of DuBois-Reymond 
himself, and of such of his contemporaries as Br iicke, 
Helmholtz, Ludwig, Vlerordt, Donders, and Claude 
Bernard, to realiz« that fact: and undoubtedly there 
was a good side to it all. Trlflers, at any rate, were 
eliminated ; and the class of individuals w^as unknown 
who sometimes turn up at modern laboratories ^ and, 
judging from a good deal of current physiological 
literature, sometimes get admitted to them) with a 
burning desire to undertake forthwith a complicated 
research, though they would hardly know an ordinary 
physiological instrument if shown to them, much less 
how to handle it. They never can wait: they must 
begin the next morning, believing, I presume, that 
modem laboratories are stocked with automatic appa- 
ratus, — some sort of physiological sausage- machines, 
in which you put an animal at one end, turn the han- 
dle, and get a valuable discovery out at the other. 

With one exception, Berlin was not in 1B40 worse 
ofif than other German universities, so far as facili- 
ties for physiological study were concerned, and cer- 
tainly better off than any university in England or 
the United States. The exception was in Breslau* 
where the celebrated Purkiuje, single-handed, had 
founded a physiological institute. It has usually been 
supposed that in this he followed the example given by 
Liebig, who founded at O lessen the first public chem- 
ical laboratory; but this, pace my colleague Profes- 
sor Kemsen, can hardly have been the case. It Is 
to Purkinje that the honor belongs of founding the 
first public laboratory. Liebig undoubtedly amceived 
the plan when working in Paris in Gey Lussac's 
private laboratory, but it was not until 1826 that he 
began to put it into execution ; and at that date Pur- 
kinje had already, largely at his own cost, started i^ 
physiological laborator}* at Breslau, open to students, 
— on a very small scale, it is true, but still the germ of 
all those great laboratories of physics, chemistry, and 
biology, which are now found in every civilized coun- 
try, and to which, more than to any thing else, modem 
science owes its rapid progress. Of these there must 
be at least forty now organized for physiological work; 
and almost every year sees an increase in their num- 
ber. How has this come about in the fifty odd years 
which have p:issed since the origination of Pur- 
kinje*s ilU^quipi)ed and little known workrooms? 

First and foremost, because of the improvement in 
philosophy which took place as men began t«> break 
loose from the trammels of Greek and mediaeval meta« 
physics, and to realize that a process is not explained 
by the arbitrary assumption of some hypothetical 
cause invented to account for it. So long a& the phe- 
nomena exhibitcHl by living things were regaided, 
not as manifestations of the ])n>perties of the kind 
of matter of which they were composed, but as mere 
exhibitions of the activity of .in extrinsic inde]K^ndent 
entity, — a pneuma, anima, vital spirit, or vital prin- 
ciple which had temporarily taken up its residence 
in the bo«ly of an animal, but had no more es.sentlal 
connect itm with that body than a tenant with the 
house in which he lives, — there was no need for 
physiological laboratories. Dissection of the dead 
body might, indt^nl, W interesting as making knowM 



JAXVAKT is. 18S4.J 



SCIENCE. 



75 



the sort of machine ib rough wliich ihe vital force 
worked, — just as sonje people find it aniusuii; to 
visit « lie former abode of a great author, and see hia 
llbmry anil wriling-table and inkstand; and there 
might he dJBCUssiona as to the locality of the body 
in which this vital force resided; to Oiirry out our 
simUc» a? to what was its favorite armchair. Various 
guessers placed it in tbe heart, the lung.i, the blood, 
tbo brain, and so forth* Paracelsus, with more show 
of reason, localjad it In clo^e c<*nneclion wiih tho 
fltomaoh, on the top of which be supposed there 
was ^seated a cbief vital spirit, Archaeue, who Bup«*r- 
Jnt»MHh3d dtgefetion. It is mainly to DcscartesJ who 
lived in rhe earlier half of the seventeenth century, 
that phywiolojtjy owes the Impulse which ^ei It free 
from such wdl-o'-thc-wi.spa. Putting aside all con- 
at^^iousucas as the function of the *oiil, he maJn* 
talned that all otbcr viUl phenomena were due to 
proi^riies of the material of which th*' body ia com- 
posed; and that death wa^ not due to any defect of 
th<* noul, but to some important alteration or degen- 
eration in some part or parts vf tbe body. 

The influence of Descartes, and In tbe saoie half- 
cenlurj* the demoustrallon of the circulation of the 
l)tooil by Harvey, gave a gii'al Impulse to expenmcn- 
la] physiology. Both Harvey and Descartes, how- 
ever, «llll helieved in a Mpccinl locally placed vital 
spirit or vital J f tree, wldch anlmab'd I he whole bod- 
ily frame a-s the engine in a great facl^>ry moves 
all the machinery in it What a nniscle did, or a 
gland did, depended on the structure and properties 
of the muftcle or gland; but ibe work-power was 
derivfid -from a force outside those organs, — on vital 
spirits supplied from the brahi along tbe nerves, or 
carried to every part in tbe blorHl. As the pattern of 
a carjiet will dopcufl on tlie structure and arrange- 
m*jnl of the loom, — which loom, however. Is worked 
by a distant steam-engine, — so tbe results of muscular 
or glandular acti?ily were believed to twi determine*! 
by the slniciure of muscle and gland; but the mov- 
ing-force came from some otber part of tbe body. 

Tbe liext essential advance was ma<le by Ilaller, 
about the middle of the eighteenth century. He 
demonstrated that the contracting-power of a muscle 
did not dei>end on vital spirits carried to it In nene 
or blood, but oti projicrliea of the muscle it.*olf. 
Others had guessed, Halb-r proved, that the hoi I y of 
one of the higher animals is not a collection of ma- 
chines worked by a central motor, but a collection of 
machines each of whieh In itself is both sieam-engino 
and loi»m; leaving aside, of course, certain of the 
purely mechanical supporting and protecting appara- 
tuses of the sUeteton. Tins was the death-blow of 
the * vital force* doctrine. Extensions of Hallcra 
methotl showed that it was possible to destroy the 
brain and spinal cord of an ardmat, and separate Its 
muscles, iU heart.. Us nerves. Its* glands, and yet keep 
all tliese isolated organ? working as In life for many 
hours. The life of an animal could be n«» longer re- 
ripuded as an entity residing Itt one region of the body, 
lllroin which It animated the rest ; and the word gratlu- 

« f^cfo trniilcy : The conntction o/ IA« biohf/icat •Hrnctft tflifiA 
m^diein* < The tam*U Au«^ n, ISSI). 



ally became simply a convenient phrase for expressing 
the totality or reHxdiant of the lives of the individ- 
ual organs. Physiologists hegaii to see that they had 
nothing to do with seeking a vital force, or with 
essences or absolutes; that Ihetr business was to 
study the phenonieija exhibited by living things, and 
leave the noutncua, if there were such, to amu«e meta- 
physicians. Physiology thenceforth became more 
and more a study of the mechanics, physics, and 
Chemistry of living organisms and parts of organisms. 

Progress at tlrst was neceMsarily very slowj physics 
and chemistry, as we now know them, did not exist; 
galvanism wa<i not discovered ; osmosis was unknown ; 
the condfrvation of energj' was undieanied of; while 
modern chemistry did not take its rise until the dis* 
CQVcry of oxvgeu by Priestly, and the exteni^ion and 
application of that discovery by Lavoisier towards the 
close of the last century. Physiology had to wait 
then, as now, for if a advance upon the development 
of the sciences, dealing with simpler forms of matter 
than those found in living things. But little by little, 
stjep after step, so many once mysterious vital pro- 
cesses Imve l>een explainetl as merely special Hlustra^ 
tions of gen«?ral, physical, and chemical laws, tliat 
now tbe phyr^lologist scans each advance in these hcI- 
enccs in full confidence that it will enable him to add 
another Ut the fdienomena of living bodies, which arc 
in ultimate analysis not peculiar or * vUaJ,' but »»unply 
pbyjiico cbeinical. Apart from tlie phenomena of 
mtiid, whose myMteviouit connection with formi* of 
matter he can never hopij to explain, if a modem 
physiologist were x%k**d what is the uhject of his sci- 
ence, he woulil answ^'r, '* not the cliwcovory or the 
local l?,ativ>n of a vital force, but the study of the 
(juantityof oxidixable food taken into the stomach, 
and *ho quantity of oxygen ab!iorl>ed In the lungs; 
the calculation of the energy or force llberHled by 
tbo combination of the food and oxygen; and obser- 
vation of the way in which tliat force has been ex- 
pended, and the means by which Us distribution may 
be in line need.** 

Once it was recognired that at least the great 
rrj.^jority of physiological probletns were problems ad- 
mitting of experimental investigation, tlie necessity 
for special collectiotis of apparatus suitable f<»rexperi- 
meiit on living plants and animals, jind for affording 
students an opportunity li* study the play of forcrs ir^ 
living organisms, had not long to wait for rccognltlou. 
Physiological laboratories w*ere organised at first in 
such rooms as could be spared in buildings constructed 
for other pui*poses; later, in structures built for this 
special end. The fin»t laboratory specially erected for 
physiological work was built for Vierordt, hi Tiibln* 
gen, less than twenty years ago. So far as I know, 
our own is tlje tlrst such building In the United 
States. 

There is still another reason whldj has combined 
with the recognition of the indcfiendenci.* of physiol- 
ogy as a science to mi^kc tb«j modern laboraicjry, open 
to all pro|>erly prepared student*, a possibility; and 
physiology owes it to this country, I do not forg<it 
how Brown-Sequard in Philadelphia clinched and 
cofni>leted Bernard'* great disco\ cry of the vaso-motor 



76 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 60. 



nerves; nor the researches of Weir Mitchell on the 
functions of nerve-centres, and the action of snake- 
poisons ; nor, in later years, the researches of Wood on 
the physiology of fever; and on various subjects by 
Bowditch, Arnold, Flint, Minot, Sewall, Ott, Chitten- 
den, Prudden, Keyt, and others. But speaking with 
all the diffidence which one, who, at least by birth, is 
a foreigiter, roust feel in expressing such an opinion, I 
say, that considering the accumulated wealth of this 
country, the energy which throbs through it, and the 
number of its medical schools, it has not done its 
fair share in advancing physiological knowledge, but 
for one things which makes the world its debtor. I 
mean the discovery of anaesthetics. When Morton, 
in 1840, demonstrated In the Massachusetts general 
hospital that the inhalation of ether could produce 
complete insensibility to pain, he laid the foundation- 
stone of our laboratory, and of many others. No doubt 
the men whose instincts led them to physiological 
research, and who realized that by the infliction of 
temporary pain on a few of the lower animals they 
were discovering truths which would lead to allevi- 
ation of suffering, and prolongation of life, not only 
in countless generations of such animals themselves, 
but in men and women to the end of time, would 
have tried to do their work in any case. But the 
men who can steel their hearts to inflict present pain 
for a future greater gain are few in number. The 
discovery of anaesthetics has not only led to ten physi- 
ological experimenters for each one who would have 
worked without them, but by making it possible to 
introduce into the regular course of physiological 
teaching, demonstrations and experiments on living 
animals, without shocking the moral sense of stu- 
dents or of the community at large, has contributed 
incalculably to the progress of physiology. 

On the occasion of the opening of the old labora- 
tory I used these words : ^ — 

" I'hyMiologry Is conceriictl with the phenomena going on in 
living tliinKH, and vital phenomena cannot be obsen'od in dead 
bodies ; and from what I have said you will have gathered that I 
intend to employ vivisections in teaching. I want, however, to 
say, once for all, that here, for teaching purposes, no painful 
experiment will be performed. Fortunately the vast mi^^rity of 
physiological experiments can nowadays be i>erformed without 
the infliction of piiin, either by the administration of some of the 
many anaesthetics known, or by previous removal of parts of the 
central nervous system ; and such experiments only will bo used 
here for teaching. With regard to physiological research, the 
case is different. Happily here, too, the number of necessarily 
painful experiments is very small indeed; but in any case where 
the furtheronce of physiological knowledge is at stake — where 
the progress of that science is concerned, on which all medicine 
is based, so far as it is not a mere empiricism — T cannot doubt 
that we have a right to inflict suffering upon the lower animals, 
always provided that it be reduced to the minimum posMible, and 
that none but competent persons be allowed to undertake such 
experiments." 

Those words were a declaration of ])rinciple and a 
pledge given to this community, in whicli I was about 
to commence my work. That the work has been 
carried on for seven years among you, without a mur- 
mur of objection reaching my ears, is suflicient proof 
that Baltimore assents to the principle; and, grati- 
1 Pop. ic. monthly^ November, 1876. 



fying as the building of our new laboratory is to me 
from many |>oints of view, there is none so grateful 
as its witness, that, in the opinion of our trustees and 
of my fellow-citizens, I have carried out my pledge. 
There has been no hole-and-corner secrecy about the 
matter: the students in the laboratory have been no 
clique living isolated in a college-building, but either 
your own sons, or boarders scattered among dozens 
of families in this city; and no room in the labora- 
tory has ever been closed to any student: what we 
have done has been open to all who cared to know. 
On this occasion, when we formally make a fresh 
start, I desire to n*-as8ert tlie principle, and repeat the 
pledge. 

{Tb b€ voncludf.d.) 



BERTHELOrS EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS. 

ExDlosive materiah, a series of lectures delivered by 
M. P. £. Bkkthelot ; translated by Marcus 
Benjamin. A short historical sketch of gunpowder, 
translated from the German of Karl Braux by 
Lieut. John P. Wisser, U.S.A. A bibliography 
of works on explosives ; reprinted from Van iVof- 
trand^s magazine^ No. 70. N.Y., Van Nostrand, 
1883. (Van Nostrand*s science series.) 180 p. 
24°. 

The lectures of Berthelot, which fonn the 
more important part of this collection, are de- 
voted to a popular exposition and amplifica- 
tion of the theories which he has from time to 
time advanced, concerning tlie constitution and 
mode of action of explosive substances. The 
'principal topics treated are, the force of ex- 
plosives ; the origin, duration, and speed of 
propagation of the explosive Reactions ; inflam- 
mation and detonation as modes of inducing 
explosions ; and explosions by influence. 

The force of an explosive may be under- 
stood in two ways : it may be considered either 
as the pressure developed or as the work accom- 
plished. The pressure de[)end8 principally 
ui)on the nature of the gases formed, their vol- 
ume, and their temiK?rature. The work, on the 
other hand, is principally dependent uix)n the 
amount of heat given oflf in consequence of 
the chemical decomi)Osition. In practice, as, 
for instance, in guns, the transformation of this 
heat into useful work is never complete, since 
heat is absorbed by the gun, gases, and projec- 
tile, and a portion of the work produced is lost 
in moving the gases and air projected. Taking 
all these facts into consideration, it has^'et been 
difficult to explain the great dilferences which 
result from the different methods employed for 
inducing explo.sions. lUMthelot holds that this 
diversity dei)ends ui)on the rai)idity with which 
the explosive reaction propagates itself, and the 
more or less intense pressures which result fh)m 
it, and he illustrates it as follows : — 



Jasitaky ]S, Ifi84.I 



SCIENCE. 



77 



Let Mie case he the simplest on<:s such ns an 
explosion caused hy tUe fixll of a weight from a 
certaiu height. At first one would supix>8e the 
effects observed to be due to the heat developed 
by the preHsnre of the fiuddeuly arrested weight* 
But cnlculntiou sbows that the arresting of a 
weight of several kilograms, falling .25 to .5M 
of a metre, would not be capable of raising 
the temperature of the explosive mags more 
than a fraction of a degree, if the resulting 
heat wore dispersed uniformly throughout the 
entire mass : while for a body sueh as iiitro- 
glycerine, for instaucer it is necessary to heat it 
to iW to induce explosion* 

It is by another [jrocess that the mechanical 
energy of the weight, wduch is transformed 
Into heat, becomes the originator of the 
observed effects. It is suHicient to assume, 
that, as the pressures whic^i arise from the 
shock exerted on the surface of the nitro- 
glycerine are to<j rapid to become uniformly 
dispersed throughout the entire mass, the trans- 
formation lakes place locally among the layers 
fii"st reached by the shock. If It is suHiciently 
violent, they may thus be rapidly heated to 
tlie necessary temperature ; and they will be 
immediately decomposed* and produce a largo 
quartlity of gas. This production of gas is in 
its turn so violent that the shocking body has 
not lime to displace itself; and the sudden 
expansion of the gases of explosion produces 
a new shock, probably more violent than the 
first, on the layer situated below. The mechani- 
cal energy of this shock is changed into heat in 
the layers which it reaches, nm\ produces an 
explosion ; and this alternation betw^een a shock 
developing mechanical energy w^hich changes 
into heat, and a production of heat which ele- 
vates the temperature of the lasers up to the 
degree necessary for a new explosion capable 
of repro<lucing the shock, propagates the reac- 
tion, molecule by molecule, through the entire 
mass. The propagation of the deHagration 
takes place in this way in consequence of phe- 
nomena comparable to those which produce 
a sonorous wave ; that is to say, by producing 
a real explosion which advances with a rapidity 
incomparably greater than that of a simple 
burning provoked by the contact of a body in 
Ignition, and operating under conditions wher« 
the gases expand freely in proportion to their 
production. 

The reaction started by the first shock in a 
given explosive material is propagated with 
a rapidity which depends uixjn the intensity 
of the first shock ; and this intensity may 
vary considerably, according to the method 
by which it ia produced. Marcel Duprez has 



shown that the effect of ablow n*om a liammer 
may vary in duration from the hundredth to 
the ten* thousandth of a second, according as 
one strikes with a hammer having a flexible 
liandle or with a block of steel. From this it 
follows tnat the explosion of a solid or liquid 
mass may develop itself according to an inti- 
nite number of diflerent laws, each one of 
which is determined, all other things being 
equal, by the original impulse. The more vio- 
lent the initial shock, the greater will the result- 
ing violence of the decomposition be, and the 
greater will be the pressures which are exerted 
during the entire course of this decoraposition. 
One and the same explosive substance may 
hence produce % cry different effects, according 
to the method of ignition. 

Anioug thfsc methods of ignition, by far the 
most curious and inexplicable is the determin- 
ing of the explosion of one mass by the ox- 
plosion of another mass near by, but not in 
contact witli it, which is termed by Berthelot 
* cxplo.sion by influence,* Abel has offered his 
theory of synchronoua vibrations to explain tliis 
phenomenon, and the theory seemed to be con- 
firmed by the interesting ex [>eriments of Cham* 
pion and Pellet ; but Berthelot legards them as 
inconclusive, or else directly opposed to AbeKs 
theory, and ho offei-a a theorj^of his own, which 
is but an expansion of that of shocks explained 
above. 

Working, as Berthelot is, under the direct 
auspices of the French government, he has had 
the best of facilities lor the study of explosive 
substances and the phenomena of explosions ; 
and no one has probably engaged in a more 
critical or extended physical and chemical ex- 
annnution of these bodies, and hence he speaks 
with authority. Yet some of his theories have 
failed to find general acceptance, esi>ecially 
that concerning the influence of dissociation 
u|>on the force of explosives ; and it is notice- 
able that this theory finds no place in tliese 
lectures. 

Karl Braun's sketch ia bright and entertain- 
ing but iconoclastic, and, while wresting the 
Itonor of the discovery of gunpowder from Ber- 
thold Schwartz, intimates that the knowledge 
of its manufacture was brought from the orient 
to Augsburg in IS^'S by a Greek Jew named 
Typsiles. 

Of the ' Bibliography of explosives ' the best 
that can be said is, that it is an unsystematized 
collection of titles, that it is filled wnth errors 
of the grossest kind, and that it is unworthy of 
both eorai)iler and publisher. In fact, it must 
be said the book throughout is marred by 
printers' errors. 



78 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 50. 



HOUSTOlSl VV ELEMENTS OF CHEM- 
ISTRY, 

The elements of chemistry ; for the use of schools^ acade- 
mies and colleges. By Edwin J. Houston. 
Pliiladelphia, Eldredge, 1883. 444 p., illustr. 
8°. 

lI(>r8T0N's " Elements of chemistry * is u brief 
compilation of the latest facts in regard to the 
science, arranged for the use of schools, acade- 
mics, and colleges. Its use will be confined 
to the first named, or at least to institutions 
where the rudiments of chemistr3' are taught. 
The work is divided into three parts, — theo- 
retical, descriptive or experimental, and organ- 
ic, — and the arrangement is in most respects 
good. In the first part the fundamental laws 
are clearly and concisely stated, and present the 
subject in a form as well adapted to beginners 
as we have seen in any text-book. A short 
description of the difft^rent 83stems of crystal- 
lography concludes this portion. In the de- 
scriptive i)art the elements are discussed under 
the head of non-metals and metals in an order 
based upon their (luanti valence ; but the divis- 
ion of the metals into perissad and arliad is 
not one which most text-books follow. A 
brief outline is given, in the seventy-five pages 
of the third part, of the chemistry of the car- 
bon compounds ; and the author has succeeded 
in condensing into this space many important 
facts ; there are, however, several erroneous 
Htatenienls and a general lack of complete- 
ness. The division of the carl>on com- 
pounds into single link, double link, etc., is 
sini[)ly investing an old classification with a 
n(*w name, ancl there is no gain in jx)int of 
clearness. 

A large portion of the book, nearly one- 
fourth, is repetition in the form of a syllabus 
and questions for leview, at the end of each 
chapter, and, at the close of the book, ques- 
tions for examination. This seems to be for 
the purpose of aid, in case the teacher should 
liave had iusullicient training in the subject. 
Indeed, so great is the help atforded, that with 
it any one with little or no knowledge of chem- 
istry could assume the instruction of a class. 
We cannot but deplore the introduction of such 
a system of teaching at a time when it is all- 
important that chemistr}^ should be scientifi- 
cally taught in our elementfiry schools. In- 
struction in chemistry, to be thorough, should 
depend upon the teacher, and not \\\)0\\ the text- 
book. Only a good instructor can imjiress up- 
on a beginner the necessity for observation, 
which is the prime requisite for successful work ; 
and a text-book intended to be crammed tends 
to destroy the sense of observation. The space 



devoted to this sj'stem could have been profit- 
ably devoted to increasing the number of ex- 
periments and illustrations of experiments; 
which last are few and illy executed, and often 
do not show the best method of conducting 
the ex[)eriment. We object to the use of the 
Fahrenheit scale and English measures as 
causing a needless confusion, inasmuch as the 
centigrade scale an<l metric system arc the 
accepted scientific notation. 

BESANT'S HYDnOMECIIANICS. 

A treatise on hidromechauic* . Part i , hydrostatics. 
By W. H. Bksaxt, F.K.S., miitheinatical lec- 
turer of St. Johirs collfije, Caiiibrid.c[e. 4th ed. 
Ddghton Bell ^ Co., 188:]. 288 p. "8°. 

Tins is "a reproiluction, with considerable 
alterations and additions, of the first part of a 
treatise on hydrostatics and hydrokinetics, the 
third Cilition of which was iniblished in 1«77," 
and is intended as a text-book upon this sub- 
ject, for those preparing for the mathematical 
tripos examinations at Caml»ridge, England. 
The princii)al heads treated are, the general 
conditions of fiuid equilibrium ; surfaces ol 
equal pressure ; resultant pressures ; the equi- 
librium, stability, and oscillations of a floating 
body (metacenter) ; the pressure of the atmos- 
phere ; the tension of flexible surfaces, and 
their relation to capillary phenomena; and, 
finally, the figure of equilibrium of a mass of 
rotating fiuid. acte<l on by the mutual attrac- 
tion of its parts. This work requires, as do 
most of the Cambridge mathematical text- 
books, that the reader shall have perfect facil- 
ity in the emi)loyment of the dilferential and 
integral calculus. There is a plentiful list of 
examples, selected from previous examination 
papers, at the end of each chapter. It is per- 
haps sui)erfiuous to speak of the important 
place which the subject of hydromechanics has 
occupied in modern mathematical physics since 
the labors of Ilelmholtz, Maxwell, and Thom- 
son, in reducing the mathematical treatment of 
electricity and magnetism to that of the mo- 
tion of incomj)ressible fluids. This volume Is 
put forth as an introduction to the discussion 
of fluid motion or hydrokinetics, of which the 
elements will be given in part ii., which the 
author hopes to have in readiness early in 

It is a matter of great regret that the state 
of mathematical training among our colleges is 
of such elenniutary character, that there are 
conq)aratively few of them where the excellent 
text-books of this grade can be profitably used 
by the undergraduates. 



3AXVABY 18. 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



79 



REGENT PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



a, 

I 



Amerioao philosopbical eooiety. 

The Proceedings of ibe society, vol. xxk, No, ]\4, 
from April to Decemln^r, 1S83, to be distriliuttftl to 
momlwre wkI c'orrespou'ieiitB of the society in 

bniin^ry, contnins : L A memoir on the migration 
of the Tutelo trilie of Indians, Ijy Horatio Haie ( with 
Ji mnp); 2, Medieviil serrooii-bnoks, etc., by Prof, I, 
F. Cmhe of Cornell university; n. The latitude of 
Haverford college, by Isaac Sharpfess; 4, A crinoid 
irith movable spines, by O, S, Willlani'* (with a plate); 
The role nf pAnisitic photophytes, by W. N. Lock- 
itigton; ^, The reversion of series, and its applic^a- 
tlon to the solution of numerical equations, by J. G. 
Hagen, S.J. ; 7. The conversion of chlorine into 
hydrocidorie acid in the deposition of gold from its 
solutions by charcoal: a A brief account of the more 
Itnportuut public collections of American archeology 
in tlic United Stales, by Henry Philiipi*, jun.; a 
PhokMlynamie nou.^s, No, viii., by Pliny E. Chase; 
10. Introduction to a study of the North-American 
NociUidac, by A. R. Grote; 11. Revision of tlie 
LysiopetiUidac, by A. S, Packard, jun. ; 12. Tlie 
Perry county fault, by E. \V, Ctaypole; 13. Se(*ds 
sprouting in ice, by Joseph Lesley; 14, A relic of 
the native flora of Pennsylvania, by E. W. Claypolc; 
15. The Portage rock* in Perry county, by the sunie; 
Ifl* Tlie genu?* RenH^elaeria^ by the «ame; 17. A 
lan^e Catskill crustacean, by the i^ame (with a plate); 
18. ObitUEiry notice of Henry Seyberi, by Monclure 
Robinson; 1V>. The zone of asteroids and ring of 
Saturn» by Daniel Kirk wood; 20, Obituary notice 
of Dr, John F. Meigs, by Dr, WilJiara Pepper; 21. 
Kintze's (ire-damp indicator, by Clnirles A, Ash- 
burner; 22. Obituary notice of Oswald Heer, by Leo 
Lesquereux; 2:j, Obituary notice of Dr. John L. 
LeConte, by Dr, George H, Horn; 24. Aerial ships, 
by Russeil Thayer, C.E. ; 25. Section of Chejuung 
rocks at Le Roy, Bradford county, Penn., by A, T. 
LUlcy; 2G. Distribution of Loup Fork foniiatlon In 
New Mexico, by E. D, Cope; 27. Second addition to 
the knr»wlcils;e of the Puerco ejKM'h, by the same; 
28, Tb«> tritiibereulate type of tooth in llu* niaiumalia, 
by the same; ^0, J>clAn€y'» synchronous multiplex 
Usiegraph, by Edwin J. Hon^^ton; 3lJ. The micro- 
seopic examln:iTiori of timber wilb reganl to its 
strength, by Frank M. Day (with a plate). Several 
papers rer|uiring illustrations are left over to be pub- 
lished In No. 115, as It is the custom of tho s<:K:iety to 
publish its two unnnal uutnberH of Us proccedint:^ 
as nearly on the 1st of January and June as possi- 
ble. No, 114 includes pp. 1 to HoO of the current 
vol, xxi. 

The so«7lcty hiis aho pub)lsh«^l, as part i. of vol. 
X¥i, of itn trait'tactious, a Dictionary of Egyptian 
hieroglyphics, by Kdwtird V, McCauley, U.S.N. (240 
p., 4<^), printed from relief-plates [ihotographed from 
Commodnrt! McCauley's manuscti Ipt. 

Til' s.M fccty h printing the la»t pages of its library 
C4I lit? fourth and last part of which will be 

p«i t Fcbfiuirv ni Miifrh. Tin* wliuhi ral)%^ 



logue (three parts of which have b««ii distributed 

In previous years) will make about fifteen hundred 
pages octavo. There xvlll be sut>sequcntly pubttshed 
an alphabetical index of autfior's naJUfs, junl a sup- 
plement of books received since a certain dal<% 

The society is also prltiting, as a volume of about 
five hundred pages octavo, a succinct transcript of 
its minutes from 1744 to 18^i7, made by the secretary 
in 1F^2. lis proceedings were fir*t published in 1838, 
and subsequently in one series up to the current No. 
114, The possible defitruction of the minute-books, 
by fire or otherwise, li^is always been a cause of anxi- 
ety. When this volume from 1744 to 1837 i^ printed, 
a cx>mplete history of the society will be secured. 
Already proof-reading has reached p. 288 (minutes of 
1800), and the volume will probably be published in 
May next. 

CHndDnstl sodety of UAtural fdgtorf* 

Jan, 8, — Dr, Walter A, Dun reiul a paper on sr^me 
recent explorations of mounds In the 8cioto valley. 
The paper gave a det^tiled description of the mound, 
a large one, il^ dtmen^ions being lhlrty'lhre« feet In 
height, and a hundred and fifteen feet in diameter. 
The »haftsunk from the top showed several intrusive 
burials, and that the mouml was con«tructcil of sue- 
cessive layers of sand and clay. At the depth of 
twenty-five feet a vault construcie^l of log^ was 
found, in which was a large quantity of root-like 
fibres, with a skeleton in a fair state of preserviiiion. 
The skull was saved almost entire, and was described 
in detail by the doctor, wiio found it to compare 
closely with the figures of mound-builder skulls* In 
Squif?r and Davis*s ' Monuments,' and Morion's 
• Crania americana.' A number of flint arrow-points, 
shell bearb, and a Hinalt octagonal piece of sandstone, 
were also found in the 'vault/ The vault was eight 
feet high, five feet and a half tong» antl four feitt 
wide. 

The discovery of an authentic mound-builder's 
ektdl was regarded as important, and worthy of rec- 
ord. Dr. Dun alf^o read a detailed doscrlption of the 
teeth and jaw of the skxill, prepared at ht» request by 
Dr. E. G. Betty, Mr, Joseph F. James remarked thai 
II skull found near Memphis, Tcnn,, associated with 
some earthen pots bearing dates of 1*554-1708, j^howed 
the same remarkable fJatiening of the occipital region 
shown in Dr, Dun's sp^Miuien. 

Mr. J. R, Skinner said that he had lately observed 
that the symbol of the Aztec god, ItjecoatJ («^gn^g), 
was the same as a marking U[>on what is known as 
the Richardson Uhlet from Witmingtou, O, 

Socioty of arts, Kansobosett^ iastitato of tct^baology. 

Dec-. S7, — Mr. John RlU-hie, jun., exhibited and 
explained a model showing the orbit of the comet of 
1812, and Mr. J, It, Robinson describes! his safety- 
seam steam-boiler. Mr. Robinson's first invention 
consisted in reaming out the edges of tlie rivet-boles 
In the plates on the itiside, or where they con»e Iti 
contact, making them conical for a short dUtaiiee. 



80 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IIL, No. 60. 



Wh«Mi tlio rivnt is imt in, it Hows nut and tillA the 
HpHcr thiiH foriiHMl, iMTomiiig, tliureforc, of greater 
(llaiiirlor at tlio inidillo than at th«* ends. When the 
plalPN nro under tcMiHion, the rivet will cant, and 
th«' riuK-ilki' i)r<)ji»etl»)n around its ctrntro will pry the 
plateN HliKhMy apart, as Mr. Koblnson has satisfac- 
torily donionntnited by exporiment, thus allowing the 
eHra|H* of the Hteani in tint case of a boiler, and avoid- 
ing an oxpiosion; while, on the removal of the stn^ss, 
the plaioN route tightly together again, provided the 
rttrain on the rivet wen^ adapted not to exceed its 
elantio limit. The simple conical reamlng-out of the 
holes, however, was not found to be just what was 
wantod; a.M It was i>osslble for the metal of the rivet 
to be forred out between the plates farther than was 



wished, preventing their coming together tightly at 
all, even at first. To obviate this objection was the 
object of Mr. Robinson's second invention, which 
consists in cutting out a sn)all hemispherical ring in 
each plate an)und the rivet-hole, and reaming out to 
this ring, so that when the plates are put together the 
conical enlargement of the hole at the centre is fol- 
lowed by a chamber in the shape of a circular ring; 
and into this * relief -chamber' the metal of the rivet 
can flow out. But, as the amount of metal to be so 
forced out is never to be great enougti to fill this 
chamber, the plates are brouglit closely togetlier in 
tlie process of riveting, while the action of the rivet 
under great pressures is the same as has been de- 
scribed. 



INTELLIGENCE FROM AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC STATIONS. 



aOVBRNMBNT ORGANIZATIONS. 

Qfiologioal rarvey. 

ihoUujy, — l»rof. L. (\ .Tohnson reports that the 
HIploy srDup of the cn*taceou» in Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi prt»MMits some curious and interesting fea- 
tun\'i. It is an Interrupted formation. Beginning in 
Mi.M»iissippi, north-west ot the Corinth group, it runs 
south wanl one hundn*d miles, and then* runs out. 
It also ap|M>rtrs in the extrtMue south-east, on the 
('hattahoiH»hei» Hiver, in lUrlnuir county, Ala., and 
extends weslwaitl to a iH>int undetermimHi, but not 
nMebinj; the Alabama Kiver. It alsooeour* at a wedue 
hot wren iho older oivtaeeous and the gnMt lignitio A. 

CAcpj/.tfn/. —The ohem leal division of the survey 
is at \^oilv on analvsi's of alkaline and saline ^\ at ers 
friMu tlio i;ivat Hasin, collected by Mr. G. K. (iil- 
bort and 1. l\ Ku^soll: notably, the \\ators of Hum- 
lH»ldt Kixor. Walker Lake. l\vran\id Lake. Mono Lake, 
l.ako T.ib,»f». ete. ThiMV a!V al>o or. band, await inj; 
an;»l>Ni>. Nperintenvof \\;i:er fiinn U< lena biMsj>rini;s. 
Montana, from w.»nn sj^rinu:^ *^f I'niiiirani iJulob and 
from Linuiston. in Jbe Yello>\s:ono vallcx. in Mon- 
tana, ^ollootod b\ Or. A. r. IV.ile duilu:: the pa^t 
snnnntT. 

l*rof. V, W . riarke is aKo o:.j:ace.l niv^n a iN^mplote 
iv\is'..Mi of bis v;.oi\tiOj::a\i:y tab"n>. wliiih form 
p.*rt i of \\w Smitb>o].i.in iVn>taii:s -f naTun\ 

A \\\\.w poiwlain-V.ko ol.\\ fron. :br IV ::o!: vvpi^^r- 
nuno. !-.oar Mono Lakr. ralifornia, pro\o-. \\\ v. anaS- 
s!s bv l*:oft"s>or Tlaiko. t»> 'or a \or\ pr.:« b.O',v»>site. 
thi-.'i a.l.iir^c ar.otbor :o ilir i-S: of Kva''.:-i"< for this 
\\\\\\cxa\. 

^\^v\\v:.>, l\ \;is, >ai»l U^ 
i 



oivur «h,:v ■.-.. ,» 
i;\p^nm and <■..* 

r<";;;rv.i .'. to ;lu ■ tV.r*' 



j.x. - rv.r t.'pO;.ravV.Aa'. 
■ >\ash;:-^M\ 
i<ov. a:i-.o::v.:s : 



■ a in:\:;:ro 

t;i:;aii: :;. 

ivi::io> iiaxo a'.l 
r.iO \<a\ area 
n::>-ono tljor.- 



sjkv.i* >,;,;.-,:x^ m:ies 

V ^ r ' >• : n S ep: emV ; : . x\ 1 1 . '. i- ,\\u m v • • '• • s » b e a ^mmi t of 
•.V.;- * T;.:>v Sisters.* a cn^i.i^ ^ f pOAk* in :be Oast\»de 
TAvci v. OnfATi^n. Kjv*^ji liax.Jer.. who aivonu^anitni 



Mr. J. S. Diller in his reconnaissance of the Cascade 
range, was thrown from ilie edge of a cliflT by the 
crumbling of the rocks, and seriously injured. As a 
Result of the accident, he has recently had to suffer 
an amputation of one of his legs. Tlie operation was 
performe<l at Portland, Or. Mr. Diller, in rescuing 
Mr. Uayden, was also hurt, but not seriously, by the 
falling rocks. 

The library of the 8ur\*ey lias just secured a copy 
of the M\>*lex Cortesianus,* by L^on de Rosny, of 
which eighty copies have just been publislied in Paris 
( 1SS:>). The line of Mexican manuscripts for tlie study 
of the Maya alphal>et, in the librar>' of the sur\'ey, is 
now complete, with the exception of a manuscript 
in the possession of Sri\or D. Alfredo Cliavero, in 
the city of Mexic«>. It is entitled * A MS. explana- 
tion in Italian of the Cotiex Borgiana, by Fabregat' 
Stei>s an» Ivin:: taken to secure a copy of it for publi- 
cation. 

The mannsiTipi for two survey bulletins has been 
sent to The irovernment printer: viz.. No. :J. * On the 
fossil faunas of tlio up|H*r Devonian, along the me- 
ri<!ian of TtW o«v, fnan Tompkins county, X.Y., U> 
Bradfonl oiMiniy. renn.,' by IL S. Williams: and 
Xo. 4. * Li^is of e]«'\ation>.* by Henry Gannett. 

Five \olnnies of tlif moni>irrapbic publications of 
the Haydon snrve> an» still unpublished. Tlie jren- 
«Mal diivi'tion of tbt- oonipb-tion and publication of 
tboso t)uarti^ n'ports ha^ boon \\\\\ in charge of the 
din»otor of tin* ^eolo^iioai survey. Two of tliese vol- 
nnu'S are a1nio>t wholly in ty]u'. and \\ ill l>e Issued 
short l>. 

Tlio London Cr,i\H,* of N.»\ . 17 has a ilonble-page 
ir.ustr.»;ion of ibo TranM'pr in the Ka:b.ib Grand 
('aft Ml t^f Colorado lii\»T. whivb i> an f'n;:niving le- 
duoed from plate x\iti. <f tbi- aila> ai-oimpanying 
rapt. l^utton*< ' TfTiiarx lii>tory of the Grand Cafloo' 
^vol. ii. of the niono^rajdis of tlie survey^. 

PUHIilC AND PRIVATE INSTITUTIOMB. 

llASMchufctt* iaitt;:;:^ of U\~bLolc>CT. 
Ihf ni\r phf'ti\:riifhic /.»?» -.i/! rv. — Sii;Ce the W9^ 
ctMil indention of the ftelatine dry- pi ale. 



Jakvaby 18, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



HI 



pljy bus b^en advAncin^ rapidly hi the tminber of 
Its applicatlous iu (lie urtB ftixl to the industriaJ and 
applied §tfi<«itees. Tbe IiislituU? of lecbnology has 
not linen beh}ri<llmttd tu recoil) i^^^rig tbis fad; atid 
lu th<? new building, now nearly complt*ted, » largu 
rcKitn In the soiiib-wcat corner of tbe basement h&s 

Pii ajiproprinted to the e»tabltsbment of a pboto- 

dphic Ifiboraiory, p^^rhaps tbe first ever constructed 
In connection with a scientific itisiitmion^ for tbe 
especial iiisiruction of students in phoiograpbic 
maiiipulallons, and for ptirposus of original research^ 
Iji iliis most interesting department of applied science. 

The following plan shows the arranginnent of a 
Dftiori of the room, wbieb measures sixty feet in 
l^ngUi by thirty in breadth. 

P^ P, are two brick pier-s sunnoiiutdd by solid stone 
€lAb5« and con*^tructed on foundations entirely in- 
dependent of tbe building, in order lo avoid iiM pos- 
StbiHly of shock or jarring. Upon one of these, brick 
cohtmns are built, wbicli pas* throagb the ceiling into 
the * fonrlh-year ' physical Jabora- 
torj', wliicii occupies tbe room above. 

^The other one reaches a beiglit of 
three feet» and forms a solid founda- 
tion for the support of a lieliostat, 
microseopf*, spectroscope, or other 
fust nun ent. .1 and U are the two 
dark rooms, entirely separated from 
0nc another l^y a partition, and by 
II wooden frame containing the gjts- 
^t fr, wiiich is partially surn'untN'd 
on tliree sides by sheets of Carbutt's 
ruby paper» .S\ 8, 6', are soaparone 
finkt», llie two former of wliicli are 
supplied with vacuum pi[»fs for the 
purjiose of accelerating filtration. 
T, T, 7\ i^presf nl tableH, the one In 
tlie fdndow^ being nse^ for printing 
purpose*, while the others are to sup- 
port photographic appjiratus nnd ac- 
CC8*orle!i, Gas will be in hod net id 
into the dark room.^ over tbe stnl<i* for 
gliting when they an* not in photo- 
ftpblc nye. It will also he supplied at the small 
'^%<J1^*''*^ t»^^*' 'Ti tlie larger d:\rk room for healing pur- 
poses, sucti as boiling emulsion*. C is a ease of 
shelves and drawci^ to contain books, paper, autl ap- 
paraluR. // is a series of siielve? for the storage of 
platis and chemicajH. M h a square wootlen box 
resting on the pier, but connecting by an aperture 
mea<^uring ten inches by tw*elve with tlie Interior of 
tlie larger dark room, This ia to contain a nilcrosct^pe 
for re^earchcj* in pludomicrtjgraphy, the light coming 
fn>m the hellostat through a smatl hole in the box. 
The Image U ihence projected upon a scn^en placed 
tn*lde tbe dark room, wlierc tl»e ofM?raiorcan examine 
it at lii^ leisure. This screen is sujtporterl upon the 
focusing table i?. which roll« upon a I ruck, and may 
L l>© pdaeec] at any distance less than three metres (ten 
^B foet) from the aperture at 3/. The dark room i^ 
^m ihuti couverU^d into a large camera, Inside of which 
the ofterator stands and extmses his plate, white lie 
mav at ibt sam*^ time be dcvc^loping anotlier ofir pre 



vlonsty taken. The greatest efficiency, convenience, 
and economy of time are thus combined l»y thU 
arrangement. 

Both dark rooms arc constantly ventilated by ft 
system of double walls, with openings at the celling 
and floor, whilst tbe draugbtof the lamp ''j is ntiilwd 
to Increase the cireulation* The tight thus becomes 
a source of health, instead of vitiating the atmos* 
phere, as h the case i!i most rlark rooms. The room 
A is i^rovided with double doors, no tliat the o[>erator 
tnay leave the room at any time during an exposure, 
witliout the slightest fear that even the moist sensitive 
plate could possibly be fogged by a chance ray of stray 
light, Thi» arrangement, though convenient at all 
times, will be particularly so when working with long 
exposures of two or three hours in length; and, 
Indeed, it is only by «ame such arrangement that 
tliese exposureii become possible. Besides tbe Aper* 
tute at Jf, a auialler one six inches Mjuare is made 
through the wall of the dark room. This is intended 



m ca r ^ma 



m 



-^ 


W 


M 


T 


A 


sis 


^ \ 


M\. 





rLAK or eiioTocnArnic LAaouATOKT. 

for spectrt»8ci»pic and astronomical work. Eitlier 
wlndi»w may be clothed by n slldiitj; shutter irheii tbe 
other is in use. 

Between (he brick columns of the pier P Is placed 
a shelf, on which will be kept a large carboy contain- 
ing a saturated solulton of pot^isstum oxalate, from 
which the developer liottles may conf^tantly be replen- 
ished by njeariR of a siphon pernmncntly atiached. 
We thus avoid Ibe trouble of continually making up 
fn**h 8olulh»ns, and at the same time do not requiro 
to have the developer iKdile^ inconveniently large. 
The hypoHulphlte-of'Soda and sulphatc-of iron hoIu* 
tioni will be Bltnilarly provided for, the latter being 
covered with a thin film of oil to prevent oxidation 
from the air. 

The routine work of the dep«irtment will be ar- 
rangetl gomewhal :is follow*. Only lliose students at 
the Institute taking the cours<»s in mecb.inlcal and 
electrical engineering, architecture, ch6mi*iry, natu- 
ral history, pbv^ies. and the ccneral courses, will 



82 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol, III., No. 50. 



receive pliotograpliic instruction. Each of them will 
be required to perform at least ten hours* worlt, di- 
vided into five days of two hours each. 

Some experience has already been attained in teach- 
ing photograpliy upon a small scale (la«»t year this 
department had sixteen students); but, should the 
present venture prove a successful one, it Is hoped it 
may be ad(»pted by other colleges, and that photog- 
raphy may in the future come to be regarded as a 
necessary portion of every professional man's college 
education. Wm. H. Pickkking. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



It is £:cnerally known that Williams college secured 
a table early last year at Dohrn's international station 
at Naples. The table may be occupied by any Amer- 
ican scientific scholar recommended by the faculty 
of the college. Any one wishing to use the table 
should send an application to President Carter, and 
the application should be accompanied by evidence 
of ability to improve the unrivalled facilities for 
original investigation afforded at Naples. 

Each occupant is expected, soon after his retuni, 
to give a brief course of lectures at Williamstown 
on some subject connected with zoological work. 
The lectures by the first occupant, Dr. Edmund B. 
Wilson, formerly fellow in the Johns Hopkins univer- 
sity, are to be given in Januai7 and February. 

In assigning the table, any regular graduate of Wil- 
liams college will be recognized as entitled to preced- 
ence; but, in case no graduate of the college worthy 
of the honor is an applicant for the position, the ai>- 
pointment will be determined as far as possible by 
distinction already attaine<i. The successful appli- 
cant will be at once informed of his apjwintment, and 
his name communicated to Science and the American 
natnrnlint for publication. 

The table is at present used by Dr. Samuel F. Clarke, 
professor of natural history in Williams college, but 
will probably be vacated on or before April 1, 1JSS4. 

— The d<q)artnient of the interior, at the rec[Ut*st of 
the Italian government, has issued a circular, calling 
attention to the Bufalini prize of five thousand lire 
for an essay on the experimental method in science, 
and giving the conditions under which writers must 
compete. The character of the es>ay may be gath- 
ered fnun the following extract from liufallni's will: — 

'• Iy<'t tlu' U'uriK'd fonnidiT, thcroforo, whi-tluT tlioy can pnrdon 
mo for cljiiinif to nppi'al to tlK-ni t«!ii yi-arn nltiT my (li-rith, and 
afttT llial every twenty yttarB, to Holvr the followinjf pr«»bh'ui: 
tbd nic<-^Hity of the oxporlincntal iiu'thod in arrivlnif at the 
trutli and the rohition of all the KcIenoeH l>oinir :iH>nnied, it in re- 
quired to demonstrate in a tlrr.t part l»ow far the naid method in 
to h»' u-ed in every Koientitie. arifmnent, and. in a M-cond part, to 
what exti'nt eaeh of tlie Hciencee lian availe«l iti*elf thereof during 
the time that liai* elapbed ninee Ihu hi!«t competition for u ]irize, 
and how tliey may bo brought to a morn faithful and eomplete 
obetervance of the metiio*! itKelf." 

— Accordiiu; to jVf^/Mrr, a met;ting was« rec<*ntly 
held in Sheflield for the purpose of carrying otit, in 
connection with Firth college, a propnsetl technical 
department having reference to the trade of the «lls- 
trict. Among those ^ho spoke were ^fr. Mundella 



and Dr. Sorhy; and all agreed as to the desirability 
of establislilng such a department, and the necessity 
of educating the captains as well as the privates of 
industry in the principles of their craf u. For that, 
Mr. Mundella insiste<l, is the true technical educa- 
tion. He gave the ex{>erience of a friend who has 
just been visiting the United States, and inspected 
the means for technical education existing there. 
The distinct conclunion was, ** that there is more 
skill and intelligence in American industrial pursuits 
than there is in our English industrial pursuits." 

— At the meeting of the Institution of civil engi- 
neers, Nov. 27, the paper read was on *Tlie new 
Eddystone lighthouse,' by Mr. William Tregarthen 
Douglass. 

The necessity for the construction of a new light- 
house on the Eddystone nn-ks had arisen in conse- 
quence of the faulty state of the gneiss rock on which 
Smeatoifs tower was erected, and the frequent eclips- 
ing of the light by heavy seas during stormy weather. 
The latter defect was of little importance for many 
years after the erection of Snteaton's lighthouse, when 
individuality had not been given to coast-lights; but, 
with the numerous coast and ship lights now visible 
on the seas surrounding this country, a reliable dis- 
tinctive character for every coast-light had become a 
necessity. The tower of the new Eddystone is a con- 
cave elliptic frustum, with a diameter of 37 feet at the 
bottom, standing on a cylindrical base 44 feet in di- 
ameter and 2*2 feet high, the upper surface forming 
a landing platform 2 feet inches alK)ve liigh water. 
The cylindrical base ]»revents in a great mea.«urc the 
rise of heavy seas to the upper part of the tower, and 
has the further advantage of affording a convenient 
landing-platform, thus adding considerably to the 
opportunities of relieving the lighthouse. With the 
exception of tin; space occupied by the fresh-water 
tanks, the tower is .^^cdid lor 2o feet <> inches above 
high-water spriuij-tidcs. At the toj) of the solid por- 
tion the wall is 8 feet ti inches thick, diminishing to 
2 feet :{ inches in the thiin»e«t part of the service-room. 
All the stones are dovetailed l)oth horizontally and 
vertically, as at the Wolf K«»ck lighthouse. Each 
stone of the f(»undation-cotirses was sunk to a depth 
of not less than 1 f<M)t hclow the surface of the sur- 
rotinding mck, and was further secured by twoMuntz- 
metal Indts Ij inches in diameter, pas:»ing through the 
stone anil 1) inclnis into the rock below, the t4>p and 
b()ttoni of each stone being fox-wedged. The tower 
contains nine rr>oms. the seven uppermost having a 
diameter of 14 feel and a hei'Jit of 10 feeU Theie 
rooms are fitted up tor the accomnit>dation of the 
jiirht-ke<'|)ers and the 8t(ues neces>ary for the efll- 
cieiit maintenance of the lights. They are rendered 
as far as jMis^'ihle tlre|)roof. the floors being of granite 
covered with slate. The stairs and ])artition8 are of 
ii-<in, aiid th<' uiii<l(»\vs and shutters of gun-metml» 
The oil-ro«iii>s contain eighteen wroiiudit-inm cistemt 
capable of storini; 4,o(N) gallons of oil; and the watei^ 
tanks h(dd, when full. 4,7iN) gallons. The masonry 
consists of 2,171 stones, containing ()2,i:>'> cubic feet 
of granitt^ or 4,r>t;s tons. The focal plane of then^ 



jAWVAKt t8, 18$^.] 



SCIENCE. 



83 



per light i» 1:53 feet above high wftter, its nauticjil 
range is 174 niiles, and in cl^ar weather it overlaps 
Uio h<'rtui of the electric ligViU from the Lizard Fo'mL 
The Ian tern is of tlie cylindricid hMhi'ully-frarn<.«d 
typt! ridopteil by the Trinity House. The li^jht is de- 
rived from two stx-wick * Douglass* burners, the iilii- 
mlnurit being colzandL With » clear Armospherc, and 
the liiu'ht nf the Plymouth breakwater liiihthouBe (10 
miles dtstnnt ) diM iuctly vLsible, the lower burner otily 
Is worked .at tts minimum intensity of 450 cAndles* 
iTiuc AH intensity of the flaiohea of the optical np- 

mtus of ^^7.8<X) candles: bni, whenever the atmos- 
phere i* 8o thick ;k» to im|>air the visibility of the 
bre.\kwater-lig;ht, the full power of two burners i* 
put in action I witli the aggregate intensity of 1,900 
candkf^ far the tamps, and an intensity of the optical 
lipAratus of l51>jyo<) candle!^, Tbi5 intensity is 

Dui "iilJl linie.^ greater than that of l!ie fixed light 
luttorly exhibiied from Smeaton's tower, and al>fjut 
S»2S2 rnu*'s that of the light first exhibited in the 
lower from tallow candles* The new lower was built 
at a dl*lanee of 130 feet from Smea ton's Hght house, 
II large t'^trtinu of the foundation being laid below the 
level of tow- water spring-tides. TliC eslimafe for the 
work was £78,000, and the cost £:il^25:i. The first 
landing at the rock was made in July, 1S78, and tlie 
work was carried on until December* Around the 
foundatinn of the baAw nf iJie tower a strong coffer- 
dam of brick and Itoman cement was built forgetting 
In ihe foundation*. By June, JS70, the work mis 
fufliciently advanced for the stones to be laid in 
the hi wer courses, and everything was Hrranged for 
H.UU* tlie Duke of Edinburgh lo by the foundation- 
•Ion** on the 12th of the n^onlh; but, the wertlber be- 
ing s'ormy, the ceremony was pustponcd until the li»th 
of AtiguBl. On the 17th of Jnly, 1880, the cylindrical 
base w*s eoTupleted, and the i>8tb course by the early 
part of November. On the 1st of June, 1881, the 
Duke of Kdifdmrgh, wlien passing up the Channel in 
II .NJ,S. Lively, landed at tlte rock, and laid tbe last 
stt»ne of the tower. On the 18lh of M^y, 1S82, l!io 
Dukeof Kdluburgh completed tlie work by lighljugthe 
lamps and formally opening the lighthonse, Tlic edi- 
fice was thus erected and fitted up within four yeurs 
of its cominencr»ment» and one year under the time 
estlmaled. The whole of the stones, averaging m«»re 
thaii 2 tori » each, were landed ainl hoiuted direct into 
the work from Ihe deck of the steam-tender Herru- 
le!<, by a chain- fall working between an irou crane 
fixed at the centre of the tower, and a steam- winch on 
the deck of the Hercules, which was moored at a 
distance of 30 fathoms friujy the rock. 

The towti council and inhabitanls of Plymouth 
havi?ig €xpre.5ised a desire that Snjeuton's lighthouse 
should l»e re-erected on Plymouth Hoe, in lieu i>f tlio 
Trinity Hou«e sea-mark ilnMeal, the Trinity House 
made over to the authorities ut Plymouth the lantern 
and foiu' rooms of the lower. After the removal of 
the struct lire to the floor of the lower room, the en- 
trance-doorway, and well*Mtairca*i> leading from it to 
the lower room, were filled in with mason r>% and an 
iron mast was ilxcd at the centre of the U^p i>f the 
f nullum. 



— The U. S. naval institute oirort a prtxe of a gold 
medal, one hundred dollars, and a life membership, 
to the writer of the best eosay offered on the subject 
of ' The best method for the reconstruction and in- 
crease of the navy.' The judges selected to adjudge 
the prize are Dr, D. C. Oilman, Admiral C\ K. P. 
Rfidgers, Senator J. R, Hawley, 

— E. <fe F, N» Spon announce the pubUcaiion at 
an early date of a book on ' Sorghum, Its culture 
and manufacture economically considered,' by Peter 
Collier; aho * Electricity, magnetism, atid electro- 
telegraphy,' by D. T. Lockwood. 

— Professor Gustavua Hinrichs, director of the 
Iowa weatlier- service, has again issued an attractive 
annual pamphlet, entitled this year *Thc seasons in 
Iowa, and a calendar for 1881,' with appropriate illus- 
trations, and much valuable nieteoiotogical informa- 
tion. The notable weather fcatun*8 of the several 
months are given in detail; so that observers may 
judge at any time whether an occurrence is normal 
and probably to be cfuUInued, or abnormal and likely 
soon to di?iappear. The chief peculiarity of the cli- 
mate is its variability, coninion Uy interior stations on 
the track of frequent cyclonic storms, and of which 
several striking example* are given; and there Is 
found lo be much probability of a cold snap late In 
.January, a snow-storni at the close of April, a cold 
spell in May, tornadoes In June, squalls in July, heavy 
local rains in August, and fro**t early in September. 
Ssince 1875, tornadoes luive occurred in Iowa on the 
following daU»s: April 8, 18, 21, 2.S; May U, 13, 18, 
19; June 1, 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, 17, iM; July 2; Oct. 8, 
15, 28, 30 {the more severe ones in bold type). June 
is the montli most disturbed by these storms; and 
directly after it a three-month period, July 3 to Oct. 8, 
has no record of tornadoes. It is saiil that tlie dan- 
ger from tornadoes in Iowa has been greatly exag- 
gerated. The rainfall maps for every month and for 
tlie year are repeated from hi^t year. Precipitation 
in aimost three times a* great in summer as in winter. 
Professor Hinriehs liopes next year to illustrate his 
annual from home sources exclusively, and asks for 
sketches and photogr.ipba of halos, hail stones, de- 
structive effect of wind and lightning, meteors, cloud- 
forms, or any other phenomena. Drawings of Iowa 
scenery, as well as detailed maps of storms, hail, and 
HockIs, will all be welcome. We wish the director 
siuccess in his excellent work, 

— The imblicalions of the census oflice >o long ex- 
pected are now being Issued in rapid succession by the 
Government print ing-oflice. Thus far, three i|uarto 
volumes, besides tbecompen^lium, have apjieared, and 
several others are very near completltui. The three 
wliich have been issued ar** those upon poptUation, 
manufaclur**«, and agriculture. The first, which saw 
the light some two months ago, comprises ^Popula* 
tion, part 1/ as issued by the census office a year and 
a half ago, with, a% additions, the tables relating to 
riiCe, n;Uivity, age, «ex, parentage, occupations. Il- 
literacy, the defective, de^wndent, and delinijuent 
classes, and the newspaper and t>cnodical presh, The 
tabular matter is preceded by a somewhat full discus- 



82 



SCIENCE. 



.1., Xo. 



receivp photograpliic instruction. Kach of them will 
be ro(|uiriMl to imrforin at least ten hours' work, di- 
vi<l«'(l into fiv<? (lays of two lioiirs each. 

Some ixptTionoe has already been attained in teach- 
ini: i>b(>tn}:;ra|)hy upon a small scale (la»t year this 
departnii lit. had sixteen students); but, should the 
present venture prove a successful one, it is hoped it 
may be adopted by other college.-t, and that photog- 
raphy may In the fiiture come to he regarded as a 
necessary portion of every professional man's college 
education. Wm. H. Pjcxkuino. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



It is ^^snerally known that Williams college secured 
a table early la!»t year at Dohrn*8 international station 
at Naples. The table may be occupied by any Amer- 
ican scientific scholar recommended by the faculty 
of the collej^re. Any one wishing to use the tal«i- 
should send an application to President Carter, ;n 
the application should be accompanied by evid* . 
of ability to improve the unrivalled faciliti'- 
original investigation a£Forded at Naples. 

Kach occupant is expected, soon after hi> 
to give a brief course of lectures at Will 
on some subject connected with zoolnui 
Tlie lectures by the first occupant, Dr. v 
Wilson, fonnerly fellow in the Johns Uf 
sity, are to be given in January antl l*'. ■■ 

In assigning the table, any regular 
llama college will be recognized as • •. 
ence; but, in case no graduate ol 
of the honor la an applicant for ii 
pointment will be determlncil :• 
dlstinciioii already attained, 
cant will be at once inform.-' 
ni« name communicated m 
na/Mra//«tf^rpubUcaUo,. 

rUe table u at preMMU 



professor of natural 
'^IJJ^P'-o^ablybevar 

^^e I?lli? departmoii 
attent^^^^^»*g«ver!n. 

/or a,.^^^^^ to the l; 
and -2^. ^atay on t! 
coty^,^^ Vlng tlii' «■ 
erect*^^te. Tl.- 
^'^omtb* 




and Dr. Sorby; an.? 
of establishing su> > 
of educating the > 
industry in th** 
Mr. Mundella 
tion. He a.r. 
just been \ 
the mean- 
The di^l' 
skill am- 
than tl 



1H'» 



li ^ 



• 7 






. riily illusT.i:-. - 

iiid stoi-l J : - 

.ry of till- An,' r- 

.,-n* rt'prliitfil. 1« 

:!k'e a^* a >*'i»ara!** 

tl* rt'pnrt itulili^ln-'il 

• •.le^ the staii-lit-5 m1 

... iv'ion, ami rlnNi-.. tho 

:»*rf."»tin^ and valuable 

- — industry, nui unly in 

.fiiztMl unrlil; lit';:innini: 

•i-\t'iith j;«MMTali'Mi aft*'r 

>lraloil with >i.\ d«»ubh'- 

:rou-pri»ducini: rf.i;l««ii< ot 

• -iMrtion. by ••"•unties. «•!' pii:- 

. • .^l!i-in»n bl«M>nis, an«l ««ti*i*l. 

• . r::.inufurlun?, by Mr. Wyi'koiT. 

• i.y >>i its history, and a v« ry full 
■..nlitiini in thismuutry. That 

, -.1 !urf. by Mr. Aikins-ii, is ox- 
..■.'riniii'^ nnly sixtron paL:»'s: it 
- . utn.iry nf tin* Ci>tl"H-]»nMiui;ini' 
.i.-Ws llif frourcos of >upply of tin- 
^ . ^ .:i to discuss the nietlnuU of nianu- 
:. n-lativr ipialitirs of the pn^duct ol" 
.- •:<*•.»» oonntrifs, and tin- farilities 
rTcriMil part«* nf thi^' ronnrry f<»r ibis 
i !..» rrp'^ri «"t Mr. lltuid «"niisi*ts entirely 
>« ri '..itini; to tho imlustry of wonl inanu- 
--^f.i.'od by a Uw introdurtnry n-niarks. 
: upon ("lu'niiral products treats oi the 
I .»i Miila, uiauufai'Jnn-d manure'^, pli"s- 
■pluir and sulpburie aeid, potaS'«inin bi- 
pujasli. pbosiihuiu-., Imrax, bnonine, nitro- 
a.etate of lime and salt. The vohune 
» Mr. Weeks's n-pnrt upon (lla^s ujauufae- 
.idditii»n to full >tatisties reirardiri-j; ilii^ 
: ^rv. Mr. We«k> summarizes and liisenssc* the 
V- ^::es fully. This portion «if the. report is fol* 
tt:d h\ A iieati'*"' upon ulass. the malt-rials u>ed in 
. Tv..»n:if.ieiure. and the un'thods euiplo\ed both in 
sv\\.u :urf and in worklni:. The repr)rt «'h»ses with 
!. <K'V\ of ihr industry fn»m the earliest historic 
: :,v An admirably lull and eomphte jzeneral 
.;, \ i'i uivin, in aiMitiim to the indices to the 
vVv.iI reports, rrobiibly wiih a view to a .soiKirate 
iln»nof e.u-h ^pe«'ial report, each is paged by 

the pairing 



I: 



iV: liauriat in the 
> now the sole pulv 



•!;>ilt .'n till- top. while at ih.- bottom 

:;in^ eoHMVUlively thnnmh the volume. 

-S. I-:. ('a'i>in«' A- t'o- di-^iie us to state that they 

h.i\e hi>ui:hl the int.Trst of Ksles 

•S!.in,|.ir«I natural history.* and an 

li^.her'. of that work. 
Mr. .1. II. r.mert*»n. ^\ho<e name was ^iven as a 

,-,.'inihui.»r t.» ibis work, writer that he is only so in 

*.^ t'.ir .IS a pait ft ihr rhapter on spiders is quotetl 

trom v\h.U h.' had jMihlislitMl .N.'wh.'re. 

/ ii A.f.'w/'. Hee. l"i. !*-<:'.. apoloi^izes for an error 

in si.itin- thai Mr. Feny ero>s.'d the Knglish Chan- 

n.l on tin- water-tri.yele !i-ured in »Sc/c-Mre, Dec. U, 
m.l .'ivesilhisi rations of the trieycle. convertible into 
'» Ukx\, in uhioh the pa>sa-e was actually made. 



SCIENCE. 



1884. 



CRITICISM. 

i.i/s recent communica- 
^\i>\\ philosophical society, 
- common fallacies as to the 
:it' children, is a clear and con- 
Mrntalion of the arguments for 
i I jif children with no defects in their 
•rgans to speak, though they cannot 
. MS other children do, being unable to 
■ \'. :ir. To teach lip-reading is certainly practi- 
cable in many such cases, if not in all ; and 
therefore it would seem that the attempt ought 
to be made in every case, to the exclusion of a 
purely conventional language of signs. Mr. 
Bell points out the real nature of the problem 
and its difficulties, indicating, among other 
things, the importance of the context to the deaf 
lip-reader in distinguishing words which look 
alike to his eya^ such as pa^ hat^ mat^ because 
he cannot see the workings of all the organs of 
speech, and laying emphasis on the fact that 
even very imperfect speech, if intelligible, is 
far better than no speech at all. 



After reading his communication and the 
discussion which followed, especially his an- 
swer to objections and to arguments for the 
use of signs in teaching the deaf, we must give 
Aill assent to all the essentials of his arguments. 
Any student of linguistic science realizing the 
importance of a clear conception of the nature 
of language, and the value of careful phonetic 
analysis, will find this paper of interest, and 
must hope for the spread of such views as those 
here expressed, in the interest of his own 
studies as well as of the deaf-mutes, who may 
jet be taught to speak. 



There is an entertaining field for some lin- 
guistic geographer to cultivate in this country 
by mapping out the distribution of the various 

Ko.6] 1884. 



kinds of town, county, river, and other names 
according to their origin and derivation. The 
great bulk of newer names has no significance 
in this regard, being purely local, personal, and 
commpnplace ; but places of older date often 
give an interesting clew to the former homes 
of their first settlers. Distinctively English 
names have but a slight ix^netration be3'ond 
the Atlantic coast, except in Canada. The 
French follow a well-marked line up the St. 
Lawrence and down the Mississippi. Dutch 
and German names give local color to the 
Hudson valley and parts of eastern Penns}'!- 
vania; and the Spanish have a broad occur- 
rence in the far south-west. Indian names 
occur everywhere, from the euphonious Min- 
nesota to the doubtful Tuscaloosa and the 
abrupt Oshkosh. The proper sorting-out of 
these last would require a rarer knowledge, as 
it would give more valuable results than the 
rest of the work ; but all might be graphically 
shown with great clearness. 



The h3'drographic office of the U. S. navy 
department has issued the Pilot chart of the 
North Atlantic for Januar}', on which are given 
the latest reported positions of floating wrecks. 
The number of such wrecks which were re- 
ported as seen from Nov. 22 to Dec. 25, and 
of which the ix)sitions are charted, is twenty- 
two. Nine of them were along the eastern 
coast of the United States, from Maine to 
Cape Ilatteras; seven were on the Atlantic, 
in the track of vessels going from the United 
States to England; two were near the West 
Indies; and three off the coast of Spain. 
Some months ago the more or less impractica- 
ble suggestion was made, of employing naval 
vessels to chase these dangerous obstructions, 
and blow them to pieces. The navy depart- 
ment has done good work in locating their 
positions ; but, on account of the winds and 
ocean-currents, the results can only have value 
for a short time. It is desirable that some 



86 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 51. 



way sliould be invented of doing away with 
this additional danger of ocean travel. 

It is not uncommon to hear complaints of 
the methods of teaching geography in our lower 
schools. The faults most frequently mentioned 
are, that the beginning is not made properl}* ; 
that there are too many lists of places com- 
mitted to memory; and that the teaching is 
too lifeless, and is not made real enough b}- 
illustration and description apart from the text- 
book. The first error can be easih' corrected 
by adopting the German method of instruction, 
where, instead of beginning with the definitions 
of meridians and parallels, that are so often 
found misplaced on the opening pages of our 
text-books, the pupils first stud}' the arrange- 
ment of the schoolroom, then of the play- 
ground, next the geography of the town and 
of the surrounding countr}', and thus learn the 
meaning of the maps from which they after- 
wards stud}' about the more distant parts of 
the world. 

But this does not go very far. After laying 
the proper foundation, is there an}' way of 
learning geograph}', except by committing to 
memory the names and relative positions of 
the many mountains, rivers, capes, bays, lakes, 
cities, and towns, that give features to the 
earth? Detail may, of course, be carried too 
far, if a precise knowledge of distant, and to us 
unimportant, countries be required ; but for the 
average scholar of this country, who should 
become well acquainted with the geography of 
North America and Euro[>e, there is no easy 
path, no royal road, over the broad, rough field 
of fact that he must cross. We fancy, there- 
fore, that the second criticism touches, not a 
fault, but a difficulty inherent in the study. 
Names and positions of places must be learned ; 
but, as books of moderate cost can give very 
little more than the barest mention of them, 
the study is apt to become lifeless, and to de- 
generate into the learning of dull words from a 
dead map, unless the teacher averts this unfor- 
tunately common result, and enlivens the work 
by instruction bej'ond the text-book. This, 



however, is more than we have a right to 
expect from the overworked and underpaid 
teachers in the lower schools, for it is no 
easy task. It demands much reading in many 
books; it requires illustration by numerous 
maps, photographs, and diagrams, far beyond 
the reach not only of the teacher, but of the 
school board as well. In short, the desirable, 
the ideal teaching of even so commonplace a 
subject as elementary geograph}- is an expen- 
sive art, requiring much study, high skill, and 
an extensive outfit. 



It is now recognized that the successfhl 
teaching of chemistry, physics, and natural sci- 
ence, needs that the teachers of these branches 
shall know them by practical, experimental, 
observational work. A fair application of the 
same principle would require that the teacher 
of geography should have travelled ; but how 
far are we now from so desirable an end ! It 
is safe to say, thnt, of all the teachers of oar 
common schools, not one-quarter have seen an 
ocean, a harbor, or a high mountain, and not 
one-twentieth of them have had any personal 
acquaintance with the foreign countries that 
they have to describe. Under these conditions, 
it is certainl}' no wonder that the study of ge- 
ograi)hy becomes so often a tiresome exercise 
of unintelligent memory ; and it cannot be 
otherwise, without a cost that few school 
boards can allow. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

%• Correnpornlentn are rf quanted to be an brief a « ponniblt. 1%% 
tcriter'H name in in all vane* required an proof of gtyod faith., 

Naval officers and the coast-Burvey. 

Ix your issue of the 11th you refer e<litr>rially to 
the proposition contained in the report of the secrs- 
tary of the njivy for 1S8:>, to transfer all national 
wori< coniiecied with the ocean, and conducted by 
other department 8, to the contrnl of the navy depart 
incnt; and in aMuh>e(|uent para^^raph you make some 
criticisms upon the charaet«*r of the work i)erfonned 
by navy r>flicer8 in the coast-survey. The questloA 
as to whether the navy or the treasury department 
shall control the work, I do not propose to discuss; 
but I must enter my protest ajjain^t the assertion in 
a journal like Schnrc, which ijors forth to the world 
as authority, that the *' work which these [navy] offi- 
cers pcifi)rm Is routine, the plans an<l melliods for 
which have been devised aiul developed by oivillaa 
experts/' and to the assertion contained in tlia 
phrase, ** the present method of employ in<; our snper- 
fluous navy, under the intelligent suprrvision of 



lAKVAJIT S&, 1884.) 



SCIENCE, 



cirtlian experts.*'— To jinswrr lh<*»e pojui« in order, 
I will say, first as a matter of history, thiU the * plan* 
of the coast-survey was compilt'd over forty years 
since by a mixed board comiH^ed in part of navy 
officers. This plan was legalized by Congress in 
lS4ri-44, and haj* been mainly In force ever since ; 
though some modiMcatlons have necessarily been 
mode liy the judg^niejit and experience of tlie emi- 
nent men who have held the officer of superintendent 
and principal assistant*. By the plan referred t^, it 
wa» made the kgitimate. duty of officers and men of 
the navy to execute the bydrographie part of the 
work; and to them has ever Ki nee been a*»signed the 
bulk of thai work, except during the few years when 
the civil war and the subsequent scarcity of officers 
miMle it impossible to do so. That period (i.e., from 
1^11 to 1871 1 developed a goml many civilian hydrog- 
niphcrsj who have uo superiors in the world, hut 
nearly all of the-ie resumed their more legitimate 
work n(x)n the return of navy officers to the survey. 
The methoilM ot liydrograpby tttn the growth of imn- 
dreds of years* and liave been contributed to by the 
seamen of all maritime nations; and, while the in- 

frentors of a good many instruments and special 
methods are knowit, it would be exceedingly difficult 
in trace Uie »yHtei)i to its .^^ouicc. Tbe * tricks of the 
pmtic*,^ fio to spc'rtk, bave bei^n banded down from one 
10 another with gradual improvement, — as a rule, 
loo slow to give any definite point from which ttiat 
Improvement can i)e sbown, tbough during the forty 
years of its existence the coast-survey has vafitly im- 
proved the character of itn work; but probably the 
improvement in Its means (i,e*, tbe introduction of 
ttt'ttuj-propvlllng power, etc.) descnes a good deal of 
the credit for improved methods. While civilians 
bave had a share iti tbe development, it ii a long way 
from tbe fact, to ascribe all to them^ as it is to assume 

IUiat hydrography is a work which does not require 
skill, judgment, and care. Those who think the last 
have nevfr worked in intricate waters. The officers 
engaged upon tbe coa-st-^^urvey have been so assigned 
because it was a part of their regular duty, and not 
because * superHuous." Having bad for five years the 
privilege of nominating the officers to be employed 
upon ihe const-survey, I can speak with some authori- 
ty. OtTicers were chosen strictly for Iheir qualifica- 
tions; anil often, had it not been for the great intercut 
tiiken in tbe cfhu^t-survey by the successive chiefs of 
the bureau of navigation, tlie officers selected would 
not have been spared from other duties. That alt 
work of the eoa!$t survey is supervised by the super- 
intendent, an expert «>f high nnler, is un undoubted 
fact; but his instructions to hydrogruphers, utdess he 
^AS M)me .-ifw^cial object in view, simply assign geo- 
Rpldcal limits, but do not prescribe methods, u 
tlieral printed manual covering all tliat is required 
In the latter. The work, after completion, has of 
coune to pass ihe rigid scrutiny of itie superintend- 

Ient; but tlie 8an>e is tbe cujie with all other work. 
To this extent llie work of navy officers may be said 
to be 'supervi>ed by civilian experts/ but no farther. 
In Ihl^i several navy ofticer:^, who without previous 
exiJerience were ordered to the coast-survey, place<l 
iheiusetves for a short time under the Instructions of 
civil fls«i»tants, wbo iiad been doing their work for 
•rfi and all of them freely and gratefully ac- 

kt she a>si'.tance they received. I am free 

to u ., ., Jge obligations of a similar character,— of 
many a /*om/ received from ray valued civil associates 
duHu!: fTo- fJarit-n Canal cxpi'dition of 1870, Nauti- 
C:t' always been taught ibeoretically at 

Til i^y; jind an much practice as jjossible 

haw jji-ni niiiv, ihougb iioT always, been given. Fur- 



thermore, nautical survey mg and navigation are very 
near cousins, so tliat all the instruction needed to 
make a navigator a surveyor is to give him what I 
have called the * tricks of the tradeV ^nd these are 
being bandud down by officers as they havo been by 
their preilecc^ssori*. Edwakti P. I.ULL, 

Ciiptiiiti LLS, naty^ late hydroffraphic inspector 
U,S, coast geodetic »urv^. 

[The plan of organ! nation of the coast-survey and 
the plan of work of the survey are quite different 
things. It is the duty of the chief of tbe survey to 
arrange and supervise the latter. That the scope and 
character have been extended since its organir^aliou 
in accordance with the views of the chief is beyond 
question. While from the above letter it might l>e 
inferred that the tiautical work of the coast-survey 
is confined to marine surveying in its older sense 
of locating rocks and shoals, and determining Ihe 
boundaries of courses; of the tjavigable waters by 
time-honored methods, yet from the publications of 
the coast-survey, and from other sources, we had 
gathered that the study of ocean physics, and of the 
conformation and character of the ocean bottom, 
U>gether with the different forms of marine life, had 
fonned» of recent years, an Important part of the 
work of the survey, and that it was earricil out in 
accordance with the plans of the chiefs of the survey, 
and by the methods devised and developed by them 
and by the two Agassi zs, Pour tales, Thompstm, 
Wilne-Kd wards, and many other eminent specialists, 
modified in minor details by the circumstances of 
each case. 

It is an error to suppose we regard the employ- 
ment of naval officers in this work unfavorably: for* 
on the contrary, we think it highly desirnhle that 
they sboukl be employed in this routine work of eol- 
lectins! data and material for discujtsion and study by 
specialists; and their skill, judgment, and care, iheir 
knowledge of organization and discipline, an<l their 
close adherence to instruction.*, render them ex- 
tremely useful. It is wise, also, that, In the present 
reduced condition of the navy as to ships, and its 
overcrowded condition as to officers, the secretary 
should find employment for this fiuperfluity In the 
coa*it -survey, the fish-commission, the geoh^gical 
survey, tlie national mus^eum, as jt-m ^'t-'''^ in our 
t;oUeg*es, and as assistants in specijil ^. Such 

employment cannot but result in b* : he navy, 

and assist in the advancement of science. 

Yet we have still to be persuaded that It will prt> 
mote the efficieticy or tbe economy «>f the acieiitinc 
organizations of the government if lliey are Irans- 
femd from the tsupervl^ion of the present expert 
civilian heads to tliat of the officers of the navy.} 

Italics for acientific names, 

I agree with the editorial remark?* under this head- 
ing in Science, No. 49, that the proper mission of 
italics is for * emphasis, or ns caich-words;* and their 
use for scien title namcj of aninial!!^ and plants is, 
it seems to me, — coutrary to the opirdon conveyed 
editorially, — of great practical utility, especially In 
indexing, or In searching the pages of an article or 
memoir for references to particular speeie* that may 
he under treatment. Italicizing such words makei 
them * catch-words/ and gives great facility in dis- 
covering incidental reference to species, the eye 
quiekly catching the italicized name, and as quickly 
recognizing whether it is the one sought. Consider- 
ing scientific names as *a simple convenience,* and 
as'having no higher value, their use Is so necessary an 



86 



SCIENCE. 



TIL, Ko. M. 



wa}' should be invented of doing awa}' with 
this additional danger of ocean travel. 

It is not uncommon to hear complaints of 
the methods of teaching geography in our lower 
schools. The faults most frequently mentioned 
are, that the beginning is not made properly ; 
that there arc too many lists of places com- 
mitted to mcmorj' ; and that the teaching is 
too lifeless, and is not made real enough by 
illustration and description apart from the text- 
book. The first error can be easily corrected 
by adopting the German method of instruction, 
where, instead of beginning with the definitions 
of nuM-idians and parallels, that are so often 
foun«l mis[)laced on the opening pages of our 
text-books, the pupils first study the arrange- 
ment of the schoolroom, then of the play- 
ground, next the geograph}' of the town and 
of the surrounding country, and thus learn the 
meaning of the ma[)s from which they after- 
wards study about the more distant parts of 
the world. 

But this does not go ver}' far. After la^'ing 
the proi)er foundation, is there any way of 
learning geography, except by committing to 
memory the names and relative ix>sition8 of 
the many mountains, rivers, capes, bays, lakes 
cities, and towns, that give features to tl. 
earth? Detail may, of course, be carried t. 
far, if a precise knowledge of distant, and \jo 
unimportant, countries be required ; but for 
average scholar of this countr}', who sh 
become well acquainted with the geograpl 
North America and Europe, there is no 
path, no ro3'al road, over the broad, rony - 
of fact that he must cross. We fancy 
fore, that the second criticism touchc 
fault, but a difficulty inhei-ent in tlv 
Names and positions of places mustb* 
but, as books of moderate cost can 
little more than the barest mentioi 
the study is apt to become lifeless, 
generate into the learning of dull v 
dead map, unless the teacher avei 
tunately common result, and enl' M 

by instruction bej'ond the tear ^^ 



however, is n 
expect from 
teachers in i 
easy task. I 
books; it i 
maps, phot" 
the reach 
school boil 
the ideal * 
subject a 
sive art. 
an extei 

It i 
teach i 
encc. 
shall 
obst- 
saiii 
of 
fa- 
is 



n at 



;!')W 

I ri)m 

■ i.-ss to 

. .'Ill U Is 

:tiilhoritj 

••'s so, then 

iii^i'ment bj 

lilies luaj be 

ITZOKBALD. 



f. s Statements in his 

1 Jan. 11 which ap- 

Were jour columns 

I should like to show 

iv, that In his referenee 

; ion he entirely OTsrlooks 

i;int heat, whldi must be 

. u a determinate direction, 

.\i referred to as * entangled 

uint heat alone. I have dell- 

:ind shown that it does not 

<od states. Instead of regard- 

.iLtributed to It the properties of 

\isiing In matter. 

also refers to his papers in the 

t\ etc. The only point in that some- 

.1 personal discussion upon which I 

fessor Wood to Anally Insist, he re- 

i he JomnuU ^ tAe FrwMin iitsf {tute for 

. II my reply In the same Journal for June, 

rd the fallacy of his objection. So far as 

'fessor Wood has taken no notice of that 

now completely Ignores IL I may say that 

lie relied upon was of this nature. He pio- 

crtaln construction or process (differlug es- 

s from mine) for dealing with radiant heel» 

iii whldi would not accomplish the en<l songhL 

.i-n showed that his construction was a failnn, 

.-•mcloded that mine would therefore fall also,— a 

liod of reasoning which seems to roe Inconclusive, 

^ay the least And now Professor Wood says that 

\T, Fltneratd's construction Is * conclusive.' All It 

H conclofilve of is, that It will not accomplish the end 

which I have proposed: we all agree that it will not. 

I have shown, however, that my proposed constna* 

tlon dlfl^ra from both in Just those particulars ne esi 

r to make It accomplish the end sought. 

\ Is nnfortunate that the velocity of r«idlant hilft 

idi as to render experimental verification a mi* 

~ " H. T. Sum; 



-Zj 



f great dlfflcnlty. 



1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



89 



-"^•AND IN ALASKA. 



•»vo 



contained 

"'c island 

'*iin. 

.iJl- 



i:is been rarely 
lely known than 
IS. It is, how- 
1*03 of the sudden 
land in the sea 
.d in historic times. 
I' ^3** 58', and longi- 
>ximately some forty- 
northern corner of Una- 
Aleutian chain. At the 




N. by E.. 10 miles. 
Fio.l. 
NoTB. — * 8 ' is Ship Ilock. 

. it was observed by us it formed a 
rated ridge, about eight hundred and 
I in height, very narrow, the sides 
j: above in a very acute angle, where 
re broken into a number of inaccessible 
icles. There is no crater, nor appearance 
. crater. The shore-line formed a tolerably 
.ular oval, iiolnted at the soulh-cast end, hav- 
.;; its longitudinal axis trending N. W. ^W. 
ind S. E. { E. by compass, and reaching about 
three-quarters of a nautical mile in length. 
The shores are mostly precipitous ; but at the 
soath-eastem extramit}- the waves have accu- 
mulated a small spit or pointed bit of beach, of 
talus, on which in perfectly favorable weather 
a landing may be had. With the least swell 
a heavy surf is formed here. Seen through a 
itrong glass at a distance of four miles, it 
appeared of a light pinkish-gray color, devoid 
of vegetation or water, and covered with myri- 



ads of birds. Less than half a mile north and 
west from the island is a perpendicular square- 
topped pillar, about one hundred and flfly feet 
high, called on modern charts ' Ship Rock.' 
Less than half a mile north and east from the 
island is a small rock rising only a few feet 
above the water. North, east, and south, and 




North, 4 miles. 



Fig. 2. 



especially east-south-east from the point of the 
island, scattered breakers were observed, ex- 
tending less than three-quarters of a mile from 
shore. The crags of the main island afford 
the most secure refuge to thousands of sea- 
parrots, puffins, auks, and divers; and sea- 
lions (Eumetopias Stelleri) often rest on the 
talus i)oint. It is visited in spring, if weather 
permits, by native egg-hunters from Una- 
lashka; but in 1873 several years had passed 
since any one had been able to make a landing 
at the proper season. M}' own party attempted 
it unsuccessfully in 1872 and 1873. 

Such was the condition and appearance of 
the island in 1873. The outline sketches here 
given are facsimiles of those taken on the spot 
as we approached the island from the south- 
west, and passed south of it eastward towaixi 
Unalashka. Their pro[>ortions were corrected 
by horizontal and vertical angles. The wind 





N. by W.. « miles. 
Fio. 3. 



N. W. \ W., miles. 
Fio. 4. 




N. W. by W., 6i miles. 
Fio. 6. 



was light ; but there was a hea-vy ground-swell, 
which broke on the rocks and - the little spit at 
the south-east end, rendering -^^ landing imprao* 



90 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IIL, No. 6L 



ticable. On the line of the supposed reef, 
which has ornamented the charts for so many 
j-ears as connecting Bogosloff and Umnak, 
three miles from the island, we sounded in 
eight hundred fathoms without touching bot- 
tom. With the exception of a small reef near 
the north-east end of Umnak, and the rocks 
within a short distance of Bogosloff, there is 
water more than eight hundred fathoms deep 






',/BP 







PLAN OF THE ID. 

JOANNA 150G0SL0VA. 
I^t. 63' 55', 1^)11. 168* W. Gr. 






>ni\ai 



=i-*'. 



PLAN FROX KRUSENSTEIIN'B ATLAS, 1826. 

on all sides of the island. The supposed reef 
was probably taken for granted by those who 
saw the white water of a tide-rip which eddies 
Southward toward Umnak Pass on the ebb, in 
the "'L^t'-o of Bogoslotr, as we ourselves observed 
to occur in* ^ small way. Ship Rock is seen 
on several ot" the sketches, standing off to the 
nortliward. Tife* earliest information in regard 
to this island is derived from the map of Kre- 
nitzin and Levaschelf, prepared from surveys 



made in 1768-69. No reference to it appears 
in the abstract of their report which has been 
preserved for us by Coxe ; but a little profile 
surrounded by rocks is represented off the end 
of Umnak on their chart, which evidently rep- 
resents the rock which existed before the pres- 
ent peak was raised. A facsimile of this part 
of their map appears in the corner of the Kru- 
senstern map on this page. 

Tiie next information is given 
by Cook's voyage in 1778, when 
an elevated rock, like a tower, 
was seen Oct. 29, at a distance 
of twelve miles : ' The sea, which 
ran very high, broke nowhere but 
against it.' On Cook's chart it 
is called Ship Rock, but its iden- 
tity' with what is now known as 
Ship Rock is uncertain ; and at 
that distance there might have 
been a number of adjacent rooks 
or breakers not visible. 

We learn from Langsdorff, who 
visited this region from 1804 to 
1806, that, previous to the ap- 
pearance of the present peak of 
Bogosloff, a rocky islet had long 
stood in the same situation, which 
the Aleuts declared from the time 
of their forefathers had been a 
notable resort of seals and sea- 
lions. This could not have been 
the present Ship Rock, which is 
a huge perpendicular pillar. 

In 179') the islanders marked a 
local appearance, as of fog, in 
the neighborhood of this rock, 
which did not disperse even when 
the rest of the atmosphere was 
perfectly clear. This created 
much uneasiness, since the na- 
tives of Unmak and Unalashka 
had been used to regard this rock 
as one of their great sources of 
food-supi)ly. After a long time, 
in the spring of 1796, one of the 
more c*ourageous natives visited 
the locality, and returned imm^ 
diately in great terror, saying that the sea all 
about the rock lH)ilcd, and that the supposed 
fog was the steam arising from it. It 
then sui)posed to have become the abode 
evil spirits, and was avoided by every 
without exception. The disturbances 
accompanied by volcanic activity in the 
ters of Makushin on Unalashka and others < 
Umnak Island. The account given by Bi 
noff and Veniaminoff of what followed mq 






Jaxdabt 26, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



91 



LiQimarire^, it being remembered tliat the 
Blanii is over thirty miles from the nearest 
ftud, and about forty from the nearest habita- 
tions on Unalasbka, 

On the 1st of May (old style), 1796^ accoi-d- 
ing to one KnukoJ!\ tlien the Russian Araeiican 
loompany*9 agent iit Unahtshku, a storm arose 
near Uranak, and coutinuci] for several days* 
iDuring this time it was ver}' dark, and low 
Ipoides resembling thunder were continually 
lieard. By daybreak on the -Id of May the 
^ftoim ceased, and the sky became clear. Be- 
tween Unalashka and Umnak, and northward 
from the latter island, a flame was seen arising 
from the sea, and smoke was observed for ten 
days about the same locality. At the end of 
this lime, from Unalaslika, a rounded white 
mass was seen rising out of the sea. During 
I jthe night, lire arose in the same place, so that 
[objects ten ndles oil' were distinctly visible. 



In 1806 fissures appeared, lined with crystals 
of sulphur. Acc-oj-ding to LangsdorfT, who saw 
it in this year,* it did not exhiint any special 
activity', though steam and smoke arose more 
or less constantly. In this year three baidars 
visited the island. On the north side soft lava 
flowed into the sea, and it was too hot to afi- 
proach closely ; but on the southern end a land- 
ing was eflected. The peak was too sharp and 
rugged to be ascended, and the rock was very 
hot. A piece of seal meat suspended in a 
crevice was thoroughly cooked in a short time. 
There was no soil nor fresh water. 

The only map or survey of Bogosloff and 
vicinity known by us to exist is that of Kru- 
senstem, published in 1826, a facsimile of 
which is here given, except that the evidently 
formal hacburing has been omitted. Since 
I82ii, and up to the present year, the island 
has remained tranquil, and its form has not 



l\A 



M. 



vtwv^sja 



llnnKole iMlatid, W. S. W., 10 inUm. 
Fia. 7, 



PinhAclo iKland, N. N. W., ft mllw. 
Fio. «. 



An earthquake shook Unalashka, and was ac- 
companied by fearful noises. Stones, or pum- 
ice, were thrown from the new volcano as far 
as Umnak. With sunrise the noises ceased, 
the fire diminished, and the upraised island was 
seen as a sharp black crag. It was named 
after St. John the theologian, though it does 
not appear for what reason. It did not rise, 
iieeording to the above account, on his day. A 
month later it was appreciably higher, and 
_ tmittG<I flames constantly. It continued to 
"rise, but steam and smoke took the place of 
fire. In 1800 the smoking appeared to cease, 
and in 1804 a party of hunters visited the is- 
land. They found the sea warm about it^ and 
Lihe surface, in some places at least, too hot to 
[iWalk upon* even if the distorted fragments of 
"lava, which formed its base, were accessible to 
landing. It was said to be two miles and a 
\bM in circumference, and three hundred and 
fifty feet high. 

n ♦Alaska ntjj Hn ro»!oiirot'ft»* liy an acci«1iM»i in Uie lilntorl- 

Uiitut from 



I prm^< 



ifi«*. 40. |>. iM, ii»^.; 



r tin- t't'ii- 



u-rror * thnL hb trfixi- 
».► report f rU,H, cx» 



changed. The close similarity to our own, of 
Liitk^'s profile taken in 1827, confirms this 
view< The widely ditfering estimates of ita 
height and area given by (irewingk illustrate 
the futility of unchecked guessing rather than 
any change in the island itself; and even the 
map, which t^juld have had no base-line except 
one measured by logon the water, though rela- 
tively correct, represents, accordijig to our ob- 
servations, a scale about one-quarter too large, 
the island being about a mile and a quarter 
long, instead of a mile and three quarters, as 
the map gives it. 

We have not space here to discuss the de- 
tailed process by which our conclusions have 
been reached, but will briefly state them. 

The site of Bogoslotf was a low islet or clus- 
ter of rocks not identical with the present Ship 
Rock, and which were long known to the 
Aleuts, and mapped by Leva she tf... In 1705- 
96 a series of progressive distuuances oc- 
curred by which, in May, 17iM), a considerable 
mass of material was upheaved and the major 
part of the present island formed. The reports 
of exactly what occurred, as well as the dates 
assigned, are discrepant and all unsatisfactory, 
when we recollect the distance from which the 
alleged observations were made, and that they 
w^re not noted down until several years after- 



92 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., Na 61, 



ward. The reef shown on most charts ex- 
tended only a short distance from Umnak or 
liogosloff, and was never continuous between 
them. 

Other islands of exactly similar origin are 
to be found in this region, notably Koniugi and 
Kasatoehi in tlie western Aleutians, and Pin- 
nacle Island near St. Mathew Island. Of the 
last, sketches are reproduced here, showing it 
' end on ' and from the side. It differs from 
BogoslofT in having the crest deeply chan- 
nelled ; and it has been rciK)rted, that witliin a 
few years light has l>een seen in this fissure 
by navigators passing at night, though there is 
no record of smoke or lava being ejected. 

Of the latest addition to the list of Aleutian 
volcano-islands, we are not in a position to say 
much. The facts rei)orled seem in brief to be 
these : — 

During the past season, BogoslofT has been 
in a state of eruption, as was obserA'ed by 
Capt. Hague, of the steamer Dora, on two oc- 
casions, when passing it at a distance of a mile 
and a half. He descrilK?s it as entirely euvel- 
oi3ed in smoke and flame, with red-hot lava 
issuing from its central portion, and great 
quantities of softer lava running down to the 
sea. This has continued up to the time of the 
latest reports. The natives state that the erup- 
tion began alx>ut six months ago, and has con- 
tinued in an intermittent manner ever since. 
Makushin volcano, on Unalashka Island, re- 
mained quiet. On the IGth of October a dark 
cloud of indescribable appearance covered the 
sky northward from Unalashka, and hung very 
near the earth for some time, completelv ex- 
cludinj^ the light of the sun, and accompanied 
by a rise of temperature in the air. In about 
half an hour this cloud collapsed, and covered 
the earth with dull gray, cottony ashes of ex- 
treme lightness. This was ascribed to the 
Hogosloir eruption which had been heard of, 
though not visible from Iliuliuk harbor, where 
tluise observations were made. Another ac- 
count says the fall of ashes occurred Oct. 24, 
and that the amount has been exaggerated. 

Subsequently Capt. Hague passed again in 
the vicinity of Bogosloff, and. to his astonish- 
ment, obst»rved a new island which had ap- 
peared above the sea since his previous visit, 
and in a spot which he had previously sailed 
over. In the month of September Capt. 
Anderson, of the schooner Mathew Turner, 
had observed the new ij^land, which was then 
a mass of fire and smoke, apparently not hav- 
ing taken 8hai)e. Capt. Hague reports the 
new peak to be situated half a mile north- 
north-westward from Bogosloff, to be cone- 



shaped, with an irregular outline, rising five 
to eight hundred feet above the sea, and 
about three-quarters of a mile in diameter. 

It is stated* that no further information was 
obtained ; and none is likely to be obtainable 
until next spring, as communication with Una- 
lashka is not kept up during the winter months; 
To examine it, a 8i)ecial expedition from Unar 
lashka would l>e necessary ; as it cannot be 
much less than forty-five miles (Vom Iliuliuk 
harbor, in the oi)en sea, and would be little 
more than visible from the nearest land. I 
would suggest for it the name of Grewingk 
Island, in honor of the celebrated geologist 
who monographed in IHoO all that was known 
of Alaskan geology and mineralogy.* 

Since the above news was received, further 
intelligence has come to hand in regard to vol- 
canic activity in Alaska, from an unexpected 
locality. From the entrance of Port Graham, 
sometimes called English Bay, at the mouth 
of Cook's Inlet on its eastern shore, may 
be seen the rounded summit of Augustin or 
Chernobour Island. It presented in 1880 the 
appearance of a low rounded dome witbout a 
peak, and measured al>out thirty-eight hundred 
feet in height by angles from different stations. 
The island of which it is the summit is about 
fifty miles from Port Graham in a south-west 
by west direction, is rounded and about eight 
miles in diameter, bluff to the north-west, 
and sloping to the south-east. There are 
many rocks about it, and it has been a noted 
haunt of sea-otters. It was known to be vol- 
canic, but no description of it as active is 
on record so far as I can discover. Accord- 
ing to information received from Capts. Cullie 
and Sands, and summarized for the press by 
Prof, (vcorge Davidson at San Francisco, the 
following observations were made at the Alex- 
ander Village at Port (iraham. Smoke first 
arose from the ]ieak in August. On tlie morn- 
ing of Oct. () the inhabitants heard a heavy 
reix>rt, and saw smoke and flames issuing fron 
the summit of the island. The sky became 
obscured, and a few hours later there was a 
shower of pumice-dust. About half-past eight 
o'clock the same day an earthquake wave, eati* 
innted at thirty feet in height, rolled in npOB 
the shore, deluging the houses on the lowland, 
and washing the i)(>ats and canoes fh>m the 
beach. It was followed by others of kta 
height. The ash fell to a depth of aevanl 
inches, and the darkness re(|uired lamps to Iw 
lighted. At night flames were seen 

1 Ciipt. Ilntfiie pruporoil to name it New BogodaffS 
derivation of the word * B(»go»luff' l« such that a ^-^-^— 
would be preferable. 



Iakvasy S5, 1SM.J 



SCIENCE. 



93 



from the snramit. aod the snoiv had <lisap- 
peared from the island. After the first dis- 
turbanoes were over, it was found that the 
norlhorn slope of the summit had fallen to 
the level of the cliffs which form the shores and 
the mountain appeared as if split in two. Two 
previous!}* quiet volcanoes on the peninsula of 
Aliaska began simuUaneously to emit smoke 
and dust ; and in the ten-fathom j>assage be- 
tween Augutin Island and the mainland a 
new island, seventy-five feet high and a mile 
and a half in extent, ha*; made its appearance. 
It 18 stilted that subterranean noises had pre- 
viously been heard l*y a party of hunters, some 
of whom are reported missing. 

The volcano has not been approaehed nea!*er 
than ten miles since the eruption, at which dis- 
tance the ue^ isliutd was distinctly seen north- 
west from Angustin Island. Its dimensions, 
therefore, are merely approximate. The morn- 
ing of the eruption was perfectly clear, with a 
light south-west wind, and the tide extremely 
low. Three days before, all the fish are said 
to have disappeared from Port Graham. At 
last accounts smoke was arising from a point 
on Augustin Island, south from the cleft above 
mentioned, which crosses the island from east 
to west. 

It would seem as if these events were local 
manifestations of an awakening of volcanic 
energ3^ nearly world-wide. Wm. IL Daij.. 



WHIRLWINDS. CYCLONES, AND TOR- 

NAJJOESJ—IX, 

Ton\Ai"JKs ditfer from the storms thus far 
mentioned in their excessive violence over a 
very restricted area, and their visibly rapid ad- 
vance. After a great deal of theorizing, it is 
now possible to explain them very satisfacto- 
rily and simply as whirls in the air, a little 
above the ground, into the vortex of which the 
surface-winds are drawn op with great velocity. 
Electricity has no essential share in their ac- 
9n. 

Recent studies, especially the reports by Mr. 
**inlcy of the signal- service, have done much 
to show ns the regions of, and general condi- 
tions preceding, tornadoes. They are most 
Qumei'ouzt in Kansas, Missouri, and Ilhriois, 
although Uiey have been recorded throtigliout 

^^^tates cast of the Mississippi, except in 
north-cast and on the central Allegha- 

f: So they Ijavc occurred in all the months 
and at nearly all hours of the day ; but their 
time of greatest frequency is in the afternoons 
of June and the months adjoining. Where 

^ Concluded from No. 00. 



most fully studied, they seern to occur along 
the contact-line of warm southerly winds and 
cooler north-wenterly or westerly winds. Local 
quiet and rather excessive warmth commonly 
precede them, and chilly winds come after 
their passage. Rain and hail fall in their 
neighborliood, but usually at a morlerate dis- 
tance away from the destructive wind-centre. 
Their advance is nearly always to the north- 
east^ at about thirty miles an hour. 

When first perceived, the tornado is gener- 
ally described as a dark, funnel-shaped mass^ 
hanging from heavy, dark, agitated clouds (fig. 
23). Its roaring sound is heard as it comes 
nearer ; and the whirling funnel is often seen 
to swing from side to side, and to rise and fall. 
Within its dark column, various objects snatched 
from the ground may be seen rising and turn- 
ing round and round in the eddying winds: 
pine-trees appear like bushes, and barn-dooi's 
are mistaken for shingles. At a certain height 
these fragments are thrown laterally out of the 
power of the ascending current, and then fall 
to the ground, often with violence, from their 
lolly flight. If such a cloud appear in the 
west or south-west, one should make all possi- 
ble haste to the nortli^or south of its probable 
track ; but there is seldom time to escape, 
The rapidity of the storm's approach, the 
noise of its roaring, the fear that its darkness 
and destruction naturally inspire, too often 
serve to take away one's presence of mind ; 
and, before there is time for reflection, the 
whirl bas come and passed, and the danger is 
over for those who survive. The force of the 
wind is terrific. ITeav^y carts have been car- 
ried, free from the ground, at such a velocity, 
that, when they strike, the tires are bent and 
twisted, and the spokes are broken from the 
hubs. Iron chains are l>lown through the air. 
Large beams are thrown with such strength that 
they penetrate the firm earth a foot or more. 
Children, and even men, ha%'e often been 
carried many feet above the ground, and some- 
times dropped unhurt. A velocity of wind ex- 
ceeding one hundred miles an hour is required 
to produce such effects. Strange examples of 
the wind's strength are found in the treatment 
of sin.'dl objects : nails are found driven head 
first firmly into planks ; a cornstalk is shot 
partly through a door, recalling the firing of a 
candle through a board. More than this, the 
wind shows signs of very unequal motions in 
a small space : bedding and clothing are torn to 
rags; harness is stripped from horses. Noth- 
ing can witli stand i\w. awful violence of the tor- 
nado's centre ; and yet, at a little distance one 
aide or the oilier, thert* is not only tio harm 



94 



SCIENCE. 



IVoL. UL, Ko. 61. 



done, but there is no noticeable disturbance in 
tiie gentle winds. The track of marked disturb- 
ance averages only half a mile, and the path 
of great destruction is often only a few hun- 
dred feet wide. 

The whirling at the centre is evident enough, 
in many cases, from the rotary motion of the 
ftinnel-cloud : it is, in all reported cases, from 
right to left, like the cyclones of this hemi- 
sphere. At a little distance from the centre, 
the wind is probably nearly radial, as is shown 
full}' enough by the direction in which fences 



scantling four inches square and ten feet long 
was found driven three feet and a half into the 
ground, onl}' forty-five feet from its starting- 
point. A large board sixteen feet long was 
found two miles to the north-east, where it was 
identified b}' the color of its paint: 

Fig. 26 shows a more disastrous case. The 
house was swept awa}*, and its fVagments filled 
the creek to the south-east. The trees west 
of the house were not hurt ; but those in the 
grove on the track were blown over to the 
north-east, their bark and leaves stripped off, 





or trees are blown over, or 
houses and other loose 
objects carried. On the 
right side of the track the 
winds are more violent, 
and their destructive elfect 
consequently reaches far- 
ther from the whirl than 
on the left. This is evi- 
dently because, on the 
right, the motion of the 
wind and the advance of 
the storm are combined, as has been explained 
under cyclones. Here are several examples 
from the Kansas tornadoes of May, 1879, as 
described in Finley's report, showing the op- 
posed currents of air. 

Fig. 24 shows the fence on the right blown 
to tlie cast ; the fences on the left, to the west 
and south ; and the hay from a stack, scattered 
in a curved line. When fences are not blown 
over, rubbish often collects on their windward 
side. 

Fig. 2.") illustrates, by arrows, the direction of 
the wind, by which several buildings were more 
or less injured ; but most [peculiar is the track 
of a man, who, on coming out of the east 
side of a barn, was caught up by the winds 
and carried half way around the building, and 
there set down very dizzy, but unhurt. At the 
same time, two horses near by were killed, their 
harness stripped off and torn to pieces. A 




Fig. 23.» 



and their south-western 
side blackened as if burnt. 
In such i)osition, branches 
have been found twisted 
from right to left about 
the trunks. As the storm 
came on, the family occu- 
pying the house ran out, 
turning to the north and 
west. One bj' one they 
were blown away, — first 
a little girl, who was 
found dead ; then a girl and boy, not seriously 
hurt ; next the mother was thrown against a 
tree and killed ; and last, the father, carrying 
the baby, and becoming confused in the msh- 
ing wind, turned back fi*om his safe flight to 
the west, was caught up and thrown over ooe 
hundred yards to the north-east, and killed. 
The accounts of tornadoes only too often giro 
a record like this. In six hundred and odd 
tornadoes, forty are reconled as fatal to the 
people on their track. In these forty, fimr 
hundred and sixty-six lives were lost, and sbc 
hundred and eighty-seven persons were iqjnred. 
In addition to the violence of the wUriing 
winds, an explosive effect is often noted la 
buildings where the windows and doon m 
closed. Doubtless this is one reason wlur 
roofs are so generally carried away. D( 



does 



1 Figs. 23, 24, 2:>, and 26 are fh>iii Flnloy*s Report ei 
eaof May 29 and 30, 1870. 



// 



StMOAST 2S, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



ad mndows have been blown outward. The 
ibnr walls of.i house have fallen outward from 
tlie centre. Still more definite is the account 
of a raitrond-agent who had barred the window- 
shutters and locked the door of his etatiou 
jiAer a train had gone by, A tornado passed 
over it, and burst the window open outwards. 
Evidently the air of ordinary density within 
the building suddenly expands as Ihe outside 

L pressure of the atmosphere is taken oil" when 
the Storm-centre |)a§«ie5. Possibly this action 
may aid in the plucking of [poultry in torna- 
does : the unTortunate chickens that are ciught 
near the centre arc nearly always stripped of 
their feathers. So with the remarkable pene- 
tration of mud into clothing, which cannot be 
cleansed by re[H?ated washings : perliaps the 
iir is drawn out as the storm passes, and then 
the mud is forced closely into the fabric by the 
returning atmospheric pressure. The ground 



VlG, 'li. 

Kfldfnettmes said to look as if heavily washed 
on the central path : it may be that the expan- 
sion of air in a loose soil aids such a result. 

Nothing can be better proven than the ex- 
istence of a continuous and violent uixlraught 
at the centre of tlie whirl. An obsei-ver far 
inough from the track of the tornado to watch 

eomiiosedly, and yet near enough to see it 
with some distinctness, seldom fails to note 
the rapid rising of debris and rubbish in the 
vortex, wliirling as it rises ; ami a current of 
air strong enough Uj Hfl boards and beams 
must ascend with great energy. Most of the 
fragments thus captured by the wind are thrown 
to one side, and allowed to fall after a short 
flight; but smaller, lighter olijects, such as 
bats, clothes, papers, shingles, are often oar- 
pied several miles through the clouds, and 
7 t)pped lar away from home. But observers 
'ofleu report* also, that the extremity of the 



funnel-clouds is seen to descend) and from 
hanging aloft it suddenly darts downward to 
the ground. How can these two contradictory 
motions be reconciled ? Simply enough : for 
the last is purely an apparent motion. It is 
simply the downward extension of the eloud- 
forming space faster than the cloud -parti cleg 



Fjo. S5.' 

are carried upward. The same style of ap- 
parent motion against the w^ud may l>e seen 
in some thunder-showers where a cloud forms 
faster than the wiiiil blows, and so eats its way 
to windwani.* There has been much needless 
myBtification liere. for the point was neatly 
explained by Franklin a century and a quarter 
ago. He wrote, that '* the 8]X)ut appears to 
drop or descend from the cloud, though the 
materirds of which it is composed arc all the 
while ascending;'* for the moisture is con- 



N 



yPATHEn AND 
BABY 



fBOY 



PEOPtL 



-4 



CiRL 



v/% 



C 



AQ N1V1V1 4^ 



riRL 



KITCKtN 



FlO. SA. 



densed ** faster in a right line downwards than 
the vapors themselves can climb in a spiral 
hue upwards** (Franklin's Works, Sparka's 
ed*. >i. 153, 154 ; letter dated Feb. 4. 1753)* 



96 :>m:.vc£:. [vol. m., xo. 6i. 

N . »"» : : s • . » li • ' .- "1 \. . :i . ! .t . t; .! ;' : !:*.■ ^^^^ >;o iv* . V In* cy o lo ri e is fa: rly com jiared . on 

X*- ;»■. , *.«, V. ^» . A.'**-." iv. :lu- acv'.v.:ur or* its great horizontal extension, to s 

-.v*^ ,• I. \ • M lA-i. :i .•,'..!.•■•: o:' '.rv^iii. r*.Ia:[ve*.y tl/iii ii:«k. with a horizontal 

s. . , .^ • • . ^ :;io:i>t.i:e -iovt-ra". iinr.virei times greater than 

".,. \ ..•.•.• ^ ■ . <«.r. ■ \ \ ■> : i;> :IiA'kiLO<>. havir::: a spiral motion of much 

/.^ • -^ '. .1 \ •-•^ . ■ \\ rai^.-i :y. iti ward* 'tlow au/i out wani above, but 

■...•■ . .. « .. •. ^. :i-.».--. ':i:..vj a i.vr.:r:i! as^^vu-iin-j o».rnji«aeLt of- its motion 

/ t 1 -•*■.• • .: \ ■ :. \.< *•> ^..r-.:lo tha: raiii'In.^i>s can opilnarily fall 

^- •* . ^ \ •.-^" -J- 'iowi; :!i:oi:ir;i ;:. It* o.>n::n'.iaiice fiepends 

^ * ^ *•••;.. ^-^ .. V I-i^'ji 1;. or. htat -ieriviti trotu vaiN-r oondensa- 

.^ •■-*■■ ■■ -• • «.^ :;..::: i: i> tlu-ivtoie ^rlf-ai.tinvi alter it has 

V . . •. . >:. • r.-v ■ •.c:n. ari'l ^.-< on -irawing in new air 

.-<.-. r. 1 ■.-.: .- ■ ..^-.j: afur :hc or-^[\\ii[ "^'iipiy i> exhausted. 

■ ^ -. • ' ;* ' l'..y :o:!;.i-io •> i;'-\0 :l lyliu-it-r. with a height 

■ ^ • >^^ ■ « * . :* f;:::i! t" or grvatcr t::aii i:s 'iiameler. Its 

w:irai:l. i- cL:<:i!y ::iror:fI ti.- :he j^.-int where 

*- -^ ^ -. -i ! - .-. •' ':*:■.. v>:; :■<.*:::>. i art.y as Mi-nsi -le. partly as 

- ■- '^^ _ •> • •- -i • *.:i'.t. :.: ■ ht-a: : -i:. i:r.'..kt- ilit cyclone, its ao 

- — ■..'*.%: ::•:: cch-ks a* ^v.-n as the oriziral mass of 

.:■■*. x\:ir::' a:r t-».:i:--- i:^-wari tlircHigh its warm 

.- ^ : • ^- A^vir. t >n a:>i'rt:>. :.-l:!!-^ tliest- [^M-iuiarities. 

■ :^i; «■ :-a; K::*.: :\i : rt- ::r.f i*^ tari^er deveiop- 

- -- -- . \ :.•:. s. ■«:• ait:-.:. 

: .. f ■ -.t r.:v :.Tr.:i:o ::;•>: wo :::o:ionf to be c-onsid- 

- - :. ■ : ".■ i t r-. • ; . : : : :'.- i- : : : :■ • :; to : : > •_: ^ ::^ ra 1 i ■ :»>zre>»:on . — 

' - ■ Ml :<:: :' •. >, :ral :'t:it:.:-. a:.-.i ::>- ••tL-ntral i;i«iraught. 

-■■■ ■ .u • -^ -: r." "-:'.*.:t: •.an.- '. tx^.-^: : Liii-i^r yj-^oial condi- 

- rr > * :. : ". r ti . 1 - ' ^ t to v 1^0 MtionnLvl. l^^-ome ver}- rapid. 
- ::• ■ ■ •. ■'. - : :■ r :: :^"^:::> : :i:::ari!y. <:xily on d'iferences 

.- .. • ■: • • ^ ■. ■. : :•,:::: %.ra:-.:rt :::>;;:!:.. in; l: :•: !'D>li:oe very 

■ ,- ■■ ^ • -^ Livt \^ ::■.■::.;•-: l-.!: :L-. t-.rnicr aitains a great 

- ■ ■ y .• : - '--i vtl:. V ::t;..- tl.- v\:trv iii xin^iv of the me- 

;> .-.;• '-^ ■■' i. :i::' ::' I r;::citl. ai:^:: ly .-iio:.^!. — riie -pres- 

-■■; ".-•. ■::■.■..■-..:' i-.tl;-.--' Wl.^n a wiiirlicg body is 

i ■ • •■• 'r. "I : w:i:-: :"..r ., --.t^ a*. ..hi: wLii.jfa. it swings. 

,: -.>.!. •- >\ . ::\ ».:r::av : wi.; iuortaie as much as 

. . • - \- •>-:.■-:*: :j.:..-: :tv. rtases: ::lie cen:rit!QgaI 

. .: -: - t :" . ■ w ; ..X^ -. .. r-. :•.>•. . a::'i w:;!i the square of 

• « 1 ^ • :.. ^.l . v , or ::v. :%<;•. a* :ce square of the 

_ -.•... \^ . -. • -i. l".::> .AW ;;a::::s •S''*<.i;ence from air. 

- - - . • •. .i-i .\r. .^ •:. — s:" I ■•>:i.:s: 'aectfe. if tiK air 

- . ■■ i -. i. -^ass .i'. a ^^n:Ie rocarr Tirioo- 

~ - — ■■ -^r *■•> or t.::::y :Ve:'a se«»od at"* «!»•• 

■ - .:•: - .. .'.-'.< :'-z: ::v ••eritn*. :h» veLoctCr «9I 

_ ■- :. 7- .K :'.> ".1.1 ."ti.tral a:: is drained awaj 

- . .'.->■-. X. '■' :■'.<: ;. /.v.: :1^# 2:ove inwani: so 
- "• ^ ■ _ ^ . L •- :: r:«. 1 > :> ;::> one huapiicd 

- - • ■••--*. : •■ ••> . :f a:'; :::'•. s: :2^ rare of two or t 

^ - "^ -. ■ •* :\rf: :•. -*«.^vc-L or over one 
•' i ■=:■"■ -v: -.- s:-. bvcr. It mosC b* 

— --■:_. - . s- ''•'. ../^tvr.-. :..a: :■•> rvquir** xhM 

- . 1 -r -5 ■ ••*. -■■•-; ••::. "o los^s -. f JK«dua brf" 

_ « . ^ . : .: i - .a- :e :r:^ oc:>5jr tu air ata^ 

. ._ — ■. . t^T" grvcsd: anL fintilier. tiift 

- . . r "-■ -■ '■ -r. >; : :' :..-. grea: borizoa^ 
_: — ■": _ -- :-.■:■ :.^ .;-;-: :J:n:\ .>*::!' .:c> a 
_ . .. - .-*::! - ^. — * A^ s:.:" Ar.-: >.v :.-!<•; lectly we ftti* 
• _ '-^z.-'l: • :-^::- i^i ".> w.. r" :h- jause of tie twIkbI 





Jaxvarv 



1884.) 



SCIENCE. 



97 



winds that distinguisb the tornado from other 
fitorma, but this cause is close at hand* 

Admit for a raoment tbut there is no friction 
betwetin the air and the ground. We should 
then have a tall vertical cyHuder of air, spin- 
ning around near the centre at a terrific speed, 
%l the ha3c as well a^ aloft, and oonseqtiently 
Jevebping a great centrifugal force. As a re- 
iult, the density of the central core of air must 
be greatljr diminished. Most of the central air 
must be drawn out by friction into tlie whirl- 
ing cylinder, and pmveiitetl from returning by 
the centrifugal foreti* The core will be left 
with a feeling of eraptiiiess, like an imperfect 
vacuum. If there were auy air near by not 
|Controlled by the centrifugal force, it would 
sh violently into the central core to fill it 
wn. Now consider the effect of friction with 
'the ground. The lowermost air is prevented 
from attain! ug the great rotary velocity of the 
^Opper parts, and consequently is niuch less 
inder the control of the centrifugal force, 
rhicb is measured by the square of the ve- 
ocity. The surface-air in therefore just what 
is wanted lo (ill the inciplejjt vueuum: so it 
rnshes into tlie core and up through it with a 
velocity cumparalile to that of tiie whirling it- 
eel f; anil this inwar^d-ruahing air is ihe deslnic- 
(ive surface- hiast of the tornado. 

This explanation, first proposed l)y Mr. Fer- 
rel a few years ago, is most ingenious and 
iatisfaclory. Moreover, he has followed its 
Bvoral parts by close mathematienl analysis, 
ind fthown that the nuHleratc antecedent con- 
iitlons are amply suiUcient to account for all 
Uic violence of the observed results. 

There are still several points to be considered. 
The whirling motion has been described as 
corres|M»ndtng in nearly nil cases with that of 
n(»rthern cyclones ; and yet it cannot be sup- 
p|>o9ed that the uidraught winds of a tornado are 
" Irawn from snfRcieut distances to show the ef- 
^fccl of the earlh*t» detleetive force; it is more 
probable that the tornado is to be regarded as 
a small whirl within a huger one, for the warm 
and cold winds are probably part of a large 
cyclonic system in which tlirt'erential and rotary 
inoli(*ns are established ; and, when such winds 
form a small local whirl of their own, it will 
rotate in the snme direction as they do, from 
right to left, For a like reason the planets ro- 
tate on their axes in the direction in which they 
revolve arouud the sun. The constant direc- 
tion of rotation in tornadoes may therefore, by 
itaelf, be taken as evidence that their cause is 
not in a stagnant atmosphere, like that of the 
deaert- whirls, but is connected with the con- 
flicting currents of a large, gentle oyclone. 



The progressive motion of the tor 
centre is so constant in its direction to the" 
north-east or east, that it cannot de{3end on local 
conditions within itself, but must rather result 
from it« bodil}" transportation b}' the prevail- 
ing winds, w ith which the tornado- tracks agree 
\Qvy well in rlirection and rate. It will last 
till the lower warm air, which constituted the 
original unstable mass, is exhausted. This 
generall)' ha)>jK'ns in about an hour, when 
it has travcrricd a distance of nearly thirty 
miles. 

The tornado thus constituted may be likened 
to a very active air-[>ump, carrieil along a few 
hundred feet above Ihe ground, sucking up the 
air over which it passes. It is for this reason 
that the surface- winds are so nearly radial. 
For this reason an enclosed mass of air, as iji 
a house, su<ldenly explcxies as the vaeuura is 
fonued over it ; and as the air rushes to the 
centre, and there expands and cools, its vapor 
becomes visible in the great funriel, or spout* 
pendent fi'oui the clouds above. No rain can 
fall at the centre. Bodies much heavier than 
rain are lilted there, instead of dropped : so 
llie rain must rise through the central core, 
and fall to one side of the storm, or betbre or 
behind it. If the expansion be very great, 
and the altitude reached by the drops rather 
excessive, then they will be frozen to hail- 
stones before falling. Hail-storms and torna- 
does commonly go together: they mutually 
explain each other. Electricity has no impor- 
tant part lo j)lay in the disturbance. 

It was slated under cyclones tliat their cen- 
tral barometric depression had two causes, — 
the overflow caused by the central warmth, 
and the dishing-out of the air by centrifugal 
force. The first of these is ordinarily regarded 
as the elective cause of the wind's inward 
blowing. It has already been fiointed out that 
the second anrl greater part of the depression 
is also etfective in drawing in the winds when 
friction decr'cases their rotary velocity. We 
may now call attention to a third cause of cen- 
tripetal motion in the i-y clone already alluded 
to, in which it is like the tornado. The upper 
winds move with great rapiility, and cause a 
stnjng barometric depression at the centre of 
their whirling ; but at the base of the storm, 
where friction with tlie sea, or still more with 
the land, reduces the lower wind's motion, and 
so diminishes their wntrifugal force, we may 
have an indraught of the tornado style, in 
wiiich the centrifugal diminution of central 
pi^easure in the upper winds ia an efTeetive 
cause of centripetal motion in the lower winds. 
While this ia not the prjnoipal cause of surface- 



<:^ 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol, IIL, No. M. 



. , •v-.-ix Iv :ui iin|>()rtiint 

» .*.<***. ^ sllio^l to torniuiooH : 

.s •>*•:> :>.*\v appnvirli tin* 

. ,s^*.:-«'.r,:'.s : that is, tlu'V 

-•■■ A.: wsv:ju\1 :\\ tho pl:u'i» 

:o: .>n i!u* ninnin*r to- 

\ ,v I n::uJs rt\Mn olhor ri»- 

.-*•<<■ :V*r tho oxtvss of 

" «: .v" :>.o Siuiil- whirls lios 

.'-. :""\* w.sror-snrfjuv on 

. . . ^ ■., ■. W..1 Mow :\ long 

• . *. ■". T/.o moist uro in 

.-' Si' ;'.o wrtnnini; of a 

• ■ : . s 7 wor*' vorv dry. 

k ■•- ^<. : . . :v.on' ihoir action 

• - y .s! :orn:uli». Tho 

. »•*.•-* ; \:*r,sion of tho 

:■ .,-.: :.i ri>ini: ti>himn 

• T.-...'.;. v^y.v an apiH>ar- 

\ .. izi.-. ":. a.rtaviy quo tod 



> ;^ri\*tsling ex- 
, p Viond prin- 
;: »»>servation. 

■ ."^r^ have boon 
.7 :;:\:nos havo 

:' '..••■ >ul\iix*t is 
-, V "..as boon 

■ :.•- .:: iias boon 

,.- '.OTitlioting 

N- *. -n as tho 

•vr ■> r^vranUnl 

;.:. i. yx-hW- tho 

• • -; .t'.y o«^n- 

17".:.'- r.«:a:i-^n. 

^' ■?.'■■ \, an«l :< 

: <\. i\-\\\<k\ 

•-. V:.v nioro 

:•:. • .-'^ry of 

■ : ■ li:i'»ns 

... :' : .0 at- 

■ : :. ::-'i of 

. --* :-.:iV«.^U of 

. ':,■■ rtii*»ir- 
.. v. wItvTs 
■ v.- -T.^rni- 

" yi luvi*. 



. 1 **s?». 



of 



xxl. pt xxii.), Faratlay (PhiL trans., 1823 and 1845), 
Thilorier {Annalen dt: chimie. 2^™« adrie, Ix.), Nat- 
xo.rtsr {Pof/fj. ann., xciv.), Andrews {PhiL trans., 1869). 
AndrewN found that wlien a gas was compressed in a 
closeii H])aco, and was maintained at a temperature 
U'low a certain limit, tho pressure of the gas increased 
up tf» ii (ixiMl point, beyond which condensation oc- 
curred. Thi' presRun* at which condensation takes 
place InrnMseH rapidly with the tem|X!rature of the 
gas. At and Ixeyond a certain temperature — tho criti- 
cal temperature — no amount of pressure can produce 
any of tho usual phenomena of condensation. The 
isothermal lines Inflow the critical temperature are 
apparently discontinuous, one portion representing 
no change of pn>ssure curresjKmding to a change of 
Vdlume. Above the critical temperature the isother- 
mal a are continuous. 

The experim«'nts of Dr. Ramsay were made upon 
benzine and ether, and a mixture of equal weights of 
benzine and ether. In one experiment a closed glass 
tube, somewhat in the shape of an hourglass, was 
usetl. Olio end of the tube was partly filled with 
ether, and was heated in an inclined position. The 
liquid expanded until, at the moment the meniscus 
di?ap|>eared, it nearly filled the lower half of the lube. 
i.>n ooolinir, the liquid all condenseti in the lower 
half. 

The ex|H?rinient was varied by inverting the tube 
after the meniseus had disappeared. On cooling, 
the liquid condensed in the upper half of the tube. 
The tul)e w:is next maintained for some time at a 
temptTuture above that at which the meniscus disap- 
]H>arcd. On cooling, an e^iual quantity condensed in 
each ili virion of the tube. It w.is observed. th.at, after 
the meniscus had disnpi^eart^d. the part of the tube 
ivntainiiig liquid iKid a ditterent index of refraction 
fn>m the other part. 

The oonelu>ii»n to be drawn from these results is, 
that. :\* and above th«' critical iK>int, the density of 
the liiiTiid is the same at (hat of its saturated v.ipor: 
Cimseii.:i'ntly. :ifter a suttioient time, the liquid and 
its va]>or will become niixt-d. .Vlnn-e the critical 
point, the surface tension of a liquid disap|»ears. 

This con*. lusion is confirmed by the experiments of 
M. i .iill.tet , ( '-'mptis r€tulu<. Keb. l\ 1>?^»). He found 
tl:a; w1)en tlie lox^or part of his experimental tulie was 
filltM wi:h liquid cirlvMiic .anhydride at a temperature 
of Ti-' ..'•. and the upiH-r part wa« t\\U\\ with air and gas- 
eous o.trKMiii.- ai\h\dride. a pressure of a hundred and 
tif:y t>> two hundred aimnsphere* was necessary to 
luuse the liquid t«> mix with the ^.is. At (he sugget- 
:io:t of Mr. Jamiu ^C-mptis n^iu^t. May 21. 1^688), 
h>\;ro::e:i was subs: i luted for the air in the upper 
}^r: of the tulH\ an«l ii w.v^ ihon found that a greater 
presMire w.v* noivss.\ry lo priniuce the mixture. Thii 
resu'.: w^.uM :us^ ss.iri:y fo:l>>w :f we suppose that the 
mixiure ukts ;*.icr when the densities of the liquid 
ar.d !!.e ^.\< Uo.^n-.i- i-;u.il. AVe cannot say that the 
1 : ■.; u : . i : s V . «: ; V e r: od i : ; : o c.is by pre*sure. 

TV.«.<-.:^h t':e di:;< I'.t-s of a liquid and Its aatonted 
vai^?r .:kre OiUA!. alxMe the ch:ical point, the two 
states of ni.tt:or .ire sti:i disi:ncuish«i by other y h |M ' 
oal i^r^^jH-r.ies, Their indices of refraetioo are t 



fAJtUART S5, ISM.] 



SCIENCE. 



ent: the lltjuid is capable of dissolving solids which 
are insoluble in the vnpor, The l&ii^r fact is proved 
by the experiments of Hannny ivnd Hogarth {Proc. 
toy, Boc,^ Oct,, 1879), and also by siuiiiar experiments 
of Dr. Ramsay. A small piece of pnt^ssiam iodide 
was plA4::ed in the lower part of the exjierimenttii tube, 
which WAS partly filled with anhydrous alcohol. The 
upper part of the tul^e was free from alt^ohol, but its 
sides were covered with a film of crystalline pntassium 
Iodide. When the tube was heated and the meniscus 
disappeared, the salt in the lower part of the tube was 
dissolved, while that in the upper part remained un- 
changed. Similar observation;^ were made on eosine. 

Dr. FCam say's second pRper contains the bothermal 
lines for benzine, ether, and a mixture of benzine 
and ether, below and above the critical temperatures. 
The apparatus uscii resembled that of Andrews. 
The must rernarkable feature of these lines is, that, 
b^'low tlie eriticul temperature for benzine, there 
appears to be a diminution of pressure corresponding 
t4j a diminution of volume, immediately before com* 
plete coiideni^ation takes place. This phenomenon 
app«^ars very sUglitly in a mixture of benzine and 
ether, but is not apparent in ether alonf^. It has 
been suggested by James Thouison [Proc. roj/^soc^ 
18T1) that the isothermals for nil gases might have 
somewtiat this form below the critical temperatm-e. 
Dr. Katnsay explains the fact by supposing that the 
molecules, when the gas has been compressed to a 
certain extent, begin to exert mutual attraction and 
relieve the |>re*sure. The fact may be caiineetGd 
with the observed phenomenon that the meniscus of 
benzine remains easily distinguishable until it van- 
ishes, whereas the meniscus of ether soon hccomea 
haxy. At the part of the isothermal under consid- 
eration the substance is evidently in a condition of 
unstable equilibrium, and it is difficult to see how 
this part of the curve could have been detccte<l exper- 
imentally. 

The critical temperature and pressure of a mix- 
ture of benzine and ether were found to be not far 
removed from the mean of the critical temperatures 
and pressures of the components. 

No direct experiments have yet been made toaacer* 
tain whether iieat is evolved when a gas is converted 
Into litiuid by pressure at temperatures above Its 
critical temperature, Mr. Jamin conclndes that at 
and beyond the critical point there is no latent heat. 
Tbia conclusion, however, does nut seem probable; 
»lnce the molecular constitution of a liquid and its 
vapor are probably different, ev^n above th« critical 
temperature* 

The conclusions which Kamsay draws from his 
erperimcnts arc summed up as follows: — 

**!''. A gas may be defined as a body whose mole- 
cules are composed of a small number of atoms. 

**2'^. A liquid may be regarded as formed of ag- 
gregates of gaseous molecules, forming a more com- 
plex molecule. 

" 3*^. Above the critical point, tlie matter, may con- 
sist wholly of gas If a sufficient volume be allowed* 
wholly of liquid if the volume be sufficiently ilimiu- 
tshed, or uf a mixture of both at intermediate volumes. 



That mixture is, physically speaking, homogeneou 
in the same sense as a mixture of oxygen and hydro-^ 
gen gases may be termed homogeneous." 

C. B. PeintoftK, 



COLORED SKIES AFTER AN ERUPTION^ 
OF COTOPAXIJ 

Tb£ remarkable sunsets which have been recently 
witnessed upon several occasions have brought to my 
recollection tlie still more remarkable effects which I 
witnessed in 18Si) in South America, during an erup- 
tion of Cotopaxi ; and a perusaJ of your highly inter- 
esting letter in the Timt^it of tiie 8th lust, has caused 
me to turn to my notes, with tlie result of finding 
that in several points they appear to have some beat^ 
ing upon the matter which you liave brought before 
the public. 

On July 3, 18s=^, I was engaged in an ascent of Chlm- 
boraxo, and was encamped on its western «lde at Ifi,- 
800 feet above tlie sea. The morning was fine, and all 
the surrounding country was free from nii^tt. l^fore 
sunrise we saw to our north the great peak of llliniza, 
and twenty miles to its east, the greater cone of Coto- 
paxi; both without a cloud around them, and the 
latter without any smoke issuing from lie crater, — a 
most unusual circumstance: indeed, this w?^ the 
only occasion on which we noticed the crater free from 
smoke during the whole of our sUiy in Ecuador. 
Cotopaxi, it should be said, lies about forty-five niilea 
south of the equator, and was distant from us sixty- 
five miles. 

We ha^l left our camp, and h^id proceeded several 
hundred feet upwai-ds, being then more than lti,000 
feet above the sea, when we observed the commence- 
ment of an eruption of Cotopaxi. At o.45 a.m. a col- 
umn of smoke of inky blacknes-s began to rise from the 
crater. It went up straight in the air, rapidly curling, 
with prodigious velocity, and in les* than a minute 
had risen 2fi,f)tX) feet above the rim of the crater. I 
ba<l ascended Cotopaxi some months earlier, and had 
found that its height was Ift.tJOC) feet. We knew that 
we saw from our station the upper H>,«WX) feet of the 
volcano, and I estimated the height of the column of 
smoke at double the height of the portion seen of the 
mountain. The top of the column wa-H therefore 
nearly 4*I,(KX) feet above the sea. At that elevation U 
encountered a powerful wind blowing from the east, 
and was rapidly bonte for twenty miles towards the 
Pacific, seeming to spread very slightly, and remaining^ 
of inky blackness, presenting the appearance of a 
gigantic inverted i_ drawn upon an otherwise per- 
fectly clear sky. It was then caught by a wind blow- 
ing from the north, and was borne towards us, and 
appeared to spreatl rapidly in all directions. As tlds 
cloud came nearer and nearer, so, of course, it seemed 
to rise higher ,and higher in the sky, although it was 
actually dei*ceiiding. Several hours passed before the 
ash commenced to intervene between tlie sun and 
ourselves; and, when it did so, we witnessed effecta 
which simply amazed us. We »aw a green sun, and 

1 From Uttturtt Bee. 2T. A letter Mirt ta Mr. Nonuaii Lockjfvr. 



100 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 61, 



such i\ ^rcou as we have never, either before or since, 
8t*on in Iho heavens. We saw patches or fniears of 
somethini: like venligris-preen in the sky; and they 
ohan^ed to equally extreme bhxKl-rods, or to coarse 
briok-ilust reils, and they in an instiinl passed to the 
color of tarnished rt>piH*r or shin in «; bra^s. Had we 
not kni>wn that thest; effects were <hie to the passage 
of the ash. we niiiiht well have l>e«*n filled with dread 
instead of amazement; for no wonls can convey the 
faintest idea of the impressive appearance of theses 
Strang' colors in tlie sky, seen one minute and ^<me 
the next, resembling nothing to which they can be 
pro]>erly compariHl. and surpiissing in vivid intensity 
the wildest efftvt* of the most gorgeous sunsets. 

The ash commenced to pass overhead at about mid- 
day. It had traVflKnl (including its detour to the 
west) eij;hty-five miles in a little monMhan six hours. 
At l.:M ii commenced to fall on the summit of Chim- 
b ^razo. and. lH'ii»re we be<;an to descend, it caused the 
snowy summit to look like a plougheil field. The ash 
w;is oxrraMrdin.irily fine, as you will perceive by the 
sample I >end you. It filled our eyes and nostrils, 
renilend eatiip^and drinking im])OSsible, and reduced 
u> tolTeaihingthnnnih handkerchiefs. Il })enet rated 
e^ery where, i:i»t into the working-parts of instruments 
a:.-l iii!o liK-ked boxes. The barometer employed on 
:}.f M:mmit was coated with it, and so remains until 
tMs d.)y. That which >sed beyond us must have 
U ru liner still. It travilled far to our south, and 
.)•<-> feil heavily U]>on ships on the Pacific. I find that 
the l::;cr particles tlo not weigh the twenty-five thou- 
sandTh |uirt of a t^raiii, and the finest atoms are lighter 
sti:1. Hy the time we returned U* our encampment, 
the cros-ier particles had fallen Ix'low our level, and 
wt-re *itiling dnwn into the valley of the Chimlx). 
t].i' U'lttun of which was 7,(MM) feel beneath us, caus- 
i::^ i: to appear as if filled with thick smoke. The 
f.!.' r ones were still fioaling in the air. like a light fog, 
&:.>! <o continued until night closed in. 

hi Conclusion. I would say that the terms which I 
l.jve emph)yed t«» designate the colors which were 
Sfr n are both inadequate and inexact. The most 
sinking features of the colors which were displayed 
were their extraordinary strength, their extreme 
coarseness, and their ilissimilarity from any tints or 
tones ever seen in the sky. even during sunrises and 
sunsets of exceptional brilliancy. They were unlike 
colors for which there are recognized lenus. They 
commeiictMl to be seen wht'U the ash began to pa»H 
bi^tween the sun and ourselves, and were not seen 
prtM-jtiusly. The changes from one hue to aitotlier. to 
which I have alludcil, had obvious eonhection with 
the varying (lensities of therloudsof ash thalpa^iSi-d; 
which, when they approached us, s|>read irrifeularly, 
and were sometimes thick and sometimes light. No 
colors were seen after the elouds of ash pass4>d over- 
head and surrounded us on all siiles. 

1 photographed my party on the •>nmmit of ('him- 
borazo whilst th<* ash wa» c<»niiiicii(.'iMi! to fall, black- 
4>ning the hriow-fnrrnws; and. although the negative 
In as bad as mighl h**. exfKirted. il foinit an interest- 
ing souvenir of « reriiarkable oecasi'Mi. 

Kdwai{i> Whymfkk. 



MODERN PHYSIOLOGICAL LABORATO- 
RIES: WHAT THEY ARE AND WHY 
THEY ARE.^ — U. 

We have seen that Ilaller laid the foundation of the 
knowletlge that the Ixnlyof one of the higher animals 
was essentially an aggregation of many organs, each 
having a sort of life of its own, and in health co- 
operating harmoniously with otliers for the common 
good. In the early ^art of this century, before sci- 
entific thought hatl freed itself fn>m mediaeval guid- 
ance, this doctrine sometimes took fantastic forms. 
For example : a school arose wiiicii taught that each 
organ reprr-sented some one of the lower animals. 
I)ulk)i8-Keymond relates that in 1S38 he took down 
these notes at the lectures of the professor of anthro- 
pology:— 

" Kftch oru'an nf tlio human body anmreni to m di'flnltr animal, 
U iin aniiDuI. Fur rxainplt*, the* freely movublc, molMt, and »llp' 
piTv toiitfiii' iff :i futtlitUh. Tiii'Uinc of the toiinrue U attached 
to no other hone in the Hkeleton; but the cuttletliih has only one 
hone, mill ctinHequenily ihi« hone In attached to no other. It fol- 
h>wit that I lie toHKtK' Ih u cuttletliih.*' 

However, while Professor Stcffens and his fellow- 
transcendentalists were theorizing about organs, oth- 
ers were at work studying their structure; and a great 
step forwanl was made in the first year of our century 
by the ]»ublication of Bich<it*s * Anatomic g^nerale.' 
Hichat showed that the origans of the body were not 
the ultimate living units, but were maile up of a num- 
ber of different interwoven textures, or tisttues, each 
having vital properties of its own. This discovery 
paved the way for Schwann and Schleiden, who laid 
the foundation of the cell-theory, and showed, that, in 
fundamental stnicturc, animals and plants are alike, 
the tissues of each being essentially made up of ag- 
gregates of more or less modified microscopic living 
units called cells. Our own generation has seen the 
c(»mpletion of this doctrine by the demonstration that 
the essential constituent of the cell is a peculiar form 
of matter named protoplasm, and that all the essen- 
tial phenomena of life can l>e manifested by micro- 
scopic lumps of this material; that they can move, 
fei>d, assimilate, grow, and multiply; and still fur- 
ther, that, wherever we find any characteristic vital 
activity, we find some variety of protoplasm. Physi- 
ology thus Ix'came reduced, in its most general terms, 
to a study of the faculties of protoplasm; and mop- 
phology. to a Ktudy of the forms which units or ag- 
gregates of units of protoplasm, or their produeta, 
n light a^sime. The isolation of botany, zoi'dogy, and 
physiology, which was threatened through the In- 
cr«>ased division of labor, brought about by inc 
of knowle«lgc, nei^ssitating a limitation of 
study to some one field of biology, was averted; I 
the reason was given for that principle which i 
always insisted upim here, — that beginners diall te 
tauuht the broad general laws of living i 
they an' i>ermitted to eng<ige in the special i 
one de|Kirtiiient of biology. 

If I b«> a>ked, wliat have biological i 
eral, and physiology in particular, done fori 
< Concluded from Xo. AO. Addnaa ^ Dr. H. MnMl 



J^imABT IS, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



to jiiittify the lime and money spent cm them during 

^the paist fifty years, 1 confess I think it a perfectly 
~ \xr question; and fortunately it is one very easy to 

■imswer. Leaving aside llie fruilfulf practicsil wppUca- 
iion*i of biological knowledge to agriculture and eaui- 
tutioD, I will (*ontine jnyself to immediate applinalions 
of the biological sciences lo the advance of the theory, 
and, as a consequence, of the art, of medicine. 

So long as the life of a man was believed to he an 
external something apart from his body, residing 
In it for a while, di*»eiises were naturally regardcti 
as similar extrinsic essences or entities, which in- 
vade the body from without, and fought the 'vital 
force/ The business of the physician was to drive 
out the invader without expelling the vital spirits 
alon;;>vilh it» — an unfortunate result, which only too 
often Imppened. To the physicians of the sixteenth 
century a fever was some myBterious, extraneous 
thing, lo be blrd^ or sweated, or starved out of Ihe 
body, much as tlie meilicine men of savages try to scare 
It off by beating tomtoms around the patient. Once 
life was reci>gnized as the sum totnl of the properties 
of the organs composing the body, such a theory of 
disease became untenable^ and the bjisls of modern 
patholoy^y was laid. Disease was no longer a spirit- 
ual, indivisible essence, but the result of change 
in tfio structure of ionje one or more of the material 
coiT^tiftirnts of the body, leading to abnormal activity, 
3 of the physician became, not to expel an 

ii , immaterial enemy, hut to restore the 

altenni eonjtituenl to its itonnal condition. 

T1j« next great debt which medicine owes to biol- 
ogy i* the establishment of the cell -doctrine, — of tbe 
fact th:it the body of each one of us is made up of mil- 

' Hotis of little living unit;*, each with its own proper- 
lies, and each in health doing its own business In a 
certain way, under certain conditions, and no one cell 
tnorc the seat of life than any otlier. The activities 
of certain cells may, indeed, l)e more fundamentally 
important to the maintenance of the general life of the 
wliitli- aggregate than that of other.*; but these cells, 
%vliir||, by position or function, are more essentia! 
than the rest, were, in final analysis, no more alive 
than they. Before the aL-ceptance of the cell-doc- 
Irine, pathologists were practically divided into two 
camps, — those who believed that ail dise«Lse was 
primarily due to changes in tbe iiervous system, and 
those who ascribed it to alteration of tbe blood. But 
with the publication of Virchow's * Cellular pathol- 
ogy'^'' all this was changed. Physicians recognised 
Ihat the Idood and nerves might at the ouuset be all 
right, and yet discaae originate from abnurmal growth 
or action of the cells of various organs. This new 
pathology, like the older, was for a time carried to 
excess. We now know that there may he general 
diseases primarily due to changes in the nervous 
iy«tem, which binds into a solidarity the organs of 
ho body, or of the blood, w hich notirishes all ; but we 

"^Tiave also gained the knowledge that very many, if 
not the majority, of diseases have a local origin, due 
to local causes, which must be discovered if the dis- 
eaie la to t>e successfully combated. An engineer, 
If he find his machinery running imperfectly^ may 



endeavor to overcomes this by building a bigger fire in 
his furnace, and loading the Bafety-vaUe. In other 
words, he may attnl>ute the defect to general causes; 
and in so far he would resemble the ohl pathologists. 
But the skilled engineer would do somelhing differ-^] 
©nt. If he found his machinery going badly, he 
would not jump forthwith to the conclusion that U 
was the fault of the furnace, but would examine 
every bearing and pivot in his machinery, and, only 
when he found these all in good working-onler. begin 
to think the defect lay in the furnaee or boiler; and 
in that he would resemble the modern physician In* 
slructed in the cell-doctrine, 

A third contribution of biology to medical science 
la the germ- theory as to the causation of a certain 
group of diseases. To it we owe already antiseptic 
surgery; and we are all now holding our breath in the 
fervent expectation that in the near future, by ite 
light, we may be able to tight scar let- fever, diphtheria, 
and phthisis, not in the (kkIIcs of those we love, but 
in the breeding'places, in dirt atid darkoosa, of cer- 
tain microscopic plant*. 

From one point of view the germ-theory may seem 
a return to the Idea that diseases arc external entities 
whii-h attack the body; but note tln^ ilifference be- 
tween this form of the doctrine and the ancient. W© 
are no longer dealing with immnlerial, intangible 
hyp(*thetic aomethluifit ; and the modern practitioner 
says, ** Well, show me the bacteria, and then prove 
that they can cause the disease: until you can do 
that, do not bother me about them.*' 

It is worth while, in passing, to note that these 
three gi-eat advances in medical thought were brought 
about by researches made without any reference to 
medicine. Haller*s purely physiological research into 
the properties of muscles laid the foundation of a 
rational conception of disease. The researches of 
Schwann on the microscopic structure of plants, and 
since then of others on the structure of the lowest 
animals, led to the cellular pathology. Antiseptic 
surgerj' is based on researclies carried out for the sole 
purpose of investigating the question as to sponta- 
neous generation. My friend Dr. Billings has de- 
scribed 'nbe languid scientific swell, who thinks it 
bad style to be practical, and who maken It a point to 
refrain from any investigations which lead to useful 
results, lest he might be confounded with mere prac- 
tical men/' Well, I am sorry for the stsell; because, 
for the life of me, I cannot see how he can make any 
investigations at all. The members of his class must 
anyhow be so few in number that we need not much 
grieve over them. Personally I never have met with 
an investigator who would not be rejoiced to find any 
truth discovered by him put to practical use; and I 
feel sure that in this day and generation the danger 
Is. rather that dlsproportronaie attention will be de- 
voted to practical appttcatious of discoverie:* already 
made, to the exclusion of the search for new truth. 
So far as phyriiology Is concerned, it has done far more 
for practical medicine, since it bt^an its own inde- 
pendent career, than when it was a mere branch 
of the medical curriculum. All the history ol tbe 
physical sciences shows that each of them liofti 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou III., No. 61. 






^v ■ . ^.-^ .\-*s\ xkvUni-v nf inuiikiiid 
^ t*. V.VM |Mir5U0«| by ItH <iwii 

• s-v :'\ it« o>i\ii «li»ci]»l<'ii. A» 
^ •.* *:;ik:njily illiintnitcil hy a 

* ,* .,» nuNlu'liit* of th«* ^nidiia- 
^ k i ,1 «iorm.in iniMlii'ul studciitH. 

♦ V .»». A 0;IU()iilillO for thi' dlK?- 

/■v-*o s-xmntrio?*. nsi in iiiatiy 

* ■ v*w: A };r At hi. It Ion tht^nis on 

'■ V -,.• w -.h hj* !itiiilio,i. KviTv ywir 

'w V.V. A i*h\>:olos:itMl tt»|»U*. The 

." .i * vv-k* out ik»me i»n>bloin 

vt»v t .•■.riH'r IvAfinir on the diiij:- 

. ,•» «• ^M."**.'. whili* tho (iornnin very 

v»<:oaI mAttor which on 

» *;:h nioilioino. Now, 

KViri»''*rr for a series of 

. I'^xsiv^Ioj^y, of Gonnan 

.: 5<v\cr ih:it even the 

•.'■e v.felf is to-ihiy far 

*' ■*. -n.- 1. *<-:<n:itir rt^sean*hes of 

.-.I ^ M- -.».* ;I;v\-jk* of the French. 

1 V ,;• ts: v'^^*'"*'-*^ I'nvl in view. 

-^i.i.. .V >•':-*. :v. olosi* relation to a 

\j': ••• •■ . 1 var: of it. I believe we 

'i-v, -, .-v*. :^ ^ ^■^^r.J.iilons for work. 

---» -.-^^ -*:• f :he inttuence of the 

>! :.--i ■< .i'?:;*, :; :he one hunil. on 

'«• i- v" rrjtxl A!:il on the alert 

:■: n-** I. .-jiarle of sohition by 

■■•*s 

<*k I : * w •"U ,i> to the con- 

^- V . 7.1-" . o .mil thmipeu- 

>- . ■ :. '* .: *: l^rinu to j;ain 

V - .^ ■ , -■. r:.-* .i!ul functions 

-, i- ' ■!:■- • ■•ly. he has always 

*•-- I - -i'-^v Tissues nnder 

i. V -s^'i- A muscle or a 

- : "1 r»r y in •t'* normal 
r. .1 -. - ...-■:. ^::pi»Iieii with 

■: 4 ~: .- siarveil, ami 

- :.: : • : :!-■ • v of cur.iri, 
.. ■ - . -;.r^ y- - '...- ^-ry s:;irl of 

-. '- •- I ; • ■: :-k ■ f the work 

.T :- — ..' — -" -^i exi ••rimenial 

-■ - - -: . .: - M-i-: . » I -^ui'iMfie 

. - '^ -i : •:" ;:>l:e»l ir«»m 

- - :: ^ . . : is*-:-! ur.iier one 

i_ : v_i- _t- -•:: M;e fruit? 

;-• -1 -X17.-.; "•■'•- I: is not 

.11 "1 k.' - A" : -■■:. i* the coin- 

. -- ~ :' -■ ■ .fc-.:. . j:c.il s:ati*<. 

1 ^ I . ■ : ■ •.'. ihr ixi'tTi- 

— 1. • -- '" • .. "*. a:, i C'ohnl.eiin: 

;;. V ..- • - .-. :.i:..r- of fever i< 

-— .. . -- : 1-T:.i: i.H.\:«ir nh.iin. 

-_ • -i*-.: :*. < • r'.ir .IS :::\- 

: - • : --_ -. .:. *:! . in its vitv 

.- . ..- *.: -I..: --..r: ce :r. \*\\\^i- 

r-.— - . _- >-x:-b'» 'k on the 

.--:-: ». ! .ric.ii .icii«»n 

V. .: . ■ : . . -- _ 1 !'.iv-» .li s:.»r»» for 

.-*- .■; --^ : > :.,»r 1 r^i limit. 



Tho work of Hcrnani, — showing that In curari we 
had a drug that would pick out ot the whole body, and 
act upon, one special set of tissues, the endings of the 
nerve-fibres in muscle. — and the results of subsequent 
exact experiments as to tlie precise action of many 
drugs uiH)n individual organs or tissues, hold out be- 
fon> us a hoiM* that perhaps at no very distant day the 
physician will know exactly, and in detail, what every 
drug he puts into his patient is going to do in him. 

ratholt>gy and therapeutics, while almost essential 
branches of physiological inquiry, have nevertheless 
their own 8i)ecial aims; and, now that the physiolo- 
gists have proved that it is possible to study these 
subj«M.'ts experimentally, special laboratories for their 
pursuit are being erected in Gennany, France, and 
England. These labonitories are stockeil with physi- 
ological instruments, and carry on their work by 
physiological metliods. Those who guide them, and 
those who work in them, must be trained physiolo- 
gists: if not, the whole business often degenerates 
into a men* slicing of tumors and putting up of 
pickled deformities: pathological anatomy is a very 
gocHi and important thing in itself, but it is not pa- 
tholotjy. Looking at the vast field of patiiological and 
tlierapeutic n^scarch o|icn to us, and bearing in mind 
the certainty of the rich harvest for mankind which 
will reward tliose who work on it. I regard as one 
of my chief duties here to prepare in sound physi- 
ological doctrine, and a knowledge of the methods 
of ex|H'riment, students who will afterwards enter 
lal>oratories of exi>erimental pathology and pbai^ 
niacology immediately connected with our medical 
school. 

If the relations of the bi( •logical sciences to medicine 
be such as I have endeavored to iK>int out. what place 
should they occupy in the medical curriculum? 
That men fitted for research, and with opportunity 
to pursue it. should K* trainetl to that end, is all well 
andgLHHl: but how about the ninety per cent who 
want simply to become good i>raci it loners of medi- 
cine '.* What relation is this laboratory- to hold to 
such men. \iho may come to it, intending afterwards 
to enter a niedioal scliool ? As a part of tiieir general 
college-training, of that e<lucation of a gentleman 
which every physician should possess, it should give 
them >pecially a thorough training int he general laws 
which 7>)veru living matter, without tr^^ubling them 
with the minutiai- of systcmaticzot'»Iogy or botany; it 
should enable them to learn how to dissect, and make 
them well acquainted with the anatomy of, one of the 
hiirher animals: it should ie.^ch them how to use a 
miscrosooiH-, and the technique of histology, and 
finally, by K^nures. demonstration, and experiment, 
make known to them the bn^ad facta of physiology, 
ilie nie.ihs by which ihi*se facts have been ascertained, 
,and the sort M basis on whicli they rest. The man 
so tniiui «l. \ihi!i- obtaining the mental culture which 
he would JiA\\\ from the study of any other science, li 
siH'cially • •!ui2>{»ed it>r the study of medicine. Trained 
in oihor p.irts of his general collegiate course to speak 
:uiil wri!e his own language correctly, having aoqidnd 
a fair kn-^wlfdce of mathematics and Latin, able to 
read at Ic.ist French and German, haring learned Ika 



Januaut 25, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



108 



BlemenU of physics and chemistry, and, in iwldltioii, 
|liAving studied the structure and properties of the 
Ixenlthy hody, he can, on entering the lechnicai school^ 
ffrom the very first turn his attention to profebftifujal 
details. Knowing already the anatomy of a cat or 
dog» iie Icnows a great part of human anatomy, and 
need do Jittlt' hut iurquaint himself with the surgical 
And medical anatomy of certain regions. Knowing 
I iioruial histology^ he can at once turn his attention to 
^ the microBcopy of diseased tissues. Well instructed 
physiology, he can devote himself to its practical 
^applications in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. 
The demand for an improvement in medical educa- 
tion, which has been so loudly heard in Eugland and 
this country for some years, is (the more I think of it, 
the more I feel assured) to he met, not, as has been the 
case in PIngland, hy putting more general science into 
the medical-school curriculum, but by confining that 
iinore strictly to purely professional training, and by 
1 providing, as we have attempted to do here, non- 
tech d lea) college-courses for undergraduates, which, 
while giving them a liberal education, shall also have 
k.m distinct relation to their future work. Personally 
fl regard It as the most important of my duties, to 
|>repar^ students to enter medical schools in tliis 
fcity or elsewhere. 

To advance our knowledge of the laws of life and 
health ; to inquire into the phenomena and causes of 
disease; to train experimenters in pathology, thera- 
peutics, and sanitary science; to fit men to underlake 
^the study of the art of medicine, — these are the 
Bain objects of our laboratory. I do not know that 
they can be better summed up than in the words of 
Descartes, which I would like to see engraved over Its 
ortal: **If tliere is any means of getting a medical 
heory based on infallible demonstrations, that is what 
I am now Inquiring.' ' 



THE CLOSING REPORT OF HAYDEN'S 

SURVEY. 

Twetfih annual report of the U> S. geological and 
geographical gurvey of the territorieif : n refmrt of 
progrtfts of the exploration in Wyoming and Idaho 
for (he t/ear 1878, Washington , Government print- 
ing-office, 1883. 2 vols. 8^, With jwrtfolio of 
maps and panoramas. 

In two stout octavo volumes, with an accom- 
panying portfolio of maps, Dr. Hay den pre- 
sents the twelRh mikI last atinual reix>rt of the 
Geological survey of the territories. While the 
liit« reorganization antl eon^iolldation of the sur- 
veys which have been oeeiipicd in the scien- 
Ltiflc exploration of the west is indubitably a 
rery marked step in a<lvauce, it is not without 
a measure of regret that we realize that Dr. 
Hayden*s familiar and always welcome animal 
kfeport now reaches its for the last time. It is 
lj)erhap8 only those having some experience of 
itinnlar work who can fully appreciate the ener- 
y ftnd maintained scientific enthusiasm neces- 



sary for the conduct of an organization such as 
that which under Dr. Hayden has built so broad 
a foundation for our geological knowledge of 
the western part of the continent. 

The volumes now issued constitute the re- 
port for 1878, the concluding season of field- 
work. Great cai*e has evidently been given to 
the editing and printing of the report; and the 
number and good quality of the illustratiotis 
and maps are noteworthy features. Of plates 
alone, in the two volutnes, tlicre are over two 
hundred and titty ; and most of them are excel- 
lent specimens of lithographic art. 

The first volume is devoted chiefly to paleon- 
tolc^y and zoology, while the second may be 
regai*ded as a memoir on the Yellowstone na- 
tional park* Dr. C. A. White, in his re^xirt, 
under the title of ^ ('ontrtbutioos to invertebrate 
paleontology, No. 2/ presents the second part 
of his descriptious and illustrations of creta- 
ceous fossils. This is followed (as parts 4 to 
8 of the contributions) by papers on tertiary, 
Laramie, Jurassic, triassic, and carboniferous 
fossils. The article on the Laramie, includ- 
ing, besides the descriptions and plates of a 
number of forms, a systematic enumeration of 
the invertebrate fossils of the group, assumes 
the character of a synopsis of its fauna invalu- 
able to the student of tliis period of geological 
history. Mr. Orestes St. John's very compre- 
hensive and systematic rcix)rt on the Wind 
River district could be done justice to only in 
a separate note of some length. 

Mr. S. II. Scudder's rejxjrt on tlie tertiary 
lake-basin of Florissant is next in order. From 
this place a number of fossil plants and a few 
fishes and birds have been obtained : but it is 
8i>ecially remarkable lor the wonderfully numer- 
ous remains of insects which it atfords ; *\hav- 
ing yielded in a single summer more than double 
the number of 6[>ecimens which the famous 
localities at Oeningen, in Bavaria, furnished 
lleer in thirty years,** The fossils occur in 
fine-grained volcanic ash-beds, which, together 
with coarser materials of the same origin, 
constitute the deposits of the old lake-basin. 
The age of the beds is apparently about that 
of the oligocene, and the climatic conditions 
may have resembled those of the northern 
shores of the Ciulf of Mexico at the present 
day. A complete description of the insects will 
be awaited vvitli much interest. I^Ir, Packard^s 
monograph of the phyllopod Cruslaeeu of 
North America, having lieen already noticed 
in Science^^ need only be mentioned. In the 
latter part of the first vohmie, Dr. R. W* Shu- 
feldt treats of tlie osteology of the Cathartidac 

I Vol. li. p. 671. I 



104 



SCiENCE. 



[Vol- IIL. Kow 



am) So'-''- * - ria 
ing 09^ lau 

On ■ 
VAtion 

mudi ha^ jUr€^j L 
taftc juid i^ipiikKr 
diaratter ; Imttiir 
second rolmw of 

kibe im prai* 
mttel^* cMfiMe 
•ceimtil of te 

tiM* tat «eM- 



^iCI^l 



«|>rtags, were 

ftSj cmdilad ; sM 
gioo. in tbr sMit 



tbc rogioQ itself doe» m»i ;&utj«imt to 
I «lmke.. •eener}-, cansistiiig cbteHj of liigb roUing 

^Aemail pitk. er leacr- Vemm ooireivd with dark ooniferom fbfi6Bi« i 

W oilM, aloi^g thm bortSm of the 0lrtftiBft« opealiig ool 
kef^MNK into Uie mUixcliTe psrk-ltke ecMastfj ehaimo- 

taifsde ebewlieie 
of uajr of the 

flOtlHd|]ilM* taU«j| 

of the Hoc I 

' MooiiCaittft. 

; ttiean derii 

iMztog ftbotti 

tlioiitaiid feet, 

rrodera It sabjeet 

'1 to frosts through* 

<mi the sumoer, 

and quite boIU for 

^ igHoolum : In* 

m detd,tbel 

1 refefenoii 

jM stortDs 

V fmog nWh 

m ofm:nJLkfUs of I h 

9 would alooo 

fl esle the soIks 

^^1 tk 

^H lhe< 

^^H ThcgeolQgyl 

^^^H the fierk i« 

^^^^^H who carrie 






i por- 

UC * gTTAt 

has hem 



^ te 



■Be in the ttorth-wesl mne ret nessa ted in thcj 

Nets ghmeeat the map shorn yist those of 1 

■at cspio* or%is cover b>* fkrihe gtealul are 
ta ooueotioii with theM that lu 

iBMrth- limabaTshoeBderr^--i ^'-^-- 

» HUitioiis cfsteBoft«ithv]rag 

t4* h^ ^ aad attain in scMnepianr^ ^ > « ri ^mi.i Uiickiiess,^ 

i«rS.Slt Hhyblite p f e po sida ra lcs, but hasalta also Ike- 

lOes qoct^oocor ; and the frtlitii a ns of huge iaas»> 

eMi cs of ohsSdhiB or t«leaBle glaas if a poinl bolhj 

■p- of BtiMcndoi^aid, aad^lhMilhs use mde of f^ 

va. br the lodtaaa, elhooldgleal iaie 



' jAinJABY 25, 1884,] 



SCIENCE. 



105 



From the deeply erode^l valley of the Yellow- 
stone* almost all the facts as to the pre-tertiary 
history of the park are drawn ; and the line of 
this river appears to have been determined by 
a gi'eat fault for which a minimum estimate of 
the displacement is given at 15,000 feet. This 
fault was probably synchronous with the general 
Rocky Mountain uplift, and is presumed to be 
in more or less direct causal connection with 
the subsequent remarkable history of the dis* 
trict. It is not a simple fissure, but a break 
along which the edges of the strata have been 
much dragged and contorted, particularly on 
the dropped side ; appearing, in fact, to have 
the character of a great flexure pushed to 
fracture. On its northern side rises the Yel- 
lowstone Range ; while to the south, in the 
depressed area, are found the evidences of 
that jirodigions volcanic activity of which the 
actual thermal phenomena are the last linger- 
ing stages. 

From the older tertiary rocks of the park 
have been collected a number of plants which 
Professor Lesquereux refers to the Fort Union 
group; but, before the inauguration of the vol- 
canic periods, these beds, together with the 
paleozoic rocks, 
had been deeply 
scored by erosion. 
The earlier flows 
of trachyte anti 
rhyolite poured in- 
to the then exist- 

Dg valleys till they 

roire, in many 

BiJies at least, en- 
tirely obliterated, 
the successors 
liese first rivers 

arced to cut new 

bannels having 
liUJe or DO refer- 
ence to the posi- 
tion of the uld. 

Subsequent lava- 
Sows again filled 

tiese later valleys, 
Imd. through the 

jceeedlng ba&al- 
11 c and conglom- 
eritic epochs of 
activity, this pro- 
cess ap[»ears to 
have been repeated 

many times. The entire period of volcanic ac- 
tivity must have been of t^xtremely long dura- 
tion, anfi may have lasted through a great part of 
the tertiary. From the volcanic conglomerates 



p^ I 



GRAND CAiioS OP TUE TELLOWSTOKS* 



of Amethyst Mountain, plants of upper mio- 
cene or lower pliocene age have been identilled. 
Very much yet remains, however, to be dis- 
covered in the history of this prolonged period, 
which, in its succession of volcanic outburats 
alternating with e[>ochs of quiet river-work, 
much resemltles that of the classic tertiary vol- 
canic region of central France, and may, when 
fully disclosed, tell as interesting a story. In 
Amethyst Mountain some of the latest stages 
are well exemplified, and we have, perha[)s. the 
finest series of buried erect forests ever dis- 
covered. The volcanic rocks, here chacncter- 
istically conglomcritic, show a thickness of five 
thousand feet, and are charged almost through- 
out with the silicified remains of ancient for- 
ests* The lower layers are comparatively fine 
grained, but are followed by conglonierates 
which become coarser and more breccia-like 
in ascending, but are throughout interbedded 
with sandstones, and shaly layers largely tufa- 
ceous in character, and appear to be partly 
water-1 redded and partly sub- aerial. The in- 
tervals between successive eruptions have been 
sulflcient to allow tlie surface to become clothed 
again and again l>y a hcavj- forest- growth, each 

of which has been 
destroyed and bur- 
ied in turn. 

There can be lit- 
tle doubt that the 
hot - springs have 
been continuously 
in existence since 
the volcanic peri- 
od ; and actual evi- 
dence of their great 
antiquity is found 
in tlie occurrence 
of fragments of the 
characteristic cal- 
careous de|)osit in 
some of the high- 
er river- terraces, 
since the forma- 
tion of which the 
Yellowstone has 
cut for itself a 
caiiou a thousand 
feet in depth. 

For an account 
of the hot- springs 
and gcj'sere as. 
found at the pres- 
ent da3\ we must, however, turn to the second 
section of the report, in which Dt\ Peak* treata 
the subject in an exhaustive manner, tabulat* 
ing over two thousand springs and seventy-ooe 



jAsruARY 25, 1884.;. S CIEy CE. 1 07 

equally probable, may arise from the greater virtu ally ij:.V:r-a'/!'r wr.'ru ge; w-rsj wt" o!*^*/-.'- 

dryness of air in the jiark resign as compare^l erel in hwu co:>: •'.-:&' !'.- L^rj-v-ri; '.:* ';.^«rrf-7.' 

with that of leelan-i and New Zealan-l. resrioLS. \'y:u^:iA\ frxpjar.atiori. '>:;/'::.' !;.^ orj 

The chemit-ai invesligalion of the Ye!!ow- i:.'.- :»»if^:r:j'-i'.::*:f of w^&Vrr r, :,:<:: j^r**.- ,;«: in 

stone sprir.gs is r,o: yet si;fficieL:ly comi/iete fl-^^'iref?. or r/.or*r or ie*-* •>••-.'/-.&: :':'*-;.• ^ ' >r«», 

for I he i r sa : : s fac: or\- c! a ss: !: f jation : bu l iLey 5*r r! o-; ^ *y rryy '; '. f. '-' i 1 :. & '.l ', :. • y . v* ; '. ; : r. :, r/, . 

are broadly divided :*y Dr. Peale into tL*>»e of fetarj'L-^is. i^ co:iJ->i-re'J i^ ,:?>:>:/, '.o ar^yy-:.; for 

calearec'us, sili'-Te*:-::*- acd a'.umico'us cL a raster. iLe o'-^rr/e-i p:.«r:-o.^v-:^- 

The so-ealle*.! &i'.:TKiiiO'-s ?:risg§. r.-eing ihose Ai/T»*rr.']f:'i :o ::.!^ :*Ty^.-. > a. 14. .f..': ' - 

highly chargeii with rriTad. or matter in a state ogra^'.y oftr.e ]A:k. ^rA '/, •:.«: . v-:f. .. rf; *.;':iV 

of susj»ens:on. will dcc''«tlrS5 ever.tuiily r-e itg of 2*:;»f:r^ ir.d :.'.t--:.r!' 2* i'':T.^ri .; . 
relegated to or.e or otier of tie frst-r.imei Jr. ::.«: !at'.er j.^i-. ^f t.r - v. .:.->:. Mv ^#^. :.->*/. 

classes. The i<j<v.\\i Tirrai^r-ti'.tl va/.e of revi^w^ :L.; ^r.-i':-.:- '-"-. "«o'jc o:. v. - . •>•- 

the springs is as } e: j .-a-incally cr.teite'i : a&i ex<?f:llr:Lt rrji:/- 2oy.:::;,nx.; !:.2 v.r: :-;^vr. 3t.;r 

it is to l* rea:a:kei :l :i:s .x»Lr.e^-tior.. ti^t t:.e l-aA^L 

climate is sii-.-L a^ ir* an; cvrr.: to -^ TLfivor- >V.w>.:-V./av! -^ ".;.f: s:.v--.:.t .f ;•'.••«% .:- 

able to those *.--<«: rlLg f:..=i :r":ll::a::r^ :;%- fjn.V-lvr. rx/W ::.4:i^ ii t..* v. : . •. ;-i- ',•. 

emses. A few ex7»rr!n:ei.:s o:: ::.e color of :r.e ir.»2':r. ; rt e-:;rr.\; .-r-.-t :.■* 'o ••^ .-»..'./.'•*-.. 

waters are r»Kcr!-r: : r. -: -.l-^sr-. it !l -et '■? c*>r»- T:.^ r>.d-woric r:. x . '..--.* :--»'^ . -. - ^ ;i -t 

fessed. are urfa: sfivtcry. i* ti-e sas^pl-r* :.5d > 'a^hp^i frivr.-:*^: o^ r* 1 .•'•.• -tb'. :.v.*. * -.■ 

been lorg :a :<.r.l-E: :*:•!. a^ a. '^ ''viic. :i'*. it %:A X:,^ '.>-=:;-;*.-.-.* -.i^r ■•>'. .'v-. -.^r-. -.' 

isdoattfJ: wic:i-rr:;.-r wi:^:i -.f :.--r ;.-i:ko:frr w:^: Mr. ff- v.-^. .••'-i'-r'.'. ; i^^.-^^^ i>. •* 

peculiarities s-> nirk-ri s* :: ti::*^ ir.y !!:i- • twr:.:; -:1 ■^-•■. r:-i- i; i v. .'. -.ok t --. 

portADl lijhs ca i •-';-=-.': -'J..:. ..i.% alr-a-ij ti^ jr^b^rr-t. •-;,-..-. ^:.-. ...:; -.i'tv- •--•. -* --. 'i • 

been elACoraiely s'-ii-rl 17 :l;^.:i^".i ii*i oi'jt.ry^:. -:::.. •.•.>:." '. . - • v.* '.; i.-. -j: *. •.>* 



Tbe ol-Ur Tlir-:^ :f r--^: i:: .1 .-*:;. r.r.z s^w '1 .->. T.'X: .^-.-. . •.-. -.-' ••>- i : 



'- .'j^: 



time. wir-:«^zi i » i "^ •-::! ; .-: :. r. -^ .*:-:. z w. :i i i.- ^ • . - -^ --; . i -,, . • ;.^ - • ■ ■ --. i ■ , -. / • . - . o ..rr 
tur alar ■:r.f:»T. ii-: .:l' ~ iz i ',.!">: "Ti:e_> z^'x_ry, »i*i-». ---i' ■•=' •••^--.t ■ -t-r^. i.» i- 
tioL al 'y — : : - -T-a::- . l . - . : • , i: t-m :: .'r * - -r :xi;;: r \ r. :r. r .; ■ : •.:.:*• :t.' 5^ ■ *' v. •:• ■• .^: 



iii: . Eyz PR ; ■. EEDiy^s of s^^ikstif i- :-. : . /.-: :•//, 



*:=.»--:!: w^ift '—xx. 



r-r.'* -.■* .- * •. i - -:* !.-• i • »-. •. •! ■ « v '• 



f ■: V .. 



*»••..■.■■»• 



r- ■ 



rw;.^* -r-.. r ■;. • V- •^ L-i-^- - T \ • -v*-*-. -;:,.-■,:. •-».;■.•• — « .- ....... 

i§i^..:-r-! ^:.* -u*^ . i-:i. -■^- •;:-";•; -: k- -• r.T- 7-;^. -.. -. .-* ^ .... ■ .-^. ■ i. .■ 

H* -1-— .-r^ :•'■■:• — i ' ■: :-.:t. ■-.. — :<■. j ww". v. 

liUff- tn- !.---'■ -^ ;'-•■■"•■ L ^ ■' •": ••'.'. '- •;! ••-•.• V -. x^ ...^ 

i;!:;-.* -. . .-■•. ta- .. ■--■- • -L r ..- ■ ■ ■ **■..: x.*--:.^ 

pri-^»*-:.-j i: ■ — .-1 • ■ -• ' -'i'. ■■. - ■. ▼/.-.■ .Kf : ^ .i - 

4*-r* x --■-"!* : •- ■■- ..... . 'i-.t-- 

/■i. J. — 1- Ik -: -.»•■-• I : :.-.. - i ■ -.^ _^. '.. ^. .. ; ^ 

'%\^- j.»*t* Z. i»v ■ . * L- fc I ' - : ■■ ■ 1 • - ■•■■ • ■ - ,^ , -• 

CcV--:,.-.., -. ., .- . .. ^ •.- ..-. -.-..r. 

tr* »• . — ?■"-" ' *■-■ ■' -' ** 1 • . — - ■<. «' ." — * 

4-t. •- 4 \f Tf-^r r u:- i .- ■ -v .--.■■ — ,•'• \- 1 .•■ 

Hex*:.., l^-V—ll -i - ' - • , .-, ■•-... .• -,. 

SSati ';•» '•l»t 31 »*''.; ...■ ■ - — .- . •• r '■.•■■■ ■ 

ba^e^ lit^ -»^'.".. .t.' i.. .-■ *■. : .. - - • ». -.".i ■ i . ■ : .- ■ 

cord isi Tiiit iixxi"'*v u'.'-.i^ .». • .i- 1. • i.* » ^.a.-*. -i* ■•*•. 



10b 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. UL, No. 61. 



River. The district thus included lies along latitude 
450 5(y, between longitudes 76° 4fy and 77° 4(y; the 
town of Pembroke being 77° KV, with an elevation 
above sea-level of 423 feet. At the upper end of the 
district the Ottawa divides its waters, and encircles 
the large AUumette Island ; the Culbute Channel on 
the norih being narrow, while the southern one ex- 
pands so a<< to be known as the Upper and Lower Al- 
lumelte Lakes. On the Quebec shore the land rises 
precipitously; the Laurentian Mountains seldom re- 
ceding more than a mile, and at times rising sheer 
from the water's edge in towering cliffs of trap. On 
the Ontario side the land Is comparatively undulat- 
ing, and rises by a succession of plateaus separated 
by ridges of rock, or by ranges of hills gradually in- 
creasing in height. After a graphic description of the 
beauties of this district, the writer outlined the princi- 
pal sand-plains which constitute a large portion of the 
steppes of the southern shore, and pointed out that 
their levels coincided with the well-marked terraces 
found on AUumette Island and at other points along 
the river. The formation of these sand-plains was 
then fully discussed ; and it was claimed that they had 
undoubtedly been formed from the debris transported 
by flowing water from the rock ranges that bound 
and intersect them, and toward which the surface 
gradually changes from fine sand (or occasionally 
clay), through coarser sands, pebbles, etc., to bowlders. 
The principal plain is that called the Chalk-river 
sand-plain, extending from near Pembroke, twenty 
miles westward. It is interrupted toward the lower 
end by broken ridges, which harmonize in position 
with the rapids, and which formed parts of barriers 
between a higher level westward and a lower level 
eastward. Occasional sand-ridges occur, which lie be- 
tween the ancient mouths of rivers, of which some are 
now extinct, and others, as the Petawawa and Musk- 
rat, still flow in greatly diminished volume. The 
two principal levels of this plain correspond with two 
terraces boldly marked on the Lauren tians near the 
head of Coulonge Lake, fully thirty miles away. A 
lake as large as, or lai^er than, Superior must in the 
past have hidden in its great depths AUumette Island, 
the entire Pembroke district, and adjacent sand- 
plains, as well as thousands of the now arable acres 
lying toward Renfrew. As indicated by the ter- 
races, there had been two distinct periods, in the 
first of which the water had been 200 feet deeper, and 
in the second 100 feet deeper, than the present level. 
After describing the constitution of the soils derived 
respectively from the granite or trap ridges, and their 



relative capacities for agriculture, the writer very 
lucidly and Interestingly explained the changes, as 
witnessed by him, which are still going on In the 
district, and the manner In which, by the incessant 
weathering and denudation of the rocks, sand-plains 
on a smaller scale are still being formed. The pres- 
ent barriers which cause the rapids Interrupting navi- 
gation were explained to be of varying degrees of 
hardness, so that change proceeds more rapidly at 
certain points. Thus the channel rocks at the foot 
of the river-reach in question are composed of fine 
sandstones (Potsdam) compacted with bluish clay, 
and are being rapidly eroded ; and at a not excessively 
remote date the channel will be so lowered that the 
upper and lower lakes will form one navigable level, 
while the channel to the west, having a much harder 
bed-rock, will be changed to Impassable rapids by the 
subsidence of the lake below them. Reference was 
made to various older channels which evidenced 
former higher levels which the existence of terraces 
and undoubted water-lines fully confirmed. In the 
discussion that ensued, several members who had 
visited the locality and other portions of the Upper 
Ottawa gave evidence as to the existence of numer- 
ous traces of old water-currents at points now much 
above the present levels. 

Mr. H. M. Ami presented a list of the Cambro-silu- 
rlan fossils of the neighborhood, containing 228 spe- 
cies, and prefaced by a few notes as to its compilation. 
The report of the geological section on the summer's 
work was also read, and the president announced that 
classes in botany and zoology would be held weekly. 

Franklin inititate, Philadelpbia. 

Jan, 16, — The annual report of Board of managers 
exhibited the addition of a hundred and thirty-nine 
new members during 1883, and of over three thou- 
sand volumes to the library. Preparations for the 
Electrical exhibition, to be held during the autumn 
of 1884, are in an advanced state. A national con- 
ference of electricians is in contemplation. The sub- 
ject of a ** Proposed ordinance for the examination 
of steam-engineers" was warmly debated, pro and 
con^ but no decisive action was taken. Mr. S. Lloyd 
Wiegand read a paper defending the use of cast iron 
in the construction of steam-boilers, it having been 
alleged by Nystrom and others that steam-boilers 
with flat cast-iron heads were dangerous. The secre- 
tary's report embraced a summary of engineering and 
industrial progress for the past year. 



INTELLIGENCE FROM AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC STATIONS. 



Tke U.S. naval observatory. 

Vice-Admlral Stephen C. Rowan was appointed 
July 1, 1882, to succeed Rear-Admiral John Rodgers 
as superintendent of the observatory. On May 1, 
1883, Vice-Admlral Rowan was relieved by Rear- 
Admiral R. W. Shufeldt. The report of Admiral 



Shufeldt to Commodore J. G. Walker, chief of bureau 
of navigation, under date of Oct. 22, 188:5, covers the 
work of the observatory for the past year. 
TliQ pemonnel of the observatory is as follows: — 
Rear-Admiral R. W. Shufeldt, superintendent; 
Commander W. T. Sampson, assistant to superintend- 
ent; lieutenants, Pendleton, Moore, Bowman, G»r- 



Jattah S. a<l>4. 



SCIEyCE 



:<•> 



Bftx. rr*x«7 idKaruj-. iricmmmitrf. St. t Tiy "sr^^.- rip- .- i-.ir.. -z laU. ^,u. — 7'i.i» i.-.-. •!«<:: i-i» '.^^^ 

kKC. Pfci*. . Ef=-«L Til OLfcf Hi-rr:!" *L nixi:':-.'*- T a. 'ji-i.-;.- xr . im r..»>:iir'r T' 7 r^t; -.•. .; a»3b:-v;t 

Tilt ?ei»:n ▼iitfa * iirr -r: y^it-Ait^t ^:a.--A.z* l t l -Hi- •. i-tiL ■-:'• \*\-.*, .:^ ■. •— -r.-. .■* , 

^j]feC3ik ai!CT3ii€i.a -f --ii* ii— »* — i-~'>T — ''^ ^' -^-.ii»- ---^1-:. ..> — ir-.r-i.. — Ti.--. .:•' 

2ftEi. uit ^ l-Of-a -. Li**i.»-j^- -!«• -j^zii-' :;.-:.-. -ji^-^- •* l.-*;:, -.■ i# rn.-:. i»-» .-:' ;- i ?rsx 

jratt* i»=-jri Bill Ti**^.::.i.i ini: ?• -. — ..m --i?? '*^'i- H ?*-.'- .»i.-^Tr— -: . t : • t.-t-- - -r -•»..:.,-:. r^si 

?to» a. -itos =iir^ii»iiiit^.*r >rr:«i'-:'!i*-f:.i .:»- Li*!:*r:n»-i ' --• ' . ^ -— — '. i..-l ■_■ ■-•^ — *i l- :.■-•- .^-n 

«f iMiimt 3dC-i:iii*2:a. ->* .;xr-^-7 *.:•: i.^' :i -itr t**.-.--;-. . - -—-'.•.-' •.-.,»- -t. .— ^, .^.f 

7W JT— *jivj "ruic-'-ia. — 7*1..^ :is?v%;n**;:: :,« x*rra "■':".: o- -:._^^ .. •:. — *- *=*f. . ••-•■. .-..r-.r-r . :.« 

3. !iir3t Tc Jt c. i !E.;.^ ▼".ii r**''! Z. ?""-■•" ^ "inii- j i^- "» - -* - ^ •-^'"'- T - -•• "^^ 

'.^Knuiiz t ui* ii-mr" .- r... -j*--:. i.*jt l '--l^:-;.^ :: :_- - -.r i ^^ i— .n^ .: - #-t :>- : •^-. .. ■ . \,-',— -- 

rfcaiiii iC'L I ▼•T".'!^ r ".:.:* v ■ -^ :^ ;— - '.— ^i !:-«:- H-.:.-. ' :> •*-*• ■.:.- .--'- ^z, ' . . . r:*- 

n ini-rii »:"■•■.: .i« ^-ir: i »- .:- t .-»r - ■:-:- Tiir -- i: x- -:.' r^. -' : r^.. - •♦-—«.. -■ . .. - -^^x 

!■• Uf 1**-T B-Tl;:4{P?IXt-.ir liiiE V '•i.-r: T-.. T-.r- •r*.-."'-. _ L_- *- _ - '1 -,■ ".•.:'-- . •-' .*- . ^■-* 

iic "Ui- -L^-^^f.- 1 r ii :.:— -.^-* ik-.'.if^ a:.: ■" i-- "-i'- ' -■ *-:^i:-. — "^ — -t^ - "" .-r- .- i^ -.-r- 

TiK *«■.- !!:■-* t -r*i::--.. 7 -•-" :- -. : '"T.- : — ".-'.- ••:. 









A - r-r. J 









iir.ri. 






J^. 



no 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 51. 



portraits of three hundred and fifty men and women, 
and over three thousand figures of Indians of the 
tribes known as Sacs, Foxes, Konzas, Osages, Co- 
manches, Pawnees, Eiowas, Sioux, Oroahas, Missou- 
ries, Mandans, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Crows, Gros 
Ventres, Crees, Assineboins, Chippewas, Iroquois, 
Oltawas, Winnebagoes, and twenty-seven other tribes. 
Its value as a record of ethnological characters is in- 
estimable. 

There were two collections, — one consisting of the 
original paintings done in the field, exhibited by Mr. 
Catliii for many years in Europe; the other, copies 
made at a later date, which was exhibited in the old 
Smithsonian building many years ago, and now the 
property of Mr. Catlin's heirs. The collection given 
to the museum is the original one, and is r^arded by 
artists and ethnologists as by far the most valuable. 
The pictures, which have been for fifteen years stored 
away in a warehouse in Philadelphia, are in a remark- 
ably good state of preservation. 

There are also on exhibition five paintings by Stan- 
ley, — all that remains of the Stanley collection of 
Indian paintings destroyed by the fire in the Smith- 
sonian building in 1805. 

Naval officers in the museum, — In continuance of 
the policy adopted two years ago, the secretary of 
the navy has detailed six more ensigns to duty in the 
museum. These are graduates of the Naval acad- 
emy in the classes of 1877-79, who have just finished 
their first three years* cruise, and will now give two 
years to scientific work under the direction of the 
officers of the museum. Mr. C. S. McClain has been 
assigned to the department of marine invertebrates; 
Mr. C. H. Harlow, to that of arts and industries; 
Mr. H. M. Witzul, to metallurgy; Mr. H. S. Knapp 
and Mr. O. G. Dodge, to mineralogy. 

Department of mineralogy, — Prof. F. W. Clarke, 
chemist of the Greologlcal survey, has been appointed 
honorary curator of minerals, and is preparing a se- 
ries of minerals for exhibition. Mr. W. S. Yeates, 
aid in the museum, who has been in temporary charge 
of the minerals since the death of Dr. Hawes, the 
former curator, is acting as assistant in this depart- 
ment. • 

Mr. Joseph Willcox of Philadelphia has deposited 
his collection of American minerals in the nni>eura, 
and one thousand of the choicest specimens have 
been placed on exhibition. 

Fooih and tejctileit. — Mr. Komyn Hitchcock is 
acting as assistant curator, having in charge the col- 
lections of foods and textiles. Tlie collection is very 
rich in the textile products of the Indians, and has 
considerable quantities of food-materials acquired 
from foreign governments at the close of the Phila- 
delphia exhibition. 

Exitlonitiorifi in Corea. — Mr. Pierre L. Jouy, of the 
nuiseuni staff, is attached to the American embassy 
in Corea, and is making zoolo^'ical explorations. En- 
sign .}. C. Bernadou, U.S.N., has sailed for Corea, to 
spend two years in ethnological and mineralogical 
explorations. Mr. IJernadou was one of the officers 
detailed to duty at the museum last year. 

Voyaye of the Albatross. — The steamer Alba- 



tross sailed from Norfolk, Jan. 8, for a four-months' 
cruise in the Caribbean Sea, in the service of the 
hydrographic office of the navy. She is under com- 
mand of Lieut. Z. L. Taimer, and carries a special 
staff of zoological workers, including Mr. J. E. Bene- 
dict, naturalist in charge; Mr. Willard Nye, jun.; 
and Ensigns Miner, Garrett, and Ackerman, U.S.N. , 
of the museum staff. 

Mammal department. — Mr. Frederick W. True, 
carator of mammals, is in England, studying methods 
of investigation and museum administration with 
Professor Flower, at the Royal college of surgeons 
in London. 

Foraminifera, — Prof. L. A. Lee of Bowdoin col- 
lege was in Washington, Jan. 3 to Jan^ 8, studying 
the museum collections of foraminifera with refer- 
ence to his investigations upon the materials obtained 
by the Fish commission. 

Director's office, — During the rec6nst ruction of 
the east end of the Smithsonian building, Professor 
Baird is occupying an office in the north-west pavilion 
of the museum. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



AVL the parties sent out by the various govern- 
ments at the suggestion of the International polar 
commission have returned home safely, and with 
valuable meteorological and magnetic records, with 
the exception of three. The Russian station at the 
mouth of the Lena will continue its work for another 
year, on account of delay from storms in reaching its 
destination. The Finidsh, at Sodankyla, although it 
has finished one good year's work, will continue for 
another, as the government of Finland has supplied 
the necessary funds. The misfortunes of the Greely 
party are too well known. 

— The first number of the Auk, published under 
the auspices of the newly organized American orni- 
thologists' union, closely re>embles the Bulletin of 
the Nuttall club, of which it is the continuation, and 
bids fair to be a credit to American ornithologists. 
An excellent colored plate forms a frontispiece to the 
number, and the articles are varied and interesting. 
One would perhaps justly complain of the space 
given to disputes over wonls, and lament the entire 
absence of papers ui>on either the anatomy or the 
general structure of binls, but these are perhaps to 
come in future numbers; and there is a pleasant fla- 
vor of careful out-door observation running through 
some of the papers, such as those of Messrs. Brewster, 
Barrows, and Bicknell. The effect of the formation 
of the union four months ago, is already seen in the 
plan offered by the committee charged with the sub- 
ject for co-operative work in the study of bird-m igni- 
tion on this continent. We think a brief account df 
the formation and purpose of the union would have 
been a fitting introduction to the number. 

— Professor F. M. Snow of the University of Kan- 
sas, from observations taken at Lawrence, reports- 
that only three Decembers in the past sixteen years 
have been milder than that just passed, — 1875, 1877, 



JaXUABX 25, iaS4.] 



SCIENCE. 



Ill 



18SL There were very few day* during the 
ftontb iti which InilltUiig operAt!oii«i were uot hc- 
tivfly pushed* The *ky wa» cl»?arer, th«s wUid was 
hJL^Irer, .iTjt! the miufiilJ wiis raore than fifty per c<*nt 
K ill the DecemhrT average. Th*? r»*inarka- 

L j^rfd crimioii liml onitige sunset glow., which 

WAS .*l>iierved in the lost week of Nove(ut>er, conthi- 
U'-il with a Siiiuewhat iniennitt4*nt brilliancy during 
th«; monUi of December. 

— Wc take the following personal notes from ^Ta- 
tUTt : — 

rrt>f. W. H, Macintosh has been elected to the pro- 
fe«^or«Iitp nf ci<itip;!irativ6 anatomy in Trinity college, 
Dublin, r**!*- Profes»-or Mwcalister* F.RS., who re- 
slirneii on hlf appoinim«»nt to I he Jin*ti>my ehair at 

( _ By the dralh of the well-known 

r tan, the Rev* W, Koberts, M.A,, the Rev. 

hi' iM i 1 'trngend. M.A., F,R.S., becomes a senior 
It'll >u of Tfi ity collej-tf, Dublin, thereby vacating 

yhc pM»feA?or^hip of natural pbtlu»<»phy 1 '* * Mm 
ftnce |.S7*t The vacancy In the pr-; of 

^IfiBoloigy and mlneralo<;y, In the UnlveisUv ut i^u uin. 
tai been flile»l by the eleclicm of Priifes%i>r iKilla* of 
ITnfTerslty college, Bristol, This apjiohitfni'iit will 
give great sati^facthin, and will afford Mr. Solla^ 

larger — - - •' - ri:t!eoniolostcal research^ the 

large pUtiU and vcrtebr4tes In 

the liiii-tru.ii m: t>si'uii remaining to this jliiy almost 
unknown, ^ M. Houiean. who wjis only r».*cently 

rAppoi- ' ' • '--!i»r of the Bnixaels observatory, has 
esit': -t; and it i» reported Uiat M. de K^m- 

'Icolly Ml xjs^iiim observatory, nungary, will succeed 
him. 

— The Swedlah government intend* ti> establish a 
boUnici»-phjrifotiiglcal stAlinn in the north of Sweden 
for the ttoffy of the flora and the diseases of the 
crops in thai pari of the country. 

^The FlnnUh f^oveniiDeiil Iim ordered & steuner 
10 he fpecially haili in Sweden for the tdentific re- 
iearehea shout to be proisecuted in the B«>ilc. 

— Lofd Rayfeigh Ism reprinted for private cfrentA- 
, bi fWDfihtot formi ■ercfml of hb mo^l ralaable 

, iadtsdtaf IhoMOii the tnmiiufaciare, 

i hf phocognipliy* mad theory^ of dlffrae- 

ted lliosftoii eolor-iBixUirea. He hat 

I i«pHjiied mmm nf his p^psra on etecuidty luid 

1 «laolale pitdit, tttrnt aYoittrt aad Cron tht KfMMts 

lliA Brttlah Maodstkm, lo a «o«v«itleiit ptuspliM 

-At iU Annuai naetUis* Jan, It, ibe Cambriiigii 

ilMwilogksl cioh eiaeted the foJIowln^ oOccti: 

SMBoel H. Seadder; McneLary, George 

c; tffciMirer* R P. Maim; Hhfrnrlazi. C. C. 

i; essoitlfie 60Ciiflutt€e, Bolftisd Hajwaid aisd 

W. Eairla 



FMf. H. CarvfU LewlB, of tli« i 
kflcea oi Fhjlailelplilft, bfti 



of B*t- 



Ai nm^mfmd 



— A dissertation on the * Proper names of Panja- 
bis,* with »]>eclal referents? to the proper names af 
villagers In the ea*tem Panjab, by Capt. IL C, Tem- 
ple, Bengal staff corps, contains a mudy of the profjer 
names of the t>coplca of the Pan jab, The boc-k 
contains, also^ loj»g JisU of nanien, nbowing by what 
«*ta»se« of the ftopulallon the vjirlous kinds of them 
are u*ed. and is provitled wiih an index to ovi^r four 
thousand proper names. The biiok i)>i publt>«hcd at 
the KducAtionsoclety*4 pre*s, Bombay^ and by Mcitsfs. 
Thwcker Spink <fc (Jo. In Calcutta, and Mcssm. THib- 
nerJfc Co,. Ludj;ate Ilill, London. 

— Sampson, Low^ & Co. announce 'Heath's feni 
portfolio/ —a series of llfe-slse rt*productions of ferns, 
bein^j: in fonn. color, and venation, accurate n-pre- 
sentations. The work is to be publlsheil In monthly 
pAila. 

— The FuffliMftf^rg* tf?fekly announces that Ib^r. A, B» 
Hervey of Taunton. Mass,, ha-t »mn«liit*»d Dr. Jli*hrvit*i 
book on methods of ccmducti' ^copic*] Inrss- 
tigatlons in the botanical \ i He has sn* 
hanced the value of the triLn&ULion by aildlng the 
me(h<jds of work u^ed In thi* country. 

— Cupple^t Upham. & Co., Boston, have ready • Th« 
amphitheatres of ancient Rome/ by Cl&ra L* Wella. 

— Schuver, during rec»*nt explorations Jn the Galtn ' 
country, purchased from them a yourig negro of a 
race called Gambll. from whom he obtained interest- 
ing details in regard to his |>eop)e. It appeani, from 
hii account in the Bettie (j^^oarafthlque, lUni the 
Gambilt live on the Eomonshi River, aii afllnent from 
the right bank of the Sobat, — a name wLU li M /nifiet 
Cow River. t»ecause in the dry »ca<«on i : r«>ui 

herds find forage only along it* l>anks. ' ^ aitd 

elephantf alKatnd. They Itave a tree which liears ^ 
a fruit two feet long, weigtiing ten or twef %c 'pounds^ 
which Is softened In water, dHM, and c^ten^ 
Tlie principal village it Komonthok; but some thirty 
oUiert were luuned by lhj« negro, among theut KepU, 
which is a market where ir<»ti, cop^ier, Atid beads are 
1x>tigiit by the Gamt»rU from the GaUas. TIii'I eal i 
fowls and czn:** whffh tlje Galla* a^»^*TTTJnate. and ' 
fmi*e pig*. 1' out the • - incisorm, 

ami wear two ; ^ of f h«- i- .. u on tb« 

forehead. Soti»4i > 'ickiad bf i 

the Deiihaa, who ^ i^; mmnf' 

of wttooit for safety, ofie/t^ tiietaselvcs a* toliftiktarj 
siftf es U» the hc$^ GmUaa. 

— At the Koventier nseetlftg of the Loo^ofi pockty 
of lihlkal «f«iMOQto«]r, Mr. PIncim raw! » f^ 
BsbyloBlfta ait, m llkstniad by Mr. JlamswV I 
disoovcrki. Ammf tlw tliaoov^rta on tlic slto of | 
tlie mtAa^ 8ipp^, Mr. Ptochos ooimU 
iniiptiattttohs>**«iss«i»iiiai|si>l ol»i»ct iif hm 
tlf«Sy tdoad atsnilew pl«f««d iMifthwIss vM 
rsther iufs hole« aM cugifJ wllh m 
of srrMi lines t%wo iovbtel isaistatolag li 

AaollMriVMll ohieet, mdeof a ^sffc-gyoca sIob 
isi » hfous sedteac cmmpI «r cast III Ills sho^ «f 



112 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. in., No. 61. 



ram's head, bears an inscription stating that it was 
presented to Samas, the sun-god, by a king of Hana. 
From tlie cliaracter of the writing, Mr. Pinches places 
the date of the relic at about 850 B.C., and draws 
from ihe fact that it was presented by a foreign l«ing 
the conclusion that the shrine of the sun-god at Sip- 
par must liave attained to great renown. 

Anollier most interesting object of alK)ut the date 
685 B.C. is a lion's head carved in white limestone, 
perhaps originally forming a part of some piece of 
furniture. **'I^e mouth, whicli was opened threa1>- 
eniiiu'ly, showed the well-formed teeth. Above the 
upper lip were, on each side, five curved, sunken 
grooves, which were formerly inlaid with some 
material, probably to enable the long feelers or 
whiskers to be inserted. Wavy grooves for inlaying 
were also to be seen above the nose. The eyes were 
inlaid, and the holes for the insertion of the long 
hairs forming the eyebrows still remained. In the 
middle of the forehead there had originally been in- 
serted the little winged figure emblematic of the god 
Assur.^' The accompanying inscription contains the 
names of the Assyrian kings Sennacherib and Esar- 
haddoii. 

Among other objects mentioned were statues of 
the sun-god and his attendant deities, all clothed in 
long robes. The reader pointed out that the speci- 
mens of art found by M. Sarzec at Tel-lo are finer 
than those found by Rassam at Sippar; the former 
coming from the more polished Akkadian, the latter 
from the more powerful but less refined Semite. 

— The domestication of the ostrich in South Africa 
is of only some fifteen years standing, all previous 
product of plumes being due to hunting. At first 
there wa«t much opposition to the proposal; and it 
was fancied that the plumes of domesticated birds 
would prove of inferior quality, which has not turned 
out to }tft the case. In 1865 there were only eighty, 
but in \*o<j there are more than a hundred thousand 
tame ostriches. They have even been introduced 
iiit^> California. In 1880 forty millions of capital 
wao engaged in the business, and a hundred and 
ftixty-tlin-e thousand pounds of feathers were ex- 
p^jrtfd from the Cape, worth nearly $4,200,000. The 
birds are kept in enclosures, which, in a natural state, 
must he twenty or thirty acres in extent per pair. 
When the an»a is diminished, they must be supplied 
with food. They begin to breed at the age of four 
years, but produce plumes after their first year. The 
plumes are cut or pulled out. In the latter case inju- 
ries sometimes result, both to birds and manipulators; 
so that the former process is preferred, although after 
six wccInS it is necessary to remove the witheied re- 
mainf» of the shaft. The feathers are classed according 
to their character; as, wing feathers (white), female 
feathei-s (while), tail feathers, fancy feathers (black 
and white), black feathers (long, medium, and short), 
and lastly gray feathers Formerly the Cape plumes 
took only the sixth rank after those from Aleppo, 
Barbary, Senegal, Egypt, and Mogador, valued in the 
above-mentioned order. Now, however, the Cape 
plumes are ranked as high as any. The largest ex- 



portation is from Port Elizabeth. England is the 
great market, followed by France. New York is 
lately taking an important place in the trade. The 
value of the feathers has diminished one-third under 
the increase of production, but the cost of the birds 
has also diminished. A pair of breeders has been 
sold within two years for twelve hundred dollars; 
but at present a pair can be had for two hundred to 
two himdred and fifty dollars. Under good condi- 
tions, a bird produces fifty dollars' worth of plumes 
per annum, to which must be added the value of the 
eggs and chicks. 

— The Catholic missionaries who have recently es- 
tablished themselves among the Massanz^ on the west 
of Lake Tanganyika are meeting with a good deal of 
success. The men of the district, great travellers, 
speak mostly a jargon of several languages. Their 
own tongue is only heard in purity from the women, 
by whose aid a grammar and vocabulary have been 
prepared. An excitement was recently caused by one 
of the whites cobbling a shoe over an iron last. The 
natives took this for an actual white man's foot which 
had been cut off; and one of the missionaries was 
obliged to take off his foot-gear to satisfy them that 
white men had toes. The Uambemb^, reputed can- 
nibals of the adjacent mountains, who have never 
suffered any whites to enter their territory before, 
have welcomed the missionaries, and offered them 
sites for residence in the villages of the three princi- 
pal chiefs. This mission-station will be re-enforced 
very shortly. 

— The Stirling Castle, constructed at Glasgow es- 
pecially for the China trade, during the past season 
has brought from Woosung to London a cargo of tea 
in thirty-one days. This is four days shorter than 
the best previous record. The vessel is supplied with 
engines of eighty-five hundred horse power, and main- 
tained a perfectly regular speed of eighteen knots 
throughout the journey. 

— In view of the constantly increasing number of 
meteorological stations in Russia, Rikacheff, vice- 
director of the Central physical observatory, has un- 
dertaken a careful verification of the instruments, 
methods, and conditions at the different stations. 

— A. Roberjot, of the French navy, gives, in the 
BuUetin of the French society of geography, the 
results of a voyage in 1879 among the New Hebrides, 
and accompanies them by a small chart and several 
woodcuts in the text. The naval vessel Second 
sailed from Noumea, New Caledonia, and touched* 
at various islands, beginning at the south-east with 
Annatom, and ending with Espiritu Santo to the 
north-west. Numerous Interesting facts in regard to 
the present condition of the natives, some short lists 
of words and details in regard to the character of the 
several islands, arc given, and form a useful contribu- 
tion to our knowledge of a people who are rapidly 
changing under the influences of missionaries, civiU* 
zation, and the so-called ' labor-trade,' which appean 
to be a kind of slavery into which the chiefs peU 1 
unresisting people. 



PRIDAT, FEBRUARV 1, 1884. 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM, 

As it has now been detenDined that the 
Ctreely relief expedilion of 1884 ahull be placed 
in the hands of nuval officers, and that suitable 
vessels, shall be pnrehased for the purpose, it 
18 perhaps adviaable to remind those interested 
of certain essential features of the task before 
us. It is desirable, that, whatever plans be 
adopU^d, it be distinctly remembered that the 
object of the expedition is to relieve ( Jreely and 
hU men ; that it is esseiiiial to success that 
trainint> and brains should lead the expedition, 
and that a mere naval training is not a sufficient 
qualification without experience in ice- naviga- 
tion ; that the praiseworthy ambition common 
to the best naval officers does not tit them for 
such technical work, any more than it would to 
write an epic poem ; and, lastly, that qualiJied 
men ma^' be had, aud shotdd be engaged, even 
if not nominally in command, and their advice 
shouhl liave controlling weijjht. 

\Vc pointed out some time since, that the re- 
sponsibility for failure would be laid where it 
belongs, by the public* regardless of otBeial 
pride or red tape. That brave men should 
perish because points of precedence raunot 
otherwise l>e comfortably scttleti, is unendura- 
ble. It is probably better that only one branch 
of the service should be concerned in the cx- 
[»edition. That this was not the case in 1883 
is generally (whether riglitly or not) supposetl 
to have some couuectioo with the Jttmco which 
h now a matter of history. Apart from tlmt, 
theit^ is little tloubt that Capt, Pike felt his 
judgment of the |»ropriety of pushing into the 
ice overruled by the otficer in charge, whether 
that ofTlcer was conscious of his influence or 
not* In the present expedition not the small- 
est loophole should be lefl for any such pro- 
ceeding, or it is predestined to failure. 



It is most unfortunate that at the present 
time we have probably not a single ranking 
officer in the navy of experience in the sort of 
navigation the exi)edition must necessarily en- 
counter. However, since it is the cuse, it 
should be recognized in tlie organization of the 
ex[)edition ; and, if any doubt exist as to the 
willingness of the naval autliorities to provide 
for the deficiency by availing tiiemselvcs of 
technical knowledge outside of the service, a 
mandatory clause to this etfect might well be 
inserted in the act of Congress [vroviding for 
the expedition. It may be thought that we 
reckon too lightly the elTeet of the grave re- 
^IJ-onsibility which will fall on the ollicers who 
may be selected ; but the record of the two 
previous expeditious for the same purpose is 
a sufficient warranty for reasonable scepticiBUi. 



In order to secure to the fullest extent the 
nil usual advantage arising from the coincidence 
in the time of holding the pro|>osed Inter- 
national electrical exhibition in Philadelphia, 
and of the meeting of the American associa- 
tion for the advancement of science in the 
same cit}*, in connection with I he anticipated 
visit of the members of the British association 
to that city, the Fnuiklin institute has ap- 
jx)iuted a special committee to confer with 
scientiQc men as to the best method to be 
adopted for securing, during the month of 
Heplember, the assembling at Philadelpfiia of 
a conference of electricians. To defray the 
exix^nses of such a conference, a bill has been 
prepared, asking for a small appropriation from 
Congress. Scientific men interested in this 
measure are earnestly requested to give it all 
the aicl in their [)ower. Communications on 
the subject are respectfully reqtiested by the 
committee, consisting of M. B. Snyder, Edwin 
J. Houston, William H. Wahl. \v/ P. Talham, 



Onk cannot fail, while reading l>ooks of travel, 
10 note the ix>verty of geographic term riiology 4 



114 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 52. 



Even those explorers who attempt to describe 
closel}' what they see are hampered b}' the lack 
of terms of precise meaning with which to name 
the elements of a landscape ; for, apart ft-om 
the rarity of teaching in this im|X)rtant branch 
of physical geography-, there is too little recog- 
nition of the connection that necessaril}' and 
often clearly exists between internal structure 
and external form, — too great neglect of the 
evolution of topography, during which the fea- 
tures of youth, maturity, and old age, succeed 
one another. There should be a terminology 
as well defined and extensive as that which 
botanists have invented for the description of 
leaves ; for it is about as indefinite to call a 
country* hilly as to call a plant leafj*. There 
should be a collection of typical forms in models 
or figures marked with descriptive terms, ap- 
proved by some authoritative body, to serve as 
a standard by which travellers might be trained. 
The question is well worth}' the attention of 
geographic societies and congresses. 



It is much to be regretted that it has been 
found necessary to suspend the operations of 
the Northern transcontinental survej*. It was 
organized about two years ago, under the di- 
rection of Mr. Raphael Pumpellj', to obtain a 
comprehensive and authoritative knowledge of 
the resources of the vast region in the north- 
western part of our country tributary to the 
Northern Pacific railroad and the associated 
companies, at whose cost it was undertaken. 
Up to that time this extensive territor}*, em- 
bracing, perhaps, one-fifth of the United States, 
had been very imperfectly explored geographi- 
cally, and was still less known as regards those 
resources which will contribute to the business 
of the railroads that traverse it. A large 
amount of accurate information has now been 
gathered, and in small part published. Mr. 
A. D. Wilson, of broad experience in western 
exi)loration, was put in charge of the toix>- 
grai)hical work, with Messrs. Goode and Nell 
as chief aids ; and we have just received a set 
of six maps, the fruit of their first season's 
surveys, a notice of which will be found in the 
' Notes and news.* 



From a circular just issued by Professor 
Dohrn, we learn that the cost of publishing the 
Zoologischer jahreshericht for 1879 and 1880 
amounted to nearly $7,000, while the income 
from sales of the publication amounted to only 
$2,317. The zoological station at Naples has 
thus been obliged to meet a large deficit, 
amounting to at least two-thirds of the cost of 
publication. It is plainly not within the means 
of the station to continue indefinitely this work 
without assistance. The governments of Italy, 
German}', and Russia, as well as one or two 
zoological societies of Holland, have made sub- 
ventions which cover about one-third of the 
deficit. The three volumes of this work already 
completed speak for themselves. Every natu- 
ralist will learn with regret that a work of such 
general usefulness is in danger of being dis- 
continued from the cause above named. We 
certainly hope that Professor Dohrn*s appeal 
for assistance will meet with a liberal response, 
both in the way of subscriptions for the Jahres- 
bericht and in subventions. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

V OorreaponderUtarerequettedtobeasbrU/aMposHbU. Tke 
writef't name it in all ca««« required an proof of good fkiith. 

Earthquake waves at San Francisco. 
Assistant George Davidson telegraphs the super- 
intendent of the U. S. coast and geodetic survey from 
San Francisco, that at 7 h. 24 in., last evening, eartli- 
quake waves were indicated by the delicate levels of 
the astronomical instnunents of the observatory. The 
amplitude of each vibration was three seconds of arc, 
in three seconds of lime, and they c(mtinued for 
twenty minutes. C. O. Boutellk, 

Anaisi, in chavfjc of office y etc. 
Coant and geodciic diirvey ofHce, 
Jan. 26, 1884. 

Influence of winds on tree-growth. 
I notice at p. 471 of the issue of Science for Oct. 5 
some remarks by Mr. W. S. Kennedy on the influence 
of winds on tree-growth. It may be of interest to 
learn that many or the trees on the seashore at (Jov- 
ernraent House, Malabar Point, Bombay, are bent 
landward from the effect of the prevailing sea-breeze. 

H. Kivktt-Caunac. 
Allahabad, N. W. P., India, 
Dec. 8, 1883. 

Some curious natural snowballs. 

On p. 287, vol. i., of Science j under notes and news, 
is a reference to some curious snowballs n«)ticed iu 
Sdentiflc American for March 17. Such an exhibi- 
tion I lately saw; and it may interest resH 
Science to know the conditions favori 
uomenon. 

On Jan. 8 and 9 a^ 
in this region, follow 
rain on the night i 






FKurtCAitv 1, 1884.] 



SCIENCE, 



Ub 



compact mass. On the llth ami 12th canae freezing 
weather, and the fall of a small amount of very light 
Bnciw. On the liith the t he rmoiueter, toward "noon, 
rose above f reezlng-point^ with a stiff breeze from the 
■outh. This wind 90 acted on the surface-particles 
of the upper layer of uncompacted snow as to set 
aome of thern in ran jtion. Each partiole thus set In 
motion, owing to the soft condition of the surface- 
snow, formed a nucleus, which, as It pro<'eeded» 
forced along by tlie wind, gathered the contiguous 
portion of the soft layer, and asfinmed tlie form of a 
cylinder, with a conical nivity at each end, and hav- 
ing a length about twice as great as its diameter. 
The size depended upon the inclination and smooth- 
ness of the surface traversed. The largest cylinders 
I saw were about three feet long, at which limit they 
acquired siiffiiMent wei^jlit to indent the frozen sur- 
fa<'e of the under or main body of the snow. This, 
of course, stop^^ed the further rolling of the mass. 
The only locality where they acquired the al>ove large 
size WiiH where the surface had a slight inclination to 
the north ; and the snow was deep enough to cover all 
weeds, leaving a f>erfectly uuifornf and smootli [sur- 
face for their formation. In many cases the halls 
were rolled up an inclination of as much as one foot 
in ten, when exposed to ihe utihrolven force of the 
wind; hut those thus formed acquired weight suf- 
Hcient to re si hi the pressure of the wind, when about 
six Inches in dhimeter. When the surface inclrrjed 
toward or directly away from the wind, the balls 
tntverseil a straight path; but, when the surface de- 
clined to the north-east or north-west, the [>ath was 
a curve; at its initial, approximately straight; but. 
as the ball acquired weight, Us direction was a coui- 
prontlse t>eiween that required by gravity and that 
by the direction of the wind» until, in some cases, the 
ball obeyed gravity alone. The most curious part of 
the display was the abundance of the balls. While 
travelling three miles, 1 saw what I estimated at over 
a htmdred acres dotted more or less thickly with 
the cylinders. In some cases then* were twenty-five 
halls to the square rod : in others, only two or three; 
averaging, perhaps, eight or ten. I saw multitndcs 
in the process of formation, which was as sudden as 
a flash; but they almost immediately assumed a slow 
rate of motion, about that of a mole taliini; his leis- 
urely walk. In a few cases the cylinders would stop, 
anil* aftiT ward l>e forced into motion again. The 
largest examples re<iulruil for their formation the 
traversing of irom twt» to three rods. Sam Huston. 



The wind performed a very pretty feat in some por- 
tions of northern Ohio on the morning of Jan. Vk 
Loose bits of snow were caught up as a nucleus, and 
rolled along upon the surface until balls of consider- 
able size and peculiar shape were formed. The whole 
surface was strewn with the balls; but they were most 
abundant upon lawns and fiehlB where the wind was 
not obstructed, every square yard, in some places, bear- 
ing a ball of greater or less size. The largest observed 
here were upon the college bali-groundst where they 
rpachi»d ten inches In height, and a horizontal length 
of eighteen indies. Even these were swaying as the 
^ed over them ; and tlieir tapering track could 
traced back towaixls the south-west, twenly- 
1 hirty feet, to the apex where they started, 

iheir shape was cylindricJil, deeply hollowed at both 
ends, so ihat they looked like *muffs,' and the spiral 
jlormf'd liythe successive layers was flnely regular and 
iUtlnet. 
Th*" mKcoTologlcjil conditions which made the phe- 



nomenon possible were as follows. Two days before 
tlie occurrence a slight crust was formed upon the 
snow. On the following day an inch of light flaky 
snow fell upon this crust. Then followed the warm 
south-west wind on the morning of the 13t!i, which 
brought the upper layer of snow into ihe adhesive 
state, an<] rolled the balls before the cru*t was weak- 
ened ; the crust sustaining the balls, and keeping them 
up to the wind, and at the same time furnishJng a 
smooth floor upon whicli they eould be propelled. 
The nuclei of the ball^ were obtained from chance 
foot-track*, walk-borders, lumps blown from trees, 
et<:., though often it was difficult to account for them. 
The balls were most abundant and perfect at about 
nine o'clock a.m. Before noon the crust hail been at- 
tacked, and all sunk to rounded, insignificant clumps. 

Obtrlln, O. ALBRHT A. WmOllT. 

ISimilar snow*rolla were seen at Shar|>sville, Mer- 
cer county, Penn., on the same day, by J, M, «iOod- 
win.f 

HaloB round the moon. 

On the evening of Jan. 12, at *A:it) (lH)th meridian 
time), my attention was called to a peculiar appear- 
ance about the moon. The sky was quite clear at 
the time, and there appeared around ihe moon sev- 
eral colored circular bant Is. Tlie tirst was of a bright 
silver-gray shade, and about two diameters of the 
moon in width. The next was yellow, the next faint 
orange, and the next violet. The three bands ^^ere 
each about one-half a di/imeter In width. The outer- 
most ban<l w.'is of a green shade, and about two diam- 
eters in width. At ten o'clock the innermost light 
band remained, bvu ul! the others had been replaced 
by a blue band lighter than tjie surrounding sky. 

H. A. Hdston, 
Lafayctt<», Imh, Jan. 14, 19S4, 

Explorations in Guatemala. 

Looking over the back numbers of your esteemed 
journal, I came across a slight error. In the article 
*Lorillard City' it is said (ii. 41L*), ** M. t.hamay 
found the ruins of sti ancient city, which he named 
after his generous patron. In his exploration here, 
he was assisted by a young Englishman, Mr. Alfred 
Muudslay, with whom he sTiares the honor of iliscov- 
ery,'' etc. 

Neither Mr. Maudslay, who arrived at these ruins 
^H'fore Mr. Chaniay, nor the latter, can claim this 
honor. In fact, Mr. Maudslay distinctly statt^s (p. 
196 of the Proc. toy, atu^jr, soc, April, ISS;^) that Ihey 
have been discovered by Mr. Edwin Rockstroh, tutor 
on the Lyceo nacionat at Guatemala City. This gen- 
tleman made, during the first half of 188L a geograph- 
ical and archeological exploration in the nonhem 
and western parts of the republic, vi^ii tug Tikiil, and 
navigating the Rio de la Pasion, Kio de hw Salitias, 
Rio de los Giicniidones, and the Usumasinta as far 
down i\A the ruins mentioned. He sent a short ac- 
count of this voyage to Petennann^s MiUheilungen 
(1881, p. :)1H>). 

In that account Mr, Rockstroh mentioned particu- 
larly the building described by Mr. Maudslay on p. lt>s 
of the geographical sociely*s proceedings; and (IS82, 
on p. 435) he clearly states that Charnay's *Loriilard 
City* is the same as that discovered by him in 1881. 
Mr, Rockstroh mentioned in his first, letter to the 
MUthtiinnycn (July 19, 1881 j, that the Gacandones 
call these ruins ' Menche,' and pro^nised in his last 
notice (18S2, p. 4'i'i) an explanatioK of this name. I 
am not aware that he has furnishci. one. 

I find in the * Hlstoria de la^provincia de Sau 
Vicente de Chlapa y Guatemali,' by Antonio de 



116 



SCIENCE. 



IVOL. III., No. 52. 



Remesal (Madrid, 1610), llbro xi., cap. xviii.-xx., pp. 
720-733, a province * el Mancb^ ' mentioned as one of 
the provinces of Vera Paz, the Indians of which were 
converted in the years 1003 and 1604. Mr. Mauds- 
lay's map contains the Rio del Manch^, an eastern 
tributary of the Rio Sta. Izabel, whicli latter, in its 
lower course, is called Rio de la Pasion. The prov- 
ince of Manch^ must evidently have been situated on 
the river of the same name, to the north of the village 
Gahabon, which was the starting-point of the Padres 
for their trip of conversion, as Remesal states. 

Whether the name of this province, *Manch^,' has 
any connection with the word * Menche,' as Mr. Rock- 
stroh says the ruins on the Usumacinta (separated by 
a mountain chain from the central part of the Peten 
district) liave, remains to be seen. 

In regard to the notice in the same number an(i on 
the same page of Science^ 'Explorations in Guate- 
mala,' I beg to add, that the ruins of Tikal had been 
discovered in February, 1848, by Mr. Modesto Men- 
dez, corregidor of the district of 
Peten, and by the gobemador 
Ambrosio Tut. Mr. Hesse, min- 
ister of Prussia in Central Ameri- 
ca, published the report of Mr. 
Mendez, dated March 8, 1848, in 
vol. i. of the * Zeitschrift fiir all- 
gemeineerdkunde' (Berlin, 1853, 
pp. 162-168), and added some 
general remarks, and two plates 
which he had carefully copied 
from Mr. Mendez's drawings. 
These plates contain the illus- 
trations of four sculptures (in 
wood) and five monoliths discov- 
ered by Mr. Mendez in Tikal, 
and those of four monoliths dis- 
covered by him in 1852 in Dolores, 
— another town with ruins, to 
the south of Tikal, in the same 
district of Peten. The chairman 
of the Royal geographical society 
is therefore mistaken in stating 
(p. 203 of the Proceedings) that 
the ruins of Tikal were described 
for the first time by Mr. Maudslay. 

The report of Modesto Mendez 
is mentioned by Mr. A. F. Ban- 
delier in his Bibliography of Yu- 
catan and Central America, in * Proceedings of the 
American antiquarian society,' 1880, p. 92. 

Herman Bigalke. 

7S7 Eighth Avenue, New York. 

Bam-owlB in Missouri 

In Science for Jan. 11 the occurrence of the barn- 
owl in southern Ohio in unusual numbers the present 
winter is recorded. The same fact has been noticed 
here. Four have been caught in the city in as 
many different buildings, and a number took up their 
habitation in an unused chimney in one of the prin- 
cipal residences in the city. Another was killed a 
few miles out. They are so unusual here that no one 
knew what kind of owl they were when the first was 
captured* F. A. Sampson. 

Sedalia nahtnil history society, 
8eal^Ha. Mo. 



It is a form of more than ordinary interest on 
account of the respects in which it differs from 
the majority of its kindred. ' Is it a sea-ser- 
pent ? * is asked by all who see it. Those who 
believe in the existence of the ocean monster 
may certainh' derive some encouragement from 
the discovery. About the throat the appear- 
ance is decidedly fish-like. The body is long 
and slender, five feet in total length, and less 
than four inches in greatest diameter; it be- 
comes compressed and thin toward the tail. 
The head is broad, slightl}- convex on the 
crown, and has a look about it that reminds 
one of some of the venomous snakes. The 
mouth is anterior and very wide. As in other 
sharks, the teeth are arranged in rows across 




CULAMrDOSBLACHUS ANOirtNBUS. 



A PECULIAR SELACHIAN. 

The outlines Viven here are taken from a 
shark recently difcovered in Japanese waters. 



the jaws ; they are all alike. P^ach tooth has 
three slender, curved, inward-directed cusps, 
and a broad base, which extends back in a pair 
of points under the next tooth, thereby secur- 
ing firmness, and preventing reversion. In the 
twenty-eight rows of the upper jaws, and twen- 
tj'-seven of the lower, there are three times as 
many rows of the fangs or cusps. Of the six 
gill-openings, the anterior are ver}' wide. Un- 
like other Selachians, in this the frill, or flap, 
covering the first opening is free across the 
isthmus, as in fishes, and hangs down about an 
inch. On the body the slime-canals — shown 
by the dotted lines in the sketch — form con- 
tinuous grooves, as if the skin had been cut 
with a sharp knife ; the}' extend to the ex- 
treme end of the tail. The spiracles are so 
small as to be useless ; but, being present, they 
point toward an ancestor, a bottom-feeder, in 



FSDBUARY 1, \mi] 



SCIENCE, 



in 



whieU they were more developed- In the 
nearly vertical noatril there is a [lecidmr ar- 
rangement. A fold iTUcliing out from each 
side divides the opening into two, eaunceted 
within^ tlic tipper of which looks forward, and, 
when moving ahead, eatehes the water, and 
turns it into the nasal cavity to pass over the 
merohranes and eseape by tlie lower ai*ertiire, 
which looks backward. Nictitating membraues 
are absent. The eyes arc placed to look side- 
wise and downward. Above the anal tin, there 
is a small dorsal. The pectorals are of mod- 
erate size. Ventrals, anal, and cAudal are 
large. From these fius, if it were not for lack 
of firmness toward the edges, one w^ould con- 
clude the animal was capable of great speed. 
However, taking into consideration the size of 
the l>rancbial apertures — which allow the water 
entering the mouth free escape, whatever the 
rate of motion — ^and the position of tlie large 
tins, it seems as if the creaturo liad the habit 
of bending the bo<ly and striking forward to 
to seize ijrcv, as do the snakes. The broad 
tins, so far back on the botly, secure a ful- 
crum from which to strike. At their margins 
the fins are very thin, and their extremities are 
produced in a sort of filament. The structure 
of the jaws and gill arches is such as to admit 
of swallowing a large olijcct. At the sarao 
time the excessive sharpness of the teeth, and 
the smallncss of the intestine, indicate tliatthe 
prey is comparatively soft. The vertebrae and 
other cartilages are llcxibic, as those of the 
basking sharks Sclache and iSomoiosua, A 
certain embryonic appearance in the specimen 
instigated a search among the fossils for allied 
species. Most rcsetnblance was found in the 
teeth of C'ladodus of the Devonian ; but the 
cusps were erect instead of reclining, and 
the eimme! was grooved or plicate instead of 
smooth. One is impressed by a study of this 
specimen with tlie idea, that* away back in limes 
when Selachia and fishes were more alike, he 
wou!d have a better chance to trace the atfini- 
lies. The Bulletin of the Essex institute, vol, 
xvi,, contains description and figures under the 
name Chlamydoselachus angu incus. 1 am in- 
clined to consider this the type of a new order, 
to which the name Selachophichthyoidi might 
be given, and which sUiods nearer the true 
fishes than do the sharks prot>er. The shark 
was secured in Japan by Professor Ward, from 
rhom it was purchased by the Museum of com- 
irative zoology. 

The sketch on the preceding page gives the 
entire outline, the upt>er and lower \iew8 of 
the head, and an tijyiK^r view of one of the teeth. 

S. Gahman. 



THE RUSSIAN METEOROLOQWAL 
SERVICE, 

Altuouou the idea that Russia 13 behind 
the other j>owers of Europe in civilization is 
true when we consider the people as a whole, 
yet. if we look at what has been done by the 
Russian government for the encouragement 
and advancement of science, it must be admit- 
tCi] that Russia plays a very important part in 
the total amount of scientific work accomplished 
by the world. 

The Russians have the best astronomical 
observatory in the w^orld : they have also the 
best meteorological observatory* The mag- 
netical studies have been made in cx>nn€etion 
with the meteorological ; and in the observa- 
tions, as well as the theoretical discussions, we 
find the same men engaged, and the results are 
published side by side. In speaking of the 
meteorological work* one is forced, then, to at 
least mention the magnctical, on account of 
this close connection. 

The Physical central observatory at St. 
Petersburg was founded in 1849 through the 
endeavors of KuptTer. The aim of this obser- 
vatory was to institute physical obsen'ations 
and research in general, and to advance Rus- 
sia in the line of physics ; and* as part of the 
latter task, the conducting and publishing of 
meteorological and magnetical observations was 
undertaken. 

So it will be seen that this observatory was 
not intended merely as a central olTice for a 
meteorological service ; but it was to become a 
physical laboratory, where all sorts of physical 
investigations could be undertaken, and in such 
a manner that nothing more could be desired, 
that is, as far as apparatus and methods em- 
ploved arc concerned. 

The first director, KupfTer, separated as 
much as possible the two departments of the 
observatory, as his publications show. His 
researches into the elasticity of metals, pidi- 
lished in 1860, which were cut short by his 
death, show the nature of the purely physical 
investigations undertaken by him* He pub- 
lished an enormous mass of meteorological 
material in tlie Annahs de V observatoire phy- 
sique central y 1847-64 ; also in the Correspond 
dance m4t4orologique, commenced in lHr>0. 

In seven places hourly observations of the 
meteorological elements were instituted, and in 
six places of the magnetical elements. These 
and many of the observations from other sta- 
tions, made a certain number of times a day, 
were published. 

In speaking of this materia^l. Professor Wild 



118 



SCIENCE. 



IVoi^ IIL, Ko. 



haid. '* It iH a oonoplete maM of meteorological 
and iiia^netical o^^MfrvationB publighed in de- 
tail, arid th<^refore ea«ily accessible to even* one, 
and ffuch as no other land possesses : it is of 
gnrat value to the science ; but it would have 
been much more valuable, 3'es, invaluable, if it 
was as satisfactor}' as comprehensive." 

y\« at first organized, there were few under- 
official h in the obser>'ator3' ; and most of them 
were men who received small salaries, and were 
not esf>ecialiy qualified for their positions, — 
or, rather, there were no {x>sitions for men 
qualified, — so that the director was obliged 
U) atUfnd {Xfrsonall}' to all work requiring much 
thought. A force, then, of a director and five 
not sfK'Cially prepared men was to conduct 
the work of the central office, from which were 
to \>ii issued the meteorological observations, 
and their discussion, of a country ^\e times as 
large as all the rest of P^urope, through which 
alK>ut twent}' sefiarate meteorological institutes 
arc distribuU*<l. 

It is not to l>e wondered at, then, that lius- 
hian observations la}' for so many years almost 
unused by their meteorologists. Any one who 
has atUimpted to work with magnetic obser- 
vations knows that little can be done single- 
handed, cs[>ecially if tlie [>erson must also bus}' 
himself with the instruments themselves. 

Through inability on the part of the director 
to cope thus single-handed with the great work 
und(^rtaken, the meteorological service wont 
gradually into decline. The separate stations 
could not be properly inspected to see that the 
instniments were correct, nor could the neces- 
sary attention be given to the preparation of 
the obHcrvations for publication. Matters 
finally came fo such a pass, that about 1864 a 
re-organization of the service was agreed upon, 
and the (establishment of forty new metcor- 
ologi(;al stations. However, the next year, and 
bcfon; any thing w^uld be done, Kupffer died, 
and Kacnitz was called to succeed him. 

This great nu^teorologist at once elaborated 
plans for the improvement and enlargement of 
the Hervic^e ; but a great undertaking of this 
kind goes forward slowly, and at his death, two 
years later, not much had been carried practi- 
(!ally into edect. 

The Hcrvic(s then, was in a disorganized 
condition when Wild took charge in 1808. 
Although it is probable that a great improve- 
ment would have taken place had Kaemtz 
lived, yet we van hardly hope that lie would 
have placed the service in that high position 
which it now holds in reference to others, and 
which it as8ume<l so shortly afler the choosing 
of Wild as director. 






Pkt>fe88or Wild doubled the oorpe of assist- 
ants, and made the positions so desirable and 
important that university men were glad to 
accept them, and good men from other con- 
tinental countries were easily persuaded to 
accept places. These men were of such ability 
that they could undertake and snccessfbUj 
carry oot, under the supervision of the director^ 
any single investigations, and thos relieve the 
chief of that care and constant watchfulness 
which would have been necessary had he had 
less skilful assistants. The results of these 
labors can be seen in the papers published in 
the Rejjertorium fflr meteorologie. 

But it is mainly of the Russian service as it 
at present exists, and es{)ecially of the meteor- 
ological ol>servatory, that I wish to speak. 

The whole establishment is composed of 
several obser>'ing-stations of the first order 
(i.e., where either hourly' observations are 
made, or where self-registering barometers, 
etc., are employed), and about a hundred and 
thirty stations of the second and third orders, 
where observations are made at stated times 
during the day. In order to obtain an idea of 
the distribution of these stations, the reader 
must consult the chart accompan^'ing the Tem- 
peratur-verhiiltnisse des rttssischen reiches^ pub- 
lished in 1881 by the obser\'atory. 

The meteorological observator)' at St. Peters- 
burg consists of two parts, — the Central phj'si- 
cal observatory, in the city itself; and the 
observatory at Pawlowsk, in the country-, about 
thirt}' kilometres distant. The present build- 
ing occupied b}' the former was built about 
18G0, and continued to be the principal obserA*- 
ing-station until 1877, when the other was 
grounded. 

The building in St. Petersburg occupies a 
not prominent position at a little distance from 
the north bank of the Neva, in the western end 
of the cit}-; but it has no longer the quiet sur- 
roundings that it probabl}' had at the time of 
its construction, as the city is extending in that 
direction. 

All of the work of standards, instrument- 
comparing, preparing matter for the printer, 
correspondence, supplying stations with neces- 
sities, and the general management of the whole 
service, is carried on here, and for eight or nine 
months of the year it is the dwelling-place of 
the director. 

For the non-meteorologist, however, the onl}' 
attractive feature of the institution is the large 
instrument saloon, where there is much fine 
apparatus, especially standards. The library 
is a very good one, and the numerous books in 
foreign languages show the extent to which the 



\ 



Frbruabt 1, iSSi.\ 



SCIENCE. 



119 



Russians make use of foreign writings. In fact, 
very few of the books in the library are in the 
Russian^ even when contaujing their ov?n work, 
There \h, honever, a strong leaetion in this 



to change it into such a form us he wanted. 
Again, the old observatory was a poor place for 
magnetic instruments, both on account of the 
nnsteariiness of the instruments, and the close 



"A. 



UhTLQitOUtQlCAL. bTATIUS A I I'AH l.OWSKL| nUSBlA. 



resjiect ; and before many years we may expect 
to receive the Russian scientific publications, 
not in the French and German languages, as at 
present, but in the Russian. Tins will be un- 
fortunate for lis : because the hinguage is dilll- 
cult to learn, and much of their science would 
be buried to us for a long time at least. 

At Pawlowsk there is much of interest. It 
requires ubout an hour's time on the railway 
to go from St. Petersburg to this place. On 
the way there, the clump of trees surrounding 
the great Pulkowa astronomical observatory is 
visible ; and in winter the main building itself 
can be plainly seen. 

There were several reasons for the founding 
of this new obsen'atory. Professor Wihl had 
ideas that he wished to carrj^ out, and which he 
considered essential for the best results : he 
had found the city observatory in a settled 
condition, and it would have been injiM>ssible 



proximity to the iron ships tlint are constantly 
passing and repassing on the river, only a few 
hundred feet away, lie also had the idea, 
which is shared by most meteorologists, that 
the city itself is no place to make meteorological 
observations ; as the conditiona are not the 
same as in the surrounding country. 

This observatory is situated nearly two miles 
distant from the town of Pawdowsk, which lies 
thirty kilometres south-east of 8t. Petersburg. 
This town, although thinly inhabited in the 
winter- time, is fdled to overflowing in the sum- 
mer by the people from St. Petersburg, who 
want to enjoy what little summer country life 
they can find. 

A small portion (several acres) of the park 
of the uncle of the present czar has been given 
for the purpose of the observatory, and this 
piece of gi*ound has been fenced olT and the 
buildings erected ujxjn it. The land lies per- 




, U mo&tly csovoi-ed with flr tree<i : 

_ of eounk*, imrt \\tis heiui olearcKl, »o aa 
liience the n^iulings of tJie instruwetita. 
rrvfttorv 18 certumly tl»tj uieleorolo^eal 
(at least In smnrner); ami tho vinitor, 
casuaL or there for x\w puqKJse of 
ij. Ill 1)0 Btruek by Uu« tai^tc* whidi 

|j r'tl iu its ui^fjanizaliou arul eon- 

Till' wlioUi cfltaMishmcnt was erect- 
cost i>\' about seventy- Iho thouaand 

accompanying Uhistrntion shows the 
Dilding from the north sicle. The large 
^neter-shelti^r Is seen against the ImWil- 
mttle to tin? right, through the trees, is 
be stable ; ami still more to the right 
^of the (Hrector*8 summer residence is 
Of the smaller buihUngs, the one to 
bt U a thermometer-screen; the other 



IV0L, IlL. Now &^ 



another min-gauge. am) the black biilh fn 
vacuo near these. luside of the liitte en- 
closure is a sand-heap in which are buried Uuj 
thermometers for measuring the earth's Uftnper- 
atnrc at ditfereut depths. The instrunieiits 
are placed Ixjth in a vertical and horizontal 
position. In order to get at the ral 

thermometers, a hole has lti*rn dug, n- 

tains a l>ox tilled with earths the hi*:* i*%uivr 
covered by a trap-door* The boat can bti slid 
from its position, and the end of llie tberuiom- 
etcr-easr^ exposed to \hw. These are th^ti 
drawn out (hon?.ontaIly) l*y the observer, and 
read without taking IhVm from tire liole. The 
verlieal thermometers arc not in this hole, but 
are tlrawn vertically out of the sami when rc^d. 
Thcgbiss tubing sun-ouuding the thermometers 
is so made that no moisture can reach the 
thermometer-bulbs. 




Fkbritaby 1, 18&4.1 



SCIENCE. 



121 



kind are not, Uowover, of a verv satisfactory 
naltiro : and the j>orjd has apparently returned 
to its legitinuUi! iistN viz.* furnishing a home 
for about a niiUion smtdl fishes. 

lu noplace in tlie world issmnudi atleulion 
paid to magnetic observations auil invcstign- 
tione as here at Pawiowsk. We see in this cut 
llie undei'grouud magnetic house, and its size 
can be seen by companion with the trgures in 
the foreground. The building consists of two 
clmmbers, separated and surrounded by air- 
cliambers whieli are heated ; and the heat is thus 
conveyed through the walls into the observiug- 
roofna. These rooms remain at a wonderful!}' 
constant temperature. The building is rjuite 
isolated from the remaining portions of the 
observatory. It was here that the observations 
simukaneous with those of the recent inter- 
na tiocal |>olar expeditions were made. 

The whole work of this institutiorj is scien- 
tific in the highest degree, aud there is little of 
what we may call poj>ular work done ; but this 
is unnecessary^ as those who would be intlu- 
enced by a more evidently practical result have 
notliing to sa}" in regard to the conduct of the 
senice. 



RED SKIES IN CHINA FIVE YEARS 
AGO, 

The * red sunsets * which have recently at- 
tracted so much attention in so many quarters 
of the giobe, and have called forth consideral>le 
discussion in various scientific journals, both in 
Americn and Europe, i*ecall very similar phe- 
nomena I observed five years ago, under circum- 
stances which seem to me worth recording at 
this time. 

During the early part of the winter of 1H78- 
70, I had occasion to pass severaJ weeks, en- 
gaged in geological work, along the base and 
among the foot-hills of the tirst mountain range 
that nses above the plain of northern China, 
iiurl ft>rms the boundary l>etween the lyroviiiees 
of Chihli and Shansi. Frecjucntly in the month 
of Novemlier my attention had been called to 
the intense coloring of the sky, and briUiant 
red afterglows* slowly fading away, and lasting 
long after the sun had set. On one occasion, 
r>ce. 1, I left the small mountain village of 
Cbeaiig-Shui, accompanied by my friend 3Ir. 
W. N. Pethick of Tientsin, for a long tramjj 
among the hills. We travelled up tlie long 
valley, and asceuded to the top of the pass 
commanding an extended view to the westward, 
over the plateau of Shansi. Although late in 
the d«iy, we jiushed on lo the village of Tang- 



Cheng-Tsun, a mile aud a half to two miles Ik?- 
yond, reaching there about sunset. 

On our way back to the pass, i was continu- 
ally looking backwaixi, astonished at the bril- 
liancy of the sky, the oiange*red and peculiar 
brit*k-red colors of the horizon, and the Icngtli 
of time the sivid coloring remained after the 
going-down of the sun* How long this intense 
afterglow continue4l 1 am unable to say ; as, on 
reaching the snmmit, we retraced our steps 
down what in the Cordillera would be culled 
the canon, and the western view was completely 
lost behind an abrupt wall* 

All the phenomena connected with the sun- 
set were quite similar to those recently observed 
iu New York, except, as I now recall the scene, 
the colors seemed to sur[)a>is them iu brilliancy. 

Through the month of December I was fre- 
quently impresstHJ with the deep red glare of 
the skies, and long twilights, although none 
of them appeared to equal in iji tensity the one 
observed from the top of the plateau. This 
difference 1 supposeii was due to the view 
being somewhat shut off by the high ridgo to 
the westward. 

As earl)" as Novemlx^r the prevailing winds 
iu northern China blow almost continuously 
from the north-west, across the broad area of 
country covered with loess-de[)osits. In con- 
sequence, the atmosphere was never wholly free 
from fine loess-dust ; a haziness being at all 
times noticeable in the mountains, while fre- 
<fuently the air was gray from the large amount 
of impalpable dust held in suspension. On 
those days when the dust was most perceptible 
the coloring's of the skies were never remark- 
able, and were only tine when the lower atmos- 
phere seemed clear and bright. 

These briiliant afterglows continued at in- 
tervals throughout December and early part of 
the new year ; tlie last one being noticed about 
the middle of January, from a small village 
seventy-tive miles east of tlie mountains, where 
I had put up for the night on my way to Tien- 
tsin. In the following September I again vis- 
ited the monntains and plateau of Shansi, but 
do not recall any thing in connection with the 
sunsets at all comparable to those observed 
the i}receding winter. But, on the other )iand, 
the atmospheric conditions were also wholly 
changed ; the w ind was blowing steadily from 
the east or ocean side ; the air wa^ laden 
with moisture, which was fi-equently precipi- 
tated in heavy rains ; and the atmosphere, so 
far as the eye could detect, was free from dust. 
I can but think that the great brilliancy and 
long duration of the afterglow were intimately 
connected with loess-dusi in some such wav 



122 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou IIL, No. 62. 



a« V.,*z T'-^rtul ThmsLiksilAe displays have l>een 
attroiVr'' to the volcanic dusts of Krakatoa. 
The j^rrfiij'ar phenomena in the skies, like 
;h'/vr d^'-^Ti>^, were not noticed at Tientsin 
in the i^j/fing. This may be accounted for by 
atrrjo«»pij<-ric conditions ?>eing changed, and 
tr,e air at this seas^^n of the year being over- 
chsLT^f-^l with too much fine material derived 
froTnitift dijst-storms which form, during March 
and April, so marked a feature of the climate of 
uortherri China. I think it quite probable, how- 
ever, tl./'it red skies, similar to those recently 
<Ar^T\f*\ in various {/arts of the world, may at 
time** be seen throughout the winter by foreign 
residents at Peking and Tientsin. 

A few more words about loess-dust. During 
the wint*!r referred to I was much interested 
in the question of the loess that was annually 
being remove^l from the land and carried out 
V) sea. and not only was impressed with the 
amount transfK>rtcd by streams, but was led to 
U;lieve that a not inconsiderable quantity was 
iKjrne eastward by the prevailing winds, and 
finally jirecipitatwl u\you the ocean. Inquiries 
brought out the fact, that, in the China seas, 
ships many hundred miles from land frequently 
refKjrt showers of fine material falling upon 
the decks, which in many cases have been 
wrongly regarded as deposits of volcanic dust. 
In conversation with the captain of the steam- 
ship (Jhina, on the passage from Yokohama to 
I long Kong in the autumn of 1879, he nar- 
rated his experience in a dust-storm, while 
l>aHHing ovcjr the same route in the preceding 
Mpnng. 'Die storm occurred April 25, in lati- 
tude ry\ longitude 128°. It lasted twelve 
houiH, wilii a heavy wind blowing steadily from 
tin* north-west. Kvery thing on board was 
coated wilii an excessively fine dust, which, as 
the captnin expressed it, '* was so thick that 
it could \)v. taken up with the fingers like so 
much Huufr." From the rigging, one of the 
sailors, under orders from the captain, collected 
with a knilV-blade a large amount of the dust, 
Hanii)leH of which he forwarded to London for 
examination. Now, I very well remember that 
in April the whole plain of northern China was 
enveloped in H(?veral severe dust-storms ; two 
of them, at least, having a duration of three 
days each, and filling the air at times with 
dust, HO as to completely obscure the sun. 
Therci is no quftslion in my mind but that the 
maliaial whi(Oi Yell ui)on the steamship came 
from the loess oft ('hina; and I believe that a 
great deal of iliie so-called volcanic dusts 
which are often m)orted as observed at sea 
are, at l(»ast in CWnese waters, derived from 
loess-dei)osit8. \ Arnold IIaguk. 



THE EVOLUTlOy OP THE CEPHALO- 
PODA.— I. 

Cephalopods, or cuttlefishes, have struc- 
tural peculiarities which make them the most 
favorable subjects now known for the special 
study of the problems and laws of the evolu- 
tion of forms in time. In two of the orders 
the animals were shell-covered ; and the shell 
in these is so built that it preserves, even in 
the fossils, the embryo, the young shell, and 
all its stages to the full grown. Then, passing 
on into old age, it shows in the senile |)eriod a 
series of retrograde transformations, often re- 
versing its adult condition and asi^ect. This 
record of the entire life is fuller than any one 
who has not minutely studied this type can 
imagine from his experience in other branches 
of the animal kingdom. It is not only in itself 
a complete cycle of changes, and these of no 
slight or doubtful character, but the external 
records of the shell-stnicture, apertures, and 
other parts, are supplemented by the hard por- 
tions of two internal structures, which are pre- 
served, and also change in accordance with the 
age of the shell. We have, therefore, in ever}' 
well-preserved specimen, the unique advantage 
of being able to study the complete cycle of its 
individual life in three distinct sets of organic 
parts. We can therefore compare the changes 
which we observe in the individual with the 
mollifications which the group has undergone 
in its progression or retrogression in geologic 
times with a certain completeness of the evi- 
dences, at present unattainable in an^' other 
class of animals. In the Belemnites, the third 
order, the shell and its parts are much less 
instructive; and finally, in the fourth, the 
Sepioidea, it is so much reduced, and so 
frequently absent, as to lose very largely in 
this respect. 

The class has two sub-classes, Tetrabranchi- 
ata and Dibranchiata. These were established 
by Richard Owen as orders, — a purely techni- 
cal ditlerence, which does not change in any 
way the value of the structural distinctions as 
given b}' this eminent naturalist. The Tetra- 
branchiata are shell-covered ; and they are rep- 
resented by the modern Nautilus, the only 
existing genus. The Dibranchiata are de- 
scendants of the former, but enclosed the shell, 
and resorbed it in many forms, so that they 
appear as naked animals. The cuttlefishes, 
squid, devil-fishes, etc., are existing types. In 
studying these types, the author has been led 
to adopt a new method of characterizing the 
divisions, and besides the old structural dis- 
tinctions, which are still available, to apply the 



Febbcart 1, 18&1.J 



aCIENCE. 



123 



correlations of habit and stnicture to Ibo eluci- 
dation of ordinal ditferenees. 

The class Cephalopotia is oomijoscd of exclu- 
sively aquatic and marine animals, and conse- 
quently they breathe with gills. The structurea 
of the two sub-classes coi ndde with two dis- 
tinct habitats which they respectively occupy. 
The TetrabraiK-hiata, like the Nautilus, were 
csseiitiaily littoral crawlers, though possessing 
LOrgana suitable for swiinmiug, and doubtless 
using tliem more or less for leaping aud swira* 
ming. 

Tiie aniinal of the Nautilus has a large man- 
tle or fleshy sac enclosing the internal organs, 
which can be opened aruiunl the margin, or 
closed, at the will of the animal. Admitting 
the water around the margin, they fill their 
mantle-cavities with water, and theot closing 
and compressing the mautle-sftc, force it out 
with violence through a tleshy pipe, which is 
exclusively used for that purpose, and id ways 
situated on the ventral side. The reaction of 
the stream is suHiciently powerful to drive the 
btxiy of the animal with varying degrees of 
swiftness backwards. The fleshy pipe is 
therefore an ambulatory pi[>c or hyiwnome ; 
and we pro[JOse* in place of the old and eon- 
fujiing terms, to call it by this name. 

The Dibranchiata change the external shell, 
which they inherit from the Tetrabrancldata, 
into an internal organ, and taking advantage 
of the jjowerfnl hydraulic apparatus of the 
Tetrabraochiata, which they also inherit, and 
increasing its efllciency, become, as is well 
known, exclusively swimmere. 

The ambulator}' pii>e of the Xautilus causes 
n corresponding dei)ression or sinus to occur 
in the aperture of the shell on the outer or 
ventral side, and its effect is also to be seen 
in the stnae of growth ttiroughout tlie entire 
length of the sliell on the ventral side ; so that 
we know^ from these indications in any fosai!, 
what was the comparative size of the pipe, and 
whether the animal was more or less power- 
ful as a swimmer. Other indications, such as 
(he ot)enness or contracted form of the vari- 
otis ajx'rtures of ditferent genera, exhibit with 
e<iual clearness what they could do in the way 
of crawling. The wide-open apertures indi- 
cate powerful arras, capable of carrying and 
easily balancing the large si)ire of the shell 
above ; the narrow contract^^d aperture shows 
that the arms were smalK and that the animal 
fouhl not so elticiently balance or .carry the 
shell in an upright position, and was there- 
fore, according to the amount aud style of the 
contraction, more or less inefficient as a 
crAwlrr. 



In studying the different types of the Tetra- 
branchiata, we find that there are two orders 
as first defined by Professor Louis Agassiz, — 
the Nautiloidea and the Ammonoidea, — and, 
further, that these divisions coincide with dif- 
ferences in the outlines of the . ambulatc»ry 
sinuses which indicate distinctions of habit 
general throughout each order. 

The extinct Niuitlloidea have large ambula- 
tory sinuses, and were evidently capable, like 
the modern Nautilus, of rising to the surface, 
and swimming with a jerky motion ; tliough 
their open apertures, as a rule, show their nor- 
mal condition to have been crei>itant, or bot- 
lum-crawling. The exceptional shells, which 
depart from the typical form in the sinus and 
apertures, exhibit their peculiarities in the 
adults, but not, as a rule, in the young, except 
in cases where direct inheritance can be proven 
to have occasioned the exception. The excep- 
tions, then, are, in fact, the most conclusive of 
our inoofs, t^ince they show the power of the 
habitat to produce permaneut changes in the 
apertures. 

The orthoceratitic shells of this order are 
straight cones, with internal septa dividing 
them into air-chambers, connected liy a tube 
uniting all the air-chambers, and opening into 
the body of the animal itself, which occupied 
a small part only of the whole length of the 
cone. This is the simplest form : and others 
are, the bent or arcuate, cyrtoce rati tic ; the 
loosely coiled, but with whorls not in contact, 
gyroceratitic ; the closely coiled, with whorls 
in contact, nauttlian ; and tlie still more closely 
coiled or involute shells, the involute nautllian, 
in which the outer whorls may simply overlap 
the inner, or entirely conceal them by their ex- 
cessive growth, as in Nautilus pompiUus. 

The Ammonoidea in their earlier forms, the 
Goniatites, have aporttnes, with a less strongly 
marked ambulatory sinus, but still sufficient 
to show that they must have had considerable 
powers of rising or leaping in the water, if not 
of swimming, like the Nautilus. In their later 
forms, the Ammonitinae, however, the ambula- 
tory sinus is absent- and in its place project- 
ing beaks or rostra are developed, indicating 
reduction in the size and use of the ambula- 
tory pipe. This and the generally open aper- 
tures enable us to see that tht*^' were more 
exclusively l)ottom-crawlers than the Nautiloi- 
dea. The most iijteresting of the facts in this 
order lies among the exceptional shells, some 
of which must have been sedentary, aud neither 
have crawled nor moved about with any ease ; 
but none of these, so far as we know, seems 
to have exhibited a type of aperture which in- 



124 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 62. 



dicated transition to an exclusively swimming 
habit. These shells appear in our subsequent 
remarks among the geratologous and pathologi- 
cal types. 

The shells of this order have no such vari- 
ety of form in the paleozoic formations as we 
have described in the Nautiloidea. They are 
close coiled, and even involute, in some of the 
first forms found in the Cambrian. 

The Belemnoidea of the Jura had a solid 
cylindrical body, called the guard, attached 
to the cone-like internal shell, and partly en- 
closing it. Aulacoceras of the trias, as de- 
scribed by Branco, is a transitional form with 
an imperfect guai'd, which frequently contains 
fragments of other shells and foreign matter. 
This demonstrates an important link in our 
evidence, that this guard could only have been 
built by some external flap or enclosing sac, 
independent of the true mantle. This false 
mantle must have enclosed both the shell and 
the guard, and must have been at the same 
time open, so as to admit the foreign materials 
which Branco found built into the substance of 
the guard. One of the straight shells of the 
Silurian Nautiloidea, Orthoceratites truncatus, 
regularly breaks off the cone of its shell, and 
then mends the mutilated apex with a plug. 
Tliis plug, we are able to say, is the precise 
homologue, in position and in structure, of the 
guard of the Belemnite. Barrande showed 
this plug to have been secreted by external 
organs, as he supposed, — two arms stretching 
))ack from the aperture like those of Argo- 
nauta, and reaching beyond the broken apex. 
Tiie dorsal fold of Nautilus is, however, a secret- 
iug-organ stretching back over the shell ; and, 
as the probable homologue of the plug-secret- 
ing organ of the Orthoceratites and the guard- 
building organ of the Belemnoidea, it enables 
us at once to explain how the Belemnoidea 
arose from the Orthoceratites, and why Aula- 
coceras had an imperfect mantle. This fold, 
which was far larger among the ancient Ortho- 
ceratites, would have been necessarily open on 
the ventral side, then more but not completely 
closed in Aulacoceras, and finally completely 
closed in the later Belemnoidea, and able to 
construct a guard as perfect as that which 
they carry. 

The solid guaid of these animals in a com- 
pact cylindrical body, such as they were known 
to possess, could have been only a heavy bur- 
den to a swimming animal. The Belemnoidea, 
therefore, were not pureh' natatory ; but for 
these and other reasons, which we cannot here 
discuss, they were evidently ground-swimmerst 
probably boring into the ijfiud for shelter, or as 



a means of concealing themselves while l^'ing 
in wait for their prey. 

The old view, that the guard could have been 
in any sense a * guard * against collisions with 
i-ocks, etc., in their wild leaps backwards, is 
inadmissible for many reasons. The most ob- 
vious are its position as an internal organ, its 
solid structure, and its weight. We think it 
more reasonable to suppose that it might have 
increased the liability to injury from collisions. 
In tracing the Belemnoidea to the Orthocera- 
tites we have simply continued the labors, and 
carried out more fully the sagacious inferences, 
of Quenstedt and Von Ihering. 

The modem Sepioidea are known to be 
almost exclusively swimming tj'pes ; and the 
more ancient, normal, flattened forms, and their 
descendants the existing cuttlefishes, have 
flattened internal shells, in which the striae of 
growth are remarkable for their forward inflec- 
tion on the dorsal aspect, due to the immense 
comparative length of this side of the aperture. 
Gonioceras, a well-known Silurian tj'pe of the 
orthoceratitic Nautiloidea, has the same con- 
tours in the striae of growth on the dorsum ; 
and if, as we think, it had a corresponding de- 
pression in the aperture on the ventral side, 
in similar proportion to that of other forms, 
the a{)erture must have been transitional to the 
internal shell of Paleoteuthis Dunensis of the 
Devonian, and to the more modern forms. 
The septa, also, of Gonioceras, have similar 
curves to the la^^ers of calcareous matter in 
the interior of the cuttlefish bone, which we 
look upon as aborted and retrogade homo- 
logues of the septa of other forms. Gonio- 
ceras connects directly with a series of less 
compressed, straight, orthoceratitic shells ; and 
thus the independent derivation of the Sepioi- 
dea from the Orthoceratites, among the shell- 
covered, coniform Tetrabranchiata, is probable. 
The enclosure and suppression of the shell have 
already been predicted, with a sagacity which 
commands our highest admiration, by Lankes- 
ter, from studies of the embr3'o of Loligo ; and 
these facts carry out his conclusions, substi- 
tuting, however, the more ancient Sepioidea for 
the Belemnoidea, with which Lankester made 
his compansons, and the hood for the two 
mantle-fiaps which were imaged by him as the 
organs which enclosed the shell and formed 
the shell-sac. Most paleontologists have con- 
sidered the Sepioidea and Belemnoidea as more 
closely allied ; but they appear to us as two 
orders, certainly as distinct as, and perhaps 
even more widely divergent than, the Nauti- 
loidea and Ammonoidea. 

Among these two orders we recognize many 



\ 



Fbbbuaiiv Ip 1884.1 



SCIENCE. 



125 



t^xceptional Ibnns, — such as the S|>irulH 
among Bclemnoidea, find among Sepioidea the 
octopods ; and wo think they all prove our po- 
sition, that the habitat so closely accords witli 
the structural changes of the type that its 
purely physical aofcney must be regarded as 
the etficient and direct cause of Ihe correlated 
changes of structure which distinguish the 
different orders and &ub-orders, and of^cn of 
the exceptional genera and species. We will 
mention Imt one of these exceptional cases, in 
some respects the most pertiueut. — the exist- 
ing Ai-gonauta, or paper nautilus. Here a thin 
shell secreted by the mantle, b^' the edge of 
the mantle, and by the two pairs of long dor- 
sal arms, encloses completely the animal of the 
female alone, the male being naked. As a 
sexual organ for the protection of the eggs ; as 
an adolescent and adult structure, originating 
:it u late stage in the life of the individual, and 
not in the shell-gland of the embryo ; and in its 
microscopical structure, — it is not a true shell. 
or similar to any true shell among ( ephalopothu 
Still, in form and iiosition, and as built in part 
by tluf mantle, it is a homologue of a true 
ehell, and has in part, also, the functions of a 
true external shell, and ought therefore to 
support or refute our hypothesis. It belongs 
to a swimming animal, and should therefore 
have the sinus and a|>erture and striae of 
growth as in Nautiloidea ; and these it certainly 
has. We can ap|>eul to this example as a 
most convincing exception to prove the rule 
that the shell is a true index of the most re- 
markable adaptive structures, and, among the 
fossils, can give us exact information of im- 
|>ortant ditferences in stnictme and habits. 

The efforts of the (irthoceratite to adapt 
itself fully to the requirements of a mixed habi- 
tat gave the world the Xautiloidca : the efforts 
of the same tyjjc to become completely a lit- 
toral crawler developed the Ammonoidea. The 
successive forms of the Belenmoidea arose in 
the same way ; but here the ground-swimming 
habitat and complete fitness for that was the 
object, whereas the Sepioidea represent the 
highest aims as well as the highest attainments 
of the Orthoceratites, in their surface-swim- 
ming and rapacious forms. 

We cannot seriously imagine these changes 
to have resulted from intelligent effort ; but 
we can fully join Lamarck,* Cope, and Ryder, 
in iuiagining them as due to efforts induce<l by 
tlie physical requirements of the habitat, and 



M..u^,l Fun. 1 1 ivrllfTWrll k»>uun to 



} fuudamvu^'-xl tfuUu lliuii l>iijula'.-» ur ^iiy iiihkjr. 



rinttt 



think this [K>sition to be better 8Up[K)rted by 
facts than any other hypothesis.* 

Confining ourselves to the Tetrabmnchiata, 
which we think the most favorable for our pur- 
poses, the next pmblem presenting itself is 
whether the two orders, Nautiloidea and Am* 
monoid ea, have had n common origin, or wheth- 
er thej^ bear internal evidence of Imving had a 
distinct origin. The embryo of all Ammonoi- 
dea, as shown by tlie author in his ' Embryol- 
ogy of the fossil cephalopods of the Museum 
of comparative zoology/ and since confirmed 
b}' the more extensive re sea relics of Dr, Bran- 
co, is the little bag-like shell lirst discovered 
by Saemanu. This is attachetl to the apex of 
the secondary shell. The embryonic bag is 
called the protoconch by Professor Owen ; and 
the secondary or true shell, the conch. 

There is no protoconch in Nautiloidea, as 
first shown by Saeniann, then by liar ramie, 
and subsequently liy the author and Branco ; 
but where it ouglit by have been attached on 
the apex of the conch, or true secondary shell, 
tliere is a scar, first demonstrate*! by Barrainle. 
The view brought forwurJ by the author, that 
this scar indicated the former existence of a pro- 
toconch in tlie Nautiloidea, h.as been opposed by 
Ban-ande, Branco, and several authors, on the 
ground that the cicatrix demonstrated the ex- 
istence of a distinct embryonic form. There- 
fore, acconling to Barrande, the Nautiloidea 
were not sinular to the Ainijionoidca in their 
earliest stages of growth, and must have been 
equally distinct in origin. 

Our (>resent contribution to this discussion 
is simple and straight n)rwanL We have foun<l 
the protoconch in several forms of Orthoccra- 
tttes, of some of whicli we give figures ; and, 
further, it can probably be found on the apex 
of the so-called j^erfcct shells, ^iiieh have no 
scar or cicatrix. These were discovered by 
DeKoninck, and snpposccl by him, in his * Gal- 
ea ire car bonify re ' (^In?*. dn mus, roy. de Bel- 
qique), to l)e fat^d to our cxjuclusion. Having 
no scar, they could not possibly, according to 
DeKouinck, have had a pmtocondi. When 
the so-called perfect apex is broken otf, the 
observer will probaldy lind that tlds apex was 
the shrivelled remains of a protoconch which 
concealed the cicatrix underneath, as in Fig. 2. 
There is therefore no essential difference l>e- 
tween the embryos of the Amtjionoidea and 
tliose of the Nautiloidea. Thefe are some of 

1 iiy •ppiMil Ut I1iN>bru*ii hypothcffli of ^ 

cbnr rt ol UiIh ^W.y, , U\ which be nbowt J 

wl<l< ■ iifr" ili^' rfr^inim hfivo \nuv\ func- 



126 



SCIENCE. 



IVOL, HI., No. b'i. 



minor importance which we cannot <lisc»s& here. 
These, however, do not interfere with the facts 
of general agreement ; and there is great proba- 
bility that the shell-covered forms of all kinds 
which have the protoconch — namely* the an- 
cient and modern Gastropo<lii, Tentaculitcs, 
and the ancient Pteropoda, and all the radical 
forms of Cephalopoda — had a com- 
mon origin, probably in some cham- f, 
berlcsa and septa less form similar \^ 
to the protoconch. Von Ihering 
has already designated this proto- 
type as probably TentacuHtes. No 
exact correspondent to the proto- 
conch is yet known to us ; but cer- 
tainly Tentaciilites is nearer to the 
protoconch of both Cephalopoda 
and Gastropoda than any other 
known ancient form. Fi«. I. 

The 3'ouog of the simplest and 
earliest of Ammonoidca, tlie Nau- 
tilini, have in varieties of two spe- 
cies, as shown b}' Barrande, a 
straight apex, like the adult shell 
of Orthoceraa, the radical of the 
Naiitiloidea. We have already ^io.3. 

claimed that this fact wtus sufllcient 
to prove the high probabihty of a 
caramon origin from a straight 
shell like Orthoceras for both of ,-^ 

these orders; and we are now able 
to reiterate this conclusion, and to 
meet the objections of the great 
paleontologist Barrande, and his 
supporters^ more effectuaUy than 
ever before. 

Goniatites compressus, sp. Bey- 
rich (Sa7id. verst. Nasaan, p\. H, 
§g. 4), is a shell which ditfers from 
all other Ammonoidea in an essen- 
tial and highly important charac- 
ter. The septa have no inner lobe. 
The V-shaped annuhir lobe which 
occurs in all the Ammonoidea ex- 
cept the Nautilini is also absent in 
this species. What is more to the 
point, this shell has the sutures of 
a true nautiloid, since it has the ^J' 

dorsal saddle, in place of the dor- i>> ^ - 

su)i lobe, of the sutures of its near- 
est allies, \i\\e Nautilini, and all of the re- 
maining Amijnonoit.lea. Goniatites am bi gen a 
Barr., of the r)Silorian, ih a close ally of this 
Devonian speci^fs, and the two are tbe only 
Anamonoidea wli. it'h arc not truly nautilian in 
form. The whorrl^ ^^'^ ^^ contact; but there 
is no impi-essed W^"^» ^*^^^ "*^ snlural lobes 
on the dorsum, as b^t^ ^^'^^^ nautilian shells. On 



the contrary, they are purely gyroceran forms, 
with rtmuded dorsum and HUlural saddles iti 
place of lobes. All of the Nautilini and G. 
eompressus also have the sej^ta concave, as in 
the Nautiloidea, in place of the ctmvex char- 
act<?r of the septa in later Amrmujoidea. Ab 
doubts mav disturb the mind as to whether G. 






?fi' > 



m/ii 



fif r ^ \ nViVV'Vi 



4 



riu. 4. 



Km, «. 



i^ 



Fi«. 



Fio. &. 



I-'iu. 1^ — Aapecl of thts nprit of tUt cofteh In OrUi. niigub PlillL, mhmt ttie |irolu« 

cujicb liii* hvvtk ahcd In tbc URual inntini'T. fr^ ct>nch or sheU of the fttMst; 

<*, dculrlx. 
Flu. ". — Aept'Ct of tht? npez. ttftcr thr prudnonrh baa been dj^cldniUUv tiroXea 

off, fracturing the outer •hell, »r- *he clenlrtx. b r, ikm btrftjrB. 

FJOft. »-5. — Apt'i ftii4 protoconch - »<»« Mutiat. from Ute fronts ■(di», 

und Ahovu. ci, prot^.KN.iirii : ^. ^. 
FloUr 0, 7. — Another in t. 

u &, ju before. Tli- '•• 



V th' 



u^iiU'iiCii kiiML U uiutol tiHVc b^^^ji lUc nbcll 
'Oiild Dot bttv« bcL^n a mt«7<» plug, aa ^muttU'-d 



eompressus is an ammonoid at alt, we recom- 
mend a comparison of this shell with Uie young 
of Goniatites fecnndus of Barramks which is 
a miniatui*e copy made by heredity. 

Hactrite3 \h a perfectly straight form, simi- 
lar to these Goniatites in very important char- 
acteristics, especially the siphon and septa. 

Tliis same genus iucludes straiglit oone& like 



rKHJitAliY 1, 1884. j 



SCIENCE. 



127 



Orthoceras pleurotomuin Barr. (^^i/st, siL^ pi. 
29i\), which are imtleaiably tratisitions to true 
Orthocoras in thfir striae of growth ami posi- 
tion of siphon. There is therefore convincing 
evidence in the structures of these Cambrian 
shellft that the Ammonoidea* with their distinct 
embryos, arose from the ortiioceran stock, and 
passLHl through a series of forms, in times, 
j>erhrip8, preceding the Cambrian, which were 
parallel to those characteristic of genetic series 
among Xautiloidea; viz., straight, arcuate, 
gyroceran, and nautilian. 

The researches of Emmons and I^Iarcou in 
this cotnitry, and the discovery of ten thonsaod 
feet or more of stratified rocks under the Cam- 
brian by the IT. S. geological survey, and the 
inferences of Bigsby from the extended stydy 
of Silurian and Devonian fossils, arc begin- 
ning to place the probable existence of a pre- 
paleozoic penod beyond question, in spite of 
the really grand opposition and world-wide 
researches of Barrande, The study of the 
tetrabranchs teaches us, that, when we lirst 
meet with reliable records of their existence, 
they are already a highly organised and very 
varied type with many genera, and that the 
name "paleozoic/ as applied to these tirst rec- 
ords, is a misnomer. There was a protozoic 
period ; nnd tlie tetrabranchs, like their succes- 
sors, rcrtainlj- must have had ancestors which 
preceded and generated them in this period, 
but of which we are at present necessarily igno- 
rant. Whatever the future may have in store 
for US we cannot now predict ; but at present 
the search for the actmil ancestral form* though 
necessary, is neveilhcless not hopefnb We 
j2an, liowever, rely upon the facts of emhry- 
""ilogy, and predict without fear of faOure, that, 
rhen our k ow ledge makes tins prototypical 
form known, it will have a decided resem- 
blance in structure and in aspect to the earlier 
Binges of the shell as observed in the fossil 
cephalopods. 



SCALES OF COLEOPTERA. 

SoMB of the more iirteres(tng forms of scales f>f Cole- 
optcra deacrihod hi the paper by Dr. George DlTmnock, 
noUced in Science, t 455, are shown in the anufxeil 
figures. The scales of the carpet- beetle, Anthremis 
?«eropliularlae, and of Uie museum pest, A. variua (fig, 
1 ), resemble in general form those of many Lepidop- 
l«ra, u do also the scules of Valgus squamiger (fig. ,3). 
The scales of V. squamigerare, however, hairyt in fact, 
almost shaggy. The scales of Hoplia coenilea (fig. 2) 
vary from round to lanceolate, tho»c of the dorsal sur- 
face being transparent yellow when viewed by trans- 
mitred light, and blue hy reflected light. Those of 



the ventral surface are purplish, purph*h red. red, 
bluish, and colorless by trausniitted light, while by 
reflected light they are silvery wlule, with at times a 
tendency to metallic green. The ^ii-ales of fhe dorsum 
are smooth, filled widi fine reticuhttions (fig. 2, d), 
hut those of the ventral portions atid of the tip of the 



Fio. 



KiiJ. a. 



Fifj. 



Fill. .=>. 



Fig. T. 



Via. n. 



Fig, 1, — Senl!r«^ of Anthrona*: «j, of A. »cropbuliirla(* ; b, 
&rratigerri e»n partfoD fif an clj'tron; c;, sc»)c>» of A. 

vnriu». i ,t a imd r. W) diiini,; 6, M (lljim. 

Flo. 2. — Sh 1 1 1 la t?!cieru tea ; a, from fly iron; 6, from 

tUuliT «lil<- *'i Mii'iivx; f% from f<?raur; d, ftnt? structure to bo 
ftcoi* tn a, Willi tdirli powtT*. EnlArgenu'nt ; n, b^ iitid <*, 100 
dlain.; d, 5fK> tilnra. 

Fia. 3. — ^foa^e of Vatirut #utiamigcr. Eiilftr^ed IW> «liam. 

Ff«, 4. — lUfrert'nt Unwn oi *i:»ti!a from C^nluolopidtua nibrt* 
pen nth. Knlnrfred 100 dlum. 

Fit>, 9. — Boilea of Alau« ooulntut ! a, brown ♦calr; b and c, por- 
Lion* of wfaltc* icales to aliow crOM'biU}d>; d, imnHXvne ice* 
tloti of a brown ecalfl. EulnrpiiDem: <t, lou diam.; b timl c, 
SDOdiiim.; d, QOOdUiin. 

Fio. 0. —Scale* and lifttr of Plltin* ? ruLtlot : a mid 6. •«&!('« from 
elytron; c» hair from elytron, Enlnrgii'd 100 dlara. 

Fio, 7. — Scale of Hy tim robinlno, Ktilar^c'd l(Ki lUani- 

Fig. 8.— t^calc* of Kntimut ImncHalUr on a, b, and c, verlittoJ 
IJncs tnd1cal« blue, horizontuf Unefe )ndlcnt<^ carmine red, and 
oblique Ifnt^ yeUow; where two kind* of Mni'* era**, one 
color ifl tinged wlih the oth«ir; on d ard e Ihc^ fine lint"* roprfi'- 
fivnx the finer ttrlatloa of the Inner layer of the tcjiJea. Kn- 
largemcnt : a, A, and c, 100 dlam. ; d and «, dOCI dlam. 

alwlomen are covered with fine hairs representing Ui© 
hmnches of the ordinary hairs of searabaeidous bee- 
tles. The scales of Chak*olepidnis mbripcnnls, an 
elaterid, are transparent browii when seen by trans- 
tjiitted light, but by reflected light appear bronzed 
blue, green, or red. Their form \s seeti in fig. 4. 
The black and white scales of Alaus oculatiis (fig. 6), 
which give rise to the entire figuration of that curi- 
ottsly marked elatcrld, atihoitgh not of eBpecially pe- 



128 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IIL, No. 52. 



culiar form, are very interesting; because, in the white 
ones, the striations of the outer lamina, which form 
the corrugations seen in sections of the scales (fig. 
5, d)j are longitudinal, while the lower lamina, or 
lamina toward the insect, although smooth, shows 
transverse bands (fig. 5, 6, c). In the fact of their 
corrugated surfaces being turned away from the in- 
sect, the scales of Alaus and of some other Coleoptera 
agree with the scales of Lepidoptera and Diptera. 
The 2-7 pointed scales of Ptinus (fig. 6), which are 
nestled amongst its hairs, resemble in a general way 
the plumules of some Lepidoptera. Most of the col- 
oration of the well-known locust-borer, Clytus robi- 
niae, is due to scales (fig. 7), which are of a form not 
rare in the longicom Coleoptera. 

The Rhyuchophora or Curculiouidae are the bee- 
tles on which scales most generally occur, and where 
they present their most brilliant coloration. The dia- 
mond beetle of South America, Entimus imperialis, 
often sold by jewellers on account of its brilliancy, 
has scales (fig. 8) and hairs which present to trans- 
mitted light various colors — usually red, blue, and 
yellow ; often all three colors with gradations between 
them — on a single scale. By reflected light, or upon 
a black surface like that of the beetle itself, the pre- 
vailing colors are green and purple. The colors which 
are indicated by the direction of the lines on the fig- 
ure (fig. 8 a, c) are those seen by transmitted light. 
When highly magnified, these scales, besides other 
structural characters, show a ver>' tine striation (tig. 
8, (Z, e), sometimes in one direction on one part of 
the scale, and in another direction on another part. 
This fine striation is probably the cause of the bril- 
liant coloration of these scales. 

All the brilliant coloration of scales of Coleoptera 
appears to be due to interference of light, either by 
fine striation, or by superposed delicate lamellae; as 
can be proved by wetting the scales with chloroform, 
when the color disappears, only to reappear as soon as 
the clilorofonn is evajwrated. Most of the scales of 
Coleoptera contain air; and this air, together with 
the background formed by the coloration of the in- 
sect itself, gives rise to the various changeable hues 
seen in most of the Coleoptera which have scales. 



MICROBES.^ 



NoNK of the organic substances which form an 
essential part of our sustenance, and are useful in a 
thousand ways, can be kept for more than a few 
days : fermenting and spoiling, they are the despair 
of the economists. In this decomposition the sub- 
stance becomes filled with an immense number of 
very minute organisms. How can a liquid, like milk 
or soup, free from all foreign germs, become invaded 
in a few hours by these innumerable legions of mi- 
crobes ? The first hypotliesis suggested is, that all 
these organisms are the result of the decomposition, 
and that they are produced spontaneously at the ex- 
pense of the altered substance. This is the theory 

» By Dr. II. FoL of Geneva. Translated f^om the Jownal de 



of spontaneous generation, so vigorously maintained 
by Pouchet ; and it is certainly one of the greatest 
of Mr. Pasteur's good ofiSces, that he has refuted one 
by one the arguments of the supporters of this attrac- 
tive theory, pursued them to their last defence with 
his invincible logic and his unexceptionable experi- 
ments. 

Tlie fermentation is produced by the microbes; and 
these, by a wonderfully rapid propagation, are derived 
from germs carried by Uie air, or adhering to the 
vessels wlilch liold the fermentable liquids. The dili- 
gent researches of Mr. Miquel show that the com- 
paratively pure air of the suburbs of Paris holds 
from a hundred and fifty to a thousand living germs 
per cubic metre. In a hospital at the centre of 
the capital, each cubic metre of air contains from 
five thousand to thirty thousand, according to the 
season. Although these figures appear prodigious, 
they are nevertheless very small, compared to the 
number of spores which cling to all the solid objects 
surrounding us. A simple cleansing is powerless 
to remove them : only fire or strong antiseptic sola- 
tions can destroy them. A fermentable liquid can 
be preserved indefinitely if it is protected from all 
microbes; but it is easily seen, after what we have 
just said, how difiScult it must be to obtain this per- 
fectly insulated state. All these lower vegetable types 
are found in two forms, — 1°, the vegetative or active 
form; and, 2°, the passive form, that is, the spores, 
which play here a part analogous to that of seeds in 
plants. 

In the active state most microbes show^ little en- 
durance; many species cannot stand a drying of any 
duration ; and in moisture a temperature of 70** to 
80° C, continued for two or ihi-ee hours, destroys 
them almost without exception. Spores are more 
hardy: boiling water does not kill them; but, for this 
purpose, water must be heated to 120°, 130°, and even 
160°. When dry, the spores do not succumb to a 
temperature below 180° to 200°; and, according to 
Mr. Fricz, cold of 110° has no efifect upon them. To 
disinfect clothing without buniing; would, then, be 
an impossibility, if, fortunately, Mr. Koch had not 
discovered that the germs cannot resist the action 
of a continued current of steam at a temperature of 
100°. 

It is peculiarly diflScult to protect a liquid from all 
germs, or to destroy all those which have penetrated 
it ; however, it is possible, and the liquid is then said 
to be harren. Certain soups are prepared in this 
way that they may be sown with very small particles 
of substances containing the microbes to be studied; 
and thus the desired species obtained, to the exclu- 
sion of every other. Laboratories devoted to these 
studies annually distribute hundreds and thousands 
of litres of these soups. 

The organisms which here claim our attention be- 
long to three families, all allied to fungi, — moulds, 
yeasts, and microbes proper. Each kind of fermen- 
tation is produced by a certain species of these small 
organisms, and takes place only if the species Id 
question is present in the liquid, from the beginnfng 
of the fermentation, in sufiicient numbers not tote 



Febhuarv I, 19 



SCIENCE, 



li9 



boked by othor species, Tlius the mycodemi of 

ine is found In abundaiict^ in tbe tlowerof tlie bit- 
ter grajie, and id naturally scattert;<i In tlie must wiilcii 
flowi frmn the preaa. In Japan the vine grows with 
wonderful rapidity, and bears magnificent grapes; but 
the mycoderm h lacking^ and tlie fermentation pro- 
duced by the olh^r microbes yields only au undrink- 
able licjiald. The liakers and brewers know very well 
how to introduce inrn their dough and must the 
species needed. Without microbes, milk would not 
«^ur<lle, cheese and vinegar would be miknown; the 
vegetable d^l>rt« would not decompose, and there 
pWonld be no biam. Some one has caJeulateil that a 

Tarn of soil contains a million of these little crea- 
t tires. We are *o aoeu»tome<l to asuociate the word 
* mlerohes * with the moat dreaded diseases, that we 
lose sight of the important part they play iu nature. 
We can confidently say tliat ihelr suppre-^sion would 
cumpietely overthrow the present order of things. 

The power of caminf^femientationsi is certainly one 
of the most curious phenomena which tiiese lower 
* vegetable types present. Thrs power beJongs only to 
certain species, Mr, Pa&teur was the finiit to discover 
that certain microbea live in the air, and breathe like 
animals: these do not produce fermentation. Others 
live only when protected from the air, and cause fer- 
rrjciilatjon in the matter which eontains them, To 
these two clai^ses there bus recently l>een added a 
third, amphibiouii microbes, simply vegetating wiiile 
in the air, and producing femien tuitions only when 
the air is withdrawn. Fermentation thua seemsj lo 
he a kind of re<^piration. The yeasts decompose 
liquids in order to obtain products rich in oxygen, 
will eh take the place with them of respirahle air. 
These fads are highly important in explaining the 
mechanism of diseases. 

In short, from a practical point of view, we may 
divide microbes into three classes, — those which are 
useful, lliose which seem to have no effect, and those 
which are positively iiarmful. We have already men- 
tioned the first class; the second are very numerous; 
for, to say nothing of the many species which inhabit 
all the recesses of natuie. and concern us only very 
Indirectly, we undoubtedly support <iuantitie8 of them 
in the cavities of the surface of our bodies and nf c»ur 
digestive CJinah Nothing equals the astonishment 
and confusion of very solicitous persons^ when, by a 
turn of the band, the micrograph shows them all the 
various forms wldch live at their expense. They are 
atl kinds, from the harmless Spirillum in the saliva 
to the Leptothrix, whicli is the most active agent in 
the decay of teeth. But all this is on the surface: 
the interi<»r of our bodies is completely free from 
Uietn; and it may he said that in our orgatiiieaiion 
every means is taken to defend the entrance to the 
organs from ordinary microbes, and to remove them 
If ihey succeed in forcing entry. There Is, how- 
ever, a certain number of species which have the 
8«d [privilege of being able to penetrate and support 
themseires in the body of a subject predisposed lo 
receive them. The microbe of septaecemia enters 
only through an open wound, wiiile those of tu- 
bereidosif* and leprosy attack directly tiie lungs or 



mucous membranes of the persons afflicted. The 
surfaces of the lungs and of tlie alimentary canal 
seem lo be the customary points of attack for the 
orgajiisms which cause various infectious diseases. 

Our organization is like that of a civiliT^ed nation, 
whose citizens are represented by our cells. The 
skin becomes broken (tlie wall of China discloses a 
breach), and immediately there are hordes of savage 
microbes which enter, at strife with the national sol- 
diers (our cellular tissues). The microbes multiply, 
and scatter around a poisonous liquid ; the cells com- 
bine, and try lo starve their dreaded enemies and to 
repair the breach. The battle-field is small; but the 
victory is warmly contested, and the sight has it-s ex- 
citing aspect. The result of the struggle depends 
on the number of combatants and on the energy of 
the comijeting forces. The antiseptic treatment r»f 
wounds, as at present skilfiUly used by Professors 
dulliard and ReverdJii, and Dr. A. Reverdin, aims to 
reduce as much as possible the numljcr of microbes 
w hich enter, and to retard their development; for no 
one familiar w ilh the subject wouhl think It possible 
to entirely exclude them, How^ interesting it would 
be to trace tlie eve Jits of the contest between the 
organism and its invaders in the case of an epidemic 
disease! Science^ we hope, vvill soon be in condition 
to give us this history. 

The diseases w hich have been traced with certainty 
to parasites are as yet few in number: they may be 
counted on the fingers. To discover the nature of a 
iliseaiie, there must be a uniformity of experiments 
and evidence, id which the public, and even the ma- 
jority of specialists, take no account Nothing is 
easier than to examine with a microscope small parts 
of the various organs of a dead body, and attribute 
the fatai disease to the microbes found under these 
circumstances. These would-be discoveries, soon 
disproved, have only the effect of causing the ptibllc 
to mistrust useful investigations, and cast undeserved 
discredit on serious work |>erfnrnied in the most 
methodical manner. To know a parasitic disease, it 
is not enough to have seen the pathogenic microbe: 
it must have been removed from the other microbes, 
and cultivated through a long series of generations 
in sterilized soups; animats must be inoculated at 
various times with these pure types, and each time 
ali the symptoms of the disease whose cause is sought 
must be observed. In this way Mr. Koch has re- 
vealed the microbes of charbon and tuberculosis; and 
these discoveries have been granted to science, after 
i>eing examined by a number of investigators, among 
them Professor d'Espine, Long and very careful 
cultivation was necessary to show% after Dr. Hal- 
ten hofFs interesting paper on this subject, that the 
juice of the jequtritu owes its extremely virulent 
properties only to the microbes whlcli it contains. 
We know quite satisfactorily the organisms which 
produce leprosy, erysipelas, and symptomatic char- 
bon; but for diphtlieria, typhus, inteimittent fevers, 
anrl many other diseases, the agents are still undis* 
covered. 

Intermittent fevers afford a good example of how 
easily errors arise and spread. They were at first, and 



130 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 62. 



without siiflScieiu evidence, said to be caused by the 
palms, — comparatively high vegetable types, per- 
fectly innocent of the crime of which they were 
accused. Late investigations point to a bacterium 
of elongated form as the cause, but the proofs are 
still insufficient. To learn to recognize the enemy is 
certainly the most necessary thing to be done, but it 
is only half the task : we must then leam to resist 
it. The more or less effective means of combat 
which have been employed up to the present time 
have aimed. 1^, to prevent the dissemination of dan- 
gerous microbes; 2^, to make the organism unsuit- 
able for the propagation of the intruders; 3°, to 
retard, as far as possible, the growth of those which 
have entered, in order to give the organs opportunity 
to throw them off. The first of these measures 
engrosses the attention of the hygienists: hospitals, 
quarantines, and disinfectants are among the means 
employed. I will not enter upon a subject which 
touches so many disputed questions, but will confine 
myself to noticing certain facts and to rectifying cer- 
tain very wide-spread errors. Regarding infection, 
the nose is a poor guide; for the experiments of Mr. 
Miquel show very distinctly that substances in a 
state of putrefaction, so long as they are moist, do 
not emit living germs. The water of the Paris sewers 
holds eighty million microbes per litre; and yet the 
air of the sewers contains only eight hundred or nine 
hundred germs per cubic metre, about one-tenth the 
number found in a hospital. By inoculating a rabbit, 
it was shown that these germs are perfectly harm- 
less. Tlie moist earth does not give out living organ- 
isms to the atmosphere. On the contrary, the dust of 
our rooms, which we do not at ail mistrust, shows 
about two millions of these living germs per gram. 
The bacteria of intermittent fevers, which vegetate 
in the soil of the Roman Campagna, begin to spreati 
in the air and to become dangerous only when the 
soil, dried by a scorching sun, is raised by the wind in 
the form of dust. It would be easy to multiply ex- 
amples, and to prove, that, in point of hygiene, we 
must be guided by sense rather than by smell. We 
have as yet but begun this kind of study; for how 
docs this total number of germs which the air or 
water holds interest us ? We would prefer to know 
the number of dangerous germs. The pn^jwrtions 
would doubtless be ver}' different from those which 
concis*^ analysis affords. 

Until we are lK»ttor informed, we shall do well to 
push cleanliness to an extreme, and especially to 
put little trust in disinfection. The number of sub- 
tances which are less injurious to man than to mi- 
cro-parasites is very small. The best disinfectant is 
perfectly useless if too weak a dose l)e used. For 
each of these substances there is one proportion 
which will destn>y the germs, and another which 
will arrest their vegetation but not destroy them. 
This last dose is the one with which we are generally 
obliged to content ourselves. The exixMiments of 
Mr. Koch and Mr. Miquel show that the narcotic 
effect K^gins to be effective on nncrol>es only when 
the substance in which they are vegetating contains, 
among a thousand parts, l>5 parts of alcoh«)l, or 70 of 



borax, or 10 of salicylate of soda, or 3.2 of pbenic 
acid, or 5 of quinine, or 0.6 of bnmiine, or 0.07 of 
bichloride of mercury, or 0.05 of oxygenated water. 
Certain of the substances indicated are useful in 
these doses; while others, as bromine, are impracti- 
cable. But especially let us not forget that the result 
is not a radical disinfection : it is merely a momentary 
weakening. Is it still needful to insist on tlie use- 
lessness of too mild doses ? We are constantly seeing 
pbenic acid used at less tlian one in a thousand parts 
with the sole effect of creating a mistaken sense of 
security. Let me mention another almost unknown 
antiseptic: essence of terebinthine, according to Mr. 
Koch, arrests the vegetation of microbes in a dose 
of TToTiiF, a quantity easily endured by man. 

All these hygienic precautions are bristling with 
difficulties. How convenient it would be to let the 
microbes live and to protect our bodies fn>m their 
influence! Unfortunately we know but one way to 
effect this: it is based on a remark, made long ago, 
that certain diseases can be retaken only after many 
years, and that this freedom may be obtained by con- 
tracting the disease in a very mild form. This is the 
principle of vaccination, and also of inoculation, em- 
ployed by Mr. Pasteur on certain animals. Tlie mat- 
ter inoculated contains the microbe of the disease 
from which we wish to protect the subject, but modi- 
fied by a special cultivation : it is a virus weakened 
according to the methods of Mr. Toussaint and Mr. 
Pasteur. We touch here upon a question, at present 
much contested, in reganl to the regularity of specific 
forms of these ver>' low vegetable types. Mr. Zopf 
and the school of Munich believe that the most 
harmless species can, under certain circumstances, 
be changed into dangerous ones, and vice versa. 
Tlie school of Berlin thinks that artificial modifica- 
tions are only transient and momentar}', and that 
the sjwcies may Ikj considered invariable. However 
this may be. It is certain, that, if the inoculations of 
Mr. Pasteur have no great practical imiK)rtance in 
their present form, they at least have a considerable 
theoretical value. We may hop<? that the time will 
come when it will l>e possible to vaccinate for all dis- 
eases which can seldom be taken a second time. 
Who knows if it will not end by discovering the na- 
ture of the influence whieh the parasitic invasion 
exerts on the tissues of our IkkHcs, and in obtaining 
the same result in a more direct way without inocu- 
lation ? When we consider the pn^gress of science 
in the last half of the present centur>', we venture 
no longer to answer, * Impossible.* 



THE WATER-PORES OF THE LAMELLI^ 
BRANCH FOOT. 

In 1817 Cuvler showed that in Aplysia there was a 
closed vascular system, and claimed the same for all 
MoUusca. His view was followed till 1S45, when 
Valenciennes and others described in many lameUi- 
branchs pores which passed through the foot to Intro- 
duce water Into the lacunar tissue, where the blood 
circulates. Tliis view found general acceptance» and 



Fkbruakt i, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



131 



was tnugljt by Siebold, Huxley. Gejarenbaur, Semper, 
CU!. U<?c'<»nt1y dmcuBston of tbe subject has been re- 
opeiiett by rbe iippearance of rumierous paper*. Mr. 
Ju»lti!» Carrlfere in several papers luaintaiiis lliat tio 
port aqui/eri exist in tbe lamclli branch fooL Her- 
mann Gri«sbacb, last spring, hi a careful paper 
{Zeitucfir, tolM, zool.f 38), reviewetl tlio whole subject, 
aixidyhig by sections arid hijectlons, antl t'cmclu(lf*d 
that tbe mollnscan vascular system was not closed, 
that the blood wandered in the lacunar tissues of the 
body*cavity. that large lacunar spacer* communicated 
dirt?clly with the exterior through aquiferous pores in 
the foot, and that these pores were for the reception of 
water to be carried out through the Bojanns organ. 
He tljGfures sc^ction* of Anodonta where the surface- 
epith«.<Uuaj *»f the foot bends up into the opt-'uing of 
the j>ore8 (tliere are three in Anodonta), and fades 
out as the* pore opens Into the lacunar body-cavity, 
During last Oetobcir two quite independent papers 
appeared simultaneously upcui the otlier side. Dr. 
Cattie» in Zt/oL anzeiger^ vh. No. ira, p, 5*12, claims 
to have cut a complete series of about twenty-five 
hundred conseciithe transverse seclions through the 
foot of AnodonLa. In no one of the^ie was there any 
bn*a1c in the epithelium. He has studied twenty-three 
species, and hi no one finds the least trace of aquifer- 
ous pore. Dr. Th. Barro»«, in a private imprint from 
Lille, dated Oct. 3(K 188.1, arrives at the same n-sults. 
He di»cu8«ic3 tbe work of Carrifere an J himself, and 
finds that they have studied nujsl of the forius where 
the presence of aquiferous pores has been claimed, 
and in every case find pores absent, or in such p«>sition 
that It seems they are either connected witli the func- 
tional byjsogenous organ, or, where such is absent, in 
llie ailnct, with tbe remnant of the same. Barrois 
sums tip his views thus: no pores exist for the intro- 
duction of water into the circulation; the only pores 
of the foot are those connected with the byssu5 organ, 
which never communicates with the interior of the 
foot. The blood may have w a tcT introduced into it, 
but this must be effected by osmosis, or in some man* 
w^f not now to be discussed. H. L, Obhohn. 



THE BORDERLAND OF SCIENCE AND 
FAITH. 

Wnlh in the regionst of science and faith * a jiertVj* of 
fni^ayn . By H .\ R v e y G o o inv i x, D. D., Lord B i ahof » 
oftWlisle. London, A/wrraj^, 1883. 310 p, W^", 

Natural late in the spiritual world. By Hknry 
DRtMMO?ii>, F.R.S-E., F.G.S. New York, 
James Pott. (Apparently sheets of the English 
edition.) 414 p. 12o. 

The "^ science ' of these regions is of course 
physical science ; the ' faitii ' is tbe theistic and 
marc sp<H'ifically the (liriatiuo faith. Tbese 
• walks* are taken along the borders of the two. 
Normally, the course of this journal of science 
lies qnito away from this borderhmd, which, 
indeed^ has not always been an a^'eeable road 
for tk dcientiflc man to travel. Of late, how- 



ever, a better understanding has made it 
plea saute r than it was for the peaceably dis- 
posed naturalist. And the Bishop of Cai*lisle, 
a trained inaihcniatician as well as a divine, 
whose thoughtful essays arc essentially irenical, 
is an instructive companion in an excursion 
-^ through that land which tie longs exchiaively 
neither to science nor to faith* but appertains 
more or less to ix)th*** A book *^ which opens 
with an essay on the connection between me- 
chanics and geotjietry, w^hich doses with a 
funeral sermon preached in Westminsti'r Ab- 
bey," and the larger part of which had already 
appeared in widely read periodicals, — some 
of the articles being in fact, though not in 
name, of the nature of critical reviews, — harcJ- 
ly need be, and could not well be, reviewed 
in our journal ; yet we arc free to give a brief 
account of it, enough to indicate its tines of 
thought. 

The first essay, on the connection between 
mechanics and geometry, is a mtxiified re- 
print of a paper which was ptiblished almost j 
forty years ago. The |>oint made is, that tbesel 
two sciences are essentially identical, being 
developments in ditfcrent subject-matters of 
the selfsame ideas. The moral is, ** that all 
dcn»onstrations tend to merge in intuition, and 
that human knowledge, as it becomes more 
clear and more thorough, converges toward 
that absolute intuition which is the attnbute 
of the Divine Mind.'* This idea is further 
worked out in t!ie second essay (entitled ' The 
unity of nature, a speculation,' which ap- 
peared in the Nineteenth century in 1879), in 
which it is argued, that as the school l>oy K*- 
gins by painfully [H'oving the simpler theorems 
in geometry, luui ends by iierceiving that they 
are really self-evident, and that as all tlie pmp- 
ositions of Euclid appeared intuitively true to 
Sir Isaac Newton, *Mt is quite conceivable, 
by merely extending in imagination the |>ower8 
of which we have actual cxpenence, that all 
geometrical truth in any departujent might 
exhibit itself without intermediate st^ps of 
demonstration to a mind of sulficieut acute- 
ness, when the appiopriate definitions had 
been given. . . . To a mind like that of 
Newton, I should imagine that the principles ' 
of mechanics would present themselves almoslf 
In the same self-evident light as those of ge- ' 
ometry." And *' that [xjssibl}*, as the truths 
of gcomctr)' help us to realize those of u\e- 
chanics, we may use the truths of mechanics 
to help us to realize some of tlie trutUs of the 
more subtle sciences, say, even tliat of bi- 
ology/' And the speculation, fonifled and 
illustrated l>y mathematical analog!^, goes on 



132 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 62. 



\ 



to the conceptioiK that ^^ ti^e may be a princi- 
ple or law from which tHe existing oitier of 
physical life, with all its apparent anomalies 
[and its manifold diversities], flows as a 
necessary result,*' the knowledge of which, 
*' if attainable, would exhibit to us the order 
of living nature as one consistent sj'stem, free 
from exceptions and anomalies." 

All this, and indeed all the volume, proceeds 
on lines quite accordant with those of the 
purely scientific evolutionist. Moreover, in 
thus regaitiing intuition as a kind of acquisi- 
tion or development, the theologian joins hands 
with the agnostic evolutionist, although they 
are moving in opposite directions. But the 
latter doubts, to use the words of one of them, 
'^ whether the law-governed mind of man is 
not itself the highest form of mind." The 
former, accepting " the admission which must 
be made by all parties of the co-existence of 
fundamental unity with almost unlimited diver- 
sity," and of inexplicable anomalies, endeav- 
ors to show, through mathematical analogies, 
that the existence of man may involve '* the 
possibility of snakes, as truly and as really as 
the existence of elliptic motion involves that of 
parabolical," and ^Hhat a mind higher than 
human might see in the definition of man the 
possible existence of useless organs, both in 
man and in other creatures." At the close of 
the essay, descending from pure speculation 
of what may be, to more scientific considera- 
tions, his idea may be gathered from the 
following condensed abstract : — 

** Let it be granted that all living beings have been 
developed according to some law, not necessarily 
known, or even capable of description in words, but 
Mtill a real law of development; does this give us all 
the elements necessary for the solution of the life 
problem ? If we say ye«, do we not run into the mis- 
take of a beginner who fancies that he can solve a 
problem of motion round a centre when he has been 
told what is the law of force? Is it not necessary to 
know the conditions of projection, the initial circum- 
stances of motion or development? And may not this 
portion of the data be quite as important as the 
knowledge of the law of force? It seems to me that 
they who are most anxious to establish the principle 
of evolution should be the most ready to perceive the 
necessity of taking into account the consideration of 
initial circumstances. ... A quantity of protoplasm 
with an assumed power of development will not ac- 
count for existing forms of life, without the addi- 
tional hypothesis of some causative power to determine 
the initial circumstances. Given an original germ, 
\e' ^^^^cgiven some power which shall direct the particu- 
y^eit\8ei^^^y|rr|uai cause of the development of that germ, 
t\\e ^^^\ t\V whole subsequent development is conceiva- 
pjvraboia^^ fit the germ and the law of development left to 
V. \ may be as insuflacient as the particle and 
v"* attraction. . . . We have seen that the 
^c^e ellipse, and tlie hyperbola are all possi- 
"iior a particle moving round a centre of 



'^\. c«rv«» 



force. Only one of these curves — namely the ellipse, 
and only the ellipse under the condition of small 
eccentricity or approximate circularity — can suffice 
for the orbit of a planet which shall be the home of 
the highest form of life, namely, that of man. . . . 
The original conditions of motion, the initial circum- 
stances as a mathematician would call them, must 
have been delicately adjusted in order to select, out 
of all possible forms of orbit, that one circular or 
nearly circular form which is compatible with the 
existence upon the earth's surface of beings like our- 
selves. May we not infer from tliis a similar neces- 
sity of original delicate a4ljustment in the process of 
the evolution of a highly organized creature from a 
protoplasmic germ? '' 

The third essay, entitled * God and nature,' 
is mainly the development and application of 
a point made in a universit}' sermon, which the 
author thought had been overlooked (but per- 
haps it reall}^ passed unnoticed because it is so 
obviously true), namely, that "all physical 
science, properly so called, is compelled b}^ its 
very nature to take no account of the being of 
God : as soon as it does this, it trenches upon 
theology, and ceases to be physical science." 
And so, coining a discriminating word to ex- 
press this, he would say that science was 
cUfieouSy and therefore could not be atheistic. 
Intrenched in this [K)sition, he sharply criticises, 
as unscientific, Haeckel's denial of the exist- 
ence of purpose in nature, and comes down 
upon Professor Seeley for his rash statement 
(in 'Natural religion') that 'science opiK)se8 
to God, nature.' 

In the fourth essay, ' The philosophy of cray- 
fishes,' the text is supplied b}' Mr. Huxley's 
well-known lecture upon these little crustaceans, 
which lecture, the bishop insists, " leads the 
mind of the reader, and, as it would seem, in- 
tentionally, beyond the region of natural his- 
tory into the domain of philosophy, and even of 
divinity. ' ' In that domain the bishop is a match 
for the naturalist : at least, he is able to verify 
an old prediction of Huxley's, that the evolu- 
tionist need not expect ever to drive the teleolo- 
gist out of the field. Indeed, it cannot be easy 
to dislodge a teleologist who is so far-sighted as 
to " have great doubt whether we can properly 
speak of final ends at all, unless we embrace 
in our conception the whole cosmos." To 
Huxle3''s favorite line of remark that there is 
no great good in "• demonstrating the proi)osi- 
tion that a thing is fitted to do that which it 
does," and that it is *' merely putting the cart 
before the horse to speak of the mind of a 
crayfish as a factor in the work done by the 
organism, when it is merely a dim symbol of a 
part of such work in the doing," the bishop 
replies, that the importance of demonstrating 
a proposition depends uik)u the jjoint of view 



Pkbrdarv 1, IS84.1 



SCIENCE. 



133 



fi'om which the proposition is regarded ; that 
the assumption made, '' that the preservation 
of the individual and the continuance of the 
speeicfl are the final causes of the organization of 
an aniraal/* is quite on a par with the old-fash- 
ioned teleology which is nowadays justly repro- 
bated ; that, at any rate, the pleasure wliich 
the crayfish ni)pare[itly takes in watching for 
and capturing liis prey is something quite dis- 
tinct from ' work done by an organism ; ' and 
that, *'* if pleasure of sonic kind be denied to the 
crayfish, contrary to all appcaiancest I do not 
know at what point in the scale of animal life 
pleastjre is to be admitted as a factor. If to 
speak of mind as a factor in work done be an 
absurdity in the case of a crayfish, is it not an 
absurdity in the ease of a dog, or even in the 
case of a man?** And he proceeds to vindi- 
cate the deligljt of existence as one of the ends 
for wbi<'h animals exist. 

This idea, and the vindication of the mind 
of brutes, have a prominent place in the next 
following essay, on ^ Man's place in nature/ 

* Law, physical and moral/ is the topic in the 
sixth essay, in which a passage from Hooker's 
* Keclesiastical ^xility ' is set over against one 
from the Duke of Argyll's ' Reign of law.* 
We need not continue onr analysis, which is 
already longer than was intended : indeed, tiiere 
is less occasion to eoutinue ; for the remaining 
articles, being popular addresses reproduced, 
are less thorough, however sensible* Even 
the last essay, on * Evolution and evolution,' 
and the appreciative funeral sermon for Charles 
Darwin preached in Westminster Abbey on the 
Sunday following his burial there, need not de- 
tain us. 

The noteworthy thing, to which this vob 
nine adds its testimony, is this : that thought- 
ful chun^hmen are following the example of 
thoughtful men of science. They are accept- 
ing the scientific principle of evolution as a 
working-hyiKjthesis, — trying it, as naturalists 
and physicists have done, in their several lines 
of research and thought, and with somewhat 
similar results. The now science is accepted 
with complacency, if not with welcome, by the 
discerning, The questionable philosophy, in 
which it has too oft*^ii Ijoen dressed, is exam- 
ined and exposed, 



such we take him to be), the mmv houiiletical 
of the two. The one picks his way along the 
ground with firm but cautious and carefully 
chosen steps : the other soars into the air. The 
one discrlmiDates between science and faith, 
and in his liook guards rather than enters upon 
the field of morals : the other seeks to identify 
the two, and in a novel way* He has discov* 
ered that natural laws, meaning the principles 
of ph3sics and biolog}', extend to the spiritual 
world, and help us to understand it. He does 
not mean that there are analogies between the 
two. which may be profitable for instruction, 
but identities ; that * in the spiritual world,' 
to use his own figure, "^ the same wheels re- 
volve, but without the iron.* And the laws to 
which he refers are the principle of continuity, 
of conformity to type, action of environment 
as causing variation, the adage omne vivum ex 
vivo^ possibly even gravitation, if there l>e 
any thing for it to act upon ; and, if there is 
nothing for these laws to act upon, *Mt is not 
the law that fails, but opportunit3\** We 
cannot look upon this as any great improve* 
ment upon Swedenborg's *• law of correspond* 
ences ; * and, as the helpfulness of the book is 
entirely upon the religious side, we need not 
further notice a volume which attracted us by 
its title, l>ut which we find to be morally edify- 
ing rather than scientifically satisfying. 



TitB second book named above appears to 
have excited considerable attention in England. 
Like the volume we have just noticed, it is an 
4xxcursion into the borderland of science and 
faith, but with a difl'erence. The divine is the 
more scientific, the layman and naturalist (for 



BACTERIA, AND THE GERM-THEORY 

OF DISEASE. 

On the relatione of micro-orffnniims to difeane. The 
Cartwrieht lectures, 1883. By William T. Bel- 
field, ftU). Chicago, Keener, 1883. 131 p*, 
ijluatr. 24'=', 

Bacteria^ and the germ-theory of dtseme* Eight lec- 
tures by Dr, H. Gkadle* Chicago, Keener, 
1883. 4-h219p. 80. 

Du. Belfikli»'3 little book ia cheaply gotten 
up^ and, beyond the possessioii of a few^ poor 
woodcuts, seems to be his original lectures, four 
in number, delivered before the Alumni associa- 
tion of tlie College of physicians and surgeons 
in New York in February, 1883. Even the 
phraseology of the lectnre*room is apparently 
preserved throughout, and is sometimes dccid- 
etily more forcible than polite. Nevertheless, 
these four lectures, making in all about one 
hundred and thirty pages, give an admirable 
summary of the germ-tlicor)^ of disease as it 
8 tood a ye a r ago . Begin n c r s or ea su al readers , 
perhaps, will not find the bookditfuse enough ; 
but pathologists ami biologists will prize it for 
its lucidity, crispness, and keen discrinnna 
tions. 



V 



132 



SCIENCE 



\ftr 



u> tbe coD(.ie]«tk>u. that -* tlwe mar be a princi- 
ple or 1^1 w from which tlie coEiflting Older of 
pLvcric-iil life, with &11 its apparent anomalies 
[aijd its manifold diversities], flows as a 
neoe»f»ar>' result.'* the knowledge of which, 
"if kttainable. would exhibit to us the order 
of ]iviji;;r nature as one consistent s^'stem, free 
from ex'.-eptions and anomalies." 

All tijis, and indeed all the Tolnme, proceeds 
on lines quite accordant with those of the 
purely scientific evolutionist. Moreover, in 
thus re^anling intuition as a kind of acquisi- 
tion or development, the theologian Joins hands 
with tlie agnostic evolutionist, although they 
are moving in opposite directions. But th* 
latter doui>ts, to use the words of one of then 
'* whetlier the law-governed mind of man . 
not itself the highest form of mind." 1 - 
former, accepting '* the admission which uv 
Ik; made liy all parties of the co-existenoc- 
fundamental unity with almost unlimited m- 
Hity/' and of inexplicable anomalies, einl- 
ors U) show, through mathematical annL 
that the existence of man may involve 
I)088ibility of snakes, as truly and as n.v» ^<«^ 
the existence of elliptic motion involves * 
parabolical/' and "that a mind high 
human might see in the definition of jtt-. 
|K)8Hible existence of useless organs, 
man and in other creatures." At tic 
the esHa}', descending fh>m pure s -^^.^ 

of what may be, to more scientific 
tions, his idea may be gathered 
following condensed abstract : — 



'' J Mi it be granted that all living b 
(icvolopcd according to nome law. 
known, or oven capable of descripti 
.still a real law of development; dc 
Wui olt^nientR necessary fur the m 
problem ? If we say yeSy do we n< 
take of a beginner who fancies ^^ 
pn»bleni of motion round a cent* 
told what is the law of force? 
know tlic cMinditions of project! 
HlanceM of motion or developine^ 
porti<»n (»f tlie data be quit' 
knowled^'u of the law of (oro 
tlu'y who are most anxious U 
of evolutloTi should he the n)> 
nt'iM'ssity of taking into acco 
initial circuTnMtancos. . . . 
Willi an assunnMl |>ower of 
eftnnt for (>\i^tin^' forms 
t ional hypot liesiM of some o 




(Vol. III.. No. 52. 

jj-jaDy driren, by all this work, to 
*^^— -lit implies the iutroduction 



^^^0r id ilTJng bacteria, or of a sub- 

^ rfoaiml Doxiou? properties throuj5h 

^^rciihae organisms, 

^^ ''-ienu hare demonstrated, how- 

. of . • • septicaemia is by no 

'j2snd infection. [For it was no- 

^^^r^^ ,^ihc introduction or production 

^'•'^^^^^gg^ietmaki in considerable quan- 

« i^ \m.f^ iieotical with those of putrid 



':«tffl asserted that pepsin and 
ifaiilar effects. If so, we may 
s cause behind the bacteria, — 
[.liberating cause (p. 44) : — 



^Mtf. athoiigli not for all cases demon- 
^ .\ . features common to the various 
^atmix are attributable to the rapid lib- 



- ^ 



"" J. -^" * '^iSnBrMinent in the blood ; and that any 
*^' ^"^ Vjiff..*wl or unorganized, putrid or fresh — 
-*^ .^» ^"^jjjiKting such liberation may induce the 



. ^-sa ri» cause of suppuration. Belfield 
'^ ^«ta Iwyond the germ-theory, bejond the 
" ^"^^^ iBvolVed, and with the eye of a biolo- 
^.^vtvwthat (p. 51) 

■ ^„^Mjmtii^ must bo regarded, then, a<t indicat- 

^i|^|T|^Mit*e of an element foreign to the living 

^^- JJite; which may be induced directly [as by 

]!!!^Ia\ilttClion of a powerful irriunt, e.g., Croton- 

. jc iaJirecUy as an incident in the life of various 

^^ ^..bacteria]. . . . Practically, we may regard 

T^ 'MA|«|»uration as proof of the access of external 

mswti aiatter, organized or unorganized. '* 

It 



1*-*^ 






»>^ 






tht' initial cin-umstances. 






* i^.^pven some i>ower whi 
^^'ij-i-Xinal eause of the i 
i\\^' ^'^^\,» rf*** wliole subseqi — 
,v.\vA^"*"\\^ lit the germ and 
\»\o cu»-^'^ ^ \ imavbeas 



ubsequen 
~ thf 

, ins 

^'" attraction. . 
"^'^-e ellipse, and 
(>u»r a particle 



Mwmm 



liilP 



AalMteptic surgcr}' is then easil}' defined. 
^ «ol a hissing spray, nor (p. 60) 

^S^niply a question as to the relative anti-bacterial 
yivMTties of this, that, and the other so-called anti- 
J^ii* Agents. It Is an attempt to prevent the en- 
IMa<« Into, as well as tlie fomiation within, a wound 
gif iJI auhstances, organized and unoi^nized, which 
<4A hiterfero with cell-nutrition.*' 

Knough has been said to show the spirit of 
Iheso li*cturc8. They take a broad but thought- 
ful and critical view of the various questions 
Involved, treating the scolfers who speak with- 
out knowledge as they richly deserve, and 
taking a rather conservative view of the work 
done in the direction of protective vaccination ; 
displaying everywhere the thorough trainiug of 
a (jcrman laboratory, and closing with a moral 
which all sclent! (Ic men and all believers in 
rational medicine will do well to read, mark, 
and inwardly digest (p. 114): — 

*' And when we eouHlder the problems already half 
iolvad, tliQ auestlons to whose solution the way ap- 
psam o|NUi tlimugli the same methods already sue- 
OMifully applied to anthrax and tuberculosis, we may 
I for results Ui whlcli present knowledge shall seem 



fvxnx 1, 1884.) 



SCIEI^CE. 



135 



But tlieso reBiilis can bo secured 
Jiul, fotJtiimous exi»eriraeiitnl iu- 
i.cU is practically impossible witlujuL 
j-ort. In France ami Germany sucb 
ntlly suppliiHl by ihe government; in 
ife>i. wlieri' human life is certainly as 
I re; where live-)?tock interests are al- 
^Itnfkter than iu these countric.i combined^ and 
nnnlrfply many fold in Ihe immediate future; 
* fufeciious disease of cattle hns caused 

' niO^iKK) in one year, and ^ single disease 

*^- .... destruction of liii^JjOtMJ.OtH) in the same 
lline; where infectious diseases are so prevalent 
vj^ Vivo stocl< that the fear of infection has closed 
friark(*ts against Amencan meat atid cattle 
I'll Tiie 1 1 1 o f t b i ^ great com m on w eal th , u h i ch 
Lati^.inrr'- enonnous euras for local river and harbor 
I Improvetnents; which sends expensive eomniis?^ions 
over Uie world to observe the tninslt caf A^eiius or of 
Uie moon, or tn tind an opeij polar spa; and engages in 
other uiidertakiTigs f>f purely scleiuilic interest, has 
not yet made one judicious, systematic, liberally sup- 
ported inquiry into the possibility of acquiring pro- 
tection against pleuro-pneumunia, liog-cliolera, and 
otli**r devourers of the national wealth. A glance 
at the hu perial German health bureau and its work 
during the last four years, and a mental comparison 
of the pecuniary resources of Germany with those of 
tho United States, Inspire the hope that we shall not 



always hig so far behind iii matters which appeal to 
the tenderest spot of the Amencan anatomy — tlie 
pockeL" 

Dr. Gradle's hook is made tip of eight lec- 
tures delivered in Chicago, and is iJiiblished on 
a more ambitious scale than are thobe of Dr. 
lieilield. For the begiimer, or for oue who is 
neither a patbologist, biologist, nor physiolo- 
gist, this book is the more suitable. Its style 
is dilTiise — -not always, however, with a gain 
in perspicuity; and its index, its references to 
atjthorittes, and its evident intention to give 
to all sides a fair showing, arc features to be 
specially commended. 

In these lectures we have, in fact, rather 
the rejiort of tbo evidence than the Judge's 
charge to the Juiy. We miss that critical and 
even judieiul tbtvor which is so pleasant a fea- 
ture of Dr. BeldeUrs book ; and on that account 
we must consider the latter more suitable for 
the connoisseur; the former (Dr, Ciradle's). 
for the hegrinner or llie casual reader* 



INTELLiaENCE FROM AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC STATIONS, 



GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS, 
Qeologioal aurroy. 

FWfoirJifone nntimud park, —During the seaacm of 
188; J Mr. Arnold Hague began work rn the Yellow- 
stone national park, preliminary to a series of careful 
and systematic observations which are to be prose- 
cuted In this field through a iiumher of years. The 
geysers are to be made the subject of minute study; 
and the* volcanic rocks, so abntulant at nimieroua 
points in the park, witl be examined in detail, not unly 
as regaitis their geologic relations, but also in regard 
to their structure and composition. The field inves- 
tigations in the park during the past season were 
confined mainly to the prelim iuary examinations 
necessary to detemdne what geologic and physical 
problems have to be solved, and to ascertain what 
thermal changes liad taken place since tlie observa- 
^tions of 1878 reconled by Dr. I'ealo. Mr. Hague's 
arty was constituted as follows: Mr. Arnold Hague, 
geologist in charge; Messrs. Joseph P. Idding^, W. 
IT. Weed, George M. Wright, and C» D, Davis, assist- 
ant geologists; Or William Ilallock, physicist; Mr* 
W. H. Jackson, iihotograpber, with an assistant; 
Blr R/>l»nd Uolt, volunteer aa8ista.nl; and cook, 
packers, etc. 

Geologic work. —Mr. Hague took the field the 
latter part of July, outfitting at Bozemau, Montana. 
Work was begun in the park at Manunoth hot-springs 
«arly In August. From this point, slow marches were 
made to the upper geyser basin of Fire Hole River, to 
allow of a geologic reconnaissance of the route fol- 
lowed. At the latter f«M*ality a permanent camp was 



established until the la»^t of August. In the mean 
time :i hurried trip was taken Ut the Shoshone geyser 
basin and the Heart-lake basin, for the purpose of 
comparing them with the geyser basins of the Fire 
Hole Hiver, and to note what changes have occurred 
during the past five years. Wliile on this trip, Mount 
Sheridan was ascended. Mr. Hague thinks that this 
mountain, from which a line view of the surround- 
uig country was obtained, is a volcanic crater, which 
has been so greatly modified by glacial action that 
its true origin has been obscured. 

Camp was moved from the geyser basin to the 
Great Falls of the Yellowstone, Sept, 1, and kept there 
until the lOUi. Wljile at this point, the structure of 
the Mount Washbum was examined, and a trip made 
to the head waters of the Gardiner and Gibbon Rivers, 
The region of tlie Grand f^afion was also investigated, 
and the liottom reached at four different places. The 
Grand CaQon is an admirabk* place to study the 
decomposition of rhyolittc Hows, the weathering of 
which has produced the brilliant coloring for which 
the caffion is so justly celebrated. A trip was also 
made from this camp to Steamboat Point, on Yellow- 
stone Lake, from which point the ascent of Mount 
Chittenden was made. Mr. Hague considers this 
mountain one of the best points of obser\'ation 
wilhin the limits of the park, and, after a trail has 
been built to it, thiuks it will become one of the ol>* 
jective points of tourists who visit the lake. It sur- 
passes Mount Washlnini ; as it gives a doser and more 
detailed view of the lake, and presents a magnificent 
panorama of the high raouataln range on the east 
side of the i»ark. The prospect Is perbafrs not so ex* 



138 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 52. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The death of Professor Ercolanl on Nov. 1«, 188:J, 
at Bologna, inflicts a severe loss upon Italy ; for he was 
distinguished both as a savant and a patriot. Count 
Giovanne Battista Ercolanl was bom in Bologna in 
181 0, and descended from an ancient patrician fam- 
ily. He was a favorite pupil of Antonio Alessandri, 
and early devoted himself to comparative anatomy 
and pathology. During the revolutionary movement, 
wliich swept over Europe In 1840, he was an ardent 
defender of Italian liberty, with the result of becom- 
ing an exile. He sought refuge in the near city of 
Turin, and there was appointed professor, afterwards 
director, of the veterinary school connected with the 
university. He remained in Turin until 1863. when 
he returned to Bologna to accept a similar position 
in the old university of that city. By his energy and 
influence, new buildings were erected, the school re- 
organized and greatly enlarged, and a valuable path- 
ological museum established. For several years he 
held the position of rector of the university, and for 
a considerable period was permanent secretary of 
the Academy of science of the Institute of Bologna. 
Like Virchow, lie was also a patriot. His reputation 
was not alone that of a teacher and 8nvant: but his 
early career as a defender of popular rights made him 
a favorite with the citizens, and he was three times 
elected and served in the national parliament at 
Home. 

His numerous publications have containe<l the re- 
sults of investigations made for the moat part with 
the microscoi)e, and have secured a wide reputation 
to his name. Most of his contributions first appeared 
in the memoirs of the Accademia di Bologna. His 
works show ability both as an observer and a draughts- 
man, and a tendency to touch upon general prob- 
lems ; but his arguments are not always clear, nor his 
observations suflSciently complete to establish his 
general theorems. He was an enthusiastic, careful, 
and in<lustrious investigator, of whom Italy was 
justly proud. 

His most extensive series of researches was upon 
the histology of the placenta, which led him to the 
conclusion that the lining membrane of the uterus 
degenerates, the placental membrane being a new 
formation, the lining being reformed afterwards from 
the uterine glands. This is not in accord with the 
views generally held at present. His single law of 
embryonie nutrition in vertebrates can hardly be con- 
sidered novel, and is vague rather than profound. 
But the details recorded in tliese researches are of 
great value and interest. These memoirs, togetlier 
with some additions supplied by the author, were 
translated into English, and published at Boston in 
1880, under the direeiion of an enthusiastic atimirer, 
Dr. H. O. Marcy. 

His studies covered a wide range, — zoology, histol- 
ogy, and pathology were all included; but his most 
valuable work lay in the field of microscopical 
anatomy. His career has been justly admired, and 
his memory will Jong be cherished by his country- 
men. 



— The Government pHnting-ofl9ce has just issued 
the third volume of the report of the tentli census. 
This relates to agriculture, and contains, besides the 
extended statistical tables concerning that industry, 
and discussion of them by the late superintendent. 
Gen. Walker, monographs upon cereal production, 
by William H. Brewer; flour-milling, by Knight 
Neftel; tobacco-culture, by J. B. Killebrew; manu- 
facture and movement of tobacco, by J. R. Dodge; 
and meat-production, by Clarence Gordon. 

Of the 1.182 pages embraced in this volume, 328 are 
devoted to the general statistical tables. These are 
exhaustive, and are very judiciously arranged for 
reference and use. A general summary, by states, 
of the principal statistics in 1880, 1870, 1860, and 
1850, forms the first table. It treats of the number 
of farms; the area in farms, classifying the land as 
* tilled,' 'permanent meadows, pastures,' etc., * wood- 
land,- and * other unimproved' land; the value of 
farms, farming implemeiits, ami machinery; of live-- 
stock, fences, fertilizers, and of all fann products; 
the number of the different classes of live-stock; the 
dairy products; cereal and fibre crops; sugar and 
molasses; hay. poultry, and eggs; apiarian products; 
rice, tobacco, Irish and sweet potatoes; orchard, 
market-garden, and forest pn)ducts: wool, hops, 
broom corn, and pulse. Following this is a tabular 
discussion of the numl>er and area of farms, and 
their form of tenure, by states and by counties. 
After this are placed county tables relating to the 
principal agricultural products. These tables are pre- 
ceded by Gen. Walker's discussion (comprising 8-3 
pages), in which are pointed out the limitations and 
qualifications of the statistics, and our progress in 
the different branches of the industry. It treats, 
in the author's well-known terse, incisive manner, 
upon the number and size of farms, their area and 
tenure, their value and that of farm products in 
total, and the principal agricultural productions sev- 
erally. 

The monoi^raph by Professor Brewer upon the 
cereal crops is, like all work by this well-known 
autliority, complete an<l exhaustive. He discusses 
the cereal product of this country as compared witli 
that of other countries, especially with that of Eu- 
rope: showing, that, with a surplus production in 
the Tniled States of 650,000,000 bushels during the 
census year, there was a deficit in Europe of 380,000,- 
000. The deficit iii Great Britain was 280,000,000; In 
France, 170,000,000; and in Germany, 115,000,000 
busliels. Following this discussion, the author nat- 
urally treats of the exports of cereals, noting their 
rapid increase in recent years. Their geographic 
and climatic distribution is next discussed, and Is 
followed by a brief sketch of the principal classes of 
soils with relation to their applicability to cereal 
eulture. Taking up the cereals severally. Professor 
lirewer discusses the product of eaeh. its geographical 
and climatic distribution, its history, varieties, meth- 
cmIs of eulture, chemical com|)osition, diseases, tu- 
jurious weeds, ami insects. The report closes wlttl 
a brief history of American agriculture, and a 41^ 
cussiim of the relations of this to other IndustriM, and 



142 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., yo. 63. 



of the investigator in tlic field. It is cortain 
that such an enterprise would arouse enthusi- 
asm at home, and command respect abroad. 

Mr. B. J. L08SING has i*ecently published a 
paper on the pro[X)sed celebration, eight years 
hence, of the four hundredth anniversary- of 
the discover}' of America. We refer to it now, 
not to discuss this project, but to call atten- 
tion to an historical question of such inter- 
est that it is worth a thorough investigation. 
Among mistakes which might almost be classed 
as popular superstitions must be placed the 
wide-spread notion that the rotundity of the 
earth was nearly unknown until comparatively 
recent times. Mr. Jessing goes so far as to 
say that the scholars in the time of Columbus 
ridiculed the idea of the earth being globular, 
and in this he only echoes the popular belief 
on the subject. Now, the fact is, that the 
form of the earth lias been as well known as 
it is now from the earliest historic times, and 
has never been denied by a scientific writer 
on scientific grounds. Through twenty cen- 
turies of discussion among rival systems and 
tlieories, this one has stood undisputed as the 
fundamental fact of astronomy. Nor has it 
ever been the subject of religious controversy, 
as the Copernican theory was. Under these 
circumstances, it is a question of interest, 
whether a state of things of which the astron- 
omers never heard existed in Spain four cen- 
tin-ies ago ; whether, in fact, there are books 
or documents of any kind showing that men 
who then ranked as scliolars believed the 
earth's surface to be fiat. We suggest the 
subject to historical investigators. 

It must, of course, be understood that we 
are now speaking of profeSvSed scholars, in a 
position to be consulted by the authorities, 
and not of the ignorant masses. It is quite 
likely that Queen Isabella's chambermaid may 
have ridiculed the idea of the earth being 
round, and that her spiritual confessor may 
have looked uix)n astronomical theories gener- 
ally as the work of men very dangerous to 
orthodox religion^ But if tlie knowledge of 



an epoch is that of the majority, where shall 
we stop? It might be found, that, at the 
present da^-, the majority of the human race 
believes the earth to be flat. We leave our 
readers to picture in their minds an enc3xlo- 
pedia of the thirtieth century, in which it will 
be stated, that although the astronomers of the 
nineteenth ct»ntury knew of the motion of the 
earth, yet their more numerous and influential 
contemporaries, the theologians, as represent- 
ed by one of their leaders named Brother Jas- 
per, believed it to be at rest. 

The acquittal of General Ccsnola of the 
charge of libel, in the case so long before the 
c*ourts, is probably satisfactory to the trustees 
of the Metropolitan museum of art, but is far 
from satisfactory from a scientific stand-point. 
So far as the trial related to libel, it made no 
difference to science which side won ; but it 
does make a difference when it appears, that, by 
legal twists and turns, the vital s|)ot was not 
touched. As the result stands before the scien- 
tific world to-day, the curator, while acquitted of 
the charge of libel in his hot reply to a former 
business agent, is still, directly or indirectly, 
responsible for the manipulations of ancient 
sculptures in the museum under his charge. 
One good result may follow from tlie Cesnola 
trial. In future, fragmentary objects in mu- 
seums will probably either be left as found, or 
else so joined, that, while holding their relative . 
positions, they will still show that they are frag- 
ments. The so-called restorations are too often 
the conceptions of the officers in charge ; and, 
while Cesnola has followed a plan often sanc- 
tioned by supposed requirements of art, it is 
one which will never be permitted by science. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR, 

♦»* CorrtHpotvlenti are requented to be an bHf/an poniMle. Th$ 
wriUr^H name it in alt canes required at proof 0/ good faith. 

Tropical cyclones. 
Ix Mr. Davis's paper on whirlwinds, cyclones, etc, 
in Science^ vol. ii. pp. 7.58-7(U, I notice the use of 
the term * equatorial cyclone,' wlili-h should be dis- 
continued, as I have already had occasion to ftatm 
before. 1 There being no deflection of the winds from 
the normal to the isobars on the equator, thera caa 
be no cyclone there ; and it is, I think, generally ad- 

> yature, vol. ziz. p. 517. 



'FetiuuAUY H^ 18&4.J 



SCIENCE. 



143 



mitted by meteorologists, tbat m the latitudes 0°Hi° 

the cieflr'otion is also too small to admit of cyclones; 

' ind really 1 know of none. And even outside India, 

nd tho sciis aroTind it, there are scarcely cyclones in 

Ifttitud*^ lower than IfF. 

Thas, what Mr. Davis calls 'equatoriar should be 
called "tropical' cyclones. If anybody wishes to 
mtMiti'in 'eijuatorial cyclone*/ lei hint first prove their 
existi-Mice. So long as this is not done, meteorologists 
havirtg a mind for enact scleiiiifir terms will hold to 
my o p] 1 1 i oo . A . Wokiko p. 

tJU Petin.b«rg. Jftii. T. 1«S4. 



I Fihall br» well plea^^ed if so disiinpiiisb^'d a nieteor- 
ci1(»gist a* Dr. Woeikof finds no other points needing 
correetlnri In my pajiers oti storms than this one. 
That ! fully agree, as to the facts, with lum ami with 
Dr. Taylor, who tirst, so fnr ,as I know, stales this 
matter in eonnection with its cause,* Is sh«»wn iit my 
seventh paper (this volume, p. 4<)); but, while my 
use of tJje objectionable term was accidental rather 
than delibenile, there is, i>erhap8, little to clioose 
between 'equatorial * iind ' tropical,' both of which 
occur ill this conneetion in my papers: for, if the first 
appiy in sirictncifi only to poinlJi in latitude O*^, the 
second is equally hniite<l in its exact meaning to 
polnlM in latitude 23J^; and if * tropical ' ha*? come 
U) mean 'within or between the tropies/ so * equa- 
torial ' may mean * near the equator/ Tfopunzojic 
of the (Jerman* is not to be translated * tropical zone/ 
but * torrid zone;* and in Kn^li^b, ' tropical ' should 
not bt} applieij in an exact jiomenclature to the equa- 
torial low [>res!?ure!* of the doldrums, as In Buclian*s 
writiH)?-', hut rather to the hlt;h presstires of the 
horse* latlludcs, a.** Ferrel uses it; And 'tropics,' when 
i>roi>er]y rendered into (tenUiin, woiiltl be weadr- 
krriMen, or it might be paraph ra^^ed into die polar- 
i/r€nznt der pn^Hafe. Inasmuch, then, as the truly 
tropical belts of the ocean are best characterized by 
regions of high pressure, free from cyclonic condi- 
llons, except where storms from lower latitudes cross 
them near their western *«hores: and as the iuter- 
tropii-al r,ainsof the doldrums are not called * tropical/ 
but *4»<|uaiorial/ even when off of the equator, and by 
T>r. Woeikof himself, — it can hardly be considered a 
serious error to speak of the cyclones, which begin 
in the doldrums, as equatorial also. 



CmnbrM^r, .Jiin rw>. 1884. 



W, M. Davi». 



Ofiteolo^ of the cormorant. 

Mr. Jellries' answer In Scinice (Hi. 59), to my let- 
ter in a f*»rmer inimhcr of this paper (ii. 822 )» caused 
me genuine suriirise. Ills ftus^gesiinn thai the occij*- 
llal style of the cormorant ' is the ossified tendt>u of 
some of the extensor nmsrles of the neck/ madi' in 
ft former communication {ii. 7»J*.»), is here, apparently, 
announced a!» his eonviction, and Selenka is intro- 
duced to sustiiiu tiie statement. iN<»\v, I am informed 
by Mn JeJTries, that, ** In view of such eminent au- 
thority, it would seem that somethin;: m^re than 
himple denial is required to upset a Htateuienl ac- 
cepted by anatomists for many years;*' and a few 
lines farther on, 1 am hald to acktjowledf^'e my mis- 
ike, because 1 ipioretl the [K)lnt. Permit me to say, 
that iiolhlnpf of the kind has been accepted by ,anat- 
omtsls for many year^. 1 met this slati'ment by a 
simple denial, hi order to save space in the columns 



np Trr.plrril TinrrtrrirM'* I't^rli. 



I to 



Hull uf irt'ii*, « hit-It Jii.^l'jr rL-'.*jisulz*j?»!i_»''jrc***_''it''»i inqHiriiinct', 



of Science; but, if Mr, Jeffries nuist bo informed as 
to what the oecipital style of the cormorant j«, I 
would inform him that this bone is not an ossitica- 
tion in any tendon of th»* exteu'^ors of the neck, be- 
cause it is situated, ii^* we know, in the median plane 
of the skeleton, at a mid-i>oiut on the occipital ridge. 
The tendons of rhe exteuMirs in a bird's neck, which 
are Inserted at the occii>ut, arc in pairs, their inser- 
tion being bilateral; and their teiuloits are »^t«t in- 
serted in the median plane: eonsequenlly this style 
cannot be an o^^siticatlon of ,any of thenu On the 
contrary, it in an o*<sitieatton of the faaeia between 
the extensor?* of the neek aiul what nuiy be compared 
to the ligamentum nuchae. 

As Mr. Jeffries s«n*ms to be anxious ubout tlie posi- 
tion In which I drew this oeeii»ltal Htyjr, 1 would eall 
hts attention ti» the fact tliat it is sliown us occupy- 
ing its proptn' mte, only tipped up Komewliat, as it 
was on my dried skull. Such licens*' is jwrfectly 
permissible in iinatomieid delineation, and is seeti in 
the illustrations ihrousjhout tbi' literature of anat- 
omy. It often shovvs the iiarls to betier advantage; 
and, in structures as well known as this style is, no 
explanation is necessary. Acquainted, as 1 am. with 
the itrntUtmij of this * nucha! style' and Its iinatouiical 
relati»m>t. 1 niust a^ain acknowledije that I am still 
Ignorant of tlie pA/Asio/w///, or n'ally the futtclion. of 
this style, or why it should nceur in a cormorant and 
not in other blr<ls nearly related. 

As to Mr. Jeffries" concern at my not being, to his 
mind, thoroughly iiifonued ufvon the homologies of 
the patella in bird^, I would invite his attention to 
a paper of mine written some time before my * tMt^eol- 
oi;y of the cormorant ' appeared. To show that I 
have always agreed with the eminent authorities he 
alludes io for my benefit, in the eo-exisu*nce of a pa* 
lella and an elongated cnemial process of the tibia in 
most divers, 1 re^r to my article entitled 'The num- 
ber of bones at present known in the pectoral and 
pelvic limbs of birds,' in which 1 say, *'l know of 
but two free bones that oecur about the knee-joint. 
Ttie first of tliese is the patella; and this may c<vexlst 
with the cnemial ridge of tibia. »s in f'olymbuB 
(Owen), The other is a free sesamoid found in some 
birds in a notch at the head of the fibula (.Spei>tyto)" 
{Anier. wit,, November, ISSJ. SlU). I rt*pe.ir. that 
♦ I fiml myself misquoted ' by Mr. Jeffriis, In hi?* re- 
marks upi>n my paper, * more than once;' that is to 
aav, he lias failed to include siatenvents falsely at- 
tributed to my article in the cu?^tomary quotation- 
marks. 1 do not ^ay, (11 that 1 figure this style ' in 
fiitu,' nor (2) positively utfirm that it has never been 
figured before (ii, 7^ii»). but do !<ay. "I do not be- 
lieve we Imve a figure showing ihe site of this bone- 
let •' (ii. (U0|. 8elenka*s and Ey ton's figur-es had 
slipfwd my mind for the nitmient, as their works had 
not been available for a year or more. Furthermore 
(:i), I do not refer to Professor Owen to have him 
authorise any thing in regard to Poiliceps, btit only 
tf> the patella of the loon, as any one accustomed 
to anatomical reading can see by referring to my ar- 
ticle on the * Osteology of the cormorant * iii, <140). 

R, W. SnutEi^OT, 

Upper glow of the skies in relation to halos 
and coronas, 

These striking and i>e.intifu! atmospheric plienom- 
euft, which Imve manifested themselves over ilie entire 
globe, have nttracted much attention, and bfeii mi- 
nutely described by corresfKnidenls in various eoun- 
trics. But there l* one fealrre, which, although 
inrldentally noticed by soTue writers^ hHsattr,acted but 
little attention. I allude to the faet, that, wherever 



U4 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. hi., No. 58. 



the plieuoincna have been sufficiently pronounced, 
the sun i- iluring the day encircled by a more or 
less distinct adored halo or corona. At this place 
the a^sunieil supra-ciirus volcanic dust seems not 
to havf l>een sufficiently dense to have developed the 
colored rinps; and there was observed nothing more 
than a trhiiuth glare extendinj; over the sky from tW 
to 25*^ fn>ni the centre of ihe sun. Hut the' Rev. S. E. 
Bii^hop writes me from Honolulu, that this chromatic 
circle around th«» sun has been constantly observed 
in all of the Hawaiian Islands for several months. 
It has likewise been obserxed in Kn^Iand as a fre- 
quent accompaniment of a conspicuous manifestation 
of the upperglows of sun&et and sunrise. 

It is an iiiterfstini; question, whether this more or 
less distinct colored zone encircling the sun is a true 
ine-cnjMul halo, or a diffraction corona. Its want of 
sharp di'tinition, and tlu- absence of the regular suc- 
cession of prismatic tints due to refractive di>per- 
sion, wouM seem to i)oiut to diffraction as thi; true 
cause of the chromatic phenomena. C)n the other 
hand, tin? lai^e size of the colored circle, having a 
radius of fn^m 2<)° to ijHP, would ^eem to connect it 
with the well-known ice-crystal halo of about 22° 
radius. 

While I am disposeil to regard this chromatic fea- 
ture of the phenomena as mainly due to tliv d trac- 
tive action on light of the ini)>alpable dust-p.irticlfs 
suspended in the lofty supra-cirri regions of tlir at- 
mosphere, yet it is by no means improbable that ice 
may be associated with the phenomena: for it ai»- 
I^ears from the experiments of M. Coulier, and luon* 
particularly frrun those of Mr. John Aitk^Mi, com- 
municated to the Koval society of E«linburgli, Dec. 
20, 18S0 {Nature, vol. xxiii. pp. ia">-19T; also vol. 
xxiii. p. :^), that the presence of dust- particles in the 
air is essential to the formation of fogs and riouds; 
that, when aqueou> vapor condenses in the atmos- 
phere, it always does so on some solid nucleus: and 
that the du-i«t-par!i<'l«'H in the air fonn these nuclei. 
Xow, it is evidi-n: iluit the presence of these attenu- 
ated dust-particles in the supra-eirri regions of the at- 
mosphere would pnxluce condt-nsation of the rarefietl 
aqueou«» vapor at these lofty altitudes. But inas- 
murh as this resjion must, even within the tropics, 
be far above the plane of perpetual congelation, the 
cond»*ns«Mi vapor nmst necessarily a-^sume the form 
of ag^n-gatlons of ice around these nu<*iei : hence the 
diflfractivH corona<» may be ass')Ci:ited with imperfect- 
ly <leveloi»eil ice-crystal halos. .loiiN Li:('o\TK. 

r..rktl. y. <'al., Jan. lb, 18^. 

Inheritance of physical injuries. 

Well-authenticated Instances of the inheritance of 
a physical injury are so rare, that I wish to put upon 
record one which has recently fallen under my ob- 
servation. A gentleman, when a boy about seven 
years of age, had the second toe of the right foot de- 
fonned by wearing a tight boot. The first and tliinl 
toes were crow<ied together, forcing the second one 
under and backwards, and causing a curvature of 
the second joint, whicli, in time. I)ecame permanent. 
The joint, being somewhat elevated above those of 
the other toes, fecoived the pressure of the shoe, and 
always after was n^ore or less troublesome in conse- 
quence. The gentleman was twice married. By his 
first wife he had sik children, the second of which 
was a daughter: the rest, sons. The daughter inher- 
ited the crooked toet but the feet of all the sons were 
normal. The deforviity appeared, however, in the 
son of one of these, -V the brother next younger tlian 
the sister, —afTectinu the same foot and toe as on the 
grandfather. By hisj second wife the gentleman had 



only one child, a son. who also inherited the pecul- 
iarity; but in this instance it was the second toe of 
the If/t foot, instead of the right, that was affected. 

Knowing that much doubt still exists whether the 
results of a slight physical injury, like the c»ne I have 
described, are ever tiimsmitted, I have taken pains to 
examine carefully all the evidence under my obser- 
vation; and I feel assured of its correctness. All 
four having the deformed toes are now living, and all 
a^ree upon the facts. The gentleman is iK>sitive that 
his feet were normal until he was about seven years 
old, and says he remembers very distinctly wearing 
the boots which caused the defonnity. An exami- 
nation of tlie foot does not show any congenital 
peculiarity which might have been transmitted. The 
toe. when restored to its correct position, appeared 
normal in every way. No peculiarity of this kind 
has ever appeared in any other of the gentleman's 
relatives. I can see no way, then, of avoidhig the 
conclusion that the injury, or rather its results, have 
been transmitted to two generations. 

The case presents some features which render it 
especially interestnig. The t>eculiarity's appearance 
in the children of lK)th wives seems to eliminate al- 
together the element of the mother's influence In 
producing it. The recurrence of the variation in the 
grandchild, the father being normal, indicates how 
powerful was the tendency to perpetuate this slight 
deviation fnmi nature's standanl. In the other cases 
which I have studied personally, if a variation did 
not appear in a child, that child's chihlren were free 
from it also. I should be glad to know if any one of 
your readers has observed this tendency towarti re- 
verting to the ancestral tyi>e under similar circum- 
stances. Irvixo p. Blshop. 

IN rry. N'.V., .Ian. 2H. 1nS4. 

Pumice from Elrakatoa. 

Capt. A. W. Newell, of the bark Amy Turner of 
Boston, has brought In some ])umice which was 
washed aboard his vessel, Sept. IT, 18s;3, in latitude 
7° 2.'/ south, longitude 103° 21' oast, about a hundre<l 
and sixty-five miles south-west from Krakatoa, Sun- 
da Straits. It covereil the sea In windrows, and was 
observed as fine afelies as far distant as thirteen hun- 
dred and fifty miles from its source. 

A piece about seven inches by five, which came to 
my notice, is of a reddi>h-gray color, and very much 
inl^ated: it carries porphyritic crystals of i»lui^ioclase 
felspar, in many cases surrounded by dark-brown 
glass, forming small black spots in the gniy mass, 
whicli might at first sight be mistaken for augite or 
hyperstheiie. There is, besides, dark-green augite 
and brown hypersthene, which is strongly ple«)chroic, 
and resembles closely that found in the Iavii> from 
the volcanoes of northern California and the Cascade 
Range (Notes on the volcam>es of ni)rthem Califor- 
nia, Oregon, and Washington Territory, Amer.journ. 
xc, September, 188:3). 

The percentage of silica for this pumice was found 
to be 02.5:}, and is almost identical with that of the 
hypersthene-bearing pumice from Mount Shasta, 
which is 02. It is undoubtedly the pumice of a 
hypersthene andesite, and is esi>ecially interesting 
because of its similarity to nK^ks found on the west- 
ern coast of North America. The observations of 
Renard on the ashes that fell in Batavia soon after 
the eruption of Krakatoa (yature, Dec. tJ, 1883) 
show the same component minerals, ai\d have doubt- 
less been made on similar material. 

Jos. V. iDDixes. 

U. S. iw'ologlcal aurvoy. New York, 
Jan. 80. 1S»4. 



Fbheuarv 8, 18&4. 



SCrENCE. 



Ud 



TffE EVOLUTION OF THE CEPHALO- 
PODA.^ —Ih 

Tub iinlivuluul tM>Ufd slu*ll of L-vcry exbtiDg 
Nautilus m»iv be mid to pass thioiigli the stt^es 
of till* pratoconclj* when it is always nearly or 
quite slmight : Hum thi-oug^li tlxe fim of the 
couch, wlieu it heconies slightiy eurved ; then 
t1ir<»ugii a more coui|rletely eiirvetl period, in 
which thp Cufit whorl of the spiral is ('(jmpleted. 
After this it eontinues the spiral, the whorls 
nu the outside toudiiu*^ the exterior of the 
iuiKTones, and Kfyreading so rapidly by growth 
AA to begin to envelo[t them. and. in extreme 
case^. to eofiipletely eover them up. 

The natural infeieuee trom these facts would 
be, that there was a siiuilar succession of forms 
in [iii-si times, ^ the strtiiglitiu the most remote, 
the arcuate ami the gvroeeran in succeeding 
perio<ls. and tlie uautilian only in compara- 
tively tiHxlern times* This would he n per- 
fectly clear and legitimate mental eoncei»tion* 
Tlie Rtructural relntions of the adult shells 
apljcarcd also to tlemanrl tlie same solution, as 
shown by the researches n\' (^uenstedt. Bronn, 
and Barrande, and later of (iaudrv, Bar- 
rande's researehes also demonstrated that this 
idea eould not be maintained, and that there 
were uo such serial relations in time, but that 
the whole series of forms were present in the 
earliest period, and occurred side by side in 
each paleostoic formation. This great author *a 
conclusions have had a curious effect ujion 
paleontologists- It has been hastily assumed 
by some, that the mental concc[>tion was more 
perfect than could be realiiiefl in nature ; by 
othere, that the im|>erfection of the recorded 
succession wan an olvvlous rel\itation of the 
doctrine of evolution, and all pursuit of a 
sohition unworthy of serious attention. 

Slatistically, liie logical (ueture coincides 
with the observed succession in time. The 
straight cones predominate in the Silurian and 
earlier [>enods ; while the loosely coiled are 
much less numerous, and the close coile<l and 
involute, though pix?9cnt, are extremely rai-e. 
The loosely coiled and close eoiled gain in 
numbers in tlie carl ion iferous, and the involute 
are more utunerous than In the Silurian ; while, 
in the later times of the Jura, all disappear ex- 
ept the close coiled an<l the iti volute, there 
being a decided predomitianee of involute 
phells. Thus we are able, by revei-sing the 
ecord and travelling back to the Silurian, 
I to see, that antecedent to that periofl, in 
protozotc, there must have been a time 
rhcn the straight conea or their immediate an- 



oestors predominated, to the exclusion of U»e 
coiled and perhaim even of lh(^ areuate types 
or varieties. 

The involute sliells of the earliest geological 
times were therefore probably evolved from 
the 8ti*aight cones in regular succession ; and 
we may perhaps hope to eventually get the evi- 
dence of this succession in th<* formations. 
The exact i*onnterpart of our logical picture, 
as Barrande ^ has tridy stated, does not, how* 
ever, exist in the known geological records of 
later j)eriods. Judged by the common clussi- 
ficHtion, by the prevalent ideas abotit the alHu- 
ities of adult structures, and l>y the modes of 
occurrence of fossils in the geological forma* 
tions, the forms seem to be without law or 
order in their sucression. 

But let ns imagine, during the paleozoict a 
different condition of affairs from what is now 
the general rule. Let us supiioso such a thing 
l^ossible as the quick evolution of forum and 
structure, and tliat in these ancient perioiis, 
near their ]K>ijits of origin, animals found the 
earth eujuparatively unoccupied, anrl w^ero not 
only able, but in fact forced, to migratx? in 
every direction into dilferent habitats, and to 
make per|ietual ellbrts to readjust their inher- 
iled strnetures lo the new reipiiR^ments de- 
mandcfl by these comparatively unoccupied 
fields. Fcx>d and opportunity wotild have 
acted, in such localities, as stimulants to new 
ertbrts for ihe attainment of more perfect adap- 
tation and for changes of structure useful to 
that end. We can neither imagine the effort 
to change of habitat and habits, without its 
cause, the primary physical stimulant, nor the 
change of structure, except as a result of the 
direct effort to meet the physical requirements 
with corresporiiling or suitable strnetures. 

Let ns also compare the I'hauge.s taking 
place during the whole of [jaleozoic time with 
tliose known tt) have occurred in certain iso 
lated cases in more recent times; such, for 
example, as that of Steinhcim, where a singU" 
species, tiuding itself in an unoccupied field, 
proceeded with nn<'xampled rapidity to fill its 
requirements by the evtihition of new series 
and many species, all diflV'riiijr from each other, 
but all referable, by intermediate varieties, to 
the original form, — in this exam[>le, really a 
single species, the well-known IManorbis aequl- 
umbilicatuB, 

* Wf» fT»ef**t thrtf «fme«-flfK»^ TtM p**rfntt mimv necoiint Of Ih 
' " , ■ ' ' ' : ' ' 1 — ' n i!<i !ji Itohdmr. 

hdiiHlnn Mnd thrt 
I HI, w«* liftV** tha 

^(c ; -wer* of ub- 

•urv ' '-^i AnU Uio 



146 



SCIENCE 



[Vol. III., No. 58. 



If we admit such possibilities, and then find 
similar phenomena in the paleozoic epoch, we 
shall no longer need our first picture, but can 
construct a far more natural one. 

The Nautiloidea will not then present them- 
selves as a simple chain of being, but as the}' 
reall}- were, — several distinct stocks, or grand 
series, and each of these grand series divisible 
into many smaller lines of genetically connect- 
ed forms. In the Cambrian, or perhaps ear- 
lier, some of these do not have close-coiled 
forms at all ; some of them have : but all, ex- 
cept the most primitive series, which are com- 
posed wholly of straight or arcuate forms, have 
some close-coiled species. These we can often 
trace directly with the gi*eatest exactness, both 
by their development and by the gradations 
of the adult forms, to corresponding species 
among the straight Orthoceratites. 

The series we have described above, from 
Orthoceras to Goniatites, compares closely- 
with any single genetic series of the Nautiloi- 
dea, and shows that this ordinal type arose 
very suddenly in the protozoic, and evolved 
true nautilian shells in the Cambrian or earlier. 

The Ammonoidea evolved from the nau- 
tilian forms of the Cambrian into series, which 
are structurally much more distinct from each 
other in the paleozoic than any groups of the 
same value (i.e., genera) in the succeeding 
formations, and thus, in different but equall}' 
plain characters, teach us that they also had 
a quicker evolution within that period itself 
than in the later formations. Either this was 
the case, or else the Ammonoidea must have 
been created in full possession of an organiza- 
tion only attained by similar parallel series of 
congeneric, close-coiled nautiloids, after pass- 
ing through all the intermediate transforma- 
tions above described. Here is a curious fact : 
though taxonomically equal, we cannot com- 
pare the order of the Ammonoidea with the 
whole of the Nautiloidea, but only with a more 
or less perfect single series of that order. This 
phenomenon fully accoi*ds with the true picture 
of the genetic relations. The remarkabl}' sud- 
den appearance and fully developed structures 
of these earlier ammonoids finel}' illustrates 
the fan-like character of the evolution of forms 
from chronological centres of distribution, and 
the quickness with which they must have spread 
and filled up the unoccupied habitats. 

After the paleoioic, no absolutely new struc- 
tural modification!! are produced ; though the 
complication of tbe structures is carried so 
much farther that! we are at first apt to im- 
agine that there ard several new types of struc- 
ture in the trias an< Jura. We can carry out 



this assertion, even into some minute stmctaral 
characters. Thus the mesozoic ammonoids 
have, in all forms, a curious little short collar, 
which arises from the septa, and surrounds 
the siphon. It seems to be usefUl simp]}* to 
close the joint, and perhaps make the connec- 
tions of this tube more perfect, and exists in no 
nautiloid at present known. It was supposed 
from its development, etc. , to be confined to the 
Ammonoidea of periods later than the paleo- 
zoic, but has recently been noted b}' Beyrich 
in a Goniatites of the carboniferous. We have 
found in a similar way every distinctive struc- 
tural peculiarity of the mesozoic Ammonites 
appearing in some form among the Goniatites 
of the carboniferous. 

The contemplation of the wonderful phe- 
nomena presented by these series has finally 
led the author, not without reluctance, to the 
conclusion that the [phenomena of evolution in 
the paleozoic were distinct from those of later 
periods, having taken place with a rapidity 
paralleled only in later times in unoccupied 
fields, like Steinheim.' 

The hyix)thesis of Wagner, that an unoccu- 
pied field is essential for the evolution of new 
forms, gains immonsel}' in importance, if, as we 
suppose, it is practical to apply it to the ex- 
planation of the phenomena we have observed. 
Every naturalist must see at once, by his own 
s|>ecial studies, that this is the only reasonable 
explanation of the frequent rapid development 
of tj'pes in new formations, as well as the sud- 
den appearance of so many of the different 
types of invertebrates in the paleozoic. New- 
berry's theory of cycles of sedimentation shows 
that the sudden appearance of types is inex- 
plicable, except upon the supposition that they 
retired with the sea between each period of de- 
posit, and again returned after long intervals 
of absence, or perhaps made their appearance 
for the first time in a given fauna. 

With this explanation and that of Wagner 
the facts we have observed fully coincide, and, 
we think, amply explain the phenomena, both 
of sudden appearance in the first deposits of 
formations, and subsequent quick development 
in the necessarily unoccupied habitats. The 
researches of Barrande, Alexander Agassiz, 
Bigsby, Gaudry, and many others, show us 
that this must have been especially true of 
the paleozoic or of the protozoic, if this sup- 
posed period is admitted, as compared with 
subsequent periods. 

We find, then, that, in order to make our 

> Another ftateiiiCDt of theao facta in the form of a law of 
erolation ii given in the author*! • Oenera of fossil cephalopoda ' 
iProc, Bo9t, 90C, nat. hitt.f zzii. 1884). 



Fl!BRUA.llY 8, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



147 



logical and generalized pictiirG of exact corre- 
siDondence between all the changes in the life 
of a nantiliau close-ooiled shell and tlie life of 
its owa group accoj-d with tlie facts, we must 
I'be careful to limit it to grtjups quickly evolved* 
and these exclusively paleozoic. 

In \8U\ Aiiguste (jQcusLodt began re- 
searches which ought long ago to have led to 
Ithis solution. He demonstrated by repeated 
[•examples^ that among diseased tyjies the roost 
Lcxtcnsive changes of form and stnieture might 
[take place in a single species, and within the 
narrowest limits of time and surfnce-distribu- 
tion. Quensl^sdt was thus the first to show 
that in diseased forms tlit* shell had the in- 
herent habit of reversing the process of growth 
and evolution, and of becimnug more and 
more uncoiled by successive retrograde stej^s. 
Vou Buch and t^uenstcflt, tnnst«*r and disciple, 
and the author independcutly of either of these 
predecessors, in three siiccessive researches, 
have arrived at the identical conclusion, that 
these uncoiled shells are truly distorted, or, as 
we may more accurately cx[»ress it, pathologi- 
al forms. They are not, however, rare or 
'exceptional, as one might at first suppose, but 
occur in numbers and in every grade » — from 
those that differ but little from the normal 
forms, to those that dilTer greatly ; from those 
that arc exceedingly contined in distribution, 
to those which lived through great^ir lengths 
of time. But in all cases they exhibit degra- 
dation, and are expiring types. The author 
has repeatedly traced series of them, and stud- 
ie«l iheir young, partly in (2uenstedt*s own col- 
lleotion. In all eases they show us that great 
plianges of form and structure may take place 
^lldcleuly ; and this lesson could have been 
ned from (^uenstedl's work and example 
well forty years since as now : and in all 
species tho young nre close-coiled, even in 
some which arc arcuate in the later lan^al, 
adolescent, and adult stages, Baculites, the 
extreme form, is straight, and the young still 
unknown. 

When we attempt to I'eaolve these pathologi- 
cal uncoiled series and forms, which show by 
tlieir close- coiled young that they were de- 
scenderl from close-coiled shells, we liud our- 
selves without comparisons or standards in the 
early life of tlie individual. The laws of gera* 
tology — that the old age of the individual 
shows degradation in the same direction as, 
and with similar changes to^ those which take 
1)1 ace in Buccessive species or groups of any 
aitlliated pathological series of uncoiled and de- 
graded forms — here come into use, and serve 
I explaia the phenomena* This correspond- 



ence is showu in the uncoiling of the whorls, 
loss of sixe, the succession in which the orna- 
ments and ]>ai'ts ai*e resorbed or lost, the ap- 
proximations of the septa, and position of the 
siphon. It is <iuite true, as first stated by 
Ciucnsledt and also by D'Orbiguy, that every 
shell, when outgrown, shows its aiiproaching 
death in the close approximatiun of the last 
sutures, the smoothness of the shell, the de- 
crease in size, etc. ; but, in order to realize 
that these transformations mean the same thing 
as those which take place in any scries of truly 
l)athological forms, we have to return to the 
types in which unfavorable surroundings have 
produceti distortions or etfects akin to what 
physicians would term pnthologieaL This fre- 
quently happens in small series of XauUloidea ; 
and, if we contlne ourselves to these, we can 
make very accurate comparisons : or, on the 
other hand, in the case of the Aramonoidea, 
wc may trace the death of an entire order, 
and show that it takes phice in accordance 
with the laws of geratology. Such series, 
among the Nautiloi/lca, are abundant in the 
earlier formations ; but they have not the gen- 
eral significance of the similar forms among 
the Ammonoidea, and can be neglected in this 
article. There are no known cases of degraded 
series of uncoiled forms among the ammonoids 
of the earlier or paleozoic periods: they may 
have occurred, but they must have been ex- 
cessively rare. In the trias and early Jura, 
pathological uncoiled forms are rare among am* 
monoids, but in the middle and upper Jura they 
increase largely : and finally, in the upper cre- 
taceous Uiey outnumber the normal involute 
shells, and the whole onler ceases to exist. 
Neumuy<tr has shown, that a similar degrada-^-J 
tion occurs in all of the normal ammonoids of 
the cretaceous, and that their sutures are less 
complicated than those of their immediate an- 
cestors in the Jura, This proves conclusively, 
that the degradation was general, and affected 
all forms of Aramonoidea at this time ; since the 
uncoiled forms are not confined to special local- 
ities, as in the Jura, but are found in all faunas 
so far as known. The facts show tliat some 
general physical catise acted simultaneously, 
or nearly so, over the whole of the k-iown ar 
of the world during the cretaceous period, 1 
and produced precisely similar etiects upon the 
whole type as had here and there l>een notice- 
able only within limited localities and upon 
single species or small numbers of species dur- 
ing the previous periods. This general cause, 
whatever it may have been, acted on the ty[>e 
BO as to cause the successive generations of the 
larger part of the Bhells to become distorted 



14H 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IU., No. 58, 



smaller and more cylindrical in their whorls, 
smoother, and to lose their complicated foliated 
sutures. In extreme cases they became again 
perfectly straight cones, like the orthoceratitic 
radicals. So much alike are they, that it is 
quite common for those who are not students 
of this group to mistake the degraded Baculites 
for the radical Orthoceras. This decrease in 
size, increasing smoothness, and uncoiling, is 
precisely parallel with the similar transforma- 
tions taking place during old age in the normal 
involute shells of the Jura, which, when old 
enough, also depart from the spiral, or tend to 
straighten out, and alwa^'s lose their orna- 
ments, decrease in size, and so on.^ 

Tlie universal action of the surroundings, as 
we now know them, is certainl}' not exclusively 
favorable to the continuance of life, and may 
be wholly more or less unfavorable. It cer- 
tainly perpetually excites the animal to new 
and more powerful exertions, and, like per- 
petual friction, wears out its structures by the 
efforts which it obliges it to make for the sup- 
port of the structures in doing work. At first 
this leads to development, tlie supply being 
greater than the demand ; but sooner or later, 
and with unvarying certainty, the demand ex- 
ceeds the powers of supph', and old age sets 
in, either prematureh', or at the termination of 
the usual developmental periods. The remark- 
able and at present unique example of the 
Ammonoidea places us in a position where we 
can see the same process taking place in tlie 
whole of a large group, with attendant pluMiom- 
ena similar in every respect to those wliieh we 
have observed in indivi<lnal shells of the same 
order. 

In numbers of species and genera, and in 
the complication of tlic internal structures 
and the production of the ext<'nial ornaments 
on tiie shells, tlir order reaches what appears 
to be the highest stage of development in the 
Jura : then retrogression begins, and, steadily 
gaining, Hnally allects all forms of the type, 
and it becomes extinct. Smaller series of the 
Annnonoidea and Xaiitiloidea tro tiiroiigh the 
same process in their respect i\(* time-limits, 
and in tlu» saine way, but can be compared 
with the individual nmch more ac'cnrately and 
closely. It is (evident, then, that the compari- 
son of theylife of an individual with that of 
its immediale series or group reaches a high 
degree of e:&actitude, and tliat the observed 
phenomena onthe life of an individual should 

» Wc are aware oAtheexlHteneo of evidence that AramoniteB 
of the normal form, tlnP types of whioh we have t«ecn, have been 
dcHcribfd from ibo lotvCT tcrtiarloH: but there arc »till doubts 
about the reputed aire oV the formatioiiHi ami, in any case, tl»ey 
only lend to confirm theV^'"*''*'^' trend of the facltt. 



enable us to explain, in some measure, the 
equivalent phenomena of the life of the group ; 
and we are unavoidably led to entertain the ex- 
pectation that it does explain it. This expec- 
tation was actually formulatc<i as a probable 
law for the whole animal kingdom by Haeckel 
in the same year (1806) as the author first 
published on the Tetrabranchiata. We are 
therefore able to quote this leader in science 
in support of our weaker knowledge ; and also 
a pupil of his, Wurtemburger, who has an- 
nounced the same results attained b}' researches 
on the Ammonites of the Jura, but, naturally* 
I)erhaps, omitted to recognize any one but his 
honored master. 

The evidence is very strong, that there is a 
limit to the progressive complications which 
may take place in any type, beyond which it 
can only proceed by reversing the process, and 
retrograding. At the same time, however, the 
evidence is equally strong, that there are such 
things as tyi)es which remain comparatively 
simple, or do not progress to the same degree 
as others of their own group. Among Nauti- 
loidea and Ammonoidea these are the radical 
or generator types. We have no case yet of 
a highly comi)licated, specialized type, with a 
long line of descendants traceable to it as the 
radical, except the retrogressive : but all our 
examples of radicals are taken from lower, 
simpler forms : and these radical types are 
longer-lived, moi-e persistent, and less change- 
able in time, than their descendants. 

We find the radicals of the Nnutiloidea liv- 
ing throughout the paleozoic, and perpetually 
evolving new types in all directions : then this 
process ceases, and the i)rimnry radicals th(»m- 
selves (lie out. Uut they leave shells, which are 
in that stage of i)rogression which 1 have called 
the nautilian. These, the more direct descend- 
ants of the radicals, become secondary radi- 
cals, and gcufrate series having more involute 
shells. These, in turn, as secondary radicals, 
exhibit ver}' decidedly a greater chronological 
<listribution than their descendant involute 
forms, persisting, even to th(^ present day, in 
Nautilus umbilicatns. The same story may 
be told of the Ammonoidea, but substituting 
at once the dose-coiled shell (the secondary 
radicals) for the primary radicals of the Nau- 
tiloidea, even as far back as the ('ambrian. 
These secondary radicals, gn^itly modilled but 
still carrying in their simpler organizations and 
mode of coiling the possibilities of a number 
of new series, existed by the side of the ex- 
piring degraded forms of the cretaceous. 

This is the essential element of difference 
between the life of the whole order and that of 



Fkmruarv 8, 1884,] 



SCIENCE. 



149 



Ibe iuclivkUial. We can accurately compare 
tlie rise and fall of the individual and its whole 
cN'cle of tmijslbnnations with that of any of 
the single iSeries or hraut'hes of the satue stock 
which become highly specialized and then de- 
l^cne rated ; but, when we attempt to go farther, 
wc meet with similar diOlculties to those en- 
countered in tracing the piogress of types and 
orders. The radical and persistent types are 
still present^ and teach us, that, as lon^ as they 
exist suffleiently unt^hangcd, new types are a 
possibility. \Ve have traced many of these 
in the two orders, and have found that they 
change and beconje more complicated, and tirat 
probably a purely persisteid or entirely unpro- 
gressive type does not exist among the tbssil 
Cephnlopoda. The most celebrated example 
of nTichaiiging persistency has been, and is now^ 
suppose<l to be, the modern Nautilus. We 
think, however, that when our observations 
are fully pyltlished* it will become evident that 
the similarities of this shell to some of the 
Cambrian coiled forms — which have caused 
Burr and e and others to suppose that it might 
be transfeired to the Cambrian faima without 
creating confusion — belong to the CMtegory 
known to the naturalist as representation ; that 
is, similarities of form^ and even of structure, 
in the adults, but with young having entirely 
distinct earlier stages of development, and 
belonging to distinct genetic series. Still, com- 
parative unprogre&sion or persistency is com- 
mon in all radicals ; and they force us to 
recogni;^e the fact, that the orders could have 
produced new series, perhaps even in the cre- 
taceous, if it had not been for the ilirect un- 
favorable action of tiic physical changes which 
then took place, so far as we now know, over 
the whole earth. 

Thus, in making our comparisons between 
the life of the* individual and the life of the 
group, we cannot say that the causes whieh 
pnxluced old age and those which in time pro- 
duced retrogressive types wert^ identical : we 
«'ttn only say, that they produced similar effects 
in (^hanging the structures of the individual 
and of the progressive types* and were there- 
fore unfavoralde to tlie farther development 
ami c<»mplication of these types. In their ef- 
Iccts they were certainly simihir; but in them- 
selves they might have beeiu and probably 
were, qtiite diJlerent, agreeing only In belong- 
ing to that class uf causes which we distin- 
guish aA pathological, or those whose nature 
can Ijc generally summed up as essentially 
urd'avorable to the progress, and even to the 
existence, of the organization. 

In order to understand the Tiipnninfr of thpst* 



evidently degraded structures, we must turn 
back to our tlrst remarks upon the ohler* The 
apertures and forms of the retrogressive shells 
all show that tliey were exceptional, that they 
had neither well-developed arms for crawling 
nor powerful pipes for swimming ; that, in 
other words, they could not have carried their 
spires in any of the oi-ciinary ways. Their 
habitats, therefore, must have been more or 
less sedentary ; and like the se den tar)' Gastro- 
poda, as compared with tlie locomotive forms, 
they ])resented degeneration of the form and 
structure of tlieir higher and more complicated 
ancestors. Their habitats did not require the 
progressive grades of structure, and they dis- 
pensed with or lost them ; and in many cases 
this took place very rapidly. This retrogres- 
sion was in itself unfavorable to a prolonged 
existence ; and the gcratologous nature of the 
changes tells the same story, so that we can 
attribute their extinction to the unfavorable 
nature of their new habitats, and also call them 
patljological types without fear of misrepresent- 
ing their trne relations to other forms. 

We have necessuril^' avoided even allusions 
to some tyC the most important coutirmatory 
facts; but we hope our effort will at least 
si low that the theory advanced is a reasonable 
one, and that the fossil Cephalopoda are worthy 
of the attention of even the most entlmsiastic 
of the young disciples of the modern school of 
embryology. The theories of this school will 
have to stand tests of which thej^ have now not 
even a faint idea, and it is to be hoped they 
will not long neglect the prec4iution of know- 
ing also the past history of the types they 
otlen so incautiously and contidcutly handle. 

Au^HKLfs Hyatt. 



THE MOTION OF WAVES OF COLD !N 
THE UNITED STATES, 

The chief signal-officer of the army desiring 
to learn the j)rogress of waves of cold across 
the Unitefl States, an investigation has been 
undertaken in order to rletcrmine the appear- 
ance of such waves, their approximate velocity, 
and general lino of advance. It would seem, 
at first sight, as though the problem might bo 
solved by drawing isotherms (i.e., lines through 
lX)ints at the same temi>erattn*c») on consecutive 
days, from simultaneous observations over the 
wliole country. If, then* there were a progres- 
sive motion, the Htu(\y of these lines would 
show it. It has been found, however, that a 
cold wave does not travel in a well-defined 
closed curve ; and, more tlian that, the gradual 
inerense of temt»eraturc, as the curves approach 



150 



SCIENCE. 



[You in.. No. 68. 



the fK>utli, maskft and often obliterates the mo- 
tion we seek to find. Again : such waves are 
frequently divided, then united, tlius by the loss 
of their identit\' making it impossible to trace 
them for a long jjeri^jd. One of the simplest 
methods of procedure in an investigation of 
this nature would 1k» the projection of the ob- 
servations of temi)erature in curves, one for 
each station, anr] then studying the fluctuations 
from station to station. This was done by 
Professr^r Elias IxKimis, in his ninth pai>er, in 
which 1h* investigated the motion of waves of 
high and low pressure. 

An investigation of this kind, a short time 
since, gave lO.M da^'s for the mean interval 
of time f>f sixteen waves, moving from St. 
Micliacrs, Alaska, to Tunichansk, Siberia, 
along the sixty-fifth parallel, or an approximate 
mean velocity of 15.H miles per hour. Such 
a determination, however, cannot be regarded 
as entirely satisfactory, because it simply takes 
into account a series of sUitions lying in an 
east and west direction. 

In order to extenrl the investigation to a 
large number of stations, we may take daily 
' departures * from the monthly mean, and, pro- 
jecting these upon charts, determine the char- 
act<;r of the fluctuations over a large area. In 
pnicti<'(i, however, this method fails, for the 
reason that the fluctuations diminish toward 
souther!}' latitudes, thus masking the progres- 
sive motion. 

The following method has been adopted for 
obviating the latter difllculty. We ma}' con- 
sider, that if a (rold wave advance in any di- 
rection, without disturbance from dense clouds 
or monntain ridges, it will carry minimum tem- 
peratures to succ(»ssive stations in its path ; 
the intervals of time between the passage of 
HU(;h a minimum over any one station taken as 
a starting- i)oint, and others in the line of prog- 
ress, gradually increasing. By determining, 
then, the time of passage of a minimum across 
each station in a country, and charting these 
times, we can asc(?rtain both the line of advance 
and the velocity of the wave. 

In order to obtain the time of passage of a 
mininuun temperature over a station, where 
a series of observations has been made each 
day, it is (essential first to eliminate the effect 
of diurnal range. This may be done by ob- 
taining the residuals for each observation of a 
month, taken at any hour ; then, determining 
the approximate time of passage, we can, by 
examining the successive residuals near that 
time, obtain the time sought. An effort has 
been made to apply^the above principles to the 
observations of the V. S. signal-service, taken 



five times each day during November, 1881, 
at forty-two selecterl stations. In this month 
there were four prominent cold waves ; and the 
following table gives the interval of time which 
elapsed between the passage of each of these 
over Fort Dun vegan. North-west territory, and 
each of the fort^-two stations. These figurea 
are inserted exacth' as determined from the 
observations. It was found, however, that 
many of the apparent discrepancies in a pro- 
gressive law of motion were due to the appear- 
ance of clouds at the time of an observation, 
thus throwing the minimum forward or back 
four and even eight hours. Blanks indicate 
that the minimum could not be determined 
satisfactorily. 

Cold wa ves^ /. , //. . ///. . and IV. , of November^ 



sution. 



Ilouri* betw«'fn Fort I>anvi.'gan 
and (»tation» in I'. 8. 



AIiM-na, Mich 4s 

Bidmarck. Dak 24 

Boston, Mask 64 

BrownMvillo, IVx 48 

Buffalo, X.Y ' 'M 

BurlinKU.n, Vt 04 

Cape May, X..J 4S 

Charlotte, N.C , M 

Chattanoo^Ht Tenn 32 

Cheyenne, Wyo ' 

Cincinnati. O :W 

Concho, Tex 

Davenport, lo 24 

Deadwood, Dak 

Dodge City, Kan 32 

Ea8lp(»rt, Me 72 

EI Tiwo, Tex HO 

Fort A«»«lnaboin<?, Mont. . . 24 

Fort Biiford, Mont 20 

Fort Elliott, Tex 32 

Fort (Jibnon, Ind. 'i'er. . . . 32 

QalveHton, Tex 72 

Huron, Dak 

Key Went. Fla 04 

Kitty Hawk, N.C ')•'. 

Marquette, Mich 4o 

MemphiH, Tt-nn 32 

Monti^onierv. Ala j'h* 

Moorhead, Minn 24 

New Orleani*, Im 

North riatte. Neb 

New York, N.Y 48 

Omaha, Neb 

HIttf burg, Tenn 52 

PunU llanBU, Fla 4K 

St. Louio, Mo 32 

St. Taul, Minn , '24 

St. Vincent, Minn 24 

Savannah, Ga 52 

Shreveport, Ija 

Toledo, O I 28 

Wanhington, D.C 56 



IJ. 


HI. 


IV. 


Mean 


32 


52 


64 


49 


12 


16 


48 


25 


52 


60 


72 


62 


M 


. 32 


64 


52 


.-.0 


, 4S 


76 


« 


_ 


_ 


70 


68 


72 


64 


72 


64 


4S 


52 


72 


57 


48 


40 


56 


44 


- 


12 


2S 


20 


2S 


:.2 


56 


42 


- 


32 


48 


40 


24 


32 


48 


:« 





8 


40 


16 


s 


12 


32 


21 


50 


64 


76 


67 


72 


56 


64 


OS 





— S 


24 


10 





-16 


40 


11 


16 


32 


48 


:J2 


24 


2S 


5r. 


35 


4S 


4S 


52 


55 


S 


S 


32 


16 


_ 


_ 


70 


70 


50 


50 


70 


01 


4S 


40 


52 


45 


24 


4S 


52 


39 


_ 


56 


70 


<C 


24 





48 


24 


4s 


52 


72 


57 


8 


10 


32 


ly 


72 


' 50 


SO 


iH 


8 


' 24 


40 


24 


50 


, ^^ 


48 


51 


- 


' 84 


72 


1)8 


24 


32 


52 


35 


24 


30 


40 


31 


10 


24 


28 


23 


72 


, 56 


70 


63 


- 


1 ^- 


52 


42 


:u) 


1 ''2 


76 


46 


48 


T2 


72 


62 



Projecting the mean interval for the four 
waves upon a chart (see accompanying plate) • 



152 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 58. 



aud taking Fort Assinal>oine as a sUarting-point, 
we obtain the following lines of advance : — 



on descent. The boat, in this case, is connected to 
the balloon by suspension-cords running obliquely; 



St. Vincent, Minn. 
Huron, Dak. 
North Platte, Neb. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 



ITouKs FKOM Fort Assinauoine. 
20. :)0. 40. 



' Duluth, Minn. Marquette, Mich. 

I St. Paul, Minn. Milwaukee, Wis. 

i Leavenworth, Kan. Chicago, 111. 
I Fort Sill, Tex. ^femphis, Tenn. 

I Santa Fe, New Mex. Denl^^on, Tex. 
Concho, Tex. 



Erie, Peun. 
Pittsburg, Penn. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Vicksburg, Miss. 
Brackettville, Tex. 



60. 



Rochester, N.Y. 
Washington, D.C. 
Charlotte, N.C. • 
Augusta, Ga. 
Mobile, Ala. 



This shows that in November, 1^81 , the cold 
waves were about two days in travelling from 
Fort Assinaboine to Washington. It would be 
an interesting comparison if a like investiga- 
tion were undertaken for waves of heat, also, 
during other months of the year. A similar 
method may be applied to the advance of 
waves of high and low pressure, with the great 
advantage that clouds would not interfere with 
the determination of the time of passage. 

This subject has attracted much attention 
from time to time, and recently it has been 
taken up by Mr. A. N. Pearson of India 
{Nature, Aug. 0, 188:5). 

The chief signal-ofKcer has kindly permitted 
this publication in advance of a more extended 
investigation. II. A. Hazen. 



TISSANDIEWS ELECTRIC BALLOON.^-^I. 

In describing recently the new hydrogen-gas appa- 
ratus which we had constructed in our workrooms 
at Paris-Auteuil, we mentioned that the governable 
electric balloon, which has been in preparation since 
tlie electrical exposition, was ready for trial. This 
took place the 8th of last October. 

The arrangement of the controllable electric balloon 
consists of three distinct pieces of apparatus, — the 
air-balloon, properly so called; the gas apparatus to 
inflate it; and the electric motor to supply freedom 
of motion by means of a screw. 

The construction of an elongated aerial ship pre- 
sented serious difficulties. We were aided by two ex- 
periments, —that of Mr. Henri Gittard in 1852, and 
that of Mr. Dupuy de L6me in 187'-. In the model 
which we tried at the time of the (electrical exposi- 
tion, we arranged for the suspension of the little boat 
a low rod, running longitudina similar to that of 
the air steamship of Mr. Giffard. We afterward con- 
cluded that it would be better to place the screw be- 
hind a large parallelopiped-shaped boat, high enough 
to protect the propeller against the danger of a shock 

» Traniblatcd from La Kature, 



n^li 



and the deformations of the arrangement are escaped 
by means of a flexible shaft fixed at either side of the 
balloon. The balloon was constructed by my brother, 
in the rooms of Mr. H. Lachambre, to whom was 
intrusted the making of the new air-ship. A model 
15 cubic metres in capacity was first made; and, after 
studying the action of this in a captive state, tlie 
construction of the large balloon (fig. 1) was begun. 
Its shape was like that of Mr. GiffanPs and Mr. De 
L6uie's balloons: it was 2H metres long, and 0.2 me- 
tres in diameter through the middle. On its lower 
surface, there is a cone with an automatic valve: it 
is made of a thin cloth, rendered impermeable by a 
new varnish prepared by Mr. Arnoul of Saint-Ouen- 
I'Anmdne. The capacity of the balloon is 1,000 cu- 
bic metres. 

The netting over the balloon is formed of ribbons 
woven with longitudinal spindles, which keep them 
in their proper geometric positions. The ribbons 
thus easily adapt Uiemselves to the inflated material, 
and do not form projections, as do the meshes of a 
net. The netting is connected on the sides of the 
balloon with two flexible shafts, which perfectly 
conform toils shape, passing along the centre of each 
side. The shafts are made of thin walnut laths fitted 
with bamboo: they are connected by silk belts. At 
the lower end of the netting are iuter.-jecting rods, at 
the ends of which are twenty suspension-ropes con- 
nected in groups of five to the four upper corners of 
the car. This latter is in the form of a cage made 
of bundles of bamboo rods, strengthened by cords and 
threads of copper cov(.'red with gutta-percha. The 
lower part is made of walnut cross-pieces, which sup- 
port the willow basket. The susi>ension-ropes en- 
tirely cover the boat: they are woven into the basket, 
being previously sheathed in caoutchouc, which, in 
case of accident, protects them from the acid liquid 
contained in the boat to feed the batteries. The sus- 
I>en8ion-ropes are connected horizontally by rigging 
about two metres above the boat. The guide and 
anchor ropes are attached to this rigging, which also 
serves to equally distribute the traction during tlie 
descent The rudder, a broad surface of unvarnished 
silk supported by bamboo, is also arranged behind. 
The weights of the different parts are as follows: — 



154 



SCIENCE. 



[Vox., m., Ko. 68. 



KilograjDB. 

Balloon, with the valves 170 

Cover, with rudder and bUBpcnciion-ropes . . 70 

Flexible sldc-shafU 34 

Car 100 

Motor, Bcrew, and butteries, with liquid for 

2h. 3()m 280 

Btopping-roacliinery (anchor and guide rope), dO 

Weight of material 704 

Two pa«sengeris, with InstrumentB 150 

Ballaftt 3W 

Total weight 1,240 

Allowing 10 kilograms, the lifting-force was 1,250 
kilograms. The capacity of the balloon being 1,000 
metres, the gas had a lifting-force of 1,180 grams per 
cubic metre, — a result not hitherto obtained in the 
production of large quantities of hydrogen. 

By the end of September the gas apparatus was 
ready for trial ; the balloon was stretched out on the 
ground under a long tent, in order that it might be 
immediately inflated; the boat and the motor were 
stowed under a cart-house; and my brother and I 
were only awaiting good weather to make the trial. 
On the 0th of October there was a rise of barometer; 
on the 7th the weather was fine, with light wind; 
and we decided to make the experiment the follow- 
ing day, Oct. 8, 1883. 

The inflation of the balloon began at eight o'clock 
in the morning, and continued, without pause, till 
half-past two in the afternoon. This operation was 
expedited by means of the equatorial ropes hanging 
at the right and left of the balloon, and to which 
were attached the ballast-bags. (The ropes are 
shown in fig. 2, which also presents the spindle- 
shaped balloon as seen from one end.) The inflation 
completed, we proceeded to arrange the boat and the 
ebonite tanks, each of which contains thirty litres of 
the acid solution of bichromate of potassium. At 
twenty minutes past three, having heaped in the bal- 
last and obtained equilibrium, we were slowly raised 
into the air, a light east-south-east wind blowing. 
On the ground there was almost no wind; but, as fre- 
quently happens, it increased with the altitude ; and 
we found, when the balloon had risen five hundred 
metres, that it attained a velocity of three metres 
a second. 

My brother was especially engaged in regulating 
the ballast, in onler to keep a constant low altitude. 
The balloon was kei>t very regularly at a height of 
four or five hundred metres. It remained perfectly 
inflated ; and the superfluous gas escaped by opening, 
under its pressure, the automatic valve, the action of 
which was very uniform. 

Several minutes after the departure, I tried the 
bichromate of potassium batteries, composed of 
four troughs with six compartments, making twenty- 
four elements in circuit. A mercury commutator 
enabled us to use at. pleasure six, twelve, eighteen, 
or twenty-four elements, and thus to obtain four dif- 
ferent speeds of the sWew, varying from sixty to a 
hundred and eighty revolutions per minute. With 
twelve elements, we foiipd that the speed of the bal- 
loon was insuflicient ; bul above the Bois de Boulogne, 
when our motor was woiking with great speed, with 



twenty-four elements a very different eOeet wis pro- 
duced. The movement of the balloon became sud- 
denly appreciable, and we felt afresh breeze produced 
by our horizontal motion. With the balloon head to 
the wind, pointing toward the belfry of the church 
of the Auteuil, near our starting-point, we remained 



^4^ 




Fio. 2. 



motionless, as we proved by noting consi>icuous points 
beneath our car. Unfortunately it did not long 
maintain this position; but, after acting well for 
several instants, it suddenly began gyratory motions 
which the rudder was powerless to completely control. 
In spite of the rotations which in later trials we were 
able to prevent, we tried the same experiment for 
more than twenty minutes, during which we could 
perceive that we were over the Bois de Boulogne. 
When we tried to change our position by cutting the 
wind perpendicularly to its direction, the rudder 
became inflated like a sail, and the rotations were 
produced with much greater violence. From this we 



Fkbrdaby a, 1884.) 



SCIENCE, 



155 



assume that the position which au air-ship ought to 
occupy should be such that its major axis ra^y make 
witlL the line of the wind an ang:le of severul degreeft« 

After the expeHinenta we have just de3cribed| we 
stopped the motor, aitd the hallmin passed over Mont- 
Vftl<?rien. Once, when it had talien the direi?tion of 
the wind, we began again to turn the screw, proceed- 
ing this time with tlje current. The speed of tlie bal- 
loon was increased, and by means of tlie rudder we 
were now easily able to turn to the right or left from 
tlie line of the wind, We proved this by ts^kingt as 
before, some point on the surface; and several spec- 
tators also verified it. 

At tliirty-five minutes past four we made the de- 
scent in a large plain near Croissy-8ur-Seine» The 
operation of landing was conducted by my brother 
with great success. We left the balloon Inflated over 
nighty and llu> nest day it had not lost the least gas. 
Painters and plioto^Ta pliers were enabled to obtain 
views of our air-ship, which was surrounded by a 
numerous and sympathetic assembly which the novel 
sight had attracted from alt sides. 

We had intended to make a new ascent on this 
day: but, on account of the cold of the night, the 
bichromate of potassium in our ebonite tanks had 
crystallized ; and the battery, which was by no means 
exhausted, was on this account, however, incapable 
of action. We drew the balloon to the shore of the 
Seine, near the bridge of Croissy; and there, to our 
great regret, we w^ere obliged to discharge the gas, and 
to lose in a few instants what had required so uiueh 
care in Its preparation. 

Without descril»ing in greater detail onr return, we 
have concluded from this first trial that, 1^, electricity 
furnishes a bnlloon with the most convenient power, 
the management of which in the car is remarkably 
easy; 2°, in our own case, when our screw, 2.H 
metres in diameter, made a hundred and eighty 
revolutions per minute, we were able to keep head 
to a wind moving three metres per second, and, when 
proceeding with tlie current, to deviate from the line 
of the wind with great eaj^e: ^i*^, the mode «>f sus- 
pension of a car from an elongated l>alloon by means 
of bands running obliquely, aiid supported by flexi- 
ble side-shafts, insures perfect stability to the whole. 

We ought to say that our ascent of Oct. 8 should 
be considered only as a preliruinary trial, which will 
be repeated with the alterations which onr experience 
commends. In addition, we would mention that 
there was in Ihe car a considerable excess of ballast, 
and that eventually it will be possible for us t<» use a 
much more powerful motor. Aerial navigation will 
not be made practicable through a single attempt: it 
will require many trials and efforts and great pci-se- 
verance under every ordeal. 

{To fr(t coNtiHued.) 



THE 



DISCOVBHY OF THE 
SWll^E-PLAaUE. 



GERM OF 



\f^ a communication read before the Paris academy 
of sciences, Nov. ^>, 1884J, by M, Paatcur, the follow- 
ing paragraph occurs: — 



»' A« iooD mm 1 reci'h*f<l hi<i [Thwllli«Vf5wt letter* from the 
commune of Peux, In ibe dcpanaienl of Vlviiius It wik» certain 
thftt hi* ht&d pfreclveil in the btood titid bumora uf tbu do&d tiojs* 
a new microbion wbjch it seemed *hoiiM hti ibc uuibor of Xha 
dlAeafte. Thie miei\tblon bad •'•cuped tlu* obson'ntloD «>f Dr. 
Klein of London, In tbe roumv of u long und rcninfknblc wo- 
count of autop«lc'» and exporiraeutii publiitUod llirec yt'iirt txifore 
fn tho report of tbe EniflJab sanitary office. T>r. Kteln «tAU«d 
ibat a micrublon wai» tbe cnnse of tbea^ecliuu ; bui be committed 
an error, for Ibe mferobion lUnt he dei^cribed Jwui no connt'cUan 
wilb ibc cause of raug^l. Thiilillcr by hit ubeervatlou bud ov«r- 
i.'ome th«> principal difllcuUy to & knowledfre of ttil« dlte(is« of 
the bog. llifttuHc Iruih, however, obUffcii mo to der.litr*i» Ibal la 
1B82, and aUo in tlie month of Mnreb, the mierobiun of ti/ug«l 
wa« fllgnallod at CbieafirOf in America, by rrofe»»nr Dctmer*, in ik 
paper which does greiil honor to lt» author. TbirllUer eould not 
have been acquAlntc^d with thl» puper^ iind I coyBolf only leunied 
of its C!xiiteuc« very recently. The obMervuUou of tlie mk'roblcrti 
of nuggt of the bug by Tbullller datCM from tbe 15th of March, 
1882."* 

It is SO very seldom Ibat Invef^tigations on this side 
of tbe water receive any notice wbatever abroad, 
and particularly in France^ that it aeems a pity even 
to call attention to the very great injiiBtice done to 
American work iu tlie above statement, since any 
recognition at all is so much better tban being quietly 
ignored, Tbert* is, however, bo much of general in- 
terest in regard to the gradual development of our 
knowledge of the germ of this disease, so much of 
interest in tbe success and failures of those who have 
worked upon it. that, aside from our desire to see his- 
tory correctly written, there is .sufficient incentive for 
tracing the progress of this study^ which commenced 
when the first real light was breaking upon the germ- 
tlieory of disease. 

Dr. Klein deserves more credit for his share in the 
discovery of ihe micrococcus of swinc-plagiie than 
M. Pasteur seems inclined to grant. In 1870 he 
publislu^d one of the first, if not the very first, relia* 
blc microscopic studies of this disease. The care 
iiivl skill shnwn in this invet»tigation are more appar- 
ent tu-day than when the details were first published; 
and, all hough lie subscrjuently made the unfortunate 
mistake of altii bitting the cause uf the disease to a 
bacillus, this fact should not be allowed to weigh 
figaiust his fornuT and really valuable researches.* 

In his account of the micro^icopic appearances of 
tlie intestine, the foHowing sentence occurs r — 

**FrQra &nd cveb before tbe fltVt ftigim of necro«l* of the mn- 
eofia. viz., when ib«9 t'pUheliuEn begiiMi to breiik down iind bo 
►bed from the surface, there are found m««a«a of micrococci, 
whicJi in iiome uken occupy a great portlou of tho d^briM"* 

A little farther oii he says, — 

" There $• one more ptfint *h(ch I believe deaeiTe* careful at- 
lentlon. In tbe nicerulluit of th«i tungQe jual mentioned, and at 
ft Umc when tite itipcrtlebit «CAb liri« not bectjtmo removed, I hairtt 
neen matuK'H of ui3crocc»ccl situate cliiefly iu thu ll»<«utf of th« 
papillae^ but at Mjme phtees reaehlng um fur dc«p n« tbe Infirm- 

* La vactirtation du rouptt df* pore* d Pahlt tSn f^iru* mortfi 
aiti'tmi ftf cette mahtftU. I'astsub ei 't'etriixiiiri. Oompt<e§ 
rrndH*, Xevil. p. 1164, 

* Kcport on tbe no-ratlcd enteric or typbold fever of tbe plg» 
by t)ll. Ki.atN. Id lieporta of th«r metlfcal ufl1ec>r of the privy 
council and locftl government board. New Burit** Ko. VIH. 
Report to tiio Lordi of lh« ooundt on fldenUlU; ItivetUgftli'^n*. 
et<*., 1870, pp, 91-101. 

< I^uc. clt, p. m. 



156 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. in., No. 63. 



mat Ion ozteiidi*. That thoy arc inlcrocoocl wa« proved by their 
fortnlni; lumpn of uniform ii^ninulcfi: thetv lumps ataln drop pur- 
j)U'.bluf in h:i( in:tt«)xylin, ond are tlniv v»-ry con»plruou», ami 
b<'»ildi>»» n'i«lt.i till' action of cauntic potanh, with which all th«' 
n*Ht of this ti-Mue <liKappi>ari«. Tlirn*- heapH of mlcn>c(K'ci in 
locality corrccponil to thv papillae, nn<l are on the surface of the 
Mcah, but undem'-ath th<; coverlnif epithelium, some parts of thin 
having change<l into a dry, hard, discolored mast*, otherr* con- 
taining liirjfcr or Hmaller venlcles filled with fluid." ' 

In tlie examination of the respiratorj' organs we 
are giv«M» even stronger evidence for connecting 
tliese organisms with the cause of the disease. In 
thr; mucous nuMubrane of the anterior surface of the 
epiglottis, which was only slightly inflamed in its 8ul>- 
mucous tissiu*, he found — 

•• I.yinplmtio vesHcU tilled with micrococci. ... In the infil- 
trated, firm, more or less disintegrating partM [of the lungj I find 
great mafo^eH of micrococci filling up capillariect and veins, and 
also contained in lymphatics around arteries.3 . . . The pleura is 
much swollen, and contains great numbers, continuous layern, uf 
iumpn of micrococci. The free nurface of ll>e membrane 1* in 
many partr* covered with them. The exudati<m fluid is also 
charged with them as has been mentioned above."-" 

AVe have here tlie record of the unbiassed satant 
seeking after the truth, and describing what he sees 
without any attempt to draw conclusions or build up 
theories. It was before Koclfs brilliant investiga- 
tions, identifying the Hacillus anthracis as the active 
principle in charbon virus, had seen the light. There 
was still the greatest doubt as to whether tlie contagia 
were essentially animal cells, vegetable organisms, or 
chemical poisons. It would have been premature to 
have presented the micrococci at that time as the cause 
of the disease, though it is evident from the!*e obser- 
vations that they existed in the tissues of the body 
before the death of llic animal. We have conse- 
quently two (juestions to consider in an inquiry of 
this kind; viz., (1) Who is entitled to priority for 
discovering and demonstrating the presence of micro- 
cocci in the tissues and li(iuids of diseased animals? 
and (2) Who was first in proving the connection be- 
tween the micrococci and the essential constituent of 
the virus ? 

It seems very evident that Dr. Klein discovered the 
micrococci as early as 1870, but it is equally evident 
that his investigations were not sufficient to show 
that this parasite was the cause of the disease. The 
fact that from later observations, of an entirely differ- 
ent nature, he attributed the cause to another organ- 
ism, surely can at this day detract nothing from the 
merits of the paper from which I have just quoted ; and 
it must consequently be acknowledged as a matter of 
liistorical truth, the data of which are fully recorded, 
that Klein discovered the micrococci of swine-plague 
long before they were seen by Pasteur and Thuillier. 

AVe can now pass to a brief consideration of the 
investigations which were intended to connect certain 
organisms found in the tissues or liquids of di.scased 
and dead animals with the cause of the disease. 

In 187S a second and very elaborate report was 
made by Dr. Klein,"* in which he gives exi)erimeiits 

» Tx)c. cit., p. W. 2 Ibid., p. 10(». •• IhhI., p. 101. 

« Ueport on infectious pneumo-enteritis of the plj; (so-called 
plg-typhold), by Dr. K. Klein, F.K.8. Report of the medical 
ofllcer of the local government bo.ird. London, 1877 and 1878, 
pp. lrt'>--2D(). 



that are supposed to demonstrate the pathogenic na- 
ture of a speci6c bacillus found in certain liquids of 
diseased hogs, and cultivated for several generations 
in the aqueous humor from rabbits* eyes. Coming 
so soon after the publication of Koch's remarkable 
studies of the life-history of the anthrax bacillus, and 
agreeing so closely with them in all imjwrtant re- 
spects, it is scarcely to be doubted that the earlier 
conclusions had more or less influence in shaping 
the later ones. Wliile it might be interesting to the 
specialist to enter into details in regard to the defec- 
tive methods of cultivation used, the unsatisfactory 
results of the microscopic examination of the tissues 
and fresh liquids for the bacilli, and the still more 
unsatisfactory results of tlie inoculation experiments 
with the cultivated organisms, our space will not per- 
mit this at present. In behalf of a most indefatigable 
worker, however, I would call attention to the fact 
that this mistake of Klein's was not so extraordinary 
as it may appear to many to-<lay, because the methods 
of cultivating and studying disease-germs have to a 
large extent been perfected since that time. 

In the same year a number of p<»rsons were ap- 
pointed by the U. S. commissioner of agriculture 
to investigate the disease ktiown in this countr>' as 
hog-cholera. The greater part of these served but 
two months: but Dr. Detmers, having reported the 
discovery of the disejise-genn, was allowed to con- 
tinue his investigations. In his first report, Dr. Det- 
mers stated that the disease was caused by a bacillus, 
which he named liacillus suis, because the same, so 
far as he was able to learn, was peculiar to and char- 
acteristic of swine-plague.^ He saw micrococci, but 
regarded them as bacillus germs: indeed, he states 
that he constantly observed one of these under the 
microscope while it ** budded, and grew to double its 
length, in exactly two hours.** ^ 

This report of Dr. Detmers, coming so soon after 
Klein's, and attributing the virulence to a bacillus of 
substantially the same characters as that described by 
Klein, while the latter's micrococci were made to do 
duty as bacillus germs, — a relation which had been 
previously ascribed to them by the medioal officer in 
his * preliminary note,' though it was not suggested 
by the English investigator himself, — did much to 
confirm the bacillus theory, and to convince scien- 
tific men that the parasite of another contagious fever 
had actually been isolated, and it-* connection with 
the disease demonstrated. 

In January, 1.^80, M. Mdgnin published the results 
of a microscopic examination of the blood in this 
disease, in which he described and figured a micrococ- 
cus.^ This organism cxi«>ted in single granules, and 
also in clusters and chains, and jigreed so clo.sely with 
one subsequently studietl by me that I reproduced the 
drawings of it in connection with my report written 
the following December. "• 

' Department of agriculture. Special report. Xo. 12, 1870, 
p. 42. 

» I.,oc. cit., p. M. 

3 Recuell de mudecino veterinaire, 1880, pp. 30, ,'17. 

* Department of agricuUuiv. Special report, Xo. 34, pp. 80, 
81, plato IX. 



PmrnuAUT 8, 18»4.] 



SCIENCE. 



157 



In hi» second n^porf J I>n Df*tmers does not seem 
to hare tnaterially miwiified the views reftTred \o 
above, though ho hml been studying the disease dur- 
u»j5 the whole of ant>ther j'ear. In di*eiiSftiiug ac- 
cepted classjficatiati!« in his supplemental report, he 
says, — 

"Alt, bowt'vcr, tcoin In ii^rt^rs thnt lho»tt Bclil](ontjrc*ctefi 
elanud by tbein tiudpr the? n«mu of ' UnpUliitMn nol form ctUiter« 

do tiftt tmdorsK) mt<Uiiiiurf>tiuHOit frum Jilobulnf tu rod'sliii|M'd 

''^ ' ' ■ ■ ' ' -' > ■ '■ " nactorlsilr of th<* mlcro- 

iilly H!* foutjJ In swlne- 
i , U;icnii)0» WA* not woU 

As I have shown elsewliere, ■ ihft two points re- 
ferred to wouid not exclude an organism from the 
genus BacilluH, The best-known bacilli eertainly 
devebip from resting spores of an oval form, ns s»t»en 
MUiWv the microscope: same of these spores approach 
very closely to the globular; and, if tbey should br per- 
fect spheres, tlic classijkation would not be affecled 
in the Jea^t. The other point — that an organism^ 
multiplying as a micrococcus, after a time develops 
^ hi to a rod-shA[)ed body — ia an idi*a, tliat, althou^di it 
U persistently pressed in some qunrtcrM^ ha^ never 
been accepted Ijy the best authorilies, and b no more 
true of the organism in quesUon than of other forms 
of micrococci, as I have assured myself by long 
series of cultivatiojjs. The f«ct of greatest impor- 
tance to the present inquiry is, that up to this time 
Dr. Detmers considered the organism of swlne-pla^e 
to be rod-,'shaped in its developed form. This sujv 
piemen tal report, in which the first doubts are ex- 
pressed in regard to the organism being a real 
bacillus^ was dated six weeks after tlie appearance 
of Mdgnin*8 paper, and was not distributed for seven 
or eight mouths subsequent to this. It is to be re- 
membered, also, that in none of the above investiga- 
tions were any autRcieut precautions talteii to exclude 
atmospheric germs from the liquids examined, and 
uo pure cultivations were made. It was therefore 
a matter of considerable doubt whether the organisms 
descriljed were really in the blood as it circulated 
in the living animal, or whether thof were intro- 
duced po»i mortem. 

The third report of Dr. Detmers bears tite date of 
Dec. 4, I8SIK* In thia it was slatetl that the'*swijie- 
plttgue Schizophylae present themselves in different 
ahapo and form/' The Blmplest form Is that of a 
iDicrococcus. The second form is bi^pberical: the 
spherical cell has grown aiid become contracted, or 
lndent4^l in the middle, forming two united gran- 
ules. 

'*Tbcs»o bi«p1)i>rk»l SchUopfiytAC ttw iilwjiys more or le«« nil- 
ni«rtfa», »re Hthnr At nr«l «tr inovbiif, nml tiBttatly pmvld«d aI 
one vnd wUli i^ llanrt'lliim or fiuiit-llniri'llufn, wtitcb, bowever, 
U «<i exctH^dlngly rlno tbnt I Iiuvp novfr t^rDR' It i*soe|>t with Ibe 
-)K bnmui^-tiCH>iia Initiferttluii »hjt*<?tlvo of To\\M1^. aud un nintdl* 
ficAllon nf oMvf 1,.''<«t diHincU'n, aod tbeii only while the 8oT»Uo- 
phyuu WAX movtnif.'*' 

' [>«p«rtiiit»nt of R^irnhure. ji^p«icIbI r<*port, Ko. '22, pp. 

« Lnc. vH , |v m. ' Speclftl rtsporU No. ^4, p. 68. 



He then goes on lo describe* the formation of a 
chain of bisphcrical elenicnta, and mentions tlie 
existence of xoogloea masses as well. He bad not 
yet given up the rod orliacillus form: for he states 
thai in the blood and pleural exudaliMU, when a day 
or two old, and sometimes while yta fresh, rod- 
shaped bacteria cau be observed; and it appears 
probable that the same constitute another form of 
the swine-pL^ue Sehlzophytae.* 

The same volume contaiued a report of mine in 
which are detailed certain experiments atid observa- 
tions on the schizophytes peculiar to tbis di4«?a«e* 
In this report was given a deseripttfui of the first 
successful attempt*, as I believe, lo deuionstrute what 
micro-organisms, if any, existed in the^ blood and 
other liquids of living hogs sick with swi7iV-phiu:uc. 
To keep the liquids to be examined fr<ie from all sus- 
picion of contamination, vacuum tubes were pre- 
pared by drawing to a v»oint the two end-n of a small 
piece of glass tubing about a fifth of an inch in 
diameter. A drop or two of w.iter wai< then as- 
pirated into this tube, boiled to secure a vacuum, 
and the ends immediately sealed. The tube was now 
heated to redness to destroy any bacteria spores that 
might still bo in it, aiui it was ready for tilling with 
the virulent liquid. In use. a very sick bog was 
killed, a vein laid bare, soraeiimes before the animal 
was quite dead, the vacuum tube was passed through 
the flame of an alcohol lamp, the finely drawn-out 
end forced into the vein and broken across its walls, 
when it would immediately till, and was sealed in 
the lamp as soon as withdrawn.-^ It is plain that 
such tubes could be preserved indefinitely for exiim- 
ination without any suspicion of atmospheric con* 
tamination. The only change that could occur would 
be due to a continued multiplication, — a kind of 
cultivation of the organisms which had existed iti 
the blood of the living animal. 

Three separate outbreaks of swine-plague at widely 
separated points were investigated; and In everyone, 
I found, by the method of study jtist referred to, 
that the virulent liquids contained microixiccl, sin- 
gle, and in chains and clust^r^, but neverj-iid forms, 
except in those cases where tbe tubes ilid not (ill 
well, or where ibey were imperfectly sealed. And 
blood from the most j>erfect of tbe^e tubes, which 
contained no visible organisms but niicn»cocci, pro* 
duced unmistakable and severe ca^es of swine-plague 
in hioculated animals/^ These were the first experi- 
ments in which the virulent material, preserved free 
from suspicion of almos|dicric contamiuation, was 
shown to coutalu but a single **pccie8 of schizopbyles; 
and they were consequently the first which indicated 
any connection between the micrococci and the essen- 
tial cause of this disease. 

In his fourth report, Dr. Detmers states ]visitively 
that some of the swine plague organisms develop a 
lasting spore, and are changed into a beloViacterium.* 
But there is no account of any measures ad^qUed to 
decide which of the forms observed in the Impure 
liquids examined had existed in the borly of the 

• hoc. ell., p, \m, « IMfL, p.m. J /hU„ pp. 23, «4. 

* hvpiirtrnitit of nirrlcuUuriv Aiintail r<'|H»rt. I'^AI ami IHftL 



158 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IIL, No. 63. 



living animal; nor was there any substantial reason 
given for considering the helobacterium as belonging 
to the same species as the micrococci, or, if they 
happened to be different, which, if either, was able 
to cause the disease. 

The same volume contains my report bearing the 
date of Jan. 27, 1882. In this are details of success- 
ful inoculation experiments with the sixth pure cul- 
tivation of micrococci which had been obtained and 
cultivated with every precaution known to science at 
the present day.^ It was the first real evidence of 
the pathogenic action of these organisms. It was 
equally satisfactory with the experiments of MM. 
Pasteur and Thuillier; and the inoculations were 
made Jan. 17, 1881, or fourteen months before the 
discovery of this same organism by these gentlemen. 

The communication of Dr. Detmers, referred to by 
M. Pasteur, appeared in the American ncUuralist for 
March and April, 1882, and was a risumS of his 
studies for the department of agriculture. In this 
article he still thinks there is just cause to suppose 
that the organism of swine-plague has a helobac- 
terium, or rod form, and a resting spore. There are, 
/ however, no new observations or experiments referred 
to, there is no additional proof that the micro- 
cocci seen by him were not the result of atmospheric 
contamination, — nothing to show that a pure culti- 
vation of these would produce the disease. On the 
other hand, the organism which he describes pos- 
sesses a flagelhim, and a moving stage or period, 
neither of which have I been able to observe with 
the true genu of this disease, nor with the closely 
allied micrococcus which causes fowl-cholera. 

It is a matter of record, therefore, that the organ- 
ism wlilcli constitutes the cause of swine-plague was 
first discovered by Klein in 1870, but that he failed 
to connect it in any way with the virus of the dis- 
ease, and afterwards concluded that it depended ui)on 
a very different schizophyte. It is also a matter 
of record tliat 1 was the tirst to demonstrate by satis- 
factory methods that this micrococcus exists in the 
blood (luring the life of the animal, that it can be 
cultivated in flasks, and that the sixth successive cul- 
tivation, made in considerable quantities of liquid, 
and which contained no other form than micrococ- 
cus, still producetLthe disease. Neither Pasteur and 
Thuillier, nor any other investigators that I am aware 
of, have added one particle of evidence, except by 
way of confirmation, to that previously advanced by 
me. M. Pasteur is usually very particular in giving 
credit, but he does not seem to be keeping up with 
the progress of American science. D. E. Salmon. 



MIGRATION OF BIRDS IN ENGLAND.'^ 

The general report of the committee of the British 
association, of whick this is in fact an abstract, com- 
prises the observatioi^s taken at lighthouses and light- 
vessels, and a few special land-stations, on the east 

J Loc. cit., pp. 267-269. y 

* Report of the comraltt^o of the British association for the 
advancement of science, apjlplnted for the purpose of obtaining 
observations on the roigratid|i of birds at lighthouses and light- 
ships, and of reporting on th^same. (From Mature.) 



and we8t coasts of England and Scotland, the coasts 
of Ireland, Isle of Man, Channel Islands, Orkney, 
and Shetland Isles, the Hebrides, Faroes, Iceland, 
and Heligoland, and one Baltic station (Steyns Fyr, 
on Stevns Klint, Zealand), for which the committee 
is indebted to Professor Liitken of Copenhagen. 
Altogether, a hundred and ninety-six stations have 
been supplied with schedules and printed instruc- 
' tions for registering observations, and returns have 
been received from about a hundred and twenty- 
three, — a result which is very satisfactory, show- 
ing, as it does, the general interest taken in the 
work, and the ready co-operation given by the light- 
keepers in assisting the committee. 

As ill preceding years, the line of autumn migra- 
tion has been a broad stream from east to west, or 
from points south of east to north of west, and cover- 
ing the whole of the east coast. In 1880, to judge' 
from the returned schedules, a large proportion of the 
immigrants came in at the more southern stations; 
in 1881 they covered the whole of the east coast in 
tolerably equal proportions ; but in 1882 the stations 
north of the Humber showed a marked preponderance 
of arrivals. Altogether, a vast migration took place 
this year upon our east coast; the heaviest waves 
breaking upon the mouth of the Ilumber, Flam- 
borough Head, the Fame Islands, Isle of May at the 
entrance to the Firth of Forth, and again, after miss- 
ing a long extent of the Scotch coast, at the Pent- 
land Skerries. The Bell Rock also came in for a 
share, although apparently a much smaller one than 
the Isle of May. The easterly winds prevailed all 
along our east coasts, generally strong to gales ; and 
the succession of south-easterly and easterly gales 
in October, between the 8th and 23d, occurring as 
they did at the usual time of the principal migration, 
brought vast numbers of land-birds to our shores. 
From the Faroes in the north, to the extreme south 
of England, this is found to have been the case. 

Although migration — that is, direct migration — 
on our east coast is shown to have extended over a 
long period, commencing in July, and continuing, 
with but slight intermissions, throughout the autumn 
and into the next year to the end of January, yet the 
main body of migrants appears to have reached the 
east coast in October, and of these a large proportion 
during the first fortnight in the month. From the 
6th to the 8th inclusive, and again from the 12th to 
the 15th, there was, night and day, an enormous rush, 
under circumstances of wind and weather, which, 
observations have shown, are most unfavorable to a 
good passage. During these periods, birds arrived in 
an exhausted condition; and we have reasons for con- 
cluding, from the many reported as alighting on fish- 
ing-smacks and vessels in the North Sea, that the 
loss of life must have been very considerable. Large 
flights, also, are recorded as having appeared round 
the lanterns of lighthouses and lightvessels during 
the night migration. From the 0th to the 9th inclu- 
sive, strong east winds blew over the North Sea, with 
fog and drizzling rain ; and from the night of the 12th 
to 17th very similar weather prevailed. Mr. W. Little^ 
wood, of the Galloper lightship, forty miles south-east 



\ 



Pebbuart 8t 1884) 



SCIENCE. 



159 



of Orfonlnes», reports, that, on the night of Oct, 0« 
larks, atarliugs, tree-spa rrows^ titmice, common vvrena, 
reij-lireasu, chalTmches, and pluvers were picked up 
on the deck, and that it is calculated llial from five 
hundred to six hundred struck the rigging and fell 
overboard: a larpe proportion of these were lark*. 
Thousands of birds were flying round the lantern 
from llJi^J i\M. to 4.45 a M., Iheir white l>reasls, as 
they dashed to and fro in the circle of light, having 
the appearance of a heavy snow-storm. This was 
repeated on Uie S(h and 12th ; and on the nijjjht of the 
13th a hundred and sixty were picked Uf» on deck, 
inchrding larks, starlings, thnnhes^ and two red- 
breasta. It was thought that a thousand struck » and 
went overboard into the sea. It is only on dark, 
rainy nights, with snow or fog^ that such Ciisualtics 
occur: when the nights aro light, or any stars vMble, 
the birds givti the lanterna a wide berth. 

Undoubtedly the principal fealnro of the autumn 
migration ha** been the e?ctraordtnary abiiriilance of 
the gold-cre»ted wren. The flightH appear to have 
covered not only the east coast uf Eugland, but to 
have extended southward to the Channel Islaiids, .and 
northward to the Faroes (see report, East coast of 
Scotland). On tbe east coast of Enghind they are 
reconled at no less ihati twenty-one .■stations from the 
Fame Islands to the Hanois lighlhoui^e, Guernsey^ 
and on the ea3t coast of Scotland at the chief stations 
from the Isle of May to Sunburgh Head; at which 
latter station they bave rarely been seen in previous 
ycar«. Mr. Garrioch, wTiting from Lerwick, says, 
•* lu the evening of Oct. 1» my attention was caUed 
to a largo Hock of birds crossing the harbor from 
the Island of Bressay; and, on coudtig to a spot on 
the shore where a number had taken refuge from tho 
storm, I found the tlock to cons-ist of gold -crests and 
a few tire-crests amongst them. The gold-crests spread 
over the entire island, and were oiiserved in consider- 
able numbers tiil the middle of November/* The 
earliest notice on the east coast is Aug. 6; the iatest, 
Nov. 5, or ninety-two days. They arrived somewhat 
sparingly iit Angust and September, and in enormous 
numbers in October* more especially on the nights of 
Oct, 7 and 12, at the latter date with the woodcock. 
This fligiit apiiears to have extended across England 
to tbe Irish roast; for on tbe night of the 12tb a do/.en 
struck the lantern of the Tuscar Rfjck liglithouse, 
and on the night of the 13th they were continually 
striking all niglit. During t!ie autumn, enormous 
numbers cro-tsed Heligoland, more especially in Octo- 
ber, On the night from the iJSth to the LTUh, Mr. 
Gtltke remark*, **We have had a perfect Btorra of 
gold-cnists, iicrching on the ledges of the window- 
panes of the lighthouse, preening their feathers in 
the glare of tbe lamps. On the ^lllh all the island 
flwarm*'d with them, fdling the gsirdens and over all 
the cliff, — hundreds of thousands. By am, most 
of them had pasi'ed on again." Not less remarkable 
was the great three-days^ flight of the common jay, 
pMt and across Heligoland, on Oct. 0, 7, and 8. 
Thousands on thousands, without interruption, passed 
QD overheatl, north and south of the island too, — 
multitudes like a continual stream, all goiijg east 



to west hi a strong 80Uth*easterly gale. It would 
have been interesting if we had been able to corre- 
late this migration of jays with any visible arrival on 
our Eng!i?.h coast, but in none of the returns la any 
mention made of jays. Subsequently we have re- 
ceived numerous notices of extraordinary numbers 
aeen during tlie winter in our English woodlands. 
This seems especially to have been tbe case south of 
a line drawn from Flamborough Head to Portland 
Bill in Dorset, Addition!^ and unusual numbers were 
also observed »t Arden on Loeh Lomond side. 

The returns show very clearly that the spring lines 
of migration followed by hmU are the same as those 
in the autumn, but of course in the reverse direction, 
— from west and north-west to east and siouth-east* 
Another point worth noting is the occurrence of 
many species in spring at the sann* stations frequented 
by the species in autumn: t!ius double records occur 
at the MuU of Galloway, Bell itock, Isle of May, as 
well as at some English ^: l 

As this is the fourth report issued by the commit- 
tee, we may, perhaps, with the ma<is of facts at our 
disposal, be ex|»ected to draw (leduction;* which, if 
they do not explain, may serve at least to throw some 
light on the caui^es inllncncing tbe migration of birds. 
We might reasonably reply that tbe work Ufiderlaken 
by us wiis not to theorize, or attempt exphinations, 
but simply to collect facts, and tabulate them. This 
we bave endeavored to do in the ^shortest and sim* 
plefit manner consistent with accuracy of detail. 
There Is, however, one circumstance which can 
scarcely fail to present itself to thoAie who bave gone 
carefully into tlie reports issued by the committee; 
namely, the marvellous persintency with which, year 
by year, birds follow the same lines, or great high- 
ways of migration, when approaching or leaving our 
shores. The constancy of these periodical phenomena 
Is suggestive of some settled law or principle govorn- 
ing the movement. It is clearly evidetit, from the facts 
already at our disposal, that there are two distinct 
migrations going forward at the same time, — one the 
ortlinary How in the spring, and ebb in tbe autumn, 
across the whole of Europe, A gre.it migratory wave 
moves to and from the nesthig-quarters of the birds, 
ifi the coldc$it part of their range, — north-east in the 
spring* and south-west in the autumn. Quite inde* 
f>ondent of this, there l^ a continual !«tream of immi- 
grants, week by week and month by month, to the 
cistern shores of these islands, coming directly :icross 
Europe from east to west, or more comm<»rdy four 
points south of east to north of west, and tbe reverse 
in tbe spring. These immigrants are mainly com- 
posed of those common and well-known species which 
annually make these islands their winter quarters, 
and, as a rule, take the place of our summer birds. 
They come in one broad stream, but denser on some 
special lines or highways than others. Cutting the 
line of ordinary migration at nearly right angles, one 
flank brushes the Orkney and Shetland Isles, pouring 
through the Pentland Firth, even touching the dis- 
tant Faroes. The southern wing crosses the Channel 
Islands, shaping its course in a north-westerly direc- 
tion to tbe English coast. 



160 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou lU., No. 68. 



SPANG'S LIGHTNING PROTECTION, 

A practical treatise on lifflttnin^f-prolection. By 
Henry W. Spang. New York, Van Nostrand, 
1883. 03 p. 8°. 

This is a new and enlarged edition of the 
author's treatise on lightning-protection, pub- 
lished in 1877. The book contains altogether 
too many good things to be bad, and too many 
bad things to be entirely good. There is 
a wholesale condemnation of all systems and 
methods other than those described, which is 
a little perplexing, until one discovers, and in 
fact the author confesses, that it is issued with 
a view of effecting a general introduction of a 
patented system of lightning-condnctors. The 
business air which pervades the whole is thus 
clearly explained. 

The author frequently pronounces against 
the ' lightning-rod men and scientists,' attribut- 
ing the blunders of the former to the mistakes 
of the latter. A brief examination of his book 
will suffice to fully acquit him of the charge 
of belonging to the latter class ; and it must be 
confessed, that the many excellent rules which 
he has emphasized oblige us to rank him con- 
siderably above the general average of the 
former. The general principles of lightning- 
protection, as presented, are in the main cor- 
rect ; and, as general principles, the}' deserve 
a wide dissemination. The particular system 
urged as the only efficient one is more compli- 
cated, and, even if it were not patented, more 
expensive than is necessary'. Some novel 
statements arc made, concerning what light- 
ning ' will do ' under certain circumstances, in 
the same paragraph in which the author be- 
moans the ignorance shown by scientific men 
on the subject of lightning-protection. 

The author does not seem to be aware of the 
existence of what is doubtless the most com- 
plete and authoritative treatise on the subject 
yet published, — the elaborate ' Report of the 
lightning-rod conference,* edited by G. J. Sy- 
mons, F.R.8. This conference was made up 
of delegates from the London meteorological 
society, the Uo3'al institute of British archi- 
tects, tlie London society of telegraph engi- 
neers and electricians, the London physical 
society, and two co-opted members. Profs. W. 
E. Ayrton and D. K. Hughes. 

The examination of the various problems 
presented was exhaustive, and the code of rules 
for the erection of lightning-conductors pub- 
lished in the report is simple and easily under- 
stood. The proper construction of an efficient 
lightning-conductor is, after all, a matter of no 
great difficulty, and of comparatively little ex- 
pense. The inauguration of a proper system 



\ 



of testing conductors would certainly reveal 
some astonishing facts in regard to the efficien- 
c}' of rods as generally erected, elaborate and 
expensive as they often are. The wide circu- 
lation of the rules adopted by this conference 
would undoubtedly be the means of bringing 
about a much-needed reform in this direction. 



COHN'S 'DIE PFLANZE,' 

Die pflame : Vortrdge atis dem gebiete der hoianik. 
Von Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, professor an der 
Universitat zu Breslau. Breslau, Kem^ 1882. 
8 + 512 p. 40. 

This elaborately gotten up book of over five 
hundred pages comes to us as a contribution to 
general literature, and does not address itself 
to the scientific botanist, except as he is inter- 
ested in a popular presentation of botanical 
facts and problems with which he is supposed 
to be more or less familiar. Dr. Cohn believes 
it to be the duty of those versed in any branch 
of science to produce a literature which shall 
invite a large circle of readers to an interested 
acquaintance with their chosen science. '* Nor 
are they to recoil from this task," says he, 
" because of the ditHculties which present them- 
selves for satisfactory solution, or because 
popular writings on natural science have been 
undervalued b}' many." Actuated In* his con- 
viction, Dr. Cohn has collected the addresses 
which he delivered at various places in Ger- 
many between the 3'ears 1852 and 1881, and, 
while retaining their original form, has remod- 
elled them sufficiently to bring them up to date 
and compact them into a shapely whole. 

In the preface the author sets forth a difficulty 
which besets the popular lecturer on scientific 
topics, — one which doubtless every one who 
has tried this style of address has fully real- 
ized, — namely, the meagre knowledge and hazy 
comprehension with which the majority of hear- 
ers listen to his words, necessitating so long a 
dwelling on the elementary facts of the topic 
that little time is left for the consideniLion of 
tlie more recondite and interesting points. 

If we nvAy be allowed to judge, Dr. Cohn 
has overcome this difficulty to a large degree 
in a very happy manner. He devotes tlie first 
lecture, entitled ' Botanical prol)lenis,' to a 
brief history of the development of botany, and 
an explanation of some of the elementary prin- 
ciples of the science, thus paving the way for 
subsequent discussion of more special matters. 
Some idea of the variety of the topics treated 
may be gained from the titles of the sixteen 
lectures, which are as follows : ' Botanical prob- 
lems,' ' Goethe as a botanist,' ' The cell stale,* 



\ 



FiamuAKY 8, 1884.1 



SCIENCE. 



161 



' Light an(J life/ * The plant cnleiular/ * From 
pole lo er|ntUoi-/ • From sen-level to eternal 
snow/ * What the forest tells of itself/ 
* Grapes ami wine/ ^The rose,* • Iriseetivo* 
rous plants/ ' Botanical stmlios on the sea- 
shore/ ^ The world in u watev-drop/ * Bac- 
tenn/ ^ Invisible eneinie!* in the air/ *^ Gardens 
in ancient and raodern times/ 

The lee tu res are written in an entertaining 
st>'le, and vary in interest as little as the io- 
equality of the subjects will allow. The two 
on ♦ Light and life ' and * The cell state ' are 
espedally happy, particularly the latter in an 
apt comparison of a plant to a state. 

The design of the book is laudable, and its 
execution admirable. We commend both as 
models to our Ammiean biologists antl physi- 
cists, who owe it to the American |)nblic to 
provide better opportunities for a general ac- 
quaiutiinc^ with scientific problems and meth- 
iids. 



HEPORT ON SORGHUM-SUGAR, 

lfiC€»tifjiatlon of the scientific and economic relations oj 
the sorghmn'sugar indwatry ; beine: Ji rejx>rt made 
in response to a request from tne Iltm, Georj^^e 
B. Loriijg, U^ S. commissioner of apfricaltureT hy 
a committee of the National academy of acieuces, 
November, 1S82, Waahinirton^ Gmemmtnt^ 
1883. 152 p. 8^. 

A PKuBLEM, which, if not the most impor- 
Uint, is certainly the most prominent* agricultn- 
ral problem of the day, is that of the profitable 
production of sugar from sorghum. The ex- 
periments made during the last few years at 
the IT. S. department of agriculture and else- 
where have attracted general attention, both 
on account of the interesting scientific questions 
involved, and still more because they promise 
to create a new branch of agricultural iiiduatry. 
and to greatly enlarge otir domestic supply of 
sfigar. 

The report of the committee of the Xational 
academy on this subject must prove \Qvy valu- 
able to all interested in the promotion of this 
infant industry, because it t^ntains a very full 
SUDimary, prepared by thoroughly conqteteut 
and impartial persons, of all that has been ac- 
complished ill this direction up to the ilatc of 
the report, antl thus collects iu one public^'vtion 
information previon8ly scattered through nu- 
merous state and other reports. That tlie work 
has been well Hone is sutlleienlly guaranteed 
by the namci^ of the conjmitteo. They were 
Prof. William IL Brewer, Ph. D., of the Shef- 
field scientific school ; Prof. Charles F. Chand- 
ler, Ph^pM of C<}lumbia college; Prof. 8. W. 



Johnson, M*A*. of the Shellleld scientific 
school; Prof. B. Silliman, M.A., M.D., of 
Yale college; Prof. J, Lawrence Smith, M.D., 
late of the University of Louisville : and also, 
not of the acadenn', Gideon E. Moore, Ph.D., 
of New York* Prof. C* A. Goessmann, of the 
Massachtisetts agricultural college, was also a 
member of, and acted with, the committee until 
Sept. 15, LS82, when he resigned. 

The committee begins its report with several 
pages of citations from earlier (chiefly Ameri- 
can) investigations ut>on sorghum as a sugar 
producing plant, showing the conHicting opin- 
ions ujion almost every essential point of the 
subject entertained by the authorities quoted. 
On such points as the kind of sugar present in 
the juice, the best varieties of sorghum, the 
proper time for harvestiiig and working, etc., 
diametrically opposite opinions, each \\\ rejin- 
table authorities, arc quoted. 

This was the state of the question, when, in 
HTh, the U. S, department of agriculture, by 
its chemist. Dr. Peter Collier, began its well- 
known investigations, which went far to decide 
many of the points just spoken of. This work 
the committee does not review in detail, but 
contents itself with a favorable criticism of the 
analytical methods employed, and with point* 
ing out the material vahie of the results and 
the need of further investigation. 

At the time when this report was prepared, 
the successful work of the department of agri- 
culture consisted chtcfiy of chemical oacamina- 
tions of sorghum-Juice, attempts to produce 
sugar from it on a manufacturing scale having 
proved partial failures : the committee therefore 
closes its report with brief acccnints of the re- 
sults of practical attempts to make sugar from 
so rg hum, A m o u g t h .^ se are n ot ed t w o f ai I u res , 
and seventeen cases of more or less pronounced 
success, several on a manufacturing scale. 

In an appendix are collected divers interest- 
ing papers bearing ujjon the subject of the re- 
port. Some of them i>resent fuller details of 
experiments rcfenvd to in the report, and some 
contain accounts of later successes in sugar- pro- 
duction. This ]>ortion of the report concludes 
with a * Bibliography of sorghum/ which can- 
not fail to be of threat value to investigators in 
this field. 

It is evident from the facts collected in this 
report, and from the experience since gained, 
that, with skill in working, sugar can be suc- 
cessfully made from sorghum. It is also equal- 
ly evident, that, without that skill and the 
proper appliances, failure is more probable than 
success. Su'up can easily be made from soi 
ghum on a domestic scale, hut not sugar. 



162 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 58. 



Finally this report makes ver}' evident the 
need for further investigation in regard to such 
important points as the best varieties of cane, 
and the possibility of their improvement by se- 
lection and crossing, the most suitable soil for 
sorghum, the effect of fertilizers on its growth 
and content of sugar, the methods of extract- 
ing the sugar from the cane, and the prevention 
of losses in the further treatment of the juice. 
In a word, while sugar can be made from sor- 
ghum, it yet remains to be seen how economi- 
cally it can be manufactured, and how complete- 
ly the great waste involved in the present crude 
processes can be avoided ; and the committee 
closes its report by urging upon the U. S. de- 
partment of agriculture especiall}', the duty of 
continuing the investigations which have already 
yielded such important results. 



HANN'S CLIMATOLOGY. 

Handbuch der klimatologie. Von Dr. Julius 
Hann. Stuttgart, /. Engelhorn, 1883. (Biblio- 
thek geographischer handbiicher.) 10 + 764 p. 
8°. 

Theke are man}' treatises upon the subject 
of climate. The larger number of these are 
devoted to the consideration of the special 
characteristics of the climate of some particu- 
lar country', and contain numerous statistics 
derived from meteorological observations, to- 
gether with a description of the prevailing 
weather conditions. A few discuss the subject 
from a broader stand-point, and take account 
of the general conditions which prevail over a 
large area, with their causes and modifications. 
The treatise before us, however, differs from its 
priMlocessors in its aim as well as in its execu- 
tion. It is designed to give a view of clima- 
tology as the result of certain forces which 
are at work in nature, and to investigate the 
result of the operations of these forces as the}' 
are exhibited in the climate of the world. Its 
author is the acknowledged head of meteoro- 
logical science in Austria, — one who has done 
much to place meteorology on a scientific basis, 
and who is especially qualified to speak with 
authority upon the subjects which he treats, 
on account of his well-known familiarity with 
the current work of other investigators, and 
his ability as a critic. It is to be expected 
that a work written by such an author will be 
comprehensive, thorough, and masterly, that 
it will indicate the present condition of the 
subject from a scientific stand-point, and be as 
accurate as the best data at hand can make it. 
All these conditions are fulfilled and abun- 
dantly satisfied in the work before us. 



The aim of the treatise is to present a com- 
prehensive view of climatology. First the 
word is defined, its object specified, and the 
various climatic factors mentioned, briefly dis- 
cussed, and illustrated. After this introduc- 
tion, which is, in fact, a concise treatise upon 
the subject of climatic statistics rather than a 
simple introduction, the author proceeds to 
treat the subject in two divisions, — general 
and special climatology. Under the former 
head are considered, 1°, ' solar climate,' or that 
which would result directly from solar radia- 
tion ; then, 2°, the modifications introduced by 
atmospheric and terrestrial conditions, result- 
ing in climate as actually existent. Under the 
latter head are considered the special climatic 
characteristics of different portions of the 
globe, with copious illustrations. In carrying 
out this plan, the author treats the various 
topics with conciseness but with singular clear- 
ness, and advances in logical progression with- 
out dwelling too much on the minor details, 
or retarding the course of thought by discuss- 
ing the many collateral subjects which arc 
naturally suggested. In a few instances, where 
a controverted subject is discussed in the text, 
an elaborate footnote is devoted to a defence 
of the author's position, or a statement of the 
dissenting opinions of others ; and several ap- 
pendices contain fuller explanations of the 
special topics touched upon in the main por- 
tion of the treatise. In this way the author 
preserves the unity of the work, and at the 
same time calls attention to important con- 
siderations to which he cannot give much space 
in the body of the treatise. The work is not 
exhaustive : indeed, that would be impossible 
in so comprehensive a subject. In many cases 
it does not enter into the details of an inves- 
tigation, but gives the results obtained without 
discussing the methods of investigation em- 
ployed. 

At the outset the author carefully defines 
the word ' climatology,' and shows the relation 
between climatology and meteorology. By 
climate is to be understood the average weather 
conditions of different places on the earth's 
surface, together with the extent of the devia- 
tions from the average conditions. The clima- 
tologist, in treating the causes of climate, 
necessarily makes use of the laws which the 
meteorologist in his broader study of atmos- 
pheric phenomena has deduced, and. in turn, 
furnishes the latter with facts which he must 
account for by the meteorological principles he 
has established. The two sciences are there- 
fore intimately connected ; and we may, if we 
wish, regard climatology as a part of the 



lUUARY 8, 1884 ] 



SCIENCE. 



\m 



science of meteorology, wiiieli takes into ac- 
count the pbenomcna included in the latter 
only ID J!*o far as they aftect tlie well-being of 
Jiving: creatures on the earth. It is well to 
establish a definite |x>sitian for climatology ; 
and the author is wise in restrieting it to aver- 
age weather conditions, and deviations frona 
the average, for these are the controlling in- 
fluences which tletcrraine the relations of uny 
place to animal life. The important climatic 
factors are tem[>eratnre, moisture, cloudiness, 
wind, atmosjiheric pressure, eva|>oration and 
the chemical composition of the air, mentioned 
nearly in the order of relative importance ; 
temperature, rainfall, and wind being usually 
given as the three essential factors. These 
factors are not independent, and are so nnittial- 
\\ connected (as, e.g., cloudiness and temper- 
ature) that they cannot be discussed eeimrately . 
Atmospheric electricity is recognized as im- 
portant, but needing further study before it 
can be classed as a factor. It would seem as 
if a similar reason would ha%'e prevented the 
insertion of the composition of the air in the 
list of factors ; for the relation of the chemical 
constituents in their varying proi)ortious to 
animal life is confessedly obscure. In the dis- 
cussion of these factors, those s[)ecial features 
with regaixl to each are mentioned which would 
be useful in representing statistically the 
climate of a place. Especial prominence is 
given to temperature statistics ; and eight dif- 
ferent subjects are named nhicli deserve rep- 
resentation in tables, such as the monthly and 
annual means, magnitude of daily ranges, 
etc. An im|>ortant omission in the tables 
usually given is jioiuted out ; viz,, some expres- 
sion for the rapidity of temperattire changes. 
The author suggests two ways in which this 
can be done, — 1°, by the di Here nee between 
consecutive daily means, and, 2^*, by tlie rapid- 
ity of changes in some ado i) ted perio«l of time. 
These and other suggestions can be prolilahly 
considered by those who have charge of the 
preparation of weather statistics : they should 
be presented in such a shape as to enable any 
one to reiidily obtain the facts as to the climate 
of any place for which he coosidts them. The 
statistics of Vienna are prcseuk^d in ilhistration 
of the subject. 

The section devoted to general climatology 
is of special value. Quite properly, it begins 
with a discussion of climate as dependent upon 
the distribution of solar hcat» and thus includes 
the results of investigations in solar radiation. 
l>isregarding for the time the etfect of the 
atmospliere, the distribution of solar heat is 
tTealed as dei^endent upon the sun's altitude, 



the length of the day, and the distance between 
the earth and the sun. The combined effect of 
these elements is seen in difTerent latitudes and 
in the two hemispheres, and is the basis of actual 
climate, TliC eJlcct of the atmos]jhere in modi- 
fying these results is next considered, and the 
subjects of atmospheric absorption, ditlusion, 
and reflection treated. For the sake of com- 
parison, the relative ettects on light, heat, and 
chemical power, are considered, though that 
relating to heat alone properly comes into con- 
sideration. The little knowledge which wc 
possess on these subjects is the cause of the 
somewhat meagre presentation which theautlior 
gives. Coming finally to the further mcKlifica- 
tions in the distribution of solar heat due to the 
earth itself, t!ie characteristit*s of Insular, con- 
tinentab and mountain climate are [lointed out, 
and the effect of marine and aerial en r rents 
noted. In this way the author arrives at the 
actual climate which prevails over the earth, 
having started with iU prime source, the sun. 
The discussion throughout is general, but is 
very suggestive of further stud}* by the reader, 
in the different topics treated. The author 
quotes extensively fronj the works of others, 
and gives copious iUustrattous. It would be a 
great help to the student, however, if, as has 
been elsewhere suggested, references to the 
w*orks themselves were given, in addition to 
the names of the authors, which are always 
carefully mentioueil. This section could be 
expanded into a larger treatise, and ma\ serve 
with advantage as the basis of extended re- 
search, or as a help to class instruction. 

The section devoted to special climatology 
occu|nes two-thirds ol" the whole work. After 
an introduction upon the division of the earth 
into el i malic zones, the author considers the 
observed climate in each zone, quoting exten- 
sively from the publications which describe the 
prevaibng conditions in each country, giving 
numerous tables, and summing up under each 
zone it« general characteristics. In this sec- 
tion we have, therefore, a compendium of ac- 
cessible statistics covering the whole world, 
given in as much detail as the generous limits 
of the work will allow, and rumbiued with care- 
fully prepared sumujaries. In onler to judge 
of the excellence of this section, it is only 
necessary to note how thoroughl}' the different 
countries are treated, whether the selections 
made for illustration are typical or not, and 
whether the author has made use of the most 
reliable publications. In all these respects it 
will be found that the work before us excels. 
Thus, in describing the climate of North 
America, the author first gives a statement of 



164 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 5.3. 



the topography of tlie country, and the im|)or- 
tant distinctions in climate which result there- 
from ; then, passing to the climatic factors, he 
describes in detail the temperature, rainfall, 
humidity, cloudiness, pressure, and winds as 
they exist in the different sections, and illus- 
trates principally from the publications of 
8chott, Woeikoff, Blodgett, Loomis, Coffin, 
Dull, (Gannett, Whitney, and the signal-ser- 
vice. Not content with general characteris- 
tics, he further specifies i)eculiarities, such as 
the suddenness of temperature changes in cer- 
tain localities, tornadoes, northers, and Indian 
summer, with appropriate quotations from va- 
rious writers ; and he also appends special 
descriptions of the climate of Illinois, Lake 
Superior, the Mississippi valley, Canada, 
Manitoba, Hudson's Bay, Alaska, the plateau 
region, Colorado, California, Arizona, and the 
Bermudas. The climate conditions of other 
countries are treated with similar thoroughness, 
making the whole valuable for reference, while 
its chief merit lies in the running descriptions 
and summaries. A defect in the work is the 
lack of charts illustrating the various data. A 
few only are given ; the main reliance for illus- 
tration being in the statistical tables, which are 
almost unnecessarily abundant. Graphic rep- 
resentations are always specially valuable to the 
reader, and their addition to the work would be 
a real improvement. It would also have been 
well to mention the analytical method of repre- 
senting data, as well as the statistical and graph- 
ical ; for, while its use is limited, it will surely 
grow in favor with the advance of the science. 
The work of Dr. Ilann represents the latest 
investigations, and is brought down almost to 
the very date of publication. It will therefore 
not be soon superseded ; and, while additional 
data will accumulate in coming years, the gen- 
eral discussions will require but little alteration. 
The work is recommended for the general read- 
er, not to be read in course, but by proper 



selection. The general chapters and the sum- 
maries contain a large amount of information, 
for which the details and illustrations can be 
obtained from the accompanying pages. The 
student will find the work useful in calling at- 
tention to the authorities in each subject. Es- 
pecially in the section on general climatology, 
where such topics as solar radiation and atmos- 
pheric absorption are, from the design of the 
work, treated in a general way only, will be 
found quotations from the publications of the 
latest investigators. It would be well, too, if 
the treatment of the subject of climatic factors 
should call attention to the need of publishing 
statistics in such a way as to be useful for ref- 
erence. In this country particnlarh*, we need 
to give consideration to this subject. There is 
scarcely an allusion made in the work under 
review to recent meteorological work in the 
United States, not because it has not been pub- 
lished, but because it has not been issued in a 
suitable form. In order to compare our statis- 
tics with those of other countries, it is necessary 
first to re-arrange and classifv them. The in- 
ternational meteorological committee has rec- 
ommended forms of publication, the adoption 
of which will add greatly to the facility with 
which corresponding data can be compared. 
But even these forms do not give all the data 
which the climatologist would like to have ; and 
meteorological observations could be made more 
available for studies in climate by attention to 
the author's treatment of the subject. There 
is also need of deducing more results from the 
immense collection of data which is dail}' ac- 
cumulating all over the world, to check the 
prevailing tendency of heaping up ol)servations 
for no useful purpose. If this work shall have 
the effect of stimulating research, and promot- 
ing a more intelligent use of meteorological ob- 
servations, it will do much good. It is to be 
hoped that it will be translated into Knglish to 
reach a wider circle of readers. 



RECENT PROCEEDINQS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, 



Ottawa field-naturalists' club, Canada. 

Jan. :il. — Mr. W. L. Scott read the report of the 
ornitholojxical and ocilogical branch, showing that a 
number of rare birds had been secured, that thirteen 
species hud been added to the published lists, and 
that oilier good work had been done. Among spe- 
cimens exhibited was a great white egret, in full 
breeding-plumage, wliich had been shot on the Upper 
Ottawa, —a locality far north of its usual range, but 
where it is stated to be a not uncommon visitor. Its 



name, however, will not appear in the lists of the 
club, as the locality is considered beyond the limits 
of its district. 

Prof. J. Macoun read a practical paper on the 
* Edible an<l poisonous fungi ' of the vicinity. He 
pointed out, that while at present the only fungus 
collected for food Is tlie common mushroom, Agari- 
cus campestris, there are other equally nutritious 
and palatable forms which exist in far greater abun- 
dance; as, for instance, Coprinus comatus, which 
grows in great profusion about the city during Sep- 



FkuRUARY S, IHliJ.I 



SCIENCE. 



tember. Twf» np«.>cle8 uf morel; Mort'liella i*9cuteiita 
Aiut Gyr<>uiHr;t esculenta, ure aJ.'^u common, and are 
Tory ik'sintble f*.HKl- supplies; while tlir Lycopenlous, 
or |iuiT-bLtJl!<. are found In immense numbers, jind 
oti^n of liirge dimension^*, and, wlion >oi«n«» are ex- 
cellrnt for llie iJihlc* Among |Kdsonou» forms, the 
lly*iigartc, Amanita miiscaria, was in^^tnnced as om- 
of thi? most highly organised, most widely ilislrib- 
ulftd, most bt'Autifuly and most dangurtiuf^ of tlie 
agarics. The difficultv of distlnf^uishinp by ^igbt 
betwi^en many t^dible and non^edibli! or poisonou>i 
apiieien was stated; and it was expJainejl that thoa** 
having a plea-sant Oib»r and tast*- were always likely 
to be eatiible and liarmleHs. while others would be 
more or fesn injurious* It is, Imwever, always 
adviaabh* at first, to eat but a small quantity of 
any uulried speeies. Professor Macon n, as liotan- 
ial to the Geological Mirvey, is u*»u working nl the 
ftingi of Ctanada.. and Is preparing a report ibereoiv 
for pubHeatfon. Ueantiful platen to tlki^^trale this 
wport have been drawn by Mn*. r'hambcrlin, a 
member of the clnb ; and such as related to tlio 
form^ diH'int&ed wtsre exhibited by her, lo llie great 
graUficalton <d die members, — The seci^etary laid on 
tin* table advauee eopic* of the Transactions of the 
club for 18{<:;^SI, and announced that fbcy would 
bf. rcatiy for di^inbution hi a few days, 

PrisG«tou ideaoe ohb. 

Jan, SS. — Professor IJoekwood gave a paper on 
the mutual itlallons of ihe conies, iliscii^islng cajKi- 
dally the changes by which lh<? different rurve^ turn 
on«» \t\u> another through their limiting forms, lie 
traced the various eurvcs represented by the equatirui 
A^y^ -^ //-x- — A* li'f when .4- H eonstaut, and It- 
aaaumea all po&aible values, showing them to include 
Ikll Ihe varielies of the ellipse and hyperbola. In 

toe same way tlje equation |/'* — i J* ^ ^**" ^'** 
»liowii to Inchnle nil forms of ihe conic when A and 
B assume varimis \alueKf — zero, infinite, or finite. 
In I racing the movement of the foci, lie showed that 
ill the series <»f ellip.*e5 and hyperbolas the toci come 
llr«l to coincide at the centre; affer«anl their dis- 
tance from the rem re beeonjes c v' " 1, which, by 
Intel |»rctlng llie imHginary factor as Indicating revo- 
lulifui throuijh a riKht angle, changes the foci from 
the horiitniiijil to the vertical axis, on whicli they then 
recede to infinity, n'turning from infinity on the hori- 
£onlai axis when the ellipses change through tw<» 
parallels to the series of hypertmlas. The changes 
w*ere also followed out with focus and directrix rixed 
and cccentrieiry varving, with f(»cii8 and focal ordi- 
nate llxed ami eccentricity varying, etc. 

Professor hcott reported that he had just discov- 
ered a rudimentanr' pollex in Orcodon of the White 
River miocene. The carpus 1^ very primitive in ar- 
rangeiut'ut, and a trape/dum is present. 

H^w-Tofk acaddmy af iciflacea* 

Jan, SL — Two specimens of corutidum from west- 
ern North Carolina were exhibited by G, F. Kuiis. 
Owe was a erj^tal weighing IJ3 grama: the other. 




weigh itig n Ki carais^ was cut «ra atbachon^ and by the 
exblbilerwas «ald to betlie most perfect star snpphire 
probably yet found in the United States. Both pieces 
were a rich light-brown color, very compact, and re- 
sembled a variety of sapphire from tiie hills of pre- 
cious stones In Siam. Prof. II. L. Fairchild deliverpd 
a lecture on methodic of animal self-defence, which 
was well illustrated with a large series of well-selected 
Ian tern-slides, liemark^ were made by President 
Newberry and Prof. \V. P. Trowbridge. 

DAnadkii iaitittitei Toronto. 
Jun. 19. — Prof. K. Hamsay Wright gave an account 
of i^f^earcbes *m tlie skin and nervous system of 
Amiurns catus, which will shortly be published In 
tlic Proceedings, S[>ecial afti^ntlon was devoted to 
ilo' *ehiviile^ cells of Ihe epidermis, lo the branch* 
ingof the liftli nerve, and to thtjreialioT**hip between 
(he air-bladder and auditory organ. 

Natural ■oieDOv jMsooiation of St&tea Ulaad, Nov Bdgbtoa« 

Jan. IS. — Mr. C. \\\ Leng read a paper on the 
Ciclndelidae of 8taten Islundi The beetles live all 
summer in sunny ]dace?« In the wotwU, roadsides, 
and on the sands at the seasliore. They are uhlv to 
make short Mightn, which they do at the least alarm, 
flying a few pAQVi at a Toot or two from the ground, 
and then drop[.ing ipiite suddenly. Their colon* 
always mimic thr places at which they are found, 
which mak<"s it diffi* ulr lo ili.sting»ii»<h them after 
they alight. Duritig ibe nlffht and rainy days they 
hide in hi>les dnj; in tin* sand, or among piles of rliips 
3Kiu\ bark* The fnlUn^ing eight species have been 
found on ^>taten Island: ('. sexguttata, purpurea, 
i;*merosa, tranqiielmrica, fejjanda, hirticollis, dorsalls, 
punctuhita. 

Remarks were made by 3Ir. Sechuseti on a very 
intiTesting series of ])reeious stones, their particular 
characters, antl the localities from which they came. 

Society of nrti, IfasfacbDietti Inititate of teohnologj. 

Jnti. 10. — Dr. Charles S. Minot, of the Harvanl 
medical schwjl, rend a paper giving an account of his 
researches on growth and ilealh. Dr. Minot has 
undertaken an extensive scries of ex]>erlmeuts, which 
will occupy many years, on senescence, or the process 
of growing old; and he presented in this paper the 
results of one branch of his inveatigatjons, in which 
he had studied the growth of the guinea-pig from 
birth until the attainment of the full size, iiaving 
made about nfty-tive hundred weighings of these ani- 
mals, the weight being the function of growth best 
adapted for study. 

In ]51 recorded births^ the proportion of males to 
females was found lo be 119 to lOo/, The average 
weight at birth was about T2.T/ graniA, and was about 
the same for males and females. T«e range was from 
42 to 1>1> for the males, and 46 to i/l\ (or the females. 
The most potent infliu^nce on till i ub^rthwaa 

found to l>e the number in a U ' \arger the 

titter, the less the average weirWaUv i^^« v^^^*^*^ **^ 
gestation was fouiul to averaa^^ in A»T*'> '*^'*^^ ^^ 
longer the period^ the great v> \^c we\gbt ai bUth 



4 
I 



166 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 68. 



This weight was also greater in summer than in win- 
ter. Notwithstanding the great variation of weight 
at birth, the difference diminished with age, all the 
animals thus tending to approach a certain standard 
size. One of the most important facts discovered 
was, that the rate of growth diminishes continuously 
from the time when the animal recovers from tlie 
loss of weight at birth; this diminution being rapid 
at first, and slower afterward. By rate is here meant, 
not the absolute increment in weight in a given pe- 
riod, but the per cent of the weight at the beginning 
of the perlo<l, which is added to said initial weight 
during the period. A discussion of the best availar 
ble data indicates the result to' be also true of man. 

Dr. Mi not ^ad also made some experiments with 
rabbits, and compared the results with those for 
guinea-pigs and for man. He found that the guinea- 
pig grows on an average, until it is full-grown, 1.73 
grams per diem, the rabbit 6.20, and man 6. GO grams. 
Men are therefore larger than rabbits, not because 
they grow faster, but because they grow longer; while 
rabbits are larger than guinea-pigs because they grow- 
faster. The rate of growth, however, as above de- 
fined, is very different; being 4.6 % in the guinea-pig, 
5 % in the rabbit, and 0.02 % in man. 

Phi'osophioal society of Washington. 

Jnn, 5, — Prof. J. R. Eastman discussed the Roch- 
ester (Minn.) tornado of Aug. 21, 1888, describ- 
ing the ground as it appeared a few days after the 
storm, and showing that the phenomena did not 
indicate cyclonic motion. AH disturbed objects were 
thrown in essentially the same direction, and were 
pressed down rather than lifted. In the course of 
the ensuinix discussion, Mr. W. H. Dall described 



similar phenomena in the Escanaba region, where he 
observed storm-tracks consisting of swathes of pros- 
trate trees, the trunks of which pointed uniformly 
in one direction. 

Mr. Dall then read a paper on Recent advances in 
our knowledge of the limpets, summarizing the 
researches of Spengel on the sensory organs or os- 
phradla; Cunningham, on the renal organ and reno- 
perlcai'dlal pore In Patella and Patina; Fraiss^, on 
the eye In Patina, Fissurella, and Haliotis; and the 
speaker, on the presence of an intromit tent male 
organ in Cocculina. He stated that among the Ac- 
maeldae and Patellidae the type of eye differs; and 
while in Patina it is of a very rudimentary charac- 
ter, in other genera it might be well developed, — as, 
for Instance, in Ancistromesus, which has as well 
developed eyes as Fissurella. He also alluded to the 
gradual progress In classification afforded by anatomi- 
cal- Investigation during the past few years, and 
observt^d that nearly all the known forms except 
Propilidium and Scutelllna were amenable to classi- 
fication ; our ignorance of the branchiae in the foi^ 
mer, and the dentition in the latter, operating to 
prevent a final classification in these two cases until 
more is known. Those authors who study the em- 
bryology and histology usually from a single species 
generally ignore the wide differences of adult anat- 
omy between the genera of limpets, and sow their 
generalizations on a basis of classification which is 
little in advance of that of Lamarck and his imme- 
diate successors. 

The president of the society, Dr. James C. Welling, 
announced the death, since the last meeting, of Gen. 
A. A. Humphreys, one of the founders of the so- 
ciety, and pronounco<l a brief eulojxy on his character. 



I2^TELLIGENCE FROM AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC STATIONS. 



GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS. 

Geological survey. 

GeoUnjicnl notes, — Prof. I. C. Chamhorlin and his 
assistants, during December, 188:3, were engaged in 
field-worlx in Illinois and in Missouri. Professor 
Chaniberlin devoted his personal attention mainly 
to the borders of the newer drift, th«' concentric mo- 
rahiic belts that lie within it, anti the contiguous old 
drift without it, in north-eastern Illinois. Mr. K. R. 
Salisbury continue<l his ])revious ol)>ervations of the 
residuary clays and loess and drift-borders in eastern 
and central MisMmri. 

The revision of the manuscript of a report by Mr. 
J. S. Curtis on iho Eureka mines has been conipletcd 
by Mr. (>. F. Be<H|Ler and Mr. Curtis, and will soon 
be ready for the prkiter. 

Since the beglnni\ig of Prof. R. D. Irving's study 
of the met amorphic*! rocks in 1882, he and his assist- 
ants have made five mindred thin rock-sections. Of 
this number, written\lescriptions of three hundred 
have been prepared. Whey include rocks from the 



original Huronian, the Iluronian of the Marquette 
and Menominee regions, the Animikie group of the 
national boundary, the folded schists of the sanio re- 
gion, and the crystalline rocks of the Minnesota and 
Mississippi valleys. 

Assistant John Chaplin at Dunver has jnepared 
thin sections of all the eruptive rocks colh'ctod in 
the Rocky-mountain district during the past season. 

Paleontoloinj. — Vroi. L. F. Ward has completed 
the work of preparing index slips for a catalogue of 
fossil plants. He has so arranged all of the fossil 
plants collected from the Laramie and Fort Union 
groups, that they are in a convenient form for future 
detailed investigation. 

Chemical dlrision.—The analyses of waters from 
Walker Lake and Walker I{iv<'r have been com]»leted 
by Prof. F. W. Clarke. 

Mr. J. W. McGee, in his examination of the subter- 
I'anean forest exposed by an excavation on Connecti- 
cut Avenue, Washington, D.C. (referred to in Science 
of Nov. .%, 1883), discovered an earthy blue mineral, 
which was abundantly distributed throughout the 



FKEtncABT 8, 1881,1 



SCIENCE. 



167 



suatuui of clay, at the 1)f»ttom of wliicli ll»2 letnaihs 
of wood wen^ found. This blue inirtliy iiiiueral hns 
ht^en idejitifiod as vivianite hy Prufo5sor Cliirke. 

Mr. HiJlebrand. in the laboratory at Deuver, hjiA 
lM»en examining tlie Lcadville porphyries with respect 
to the proportion of precious metals conlaiued In 
thein. He has prepared a new gnivity-Bolutioii, the 
borotungstate of eadmiuiu, dr.signed t<» replace Ju 
part rhe Thoulet solution, which is in some cases in- 
applicable in the separation of the mineral constitu- 
ents of rocks. He has also made various qualitative 
examinations of several minerals new to the west, — 
tantalates, culuiribales, and phosf thates of rare earths. 

l>r. Mellville and Mr. G. h\ Becker, at San Fran- 
cisco, have been investigating some of the chemical 
relations of quicksilver, 

III the laboratory at New Haven, T>r. William Hal- 
lock, Hi the suggestion of Mr. Arnohl Hague, luts 
be^tiu a series of exijeriments upon the artificial pro- 
duction of geysers. Small models have been made 
that worked a<lmlraldy with regular periofls. An ar- 
tificial geyser, with a reservoir twenty-five feet deep, 
has been constructed, and will soon be in working- 
i>rd<*r. The study of this model will be of exceeding 
interest. 

ToiKUfrapfiical nott'H, — It was hoji^d that topo- 
graphical work could he carried on through the win- 
ter in Mas8achu!setls; but owing to the contfnueil 
had weather thrrmgli Deeember, ospeeially in the lat- 
ter pan of the month, the svork wsis greatly delayed; 
and about the middle of the month it was «leeidt*d \tt 
po^tixine further field-work in ihe state until spring, 

Mr. Willartl D, Johnson, assistant toiiognipber. 
who hiis been [^reparhig several stnall loesd maps 
ill the Mono basin, California, Xnis completed a map 
of the Parker-creek moraines, and began one of 
the Leevining-creek moraines. He has been unable 
to complete the latter on account of unfavorable 
weather. The map of the Parker creek moraines 
includes an area of about seventeen square ndtes, <ui 
a scale of four inches to the mile. The general map 
• »f the Mono basiti covers some two thousaml st(Uare 
miles, and the field sheets of the map are utum an 
approximate scale of one inch to one and three quar- 
ters miles. Several point** of the Iran3c<>ntinental 
trianguhuion of the coast and geodetic survey are 
included. They give it scale and position. The ver- 
Ucal relief is derived mainly from angles, and a line 
of levels connects the work with a determined point 
on the Carson and Colorado railroad. The map ex- 
hibits the outline of the ancient expansion of Mono 
Lake: the outlines of the ancient ice-stream of the 
adjacent Sierras with their present remnants. Agri- 
cultural and grazing lands are shown, and the areas 
of Umber lines also Indicated. 

Mr. J, I>. Hoffmann, in the division of the Pacific, 
WHS busy during December, can7lng on the detailed 
survey of the new Idria quicksilver district In CalU 
f urn la. 

Prof. A. H, Thompson, geographer, was occtipied 
during December in the detenu ination of the hiLitudc 
and longitude of Fort. Wingate, New Mexico, which 
work baa been satisfactorily completed. 



PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS. 
Harvard college nbAftrmtory. 
Fumh, — In bis report to the president of the uni- 
versity, tiie director of the observatory states that 
the annual subscription of five thousand dollars, 
which has beL*n in force* for five years, has expired 
by limitation, and that an attempt to raise a fund of 
one hundred thousand is meeting with good success, 
about half having been already obtained. 

Vnnablf i<(ars, — ^The study of the variable stars has 
been continued by Mr. Chandler. The bibliography is 
nearly completed, so far as the first extraction of ref- 
erences is concerned. Notes have been prepared to 
exhibit the eviderjce of variability which has been 
published with regard to about twelve hundred stars. 
This list excludes many cases in which the evidence is 
entirely inadequate. A Uibie, giving all the published 
maxima and mhdma of each of the variables of lofig 
period, is now in process of construction. The prep- 
aration of this table has led to the important result 
that an interval of several years occurs in which no 
observation* appear to Iiavebcen niatle of about thirty 
of tliese objects. About one hundred and forty stars 
belong to this class; and, i^ince last April, all of them 
have been (deserved by Mr, Chandler with the six- 
ijich Clacey equatorial mounted in llie west dome. 
Charts of the vicinity of these variables have been 
prepared, and some progre*iS made towards their com- 
pletion. Similar charts have been made for about 
seventy telescopic stars suspected of variability, and 
nearly two hundred observations of these *lars have 
l>een obtained. The color of the variable stars is also 
estimated, about three hundrcil observations of this 
class having already been raiule. The circuhir distrib- 
buted, asking the aid of amateurs and others, in 
the obj^ervation of stars known or suspected to be 
variable, has, it is believed, secure^l much valuable 
co-operation. Numerous replies have been received, 
and important residts have been obtained, espe* 
daily by Mr. H. M. Parkhurst of New York, and by 
the Rev. J. Hagen, S.J., of Prairie du C'hien, Wis. 
The great difficulty encountered by most of the ob- 
servers was that of identifying with certainty ihe 
fainter *tars, although this is one of the first things 
that should be leanied by any person desiring to do 
useful astronomical work. 

A»tronomicat photogrfipfty. — With the assistance 
of Mr. W. H. Pickering, an investigation was under- 
taken in astronomical photography. Two objects 
were kept In view, —first, the determination of the 
light and i^olor of the brighter star*; and, secondly, 
the construction of a photographic nuip of the whole 
heavens. After numerous preliminary observations, 
a method was employed by whicli a photograph »<f 
the brighter stars included in about one- twelfth of 
the entire heavens could be obtained on a single 
plate. Maps were also obtained, containing a region 
of about fifteen degrees square, containing ftars as 
faint as the eighth ma^iltude. The color exercised 
a marked influence on the intensity of the photo- 
graphic imager, in some cases producing a difference 
equivalent to four magnitudes. It ia thought thai 



168 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 5a. 



photograpliy may offer the most delicate test we yet 
have of the color of a star, — differences too small to 
he pcrceptihle by the eye, becoming distinctly visible 
in the photographic images. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Profkssok Milne-Ed wabds writes to the Socidt^ 
de giSograpliie in regard to the scientific work of the 
expedition on the Talisman. After having studied 
the profiles from the African coai«t into deep water, 
the vessel recruited at San Jago, Cai>e Verde Islands, 
and later at San Vincente ; soundings being carrie<I 
on during the various movements of the vessel, and 
proving of great interest, as ifi some cases they did , 
not accord with those on the charts. Branco Island, 
which has never been visited by naturalists, was care- 
fully explored. The shores are very rocky, and it 
became necessary to swim ashore, which the tem- 
perature rendered rather agreeable. The island is 
entirely volcanic, and the rocks of a singular nature. 
Those near the shore were blocks of lava cemente<l 
by a sort of calcareous eoquina, containing many 
shells, into a kind of pudding-stone. Others con- 
sisted of sea-sand, drifted by the winds to an altitude 
sometimes of a thousand feet, and changed into solid 
layers by calcareous infiltration. Vegetation is very 
sparse, yet the great lizards iM»culiar to this island 
were found to be herbivorous. The Sargasso Sea was 
then examined, and proved to be of great depth, 
reaching nearly thirty-three hundred fathoms, and the 
l>ottom entirely volcanic, with a rather poor fauna. 
A collection of lava and scoriae was obtained, some of 
which a]>peared to be of quite recent origin. There 
is ])r()bably in the Atlantic an immense band of 
volcanoes extending parallel with the Andean sys- 
tem, perhaps to Iceland, and of which the culminat- 
ing peaks form the ('ape Verde, Canary, and Azores 
islands. 

More than two hundred deei>-sea soundings were 
made before the i*eturn of the expedition vid San 
Miguel. Azores. Wonderfully rich collections were 
made, and specimens of the bottom throughout 
the whole region tra\ ersed. The U)pography of the 
ocean-bottom hitherto accepted will be considerably 
modified by these researches. It was expectetl that 
Professor Milne-Edwards would address the society 
on the Lieneral results of tin* work before a general 
session about Jan. 21, and exhibit at the same time 
some of the treasures obtained. 

At the meeting of the Paris academy of sciences, 

Dec. 10, Dr. Hyades gave a summary report on the 
geological, botanical, zoological, and anthropological 
work accomplished by the French mission to Cape 
Horn. In the southern islands of the Fuegian Archi- 
pelago the prevailing rocks were found to be schists 
and granites, greatly weathered wherever unprotected 
by vegetation. The dwarf Antarctic beech is limited 
to an altitude of four hundred metres, the Fagus be- 
tuloldes to three hundred, fonning with the Drimys 
and Berberis a forest zone with a humid soil poor in 
vegetable humus, and covered with mosses, heaths, 



and a considerable variety of small plants. The ma- 
rine flora abounds in all kinds of algae (the most 
common being the MacrocysUs pyrifera), affording a 
shelter to numerous zoophytes, annelids, mollusks, 
crustaceans, and migratory fislies of eight or ten spe- 
cies. Of the shell-fish, which abound on most of the 
seaboard, all the large s|>e(!ies are edible. Although 
imorer than the marine, the land fauna includes 
several siHJcies of (.'oleoptera, Lepidoptera, Arach- 
nida, some forty si)ecies of birds, but no reptiles or 
frogs. The mammals are represented by only one 
species of fox, two rodents, and an otter, besides tlie 
domestic dog. Tlie natives all belong to the Tekee- 
nika st(»ck of F'itzroy, called Yahgans by the present 
English missionaries. They speak an agglutinating 
language, current from the middle of Beagle passage 
to the southernmost islands about Cape Horn. About 
one thousand words of this language were collected, 
including some abstract terms, such as /ree, flower, 
flxh, shell. The numerals get no farther tlian three, 
although the natives count also on the fingers. Over 
a hundr€»d anthropometric observations were taken 
on individuals of all ages and both sexes. Goo<I pho- 
tographs were also obtained of a large numl)er of 
Fuegians, besides numerous castings of all parts of 
the body, some skelettuis, and a great variety of eth- 
nological materiaU. 

— Besides the analyses of snow made at Madrid 
and in Ilolland (in which was observed volcanic sedi- 
ment similar to that of the ashes found in Java after 
the eruption of the volcano), mentioned by Mr. Upton 
in his article on the * lied skies,' in Science of Jan. 11, 
Nature of Dec. 20-Jan. 8 contains a numl>er of letters 
in which mention is made of a grayish volcanic (?) sedi- 
ment having iKjen found at several points in England 
after rain-storms in December. 

— The International congress of geologists will 
meet at Herlin on the 25th of September next, and 
last five days: then a grand geological excursion 
will be made through the Hartz Mountains, Saxon 
Switzerland, from the 1st of October to the 5th, end- 
ing at Dresden by a visit to the Boyal museum, 
under the guidance of its celebrated director. Prof. 
Dr. H. H. Geinitz. 

— In Oregon City there is a large appl«*-iree in the 
Methodist- church lot, planted in 1842 by W. S. Moss, 
Esq., for Rev. G. 1 lines, who was then living there. 
The tree bears two kinds of fruit, but only one kind 
each year, an<l the different kinds appear on alter- 
nate years. It is still a vig<»rous, healthy tree. 

-- It is understood that the outci satellite of Mars, 
Deinos, h;is been observed by Prof<'Ssor Hall during 
the present opposition. As the planet Mars is now 
near, its aphelion, its visibility would seem to show 
that the satellite can be ol)served at every opposition 
of Mars with the great telescopes which have re- 
cently been constructed. 

— The Pi eta scientific society of Troy, N.Y., has 
changed its name to Rensselaer society of eugi> 
neers. 



SCIENCE. 



FRIDAT, FEBRUARY 15, 1884. 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM. 

It may not be generally kuown that it is th« 
duty of the NntionnI academy of sciences to 
examiue »nnd report U|>on such matters as may 
be submitted to it by the proper authorities of 
rhe national government. The |)roblem is 
leferred by the academy to a committee, com- 
posed of such of its members as are specially 
f^kiiled in the science to which the subject ap- 
pertains ; and they consider it hi the light of 
all accessible data, and, whore necessary, submit 
the problem to experimental investigation and 
study. It is not unusual, also, to call Into 
council exfierls in good standing who aiv not 
members of the academy. All these services 
are rendered gratuitously, only the actual ex- 
penses incurred being defrayed. It would 
seem as if no fairer way could be devised for 
obtaining an honest and intelligent opinion on 
the cjuestion at issue ; f^incc the government 
is unbiassed, and the jnry tintramelled, while 
it oonfiists of meu whose ability and attain- 
ments are guaranteed. 



Many reports have thus been presented to 
the government during the existence of the 
itcidcrny ; btit few seem to have attracted as 
much attention, or to have aroused as much 
feeling, as a recent report made to the commis- 
sioner of internal revenue uj>on the qncstion 
I to the wholot^omoucss of glucose as an article 

^of food. The conclusions reached are* 1^, that 
the matiufacturc of sugar fi-om starch is a long- 
cstal»ii8hc<l industry, scienlifirally valnable and 
commercially important ; 2'', that the processes 
which it employs at the present time arc un- 
objectionable in their character, and leave the 
proiluct uncontaminated ; S'', that the starch- 
sugar thus made and sent into commerce is of 

|€\*ceptionnble purity and uniformity of com- 
[l>osltion, and contains no injurious md>stanc*es ; 

No. M.-IKW. 



and, 4**, that though having at best only about 
two-thirds the sweetening-power of cane- 
sugar, yet starch-sugar is in no way inferior to 
cane-sugar in healthfulness ; there being no 
evidence before the committee, that maize 
starch-sugar, either in its normal condition or 
fermented, h.as any deleterious etteet U|K>n the 
system, c^^en when taken in large quantities. 



For re|>orting these conclusions, the mem- 
bers of the committee have been most severely 
attiicked, and their honesty impugned. One 
of the most bitter and partisan of these attacks 
is contained in a recent * leader * in the Wash- 
ington Evening star^ in which it is distinctly 
implied that this report favors the use of glu- 
cose in adulteration. Inspection of the report 
shows this deduction to be entirely without 
foundation ; and the attack reveals the most 
unpardonable ignorance, or a deliberate inten- 
tion to deceive. The use of glucose in adul- 
teration is a well-known fact, and it is the duty 
of the commercial and legal fraternitres to devise 
means for its ijrevention. The wholcsomeneas 
of glucose was a matter about which nothing was 
detinitely known, and the fact of its being largely 
used In foo<l made the matter of the gravest con- 
sequence. The consideration of this fact was 
the most important duty of the committee. 



Thk action of tlie New-England llsh and 
game convention, recently' assembled in Boa- 
ton, should meet with cordial support in all 
quarters. The object of the convention was 
to secure uniformity in the fish and game laws 
of all the New-England states, and to see that 
these laws are so worded tluit tiiey may be 
enforced. The present game laws, of Massa- 
chusetts at least, are in great measure a farce, 
as under them convictions are often impossible, 
oven wiicn infringement of the law is clearly 
proved. This is due, in part, to the varying 
close times in dilferent states, — a condition of 
things which encourages the ermuggliug of ille- 



170 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. 54 



galh afyinired gnme into a neighboring state. 
A carfffiiUy consiflfrrerl draught of the proix>sc<l 
finiform laws has l^ffn prosontwl to the Massa- 
chiivilts k-gislntiire ; and since it would be 
difficult to find, in all Xcw Kngland, i>crsons 
more ournjKitent to draught such laws than those 
who r«r^:enlly famo togethcT for this pi]r|)ose, 
it is ho{K.'d that the draught, without material 
change, will Ik? accepted bv the legislature. 
Provi'iion is made for the granting of special 
liceiiM.s only to actual students, cutting otf the 
nearly indiscriminate license -giving to young 
men who wish to form collections for their \)Qr- 
sonal gratification, and not for true scientific 
study. The lobster question has become far 
more serious than most |x^rsons are aware. 
Tliis imiK>rtant crustacean is now nearly ex- 
tinct on our shores ; so that the proi)08ed close 
time, and the prohibition of the capture and 
sale of any lobster under one foot in length, 
are wis*; additions to the existing laws. The 
\}To\X)%i\\ to intrust the duties of game commis- 
sioners to the commissioners on inland fish- 
eries, as is done in some states, is another 
Important provision of the proposed law. 

Tin: movement which within the last few 
years lias caused a rapid organization of agri- 
cultural cx|Kfrimeut-stations in various parts of 
the Tnited States has develoixid another phase 
of the problem concerning the distribution of 
work in botanical research. The very marked 
development of botanical science within the 
last U\\\ or fifteen years has necessitated si)e- 
cialization in several directions, and renders it 
neeessjiry to consider which of the particular 
fields inviting research should remain identified 
with onr higher institutions of learning. One 
of the most i)romising fields at the present time 
is to be found in vegetable physiology ; but this 
is discovere<l to be naturally gravitating towards 
the experiment-stations an<l away from the col- 
leges. This is a phase of the problem which 
should be carefully considered by those who 
have in hand the interests both of the science 
and of the stations ; and care should be taken 
not only that those who are called to the charge 
of these ]m|)ortant institutions should bo capa- 



ble of fully appreciating the importance of the 
interests involved in this particular branch, but 
that they should secure to it a i>osition com- 
mensurate with its high character and the 
great ix>ssibilities which it offers in the waj' of 
practical results. 

The present season is remarkable for the 
brilliancy of the evening sky : the four bright- 
est planets. Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, 
being all al)ove the horizon at once. To add to 
the brilliancy of the spectacle, this takes place 
at a time when Orion, Taurus, and others of the 
brightest constellations, are near the meridian, 
and nine stars of the first magnitude above the 
horizon. An additional point of interest to 
|)ossessors of telescoi)es is, that Saturn is ap- 
proaching lx)th his perihelion and the point of 
greatest oi>ening of his rings, and is therefore 
in that part of his orbit most favorable for 
study. About the middle of April an addition 
will be made by the simultaneous appearance 
of Uranus, Neptune, and Mercury, so that all 
eight of the major planets will be visible at the 
same moment. Of course a telescope will be 
required to see I'ranus and Neptune, but the 
six others will be visible to the naked ej'e. 

En(;l.\nd has been rejoicing in a piece of ele- 
phant worship since Mr. liarnum placed at 
the zoological gardens in London the white 
elephant which he recently procured from Hur- 
mah. The natives of the east affirm, and the 
Pi^uropeans are willing to corroborate their state- 
ments, that the body of a dead elephant, ex- 
cept of such as die by the rifie, is never found. 
Whether they never die, or betake themselves 
to some remote bo<ly of water before they 
depart this life, is a (lispute<l point. The great 
esteem in which the elephant is held is said to 
be due to the last incarnation of (lautama, 
before he was born as Buddha, being that of 
an elci)hant ; yet, as the Buddhists' idea of the 
path of beings is on through at least seven 
heavens to the final total annihilation, it is not 
perfectly clear why they should not suppose 
the soul to finallj' take refuge in an old ele- 
phant, to rest with it in its unknown grave. 



FFjifiUAJir 15, 1884.] 



SCIENCE. 



171 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOtf, 

DeafnefiB in iRrbite oato. 

1 AM engiised ufion an Irivrstigatioii concerning the 
rAu*L'» f»f <liNif iic^s ; and I have therefore naruraJly 
t»tH'ii ftitich inttMpatt-Ml in Mr Lawman Tjiit's j»4pnV 
c'oMcerniii*: tle;ifm**s In white cat!*, publlsheU In 
Suture (voK xxlx. [\ UU), antl in ihe WiU*r of Mr. 
Joseph ♦Slovens, publisboit in the sanu; journal, eoa- 
ri>rrMn$; hh futlier's breed of deaf whU^i cats (v<il 
xx\s. IK 237), 

I have Ml " I-' aerosB lUree intttances of wlille 
tiivts with I '.vo tn Knrope and one hi Anieri- 

ca), and in t ,.. .. ,. , „ ihe animal wan deaf. 

Mr. Taii'in eitateniLMit, that ** c«>n;;enital doafnos* Is 
not kfiown U» occur in any anirnal but the cat" is a 
most extraordinary one, in view of the great preva- 
lence of cong«5nltai deafness among human beings. 

Of the lio.HlH deaf-mutes, in the United Slates, 
mare than one-half are conRcnitally deaf;^ and in 
Eurtjpe (excepting Gennany) the proportion of con* 
geni tally deal appears to tje much greater, — about 
^onr to one» aceordini; to the late Dr. Harvey L. Peet 

Why ahouh! congenital ileafness among the lower 
inlinals be confined to cata» and why only to white 
m%? 

Mr. Tait note<> also an apparent association between 
epilepsy and wbitenos5> in animals. He sayg^ •* Every 
kind of white atdmal I have kept a^* a pet has been 
the subject of upilepflv; and the association is«ugges- 
llvo when we are toiil, as I liave been frequently, 
that thi* disease Is unknown among negroes.'* 

It U worthy ut note, that deafm-ss also appears to 
lie lj?««ij common among negroes than among whUe 
people. According tn the recent census, the total 
white population of this courdry aniounis to 4i,402»' 
UT**, and tlie total ntiinbcr of white deaf-mutes is 
80jkjl. The colored tH>I>ularion is given a,^ <i,58<^7iKJ, 
with H,iTt colored deaf-mutes (not including Chinese 
and Indians). 

Thus, while we have one deaf-mute for every 1,41(1 
of the white t>t>puiation, we have only one deaf-mute 
for everv :?/)7i» of the colored people. It would be 
t' J. to know whether the proportion of con- 

r: taf h less among the c«ilored than Ihe 

vv r,M. M- . I -mutes. 

The pallid comjplexton of many deaf-mutes has 
often l»*H'n eotnmented upon by stratigers as an aj>- 
f>an'nt indication ot ill health. While I cannot iay 
that 1 have myself observed this as a c^itnmon char- 
acteri«tic, slill my attention has never been speclti' 
rally called to the point. It would be ea^sy to test 
fh-. iM.ri.T hy collecting iiHo one room all the con- 
;if pupils of soiue iargf* iiiKtilulioiu exdud- 
u pupils who became deaf from accidental 

c^iU-en. A cursory examination would probably *how 
whether there is or Is nol» in the human race, ati asjio^ 
rlation iM'tvvf'iMi eongenilal deafness »nd the aliFcnce 
of colnring-rnattir fmni ihe skin and hair. I trust 
tijai »toine of yimr readers may be able to throw light 
Upon the4>e pi>int«. 

Alexandp,b Graham Bkll. 

WMhln^jion, D.r., ri>b. 4, 1«14. 

Radiant heat 
In a letter to Sritmcr i>f Jan. 25, Mr. Fltjsgerald 
I !,i.,L u .r u pf)«,^ible that I am tnish^l as to the manner 
1 ,ny rot-iiting-screens work, by reasoti of the 

c i^n of the arrauf^ement. I muM never- 

th*it *fe *:oniinue to assert, that I think 1 understand 

■ (^«i C^jiii],M?iKliuin of (lir truth ctifitUB <,184M.i}» (iiirt ik. p. 1M4. 
• ft»r AmirVritti unnAt* nf (hw (tcraf tiod iluml7« vtiL vl, p. '^Sl7. 



how the process I have Invented operates, and cannot 
admit that 1 am in error in this until stich error is 
pointed out. Now, Mr. Fitzgerald's demand that I 
should j^how that tlie heat which originally came 
from /{ is tcturned to Jl in thf^ Mine direi'tion as the 
heiaecmiing from A, would incorrectly lead the reader 
to i^uppose that I made sonu* ^uch slalement or sup- 

rjsiiion in tlie original paper, and that consequently 
was misled, as he suirge'^ts. Hut the most super- 
ficial examination of ibe paper shows that 1 have not 
foramomeitt *iij>poscd this: ;is I have simply projujsed 
to so arrange the rcflectitig .surfiices as to return radia- 
tions from li through some one or more of tlie aper- 
tures tn the screen h, and not necessarily through the 
apertures from which they origimiied. It necessarily 
follow*, that I did tiot suppose them to be relurtied 
in a direction pandlel to the radiations from ^1. 

I think, then, lliat Mr. Kit?,i,'erald must certainly 
adnut that 1 have nut made the blunder which is im- 
plied in hi?% letter. 

Again: Mr. Fitzgerald takes it for granted, appar- 
ently, that this want of coincidence in direction would 
he fnUl to the prcK-c^s; wijereHi*» in my estimation* 
the only question i*, whether the radiations which 
originally came frf>m Jl are ndiuiicd to It or not. 
What their direction maybe appears to me entirely 
immaterial. 

If it is possible to show that the want of coiti' 
cidence in the direction of ali the rays coming to li 
invalidates the [irocess, as Mr. Fit7.'^erald implies, he 
will no doubt l>e able to give a direct proof of the 
fact. Such proof, howevei% seems to me imprj^sihle; 
for, after the energy reaches /i, the p.ath by which it 
lias arrivei) is of no consequence. 

It goes without saying, that in this %*iew of the 
matter it is quite iuipt>gsit)le to substitute the process 
proposed by Mr, Fit/j^erald in place of mine; as in his 
prticeisS these directions neei*»sarily ooijiclde, which 
in mine cannot coineidt*. 






Fm, I. 




It does t»eem possible. h<»wevcr. \A9 emi»loy two set* 
of opening? such n ^■' *' ' - ' ' ' * - - r - ^j. (^ 
such a way that tb liat 

neithi'r of Uieiu C;t? .^ . let 

there l>e three fixed screens, ^, m, n, wuh two »irta of 
opening*, t v ?. -y ft' f', whte)t cnrs be opened or 
eloHe<| Tin rlosoil except 

whrn til Let cfudi of 

tlie four ♦*' !».■.»■ iMv,*>ai-^-i Mine noiLM wc shall spciik 



J 



n\ 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou IIL, No. 64. 



of l)C tlic time rcquirefl by llic front of a ray in mov- 
ing from n to m, or r/c« versa, Diirin;^ the first inter- 
val let X and / alone be open. The rays between the 
screens at the conclusion of the first interval are 
shown in the first diagram. During the second in- 
terval let y alone be open, and let the refieclor at tj 
send the ray impinging on it towards z. The situation 
of the rays at the end of the sectmd interval are shown 
in the second diagram. During the third interval let 
r' and z alone be open. The rays between the screens 
at the end of this interval are represented in the 
third diagram. During the fourth interval let y" 
alone be open, and let the reflector at y send the ray 
from that point toward z\ The next interval is a 
repetition of the fir^t, and so on. 

It is seen that, in fact, the difference in the direc- 
tions of tlie two rays arriving at Ji can be made less 
than any assigned finite angle, however small, by 
sufliciently increasing the distance between the 
screens, or sufficiently decreasing the space between 
the oi>enlngs, or both. 

It is possible that the above process may, from its 
comparative simplicity, conduce to a clearer under- 
standing of the relations involved, though it seems 
inferior to the one originally proixisod in some im- 
portant particulars. H. T. Ei»r»Y. 

Unlveri.ity of Cincinnati, Feb. 2, 18S4. 

The Greely relief expedition. 

In view of the comment upon the Greely relief ex- 
pedition, it may not be out of place at this early date 
to call attention to a neglected principle of arctic 
navigation which beat's with full force upon the 
navigation of the route in ({uestion. To its adoption 
may be traced the success of Nares with the Alert 
and Di.scovery. and of N«)rdenski()ld with tin* V«*.i;a; 
to its neglect, the wreck of the .leannette and the l*ro- 
tcns among a host of others. 

Simply stated, it is, under all circumstances, to 
cling to the coast, and among its islands find protec- 
tion against the floating ice. To coa>t along the edge 
of the rtoe, and follow tlie openings it offers, is a veri- 
table siren. Of course, the principle i.s not applica- 
ble till after Jones's Sound is passed; but here the 
course is usually free. 

The Kskimo knew nu» as Ti i.rroiAMAr. 

New Haven, Conn., Kcb. '1. 

The red skies. 

I have only time to-day to reply very briefly to your 
editorial inquiry on p. :J(), as to previous instances of 
red skies and volcanic eruptions. 

You will find a West India instance in ls;J1 on 
p. If)') of the jMvtcoralofjical iiiiif/iizhu' iov 18s:j; but the 
most striking parallel has been pointed out by l*ro- 
fessor Karsten of Kiel as occurring in ITS^, lasting 
about four months, and sprcadini; over the whole of 
Europe, northern Africa, and eastern Asia. 

Arrangements are being niadr for thecnncenlration 
of all collectible iufnrniation upon the subject, and I 
shall be proud to act a> the n'CfiviM- of copies f»f any 
notes or records which your rea«lers may intrust to 
nie. (J. .1. Sv.MONS, F.IJ.S. 

6'2 Cumdcn Sq., London, X.W., 
Jan. Jy, 1S84. 

[We shall publish\I*n)fessor Karsten's article next 
week.] \ 

Aeolikn ripple-marks. 

On the evening of i June 11, }SS:\, after a severe 
rain-storm, during which lai^e tpiantities of soil were 
washed from adjacent Velds and dc]K>slted along the 



roailside, I noticed near Broilheail, Wis., a peculiar 
plienomenon, wliich may Ih; worth recording. The 
mud, <le|K)site«l only a few Iiours before, was still 
very mobile, and, at the point wliere best seen, cov- 
ered an area a roil or more wide and three or four 
long, presenting a iwrfectly jdatie surface. The 
steady force of the strong wind was interrupted by 
occasional gusts of greater violence, each of which 
raised on the plastic mud-surfa<rc corrugations, which, 
in every detail that could be caught during their 
momentary exisUMice, resembled ripple-marks formed 
by water. Iwing a beautiful and distinct series of 
parallel ridges slightly concave toward the direction 
of the moulding-force. The outlines of these neolian 
ripples were no sooner defined than they began to 
dissolve, and a minute or two sufliced to obliterate 
all trace of them. The phenomenon was observed 
several times on the same surface, and also In adja- 
cent localities, where the consistence of the mud. aiid 
therefore the duration of the ridges, varied slightly. 
The ripples were best defined In the thinnest mud, 
though (his was most favorably situatcil for their 
production; and they disappeared less rapidly where 
formeil In the more viscous material. 

This, of course, is not a radically new phenome- 
non, but a ran* phase of tht? familiar action of wind 
on liquid surfaces. R. D. Salisbubt. 

"WincheU's * "World-life.' 

Will you i>ermlt me to announce that a number of 
errata, attributable both to author and proof-reader, 
have found their way into my late work on * World- 
life:* and I will be glad to niail slips of corrections 
to any who will kindly notify me by simple postal- 
card that they so desire*.* 

ALKXANHER WlNCUEI.I«. 

Ann ArlK»r, MJcli. 

THK LAIlOnATOIlY IN MODERN 
SCIENCE. 

TiiK miitorial circiiinstancos under which 
scientific discovery is prosecuted have been 
completoly rovoliitioiiizod during the last forty 
years. Of tiic immense changes that have oc- 
curred, the majority have fallen within the last 
fifteen, one might ahnost say dozen, years. It 
is interesting and profitaMe to contrast the 
pa.st with the present in this respect. 

Forty years ago there weie very few, moro 
properly no lahoralories which we of to-da^' 
would consider even toleialde. Now every 
university of importance and high repute, the 
worhl over, has large suites of nxuns for each 
department of science, and often numerous 
great buihlings within whose walls thousands 
and thousands of stiulenls are <l:iily l»roiight 
face to face with the facts and laws of nature. 
The generation that is now ^r^^nw pursued its 
scientific studies in incommodious quarters, 
and even tiiose were destined for the use of 
the profes.sors rather than the students. Many 
a small, dingy, and ill-lighted room is still to 
be seen, wliere some illustrious savunt created 
uew knowledge, — a small square chamber, with 
crooked walls, low ceiling, undulating floor, 



FKBRVARY15, 18S4.I 



SCIENCE. 



and an insufllck'nt window: whrtt fidenlific 
traveller abroad has not: seen Unit working- 
place, where bis prtMlecessors labored at the 
roundntions of our existing science? Is not 
each of its forlorn details examined with a 
curiosity which is half wonder, half pitv? 
Yet in such places were made the eomraence- 
raenta of modem science. 

NowutlavH discovery haft more seemly 
abodes* The great institntes which make the 
pride and glory of Gcrnian univci-silies are 
the mo<lels now being copied everywhere. By 
a guess we may estimate the number oflabora- 
lories eqiiippcfl and intended for research at 
four or five huudrcfl. The modern laboratory 
is a really ncw^ institution, the evolution of 
which still awaits its historian. Its origin ap- 
pears to have been twofold : it grew, on the 
one hand, out of the museums ; on the other, 
from the private collections of apparatus and 
materials belonging to the professors. The 
eai'liest museums were storehouses of curiosi- 
ties,^ but during the eighteenth century they 
graduall}' acquired a more scientific character. 
Not, however, until this eenturj, did any of the 
museums attain great size ; while the gigantic 
dimensions which a few, like those of Beilin, 
London, Paris, and Washington, have reached, 
are the result of very recent growth. Of 
course, special work-rooms have to be provided 
for those in charge of, or who come to study, 
such large collections ; and, since the majority 
of scientific museums are conncctccl with uni- 
versities, the work-rooms in many of these 
institutions fiavc become laboratories for stu- 
dents. 

A great many of the older scientific tuqu 
now living, and oT the previous generation, 
got I heir little and imperfect practical train- 
^lug in private laboratories, winch were the 
[only ones existing in the earb'er part of this 
k century. Before long a (qw professors iutro- 
rduced, thmugh their private energy, better 
cquipuient for tlic benefit of Iheir laboratory 
etudeuLs ; and, when the deniantls exceeded 
'their resources, these enrly enthusiasts ob- 
|triloed subventions from the university author- 
ities. As these appropriations were increased, 
the private laboratory gradually became a uni- 
versity enterpri'^e. Thus, Pnrkinje established 
his [>hy8iological lalioralory at Brcsiau ; M«g- 
nus, the physical bd>oratory at Berlin ; and 
Licbig, tlie chemical at (liessen. 

A good museum is very valunble, but a 
jood laboratory is main* times more valunble. 
Coltcctions of any kind havo» as such, a very 

* Of oourae ilic orlirinal * rotiaarma * at ibo nalnco of Akzaii- 
4rtm fVM Altu^alivr Aktihtruni. 



limited utility, and even that only in %*ery few 
sciences. The moilern laboratory is almost 
unrestricted in its scope and possibiliticSp Tt 
is the most remarkable and iufiuential creation 
of science in our lime. It is a place well 
supplied with the necessary conveniences for 
watching and recording the special class of 
natural phenomena liclonging to the science 
to which the particular laboratory is dedicated. 
Experience has shown that the appliances 
necessary for the exact observation of nature 
are numerous, varied, atid costly: indeed, the 
thorough pursuit of any branch of science 
requires ample resources. Now, pure science 
does not lend to wealth : therefore students 
and investigators arc comi^elled to rely upon 
the concentration of means and appliances in , 
endowed laboratories to render their workj 
l>ossible. Association and co-operation, the 
characteristic social forces of our e[>och, no- 
where achieve more important results than in 
these laboratories, in wliich are produced the 
majority of current contributions to knowledge. 
The expense of establishing and maintain- 
ing a good hiboratory of any kind is far greater J 
than is usually conceived. There are weights ■ 
and vohmK's and temperatures to be measured, 
rcquiriug delicate balances, graduated glasses^ 
and fine thermometers ; a great variety of glass- 
ware, lamps, stands, etc., is necessary ; also re- 
agents, standard fluids, and the like ; next come 
the s|)ecial supplies needed for the science to 
which the laborator)* is devoted. It is aston- 
ishing how much like an assemblage of machin- 
ery the stock becomes even in those departments 
which require least. Next to be namcil (s th^ 
material to work upon, which, in the natural- 
history sciences, is extensive, and has to bo 
gathered from far and near. Finally, we men- 
tion as indispensable a small workinrr.iihrarVi 
which ought to contain at least all tho^c books 
that need to l>c frequently consulted, r^m] sets 
of a few of the most valuable st^ccial journals. 
These conditions are more tljan fulfilletl in 
many Kuro[)cau laboratories, but by verv, very 
few in tins country. The arcliitectnral condi- 
tions are, on the whole, of suhsidiarv imijor- 
tance. There is no more common or egregious 
error than to suppose the erecliou of a liuild- 
ing establishes a laboratory. In a haiuhome 
edifice something essential is oHien sacrificed 
to appearance .* outside )>oauty is not indis- 
[lensablc to inside convenience. Half the cost 
of a building, given to endow the running- 
expenses of a laboratory, would in the majority 
of cases prove many fold more valuable. ' 

A good scientific laboratory — that is to say, 
one in which origimU researches, as well na 



174 



SCIENCE. 



[Vou lU., No. M. 



iiMMC teaching, ma}' be undertaken (sneh a one 
as iri fonnd at universities, de facto) cannot lie 
carried on proix»rIy and successfully l)y less 
than three persons. The highest officer must 
be the resjionsible director, — a man of superior 
ahilit\', extensive attainments, and prolonged 
experience : one, in short, who has mastered 
his department of scienc*e, knows its ix>ssibili- 
ties an:l deficiencies, and is therefore capable 
of judging what work is most feasible and in- 
structive for students, and what problems are 
best adajited for investigation. It is sheer 
wastes for a man of such high capacity to sacri- 
fice his whole time to the arrangement of appa- 
ratus, or the preparation of experiments for his 
lectures or his students : therefore it is desirable, 
we prefer to say indispensable, that ho should 
have an assistant, preferably a young devotee 
of science, who will be fitted by his exi)erience 
as an assistant to ultimately become himself 
director of a similar laboratory. The third per- 
son is the laboratory keeiHjr {diener). who 
needs must be a man of some mechanical skill, 
BO that the precious instruments may be safely 
intrusted to liis care. He should be something 
more than a servant, and less than an assistant. 
A laboratory without this working-force can- 
not do much for the promotion of science, al- 
though even more modest ones may be valuable 
for sim|>le instruction. A first-class laboratory, 
and in Germany are many such, has alwaN's a 
larger number of officers. There are few per- 
sons among us who appreciate the magnitude 
of a scientific laboratory : were it otherwise, 
there would not be so many petty substitutes 
for them. 

Kxisting laboratories fulfil two functions, — 
giving education to students, and opportunity 
to investigators. The multiplication and en- 
largement of laboratories depend chiefly upon 
tiie growing recognition of the truth that fii*st- 
hand knowledge is the only real knowledge. 
The student must see, and not rest satisfied 
with being told. Translated into a pedagogic 
law, it reads, ' To teacii science, have a labo- 
ratory ; to learn a science, go to a laboratory.* 
lie who has never h'arned to appreciate a lab- 
oratory in its highest sense does not know 
even the, meaning of ' I know.' We do not 
consider *^hose liberally educated who have 
never had ^ even a single thorough course of 
laboratory draining. It is the laboratory which 
gives streuKth to the movement in favor of 
scientific ecljpcation, for it opens to all the road 
to real living knowledge ; while books by them- 
selves lead (fff to the by-ways of what other 
men thought *hey knew at the time they wrote. 
Life and deolth are not more different than 



are, in their ways, real aod book knowledge 
of nature. A book, at best, is but a useAil 
adjunct in science. 

To the investigator the laboratory is, or 
ought to be, all in all, providing him with 
every thing wherewith to exix»riment and ob- 
serve. Not only should there be on band all 
the paraphernalia of research, but it must also 
be ix>ssible to purciiase or construct the new 
apparatus which may be devised to meet the 
new requirements. Yet in no re8i)ect, perhaps, 
do laboratories maintain a more efiScient utility 
than in fostering technique, by the develop- 
ment of new methods, and by gathering from 
all sources c*omplete information concerning 
the available processes and means of work. 
Only the daily laborer at science can ade- 
quately value the knowledge of methods which 
is concentrated in every well-managed labora- 
tory. In places where these requirements are 
fulfilled, discovery makes rapid progress ; and 
their existence explains the present immense 
rapidity of scientific progress. 

What a contrast between the magnificent 
opiK)rtunities we enjo\' to-day and the meagre 
possibilities of fifty yeai*s ago ! The change 
has been rendered possible by the establish- 
ment of well-fitted lal)oratories for the promo- 
tion of science. 



TESTS OF ELECTRIC-LIGHT SYSTEMS 
AT THE CiyCfXNATl EXPOSITION. 

The commissionei*s of the eleventh indus- 
trial exposition held in Cincinnati in September 
and October, 18^<3, determined to undertake 
a series of tests of the efficiency of electrical 
lighting systems, and so advertised in their 
circulars, which were widely distributeil. Spe- 
cial premiums were offered for the best system 
of arc-lighting, the best system of incandes- 
cent lighting, the best dynamo machine for arc 
and incandescent lighting respectivel}*, and for 
the best lamp in each system. 

A jury was appointed by the commissioners, 
consisting of T. C. Mendenhall, chairman, 
H. T. Eddy. Thomas French, jun., and Walter 
Laidlaw. The jury was instructed to make 
such tests and measurements as seemed de- 
sirable and were possible under the circum- 
stances, and which would aid in arriving at a 
verdict upon the relative merits of the different 
exhibits. 

The opening of the exposition took place on 
Sept. 5, and the close on Oct. C. The jury 
was requested to make its reix)rt of the awards 
one week before the close of the exposition. 

In response to the proposal of the commis- 



FKHurAKY 15, 1K84.1 



SCIENCE. 



115 



sioners, four systems of electric lighting were 
eiiterc«l for competition. Tlie Thomson -Hous- 
ton electric-lighting company submitted a sys- 
tem of arc-lighliug ; the Ellison eleetric-lightijig 
company, a system of inetindescent lighting; 
and the U. 8. electric-lighting company offered 
a system of arc-lighting, and also one for inciin- 
descent lighting. Several things conspired to 
make the tests less eomf^lele in some resjiocts 
than was desired by thos;e interested* The 
members of the jur\ were all engaged in pro- 
feftsional work, and were therefore unable to 
devote their entire time Uy the tests. The 

r dy naniometci's used were built after the expo- 
sition opened, and were not completed until 
after many vexnlioiis delayn. One of tliera, 
tfiat upon whiel* the most reliance was placed, 
was of a form recently devised, and the prin- 
ciples of which had never been realized in 

1 practice, except in an experimental model con- 
structed by its inventor. Its construction on 
a large scale necessarily involved a good deal 
of exi)eri mentation* In .spite of these delays. 
the jury was onaliU'd to begin regular work on 
the evening of Se[*t. 2*), and to make, dur- 
ing the succeeding ten days, such tests of the 
most importaut features of the various systems 
as to jostifv them in making the awards, what- 
ever ditrerence might have existed in reference 
to minor points, which, for lack of time, wei"e 
not thoroughly investigated. 

The plan adopted was substantially that 
ujion which nearly all similar trials have been 
conducted. The energy consumed by the dy- 
namo wan measured by means of the d>Tiu- 
mometers, and the electrical energy hi the 

' circuit wasiletermined by well-known methods. 
This gave the cllicieney of the machine as 
a generator. The illuminating- power of the 
iamps was coin[>ared, !ind at the same time 
the electrical energy which they consumed was 
measured, A combination of the results ob- 
tained by these two proi-esses gives the rela- 
tive illuminating-power per unit of energy 
consumed by the dynamo, which represents 
the «?lative commerciid etHciencies of the sys- 
tems. The measurements made* tlicrefore, 
were of three kinds, — dynumometric, electric, 
ftud pholouH*tric ; and they will be considered 
in tlic order mentionc^l. 

Dynamomet nc meas u re men ts , 

Two separate dynamoraeters were sinnilta- 
neously employed in mcjisuring the mechanical 
energy ex[)ended in running the armatures of 
the four dynamos which were tested. They 
have been called, from the manner of tbeir 



operation, the *belt * and * cradle * dynamome- 
ters respectively. 

The belt dynamometer has been frequently 
employed before ; and its manner of operation 
is explained by Ih\ Hopkinson in Emjineerinfj^ 
\o\. 27, 1). 403, where he gives a figure of it, 
and the formulae used by him in deteinnining 
the power expended in certain electric-light 
tests. These formulae tacitly' assume that the 
l>elt is perfectly flexible and without weight: 
for otherwise terras must be intmdnced into 
the formulate to take account of the ditlerenees 
of tension in the belt caused by passing the 
dynamometer- pulleys, and the centrifugal force , 
generated in the belt as it leaves the varioun 
pulleys. The velocity of the belt being great, 
it is more than proliiible that such terms ai*e 
required in order to deduce accurate results 
from this form of dynamometer, 

Tnder these circumstances the computatioo 
of the power expended from the observations 
of the belt dynamometer by the theory as at 
present known \Vas wholly unsatisfactory, giv- 
ing results, in all except the tirst few tesis, con- 
siderably less than the trutli, and in some cases 
less than tljc electrical power in the circuit. 

Tlie cradle dynamometer, however, gave re- 
sults of a much more satisfactory character. 
The principle of this dynamometer is a recent 
invention of Professor Brackctt of Princeton, 
N.J., and, owing to its noveltv and great ac- 
curacy, merits a somewhat minute description. 
It was built at the machine-shops of Messrs. 
Lane & Bodley, Cincinnati, under the super- 
intendence of Mr, Laidlaw, Irom ilesigns made 
by Mr, Eddy, to whom is due the arrangement 
of its various parts. 

It coosisted of a substantial [il at form, c<r, 
tig. I, seven feet long by four and a half feet 
wide, hung at each end by iron rods, ee, from 
an axis c*onsisting of a short pieee of two-and- 
a-half-inch slu* fling, cr, which res?ted upon a 
supt>orting-gii\lor, tjg. Fig. 1 represents the 
framework, etc., at one end of the t)latform, to 
facilitfite raising and lowering the girder gg, 
which carried the platform cc by means of the 
jackscrew8,/y* upon which gg rests. The up- 
righta bb are guiiles [>assing tiirough the open- 
ings 66, shown in fig, 2, which is intended to 
represent the ground- plan of gg^ and adjacent 
parts of the cradle. Each girder, gg^ was com- 
IKJsed of two planks, held at a distance of 
three inches apart bj^ blocks, irf, and bolted 
firmly together. The rods ce passed between 
the |>lank8 gg^ and were forged to an eye 
which fitted the axis n. The axis a rested 
upon pieces of smooth boiler-plate in the 
upper surface of gg. 



176 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. III., No. I 



The uprights bb form part of a rigid frame- 
work, well bolted together, one side of which 
is seen in outline on a smaller scale in fig. .*5. 

A scale-beam, jJT, made in the form of an 
inverted Li 21"^ graduated to fractions of an 
inch, had the lower extremit\- of its vertical 
arm fastened to the platform cc; while at the 
angle was an e3*e which was centreil upon a 
b}' the screws iii. 





^ 








,tXtw,(®1 






.'/-. - 


■■ .•/•. 


I 


i 

\7W 


f 




^ 

w^^' 




!— 




A 



Kio. 1. 

It is readih' seen that the platform, wlien it 
was raised from the ground, as shown in fig. 1, 
was free to swing tlirough a limited space, 
either to the right or left, and that any eccvn- 
trie weight or force so applied as to tend to 
swing it to the left could be compensated by 
a weight upon the scale-beam,//", which swings 
with it; so that the platfonn could be still 
kept in its horizontal position. 

The axis about which the swinging tends to 
occur is the line of contact between a<i and 
gg, which line we shall for brevity henceforth 
call the axis aa. 




Fi». 2. 

In setting up the dynamometer, it was so 
placed that the axis rra was directly below the 
axis of the driving-pulley, and in tlie same ver- 
tical phine with it. The dynamo to bo tested 
was placed upon the i)latforni cc, while cc was 
resting upon the ground ; and it was blocked 
up on cc to such a height, that the axis of the 
armature was as nearlv at the same height as 
the axis aa as could be readily done by direct 
measurement. This adjustment could be ef- 
fected with all necessary exactness once for 



all ; for, even though the armature were alight 
above or below the axis oa, no error won 
thereby be introduc<;d into the observations. 
The axis of the armature was also set, \ 
nearly as it could be conveniently, in line wi 
the axis aa; but the final adjustment, so th 
the centre of the armature-pulley was neitb 
to the right nor left of the axis aa^ was nia< 
mechanicalh' as follows. The platform ai 
dynamo were raised from the ground, and tl 
girders gg carefully levelled by means of 11 
jackscrews. The ])]atforn] was then brougl 
to a horizontal )K)sition by placing compel 
sating weights u]>on it. The belt was ne: 
adjusted, and was tightened by lowering tl 
platform. It was then found, that, in ca 
the axis of the armature was to the right or Ic 
of aa, the tension of tlie belt exerted a fon 
to ti]) the platform, and it no longer stoc 
horizontal. This was corrected, — one half, \ 
shifting compensating weights : and the oth 
iialf, by moving the dynamo to the right < 
left. The belt was then slackened by raisii 
the platform, and a similar adjustment aga 
made to bring the platform to the horizont 
position. This was re^wated until the pla 
form stood horizontal, whether the belt wj 
tight or loose ; both ginlers being at the san 
height, and both accurately lerellcd, accoa 
being taken of the bending. 




Fig. 3. 

A fu rther a pj )lication of compensating weigl 
was employed to render the balance sensitiv 
AViih the Kdison dynamo, which is top-hea' 
(i.e., its centre of gravit}' is above the axis i 
the armature) , more than a ton was hung on ti 
sides of the platform to bring the centre i 
gravity of the whole down to the axis a 
Witli the other dynamos, whose centres < 
gravity an? below the axis of their armatim 
c(>m|HM)sating weights of smaller amount we 
placed upon a staging built on the platlbr 
above the dynamos, in order to bring the oenti 
of gravity of the whole up nearly to the axis m 

In making tlie tests, the power was appHi 
to turn the armatures clockwise in fig. 1. 7 
caused the horizontal scale-beam / to rise ' 
weights were placed upon it to bring 
to the iiorizontal position. The mo 



Febkuary 15, 18a4. 



SCIENCE, 



177 



the couple, got by multi|>lyiDg the weight so 
applied b}' its distance from the axis aa as 
read upon the scale-beam, is evidently equal 
and opposite to the raomeiit of the coui)le virith 
vvhieli the nnuature is turned. Thus the mo- 
ment of the force applied to run the armature 
was measured in foot-pounds. This moment, 
multiplied by the number of revolutions per 
minute and by IV, is the work expende<l in 
driving the armature, in foot-pounds per min- 
ute, 

It was found convenient to use a weight hav- 
ing a raoraeDt somewhat less than suflicient to 
bring the scale-beam to the horizontal,- and 
employ a Chattillon spring-balance with it lial- 
face reading to t ox. to furnish the remaining 
part of the couple. This balance was fastened 
to a vertical cord passing around a small winch » 
which enabled the observer to bring the scale- 
beam to the horizontal with facility. 

The principal diflleulty to be apprehended 
in testing with this dynamometer was a pos- 
sible tendency to oscillation, which might be 
caused by running the l>clt. Had this existed, 
it might have been checked by a dash-pot ; 
but the weight of the platform and dynamo 
was Buflk'ient to almost entirely obviate any 
such diniculty, and give very considerable 
fiteadinesa of position. Indeed, the jarring 
seemed lo increase its sensitiveness, and evi- 
dently enabled the jilatform to come to rest in 
its position of equilibrium by overcoming any 
initial friction existing. 

The structure was mostly built of tirree-inch 
plank, ten or twelve inches wide. Tlic plat- 
form wajs designed to safely carry five tons at 
its centre. 

For jjermission to make use of the cradle 
dynamometer, the jury is indebted to the kind- 
ness of Professor Bruckett. 

In addition to the use of the two dyna- 
mometers described, indicator-diagrams were 
taken from the steam-engine furnishing the 
|K)wcr for driving the dynamo machines. 
Throughout the dy namometric tests the ma- 
chines were driven b}* a Cummer engine of 
about a hundred horse-power, which furnished 
j>ower for other dynamos than that upon the 
cradle, as well as for two or three pieces of 
machinery on exhibition in Power HalL It 
was thus impossible to make the taking of 
indicator-<liagrams contemporaneous with the 
regular tests* owing to tlie large load which 
tlje engine carried : and they were generally 
taken after ten o'clock at night, at which hour 
the remainder of the load was thrown off. 
Although these indicator-cards wcii* not used 
in the finul computidiuus, they Inruished valu- 



able checks upon the performance of the dyna- 
mometers. 



Tlie electrical measHrpments, 

For the purpose of making the electrical 
measurements as free from disturbance as pos- 
sible, a small room, about twenty feet long and 
ten feet wide, was fitte(J up in the basement of 
the central part of the large exiwaition build- 
ing. In this, three brick piers were built ui>on 
solid foundations, and two or three wooden 
brackets were firmly secured to the walls, so 
as io furnish firm resting-places for the galva- 
nometers. The main lines of the arc-lighting 
systems were run through this room, and very 
heavy copper conductors connected the room 
with the space in which the dynamos were ex- 
hibited ; so that tlie entire current from the in- 
candescent machines could be introduced when 
desired. 

The electric measurements consisted in the 
determination of the strength of the current, 
and the electromotive force between two points 
in the circuit. For this purix)se several galva- 
nometers of ditferent kinds were employed. 
For the measurement of current strength the 
principal instrument used was one of Sir Wil- 
liam Thomson's current galvanometers, made 
by White of Glasgow. Although of recent 
invention and construction, the instrument is 
probably so well known as not to require any 
detailed description. It consists essentially 
of a magnetometer, and a coil of very low re- 
sistance. In the magdctomcter four short 
magnets are combined to form a needle, the 
position of which is indicated by a very light 
yet very rigid aluminum index. A steel mag- 
net, bent in the shape of a semicircle, is placed 
In a vertical plane over the needle, so that 
the latter is approximately at the centre of the 
circle of whicli the magnet forms a part. One 
ontl of the magnet is furnished with a cross- 
piece of brass, from one extremity of which 
projects ft pin which rests in a conical hole, 
and upon the other extremity is a ^button;' so 
that freedom of motion around the pin as an 
axis is allowed. The opposite end of the 
magnet rests in a groove cut around the end 
of a screw, by the movement of which the 
plane of the magnet can be shifted towards 
the east or towards the west. 

The coil is fixed in a vertical plane at one 
end of a wooden table whose length is about 
one foot, and breadth about five inches. The 
table is furnished with levelling-screws, and a 
V^ -groove is cut lengthwise through the centre, 
at right angles to the plane of the coiL In 



178 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. IIL, No. 54. 



this groove the magnetometer, with its attached 
magnet, slides ; so that, b}* placing the needle at 
dilFerent distances from the centre of the coil, 
the instrument may be used for measuring cur- 
rents differing ver}* greatly in strength. 

The adjustment of the instrument consists 
in placing the magnetometer upon the table, 
without the field-magnet, and adjusting the 
whole so that the index is at zero of its scale : 
after which the magnet is put in its phic*e, and, 
if necessarj', one end is moved by means of 
the screw until the index again points to zero. 

The interpretation of the reading of the in- 
stniment is a very simple operation. A scale 
along the edge of the V-groove shows the posi- 
tion of the magnetometer. It is necessary to 
know the strength of field at the needle, which 
is, of course, that due to the magnet, plus the 
horizontal component of the earth's magnetism ; 
and then, if this strength of field in <\r,.s. units 
be mulliplied by the reading of the needle, and 
divided by the scale-reading of the magne- 
tometer, the result will be the cun*ent in ani- 
{M^res. 

This galvanometer was permanently mounted 
on one of the stone piers, and its connections 
were so arranged that it could be quickly 
thrown in or out of the circuit without inter- 
fering with the continuity of the same. The 
direction of the current through the galvanom- 
eter could be instantly reversed : and through- 
out the observations reversals were regularly 
made, so as to eliminate error arising from dis- 
placement of the zero. The zero-point was 
adjusted, however, at the beginning of every 
series of observations, and examined at fre- 
quent intervals during the same. 

A rlifferential galvanometer wjis also used in 
measuring current strength. This instrument 
was kindly loaned to the jury by Professor 
r>rackctt of Princeton, by whom it was devised 
and constructed. A descri[)tion of it will be 
found in the American journal of science, \o\, 
xxi. p. 395. It consists essentially of two 
heavy rings, one within the other, through 
which the current goes in opposite directions. 
The needle in the centre has a silk-fibre sus- 
pension. The radii of the rings being given, 
the constant of the instrument can be readily 
calculated. It was especially constructed for the 
measurement of strong currents, ten amperes 
giving a deflection of fourteen to fifteen de- 
grees when the value of II is a little more than 
.2. AVhen the current was steady, it behaved 
admirabl}* ; but witi a fluctuating current it 
cult to get trustworth}' 
constant vibration of the 
circle was so small that 
I 



became extremely d 
readings, owing to th 
needle. The gradual 



the estimation of fractions of a degree was quite 
uncertain. Even with steady currents, more 
time was required for reading the Brackett than 
the Thomson, owing to the length of time 
needed for the needle to come to rest after a 
i-eversal of current. For these reasons its use 
was not continued throughout the test. It was 
observed continuousl}* during the tests of the 
Thomson- Houston dynamo, and during a part 
of the tests of the Weston dynamo, when, owing 
to fluctuation in the current, its use was neoes- 
sarik discontinued. It served a useful purpose, 
however, as a check uix>n the indications of 
the Thomson instrument, the close agreement 
of the two justifying confidence in the indica- 
tions of the latter. The most carefully made 
series of comparisons was that of Sept. 20. 
During the afternoon of that day, eight simul- 
taneous readings of the two instruments wei-o 
made; the current, which was remarkably 
steady, being furnished by the Thomson-Hous- 
ton dynamo. The means gave 0.92 amperes 
as indicated by the Thomson, and 0.03 am- 
peres for the Brackett. The regular tests were 
begun on Sept. 2.'), and in the mean time 
several additional conducting- wires had been 
brought into the testing-room. The indica- 
tions of the Brackett galvanometer were, after 
this, constantly somewhat loss than those of 
the Thomson, which was doubtless due to the 
alteration of the field by the presence of the 
currents. The difference was quite constant, 
and amounted to about two per cent. Thus, 
on Sept. 2.") the Thomson gave 0.07 ampi^res, 
and the Brackett 0.77. On the 2(;th the Thom- 
son indicated 10.0, and the Brackett 0.80, and 
on the 27tii, with the VVeston arc <lynamo, 
showed l.S.(; amperes, and the Brackett IH.;). 
That this discrepancy could be accounted for 
by the ettcct of the current u|)on the strength 
of field was established by vil^rating a needle 
under two conditions, — with and without the 
currents. Herein is shown the advantage of 
a strong, permanent magnetic field, such as * 
exists in the Thomson instrument. An altera- 
tion of the field, which might considerably in- 
fluence tiie results from the Brackett. would 
hardly be perceptible with the Thomson. 

During the tests of the arc-light machines 
the whole current was taken through the gal- 
vanometers. AVith the incandescent systems, 
however, in which the current was sometimes 
as high as 170 amperes, this was impossible; 
as the coils and connections would have been 
greatly heated. The current might possibl}' 
have been safely divided between four or five 
instruments ; but, these not being at hand, it 
became necessarv to make use of a shunt. 



Frbruaby Id, 1884.J 



SCIENCE. 



179 



For this purpose the fjeavy main conductor 
■was cut» and the two ends were inserted into 
large uiereury-cin>s, cut out in a block of wood 
uji inch and a half thick. These cups were 
also connected by about forty feet of nunU>er 
U copper wire, the ends of both main and 
shunt wire being well immersed in the mercury, 
and pressed close together. These mercury- 
cups were connected with two others by means 
of short copper wires, and into the second 
pair the ends of the galvanometer wires were 
plunged. As thus arranged, about one*fillh of 
the current was taken through the galvanome* 
ter* Even with this division of the current, it 
was found, that, when using the strong current 
from the Weston dynamo, the wnres of the gal- 
vanometer were somewhat heated ; and in order 
to avoid this residt, a short piece of number 
wire, not more than two or three inches in 
length, wiis bent so that it could be inserted 
in the mercury-cups, and thus cut the galva- 
nometer out, except during the few moments 
necessary for taking a reading. During all of 
the ' resting ' j periods this short wire carried 
Ity far the greater portion of the current, and 
thus tended to prevent the healing of the shunt 
wire proper as well as of the galvanometer. 

The determination of the ratio of the tw^o 
parts into which the current was divided, or 
the value of the ' shunt multiplier,' was, of 
course, a matter of great importance. In the 
preliminary measurement of this ratio the cur- 
rent from the Thomson-Houston machine was 
of great service on account of its steadiness. 
To begin with, a number of teats were made to 
discover if the connection res^istances were of 
such importance that any accidental variation 
in them would perceptibly alter the shunt ratio. 
The shunt Wfv^ repeatedly lifted out of the cups 
and replaced, and the galvanometer connec- 
tions were broken and remade. Every thing 
that could be disturbed was disturbed; but, 
upon reconstrnetion, the result was found in all 
cases to be practically unaltered* On Sept. 28 
a series of twenty measurements was made with 
the shunt alternately in and out, using a cur- 
re r»t of 1 amiM^res. The results agreed closely 
with each other, and gave 4.»i as the value of 
the shunt multiplier. On the following day the 
tcsU of the incandescent machines began ; and 
the shunt w.hs not moved from its position, 
nor <ii9turhed, until after the conclusion of the 
entire work. On <h-t. .'K after all of the regu- 
lar tests had been completed, another test of 
the shunt was made, with a current of 10 
amperes, as be fare. Ten observations were 
made, all of which agreed in giving a ratio of 
a little more tlian 5.0. Tliis result was quite 



unexpected, and the disci^epancy between it 
and that obtained from the first test was en- 
tirely too great to be accotmted for by errors 
of observation. As circumstances prevented 
further tests in Cincinnati, it w*as determined 
to remove the shunt and atl connections to the 
physical laboratory of the Ohio state univer- 
sity, where a thorough examination of the 
cause of the difference could be made. This 
was done ; but, before any experimental exami- 
nation had been undertaken, the origin of the 
difficulty suggested itself. The two short wires 
connecting the mercury-cups had been in one 
case thrown with the galvanometer doubtless, 
and in the other with the shunt. It was 
perfectly cert^ain, however, that throughout the 
tests they had formed a part of the galvanome- 
ter* Upon examination, this explanation was 
at once found to be correct. The shunt and 
galvanometer were connected up precisely as 
they had been in Cincinnati : and a series of 
twenty-five observations gave, when the small 
wires were a part of tlie shunt, a multiplier of 
4.60 ; and, when they formed a part of the gal- 
vanometer circuit, it was 5.01. The measure- 
ments were made by comparing the resistance 
of the two imrtvS of the circuit by means of the 
fall in potential, as shown by a Thomson's 
reflecting galvanometer of high resistance. 
While in use in Cincinnati, the shunt was con- 
stantly carrying a portion of the current ; and 
its temperature wag therefore always slightly 
higher than that of the galvanometer. The dif- 
ference was small, and it could not be measured 
accuratelv ; but, on account of its existence^ 
it w^as thought proper to adjust the shunt mul- 
tiplier. An excess of heat in the shunt would 
throw a greater amount of the current through 
the galvanometer than would go there if the 
two were at the same temperature : accordingly, 
the value accepted was 4/J instead of 5.0, as 
indicated by the comparison, in which the cur- 
rents used were much weaker than those trans- 
mitted during the tests. It will be observed, 
the existence of an excess of temperature in 
the shunt favors somewhat the system in 
which the stronger current was transmitted. 

In the measurements of electromotive force, 
Thomson's potential galvanometer, by White, 
was used. In the beginning a large number of 
comparison observations were made, in which 
the same electromotive force was measured by 
this instrument and by the welbkuown metho<l 
of discharging a condenser through a high- 
resistance galvanometer. 

A condenserof one-half micro- farad capacity, 
and a reflecting galvanometer of nearly seven 
thousand ohms resistance, both by Elliot Btx)tU- 



180 



SCIENCE. 



[You IIL9 Ko. 64w 



era, were used with a battery of ten Daniel! 
cells in good condition. These comparisons 
proved that the indications of the potential gal- 
vanometer could be relied upon as trustworthy 
within practical limits, and in the actual tests 
it alone was used on account of the greater 
convenience and rapidity with which observa- 
tions could be made. Further tests of its 
accuracy were made, however, which will be re- 
ferred to later. It is sufficient to say, that this 
instrument, in form and construction, is quite 
similar to the current galvanometer already 
described, except that the coil has a resistance 
of nearly seven thousand ohms. A key is 
placed in the circuit, so that the current passes 
through the coll only during the few moments 
necessary to secure a reading, thus preventing 
the heating of the coil. The difference of po- 
tential in volts, between the two points to which 
the leading wires are connected, is found by the 
same process as is used for reducing the read- 
ings of the current galvanometer to ampdres. 
In measuring the efficiency of the dynamos, 
wires were brought from their binding-posts to 
the galvanometer. In the arc-light machines 
the electromotive force was high, amounting to 
more than twelve hundred volts in the Thom- 
son-Houston dynamo; and it was therefore 
desirable to introduce extra resistance in the 
galvanometer circuit. From resistance-boxes 
made by Elliot Brothers, an amount equal to 
seventeen times the resistance of the galva- 
nometer was thrown in, thus bringing the fall 
in potential in the galvanometer within easy 
range. Great care was taken to see that the 
coils were not heated during these measure- 
ments; and for this purpose the boxes were 
opened, and the coils exposed to the air, fre- 
quent examination being made to see that no 
rise in temperature took place. Precisel}' the 
same arrangement existed throughout the tests 
of both arc systems. During the photometric 
tests the wires of the potential galvanometer 
were attached directly to the lamp under test, 
so that the fall in potential through the lamp 
only was measured. 

Photometric measurements. 

Unquestionably, the most difficult question 
to deal with, in work of this kind, is the ques- 
tion of photometry. The expression of illumi- 
nating-power in ^ candles ' is a matter of great 
uncertainty, arising from the uncertain charac- 
ter of the standard, and also from the great 
inequality existing in the intensity and com- 
position of th0 lights which are brought into 
comparison. Ab the test was intended to be 



.purely competitive, Uie Jury decided to ignore 
the question of *• candle-power ' entirely, and 
confine itself to a comparison of the li^tB 
under consideration. It is believed that the 
adoption of this plan rendered the results 
firee from man}' errore to which they would 
otherwise have been liable. 

The photometric comparisons were made by 
means of the ordinary Bunsen disk photometer, 
as modified by Letheby. Some preliminary ex- 
periments were made with one of Glan's spec- 
trum photometers, for the use of which the jury 
was again indebted to the kindness of Professor 
Brackett. The adjustments of this instrument 
are delicate, and observations cannot be made 
so rapidly with it as with the ordinary disk 
photometer; so that, in consideration of the 
limited time at the disposal of the jury, it was 
decided not to attempt its general use through- 
out the tests. It was hoped and intended, in 
the beginning, to make a thorough examina- 
tion of the composition of the different lights ; 
but unforeseen delays in the preparation of 
other portions of the machinery of the test for- 
bade this. As the candle was not made use 
of, all the lights which were compared were 
more nearly of the same composition, and thus 
much of the difficult}' in the use of the disk 
photometer did not appear. 

It was found most convenient to make the 
comparison of the are-lights through one of the 
incandescent lamps, as the steadiness and con- 
stancy of these could be depended upon during 
the time necessary for a comparison. In these 
measurements, a long gallery in the basement 
of the main building, and adjoining the testing- 
room, made it possible to place the two lights 
which were being compared at a distance of fifty 
feet from each other. The line extended into 
the testing-room, where tlie photometer-bar, 
ten feet in length, was placed. An Edison in- 
candescent lamp, nominally of sixteen candle- 
power, was used as a standard. In the first 
series of experiments, comparisons were made 
with the arc-lamps in three different positions ; 
five readings of the position of the photometer- 
box and of the galvanometers being made at 
each position. The lamp was first suspended 
in its normal, vertical position ; then afterwards 
it was inclined at an angle of forty-five degrees, 
first with its base away from the photometer- 
box, and afterwards with its base towards the 
same. After such a series had been completed 
with one of the two lamps in competition, it was 
at once removed, and its place was supplied by 
the other. On the following night the com- 
parison was continued, other lamps having been 
selected ; but the lamps were tested in only two 



Fjcbruary 15, 1884/ 



SCIENCE. 



181 



positions, — the norma] position, and that iu 
which the base of the lamp was towards tlie 
photometer- box ; these being regarded as the 
positions of the greatest im[)ortance. Alto- 
gether, tweDty-five photometric observations 
were made in comparing the arc-lamps. The 
.lamps comparetl were taken at random from 
^ those ill nac by the exhibiters. 

The comparison of incandescent lamps pre- 
sents questions of fur greater delicacy and tlilfi- 
cnltj. There is otic element, in the economy of 
an incandescent lamp, which does not enter to 
any extent in the consideration of arc-lamps ; 
that is, tiie life of the lamp. Altbongh of great 
importance, it did not seem possible, in the 
limited time which was at the disposal of the 
jury, to investigate this point. The only fair 
and impartial method of making such an inveyti- 
^gation, involved, in the upinion ofthe jnrv, the 
continuous and piolonged burning of a large 
number of lamps belonging to the different 
competing systems. Under the circnmstauces, 
it was absolntely impossible to make use of 
this metiiod* 

There exists, also, difference of opinion as to 
tlje proper method of comparing the etfieiency 
of two incandescent lamps. They may be re- 
duced to the same illnminating-powei;, and the 
, electrical energy consumed by each may be 
tcom pared ; they may be brought to a condition 
in whicfi they consume the same electrical en- 
ergy, and their illnmiuating-power compare<l ; 
Lor they mjiy be allowed to ditler in both of tiiese 
f elements, and comparisons be made iu lioth. 
The first method has been pursucil in several 
tests which have been made both in Europe 
and in this country. 

Incandescent lamps are generally made t*^ 
be equal, nominal ly^ to a given number of 
standard candles; but, by modifying tlie con- 
sumption of energ}*, a lamp of uominally low 
candle-power can be made to produce almost 
any degree of Illumination, from nothing up 
to the equivalent of several hundred candles, 
lie high ilhimlnation being, of course, at the 
expense of the life of the lamp. If this element 
^is left out of consideration, the elliciency of a 
lamp increases rapidly with its degree of incan- 
descence. As it is by no means net-cssary that 
incandescent lamps t*honld run at a fixed ' can- 
dle-power,* it will foliow that the temix'rature 
at which a lamp will show greatest efllciency 
(including tlie life clement) will depend greatly 
apon its construction. 

Taking two lamps of radically different con- 
struction, however, there will be for each a 
certain set of conditions as to current strength 
and electromotive force, and including the 



element of life, under which it would show its 
highest efficiency and economy* After such 
conditions were determined for each lamp, a 
strict comparison would be possible. The re- 
duction of two such lamps to the same degree 
of illumination would probably be unfair to' 
one or the other, or possibly to both, if the ele- 
meut of life is not considered. 

Suppose that a lamp in one system is at its 
best, all thlufjs conaidered^ at fifteen candle- 
jxjw^er, and that one in another reaches it9 
highest degree of efficiency at sixteen candle- 
power. If they are both brought to fifteen 
caudle-ixjwer, the second must suffer in the 
comparison ; and if both are brought to sixteen 
candle-power, and the element of life is not 
considered^ it will again suffer, for the apparent 
efficiency of the first will be increased by its 
higher incandescence. 

As the labor of determining the most favor- 
able conditions for each lamp would be so 
great as to necessarily throw that method out 
of consideration, the jury felt constrained to 
adopt the last of the three methods mentioned 
above. The jury assumed, iu fact, that the 
exhibiters of the different s^'stems hud already 
determined these favorable conditions in their 
own interest : and that in putting their lamps 
before the public for the entire pericnl of the 
exposition, each maintaining more than two 
hundred lamps iu different parts of the expo- 
sition building, they would operate them as 
nearly as possible in accordance therewith. 
In other words, it was decided to compare 
the lamps as they were used in the exhibit, 
determining the ratio of their illuminating- 
power, and measuring the electrical energy 
consumed by each. It is proper to state, that 
the lamps of both systems were spoken of 
by their respective representatives as sixteen 
candle-power lamps, although certain marks 
on the lamps which were supposed by the 
jury to refer to caudle- power did not exactly 
agree. 

To secure im|»artiality of selection, the jury 
requested permission to have access to the 
supply of lamps kept by each company for use 
in the exhibit, which permission was freely 
granted. From each, ten or twelve were se- 
lected at random, and carried to the testing- 
room ; and from these the lamps which were 
compared were taken* The3^ were placed 
upon the photometer-bar at a distance of a 
hundred and twenty-five inches from e^ich 
other, and a system of sw itches was arranged, 
so that the galvanometers could be quickly 
connected with one or thq other. Measures 
of current and electromotive force were made 




18V> 



SCIENCE. 



[Vol. hi.. No. 54. 



rnpldly AtuI (H)iiUiuiouNly during tho phoiomot- 
rio (HtiuiNirlmui. 

Ni'Uhor of tho two lnm|M iimlcr teat illumi- 
imltHi otjunUy lu nil dlroctloiiH. Thoy wore 
UumvAmv tMiiiimi'iMl ill iiino iliirortMit {KMitions, 
iHioh Innip AMUintng tliroo« which wore doaig- 
imltHl rt*«|HH*thvly, *fl«t/ *otljiowi«o,' iind 
* (\»vly-livo dojjriH^a ;* «nd o«oh |H^tion of one 
w«j« \H>m|wnHl with nil or Iho other. Five sots 
of rt'ndintfn wore nindo nt eneh |H)sition« mnk* 
ln>j» in nlK A^rtv^tlve e«Mn|^Hsi>ns of the two 
lnn)|M. .\ numWr of |m^Uminnr\* eom^Mriscms 
weix* ntnde« whtct\ were ih»1 ixniaiiWixHl ns form- 
in^s: n |vnrt of the notuni te»t» The Intter wns 
tnnde on the evening of Sept^ SiK 

riie detenninntion of the ertloienoy of the 
d,\nnnhv» tvn»i*le«l in nuvii«nring the power 
\HM\snn\e«)« n* *hown l\v the dynnnK^meter^ on 
the emdlo of whii^ the dynnnh^ wns plncetl« 
ni>*i nt the *nwe linw men^uring the c^irrent 
nn^l the oWtixMiH>ti\e fortv nt the, binding 
l>(VL|H of the mnohine. Tlie *|HH\i of the 
\wnn\ *hnft lvi»>jr m'^rt^v uuifonn* ii wn* ne- 
(NVi!(j»v\ to i^n^v ditlV^rent |miV,ox* ujhmi it* in 
vNT^iov to ws-^^jv the nt\v**nr\ #|xhxI for the 
nn\>,'^l«re* of iho diS\^^!*n; wnoh:;H>s, The 
*|H\\; of niwniiXii Vix^j: n ntnUer ^hii-^h cvmii- 
^VMW lh*^ evVt^^^iu^i"* r»;her ih^n ;he jary, 

of :'.o>o 5Ni;l>\s, «i\^ n\\\xrvMru:*,x di,; !^>. l"^ 
Axv'.^A^ix^ *;\>*\; of ;ho Arr,*.At;;w of ihe We^uxft 
*Vxrs:*.^o fo; ^:vAi>,u"^x'r.: ^AV/xxit «*# * '.::jie 
aVxv ;,'v. : ;::>,v.\\: *:x: t^i:ly :\Xvx.:w.-.> :vr 
r,". r . i . , »;,.:-; r^: ' >.r^x* , v, 5< nr r. : ni* r. os ^v" *>i"n!^'^> 
X A5 o v r.v*,v *.".;%' :>o r.%*o>.:v< *■** or. :he 
o-r^/.U' W >\i T<v.'. ,*.^:^\roo %:^s yi"*.x*; ,\r* 
jS' O"^,* V 0-* ".he A:V•r.x\^r, x-f \V-:. :^, >»^ir. a 

^ X v %j:v v.xxv. of *. c r > ;: :>.* t^x: ,< v • ; s \ : ; -«■ :^M 
tx'X'O ... o-'s. v.*" .-s *-s,s * -X"^ »■ » ' .' : r.*j.'» Nt 
o-v N»'. ^V ' r\v-nf^^' <,v\»*,/ ^ : :■ » *.< .*.3f 
.V ■; ' .0 ,v N Ti- .•* :*^«. > '•; - ' • ^'-"^ .^ *<> 
,V »V'j :*^: ;K' , r-^- :«, ♦■,*-< ." r:^ N:.: ::V 
,vV- *-.Nx. V •■ * v> ;\-:»:v* : **. ■ ^ .• '' 'Zjt 

x?V^-, ,"S :X"^ 'rr.v ■*''*■ *, ' ••," .' . ■ .'^ ! !»,' 

.%■>'■>' '»'. % .X*'-. -.^o". : '«, >'.vv /i' : ■■. r.-jnsr- 
- \ ^v "^ * *: •, .V ■. *■ * :*»■»>*?■•" -\ "-.'i - 

»»,.».>. . *v ,».\- ',iTi^;% '\ ". w > .--^ :. .>^' 'i>«< 

^ * .'v ,'»:?<••■•,- '.. : : V, ■.•*>»,■•'.:'.■■ .-.'■.'.ts 

""v^ti '.» : »:»•.«■ *«, '\--.v ■ * ,ii ■ ;»".'^".: .•:«. 
»x ^M-*. ;v' o."'». V*» v; >-■ s \ •:■'.■, i: ■< ,"*!. •.»" 

»v"%r ni*Xi %*cl. v;>.Tii:^ <^i :v .• -.-^i; : .V n«f 
%iijT» :«.' '^•nftviw m^-^i "•:» rut >« %T XrmJ9f^ 



the Edison exhibit. A glance at the resulte 
given below will show that the electromotiTe 
force in the latter i*ase was mach lower thmn 
in the former. 

TuU of the galvanomeiers. 

Although the jury was satisfied of the acca- 
racy of the Thomson galvanometers, within all 
practical limits, before deciding to rely opon 
their indications* for reasons tlmt need not lie 
reibrrcd to here« it was considered destmble, 
after the conclusion of the tests, to make aneh 
an examination of them as would leaTe no 
tloubt ns to the correctness of this opinion. 
The chief cause of error in these instminenta, 
ami in all of a similar constniction. is the pos- 
sible vnrintion in the stren^ith of the permanent 
mngnet;» which establish the field in which the 
neeilles move. The existence of a strong leld 
is a ^'nt ndvantAge. as has already 
(Kxinte^i out, provuitxl its value is known. 
examination of the :u$truments was madt 
fore they wore taken to Cincinnati : and i 
a^n, when they were mounted in the I 
i\xxm« they won^ compared with olhen 
liabk" to snob altent:oD«, as before 
NunH^n>u5 te$:$ werv made to a^ivrtaia if 4 
instn:n>(^nl was consisien: with itself by i 
urinir the 5aa>e quantity w::b the : 
ner at d:5eTvat ixxats of ::> sv:ik-- tins ^ 
the |x>s;::x^c of the r>«'r.r: ADd the 
wvre #At:*f4v^orr. F:r-il'y. i*c-r the 
»er.:*wcre >;;:r:>i'i :j tl.v r.i->:.^ ' 




of tbt Oh.s^ *:i:t -':t-: 

wco.; to :*<.:>., i "rr'Tf ;..'vii:: :' wi->i: 15 as 

tise * ^T:i* -!:; ": a:: -:-:7 . — n^ -; . t ii-. : :> 
w^nr rlrr- :.:•: >LL.t-t:*. :•:•;.•:•;■: >^.T«..i:*» ; 

vXNTr.;ikrsj»\ :■ ::■: .•..:«>:.-st: ti-::-** wiii ^ 

*ifr»rs> *•!.> Ti»:i.-> -:■: - Ti»-i.:> ~* 

nw ::tiic -..!]•:: ::•• -:-■:.- :l: - •-• * 

«»• :^'*^ > ^■:=TJi.--T-r. £■ ;. - . ■: -l-.-L ftr 
TO^i .»:.-;»■!* * t:-: yi •• ■-.- -s: ■ - . i.i"^ «C 

X*'^-'^ .I'S. , ■- •' .- -...- ■■;- 

:SCnni%!']i^ .'%:■ re !'•*■. 'r: -:»• 

^ a ^iziu i«Mrv : *•• - 11&.. miL n^i me 



rKBRrABV 1.1. 18S4.| 



SCIENCE. 



188 



The Tliomson iciul llxv sauio lu Itotli aitnm- 
iirements* iiiftking the electromotive force D7J) 
volU. The divisions on the ^cale oniu* A yrton 
mid Perry were very small, making the lenrHng 
quite dlfKcult. From il were obtfiined, in tlie 
two measuremeuts, iltl.l and 1)5.."* volts. 

Asssiimiiig that the field of the potential gal- 
vanometer is known, it is easy to determine that 
of Ibe current galvanometer, as the magnets 
are interehangeable. A series of observations 
was made in which a practieally constant 
quantity wai? meusnrccK first with one of these 
magnets on the magnetometer, ajid then with 
the other, alternating throughout the series. 
Twelve observations made in this way show 
n mean ditferenee of L7o% between the two 
maguetie fields. In the numbers used In these 
teste the ditferenee is :i%. 

The eiiri^nt galvanometer was also eom|mred 
with an Ayr ton and Perry atn meter at the 
same time at which the potential instruments 
were compared. The circumstances did not 
allow the use of a stronger current than that 
passing through a single Edison lamp. The 
result was therefore not of great value. The 
Thomson showed 1.05 amperes, and the Ayrton 
and Perry gave 1.03 for the same current. 

Several tests of the current gnlvanoraeler 
were made by means of a battery of five (irove 
cells, which were freshly set up. I'hc reading 
of the galvanometer was noted, and then n 
resistance of one ohm was introduced into the 
circuit. The first reading was UK and the sec- 
ond was Ih't ; showing that the resistance of the 
battery and galvanometer was one ohm. The 
electromotive force of the battery was then 
dctermiued by means of the potential galva- 
nometer. Two measurements were made ; the 
first giving i*.43 volts, and the second 9. 5(1 
volts. Assuming the resistance to be one ohm, 
us shown above, these numbers would repre- 
sent, in acconlauce with Ohm's law, the cur- 
rent in amperes. The current, as calcidated 
from the galvanometer reading, was 9.5 am- 
(i^res. 

Alany other tests of a similar character were 
made, all of which showed that the galvanome- 



ters must be admitted to be what they were 
assumed to be during the tests, — practieally 
correct. But, even if thej' were somewhat in 
error, the similarity of conditions under which 
the competing systems w^^e tested was such 
that all would be alJected alike. 

ResuUts. 

In determining the ellicicncv of the dyna- 
mos, al\er every thing was found to be \n goo<l 
tmier, a run (»f about half an hour wuh made; 
(luring which time readings were taken every 
two minutes, as nearly as could be, of 
the dynamometers and electrical instruments. 
Generally from ten to twenty sets of readings 
were secured, Ju most cases two or more 
* runs * weix* made ; the re|)etiliori being in some 
instauces the desire of the jur3% and in others 
of the exhibiters. Somelimi's the conditions 
under which the dynamo was running were 
changed by the exhibiters, with the expecta- 
tion, doubtless, of increasing its efficiency 
therelty. In the tbllowing summary of results, 
the numbers showing the eleclromotive force, 
eurreut strength, power consumed, *'tc., are 
means of a number of observations. 

Photometry of arc-lamps. 

The taltle on the next page shows tlie results 
of the photometric comparison of the two arc- 
lamps, and will be easily uuilerstood. The ar- 
rows show the direction of the light measured in 
each series: thus, ♦- means a horizontal meas- 
urement ; % means that the measurement was 
of the light going upw^ard at an angle of forty- 
five degrees ; and • refeis to the light going 
downward at an angle of forty-five degrees. 
For convenience, the intensity* in terms of the 
standard {nn Edison iucunclcscent lamp) is 
muUiplted by 1,000 befoi*e dividing by the 
number of Watts. 

It will be seen that the different lamps dif- 
fered from each other considerably in their 
ellicienc}'. This was especiall}* true of the 
Weston lamp, which was irregular in its ac- 



Efficiency of dynamos. 



Horse piowcr ooiiu»am<4 . . 



Tboinson Hou»lon dynamo 
for arc Ugbtlni;. 



Sept. 36. 
1176.0 
10.06 
U.O 

7T,2 



We«ton djuaino 
for arc lighting. 



W««tuti dynamo I Edlenn dynnnio 

for incnn descent Ugbtlng. for foc«n<leRCi?^nt Ui^bUng^. 



eo.2 60.0 

168.1 113.7 

15.6 11.7 

19.66 ia.8 



65.0 
167.4 
13J 
16.6 



134.9 I22.fi 

124.7 I19.« 

90.9 10.6 

21.98 20.64 

96.2 «&.0 



184 



SCIENCE. 

Arc-lavip». 



[Vol. III., Ko. 64. 



TUOMSON-UOUSTON. 



Direction 

of 

light. 



^ I 



Current. 

10.2 
10.2 
10.2 



10.1 
10.2 



Electro- 
motive 
force. 



46.9 
4«.7 
46.3 



46.1 
40.3 



WatU. 



467 
475 
471 



465 
474 



Intensity 
In terms of 
standard. 



16.2 
13.2 
85.0 



18.0 
98.8 



17.1 
13.2 
91.9 



40.^ 



lonoj 
w 

34.7 
27.8 
180.3 



Wkhton. 



Direction | Electro- i 

of I Current, motive , WatU. 



llKht. 



Other lamptt. 



38.8 
209.0 



Means. 



36.7 
27.8 



: ll 

Oenernl means. 

I 86.4 



I 



20.7 
20.1 
19.8 



20.0 
20.S 



forc